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1

Analytical Model of the Time Developing Turbulent Boundary Layer

We present an analytical model for the time-developing turbulent boundary layer (TD-TBL) over a flat plate. The model provides explicit formulae for the temporal behavior of the wall-shear stress and both the temporal and spatial distributions of the mean streamwise velocity, the turbulence kinetic energy and Reynolds shear stress. The resulting profiles are in good agreement with the DNS results of spatially-developing turbulent boundary layers at momentum thickness Reynolds number equal to 1430 and 2900. Our analytical model is, to the best of our knowledge, the first of its kind for TD-TBL.

Victor S. L'vov; Anna Pomyalov; Antonino Ferrante; Said Elghobashi

2007-06-04

2

Interaction between soil hydrology and boundary-layer development

A two-layer model of soil hydrology and thermodynamics is combined with a one-dimensional model of the planetary boundary layer to study various interactions between evolution of the boundary layer and soil moisture transport. Boundary-layer moistening through surface evaporation reduces the potential and actual surface evaporation as well as the boundary-layer growth. With more advanced stages of soil drying, the restricted

H.-L. Pan; L. Mahrt

1987-01-01

3

Boundary Layer Turbulence Index: Progress and Recent Developments

A boundary layer turbulence index (TIBL) product has been developed to assess the potential for turbulence in the lower troposphere, generated using RUC-2 numerical model data. The index algorithm approximates boundary layer turbulent kinetic energy by parameterizing vertical wind shear, responsible for mechanical production of TKE, and kinematic heat flux, parameterized by the vertical temperature lapse rate and responsible for buoyant production of TKE. Validation for the TIBL product has been conducted for selected nonconvective wind events during the 2008 winter season over the Idaho National Laboratory mesonet domain. This paper presents studies of four significant wind events between December 2007 and February 2008 over southeastern Idaho. Based on the favorable results highlighted from validation statistics and in the case studies, the RUC TIBL product has demonstrated operational utility in assessing turbulence hazards to low-flying aircraft and ground transportation, and in the assessment of wildfire...

Pryor, Kenneth L

2008-01-01

4

The nonlinear development of Gortler vortices in growing boundary layers

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The development of Gortler vortices in boundary layers over curved walls in the nonlinear regime is investigated. The growth of the boundary layer makes a parallel flow analysis impossible except in the high wavenumber regime so in general the instability equations must be integrated numerically. Here the spanwise dependence of the basic flow is described using Fourier series expansion whilst the normal and streamwise variations are taken into account using finite differences. The calculations suggest that a given disturbance imposed at some position along the wall will eventually reach a local equilibrium state essentially independent of the initial conditions. In fact, the equilibrium state reached is qualitatively similar to the large amplitude high wave-number solution described asymptotically by Hall (1982). In general, it is found that the nonlinear interactions are dominated by a mean field type of interaction between the mean flow and the fundamental. Thus, even though higher harmonics of the fundamental are necessarily generated, most of the disturbance energy is confined to the mean flow correction and the fundamental. A major result of the calculations is finding that the downstream velocity field develops a strongly inflection character as the flow moves downstream. The latter result suggests that the major effect of Gortler vortices on boundary layers of practical importance might be to make them highly receptive to rapidly growing Rayleigh modes of instability.

