Turbulent boundary layers developing over compliant surfaces
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lekoudis, S. G.; Sengupta, T.
1983-05-01
The problem of reducing drag due to skin friction remains of interest. This is the case because of the significant benefits that would result from an application of a drag reducing scheme on airplanes, ships or underwater vehicles. One of the techniques that have been proposed for such a scheme is wall compliance. Wall compliance could, in principle, work in two ways: either it could delay transition, or it could modify the inner part of a turbulent boundary layer so that reduced skin friction would result. The objective of this research program was to develop prediction techniques for high Reynolds number turbulent flows over compliant surfaces. This objective was pursued by evaluating the wall induced Reynolds stresses using solutions of the liner momentum equations.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Loitsianskii. L. G.
1956-01-01
The fundamental, practically the most important branch of the modern mechanics of a viscous fluid or a gas, is that branch which concerns itself with the study of the boundary layer. The presence of a boundary layer accounts for the origin of the resistance and lift force, the breakdown of the smooth flow about bodies, and other phenomena that are associated with the motion of a body in a real fluid. The concept of boundary layer was clearly formulated by the founder of aerodynamics, N. E. Joukowsky, in his well-known work "On the Form of Ships" published as early as 1890. In his book "Theoretical Foundations of Air Navigation," Joukowsky gave an account of the most important properties of the boundary layer and pointed out the part played by it in the production of the resistance of bodies to motion. The fundamental differential equations of the motion of a fluid in a laminar boundary layer were given by Prandtl in 1904; the first solutions of these equations date from 1907 to 1910. As regards the turbulent boundary layer, there does not exist even to this day any rigorous formulation of this problem because there is no closed system of equations for the turbulent motion of a fluid. Soviet scientists have done much toward developing a general theory of the boundary layer, and in that branch of the theory which is of greatest practical importance at the present time, namely the study of the boundary layer at large velocities of the body in a compressed gas, the efforts of the scientists of our country have borne fruit in the creation of a new theory which leaves far behind all that has been done previously in this direction. We shall herein enumerate the most important results by Soviet scientists in the development of the theory of the boundary layer.
Analytical Model of the Time Developing Turbulent Boundary Layer
Victor S. L'vov; Anna Pomyalov; Antonino Ferrante; Said Elghobashi
2007-06-04
We present an analytical model for the time-developing turbulent boundary layer (TD-TBL) over a flat plate. The model provides explicit formulae for the temporal behavior of the wall-shear stress and both the temporal and spatial distributions of the mean streamwise velocity, the turbulence kinetic energy and Reynolds shear stress. The resulting profiles are in good agreement with the DNS results of spatially-developing turbulent boundary layers at momentum thickness Reynolds number equal to 1430 and 2900. Our analytical model is, to the best of our knowledge, the first of its kind for TD-TBL.
Interaction between soil hydrology and boundary-layer development
H.-L. Pan; L. Mahrt
1987-01-01
A two-layer model of soil hydrology and thermodynamics is combined with a one-dimensional model of the planetary boundary layer to study various interactions between evolution of the boundary layer and soil moisture transport. Boundary-layer moistening through surface evaporation reduces the potential and actual surface evaporation as well as the boundary-layer growth. With more advanced stages of soil drying, the restricted
On the Development of Concave Surface Boundary Layer Flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Winoto, S. H.; Tandiono; Shah, D. A.; Mitsudharmadi, H.
2010-06-01
The development of concave surface boundary-layer flows is characterized by the formation of streamwise counterrotating Görtler vortices and has been experimentally investigated for concave surfaces of 1 m and 2 m radius of curvature. For this study, the wavelengths of the vortices were pre-set or "forced" by thin perturbation wires placed upstream and perpendicular to the concave surface leading edge. This method was used to obtain uniform vortex wavelengths. Velocity contours were obtained from velocity measurements using a single hot-wire anemometer probe. The most amplified wavelengths of the vortices can be pre-set by the spanwise spacing of the thin wires and free-stream velocity. The velocity contours on the cross-sectional planes at several streamwise locations show the growth and breakdown of the vortices. Three different regions can be identified based on the growth rate of the vortices. The occurrence of a secondary instability mode is also shown in the form of mushroom-like structures as a consequence of the non-linear growth of Görtler vortices. Measurements of wall shear stress on concave surface of 1 m radius of curvature reveal that the spanwise-averaged wall shear stress increases well beyond the flat plate boundary layer values. By presetting much larger or much smaller vortex wavelength than the most amplified one, the splitting or merging of Görtler vortices can be respectively observed.
Raman, Sethu
1999-01-01
Development and propagation of a pollution gradient in the marine boundary layer during INDOEX and propagation of a pollution gradient in the marine boundary layer over the Arabian Sea during the Intensive as the leading edge of a polluted air mass in the marine boundary layer and also its propagation over the Arabian
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Blay-Carreras, E.; Pino, D.; Vilà-Guerau de Arellano, J.; van de Boer, A.; De Coster, O.; Darbieu, C.; Hartogensis, O.; Lohou, F.; Lothon, M.; Pietersen, H.
2014-05-01
Observations, mixed-layer theory and the Dutch Large-Eddy Simulation model (DALES) are used to analyze the dynamics of the boundary layer during an intensive operational period (1 July 2011) of the Boundary Layer Late Afternoon and Sunset Turbulence campaign. Continuous measurements made by remote sensing and in situ instruments in combination with radio soundings, and measurements done by remotely piloted aircraft systems and two manned aircrafts probed the vertical structure and the temporal evolution of the boundary layer during the campaign. The initial vertical profiles of potential temperature, specific humidity and wind, and the temporal evolution of the surface heat and moisture fluxes prescribed in the models runs are inspired by some of these observations. The research focuses on the role played by the residual layer during the morning transition and by the large-scale subsidence on the evolution of the boundary layer. By using DALES, we show the importance of the dynamics of the boundary layer during the previous night in the development of the boundary layer at the morning. DALES numerical experiments including the residual layer are capable of modeling the observed sudden increase of the boundary-layer depth during the morning transition and the subsequent evolution of the boundary layer. These simulations show a large increase of the entrainment buoyancy flux when the residual layer is incorporated into the mixed layer. We also examine how the inclusion of the residual layer above a shallow convective boundary layer modifies the turbulent kinetic energy budget. Large-scale subsidence mainly acts when the boundary layer is fully developed, and, for the studied day, it is necessary to be considered to reproduce the afternoon observations. Finally, we also investigate how carbon dioxide (CO2) mixing ratio stored the previous night in the residual layer plays a fundamental role in the evolution of the CO2 mixing ratio during the following day.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Klebanoff, P S; Diehl, Z W
1952-01-01
Report gives an account of an investigation conducted to determine the feasibility of artificially thickening a turbulent boundary layer on a flat plate. A description is given of several methods used to thicken artificially the boundary layer. It is shown that it is possible to do substantial thickening and obtain a fully developed turbulent boundary layer, which is free from any distortions introduced by the thickening process, and, as such, is a suitable medium for fundamental research.
Generation of Turbulent Inflow Data for Spatially-Developing Boundary Layer Simulations
Thomas S. Lund; Xiaohua Wu; Kyle D. Squires
1998-01-01
A method for generating three-dimensional, time-dependent turbulent inflow data for simulations of complex spatially developing boundary layers is described. The approach is to extract instantaneous planes of velocity data from an auxiliary simulation of a zero pressure gradient boundary layer. The auxiliary simulation is also spatially developing, but generates its own inflow conditions through a sequence of operations where the
Further development and testing of a second-order bulk boundary layer model. Master's thesis
Krasner, R.D.
1993-05-03
A one-layer bulk boundary layer model is developed. The model predicts the mixed layer values of the potential temperature, mixing ratio, and u- and v-momentum. The model also predicts the depth of the boundary layer and the vertically integrated turbulence kinetic energy (TKE). The TKE is determined using a second-order closure that relates the rate of dissipation to the TKE. The fractional area covered by rising motion sigma and the entrainment rate (E) are diagnostically determined. The model is used to study the clear convective boundary layer (CBL) using data from the Wangara, Australia boundary layer experiment. The Wangara data is also used as an observation base to validate model results. A further study is accomplished by simulating the planetary boundary layer (PBL) over an ocean surface. This study is designed to find the steady-state solutions of the prognostic variable.
Guillermo Araya; Kenneth E. Jansen; Luciano Castillo
2009-01-01
A multiscale approach for simulating realistic turbulent momentum information at the entrance of a computational domain, which considers a spatially evolving turbulent boundary layer, is presented for incompressible flows. The new method is based on the rescaling–recycling method proposed by T. Lund, X. Wu, and K. Squires [Generation of turbulent inflow data for spatially developing boundary layer simulations, J. Comput.
Off-Body Boundary-Layer Measurement Techniques Development for Supersonic Low-Disturbance Flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Owens, Lewis R.; Kegerise, Michael A.; Wilkinson, Stephen P.
2011-01-01
Investigations were performed to develop accurate boundary-layer measurement techniques in a Mach 3.5 laminar boundary layer on a 7 half-angle cone at 0 angle of attack. A discussion of the measurement challenges is presented as well as how each was addressed. A computational study was performed to minimize the probe aerodynamic interference effects resulting in improved pitot and hot-wire probe designs. Probe calibration and positioning processes were also developed with the goal of reducing the measurement uncertainties from 10% levels to less than 5% levels. Efforts were made to define the experimental boundary conditions for the cone flow so comparisons could be made with a set of companion computational simulations. The development status of the mean and dynamic boundary-layer flow measurements for a nominally sharp cone in a low-disturbance supersonic flow is presented.
Boundary layer development in axial compressors and turbines. Part 1 of 4: Composite picture
Halstead, D.E.; Wisler, D.C.; Shin, H.W. [GE Aircraft Engines, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Okiishi, T.H. [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States); Walker, G.J. [Univ. of Tasmania, Hobart (Australia); Hodson, H.P. [Univ. of Cambridge (United Kingdom)
1997-01-01
Comprehensive experiments and computational analyses were conducted to understand boundary layer development on airfoil surfaces in multistage, axial-flow compressors and LP turbines. The tests were run over a broad range of Reynolds numbers and loading levels in large, low-speed research facilities which simulate the relevant aerodynamic features of modern engine components.Measurements of boundary layer characteristics were obtained by using arrays of densely packed, hot-film gauges mounted on airfoil surfaces and by making boundary layer surveys with hot wire probes. Computational predictions were made using both steady flow codes and an unsteady flow code. This is the first time that time-resolved boundary layer measurements and detailed comparisons of measured data with predictions of boundary layer codes have been reported for multistage compressor and turbine blading. Part 1 of this paper summarizes all of the experimental findings by using sketches to show how boundary layers develop on compressor and turbine blading. Parts 2 and 3 present the detailed experimental results for the compressor and turbine, respectively. Part 4 presents computational analyses and discusses comparisons with experimental data. Readers not interested in experimental detail can go directly from Part 1 to Part 4.
Boundary layer development and energy exchange over a patchy mountain snow cover
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mott, Rebecca; Daniels, Megan; Horender, Stefan; Crivelli, Philip; Lehning, Michael
2014-05-01
Once the snow cover gets patchy in spring, small-scale thermal internal boundary layers develop, involving strong vertical and horizontal flux divergences. Furthermore, the advection of warm air from bare ground towards snow-covered areas can promote strong atmospheric stabilities and boundary layer decoupling above snow, that suppress the net turbulent heat flux close to the snow surface, thus, changing the heat budget there. We experimentally and numerically investigated the small-scale boundary layer dynamics over snow patches and their effect on the energy balance at the snow surface. Local eddy flux measurements at an alpine test site revealed that wind velocity, wind fetch distance and topographical curvature control the boundary layer growth, boundary layer decoupling and the efficiency of advective heat transport to contribute to snow ablation. These results were verified in a wind tunnel experiment on the boundary layer development over a single snow patch. The experiments showed that heat advection was very efficient at short fetch distances and high wind velocities forming strong thermal gradients close to the snow surface. The heat potentially available from the advective heat transport was, however, not efficiently transferred towards the snow surface. The turbulent heat exchange was strongly suppressed at the lowest centimetres above the snow surface, where the Richardson number exceeded the critical value. Thus, boundary layer decoupling caused by very shallow layers of increased thermal stability could be shown to be very efficient, even for higher wind velocities. In addition to experiments, we numerically analysed the effect of heat advection, boundary layer decoupling and changing patterns of secondary flows on the energy balance of patchy snow cover characterized by different snow-cover fractions. The atmospheric boundary layer flows over patchy snow-covers were calculated with an atmospheric model (Advanced Regional Prediction System) on a very high resolution of 5 m. The numerical results revealed that the relative importance of boundary layer processes and the development of local flow patterns depend on the snow patch size distribution and the synoptic wind forcing. Calculations for quiescent wind situations demonstrated that well-developed katabatic winds exerted a major control on the energy balance at the patchy snow cover leading to a maximum in the mean downward heat flux over snow for high snow-cover fractions. Although, katabatic wind systems result in a decoupling of the local atmosphere from its warmer surrounding, the strong suppression of turbulence close to the snow cover was not captured. In contrast, strong synoptic winds promote the effect of heat advection and mitigate the impact of boundary layer decoupling on the catchments melt behaviour. The strong heat advection resulted in a maximum in the heat flux directed towards the snow cover for low snow-cover fractions if the flow field was forced by a synoptic wind. A sensitivity analysis to grid resolution suggests that the grid resolution is a critical factor for energy balance calculations over patchy snow covers. The comparison of simulations results from coarse (50 m) and fine (5 m) grid resolutions show a difference in the mean turbulent heat flux of 40% for high snow-cover fractions and of 70% for low snow-cover fractions. The lower mean values of the turbulent heat flux over snow for coarser grid resolutions can be explained by the inadequate representation of thermal internal boundary layers and the mitigation of local advection of sensible heat. A resolution smaller than 5 m would be, however, necessary to calculate the very shallow stable layers close to the surface, where efficient boundary layer decoupling occurs.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wood, G. M., Jr.; Lewis, B. W.; Nowak, R. J.; Eide, D. G.; Paulin, P. A.; Upchurch, B. T.
1983-01-01
Thermodynamic flow properties of gases in the boundary layer or the flowfield have been mainly deduced from pressures and temperatures measured on a model. However, further progress with respect to an understanding of these properties requires a more complete characterization of the layer including determination of the gas composition and chemistry. Most attempts to measure boundary layer chemistry involve the employment of a mass spectrometer and an associated gas sampling system. The three major limiting factors which must be addressed for species measurement in aerothermodynamic investigations on models at reentry stream velocities, are gas sampling effects, instrument limitations, and problems with data acquisition. The present investigation is concerned with a concentrated effort to quantitatively identify and correct for instrument and sampling system effects, and to develop a miniaturized high performance mass spectrometer for on-model real-time analysis of the boundary layer and its associated atmosphere.
Atmospheric turbulent boundary layer development due to a change in surface roughness
Andy T. Chan
2001-01-01
The turbulent wind flow passing from a surface of one roughness to another is investigated analytically. The wind flow is modelled by a deep atmospheric turbulent boundary layer that assumes the possibility of self-preserving development in the course of flow modification. Closed form solutions are obtained describing the entire flow development and the characteristics of the wind velocity, surface stress
The Atmospheric Boundary Layer
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Tennekes, Hendrik
1974-01-01
Discusses some important parameters of the boundary layer and effects of turbulence on the circulation and energy dissipation of the atmosphere. Indicates that boundary-layer research plays an important role in long-term forecasting and the study of air-pollution meteorology. (CC)
A lag model for turbulent boundary layers developing over rough bleed surfaces
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lee, J.; Sloan, M. L.; Paynter, G. C.
1993-01-01
Boundary layer mass removal (bleed) through spanwise bands of holes on a surface is used to prevent or control separation and to stabilize the normal shock in supersonic inlets. The addition of a transport equation lag relationship for eddy viscosity to the rough wall algebraic turbulence model of Cebeci and Chang was found to improve agreement between predicted and measured mean velocity distributions downstream of a bleed band. The model was demonstrated for a range of bleed configurations, bleed rates, and local free stream Mach numbers. In addition, the model was applied to the boundary layer development over acoustic lining materials for the inlets and nozzles of commercial aircraft. The model was found to yield accurate results for integral boundary layer properties unless there was a strong adverse pressure gradient.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Han, Bo; Zhao, Cailing; Lü, Shihua; Wang, Xin
2015-06-01
Although the residual layer has already been noted in the classical diurnal cycle of the atmospheric boundary layer, its effect on the development of the convective boundary layer has not been well studied. In this study, based on 3-hourly 20th century reanalysis data, the residual layer is considered as a common layer capping the convective boundary layer. It is identified daily by investigating the development of the convective boundary layer. The region of interest is bounded by (30°-60°N, 80°-120°E), where a residual layer deeper than 2000 m has been reported using radiosondes. The lapse rate and wind shear within the residual layer are compared with the surface sensible heat flux by investigating their climatological means, interannual variations and daily variations. The lapse rate of the residual layer and the convective boundary layer depth correspond well in their seasonal variations and climatological mean patterns. On the interannual scale, the correlation coefficient between their regional averaged (40°-50°N, 90°-110°E) variations is higher than that between the surface sensible heat flux and convective boundary layer depth. On the daily scale, the correlation between the lapse rate and the convective boundary layer depth in most months is still statistically significant during 1970-2012. Therefore, we suggest that the existence of a deep neutral residual layer is crucial to the formation of a deep convective boundary layer near the Mongolian regions.
Visualization of boundary-layer development on turbomachine blades with liquid crystals
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Vanzante, Dale E.; Okiishi, Theodore H.
1991-01-01
This report documents a study of the use of liquid crystals to visualize boundary layer development on a turbomachine blade. A turbine blade model in a linear cascade of blades was used for the tests involved. Details of the boundary layer development on the suction surface of the turbine blade model were known from previous research. Temperature sensitive and shear sensitive liquid crystals were tried as visual agents. The temperature sensitive crystals were very effective in their ability to display the location of boundary layer flow separation and reattachment. Visualization of natural transition from laminar to turbulent boundary layer flow with the temperature sensitive crystals was possible but subtle. The visualization of separated flow reattachment with the shear sensitive crystals was easily accomplished when the crystals were allowed to make a transition from the focal-conic to a Grandjean texture. Visualization of flow reattachment based on the selective reflection properties of shear sensitive crystals was achieved only marginally because of the larger surface shear stress and shear stress gradient levels required for more dramatic color differences.
Reynolds stress development in pressure-driven three-dimensional turbulent boundary layers
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Anderson, Shawn D.; Eaton, John K.
1989-01-01
The development of the Reynolds stress field was studied for flows in which an initially two-dimensional boundary layer was skewed sideways by a spanwise pressure gradient ahead of an upstream-facing wedge. Two different wedges were used, providing a variation in the boundary-layer skewing. Measurements of all components of the Reynolds stress tensor and all ten triple products were measured using a rotatable cross-wire anemometer. The results show the expected lag of the shear stress vector behind the strain rate. Comparison of the two present experiments with previous data suggests that the lag can be estimated if the radius of curvature of the free-stream streamline is known. The magnitude of the shear stress vector in the plane of the wall is seen to decrease rapidly as the boundary-layer skewing increases. The amount of decrease is apparently related to the skewing angle between the wall and the free stream. The triple products evolve rapidly and profiles in the three-dimensional boundary layer are considerably different than two-dimensional profiles, leaving little hope for gradient transport models for the Reynolds stresses. The simplified model presented by Rotta (1979) performs reasonably well providing that an appropriate value of the T-parameter is chosen.
Parabolic - hyperbolic boundary layer
Monica De Angelis
2012-07-09
A boundary value problem related to a parabolic higher order operator with a small parameter is analized. When the small parameter tends to zero, the reduced operator is hyperbolic. When t tends to infinity a parabolic hyperbolic boundary layer appears. In this paper a rigorous asymptotic approximation uniformly valid for all t is established.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vincenti, P.; Klewicki, J.; Morrill-Winter, C.; White, C. M.; Wosnik, M.
2013-12-01
Well-resolved measurements of the streamwise velocity in zero pressure gradient turbulent boundary layers are presented for friction Reynolds numbers up to 19,670. Distinct from most studies, the present boundary layers undergo nearly a decade increase in Reynolds number solely owing to streamwise development. The profiles of the mean and variance of the streamwise velocity exhibit logarithmic behavior in accord with other recently reported findings at high Reynolds number. The inner and mid-layer peaks of the variance profile are evidenced to increase at different rates with increasing Reynolds number. A number of statistical features are shown to correlate with the position where the viscous force in the mean momentum equation loses leading order importance, or similarly, where the mean effect of turbulent inertia changes sign from positive to negative. The near-wall peak region in the 2-D spectrogram of the fluctuations is captured down to wall-normal positions near the edge of the viscous sublayer at all Reynolds numbers. The spatial extent of this near-wall peak region is approximately invariant under inner normalization, while its large wavelength portion is seen to increase in scale in accord with the position of the mid-layer peak, which resides at a streamwise wavelength that scales with the boundary layer thickness.
Studies on the influence on flexural wall deformations on the development of the flow boundary layer
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Schilz, W.
1978-01-01
Flexural wave-like deformations can be used to excite boundary layer waves which in turn lead to the onset of turbulence in the boundary layer. The investigations were performed with flow velocities between 5 m/s and 40 m/s. With four different flexural wave transmissions a frequency range from 0.2 kc/s to 1.5 kc/s and a phase velocity range from 3.5 m/s to 12 m/s was covered. The excitation of boundary layer waves becomes most effective if the phase velocity of the flexural wave coincides with the phase velocity region of unstable boundary layer waves.
Study of Boundary Layer Development in a Two-Stage Low-Pressure Turbine
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Dorney, Daniel J.; Ashpis, David E.; Halstead, David E.; Wisler, David C.
1999-01-01
Experimental data from jet-engine tests have indicated that unsteady blade row interactions and separation can have a significant impact on the efficiency of low-pressure turbine stages. Measured turbine efficiencies at takeoff can be as much as two points higher than those at cruise conditions. Several recent studies have revealed that Reynolds number effects may contribute to the lower efficiencies at cruise conditions. In the current study numerical simulations have been performed to study the boundary layer development in a two-stage low-pressure turbine, and to evaluate the transition models available for low Reynolds number flows in turbomachinery. The results of the simulations have been compared with experimental data, including airfoil loadings and integral boundary layer quantities. The predicted unsteady results display similar trends to the experimental data, but significantly overestimate the amplitude of the unsteadiness. The time-averaged results show close agreement with the experimental data.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fu, Y. B.; Hall, P.
A weakly nonlinear theory is presented for investigating the initial nonlinear development of Goertler vortices in the neighborhood of the neutral position and for deriving two coupled evolution equations. The latter makes it possible to determine whether the vortices are decaying or growing depending on the sign of a controlling constant. It is found that if the vortices are growing, the mean flow correction becomes so large as to affect the basic state of distances downstream of the neutral position. A fully nonlinear theory concerning the further downstream development of these large-amplitude Goertler vortices is also presented. The upper and lower boundaries of the region of vortex activity are determined by a free-boundary problem involving the boundary layer equations. Attention is also given to the secondary instability of the flow in the transition layers centered at the upper and lower boundaries of the region of vortex activity. It is found that the superimposed perturbations are spanwise periodic traveling waves, which are pi/2 radians out of phase with the fundamental.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Otto, S. R.; Bassom, Andrew P.
1992-01-01
The nonlinear development is studied of the most unstable Gortler mode within a general 3-D boundary layer upon a suitably concave surface. The structure of this mode was first identified by Denier, Hall and Seddougui (1991) who demonstrated that the growth rate of this instability is O(G sup 3/5) where G is the Gortler number (taken to be large here), which is effectively a measure of the curvature of the surface. Previous researchers have described the fate of the most unstable mode within a 2-D boundary layer. Denier and Hall (1992) discussed the fully nonlinear development of the vortex in this case and showed that the nonlinearity causes a breakdown of the flow structure. The effect of crossflow and unsteadiness upon an infinitesimal unstable mode was elucidated by Bassom and Hall (1991). They demonstrated that crossflow tends to stabilize the most unstable Gortler mode, and for certain crossflow/frequency combinations the Gortler mode may be made neutrally stable. These vortex configurations naturally lend themselves to a weakly nonlinear stability analysis; work which is described in a previous article by the present author. Here we extend the ideas of Denier and Hall (1992) to the three-dimensional boundary layer problem. It is found that the numerical solution of the fully nonlinear equations is best conducted using a method which is essentially an adaption of that utilized by Denier and Hall (1992). The influence of crossflow and unsteadiness upon the breakdown of the flow is described.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xia, Qian-Jin; Huang, Wei-Xi; Xu, Chun-Xiao; Cui, Gui-Xiang
2015-04-01
Opposition control of spatially developing turbulent boundary layers for skin friction drag reduction is studied by direct numerical simulations. The boundary layer extends 800?0 in the streamwise (x) direction, with ?0 denoting the momentum thickness at the flow inlet. The Reynolds number, based on the external flow velocity and the momentum thickness, ranges from 300 to 860. Opposition control applied in different streamwise ranges, i.e. 200\\lt x/{{? }0}\\lt 350 and 200\\lt x/{{? }0}\\lt 550, as well as the uncontrolled case, are simulated. Statistical results and instantaneous flow fields are presented, with special attention paid to the spatial evolution properties of the boundary layer flow with control and the underlying mechanism. It is observed that a long spatial transient region after the control start and a long recovery region after the control end are present in the streamwise direction. A maximum drag reduction rate of about 22% is obtained as the transient region is passed, and an overshoot in the local skin friction coefficient (Cf) occurs in the recovery region. A new identity is derived for dynamical decomposition of Cf. Reduction of Cf by opposition control and overshoot of Cf in the recovery region are explained by quantifying the contributions from the viscous shear stress term, the Reynolds shear stress term, the mean convection term and other terms.
The Effects of Blade Count on Boundary Layer Development in a Low-Pressure Turbine
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Dorney, Daniel J.; Flitan, Horia C.; Ashpis, David E.; Solomon, William J.
2000-01-01
Experimental data from jet-engine tests have indicated that turbine efficiencies at takeoff can be as much as two points higher than those at cruise conditions. Recent studies have shown that Reynolds number effects contribute to the lower efficiencies at cruise conditions. In the current study numerical simulations have been performed to study the boundary layer development in a two-stage low-pressure turbine, and to evaluate the models available for low Reynolds number flows in turbomachinery. In a previous study using the same geometry the predicted time-averaged boundary layer quantities showed excellent agreement with the experimental data, but the predicted unsteady results showed only fair agreement with the experimental data. It was surmised that the blade count approximation used in the numerical simulations generated more unsteadiness than was observed in the experiments. In this study a more accurate blade approximation has been used to model the turbine, and the method of post-processing the boundary layer information has been modified to more closely resemble the process used in the experiments. The predicted results show improved agreement with the unsteady experimental data.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vogelmann, Andrew M.; Fridlind, Ann M.; Toto, Tami; Endo, Satoshi; Lin, Wuyin; Wang, Jian; Feng, Sha; Zhang, Yunyan; Turner, David D.; Liu, Yangang; Li, Zhijin; Xie, Shaocheng; Ackerman, Andrew S.; Zhang, Minghua; Khairoutdinov, Marat
2015-06-01
Observation-based modeling case studies of continental boundary layer clouds have been developed to study cloudy boundary layers, aerosol influences upon them, and their representation in cloud- and global-scale models. Three 60 h case study periods span the temporal evolution of cumulus, stratiform, and drizzling boundary layer cloud systems, representing mixed and transitional states rather than idealized or canonical cases. Based on in situ measurements from the Routine AAF (Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Aerial Facility) CLOWD (Clouds with Low Optical Water Depth) Optical Radiative Observations (RACORO) field campaign and remote sensing observations, the cases are designed with a modular configuration to simplify use in large-eddy simulations (LES) and single-column models. Aircraft measurements of aerosol number size distribution are fit to lognormal functions for concise representation in models. Values of the aerosol hygroscopicity parameter, ?, are derived from observations to be ~0.10, which are lower than the 0.3 typical over continents and suggestive of a large aerosol organic fraction. Ensemble large-scale forcing data sets are derived from the ARM variational analysis, European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts, and a multiscale data assimilation system. The forcings are assessed through comparison of measured bulk atmospheric and cloud properties to those computed in "trial" large-eddy simulations, where more efficient run times are enabled through modest reductions in grid resolution and domain size compared to the full-sized LES grid. Simulations capture many of the general features observed, but the state-of-the-art forcings were limited at representing details of cloud onset, and tight gradients and high-resolution transients of importance. Methods for improving the initial conditions and forcings are discussed. The cases developed are available to the general modeling community for studying continental boundary clouds.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Costigliola, V.
2010-09-01
It has long been known that specific atmospheric processes, such as weather and longer-term climatic fluctuations, affect human health. The biometeorological literature refers to this relationship as meteorotropism, defined as a change in an organism that is correlated with a change in atmospheric conditions. Plenty of (patho)physiological functions are affected by those conditions - like the respiratory diseases - and currently it is difficult to put any limits for pathologies developed in reply. Nowadays the importance of atmospheric boundary layer and health is increasingly recognised. A number of epidemiologic studies have reported associations between ambient concentrations of air pollution, specifically particulate pollution, and adverse health effects, even at the relatively low concentrations of pollution found. Since 1995 there have been over twenty-one studies from four continents that have explicitly examined the association between ambient air pollutant mixes and daily mortality. Statistically significant and positive associations have been reported in data from various locations around the world, all with varying air pollutant concentrations, weather conditions, population characteristics and public health policies. Particular role has been given to atmospheric boundary layer processes, the impact of which for specific patient-cohort is, however, not well understood till now. Assessing and monitoring air quality are thus fundamental to improve Europe's welfare. One of current projects run by the "European Medical Association" - PASODOBLE will develop and demonstrate user-driven downstream information services for the regional and local air quality sectors by combining space-based and in-situ data with models in 4 thematic service lines: - Health community support for hospitals, pharmacies, doctors and people at risk - Public information for regions, cities, tourist industry and sporting event organizers - Compliance monitoring support on particulate matter for regional environmental agencies - Local forecast model evaluation support for local authorities and city bodies. Giving value to the above listed aspects, PASODOBLE objectives are following: - Evolution of existing and development of new sustainable air quality services for Europe on regional and local scales - Development and testing of a generic service framework for coordinated input data acquisition and customizable user-friendly access to services - Utilization of multiple cycles of delivery, use and assessment versus requirements and market planning in cooperation with users - Promotion and harmonisation of best practise tools for air quality communities. Further European multidisciplinary projects should be created to better understand the most prevalent atmospheric factors to be impacted in predictive, preventive and personalised medicine considered as the central concept for future medicine.
Nonequilibrium chemistry boundary layer integral matrix procedure
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tong, H.; Buckingham, A. C.; Morse, H. L.
1973-01-01
The development of an analytic procedure for the calculation of nonequilibrium boundary layer flows over surfaces of arbitrary catalycities is described. An existing equilibrium boundary layer integral matrix code was extended to include nonequilibrium chemistry while retaining all of the general boundary condition features built into the original code. For particular application to the pitch-plane of shuttle type vehicles, an approximate procedure was developed to estimate the nonequilibrium and nonisentropic state at the edge of the boundary layer.
Dynamical Model Simulation of the Morning Boundary Layer Development in Deep Mountain Valleys.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bader, David C.; McKee, Thomas B.
1983-03-01
A dry, two-dimensional version of the Colorado State University Multi-dimensional Cloud/Mesoscale Model was used to study the cross-valley evolution of the wind and temperature structures in an idealized east-west oriented mountain valley. Two simulations were performed, one in which the valley was heated symmetrically and a second in which a mid-latitude heating distribution was imposed. Both runs were initiated identically with a stable layer filling the valley to ridgetop and a neutral layer above the ridge. A specified sinusoidal surface potential temperature flux function approximating the diurnal cycle forced the model at the lower boundary.The results of the two simulations were remarkably similar. The model realistically reproduced the gross features found in actual valleys in both structure and timing. The simulated inversions were destroyed three and one-half hours after sunrise as a result of a neutral layer growing up from the surface meeting a descending inversion top. Slope winds with speeds of 3-5 m s1 developed over both sidewalls two and one-half hours after sunrise. Both cases revealed the development of strongly stable pockets of air over the sidewalls which form when cold air advected upslope loses its buoyancy at higher elevations. These stable pockets temporarily block the slope flow and force transient cross-valley circulations to form which act to destabilize the valley boundary layer. Cross-valley mixing and gravity waves rapidly redistribute heat across the valley to prevent large potential temperature gradients from forming. As a result, oven large differences in heating rates between opposing sidewalls do not result in significant cross-valley potential temperature differences. Organized cross-valley circulations and eddy motions enhance lateral mixing in the stable layer as well.
HUD - PREDICTION OF BOUNDARY-LAYER DEVELOPMENT ON TWO-DIMENSIONAL OR AXISYMETRIC BODIES
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Pinckney, S. Z.
1994-01-01
HUD is an integral code based on the Spaulding-Chi method for predicting boundary-layer development in laminar, transitional, and turbulent flow regions on two-dimensional or axisymetric bodies. This program was developed using integral-momentum, moment-of-momentum, and energy equations and has the capability of approximating non-equilibrium velocity profiles as well as the local surface friction in the presence of a pressure gradient. An approach was also developed for predicting heat transfer in a turbulent boundary layer in the presence of a high axial pressure gradient. Provisions are included for pressure gradients normal and lateral to the surface. The program is designed with particular emphasis on its applicability to supersonic combustion, thus, real gas flow effects were included. The resulting method permits estimation of cooling requirements for scramjet engines. Because of this capability, the HUD program has been incorporated into several scramjet cycle performance analysis codes including SCRAM (ARC-12338) and SRGULL (LEW-15093). HUD is written in machine independent FORTRAN 77 and should be portable to any computer with a valid FORTRAN compiler. On an IBM PC compatible under MS-DOS, HUD requires 145K RAM. The program is available on a 5.25 inch 360K MS-DOS diskette. HUD was developed in 1970 and last updated in 1991. IBM PC is a registered trademark of International Business Machines Corporation. MS-DOS is a registered trademark of Microsoft Corporation.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Huang, M.; Mielikainen, J.; Huang, B.; Chen, H.; Huang, H.-L. A.; Goldberg, M. D.
2014-11-01
The planetary boundary layer (PBL) is the lowest part of the atmosphere and where its character is directly affected by its contact with the underlying planetary surface. The PBL is responsible for vertical sub-grid-scale fluxes due to eddy transport in the whole atmospheric column. It determines the flux profiles within the well-mixed boundary layer and the more stable layer above. It thus provides an evolutionary model of atmospheric temperature, moisture (including clouds), and horizontal momentum in the entire atmospheric column. For such purposes, several PBL models have been proposed and employed in the weather research and forecasting (WRF) model of which the Yonsei University (YSU) scheme is one. To expedite weather research and prediction, we have put tremendous effort into developing an accelerated implementation of the entire WRF model using Graphics Processing Unit (GPU) massive parallel computing architecture whilst maintaining its accuracy as compared to its CPU-based implementation. This paper presents our efficient GPU-based design on WRF YSU PBL scheme. Using one NVIDIA Tesla K40 GPU, the GPU-based YSU PBL scheme achieves a speedup of 193× with respect to its Central Processing Unit (CPU) counterpart running on one CPU core, whereas the speedup for one CPU socket (4 cores) with respect to one CPU core is only 3.5×. We can even boost the speedup to 360× with respect to one CPU core as two K40 GPUs are applied.
Development and Breakdown of Goertler Vortices in High Speed Boundary Layers
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Li, Fei; Choudhari, Meelan; Chang, Chau-Lyan; Wu, Minwei; Greene, Ptrick T.
2010-01-01
The nonlinear development of G rtler instability over a concave surface gives rise to a highly distorted stationary flow in the boundary layer that has strong velocity gradients in both spanwise and wall-normal directions. This distorted flow is susceptible to strong, high frequency secondary instability that leads to the onset of transition. For high Mach number flows, the boundary layer is also subject to the second mode instability. The nonlinear development of G rtler vortices and the ensuing growth and breakdown of secondary instability, the G rtler vortex interactions with second mode instabilities as well as oblique second mode interactions are examined in the context of both internal and external hypersonic configurations using nonlinear parabolized stability equations, 2-D eigenvalue analysis and direct numerical simulation. For G rtler vortex development inside the Purdue Mach 6 Ludwieg tube wind tunnel, multiple families of unstable secondary eigenmodes are identified and their linear and nonlinear evolution is examined. The computation of secondary instability is continued past the onset of transition to elucidate the physical mechanisms underlying the laminar breakdown process. Nonlinear breakdown scenarios associated with transition over a Mach 6 compression cone configuration are also explored.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Fu, Y.; Hall, P.
1992-01-01
The weakly nonlinear development of large-amplitude Goertler vortices in a small neighborhood of the neutral stability position given by the linear theory is considered. It is shown that if the basic state and the wall curvature satisfy a certain condition, the Goertler vortices will grow until they become so large as to drive a mean flow correction as large as the basic state. Attention is then given to the further downstream evolution of these large-amplitude vortices, and it is shown that the vortices have a triple layer structure which consists of a region of vortex activity bounded by two transition layers over which the amplitude of the harmonic part of the vortex decays to zero exponentially. The positions of the two transition layers are found to be governed by a free boundary problem, which is solved for a number of curvature distribution cases. The secondary instability of the two transition layers is investigated with respect to traveling waves which are pi/2 out of phase in the spanwise direction with the steady Goertler vortices.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bretherton, Christopher S.
2002-01-01
The goal of this project was to compare observations of marine and arctic boundary layers with: (1) parameterization systems used in climate and weather forecast models; and (2) two and three dimensional eddy resolving (LES) models for turbulent fluid flow. Based on this comparison, we hoped to better understand, predict, and parameterize the boundary layer structure and cloud amount, type, and thickness as functions of large scale conditions that are predicted by global climate models. The principal achievements of the project were as follows: (1) Development of a novel boundary layer parameterization for large-scale models that better represents the physical processes in marine boundary layer clouds; and (2) Comparison of column output from the ECMWF global forecast model with observations from the SHEBA experiment. Overall the forecast model did predict most of the major precipitation events and synoptic variability observed over the year of observation of the SHEBA ice camp.
The structure and development of streamwise vortex arrays embedded in a turbulent boundary layer
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wendt, Bruce J.; Greber, Isaac; Hingst, Warren R.
1992-01-01
The results of an experimental investigation of the structure and development of streamwise vortices embedded in a turbulent boundary layer are presented. Measurements of secondary velocity in the crossplane are used to characterize the vortex array structure. Measurements in the crossplane at two streamwise locations characterize the influence of interactions among the vortices on the array structure when the initial spacing between vortices is varied. Evidence of the merging of counter-rotating cores is found in embedded arrays of closely spaced vortices. A model of vortex interaction and development is constructed from the experimental results. This model is based on the structure of the two dimensional Ossen vortex. The decay of vortex circulation due to the merging of the cores is correlated with the crossplane gradient in streamwise vorticity occurring between an embedded vortex and its adjacent counter-rotating neighbors.
Study of Boundary Layer Development in a Two-Stage Low-Pressure Turbine
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Dorney, Daniel J.; Ashpis, David E.; Halstead, David E.; Wisler, David C.
1998-01-01
Experimental data from jet-engine tests have indicated that unsteady blade row (wake) interactions and separation can have a significant impact on the efficiency of turbine stages. The effects of these interactions can be intensified in low-pressure turbine stages because of the low Reynolds number operating environment. Measured turbine efficiencies at takeoff can be as much as two points higher than those at cruise conditions. Thus, during the last decade a significant amount of effort has been put into determining the effects of transition and turbulence on the performance of low pressure turbine stages. Experimental investigations have been performed, for example, by Hodson et al. and Halstead et al. These investigations have helped identify/clarify the roles that factors such as the Reynolds number, free stream turbulence intensity, pressure gradient and curvature have in the generation of losses. In parallel to the experimental investigations, there have been significant analytical efforts to improve the modeling of transition. Examples of such efforts include the works of Mayle and Gostelow et al. These newer models show promise of providing accurate transition predictions over a wide range of flow conditions, although they have yet to be implemented into the numerical flow analyses used by the turbine design community. Some recent computational investigations of interest include the works of Chernobrovkin and Lakshminarayana and Eulitz and Engel. The focus of the current effort has been to -use a viscous, unsteady quasi-three-dimensional Navier-Stokes analysis to study boundary layer development in a two-stage low-pressure turbine. A two-layer algebraic turbulence model, along with a natural transition model and a bubble transition model, have been used, The geometry used in the simulations has been the subject of extensive experiments. The predicted results have been compared with experimental data, including airfoil loadings and time-averaged/unsteady integral boundary layer quantities.
Streamwise development of the wind turbine boundary layer over a model wind turbine array
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Newman, Jensen; Lebron, Jose; Meneveau, Charles; Castillo, Luciano
2013-08-01
The streamwise development of turbulence statistics and mean kinetic energy in a model wind farm consisting of 3 × 5 wind turbines is studied experimentally in a wind tunnel. The analysis uses planar Particle Image Velocimetry data obtained at the centerline plane of the wind farm, covering the inflow as well as four planes in between five downstream wind turbines. The data analysis is organized by dividing these measurement planes into three regions: the above-rotor, rotor-swept, and below-rotor regions. For each field, flow development is quantified using a properly defined relative difference norm based on an integration over each of the regions. Using this norm, it is found that the mean streamwise velocity approaches a fully developed state most rapidly, whereas the flow development is more gradual for the second-order statistics. The vertical entrainment flux of the mean kinetic energy by the Reynolds shear stress, ?U??u'v'?, is observed to develop at a rate similar to that of the Reynolds shear stress rather than the mean streamwise velocity component. Its development is slowest in the layer nearest to the ground. Analysis of various terms in the mean kinetic energy equation shows that the wind turbine boundary layer has not yet reached fully developed conditions by the fifth turbine but that it is approaching such conditions. By comparing the vertical entrainment flux with the horizontal flux due to the mean flow, it is found that the former increases, whereas the latter decreases, as function of downstream distance, but that the former is already an important contributor in the developing region.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dieudonné, E.; Ravetta, F.; Pelon, J.; Goutail, F.; Pommereau, J.-P.
2013-03-01
A statistical linear relationship between NO2 surface concentration and its integrated content in the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) is established in urban conditions, using ABL depth as an ancillary parameter. This relationship relies on a unique data set including 20 months of observations from a ground-based UV-visible light spectrometer and from an aerosol lidar, both located in Paris inner city center. Measurements show that in all seasons, large vertical gradients of NO2 concentration exist in Paris developed ABL, explaining why the average concentration retrieved is only about 25% of NO2 surface concentration. This result shows that the commonly used hypothesis of constant mixing ratio in the ABL is not valid over urban areas, where large NOx emissions occur. Moreover, the relationship obtained is robust, and the studied area lacks of any particular orographic features, so that our results should be more widely applicable to pollution survey from space-borne observations.
Large-eddy simulation of aero-optical effects in a spatially developing turbulent boundary layer
Eric Tromeur; Eric Garnier; Pierre Sagaut
2006-01-01
Large eddy simulations (LESs) of aero-optical effects in a turbulent boundary layer have been carried out at two Mach numbers (0.9 and 2.3) for an adiabatic wall boundary condition. This study is the continuation of previous work by the present authors using the temporal approximation. However, these temporal simulations have to cope with several drawbacks (thickening in time of the
Separation behavior of boundary layers on three-dimensional wings
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Stock, H. W.
1981-01-01
An inverse boundary layer procedure for calculating separated, turbulent boundary layers at infinitely long, crabbing wing was developed. The procedure was developed for calculating three dimensional, incompressible turbulent boundary layers was expanded to adiabatic, compressible flows. Example calculations with transsonic wings were made including viscose effects. In this case an approximated calculation method described for areas of separated, turbulent boundary layers, permitting calculation of this displacement thickness. The laminar boundary layer development was calculated with inclined ellipsoids.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kachanov, Y. S.; Kozlov, V. V.; Levchenko, V. Y.
1985-01-01
A low-turbulence subsonic wind tunnel was used to study the influence of acoustic disturbances on the development of small sinusoidal oscillations (Tollmien-Schlichting waves) which constitute the initial phase of turbulent transition. It is found that acoustic waves propagating opposite to the flow generate vibrations of the model (plate) in the flow. Neither the plate vibrations nor the acoustic field itself have any appreciable influence on the stability of the laminar boundary layer. The influence of an acoustic field on laminar boundary layer disturbances is limited to the generation of Tollmien-Schlichting waves at the leading-edge of the plate.
, and cloud water. To compute these quantities, many parameterizations use multiple schemes and are then faced the family of PDFs. Once the PDF is fixed, unclosed higher-order moments can be computed and cloud frac- tion2.5A DEVELOPMENT OF A NEW PARAMETERIZATION FOR REPRESENTING BOUNDARY LAYER CLOUDS IN MESOSCALE
G. Pailhas; Y. Touvet; B. Aupoix
2008-01-01
A detailed experimental study of turbulent boundary layers developing over rough surfaces subjected to both zero and adverse pressure gradients was undertaken. Two rough surfaces constituted by distributed random elements have been chosen. The experiments were conducted in the range of the Reynolds number R? based upon the momentum thickness varying from 2200 to 5800 and 3200 to 3800, respectively,
THE MARTIAN ATMOSPHERIC BOUNDARY LAYER
Spiga, Aymeric
THE MARTIAN ATMOSPHERIC BOUNDARY LAYER A. Petrosyan,1 B. Galperin,2 S. E. Larsen,3 S. R. Lewis,4 A September 2011. [1] The planetary boundary layer (PBL) represents the part of the atmosphere the atmosphere and the surface. On Mars, this represents the lowest 10 km of the atmosphere during the daytime
Boundary-layer moisture regimes
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mahrt, L.
1991-01-01
Boundary-layer moisture fluctuations are estimated by analyzing HAPEX and FIFE data collected on 52 aircraft flight legs. Moisture fluctuations were given considerable attention in the HAPEX flights, which were 120 km long, and flew 150 m over one area of homogeneous terrain. The repetitions permit statistical consideration of motion characteristics on horizontal scales. Two prototypical boundary layer regimes are discovered: the entrainment-drying boundary layer, and the moistening boundary layer. The latter demonstrates positive moisture skewness close to the surface related to high surface evaporation. The former is characterized by boundary-layer instability, weak surface evaporation, and drier air aloft, leading to unexpected negative moisture skewness. It is noted that 10 km moisture variations with horizontal gradients are often found in narrow zones of horizontal convergence, called mesoscale moisture fronts. A negative moisture to temperature correlation, due to surface energy budget inhomogeneity, is shown to incur large mesoscale variations of relative humidity.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ferrante, A.; Elghobashi, S.
2003-11-01
A method for generating inflow conditions for direct numerical simulations (DNS) of spatially-developing turbulent boundary layers is presented. The method is a modification of that of Lund, Wu and Squires (1998). The approach of Lund et al. is based on having an auxiliary simulation (Code-A) in a three-dimensional domain similar to that of the main simulation (Code-B). The instantaneous velocity field on a selected plane in Code-A is used as the instantaneous inflow conditions for Code-B. The inflow conditions for Code-A are generated through a sequence of operations in which the velocity field at a downstream station is rescaled and re-introduced at the inlet plane. Our present method modifies the operations in Code-A by introducing a set of additional steps preceding the rescaling process. This set involves imposing at the inlet plane an appropriate spectrum E(k) for the turbulence kinetic energy and a condition for insuring that the statistical correlation
Modelling the transitional boundary layer
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Narasimha, R.
1990-01-01
Recent developments in the modelling of the transition zone in the boundary layer are reviewed (the zone being defined as extending from the station where intermittency begins to depart from zero to that where it is nearly unity). The value of using a new non-dimensional spot formation rate parameter, and the importance of allowing for so-called subtransitions within the transition zone, are both stressed. Models do reasonably well in constant pressure 2-dimensional flows, but in the presence of strong pressure gradients further improvements are needed. The linear combination approach works surprisingly well in most cases, but would not be so successful in situations where a purely laminar boundary layer would separate but a transitional one would not. Intermittency-weighted eddy viscosity methods do not predict peak surface parameters well without the introduction of an overshooting transition function whose connection with the spot theory of transition is obscure. Suggestions are made for further work that now appears necessary for developing improved models of the transition zone.
Removing Boundary Layer by Suction
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ackeret, J
1927-01-01
Through the utilization of the "Magnus effect" on the Flettner rotor ship, the attention of the public has been directed to the underlying physical principle. It has been found that the Prandtl boundary-layer theory furnishes a satisfactory explanation of the observed phenomena. The present article deals with the prevention of this separation or detachment of the flow by drawing the boundary layer into the inside of a body through a slot or slots in its surface.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gokoglu, S. A.; Rosner, D. E.
1984-01-01
Modification of the code STAN5 to properly include thermophoretic mass transport, and examination of selected test cases developing boundary layers which include variable properties, viscous dissipation, transition to turbulence and transpiration cooling. Under conditions representative of current and projected GT operation, local application of St(M)/St(M),o correlations evidently provides accurate and economical engineering design predictions, especially for suspended particles characterized by Schmidt numbers outside of the heavy vapor range.
Antonino Ferrante; Said Elghobashi
2004-01-01
The objective of this paper is to explain, in as much detail as possible, the physical mechanisms responsible for the reduction of skin friction in a microbubble-laden spatially developing turbulent boundary layer over a flat plate, for Re_{theta} = 1430. Our DNS results with microbubble volume fraction ranging from phi_v = 0.001 to 0.02 show that the presence of bubbles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Reuder, Joachim; Jonassen, Marius; Ólafsson, Haraldur
2012-10-01
During the last 5 years, the Small Unmanned Meteorological Observer SUMO has been developed as a flexible tool for atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) research to be operated as sounding system for the lowest 4 km of the atmosphere. Recently two main technical improvements have been accomplished. The integration of an inertial measurement unit (IMU) into the Paparazzi autopilot system has expanded the environmental conditions for SUMO operation. The implementation of a 5-hole probe for determining the 3D flow vector with 100 Hz resolution and a faster temperature sensor has enhanced the measurement capabilities. Results from two recent field campaigns are presented. During the first one, in Denmark, the potential of the system to study the effects of wind turbines on ABL turbulence was shown. During the second one, the BLLAST field campaign at the foothills of the Pyrenees, SUMO data proved to be highly valuable for studying the processes of the afternoon transition of the convective boundary layer.
Atmospheric Boundary Layer (ABL) Spring 2015
Collett Jr., Jeffrey L.
ATS 623 Atmospheric Boundary Layer (ABL) Spring 2015 Tues and Thurs 9 a.m. (2 contact hours per@atmos.colostate.edu) Course notes: Atmospheric Boundary Layer Notes (2015) by Richard H. Johnson (available online at http · Schlichting (1960) BoundaryLayer Theory · Sorbjan (1989) Structure of the Atmospheric Boundary Layer
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wu, Xiaohua; Moin, Parviz; Adrian, Ronald J.; Baltzer, Jon R.; Hickey, Jean-Pierre
2013-11-01
Direct numerical simulations of spatially evolving pipe flow and boundary layer have been performed. The pipe is 250R long, the flow Reynolds number is 6000 and 8000, and the calculation used up to 1.7 billion grid points. Pipe inlet disturbance is from a very-thin wire ring placed at different radial locations. It is found that energy norm in the flow downstream of such disturbance can grow exponentially with axial distance. The boundary layer's momentum thickness Reynolds number develops from 80 to 3000 with a free-stream turbulence intensity decaying from 3 percent to 0.8 percent. Its mesh has 4 billion grid points. Good quantitative agreement with experimental data is obtained. In both the pipe flow and the boundary layer, under these inlet disturbances, Lambda vortex, hairpin packet, infant turbulent spot, mature turbulent spot, and hairpin forest occur naturally and sequentially. Passive scalar was also introduced in the simulation in a manner analogous to the color band experiment of Osborne Reynolds.
Physics of magnetospheric boundary layers
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cairns, Iver H.
1995-01-01
This final report was concerned with the ideas that: (1) magnetospheric boundary layers link disparate regions of the magnetosphere-solar wind system together; and (2) global behavior of the magnetosphere can be understood only by understanding its internal linking mechanisms and those with the solar wind. The research project involved simultaneous research on the global-, meso-, and micro-scale physics of the magnetosphere and its boundary layers, which included the bow shock, the magnetosheath, the plasma sheet boundary layer, and the ionosphere. Analytic, numerical, and simulation projects were performed on these subjects, as well as comparisons of theoretical results with observational data. Other related activity included in the research included: (1) prediction of geomagnetic activity; (2) global MHD (magnetohydrodynamic) simulations; (3) Alfven resonance heating; and (4) Critical Ionization Velocity (CIV) effect. In the appendixes are list of personnel involved, list of papers published; and reprints or photocopies of papers produced for this report.
Boundary layer simulator (BLIMPJ) improvement
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Praharaj, S. C.; Schmitz, C. P.
1987-01-01
Improvements were made to advance the current Boundary Layer Integral Matrix Procedure - Version J (BLIMPJ) containing previously modeled simplified calculation methods accounting for surface roughness, relaminarization, and thick boundary layer effects. These improvements have potential applications in the design of the future Orbit Transfer Vehicles (OTV) engines. The coded wall roughness module was validated successfully against measured data from the LeRC 60-15 degree half-angle conical nozzle. The relaminarization model was modified to include wall cooling and roughness based on a set of test data from the same nozzle. The model was compared against typical data sets for validation in different flow regimes. The thrust loss calculation for thick boundary layer effects was computerized where the iterations between TDK and BLIMPJ proceeded automatically until convergence was achieved. An example is given for a typical OTV nozzle with an area ratio 1293.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Reuder, J.; Jonassen, M. O.; Ólafsson, H.
2012-04-01
During the last 5 years, the Small Unmanned Meteorological Observer SUMO has been developed as a new and flexible tool for atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) research to be operated as controllable and recoverable atmospheric sounding system for the lowest 4 km above the Earth's surface. In the year 2011 two main technical improvements of the system have been accomplished. The integration of an inertial measurement unit (IMU) into the Paparazzi autopilot system has expanded the environmental conditions for SUMO operation to now even allowing incloud flights. In the field of sensor technology the implementation of a 5-hole probe for the determination of the 3 dimensional flow vector impinging the aircraft with a 100 Hz resolution and of a faster Pt1000 based temperature sensor have distinctly enhanced the meteorological measurement capabilities. The extended SUMO version has recently been operated during two field campaigns. The first one in a wind farm close to Vindeby on Lolland, Denmark, was dedicated to the investigation of the effects of wind turbines on boundary layer turbulence. In spite of a few pitfalls related to configuration and synchronisation of the corresponding data logging systems, this campaign provided promising results indicating the capability and future potential of small UAS for turbulence characterization in and around wind farms. The second one, the international BLLAST (Boundary Layer Late Afternoon and Sunset Transition) field campaign at the foothills of the Pyrenees in Lannemezan, France was focussing on processes related to the afternoon transition of the convective boundary layer. On a calm sunny day during this experiment, the SUMO soundings revealed an unexpected 2°C cooling in the ABL during morning hours. By a comparison with model simulations this cooling can be associated with thermally-driven upslope winds and the subsequent advection of relatively cool air from the lowlands north of the Pyrenees.
Vogelmann, Andrew M.; Fridlind, Ann M.; Toto, Tami; Endo, Satoshi; Lin, Wuyin; Wang, Jian; Feng, Sha; Zhang, Yunyan; Turner, David D.; Liu, Yangang; et al
2015-06-19
Observation-based modeling case studies of continental boundary layer clouds have been developed to study cloudy boundary layers, aerosol influences upon them, and their representation in cloud- and global-scale models. Three 60-hour case study periods span the temporal evolution of cumulus, stratiform, and drizzling boundary layer cloud systems, representing mixed and transitional states rather than idealized or canonical cases. Based on in-situ measurements from the RACORO field campaign and remote-sensing observations, the cases are designed with a modular configuration to simplify use in large-eddy simulations (LES) and single-column models. Aircraft measurements of aerosol number size distribution are fit to lognormal functionsmore »for concise representation in models. Values of the aerosol hygroscopicity parameter, ?, are derived from observations to be ~0.10, which are lower than the 0.3 typical over continents and suggestive of a large aerosol organic fraction. Ensemble large-scale forcing datasets are derived from the ARM variational analysis, ECMWF forecasts, and a multi-scale data assimilation system. The forcings are assessed through comparison of measured bulk atmospheric and cloud properties to those computed in 'trial' large-eddy simulations, where more efficient run times are enabled through modest reductions in grid resolution and domain size compared to the full-sized LES grid. Simulations capture many of the general features observed, but the state-of-the-art forcings were limited at representing details of cloud onset, and tight gradients and high-resolution transients of importance. Methods for improving the initial conditions and forcings are discussed. The cases developed are available to the general modeling community for studying continental boundary clouds.« less
Physics of magnetospheric boundary layers
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cairns, I. H.
1993-01-01
The central ideas of this grant are that the magnetospheric boundary layers link disparate regions of the magnetosphere together, and the global behavior of the magnetosphere can be understood only by understanding the linking mechanisms. Accordingly the present grant includes simultaneous research on the global, meso-, and micro-scale physics of the magnetosphere and its boundary layers. These boundary layers include the bow shock, magnetosheath, the plasma sheet boundary layer, and the ionosphere. Analytic, numerical and simulation projects have been performed on these subjects, as well as comparison of theoretical results with observational data. Very good progress has been made, with four papers published or in press and two additional papers submitted for publication during the six month period 1 June - 30 November 1993. At least two projects are currently being written up. In addition, members of the group have given papers at scientific meetings. The further structure of this report is as follows: section two contains brief accounts of research completed during the last six months, while section three describes the research projects intended for the grant's final period.
Electric arc behavior in a boundary layer
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rosa, Richard; Farrar, Larry; Trudnowski, Dan
1988-10-01
The objective of this work is to understand how the size of an arc on the electrode of a magneto-hydrodynamic (MHD) generator or accelerator depends on operating parameters such as boundary-layer shape and current density. Arc size has an important bearing on device lifetime and performance. A boundary layer in an MHD device is a region of exceedingly steep gradients including, in particular, the gradient of electrical conductivity. A theory relating arc size to the characteristics of these gradients is developed and compared with behavior observed in various MHD devices, most recently that in the Component Development and Integration Facility in Butte, Montana.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bretherton, Christopher S.
1998-01-01
The goal of this project was to compare observations of marine and arctic boundary layers with (i) parameterization systems used in climate and weather forecast models, and (ii) two and three dimensional eddy resolving (LES) models for turbulent fluid flow. Based on this comparison, we hoped to better understand, predict, and parameterize the boundary layer structure and cloud amount, type and thickness as functions of large scale conditions that are predicted by global climate models.
Boundary layer blockage in expansion tube nozzles
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sudnitsin, Olga; Morgan, Richard G.
1995-01-01
The results of a first order perfect gas correction for the effects of the boundary layer formation within expansion tubes with nozzles are presented. The analytical model developed to describe the boundary layer formation within the expansion tube and an expansion nozzle located at the end of the acceleration tube is based on the Karman integral equations. The results of this analytical model are compared with experimental data from an expansion diffuser. The model provides a useful tool for the preliminary design of nozzles for such facilities.