Hall, Philip

1986-01-01

5

Numerical simulations of spatially developing, accelerating boundary layers

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the results of direct and large-eddy simulations of spatially developing boundary layers subjected to favorable pressure gradient, strong enough to cause reversion of the flow towards a quasi-laminar state. The numerical results compare well with experimental data. Visualization of the flow structures shows the well-known stabilization of the streaks, the re-orientation of outer layer vortices in the streamwise direction, and the appearance of turbulent spots in the re-transition region. Both instantaneous visualizations and turbulent statistics highlight the significant damping of wall-normal and spanwise fluctuations. The fast component of the pressure fluctuations appears to be the main driver of this process, contributing to reduce pressure fluctuations and, as a consequence, the energy redistribution term in the Reynolds stress budgets. The streamwise stresses, in whose budget a separate production term plays a role, do not decay but remain frozen at their upstream value. The decrease of wall-normal and spanwise fluctuations appears to be the main cause of the inner-layer stabilization, by disrupting the generation and subsequent growth of streaks, consistent with various models of the turbulence-generation cycle proposed in the literature. The outer layer seems to play a passive role in this process. The stretching and reorientation of the outer-layer vortices results in a more orderly and organized structure; since fewer ejections occur, the inner layer does not break this re-organization, which is maintained until re-transition begins.

Piomelli, Ugo; Yuan, Junlin

2013-10-01

6

LASE measurements of convective boundary layer development during SGP97

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Southern Great Plains 1997 (SGP97) field experiment was conducted in Oklahoma during June-July 1997 to validate the models used for computing remote soil moisture using measurements by microwave radiometers. One of the objectives of SGP97 was to examine the effect of soil moisture on the evolution of the Atmospheric Boundary Layer (ABL) and clouds over the Southern Great Plains (SGP) during the warm season. The LASE (Lidar Atmospheric Sensing Experiment) airborne DIAL (Differential Absorption Lidar) system, which was flown autonomously on the NASA ER-2 aircraft during previous missions, was reconfigured to fly on the NASA P3 research aircraft. During SGP97 LASE was used to study the morning evolution of the ABL, particularly as manifested in the development of the convective boundary layer, and to study the influence of soil moisture variations on the development of ABL. The ABL development is strongly influenced by the surface energy budget, which is in turn influenced by soil moisture, mesoscale meteorology, clouds, and solar insolation. LASE data acquired during this mission are being used to study the ABL water vapor budget, the development of the ABL, spatial and temporal variabilities in the ABL, and the meteorological factors that influence the ABL development. This field experiment also permitted comparisons of LASE water vapor measurements with water vapor profiles acquired by radiosondes launched at the DOE (Department of Energy) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Southern Great Plain (SGP) site and at NASA/Wallops Flight Facility, as well as with measurements from other SGP97 aircraft.

Ismail, Syed; Browell, Edward V.; Ferrare, Richard A.; Senff, Christoph; Davis, Kenneth J.a; Lenschow, Donald H.; Kooi, Susan; Brackett, Vince; Clayton, Marian

1998-01-01

7

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Observations, mixed-layer theory and the Dutch Large-Eddy Simulation model (DALES) are used to analyze the dynamics of the boundary layer during an intensive operational period (1 July 2011) of the Boundary Layer Late Afternoon and Sunset Turbulence campaign. Continuous measurements made by remote sensing and in situ instruments in combination with radio soundings, and measurements done by remotely piloted aircraft systems and two manned aircrafts probed the vertical structure and the temporal evolution of the boundary layer during the campaign. The initial vertical profiles of potential temperature, specific humidity and wind, and the temporal evolution of the surface heat and moisture fluxes prescribed in the models runs are inspired by some of these observations. The research focuses on the role played by the residual layer during the morning transition and by the large-scale subsidence on the evolution of the boundary layer. By using DALES, we show the importance of the dynamics of the boundary layer during the previous night in the development of the boundary layer at the morning. DALES numerical experiments including the residual layer are capable of modeling the observed sudden increase of the boundary-layer depth during the morning transition and the subsequent evolution of the boundary layer. These simulations show a large increase of the entrainment buoyancy flux when the residual layer is incorporated into the mixed layer. We also examine how the inclusion of the residual layer above a shallow convective boundary layer modifies the turbulent kinetic energy budget. Large-scale subsidence mainly acts when the boundary layer is fully developed, and, for the studied day, it is necessary to be considered to reproduce the afternoon observations. Finally, we also investigate how carbon dioxide (CO2) mixing ratio stored the previous night in the residual layer plays a fundamental role in the evolution of the CO2 mixing ratio during the following day.

Blay-Carreras, E.; Pino, D.; Vilà-Guerau de Arellano, J.; van de Boer, A.; De Coster, O.; Darbieu, C.; Hartogensis, O.; Lohou, F.; Lothon, M.; Pietersen, H.

2014-05-01

8

Generation of Turbulent Inflow Data for Spatially-Developing Boundary Layer Simulations

A method for generating three-dimensional, time-dependent turbulent inflow data for simulations of complex spatially developing boundary layers is described. The approach is to extract instantaneous planes of velocity data from an auxiliary simulation of a zero pressure gradient boundary layer. The auxiliary simulation is also spatially developing, but generates its own inflow conditions through a sequence of operations where the

Thomas S. Lund; Xiaohua Wu; Kyle D. Squires

1998-01-01

9

Hypersonic Boundary-Layer Trip Development for Hyper-X

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Boundary layer trip devices for the Hper-X forebody have been experimentally examined in several wind tunnels. Five different trip configurations were compared in three hypersonic facilities, the LaRC 20-Inch Mach 6 Air Tunnel, the LaRC 31 -Inch Mach 10 Air Tunnel, and in the HYPULSE Reflected Shock Tunnel at GASL. Heat transfer distributions, utilizing the phosphor thermography and thin-film techniques, shock system details, and surface streamline patterns were measured on a 0.333-scale model of the Hyper-X forebody. Parametric variations include angles-of-attack of 0-deg, 2-deg, and 4-deg; Reynolds numbers based on model length of 1.2 to 15.4 million: and inlet cowl door simulated in both open and closed positions. Comparisons of transition due to discrete roughness elements have led to the selection of a trip configuration for the Hyper-X Mach 7 flight vehicle.

Berry, Scott A.; Auslender, Aaron H.; Dilley, Authur D.; Calleja, John F.

2000-01-01

10

Spatially Developing Secondary Instabilities in Compressible Swept Airfoil Boundary Layers

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Two-dimensional eigenvalue analysis is used on a massive scale to study spatial instabilities of compressible shear flows with two inhomogeneous directions. The main focus of the study is crossflow dominated swept-wing boundary layers although the methodology can also be applied to study other type of flows, such as the attachment-line flow. Certain unique aspects of formulating a spatial, two-dimensional eigenvalue problem for the secondary instability of finite amplitude crossflow vortices are discussed, namely, fixing the spatial growth direction unambiguously through a non-orthogonal formulation of the linearized disturbance equations. A primary test case used for parameter study corresponds to the low-speed, NLF-0415(b) airfoil configuration as tested in the ASU Unsteady Wind Tunnel, wherein a spanwise periodic array of roughness elements was placed near the leading edge in order to excite stationary crossflow modes with a specified fundamental wavelength. The two classes of flow conditions selected for this analysis include those for which the roughness array spacing corresponds to either the naturally dominant crossflow wavelength, or a subcritical wavelength that serves to reduce the growth of the naturally excited dominant crossflow modes. Numerical predictions are compared with the measured database, both as indirect validation for the spatial instability analysis and to provide a basis for comparison with a higher Reynolds number, supersonic swept-wing configuration. Application of the eigenvalue analysis to the supersonic configuration reveals that a broad spectrum of stationary crossflow modes can sustain sufficiently strong secondary instabilities as to potentially cause transition over this configuration. Implications of this finding for transition control in swept wing boundary layers are examined.

Li, Fei; Choudhari, Meelan M.