An interacting boundary layer model for cascades
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Davis, R. T.; Rothmayer, A. P.
1983-01-01
A laminar, incompressible interacting boundary layer model is developed for two-dimensional cascades. In the limit of large cascade spacing these equations reduce to the interacting boundary layer equations for a single body immersed in an infinite stream. A fully implicit numerical method is used to solve the governing equations, and is found to be at least as efficient as the same technique applied to the single body problem. Solutions are then presented for a cascade of finite flat plates and a cascade of finite sine-waves, with cusped leading and trailing edges.
Effect of Boundary Layer Thickness and Entropy Layer on Boundary Layer Combustion
R. M. Kirchhartz; D. J. Mee; R. J. Stalker
This project investigates the possibilities of scramjet combustor performance enhancement by reducing the skin friction through boundary layer combustion. Experiments were conducted in the T4 Stalker tube to investigate the influence of boundary layer thickness and entropy layers on the ignition of a hydrogen air mixture near the wall of a constant area duct. The hydrogen was injected tangentially from
Jupiter's deep magnetotail boundary layer
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nicolaou, G.; McComas, D. J.; Bagenal, F.; Elliott, H. A.; Ebert, R. W.
2015-06-01
In 2007 the New Horizons (NH) spacecraft flew by Jupiter for a gravity assist en route to Pluto. After closest approach on day of year (DOY) 58, 2007, NH followed a tailward trajectory that provided a unique opportunity to explore the deep jovian magnetotail and the surrounding magnetosheath. After DOY 132, 16 magnetopause crossings were observed between 1654 and 2429 Jupiter radii (Rj) along the dusk flank tailward of the planet. In some cases the crossings were identified as rapid transitions from the magnetotail to the magnetosheath and vice versa. In other cases a boundary layer was observed just inside the magnetopause. Solar Wind Around Pluto (SWAP) is an instrument on board NH that obtained spectra of low energy ions during the flyby period. We use a forward model including the SWAP instrument response to derive plasma parameters (density, temperature and velocity) which best reproduce the observations. We also vary the plasma parameters in our model in order to fit the observations more accurately on occasions where the measurements exhibit significant variability. We compare the properties of the plasma in the boundary layer with those of the magnetosheath plasma derived in our earlier work. We attempt to estimate the magnetic field in the boundary layer assuming pressure balance between it and the magnetosheath. Finally, we investigate several possible scenarios to assess if magnetopause movement and structure could cause the variations seen in the data.
Tropical cyclone boundary layer shocks
Slocum, Christopher J; Taft, Richard K; Schubert, Wayne H
2014-01-01
This paper presents numerical solutions and idealized analytical solutions of axisymmetric, $f$-plane models of the tropical cyclone boundary layer. In the numerical model, the boundary layer radial and tangential flow is forced by a specified pressure field, which can also be interpreted as a specified gradient balanced tangential wind field $v_{\\rm gr}(r)$ or vorticity field $\\zeta_{\\rm gr}(r)$. When the specified $\\zeta_{\\rm gr}(r)$ field is changed from one that is radially concentrated in the inner core to one that is radially spread, the quasi-steady-state boundary layer flow transitions from a single eyewall shock-like structure to a double eyewall shock-like structure. To better understand these structures, analytical solutions are presented for two simplified versions of the model. In the simplified analytical models, which do not include horizontal diffusion, the $u(\\partial u/\\partial r)$ term in the radial equation of motion and the $u[f+(\\partial v/\\partial r)+(v/r)]$ term in the tangential equat...
Boundary layer transition flight test observations
A. M. Berkowitz; C. L. Kyriss; A. Martellucci
1977-01-01
A historical review regarding the evolution of flight test boundary layer transition correlations in connection with the development of operational ballistic reentry vehicles in the U.S. is presented, taking into account the time periods from 1956 to 1961, from 1961 to 1971, and from 1971 to the present time. Questions of transition data evaluation are discussed, taking into account transition
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tang, Qing; Zhu, Yiding; Chen, Xi; Lee, Cunbiao
2015-06-01
Particle image velocimetry, PCB pressure sensors, and planar Rayleigh scattering are combined to study the development of second-mode instability in a Mach 6 flow over a flat plate with two-dimensional roughness. To the best of the authors' knowledge, this is the first time that the instantaneous velocity fields and flow structures of the second-mode instability waves passing through the roughness are shown experimentally. A two-dimensional transverse wall blowing is used to generate second-mode instability in the boundary layer and seeding tracer particles. The two-dimensional roughness is located upstream of the synchronization point between mode S and mode F. The experimental results showed that the amplitude of the second-mode instability will be greatly increased upstream of the roughness. Then it damps and recovers quickly in the vicinity downstream of the roughness. Further downstream, it acts as no-roughness case, which confirms Fong's numerical results [K. D. Fong, X. W. Wang, and X. L. Zhong, "Numerical simulation of roughness effect on the stability of a hypersonic boundary layer," Comput. Fluids 96, 350 (2014)]. It also has been observed that the strength of the amplification and damping effect depends on the height of the roughness.
Compressible turbulent boundary layer interaction experiments
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Settles, G. S.; Bogdonoff, S. M.
1981-01-01
Four phases of research results are reported: (1) experiments on the compressible turbulent boundary layer flow in a streamwise corner; (2) the two dimensional (2D) interaction of incident shock waves with a compressible turbulent boundary layer; (3) three dimensional (3D) shock/boundary layer interactions; and (4) cooperative experiments at Princeton and numerical computations at NASA-Ames.
Novel parameterisations in the boundary layer
Plant, Robert
Novel parameterisations in the boundary layer Bob Plant Department of Meteorology, University with the boundary layer: perspectives from ensemble forecasting Novel parameterisations in the boundary layer p.1 Mesoscale modelling if l and turbulence is sub-filter Terra incognita where l Wyngaard 2004 Novel
Outline of research on oscillating boundary layers
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cousteix, J.
1979-01-01
The state of the art in the field of unsteady boundary layers is outlined with emphasis on turbulent boundary layers. The unsteady flows considered are mainly periodic with the external velocity varying around a zero or nonzero mean time value. The principal results obtained on laminar boundary layers are also presented.
Numerical methods for hypersonic boundary layer stability
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Malik, M. R.
1990-01-01
Four different schemes for solving compressible boundary layer stability equations are developed and compared, considering both the temporal and spatial stability for a global eigenvalue spectrum and a local eigenvalue search. The discretizations considered encompass: (1) a second-order-staggered finite-difference scheme; (2) a fourth-order accurate, two-point compact scheme; (3) a single-domain Chebychev spectral collocation scheme; and (4) a multidomain spectral collocation scheme. As Mach number increases, the performance of the single-domain collocation scheme deteriorates due to the outward movement of the critical layer; a multidomain spectral method is accordingly designed to furnish superior resolution of the critical layer.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Drennov, Oleg
2005-07-01
Plane metal layers loading by an oblique shock wave during explosive welding and various shields' effects on a contact boundary state after the loading were experimentally investigated. The stabilizing effect of thin metal coating on the explosive welding and disturbance evolution at a contact boundary was experimentally found. For example for copper -- copper contact boundary disturbance amplitude is a 350 ?m. For contact boundary for the same pair, but under the loading through a zinc layer ? 22 ?m thick, the disturbance amplitude decreased up to a 15 ?m. Thermophysical properties of a coating material affect the stabilization. The phenomenon of perturbation attenuation can be explained by the character of occurred hydrodynamic flow and complicated stress -- strain state of substance.
Flow unsteadiness effects on boundary layers
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Murthy, Sreedhara V.
1989-01-01
The development of boundary layers at high subsonic speeds in the presence of either mass flux fluctuations or acoustic disturbances (the two most important parameters in the unsteadiness environment affecting the aerodynamics of a flight vehicle) was investigated. A high quality database for generating detailed information concerning free-stream flow unsteadiness effects on boundary layer growth and transition in high subsonic and transonic speeds is described. The database will be generated with a two-pronged approach: (1) from a detailed review of existing literature on research and wind tunnel calibration database, and (2) from detailed tests in the Boundary Layer Apparatus for Subsonic and Transonic flow Affected by Noise Environment (BLASTANE). Special instrumentation, including hot wire anemometry, the buried wire gage technique, and laser velocimetry were used to obtain skin friction and turbulent shear stress data along the entire boundary layer for various free stream noise levels, turbulence content, and pressure gradients. This database will be useful for improving the correction methodology of applying wind tunnel test data to flight predictions and will be helpful for making improvements in turbulence modeling laws.
Orbiter Boundary Layer Transition Prediction Tool Enhancements
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Berry, Scott A.; King, Rudolph A.; Kegerise, Michael A.; Wood, William A.; McGinley, Catherine B.; Berger, Karen T.; Anderson, Brian P.
2010-01-01
Updates to an analytic tool developed for Shuttle support to predict the onset of boundary layer transition resulting from thermal protection system damage or repair are presented. The boundary layer transition tool is part of a suite of tools that analyze the local aerothermodynamic environment to enable informed disposition of damage for making recommendations to fly as is or to repair. Using mission specific trajectory information and details of each d agmea site or repair, the expected time (and thus Mach number) of transition onset is predicted to help define proper environments for use in subsequent thermal and stress analysis of the thermal protection system and structure. The boundary layer transition criteria utilized within the tool were updated based on new local boundary layer properties obtained from high fidelity computational solutions. Also, new ground-based measurements were obtained to allow for a wider parametric variation with both protuberances and cavities and then the resulting correlations were calibrated against updated flight data. The end result is to provide correlations that allow increased confidence with the resulting transition predictions. Recently, a new approach was adopted to remove conservatism in terms of sustained turbulence along the wing leading edge. Finally, some of the newer flight data are also discussed in terms of how these results reflect back on the updated correlations.
Thick diffusion limit boundary layer test problems
Bailey, T. S. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 7000 East Avenue, L-095, Livermore, CA 94551 (United States); Warsa, J. S.; Chang, J. H. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, P.O. Box 1663, Los Alamos, NM 87544 (United States); Adams, M. L. [Texas A and M University, Department of Nuclear Engineering, College Station, TX 77843-3133 (United States)
2013-07-01
We develop two simple test problems that quantify the behavior of computational transport solutions in the presence of boundary layers that are not resolved by the spatial grid. In particular we study the quantitative effects of 'contamination' terms that, according to previous asymptotic analyses, may have a detrimental effect on the solutions obtained by both discontinuous finite element (DFEM) and characteristic-method (CM) spatial discretizations, at least for boundary layers caused by azimuthally asymmetric incident intensities. Few numerical results have illustrated the effects of this contamination, and none have quantified it to our knowledge. Our test problems use leading-order analytic solutions that should be equal to zero in the problem interior, which means the observed interior solution is the error introduced by the contamination terms. Results from DFEM solutions demonstrate that the contamination terms can cause error propagation into the problem interior for both orthogonal and non-orthogonal grids, and that this error is much worse for non-orthogonal grids. This behavior is consistent with the predictions of previous analyses. We conclude that these boundary layer test problems and their variants are useful tools for the study of errors that are introduced by unresolved boundary layers in diffusive transport problems. (authors)
Diverging boundary layers with zero streamwise pressure gradient
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Pauley, Wayne R.; Eaton, John K.; Cutler, Andrew D.
1989-01-01
The effects of spanwise divergence on the boundary layer forming between a pair of embedded streamwise vortices with the common flow between them directed toward the wall was studied. Measurements indicate that divergence controls the rate of development of the boundary layer and that large divergence significantly retards boundary layer growth and enhances skin friction. For strongly diverging boundary layers, divergence accounts for nearly all of the local skin friction. Even with divergence, however, the local similarity relationships for two-dimensional boundary layers are satisfactory. Although divergence modifies the mean development of the boundary layer, it does not significantly modify the turbulence structure. In the present experiments with a zero streamwise pressure gradient, it was found that spanwise divergence dit not significantly affect the Reynolds stress and the turbulent triple product distributions.
Jensen, Paul Alfred
1972-01-01
, direct measurement' of momentum and heat transfer ac? oss t!ie a it-surface interface were made iii the ati?ospheric 'oonndary layer. This layer is d 'fined as the r, "'. on from th. art!a' surface up to an clevati. on for i?hiich the fluxes.... '?'illlam H. Clayton Direct measurements of the eddy fluxes of mo. . . entum and heat were. made in the atmospheric boundary layer simultaneously with measurements of the profiles of average wind velocity and tempera- ture to evaluate the capability...
Development of a Ground-Based CO2 Profiling DIAL System for Atmospheric Boundary Layer Studies
S. Ismail; K. Davis; G. Koch; M. N. Abedin; T. F. Refaat; U. N. Singh
2005-01-01
NASA Langley Research Center is developing a CO2 profiling Differential Absorption Lidar System operating in the 2.05 micron region. Data from this system can provide vertically resolved CO2 profiles over long continuous observation intervals that can alleviate a primary limit in our ability to derive regional terrestrial CO2 fluxes. Development of this system follows the development of high power, pulsed,
Boundary layer calculation for analysis and design
H. E. Weber
1977-01-01
A simple, semi-empirical method for calculating the laminar, transition, and turbulent boundary layer with arbitrary free stream pressure gradient is developed. Good correlation is obtained with data on general turbulent flows, two-dimensional diffuser flows, and the cylinder in cross-flow. Skin friction coefficient, momentum thickness Reynolds number, and free stream pressure gradient parameter correlation employs a simple lag theory. With the
Calculation of a separated turbulent boundary layer
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Baldwin, B.; Hung, C. M.
1976-01-01
The properties of a Navier-Stokes solution of a shock-separated turbulent flow over a flat wall are investigated. Refinements of an algebraic relaxation turbulence model previously shown to be of value for the simulation of separated flows are presented. A simplified analysis applicable near an adiabatic wall is developed and used to help verify the accuracy of the numerical solution. Features of the time-dependent response of a turbulent boundary layer to shock impingement are presented.
Progress in modeling hypersonic turbulent boundary layers
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Zeman, Otto
1993-01-01
A good knowledge of the turbulence structure, wall heat transfer, and friction in turbulent boundary layers (TBL) at high speeds is required for the design of hypersonic air breathing airplanes and reentry space vehicles. This work reports on recent progress in the modeling of high speed TBL flows. The specific research goal described here is the development of a second order closure model for zero pressure gradient TBL's for the range of Mach numbers up to hypersonic speeds with arbitrary wall cooling requirements.
Boundary layer theory and subduction
Fowler, A.C. [Oxford Univ., Oxford (United Kingdom)
1993-12-01
Numerical models of thermally activated convective flow in Earth`s mantle do not resemble active plate tectonics because of their inability to model successfully the process of subduction, other than by the inclusion of artificial weak zones. Here we show, using a boundary layer argument, how the `rigid lid` style of convection favored by thermoviscous fluids leads to lithospheric stresses which may realistically exceed the yield stress and thus cause subduction ot occur through the visoc-plastic failure of lithospheric rock. An explicit criterion for the failure of the lid is given, which is sensitive to the internal viscosity eta(sub a) below the lid. For numbers appropriate to Earth`s mantle, this criterion is approximately eta(sub a) greater than 10(exp 21) Pa s.
Vortex boundary-layer interactions
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bradshaw, P.
1986-01-01
Parametric studies to identify a vortex generator were completed. Data acquisition in the first chosen configuration, in which a longitudinal vortex pair generated by an isolated delta wing starts to merge with a turbulent boundary layer on a flat plate fairly close to the leading edge is nearly completed. Work on a delta-wing/flat-plate combination, consisting of a flow visualization and hot wire measurements taken with a computer controlled traverse gear and data logging system were completed. Data taking and analysis have continued, and sample results for another cross stream plane are presented. Available data include all mean velocity components, second order mean products of turbulent fluctuations, and third order mean products. Implementation of a faster data logging system was accomplished.
Turbulent boundary layers with secondary flow
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Grushwitz, E.
1984-01-01
An experimental analysis of the boundary layer on a plane wall, along which the flow occurs, whose potential flow lines are curved in plane parallel to the wall is discussed. According to the equation frequently applied to boundary layers in a plane flow, which is usually obtained by using the pulse law, a generalization is derived which is valid for boundary layers with spatial flow. The wall shear stresses were calculated with this equation.
Goertler instability of compressible boundary layers
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
El-Hady, N. M.; Verma, A. K.
1984-01-01
The instability of the laminar compressible boundary-layer flows along concave surfaces is investigated. The linearized disturbance equations for the three-dimensional, counter-rotating, longitudinal-type vortices in two-dimensional boundary layers are presented in an orthogonal curvilinear system of coordinates. The basic approximation of the disturbance equations, which includes the effect of the growth of the boundary layer, is considered and solved numerically.
Structure of the low latitude boundary layer
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sckopke, N.; Paschmann, G.; Haerendel, G.; Sonnerup, B. U. O.; Bame, S. J.; Forbes, T. G.; Hones, E. W., Jr.; Russell, C. T.
1980-01-01
Observations at high temporal resolution of the frontside magnetopause and plasma boundary layer, made with the LASL/MPE fast plasma analyzer onboard the ISEE 1 and 2 spacecraft, revealed a complex quasiperiodic structure of some of the observed boundary layers. A cool tailward streaming boundary layer plasma was seen intermittently, with intervening periods of hot tenuous plasma which has properties similar to the magnetospheric population. While individual encounters with the boundary layer plasma last only a few minutes, the total observation time may extend over one hour or more.
Technology developments for laminar boundary layer control on subsonic transport aircraft
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wagner, R. D.; Maddalon, D. V.; Fischer, M. C.
1984-01-01
An overview of laminar flow control (LFC) technology developments is presented, along with a description of NASA's broadened program concerning laminar flow concepts for commercial transports. Topics covered include developments in LFC airfoils, wing surface panels, and leading-edge systems, as well as the effects of high altitude ice particles and insect impacts. It is suggested that the electron beam perforated titanium surface is superior to the Dynapore surface. The Douglas LFC wing design, the Krueger flap, the Lockheed, and the Douglas leading-edge concepts are covered. Future research includes an evaluation of a hybrid LFC concept, which combines LFC suction in the leading-edge region with natural laminar flow over the wing box.
Entropy production in relativistic jet boundary layers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kohler, Susanna; Begelman, Mitchell C.
2015-01-01
Hot relativistic jets, passing through a background medium with a pressure gradient p ? r-? where 2 < ? ? 8/3, develop a shocked boundary layer containing a significant fraction of the jet power. In previous work, we developed a self-similar description of the boundary layer assuming isentropic flow, but we found that such models respect global energy conservation only for the special case ? = 8/3. Here, we demonstrate that models with ? < 8/3 can be made self-consistent if we relax the assumption of constant specific entropy. Instead, the entropy must increase with increasing r along the boundary layer, presumably due to multiple shocks driven into the flow as it gradually collimates. The increase in specific entropy slows the acceleration rate of the flow and provides a source of internal energy that could be channelled into radiation. We suggest that this process may be important for determining the radiative characteristics of tidal disruption events and gamma-ray bursts from collapsars.
Boundary Layer Transition Results From STS-114
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Berry, Scott A.; Horvath, Thomas J.; Cassady, Amy M.; Kirk, Benjamin S.; Wang, K. C.; Hyatt, Andrew J.
2006-01-01
The tool for predicting the onset of boundary layer transition from damage to and/or repair of the thermal protection system developed in support of Shuttle Return to Flight is compared to the STS-114 flight results. The Boundary Layer Transition (BLT) Tool is part of a suite of tools that analyze the aerothermodynamic environment of the local thermal protection system to allow informed disposition of damage for making recommendations to fly as is or to repair. Using mission specific trajectory information and details of each damage site or repair, the expected time of transition onset is predicted to help determine the proper aerothermodynamic environment to use in the subsequent thermal and stress analysis of the local structure. The boundary layer transition criteria utilized for the tool was developed from ground-based measurements to account for the effect of both protuberances and cavities and has been calibrated against flight data. Computed local boundary layer edge conditions provided the means to correlate the experimental results and then to extrapolate to flight. During STS-114, the BLT Tool was utilized and was part of the decision making process to perform an extravehicular activity to remove the large gap fillers. The role of the BLT Tool during this mission, along with the supporting information that was acquired for the on-orbit analysis, is reviewed. Once the large gap fillers were removed, all remaining damage sites were cleared for reentry as is. Post-flight analysis of the transition onset time revealed excellent agreement with BLT Tool predictions.
Boundary layers of the earth's outer magnetosphere
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Eastman, T. E.; Frank, L. A.
1984-01-01
The magnetospheric boundary layer and the plasma-sheet boundary layer are the primary boundary layers of the earth's outer magnetosphere. Recent satellite observations indicate that they provide for more than 50 percent of the plasma and energy transport in the outer magnetosphere although they constitute less than 5 percent by volume. Relative to the energy density in the source regions, plasma in the magnetospheric boundary layer is predominantly deenergized whereas plasma in the plasma-sheet boundary layer has been accelerated. The reconnection hypothesis continues to provide a useful framework for comparing data sampled in the highly dynamic magnetospheric environment. Observations of 'flux transfer events' and other detailed features near the boundaries have been recently interpreted in terms of nonsteady-state reconnection. Alternative hypotheses are also being investigated. More work needs to be done, both in theory and observation, to determine whether reconnection actually occurs in the magnetosphere and, if so, whether it is important for overall magnetospheric dynamics.
Effects of adverse pressure gradient on heat transfer mechanism in thermal boundary layer
T. Houra; Y. Nagano
2006-01-01
Characteristics of turbulent boundary layer flows with adverse pressure gradients (APG) differ significantly from those of canonical boundary layers. We have experimentally investigated the effects of APG on the heat transfer mechanism in a turbulent boundary layer developing on a uniformly heated plate. It is found that in the APG boundary layer the Stanton number follows the correlation curve for
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ferrante, A.; Elghobashi, S. E.
2004-07-01
A method for generating inflow conditions for direct numerical simulations (DNS) of spatially-developing turbulent boundary layers is presented. The method is a modification of that of Lund et al. [J. Comput. Phys. 140 (1998) 233]. The approach of Lund et al. is based on having an auxiliary simulation (Code-A) in a three-dimensional domain similar to that of the main simulation (Code-B). The instantaneous velocity field on a selected plane in Code-A is used as the instantaneous inflow conditions for Code-B. The inflow conditions for Code-A are generated through a sequence of operations in which the velocity field at a downstream station is rescaled and re-introduced at the inlet plane. Our present method modifies the operations in Code-A by introducing a set of additional steps preceding the rescaling process. This set involves imposing at the inlet plane an appropriate spectrum E( k) for the turbulence kinetic energy (TKE) and a condition for insuring that the statistical correlation < u1'u3'> between the streamwise and vertical velocity fluctuations retain a non-vanishing magnitude. This modification is essential for sustaining the production rate of TKE near the wall throughout the domain. Our DNS results obtained with the new modification are in excellent agreement with the experimental data of DeGraaff and Eaton [J. Fluid Mech. 422 (2000) 319] for Re?=1430.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Smith, Tamara A.
1988-01-01
Through the use of theoretical predictions of fluid properties and experimental heat transfer and thrust measurements, the zones of laminar, transitional, and turbulent boundary layer flow were defined for the NASA Lewis 1030:1 area ratio rocket nozzle. Tests were performed on the nozzle at chamber pressures from 350 to 100 psia. For these conditions, the throat diameter Reynolds numbers varied from 300,000 to 1 million. The propellants used were gaseous hydrogen and gaseous oxygen. Thrust measurements and nozzle outer wall temperature measurements were taken during the 3-sec test runs. Comparison of experimental heat transfer and thrust data with the corresponding predictions from the Two-Dimensional Kinetics (TDK) nozzle analysis program indicated laminar flow in the nozzle at a throat diameter Reynolds number of 320,000 or chamber pressure of 360 psia. Comparison of experimental and predicted heat transfer data indicated transitional flow up to and including a chamber pressure of 1000 psia. Predicted values of the axisymmetric acceleration parameter within the convergent and divergent nozzle were consistent with the above results. Based upon an extrapolation of the heat transfer data and predicted distributions of the axisymmetric acceleration parameter, transitional flow was predicted up to a throat diameter Reynolds number of 220,000 or 2600-psia chamber pressure. Above 2600-psia chamber pressure, fully developed turbulent flow was predicted.
Turbulent spots in a Stokes boundary layer
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mazzuoli, M.; Vittori, G.; Blondeaux, P.
2011-12-01
The turbulent spots which form in a boundary layer generated by the harmonic oscillations of an incompressible fluid are investigated by numerical means. In order to allow the formation of turbulent spots, the dimensions of the computational box have been increased with respect to previous numerical investigations (Costamagna et al. (2003)). The boundaries of the spots are identified and the speeds of the head, tail, leftmost and rightmost points, are computed. The computed speeds well compare with those measured in steady boundary layers.
LDV measurements of turbulent baroclinic boundary layers
Neuwald, P.; Reichenbach, H. [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Kurzzeitdynamik - Ernst-Mach-Institut (EMI), Freiburg im Breisgau (Germany); Kuhl, A.L. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., El Segundo, CA (United States)
1993-07-01
Described here are shock tube experiments of nonsteady, turbulent boundary layers with large density variations. A dense-gas layer was created by injecting Freon through the porous floor of the shock tube. As the shock front propagated along the layer, vorticity was created at the air-Freon interface by an inviscid, baroclinic mechanism. Shadow-schlieren photography was used to visualize the turbulent mixing in this baroclinic boundary layer. Laser-Doppler-Velocimetry (LDV) was used to measure the streamwise velocity histories at 14 heights. After transition, the boundary layer profiles may be approximated by a power-law function u {approximately} u{sup {alpha}} where {alpha} {approx_equal} 3/8. This value lies between the clean flat plate value ({alpha} = 1/7) and the dusty boundary layer value ({alpha} {approx_equal} 0.7), and is controlled by the gas density near the wall.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ferrante, Antonino
Experimental evidence during the past three decades indicates that injection of gaseous microbubbles into a liquid turbulent boundary layer over a flat plate or over axisymmetrical bodies can reduce the skin-friction by as much as 80% from its value without bubble injection. However, the basic physical mechanisms responsible for that reduction are not yet fully understood. The present study is concerned with the direct numerical simulation (DNS) of the effects of dispersed gaseous bubbles on the dynamics of wall turbulence with the objective of explaining the physical mechanisms responsible for the reduction of skin-friction. First, the DNS of a single-phase spatially developing turbulent boundary layer over a flat plate was performed. A robust method for generating turbulent inflow conditions was developed. The method is a modification of that of Lund, Wu and Squires (1998). This modification is essential for sustaining the production rate of turbulence kinetic energy near the wall throughout the domain. The DNS is validated by comparing the results with the experimental data of DeGraaff & Eaton (2000) at Retheta = 1430. Then, the DNS of a bubble-laden wall bounded turbulent flow was performed using the Eulerian-Lagrangian approach for the two-way coupling case. In addition to the two-way coupling force, all terms of the Navier-Stokes equations of the carrier fluid include the instantaneous local volume fraction of the bubbles. The carrier fluid is laden with microbubbles for different values of the mean void fraction ranging from ?v = 0.001 to 0.02, while keeping the bubble diameter equal to 2.4 viscous length scales (or wall units). The DNS results show that the presence of bubbles creates a local positive divergence of the fluid velocity, ? · U > 0, generating a positive mean velocity normal to (and away from) the wall which, in turn, reduces the mean streamwise velocity and displaces the quasi-streamwise longitudinal vortical structures away from the wall. This displacement has two main effects: (1) it increases the spanwise gaps between the wall streaks associated with the sweep events and reduces the streamwise velocity in these streaks, thus reducing the skin-friction by up to 20% for ?v = 0.02, and (2) it moves the location of peak Reynolds stress production away from the wall to a zone of a smaller transverse gradient of the mean streamwise velocity (i.e. smaller mean shear), thus reducing the production rate of turbulence kinetic energy and enstrophy. Furthermore, for different orientation of the gravitational acceleration vector, buoyancy can enhance (reduce) the 'velocity divergence effect' by increasing (reducing) the local concentration of bubbles near the plate in the case of plate-on-top (plate-on-bottom), by pushing the bubbles towards (away from) the plate in agreement with the experimental results of Madavan et al. (1984, 1985).
Planetary Boundary Layer Simulation Using TASS
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Schowalter, David G.; DeCroix, David S.; Lin, Yuh-Lang; Arya, S. Pal; Kaplan, Michael
1996-01-01
Boundary conditions to an existing large-eddy simulation model have been changed in order to simulate turbulence in the atmospheric boundary layer. Several options are now available, including the use of a surface energy balance. In addition, we compare convective boundary layer simulations with the Wangara and Minnesota field experiments as well as with other model results. We find excellent agreement of modelled mean profiles of wind and temperature with observations and good agreement for velocity variances. Neutral boundary simulation results are compared with theory and with previously used models. Agreement with theory is reasonable, while agreement with previous models is excellent.
Calculation methods for compressible turbulent boundary layers
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bushnell, D. M.; Cary, A. M., Jr.; Harris, J. E.
1976-01-01
Calculation procedures for non-reacting compressible two- and three-dimensional turbulent boundary layers were reviewed. Integral, transformation and correlation methods, as well as finite difference solutions of the complete boundary layer equations summarized. Alternative numerical solution procedures were examined, and both mean field and mean turbulence field closure models were considered. Physics and related calculation problems peculiar to compressible turbulent boundary layers are described. A catalog of available solution procedures of the finite difference, finite element, and method of weighted residuals genre is included. Influence of compressibility, low Reynolds number, wall blowing, and pressure gradient upon mean field closure constants are reported.
An Evaluation of Boundary Conditions for Modeling Urban Boundary Layers
Calhoun, R.J.; Chan, S.T.; Lee, R.L.
2000-05-18
Numerical modeling of the urban boundary layer is complicated by the need to describe airflow patterns outside of the computational domain. These patterns have an impact on how successfully the simulation is able to model the turbulence associated with the urban boundary layer. This talk presents experiments with the model boundary conditions for simulations that were done to support two Department of Energy observational programs involving the Salt Lake City basin. The Chemical/Biological Non-proliferation Program (CBNP) is concerned with the effects of buildings on influencing dispersion patterns in urban environments. The Vertical Transport and Mixing Program (VTMX) investigating mixing mechanisms in the stable boundary layer and how they are influenced by the channeling caused by drainage flows or by obstacles such as building complexes. Both of these programs are investigating the turbulent mixing caused by building complexes and other urban obstacles.
Lin, Wenxian; Armfield, S W
2012-12-01
Recent studies have used scaling analysis to obtain simple power-law relations that accurately predict the Prandtl (Pr) number dependency of natural-convection boundary layers subjected to both isothermal and ramped heating conditions, when Pr>1. The analysis used in those studies cannot be extended to Pr<1 fluids, and it is not clear at present whether such simple scaling relations can be developed for Pr<1 fluids. In the present study, the Pr>1 scalings are shown to perform well for the start-up stage of the Pr<1 flow, but not for the fully developed flow. The Pr>1 scalings are modified to provide unified Prandtl number scalings for fully developed natural-convection boundary layers for both Pr?1 and Pr?1, with the unknown powers obtained empirically via direct numerical simulation. The modified scalings are shown to perform well for the fully developed flow, with the exception being the prediction of the inner viscous boundary-layer thickness. PMID:23368043
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Eastman, Timothy E.
1995-01-01
Evidence for the probable existence of magnetospheric boundary layers was first presented by Hones, et al. (1972), based on VELA satellite plasma observations (no magnetic field measurements were obtained). This magnetotail boundary layer is now known to be the tailward extension of the high-latitude boundary layer or plasma mantle (first uniquely identified using HEOS 2 plasma and field observations by Rosenbauer et al., 1975) and the low-latitude boundary layer (first uniquely identified using IMP 6 plasma and field observations by Eastman et al., 1976). The magnetospheric boundary layer is the region of magnetosheath-like plasma located Earthward of, but generally contiguous with the magnetopause. This boundary layer is typically identified by comparing low-energy (less than 10 keV) ion spectra across the magnetopause. Low-energy electron measurements are also useful for identifying the boundary layer because the shocked solar wind or magnetosheath has a characteristic spectral signature for electrons as well. However, there are magnetopause crossings where low-energy electrons might suggest a depletion layer outside the magnetopause even though the traditional field-rotation signature indicates that this same region is a boundary layer Earthward of the current layer. Our analyses avoided crossings which exhibit such ambiguities. Pristine magnetopause crossings are magnetopause crossings for which the current layer is well defined and for which there is no adjoining magnetospheric boundary layer as defined above. Although most magnetopause models to date apply to such crossings, few comparisons between such theory and observations of pristine magnetopause crossings have been made because most crossings have an associated magnetospheric boundary layer which significantly affects the applicable boundary conditions for the magnetopause current layer. Furthermore, almost no observational studies of magnetopause microstructure have been done even though key theoretical issues have been discussed for over two decades. This is because plasma instruments deployed prior to the ISEE and AMPTE missions did not have the required time resolution and most ISEE investigations to-date have focused on tests of MHD plasma models, especially reconnection. More recently, many phenomenological and theoretical models have been developed to explain the existence and characteristics of the magnetospheric boundary layers with only limited success to date. The cases with no boundary layer treated in this study provide a contrary set of conditions to those observed with a boundary layer. For the measured parameters of such cases, a successful boundary layer model should predict no plasma penetration across the magnetopause. Thus, this research project provides the first direct observational tests of magnetopause models using pristine magnetopause crossings and provides important new results on magnetopause microstructure and associated kinetic processes.
Boundary layer flow visualization for flight testing
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Obara, Clifford J.
1986-01-01
Flow visualization is used extensively in flight testing to determine aerodynamic characteristics such as surface flow direction and boundary layer state. Several visualization techniques are available to the aerodynamicist. Two of the most popular are oil flows and sublimating chemicals. Oil is used to visualize boundary layer transition, shock wave location, regions of separated flow, and surface flow direction. Boundary layer transition can also be visualized with sublimating chemicals. A summary of these two techniques is discussed, and the use of sublimating chemicals is examined in some detail. The different modes of boundary layer transition are characterized by different patterns in the sublimating chemical coating. The discussion includes interpretation of these chemical patterns and the temperature and velocity operating limitations of the chemical substances. Information for selection of appropriate chemicals for a desired set of flight conditions is provided.
Glimpses of a wave boundary layer
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Trowbridge, J. H.; Agrawal, Y. C.
1995-10-01
Measurements obtained with a profiling laser-Doppler velocimeter reveal the vertical structure of velocity in a wave boundary layer over a sand beach during two periods of approximately stationary forcing, each with a duration of several hours. The measurements indicate clearly the reduction in variance and the increase in phase, relative to the overlying flow, that are expected in an oscillatory boundary layer. The measurements also indicate a distortion of the mean alongshore velocity within the wave boundary layer, which has previously been predicted theoretically and observed in laboratory experiments. The thickness and structure of the boundary layer are approximately consistent with computations based on an existing eddy viscosity model, and model-based best fit estimates of bottom roughness are approximately consistent with existing semiempirical descriptions of wave-formed sand ripples.
BUBBLE – an Urban Boundary Layer Meteorology Project
M. W. Rotach; R. Vogt; C. Bernhofer; E. Batchvarova; A. Christen; A. Clappier; B. Feddersen; S.-E. Gryning; G. Martucci; H. Mayer; V. Mitev; T. R. Oke; E. Parlow; H. Richner; M. Roth; Y.-A. Roulet; D. Ruffieux; J. A. Salmond; M. Schatzmann; J. A. Voogt
2005-01-01
Summary The Basel UrBan Boundary Layer Experiment (BUBBLE) was a year-long experimental effort to investigate in detail the boundary layer structure in the City of Basel, Switzerland. At several sites over different surface types (urban, sub-urban and rural reference) towers up to at least twice the main obstacle height provided turbulence observations at many levels. In addition, a Wind Profiler
Dynamical Simulation of Cloudy Boundary Layer Flow during Cold Air Outbreaks
Chiu-Wai Yuen
1983-01-01
A two-dimensional primitive equation planetary boundary layer model has been constructed and applied to simulate downwind evolution of coupled dynamical, thermodynamical and cloud properties in the planetary boundary layer (PBL) developed during cold air outbreaks over warm ocean. A layered parametric approach is adopted to model the inversion -capped convective boundary layer filled with shallow cumuli, or topped by stratocumulus
Characterization of internal boundary layer capacitors
Park, H. D.; Payne, D. A.
1980-05-01
Internal boundary layer capacitors were characterized by scanning transmission electron microscopy and by microscale electrical measurements. Data are given for the chemical and physical characteristics of the individual grains and boundaries, and their associated electric and dielectric properties. Segregated internal boundary layers were identified with resistivities of 10/sup 12/-10/sup 13/ ..cap omega..-cm. Bulk apparent dielectric constants were 10,000-60,000. A model is proposed to explain the dielectric behavior in terms of an equivalent n-c-i-c-n representation of ceramic microstructure, which is substantiated by capacitance-voltage analysis.
Ground observations of magnetospheric boundary layer phenomena
McHenry, M.A.; Clauer, C.R. (Stanford Univ., CA (USA)); Friis-Christensen, E. (Danish Meteorological Inst., Copenhagen (Denmark)); Newell, P.T. (Johns Hopkins Univ., Laurel, MD (USA)); Kelly, J.D. (SRI International, Menlo Park, CA (USA))
1990-09-01
Several classes of traveling vortices in the dayside ionospheric convection have been detected and tracked using the Greenland magnetometer chain (Friis-Christensen et al., 1988, McHenry et al., 1989). One class observed during quiet times consists of a continuous series of vortices moving generally anti-sunward for several hours at a time. The vortices strength is seen to be approximately steady and neighboring vortices rotate in opposite directions. Sondrestrom radar observations show that the vortices are located at the ionospheric convection reversal boundary. Low altitude DMSP observations indicate the vortices are on field lines which map to the inner edge of the low latitude boundary layer. Because the vortices are conjugate to the boundary layer, repeat in a regular fashion and travel antisunward, the authors argue that this class of vortices is caused by the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability of the inner edge of the magnetospheric boundary layer.
Dynamics of Thin Astrophysical Boundary Layers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Belyaev, Mikhail Alexander
We study the modal structure and angular momentum transport mechanisms of astrophysical boundary layers. We focus on the case where the accretion disk extends all the way to surface of the star and the boundary layer is thin in comparison with the stellar radius. Such a scenario is applicable, for example, to weakly magnetized neutron stars and white dwarfs, for which the strength of the magnetic field outside the star is too small to disrupt the disk and funnel matter to the poles. Within the boundary layer, material rotating at the Keplerian velocity within the disk slows down to the rotational velocity inside the star. This generates intense velocity gradients and makes the boundary layer susceptible to shear instabilities. By performing a linear stability analysis for the simplified case of a plane-parallel, compressible shear layer, we argue that astrophysical boundary layers are unstable to the sonic instability. This instability is part of a more general class of acoustic instabilities that includes the Papaloizou-Pringle instability. We confirm the predictions of our linear stability analysis by running a suite of simulations in 2D and 3D, with and without stratification, and with and without magnetic field. In our numerical experiments, we find that acoustic modes excited by the sonic instability persist even in the nonlinear regime. We explain the morphological properties and derive analytic formulas for the pattern speed of these acoustic modes. Our work has significant implications for semianalytic models describing the structure and spectral emission from boundary layers. Typically, these models adopt a local, effective viscosity prescription for the angular momentum transport. However, in our simulations we find that angular momentum transport in the boundary layer is facilitated by acoustic modes. In this scenario, accreting material inside the boundary layer loses angular momentum to sound waves that propagate into both the star and the disk. Since transport of angular momentum by waves is inherently nonlocal, our work invites the construction of new phenomenological models of the boundary layer in which angular momentum is transported by waves rather than by an anomalous viscosity.
Laminar-turbulent separatrix in a boundary layer flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Biau, Damien
2012-03-01
The transitional boundary layer flow over a flat plate is investigated. The boundary layer flow is known to develop unstable Tollmien-Schlichting waves above a critical value of the Reynolds number. However, it is also known that this transition can be observed for sub-critical Reynolds numbers. In that case, the basin of attraction of the laminar state coexists with the sustained turbulence. In this article, the trajectory on the separatrix between these two states is simulated. The state on the separatrix is independent from the initial condition and is dynamically connected to both the laminar flow and the turbulence. Such an edge state provides information regarding the basic features of the transitional flow. The solution takes the form of a low speed streak, flanked by two quasi-streamwise sinuous vortices. The shape of the streaks is close to that simulated with the linear optimal perturbation method. This solution is compared to existing results concerning streak breakdown. The simulations are realized in a temporal framework for a local boundary layer, with periodic boundary conditions in the streamwise direction. A dedicated model, based on a scale separation, is presented. The mean flow is a solution of the Prandtl boundary layer equations while the superposed small-scale fluctuations are a solution of the periodic Navier-Stokes equations. The model is validated with turbulent flow simulations and satisfactorily reproduces the physical characteristics of a boundary layer flow, especially in the outer region, where external fluid is entrained toward the boundary layer.
Constant-temperature anemometry measurements in hypersonic boundary layers
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Spina, Eric F.
1991-01-01
One of the major unresolved issues in fluid dynamics is the nature of apparent stresses, called Reynolds stresses, which occur in turbulent boundary layers. In hypersonic boundary layers, the flow physics is further complicated by the large temperature and density fluctuations and the concomitant contamination of the Reynold stresses by fictitious terms. Because of the severe flow environment and the extraordinary demands on sensors and instruments, the turbulence characteristics of hypersonic boundary layers were studied in only a cursory fashion. The plans for supersonic (HSCT) and hypersonic (NASP) vehicles made supersonic flow physics one of the critical pacing technologies in aerospace science. In particular, experimental data are needed to verify candidate computer models and to reach an important understanding of the turbulence physics. The presented research is the start of a substantial effort to refine existing instrumentation and develop experimental techniques to measure the various component of the Reynolds stress in hypersonic boundary layers.
Interfaces and internal layers in a turbulent boundary layer
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Eisma, Jerke; Westerweel, Jerry; Ooms, Gijs; Elsinga, Gerrit E.
2015-05-01
New experimental research is presented on the characteristics of interfaces and internal shear layers that are present in a turbulent boundary layer (TBL). The turbulent/non-turbulent (T/NT) interface at the outer boundary of the TBL shows the presence of a finite jump in streamwise velocity and is characterised by a thin shear layer. It appears that similar layers of high shear occur also within the TBL which separate regions of almost uniform momentum. It turns out that they exhibit similar characteristics as the external T/NT interface. Furthermore, the spatial growth rate of the TBL, that is derived from theoretical analysis, can be correctly predicted from a momentum balance near the external T/NT interface. Similarly, the entrainment velocities for the average internal layers have been determined. Results indicate that internal layers move slower in the vicinity of the wall, whereas they move faster than the large scale boundary layer growth rate in the outer region of the TBL. It is believed that shear layers bound large scale flow regions of approximately uniform momentum. Hence, the entrainment velocities of these internal layers may be interpreted as growth rates of the large scale motions in a TBL.
High enthalpy hypersonic boundary layer flow
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Yanow, G.
1972-01-01
A theoretical and experimental study of an ionizing laminar boundary layer formed by a very high enthalpy flow (in excess of 12 eV per atom or 7000 cal/gm) with allowance for the presence of helium driver gas is described. The theoretical investigation has shown that the use of variable transport properties and their respective derivatives is very important in the solution of equilibrium boundary layer equations of high enthalpy flow. The effect of low level helium contamination on the surface heat transfer rate is minimal. The variation of ionization is much smaller in a chemically frozen boundary layer solution than in an equilibrium boundary layer calculation and consequently, the variation of the transport properties in the case of the former was not essential in the integration. The experiments have been conducted in a free piston shock tunnel, and a detailed study of its nozzle operation, including the effects of low levels of helium driver gas contamination has been made. Neither the extreme solutions of an equilibrium nor of a frozen boundary layer will adequately predict surface heat transfer rate in very high enthalpy flows.
Boundary-Layer-Ingesting Inlet Flow Control
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Owens, Lewis R.; Allan, Brian G.; Gorton, Susan A.
2008-01-01
An experimental study was conducted to provide the first demonstration of an active flow control system for a flush-mounted inlet with significant boundary-layer-ingestion in transonic flow conditions. The effectiveness of the flow control in reducing the circumferential distortion at the engine fan-face location was assessed using a 2.5%-scale model of a boundary-layer-ingesting offset diffusing inlet. The inlet was flush mounted to the tunnel wall and ingested a large boundary layer with a boundary-layer-to-inlet height ratio of 35%. Different jet distribution patterns and jet mass flow rates were used in the inlet to control distortion. A vane configuration was also tested. Finally a hybrid vane/jet configuration was tested leveraging strengths of both types of devices. Measurements were made of the onset boundary layer, the duct surface static pressures, and the mass flow rates through the duct and the flow control actuators. The distortion and pressure recovery were measured at the aerodynamic interface plane. The data show that control jets and vanes reduce circumferential distortion to acceptable levels. The point-design vane configuration produced higher distortion levels at off-design settings. The hybrid vane/jet flow control configuration reduced the off-design distortion levels to acceptable ones and used less than 0.5% of the inlet mass flow to supply the jets.
The kinematics of turbulent boundary layer structure
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Robinson, Stephen Kern
1991-01-01
The long history of research into the internal structure of turbulent boundary layers has not provided a unified picture of the physics responsible for turbulence production and dissipation. The goals of the present research are to: (1) define the current state of boundary layer structure knowledge; and (2) utilize direct numerical simulation results to help close the unresolved issues identified in part A and to unify the fragmented knowledge of various coherent motions into a consistent kinematic model of boundary layer structure. The results of the current study show that all classes of coherent motion in the low Reynolds number turbulent boundary layer may be related to vortical structures, but that no single form of vortex is representative of the wide variety of vortical structures observed. In particular, ejection and sweep motions, as well as entrainment from the free-streem are shown to have strong spatial and temporal relationships with vortical structures. Disturbances of vortex size, location, and intensity show that quasi-streamwise vortices dominate the buffer region, while transverse vortices and vortical arches dominate the wake region. Both types of vortical structure are common in the log region. The interrelationships between the various structures and the population distributions of vortices are combined into a conceptual kinematic model for the boundary layer. Aspects of vortical structure dynamics are also postulated, based on time-sequence animations of the numerically simulated flow.
Boundary layer roll circulations during FIRE
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Shirer, Hampton N.; Haack, Tracy
1990-01-01
The probable mechanism underlying the development of boundary layer roll circulations are studied using wind and temperature profiles measured by the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) Electra during the stratocumulus phase of the First ISCCP Regional Experiment (FIRE). The expected, or preferred, roll orientations, horizontal wavelengths, and propagation periods are determined by finding the minimum values of the dynamic and thermodynamic forcing parameters, which here are the eddy Reynolds number (Re) and moist Rayleigh number (Ra sub m). These minimum values depend on the height z sub T of the capping temperature inversion and on the values of the Fourier coefficients of the background height-dependent vector wind profile. As input to our nonlinear spectral model, descent and ascent runs by the Electra provide for initial estimates of the inversion height and the wind profiles. In the first phase of the investigation presented here, a mechanism is said to be a probable contributor to the development of roll circulations within the stratocumulus-topped boundary layer if the modeled roll orientation and wavelengths agree with their observed values. Preliminary results using the 14-coefficient model of Haack-Hirschberg (1988) are discussed for the 7 July 1987 Electra Mission 188-A (Flight 5). This mission was flown across a sharp cloud boundary that was within a LANDSAT/SPOT scene. The stratocumulus deck was relatively solid in the eastern part of the scene, while there was a rapid decrease in cloud cover to scattered cumulus clouds aligned in streets to the west. These cloud streets were oriented nearly parallel to the mean wind direction in the layer, which was approximately 340 degrees. The hypothesis that roll circulations occurred in both the relatively clear and the cloudy regions is investigated using as model input a descent profile obtained in the relatively clear air and an ascent profile obtained in the cloudy air. Initial results for the clear air case are that the pure inflection point mode is not possible and the pure thermal mode was oriented 35 degrees to the right of the mean wind direction. The origin of this unacceptably large discrepancy between the observed and modeled results will be investigated further and the conclusions reported at the next FIRE workshop.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nowotarski, Christopher J.
Nearly all previous numerical simulations of supercell thunderstorms have neglected surface uxes of heat, moisture, and momentum as well as horizontal inhomogeneities in the near-storm environment from resulting dry boundary layer convection. This investigation uses coupled radiation and land-surface schemes within an idealized cloud model to identify the effects of organized boundary layer convection in the form of horizontal convective rolls (HCRs) on the strength, structure, and evolution of simulated supercell thunderstorms. The in uence of HCRs and the importance of their orientation relative to storm motion is tested by comparing simulations with a convective boundary layer (CBL) against those with a horizontally homogeneous base state having the same mean environment. The impact of anvil shading on the CBL is tested by comparing simulations with and without the effects of clouds in the radiative transfer scheme. The results of these simulations indicate that HCRs provide a potentially important source of environmental vertical vorticity in the sheared, near-storm boundary layer. These vorticity perturbations are amplified both beneath the main supercell updraft and along the trailing out ow boundary, leading to the formation of occasionally intense misovortices. HCRs perpendicular to storm motion are found to have a detrimental effect on the strength and persistence of the lowlevel mesocyclone, particularly during its initial development. Though the mean environment is less supportive of low-level rotation with a wind profile conducive to HCRs oriented parallel to storm motion, such HCRs are found to often enhance the low-level mesocyclone circulation. When anvil shading is included, stabilization results in generally weaker low-level mesocyclone circulation, regardless of HCR orientation. Moreover, HCRs diminish in the near-storm environment such that the effects of HCRs on the supercell are mitigated. HCRs are also shown to be a necessary condition for the formation of so-called "feeder clouds" and anking line convection in these simulations. These findings suggest potentially important rami fications regarding both non-mesocyclone and mesocyclone tornadoes in supercell thunderstorms in an environment with active boundary layer convection.
Chemistry of a polluted cloudy boundary layer
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Jacob, Daniel J.; Gottlieb, Elaine W.; Prather, Michael J.
1989-01-01
A one-dimensional photochemical model for cloud-topped boundary layers has been developed to include descriptions of gas- and aqueous-phase chemistry and the radiation field in and below the cloud. The model is applied to the accumulation of pollutants during a wintertime episode with low stratus over Bakersfield, CA. The mechanisms of sulfate production and the balance between the concentrations of acids and bases are examined. It is shown that most of the sulfate production may be explained by the Fe(III)-catalyzed autoxidation of S(IV). Another source of sulfate is the oxidation of SO2 by OH in both the gas and the aqueous phase. It is shown that the sulfate production in the model is controlled by the availability of NH3. It is suggested that this explains the balance observed between total concentration of acids and bases.
SODAR applications for estimating boundary layer parameters
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Capanni, Annalisa; Gualtieri, Giovanni
1999-12-01
An application of Doppler SODAR technique has been made in order to evaluate the main atmospheric variables affecting the boundary layer structure in a plain terrain. Besides directly monitoring such meteorological variables as wind profiles, the application of a number of methods and algorithms enabled the estimation of features such as atmospheric turbulence, Monin-Obukhov length, friction velocity and PBL depth, which are all crucial for both straightforward meteorological applications and as an input to atmospheric pollutant dispersion models. Such a study has been developed within a SODAR measurement campaign carried out by the Laboratorio per la Meteorologia e la Modellistica Ambientale in cooperation with the research center of ENEL/CRAM during the 1997-98 wintertime in the industrial area of Campi Bisenzio (near Florence), Italy.
Nonstationary atmospheric boundary layer turbulence simulation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Fichtl, G. H.; Perlmutter, M.
1974-01-01
Report on a new and general technique for simulating atmospheric turbulence-like random processes which are statistically homogeneous along the horizontal and nonhomogeneous along the vertical. This technique is general in the sense that it can be used for a broad class of similar problems. Like the other presently available schemes, the techniques presented are based on the Dryden hypothesis and Taylor's frozen eddy hypothesis; however, they go a step further by utilizing certain self-similarity properties of the Dryden spectral density function which permits the development of height invariant filters. These filters are in turn used to generate vertically homogeneous (statistically) random processes from which turbulence at any specified level in the boundary layer can be simulated, thus facilitating the simulation of a nonstationary turbulence process along the flight path of an aircraft during take-off or landing.
Modelling of the Evolving Stable Boundary Layer
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sorbjan, Zbigniew
2014-06-01
A single-column model of the evolving stable boundary layer (SBL) is tested for self-similar properties of the flow and effects of ambient forcing. The turbulence closure of the model is diagnostic, based on the K-theory approach, with a semi-empirical form of the mixing length, and empirical stability functions of the Richardson number. The model results, expressed in terms of local similarity scales, are universal functions, satisfied in the entire SBL. Based on similarity expression, a realizability condition is derived for the minimum allowable turbulent heat flux in the SBL. Numerical experiments show that the development of "horse-shoe" shaped, fixed-elevation hodographs in the interior of the SBL around sunrise is controlled by effects imposed by surface thermal forcing.
Calculation methods for compressible turbulent boundary layers, 1976
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bushnell, D. M.; Cary, A. M., Jr.; Harris, J. E.
1977-01-01
Equations and closure methods for compressible turbulent boundary layers are discussed. Flow phenomena peculiar to calculation of these boundary layers were considered, along with calculations of three dimensional compressible turbulent boundary layers. Procedures for ascertaining nonsimilar two and three dimensional compressible turbulent boundary layers were appended, including finite difference, finite element, and mass-weighted residual methods.
Stability of separating subsonic boundary layers
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Masad, Jamal A.; Nayfeh, Ali H.
1994-01-01
The primary and subharmonic instabilities of separating compressible subsonic two-dimensional boundary layers in the presence of a two-dimensional roughness element on a flat plate are investigated. The roughness elements considered are humps and forward- and backward-facing steps. The use of cooling and suction to control these instabilities is studied. The similarities and differences between the instability characteristics of separating boundary layers and those of the boundary layer over a flat plate with a zero pressure gradient are pointed out and discussed. The theoretical results agree qualitatively and quantitatively with the experimental data of Dovgal and Kozlov. Cooling and suction decrease the growth rates of primary and subharmonic waves in the attached-flow regions but increase them in the separated-flow regions.
Turbulent boundary layer to single-stream shear layer: the transition region
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Morris, Scott C.; Foss, John F.
2003-11-01
This communication presents the results and conclusions of an experimental study of the near-separation region of a single-stream shear layer. The momentum thickness at separation (x {=} 0) was theta_0 {=} 9.6 mm, with Reynolds number shape Re_theta {=} 4650. Boundary layer separation was caused by a sharp 90(°) edge. Detailed single- and multi-point measurements of the velocity field were acquired at the streamwise locations 0 {<} x/theta_0 {<} 100. This represents the transition region between two of the canonical turbulent shear flows: the zero-pressure-gradient turbulent boundary layer and the single-stream shear layer. From the viewpoint of a separating boundary layer, the results describe how the turbulent flow reacts to a sudden change in wall boundary conditions. From the viewpoint of the developed shear layer, the results describe the transition to the self-similar region. The data acquired suggest that the initial shear layer instability occurs in the region very near separation (x {?} theta_0), and that it involves only the vorticity filaments which originate in the near-wall region of the upstream boundary layer. This ‘near-wall region’ roughly defines the origin of a narrow wedge-shaped domain that was identified from the velocity statistics. This domain is termed the ‘sub-shear layer’. The statistics of the velocity field in the region bounded by the sub-shear layer and the free-stream flow were found to represent the normative continuation of the upstream boundary layer. The sub-shear layer has been found to exhibit many of the standard features observed in fully developed shear layers. For example, velocity measurements on the entrainment side of the shear layer indicate that large-scale motions with spanwise coherence were observed. The streamwise dependence of the dominant frequency, convection velocity, and spanwise velocity correlation have been documented in order to characterize the sub-shear layer phenomenon.
Improved Boundary Layer Depth Retrievals from MPLNET
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lewis, Jasper R.; Welton, Ellsworth J.; Molod, Andrea M.; Joseph, Everette
2013-01-01
Continuous lidar observations of the planetary boundary layer (PBL) depth have been made at the Micropulse Lidar Network (MPLNET) site in Greenbelt, MD since April 2001. However, because of issues with the operational PBL depth algorithm, the data is not reliable for determining seasonal and diurnal trends. Therefore, an improved PBL depth algorithm has been developed which uses a combination of the wavelet technique and image processing. The new algorithm is less susceptible to contamination by clouds and residual layers, and in general, produces lower PBL depths. A 2010 comparison shows the operational algorithm overestimates the daily mean PBL depth when compared to the improved algorithm (1.85 and 1.07 km, respectively). The improved MPLNET PBL depths are validated using radiosonde comparisons which suggests the algorithm performs well to determine the depth of a fully developed PBL. A comparison with the Goddard Earth Observing System-version 5 (GEOS-5) model suggests that the model may underestimate the maximum daytime PBL depth by 410 m during the spring and summer. The best agreement between MPLNET and GEOS-5 occurred during the fall and they diered the most in the winter.
Curvature effects and turbulent boundary layers
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Moffat, R. J.
1982-01-01
Results are examined from an experiment conducted to determine quantitatively the secondary factors which affect the response of a turbulent boundary layer to convex curvature and to examine the recovery process after curvature ended. The variation of Stanton number with streamwise distance and with enthalpy thickness Reynolds number for the baseline case is shown. The effect of delta sub .99/R on the velocity of the potential core would have if we extended to the wall with no viscous effects, of free stream acceleration, of an unheated starting length, and of boundary layer maturity are discussed. Mixing length and turbulent Prandtl number models are reviewed.
The structure of APG turbulent boundary layers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gungor, Ayse G.; Maciel, Yvan; Simens, Mark P.; Soria, Julio
2013-11-01
A boundary layer under influence of a strong APG is studied using DNS. Transition to turbulence is triggered using a trip wire which is modelled using the immersed boundary method. The Reynolds number close to the exit of the numerical domain is Re? = 2175 and the shape-factor H = 2 . 5 . Two dimensional two-point spatial correlation functions are obtained in this region and close to the transition region. Cvu with a reference point close to the transition region shows a flow periodicity until Re? ~ 1600 . This periodicity is related to the shear layer instability of the separation bubble created as a result of the APG. The Cvv and Cww correlations obtained far from the transition region at Re? = 2175 and at y / ? = 0 . 4 coincide with results obtained for a ZPG boundary layer. Implying that the structure of the v , w fluctuations is the same as in ZPG. However, Cuu indicates that the structure of the u fluctuation in an APG boundary layer is almost twice as short as the ZPG structures. The APG structures are also less correlated with the flow at the wall. The near wall structure of strong APG flows is different from ZPG flows in that streaks are much shorter or absent. A boundary layer under influence of a strong APG is studied using DNS. Transition to turbulence is triggered using a trip wire which is modelled using the immersed boundary method. The Reynolds number close to the exit of the numerical domain is Re? = 2175 and the shape-factor H = 2 . 5 . Two dimensional two-point spatial correlation functions are obtained in this region and close to the transition region. Cvu with a reference point close to the transition region shows a flow periodicity until Re? ~ 1600 . This periodicity is related to the shear layer instability of the separation bubble created as a result of the APG. The Cvv and Cww correlations obtained far from the transition region at Re? = 2175 and at y / ? = 0 . 4 coincide with results obtained for a ZPG boundary layer. Implying that the structure of the v , w fluctuations is the same as in ZPG. However, Cuu indicates that the structure of the u fluctuation in an APG boundary layer is almost twice as short as the ZPG structures. The APG structures are also less correlated with the flow at the wall. The near wall structure of strong APG flows is different from ZPG flows in that streaks are much shorter or absent. Funded in part by ITU, NSERC of Canada, ARC Discovery Grant, and Multiflow program of the ERC.
Dense gas boundary layer experiments: Visualization, pressure measurements, concentration evaluation
Reichenbach, H.; Neuwald, P.; Kuhl, A.L.
1992-11-01
This technical report describes methods that were applied to investigate turbulent boundary layers generated by inviscid, baroclinic effects. The Cranz-Schardin 24-sparks camera was used to visualize the interactions of a planar shock wave with a Freon R12-layer. The shock propagates more slowly in the Freon layer than in air because of its smaller sound speed. This causes the shock front to be curved and to be reflected between the wall and the layer interface. As a consequence of the reflection process, a series of compression and expansion waves radiate from the layer. Large fluctuations in the streamwise velocity and in pressure develop for about 1 ms. These waves strongly perturb the interface shear layer, which rapidly transitions to a turbulent boundary flow. Pressure measurements showed that the fluctuations in the Freon layer reach a peak pressure 4 times higher than in the turbulent boundary flow. To characterize the preshock Freon boundary layer, concentration measurements were performed with a differential interferometry technique. The refraction index of Freon R12 is so high that Mach-Zehnder interferometry was not successful in these experiments. The evaluation of the concentration profile is described here in detail. Method and results of corresponding LDV measurements under the same conditions are presented in a different report, EMI Report T 9/92. The authors plan to continue the dense gas layer investigations with the gas combination helium/Freon.
Boundary layer flows behind constant speed shock waves moving into a dusty gas
B. Y. Wang; I. I. Glass
1991-01-01
Laminar boundary layer flows behind constant speed shock waves moving into a dusty gas are analyzed numerically. The basic equations of two-phase flows are derived in shock fixed coordinates and solved by an implicit finite-difference method for the side wall boundary layer in a dusty gas shock tube. The development of the boundary layer and resulting velocity and temperature profiles,
INDIVIDUAL TURBULENT CELL INTERACTION: BASIS FOR BOUNDARY LAYER ESTABLISHMENT
Boundary layers are important in determining the forces on objects in flowing fluids, mixing characteristics, and other phenomena. For example, benthic boundary layers are frequently active resuspension layers that determine bottom turbidity and transniissivity. Traditionally, bo...
Application of a Reynolds stress model to separating boundary layers
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ko, Sung HO
1993-01-01
Separating turbulent boundary layers occur in many practical engineering applications. Nonetheless, the physics of separation/reattachment of flows is poorly understood. During the past decade, various turbulence models were proposed and their ability to successfully predict some types of flows was shown. However. prediction of separating/reattaching flows is still a formidable task for model developers. The present study is concerned with the process of separation from a smooth surface. Features of turbulent separating boundary layers that are relevant to modeling include the following: the occurrence of zero wall shear stress, which causes breakdown of the boundary layer approximation; the law of the wall not being satisfied in the mean back flow region; high turbulence levels in the separated region; a significant low-frequency motion in the separation bubble; and the turbulence structure of the separated shear layer being quite different from that of either the mixing layers or the boundary layers. These special characteristics of separating boundary layers make it difficult for simple turbulence models to correctly predict their behavior.
Planetary Boundary Layer from AERI and MPL
Sawyer, Virginia
The distribution and transport of aerosol emitted to the lower troposphere is governed by the height of the planetary boundary layer (PBL), which limits the dilution of pollutants and influences boundary-layer convection. Because radiative heating and cooling of the surface strongly affect the PBL top height, it follows diurnal and seasonal cycles and may vary by hundreds of meters over a 24-hour period. The cap the PBL imposes on low-level aerosol transport makes aerosol concentration an effective proxy for PBL height: the top of the PBL is marked by a rapid transition from polluted, well-mixed boundary-layer air to the cleaner, more stratified free troposphere. Micropulse lidar (MPL) can provide much higher temporal resolution than radiosonde and better vertical resolution than infrared spectrometer (AERI), but PBL heights from all three instruments at the ARM SGP site are compared to one another for validation. If there is agreement among them, the higher-resolution remote sensing-derived PBL heights can accurately fill in the gaps left by the low frequency of radiosonde launches, and thus improve model parameterizations and our understanding of boundary-layer processes.
Numerical Experiments in Supersonic Boundary Layer Stability
Erlebacher, Gordon
Numerical Experiments in Supersonic Boundary Layer Stability Gordon Erlebacher Computational of supersonic flows over a flat plate. Sev eral direct simulations carried out in this study sug gest advances in supersonic and hypersonic aerospace technology have led to a renewed interest in the stability
Boundary Layer Transition on X-43A
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Berry, Scott; Daryabeigi, Kamran; Wurster, Kathryn; Bittner, Robert
2008-01-01
The successful Mach 7 and 10 flights of the first fully integrated scramjet propulsion systems by the Hyper-X (X-43A) program have provided the means with which to verify the original design methodologies and assumptions. As part of Hyper-X s propulsion-airframe integration, the forebody was designed to include a spanwise array of vortex generators to promote boundary layer transition ahead of the engine. Turbulence at the inlet is thought to provide the most reliable engine design and allows direct scaling of flight results to groundbased data. Pre-flight estimations of boundary layer transition, for both Mach 7 and 10 flight conditions, suggested that forebody boundary layer trips were required to ensure fully turbulent conditions upstream of the inlet. This paper presents the results of an analysis of the thermocouple measurements used to infer the dynamics of the transition process during the trajectories for both flights, on both the lower surface (to assess trip performance) and the upper surface (to assess natural transition). The approach used in the analysis of the thermocouple data is outlined, along with a discussion of the calculated local flow properties that correspond to the transition events as identified in the flight data. The present analysis has confirmed that the boundary layer trips performed as expected for both flights, providing turbulent flow ahead of the inlet during critical portions of the trajectory, while the upper surface was laminar as predicted by the pre-flight analysis.
Optimal Disturbances in Compressible Boundary Layers
Zuccher, Simone
& Anatoli Tumin University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ, 85721, USA Eli Reshotko Case Western Reserve University transition mechanism Tollmien-Schlicting (TS) waves first experimentally detected by Schubauer and Skramstad in Compressible Boundary Layers Complete Energy Norm Analysis, Paper AIAA-2005-5314 p. #12;Are TS waves
Boundary layer control device for duct silencers
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Schmitz, Fredric H. (inventor); Soderman, Paul T. (inventor)
1993-01-01
A boundary layer control device includes a porous cover plate, an acoustic absorber disposed under the porous cover plate, and a porous flow resistive membrane interposed between the porous cover plate and the acoustic absorber. The porous flow resistive membrane has a flow resistance low enough to permit sound to enter the acoustic absorber and high enough to damp unsteady flow oscillations.
Planetary Boundary Layer from AERI and MPL
Sawyer, Virginia
2014-02-13
The distribution and transport of aerosol emitted to the lower troposphere is governed by the height of the planetary boundary layer (PBL), which limits the dilution of pollutants and influences boundary-layer convection. Because radiative heating and cooling of the surface strongly affect the PBL top height, it follows diurnal and seasonal cycles and may vary by hundreds of meters over a 24-hour period. The cap the PBL imposes on low-level aerosol transport makes aerosol concentration an effective proxy for PBL height: the top of the PBL is marked by a rapid transition from polluted, well-mixed boundary-layer air to the cleaner, more stratified free troposphere. Micropulse lidar (MPL) can provide much higher temporal resolution than radiosonde and better vertical resolution than infrared spectrometer (AERI), but PBL heights from all three instruments at the ARM SGP site are compared to one another for validation. If there is agreement among them, the higher-resolution remote sensing-derived PBL heights can accurately fill in the gaps left by the low frequency of radiosonde launches, and thus improve model parameterizations and our understanding of boundary-layer processes.
TURBULENCE IN SUPERSONIC AND HYPERSONIC BOUNDARY LAYERS
Martín, Pino
TURBULENCE IN SUPERSONIC AND HYPERSONIC BOUNDARY LAYERS Alexander J. Smits and M. Pino Martin in supersonic and hypersonic flow where the effects of compressibility have a direct influence on the turbulence. Experimental and DNS results are presented and compared. Key words: Turbulence, supersonic, hypersonic, shocks
Boundary layer emission in luminous LMXBs
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gilfanov, M.; Revnivtsev, M.
2005-11-01
We show that aperiodic and quasiperiodic variability of bright LMXBs - atoll and Z-sources - on ˜ sec-msec time scales is caused primarily by variations of the luminosity of the boundary layer. The emission of the accretion disk is less variable on these time scales and its power density spectrum follows P_disk(f)? f-1 law, contributing to observed flux variation at low frequencies and low energies only. The kHz QPOs have the same origin as variability at lower frequencies, i.e. independent of the nature of the "clock", the actual luminosity modulation takes place on the neutron star surface. The boundary layer spectrum remains nearly constant in the course of the luminosity variations and is represented to certain accuracy by the Fourier frequency resolved spectrum. In the investigated range of \\dot{M}˜ (0.1-1) \\dot{M}_Edd it depends weakly on the global mass accretion rate and in the limit \\dot{M}˜ \\dot{M}_Edd is close to Wien spectrum with kT˜ 2.4 keV. Its independence on the global value of \\dot{M} lends support to the theoretical suggestion by \\citet{inogamov99} that the boundary layer is radiation pressure supported. \\ Based on the knowledge of the boundary layer spectrum we attempt to relate the motion along the Z-track to changes of physically meaningful parameters. Our results suggest that the contribution of the boundary layer to the observed emission decreases along the Z-track from conventional ˜ 50% on the horizontal branch to a rather small number on the normal branch. This decrease can be caused, for example, by obscuration of the boundary layer by the geometrically thickened accretion disk at \\dot{M}˜\\dot{M}_Edd. Alternatively, this can indicate significant change of the structure of the accretion flow at \\dot{M}˜\\dot{M}_Edd and disappearance of the boundary layer as a distinct region of the significant energy release associated with the neutron star surface.
Roughness Induced transition in supersonic boundary layers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Muppidi, Suman; Mahesh, Krishnan
2011-11-01
Laminar-to-turbulent transition at high speeds can significantly alter aerodynamic drag and heat transfer. The present study uses Direct Numerical Simulations to study transition of a Mach 2.9 boundary layer due to distributed surface roughness. Roughness causes the near-wall fluid to slow down and generates a strong shear layer over the roughness elements. Roughness surface also exerts an upward impulse on the fluid, generating counter-rotating pairs of streamwise vortices underneath the shear layer. As they move downstream, these vortices rise toward the shear layer, and their mutual interaction results in the break down of the shear layer, followed closely by transition to turbulence. The mean flow in the turbulent region shows a good agreement with available data for fully turbulent boundary layers. Simulations under varying conditions show that where the shear layer is not as strong, and the streamwise vortices are not as coherent, the flow remains laminar. This work is supported by NASA under the hypersonics NRA program grant NNX08AB33A.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Schobeiri, M. T.; Ozturk, B.; Ashpis, David E.
2007-01-01
The paper experimentally studies the effects of periodic unsteady wake flow and different Reynolds numbers on boundary layer development, separation and re-attachment along the suction surface of a low pressure turbine blade. The experimental investigations were performed on a large scale, subsonic unsteady turbine cascade research facility at Turbomachinery Performance and Flow Research Laboratory (TPFL) of Texas A&M University. The experiments were carried out at Reynolds numbers of 110,000 and 150,000 (based on suction surface length and exit velocity). One steady and two different unsteady inlet flow conditions with the corresponding passing frequencies, wake velocities, and turbulence intensities were investigated. The reduced frequencies chosen cover the operating range of LP turbines. In addition to the unsteady boundary layer measurements, surface pressure measurements were performed. The inception, onset, and the extent of the separation bubble information collected from the pressure measurements were compared with the hot wire measurements. The results presented in ensemble-averaged, and the contour plot forms help to understand the physics of the separation phenomenon under periodic unsteady wake flow and different Reynolds number. It was found that the suction surface displayed a strong separation bubble for these three different reduced frequencies. For each condition, the locations defining the separation bubble were determined carefully analyzing and examining the pressure and mean velocity profile data. The location of the boundary layer separation was dependent of the Reynolds number. It is observed that starting point of the separation bubble and the re-attachment point move further downstream by increasing Reynolds number from 110,000 to 150,000. Also, the size of the separation bubble is smaller when compared to that for Re=110,000.
Particle motion in atmospheric boundary layers of Mars and Earth
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
White, B. R.; Iversen, J. D.; Greeley, R.; Pollack, J. B.
1975-01-01
To study the eolian mechanics of saltating particles, both an experimental investigation of the flow field around a model crater in an atmospheric boundary layer wind tunnel and numerical solutions of the two- and three-dimensional equations of motion of a single particle under the influence of a turbulent boundary layer were conducted. Two-dimensional particle motion was calculated for flow near the surfaces of both Earth and Mars. For the case of Earth both a turbulent boundary layer with a viscous sublayer and one without were calculated. For the case of Mars it was only necessary to calculate turbulent boundary layer flow with a laminar sublayer because of the low values of friction Reynolds number; however, it was necessary to include the effects of slip flow on a particle caused by the rarefied Martian atmosphere. In the equations of motion the lift force functions were developed to act on a single particle only in the laminar sublayer or a corresponding small region of high shear near the surface for a fully turbulent boundary layer. The lift force functions were developed from the analytical work by Saffman concerning the lift force acting on a particle in simple shear flow.
Enthalpy effects on hypervelocity boundary layers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Adam, Philippe H.
More than 50 shots with air and 35 shots with carbon dioxide were carried out in the T5 shock tunnel at GALCIT to study enthalpy effects on hypervelocity boundary layers. The model tested was a 5° half-angle cone measuring approximately 1 meter in length. It was instrumented with 51 chromel-constantan coaxial thermocouples and the surface heat transfer rate was computed to deduce the state of the boundary layer and, when applicable, the transition location. Transitional boundary layers obtained confirm the stabilizing effect of enthalpy. As the reservoir enthalpy is increased, the transition Reynolds number evaluated at the reference conditions increases as well. The stabilizing effect is more rapid in gases with lower dissociation energy and it seems to level off when no further dissociation can be achieved. These effects do not appear when the transition location is normalized with the edge conditions. Further normalizing the reservoir enthalpy with the edge enthalpy appears to collapse the data for all gases onto a single curve. A similar collapse is obtained when normalizing both the transition location and the reservoir enthalpy with maximum temperature conditions obtained with BLIMPK, a nonequilibrium boundary layer code. The observation that the reference conditions seem more appropriate to normalize high enthalpy transition data was taken a step further by comparing the tunnel data with results from a reentry experiment. When the edge conditions are used, the tunnel data are around an order of magnitude below the flight data. This is commonly attributed to the fact that disturbance levels in tunnels are high, causing the boundary layer to transition prematurely. However, when the conditions at the reference temperature are used instead, the data come within striking distance of one another although the trend with enthalpy seems to be a destabilizing one for the flight data. This difference could be due to the cone bending and blunting observed during the reentry. Experimental laminar heat transfer levels were compared to numerical results obtained with BLIMPK. Results for air indicate that the reactions are probably in nonequilibrium and that the wall is catalytic. The catalycity is seen to yield higher surface heat transfer rates than the noncatalytic and frozen chemistry models. The results for carbon dioxide, however, are inconclusive. This is, perhaps, because of inadequate modeling of the actual reactions. Experimentally, an anomalous yet repeatable, rise in the laminar heat transfer level can be seen at medium enthalpies in carbon dioxide boundary layers.
Enthalpy effects on hypervelocity boundary layers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Adam, Philippe H.
Shots with air and carbon dioxide were carried out in the T5 shock tunnel at GALCIT to study enthalpy effects on hypervelocity boundary layers. The model tested was a 1-meter long, 5-deg half-angle cone. It was instrumented with 51 chromel-constantan coaxial thermocouples and the surface heat transfer rate was computed to deduce the state of the boundary layer. Transitional boundary layers obtained confirm the stabilizing effect of enthalpy. As the reservoir enthalpy is increased, the transition Reynolds number evaluated at the reference conditions increases. This stabilizing effect is more rapid in gases with lower dissociation energy and it seems to level off when no further dissociation can be achieved. Normalizing the reservoir enthalpy with the edge enthalpy appears to collapse the data for all gases onto a single curve. A similar collapse is obtained when normalizing both the transition location and the reservoir enthalpy with the maximum temperature conditions obtained with BLIMPK, a nonequilibrium boundary layer code. The observation that reference conditions are more appropriate to normalize high enthalpy transition data was taken a step further by comparing the tunnel data with results from a reentry experiment. When the edge conditions are used, the tunnel and flight data are around an order of magnitude apart. This is commonly attributed to high disturbance levels in tunnels that cause the boundary layer to transition early. However, when the reference conditions are used instead, the tunnel and flight data come within striking distance of one another although the trends with enthalpy are reversed. This difference could be due to the cone bending and nose blunting. Experimental laminar heat transfer levels were compared to numerical results obtained with BLIMPK. Results for air indicate that the reactions are probably in nonequilibrium and that the wall is catalytic. The catalycity is seen to yield higher surface heat transfer rates than the noncatalytic and frozen chemistry models. The results for carbon dioxide, however, are inconclusive. This is, perhaps, because of inadequate modeling of the reactions. Experimentally, an anomalous yet repeatable, rise in the laminar heat transfer level can be seen at medium enthalpies in carbon dioxide boundary layers.
Orbiter Entry Aeroheating Working Group Viscous CFD Boundary Layer Transition Trailblazer Solutions
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wood, William A.; Erickson, David W.; Greene, Francis A.
2007-01-01
Boundary layer transition correlations for the Shuttle Orbiter have been previously developed utilizing a two-layer boundary layer prediction technique. The particular two-layer technique that was used is limited to Mach numbers less than 20. To allow assessments at Mach numbers greater than 20, it is proposed to use viscous CFD to the predict boundary layer properties. This report addresses if the existing Orbiter entry aeroheating viscous CFD solutions, which were originally intended to be used for heat transfer rate predictions, adequately resolve boundary layer edge properties and if the existing two-layer results could be leveraged to reduce the number of needed CFD solutions. The boundary layer edge parameters from viscous CFD solutions are extracted along the wind side centerline of the Space Shuttle Orbiter at reentry conditions, and are compared with results from the two-layer boundary layer prediction technique. The differences between the viscous CFD and two-layer prediction techniques vary between Mach 6 and 18 flight conditions and Mach 6 wind tunnel conditions, and there is not a straightforward scaling between the viscous CFD and two-layer values. Therefore: it is not possible to leverage the existing two-layer Orbiter flight boundary layer data set as a substitute for a viscous CFD data set; but viscous CFD solutions at the current grid resolution are sufficient to produce a boundary layer data set suitable for applying edge-based boundary layer transition correlations.
A simplified Reynolds stress model for unsteady turbulent boundary layers
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Fan, Sixin; Lakshminarayana, Budugur
1993-01-01
A simplified Reynolds stress model has been developed for the prediction of unsteady turbulent boundary layers. By assuming that the net transport of Reynolds stresses is locally proportional to the net transport of the turbulent kinetic energy, the time dependent full Reynolds stress model is reduced to a set of ordinary differential equations. These equations contain only time derivatives and can be readily integrated in a time dependent boundary layer or Navier-Stokes code. The turbulent kinetic energy and dissipation rate needed for the model are obtained by solving the k-epsilon equations. This simplified Reynolds stress turbulence model (SRSM) does not use the eddy viscosity assumption, which may not be valid for unsteady turbulent flows. The anisotropy of both the steady and the unsteady turbulent normal stresses can be captured by the SRSM model. Through proper damping of the shear stresses, the present model can be used in the near wall region of turbulent boundary layers. This model has been validated against data for steady and unsteady turbulent boundary layers, including periodic turbulent boundary layers subjected to a mean adverse pressure gradient. For the cases tested, the predicted unsteady velocity and turbulent stress components agree well with the experimental data. Comparison between the predictions from the SRSM model and a k-epsilon model is also presented.
Control of the Transitional Boundary Layer
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Belson, Brandt A.
This work makes advances in the delay of boundary layer transition from laminar to turbulent flow via feedback control. The applications include the reduction of drag over streamline bodies (e.g., airplane wings) and the decrease of mixing and heat transfer (e.g., over turbine blades in jet engines). A difficulty in many fields is designing feedback controllers for high-dimensional systems, be they experiments or high-fidelity simulations, because the required time and resources are too large. A cheaper alternative is to approximate the high-dimensional system with a reduced-order model and design a controller for the model. We implement several model reduction algorithms in "modred", an open source and publicly available library that is applicable to a wide range of problems. We use this library to study the role of sensors and actuators in feedback control of transition in the 2D boundary layer. Previous work uses a feedforward configuration in which the sensor is upstream of the actuator, but we show that the actuator-sensor pair is unsuitable for feedback control due to an inability to sense the exponentially-growing Tollmien-Schlichting waves. A new actuator-sensor pair is chosen that more directly affects and measures the TS waves, and as a result it is effective in a feedback configuration. Lastly, the feedback controller is shown to outperform feedforward controllers in the presence of unmodeled disturbances. Next, we focus on a specific type of actuator, the single dielectric barrier discharge (SDBD) plasma actuator. An array of these plasma actuators is oriented to produce stream-wise vorticity and thus directly cancel the structures with the largest transient growth (so-called stream-wise streaks). We design a feedback controller using only experimental data by first developing an empirical input-output quasi-steady model. Then, we design feedback controllers for the model such that the controllers perform well when applied to the experiment. Lastly, we also simulate the plasma actuators and determine a suitable numerical model for the forces they create by comparing with experimental results. This physical force model is essential to future numerical studies on delaying bypass transition via feedback control and plasma actuation.
Boundary Layer Theory. Part 1; Laminar Flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Schlichting, H.
1949-01-01
The purpose of this presentation is to give you a survey of a field of aerodynamics which has for a number of years been attracting an ever growing interest. The subject is the theory of flows with friction, and, within that field, particularly the theory of friction layers, or boundary layers. As you know, a great many considerations of aerodynamics are based on the so-called ideal fluid, that is, the frictionless incompressible fluid. By neglect of compressibility and friction the extensive mathematical theory of the ideal fluid (potential theory) has been made possible.
Numerical simulation of boundary-layer transition
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Spalart, P. R.
1984-01-01
The transition to turbulence in boundary layers was investigated by direct numerical solution of the nonlinear, three-dimensional, incompressible Navier-Stokes equations in the half-infinite domain over a flat plate. Periodicity was imposed in the streamwise and spanwise directions. A body force was applied to approximate the effect of a nonparallel mean flow. The numerical method was spectra, based on Fourier series and Jacobi polynomials, and used divergence-free basis functions. Extremely rapid convergence was obtained when solving the linear Orr-Sommerfeld equation. The early nonlinear and three-dimensional stages of transition, in a boundary layer disturbed by a vibrating ribbon, were successfully simulated. Excellent qualitative agreement was observed with either experiments or weakly nonlinear theories. In particular, the breakdown pattern was staggered or nonstaggered depending on the disturbance amplitude.
Boundary layer transition detection by luminescence imaging
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mclachlan, B. G.; Bell, J. H.; Gallery, J.; Gouterman, M.; Callis, J.
1993-01-01
In recent experiments we have demonstrated the feasibility of a new approach to boundary layer transition detection. This new approach employs the temperature dependence of certain photoluminescent materials in the form of a surface coating or 'paint' to detect the change in heat transfer characteristics that accompany boundary layer transition. The feasibility experiments were conducted for low subsonic to transonic Mach numbers on two-dimensional airfoil and flat plate configurations. Paint derived transition locations were determined and compared to those obtained from Preston pressure probe measurements. Artificial heating of the models was used to obtain transition temperature signatures suitable for the instrumentation available to us. Initial estimates show, however, that passive kinetic heating at high Mach numbers is a promising alternative.
BOREAS AFM-6 Boundary Layer Height Data
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wilczak, James; Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Newcomer, Jeffrey A. (Editor); Smith, David E. (Technical Monitor)
2000-01-01
The Boreal Ecosystem-Atmosphere Study (BOREAS) Airborne Fluxes and Meteorology (AFM)-6 team from National Oceanic and Atmospheric Adminsitration/Environment Technology Laboratory (NOAA/ETL) operated a 915-MHz wind/Radio Acoustic Sounding System (RASS) profiler system in the Southern Study Area (SSA) near the Old Jack Pine (OJP) site. This data set provides boundary layer height information over the site. The data were collected from 21 May 1994 to 20 Sep 1994 and are stored in tabular ASCII files. The boundary layer height data are available from the Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC). The data files are available on a CD-ROM (see document number 20010000884).
Stability of boundary layers along curved surfaces
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Le Cunff, Cedric
The stability of a boundary layer along a curved wall was first studied by Gortler (27) in 1940. Further investigations have been conducted since 1980. An important contribution was made by Hall (29), when he first proposed a more rigorous approach to this problem. Gortler had used a simple approximation which allowed him to reduce the problem to a set of ordinary differential equations. However such an assumption ignored the growth of the boundary layer, which Hall showed could not be neglected. Hall then rederived the formulation to obtain a set of partial differential equations. We solved the system of equations, including the nonlinear terms, with a method proposed by Herbert (3), called the Parabolic Stability Equations (PSE). The flow is divided into a basic profile, which satisfies the Prandtl boundary layer equations, and a perturbation. We compared our results for the Blasius profile with those of Bottaro, Klinnmann, and Zebib (8) and found excellent agreement between our calculations and their finite- volume simulations. We then applied our code to the wall jet profile. We were able to capture the growth of steady vortices, located in the inner region of the jet for a concave wall, and the outer region for a convex wall, as predicted by Florian's (20) linear inviscid argument. Our calculations were in good agreement with Matsson's (49) experimental results. We also studied the influence of crossflow on a boundary layer. Crossflow might lead to streamwise vortices along a flat plate, and contrary to Gortler vortices, crossflow vortices are co-rotating instead of counter-rotating. We investigated the interactions between these two types of vortices and compared the results with experimental measurements obtained by Bippes (4). The final part of the thesis is the simulation of the secondary time-dependent instability originating from the shear profiles created by the primary streamwise vortices. The onset of the instability is studied by marching both in space and time. If no forcing is prescribed the time-dependent code predicts a steady solution. Time-dependent boundary conditions are then applied by solving the linear stability problem at some streamwise location to obtain the most dangerous streamwise perturbation velocity and the corresponding frequency. We found that the varicose mode is more amplified in the streamwise direction than the sinuous mode. Similarly, if both modes are included in the initial conditions, the varicose mode is still dominant. Furthermore, as the flow evolves downstream, the unsteady behavior exhibits a more complex time-dependence, which was also observed in the experiments of Swearingen and Blackwealder (66). In our computations, higher harmonics are observed near the wall and propagate into the boundary layer.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Evans, R. M.
1975-01-01
Accurate predictions of the thrust loss due to boundary layer effects and of the wall heat flux are very important to the design and performance evaluation of rocket nozzles. A method used in analytical procedures for liquid fuel rocket engine performance prediction and evaluation is presented. A computer program is examined that is a fast and accurate procedure for solving the set of boundary layer equation (momentum, energy, and species) for laminar or turbulent, chemically reacting flows with a wide variety of boundary conditions. Results of comparison of the various turbulent models are presented. A summary of the modifications and additions to the program is examined.
Influence of surface compliance on boundary layer noise
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Howe, M. S.
1983-04-01
The theory of aerodynamic sound in the form developed by Williams and Hawkings (1969) is applied to investigate the production of sound by turbulent boundary layer flow over a thin, flexible plate. Conventional theories of boundary layer noise attribute the radiation to the boundary layer quadrupoles and their (passive) images in the plate, and neglect the interaction of turbulence with the finite amplitude motion of the plate caused by the wall pressure fluctuations. This interaction generates sound whose intensity is characteristic of aerodynamic sources of dipole type. In (underwater) situations involving the high fluid loading of steel plates, it is shown that the intensity of the dipole noise is generally comparable to that produced by the quadrupoles. The dipoles dominate the radiation from more compliant surfaces, of the type commonly used in experiments on compliant wall drag reduction, and it is suggested that the injudicious deployment of compliant wall coatings may result in the production of unacceptably high levels of aerodynamic noise.
Numerical Study of Boundary-Layer in Aerodynamics
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Shih, Tom I-P.
1997-01-01
The accomplishments made in the following three tasks are described: (1) The first task was to study shock-wave boundary-layer interactions with bleed - this study is relevant to boundary-layer control in external and mixed-compression inlets of supersonic aircraft; (2) The second task was to test RAAKE, a code developed for computing turbulence quantities; and (3) The third task was to compute flow around the Ames ER-2 aircraft that has been retrofitted with containers over its wings and fuselage. The appendices include two reports submitted to AIAA for publication.
An Innovative Flow-Measuring Device: Thermocouple Boundary Layer Rake
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hwang, Danny P.; Fralick, Gustave C.; Martin, Lisa C.; Wrbanek, John D.; Blaha, Charles A.
2001-01-01
An innovative flow-measuring device, a thermocouple boundary layer rake, was developed. The sensor detects the flow by using a thin-film thermocouple (TC) array to measure the temperature difference across a heater strip. The heater and TC arrays are microfabricated on a constant-thickness quartz strut with low heat conductivity. The device can measure the velocity profile well into the boundary layer, about 65 gm from the surface, which is almost four times closer to the surface than has been possible with the previously used total pressure tube.
The boundary layer on compressor cascade blades
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Deutsch, S.
1981-01-01
Some redesign of the cascade facility was necessary in order to incoporate the requirements of the LDA system into the design. Of particular importance was the intended use of a combination of suction upstream of the blade pack with diverging pack walls, as opposed to blade pack suction alone, for spanwise dimensionality control. An ARL blade was used to redo some tests using this arrangement. Preliminary testing and boundary layer measurements began on the double circular arc blades.
Reduction of turbulent drag: Boundary layer manipulators
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Coustols, E.
1989-03-01
The drag reduction on airbus profiles is investigated. External and internal boundary layer manipulators are applied. The wind tunnel wall geometry and the model surface geometry are modified, carving riblets in the sense of the main flow. The change induced in the flow are studied using hotwire anemometry and spectral analysis. Direct drag measurements on Airbus profiles indicate a drag reduction of 3.5 percent. Experiments using cylindrical bodies in transonic flow show a drag reduction of 8 percent.
Boundary Layer Control for Hypersonic Airbreathing Vehicles
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Berry, Scott A.; Nowak, Robert J.; Horvath, Thomas J.
2004-01-01
Active and passive methods for tripping hypersonic boundary layers have been examined in NASA Langley Research Center wind tunnels using a Hyper-X model. This investigation assessed several concepts for forcing transition, including passive discrete roughness elements and active mass addition (or blowing), in the 20-Inch Mach 6 Air and the 31-Inch Mach 10 Air Tunnels. Heat transfer distributions obtained via phosphor thermography, shock system details, and surface streamline patterns were measured on a 0.333-scale model of the Hyper-X forebody. The comparisons between the active and passive methods for boundary layer control were conducted at test conditions that nearly match the Hyper-X nominal Mach 7 flight test-point of an angle-of-attack of 2-deg and length Reynolds number of 5.6 million. For passive roughness, the primary parametric variation was a range of trip heights within the calculated boundary layer thickness for several trip concepts. The passive roughness study resulted in a swept ramp configuration, scaled to be roughly 0.6 of the calculated boundary layer thickness, being selected for the Mach 7 flight vehicle. For the active blowing study, the manifold pressure was systematically varied (while monitoring the mass flow) for each configuration to determine the jet penetration height, with schlieren, and transition movement, with the phosphor system, for comparison to the passive results. All the blowing concepts tested, which included various rows of sonic orifices (holes), two- and three-dimensional slots, and random porosity, provided transition onset near the trip location with manifold stagnation pressures on the order of 40 times the model surface static pressure, which is adequate to ensure sonic jets. The present results indicate that the jet penetration height for blowing was roughly half the height required with passive roughness elements for an equivalent amount of transition movement.
X-33 HYPERSONIC BOUNDARY LAYER TRANSITION
Scott A. Berry; Thomas J. Horvath; Brian R. Hollis; Richard A. Thompson; H. Harris Hamilton
1999-01-01
Boundary layer and aeroheating characteristics of several X-33 configurations have been experimentally examinedin the Langley 20-Inch Mach 6 Air Tunnel. Global surface heat transfer distributions, surface streamlinepatterns, and shock shapes were measured on 0.013-scale models at Mach 6 in air. Parametric variations includeangles-of-attack of 20-deg, 30-deg, and 40-deg; Reynolds numbers based on model length of 0.9 to 6.6 million; andbody-flap
Anisotropic Mesh Adaptivity for Turbulent Flows with Boundary Layers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chitale, Kedar C.
Turbulent flows are found everywhere in nature and are studied, analyzed and simulated using various experimental and numerical tools. For computational analysis, a variety of turbulence models are available and the accuracy of these models in capturing the phenomenon depends largely on the mesh spacings, especially near the walls, in the boundary layer region. Special semi-structured meshes called "mesh boundary layers" are widely used in the CFD community in simulations of turbulent flows, because of their graded and orthogonal layered structure. They provide an efficient way to achieve very fine and highly anisotropic mesh spacings without introducing poorly shaped elements. Since usually the required mesh spacings to accurately resolve the flow are not known a priori to the simulations, an adaptive approach based on a posteriori error indicators is used to achieve an appropriate mesh. In this study, we apply the adaptive meshing techniques to turbulent flows with a focus on boundary layers. We construct a framework to calculate the critical wall normal mesh spacings inside the boundary layers based on the flow physics and the knowledge of the turbulence model. This approach is combined with numerical error indicators to adapt the entire flow region. We illustrate the effectiveness of this hybrid approach by applying it to three aerodynamic flows and studying their superior performance in capturing the flow structures in detail. We also demonstrate the capabilities of the current developments in parallel boundary layer mesh adaptation by applying them to two internal flow problems. We also study the application of adaptive boundary layer meshes to complex geometries like multi element wings. We highlight the advantage of using such techniques for superior wake and tip region resolution by showcasing flow results. We also outline the future direction for the adaptive meshing techniques to be useful to the large scale flow computations.
The Role of Boundary Layer Processes in Limiting PV Homogenization
Zhang, Yang
A ?-plane multilevel quasigeostrophic channel model with interactive static stability and a simplified parameterization of atmospheric boundary layer physics is used to study the role of different boundary layer processes ...
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Deck, Sébastien; Renard, Nicolas; Laraufie, Romain; Sagaut, Pierre
2014-02-01
A Wall-Modeled Large Eddy Simulation (WMLES) of a spatially developing zero-pressure gradient smooth flat plate turbulent boundary layer is performed by means of the third mode of the Zonal Detached Eddy Simulation technique. The outer layer is resolved by a Large Eddy Simulation whereas the wall is modeled by a RANS simulation zone, with a RANS/LES interface prescribed at a fixed location. A revisited cost assessment of the Direct Numerical Simulation of high Reynolds numbers (Re? ? 10 000) wall-bounded flows emphasizes how moderate the cost of the WMLES approach is compared to methods resolving the near-wall dynamics. This makes possible the simulation over a wide Reynolds number range 3 150 ? Re? ? 14 000, leaving quite enough space for very large scale motions to develop. For a better skin friction prediction, it is shown that the RANS/LES interface should be high enough in the boundary layer and at a location scaling in boundary layer thickness units (e.g., 0.1?) rather than in wall units. Velocity spectra are compared to experimental data. The outer layer is well resolved, except near the RANS/LES interface where the very simple and robust passive boundary treatment might be improved by a more specific treatment. Besides, the inner RANS zone also contains large scale fluctuations down to the wall. It is shown that these fluctuations fit better to the experimental data for the same interface location that provides a better skin friction prediction. Numerical tests suggest that the observed very large scale motions may appear in an autonomous way, independently from the near-wall dynamics. It still has to be determined whether the observed structures have a physical or a numerical origin. In order to assess how the large scale motions contribute to skin friction, the Reynolds shear stress contribution is studied as suggested by the FIK identity [K. Fukagata, K. Iwamoto, and N. Kasagi, "Contribution of Reynolds stress distribution to the skin friction in wall-bounded flows," Phys. Fluids 14, L73 (2002)]. Scale decomposition is achieved thanks to the co-spectrum of the Reynolds shear stress in function of the length scale and of the wall distance. The contribution of the large scales to streamwise turbulence intensity and to the Reynolds shear stress is assessed. At the considered Reynolds numbers, the observed largest scales contribute significantly to the Reynolds shear stress in the outer layer but are almost inactive in the sense of Townsend [The Structure of Turbulent Shear Flow (Cambridge University Press, 1976)] closer to the wall. The modeled Cf amounts to only 11% of the total Cf: most of the skin friction is resolved by the present simulations rather than modeled. The large scales, defined by ?x > ?, represent the largest contribution to the resolved Cf. It is surmised that there is a correlation between the large scale motions being closer to the experimental data and the better skin friction prediction enabled by a proper interface positioning.
Typhoon kinematic and thermodynamic boundary layer structure from dropsonde composites
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ming, Jie; Zhang, Jun A.; Rogers, Robert F.
2015-04-01
The data from 438 Global Positioning System dropsondes in six typhoons are analyzed to investigate the mean atmospheric boundary layer structure in a composite framework. Following a recent study on boundary layer height in Atlantic hurricanes, we aim to quantify characteristics of boundary layer height scales in Western Pacific typhoons including the inflow layer depth (hinflow), height of the maximum tangential wind speed (hvtmax), and thermodynamic mixed layer depth. In addition, the kinematic and thermodynamic boundary layer structures are compared between the dropsonde composites using data in typhoons and hurricanes. Our results show that similar to the hurricane composite, there is a separation between the kinematic and thermodynamic boundary layer heights in typhoons, with the thermodynamic boundary layer depth being much smaller than hinflow and hvtmax in the typhoon boundary layer. All three boundary layer height scales tend to decrease toward the storm center. Our results confirm that the conceptual model of Zhang et al. (2011a) for boundary layer height variation is applicable to typhoon conditions. The kinematic boundary layer structure is generally similar between the typhoon and hurricane composites, but the typhoon composite shows a deeper inflow layer outside the eyewall than the hurricane composite. The thermodynamic structure of the typhoon boundary layer composite is warmer and moister outside the radius of maximum wind speed than the hurricane composite. This difference is attributed to different environmental conditions associated with typhoons compared to the hurricanes studied here.
Outer Layer Turbulence Similarity for Rough Wall Boundary Layers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Flack, Karen
2005-11-01
The outer layer similarity hypothesis of Townsend states that the turbulence beyond a few roughness heights from the wall is independent of the surface condition. In order to explore a limiting roughness height for boundary layer similarity, an experimental investigation was carried out on six rough surfaces representing two types of three dimensional roughness (sandpaper and woven mesh) in which the boundary layer thickness to roughness height varied from 16 to 110. The measurements were conducted in a closed return water tunnel, over a momentum thickness Reynolds number range of 6,100 to 13,000, using a two-component, laser Doppler velocimeter (LDV). The Reynolds stresses, and higher-order moments, as well as quadrant analysis of the rough surfaces show collapse with smooth wall results outside of a roughness sublayer. These results indicate that turbulence similarity in the outer layer may be more robust than previously thought and changes to the turbulent structure appear to be confined to a roughness sublayer, even for very large roughness.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chiles, H. R.; Johnson, J. B.
1985-01-01
A hot-film constant-temperature anemometer (CTA) system was flight-tested and evaluated as a candidate sensor for determining boundary-layer transition on high-performance aircraft. The hot-film gage withstood an extreme flow environment characterized by shock waves and high dynamic pressures, although sensitivity to the local total temperature with the CTA indicated the need for some form of temperature compensation. A temperature-compensation scheme was developed and two CTAs were modified and flight-tested on the F-104/Flight Test Fixture (FTF) facility at a variety of Mach numbers and altitudes, ranging from 0.4 to 1.8 and 5,000 to 40,000 ft respectively.
Comparison of Methods for Determining Boundary Layer Edge Conditions for Transition Correlations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Liechty, Derek S.; Berry, Scott A.; Hollis, Brian R.; Horvath, Thomas J.
2003-01-01
Data previously obtained for the X-33 in the NASA Langley Research Center 20-Inch Mach 6 Air Tunnel have been reanalyzed to compare methods for determining boundary layer edge conditions for use in transition correlations. The experimental results were previously obtained utilizing the phosphor thermography technique to monitor the status of the boundary layer downstream of discrete roughness elements via global heat transfer images of the X-33 windward surface. A boundary layer transition correlation was previously developed for this data set using boundary layer edge conditions calculated using an inviscid/integral boundary layer approach. An algorithm was written in the present study to extract boundary layer edge quantities from higher fidelity viscous computational fluid dynamic solutions to develop transition correlations that account for viscous effects on vehicles of arbitrary complexity. The boundary layer transition correlation developed for the X-33 from the viscous solutions are compared to the previous boundary layer transition correlations. It is shown that the boundary layer edge conditions calculated using an inviscid/integral boundary layer approach are significantly different than those extracted from viscous computational fluid dynamic solutions. The present results demonstrate the differences obtained in correlating transition data using different computational methods.
Symmetries in Turbulent Boundary Layer Flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Oberlack, M.
1996-01-01
The objective is the development of a new theory which enables the algorithmic computation of all self-similar mean velocity profiles. The theory is based on Liegroup analysis and unifies a large set of self-similar solutions for the mean velocity of stationary parallel turbulent shear flows. The results include the logarithmic law of the wall, an algebraic law, the viscous sublayer, the linear region in the middle of a Couette flow and in the middle of a rotating channel flow, and a new exponential mean velocity profile not previously reported. Experimental results taken in the outer parts of a high Reynolds number flat-plate boundary layer, strongly support the exponential profile. From experimental as well as from DNS data of a turbulent channel flow the algebraic scaling law could be confirmed in both the center region and in the near wall region. In the case of the logarithmic law of the wall, the scaling with the wall distance arises as a result of the analysis and has not been assumed in the derivation. The crucial part of the derivation of all the different mean velocity profiles is to consider the invariance of the equation for the velocity fluctuations at the same time as the invariance of the equation for the velocity product equations. The latter is the dyad product of the velocity fluctuations with the equation for the velocity fluctuations. It has been proven that all the invariant solutions are also consistent with similarity of all velocity moment equations up to any arbitrary order.
Physical description of boundary-layer transition: Experimental evidence
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Saric, William S.
1994-01-01
The problems of understanding the origins of turbulent flow and transition to turbulent flow are the most important unsolved problems of fluid mechanics and aerodynamics. It is well known that the stability, transition, and turbulent characteristics of bounded shear layers are fundamentally different from those of free shear layers. Likewise, the stability, transition, and turbulent characteristics of open systems are fundamentally different from those of closed systems. Because of the influence of indigenous disturbances, surface geometry and roughness, sound, heat transfer, and ablation, it is not possible to develop general prediction schemes for transition location and the nature of turbulent structures in boundary-layer flows. At the present time no mathematical model exists that can predict the transition Reynolds number on a flat plate. The recent progress in this area is encouraging, in that a number of distinct transition mechanisms have been found experimentally. The theoretical work finds them to be amplitude and Reynolds-number dependent. The theory remains rather incomplete with regard to predicting transition. Amplitude and spectral characteristics of the disturbances inside the laminar viscous layer strongly influence which type of transition occurs. The major need in this area is to understand how freestream disturbances are entrained into the boundary layer, i.e., to answer the question of receptivity. We refer receptivity to the mechanism(s) that cause freestream disturbances to enter the boundary layer and create the initial amplitudes for unstable waves.
Boundary-Layer-Ingesting Inlet Flow Control
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Owens, Lewis R.; Allan, Brian G.; Gorton, Susan A.
2006-01-01
This paper gives an overview of a research study conducted in support of the small-scale demonstration of an active flow control system for a boundary-layer-ingesting (BLI) inlet. The effectiveness of active flow control in reducing engine inlet circumferential distortion was assessed using a 2.5% scale model of a 35% boundary-layer-ingesting flush-mounted, offset, diffusing inlet. This experiment was conducted in the NASA Langley 0.3-meter Transonic Cryogenic Tunnel at flight Mach numbers with a model inlet specifically designed for this type of testing. High mass flow actuators controlled the flow through distributed control jets providing the active flow control. A vortex generator point design configuration was also tested for comparison purposes and to provide a means to examine a hybrid vortex generator and control jets configuration. Measurements were made of the onset boundary layer, the duct surface static pressures, and the mass flow through the duct and the actuators. The distortion and pressure recovery were determined by 40 total pressure measurements on 8 rake arms each separated by 45 degrees and were located at the aerodynamic interface plane. The test matrix was limited to a maximum free-stream Mach number of 0.85 with scaled mass flows through the inlet for that condition. The data show that the flow control jets alone can reduce circumferential distortion (DPCP(sub avg)) from 0.055 to about 0.015 using about 2.5% of inlet mass flow. The vortex generators also reduced the circumferential distortion from 0.055 to 0.010 near the inlet mass flow design point. Lower inlet mass flow settings with the vortex generator configuration produced higher distortion levels that were reduced to acceptable levels using a hybrid vortex generator/control jets configuration that required less than 1% of the inlet mass flow.
Boundary-Layer-Ingesting Inlet Flow Control
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Owens, Lewis R.; Allan, Brian G.; Gorton, Susan A.
2006-01-01
This paper gives an overview of a research study conducted in support of the small-scale demonstration of an active flow control system for a boundary-layer-ingesting (BLI) inlet. The effectiveness of active flow control in reducing engine inlet circumferential distortion was assessed using a 2.5% scale model of a 35% boundary-layer-ingesting flush-mounted, offset, diffusing inlet. This experiment was conducted in the NASA Langley 0.3-meter Transonic Cryogenic Tunnel at flight Mach numbers with a model inlet specifically designed for this type of testing. High mass flow actuators controlled the flow through distributed control jets providing the active flow control. A vortex generator point design configuration was also tested for comparison purposes and to provide a means to examine a hybrid vortex generator and control jets configuration. Measurements were made of the onset boundary layer, the duct surface static pressures, and the mass flow through the duct and the actuators. The distortion and pressure recovery were determined by 40 total pressure measurements on 8 rake arms each separated by 45 degrees and were located at the aerodynamic interface plane. The test matrix was limited to a maximum free-stream Mach number of 0.85 with scaled mass flows through the inlet for that condition. The data show that the flow control jets alone can reduce circumferential distortion (DPCPavg) from 0.055 to about 0.015 using about 2.5% of inlet mass flow. The vortex generators also reduced the circumferential distortion from 0.055 to 0.010 near the inlet mass flow design point. Lower inlet mass flow settings with the vortex generator configuration produced higher distortion levels that were reduced to acceptable levels using a hybrid vortex generator/control jets configuration that required less than 1% of the inlet mass flow.
Rough-wall turbulent boundary layers in the transition regime
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bandyopadhyay, Promode R.
1987-01-01
An experimental investigation of turbulent boundary layers over two-dimensional spanwise groove and three-dimensional sandgrain roughnesses in the transition regime between hydraulically smooth and fully rough conditions is presented. It is found that a self-preserving state can be reached in boundary layers developing over both d-type groove and sandgrain roughnesses, and that the drag of a k-type rough wall can be reduced by lowering the spanwise aspect ratio of the roughness elements. The two roughness Reynolds numbers defining the boundaries of the transition regime of the k-type roughnesses are shown to decrease with increasing roughness-element spanwise aspect ratio, and the upper critical transition Reynolds number is shown to determine the roughness behavior in both the transition and fully rough regime.
Linear and nonlinear stability of the Blasius boundary layer
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bertolotti, F. P.; Herbert, TH.; Spalart, P. R.
1992-01-01
Two new techniques for the study of the linear and nonlinear instability in growing boundary layers are presented. The first technique employs partial differential equations of parabolic type exploiting the slow change of the mean flow, disturbance velocity profiles, wavelengths, and growth rates in the streamwise direction. The second technique solves the Navier-Stokes equation for spatially evolving disturbances using buffer zones adjacent to the inflow and outflow boundaries. Results of both techniques are in excellent agreement. The linear and nonlinear development of Tollmien-Schlichting (TS) waves in the Blasius boundary layer is investigated with both techniques and with a local procedure based on a system of ordinary differential equations. The results are compared with previous work and the effects of non-parallelism and nonlinearity are clarified. The effect of nonparallelism is confirmed to be weak and, consequently, not responsible for the discrepancies between measurements and theoretical results for parallel flow.
Structure of turbulent boundary layers perturbed over short length scales
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Belcher, S. E.; Weng, W. S.; Hunt, J. C. R.
Research on the structure of turbulent boundary layers over undulating surfaces and large applied pressure gradients turbulence gives rise to some clarification of concepts (validity of logarithmic wall functions, and when equilibrium or memory effects are more important), approximate turbulence models, and better understanding of the accuracy of existing turbulence models (mixing-length, k-epsilon, and second-order). The aim of this paper is to describe a few of these developments and highlight recent developments.
On the Effects of Surface Roughness on Boundary Layer Transition
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Choudhari, Meelan M.; Li, Fei; Chang, Chau-Lyan; Edwards, Jack
2009-01-01
Surface roughness can influence laminar-turbulent transition in many different ways. This paper outlines selected analyses performed at the NASA Langley Research Center, ranging in speed from subsonic to hypersonic Mach numbers and highlighting the beneficial as well as adverse roles of the surface roughness in technological applications. The first theme pertains to boundary-layer tripping on the forebody of a hypersonic airbreathing configuration via a spanwise periodic array of trip elements, with the goal of understanding the physical mechanisms underlying roughness-induced transition in a high-speed boundary layer. The effect of an isolated, finite amplitude roughness element on a supersonic boundary layer is considered next. The other set of flow configurations examined herein corresponds to roughness based laminar flow control in subsonic and supersonic swept wing boundary layers. A common theme to all of the above configurations is the need to apply higher fidelity, physics based techniques to develop reliable predictions of roughness effects on laminar-turbulent transition.
Hypersonic boundary layer instabilities affected by various porous surfaces
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Xiaowen; Zhong, Xiaolin
2010-11-01
Hypersonic boundary layer instabilities of a Mach 5.92 flow over a flat plate affected by various porous surfaces are studied by numerical simulations. Steady base flow is obtained by solving compressible Navier-Stokes equations with a fifth-order shock-fitting method and a second-order TVD scheme. Stability simulations consist of two steps: (1) disturbances corresponding to a single boundary layer wave (mode F or mode S) are superimposed at a cross-section of the boundary layer near the leading edge to show spatial development of the wave; (2) porous coatings are used downstream of the superimposed wave to investigate its effect on boundary-layer instabilities. The results show that porous coating only has local effects on the instabilities of mode S and mode F. In porous region, Mack's first mode is destabilized whereas Mack's second mode and Mode F are stabilized. For felt-metal porous coating, destabilization of Mack's first mode is so significant that disturbances are slightly destabilized when porous coating are put on the whole flat plate. At approximately the same porosity, regular structure porous coating is weaker in first mode destabilization and second mode stabilization than felt-metal porous coating.
Propagation of propeller tone noise through a fuselage boundary layer
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hanson, D. B.; Magliozzi, B.
1984-01-01
In earlier experimental and analytical studies, it was found that the boundary layer on an aircraft could provide significant shielding from propeller noise at typical transport airplane cruise Mach numbers. In this paper a new three-dimensional theory is described that treats the combined effects of refraction and scattering by the fuselage and boundary layer. The complete wave field is solved by matching analytical expressions for the incident and scattered waves in the outer flow to a numerical solution in the boundary layer flow. The model for the incident waves is a near-field frequency-domain propeller source theory developed previously for free field studies. Calculations for an advanced turboprop (Prop-Fan) model flight test at 0.8 Mach number show a much smaller than expected pressure amplification at the noise directivity peak, strong boundary layer shielding in the forward quadrant, and shadowing around the fuselage. Results are presented showing the difference between fuselage surface and free-space noise predictions as a function of frequency and Mach number. Comparison of calculated and measured effects obtained in a Prop-Fan model flight test show good agreement, particularly near and aft of the plane of rotation at high cruise Mach number.
Study of boundary-layer transition using transonic-cone preston tube data
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Reed, T. D.; Moretti, P. M.
1980-01-01
The laminar boundary layer on a 10 degree cone in a transonic wind tunnel was studied. The inviscid flow and boundary layer development were simulated by computer programs. The effects of pitch and yaw angles on the boundary layer were examined. Preston-tube data, taken on the boundary-layer-transition cone in the NASA Ames 11 ft transonic wind tunnel, were used to develope a correlation which relates the measurements to theoretical values of laminar skin friction. The recommended correlation is based on a compressible form of the classical law-of-the-wall. The computer codes successfully simulates the laminar boundary layer for near-zero pitch and yaw angles. However, in cases of significant pitch and/or yaw angles, the flow is three dimensional and the boundary layer computer code used here cannot provide a satisfactory model. The skin-friction correlation is thought to be valid for body geometries other than cones.
Boundary Layer Transition Flight Experiment Overview
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Berger, Karen T.; Anderson, Brian P.; Campbell, Charles H.; Garske, Michael T.; Saucedo, Luis A.; Kinder, Gerald R.; Micklos, Ann M.
2011-01-01
In support of the Boundary Layer Transition Flight Experiment (BLT FE) Project, a manufactured protuberance tile was installed on the port wing of Space Shuttle Orbiter Discovery for STS-119, STS-128, STS-131 and STS-133 as well as Space Shuttle Endeavour for STS-134. Additional instrumentation was installed in order to obtain more spatially resolved measurements downstream of the protuberance. This paper provides an overview of the BLT FE Project with emphasis on the STS-131 and STS-133 results. A high-level overview of the in-situ flight data is presented, along with a summary of the comparisons between pre- and post-flight analysis predictions and flight data. Comparisons show that empirically correlated predictions for boundary layer transition onset time closely match the flight data, while predicted surface temperatures were significantly higher than observed flight temperatures. A thermocouple anomaly observed on a number of the missions is discussed as are a number of the mitigation actions that will be taken on the final flight, STS-134, including potential alterations of the flight trajectory and changes to the flight instrumentation.
Ozturk, Burak
2009-05-15
Re-numbers, the experimental matrix includes Tus of 1.9%, 3.0%, 8.0%,13.0% and three different unsteady wake frequencies with the steady inlet flow as the reference configuration. Detailed heat transfer and boundary layer measurements are performed...
Flow Visualization in Supersonic Turbulent Boundary Layers.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Smith, Michael Wayne
This thesis is a collection of novel flow visualizations of two different flat-plate, zero pressure gradient, supersonic, turbulent boundary layers (M = 2.8, Re _theta ~ 82,000, and M = 2.5, Re_ theta ~ 25,000, respectively). The physics of supersonic shear flows has recently drawn increasing attention with the renewed interest in flight at super and hypersonic speeds. This work was driven by the belief that the study of organized, Reynolds -stress producing turbulence structures will lead to improved techniques for the modelling and control of high-speed boundary layers. Although flow-visualization is often thought of as a tool for providing qualitative information about complex flow fields, in this thesis an emphasis is placed on deriving quantitative results from image data whenever possible. Three visualization techniques were applied--'selective cut-off' schlieren, droplet seeding, and Rayleigh scattering. Two experiments employed 'selective cut-off' schlieren. In the first, high-speed movies (40,000 fps) were made of strong density gradient fronts leaning downstream at between 30^circ and 60^ circ and travelling at about 0.9U _infty. In the second experiment, the same fronts were detected with hot-wires and imaged in real time, thus allowing the examination of the density gradient fronts and their associated single-point mass -flux signals. Two experiments employed droplet seeding. In both experiments, the boundary layer was seeded by injecting a stream of acetone through a single point in the wall. The acetone is atomized by the high shear at the wall into a 'fog' of tiny (~3.5mu m) droplets. In the first droplet experiment, the fog was illuminated with copper-vapor laser sheets of various orientations. The copper vapor laser pulses 'froze' the fog motion, revealing a variety of organized turbulence structures, some with characteristic downstream inclinations, others with large-scale roll-up on the scale of delta. In the second droplet experiment, high-speed movies were made of the fog under general illumination, thus providing information about the streamwise evolution of the structures seen in the planar stills. Rayleigh scattering from a laser sheet was used to create instantaneous density cross-sections in the M = 2.5 boundary layer. The Rayleigh scattering experiment represents the first measurement of the instantaneous 2-D field of an intrinsic fluid property in any boundary layer. Imaged by an intensified UV camera, scattering from the Argon-Fluoride laser (193 nm) revealed density structures with sharp interfaces between high and low-density fluid. These pictures were also used to generated quantitative turbulence information. Density pdf profiles, intermittency values, density correlations, and structure shape data were derived with standard digital image-processing techniques.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wendt, Bruce J.; Greber, Isaac; Hingst, Warren R.
1991-01-01
An investigation of the structure and development of streamwise vortices embedded in a turbulent boundary layer was conducted. The vortices were generated by a single spanwise row of rectangular vortex generator blades. A single embedded vortex was examined, as well as arrays of embedded counter rotating vortices produced by equally spaced vortex generators. Measurements of the secondary velocity field in the crossplane provided the basis for characterization of vortex structure. Vortex structure was characterized by four descriptors. The center of each vortex core was located at the spanwise and normal position of peak streamwise vorticity. Vortex concentration was characterized by the magnitude of the peak streamwise vorticity, and the vortex strength by its circulation. Measurements of the secondary velocity field were conducted at two crossplane locations to examine the streamwise development of the vortex arrays. Large initial spacings of the vortex generators produced pairs of strong vortices which tended to move away from the wall region while smaller spacings produced tight arrays of weak vortices close to the wall. A model of vortex interaction and development is constructed using the experimental results. The model is based on the structure of the Oseen Vortex. Vortex trajectories are modelled by including the convective effects of neighbors.
Convective Cold Pool Structure and Boundary Layer Recovery in DYNAMO
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Savarin, A.; Chen, S. S.; Kerns, B. W.; Lee, C.; Jorgensen, D. P.
2012-12-01
One of the key factors controlling convective cloud systems in the Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) over the tropical Indian Ocean is the property of the atmospheric boundary layer. Convective downdrafts and precipitation from the cloud systems produce cold pools in the boundary layer, which can inhibit subsequent development of convection. The recovery time is the time it takes for the boundary layer to return to pre convective conditions. It may affect the variability of the convection on various time scales during the initiation of MJO. This study examines the convective cold pool structure and boundary layer recovery using the NOAA WP-3D aircraft observations, include the flight-level, Doppler radar, and GPS dropsonde data, collected during the Dynamics of MJO (DYNAMO) field campaign from November-December 2011. The depth and strength of convective cold pools are defined by the negative buoyancy, which can be computed from the dropsonde data. Convective downdraft can be affected by environmental water vapor due to entrainment. Mid-level dry air observed during the convectively suppressed phase of MJO seems to enhance convective downdraft, making the cold pools stronger and deeper. Recovery of the cold pools in the boundary layer is determined by the strength and depth of the cold pools and also the air-sea heat and moisture fluxes. Given that the water vapor and surface winds are distinct for the convectively active and suppressed phases of MJO over the Indian Ocean, the aircraft data are stratified by the two different large-scale regimes of MJO. Preliminary results show that the strength and depth of the cold pools are inversely correlated with the surrounding mid-level moisture. During the convectively suppressed phase, the recovery time is ~5-20 hours in relative weak wind condition with small air-sea fluxes. The recovery time is generally less than 6 hours during the active phase of MJO with moist mid-levels and stronger surface wind and air-sea fluxes.