2011-01-01

11

Developments in the computation of turbulent boundary layers

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Computational techniques applicable to turbulent boundary layers are classified into solutions of Reynolds-averaged equations, in which all the effects of the turbulence are modelled, and solutions of three-dimensional, time dependent Navier-Stokes equations, in which the large eddies are calculated and only the turbulence at scales smaller than the computational mesh spacings has to be modelled. Current computation costs place engineering computations in the first of these categories; large eddy simulations are appropriate currently for special studies of the dynamical processes of turbulence in idealized flow fields. It is shown that the two methods are interrelated and that each can gain from advances in the other. The degree of success of a pair of increasingly complex Reynolds stress models to broaden their range of applicability is examined through comparisons with experimental data for a variety of flow conditions. An example of a large-eddy simulation is presented, compared with experimental results, and used to evaluate the models for pressure rate-of-strain correlations and dissipation in the Reynolds-averaged equations.

Rubesin, M. W.

1979-01-01

12

The hub wall boundary layer development and losses in an axial flow compressor rotor passage

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The hub wall boundary layer development in a compressor stage including the rotor passage is experimentally investigated. A miniature five-hole probe was employed to measure the hub wall boundary layer inside the inlet guide vane passage, upstream and far downstream of the rotor. The hub wall boundary layer inside the rotor passage was acquired using a rotating miniature five-hole probe. The boundary layer is well behaved upstream and far downstream of the rotor. The migration of the hub wall boundary layer towards the suction surface corner is observed. The limiting streamline angles and static pressure distribution across the stage were also measured. The mean velocity profiles and the integral properties upstream, inside and downstream of the rotor, and the losses are presented and interpreted.

Murthy, K. N. S.; Lakshminarayana, B.

1987-01-01

13

Stratified Atmospheric Boundary Layers

Various features of different stability regimes of the stable boundary layer are discussed. Traditional layering is examined in terms of the roughness sublayer, surface layer, local similarity, z-less stratification and the region near the boundary-layer top. In the very stable case, the strongest turbulence may be detached from the surface and generated by shear associated with a low level jet,

L. Mahrt

1999-01-01

14

The atmospheric boundary layer

This book is aimed at researchers in the atmospheric and associated sciences who require a moderately advanced text on the Atmospheric Boundary Layer (ABL) in which the many links between turbulence, air-surface transfer, boundary-layer structure and dynamics, and numerical modeling are discussed and elaborated upon. Chapter 1 serves as an introduction, with Chapters 2 and 3 dealing with the development of mean and turbulence equations, and the many scaling laws and theories that are the cornerstone of any serious ABL treatment. Modelling of the ABL is crucially dependent for its realism on the surface boundary conditions, and Chapters 4 and 5 deal with aerodynamic and energy considerations, with attention to both dry and wet land surfaces and the sea. The structure of the clear-sky, thermally stratified ABL is treated in Chapter 6, including the convective and stable cases over homogeneous land, the marine ABL and the internal boundary layer at the coastline. Chapter 7 then extends the discussion to the cloudy ABL. This is seen as particularly relevant since the extensive stratocumulus regions over the sub-tropical oceans and stratus regions over the Arctic are now identified as key players in the climate system. Finally, Chapters 8 and 9 bring much of the book's material together in a discussion of appropriate ABL and surface parameterization schemes for the general circulation models of the atmosphere that are being used for climate simulation.

Garratt, J.R.