Some Basic Aspects of Magnetohydrodynamic Boundary-Layer Flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hess, Robert V.
1959-01-01
An appraisal is made of existing solutions of magnetohydrodynamic boundary-layer equations for stagnation flow and flat-plate flow, and some new solutions are given. Since an exact solution of the equations of magnetohydrodynamics requires complicated simultaneous treatment of the equations of fluid flow and of electromagnetism, certain simplifying assumptions are generally introduced. The full implications of these assumptions have not been brought out properly in several recent papers. It is shown in the present report that for the particular law of deformation which the magnetic lines are assumed to follow in these papers a magnet situated inside the missile nose would not be able to take up any drag forces; to do so it would have to be placed in the flow away from the nose. It is also shown that for the assumption that potential flow is maintained outside the boundary layer, the deformation of the magnetic lines is restricted to small values. The literature contains serious disagreements with regard to reductions in heat-transfer rates due to magnetic action at the nose of a missile, and these disagreements are shown to be mainly due to different interpretations of reentry conditions rather than more complicated effects. In the present paper the magnetohydrodynamic boundary-layer equation is also expressed in a simple form that is especially convenient for physical interpretation. This is done by adapting methods to magnetic forces which in the past have been used for forces due to gravitational or centrifugal action. The simplified approach is used to develop some new solutions of boundary-layer flow and to reinterpret certain solutions existing in the literature. An asymptotic boundary-layer solution representing a fixed velocity profile and shear is found. Special emphasis is put on estimating skin friction and heat-transfer rates.
SUPERSONIC SHEAR INSTABILITIES IN ASTROPHYSICAL BOUNDARY LAYERS
Belyaev, Mikhail A.; Rafikov, Roman R., E-mail: rrr@astro.princeton.edu [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Ivy Lane, Princeton, NJ 08540 (United States)
2012-06-20
Disk accretion onto weakly magnetized astrophysical objects often proceeds via a boundary layer (BL) that forms near the object's surface, in which the rotation speed of the accreted gas changes rapidly. Here, we study the initial stages of formation for such a BL around a white dwarf or a young star by examining the hydrodynamical shear instabilities that may initiate mixing and momentum transport between the two fluids of different densities moving supersonically with respect to each other. We find that an initially laminar BL is unstable to two different kinds of instabilities. One is an instability of a supersonic vortex sheet (implying a discontinuous initial profile of the angular speed of the gas) in the presence of gravity, which we find to have a growth rate of order (but less than) the orbital frequency. The other is a sonic instability of a finite width, supersonic shear layer, which is similar to the Papaloizou-Pringle instability. It has a growth rate proportional to the shear inside the transition layer, which is of order the orbital frequency times the ratio of stellar radius to the BL thickness. For a BL that is thin compared to the radius of the star, the shear rate is much larger than the orbital frequency. Thus, we conclude that sonic instabilities play a dominant role in the initial stages of nonmagnetic BL formation and give rise to very fast mixing between disk gas and stellar fluid in the supersonic regime.
Planetary boundary layer feedbacks in climate system
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zilitinkevich, S.; Esau, I.
2009-09-01
A remarkable feature of the ongoing global warming is the asymmetry in trends of the daily minima, ?min, and maxima, ?max, of the surface air temperature (SAT): ?min increases faster than ?max, so that the daily temperature range (DTR), ?max-?min, basically decreases. The state of the art general circulation and climate models (GCMs) do not reproduce it and predict approximately the same change rates for ?min and ?max. We propose that the difference in trends of ?min and ?max is caused by the strong stability dependence of the height, h, of the planetary boundary layer (PBL). Indeed, the daytime warming is associated with deep convective (C) PBLs (with the heights hC ~ 103m), in contrast to the nocturnal and/or wintertime cooling associated with shallower mid-latitudinal nocturnal stable (NS) PBLs (with hNS ~ 200m) and even shallower high-latitudinal long-lived stable (LS) PBLs (with hLS ~ 30-50m) developing during longer than night periods of the persistent surface cooling. As a result, one and the same increment, ?Q0, in the surface heat flux leads to only minor increment in ?max in deep C PBLs, but essential increments in ?min in shallow NS and especially NS PBLs. The latter type of the PBL has been discovered only recently and is not yet accounted for in modern GCMs. In the present paper, we derive theoretical estimates of the variations, ??min and ??max, in the SAT minima and maxima associated with the stable and convective PBLs, respectively, and by this means explain the observed asymmetry in the growth rates of ?min and ?max. To characterise the role of PBLs in the climate system, we introduce the concepts of local and general PBL feedbacks. Besides the strengths of feedbacks, we propose to take into account the reaction times of different mechanisms. The proposed concepts could be applied to different climate-change problems from global (as in this paper) to local, in particular, to those caused by the land-use modification.
Model of Trace Gas Flux in Boundary Layer
I. I. Vasenev; I. S. Nurgaliev
2013-03-04
Mathematical model of the turbulent flux in the three-layer boundary system is presented. Turbulence is described as a presence of the nonzero vorticity. Generalized advection-diffusion-reaction equation is derived for arbitrary number components in the flux. The fluxes in the layers are objects for matching requirements on the boundaries between the layers.
Ozone Chemistry in the High-Latitude Boundary Layer
Toohey, Darin W.
Ozone Chemistry in the High-Latitude Boundary Layer Linnea Avallone Department of Atmospheric layer ozone loss phenomenon · In situ observations of BrO at Arctic sites · Preliminary results from of boundary layer ozone loss #12;· Tropospheric Ozone has significant climate forcing at poles · ODEs affect
WAVE TRANSMISSION THROUGH RANDOM LAYERING WITH PRESSURE RELEASE BOUNDARY CONDITIONS
Garnier, Josselin
conditions in which the boundaries are transparent. In this paper we show that the boundary conditions playWAVE TRANSMISSION THROUGH RANDOM LAYERING WITH PRESSURE RELEASE BOUNDARY CONDITIONS JOSSELIN. The problem is analyzed in a regime of separation of scales and with pressure release boundary conditions
Numerical simulation of boundary-layer disturbance evolution.
Davies, Christopher
2005-05-15
The use of numerical simulations to study the development of boundary-layer disturbances is illustrated for a number of different incompressible flow configurations. These include cases where the disturbances are generated by, or interact with, flow-control devices in the form of compliant panels, suction slots and microelectromechanical systems actuators. The velocity-vorticity system of governing equations used for the simulations is reviewed, along with the numerical discretization. PMID:16105772
Boundary Layer Transition Experiments in Support of the Hypersonics Program
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Berry, Scott A.; Chen, Fang-Jenq; Wilder, Michael C.; Reda, Daniel C.
2007-01-01
Two experimental boundary layer transition studies in support of fundamental hypersonics research are reviewed. The two studies are the HyBoLT flight experiment and a new ballistic range effort. Details are provided of the objectives and approach associated with each experimental program. The establishment of experimental databases from ground and flight are to provide better understanding of high-speed flows and data to validate and guide the development of simulation tools.
Vortex/boundary-layer interactions: Data report, volume 1
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cutler, A. D.; Bradshaw, P.
1987-01-01
This report summarizes the work done under NASA Grant NAGw-581, Vortex/Boundary Layer Interactions. The experimental methods are discussed in detail and numerical results are presented, but are not fully interpreted. This report should be useful to anyone who wishes to make further use of the data (available on floppy disc or magnetic tape) for the development of turbulence models or the validation of predictive methods. Journal papers are in course of preparation.
BLSTA: A boundary layer code for stability analysis
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wie, Yong-Sun
1992-01-01
A computer program is developed to solve the compressible, laminar boundary-layer equations for two-dimensional flow, axisymmetric flow, and quasi-three-dimensional flows including the flow along the plane of symmetry, flow along the leading-edge attachment line, and swept-wing flows with a conical flow approximation. The finite-difference numerical procedure used to solve the governing equations is second-order accurate. The flow over a wide range of speed, from subsonic to hypersonic speed with perfect gas assumption, can be calculated. Various wall boundary conditions, such as wall suction or blowing and hot or cold walls, can be applied. The results indicate that this boundary-layer code gives velocity and temperature profiles which are accurate, smooth, and continuous through the first and second normal derivatives. The code presented herein can be coupled with a stability analysis code and used to predict the onset of the boundary-layer transition which enables the assessment of the laminar flow control techniques. A user's manual is also included.
The boundary layer on compressor cascade blades
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Deutsch, S.; Zierke, W. C.
1984-01-01
The flow field about an airfoil in a cascade at chord Reynolds number (R sub C) near 50,000. The program is experimental and combines laser Doppler anemometry (LDA) with flow visualization techniques in order to obtain detailed flow data (e.g., boundary layer profiles, points of separation and the transition zone) on a cascade of highly-loaded compressor blades. The information provided is to serve as benchmark data for the evaluation of current and future compressor cascade predictive models, in this way aiding in the compressor design process. The completed pressure surface mean velocity profiles, as well as two detailed near wake velocity profiles, all at a single incidence angle are provided.
Spatial simulation of boundary layer instability - Effects of surface roughness
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Danabasoglu, G.; Bringen, S.; Streett, C. L.
1993-01-01
The effects of an isolated, two-dimensional roughness element on the spatial development of instability waves in boundary layers are investigated by numerically integrating the two-dimensional, time-dependent, incompressible Navier-Stokes equations, using a finite difference/Chebyshev discretization. It is shown that (high) inviscid frequencies have higher growth rates than Tollmien-Schlichting frequencies, indicating that disturbances growing in the separation zone are controlled by the inviscid instability of the shear layer at the edge of the separation zone.
Active Boundary Layer Trip for Supersonic Flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schloegel, F.; Panigua, G.; Tirtey, S.
2009-01-01
The last decade has been full of excitement and success for the hypersonic community thanks to various Scramjet ground tests and launches. These studies have shown promising potentials but the viability to perform commercial flights at Mach 8 is still to be demonstrated. An ideal Scramjet is one which is capable of self- starting over a wide range of angles of attack and Mach number. The Scramjet designer has to ensure that the boundary layer over the inlet ramp is fully turbulent where shocks impact, hence reducing the risks of chocked flow conditions. Most studies have issued the efficiency of roughness trip to trigger the boundary layer transition. At hypersonic speed, heat transfer and drag dramatically increase resulting in skin friction averaging at 40% of the overall drag. This study investigates the possibility of triggering transition using perpendicular air jets on a flat plate place in a hypersonic cross-flow. Experiments were conducted in the von Karman Institute hypersonic blow down wind tunnel H3. This facility is mounted with a Mach 6 contoured nozzles and provides flows with Reynolds number in the range of 10x106/m to 30x106/m. The model consist of a flat plate manufactured with a built -in settling chamber, equipped with a pressure tap and a thermocouple to monitor the jet conditions. A first flat plate was manufactured with a black-coated Plexiglas top, for surface heat transfer measurement using an infrared camera. On the second model, a Upilex sheet equipped with 32 thin film gages was glued, time dependent heat transfer measurements up to 60kHz. The jet injection conditions have been varied and a Mach number of 5.5 kept constant. The flow topology was investigated using fast schlieren techniques and oil flow, in order to gain a better understanding.
Acoustics of laminar boundary layers breakdown
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wang, Meng
1994-01-01
Boundary layer flow transition has long been suggested as a potential noise source in both marine (sonar-dome self noise) and aeronautical (aircraft cabin noise) applications, owing to the highly transient nature of process. The design of effective noise control strategies relies upon a clear understanding of the source mechanisms associated with the unsteady flow dynamics during transition. Due to formidable mathematical difficulties, theoretical predictions either are limited to early linear and weakly nonlinear stages of transition, or employ acoustic analogy theories based on approximate source field data, often in the form of empirical correlation. In the present work, an approach which combines direct numerical simulation of the source field with the Lighthill acoustic analogy is utilized. This approach takes advantage of the recent advancement in computational capabilities to obtain detailed information about the flow-induced acoustic sources. The transitional boundary layer flow is computed by solving the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations without model assumptions, thus allowing a direct evaluation of the pseudosound as well as source functions, including the Lighthill stress tensor and the wall shear stress. The latter are used for calculating the radiated pressure field based on the Curle-Powell solution of the Lighthill equation. This procedure allows a quantitative assessment of noise source mechanisms and the associated radiation characteristics during transition from primary instability up to the laminar breakdown stage. In particular, one is interested in comparing the roles played by the fluctuating volume Reynolds stress and the wall-shear-stresses, and in identifying specific flow processes and structures that are effective noise generators.
Halogen chemistry in the marine boundary layer
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Plane, J. M. C.; Gomez Martin, J. C.; Kumar, R.; Mahajan, A. S.; Oetjen, H.; Saunders, R. W.
2009-04-01
Important atmospheric sources of iodine include the air-sea exchange of biogenic iodocarbons, and the emission of I2 from macro-algae. The major source of bromine is the release of bromide ions from sea-salt aerosol. The subsequent atmospheric chemistry of these halogens (1), changes the oxidizing capacity of the marine boundary layer by destroying ozone and changing the hydroxyl radical concentration; (2), reacts efficiently with dimethyl sulphide and mercury (in the polar regions); and (3), leads to the formation of ultra-fine particles which may contribute to cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) and hence affect climate. This paper will report observations of IO, BrO, OIO and I2 made by the technique of differential optical absorption spectroscopy, in several contrasting marine environments: the equatorial mid-Atlantic (Cape Verde); mid-latitude clean coastal (Mace Head, Ireland); polluted coastal (Roscoff, France); and the polar marine boundary layer (Hudson Bay, Canada). Both IO and BrO are observed in all these locations at significant concentrations (> 1 pptv), and so have a major impact on (1) and (2) above. To complement the field campaigns we have also carried out wide-ranging laboratory investigation. A new study of OIO photochemistry shows that absorption in the visible bands between 490 and 630 nm leads to I atom production with a quantum yield of unity, which now means that iodine is a particularly powerful ozone-depleting agent. We have also studied the formation and growth kinetics of iodine oxide nano-particles, and their uptake of water, sulphuric acid and di-carboxylic organic acids, in order to model their growth to a size where they can act as CCN. Their ice-nucleating properties will also be reported.
Whiteman, C.D.; Alzheimer, J.M.; Anderson, G.A.; Shaw, W.J.
1993-03-01
A stabilized platform has been developed to carry broadband short-wave and long-wave radiometric sensors on the tether line of a small tethered balloon that ascends through atmospheric depths of up to 1.5 km to obtain vertical profiles of radiative flux and flux divergence for evaluating atmospheric radiative transfer models. The Sky Platform was designed to keep the radiometers level despite unpredictable movements of the balloon and tether line occasioned by turbulence and wind shear. The automatic control loop drives motors, gears, and pulleys located on two of the vertices of the triangular frame to climb the harness lines to keep the platform level. Radiometric sensors, an electronic compass, and an on-board data acquisition system make up the remainder of the Sky Platform. Because knowledge of the dynamic response of the tether line-platform system is essential to properly close the automatic control loop on the Sky Platform, a Motion Sensing Platform (MSP) was developed to fly in place of the Sky Platform on the tether line to characterize the Sky Platform`s operating environment. This unstabilized platform uses an array of nine solid-state linear accelerometers to measure the lateral and angular accelerations, velocities, and displacements that the Sky Platform will experience. This paper presents field performance tests of the Sky and Motion Sensing Platforms, as conducted at Richland, Washington, on February 17, 1993. The tests were performed primarily to characterize the stabilization system on the Sky Platform. Test flights were performed on this cold winter day from 1400 to 1800 Pacific Standard Time (PST). During this period, temperature profiles were near the dry adiabatic lapse rate. Flights were made through a jet wind speed profile having peak wind speeds of 7 m/s at a height of 100 m AGL. Wind directions were from the northwest. All flights were performed as continuous ascents, rather than ascending in discrete steps with halts at set altitudes.
Whiteman, C.D.; Alzheimer, J.M.; Anderson, G.A.; Shaw, W.J.
1993-03-01
A stabilized platform has been developed to carry broadband short-wave and long-wave radiometric sensors on the tether line of a small tethered balloon that ascends through atmospheric depths of up to 1.5 km to obtain vertical profiles of radiative flux and flux divergence for evaluating atmospheric radiative transfer models. The Sky Platform was designed to keep the radiometers level despite unpredictable movements of the balloon and tether line occasioned by turbulence and wind shear. The automatic control loop drives motors, gears, and pulleys located on two of the vertices of the triangular frame to climb the harness lines to keep the platform level. Radiometric sensors, an electronic compass, and an on-board data acquisition system make up the remainder of the Sky Platform. Because knowledge of the dynamic response of the tether line-platform system is essential to properly close the automatic control loop on the Sky Platform, a Motion Sensing Platform (MSP) was developed to fly in place of the Sky Platform on the tether line to characterize the Sky Platform's operating environment. This unstabilized platform uses an array of nine solid-state linear accelerometers to measure the lateral and angular accelerations, velocities, and displacements that the Sky Platform will experience. This paper presents field performance tests of the Sky and Motion Sensing Platforms, as conducted at Richland, Washington, on February 17, 1993. The tests were performed primarily to characterize the stabilization system on the Sky Platform. Test flights were performed on this cold winter day from 1400 to 1800 Pacific Standard Time (PST). During this period, temperature profiles were near the dry adiabatic lapse rate. Flights were made through a jet wind speed profile having peak wind speeds of 7 m/s at a height of 100 m AGL. Wind directions were from the northwest. All flights were performed as continuous ascents, rather than ascending in discrete steps with halts at set altitudes.
A Thermal Plume Model for the Martian Convective Boundary Layer
Colaïtis, Arnaud; Hourdin, Frédéric; Rio, Catherine; Forget, François; Millour, Ehouarn
2013-01-01
The Martian Planetary Boundary Layer [PBL] is a crucial component of the Martian climate system. Global Climate Models [GCMs] and Mesoscale Models [MMs] lack the resolution to predict PBL mixing which is therefore parameterized. Here we propose to adapt the "thermal plume" model, recently developed for Earth climate modeling, to Martian GCMs, MMs, and single-column models. The aim of this physically-based parameterization is to represent the effect of organized turbulent structures (updrafts and downdrafts) on the daytime PBL transport, as it is resolved in Large-Eddy Simulations [LESs]. We find that the terrestrial thermal plume model needs to be modified to satisfyingly account for deep turbulent plumes found in the Martian convective PBL. Our Martian thermal plume model qualitatively and quantitatively reproduces the thermal structure of the daytime PBL on Mars: superadiabatic near-surface layer, mixing layer, and overshoot region at PBL top. This model is coupled to surface layer parameterizations taking ...
Boundary Layer Transition Flight Experiment Implementation on OV-103
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Spanos, Theodoros A.
2009-01-01
This slide presentation reviews the boundary layer transition experiment flown on Discovery. The purpose of the boundary layer transition flight experiment was to obtain hypersonic aero-thermodynamic data for the purpose of better understanding the flow transition from a laminar to turbulent boundary layer using a known height protuberance. The preparation of the shuttle is described, with the various groups responsibilities outlined. Views of the shuttle in flight with the experimental results are shown.
Quadrature formulas for functions with a boundary-layer component
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zadorin, A. I.; Zadorin, N. A.
2011-11-01
Quadrature formulas for one-variable functions with a boundary-layer component are constructed and studied. It is assumed that the integrand can be represented as the sum of a regular and a boundary-layer component, the latter having high gradients that reduce the accuracy of classical quadrature formulas, such as the trapezoidal and Simpson rules. The formulas are modified so that their error is independent of the gradients of the boundary-layer component. Results of numerical experiments are presented.
Dynamic Immersed Boundary Method for Modeling of Turbulent Boundary Layers over Bio-Fouled Surfaces
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yang, Xiang; Sadique, Jasim; Mittal, Rajat; Meneveau, Charles
2013-11-01
The growth of large organisms on ship surfaces, i.e. macrobiofouling, is a major contributor to drag, and consequently, fuel consumption. The problem of turbulence over biofouled surfaces may be reduced to that of a developing turbulent boundary layer over a surface with a wide range of roughness length scales. Due to the presence of these scales, direct numerical simulation (DNS) or even wall-resolved large-eddy-simulation (LES) is prohibitively expensive. We address this challenge by developing a dynamic immersed boundary method that does not require the flow field nor the roughness to be fully resolved. The effect of unresolved small eddies are included via an LES sub-grid model. The large-scale roughness elements are resolved by a sharp-interface immersed boundary method and the effect of small (unresolved) roughness elements is incorporated through the use of a wall model that assumes a log-law at the grid point closest to the wall. This computationally efficient method is validated against experiments of developing turbulent boundary layer with multiple-scale roughness elements. We present results from this study and provide a discussion of our findings. The growth of large organisms on ship surfaces, i.e. macrobiofouling, is a major contributor to drag, and consequently, fuel consumption. The problem of turbulence over biofouled surfaces may be reduced to that of a developing turbulent boundary layer over a surface with a wide range of roughness length scales. Due to the presence of these scales, direct numerical simulation (DNS) or even wall-resolved large-eddy-simulation (LES) is prohibitively expensive. We address this challenge by developing a dynamic immersed boundary method that does not require the flow field nor the roughness to be fully resolved. The effect of unresolved small eddies are included via an LES sub-grid model. The large-scale roughness elements are resolved by a sharp-interface immersed boundary method and the effect of small (unresolved) roughness elements is incorporated through the use of a wall model that assumes a log-law at the grid point closest to the wall. This computationally efficient method is validated against experiments of developing turbulent boundary layer with multiple-scale roughness elements. We present results from this study and provide a discussion of our findings. This work is funded by the Office of Naval Research (ONR) grant N00014-12-1-0582. Fruitful interactions with M. Schultz (USNA), B. Ganapathisubramani and M. Placidi (Southhampton) are also gratefully acknowledged.
Transition Zone as a Boundary Layer
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dziewonski, A. M.; Lekic, V.; Kustowski, B.; Romanowicz, B. A.
2006-12-01
Three dimensional Earth models (Ritsema et al., 2004; Panning and Romanowicz, 2006; Kustowski et al., 2006) derived using data that have good control on the structure in the transition zone (body-wave waveforms or overtone measurements) all show a discontinuous or very rapid change in the spectrum of lateral heterogeneity at the boundary between the upper and lower mantle. This was first pointed out by Woodward et al. (1994) and discussed in detail by Gu et al. (2001). All models have a strong chemical/thermal/mechanical boundary layer beginning just under the Moho and extending to 200-250 km; this heterogeneity is dominated by degrees five and six caused by the distribution of cratons and mid-oceanic ridges. The power spectrum decreases rapidly below that depth, but then begins to increase at about 400 km. It is dominated by degree two down to the 660 km discontinuity. There, it changes from very red to white at the top of the lower mantle. This is a planetary scale phenomenon that which must affect the flow of material and mixing in the mantle. Similar spectra have been generated in mantle convection models that considered the effect of an endothermic phase change (Tackley et al., 1994). The existence of this boundary layer is supported by the pattern of large scale positive velocity anomalies in the transition zone in places where subduction occurs (thus indicating ponding of slabs), large-wavelength variations in the topography of the 660 km discontinuity, variations in thickness of the transition zone and deep earthquakes outside the main Wadati-Benioff zones as well as changes in their mechanisms. During the last decade, the debate on the scale of mantle convection was strongly affected by images of slabs appearing to penetrate into the lower mantle. Relatively detailed mapping of velocity anomalies in the vicinity of slabs is feasible, because of illumination of these regions by earthquakes; these models do not tell much aboutt velocity anomalies in other places. However, the power spectra estimates are global and tell us about the behavior of the mantle as the whole. The reported pattern of the power spectra does not exclude an exchange of material between the upper and lower mantle; there may be local penetration of subducted material or there may be episodic events such as "avalanches". However, successful models of mantle convection should be able to explain the change in the spectra of lateral heterogeneity such as revealed by global tomographic models, obtained with the requisite data sets.
VARIATIONS IN MARINE BOUNDARY LAYER CLOUD PROPERTIES FROM MODIS OBSERVATIONS
VARIATIONS IN MARINE BOUNDARY LAYER CLOUD PROPERTIES FROM MODIS OBSERVATIONS Michael Jensenl-termmicrophysicaland macroscalecharacteristics usingobservationsfrom the Moderate ResolutionImagingSpectroradiometer (MODIS) instrumentaboard
The effect of an aircraft's boundary layer on propeller noise
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Belyaev, I. V.
2012-07-01
This study concerns the influence of the boundary layer at an aircraft's fuselage, simulated by an infinite hard cylinder, on propeller noise in the acoustic far field. Also studied is the effect of the boundary layer on noise as a function of the thickness and profile of the mean velocity of the boundary layer, the Mach number of the incident flow, and the rotation speed of the propeller. It is shown that the boundary layer at the fuselage can substantially modify propeller noise in the far field and should therefore be taken into account in calculating community noise.
Mixing length in low Reynolds number compressible turbulent boundary layers
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bushnell, D. M.; Cary, A. M., Jr.; Holley, B. B.
1975-01-01
The paper studies the effect of low Reynolds number in high-speed turbulent boundary layers on variations of mixing length. Boundary layers downstream of natural transition on plates, cones and cylinders, and boundary layers on nozzle walls without laminarization-retransition are considered. The problem of whether low Reynolds number amplification of shear stress is a result of transitional flow structure is considered. It is concluded that a knowledge of low Reynolds number boundary layer transition may be relevant to the design of high-speed vehicles.
Direct Numerical Simulation of a Quasilaminarized Boundary Layer
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Castillo, Luciano; Guillermo Araya, Juan; Bayoan Cal, Raul
2010-11-01
Direct Numerical Simulations of spatially-evolving turbulent boundary layers with strong favorable pressure gradients are performed. The driven force behind this investigation is elucidate the mechanisms responsible for the quasi-laminarization of the boundary layer. Budgets of the turbulent kinetic energy and the shear Reynolds stresses provide insight into the terms responsible for this phenomenon. The results also confirm the similarity analysis framework as develop by Cal and CastilloootnotetextR. B. Cal and L. Castillo (2008), Phys. Fluids. vol 20, 105106, 2008. including the redistribution of the Reynolds stresses, a significant reduction in skin friction and a pressure parameter value which falls in the quasilaminar quadrant. The prescription of stronger favorable pressure gradients is mainly manifested by a significant decrease of the production of the shear Reynolds stresses and attenuation of the velocity-pressure gradient correlation term. The latter evidence confirms the important role of pressure fluctuations on the energy exchange and transport phenomena of flow parameters.
Improving Subtropical Boundary Layer Cloudiness in the 2011 NCEP GFS
Fletcher, J. K.; Bretherton, Christopher S.; Xiao, Heng; Sun, Ruiyu N.; Han, J.
2014-09-23
The current operational version of National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) Global Forecasting System (GFS) shows significant low cloud bias. These biases also appear in the Coupled Forecast System (CFS), which is developed from the GFS. These low cloud biases degrade seasonal and longer climate forecasts, particularly of short-wave cloud radiative forcing, and affect predicted sea surface temperature. Reducing this bias in the GFS will aid the development of future CFS versions and contributes to NCEP's goal of unified weather and climate modelling. Changes are made to the shallow convection and planetary boundary layer parameterisations to make them more consistent with current knowledge of these processes and to reduce the low cloud bias. These changes are tested in a single-column version of GFS and in global simulations with GFS coupled to a dynamical ocean model. In the single-column model, we focus on changing parameters that set the following: the strength of shallow cumulus lateral entrainment, the conversion of updraught liquid water to precipitation and grid-scale condensate, shallow cumulus cloud top, and the effect of shallow convection in stratocumulus environments. Results show that these changes improve the single-column simulations when compared to large eddy simulations, in particular through decreasing the precipitation efficiency of boundary layer clouds. These changes, combined with a few other model improvements, also reduce boundary layer cloud and albedo biases in global coupled simulations.
Review of Orbiter Flight Boundary Layer Transition Data
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mcginley, Catherine B.; Berry, Scott A.; Kinder, Gerald R.; Barnell, maria; Wang, Kuo C.; Kirk, Benjamin S.
2006-01-01
In support of the Shuttle Return to Flight program, a tool was developed to predict when boundary layer transition would occur on the lower surface of the orbiter during reentry due to the presence of protuberances and cavities in the thermal protection system. This predictive tool was developed based on extensive wind tunnel tests conducted after the loss of the Space Shuttle Columbia. Recognizing that wind tunnels cannot simulate the exact conditions an orbiter encounters as it re-enters the atmosphere, a preliminary attempt was made to use the documented flight related damage and the orbiter transition times, as deduced from flight instrumentation, to calibrate the predictive tool. After flight STS-114, the Boundary Layer Transition Team decided that a more in-depth analysis of the historical flight data was needed to better determine the root causes of the occasional early transition times of some of the past shuttle flights. In this paper we discuss our methodology for the analysis, the various sources of shuttle damage information, the analysis of the flight thermocouple data, and how the results compare to the Boundary Layer Transition prediction tool designed for Return to Flight.
Acoustic explorations of the upper ocean boundary layer
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vagle, Svein
2005-04-01
The upper ocean boundary layer is an important but difficult to probe part of the ocean. A better understanding of small scale processes at the air-sea interface, including the vertical transfer of gases, heat, mass and momentum, are crucial to improving our understanding of the coupling between atmosphere and ocean. Also, this part of the ocean contains a significant part of the total biomass at all trophic levels and is therefore of great interest to researchers in a range of different fields. Innovative measurement plays a critical role in developing our understanding of the processes involved in the boundary layer, and the availability of low-cost, compact, digital signal processors and sonar technology in self-contained and cabled configurations has led to a number of exciting developments. This talk summarizes some recent explorations of this dynamic boundary layer using both active and passive acoustics. The resonant behavior of upper ocean bubbles combined with single and multi-frequency broad band active and passive devices are now giving us invaluable information on air-sea gas transfer, estimation of biological production, marine mammal behavior, wind speed and precipitation, surface and internal waves, turbulence, and acoustic communication in the surf zone.
Coupling of magnetopause-boundary layer to the polar ionosphere
Wei, C.Q.; Lee, L.C. )
1993-04-01
The authors develop a model which seeks to explain ultraviolet auroral images from the Viking satellite which show periodic bright regions which resemble [open quotes]beads[close quotes] or [open quotes]pearls[close quotes] aligned along the postnoon auroral oval. ULF geomagnetic pulsations observed in the cusp region are also addressed by this model. The model addresses plasma dynamics in the low-latitude boundary layer and interactions with the polar ionosphere by means of field-aligned current. The Kelvin-Helmholtz instability can develop in the presence of driven plasma flow, which can lead to the formation and growth of plasma vortices in the boundary layer. The finite conductivity of the earth ionosphere causes these vortices to decay. However regions of enhanced field-aligned power density in the postnoon auroral oval can be associated with field-aligned current filaments and boundary layer vortices. These structures may explain the observed bright spots. The authors also discuss the frequency spectrum and the polarization state of the pulsations.
The simulation of coherent structures in a laminar boundary layer
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Breuer, Kenny; Landahl, Marten T.; Spalart, Philippe R.
1987-01-01
Coherent structures in turbulent shear flows were studied extensively by several techniques, including the VITA technique which selects rapidly accelerating or decelerating regions in the flow. The evolution of a localized disturbance in a laminar boundary layer shows strong similarity to the evolution of coherent structures in a turbulent-wall bounded flow. Starting from a liftup-sweep motion, a strong shear layer develops which shares many of the features seen in conditionally-sampled turbulent velocity fields. The structure of the shear layer, Reynolds stress distribution, and wall pressure footprint are qualitatively the same, indicating that the dynamics responsible for the structure's evolution are simple mechanisms dependent only on the presence of a high mean shear and a wall and independent of the effects of local random fluctuations and outer flow effects. As the disturbance progressed, the development of streak-like-high- and low-speed regions associated with the three-dimensionality.
Coherent structures in an airfoil boundary layer and wake at low Reynolds numbers
Serhiy Yarusevych; Pierre E Sullivan; John G. Kawall
2006-01-01
Boundary layer and turbulent wake development for a NACA 0025 airfoil at low Reynolds numbers was studied experimentally. Wind tunnel experiments were carried out for a range of Reynolds numbers and three angles of attack. Laminar boundary layer separation occurs on the upper surface of the airfoil for all Reynolds numbers and angles of attack examined. Two flow regimes are
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Dolling, David S.; Barter, John W.
1995-01-01
The focus was on developing means of controlling and reducing unsteady pressure loads in separated shock wave turbulent boundary layer interactions. Section 1 describes how vortex generators can be used to effectively reduce loads in compression ramp interaction, while Section 2 focuses on the effects of 'boundary-layer separators' on the same interaction.
Green House Gases Flux Model in Boundary Layer
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nurgaliev, Ildus
Analytical dynamic model of the turbulent flux in the three-layer boundary system is presented. Turbulence is described as a presence of the non-zero vorticity. The generalized advection-diffusion-reaction equation is derived for an arbitrary number of components in the flux. The fluxes in the layers are objects for matching requirements on the boundaries between the layers. Different types of transport mechanisms are dominant on the different levels of the layers.
Boundary layer features observed during NAME 2004
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Stuckmeyer, Elizabeth A.
2011-12-01
S-Pol radar data from the North American Monsoon Experiment (NAME) are examined to investigate the characteristics of sea breezes that occurred during the North American Monsoon in the late summer of 2004, as well as their role in modulating monsoon convection. Zero degree plan position indicated (PPI) scans were examined to determine the presence of a sea breeze fine line in the S-Pol radar data. Sea breeze fine lines were typically observed over land very near the coast of the Gulf of California (GoC), and usually moved onshore around 1700--1800 UTC (11:00 AM--12:00 PM local time), and then continued to move slowly inland on the coastal plain. The sea breezes typically moved on land and dissipated before any significant interactions with Sierra Madre Occidental (SMO) convection could occur. Fine lines varied in reflectivity strength, but were typically around 10 to 20 dBZ. Surface winds from the Estacion Obispo (ETO) supersite were analyzed to confirm the presence of a shift in wind direction on days in which a fine line had been identified. Typically winds changed from light and variable to consistently out of the west or southwest. Vertical plots of S-Pol reflectivity were created to examine sea breeze structure in the vertical, but these were not found to be useful as the sea breeze signature was nearly impossible to distinguish from other boundary layer features. Horizontal structure was further investigated using wind profiler relative reflectivity, vertical velocity, and horizontal winds from the profiler located at ETO. Relative reflectivity and vertical velocity fields revealed a complex boundary layer structure on some days of repeating updrafts and downdrafts. Further examination of S-Pol PPI data revealed that these vertical motions are likely due to the presence of horizontal convective rolls. Profiler horizontal winds revealed that the depth and vertical structure of the sea breezes varied significantly from day to day, but that the height of the sea breeze is around 1 km above the ground. Sea breezes observed during NAME almost never initiated convection on their own. It is hypothesized that a weak thermal contrast between the GoC and the land leads to comparatively weak sea breezes, which don't have enough lift to trigger convection.
Generation of Turbulent Inlet Conditions for Thermal Boundary Layer Simulations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Araya, Juan G.
2005-11-01
Realistic environments generally imply spatially evolving turbulent boundary layers, being the flat plate the typical example. In this case, periodic boundary conditions cannot be established in the streamwise direction as in fully developed flows in channels. For this reason, it is necessary to generate turbulent fluctuations at the inlet of the computational domain at every time step. Lund et al. (1998) proposed an ingenious method for accounting spatial growth in the inflow condition based on the similarity of the velocity profiles at different streamwise locations. They extracted a velocity field, from a downstream plane, rescaled it and reintroduced it as a boundary condition at the inlet of the domain. In a posterior study, Kong et al. (2000) extended the previous concept to thermal inflow generation predictions. This research proposes different scales in the inner and outer regions for simulating actual turbulent temperature fluctuations at the entrance of a computational domain based on the Lund's idea: the velocity scales are based on the work of George and Castillo (1997), meanwhile the temperature scaling is derived from investigations performed by Wang and Castillo (2003). Finally, Direct Numerical Simulations of evolving turbulent thermal boundary layers on a flat plate are performed to test the proposed inflow generation model.
Wall Roughness Effects on a Separating Turbulent Boundary Layer
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Aubertine, Carolyn; Song, Simon; Eaton, John
2002-11-01
In high Reynolds number flows the effects of roughness must be considered for surfaces that are smooth at lower Reynolds numbers. The effects of roughness for an adverse pressure gradient boundary layer were previously examined at a single Reynolds number. The results of this fully rough case showed a thickening of the boundary layer prior to separation and an increase in the length of the separation bubble. The two-dimensional boundary layer studied here develops with zero pressure gradient and then flows down a smoothly contoured ramp, which produces the strong adverse pressure gradient. The flow separates about 2/3 of the way down the ramp and forms a small separation bubble, which reattaches downstream on a flat plate. The mean velocity and turbulence data are acquired using a custom, 2-component LDA. The Reynolds number is varied by changing the flow density. Previous measurements were made over both the smooth wall and the fully rough wall. Current studies are underway on the same geometry to examine the effects of roughness at higher Reynolds numbers. These studies use a finer grade of sandpaper to produce identical roughness Reynolds number while raising the momentum thickness Reynolds number.
Improved Inlet Noise Attenuation by Alteration of Boundary Layer Profiles
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mani, Ramani; Luedke, Jon; Jones, Michael G.; Nark, Douglas M.
2004-01-01
Acoustic liners are an essential component of technology used to reduce aircraft engine noise. Flow affects attenuation due to the liner in several ways, one of which is that boundary layers adjacent to the liner refract the sound. In the case of inlet noise, the boundary layer causes sound to be refracted away from the liner, thus degrading attenuation. A concept to improve attenuation by the liner by alteration of inlet boundary layer profiles is presented. The alteration of profiles is achieved by inlet blowing. Computational fluid dynamics and duct mode propagation theory for ducts carrying a parallel sheared flow have been used to design experiments to explore such a possibility in the NASA Langley Research Center Grazing Incidence Tube using an inlet blowing scheme developed at General Electric Global Research. The effects of inlet blowing on two liner configurations were evaluated. Calculated results will be shown for blowing ratios (injected flow/duct flow) of approximately 12% and frequencies up to 3 kHz. These results emphasize changes of attenuation achieved by blowing for the two liners. Experimental results of measured flow profiles (with and without blowing) in the Grazing Incidence Tube, and of corresponding changes in attenuation by the liner due to blowing will be presented.
Turbulent thermal boundary layers subjected to severe acceleration
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Araya, Guillermo; Castillo, Luciano
2013-11-01
Favorable turbulent boundary layers are flows of great importance in industry. Particularly, understanding the mechanisms of quasi-laminarization by means of a very strong favorable streamwise pressure gradient is indeed crucial in drag reduction and energy management applications. Furthermore, due to the low Reynolds numbers involved in the quasi-laminarization process, abundant experimental investigation can be found in the literature for the past few decades. However, several grey zones still remain unsolved, principally associated with the difficulties that experiments encounter as the boundary layer becomes smaller. In addition, little attention has been paid to the heat transfer in a quasi-laminarization process. In this investigation, DNS of spatially-developing turbulent thermal boundary layers with prescribed very strong favorable pressure gradients (K = 4 × 10-6) are performed. Realistic inflow conditions are prescribed based on the Dynamic Multi-scale Approach (DMA) [Araya et al. JFM, Vol. 670, pp. 581-605, 2011]. In this sense the flow carries the footprint of turbulence, particularly in the streamwise component of the Reynolds stresses.
An Experimental Investigation of Turbulent Boundary Layer Relaminarization
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bourassa, Corey; Thomas, Flint O.; Nelson, Robert C.
1999-11-01
It has been speculated that turbulent boundary layer relaminarization may play a role in ``inverse Reynolds number effects" in high-lift systems for commercial aviation. Research currently being conducted at the Hessert Center for Aerospace Research at the University of Notre Dame is focused on experimentally assessing the influence of relaminarization in high-lift systems, as well as investigating their fundamental flow physics. To facilitate this research, a wind tunnel experiment was designed in which a turbulent boundary layer was developed in a nominally-zero pressure gradient environment and then subjected to large favorable pressure gradients. The favorable pressure gradient region was designed to achieve constant values of the relaminarization parameter K (Launder, B.E., ``Laminarization of the Turbulent Boundary Layer By Acceleration,'' MIT Gas Turbine Lab, Report # 77 1964) in the range of 1 × 10-6 < K < 5 × 10-6 , which can be controlled by adjusting the free stream velocity of the wind tunnel. Results to be reported include a complete survey of mean and turbulent flow quantities, skin friction measurements obtained via oil film interferometry, and turbulent bursting rates in the relaminarization region.
Topographically generated internal waves and boundary layer instabilities
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Soontiens, Nancy; Stastna, Marek; Waite, Michael L.
2015-08-01
Flow over topography has been shown to generate finite amplitude internal waves upstream, over the topography and downstream. Such waves can interact with the viscous bottom boundary layer to produce vigorous instabilities. However, the strength and size of such instabilities depends on whether viscosity significantly modifies the wave generation process, which is usually treated using inviscid theory in the literature. In this work, we contrast cases in which boundary layer separation profoundly alters the wave generation process and cases for which the generated internal waves largely match inviscid theory. All results are generated using a numerical model that simulates stratified flow over topography. Several issues with using a wave-based Reynolds number to describe boundary layer properties are discussed by comparing simulations with modifications to the domain depth, background velocity, and viscosity. For hill-like topography, three-dimensional aspects of the instabilities are also discussed. Decreasing the Reynolds number by a factor of four (by increasing the viscosity), while leaving the primary two-dimensional instabilities largely unchanged, drastically affects their three-dimensionalization. Several cases at the laboratory scale with a depth of 1 m are examined in both two and three dimensions and a subset of the cases is scaled up to a field scale 10-m deep fluid while maintaining similar values for the background current and viscosity. At this scale, increasing the viscosity by an order of magnitude does not significantly change the wave properties but does alter the wave's interaction with the bottom boundary layer through the bottom shear stress. Finally, two subcritical cases for which disturbances are able to propagate upstream showcase a set of instabilities forming on the upstream slope of the elevated topography. The time scale over which these instabilities develop is related to but distinct from the advective time scale of the waves. At a non-dimensional time when instabilities have formed in the field scale case, no instabilities have yet formed in the lab scale case.
Multi-layer prediction of mean velocity profiles in turbulent boundary layers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Xi; Hussain, Fazle; She, Zhen-Su
2012-11-01
A multi-layer prediction of the mean velocity profile (MVP) is developed for the zero pressure gradient (ZPG) turbulent boundary layer (TBL), in good agreement with empirical data over a wide range of the Reynolds number (Re). The theory builds on our model of the mixing length for channel and pipe flows, in which all of the physical parameters characterizing the viscous sublayer, buffer layer and bulk layer are held universal, as well as the Karman constant 0.45. The theory predicts a logarithmic law constant B of 6.5. The identified differences between the channel/pipe and TBL are the absence of a wall-confined central core layer and a fractional scaling of the total stress for the latter. Then, the theory yields an analytic expression for the wake function and friction coefficient in excellent agreement with measurements. In conclusion, a unified theory is presented for the MVPs of all canonical wall-bounded turbulent flows.
Mean velocity and turbulence measurements in a 90 deg curved duct with thin inlet boundary layer
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Crawford, R. A.; Peters, C. E.; Steinhoff, J.; Hornkohl, J. O.; Nourinejad, J.; Ramachandran, K.
1985-01-01
The experimental database established by this investigation of the flow in a large rectangular turning duct is of benchmark quality. The experimental Reynolds numbers, Deans numbers and boundary layer characteristics are significantly different from previous benchmark curved-duct experimental parameters. This investigation extends the experimental database to higher Reynolds number and thinner entrance boundary layers. The 5% to 10% thick boundary layers, based on duct half-width, results in a large region of near-potential flow in the duct core surrounded by developing boundary layers with large crossflows. The turbulent entrance boundary layer case at R sub ed = 328,000 provides an incompressible flowfield which approaches real turbine blade cascade characteristics. The results of this investigation provide a challenging benchmark database for computational fluid dynamics code development.
Effect of externally generated turbulence on wave boundary layer
Jørgen Fredsøe; B. Mutlu Sumer; Andrzej Kozakiewicz; Lloyd H. C Chua; Rolf Deigaard
2003-01-01
This experimental study deals with the effect of externally generated turbulence on the oscillatory boundary layer to simulate the turbulence in the wave boundary layer (WBL) under broken waves in the swash zone. The subject has been investigated experimentally in a U-shaped, oscillating water tunnel with a smooth bottom. Turbulence was generated ‘externally’ as the flow in the oscillator was
Direct Numerical Simulation of a Quasilaminarized Boundary Layer
Luciano Castillo; Juan Guillermo Araya; Raul Bayoan Cal
2010-01-01
Direct Numerical Simulations of spatially-evolving turbulent boundary layers with strong favorable pressure gradients are performed. The driven force behind this investigation is elucidate the mechanisms responsible for the quasi-laminarization of the boundary layer. Budgets of the turbulent kinetic energy and the shear Reynolds stresses provide insight into the terms responsible for this phenomenon. The results also confirm the similarity analysis
Effects of simulated combustor turbulence on boundary layer heat transfer
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ames, F. E.; Moffat, R. J.
1990-01-01
A simulated combustor flow field has been generated in order to study the effects of high intensity large scale turbulence on boundary layer heat transfer. Turbulence intensities of up to 19 percent and integral lengths scales of 4 to 6 centimeters have been generated. Heat transfer has been augmented by up to 28 percent for the flat plate constant velocity turbulent boundary layer.
Turbulence Structure and Wall Signature in Hypersonic Turbulent Boundary Layer
Martín, Pino
Turbulence Structure and Wall Signature in Hypersonic Turbulent Boundary Layer Yin-Chiu Kan , Clara and hypersonic turbulent boundary layer datasets from direct numerical simulation (DNS). Contour plots and Marusic5 and Mathis, Hutchins and Marusic16 ). In contrast to supersonic and hypersonic flow regimes
The Boundary Layer Height in Air Stress Measurement
F. D. CARSEY
The height of the boundary layer, Z,, as derived from acoustic radar soundings is used to examine wind profiles from pilot balloon tracking. The result is a tentative empirical stress law, seasonal variation of stress andZf, and an apparent boundary layer baroclinity which is not reflected in wind shear above Z,. The stress law is T = VzpfZfi sin a,
An electrostatically actuated valve for turbulent boundary layer control
J. R. Frutos; D. Vernier; F. Bastien; M. de Labachelerie; Y. Bailly
2005-01-01
A large displacement electrostatic valve has been designed and realized for a realistic turbulent boundary layer control. This actuator consists of a pair of rigid electrodes and a flexible film having a S-shape providing local high electrostatic forces required for controling rather large pressure differences. The aim is the reattachment of the boundary layer near an aircraft flap trailing edge
A boundary layer model for magnetospheric substorms
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rostoker, Gordon; Eastman, Tim
1987-01-01
An alternative framework for understanding magnetospheric substorm activity is presented. It is argued that observations of magnetic field and plasma flow variations in the magnetotail can be explained in terms of the passage of the plasma sheet boundary layer over the satellite detecting the tail signatures. It is shown that field-aligned currents and particle acceleration processes on magnetic field lines threading the ionospheric Harang discontinuity lead to the distinctive particle and field signatures observed in the magnetotail during substorms. It is demonstrated that edge effects of field-aligned currents associated with the westward traveling surge can lead to the negative B(z) perturbations observed in the tail that are presently attributed to observations made on the anti-earthward side of a near-earth neutral line. Finally, it is shown that the model can provide a physical explanation of both the driven system and the loading-unloading system whose combined effects provide the observed substorm perturbation pattern in the magnetosphere and ionosphere.
Effect of sound on boundary layer stability
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Saric, William S.; Spencer, Shelly Anne
1993-01-01
Experiments are conducted in the Arizona State University Unsteady Wind Tunnel with a zero-pressure-gradient flat-plate model that has a 67:1 elliptical leading edge. Boundary-layer measurements are made of the streamwise fluctuating-velocity component in order to identify the amplified T-S waves that are forced by downstream-traveling sound waves. Measurements are taken with circular 3-D roughness elements placed at the Branch 1 neutral stability point for the frequency under consideration, and then with the roughness element downstream of Branch 1. These roughness elements have a principal chord dimension equal to 2 lambda(sub TS)/pi of the T-S waves under study and are 'stacked' in order to resemble a Gaussian height distribution. Measurements taken just downstream of the roughness (with leading-edge T-S waves, surface roughness T-S waves, instrumentation sting vibrations, and the Stokes wave subtracted) show the generation of 3-D T-S waves, but not in the characteristic heart-shaped disturbance field predicted by 3-D asymptotic theory. Maximum disturbance amplitudes are found on the roughness centerline. However, some near-field characteristics predicted by numerical modeling are observed.
Effect of sound on boundary layer stability
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Saric, William S. (Principal Investigator); Spencer, Shelly Anne
1993-01-01
Experiments are conducted in the Arizona State University Unsteady Wind Tunnel with a zero-pressure-gradient flat-plate model that has a 67:1 elliptical leading edge. Boundary-layer measurements are made of the streamwise fluctuating-velocity component in order to identify the amplified T-S waves that are forced by downstream-travelling, sound waves. Measurements are taken with circular 3-D roughness elements placed at the Branch 1 neutral stability point for the frequency under consideration, and then with the roughness element downstream of Branch 1. These roughness elements have a principal chord dimension equal to 2(lambda)(sub TS)/pi, of the T-S waves under study and are 'stacked' in order to resemble a Gaussian height distribution. Measurements taken just downstream of the roughness (with leading-edge T-S waves, surface roughness T-S waves, instrumentation sting vibrations and the Stokes wave subtracted) show the generation of 3-D-T-S waves, but not in the characteristic heart-shaped disturbance field predicted by 3-D asymptotic theory. Maximum disturbance amplitudes are found on the roughness centerline. However, some near-field characteristics predicted by numerical modelling are observed.
A Alternative Approach to Boundary Layer Disturbances
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Easthope, Paul Fripp
Nearly all investigations into three-dimensional boundary layer disturbances on a flat plate have utilized normal modes, or have been strictly experimental. The present work takes a different approach, being analytical in nature, but involving no assumptions of separability, as required by normal modes. It is a linearized, viscous, and initial-value problem, making only the assumptions that the basic flow should be parallel and piece-wise linear in form, and that the perturbed velocity components be Fourier-decomposable in x and z (the stream-wise and transverse directions). The vertical velocity in wave space can be found analytically, and inverted numerically. As an initial condition, a sharply-peaked Gaussian in three dimensions is allowed to perturb the flow, and the resulting disturbance is followed in time, for various locations vertically above the plate. Of particular interest is the small time behavior, which is presented both analytically and numerically, and has implications for large amplitude, localized disturbances over a short time scale. Comparisons are made with experiments, and also with normal mode analyses. While not reproducing every aspect of the physical results, the general conclusions from the present approach are encouraging.
Fluctuating Vorticity in Turbulent Boundary Layers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Panton, Ron
2012-11-01
Profiles of fluctuating vorticity from the channel flow DNS (Del Alamo, et al. (P of F 15, L-41; JFM, 500, p135, P of F, 18) are correlated in Panton (Phys. Fluids, 21, 2009). In the inner region, a two-term expansion represents the vorticity profiles; < ?? > # = < ?? > 0#+< ?? > 1+u?/U0. The scaling < ?? > 0#= < ?? > 0/(u?3U0 / ?2) for inactive motions applies only to the streamwise and spanwise components. This term is zero for the normal vorticity component. The scrubbing of the inactive motions over the wall generates vorticity, which is a maximum at the wall, and diffuses to about y+ = 50 before it decays. The fluctuating wall shear stress is due entirely to this motion, and the stress ratio (rms/mean) depends on Re. The second scaling < ?? > 1+= < ?? > 1/(u?4/?2) , the same scaling as the Reynolds shear stress, is active motions. These motions are zero at the wall, peak about y+ = 13-20, and fall to zero about y+ = 400. The outer region is correlated by a third scaling using the Kolmogorov time scale; < ?? > /(u?3/ ? ?). Matching between the inner and outer regions has an overlap law (common part) of ~ C /y+ or ~ C/ Y for all components. In this paper DNS boundary layer data of Schlatter et al. (Phys. Fluids, 21, 2009) is correlated in the manner previously used for channel flows.
Helical circulations in the typhoon boundary layer
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ellis, Ryan; Businger, Steven
2010-03-01
Low-level wind data from the WSR-88D in Guam obtained in Typhoon Dale (1996) and Typhoon Keith (1997) are analyzed for coherent structures. Consistent with the results of previous studies of Atlantic hurricanes, velocity anomalies associated with coherent structures were found in the boundary layer of both storms. A total of 99 cases of coherent structures, also known as roll vortices, were documented during a 6 h evaluation period for each storm. Storm-relative roll location, roll vorticity, asymmetries in the upward and downward momentum fluxes, and signatures of circulations transverse to the mean flow associated with roll circulations were explored. The effects of terrain and convective precipitation systems, such as rainbands, on the occurrence of rolls were investigated. The results support and extend prior findings of roll observations, and can be used to help validate theoretical and numerical models of coherent structures within tropical cyclones. Moreover, the wind variations documented in this study may have application for wave runup and wind damage potential in tropical cyclones.
On optical imaging through aircraft turbulent boundary layers
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sutton, G. W.
1980-01-01
Optical resolution quality as affected by aircraft turbulent boundary layers is analyzed. Wind-tunnel data was analyzed to obtained the variation of boundary layer turbulence scale length and mass density rms fluctuations with Mach number. The data gave good agreement with a mass density fluctuation turbulence spectrum that is either isotropic of orthogonally anisotropic. The data did not match an isotropic turbulence velocity spectrum which causes an anisotropic non-orthogonal mass density fluctuation spectrum. The results indicate that the average mass density rms fluctuation is about 10% of the maximum mass density across the boundary layer and that the transverse turbulence scale size is about 10% of the boundary layer thickness. The results indicate that the effect of the turbulent boundary layer is large angle scattering which decreases contrast but not resolution. Using extinction as a criteria the range of acceptable aircraft operating conditions are given.
Destiny of earthward streaming plasma in the plasmasheet boundary layer
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Green, J. L.; Horwitz, J. L.
1986-01-01
The dynamics of the earth's magnetotail have been investigated, and it has become clear that the plasmasheet boundary layer field lines map into the Region I Field-Aligned Currents (FAC) of the auroral zone. It is pointed out that the role of earthward streaming ions in the plasmasheet boundary layer may be of fundamental importance in the understanding of magnetotail dynamics, auroral zone physics, and especially for ionospheric-magnetospheric interactions. The present paper has the objective to evaluate propagation characteristics for the earthward streaming ions observed in the plasmasheet boundary layer. An investigation is conducted of the propagation characteristics of protons in the plasmasheet boundary layer using independent single particle dynamics, and conclusions are discussed. The density of earthward streaming ions found in the plasmasheet boundary layer should include the ring current as well as the auroral zone precipitaiton and inner plasmasheet regions of the magnetosphere.
Exit of boundary layer plasma from the distant magnetotail
Heikkila, W.J.
1983-03-01
It is pointed out that the boundary layer plasma must somehow leave the magnetospheric system. We propose that the boundary layers on the dawn and dusk flanks are continued into the far magnetotail, still on closed magnetic field lines. Within the combined layer there would be a dusk to dawn electric field for antisunward convection (as is the case for the boundary layers on the dawn and dusk flanks nearer to the earth). It is suggested that the boundary layer flow is so massive that the flow itself can generate the right electric field for continued flow. Most of the plasma in the mantle over the polar caps would also be convected out in a similar manner, rather feeding the plasma sheet. There would be a stagnation point inside the magnetotail, with any boundary or mantle plasma diffusing earthward of this point becoming the plasma sheet. It is deduced that no steady state solution is possible.
Boundary Layer Perturbations Generated from small Oscillating Bumps
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gaster, Michael
1997-11-01
Perturbations may be generated in a laminar boundary layer by various types of surface disturbance. Here we discuss the perturbations generted by the motion of a small piston mounted in the surface of a flat plate. Theoretical predictions of the flow field resulting from the periodic motion of the piston are made using the approximation that the steady base boundary layer is closely parallel and that the disturbance is sufficently small to warrant linearisation. These solutions are compared with measurements taken with a hot-wire anemometer of appropriate boundary layer experiments involving excitation by a piston of 2mm dia oscillating with amplitudes of 50 microns in a laminar boundary layer with a displacement thickness of 1mm. The Reynolds number of the boundary layer is roughly 1000 based on displacement thickness.
Dusty boundary layer in a surface-burst explosion
Kuhl, A.L.; Ferguson, R.E.; Chien, K.Y.; Collins, J.P.
1993-08-01
Dusty boundary layers are an inherent feature of explosions over ground surfaces. Detailed knowledge of dusty boundary layer characteristics is needed in explosion safety analysis (e.g., to calculate the drag loads on structures). Also, to predicct the amount of dust in the rising fireball of an explsion, one must know the dusty boundary layer swept up during the positive and negative phases of the blast wave and how much of this boundary layer dust is entrained into the stem of the dust cloud. This paper describes the results of numerical simulations of the dusty boundary layer created by a surface burst explosion. The evolution of the flow was calculated by a high-order Godunov code that solves the nonsteady conservation laws.
Computational Study of Hypersonic Boundary Layer Stability on Cones
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gronvall, Joel Edwin
Due to the complex nature of boundary layer laminar-turbulent transition in hypersonic flows and the resultant effect on the design of re-entry vehicles, there remains considerable interest in developing a deeper understanding of the underlying physics. To that end, the use of experimental observations and computational analysis in a complementary manner will provide the greatest insights. It is the intent of this work to provide such an analysis for two ongoing experimental investigations. The first focuses on the hypersonic boundary layer transition experiments for a slender cone that are being conducted at JAXA's free-piston shock tunnel HIEST facility. Of particular interest are the measurements of disturbance frequencies associated with transition at high enthalpies. The computational analysis provided for these cases included two-dimensional CFD mean flow solutions for use in boundary layer stability analyses. The disturbances in the boundary layer were calculated using the linear parabolized stability equations. Estimates for transition locations, comparisons of measured disturbance frequencies and computed frequencies, and a determination of the type of disturbances present were made. It was found that for the cases where the disturbances were measured at locations where the flow was still laminar but nearly transitional, that the highly amplified disturbances showed reasonable agreement with the computations. Additionally, an investigation of the effects of finite-rate chemistry and vibrational excitation on flows over cones was conducted for a set of theoretical operational conditions at the HIEST facility. The second study focuses on transition in three-dimensional hypersonic boundary layers, and for this the cone at angle of attack experiments being conducted at the Boeing/AFOSR Mach-6 quiet tunnel at Purdue University were examined. Specifically, the effect of surface roughness on the development of the stationary crossflow instability are investigated in this work. One standard mean flow solution and two direct numerical simulations of a slender cone at an angle of attack were computed. The direct numerical simulations included a digitally-filtered, randomly distributed surface roughness and were performed using a high-order, low-dissipation numerical scheme on appropriately resolved grids. Comparisons with experimental observations showed excellent qualitative agreement. Comparisons with similar previous computational work were also made and showed agreement in the wavenumber range of the most unstable crossflow modes.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Reineman, B. D.; Lenain, L.; Statom, N.; Melville, W. K.
2012-12-01
We have developed instrumentation packages for unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) to measure ocean surface processes along with momentum fluxes and latent, sensible, and radiative heat fluxes in the marine atmospheric boundary layer (MABL). The packages have been flown over land on BAE Manta C1s and over water on Boeing-Insitu ScanEagles. The low altitude required for accurate surface flux measurements (< 30 m) is below the typical safety limit of manned research aircraft; however, with advances in laser altimeters, small-aircraft flight control, and real-time kinematic differential GPS, low-altitude flight is now within the capability of small UAV platforms. Fast-response turbulence, hygrometer, and temperature probes permit turbulent flux measurements, and short- and long-wave radiometers allow the determination of net radiation, surface temperature, and albedo. Onboard laser altimetry and high-resolution visible and infrared video permit observations of surface waves and fine-scale (O(10) cm) ocean surface temperature structure. Flight tests of payloads aboard ScanEagle UAVs were conducted in April 2012 at the Naval Surface Warfare Center Dahlgren Division (Dahlgren, VA), where measurements of water vapor, heat, and momentum fluxes were made from low-altitude (31-m) UAV flights over water (Potomac River). ScanEagles are capable of ship-based launch and recovery, which can extend the reach of research vessels and enable scientific measurements out to ranges of O(10-100) km and altitudes up to 5 km. UAV-based atmospheric and surface observations can complement observations of surface and subsurface phenomena made from a research vessel and avoid the well-known problems of vessel interference in MABL measurements. We present a description of the instrumentation, summarize results from flight tests, and discuss potential applications of these UAVs for ship-based MABL studies.
Integral method for the calculation of three-dimensional, laminar and turbulent boundary layers
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Stock, H. W.
1978-01-01
The method for turbulent flows is a further development of an existing method; profile families with two parameters and a lag entrainment method replace the simple entrainment method and power profiles with one parameter. The method for laminar flows is a new development. Moment of momentum equations were used for the solution of the problem, the profile families were derived from similar solutions of boundary layer equations. Laminar and turbulent flows at the wings were calculated. The influence of wing tapering on the boundary layer development was shown. The turbulent boundary layer for a revolution ellipsoid is calculated for 0 deg and 10 deg incidence angles.
Cold air outbreak during MASEX - Lidar observations and boundary-layer model test
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Boers, R.; Melfi, S. H.
1987-01-01
Lidar observations of boundary-layer development during a cold air outbreak over the Atlantic Ocean were examined. Very rapid rise rates were measured in the first 20 km off the coast. A large region of partial cloudiness was found to exist between the totally clear region near shore and the overcast region far from the coast. As the layer became overcast, rise rate of the boundary layer tripled, suggesting a direct relation between cloudiness and entrainment. Boundary-layer evolution was reasonably well simulated by a simple slab model. The model was not capable of predicting the area of partial cloudiness, nor the region of rapid entrainment near the coast.
Niu, Fenglin
The role of chemical boundary layers in regulating the thickness of continental and oceanic thermal boundary layers Cin-Ty Aeolus Lee*, Adrian Lenardic, Catherine M. Cooper, Fenglin Niu, Alan Levander Department of Earth Science, MS-126, Rice University, 6100 Main St., Houston, TX 77005, United States
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mclean, J. D.; Randall, J. L.
1979-01-01
A system of computer programs for calculating three dimensional transonic flow over wings, including details of the three dimensional viscous boundary layer flow, was developed. The flow is calculated in two overlapping regions: an outer potential flow region, and a boundary layer region in which the first order, three dimensional boundary layer equations are numerically solved. A consistent matching of the two solutions is achieved iteratively, thus taking into account viscous-inviscid interaction. For the inviscid outer flow calculations, the Jameson-Caughey transonic wing program FLO 27 is used, and the boundary layer calculations are performed by a finite difference boundary layer prediction program. Interface programs provide communication between the two basic flow analysis programs. Computed results are presented for the NASA F8 research wing, both with and without distributed surface suction.
Unsteady boundary-layer transition in flow periodically disturbed by wakes
Orth, U. (Technische Hochschule Darmstadt (Germany). Thermal Turbomachinery Dept.)
1993-10-01
Boundary layers on turbomachinery blades develop in a flow that is periodically disturbed by the wakes of upstream blade cascades. These wakes have a significant effect upon laminar-turbulent boundary-layer transition. In order to study these effects, detailed velocity measurements using hot-wire probes were performed within the boundary-layer of a plate in flow periodically disturbed by wakes produced by bars moving transversely to the flow. The measurements were evaluated using the ensemble-averaging technique. The results show how the wake disturbance enters the boundary-layer and leads to a turbulent patch, which grows and is carried downstream. In favorable pressure gradients, transition due to wake turbulence occurred much earlier than predicted by linear stability theory. Between two wakes, laminar becalmed regions were observed far beyond the point at which the undisturbed boundary-layer was already turbulent.
Microbubble drag reduction in liquid turbulent boundary layers
Merkle, C.L.; Deutsch, S. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States)
1992-12-01
The interactions between a dense cloud of small bubbles and a liquid turbulent boundary layer are reviewed on the basis of available experimental observations to understand and quantify their capability for reducing skin friction. Gas bubbles are generally introduced into the boundary layer by injection through a porous surface or by electrolysis. After injection, the bubbles stay near the wall in boundary-layer-like fashion giving rise to strong gradients in both velocity and gas concentration. In general, the magnitude of the skin friction reduction increases as the volume of bubbles in the boundary layer is increased until a maximum skin friction reduction of typically 80-90% of the undisturbed skin friction level is reached. The volumetric gas flow required for this maximum is nominally equal to the volume flow of the liquid in the boundary layer. Bubble size estimates indicate that in most microbubble experiments the bubbles have been intermediate in size between the inner and outer scales of the undisturbed boundary layer. Additional studies with other nondimensional bubble sizes would be useful. However, the bubble size is most likely controlled by the injection process, and considerably different conditions would be required to change this ratio appreciably. The trajectories of the bubble clouds are primarily determined by the random effects of turbulence and bubble-bubble interactions. The effects of buoyancy represent a weaker effect. The trajectories are unlike the deterministic trajectory of an individual bubble in a time-averaged boundary layer. Bubbles are most effective in high speed boundary layers and, for the bubble sizes tested to date, produce an effect that persists for some on hundred boundary layer thicknesses. Modeling suggests that microbubbles reduce skin friction by increasing the turbulence Reynolds number in the buffer layer in a manner similar to polymers.
Aerodynamic Models for Hurricanes III. Modeling hurricane boundary layer
Leonov, Arkady I
2008-01-01
The third paper of the series (see previous ones in Refs.[1-2]) discusses basic physicalprocesses in the (quasi-) steady hurricane boundary layer (HBL), develops an approximate airflow model, establishes the HBL structure, and presents integral balance relations for dynamic and thermodynamic variables in HBL. Models of evaporation and condensation are developed, where the condensation is treated similarly to the slow combustion theory. A turbulent approximation for the lower sub-layer of HBL is applied to the sea-air interaction to establish the observed increase in angular momentum in the outer region of HBL.A closed set of balance relations has been obtained. Simple analytical solution of the set yields expressions for the basic dynamic variables - maximal tangential and radial velocities in hurricane, maximal vertical speed in eye wall, the affinity speed of hurricane travel, and the maximal temperature increase after condensation. Estimated values of the variables seem to be realistic. An attempt is also ...
A combined model for improving estimation of atmospheric boundary layer height
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bachtiar, V. S.; Davies, F.; Danson, F. M.
2014-12-01
Atmospheric boundary layer height is one of the most important parameters in atmospheric dispersion modelling because it has a large effect on predicted air quality. Comparisons between Atmospheric Dispersion Modelling System, version 4 (ADMS 4) and lidar data were carried out on boundary layer height data from central London. The comparison showed that the boundary layer height predicted by the ADMS 4 was, on average, lower than lidar for the subset of data taken. ADMS 4 has a very simple surface scheme which is not representative of complex urban environments and the results from this research imply that there is not sufficient surface roughness within the model to produce a large enough boundary layer height. The aim of this study is to create an improved model to better forecast the growth of the daytime urban boundary layer and predict boundary layer height, h, in an air quality dispersion model using lidar measurements. The combined model was developed by using a surface model and an atmospheric boundary layer height model. Measurements of atmospheric boundary layer height by lidar used vertical velocity variance and the overall conclusion was that the combined model improved the performance of ADMS in urban areas.
Belyaev, Mikhail A.; Rafikov, Roman R.; Stone, James M.
2013-06-10
The nature of angular momentum transport in the boundary layers of accretion disks has been one of the central and long-standing issues of accretion disk theory. In this work we demonstrate that acoustic waves excited by supersonic shear in the boundary layer serve as an efficient mechanism of mass, momentum, and energy transport at the interface between the disk and the accreting object. We develop the theory of angular momentum transport by acoustic modes in the boundary layer, and support our findings with three-dimensional hydrodynamical simulations, using an isothermal equation of state. Our first major result is the identification of three types of global modes in the boundary layer. We derive dispersion relations for each of these modes that accurately capture the pattern speeds observed in simulations to within a few percent. Second, we show that angular momentum transport in the boundary layer is intrinsically nonlocal, and is driven by radiation of angular momentum away from the boundary layer into both the star and the disk. The picture of angular momentum transport in the boundary layer by waves that can travel large distances before dissipating and redistributing angular momentum and energy to the disk and star is incompatible with the conventional notion of local transport by turbulent stresses. Our results have important implications for semianalytical models that describe the spectral emission from boundary layers.
Boundary Layer Rolls Observed Above and Below a Jet in a Marine Boundary Layer
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Foster, R. C.; Emmitt, G. D.; Godwin, K.; Greco, S.
2013-12-01
We have flown a coherent Doppler wind lidar (DWL) on the Cirpas Twin Otter off the California coast near Monterey since 2003. One scientific purpose of these flights is to understand the relationship between the turbulent fluxes measured on the aircraft or on other platforms and the observed structure of the marine boundary layer (MBL). Two common features are found in the MBL flow: (1) a strong jet at approximately 200 m above the sea surface; and (2) organized large eddies (OLE) in the form of roll vortices that are approximately aligned along the mean wind direction. On two flights (April 13, 2007 and September 30, 2012), the DWL data indicated that roll OLE existed simultaneously both above and below the jet. The DWL winds suggest that the OLE in these layers are sometimes independent and sometimes connected. Standard flux data are obtained on the Twin Otter at flight level, which is nominally 300 m. The 10 Hz wind and temperature data exhibit variability at spatial scales corresponding to the OLE wavelength. We have constructed a nonlinear theoretical model that includes triad wave-wave interactions to test the hypothesis that rolls could form both above and below the jet. This model shows that this is possible and that the rolls in the two layers could have unique characteristics compared to standard boundary layer rolls. The model further shows that the rolls above and below the jet are due to separate instabilities that interact. This is consistent with the observations of both connected and independent OLE above and below the jet. Contrast-enhanced DWL line-of-sight winds. Jet maximum 200 m below aircraft. Typical resonant triad solution for rolls above and below a PBL jet.
Spatial Linear Instability of Confluent Wake/Boundary Layers
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Liou, William W.; Liu, Feng-Jun; Rumsey, C. L. (Technical Monitor)
2001-01-01
The spatial linear instability of incompressible confluent wake/boundary layers is analyzed. The flow model adopted is a superposition of the Blasius boundary layer and a wake located above the boundary layer. The Orr-Sommerfeld equation is solved using a global numerical method for the resulting eigenvalue problem. The numerical procedure is validated by comparing the present solutions for the instability of the Blasius boundary layer and for the instability of a wake with published results. For the confluent wake/boundary layers, modes associated with the boundary layer and the wake, respectively, are identified. The boundary layer mode is found amplified as the wake approaches the wall. On the other hand, the modes associated with the wake, including a symmetric mode and an antisymmetric mode, are stabilized by the reduced distance between the wall and the wake. An unstable mode switching at low frequency is observed where the antisymmetric mode becomes more unstable than the symmetric mode when the wake velocity defect is high.
Turbulent Boundary Layer Facility to Investigate Superhydrophobic Drag Reduction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gose, James W.; Perlin, Marc; Ceccio, Steven L.
2013-11-01
Recent developments in superhydrophobic surfaces have led to potential economic and environmental benefits, perhaps most notably in skin-friction drag reduction. A team from the University of Michigan has developed a recirculating turbulent boundary layer facility to investigate the reduction of drag along engineered superhydrophobic surfaces (SHS). The facility can accommodate both small and large SHS samples in a test section 7 mm (depth)×100 mm (span)×1000 mm (length). Coupled with an 11.2 kilowatt pump and a 30:1 contraction the facility is capable of producing an average flow velocity of 25 m/s, yielding a Reynolds number of 84,000. Flexure-mounted test samples subjected to shear deflect to a max of 50 microns; movements are measured using a digital microscope composed of a high-resolution camera and a water immersion objective. The setup yields an optical resolution of about one micron whereas sub-micron resolution is achieved by implementing an FFT of two Ronchi rulings. Additional drag measurement methods include pressure drop across the test specimen and PIV measured boundary layers. Additional SHS investigations include the implementation of active gas replenishment, providing an opportunity to replace gas-pockets that would otherwise be disrupted in traditional passive SHS surfaces due to high shear stress and turbulent pressure fluctuations. Recent developments in superhydrophobic surfaces have led to potential economic and environmental benefits, perhaps most notably in skin-friction drag reduction. A team from the University of Michigan has developed a recirculating turbulent boundary layer facility to investigate the reduction of drag along engineered superhydrophobic surfaces (SHS). The facility can accommodate both small and large SHS samples in a test section 7 mm (depth)×100 mm (span)×1000 mm (length). Coupled with an 11.2 kilowatt pump and a 30:1 contraction the facility is capable of producing an average flow velocity of 25 m/s, yielding a Reynolds number of 84,000. Flexure-mounted test samples subjected to shear deflect to a max of 50 microns; movements are measured using a digital microscope composed of a high-resolution camera and a water immersion objective. The setup yields an optical resolution of about one micron whereas sub-micron resolution is achieved by implementing an FFT of two Ronchi rulings. Additional drag measurement methods include pressure drop across the test specimen and PIV measured boundary layers. Additional SHS investigations include the implementation of active gas replenishment, providing an opportunity to replace gas-pockets that would otherwise be disrupted in traditional passive SHS surfaces due to high shear stress and turbulent pressure fluctuations. The authors recognize the support of ONR.
Bristled shark skin: a microgeometry for boundary layer control?
Lang, A W; Motta, P; Hidalgo, P; Westcott, M
2008-12-01
There exists evidence that some fast-swimming shark species may have the ability to bristle their scales during fast swimming. Experimental work using a water tunnel facility has been performed to investigate the flow field over and within a bristled shark skin model submerged within a boundary layer to deduce the possible boundary layer control mechanisms being used by these fast-swimming sharks. Fluorescent dye flow visualization provides evidence of the formation of embedded cavity vortices within the scales. Digital particle image velocimetry (DPIV) data, used to evaluate the cavity vortex formation and boundary layer characteristics close to the surface, indicate increased momentum in the slip layer forming above the scales. This increase in flow velocity close to the shark's skin is indicative of boundary layer control mechanisms leading to separation control and possibly transition delay for the bristled shark skin microgeometry. PMID:18838758
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wahls, Richard A.
1990-01-01
The method presented is designed to improve the accuracy and computational efficiency of existing numerical methods for the solution of flows with compressible turbulent boundary layers. A compressible defect stream function formulation of the governing equations assuming an arbitrary turbulence model is derived. This formulation is advantageous because it has a constrained zero-order approximation with respect to the wall shear stress and the tangential momentum equation has a first integral. Previous problems with this type of formulation near the wall are eliminated by using empirically based analytic expressions to define the flow near the wall. The van Driest law of the wall for velocity and the modified Crocco temperature-velocity relationship are used. The associated compressible law of the wake is determined and it extends the valid range of the analytical expressions beyond the logarithmic region of the boundary layer. The need for an inner-region eddy viscosity model is completely avoided. The near-wall analytic expressions are patched to numerically computed outer region solutions at a point determined during the computation. A new boundary condition on the normal derivative of the tangential velocity at the surface is presented; this condition replaces the no-slip condition and enables numerical integration to the surface with a relatively coarse grid using only an outer region turbulence model. The method was evaluated for incompressible and compressible equilibrium flows and was implemented into an existing Navier-Stokes code using the assumption of local equilibrium flow with respect to the patching. The method has proven to be accurate and efficient.
Velocity profiles for turbulent boundary layers under freestream turbulence
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hoffmann, J. A.; Mohammadi, K.
1991-09-01
Correlations for changes of skin friction coefficients and wake parameters, relative to the low freestream turbulence condition, are presented for the case of turbulent boundary layers under freestream turbulence with zero and adverse pressure gradients. The turbulent boundary layers were evaluated on a plate in a wind tunnel using a monoplane rod set turbulence generator; comparisons were also made using the data of several other investigators. The results, which define the velocity profiles within the boundary layers, were found to collapse for a large range of the pressure gradient parameter.
Further Improvements to Nozzle Boundary Layer Calculations in BLIMPJ
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Praharaj, S. C.; Gross, Klaus W.
1989-01-01
Further improvements made to advance the current Boundary Layer Integral Matrix Procedure - Version J (BLIMPJ) containing previously modeled simplified calculation methods by accounting for condensed phase, thick boundary layer and free stream turbulence effects are discussed. The condensed phase effects were included through species composition effect considered via input to the code and through particle damping effect considered via a turbulence model. The thrust loss calculation procedure for thick boundary layer effects was improved and the optimization of net thrust with respect to nozzle length was performed. The effects of free stream turbulence were approximately modeled in the turbulence model.
Nonlinear spatial evolution of inviscid instabilities on hypersonic boundary layers
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wundrow, David W.
1996-01-01
The spatial development of an initially linear vorticity-mode instability on a compressible flat-plate boundary layer is considered. The analysis is done in the framework of the hypersonic limit where the free-stream Mach number M approaches infinity. Nonlinearity is shown to become important locally, in a thin critical layer, when sigma, the deviation of the phase speed from unity, becomes o(M(exp -8/7)) and the magnitude of the pressure fluctuations becomes 0(sigma(exp 5/2)M(exp 2)). The unsteady flow outside the critical layer takes the form of a linear instability wave but with its amplitude completely determined by the nonlinear flow within the critical layer. The coupled set of equations which govern the critical-layer dynamics reflect a balance between spatial-evolution, (linear and nonlinear) convection and nonlinear vorticity-generation terms. The numerical solution to these equations shows that nonlinear effects produce a dramatic reduction in the instability-wave amplitude.
Vertical ozone characteristics in urban boundary layer in Beijing.
Ma, Zhiqiang; Xu, Honghui; Meng, Wei; Zhang, Xiaoling; Xu, Jing; Liu, Quan; Wang, Yuesi
2013-07-01
Vertical ozone and meteorological parameters were measured by tethered balloon in the boundary layer in the summer of 2009 in Beijing, China. A total of 77 tethersonde soundings were taken during the 27-day campaign. The surface ozone concentrations measured by ozonesondes and TEI 49C showed good agreement, albeit with temporal difference between the two instruments. Two case studies of nocturnal secondary ozone maxima are discussed in detail. The development of the low-level jet played a critical role leading to the observed ozone peak concentrations in nocturnal boundary layer (NBL). The maximum of surface ozone was 161.7 ppbv during the campaign, which could be attributed to abundant precursors storage near surface layer at nighttime. Vertical distribution of ozone was also measured utilizing conventional continuous analyzers on 325-m meteorological observation tower. The results showed the NBL height was between 47 and 280 m, which were consistent with the balloon data. Southerly air flow could bring ozone-rich air to Beijing, and the ozone concentrations exceeded the China's hourly ozone standard (approximately 100 ppb) above 600 m for more than 12 h. PMID:23129408
Infrared Imaging of Boundary Layer Transition Flight Experiments
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Berry, Scott A.; Horvath, Thomas J., Jr.; Schwartz, Richard; Ross, Martin; Anderson, Brian; Campbell, Charles H.
2008-01-01
The Hypersonic Thermodynamic Infrared Measurement (HYTHIRM) project is presently focused on near term support to the Shuttle program through the development of an infrared imaging capability of sufficient spatial and temporal resolution to augment existing on-board Orbiter instrumentation. Significant progress has been made with the identification and inventory of relevant existing optical imaging assets and the development, maturation, and validation of simulation and modeling tools for assessment and mission planning purposes, which were intended to lead to the best strategies and assets for successful acquisition of quantitative global surface temperature data on the Shuttle during entry. However, there are longer-term goals of providing global infrared imaging support to other flight projects as well. A status of HYTHIRM from the perspective of how two NASA-sponsored boundary layer transition flight experiments could benefit by infrared measurements is provided. Those two flight projects are the Hypersonic Boundary layer Transition (HyBoLT) flight experiment and the Shuttle Boundary Layer Transition Flight Experiment (BLT FE), which are both intended for reducing uncertainties associated with the extrapolation of wind tunnel derived transition correlations for flight application. Thus, the criticality of obtaining high quality flight data along with the impact it would provide to the Shuttle program damage assessment process are discussed. Two recent wind tunnel efforts that were intended as risk mitigation in terms of quantifying the transition process and resulting turbulent wedge locations are briefly reviewed. Progress is being made towards finalizing an imaging strategy in support of the Shuttle BLT FE, however there are no plans currently to image HyBoLT.
Fuentes, Andres
The concurrent spreading of a boundary layer type diffusion flame is studied. The impossibility of obtaining a low velocity laminar flow without any perturbation induced by buoyancy has lead to the development of an ...
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Marzooqi, Mohamed Al; Basha, Ghouse; Ouarda, Taha B. M. J.; Armstrong, Peter; Molini, Annalisa
2014-05-01
Strong sensible heat fluxes and deep turbulent mixing - together with marked dustiness and a low substrate water content - represent a characteristic signature in the boundary layer over hot deserts, resulting in "thicker" mixing layers and peculiar optical properties. Beside these main features however, desert ABLs present extremely complex local structures that have been scarcely addressed in the literature, and whose understanding is essential in modeling processes such as the transport of dust and pollutants, and turbulent fluxes of momentum, heat and water vapor in hyper-arid regions. In this study, we analyze a continuous record of observations of the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) height from a single lens LiDAR ceilometer operated at Masdar Institute Field Station (24.4oN, 54.6o E, Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates), starting March 2013. We compare different methods for the estimation of the ABL height from Ceilometer data such as, classic variance-, gradient-, log gradient- and second derivation-methods as well as recently developed techniques such as the Bayesian Method and Wavelet covariance transform. Our goal is to select the most suited technique for describing the climatology of the ABL in desert environments. Comparison of our results with radiosonde observations collected at the nearby airport of Abu Dhabi indicate that the WCT and the Bayesian method are the most suitable tools to accurately identify the ABL height in all weather conditions. These two methods are used for the definition of diurnal and seasonal climatologies of the boundary layer conditional to different atmospheric stability classes.
Research applications of a boundary-layer wind profiler
Rogers, R.R.; Ethier, S.A. ); Ecklund, W.L.; Carter, D.A.; Gage, K.S. )
1993-04-01
A small UHF radar wind profiler was operated over a 40-day period during the summer of 1990 at a site on the windward coast of the island of Hawaii. It provided continuous measurements of winds up to the height of the trade-wind inversion, which varied in altitude from about 2 to 4 km during the course of the experiments. The inversion was readily discernible in the data as an elevated layer of high reflectivity, caused by the sharp gradient of refractive index at that level. With a wavelength of 33 cm, the profiler has about the same sensitivity to light rain as to moderately reflective clear air. The data have provided unexpected information on rain development, wave motions on the inversion, sustained vertical air motions at low levels, and interactions between convection and the inversion echo. This paper gives examples of some of the observations, indicating the wide range of applications of boundary-layer profilers.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kreskovsky, J. P.; Shamroth, S. J.; Mcdonald, H.
1975-01-01
Theoretical predictions of turbulent boundary layer development under the influence of strong favorable pressure gradients made using a finite-difference calculation procedure are compared to experimental data. Comparisons are presented for low speed flows with and without wall heat transfer as well as for supersonic flows with adiabatic walls. The turbulence model used is governed by an integral form of the turbulence kinetic energy equation and the results are compared with predictions made using a conventional equilibrium turbulence model based upon Prandtl's mixing length, a Clauser-type eddy viscosity model used by Cebecci and Mosinskis, and a two-equation turbulence energy model of Launder and Jones.
Discrete Roughness Effects on High-Speed Boundary Layers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Iyer, Prahladh Satyanarayanan
This dissertation studies the effects of a discrete roughness element on a high-speed boundary layer using Direct Numerical Simulations (DNS) on unstructured grids. Flow past a cylindrical roughness element placed perpendicular to the flow and a hemispherical bump is studied. A compressible linear stability theory (LST) solver for parallel flows is developed based on the algorithm by Malik and validated for a range of Mach numbers ranging from incompressible to Mach 10. The evolution of the perturbations from DNS is validated with the linear stability solver making the DNS algorithm suitable to study transition problems. Flow past a cylindrical roughness element at Mach 8.12 is simulated using DNS and the velocity profiles in the symmetry and wall---parallel planes are compared to the experiments of Bathel et al.. The flow remains steady and laminar, and does not transition. Overall, good agreement is observed between DNS and experiments, thus validating our algorithm to study effect of roughness on high-speed flows. However, differences are observed in the separation region upstream and recirculation region downstream of the roughness. The DNS results are used to quantify possible uncertainties in the measurement technique as suggested by Danehy [20]. The effect of upstream injection (5% of the free-stream velocity) is also simulated to quantify its effects on the velocity profiles to mimic the injection of NO into air in the experiment. While the boundary layer thickness of the flow increases downstream of the injection location, its effect on the velocity profiles is small when the profiles are scaled with the boundary layer thickness. Flow past a hemispherical bump at Mach 3.37, 5.26 and 8.23 are simulated using DNS with the flow conditions matching the experiments of Danehy et al. to understand the different flow features associated with the flow and the physical mechanism that causes the flow to transition to turbulence. It is observed that the Mach 3.37 and 5.26 flows transition to turbulence while the Mach 8.23 flow remains laminar downstream of the roughness element. The roughness element used in this study is large since the boundary layer thickness of the laminar boundary layer at the location of the roughness is smaller than the roughness height.The Mach 3.37 flow undergoes transition closer to the bump when compared to Mach 5.26, in agreement with experimental observations. Transition is accompanied by an increase in Cf and Ch (Stanton number). Even for the case that did not undergo transition (Mach 8.23), streamwise vortices induced by the roughness cause a significant rise in Cf until 20D downstream. Mean Van-Driest transformed velocity and Reynolds stress for Mach 3.37 and 5.26 shows good agreement with available data. The transition process involves the following key elements---Upon interaction with the roughness element, the boundary layer separates to form a series of spanwise vortices upstream of the roughness, and a separation shear layer. The system of spanwise vortices wrap around the roughness element in the form of horseshoe/necklace vortices to yield a system of counter-rotating streamwise vortices downstream of the element. These vortices are located beneath the separation shear layer and perturb it, which results in the formation of trains of hairpin-shaped vortices further downstream of the roughness for the cases that undergo transition. These hairpins spread in the span with increasing downstream distance and the flow increasingly resembles a fully developed turbulent boundary layer. A local Reynolds number based on the wall properties is seen to correlate the onset of transition for the cases considered. To assess the effect of roughness height on transition, a Mach 3.37 flow past a hemispherical bump is studied by varying the boundary layer thickness (k/delta = 2.54, 1.0, 0.25 & 0.125) where k is the roughness height and delta is the laminar boundary layer thickness at the location of the roughness. Transition occurs in all cases, and the essential mechanism of transition appears to b
An investigation of planetary convection: The role of boundary layers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
King, Eric M.
Thermal and gravitational energy sources drive turbulent convection in Earth's vast liquid metal outer core. These fluid motions generate the electric currents that are believed to power Earth's magnetic field through a process known as dynamo action. Core flow is subject to the influence of Earth's rotation via the Coriolis force, which has an organizational effect on otherwise chaotic motions. Furthermore the magnetic field generated by convection acts back on the flow via Lorentz forces. Fluid motions in Earth's core, and the magnetic field generating regions of other planets and stars, are then governed by three main ingredients: convection, rotation, and magnetic fields. The goal of my Ph.D. research is to further our understanding of the systematic fluid dynamics occurring in dynamo systems. To accomplish this, I have developed a unique experimental device that allows me to produce fluid conditions approaching those expected in Earth's core and other planetary and stellar environments. The results presented here stem from a broad parameter survey of non-magnetic, rotating convection. In this study, I examine the interplay between rotation and convection by broadly varying the strength of each and measuring the efficiency of convective heat transfer. This parameter survey allows me to argue that the importance of rotation in convection dynamics is determined by boundary layer physics, where the Ekman (rotating) and thermal (non-rotating) boundary layers compete for control of convection dynamics. I develop a simple predictive scaling of this convective regime transition using theoretical boundary layer thickness scalings. This transition scaling permits a unified description of heat transfer in rotating convection, which reconciles contrasting results from previous studies. I also extend this experimental result to a broad array of numerical dynamo models, arguing that the boundary layer control of convective regimes is also evident in the dynamo models. A notable implication of this regime transition scaling is that it is much easier than previously thought for non-rotating style dynamics to occur in convection experiments and simulations, and perhaps also in planets and stars.
Effect of Protuberance Shape and Orientation on Space Shuttle Orbiter Boundary-Layer Transition
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
King, RUdolph A.; Berry, Scott A.; Kegerise, Michael A.
2008-01-01
This document describes an experimental study conducted to examine the effects of protuberances on hypersonic boundary-layer transition. The experiment was conducted in the Langley 20-Inch Mach 6 Tunnel on a series of 0.9%-scale Shuttle Orbiter models. The data were acquired to complement the existing ground-based boundary-layer transition database that was used to develop Version 1.0 of the boundary-layer transition RTF (return-to-flight) tool. The existing ground-based data were all acquired on 0.75%-scale Orbiter models using diamond-shaped ( pizza-box ) trips. The larger model scale facilitated in manufacturing higher fidelity protuberances. The end use of this experimental database will be to develop a technical basis (in the form of a boundary-layer transition correlation) to assess representative protrusion shapes, e.g., gap fillers and protrusions resulting from possible tile repair concepts. The primary objective of this study is to investigate the effects of protuberance-trip location and geometry on Shuttle Orbiter boundary-layer transition. Secondary goals are to assess the effects of gap-filler orientation and other protrusion shapes on boundary-layer transition. Global heat-transfer images using phosphor thermography of the Orbiter windward surface and the corresponding streamwise and spanwise heating distributions were used to infer the state of the boundary layer, i.e., laminar, transitional, or turbulent.
Planetary Boundary Layer Dynamics over Reno, Nevada in Summer
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liming, A.; Sumlin, B.; Loria Salazar, S. M.; Holmes, H.; Arnott, W. P.
2014-12-01
Quantifying the height of the planetary boundary layer (PBL) is important to understand the transport behavior, mixing, and surface concentrations of air pollutants. In Reno, NV, located in complex, mountainous terrain with high desert climate, the daytime boundary layer can rise to an estimated 3km or more on a summer day due to surface heating and convection. The nocturnal boundary layer, conversely, tends to be much lower and highly stable due to radiative cooling from the surface at night and downslope flow of cool air from nearby mountains. With limited availability of radiosonde data, current estimates of the PBL height at any given time or location are potentially over or underestimated. To better quantify the height and characterize the PBL physics, we developed portable, lightweight sensors that measure CO2 concentrations, temperature, pressure, and humidity every 5 seconds. Four of these sensors are used on a tethered balloon system to monitor CO2 concentrations from the surface up to 300m. We will combine this data with Radio Acoustic Sounding System (RASS) data that measures vertical profiles of wind speed, temperature, and humidity from 40m to 400m. This experiment will characterize the diurnal evolution of CO2 concentrations at multiple heights in the PBL, provide insight into PBL physics during stability transition periods at sunrise and sunset, and estimate the nighttime PBL depth during August in Reno. Further, we expect to gain a better understanding of the impact of mixing volume changes (i.e., PBL height) on air quality and pollution concentrations in Reno. The custom portable sensor design will also be presented. It is expected that these instruments can be used for indoor or outdoor air quality studies, where lightness, small size, and battery operation can be of benefit.
Modelling wave-boundary layer interaction for wind power applications
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jenkins, A. D.; Barstad, I.; Gupta, A.; Adakudlu, M.
2012-04-01
Marine wind power production facilities are subjected to direct and indirect effects of ocean waves. Direct effects include forces due to wave orbital motions and slamming of the water surface under breaking wave conditions, corrosion and icing due to sea spray, and the effects of wave-generated air bubbles. Indirect effects include include the influence of waves on the aerodynamic sea-surface roughness, air turbulence, the wind velocity profile, and air velocity oscillations, wave-induced currents and sediment transport. Field observations within the boundary layers from floating measurement may have to be corrected to account for biases induced as a result of wave-induced platform motions. To estimate the effect of waves on the atmospheric boundary layer we employ the WRF non-hydrostatic mesoscale atmosphere model, using the default YSU planetary boundary layer (PBL) scheme and the WAM spectral wave model, running simultaneously and coupled using the open-source coupler MCEL which can interpolate between different model grids and timesteps. The model is driven by the WRF wind velocity at 10 m above the surface. The WRF model receives from WAM updated air-sea stress fields computed from the wind input source term, and computes new fields for the Charnock parameter and marine surface aerodynamic roughness. Results from a North Atlantic and Nordic Seas simulation indicate that the two-way coupling scheme alters the 10 metre wind predicted by WRF by up to 10 per cent in comparison with a simulation using a constant Charnock parameter. The changes are greatest in developing situations with passages of fronts, moving depressions and squalls. This may be directly due to roughness length changes, or may be due to changes in the timing of front/depression/squall passages. Ongoing work includes investigating the effect of grid refinement/nesting, employing different PBL schemes, and allowing the wave field to change the direction of the total air-sea stress.
Seasonal Characteristics of Planetary Boundary Layer in Qatar.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ackermann, Luis; Ayoub, Mohammed A.; Astudillo, Daniel P.; Bachour, Dunia A.
2015-04-01
Understanding the mechanisms driving the Planetary Boundary Layer (PBL) development as well as its seasonal characteristics is essential for predicting meteorological and air quality phenomena. Using data from the vertical backscatter profile of the atmosphere above Qatar from a ceilometer, coupled with a novel Layer Identification Algorithm (LIA) developed by QEERI, a continuous time series of the PBL has been attained. This data has been carefully validated against in-situ measurements via coinciding radiosonde launches. These launches were performed weekly at 13:00 local time during 2014; with occasional launches at 07:00. The detected PBL depth from the sondes show good correlation with LIA. This algorithm uses image recognition methods to identify boundary layers not only by their vertical characteristics; but also by their temporal and spatial signatures. This algorithm was written in Python and is designed to process the ceilometer's output data in real time or as a post-process. The behavior of the PBL depth diurnal variation in Qatar was observed to vary in correlation with the change in seasons. During the winter months the mean PBL depth was higher compared to the summer months; in addition, the diurnal amplitude was higher during winter. Apart from seasonal variations in the PBL depth behavior, short term fluctuations in the daily signature of the PBL structure were observed; with some days exhibiting a well-developed PBL followed by a day with no significant PBL variation. This behavior of the summer PBL (lower daily mean depth and lower diurnal amplitude relative to winter) was explained after looking at diurnal humidity and temperature variations. During these months, the intense temperature and humidity enhances the energy flux towards latent heat, actually diminishing the effect of the high insolation towards the development of the PBL. Lower mean PBL depths during the months of higher photochemical activity affect surface concentrations of secondary pollutants and particle matter.
Interacting turbulent boundary layer over a wavy wall
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Polak, A.; Werle, M. J.
1977-01-01
The two dimensional supersonic flow of a thick turbulent boundary layer over a train of relatively small wave-like protuberances is considered. The flow conditions and the geometry are such that there exists a strong interaction between the viscous and inviscid flow. The problem cannot be solved without inclusion of interaction effects due to the occurrence of the separation singularity in classical boundary layer methods. The interacting boundary layer equations are solved numerically using a time-like relaxation method with turbulence effects represented by the inclusion of the eddy viscosity model. Results are presented for flow over a train of up to six waves for Mach numbers of 10 and 32 million/meter, and wall temperature rations (T sub w/T sub 0) of 0.4 and 0.8. Limited comparisons with independent experimental and analytical results are also given. Detailed results on the influence of small protuberances on surface heating by boundary layers are presented.
Boundary layer analysis of a Centaur standard shroud
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hingst, W. R.; Towne, C. E.
1978-01-01
An analytical boundary layer investigation was carried out in conjunction with an experimental wind tunnel test to determine the discharge characteristics of the Centaur shroud ascent vent system on the Titan/Centaur launch vehicle. This involved estimating the effect of the local boundary layers on the vent discharge for vehicle Mach numbers ranging from 0.8 to 1.56. The growth of the boundary layer along the vehicle was influenced by the interaction with flanges protruding into the flow and by the longitudinal corrugations in the vehicle surface. The effects of the flange and corrugations were treated by approximate techniques. In addition, boundary layer calculations were made for a 3 percent model of the launch vehicle compared with experimental results.
On the Stability of Boundary Layers of Incompressible Euler Equations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Grenier, E.
2000-06-01
In this paper we investigate the stability and instability of boundary layers of incompressible Euler equations. Copyright 2000 Academic Press. Dans cet article on étudie la stabilité et l'instabilité de couches limites des équations d'Euler.
Viscous boundary layers in rotating fluids driven by periodic flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bergstrom, R. W.; Cogley, A. C.
1976-01-01
The paper analyzes the boundary layers formed in a rotating fluid by an oscillating flow over an infinite half plate, with particular attention paid to the effects of unsteadiness, the critical latitude effect and the structure of the solution to the boundary layer equations at resonance. The Navier-Stokes boundary layer equations are obtained through an asymptotic expansion with the incorporation of the Rossby and Ekman numbers and are analyzed as the sum of a nonlinear steady solution and a linearized unsteady solution. The solution is predominantly composed of two inertial wave vector components, one circularly polarized to the left and the other circularly polarized to the right. The problem considered here has relevance in oceanography and meteorology, with special reference to the unsteady atmospheric boundary layer.
Control and Identification of Turbulent Boundary Layer Separation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Seifert, Avi; Pack-Melton, La Tunia
2004-01-01
Effective delay of turbulent boundary layer separation could be achieved via closed-loop control. Constructing such a system requires that sensor data be processed, real-time, and fed into the controller to determine the output. Current methods for detection of turbulent boundary layer separation are lacking the capability of localized, fast and reliable identification of the boundary layer state. A method is proposed for short-time FFT processing of time series, measured by hot-film sensors, with the purpose of identifying the alternation of the balance between small and large scales as the boundary layer separates, favoring the large scales. The method has been validated by comparison to other criteria of separation detection and over a range of baseline and controlled flow conditions on a simplified high-lift system, incorporating active flow control.
Analysis of civil aircraft propulsors with boundary layer ingestion
Hall, David Kenneth
2015-01-01
This thesis describes (i) guidelines for propulsor sizing, and (ii) strategies for fan turbomachinery conceptual design, for a boundary layer ingesting (BLI) propulsion system for advanced civil transport aircraft. For the ...
Distributed Roughness Receptivity in a Flat Plate Boundary Layer
Kuester, Matthew Scott
2014-04-18
Surface roughness can affect boundary layer transition by acting as a receptivity mechanism for transient growth. Several experiments have investigated transient growth created by discrete roughness elements; however, very ...
Boundary-layer transition effects on airplane stability and control
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Van Dam, C. P.; Holmes, B. J.
1986-01-01
Surface contamination of laminar-flow airfoils can significantly modify the location of transition from laminar-to-turbulent boundary-layer flow. The contamination can be the result of insect debris, environmental effects such as ice crystals and moisture due to mist or rain, surface damage, or other contamination adhering to the surface. Location and mode of transition have a dominant effect on the lift-and-drag characteristics of a lifting surface. The influences of laminar boundary-layer flow behavior on airplane stability and control are examined through theoretical results and experimental (wind-tunnel and free-flight) data. For certain airfoils with a relatively steep pressure recovery it is shown that loss of laminar flow near the leading edge can result in premature separation of the turbulent boundary layer and, consequently, in loss of lift and control effectiveness. Aerodynamic modifications which minimize boundary-layer transition effects on airplane stability and control are also discussed.
Experimental study of a chemically reacting turbulent boundary layer
Ng, T.M.T.
1981-09-01
Effects of a strong stepwise temperature rise and exothermic chemical reaction on the turbulent boundary layer over a flat plate were studied. For the reacting flow, ethylene-air mixture with equivalent ratio of 0.35 was used. High-speed Schlieren photography was used for visualization of the boundary layer thermal structures. Mean and rms density distributions were obtained from Rayleigh scattering intensity measurements. Mean and rms velocity distribution and some important fluctuation correlations were derived from single-component laser Doppler velocimetry measurements. Strong wall-heating causes the expansion of the heat-affected region near the surface and pushes the rest of the boundary layer uwards. The boundary layer thickness, the displacement thickness, the momentum thickness, and the friction coefficient are increased by the wall-heating. The Reynolds stress is reduced due to the density decrease.
Turbulent oceanic western-boundary layers at low latitude
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Quam Cyrille Akuetevi, Cataria; Wirth, Achim
2013-04-01
Low latitude oceanic western-boundary layers range within the most turbulent regions in the worlds ocean. The Somali current system with the Great Whirl and the Brazilian current system with its eddy shedding are the most prominent examples. Results from analytical calculations and integration of a one layer reduced-gravity fine resolution shallow water model is used to entangle this turbulent dynamics. Two types of wind-forcing are applied: a remote Trade wind forcing with maximum shear along the equator and a local Monsoon wind forcing with maximum shear in the vicinity of the boundary. For high values of the viscosity (> 1000m2s-1) the stationary solutions compare well to analytical predictions using Munk and inertial layer theory. When lowering the friction parameter time dependence results. The onset of instability is strongly influenced by inertial effects. The unstable boundary current proceeds as a succession of anti-cyclonic coherent eddies performing a chaotic dynamics in a turbulent flow. The dynamics is governed by the turbulent fluxes of mass and momentum. We determine these fluxes by analyzing the (potential) vorticity dynamics. We demonstrate that the boundary-layer can be separated in four sub-layers, which are (starting from the boundary): (1) the viscous sub-layer (2) the turbulent buffer-layer (3) the layer containing the coherent structures and (4) the extended boundary layer. The characteristics of each sub-layer and the corresponding turbulent fluxes are determined, as are the dependence on latitude and the type of forcing. A new pragmatic method of determining the eddy viscosity, based on Munk-layer theory, is proposed. Results are compared to observations and solutions of the multi-level primitive equation model (DRAKKAR).
A note on boundary-layer friction in baroclinic cyclones
Boutle, I A; Belcher, S E; Plant, R S
2008-01-01
The interaction between extratropical cyclones and the underlying boundary layer has been a topic of recent discussion in papers by Adamson et. al. (2006) and Beare (2007). Their results emphasise different mechanisms through which the boundary layer dynamics may modify the growth of a baroclinic cyclone. By using different sea-surface temperature distributions and comparing the low-level winds, the differences are exposed and both of the proposed mechanisms appear to be acting within a single simulation.
Reynolds Stress Budgets in Couette and Boundary Layer Flows
Jukka Komminaho; Martin Skote
2002-01-01
Reynolds stress budgets for both Couette and boundary layer flows are evaluated and presented. Data are taken from direct\\u000a numerical simulations of rotating and non-rotating plane turbulent Couette flow and turbulent boundary layer with and without\\u000a adverse pressure gradient. Comparison of the total shear stress for the two types of flows suggests that the Couette case\\u000a may be regarded as
Wall pressure spectra calculations for equilibrium boundary layers
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Panton, R. L.; Linebarger, J. H.
1974-01-01
Calculation of the flow direction wave-number spectrum of pressure fluctuations on the wall under a turbulent boundary layer. Particular attention is paid to finding the spectral density of the wall pressure fluctuations as a function of the streamwise wave number. For this purpose a five-dimensional integration is employed in which the equilibrium boundary layers are assumed to have velocity profiles given by the law of the wall plus Cole's wake function.
Distributed boundary layer suction utilizing wing tip effects
Edwards, Jay Thomas
1962-01-01
DISTRIBUTED BOUNDARY LAYER SUCTION UTILIZING WING TIP EFFECTS A Thesis By JAY THOMAS EDWARDS Submitted to the Graduate School of the Agricultural and Mechanical College of Texas in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree... of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 1962 Maj or Subj ect: Aeronautical Engineering DISTRIBUTED BOUNDARY LAYER SUCTION UTILIZING WING TIP EfFECTS A Thesis By JAY THOMAS EDWARDS Approved as to style and content by: Chairman of Committee Head of Department May...
Roughness-induced transition of compressible laminar boundary layers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Redford, J. A.; Sandham, N. D.; Roberts, G. T.
Direct numerical simulation is used to study flow over a roughness element in a flat plate boundary layer at high speed. The roughness element is modeled as a continuous bump with a height that is approximately half the boundary-layer thickness. Simulations with a variety of Mach numbers and wall temperatures have been run over a range of Reynolds numbers, and the results are used to establish a criterion for turbulent breakdown.
Tropical boundary layer equilibrium in the last ice age
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Betts, Alan K.; Ridgway, W.
1992-01-01
A radiative-convective boundary layer model is used to assess the effect of changing sea surface temperature, pressure, wind speed, and the energy export from the tropics on the boundary layer equilibrium equivalent potential temperature. It remains difficult to reconcile the observations that during the last glacial maximum (18,000 yr BP) the snowline on the tropical mountains fell 950 m, while the tropical sea surface temperatures fell only 1-2 K.
Prehistory of Instability in a Hypersonic Boundary Layer
Alexander V. Fedorov; Andrew P. Khokhlov
2001-01-01
. The initial phase of hypersonic boundary-layer transition comprising excitation of boundary-layer modes and their downstream\\u000a evolution from receptivity regions to the unstable region (instability prehistory problem) is considered. The disturbance\\u000a spectrum reveals the following features: (1) the first and second modes are synchronized with acoustic waves near the leading\\u000a edge; (2) further downstream, the first mode is synchronized with
Acoustic sources in the low Mach number turbulent boundary layer
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hardin, Jay C.
1991-01-01
The sources of sound production in a low Mach number turbulent boundary layer are examined. The sources are shown to be quadrupole in nature and to result from supersonically convecting wave-number components of the fluctuating Reynolds' normal stresses. The primary Tollmien-Schlichting instability of the boundary layer is found to radiate no sound. Analysis of various vortical phenomena suggests that the primary source is the process of formation of horseshoe vortices, with viscous sublayer bursts a possible secondary source.
Benthic boundary layer processes in coastal environments: An introduction
M. D. Richardson; W. R. Bryant
1996-01-01
This special issue ofGeo-Marine Letters “Benthic Boundary Layer Processes in Coastal Environments” includes 20 papers devoted to results of recent near-shore experiments supported by the Coastal Benthic Boundary Layer (CBBL) program. Experiments were conducted in gas-rich muddy sediments of Eckernförde Bay of the Baltic Sea and on relict sandy sediments of the West Florida Sand Sheet. In this introductory paper
Benthic boundary layer processes in the Lower Florida Keys
D. L. Lavoie; M. D. Richardson; C. Holmes
1997-01-01
This special issue of Geo-Marine Letters, “Benthic Boundary Layer Processes in the Lower Florida Keys,” includes 12 papers that present preliminary results from the\\u000a Key West Campaign. The Dry Tortugas and Marquesas Keys test sites were selected by a group of 115 scientists and technicians\\u000a to study benthic boundary layer processes in a carbonate environment controlled by bioturbation and biogeochemical
Ekberg, Peter; Su, Rong; Chang, Ernest W.; Yun, Seok Hyun; Mattsson, Lars
2014-01-01
Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is useful for materials defect analysis and inspection with the additional possibility of quantitative dimensional metrology. Here, we present an automated image-processing algorithm for OCT analysis of roll-to-roll multilayers in 3D manufacturing of advanced ceramics. It has the advantage of avoiding filtering and preset modeling, and will, thus, introduce a simplification. The algorithm is validated for its capability of measuring the thickness of ceramic layers, extracting the boundaries of embedded features with irregular shapes, and detecting the geometric deformations. The accuracy of the algorithm is very high, and the reliability is better than 1 µm when evaluating with the OCT images using the same gauge block step height reference. The method may be suitable for industrial applications to the rapid inspection of manufactured samples with high accuracy and robustness. PMID:24562018
Ekberg, Peter; Su, Rong; Chang, Ernest W; Yun, Seok Hyun; Mattsson, Lars
2014-02-01
Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is useful for materials defect analysis and inspection with the additional possibility of quantitative dimensional metrology. Here, we present an automated image-processing algorithm for OCT analysis of roll-to-roll multilayers in 3D manufacturing of advanced ceramics. It has the advantage of avoiding filtering and preset modeling, and will, thus, introduce a simplification. The algorithm is validated for its capability of measuring the thickness of ceramic layers, extracting the boundaries of embedded features with irregular shapes, and detecting the geometric deformations. The accuracy of the algorithm is very high, and the reliability is better than 1 ?m when evaluating with the OCT images using the same gauge block step height reference. The method may be suitable for industrial applications to the rapid inspection of manufactured samples with high accuracy and robustness. PMID:24562018
Interaction of a Boundary Layer with a Turbulent Wake
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Piomelli, Ugo
2004-01-01
The objective of this grant was to study the transition mechanisms on a flat-plate boundary layer interacting with the wake of a bluff body. This is a simplified configuration presented and designed to exemplify the phenomena that occur in multi-element airfoils, in which the wake of an upstream element impinges on a downstream one. Some experimental data is available for this configuration at various Reynolds numbers. The first task carried out was the implementation and validation of the immersed-boundary method. This was achieved by performing calculations of the flow over a cylinder at low and moderate Reynolds numbers. The low-Reynolds number results are discussed, which is enclosed as Appendix A. The high-Reynolds number results are presented in a paper in preparation for the Journal of Fluid Mechanics. We performed calculations of the wake-boundary-layer interaction at two Reynolds numbers, Re approximately equal to 385 and 1155. The first case is discussed and a comparison of the two calculations is reported. The simulations indicate that at the lower Reynolds number the boundary layer is buffeted by the unsteady Karman vortex street shed by the cylinder. This is shown: long streaky structures appear in the boundary layer in correspondence of the three-dimensionalities in the rollers. The fluctuations, however, cannot be self-sustained due to the low Reynolds-number, and the flow does not reach a turbulent state within the computational domain. In contrast, in the higher Reynolds-number case, boundary-layer fluctuations persist after the wake has decayed (due, in part, to the higher values of the local Reynolds number Re achieved in this case); some evidence could be observed that a self-sustaining turbulence generation cycle was beginning to be established. A third simulation was subsequently carried out at a higher Reynolds number, Re=3900. This calculation gave results similar to those of the Re=l155 case. Turbulence was established at fairly low Reynolds number, as a consequence of the high level of the free-stream perturbation. An instantaneous flow visualization for that case is shown. A detailed examination of flow statistics in the transitional and turbulent regions, including the evolution of the turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) budget and frequency spectra showed the formation and evolution of turbulent spots characteristic of the bypass transition mechanism. It was also observed that the turbulent eddies achieved an equilibrium, fully developed turbulent states first, as evidenced by the early agreement achieved by the terms in the TKE budget with those observed in turbulent flows. Once a turbulent Reynolds stress profile had been established, the velocity profile began to resemble a turbulent one, first in the inner region and later in the outer region of the wall layer. An extensive comparison of the three cases, including budgets, mean velocity and Reynolds stress profiles and flow visualization, is included. The results obtained are also presented.
Finite difference solutions of boundary-layer type equations
P. M. Beckett
1983-01-01
An improved algorithm is presented for solving boundary-layer type equations. The Falkner-Skan equation is used to illustrate the benefit of formulating an integro- differential equation to avoid imposing finite difference approximations for the boundary conditions. The method is rapidly convergent, stable and can find solutions to which other methods do not converge.
Modelling Unsteady Wall Pressures Beneath Turbulent Boundary Layers
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ahn, B-K.; Graham, W. R.; Rizzi, S. A.
2004-01-01
As a structural entity of turbulence, hairpin vortices are believed to play a major role in developing and sustaining the turbulence process in the near wall region of turbulent boundary layers and may be regarded as the simplest conceptual model that can account for the essential features of the wall pressure fluctuations. In this work we focus on fully developed typical hairpin vortices and estimate the associated surface pressure distributions and their corresponding spectra. On the basis of the attached eddy model, we develop a representation of the overall surface pressure spectra in terms of the eddy size distribution. Instantaneous wavenumber spectra and spatial correlations are readily derivable from this representation. The model is validated by comparison of predicted wavenumber spectra and cross-correlations with existing emperical models and experimental data.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Oliver, A. B.; Lillard, R. P.; Blaisdell, G. A.; Lyrintizis, A. S.
2006-01-01
The capability of the OVERFLOW code to accurately compute high-speed turbulent boundary layers and turbulent shock-boundary layer interactions is being evaluated. Configurations being investigated include a Mach 2.87 flat plate to compare experimental velocity profiles and boundary layer growth, a Mach 6 flat plate to compare experimental surface heat transfer,a direct numerical simulation (DNS) at Mach 2.25 for turbulent quantities, and several Mach 3 compression ramps to compare computations of shock-boundary layer interactions to experimental laser doppler velocimetry (LDV) data and hot-wire data. The present paper describes outlines the study and presents preliminary results for two of the flat plate cases and two small-angle compression corner test cases.
Dayside boundary layer under northward IMF: A Cluster perspective
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, H.; Fritz, T.; Zong, Q.; Daly, P.
2004-12-01
It has been proposed that the Low Latitude Boundary Layer (LLBL) was formed by high-latitude reconnection when the IMF is northward. To study the relationship between the low-latitude boundary layer and high-latitude boundary layer under northward IMF condition, we present statistical results based on 3 years of data obtained by Cluster when these spacecraft were in the vicinity of the dayside magnetopause during northward IMF. In total 341 cases of Cluster crossing of Low Latitude Boundary Layer (LLBL) and High Latitude Boundary Layer (HLBL) (according to the definition by Phan et al [1996a,b]) have been analyzed in detail in order to study the relation between the LLBL and the HLBL. The plasma density, temperature, velocity, energetic particle flux and magnetic field geometry change across the magnetopause under northward IMF were analyzed by a superposed epoch analysis. It has been suggested [Zong et al, 2004] that the solar wind plasma density decreases in the magnetospheric boundary region in an exponential mannerwith an e-folding distance of 1000 km during northward IMF in a case study. In this statistical study, we explore further the relation between the distance to magnetopause and the penetration of solar wind plasma inside the magnetopause. Phan, T. D., and G. Paschmann, Low-latitude dayside magnetopause and boundary layer for high magnetic sheath: 1. Structure and motion, J. Geophys. Res.,101, 7801-7815, 1996 Phan, T. D., G. Paschmann, and B. U. O. Sonnerup, Low-latitude dayside magnetopause and boundary layer for high magnetic sheath: 2. Occurrence of magnetic reconnection, J. Geophys. Res.,101, 7817-7828, 1996 Zong, Q.-G., T. A. Fritz, H. Spence, K. Oksavik, Z.-Y. Pu, A. Korth, and P. W. Daly, Energetic particle sounding of the magnetopause: A contribution by Cluster/RAPID, J. Geophys. Res.,109, A04207, 2004
Rubin, H.; Buddemeier, R.W.
1996-01-01
This paper presents improvements in the 'classical boundary layer' (CBL) approximation method to obtain simple but robust initial characterization of aquifer contamination processes. Contaminants are considered to penetrate into the groundwater through the free surface of the aquifer. The improved method developed in this study is termed the 'top specified boundary layer' (TSBL) approach. It involves the specification of the contaminant concentration at the top of the contaminated 'region of interest' (ROI), which is simulated as a boundary layer. the TSBL modification significantly improves the ability of the boundary layer method to predict the development of concentration profiles over both space and time. The TSBL method can be useful for the simulation of cases in which the contaminant concentration is prescribed at the aquifer's free surface as well as for cases in which the contaminant mass flux is prescribed at the surface.
Low Cost Geothermal Separators BLISS Boundary Layer Inline Separator Scrubber
Jung, Douglas; Wai, King
2000-05-26
A new compact, low cost, and high performance separator is being developed to help reduce the installed and O and M cost of geothermal power generation. This device has been given the acronym ''BLISS'' that stands for ''Boundary Layer Inline Separator Scrubber''. The device is the first of a series of separators, and in the case of injectates, scrubbers to address the cost-reduction needs of the industry. The BLISS is a multi-positional centrifugal separator primarily designed to be simply installed between pipe supports, in a horizontal position. This lower profile reduces the height safety concern for workers, and significantly reduces the total installation cost. The vessel can demand as little as one-quarter (25%) the amount of steel traditionally required to fabricate many large vertical separators. The compact nature and high separating efficiency of this device are directly attributable to a high centrifugal force coupled with boundary layer control. The pseudo isokinetic flow design imparts a self-cleaning and scale resistant feature. This polishing separator is designed to remove moderate amounts of liquid and entrained solids.
Demonstration of a laser vorticity probe in turbulent boundary layers
Su, W-J.; Stepaniuk, V.; Oetuegen, M. V. [Aeroballistics Division, U.S. Army Armament Research, Development and Engineering Center, Picatinny Arsenal, New Jersey 07806 (United States); Lenterra, Inc., West Orange, New Jersey 07052 (United States); Mechanical Engineering Department, Southern Methodist University, Dallas, Texas 75275 (United States)
2007-09-15
A laser-based probe for the nonintrusive measurement of velocity gradient and vorticity was demonstrated in turbulent boundary layers. Unlike most other optical methods, the current technique provides an estimate of the velocity gradient, without having to first measure velocity at multiple points. The measurement principle is based on the heterodyne of coherent light scattered from two adjacent particles. The beat frequency of the heterodyne is directly proportional to the velocity gradient. The probe is assembled from commercially available, inexpensive optical components. A laser Doppler velocimeter (LDV) processor is used to analyze the heterodyne signal. A component of vorticity is obtained by using two appropriately aligned velocity gradient probes. The optical probes developed were used in turbulent boundary layers to measure local, time-frozen velocity gradients {partial_derivative}u/{partial_derivative}y, {partial_derivative}v/{partial_derivative}x, and {partial_derivative}v/{partial_derivative}y, as well as the spanwise vorticity. The measurements were compared to those inferred from LDV measurements in the same facility and to data available in the literature.
The use of kites to investigate boundary layer meteorology
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Varley, M. J.
1997-06-01
The application of kites as a platform for meteorological measurement within the boundary layer is examined. Kites are shown to fulfil a useful role within this research area, particularly when a highly mobile, lightweight and inexpensive instrumental platform is required. They are ideal for use at remote sites, or sites where terrain limits access for more conventional profiling equipment. The development of a reliable, tethered radiosonde atmospheric profiling system (TRAPS) is described, comparing the relative performance of two different sizes of two different types of kite. Basic kite aerodynamics are explained as well as a number of practical problems which have to be overcome or accommodated. Appropriate kite selection for given wind conditions and experimental requirements is suggested, providing an operational windspeed of between 2 and 14 m s-1. Finally, experimental results from three diverse remote sites illustrate practical applications of the profiling system, investigating firstly the structure of surface inversions over an ice shelf in the Antarctica, secondly flow over hills in Cumbria and thirdly convective boundary-layer structure on the Isle of Arran, Scotland.
Boundary Layer Height and Structure during the NATO LASIE Campaign
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tomé, R.; Sempreviva, A. M.; Schiano, E.; Bozzano, R.; Miranda, P. M.; Pensieri, S.; Semedo, A.; Teixeira, J.
2009-09-01
The NATO Ligurian Air-Sea Interaction Experiment (LASIE) took place in 2007, from 16 to 22 June, in the Mediterranean Sea. This filed campaign was organized under the auspices of the NATO Undersea Research Centre (NURC), located in La Spezia, Italy. The main scientific goal was to contribute to the evaluation and development of parameterizations of the oceanic and atmospheric boundary layers and their interactions. Extensive meteorological and oceanographic measurements were collected, on board the research vessels Leonardo, Planet, and Urania, and from the spar buoy ODAS Italia 1. In this study ceilometer (Vaisala CL31) and atmospheric radiosondes (Vaisala DigiCORA) measurements are used to assess the evolution of the marine atmospheric boundary layer (MABL) structure and height during the LASIE cruise. The ceilometer measured continuously the cloud height base, while the radiosondes, launched every 3 hours, recorded vertical profiles of wind speed, wind direction, potential temperature and relative humidity. Several methods available in the literature are used to determine the height of the MABL from observations. The results from these methods are compared with the MABL heights from the limited-area numeric weather prediction models WRF (Weather Research and Forecasting) and MM5 (Fifth-Generation Mesoscale Model).
Wintertime Boundary Layer Structure in the Grand Canyon.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Whiteman, C. David; Zhong, Shiyuan; Bian, Xindi
1999-08-01
Wintertime temperature profiles in the Grand Canyon exhibit a neutral to isothermal stratification during both daytime and nighttime, with only rare instances of actual temperature inversions. The canyon warms during daytime and cools during nighttime more or less uniformly through the canyon's entire depth. This weak stability and temperature structure evolution differ from other Rocky Mountain valleys, which develop strong nocturnal inversions and exhibit convective and stable boundary layers that grow upward from the valley floor. Mechanisms that may be responsible for the different behavior of the Grand Canyon are discussed, including the possibility that the canyon atmosphere is frequently mixed to near-neutral stratification when cold air drains into the top of the canyon from the nearby snow-covered Kaibab Plateau. Another feature of canyon temperature profiles is the sharp inversions that often form near the canyon rims. These are generally produced when warm air is advected over the canyon in advance of passing synoptic-scale ridges.Wintertime winds in the main canyon are not classical diurnal along-valley wind systems. Rather, they are driven along the canyon axis by the horizontal synoptic-scale pressure gradient that is superimposed along the canyon's axis by passing synoptic-scale weather disturbances. They may thus bring winds into the canyon from either end at any time of day.The implications of the observed canyon boundary layer structure for air pollution dispersion are discussed.
Low heat conduction in white dwarf boundary layers?
F. K. Liu; F. Meyer; E. Meyer-Hofmeister; V. Burwitz
2008-01-01
Context: X-ray spectra of dwarf novae in quiescence observed by Chandra and XMM-Newton provide new information on the boundary layers of their accreting white dwarfs. Aims: Comparison of observations and models allows us to extract estimates for the thermal conductivity in the accretion layer and reach conclusions on the relevant physical processes. Methods: We calculate the structure of the dense
ON AERODYNAMIC AND BOUNDARY LAYER RESISTANCES WITHIN DRY DEPOSITION MODELS
There have been many empirical parameterizations for the aerodynamic and boundary layer resistances proposed in the literature, e.g. those of the Meyers Multi-Layer Deposition Model (MLM) used with the nation-wide dry deposition network. Many include arbitrary constants or par...
Temperature Fluctuation Scaling in Reacting Boundary Layers M. Pino Martin
Martín, Pino
. Temperature fluctuations increase the reaction rates. Endothermic reactions reduce the magnitudeTemperature Fluctuation Scaling in Reacting Boundary Layers M. Pino Mart´in CTR/NASA Ames, Moffett layer is used to study the turbulence-chemistry interaction and the scaling of the temperature
Stabilization of Hypersonic Boundary Layers by Porous Coatings
Alexander V. Fedorov; Norman D. Malmuth; Adam Rasheed; Hans G. Hornung
2001-01-01
A second-mode stability analysis has been performed for a hypersonic boundary layer on a wall covered by a porous coating with equally spaced cylindrical blind microholes. Massive reduction of the second mode amplié - cation is found to be due to the disturbance energy absorption by the porous layer. This stabilization effect was demonstrated by experiments recently conducted on a
Shipboard measurements of the cloud-capped marine boundary layer during FIRE/ASTEX
1997-09-01
Results are reported on measurements of the cloud-capped marine boundary layer during FIRE/ASTEX. A method was developed from the ASTEX dataset for measuring profiles of liquid water content, droplet size and concentration from cloud radar/microwave radiometer data in marine boundary layer clouds. Profiles were also determined from the first three moments of the Doppler spectrum measured in drizzle with the ETL cloud radar during ASTEX.
Horton, pipe hydraulics, and the atmospheric boundary layer (The Robert E. Horton Memorial Lecture)
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Brutsaert, Wilfried
1993-01-01
The early stages of Horton's scientific career which provided the opportunity and stimulus to delve into the origins of some contemporary concepts on the atmospheric boundary layer are reviewed. The study of Saph and Schoder provided basis for the experimental verification and validation of similarity by Blasius, Staton and Pannel, and for the subsequent developments that led to the present understanding of the turbulent boundary layer. Particular attention is given to incorporation of similarity and scaling in the analysis of turbulent flow.
Effects of mass addition on blunt-body boundary-layer transition and heat transfer
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kaattari, G. E.
1978-01-01
The model bodies tested at Mach number 7.32 were hemispheres, blunt cones, and spherical segments. The mass addition consisted of air ejected through porous forward surfaces of the models. The experimental data consisted of heat transfer measurements from which boundary layer transitions were deduced. The data verified various applicable boundary layer codes in the laminar and transitional flow regimes. Empirical heating rate data correlations were developed for the laminar and turbulent flow regimes.
A numerical investigation of boundary layer quasi-equilibrium
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Thayer-Calder, K.; Randall, David
2015-01-01
Despite the large energy input from surface evaporation, the moist static energy (MSE) of the tropical boundary layer remains relatively constant on large spatial and temporal scales due to lifting of vapor by cloudy updrafts and the addition of dry air from the layers above. Arakawa and Schubert (1974) suggested that drying is due mainly to clear-air turbulent entrainment between cloudy updrafts, while Raymond (1995) described drying due mainly to convective downdrafts. We used cloud-resolving numerical simulations to investigate the transport of MSE into the boundary layer and found turbulent entrainment between clouds to be the dominant process.
An experimental investigation of turbulent boundary layers along curved surfaces
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
So, R. M. C.; Mellor, G. L.
1972-01-01
A curved wall tunnel was designed, and an equilibrium turbulent boundary layer was set up on the straight section preceding the curved test section. Turbulent boundary layer flows with uniform and adverse pressure distributions along convex and concave walls were investigated. Hot-wire measurements along the convex surface indicated that turbulent mixing between fluid layers was very much reduced. However, the law of the wall held and the skin friction, thus determined, correlated well with other measurements. Hot-wire measurements along the concave test wall revealed a system of longitudinal vortices inside the boundary layer and confirmed that concave curvature enhances mixing. A self-consistent set of turbulent boundary layer equations for flows along curved surfaces was derived together with a modified eddy viscosity. Solution of these equations together with the modified eddy viscosity gave results that correlated well with the present data on flows along the convex surface with arbitrary pressure distribution. However, it could only be used to predict the mean characteristics of the flow along concave walls because of the existence of the system of longitudinal vortices inside the boundary layer.
Large-eddy and direct simulations of accelerating boundary layers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yuan, Junlin; Grazioso, Valerio; Piomelli, Ugo
2010-11-01
Turbulent boundary layers subject to a favorable pressure gradient (which induces freestream acceleration) are found in many engineering applications, such as airfoils or curved ducts. If the acceleration is sufficiently large, turbulence production decreases, and the flow reverts to a laminar or quasi-laminar state. Once the cause of relaminarization is removed, the flow re-transitions to turbulence in a process that may depend critically on the residual levels of turbulent fluctuation during the relaminarization. We performed direct and large-eddy simulations (DNS and LES) of accelerating boundary layers, on smooth and rough flat plates. The DNS allows to study both the relaminarization and re-transition without requiring any turbulence model that may alter the physics. It also validates the LES, which can be extended to higher Reynolds numbers. The roughness is included using an Immersed Boundary Method. The entrainment of the irrotational freestream fluid into the boundary layer plays a critical role in the formation of a well-mixed outer layer and the stabilization of the inner layer. The wall-normal and shear components of the Reynolds stress decay more rapidly than the streamwise one, leading to a state of inactive turbulence that is advected from the upstream boundary layer into the relaminarization region. Roughness effects are limited to the near wall, but are nonetheless visible.
The effects of forcing on a single stream shear layer and its parent boundary layer
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Haw, Richard C.; Foss, John F.
1990-01-01
Forcing and its effect on fluid flows has become an accepted tool in the study and control of flow systems. It has been used both as a diagnostic tool, to explore the development and interaction of coherent structures, and as a method of controlling the behavior of the flow. A number of forcing methods have been used in order to provide a perturbation to the flow; among these are the use of an oscillating trailing edge, acoustically driven slots, external acoustic forcing, and mechanical piston methods. The effect of a planar mechanical piston forcing on a single stream shear layer is presented; it can be noted that this is one of the lesser studied free shear layers. The single stream shear layer can be characterized by its primary flow velocity scale and the thickness of the separating boundary layer. The velocity scale is constant over the length of the flow field; theta (x) can be used as a width scale to characterize the unforced shear layer. In the case of the forced shear layer the velocity field is a function of phase time and definition of a width measure becomes somewhat problematic.
Boundary-layer control by electric fields A feasibility study
Mendes, R V
1998-01-01
A problem of great concern in aviation and submarine propulsion is the control of the boundary layer and, in particular, the methods to extend the laminar region as a means to decrease noise and fuel consumption. In this paper we study the flow of air along an airfoil when a layer of ionized gas and a longitudinal electric field are created in the boundary layer region. By deriving scaling solutions and more accurate numerical solutions we discuss the possibility of achieving significant boundary layer control for realistic physical parameters. Practical design formulas and criteria are obtained. We also discuss the perspectives for active control of the laminar-to-turbulent transition fluctuations by electromagnetic field modulation.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Vanness, W.
1978-01-01
A summary report of boundary layer studies is presented. Preliminary results of experimental measurements show that: (1) A very thin layer (approximately 0.4 mm) of the boundary layer seems to be accelerated; (2) the static pressure of the outer flow does not remain exactly constant through the boundary layer; and (3) an oncoming boundary layer which is already turbulent at the suction point can again become laminar behind this point without being completely sucked off.
The Boundary Layer Late Afternoon and Sunset Turbulence Project
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lothon, Marie; Lohou, Fabienne; Darbieu, Clara; Couvreux, Fleur; Pino, David; Blay, Estel; Vila-Guerau de Arellano, Jordi; Pietersen, Henk; Hartogensis, Oscar; Pardyjak, Eric; Alexander, Daniel; Reuder, Joachim; Baaserud, Line; Nilsson, Erik; Jimenez, Maria Antonia; Faloona, Ian; Sastre-Marugan, Mariano; Angevine, Wayne M.; Canut, Guylaine; Bazile, Eric
2014-05-01
The BLLAST (Boundary Layer Late Afternoon and Sunset Turbulence) project aims at better understanding the turbulence processes which occur during the transition from a well-mixed convective boundary layer to a residual layer overlying a stabilized nocturnal layer. This phase of the diurnal cycle is challenging from both modeling and observational perspectives: it is transitory, most of the forcings are small or null during the transition and the turbulence regime changes from the fully convective regime of turbulence, close to homogeneous and isotropic, toward more heterogeneous and intermittent turbulence during its decay. Those issues motivated a field campaign that was conducted from 14 June to 8 July 2011 in southern France in complex terrain and consisted of a range of integrated instrument platforms including: full-size aircraft, Remotely Piloted Airplane Systems (RPAS), remote sensing instruments, radiosoundings, tethered balloons, surface flux stations, and various meteorological towers deployed over different surface covers. The boundary layer, from the earth's surface to free troposphere was densely probed during the entire day, with a focus and intense observations from midday until sunset. The field dataset now forms the base of a set of studies utilizing the observations and several types of models including: Large Eddy Simulation, Mesoscale models, forecast models. The presentation will expose an overview of this experiment and of the current observational and modeling studies, with the focus on: the turbulence decay process within the entire boundary layer from surface to the top, the mesoscale forcings of importance during BLLAST, the ability of the forecast models to represent the diurnal cycle, the relevance of the Monin Obukhov similarity theory, and shallow drainage flows. Reference: Lothon M. et al., 2012. The Boundary-Layer Late Afternoon and Sunset Turbulence field experiment, Proc. of the 20th Symposium on Boundary-Layers and Turbulence, 7-13 July, Boston, MA, USA.
R. Avila; J. L. Avilés; R. W. Wilson; M. Chun; T. Butterley; E. Carrasco
2008-01-01
We report the development and first results of an instrument called Low Layer SCIDAR (Scintillation Detection and Ranging) (LOLAS) which is aimed at the measurement of optical-turbulence profiles in the atmospheric boundary layer with high altitude resolution. The method is based on the Generalized SCIDAR (GS) concept, but unlike the GS instruments which need a 1-m or larger telescope, LOLAS
Effects of Riblets on Skin Friction in High-Speed Turbulent Boundary Layers
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Duan, Lian; Choudhari, Meelan M.
2012-01-01
Direct numerical simulations of spatially developing turbulent boundary layers over riblets are conducted to examine the effects of riblets on skin friction at supersonic speeds. Zero-pressure gradient boundary layers with an adiabatic wall, a Mach number of M1 = 2.5, and a Reynolds number based on momentum thickness of Re = 1720 are considered. Simulations are conducted for boundary-layer flows over a clean surface and symmetric V- groove riblets with nominal spacings of 20 and 40 wall units. The DNS results confirm the few existing experimental observations and show that a drag reduction of approximately 7% is achieved for riblets with proper spacing. The influence of riblets on turbulence statistics is analyzed in detail with an emphasis on identifying the differences, if any, between the drag reduction mechanisms for incompressible and high-speed boundary layers.
Instability of compressible boundary layers along curved walls with suction or cooling
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
El-Hady, N. M.; Verma, A. K.
1982-01-01
This paper investigates the effect of suction of the boundary layer and wall cooling on the growth and development of three-dimensional longitudinal vortices over concave walls. The study is carried out for compressible flows for a range of Mach numbers from 0 to 5. Despite indications that small suction or small cooling rates locally reduce the critical Goertler number (destabilize the boundary layer), the overall effect of suction or cooling is to stabilize the boundary layer by reducing the amplitude ratio of the vortices. In case of suction, this becomes more difficult with increasing Mach number unless high suction rates are used. On the other hand, stabilizing the boundary layer with respect to Goertler vortices can hardly be achieved by cooling even when high cooling rates are used.
Shuttle Return To Flight Experimental Results: Protuberance Effects on Boundary Layer Transition
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Liechty, Derek S.; Berry, Scott A.; Horvath, Thomas J.
2006-01-01
The effect of isolated roughness elements on the windward boundary layer of the Shuttle Orbiter has been experimentally examined in the Langley Aerothermodynamic Laboratory in support of an agency-wide effort to prepare the Shuttle Orbiter for return to flight. This experimental effort was initiated to provide a roughness effects database for developing transition criteria to support on-orbit decisions to repair damage to the thermal protection system. Boundary layer transition results were obtained using trips of varying heights and locations along the centerline and attachment lines of 0.0075-scale models. Global heat transfer images using phosphor thermography of the Orbiter windward surface and the corresponding heating distributions were used to infer the state of the boundary layer (laminar, transitional, or turbulent). The database contained within this report will be used to formulate protuberance-induced transition correlations using predicted boundary layer edge parameters.
Goertler instability in compressible boundary layers along curved surfaces with suction and cooling
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
El-Hady, N.; Verma, A. K.
1982-01-01
The Goertler instability of the laminar compressible boundary layer flows along concave surfaces is investigated. The linearized disturbance equations for the three-dimensional, counter-rotating streamwise vortices in two-dimensional boundary layers are presented in an orthogonal curvilinear coordinate. The basic approximation of the disturbance equations, that includes the effect of the growth of the boundary layer, is considered and solved numerically. The effect of compressibility on critical stability limits, growth rates, and amplitude ratios of the vortices is evaluated for a range of Mach numbers for 0 to 5. The effect of wall cooling and suction of the boundary layer on the development of Goertler vortices is investigated for different Mach numbers.
Representation of Clear and Cloudy Boundary Layers in Climate Models. Chapter 14
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Randall, D. A.; Shao, Q.; Branson, M.
1997-01-01
The atmospheric general circulation models which are being used as components of climate models rely on their boundary layer parameterizations to produce realistic simulations of the surface turbulent fluxes of sensible heat. moisture. and momentum: of the boundary-layer depth over which these fluxes converge: of boundary layer cloudiness: and of the interactions of the boundary layer with the deep convective clouds that grow upwards from it. Two current atmospheric general circulation models are used as examples to show how these requirements are being addressed: these are version 3 of the Community Climate Model. which has been developed at the U.S. National Center for Atmospheric Research. and the Colorado State University atmospheric general circulation model. The formulations and results of both models are discussed. Finally, areas for future research are suggested.
Embedded function methods for supersonic turbulent boundary layers
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
He, J.; Kazakia, J. Y.; Walker, J. D. A.
1990-01-01
The development of embedded functions to represent the mean velocity and total enthalpy distributions in the wall layer of a supersonic turbulent boundary layer is considered. The asymptotic scaling laws (in the limit of large Reynolds number) for high speed compressible flows are obtained to facilitate eventual implementation of the embedded functions in a general prediction method. A self-consistent asymptotic structure is derived, as well as a compressible law of the wall in which the velocity and total enthalpy are logarithmic within the overlap zone, but in the Howarth-Dorodnitsyn variable. Simple outer region turbulence models are proposed (some of which are modifications of existing incompressible models) to reflect the effects of compressibility. As a test of the methodology and the new turbulence models, a set of self-similar outer region profiles is obtained for constant pressure flow; these are then coupled with embedded functions in the wall layer. The composite profiles thus obtained are compared directly with experimental data and good agreement is obtained for flows with Mach numbers up to 10.
Stabilization of boundary layer streaks by plasma actuators
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Riherd, Mark; Roy, Subrata
2014-03-01
A flow's transition from laminar to turbulent leads to increased levels of skin friction. In recent years, dielectric barrier discharge actuators have been shown to be able to delay the onset of turbulence in boundary layers. While the laminar to turbulent transition process can be initiated by several different instability mechanisms, so far, only stabilization of the Tollmien-Schlichting path to transition has received significant attention, leaving the stabilization of other transition paths using these actuators less explored. To fill that void, a bi-global stability analysis is used here to examine the stabilization of boundary layer streaks in a laminar boundary layer. These streaks, which are important to both transient and by-pass instability mechanisms, are damped by the addition of a flow-wise oriented plasma body force to the boundary layer. Depending on the magnitude of the plasma actuation, this damping can be up to 25% of the perturbation's kinetic energy. The damping mechanism appears to be due to highly localized effects in the immediate vicinity of the body force, and when examined using a linearized Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes energy balance, indicate negative production of the perturbation's kinetic energy. Parametric studies of the stabilization have also been performed, varying the magnitude of the plasma actuator's body force and the spanwise wavenumber of the actuation. Based on these parametric studies, the damping of the boundary layer streaks appears to be linear with respect to the total amount of body force applied to the flow.
Bending Boundary Layers in Laminated-Composite Circular Cylindrical Shells
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Nemeth, Michael P.; Smeltzer, Stanley S., III
2000-01-01
A study of the attenuation of bending boundary layers in balanced and unbalanced, symmetrically and unsymmetrically laminated cylindrical shells is presented for nine contemporary material systems. The analysis is based on the linear Sanders-Koiter shell equations and specializations to the Love-Kirchhoff shell equations and Donnell's equations are included. Two nondimensional parameters are identified that characterize the effects of laminate orthotropy and anisotropy on the bending boundary-layer decay length in a very general manner. A substantial number of structural design technology results are presented for a wide range of laminated-composite cylinders. For all laminates considered, the results show that the differences between results obtained with the Sanders-Koiter shell equations, the Love-Kirchhoff shell equations, and Donnell's equations are negligible. The results also show that the effect of anisotropy in the form of coupling between pure bending and twisting has a negligible effect on the size of the bending boundary-layer decay length of the balanced, symmetrically laminated cylinders considered. Moreover, the results show that coupling between the various types of shell anisotropies has a negligible effect on the calculation of the bending boundary-layer decay length in most cases. The results also show that, in some cases, neglecting the shell anisotropy results in underestimating the bending boundary-layer decay length and, in other cases, results in an overestimation.
Bending Boundary Layers in Laminated-Composite Circular Cylindrical Shells
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Nemeth, Michael P.; Smeltzer, Stanley S., III
2000-01-01
An analytical, parametric study of the attenuation of bending boundary layers or edge effects in balanced and unbalanced, symmetrically and unsymmetrically laminated thin cylindrical shells is presented for nine contemporary material systems. The analysis is based on the linear Sanders-Koiter shell equations and specializations to the Love-Kirchhoff shell equations and Donnell's equations are included. Two nondimensional parameters are identified that characterize and quantify the effects of laminate orthotropy and laminate anisotropy on the bending boundary-layer decay length in a very general and encompassing manner. A substantial number of structural design technology results are presented for a wide range of laminated-composite cylinders. For all the laminate constructions considered, the results show that the differences between results that were obtained with the Sanders-Koiter shell equations, the Love-Kirchhoff shell equations, and Donnell's equations are negligible. The results also show that the effect of anisotropy in the form of coupling between pure bending and twisting has a negligible effect on the size of the bending boundary-layer decay length of the balanced, symmetrically laminated cylinders considered. Moreover, the results show that coupling between the various types of shell anisotropies has a negligible effect on the calculation of the bending boundary-layer decay length in most cases. The results also show that in some cases neglecting the shell anisotropy results in underestimating the bending boundary-layer decay length and in other cases it results in an overestimation.
Turbulent boundary-layer structure of flows over freshwater biofilms
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Walker, J. M.; Sargison, J. E.; Henderson, A. D.
2013-12-01
The structure of the turbulent boundary-layer for flows over freshwater biofilms dominated by the diatom Tabellaria flocculosa was investigated. Biofilms were grown on large test plates under flow conditions in an Australian hydropower canal for periods up to 12 months. Velocity-profile measurements were obtained using LDV in a recirculating water tunnel for biofouled, smooth and artificially sandgrain roughened surfaces over a momentum thickness Reynolds number range of 3,000-8,000. Significant increases in skin friction coefficient of up to 160 % were measured over smooth-wall values. The effective roughnesses of the biofilms, k s, were significantly higher than their physical roughness measured using novel photogrammetry techniques and consisted of the physical roughness and a component due to the vibration of the biofilm mat. The biofilms displayed a k-type roughness function, and a logarithmic relationship was found between the roughness function and roughness Reynolds number based on the maximum peak-to-valley height of the biofilm, R t. The structure of the boundary layer adhered to Townsend's wall-similarity hypothesis even though the scale separation between the effective roughness height and the boundary-layer thickness was small. The biofouled velocity-defect profiles collapsed with smooth and sandgrain profiles in the outer region of the boundary layer. The Reynolds stresses and quadrant analysis also collapsed in the outer region of the boundary layer.
Coherent streaky structures and optimal perturbations of turbulent boundary layers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cossu, C.; Pujals, G.; Depardon, S.
The presence of persistent streaky structures is a well established robust feature of turbulent shear flows . A large amount of research has been dedicated to the understanding of the mechanisms by which streaks are generated and of their relevance on the turbulent dynamics. In the near wall region of the boundary layer these streaks, with characteristic mean spacing of about one hundred wall units, are thought to play an essential role in a turbulent self sustained mechanism. The `lift-up' effect by which low energy streamwise vortices can induce large energy streaks is an important process embedded in this self sustained mechanism. Recent studies have also demonstrated that the well controlled optimal transient growth of artificially forced streaks can be efficiently used to manipulate at leading order laminar shear flows. Such a paradigm has been successfully applied to stabilize Tollmien-Schlichting waves in a laminar boundary layer [1] and to effectively delay transition to turbulence [4]. In these investigations, roughness elements were used to create nearly optimal vortices in the upstream part of the boundary layer that induced well controlled streamwise streaks downstream. A still not addressed extension of such a kind of approach would consist in the manipulation of turbulent boundary layers with optimal or nearly optimal vortices and streaks, the first step in this direction being to compute the optimal perturbations of the turbulent boundary layer.
Coherent streaky structures and optimal perturbations of turbulent boundary layers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cossu, C.; Pujals, G.; Depardon, S.
The presence of persistent streaky structures is a well established robust feature of turbulent shear flows . A large amount of research has been dedicated to the understanding of the mechanisms by which streaks are generated and of their relevance on the turbulent dynamics. In the near wall region of the boundary layer these streaks, with characteristic mean spacing of about one hundred wall units, are thought to play an essential role in a turbulent self sustained mechanism. The 'lift-up' effect by which low energy streamwise vortices can induce large energy streaks is an important process embedded in this self sustained mechanism. Recent studies have also demonstrated that the well controlled optimal transient growth of artificially forced streaks can be efficiently used to manipulate at leading order laminar shear flows. Such a paradigm has been successfully applied to stabilize Tollmien-Schlichting waves in a laminar boundary layer [1] and to effectively delay transition to turbulence [4]. In these investigations, roughness elements were used to create nearly optimal vortices in the upstream part of the boundary layer that induced well controlled streamwise streaks downstream. A still not addressed extension of such a kind of approach would consist in the manipulation of turbulent boundary layers with optimal or nearly optimal vortices and streaks, the first step in this direction being to compute the optimal perturbations of the turbulent boundary layer.
The upper-branch stability of compressible boundary layer flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gajjar, J. S. B.; Cole, J. W.
1989-01-01
The upper-branch linear and nonlinear stability of compressible boundary layer flows is studied using the approach of Smith and Bodonyi (1982) for a similar incompressible problem. Both pressure gradient boundary layers and Blasius flow are considered with and without heat transfer, and the neutral eigenrelations incorporating compressibility effects are obtained explicitly. The compressible nonlinear viscous critical layer equations are derived and solved numerically and the results indicate some solutions with positive phase shift across the critical layer. Various limiting cases are investigated including the case of much larger disturbance amplitudes and this indicates the structure for the strongly nonlinear critical layer of the Benney-Bergeon (1969) type. It is also shown how a match with the inviscid neutral inflexional modes arising from the generalized inflexion point criterion, is achieved.
A low-density boundary-layer wind tunnel facility
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
White, B. R.
1987-01-01
This abstract describes a low-density wind-tunnel facility that was established at NASA Ames in order to aid interpretation and understanding of data received from the Mariner and Viking spacecraft through earth-based simulation. The wind tunnel is a boundary-layer type which is capable of operating over a range of air densities ranging from 0.01 to 1.24 kg/cu m, with the lower values being equivalent to the near-surface density of the planet Mars. Although the facility was developed for space and extraterrestrial simulation, it also can serve as a relatively large-scale, low-density aerodynamic test facility. A description of this unique test facility and some Pitot-tube and hot-wire anemometry data acquired in the facility are presented.
Boundary-layer-ingesting inlet flow control system
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Owens, Lewis R. (Inventor); Allan, Brian G. (Inventor)
2010-01-01
A system for reducing distortion at the aerodynamic interface plane of a boundary-layer-ingesting inlet using a combination of active and passive flow control devices is disclosed. Active flow control jets and vortex generating vanes are used in combination to reduce distortion across a range of inlet operating conditions. Together, the vortex generating vanes can reduce most of the inlet distortion and the active flow control jets can be used at a significantly reduced control jet mass flow rate to make sure the inlet distortion stays low as the inlet mass flow rate varies. Overall inlet distortion, measured and described as average SAE circumferential distortion descriptor, was maintained at a value of 0.02 or less. Advantageous arrangements and orientations of the active flow control jets and the vortex generating vanes were developed using computational fluid dynamics simulations and wind tunnel experimentations.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Allaerts, Dries; Meyers, Johan
2014-05-01
Atmospheric boundary layers (ABL) are frequently capped by an inversion layer limiting the entrainment rate and boundary layer growth. Commonly used analytical models state that the entrainment rate is inversely proportional to the inversion strength. The height of the inversion turns out to be a second important parameter. Conventionally neutral atmospheric boundary layers (CNBL) are ABLs with zero surface heat flux developing against a stratified free atmosphere. In this regime the inversion-filling process is merely driven by the downward heat flux at the inversion base. As a result, CNBLs are strongly dependent on the heating history of the boundary layer and strong inversions will fail to erode during the course of the day. In case of large wind farms, the power output of the farm inside a CNBL will depend on the height and strength of the inversion above the boundary layer. On the other hand, increased turbulence levels induced by wind farms may partially undermine the rigid lid effect of the capping inversion, enhance vertical entrainment of air into the farm, and increase boundary layer growth. A suite of large eddy simulations (LES) is performed to investigate the effect of the capping inversion on the conventionally neutral atmospheric boundary layer and on the wind farm performance under varying initial conditions. For these simulations our in-house pseudo-spectral LES code SP-Wind is used. The wind turbines are modelled using a non-rotating actuator disk method. In the absence of wind farms, we find that a decrease in inversion strength corresponds to a decrease in the geostrophic angle and an increase in entrainment rate and geostrophic drag. Placing the initial inversion base at higher altitudes further reduces the effect of the capping inversion on the boundary layer. The inversion can be fully neglected once it is situated above the equilibrium height that a truly neutral boundary layer would attain under the same external conditions such as geostrophic wind speed and surface roughness. Wind farm simulations show the expected increase in boundary layer height and growth rate with respect to the case without wind farms. Raising the initial strength of the capping inversion in these simulations dampens the turbulent growth of the boundary layer above the farm, decreasing the farms energy extraction. The authors acknowledge support from the European Research Council (FP7-Ideas, grant no. 306471). Simulations were performed on the computing infrastructure of the VSC Flemish Supercomputer Center, funded by the Hercules Foundation and the Flemish Government.
Factors influencing the marine boundary layer during a cold-air outbreak
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Stage, S. A.
1983-01-01
The model for the cloud-topped marine boundary layer during a cold air outbreak developed by Stage and Businger (1981a) is used in conjunction with a test profile based on a fall outbreak episode over Lake Ontario to study factors influencing marine boundary-layer evolution. Sensitivity tests are done which show changes in layer evolution resulting from variation of wind speed, radiative sky temperature, water surface temperature, humidity of the shoreline sounding and divergence. The behavior of the layer in the presence of a region of cold-water upwelling near the shore is also investigated. It is found that the main effect of the upwelling region is to delay modification of the boundary-layer air.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Leroy, Delphine; Wobrock, Wolfram; Flossmann, Andrea I.
2009-01-01
This paper reproduces aircraft microphysical measurements using a three-dimensional model with bin resolved microphysics and is then used to analyze in particular the role of boundary layer aerosol particles in the anvil and the ice phase. The simulated case is a convective cloud which develops a large anvil of around 10 km height, which was sampled during the Cirrus Regional Study of Tropical Anvils and Cirrus Layers — Florida Area Cirrus Experiment (CRYSTAL-FACE). The model couples the 3D dynamics of a cloud scale model with a detailed mixed phase microphysical code. The microphysical package considers the evolution of the wet aerosol particles, drop and ice crystal spectra on size grids with 39 bins. With this model hereafter called DESCAM 3D, we are able to simulate the cloud with features close to those observed and to provide explanations of the observed phenomena concerning cloud microphysics as well as cloud dynamics. The same CRYSTAL-FACE cloud has already been simulated by other groups using a similar model. They investigated the role of mid-tropospheric aerosol particles versus boundary layer aerosol on the microphysical properties of the anvil. Similar simulations with our DESCAM 3D lead to quite different results. Reducing the number of mid-tropospheric aerosol particles causes only minor changes in the cloud anvil. However, changing the aerosol particle spectrum in the boundary layer from clean to polluted conditions modifies strongly the dynamical evolution of the convective clouds and thus impacts significantly on the microphysical properties of the anvil. Possible reasons for the differences are discussed.
Heat transfer to the transpired turbulent boundary layer.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kays, W. M.
1972-01-01
This paper contains a summarization of five years work on an investigation on heat transfer to the transpired turbulent boundary layer. Experimental results are presented for friction coefficient and Stanton number over a wide range of blowing and suction for the case of constant free-stream velocity, holding certain blowing parameters constant. The problem of the accelerated turbulent boundary layer with transpiration is considered, experimental data are presented and discussed, and theoretical models for solution of the momentum equation under these conditions are presented. Data on turbulent Prandtl number are presented so that solutions to the energy equation may be obtained. Some examples of boundary layer heat transfer and friction coefficient predictions are presented using one of the models discussed, employing a finite difference solution method.
The analysis of a nonsimilar laminar boundary layer
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Stalmach, D. D.; Bertin, J. J.
1978-01-01
A computer code is described which yields accurate solutions for a broad range of laminar, nonsimilar boundary layers, providing the inviscid flow field is known. The boundary layer may be subject to mass injection for perfect-gas, nonreacting flows. If no mass injection is present, the code can be used with either perfect-gas or real-gas thermodynamic models. Solutions, ranging from two-dimensional similarity solutions to solutions for the boundary layer on the Space Shuttle Orbiter during reentry conditions, have been obtained with the code. Comparisons of these solutions, and others, with solutions presented in the literature; and with solutions obtained from other codes, demonstrate the accuracy of the present code.
A compilation of unsteady turbulent boundary-layer experimental data
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Carr, L. W.
1981-01-01
An extensive literature search was conducted and those experiments related to unsteady boundary layer behavior were cataloged. In addition, an international survey of industrial, university, and governmental research laboratories was made in which new and ongoing experimental programs associated with unsteady turbulent boundary layer research were identified. Pertinent references were reviewed and classified based on the technical emphasis of the various experiments. Experiments that include instantaneous or ensemble averaged profiles of boundary layer variables are stressed. The experimental apparatus and flow conditions are described and summaries of acquired data and significant conclusions are summarized. Measurements obtained from the experiments which exist in digital form were stored on magnetic tape. Instructions are given for accessing these data sets for further analysis.
Atmospheric boundary layer processes during a total solar eclipse
SethuRaman, S.; Prabhu, A.; Narahari Rao, K.; Narasimha, R.
1980-01-01
The total solar eclipse that occurred over the southern part of India on February 16, 1980, gave a unique opportunity to study the earth's atmospheric boundary layer. The meteorological experiments during the 1980 solar eclipse were conducted at Raichur, India (16/sup 0/12'N, 77/sup 0/21'E) located in the state of Karnataka, approximately 400-m above sea level. The main objective was to determine the changes in the earth's atmosphere during and immediately after the eclipse. The goal was to study the changes in the momentum and heat fluxes in the boundary layer due to the eclipse. Measurements were made for 2 days prior to and 1 day after the day of the eclipse to determine background characteristics of the boundary layer which might be site-dependent.
Low-frequency pressure fluctuations in axisymmetric turbulent boundary layers
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Panton, R. L.; Goldman, A. L.; Lowery, R. L.; Reischman, M. M.
1980-01-01
Measurements were made of wall pressure fluctuations under a turbulent boundary layer on the fuselage of a sailplane. Experiments with the sailplane offered a noise-free flow with a low free-stream turbulence level. In this environment the wall-pressure spectrum of a turbulent boundary layer with natural transition was found to drop off at low frequencies. Correlations between several wall-mounted microphones revealed that the large-scale motions contribute about 35% to the mean square pressure. Velocity fluctuations at several positions within and outside the boundary layer were measured and correlated with the wall pressure. It seems that the irrotational motions in the turbulent region are primarily responsible for the large-scale wall-pressure fluctuations. A time-lagged conditional correlation of the pressure was introduced to gain further insight into the pressure-producing motions.
Numerical Simulations of Wake/Boundary Layer Interactions
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Piomelli, Ugo; Choudhari, Meelan M.; Ovchinnikov, Victor; Balaras, Elias
2003-01-01
Direct and large-eddy simulations of the interaction between the wake of a circular cylinder and a flat-plate boundary layer are conducted. Two Reynolds numbers are examined. The simulations indicate that at the lower Reynolds number the boundary layer is buffeted by the unsteady Karman vortex street shed by the cylinder. The fluctuations, however, cannot be self-sustained due to the low Reynolds-number, and the flow does not reach a turbulent state within the computational domain. In contrast, in the higher Reynolds-number case, boundary-layer fluctuations persist after the wake has decayed (due, in part, to the higher values of the local Reynolds number Re(sub theta) achieved in this case); some evidence could be observed that a self-sustaining turbulence generation cycle was beginning to be established.
DNS of Turbulent Boundary Layers under Highenthalpy Conditions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Duan, Lian; Martín, Pino
2010-11-01
To study real-gas effects and turbulence-chemistry interaction, direct numerical simulations (DNS) of hypersonic boundary layers are conducted under typical hypersonic conditions. We consider the boundary layer on a lifting-body consisting of a flat plate at an angle of attack, which flies at altitude 30km with a Mach number 21. Two different inclined angles, 35^o and 8^o, are considered,representing blunt and slender bodies. Both noncatalytic and supercatalytic wall conditions are considered. The DNS data are studied to assess the validity of Morkovin's hypothesis, the strong Reynolds analogy, as well as the behaviors of turbulence structures under high-enthalpy conditions.Relative to low-enthalpy conditions [1], significant differences in typical scalings are observed. [4pt] [1] L. Duan and I. Beekman and M. P. Mart'in, Direct numerical simulation of hypersonic turbulent boundary layers. Part 2: Effect of temperature, J. Fluid Mech. 655 (2010), 419-445.
Roughness Induced Transition in a Supersonic Boundary Layer
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Balakumar, Ponnampalam; Kergerise, Michael A.
2013-01-01
Direct numerical simulation is used to investigate the transition induced by threedimensional isolated roughness elements in a supersonic boundary layer at a free stream Mach number of 3.5. Simulations are performed for two different configurations: one is a square planform roughness and the other is a diamond planform roughness. The mean-flow calculations show that the roughness induces counter rotating streamwise vortices downstream of the roughness. These vortices persist for a long distance downstream and lift the low momentum fluid from the near wall region and place it near the outer part of the boundary layer. This forms highly inflectional boundary layer profiles. These observations agree with recent experimental observations. The receptivity calculations showed that the amplitudes of the mass-flux fluctuations near the neutral point for the diamond shape roughness are the same as the amplitude of the acoustic disturbances. They are three times smaller for the square shape roughness.
Vortex Generators to Control Boundary Layer Interactions
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Babinsky, Holger (Inventor); Loth, Eric (Inventor); Lee, Sang (Inventor)
2014-01-01
Devices for generating streamwise vorticity in a boundary includes various forms of vortex generators. One form of a split-ramp vortex generator includes a first ramp element and a second ramp element with front ends and back ends, ramp surfaces extending between the front ends and the back ends, and vertical surfaces extending between the front ends and the back ends adjacent the ramp surfaces. A flow channel is between the first ramp element and the second ramp element. The back ends of the ramp elements have a height greater than a height of the front ends, and the front ends of the ramp elements have a width greater than a width of the back ends.
Turbulence models for compressible boundary layers
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Huang, P. G.; Bradshaw, P.; Coakley, T. J.
1994-01-01
It is shown that to satisfy the general accepted compressible law of the wall derived from the Van Driest transformation, turbulence modeling coefficients must actually be functions of density gradients. The transformed velocity profiles obtained by using standard turbulence model constants have too small a value of the effective von Karman constant kappa in the log-law region (inner layer). Thus, if the model is otherwise accurate, the wake component is overpredicted and the predicted skin friction is lower than the expected value.
DNS of high speed boundary layers over ablating surfaces
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Braman, Kalen; Raman, Venkat; Upadhyay, Rochan; Ezekoye, Ofodike
2010-11-01
Ablation of thermal protection shields is an important design problem in developing reentry vehicles. Development of predictive computational models for this problem will enable optimization of the size and hence weight of the protective layer. In this work, direct numerical simulation (DNS) of a compressible ablating boundary layer is used to understand the modeling issues in the context of Reynolds-averaged Navier Stokes (RANS) equations. The DNS is performed at conditions obtained from a detailed RANS study of a reentry vehicle. The free stream conditions of the two simulations are Mach 0.6, temperature 5940 K, and Re? 1000; and Mach 1.2, temperature 5580 K, and Re? 2000. The surface ablation of a graphite ablator is modeled using a locally 1-D, quasi-steady state formulation with control volume mass and energy balances over the interior of the ablator. A 10-species gas phase chemistry mechanism is used. A priori studies are used to evaluate scalar flux models and the reaction source term closure in RANS.
Blowing-up coordinates for a similarity boundary layer equation
BERNARD BRIGHI; TEWFIK SARI
2005-01-01
We introduce blowing-up coordinates to study the autonomous third order nonlinear dierential equation : f000 + m+1 2 ff 00 mf02 = 0 on (0,1), subject to the boundary conditions f(0) = a 2 R, f0(0) = 1 and f0(t) ! 0 as t ! 1. This problem arises when looking for similarity solutions to problems of boundary-layer theory in
Entrainment results from the Flatland boundary layer experiments
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Angevine, Wayne M.; Grimsdell, Alison W.; McKeen, Stuart A.; Warnock, J. M.
1998-06-01
A primary objective of the 1995 and 1996 Flatland boundary layer experiments, known as Flatland95 and Flatland96, was to measure and characterize entrainment at the top of the convective boundary layer. The experiments took place in the area near the Flatland Atmospheric Observatory near Champaign-Urbana, Illinois, in August-September 1995 and June-August 1996. The site is interesting because it is extraordinarily flat, has uniform land use, and is situated in a prime agricultural area. Measurements in the entrainment zone are difficult to make due to the time and space scales involved. We will present entrainment estimates derived from budget calculations with data from UHF wind profiling radars and from radiosondes. The results demonstrate that the remote sensing instruments produce results comparable to radiosondes and have significant advantages for boundary layer studies. Surface flux measurements are also used in the calculations. Direct heating by shortwave radiation absorbed by aerosols in the boundary layer is found to be an important component of the boundary layer heat budgets. The entrainment virtual temperature flux and the ratio of entrainment to surface flux found from the budget calculations are somewhat larger than expected. Advection of warm air, which is not accounted for in the budget calculations, is probably a factor in some periods but may not be significant in the full data set. For the full data set, the mean entrainment velocity found from the heat budget is 0.03±0.01 m s-1, slightly less than the mean rate of change of the boundary layer height. The mean entrainment ratio AR is 0.51±0.12 and the median is 0.43, comparable to results from some other studies in comparable conditions.
Unsteady turbulent boundary layers in swimming rainbow trout.
Yanase, Kazutaka; Saarenrinne, Pentti
2015-05-01
The boundary layers of rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, swimming at 1.02±0.09?L?s(-1) (mean±s.d., N=4), were measured by the particle image velocimetry (PIV) technique at a Reynolds number of 4×10(5). The boundary layer profile showed unsteadiness, oscillating above and beneath the classical logarithmic law of the wall with body motion. Across the entire surface regions that were measured, local Reynolds numbers based on momentum thickness, which is the distance that is perpendicular to the fish surface through which the boundary layer momentum flows at free-stream velocity, were greater than the critical value of 320 for the laminar-to-turbulent transition. The skin friction was dampened on the convex surface while the surface was moving towards a free-stream flow and increased on the concave surface while retreating. These observations contradict the result of a previous study using different species swimming by different methods. Boundary layer compression accompanied by an increase in local skin friction was not observed. Thus, the overall results may not support absolutely the Bone-Lighthill boundary layer thinning hypothesis that the undulatory motions of swimming fish cause a large increase in their friction drag because of the compression of the boundary layer. In some cases, marginal flow separation occurred on the convex surface in the relatively anterior surface region, but the separated flow reattached to the fish surface immediately downstream. Therefore, we believe that a severe impact due to induced drag components (i.e. pressure drag) on the swimming performance, an inevitable consequence of flow separation, was avoided. PMID:25750412
Numerical Simulation of Secondary Instability in Hypersonic Boundary Layers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Whang, Chong; Zhong, Xiaolin
2001-11-01
Secondary Gortler instability in a Mach 15 flow over a blunt wedge with a concave surface is investigated using direct numerical simulation (DNS). Initial forcing disturbances in the simulation are obtained from linear stability theory (LST), and subsequent linear and nonlinear development of the hypersonic Gortler vortices and their secondary instability are studied by computing the full Navier-Stokes equations using a fifth order finite difference upwind scheme and a shock fitting method. The nonlinear development of Gortler vortices distorts the mean flow and leads to highly inflectional profiles not only in wall normal direction, but also in spanwise direction which induce the secondary instability. In the break-down process of Gortler vortices, unsteady fluctuations appear in the vortices. Such a process is through a secondary instability mechanism. Nonlinear development of Gortler vortices in the Mach 15 flow has been studied by imposing strong disturbances obtained from LST at the inlet of computational domain. A two-dimensional linear stability code is applied for the distorted mean flow in order to find secondary modes of hypersonic Gortler vortices. The mode obtained by linear stability analysis is imposed at the entrance of the computational domain. Subsequent development of the secondary mode is carried out by solving the full Navier-Stokes equations. The numerical results of nonlinear development of hypersonic gortler vortices show the inflectional profiles in boundary layers. The numerical results of secondary instability show that the interaction of Görtler vortices with the strong varicose mode leads to the development of a horseshoe vortex.
Hypersonic turbulent wall boundary layer computations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kim, S. C.; Harloff, G. J.
1988-01-01
The Baldwin-Lomax algebraic turbulence model was modified for hypersonic flow conditions. Two coefficients in the outer layer eddy viscosity model were determined as functions of Mach number and temperature ratio. By matching the solutions from the Baldwin-Lomax model to those from the Cebeci-Smith model for a flat plate at hypersonic speed, the new values of the coefficient were obtained. The results show that the values of C sub cp and C sub kleb are functions of both Mach number and wall temperature ratio. The C sub cp and C sub kleb variations with Mach number and wall temperature were used for the calculations of both a 4 deg wedge flow at Mach 18 and an axisymmetric Mach 20 nozzle flow. The Navier-Stokes equations with thin layer approximation were solved for the above hypersonic flow conditions and the results were compared with existing experimental data. The agreement between the numerical solutions and the existing experimental data were good. The modified Baldwin-Lomax model thus is useful in the computations of hypersonic flows.
Hypersonic turbulent wall boundary layer computations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kim, S. C.; Harloff, G. J.
1988-01-01
The Baldwin-Lomax (1978) algebraic turbulence model was modified for hypersonic flow conditions. Two coefficients in the outer-layer eddy-viscosity model were determined as functions of Mach number and temperature ratio. By matching the solutions from the Baldwin-Lomax model to those from the Cebeci-Smith (1974) model for a flat plate at hypersonic speed, the new values of the coefficients were obtained. The results show that the values of C(cp) and C(kleb) are functions of both Mach number and wall temperature ratio. The C(cp) and C(kleb) variations with Mach number and wall temperature were used for the calculations of both a 4-deg wedge flow at Mach 18 and an axisymmetric Mach 20 nozzle flow. The Navier-Stokes equations with thin-layer approximation were solved for the above hypersonic flow conditions and the results were compared with existing experimental data. The agreement between the numerical solutions and the existing experimental data were good. The modified Baldwin-Lomax model thus is useful in the computations of hypersonic flows.
Simulation of glancing shock wave and boundary layer interaction
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hung, Ching-Mao
1989-01-01
Shock waves generated by sharp fins, glancing across a laminar boundary layer growing over a flat plate, are simulated numerically. Several basic issues concerning the resultant three-dimensional flow separation are studied. Using the same number of grid points, different grid spacings are employed to investigate the effects of grid resolution on the origin of the line of separation. Various shock strengths (generated by different fin angles) are used to study the so-called separated and unseparated boundary layer and to establish the existence or absence of the secondary separation. The usual interpretations of the flow field from previous studies and new interpretations arising from the present simulation are discussed.
Passive control plate for shock-boundary layer interactions
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Goodman, Wesley L.; Morrisette, E. Leon
1988-01-01
Computational and experimental results are presented for a passive method capable of reducing or completely eliminating the separation region in shock-boundary layer interactions of the type that can result in severe performance degradation due to flow separation in supersonic and hypersonic inlets. The method involves the placement of an embedded plate in the outer portion of the boundary layer, parallel to the wall, so that the incident shock will impinge upon, and be reflected from, its surface. This will lower the pressure gradient in the low-momentum, near-wall region. A porous control plate's effect has also been investigated.
Plasma behavior in the boundary layer near a railgun surface
Kang, S.W.; McCallen, R. )
1989-01-01
Viscous flow and thermal characteristics are theoretically analyzed for the plasma behind a moving projectile inside a railgun. When only convective effects are included in the turbulent boundary layer analysis, the results suggest a temperature maximum in the wall region for very high velocity flows. The case of radiative as well as convective transport has also been investigated for an optically thick boundary layer flow by application of an approximate method. Results show a sizable effect of radiation on the flow characteristics, especially on the heat transfer rate to the railgun surface.
Plasma behavior in the boundary layer near a railgun surface
Kang, Sang-Wook; McCallen, R.E.
1988-03-01
Viscous flow and thermal characteristics are theoretically analyzed for the plasma behind a moving projectile inside a railgun. When only convective effects are included in the turbulent boundary layer analysis, the results suggest a temperature maximum in the wall region for very high velocity flows. The case of radiative as well as convective transport has also been investigated for an optically-thick boundary layer flow by application of an approximate method. Results show a sizable effect of radiation on the flow characteristics, especially on the heat-transfer rate to the railgun surface. 7 refs., 2 figs.
Characteristics of turbulence in boundary layer with zero pressure gradient
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Klebanoff, P S
1955-01-01
The results of an experimental investigation of a turbulent boundary layer with zero pressure gradient are presented. Measurements with the hot-wire anemometer were made of turbulent energy and turbulent shear stress, probability density and flattening factor of u-fluctuation (fluctuation in x-direction), spectra of turbulent energy and shear stress, and turbulent dissipation. The importance of the region near the wall and the inadequacy of the concept of local isotropy are demonstrated. Attention is given to the energy balance and the intermittent character of the outer region of the boundary layer. Also several interesting features of the spectral distribution of the turbulent motions are discussed.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lee, Jong-Hun
1993-01-01
The basic governing equations for the second-order three-dimensional hypersonic thermal and chemical nonequilibrium boundary layer are derived by means of an order-of-magnitude analysis. A two-temperature concept is implemented into the system of boundary-layer equations by simplifying the rather complicated general three-temperature thermal gas model. The equations are written in a surface-oriented non-orthogonal curvilinear coordinate system, where two curvilinear coordinates are non-orthogonial and a third coordinate is normal to the surface. The equations are described with minimum use of tensor expressions arising from the coordinate transformation, to avoid unnecessary confusion for readers. The set of equations obtained will be suitable for the development of a three-dimensional nonequilibrium boundary-layer code. Such a code could be used to determine economically the aerodynamic/aerothermodynamic loads to the surfaces of hypersonic vehicles with general configurations. In addition, the basic equations for three-dimensional stagnation flow, of which solution is required as an initial value for space-marching integration of the boundary-layer equations, are given along with the boundary conditions, the boundary-layer parameters, and the inner-outer layer matching procedure. Expressions for the chemical reaction rates and the thermodynamic and transport properties in the thermal nonequilibrium environment are explicitly given.
The effects of an embedded vortex on a film cooled turbulent boundary layer
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Joseph, Stephen L.
1986-12-01
Secondary flow effects on endwalls, blades, and combustion chambers of gas turbine engines are modelled. Measurements were made in a turbulent boundary layer developing over a flat plate, using a single row of injection holes spaced three diameters apart inclined at 30 degrees with respect to horizontal. The injection system was designed to provide uniform injection temperatures for various blowing rates with discharge coefficients ranging from 0.58 to 0.73. The heat transfer surface was designed to provide content heat flux with adjustable temperature range. Experimental heat transfer results were obtained with a turbulent boundary layer only, with boundary layer and injection of film cooling, with boundary layer and embedded vortex, and finally with boundary layer, film cooling, and embedded vortex. The effects of the vortex on heat transfer in the film cooled boundary layer are significant and important: (1) On the downwash side of the vortex, heat transfer is augmented, effects of the film cooling are negated and local hot spots will exist in engines. (2) Near the upwash side of the vortex coolant is pushed to the side of the vortex, appearing to augment the protection provided by film cooling.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Williams, Gabriel J.
2015-03-01
The effects of vortex translation and radial vortex structure in the distribution of boundary layer winds in the inner core of mature tropical cyclones are examined using a high-resolution slab model and a multilevel model. It is shown that the structure and magnitude of the wind field (and the corresponding secondary circulation) depends sensitively on the radial gradient of the gradient wind field above the boundary layer. Furthermore, it is shown that vortex translation creates low wave number asymmetries in the wind field that rotate anticyclonically with height. A budget analysis of the steady state wind field for both models was also performed in this study. Although the agradient force drives the evolution of the boundary layer wind field for both models, it is shown that the manner in which the boundary layer flow responds to this force differs between the two model representations. In particular, the inner core boundary layer flow in the slab model is dominated by the effects of horizontal advection and horizontal diffusion, leading to the development of shock structures in the model. Conversely, the inner core boundary layer flow in the multilevel model is primarily influenced by the effects of vertical advection and vertical diffusion, which eliminates shock structures in this model. These results further indicate that special care is required to ensure that qualitative applications from slab models are not unduly affected by the neglect of vertical advection. This article was corrected on 31 MAR 2015. See the end of the full text for details.
PLIF Visualization of Active Control of Hypersonic Boundary Layers Using Blowing
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bathel, Brett F.; Danehy, Paul M.; Inman, Jennifer A.; Alderfer, David W.; Berry, Scott A.
2008-01-01
Planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) imaging was used to visualize the boundary layer flow on a 1/3-scale Hyper-X forebody model. The boundary layer was perturbed by blowing out of orifices normal to the model surface. Two blowing orifice configurations were used: a spanwise row of 17-holes spaced at 1/8 inch, with diameters of 0.020 inches and a single-hole orifice with a diameter of 0.010 inches. The purpose of the study was to visualize and identify laminar and turbulent structures in the boundary layer and to make comparisons with previous phosphor thermography measurements of surface heating. Jet penetration and its influence on the boundary layer development was also examined as was the effect of a compression corner on downstream boundary layer transition. Based upon the acquired PLIF images, it was determined that global surface heating measurements obtained using the phosphor thermography technique provide an incomplete indicator of transitional and turbulent behavior of the corresponding boundary layer flow. Additionally, the PLIF images show a significant contribution towards transition from instabilities originating from the underexpanded jets. For this experiment, a nitric oxide/nitrogen mixture was seeded through the orifices, with nitric oxide (NO) serving as the fluorescing gas. The experiment was performed in the 31-inch Mach 10 Air Tunnel at NASA Langley Research Center.
Air Flow in the Boundary Layer of an Elliptic Cylinder
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Schubauer, G B
1939-01-01
The boundary layer of an elliptic cylinder of major and minor axis 11.78 and 3.98 inches, respectively, was investigated in air stream in which the turbulence could be varied. Conditions were arranged so that the flow was two-dimensional with the major axis of the ellipse parallel to the undisturbed stream. Speed distributions across the boundary layer were determined with a hot-wire anemometer at a number of positions about the surface for the lowest and highest intensities of turbulence, with the air speed in both cases sufficiently high to produce a turbulent boundary layer over the downstream part of the surface. The magnitude and the frequency of the speed fluctuations in the boundary layer were also measured by the use of the conventional type of hot-wire turbulence apparatus. Stream turbulence was found to affect both the nature of transition from laminar to turbulent flow in the layer and the position on the surface at which transition occurred. Transition was then investigated in detail with stream turbulence of several different scales and intensities.
Co-spectrum and mean velocity in turbulent boundary layers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Katul, G. G.; Porporato, A. M.; Manes, C.; Meneveau, C. V.
2014-12-01
Among the most significant phenomenological theories of turbulence, two are commonly singled out: the von Karman-Prandtl logarithmic law for the mean velocity profile and the Kolmogorov hypothesis for the local structure of the turbulent velocity. These two developments have often been regarded as separate given that the log-law is an outcome of restrictive boundary effects on eddy sizes responsible for mixing, while the local structure of turbulence is associated with locally homogeneous and isotropic turbulence far from any boundary. Furthermore, these two theories have stirred significant debate with some stating that the von Karman-Prandtl law should be abandoned and replaced by a power-law when viscosity is small but finite. Here, connections are explored between spectral descriptions of turbulence and the mean velocity profile in the equilibrium layer of wall-bounded flows using a modeled budget for the co-spectral density. Employing a standard model for the wall normal velocity variance and a Rotta-like return-to-isotropy closure for the pressure-strain effects, the co-spectrum describing the momentum flux is derived. The approach establishes a relation between the von Karman, the one-dimensional Kolmogorov and the Rotta constants. Depending on the choices made about small-scale intermittency corrections and how it is introduced into the energy cascade, the logarithmic mean velocity profile or a power-law profile with an exponent that depends on the intermittency correction are derived thereby offering a new perspective on this long standing debate.
Observational Effects of Anomalous Boundary Layers in Relativistic Jets
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Aloy, M. A.; Mimica, P.
2008-07-01
Recent theoretical work has pointed out that the transition layer between a jet and the medium surrounding it may be more complex than previously thought. Under physically realizable conditions, the transverse profile of the Lorentz factor in the boundary layer can be nonmonotonic, displaying the absolute maximum where the flow is faster than at the jet spine, followed by a steep falloff. Likewise, the rest-mass density reaches an absolute minimum (coincident with the maximum in Lorentz factor) and then grows until it reaches the external medium value. Such behavior is in contrast to the standard monotonic decline of the Lorentz factor (from a maximum value at the jet central spine) and the corresponding increase of the rest-mass density (from the minimum reached at the jet core). We study the emission properties of the aforementioned anomalous shear layer structures in kiloparsec-scale jets, aiming to show observable differences with respect to conventional monotonic and smooth boundary layers.
A model of the wall boundary layer for ducted propellers
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Eversman, Walter; Moehring, Willi
1987-01-01
The objective of the present study is to include a representation of a wall boundary layer in an existing finite element model of the propeller in the wind tunnel environment. The major consideration is that the new formulation should introduce only modest alterations in the numerical model and should still be capable of producing economical predictions of the radiated acoustic field. This is accomplished by using a stepped approximation in which the velocity profile is piecewise constant in layers. In the limit of infinitesimally thin layers, the velocity profile of the stepped approximation coincides with that of the continuous profile. The approach described here could also be useful in modeling the boundary layer in other duct applications, particularly in the computation of the radiated acoustic field for sources contained in a duct.
Dynamical Simulation of Cloudy Boundary Layer Flow during Cold Air Outbreaks.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yuen, Chiu-Wai
A two-dimensional primitive equation planetary boundary layer model has been constructed and applied to simulate downwind evolution of coupled dynamical, thermodynamical and cloud properties in the planetary boundary layer (PBL) developed during cold air outbreaks over warm ocean. A layered parametric approach is adopted to model the inversion -capped convective boundary layer filled with shallow cumuli, or topped by stratocumulus or cloud free air. Turbulent and convective cloud fluxes are determined from modifications and generalizations of recent published parameterization schemes. A one-dimensional version of the model is first applied to a local simulation of trade wind flow. Vertical distributions of momentum flux and wind in the cumulus -filled baroclinic PBL are realistically simulated compared to observations, confirming the validity of the momentum flux parameterization scheme assembled in this research. A steady-state linear analysis for a cloud-free mixed layer flowing from land over a warm ocean clarifies the basic dynamical and thermodynamical adjustments to differential friction and heating. Downwind warming and deepening of PBL produces counteracting pressure gradient forces, while heating-induced subsidence occurs only in places where boundary layer baroclinity is strong. Comparative numerical experiments for moderate intensity air-sea interaction illustrate the importance of nonprecipitating cumulus convection and large scale environmental conditions. Such factors as baroclinity, static stability, moisture content, upwind inversion strength and height exert strong controls on the downwind evolution of PBL and clouds. Boundary layer flow is influenced by the basic geostrophic wind distribution and the PBL depth is also sensitive to large scale vertical velocity. The response of an advective boundary layer to stronger wind is different from that of a horizontally homogeneous boundary layer. In a simulation of an intense air mass transformation situation observed over The East China Sea, downwind variation of dynamical and thermodynamical boundary layer properties and cloud distribution are well reproduced. The steep sea surface temperature gradient produces strong boundary layer baroclinity and a strong divergent boundary layer flow. The simulated large cross-isobar angle in association with intense cold air advection and vigorous momentum mixing is in favorable agreement with both observation and theory.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kirkpatrick, M. P.; Mansour, N. N.; Ackerman, A. S.; Stevens, D. E.
2003-01-01
The use of large eddy simulation, or LES, to study the atmospheric boundary layer dates back to the early 1970s when Deardor (1972) used a three-dimensional simulation to determine velocity and temperature scales in the convective boundary layer. In 1974 he applied LES to the problem of mixing layer entrainment (Deardor 1974) and in 1980 to the cloud-topped boundary layer (Deardor 1980b). Since that time the LES approach has been applied to atmospheric boundary layer problems by numerous authors. While LES has been shown to be relatively robust for simple cases such as a clear, convective boundary layer (Mason 1989), simulation of the cloud-topped boundary layer has proved more of a challenge. The combination of small length scales and anisotropic turbulence coupled with cloud microphysics and radiation effects places a heavy burden on the turbulence model, especially in the cloud-top region. Consequently, over the past few decades considerable effort has been devoted to developing turbulence models that are better able to parameterize these processes. Much of this work has involved taking parameterizations developed for neutral boundary layers and deriving corrections to account for buoyancy effects associated with the background stratification and local buoyancy sources due to radiative and latent heat transfer within the cloud (see Lilly 1962; Deardor 1980a; Mason 1989; MacVean & Mason 1990, for example). In this paper we hope to contribute to this effort by presenting a number of turbulence models in which the model coefficients are calculated dynamically during the simulation rather than being prescribed a priori.
Numerical Computations of Hypersonic Boundary-Layer over Surface Irregularities
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chang, Chau-Lyan; Choudhari, Meelan M.; Li, Fei
2010-01-01
Surface irregularities such as protuberances inside a hypersonic boundary layer may lead to premature transition on the vehicle surface. Early transition in turn causes large localized surface heating that could damage the thermal protection system. Experimental measurements as well as numerical computations aimed at building a knowledge base for transition Reynolds numbers with respect to different protuberance sizes and locations have been actively pursued in recent years. This paper computationally investigates the unsteady wake development behind large isolated cylindrical roughness elements and the scaled wind-tunnel model of the trip used in a recent flight measurement during the reentry of space shuttle Discovery. An unstructured mesh, compressible flow solver based on the space-time conservation element, solution element (CESE) method is used to perform time-accurate Navier-Stokes calculations for the flow past a roughness element under several wind-tunnel conditions. For a cylindrical roughness element with a height to the boundary-layer thickness ratio from 0.8 to 2.5, the wake flow is characterized by a mushroom-shaped centerline streak and horse-shoe vortices. While time-accurate solutions converged to a steady-state for a ratio of 0.8, strong flow unsteadiness is present for a ratio of 1.3 and 2.5. Instability waves marked by distinct disturbance frequencies were found in the latter two cases. Both the centerline streak and the horse-shoe vortices become unstable downstream. The oscillatory vortices eventually reach an early breakdown stage for the largest roughness element. Spectral analyses in conjunction with the computed root mean square variations suggest that the source of the unsteadiness and instability waves in the wake region may be traced back to possible absolute instability in the front-side separation region.
Moving Surface Boundary-Layer Control: a Review
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Modi, V. J.
1997-08-01
The paper briefly reviews developments in the exciting field of the moving surface boundary-layer control (MSBC). To begin with, application of the concept to a family of two-dimensional airfoils, investigated experimentally, is briefly summarized. The moving surface was provided by rotating cylinders located at the leading edge andsolaror trailing edge as well as the top surface of the airfoil. Results suggest that the concept is quite promising, leading to a substantial increase in lift and a delay in stall. Depending on the performance desired, appropriate combinations of cylinder location and speed can be selected to obtain favourable results over a wide range of the angle of attack. Next, the effectiveness of the concept in reducing drag of bluff bodies such as a two-dimensional flat plate at large angles of attack, rectangular prisms, and three-dimensional models of trucks is assessed. Results show that injection of momentum through moving surfaces, achieved here by introduction of bearing-mounted, motor-driven, hollow cylinders, can significantly delay separation of the boundary layer and reduce the pressure drag. The momentum injection procedure also proves effective in arresting wind-induced vortex resonance and galloping type of instabilities, suggesting possible application in the next generation of civil engineering structures. Now the attention is directed towards the role of computational fluid mechanics to this class of problems. The system performance, as predicted by results obtained using two distinctly different numerical procedures, shows good correlation with the wind tunnel data. Finally, results of a flow visualization study, conducted in a closed-circuit water tunnel using slit lighting and polyvinyl chloride tracer particles, are touched upon. They show, rather dramatically, the effectiveness of the MSBC.Copyright 1997 Academic Press Limited
Nanoscale Hot-Wire Probes for Boundary-Layer Flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tedjojuwono, Ken T.; Herring, Gregory C.
2003-01-01
Hot-wire probes having dimensions of the order of nanometers have been proposed for measuring temperatures (and possibly velocities) in boundary-layer flows at spatial resolutions much finer and distances from walls much smaller than have been possible heretofore. The achievable resolutions and minimum distances are expected to be of the order of tens of nanometers much less than a typical mean free path of a molecule and much less than the thickness of a typical flow boundary layer in air at standard temperature and pressure. An additional benefit of the small scale of these probes is that they would perturb the measured flows less than do larger probes. The hot-wire components of the probes would likely be made from semiconducting carbon nanotubes or ropes of such nanotubes. According to one design concept, a probe would comprise a single nanotube or rope of nanotubes laid out on the surface of an insulating substrate between two metallic wires. According to another design concept, a nanotube or rope of nanotubes would be electrically connected and held a short distance away from the substrate surface by stringing it between two metal electrodes. According to a third concept, a semiconducting nanotube or rope of nanotubes would be strung between the tips of two protruding electrodes made of fully conducting nanotubes or ropes of nanotubes. The figure depicts an array of such probes that could be used to gather data at several distances from a wall. It will be necessary to develop techniques for fabricating the probes. It will also be necessary to determine whether the probes will be strong enough to withstand the aerodynamic forces and impacts of micron-sized particles entrained in typical flows of interest.
Characteristics of the atmospheric boundary layer at Summit, Greenland
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cullen, Nicolas J.
To determine impacts of snow photochemistry upon the composition of surface snow and its overlying atmosphere field measurements were made at Summit, Greenland. A detailed understanding of the processes involved in air-snow interactions is necessary for the development of reliable models of present and past atmospheric chemistry. This dissertation works towards that goal by utilizing data from the atmospheric boundary layer at Summit in pursuit of the following objectives: (1) to demonstrate that intermittent turbulence can be characterized using existing instrumentation; (2) to parameterize scalar transfers in the near-surface layer; and (3) to describe the annual energy budget and its impact on atmospheric conditions. Spectral analyses of velocity and temperature during stationary runs show that order in the spectral domain does exist, which supports the use of similarity laws. This order is verified by comparisons of spectral peak frequencies to established empirical curves and model results. Cospectra of momentum follow surface layer similarity whereas vertical heat fluxes do not collapse onto expected -4/3 slopes in the inertial subrange. To capture almost all of the turbulent heat flux, sampling rates of no more than 15 Hz are necessary. An ensemble of nonstationary runs show that 50% of the total flux during a 30-minute interval is realized in less than 23% of the total time, while stationary fluxes take about 34% of the total time. The major controls on intermittence are wind speed and degree of stability during stable conditions. Fluxes of momentum and sensible heat are constant with height (+/-20%). Analyses of turbulence data confirm that linear relationships for non-dimensional wind (?m) and temperature (? h) profiles exist in stable conditions. Because most unstable cases at Summit are near neutral, the choice of stability correction in these conditions is not critical. Functions derived in this study to correct fluxes in stable conditions perform better than those currently in use. These functions are used to calculate energy exchanges in all seasons. Importantly, fluxes of sensible heat directed away from the surface in summertime result in the formation of a shallow, mixed boundary layer, which in the absence of synoptic forcing extends to heights of 300 m. These near neutral (unstable) conditions are important in controlling katabatic forcing over the ice sheet.
Selfconsistent Formation of complex layered mantle flow with a Rough Core-Mantle Boundary
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hansen, Ulrich; Stein, Claudia
2015-04-01
Thermal boundary layers play a key role for the dynamics of the Earth's mantle. They mark the transition between the core and the mantle and, at least locally and transiently, the transition between the upper and the lower mantle at a depth of 670 km. There is much evidence that these boundary layers do not resemble the picture of a simple thermal boundary layer, as known from thermal convection at high Rayleigh numbers. Especially the core-mantle boundary (CMB) seems to be of complex structure, possible induced by compositionally dense material. Present models of mantle convection, aiming at simulating the complex structure and dynamics of the CMB require several ad hoc assumptions. Especially the density excess and the mass of compositionally distinct material need to be assumed. Both conditions are critical for the dynamics but hardly constrained. We have developed models where the internal boundary as well as a thermochemical CMB develop selfconsistently without the named ad hoc assumptions. As a starting condition we assume that a chemically stratified mantle, as resulting from fractional crystallization in an early magma ocean, is heated by the hot core. Double diffusive convection in material with strongly variable viscosity leads then to layering and, in a later state to the formation of a rough lower thermochemical boundary layer, displaying compositionally distinct piles.
Magnetic field maxima in the low latitude boundary layer
Sonnerup, B. (Dartmouth College, Hannover, NH (United States)); Paschmann, G.; Phan, T.D. (Max-Planck-Institut fuer Extraterrestrische Physik, Garching (Germany)); Luehr, H. (Technische Universitaet, Braunschweig (Germany))
1992-09-04
The magnetic field often exhibits a maximum in the Earth's low-latitude boundary layer. The authors show examples of this behavior, using data from the AMPTE/IRM spacecraft, and argue that two fundamentally distinct causes exist for the excess field: (1) a depression, within the layer, of the population of medium-energy ions of magnetospheric origin; (2) field curvature effects associated with undulations of the magnetopause itself.
A new absorbing layer boundary condition for the wave equation
Vay, J.L.
2000-09-11
A new absorbing boundary condition using an absorbing layer is presented for application to finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) calculation of the wave equation. This algorithm is by construction a hybrid between the Berenger perfectly matched layer (PML) algorithm and the one-way Sommerfeld algorithm. The new prescription contains both of these earlier ones as particular cases, and retains benefits from both. Numerical results indicate that the new algorithm provides absorbing rates superior to those of the PML algorithm.
Unattended automatic monitoring of boundary layer structures with cost effective lidar ceilometers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Münkel, Christoph; Roininen, Reijo
2010-05-01
The vertical temperature and moisture distribution affect the layering of the atmospheric boundary layer and the existence of inversions within this layer or on the top of it. These layers have a strong influence on the development of episodes of high concentrations of air pollutants which might be harmful to people and ecosystems. The height of the mixing layer is defined as the height up to which due to the thermal structure of the boundary layer vertical dispersion by turbulent mixing of air pollutants takes place. Most of the aerosol particles in an atmospheric column are usually confined to atmospheric layers below this height, the knowledge on the mixing layer height can thus be employed to convert column-mean optical depths measured from satellites into near-surface air quality information. Eye-safe lidar ceilometers are reliable tools for unattended boundary layer structure monitoring around the clock up to heights exceeding 2500 m. Comparison to temperature, humidity, and wind profiles reported by RASS, sodar, radio soundings, and weather mast in-situ sensors has confirmed their ability to detect convective or residual layers. In addition, ceilometers with a single lens optical design enable precise assessment of inversion layers and nocturnal stable layers below 200 m. This design has been chosen for the Vaisala Ceilometer CL31, the standard cloud height indicator for the Automated Surface Observing System of the US National Weather Service (NWS). During a two years evaluation period, the NWS permanently collected backscatter profiles from at least three ceilometers at its test site in Sterling, VA. Based on these and on data from units running at the Vaisala test sites in Vantaa, Finland, and Hamburg, Germany, an automatic algorithm for online retrieval of aerosol layer heights within the boundary layer has been developed that covers not only ideal boundary layer diurnal evolution, but all situations involving clouds, fog, and precipitation. This algorithm is part of the Vaisala boundary layer reporting and analysis tool BL-VIEW. The algorithm is based on the gradient method looking for gradient minima of the backscatter intensity to mark upper edges of aerosol layers. Main additional features of the novel automatic algorithm are a cloud, fog and precipitation filter designed to avoid false hits, a noise and range dependant averaging scheme, and a variable detection threshold. Examples covering a variety of meteorological situations in all seasons will be presented that demonstrate the quality of the algorithm and its application in the field of air quality forecasting.
Investigation of turbulent boundary layer structures using Tomographic PIV
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Saikrishnan, Neelakantan; Longmire, Ellen; Wieneke, Bernd
2008-11-01
Tomographic particle image velocimetry (TPIV) data were acquired in the logarithmic region of a zero pressure gradient turbulent boundary layer flow at friction Reynolds number Re? = 1160. Experiments were conducted in a suction type wind tunnel seeded with olive oil particles of diameter ˜ 1?m. The volume of interest was illuminated by two Nd:YAG laser beams expanded with appropriate optics into sheets of 8mm thickness in the wall-normal direction (z). Images were acquired by four 2k x 2k pixel cameras, and correlation of reconstructed fields provided the full velocity gradient tensor in a volume of 0.7? x 0.7? x 0.07?, which resolved the region z^+ = 70-150 in the log layer. Various vortex identification techniques, such as Galilean decomposition and iso-surfaces of two- and three-dimensional swirl, were utilized to visualize and analyze the eddy structures present in instantaneous fields. The results of the present study will be compared to results from earlier experimental studies that relied on planar PIV data only to identify vortices and vortex packets as well as from a direct numerical simulation of fully developed channel flow at comparable Re?.
Simulating Dispersion in the Evening-Transition Boundary Layer
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Taylor, Alexander C.; Beare, Robert J.; Thomson, David J.
2014-12-01
We investigate dispersion in the evening-transition boundary layer using large-eddy simulation (LES). In the LES, a particle model traces pollutant paths using a combination of the resolved flow velocities and a random displacement model to represent subgrid-scale motions. The LES is forced with both a sudden switch-off of the surface heat flux and also a more gradual observed evolution. The LES shows `lofting' of plumes from near-surface releases in the pre-transition convective boundary layer; it also shows the subsequent `trapping' of releases in the post-transition near-surface stable boundary layer and residual layer above. Given the paucity of observations for pollution dispersion in evening transitions, the LES proves a useful reference. We then use the LES to test and improve a one-dimensional Lagrangian Stochastic Model (LSM) such as is often used in practical dispersion studies. The LSM used here includes both time-varying and skewed turbulence statistics. It is forced with the vertical velocity variance, skewness and dissipation from the LES for particle releases at various heights and times in the evening transition. The LSM plume spreads are significantly larger than those from the LES in the post-transition stable boundary-layer trapping regime. The forcing from the LES was thus insufficient to constrain the plume evolution, and inclusion of the significant stratification effects was required. In the so-called modified LSM, a correction to the vertical velocity variance was included to represent the effect of stable stratification and the consequent presence of wave-like motions. The modified LSM shows improved trapping of particles in the post-transition stable boundary layer.
E. V. Shishov
1991-01-01
The results of experimental investigation of the structure, including correlations containing pressure fluctuations, and the processes of turbulent transfer of heat and momentum in strongly accelerated and retarded turbulent boundary layers are presented. Based on the analysis of the data obtained, a modified algebraic 'K-epsilon' model, capable of predicting local friction and heat transfer in boundary layers developing under strong
Chow, Fotini Katopodes
Immersed Boundary Methods for High-Resolution Simulation of Atmospheric Boundary-Layer Flow Over. Lundquist Spring 2010 #12;Immersed Boundary Methods for High-Resolution Simulation of Atmospheric Boundary as an immersed boundary method (IBM), alleviates coordinate transformation errors and eliminates restrictions
Thunderstorm influence on boundary layer winds
Schmidt, Jill Marie
1986-01-01
of this research was to develop a conceptual model of selected pre-storm ambient conditions as a function of the strength of a thunderstorm's outflow. The time of maximum rainfall during the thunderstorm in relation to the time of maximum outflow was a... selected for study from well-defined Code 3 cells (thunderstorms). The results indicated that two conceptual models were necessary to describe the pre-storm ambient conditions that led to thunderstorm development and outflow. One model contained...
INTERNAL WAVE GENERATION BY A TURBULENT BOTTOM BOUNDARY LAYER
Taylor, John R.
layer deepened, a pycnocline developed with a density gradient up to three times the value in the outer turbulence. With two initial conditions, a uniformly stratified fluid and a two-layer system, they found stratified tank. A no
Three-dimensional boundary layer stability and transition
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Malik, M. R.; Li, F.
1992-01-01
Nonparallel and nonlinear stability of a three-dimensional boundary layer, subject to crossflow instability, is investigated using parabolized stability equations (PSEs). Both traveling and stationary disturbances are considered and nonparallel effect on crossflow instability is found to be destabilizing. Our linear PSE results for stationary disturbances agree well with the results from direct solution of Navier-Stokes equations obtained by Spalart (1989). Nonlinear calculations have been carried out for stationary vortices and the computed wall vorticity pattern results in streamwise streaks which resemble remarkably well with the surface oil-flow visualizations in swept-wing experiments. Other features of the stationary vortex development (half-mushroom structure, inflected velocity profiles, vortex doubling, etc.) are also captured in our nonlinear calculations. Nonlinear interaction of the stationary amplitude of the stationary vortex is large as compared to the traveling mode, and the stationary vortex dominates most of the downstream development. When the two modes have the same initial amplitude, the traveling mode dominates the downstream development owing to its higher growth rate, and there is a tendency for the stationary mode to be suppressed. The effect of nonlinear wave development on the skin-friction coefficient is also computed.
Investigations on entropy layer along hypersonic hyperboloids using a defect boundary layer
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Brazier, J. P.; Aupoix, B.; Cousteix, J.
1992-01-01
A defect approach coupled with matched asymptotic expansions is used to derive a new set of boundary layer equations. This method ensures a smooth matching of the boundary layer with the inviscid solution. These equations are solved to calculate boundary layers over hypersonic blunt bodies involving the entropy gradient effect. Systematic comparisons are made for both axisymmetric and plane flows in several cases with different Mach and Reynolds numbers. After a brief survey of the entropy layer characteristics, the defect boundary layer results are compared with standard boundary layer and full Navier-Stokes solutions. The entropy gradient effects are found to be more important in the axisymmetric case than in the plane one. The wall temperature has a great influence on the results through the displacement effect. Good predictions can be obtained with the defect approach over a cold wall in the nose region, with a first order solution. However, the defect approach gives less accurate results far from the nose on axisymmetric bodies because of the thinning of the entropy layer.
A high-resolution code for turbulent boundary layers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Simens, Mark P.; Jiménez, Javier; Hoyas, Sergio; Mizuno, Yoshinori
2009-06-01
A new high-resolution code for the direct simulation of incompressible boundary layers over a flat plate is described. It can accommodate a wide range of pressure gradients, and general time-dependent boundary conditions such as incoming wakes or wall forcing. The consistency orders of the advective and pressure-correction steps are different, but it is shown that the overall resolution is controlled by the higher-order advection step. The formulation of boundary conditions to ensure global mass conservation in the presence of arbitrary forcing is carefully analyzed. Two validation boundary layers with and without a strong adverse pressure gradient are presented, with maximum Reynolds numbers Re??2000. They agree well with the available experiments. Turbulent inflow conditions for the zero-pressure case are implemented by a recycling method, and it is shown that at least the initial 300 momentum thicknesses have to be discarded before the effect of the artificial inflow is forgotten. It is argued that this is not a defect of the method used to generate the inflow, but a property of the boundary layer.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ozturk, B.; Schobeiri, M. T.; Ashpis, David E.
2005-01-01
The paper experimentally studies the effects of periodic unsteady wake flow and different Reynolds numbers on boundary layer development, separation and re-attachment along the suction surface of a low pressure turbine blade. The experimental investigations were performed on a large scale, subsonic unsteady turbine cascade research facility at Turbomachinery Performance and Flow Research Laboratory (TPFL) of Texas A&M University. The experiments were carried out at Reynolds numbers of 110,000 and 150,000 (based on suction surface length and exit velocity). One steady and two different unsteady inlet flow conditions with the corresponding passing frequencies, wake velocities, and turbulence intensities were investigated. The reduced frequencies chosen cover the operating range of LP turbines. In addition to the unsteady boundary layer measurements, surface pressure measurements were performed. The inception, onset, and the extent of the separation bubble information collected from the pressure measurements were compared with the hot wire measurements. The results presented in ensemble-averaged, and the contour plot forms help to understand the physics of the separation phenomenon under periodic unsteady wake flow and different Reynolds number. It was found that the suction surface displayed a strong separation bubble for these three different reduced frequencies. For each condition, the locations defining the separation bubble were determined carefully analyzing and examining the pressure and mean velocity profile data. The location of the boundary layer separation was dependent of the Reynolds number. It is observed that starting point of the separation bubble and the re-attachment point move further downstream by increasing Reynolds number from 110,000 to 150,000. Also, the size of the separation bubble is smaller when compared to that for Re=110,000.
Spatial structures and scaling in the Convective Boundary Layer
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Badas, M. G.; Querzoli, G.
2011-04-01
We performed an investigation on spatial features of the Convective Boundary Layer (CBL) of the atmosphere, which was simulated in a laboratory model and analyzed by means of image analysis techniques. This flow is dominated by large, anisotropic vortical structures, whose spatial organization affects the scalar transport and therefore the fluxes across the boundary layer. With the aim of investigating the spatial structure and scaling in the Convective Boundary Layer, two-dimensional velocity fields were measured, on a vertical plane, by means of a pyramidal Lucas-Kanade algorithm. The coherent structures characterizing the turbulent convection were educed by analyzing the Finite-Time Lyapunov Exponent fields, which also revealed interesting phenomenological features linked to the mixing processes occurring in the Convective Boundary Layer. Both velocity and vorticity fields were analyzed in a scale-invariance framework. Data analysis showed that normalized probability distribution functions for velocity differences are dependent on the scale and tend to become Gaussian for large separations. Extended Self Similarity holds true for velocity structure functions computed within the mixing layer, and their scaling exponents are interpreted well in the phenomenological framework of the Hierarchical Structure Model. Specifically, ? parameter, which is related to the similarity between weak and strong vortices, reveals a higher degree of intermittency for the vertical velocity component with respect to the horizontal one. On the other hand, the analysis of circulation structure functions shows that scaling exponents are fairly constant in the lowest part of the mixed layer, and their values are in agreement with those reported in Benzi et al. (Phys Rev E 55:3739-3742, 1997) for shear turbulence. Moreover, the relationship between circulation and velocity scaling exponents is analyzed, and it is found to be linear in the bottom part of the mixing layer. The investigation of the CBL spatial features, which has seldom been studied experimentally, has important implications for the comprehension of the mixing dynamics, as well as in turbulence closure models.
Air flow in the boundary layer near a plate
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Dryden, Hugh L
1937-01-01
The published data on the distribution of speed near a thin flat plate with sharp leading edge placed parallel to the flow (skin friction plate) are reviewed and the results of some additional measurements are described. The purpose of the experiments was to study the basic phenomena of boundary-layer flow under simple conditions.
Kinetic Boundary Layers and FluidKinetic Coupling in Semiconductors
Schmeiser, Christian
Kinetic Boundary Layers and FluidÂKinetic Coupling in Semiconductors Pierre Degond 1 and Christian Schmeiser 2 Abstract. The semiconductor Boltzmann equation with elastic collisions as the dominating decomposition approach are presented. Key words: Semiconductor Boltzmann equation, spherical harmonics ex
Turbulent Coherent Structures in a Thermally Stable Boundary Layer
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Williams, Owen; Bailey, Sean; Smits, Alexander
2009-11-01
An experiment was conducted to examine the effect of thermal stability on turbulent coherent structures occurring in a flat plate boundary layer. The objective is to further characterize the turbulence in thermally stable atmospheric boundary layers, commonly found in the arctic regions, focusing on Reynolds number independent effects. This experiment was conducted in a 16 foot long, 4'x2' cross-section, open-return wind tunnel by replacing the upper surface with a heated half inch aluminum plate. The plate was maintained at an isothermal condition, the boundary layer along this surface was tripped and the tunnel run at the lowest speed possible, in order to maintain both a fully turbulent boundary layer and a large Richardson number. A wide range of stabilities were investigated, with Richardson numbers ranging from 0 to 0.5, covering both the weakly and strongly stable regimes. Using thermocouple temperature measurements and time resolved particle image velocimetry; an attempt was made to identify changes in coherent turbulent motions corresponding to changing flow stability. Additionally, an attempt was made to identify significant features of the turbulence that could be used to identify clearly delineating features of the weakly stable and strongly stable flow regimes.
Second Mode Interactions in Supersonic Boundary Layers Gordon Erlebacher
Erlebacher, Gordon
Second Mode Interactions in Supersonic Boundary Layers Gordon Erlebacher NASA Langley Research of the linear stability characteristics of compressible shear flows at both subsonic and supersonic Mach numbers in the supersonic regime. The full compressible NavierStokes equations are therefore numerically solved within
ATMOSPHERIC DISPERSION IN THE ARCTIC: WINTERTIME BOUNDARY-LAYER MEASUREMENTS
The wintertime arctic atmospheric boundary layer was investigated with micro-meteorological and SF6 tracer measurements collected in Prudhoe Bay, AK. he flat, snow-covered tundra surface at this site generates a very small (0.03 cm) surface roughness. he relatively warm maritime ...
Stability of hypersonic boundary-layer flows with chemistry
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Reed, Helen L.; Stuckert, Gregory K.; Haynes, Timothy S.
1993-01-01
The effects of nonequilibrium chemistry and three dimensionality on the stability characteristics of hypersonic flows are discussed. In two-dimensional (2-D) and axisymmetric flows, the inclusion of chemistry causes a shift of the second mode of Mack to lower frequencies. This is found to be due to the increase in size of the region of relative supersonic flow because of the lower speeds of sound in the relatively cooler boundary layers. Although this shift in frequency is present in both the equilibrium and nonequilibrium air results, the equilibrium approximation predicts modes which are not observed in the nonequilibrium calculations (for the flight conditions considered). These modes are superpositions of incoming and outgoing unstable disturbances which travel supersonically relative to the boundary-layer edge velocity. Such solutions are possible because of the finite shock stand-off distance. Their corresponding wall-normal profiles exhibit an oscillatory behavior in the inviscid region between the boundary-layer edge and the bow shock. For the examination of three-dimensional (3-D) effects, a rotating cone is used as a model of a swept wing. An increase of stagnation temperature is found to be only slightly stabilizing. The correlation of transition location (N = 9) with parameters describing the crossflow profile is discussed. Transition location does not correlate with the traditional crossflow Reynolds number. A new parameter that appears to correlate for boundary-layer flow was found. A verification with experiments on a yawed cone is provided.
Stratified Flow over Topography: Wave Generation and Boundary Layer Separation
Sutherland, Bruce
Stratified Flow over Topography: Wave Generation and Boundary Layer Separation B. R. Sutherland topography. We have chosen to use periodic, finiteamplitude hills which are representative of the Earth upon internal waves generated by flow over rough topography. 1 Introduction Internal waves propagate
Stratified Flow over Topography: Wave Generation and Boundary Layer Separation
Sutherland, Bruce
Stratified Flow over Topography: Wave Generation and Boundary Layer Separation B. R. Sutherland topography. We have chosen to use periodic, finite-amplitude hills which are representative of the Earth upon internal waves generated by flow over rough topography. 1 Introduction Internal waves propagate
TURBULENCE PARAMETERS IMPACTING DISPERSION IN AN URBAN CONVECTIVE BOUNDARY LAYER
Turbulence measurements of the three dimensional wind components were collected by an instrumented research aircraft on 7 days in August 1976. These aircraft flights were conducted as part of the Regional Air Pollution Study (RAPS) urban boundary layer field program in St. Louis,...
Passive hypervelocity boundary layer control using an ultrasonically absorptive surface
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rasheed, Adam
A series of exploratory boundary layer transition experiments was performed on a sharp 5.06 degree half-angle round cone at zero angle-of-attack in the T5 Hypervelocity Shock Tunnel in order to test a novel hypersonic boundary layer control scheme. Recently performed linear stability analyses suggested that transition could be delayed in hypersonic boundary layers by using an ultrasonically absorptive surface that would damp the second mode (Mack mode). The cone used in the experiments was constructed with a smooth surface on half the cone (to serve as a control) and an acoustically absorptive porous surface on the other half. It was instrumented with flush-mounted thermocouples to detect the transition location. Test gases investigated included nitrogen and carbon dioxide at Mach 5 with specific reservoir enthalpy ranging from 1.3 MJ/kg to 13.0 MJ/kg and reservoir pressure ranging from 9.0 MPa to 50.0 MPa. Detailed comparisons were performed to insure that previous results obtained in similar boundary layer transition experiments (on a regular smooth surface) were reproduced and the results were extended to examine the effects of the porous surface. These experiments indicated that the porous surface was highly effective in delaying transition provided that the hole size was significantly smaller than the viscous length scale.
Passive hypervelocity boundary layer control using an acoustically absortive surface
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rasheed, Adam
A series of exploratory boundary layer transition experiments was performed on a sharp 5.06 degree half-angle round cone at zero angle-of-attack in the T5 Hypervelocity Shock Tunnel in order to test a novel hypersonic boundary layer control scheme. Recently performed linear stability analyses suggested that transition could be delayed in hypersonic boundary layers by using an ultrasonically absorptive surface that would damp the second mode (Mack mode). The cone used in the experiments was constructed with a smooth surface on half the cone (to serve as a control) and an acoustically absorptive porous surface on the other half. It was instrumented with flush-mounted thermocouples to detect the transition location. Test gases investigated included nitrogen and carbon dioxide at M = 5 with specific reservoir enthalpy ranging from 1.3 MJ/kg to 13.0 MJ/kg and reservoir pressure ranging from 9.0 MPa to 50.0 MPa. Detailed comparisons were performed to insure that previous results obtained in similar boundary layer transition experiments (on a regular smooth surface) were reproduced and the results were extended to examine the effects of the porous surface. These experiments indicated that the porous surface was highly effective in delaying transition provided that the hole size was significantly smaller than the viscous length scale.
Control plate for shock-boundary layer interaction
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Goodman, W. L.; Morrisette, E. L.; Hussaini, M. Y.; Bushnell, D. M.
1985-01-01
Paper describes tests and computations for a relatively unique technique to greatly reduce/eliminate the separation region for shock-boundary layer interactions. A number of studies have shown that the usual effects of such interactions include increased local heating and wall pressures, thickening of the boundary layer and a decrease in the momentum of the flow and, for stronger waves, flow separation. This flow situation is particularly prevalent in supersonic and hypersonic inlets where severe performance degradation can occur due to flow separation. High performance engine design generally requires a uniform entering flow field with little stagnation pressure loss. Previous approaches to the problem involved primarily active devices (e.g., suction or blowing); the present paper considers a passive device. The boundary layer separation control technique considered herein involves the placement of an embedded plate in the outer portion of the boundary layer and parallel to the wall. This control plate is situated such that the incident shock impinges upon and reflects from its surface, thus greatly lessening the pressure gradient in the low momentum near wall region.
FINITE-DIFFERENCE SOLUTION OF BOUNDARY-LAYER EQUATIONS
S. K. Dey
1980-01-01
In this article nonlinear third-order ordinary differential equations representing boundary-layer flows are reduced to integrodifferential equations, approximated by finite differences, and solved by a perturbed iterative scheme (PIS). PIS has a quadratic rate of convergence and is generally independent of initial guesses for the root.
Finite-difference solution of boundary-layer equations
S. K. Dey
1980-01-01
In this article nonlinear third-order ordinary differential equations representing boundary-layer flows are reduced to integrodifferential equations, approximated by finite differences, and solved by a perturbed iterative scheme (PIS). PIS has a quadratic rate of convergence and is generally independent of initial guesses for the root.
Iodine Species in the Marine Boundary Layer: a model study
J. Moldanova; R. Sander
2003-01-01
Multiphase chemical reactions of iodine species in marine boundary layer (MBL) were simulated using the box Model Of Chemistry Considering Aerosols (MOCCA). The chemical mechanism considers reactions both in the gas phase and in deliquesced sea-salt and sulfate aerosols. Photochemical reaction rates vary as a function of solar declination. In addition to the standard tropospheric HOx, CH4, and NOx chemistry,
Turbulent dispersion in the Atmospheric Convective Boundary Layer
A. Dosio
2005-01-01
The dispersion of a plume in the Atmospheric Boundary Layer is a very complex phenomenon that includes the transport, the mixing and the chemical transformations of the plume material. When a plume is dispersed in the ABL, its shape, evolution, and internal structure are determined by the interaction between the plume and the turbulent eddies that characterize the atmospheric motion.
Numerical Calculations of Shock-Wave/Boundary-Layer Flow Interactions
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Huang, P. G.; Liou, W. W.
1994-01-01
The paper presents results of calculations for 2-D supersonic turbulent compression corner flows. The results seem to indicate that the newer, improved kappa-epsilon models offer limited advantages over the standard kappa-epsilon model in predicting the shock-wave/boundary-layer flows in the 2-D compression corner over a wide range of corner angles and flow conditions.
Aero-Optical Effects of Supersonic Boundary Layers Stanislav Gordeyev
Gordeyev, Stanislav
, Colorado 80840 DOI: 10.2514/1.J051266 Aero-optical measurements of a zero-pressure-gradient, supersonic. The streamwise correlation function for the supersonic boundary layer revealed the presence of a pseudoperiodic in Eq. (11) C = function, defined in Eq. (12) Cf = local skin friction Cw = constant, defined in Eq. (4a
Explicit analytic solution for similarity boundary layer equations
Shi-Jun Liao; Ioan Pop
2004-01-01
In this paper the homotopy analysis method for strongly non-linear problems is employed to give two kinds of explicit analytic solutions of similarity boundary-layer equations. The analytic solutions are explicitly expressed by recurrence formulas for constant coefficients and can give accurate results in the whole regions of physical parameters.
Precipitation from convective boundary layers in arctic air masses
Haraldur Ólafsson; Hans Økland
1994-01-01
Cold air mass formed over the ice-covered polar area during the winter season often moves southward over the Norwegian Sea. The heat flux from the water produces a CBL (convective boundary layer) with increasing thickness and temperature in the downstream direction. Usually, snow showers are observed over the sea and at the coast of Norway. The object of this investigation
Stability of the Bdewadt boundary layer Sharon Stephen
Stability of the Bödewadt boundary layer Sharon Stephen School of Mathematics The University of Birmingham s.o.stephen@bham.ac.uk May 2009 S. O. Stephen (University of Birmingham) Stability of Bödewadt Basic flow Numerical results 4 Asymptotic results GSW modes Travelling modes 5 Future work S. O. Stephen
CFD simulation of the atmospheric boundary layer: wall function problems
Bert Blocken; Ted Stathopoulos; Jan Carmeliet
2007-01-01
Accurate Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations of atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) flow are essential for a wide variety of atmospheric studies including pollutant dispersion and deposition. The accuracy of such simulations can be seriously compromised when wall-function roughness modifications based on experimental data for sand-grain roughened pipes and channels are applied at the bottom of the computational domain. This type
Large-Scale Streamwise Turbulent Structures in Hypersonic Boundary Layers
English, Benjamin L.
2013-04-22
Velocimetry in a M = 4.9 blow-down wind tunnel accompanied by a series of data analysis in order to identify the existence of streamwise-elongated large-scale turbulence structures in a hypersonic boundary layer. Furthermore, this study identified physical...
Turbulence Structure and Wall Signature in Hypersonic Boundary Layer
Martín, Pino
Turbulence Structure and Wall Signature in Hypersonic Boundary Layer Yin-Chiu Kan , Beekman Izaak and low- speed features, found in subsonic experiments, are present in our supersonic and hypersonic and hypersonic regimes due to the lack of detailed flow field data, and the studies have been mostly restricted
Kahuku kite wind study. I. Kahuka beach boundary layer
P. A. Daniels; N. E. Oshiro
1982-01-01
In the coastal plain of Kahuku, Oahu, during August 1980 and February to April 1981, the boundary layer and the mechanism that creates it were investigated. Four sets of two automatically-recording tethered aerodynamically lifting anemometer (TALA) kites flying continuously at 100 and 300 ft, and conventional 30 ft instruments were used concurrently at four sites along a transect parallel to
ON HYDROMAGNETIC STRESSES IN ACCRETION DISK BOUNDARY LAYERS
Pessah, Martin E.; Chan, Chi-kwan E-mail: ckch@nordita.org
2012-05-20
Detailed calculations of the physical structure of accretion disk boundary layers, and thus their inferred observational properties, rely on the assumption that angular momentum transport is opposite to the radial angular frequency gradient of the disk. The standard model for turbulent shear viscosity satisfies this assumption by construction. However, this behavior is not supported by numerical simulations of turbulent magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) accretion disks, which show that angular momentum transport driven by the magnetorotational instability (MRI) is inefficient in disk regions where, as expected in boundary layers, the angular frequency increases with radius. In order to shed light on physically viable mechanisms for angular momentum transport in this inner disk region, we examine the generation of hydromagnetic stresses and energy density in differentially rotating backgrounds with angular frequencies that increase outward in the shearing-sheet framework. We isolate the modes that are unrelated to the standard MRI and provide analytic solutions for the long-term evolution of the resulting shearing MHD waves. We show that, although the energy density of these waves can be amplified significantly, their associated stresses oscillate around zero, rendering them an inefficient mechanism to transport significant angular momentum (inward). These findings are consistent with the results obtained in numerical simulations of MHD accretion disk boundary layers and challenge the standard assumption of efficient angular momentum transport in the inner disk regions. This suggests that the detailed structure of turbulent MHD accretion disk boundary layers could differ appreciably from those derived within the standard framework of turbulent shear viscosity.
Stability of Supersonic Boundary Layers Over Blunt Wedges
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Balakumar, Ponnampalam
2006-01-01
Receptivity and stability of supersonic boundary layers over blunt flat plates and wedges are numerically investigated at a free stream Mach number of 3.5 and at a high Reynolds number of 10(exp 6)/inch. Both the steady and unsteady solutions are obtained by solving the full Navier-Stokes equations using the 5th-order accurate weighted essentially non-oscillatory (WENO) scheme for space discretization and using third-order total-variation-diminishing (TVD) Runge-Kutta scheme for time integration. Computations are performed for a flat plate with leading edge thicknesses of 0.0001, 0.001, 0.005 and 0.01 inches that give Reynolds numbers based on the leading edge thickness ranging from 1000 to 10000. Calculations are also performed for a wedge of 10 degrees half angle with different leading edge radii 0.001 and 0.01 inches. The linear stability results showed that the bluntness has a strong stabilizing effect on the stability of two-dimensional boundary layers. The transition Reynolds number for a flat plate with a leading edge thickness of 0.01 inches is about 3.5 times larger than it is for the Blasius boundary layer. It was also revealed that boundary layers on blunt wedges are far more stable than on blunt flat plates.
Iodine monoxide in the Western Pacific marine boundary layer
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Großmann, K.; Frieß, U.; Peters, E.; Wittrock, F.; Lampel, J.; Yilmaz, S.; Tschritter, J.; Sommariva, R.; von Glasow, R.; Quack, B.; Krüger, K.; Pfeilsticker, K.; Platt, U.
2013-03-01
A latitudinal cross-section and vertical profiles of iodine monoxide (IO) are reported from the marine boundary layer of the Western Pacific. The measurements were taken using Multi-Axis Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (MAX-DOAS) during the TransBrom cruise of the German research vessel Sonne, which led from Tomakomai, Japan (42° N, 141° E) through the Western Pacific to Townsville, Australia (19° S, 146° E) in October 2009. In the marine boundary layer within the tropics (between 20° N and 5° S), IO mixing ratios ranged between 1 and 2.2 ppt, whereas in the subtropics and at mid-latitudes typical IO mixing ratios were around 1 ppt in the daytime. The profile retrieval reveals that the bulk of the IO was located in the lower part of the marine boundary layer. Photochemical simulations indicate that the organic iodine precursors observed during the cruise (CH3I, CH2I2, CH2ClI, CH2BrI) are not sufficient to explain the measured IO mixing ratios. Reasonable agreement between measured and modelled IO can only be achieved if an additional sea-air flux of inorganic iodine (e.g., I2) is assumed in the model. Our observations add further evidence to previous studies that reactive iodine is an important oxidant in the marine boundary layer.
Iodine monoxide in the Western Pacific marine boundary layer
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Großmann, K.; Frieß, U.; Peters, E.; Wittrock, F.; Lampel, J.; Yilmaz, S.; Tschritter, J.; Sommariva, R.; von Glasow, R.; Quack, B.; Krüger, K.; Pfeilsticker, K.; Platt, U.
2012-10-01
A latitudinal cross-section and vertical profiles of iodine monoxide (IO) are reported from the marine boundary layer of the Western Pacific. The measurements were taken using Multi-Axis Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (MAX-DOAS) during the TransBrom cruise of the German research vessel Sonne, which led from Tomakomai, Japan (42° N, 141° E) through the Western Pacific to Townsville, Australia (19° S, 146° E) in October 2009. In the marine boundary layer within the tropics (between 20° N and 5° S), IO mixing ratios ranged between 1 and 2.2 ppt, whereas in the subtropics and at mid-latitudes typical IO mixing ratios were around 1 ppt in the daytime. The profile retrieval reveals that the bulk of the IO was located in the lower part of the marine boundary layer. Photochemical simulations indicate that the organic iodine precursors observed during the cruise (CH3I, CH2I2, CH2ClI, CH2BrI) are not sufficient to explain the measured IO mixing ratios. Reasonable agreement between measured and modelled IO can only be achieved, if an additional sea-air flux of inorganic iodine (e.g. I2) is assumed in the model. Our observations add further evidence to previous studies that reactive iodine is an important oxidant in the marine boundary layer.
Experimental study of a supersonic turbulent boundary layer using PIV
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
He, Lin; Yi, ShiHe; Zhao, YuXin; Tian, LiFeng; Chen, Zhi
2011-09-01
Particle image velocimetry was applied to the study of the statistical properties and the coherent structures of a flat plate turbulent boundary layer at Mach 3. The nanoparticles with a good flow-following capability in supersonic flows were adopted as the tracer particles in the present experiments. The results show that the Van Driest transformed mean velocity profile satisfies the incompressible scalings and reveals a log-law region that extends to y/?=0.4, which is further away from the wall than that in incompressible boundary layers. The Reynolds stress profiles exhibit a plateau-like region in the log-law region. The hairpin vortices in the streamwise-wall-normal plane are identified using different velocity decompositions, which are similar to the results of the flow visualization via NPLS technique. And multiple hairpin vortices are found moving at nearly the same velocity in different regions of the boundary layer. In the streamwise-spanwise plane, elongated streaky structures are observed in the log-law region, and disappear in the outer region of the boundary layer, which is contrary to the flow visualization results.
On the theory of the turbulent boundary layer
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rotta, J
1953-01-01
As a rule, a division of the turbulent boundary layer is admissible: a division into a part near the wall, where the flow is governed only by the wall effects, and into an outer part, where the wall roughness and the viscosity of the flow medium affects only the wall shearing stress occurring as boundary condition but does not exert any other influence on the flow. Both parts may be investigated to a large extent independently. Under certain presuppositions there result for the outer part "similar" solutions. The theoretical considerations give a cue how to set up, by appropriate experiments and their evaluation, generally valid connections which are required for the approximate calculation of the turbulent boundary layer according to the momentum and energy theorem.
On Supersonic-Inlet Boundary-Layer Bleed Flow
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Harloff, Gary J.; Smith, Gregory E.
1995-01-01
Boundary-layer bleed in supersonic inlets is typically used to avoid separation from adverse shock-wave/boundary-layer interactions and subsequent total pressure losses in the subsonic diffuser and to improve normal shock stability. Methodologies used to determine bleed requirements are reviewed. Empirical sonic flow coefficients are currently used to determine the bleed hole pattern. These coefficients depend on local Mach number, pressure ratio, hole geometry, etc. A new analytical bleed method is presented to compute sonic flow coefficients for holes and narrow slots and predictions are compared with published data to illustrate the accuracy of the model. The model can be used by inlet designers and as a bleed boundary condition for computational fluid dynamic studies.
Gasdynamic simulations of the solar wind interaction with Venus - Boundary layer formation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
McGary, J. E.
1993-05-01
A 2D gasdynamic simulation of the mass-loaded solar wind flow around the dayside of Venus is presented. For average ionopause conditions near 300 km, the simulations show that mass loading from the pickup of oxygen ions produces a boundary layer of finite thickness along the ionopause. Within this layer and toward the ionopause, the temperature decreases and the total mass density increases significantly. Furthermore, there is a shear in the bulk flow velocity across the boundary layer, such that the tangential flow decreases in speed as the ionopause is approached and remains low along the ionopause which is consistent with Pioneer Venus observations. Numerical simulations are carried out for various mass addition rates and demonstrate that the boundary layer develops when oxygen ion production exceeds approximately 2 x 10 exp 5/cu m per s.
Evaluation of Flush-Mounted, S-Duct Inlets With Large Amounts of Boundary Layer Ingestion
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Berrier, Bobby L.; Morehouse, Melissa B.
2003-01-01
A new high Reynolds number test capability for boundary layer ingesting inlets has been developed for the NASA Langley Research Center 0.3-Meter Transonic Cryogenic Tunnel. Using this new capability, an experimental investigation of four S-duct inlet configurations with large amounts of boundary layer ingestion (nominal boundary layer thickness of about 40% of inlet height) was conducted at realistic operating conditions (high subsonic Mach numbers and full-scale Reynolds numbers). The objectives of this investigation were to 1) develop a new high Reynolds number, boundary-layer ingesting inlet test capability, 2) evaluate the performance of several boundary layer ingesting S-duct inlets, 3) provide a database for CFD tool validation, and 4) provide a baseline inlet for future inlet flow-control studies. Tests were conducted at Mach numbers from 0.25 to 0.83, Reynolds numbers (based on duct exit diameter) from 5.1 million to a fullscale value of 13.9 million, and inlet mass-flow ratios from 0.39 to 1.58 depending on Mach number. Results of this investigation indicate that inlet pressure recovery generally decreased and inlet distortion generally increased with increasing Mach number. Except at low Mach numbers, increasing inlet mass-flow increased pressure recovery and increased distortion. Increasing the amount of boundary layer ingestion (by decreasing inlet throat height and increasing inlet throat width) or ingesting a boundary layer with a distorted profile decreased pressure recovery and increased distortion. Finally, increasing Reynolds number had almost no effect on inlet distortion but increased inlet recovery by about one-half percent at a Mach number near cruise.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tetervin, Neal; Lin, Chia Chiao
1951-01-01
A general integral form of the boundary-layer equation, valid for either laminar or turbulent incompressible boundary-layer flow, is derived. By using the experimental finding that all velocity profiles of the turbulent boundary layer form essentially a single-parameter family, the general equation is changed to an equation for the space rate of change of the velocity-profile shape parameter. The lack of precise knowledge concerning the surface shear and the distribution of the shearing stress across turbulent boundary layers prevented the attainment of a reliable method for calculating the behavior of turbulent boundary layers.
Provenance of the K/T boundary layers
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hildebrand, A. R.; Boynton, W. V.
1988-01-01
An array of chemical, physical and isotopic evidence indicates that an impact into oceanic crust terminated the Cretaceous Period. Approximately 1500 cu km of debris, dispersed by the impact fireball, fell out globally in marine and nonmarine environments producing a 2 to 4 mm thick layer (fireball layer). In North American locales, the fireball layer overlies a 15 to 25 mm thick layer of similar but distinct composition. This 15 to 25 mm layer (ejecta layer) may represent approximately 1000 cu km of lower energy ejecta from a nearby impact site. Isotopic and chemical evidence supports a mantle provenance for the bulk of the layers. The extraordinary REE pattern of the boundary clays was modelled as a mixture of oceanic crust, mantle, and approximately 10 percent continental material. The results are presented. If the siderophiles of the ejecta layer were derived solely from the mantle, a test may be available to see if the siderophile element anomaly of the fireball layer had an extraterrestrial origin. Radiogenic Os-187 is depleted in the mantle relative to an undifferentiated chondritic source. Os-187/Os-186 ratios of 1.049 and 1.108 were calculated for the ejecta and fireball layers, respectively.
Cycle II.5 aircraft aero-optical turbulent boundary-layer\\/shear-layer measurements
K. Gilbert
1980-01-01
The aero-optical effects associated with propagating a laser beam through aircraft turbulent boundary layers and shear layers were examined. Observed laser optical performance levels were compared with those inferred from aerodynamic measurements of unsteady densities and correlation lengths within these random flows. Optical instrumentation included a fast shearing interferometer (FSI). A 9 cm diameter collimated helium neon laser beam made
Effects of increased entrainment in turbulent boundary layers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Borrell, Guillem; Jimenez, Javier
2012-11-01
It has been reported that certain rough surfaces modify the outer region of turbulent boundary layers. One of the effects of surface roughness is additional friction that causes an accelerated entrainment rate, which is also known to modify the outer intermittent layers of external turbulent flows. One and two-points statistics are presented from a direct numerical simulation of a zero-pressure-gradient turbulent boundary layer in the range Re? = 1400 - 4500 , in which the spreading rate is increased by 70% by a smooth volumetric force restricted to the layer below y+ = 25 , and equivalent to a sand roughness of ks ~ 60 . The goal of this simulation is to separate the effects of surface geometry from those of entrainment. The velocity fluctuations, Reynolds stresses and spatial correlations C?? (x ;x' , y ;y' ,kz) , that are consistently different from those in smooth-wall boundary layers at similar Reynolds numbers, will be compared with experimental and numerical data sets available in the literature. Funded by ERC, PRACE, CICYT and Spanish Ministry of Science.
Identification and characterization of vortices in the turbulent boundary layer
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Portela, Luis Manuel
1998-12-01
Vortices are important in many types of flows. In particular, unsteady vortices play a central role in turbulence. However, we have lacked a formal accepted definition of a vortex, and the issue has generated significant controversy. The basic notion usually associated with a vortex, and the one we consider, is that of a swirling motion around a central set of points. We show that several definitions that have been proposed in the literature in general do not correspond to this notion. We propose an objective and formal mathematical definition that corresponds to this notion. The definition is completely general, and deals with the three major aspects of the vortex concept: definition of the notion of a maximal region with its points swirling around a minimal connected central set of points, the nucleus; extension of the concept of swirling to a three- dimensional situation, by defining swirling around an appropriate axial-set; choice of a proper velocity field, by defining the notion of a reference frame attached to the swirling motion. A method of identification based on algorithms using the proposed definition was developed. This resulted in software that allows the identification of the vortices and their decomposition into different regions. The software was applied successfully to several canonical flows and to the direct numerical simulation of a flat-plate turbulent boundary layer. The picture that emerges is that the vortices have very diverse and complex non-axysimmetric spiral streamline-patterns. The decomposition of the vortices into several regions provides a greater insight into the kinematics and dynamics of the turbulent boundary layer; preliminary results suggest that this plays an important role in a better understanding of the Reynolds shear-stress. Results from a simple statistical characterization are presented: they confirm results reported in the literature that quasi-streamwise vortices are most common near the wall and quasi-spanwise vortices are most common in the outer-layer, with both forms coexisting in the log-law region; they provide new evidence supporting the thesis that the vortices have a cause-consequence relation with the shear-stress at the wall.
On buffer layers as non-reflecting computational boundaries
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hayder, M. Ehtesham; Turkel, Eli L.
1996-01-01
We examine an absorbing buffer layer technique for use as a non-reflecting boundary condition in the numerical simulation of flows. One such formulation was by Ta'asan and Nark for the linearized Euler equations. They modified the flow inside the buffer zone to artificially make it supersonic in the layer. We examine how this approach can be extended to the nonlinear Euler equations. We consider both a conservative and a non-conservative form modifying the governing equations in the buffer layer. We compare this with the case that the governing equations in the layer are the same as in the interior domain. We test the effectiveness of these buffer layers by a simulation of an excited axisymmetric jet based on a nonlinear compressible Navier-Stokes equations.
Turbulent boundary layer on a convex, curved surface
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gillis, J. C.; Johnston, J. P.; Kays, W. M.; Moffat, R. J.
1980-01-01
The effects of strong convex curvature on boundary layer turbulence were investigated. The data gathered on the behavior of Reynolds stress suggested the formulation of a simple turbulence model. Three sets of data were taken on two separate facilities. Both rigs had flow from a flat surface, over a convex surface with 90 deg of turning, and then onto a flat recovery surface. The geometry was adjusted so that, for both rigs, the pressure gradient along the test surface was zero - thus avoiding any effects of streamwise acceleration on the wall layers. Results show that after a sudden introduction of curvature, the shear stress in the outer part of the boundary layer is sharply diminished and is even slightly negative near the edge. The wall shear also drops off quickly downstream. In contrast, when the surface suddenly becomes flat again, the wall shear and shear stress profiles recover very slowly towards flat wall conditions.
Hypersonic Turbulent Boundary-Layer and Free Sheer Database Datasets
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Settles, Gary S.; Dodson, Lori J.
1993-01-01
A critical assessment and compilation of data are presented on attached hypersonic turbulent boundary layers in pressure gradients and compressible turbulent mixing layers. Extensive searches were conducted to identify candidate experiments, which were subjected to a rigorous set of acceptance criteria. Accepted datasets are both tabulated and provided in machine-readable form. The purpose of this database effort is to make existing high quality data available in detailed form for the turbulence-modeling and computational fluid dynamics communities. While significant recent data were found on the subject of compressible turbulent mixing, the available boundary-layer/pressure-gradient experiments are all older ones of which no acceptable data were found at hypersonic Mach numbers.
A perspective on coherent structures and conceptual models for turbulent boundary layer physics
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Robinson, Stephen K.
1990-01-01
Direct numerical simulations of turbulent boundary layers have been analyzed to develop a unified conceptual model for the kinematics of coherent motions in low Reynolds number canonical turbulent boundary layers. All classes of coherent motions are considered in the model, including low-speed streaks, ejections and sweeps, vortical structures, near-wall and outer-region shear layers, sublayer pockets, and large-scale outer-region eddies. The model reflects the conclusions from the study of the simulated boundary layer that vortical structures are directly associated with the production of turbulent shear stresses, entrainment, dissipation of turbulence kinetic energy, and the fluctuating pressure field. These results, when viewed from the perspective of the large body of published work on the subject of coherent motions, confirm that vortical structures may be considered the central dynamic element in the maintenance of turbulence in the canonical boundary layer. Vortical structures serve as a framework on which to construct a unified picture of boundary layer structure, providing a means to relate the many known structural elements in a consistent way.
Shock-boundary layer interaction and transonic flutter
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tumkur Karnick, Pradeepa; Venkatraman, Kartik
2012-11-01
The transonic flutter dip of an aeroelastic system is primarily caused by compressibility of the flowing fluid. Viscous effects are not dominant in the pre-transonic dip region. In fact, an Euler solver can predict this flutter boundary with considerable accuracy. However with an increase in Mach number the shock moves towards the trailing edge causing shock induced separation. This shock-boundary layer interaction changes the flutter boundary in the transonic and post-transonic dip region significantly. We discuss the effect of viscosity in changing the flutter boundary in the post-transonic dip region using a RANS solver coupled to a two-degree of freedom model of the structural dynamics of a wing.
Linear Stabilty of a Laminar Boundary Layer with Shock Boundary Layer Interaction at Ma=4.8
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pagella, Alessandro; Rist, Ulrich; Wagner, Siegfried
2001-11-01
The stability behavior of a laminar boundary layer at Ma=4.8 with shock boundary layer interaction and small amplitude disturbances is investigated by linear stability theory for compressible flows (Mack 1969) and direct numerical simulation. The effect of the shock strength is assessed. The numerical scheme is based on the unsteady, compressible, three-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations. In streamwise direction, high order split type compact finite differences are used, while in wall normal direction central differences for viscous and alternating one-sided finite differences for convective terms, in spanwise direction, a spectral Fourier Series expansion are applied. Numerical oscillations, caused by high gradients of the flow variables at the shock, are damped by an implicit filter of high order in streamwise direction. For the results obtained by the simulation without impinging shock wave, non-parallel effects could be identified and quantified. Taking these non-parallel effects into account, linear stability theory could represent stability behavior of wall distant disturbance amplitude maxima with small obliqueness angles of the disturbances for the investigated cases with shock. The impinging shock wave locally influences stability behavior of the boundary layer, which is dependent on its shock-strength, applied disturbance frequency and disturbance propagation angle. A separation bubble locally displaces the boundary layer in wall normal direction. Hence, viscous instability becomes weaker and the inviscid instability picks up.
Drag of a turbulent boundary layer with transverse 2D circular rods on the wall
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kamruzzaman, Md; Djenidi, L.; Antonia, R. A.; Talluru, K. M.
2015-06-01
In this paper, we present the results of a turbulent boundary layer developing over a rod-roughened wall with a spacing of ( is the spacing between two adjacent roughness elements, and is the rod diameter). Static pressure measurements are taken around a single roughness element to accurately determine the friction velocity, and the error in the origin, , which are the two prominent issues that surround rough-wall boundary layers. In addition, velocity measurements are taken at several streamwise locations using hot-wire anemometry to obtain from the momentum integral equation. Results showed that both methods give consistent values for , indicating that the contribution of the viscous drag over this rough wall is negligible. This supports the results of Perry et al. (J Fluid Mech 177:437-466, 1969) and Antonia and Luxton (J Fluid Mech 48(04):721-761, 1971) in a boundary layer and of Leonardi et al. (2003) in a channel flow but does not agree with those of Furuya et al. (J Fluids Eng 98(4):635-643, 1976). The results show that both and can be unambiguously measured on this particular rough wall. This paves the way for a proper comparison between the boundary layer developing over this wall and the smooth-wall turbulent boundary layer.
Version 2 of the Protuberance Correlations for the Shuttle-Orbiter Boundary Layer Transition Tool
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
King, Rudolph A.; Kegerise, Michael A.; Berry, Scott A.
2009-01-01
Orbiter-specific transition data, acquired in four ground-based facilities (LaRC 20-Inch Mach 6 Air Tunnel, LaRC 31-Inch Mach 10 Air Tunnel, LaRC 20-Inch Mach 6 CF4 Tunnel, and CUBRC LENS-I Shock Tunnel) with three wind tunnel model scales (0.75, 0.90, and 1.8%) and from Orbiter historical flight data, have been analyzed to improve a pre-existing engineering tool for reentry transition prediction on the windward side of the Orbiter. Boundary layer transition (BLT) engineering correlations for transition induced by isolated protuberances are presented using a laminar Navier-Stokes (N-S) database to provide the relevant boundary-layer properties. It is demonstrated that the earlier version of the BLT correlation that had been developed using parameters derived from an engineering boundary-layer code has improved data collapse when developed with the N-S database. Of the new correlations examined, the proposed correlation 5, based on boundary-layer edge and wall properties, was found to provide the best overall correlation metrics when the entire database is employed. The second independent correlation (proposed correlation 7) selected is based on properties within the boundary layer at the protuberance height. The Aeroheating Panel selected a process to derive the recommended coefficients for Version 2 of the BLT Tool. The assumptions and limitations of the recommended protuberance BLT Tool V.2 are presented.
Influence of bulk turbulence and entrance boundary layer thickness on the curved duct flow field
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Crawford, R. A.
1988-01-01
The influence of bulk turbulence and boundary layer thickness on the secondary flow development in a square, 90 degree turning duct was investigated. A three-dimensional laser velocimetry system was utilized to measure the mean and fluctuating components of velocity at six cross-planes in the duct. The results from this investigation, with entrance boundary layer thickness of 20 percent, were compared with the thin boundary layer results documented in NASA CR-174811. The axial velocity profiles, cross-flow velocities, and turbulence intensities were compared and evaluated with regard to the influence of bulk turbulence intensity and boundary layer thickness, and the influence was significant. The results of this investigation expand the 90 degree curved duct experimental data base to higher turbulence levels and thicker entrance boundary layers. The experimental results provide a challenging benchmark data base for computational fluid dynamics code development and validation. The variation of inlet bulk turbulence intensity provides additional information to aid in turbulence model evaluation.
Overview of Boundary Layer Transition Research in Support of Orbiter Return To Flight
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Berry, Scott A.; Horvath, Thomas J.; Greene, Francis A.; Kinder, Gerald R.; Wang, K. C.
2006-01-01
A predictive tool for estimating the onset of boundary layer transition resulting from damage to and/or repair of the thermal protection system was developed in support of Shuttle Return to Flight. The boundary layer transition tool is part of a suite of tools that analyze the aerothermodynamic environment to the local thermal protection system to allow informed disposition of damage for making recommendations to fly as is or to repair. Using mission specific trajectory information and details of each damage site or repair, the expected time (and thus Mach number) at transition onset is predicted to help define the aerothermodynamic environment to use in the subsequent thermal and stress analysis of the local thermal protection system and structure. The boundary layer transition criteria utilized for the tool was developed from ground-based measurements to account for the effect of both protuberances and cavities and has been calibrated against select flight data. Computed local boundary layer edge conditions were used to correlate the results, specifically the momentum thickness Reynolds number over the edge Mach number and the boundary layer thickness. For the initial Return to Flight mission, STS-114, empirical curve coefficients of 27, 100, and 900 were selected to predict transition onset for protuberances based on height, and cavities based on depth and length, respectively.
Hypersonic Shock/Boundary-Layer Interaction Database
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Settles, G. S.; Dodson, L. J.
1991-01-01
Turbulence modeling is generally recognized as the major problem obstructing further advances in computational fluid dynamics (CFD). A closed solution of the governing Navier-Stokes equations for turbulent flows of practical consequence is still far beyond grasp. At the same time, the simplified models of turbulence which are used to achieve closure of the Navier-Stokes equations are known to be rigorously incorrect. While these models serve a definite purpose, they are inadequate for the general prediction of hypersonic viscous/inviscid interactions, mixing problems, chemical nonequilibria, and a range of other phenomena which must be predicted in order to design a hypersonic vehicle computationally. Due to the complexity of turbulence, useful new turbulence models are synthesized only when great expertise is brought to bear and considerable intellectual energy is expended. Although this process is fundamentally theoretical, crucial guidance may be gained from carefully-executed basic experiments. Following the birth of a new model, its testing and validation once again demand comparisons with data of unimpeachable quality. This report concerns these issues which arise from the experimental aspects of hypersonic modeling and represents the results of the first phase of an effort to develop compressible turbulence models.
Numerical study of light scattering by a boundary-layer flow.
Bogucki, Darek J; Domaradzki, Julian A
2005-09-01
Temperature inhomogeneities in free, isotropic turbulence have the effect of scattering light in near-forward angles. We investigate numerically modifications of free turbulence by a rigid wall and its effect on the propagation of light through turbulence. The wall is a 5 cm optical window placed at the leading edge of an instrument towed with speeds of 0.1 and 1 m/s in free turbulence. The turbulent flow field presents inhomogeneities of an embedded passive scalar (Pr = 7, temperature in water), which are modified by the boundary layer developing on the window. We find that the developing laminar boundary layer has a negligible effect on light scattering for the investigated geometry when considered in terms of the volume-scattering function (differential cross section). This indicates that the boundary layer is not an obstacle for optical measurements of turbulence. PMID:16149351
Turbulent Boundary Layers in Absence of Mean Shear
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Johnson, Blair; Cowen, Edwin
2013-11-01
Environmental flows are often observed in which turbulence levels significantly exceed what would be expected from mean boundary shear (e.g. breaking surface waves). This enhanced turbulence produces sediment resuspension and boundary layers that differ greatly from classic turbulent boundary layer characterizations. To identify the contribution of turbulence to such sediment resuspension, experiments are conducted in a facility designed to generate homogeneous isotropic turbulence in absence of mean shear via a Randomly Actuated Synthetic Jet Array (RASJA). Using particle image velocimetry (PIV), boundary layers above both a solid glass bed and a narrowly graded sediment bed are characterized by their mean flows, turbulent kinetic energy, dissipation, spectra, and Reynolds stress. Furthermore, a surprising observation includes the formation of ripple patterns when the turbulence decays above the sediment bed. We hypothesize that the ripples scale with the integral length scale of the turbulence. By varying the percentage of active jets and the relative on- and off-times of jets in the RASJA, our investigations consider the impact of altering the integral length scale of the facility on the resulting turbulent structures and sediment motions observed.
Environmental boundaries to energy development
Trivelpiece, A.W.
1989-01-01
Public concern about the environment, health and safety consequences of energy technology has been growing steadily for more than two decades in the United States. This concern forms an important boundary condition as the United States seeks to develop a new National Energy Strategy. Furthermore, the international aspects of the energy/environment interface such as acid rain global climate change and stratospheric ozone depletion are very prominent in US thinking. In fact, the energy systems of the world are becoming more closely coupled environmentally and otherwise. Now where is this coupling more important than that between the industrialized and developing world; the choices made by each will have profound effects on the other. The development of energy technologies compatible with both economic growth and improving and sustaining environmental quality represents a major R D challenge to the US and USSR. Decision about adoption of new technology and R D priorities can be improved by better measurements of how energy sources and uses are changing throughout the world and better methods to project the potential consequences of these decisions. Such projection require understanding relative risks of alternating existing and evolving technologies. All of these R D areas, technology improvement energy system monitoring and projection and comparative risk assessment are the topics of this seminar. Progress in each may be enhanced by collaboration and cooperation between our two countries. 7 refs., 27 figs., 5 tabs.
Investigation of the Interaction of External Disturbances with Roughened Flat Plate Boundary Layer
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Davis, Sanford S.; Dietz, A. J.
1996-01-01
The interaction of an external disturbance with a laminar boundary layer over a flat plate with distributed roughness is investigated using combined experimental and numerical methods. The experiment is modeled with an unsteady boundary layer code using second order backward differencing. The simulation includes the second order scattering from roughness elements at and near the first streamwise station of predicted boundary layer instability. A comparison of experimental measurements of the boundary layer perturbation due to the wake from a vibrating ribbon with the computed first order forced boundary layer perturbation showed excellent agreement. Second order roughness induced eigenfunctions from boundary layer theory are examined and compared with other forms of excitation
FOREWORD: International Conference on Planetary Boundary Layer and Climate Change
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Djolov, G.; Esau, I.
2010-05-01
One of the greatest achievements of climate science has been the establisment of the concept of climate change on a multitude of time scales. The Earth's complex climate system does not allow a straightforward interpretation of dependences between the external parameter perturbation, internal stochastic system dynamics and the long-term system response. The latter is usually referred to as climate change in a narrow sense (IPCC, 2007). The focused international conference "Planetary Boundary Layers and Climate Change" has addressed only time scales and dynamical aspects of climate change with possible links to the turbulent processes in the Planetary Boundary Layer (PBL). Although limited, the conference topic is by no means singular. One should clearly understand that the PBL is the layer where 99% of biosphere and human activity are concentrated. The PBL is the layer where the energy fluxes, which are followed by changes in cryosphere and other known feedbacks, are maximized. At the same time, the PBL processes are of a naturally small scale. What is the averaged long-term effect of the small-scale processes on the long-term climate dynamics? Can this effect be recognized in existing long-term paleo-climate data records? Can it be modeled? What is the current status of our theoretical understanding of this effect? What is the sensitivity of the climate model projections to the representation of small-scale processes? Are there significant indirect effects, e.g. through transport of chemical components, of the PBL processes on climate? These and other linked questions have been addressed during the conference. The Earth's climate has changed many times during the planet's history, with events ranging from ice ages to long periods of warmth. Historically, natural factors such as the amount of energy released from the Sun, volcanic eruptions and changes in the Earth's orbit have affected the Earth's climate. Beginning late in the 18th century, human activities associated with the Industrial Revolution such as the addition of greenhouse gases and aerosols has changed the composition of the atmosphere. These changes are likely to have influenced temperature, precipitation, storms and sea level (IPCC, 2007). However, these features of the climate also vary naturally, so determining what fraction of climate changes are due to natural variability versus human activities is challenging and not yet a solved problem. Africa is vulnerable to climate change as its ability to adaptat and mitigate is considerably dampened (IPCC, 2007). Climate change may impede a nations ability to achieve sustainable development and the Millennium Development Goals, and because of that Africa (particularly sub-tropical Africa) will experience increased levels of water stress and reduced agricultural yields of up to 50% by 2020. An example of the scale of the region's vulnerability was demonstrated during the last very dry year (1991/92) when 30% of the southern African population was put on food aid and more than one million people were displaced. Climate change in Africa is essentially dependent on our understanding of the PBL processes both due to the indispensible role of the atmospheric convection in the African climate and due to its tele-connections to other regions, e.g. the tropical Pacific and Indian monsoon regions. Although numerous publications attribute the observed changes to one or another modification of the convective patterns, further progress is impeded by imperfections of the small-scale process parameterizations in the models. The uncertainties include parameter uncertainties of known physical processes, which could be reduced through better observations/modelling, as well as uncertainties in our knowledge of physical processes themselves (or structural uncertainties), which could be reduced only through theoretical development and design of new, original observations/experiments (Oppenheimer et al., Science, 2007). Arguably, the structural uncertainties is hard to reduce and this could be one of the reasons determinin
Turbulence spectra of the FIRE stratocumulus-topped boundary layers
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Young, G. S.; Nucciarone, J. J.; Albrecht, Bruce A.
1990-01-01
There are at least four physical phenomena which contribute to the FIRE boundary layer turbulence spectra: boundary layer spanning eddies resulting from buoyant and mechanical production of turbulent kinetic energy (the microscale subrange); inertial subrange turbulence which cascades this energy to smaller scales; quasi-two dimensional mesoscale variations; and gravity waves. The relative contributions of these four phenomena to the spectra depend on the altitude of observation and variable involved (vertical velocity, temperature and moisture spectra are discussed). The physical origins of these variations in relative contribution are discussed. As expected from the theory (Kaimal et al., 1976), mixed layer scaling of the spectra (i.e., nondimensionalizing wavelength by Z(sub i) and spectral density by Z(sub i) and the dissipation rates) is successful for the microscale subrange and inertial subrange but not for the mesoscale subrange. The most striking feature of the normalized vertical velocity spectra is the lack of any significant mesoscale contribution. The spectral peak results from buoyant and mechanical production on scales similar to the boundary layer depth. The decrease in spectral density at larger scales results from the suppression of vertical velocity perturbations with large horizontal scales by the shallowness of the atmosphere. The spectral density also decreases towards smaller scales following the well known inertial subrange slope. There is a significant variation in the shape of the normalized spectra with height.
Transitionally rough zero pressure gradient turbulent boundary layers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brzek, Brian G.; Cal, Raúl Bayoán; Johansson, Gunnar; Castillo, Luciano
2008-01-01
Near-wall measurements are performed to study the effects of surface roughness and viscous shear stresses on the transitionally rough regime (5 < k + < 70) of a zero pressure gradient turbulent boundary layer. The x-dependence is known from the eleven consecutive measurements in the streamwise direction, which allows for the computation of the streamwise gradients in the boundary layer equations. Thus, the skin friction is computed from the integrated boundary layer equation with errors of 3 and 5% for smooth and rough, respectively. It is found that roughness destroys the viscous layer near the wall, thus, reducing the contribution of the viscous stress in the wall region. As a result, the contribution in the wall shear stress due to form drag increases, while the viscous stress decreases. This yields Reynolds number invariance in the skin friction as k + increases into the fully rough regime. Furthermore, the roughness at the wall reduces the high peak of the streamwise component of the Reynolds stress in the near-wall region. However, for the Reynolds wall-normal and shear stress components, its contribution is not significantly altered for sand grain roughness.
Edge Plasma Boundary Layer Generated By Kink Modes in Tokamaks
L.E. Zakharov
2010-11-22
This paper describes the structure of the electric current generated by external kink modes at the plasma edge using the ideally conducting plasma model. It is found that the edge current layer is created by both wall touching and free boundary kink modes. Near marginal stability, the total edge current has a universal expression as a result of partial compensation of the ?-functional surface current by the bulk current at the edge. The resolution of an apparent paradox with the pressure balance across the plasma boundary in the presence of the surface currents is provided.
Polymer Effects on Heat Transport in Laminar Boundary Layer Flow
Roberto Benzi; Emily S. C. Ching; Vivien W. S. Chu
2011-04-27
We consider a laminar Blasius boundary-layer flow above a slightly heated horizontal plate and study the effect of polymer additives on the heat transport. We show that the action of the polymers can be understood as a space-dependent effective viscosity that first increases from the zero-shear value then decreases exponentially back to the zero-shear value as one moves away from the boundary. We find that with such an effective viscosity, both the horizontal and vertical velocities near the plate are decreased thus leading to an increase in the friction drag and a decrease in the heat transport in the flow.
Numerical Simulation of a Spatially Evolving Supersonic Turbulent Boundary Layer
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gatski, T. B.; Erlebacher, G.
2002-01-01
The results from direct numerical simulations of a spatially evolving, supersonic, flat-plate turbulent boundary-layer flow, with free-stream Mach number of 2.25 are presented. The simulated flow field extends from a transition region, initiated by wall suction and blowing near the inflow boundary, into the fully turbulent regime. Distributions of mean and turbulent flow quantities are obtained and an analysis of these quantities is performed at a downstream station corresponding to Re(sub x)= 5.548 x10(exp 6) based on distance from the leading edge.
Simulation and optimal control of wind-farm boundary layers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Meyers, Johan; Goit, Jay
2014-05-01
In large wind farms, the effect of turbine wakes, and their interaction leads to a reduction in farm efficiency, with power generated by turbines in a farm being lower than that of a lone-standing turbine by up to 50%. In very large wind farms or `deep arrays', this efficiency loss is related to interaction of the wind farms with the planetary boundary layer, leading to lower wind speeds at turbine level. Moreover, for these cases it has been demonstrated both in simulations and wind-tunnel experiments that the wind-farm energy extraction is dominated by the vertical turbulent transport of kinetic energy from higher regions in the boundary layer towards the turbine level. In the current study, we investigate the use of optimal control techniques combined with Large-Eddy Simulations (LES) of wind-farm boundary layer interaction for the increase of total energy extraction in very large `infinite' wind farms. We consider the individual wind turbines as flow actuators, whose energy extraction can be dynamically regulated in time so as to optimally influence the turbulent flow field, maximizing the wind farm power. For the simulation of wind-farm boundary layers we use large-eddy simulations in combination with actuator-disk and actuator-line representations of wind turbines. Simulations are performed in our in-house pseudo-spectral code SP-Wind that combines Fourier-spectral discretization in horizontal directions with a fourth-order finite-volume approach in the vertical direction. For the optimal control study, we consider the dynamic control of turbine-thrust coefficients in an actuator-disk model. They represent the effect of turbine blades that can actively pitch in time, changing the lift- and drag coefficients of the turbine blades. Optimal model-predictive control (or optimal receding horizon control) is used, where the model simply consists of the full LES equations, and the time horizon is approximately 280 seconds. The optimization is performed using a nonlinear conjugate gradient method, and the gradients are calculated by solving the adjoint LES equations. We find that the extracted farm power increases by approximately 20% when using optimal model-predictive control. However, the increased power output is also responsible for an increase in turbulent dissipation, and a deceleration of the boundary layer. Further investigating the energy balances in the boundary layer, it is observed that this deceleration is mainly occurring in the outer layer as a result of higher turbulent energy fluxes towards the turbines. In a second optimization case, we penalize boundary-layer deceleration, and find an increase of energy extraction of approximately 10%. In this case, increased energy extraction is balanced by a reduction in of turbulent dissipation in the boundary layer. J.M. acknowledges support from the European Research Council (FP7-Ideas, grant no. 306471). Simulations were performed on the computing infrastructure of the VSC Flemish Supercomputer Center, funded by the Hercules Foundation and the Flemish Government.
Boundary layer ozone - An airborne survey above the Amazon Basin
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gregory, Gerald L.; Browell, Edward V.; Warren, Linda S.
1988-01-01
Ozone data obtained over the forest canopy of the Amazon Basin during July and August 1985 in the course of NASA's Amazon Boundary Layer Experiment 2A are discussed, and ozone profiles obtained during flights from Belem to Tabatinga, Brazil, are analyzed to determine any cross-basin effects. The analyses of ozone data indicate that the mixed layer of the Amazon Basin, for the conditions of undisturbed meteorology and in the absence of biomass burning, is a significant sink for tropospheric ozone. As the coast is approached, marine influences are noted at about 300 km inland, and a transition from a forest-controlled mixed layer to a marine-controlled mixed layer is noted.
Observations of the Early Morning Boundary-Layer Transition with Small Remotely-Piloted Aircraft
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wildmann, Norman; Rau, Gerrit Anke; Bange, Jens
2015-08-01
A remotely-piloted aircraft (RPA), equipped with a high resolution thermodynamic sensor package, was used to investigate physical processes during the morning transition of the atmospheric boundary layer over land. Experiments were conducted at a test site in heterogeneous terrain in south-west Germany on 5 days from June to September 2013 in an evolving shallow convective boundary layer, which then developed into a well-mixed layer later in the day. A combination of vertical profiling and constant-altitude profiling (CAP) at 100 m height above ground level was chosen as the measuring strategy throughout the experiment. The combination of flight strategies allows the application of mixed-layer scaling using the boundary-layer height z_i , convective velocity scale w_* and convective temperature scale ? _* . The hypothesis that mixed-layer theory is valid during the whole transition was not confirmed for all parameters. A good agreement is found for temperature variances, especially in the upper half of the boundary layer, and the normalized heat-flux profile. The results were compared to a previous study with the helicopter-borne turbulence probe Helipod, and it was found that similar data quality can be achieved with the RPA. On all days, the CAP flight level was within the entrainment zone for a short time, and the horizontal variability of temperature and water vapour along the flight path is presented as an example of the inhomogeneity of layer interfaces in the boundary layer. The study serves as a case study of the possibilities and limitations with state-of-the-art RPA technology in micrometeorology.
Predicting Entropy Generation Rates in Transitional Boundary Layers Based on Intermittency
Kevin P. Nolan; Edmond J. Walsh; Donald M. McEligot; Ralph J. Volino
2007-07-01
Prediction of thermodynamic loss in transitional boundary layers is typically based on time-averaged data only. This approach effectively ignores the intermittent nature of the transition region. In this work laminar and turbulent conditionally sampled boundary layer data for zero pressure gradient and accelerating transitional boundary layers have been analyzed to calculate the entropy generation rate in the transition region. By weighting the nondimensional dissipation coefficient for the laminar conditioned data and turbulent conditioned data with the intermittency factor, the entropy generation rate in the transition region can be determined and compared to the time-averaged data and correlations for laminar and turbulent flow. It is demonstrated that this method provides an accurate and detailed picture of the entropy generation rate during transition in contrast with simple time averaging. The data used in this paper have been taken from conditionally sampled boundary layer measurements available in the literature for favorable pressure gradient flows. Based on these measurements, a semi-empirical technique is developed to predict the entropy generation rate in a transitional boundary layer with promising results.
Numerical study of shock-wave/boundary layer interactions in premixed hydrogen-air hypersonic flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Yungster, Shaye
1990-01-01
A computational study of shock wave/boundary layer interactions involving premixed combustible gases, and the resulting combustion processes is presented. The analysis is carried out using a new fully implicit, total variation diminishing (TVD) code developed for solving the fully coupled Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations and species continuity equations in an efficient manner. To accelerate the convergence of the basic iterative procedure, this code is combined with vector extrapolation methods. The chemical nonequilibrium processes are simulated by means of a finite-rate chemistry model for hydrogen-air combustion. Several validation test cases are presented and the results compared with experimental data or with other computational results. The code is then applied to study shock wave/boundary layer interactions in a ram accelerator configuration. Results indicate a new combustion mechanism in which a shock wave induces combustion in the boundary layer, which then propagates outwards and downstream. At higher Mach numbers, spontaneous ignition in part of the boundary layer is observed, which eventually extends along the entire boundary layer at still higher values of the Mach number.
Structure Identification Within a Transitioning Swept-Wing Boundary Layer
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chapman, Keith; Glauser, Mark
1996-01-01
Extensive measurements are made in a transitioning swept-wing boundary layer using hot-film, hot-wire and cross-wire anemometry. The crossflow-dominated flow contains stationary vortices that breakdown near mid-chord. The most amplified vortex wavelength is forced by the use of artificial roughness elements near the leading edge. Two-component velocity and spanwise surface shear-stress correlation measurements are made at two constant chord locations, before and after transition. Streamwise surface shear stresses are also measured through the entire transition region. Correlation techniques are used to identify stationary structures in the laminar regime and coherent structures in the turbulent regime. Basic techniques include observation of the spatial correlations and the spatially distributed auto-spectra. The primary and secondary instability mechanisms are identified in the spectra in all measured fields. The primary mechanism is seen to grow, cause transition and produce large-scale turbulence. The secondary mechanism grows through the entire transition region and produces the small-scale turbulence. Advanced techniques use Linear Stochastic Estimation (LSE) and Proper Orthogonal Decomposition (POD) to identify the spatio-temporal evolutions of structures in the boundary layer. LSE is used to estimate the instantaneous velocity fields using temporal data from just two spatial locations and the spatial correlations. Reference locations are selected using maximum RMS values to provide the best available estimates. POD is used to objectively determine modes characteristic of the measured flow based on energy. The stationary vortices are identified in the first laminar modes of each velocity component and shear component. Experimental evidence suggests that neighboring vortices interact and produce large coherent structures with spanwise periodicity at double the stationary vortex wavelength. An objective transition region detection method is developed using streamwise spatial POD solutions which isolate the growth of the primary and secondary instability mechanisms in the first and second modes, respectively. Temporal evolutions of dominant POD modes in all measured fields are calculated. These scalar POD coefficients contain the integrated characteristics of the entire field, greatly reducing the amount of data to characterize the instantaneous field. These modes may then be used to train future flow control algorithms based on neural networks.
Bandgap tunability at single-layer molybdenum disulphide grain boundaries.
Huang, Yu Li; Chen, Yifeng; Zhang, Wenjing; Quek, Su Ying; Chen, Chang-Hsiao; Li, Lain-Jong; Hsu, Wei-Ting; Chang, Wen-Hao; Zheng, Yu Jie; Chen, Wei; Wee, Andrew T S
2015-01-01
Two-dimensional transition metal dichalcogenides have emerged as a new class of semiconductor materials with novel electronic and optical properties of interest to future nanoelectronics technology. Single-layer molybdenum disulphide, which represents a prototype two-dimensional transition metal dichalcogenide, has an electronic bandgap that increases with decreasing layer thickness. Using high-resolution scanning tunnelling microscopy and spectroscopy, we measure the apparent quasiparticle energy gap to be 2.40 ± 0.05 eV for single-layer, 2.10 ± 0.05 eV for bilayer and 1.75 ± 0.05 eV for trilayer molybdenum disulphide, which were directly grown on a graphite substrate by chemical vapour deposition method. More interestingly, we report an unexpected bandgap tunability (as large as 0.85 ± 0.05 eV) with distance from the grain boundary in single-layer molybdenum disulphide, which also depends on the grain misorientation angle. This work opens up new possibilities for flexible electronic and optoelectronic devices with tunable bandgaps that utilize both the control of two-dimensional layer thickness and the grain boundary engineering. PMID:25687991
Bandgap tunability at single-layer molybdenum disulphide grain boundaries
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Huang, Yu Li; Chen, Yifeng; Zhang, Wenjing; Quek, Su Ying; Chen, Chang-Hsiao; Li, Lain-Jong; Hsu, Wei-Ting; Chang, Wen-Hao; Zheng, Yu Jie; Chen, Wei; Wee, Andrew T. S.
2015-02-01
Two-dimensional transition metal dichalcogenides have emerged as a new class of semiconductor materials with novel electronic and optical properties of interest to future nanoelectronics technology. Single-layer molybdenum disulphide, which represents a prototype two-dimensional transition metal dichalcogenide, has an electronic bandgap that increases with decreasing layer thickness. Using high-resolution scanning tunnelling microscopy and spectroscopy, we measure the apparent quasiparticle energy gap to be 2.40±0.05?eV for single-layer, 2.10±0.05?eV for bilayer and 1.75±0.05?eV for trilayer molybdenum disulphide, which were directly grown on a graphite substrate by chemical vapour deposition method. More interestingly, we report an unexpected bandgap tunability (as large as 0.85±0.05?eV) with distance from the grain boundary in single-layer molybdenum disulphide, which also depends on the grain misorientation angle. This work opens up new possibilities for flexible electronic and optoelectronic devices with tunable bandgaps that utilize both the control of two-dimensional layer thickness and the grain boundary engineering.
Nonlinear interaction of two waves in boundary-layer flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Nayfeh, A. H.; Bozatli, A. N.
1980-01-01
First-order nonlinear interactions of Tollmien-Schlichting waves of different frequencies and initial amplitudes in boundary-layer flows are analyzed using the method of multiple scales. Numerical results for flow past a flat plate show that the spatial detuning wipes out resonant interactions unless the initial amplitudes are very large. Thus, a wave having a moderate amplitude has little influence on its subharmonic although it has a strong influence on its second harmonic. Moreover, two waves having moderate amplitudes have a strong influence on their difference frequency. The results show that the difference frequency can be very unstable when generated by the nonlinear interaction, even though it may be stable when introduced by itself in the boundary layer.
Characteristics of Mach 10 transitional and turbulent boundary layers
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Watson, R. D.
1978-01-01
Measurements of the mean flow properties of transitional and turbulent boundary layers in helium on 4 deg and 5 deg wedges were made for flows with edge Mach numbers from 9.5 to 11.3, ratios of wall temperature to total temperature of 0.4 to 0.95, and maximum length Reynolds numbers of one hundred million. The data include pitot and total temperature surveys and measurements of heat transfer and surface shear. In addition, with the assumption of local similarity, turbulence quantities such as the mixing length were derived from the mean flow profiles. Low Reynolds number and precursor transition effects were significant factors at these test conditions and were included in finite difference boundary layer predictions.
Excitation of Crossflow Instabilities in a Swept Wing Boundary Layer
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Carpenter, Mark H.; Choudhari, Meelan; Li, Fei; Streett, Craig L.; Chang, Chau-Lyan
2010-01-01
The problem of crossflow receptivity is considered in the context of a canonical 3D boundary layer (viz., the swept Hiemenz boundary layer) and a swept airfoil used recently in the SWIFT flight experiment performed at Texas A&M University. First, Hiemenz flow is used to analyze localized receptivity due to a spanwise periodic array of small amplitude roughness elements, with the goal of quantifying the effects of array size and location. Excitation of crossflow modes via nonlocalized but deterministic distribution of surface nonuniformity is also considered and contrasted with roughness induced acoustic excitation of Tollmien-Schlichting waves. Finally, roughness measurements on the SWIFT model are used to model the effects of random, spatially distributed roughness of sufficiently small amplitude with the eventual goal of enabling predictions of initial crossflow disturbance amplitudes as functions of surface roughness parameters.
Numerical Simulations of the Urban-Type Boundary Layer Experiment
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kandala, Sriharsha; Rempfer, Dietmar; Bruno, Monnier; Wark, Candace
2012-11-01
Due to their small size, limited power and relatively low speeds compared to the magnitude of typical velocity fluctuations in the atmospheric boundary layer, MAVs are highly susceptible to gusts encountered in complex urban environments. As such, an understanding of the spatial and temporal characteristics of these flow fields can play an important role in the design of these MAVs. In this talk, we present the results of numerical simulation of an urban-type boundary layer described in the talk by Monnier, Wark et al. Specsolve, a parallel spectral element solver, is used for these simulations. POD is used to generate a low dimensional representation of the velocity field from the simulation data. Gust statistics and various structures relevant to MAV navigation are presented. These results are compared with SPIV data from the experiment. This work was supported by AFOSR FA9550-11-1-0056.
Receptivity of Hypersonic Boundary Layer to Wall Disturbances
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fedorov, A. V.; Khokhlov, A. P.
Theoretical analysis of hypersonic boundary-layer receptivity to wall disturbances is conducted using a combination of asymptotic and numerical methods. Excitation of the second mode by distributed and local forcing on a flat-plate surface is studied under adiabatic and cooled wall conditions. Analysis addresses receptivity to wall vibrations, periodic suction/blowing, and temperature disturbances. A strong excitation occurs in local regions where forcing is in resonance with normal waves. It is shown that the receptivity function tends to infinity as the resonance point tends to the branch point of the discrete spectrum that is typical for boundary layers on cool surfaces. Asymptotic analysis resolves this singularity and provides the receptivity coefficient in the branch-point vicinity. Numerical results indicate extremely high receptivity to vibrations and suction/blowing in the vicinity of the branch point located near the lower neutral branch of the Mack second mode.
A drag reduction method for turbulent boundary layers
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gad-El-hak, Mohamed; Blackwelder, Ron F.
1987-01-01
A novel method to reduce skin friction drag in a turbulent boundary layer is presented. The technique combines the beneficial effects of a longitudinally ribbed surface and suction. The streamwise grooves act as a nucleation site causing a focusing of low-speed streaks over the peaks. Suction is then applied intermittently through longitudinal slots located at selected locations along those peaks to obliterate the low-speed regions and to prevent bursting. During the first phase of the present research, selective suction from a single streamwise slot was used to eliminate either a single burst-like event or a periodic train of artificially generated bursts in laminar and turbulent boundary layers. The experiments were conducted using a flat plate towed in an 18-m water channel. Flow visualization and hot-film probe measurements were used together with pattern recognition algorithms to demonstrate the feasibility of the drag-reducing method.
Optimal disturbances in boundary layers subject to streamwise pressure gradient
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ashpis, David E.; Tumin, Anatoli
2003-01-01
An analysis of the optimal non-modal growth of perturbations in a boundary layer in the presence of a streamwise pressure gradient is presented. The analysis is based on PSE equations for an incompressible fluid. Examples with Falkner-Scan profiles indicate that a favorable pressure gradient decreases the non-modal growth, while an unfavorable pressure gradient leads to an increase of the amplification. It is suggested that the transient growth mechanism be utilized to choose optimal parameters of tripping elements on a low-pressure turbine (LPT) airfoil. As an example, a boundary layer flow with a streamwise pressure gradient corresponding to the pressure distribution over a LPT airfoil is considered. It is shown that there is an optimal spacing of the tripping elements and that the transient growth effect depends on the starting point.
Falkner-Skan Boundary Layer Flow of a Sisko Fluid
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Khan, Masood; Shahzad, Azeem
2012-09-01
In this paper, we investigate the steady boundary layer flow of a non-Newtonian fluid, represented by a Sisko fluid, over a wedge in a moving fluid. The equations of motion are derived for boundary layer flow of an incompressible Sisko fluid using appropriate similarity variables. The governing equations are reduced to a single third-order highly nonlinear ordinary differential equation in the dimensionless stream function, which is then solved analytically using the homotopy analysis method. Some important parameters have been discussed by this study, which include the power law index n, the material parameter A, the wedge shape factor b, and the skin friction coefficient Cf. A comprehensive study is made between the results of the Sisko and the power-law fluids.
Possibilities for drag reduction by boundary layer control
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Naiman, I.
1946-01-01
The mechanics of laminar boundary layer transition are reviewed. Drag possibilities for boundary layer control are analyzed using assumed conditions of transition Reynolds number, inlet loss, number of slots, blower efficiency, and duct losses. Although the results of such analysis are highly favorable, those obtained by experimental investigations yield conflicting results, showing only small gains, and sometimes losses. Reduction of this data indicates that there is a lower limit to the quantity of air which must be removed at the slot in order to stabilize the laminar flow. The removal of insufficient air permits transition to occur while the removal of excessive amounts of air results in high power costs, with a net drag increases. With the estimated value of flow coefficient and duct losses equal to half the dynamic pressure, drag reductions of 50% may be obtained; with twice this flow coefficient, the drag saving is reduced to 25%.
Atmospheric surface and boundary layers of the Amazon Basin
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Garstang, Michael
1987-01-01
Three phases of work were performed: design of and preparation for the Amazon Boundary Layer Experiment (ABLE 2-A); execution of the ABLE 2-A field program; and analysis of the ABLE 2-A data. Three areas of experiment design were dealt with: surface based meteorological measurements; aircraft missions; and project meteorological support. The primary goal was to obtain a good description of the structure of the atmosphere immediately above the rain forest canopy (top of canopy to a few thousand meters), to describe this region during the growing daytime phase of the boundary layer; and to examine the nighttime stratified state. A secondary objective was to examine the role that deep convective storms play in the vertical transport of heat, water vapor, and other trace gases. While significant progress was made, much of the analysis remains to be done.
Boundary layer integral matrix procedure code modifications and verifications
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Evans, R. M.; Morse, H. L.
1974-01-01
A summary of modifications to Aerotherm's Boundary Layer Integral Matrix Procedure (BLIMP) code is presented. These modifications represent a preliminary effort to make BLIMP compatible with other JANNAF codes and to adjust the code for specific application to rocket nozzle flows. Results of the initial verification of the code for prediction of rocket nozzle type flows are discussed. For those cases in which measured free stream flow conditions were used as input to the code, the boundary layer predictions and measurements are in excellent agreement. In two cases, with free stream flow conditions calculated by another JANNAF code (TDK) for use as input to BLIMP, the predictions and the data were in fair agreement for one case and in poor agreement for the other case. The poor agreement is believed to result from failure of the turbulent model in BLIMP to account for laminarization of a turbulent flow. Recommendations for further code modifications and improvements are also presented.
Numerical simulation of a three-dimensional turbulent boundary layer
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Moin, P.; Shih, T.-H.; Driver, D.; Mansour, N. N.
1989-01-01
The effects of transverse strain on an initially two-dimensional turbulent boundary layer are studied in a direct numerical simulation of a planar channel flow with impulsively started transverse pressure gradient. Consistent with experiments in three-dimensional boundary layers, the simulation shows a drop in the Reynolds shear stress with increasing transverse strain. Also, the directions of the Reynolds shear stress vector and the mean velocity gradient vector were found to differ. In addition, the simulation shows a drop in the turbulent kinetic energy. The terms in the budget of the Reynolds stress were computed. In general, the individual terms do not show a significant change. However, an increase in dissipation rate rather than reduction in total production appears to be responsible for the drop in turbulent kinetic energy.
Investigation of Turbulent Boundary-Layer Separation Using Laser Velocimetry
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Modarress, D.; Johnson, D. A.
1979-01-01
Boundary-layer measurements realized by laser velocimetry are presented for a Much 2.9, two-dimensional, shock-wave/turbulent boundary-layer interaction containing an extensive region of separated flow. Mean velocity and turbulent intensity profiles were obtained from upstream of the interaction zone to downstream of the mean reattachment point. The superiority of the laser velocimeter technique over pressure sensors in turbulent separated flows is demonstrated by a comparison of the laser velocimeter data with results obtained from local pilot and static pressure measurements for the same flow conditions. The locations of the mean separation and reattachment points as deduced from the mean velocity measurements are compared to oil-now visualization results. Representative velocity probability density functions obtained in the separated now region are also presented. Critical to the success of this investigation were: the use of Bragg cell frequency shifting and artificial seeding of the now with submicron light-scattering particles.
Stability of flat plate boundary layer over monolithic viscoelastic coatings
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Boiko, A. V.; Kulik, V. M.
2012-07-01
It is well known that compliant coatings of a wetted surface can affect the stability of hydrodynamic flows. The mechanism of this influence is related to viscoelastic properties of the coatings particularly to their reaction on the disturbing impact. However, the majority of corresponding studies are devoted to investigation of the effect of soft compliant coatings which are unpractical. Moreover, up to now only model computations of flow stability over the compliant coatings have been performed, as experimental data on viscoelastic properties (the modulus of elasticity E characterizing the elastic features, and the loss tangent ? characterizing the viscous or damping features) as functions of frequency for the coatings promising from the point of view of their practical application have been absent. Such data were obtained only last years for some materials (silicon rubbers) in a series of studies [1-3]. The coatings are prospective first of all because of their adequate stiffness (about 1 MPa). In the present paper, results of computations of boundary layer stability performed for the first time for the flow developed over compliant coatings with real properties.
On the instability of boundary layers on heated flat plates
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hall, Philip; Morris, Helen
1992-01-01
The stability of a boundary layer on a heated flat plate is investigated in the linear regime. The flow is shown to be unstable to longitudinal vortex structures which in general develop in a nonparallel manner in the streamwise direction. Solutions of the nonparallel equations are obtained numerically at O(1) values of the appropriate stability parameter, i.e., the Grashof number. The particular cases investigated relate to the situations when the instability is induced by localized or distributed wall roughness or nonuniform wall heating. The case when the vortices are induced by freestream disturbances is also considered. The fastest growing mode is found to be governed by a quasi-parallel theory at high wavenumbers. The wavenumber and growth rate of the fastest growing mode are found in closed form. At low wavenumbers the vortex instability is shown to be closely related to Tollmein-Schlichting waves. The effect of wall heating or cooling on the latter type of instability is discussed.
Recommendations for Hypersonic Boundary Layer Transition Flight Testing
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Berry, Scott A.; Kimmel, Roger; Reshotko, Eli
2011-01-01
Much has been learned about the physics underlying the transition process at supersonic and hypersonic speeds through years of analysis, experiment and computation. Generally, the application of this knowledge has been restricted to simple shapes like plates, cones and spherical bodies. However, flight reentry vehicles are in reality never simple. They typically are highly complex geometries flown at angle of attack so three-dimensional effects are very important, as are roughness effects due to surface features and/or ablation. This paper will review our present understanding of the physics of the transition process and look back at some of the recent flight test programs for their successes and failures. The goal of this paper is to develop rationale for new hypersonic boundary layer transition flight experiments. Motivations will be derived from both an inward look at what we believe constitutes a good flight test program as well as an outward review of the goals and objectives of some recent US based unclassified proposals and programs. As part of our recommendations, this paper will address the need for careful experimental work as per the guidelines enunciated years ago by the U.S. Transition Study Group. Following these guidelines is essential to obtaining reliable, usable data for allowing refinement of transition estimation techniques.
A new generation of CNES boundary layer pressurized balloons
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vargas, André; Verdier, Nicolas; Ragazzo, Patrick; Douchin, Francoise; Dupouy, Gilles
2012-07-01
Since 1973, CNES develops and operates, for the benefit of scientific laboratories, pressurized spherical balloon (2.5m of diameter) to make ins-situ measurements within the planetary boundary layer (1000 to 2000 m altitude). The instrumentation consists of an atmospheric meteorological package (pressure, temperature and humidity), associated with onboard GPS receiver for wind measurements (speed and direction). Depending on scientific requirements, other sensors can be added on-board (flux-meter, particle counter, ozone sensor,...). Also, the safety issues have been improved : redundant GPS receiver, valve to avoid the balloon burst and an automatic flight termination to not flight above a prohibited geographic area. This paper will present the new generation of this aerostat, using the Iridium satellite link for telemetry and remote command allowing a significant increase of the telemetry rate, and permitting a real time management of the flight termination. The results of the technologic balloon campaign for this aerostat validation, planned in March 2012, will be also presented.
Modeling of transition and surface roughness effects in boundary-layer flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Feiereisen, W. J.; Acharya, M.
1986-01-01
Experiments were carried out to examine the influence of three-dimensional, stochastic roughness on the growth of incompressible turbulent boundary layers, as well as the effect of streamwise pressure gradients and freestream turbulence intensity on smooth-wall boundary-layer transition. The modeling of these effects in a two-dimensional boundary-layer computation program was examined with the help of the experiments. A model for surface roughness was developed that relates directly measurable statistical parameters quantifying the roughness geometry to the aerodynamic effects. This model should be valid for a limited class of surfaces found on turbomachinery blading and in other engineering applications. Commonly used criteria for the transition onset performed poorly and presumably need to be modified to account for other factors influencing the process.
Grindinger, C.M.
1992-05-01
This study uses Hawaiian Rainband Project (HaRP) data, from the summer of 1991, to show a boundary layer wind profiler can be used to measure the trade wind inversion. An algorithm has been developed for the profiler that objectively measures the depth of the moist oceanic boundary layer. The Hilo inversion, measured by radiosonde, is highly correlated with the moist oceanic boundary layer measured by the profiler at Paradise Park. The inversion height on windward Hawaii is typically 2253 + or - 514 m. The inversion height varies not only on a daily basis, but on less than an hourly basis. It has a diurnal, as well as a three to four day cycle. There appears to be no consistent relationship between inversion height and precipitation. Currently, this profiler is capable of making high frequency (12 minute) measurements of the inversion base variation, as well as other features.
Large Eddy Simulation of Wake Vortices in the Convective Boundary Layer
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lin, Yuh-Lang; Han, Jongil; Zhang, Jing; Ding, Feng; Arya, S. Pal; Proctor, Fred H.
2000-01-01
The behavior of wake vortices in a convective boundary layer is investigated using a validated large eddy simulation model. Our results show that the vortices are largely deformed due to strong turbulent eddy motion while a sinusoidal Crow instability develops. Vortex rising is found to be caused by the updrafts (thermals) during daytime convective conditions and increases with increasing nondimensional turbulence intensity eta. In the downdraft region of the convective boundary layer, vortex sinking is found to be accelerated proportional to increasing eta, with faster speed than that in an ideal line vortex pair in an inviscid fluid. Wake vortices are also shown to be laterally transported over a significant distance due to large turbulent eddy motion. On the other hand, the decay rate of the, vortices in the convective boundary layer that increases with increasing eta, is larger in the updraft region than in the downdraft region because of stronger turbulence in the updraft region.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Frendi, Abdelkader
1997-01-01
Using the model developed by the author for zero-pressure gradient turbulent boundary layers, results are obtained for adverse and favorable pressure gradients. It is shown that when a flexible plate is located in an adverse pressure gradient area, it vibrates more than if it were in a favorable pressure gradient one. Therefore the noise generated by the plate in an adverse pressure gradient is much greater than that due to the plate in a favorable pressure gradient. The effects of Reynolds number and boundary layer thickness are also analyzed and found to have the same effect in both adverse and favorable pressure gradient cases. Increasing the Reynolds number is found to increase the loading on the plate and therefore acoustic radiation. An increase in boundary layer thickness is found to decrease the level of the high frequencies and therefore the response and radiation at these frequencies. The results are in good qualitative agreement with experimental measurements.
Experimental Investigation of Normal Shock Boundary-Layer Interaction with Hybrid Flow Control
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Vyas, Manan A.; Hirt, Stefanie M.; Anderson, Bernhard H.
2012-01-01
Hybrid flow control, a combination of micro-ramps and micro-jets, was experimentally investigated in the 15x15 cm Supersonic Wind Tunnel (SWT) at the NASA Glenn Research Center. Full factorial, a design of experiments (DOE) method, was used to develop a test matrix with variables such as inter-ramp spacing, ramp height and chord length, and micro-jet injection flow ratio. A total of 17 configurations were tested with various parameters to meet the DOE criteria. In addition to boundary-layer measurements, oil flow visualization was used to qualitatively understand shock induced flow separation characteristics. The flow visualization showed the normal shock location, size of the separation, path of the downstream moving counter-rotating vortices, and corner flow effects. The results show that hybrid flow control demonstrates promise in reducing the size of shock boundary-layer interactions and resulting flow separation by means of energizing the boundary layer.
Numerical study of boundary layer separation control using magnetogasdynamic plasma actuators
Kalra, Chiranjeev S.; Shneider, Mikhail N.; Miles, Richard B. [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Applied Physics Group, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08544 (United States)
2009-10-15
In this study, an efficient, time dependent, two-dimensional Navier-Stokes numerical code for shockwave boundary layer interaction in air is developed. Nonthermal surface plasma actuation is evaluated for effective shockwave induced boundary layer separation control within supersonic inlets. Specifically, high speed magnetogasdynamic plasma actuators are of interest. In these, localized ionization is produced close to the wall surface and then the flow is accelerated using strong magnetic fields. To replicate the experiments done at large boundary layer thickness, the code is divided into time independent and time dependent regimes to significantly reduce computation time. Computational results are in good agreement with experiments in terms of the flow structure as shown by Schlieren imaging, acetone planar laser scattering, and the static pressure profile on the test section wall.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Avery, D. E.
1978-01-01
An experimental heat-transfer investigation was conducted on two staggered arrays of metallic tiles in laminar and turbulent boundary layers. This investigation was conducted for two purposes. The impingement heating distribution where flow in a longitudinal gap intersects a transverse gap and impinges on a downstream blocking tile was defined. The influence of tile and gap geometries was analyzed to develop empirical relationships for impingement heating in laminar and turbulent boundary layers. Tests were conducted in a high temperature structures tunnel at a nominal Mach number of 7, a nominal total temperature of 1800 K, and free-stream unit Reynolds numbers from 1.0 x 10 million to 4.8 x 10 million per meter. The test results were used to assess the impingement heating effects produced by parameters that include gap width, longitudinal gap length, slope of the tile forward-facing wall, boundary-layer displacement thickness, Reynolds number, and local surface pressure.
Measurement in a Zero-Pressure Gradient Turbulent Boundary Layer with Forced Thermal Convection
Sebastian Große; Wolfgang Schröder
2008-01-01
A subsonic zero-pressure gradient turbulent boundary layer developing on a uniformly heated surface at a Reynolds number in\\u000a the range of 3, 560???Re\\u000a \\u000a ?\\u000a ?? 5,360 was investigated. Particle-image velocimetry measurements were performed at various positions in the streamwise direction\\u000a for several wind-tunnel speeds and for different wall excess temperatures to show the thermal convection effects to expand\\u000a the boundary-layer thickness ?
Genesis of Atlantic Lows Experiment NASA Electra Boundary Layer Flights Data Report
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Palm, Stephen P.; Melfi, S. H.; Boers, Reinout
1988-01-01
The objective of this research was to obtain high resolution measurements of the height of the Marine Atmospheric Boundary Layer (MABL) during cold air outbreaks using an Airborne Lidar System. The research was coordinated with other investigators participating in the Genesis of Atlantic Lows Experiment (GALE). An objective computerized scheme was developed to obtain the Boundary Layer Height from the Lidar Data. The algorithm was used on each of the four flight days producing a high resolution data set of the MABL height over the GALE experiment area. Plots of the retrieved MABL height as well as tabular data summaries are presented.
Air-Ice-Ocean Interaction: Turbulent Ocean Boundary Layer Exchange Processes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Weller, Robert
2010-01-01
This is a well-written book about the upper boundary layer of the ice-covered ocean. It combines a presentation of the physics and associated equations governing the structure of and mixing within the ice-ocean boundary layer (IOBL) with illustrative examples from fieldwork carried out during the author's career. The examples and good graphics do much to solidify the understanding the reader develops about these matters. Together with short summary glossaries of key quantities and parameters at the end of many chapters, the author's approach of weaving theory and observations together has resulted in an excellent text.
Measurements of a zero-pressure-gradient boundary layer blown by an asymmetric jet
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Saripalli, K. R.; Simpson, R. L.
1985-01-01
Measurements were made in a two-dimensional wall jet submerged under a thick upstream boundary layer and advancing into a zero-pressure-gradient flow with the ratios of jet velocity to the freestream velocity confined to a practical range (less than 2). The effect on the flow development of an asymmetric wall-jet velocity profile with a relatively higher concentration of momentum away from the wall was investigated. The flow was computed using an existing method for blown boundary layers, and the results show good agreement with experimental data.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pailhas, Guy; Barricau, P.; Touvet, Y.; Perret, L.
2009-08-01
The oil droplet interferometric technique has been used to investigate the skin friction distribution along a zero and adverse pressure gradient boundary layer developing in the Laboratoire de Mécanique de Lille wind tunnel. This experimental task was a part of the WALLTURB project, funded by the European Community, in order to bring significant progress in the understanding of near wall turbulence in boundary layers. Skin friction values close to 0.01 Pa have been measured with this optical method. A comparison with the results obtained with hot-wire anemometry and macro-PIV demonstrates the great potential of the oil droplet technique.
Roles of Engineering Correlations in Hypersonic Entry Boundary Layer Transition Prediction
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Campbell, Charles H.; King, Rudolph A.; Kergerise, Michael A.; Berry, Scott A.; Horvath, Thomas J.
2010-01-01
Efforts to design and operate hypersonic entry vehicles are constrained by many considerations that involve all aspects of an entry vehicle system. One of the more significant physical phenomenon that affect entry trajectory and thermal protection system design is the occurrence of boundary layer transition from a laminar to turbulent state. During the Space Shuttle Return To Flight activity following the loss of Columbia and her crew of seven, NASA's entry aerothermodynamics community implemented an engineering correlation based framework for the prediction of boundary layer transition on the Orbiter. The methodology for this implementation relies upon the framework of correlation techniques that have been in use for several decades. What makes the Orbiter boundary layer transition correlation implementation unique is that a statistically significant data set was acquired in multiple ground test facilities, flight data exists to assist in establishing a better correlation and the framework was founded upon state of the art chemical nonequilibrium Navier Stokes flow field simulations. The basic tenets that guided the formulation and implementation of the Orbiter Return To Flight boundary layer transition prediction capability will be reviewed as a recommended format for future empirical correlation efforts. The validity of this approach has since been demonstrated by very favorable comparison of recent entry flight testing performed with the Orbiter Discovery, which will be graphically summarized. These flight data can provide a means to validate discrete protuberance engineering correlation approaches as well as high fidelity prediction methods to higher confidence. The results of these Orbiter engineering and flight test activities only serve to reinforce the essential role that engineering correlations currently exercise in the design and operation of entry vehicles. The framework of information-related to the Orbiter empirical boundary layer transition prediction capability will be utilized to establish a fresh perspective on this role, to illustrate how quantitative statistical evaluations of empirical correlations can and should be used to assess accuracy and to discuss what the authors' perceive as a recent heightened interest in the application of high fidelity numerical modeling of boundary layer transition. Concrete results will also be developed related to empirical boundary layer transition onset correlations. This will include assessment of the discrete protuberance boundary layer transition onset data assembled for the Orbiter configuration during post-Columbia Return To Flight. Assessment of these data will conclude that momentum thickness Reynolds number based correlations have superior coefficients and uncertainty in comparison to roughness height based Reynolds numbers, aka Re(sub k) or Re(sub kk). In addition, linear regression results from roughness height Reynolds number based correlations will be evaluated, leading to a hypothesis that non-continuum effects play a role in the processes associated with incipient boundary layer transition on discrete protuberances.
Numerical solution of the resistive magnetohydrodynamic boundary-layer equations
Glasser, A.H.; Jardin, S.C.; Tesauro, G.
1983-10-01
Three different techniques are presented for numerical solution of the equations governing the boundary layer of resistive magnetohydrodynamic tearing and interchange instabilities in toroidal geometry. Excellent agreement among these methods and with analytical results provides confidence in the correctness of the results. Solutions obtained in regimes where analytical medthods fail indicate a new scaling for the tearing mode as well as the existence of a new regime of stability.
Linear stability theory and three-dimensional boundary layer transition
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Spall, Robert E.; Malik, Mujeeb R.
1992-01-01
The viewgraphs and discussion of linear stability theory and three dimensional boundary layer transition are provided. The ability to predict, using analytical tools, the location of boundary layer transition over aircraft-type configurations is of great importance to designers interested in laminar flow control (LFC). The e(sup N) method has proven to be fairly effective in predicting, in a consistent manner, the location of the onset of transition for simple geometries in low disturbance environments. This method provides a correlation between the most amplified single normal mode and the experimental location of the onset of transition. Studies indicate that values of N between 8 and 10 correlate well with the onset of transition. For most previous calculations, the mean flows were restricted to two-dimensional or axisymmetric cases, or have employed simple three-dimensional mean flows (e.g., rotating disk, infinite swept wing, or tapered swept wing with straight isobars). Unfortunately, for flows over general wing configurations, and for nearly all flows over fuselage-type bodies at incidence, the analysis of fully three-dimensional flow fields is required. Results obtained for the linear stability of fully three-dimensional boundary layers formed over both wing and fuselage-type geometries, and for both high and low speed flows are discussed. When possible, transition estimates form the e(sup N) method are compared to experimentally determined locations. The stability calculations are made using a modified version of the linear stability code COSAL. Mean flows were computed using both Navier Stokes and boundary-layer codes.
LASTRAC.3d: Transition Prediction in 3D Boundary Layers
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chang, Chau-Lyan
2004-01-01
Langley Stability and Transition Analysis Code (LASTRAC) is a general-purpose, physics-based transition prediction code released by NASA for laminar flow control studies and transition research. This paper describes the LASTRAC extension to general three-dimensional (3D) boundary layers such as finite swept wings, cones, or bodies at an angle of attack. The stability problem is formulated by using a body-fitted nonorthogonal curvilinear coordinate system constructed on the body surface. The nonorthogonal coordinate system offers a variety of marching paths and spanwise waveforms. In the extreme case of an infinite swept wing boundary layer, marching with a nonorthogonal coordinate produces identical solutions to those obtained with an orthogonal coordinate system using the earlier release of LASTRAC. Several methods to formulate the 3D parabolized stability equations (PSE) are discussed. A surface-marching procedure akin to that for 3D boundary layer equations may be used to solve the 3D parabolized disturbance equations. On the other hand, the local line-marching PSE method, formulated as an easy extension from its 2D counterpart and capable of handling the spanwise mean flow and disturbance variation, offers an alternative. A linear stability theory or parabolized stability equations based N-factor analysis carried out along the streamline direction with a fixed wavelength and downstream-varying spanwise direction constitutes an efficient engineering approach to study instability wave evolution in a 3D boundary layer. The surface-marching PSE method enables a consistent treatment of the disturbance evolution along both streamwise and spanwise directions but requires more stringent initial conditions. Both PSE methods and the traditional LST approach are implemented in the LASTRAC.3d code. Several test cases for tapered or finite swept wings and cones at an angle of attack are discussed.
SCALING OF THE ANOMALOUS BOOST IN RELATIVISTIC JET BOUNDARY LAYER
Zenitani, Seiji; Hesse, Michael; Klimas, Alex, E-mail: Seiji.Zenitani-1@nasa.go [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)
2010-04-01
We investigate the one-dimensional interaction of a relativistic jet and an external medium. Relativistic magnetohydrodynamic simulations show an anomalous boost of the jet fluid in the boundary layer, as previously reported. We describe the boost mechanism using an ideal relativistic fluid and magnetohydrodynamic theory. The kinetic model is also examined for further understanding. Simple scaling laws for the maximum Lorentz factor are derived, and verified by the simulations.
Reynolds shear stress measurements in a separated boundary layer flow
David M. Driver
1991-01-01
Turbulence measurements were obtained for two cases of boundary layer flow with an adverse pressure gradient, one attached and the other separated. A three-component laser Doppler velocimeter system was used to measure three mean velocity components, all six Reynolds stress components, and all ten velocity triple product correlations. Independent measurements of skin-friction obtained with a laser oil-flow interferometer were used
Flow structures in zero pressure-gradient turbulent boundary layers
Arne V. Johansson
To be submitted An experimental investigation on flow structures was performed in a high Rey- nolds number zero pressure-gradient turbulent boundary layer. Results are presented for the fluctuating wall-shear stress obtained simultaneously at two spanwise positions using a micro-machined hot-film sensor. Two-point correla- tions are presented and the mean streak spacing is evaluated from the two-point correlation of high-pass filtered
Prediction of boundary-layer characteristics of an oscillating airfoil
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cebeci, T.; Carr, L. W.
1981-01-01
The evolution of unsteady boundary layers on oscillating airfoils is investigated by solving the governing equations by the Characteristic Box scheme. The difficulties associated with computing the first profile on a given time line, and the velocity profiles with partial flow reversal are solved. A sample calculation is performed for an external velocity distribution typical of those found near the leading edge of thin airfoils. The viability of the calculation procedure is demonstrated.
Nanodiamonds in the Younger Dryas Boundary Sediment Layer
D. J. Kennett; J. P. Kennett; C. Mercer; S. S. Que Hee; L. Bement; T. E. Bunch; M. Sellers; W. S. Wolbach
2009-01-01
We report abundant nanodiamonds in sediments dating to 12.9 ± 0.1 thousand calendar years before the present at multiple locations across North America. Selected area electron diffraction patterns reveal two diamond allotropes in this boundary layer but not above or below that interval. Cubic diamonds form under high temperature-pressure regimes, and n-diamonds also require extraordinary conditions, well outside the range