1992-01-01

15

Boundary layer development and energy exchange over a patchy mountain snow cover

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Once the snow cover gets patchy in spring, small-scale thermal internal boundary layers develop, involving strong vertical and horizontal flux divergences. Furthermore, the advection of warm air from bare ground towards snow-covered areas can promote strong atmospheric stabilities and boundary layer decoupling above snow, that suppress the net turbulent heat flux close to the snow surface, thus, changing the heat budget there. We experimentally and numerically investigated the small-scale boundary layer dynamics over snow patches and their effect on the energy balance at the snow surface. Local eddy flux measurements at an alpine test site revealed that wind velocity, wind fetch distance and topographical curvature control the boundary layer growth, boundary layer decoupling and the efficiency of advective heat transport to contribute to snow ablation. These results were verified in a wind tunnel experiment on the boundary layer development over a single snow patch. The experiments showed that heat advection was very efficient at short fetch distances and high wind velocities forming strong thermal gradients close to the snow surface. The heat potentially available from the advective heat transport was, however, not efficiently transferred towards the snow surface. The turbulent heat exchange was strongly suppressed at the lowest centimetres above the snow surface, where the Richardson number exceeded the critical value. Thus, boundary layer decoupling caused by very shallow layers of increased thermal stability could be shown to be very efficient, even for higher wind velocities. In addition to experiments, we numerically analysed the effect of heat advection, boundary layer decoupling and changing patterns of secondary flows on the energy balance of patchy snow cover characterized by different snow-cover fractions. The atmospheric boundary layer flows over patchy snow-covers were calculated with an atmospheric model (Advanced Regional Prediction System) on a very high resolution of 5 m. The numerical results revealed that the relative importance of boundary layer processes and the development of local flow patterns depend on the snow patch size distribution and the synoptic wind forcing. Calculations for quiescent wind situations demonstrated that well-developed katabatic winds exerted a major control on the energy balance at the patchy snow cover leading to a maximum in the mean downward heat flux over snow for high snow-cover fractions. Although, katabatic wind systems result in a decoupling of the local atmosphere from its warmer surrounding, the strong suppression of turbulence close to the snow cover was not captured. In contrast, strong synoptic winds promote the effect of heat advection and mitigate the impact of boundary layer decoupling on the catchments melt behaviour. The strong heat advection resulted in a maximum in the heat flux directed towards the snow cover for low snow-cover fractions if the flow field was forced by a synoptic wind. A sensitivity analysis to grid resolution suggests that the grid resolution is a critical factor for energy balance calculations over patchy snow covers. The comparison of simulations results from coarse (50 m) and fine (5 m) grid resolutions show a difference in the mean turbulent heat flux of 40% for high snow-cover fractions and of 70% for low snow-cover fractions. The lower mean values of the turbulent heat flux over snow for coarser grid resolutions can be explained by the inadequate representation of thermal internal boundary layers and the mitigation of local advection of sensible heat. A resolution smaller than 5 m would be, however, necessary to calculate the very shallow stable layers close to the surface, where efficient boundary layer decoupling occurs.

Mott, Rebecca; Daniels, Megan; Horender, Stefan; Crivelli, Philip; Lehning, Michael

2014-05-01

16

The boundary layer stability, its active control by sound and surface heating and the effect of curvature are studied numerically and experimentally for subsonic flow. In addition, the experimental and flight test data are correlated using the stability theory for supersonic Mach numbers. Active transition fixing and feedback control of boundary layer by sound interactions are experimentally investigated at low

L. Maestrello; A. Bayliss; S. M. Mangalam; M. R. Malik

1986-01-01

17

The Atmospheric Boundary Layer

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses some important parameters of the boundary layer and effects of turbulence on the circulation and energy dissipation of the atmosphere. Indicates that boundary-layer research plays an important role in long-term forecasting and the study of air-pollution meteorology. (CC)

Tennekes, Hendrik

1974-01-01

18

The atmospheric boundary layer

In this book, the author successfully reviews the current state of affairs in boundary-layer meteorology research. The book is organized into nine chapters. The first chapter is an introduction to the topic of the atmospheric boundary layer. The second chapter is a survey of turbulence theory. The third chapter reviews the similarity relationships that have been formulated for the various

J. R. Garratt

1992-01-01

19

Direct numerical simulations were performed to investigate the physics of a spatially developing turbulent boundary layer flow subjected to a spanwise oscillating electromagnetic force. The electromagnetic force was applied beneath a finite length of the flat plate. A fully implicit fractional step method was employed to simulate the flow. The mean and turbulent flow properties were obtained to analyze the

Joung-Ho Lee; Hyung Jin Sung

2005-01-01

20

Application of LNS for Boundary-Layer Disturbance Excitation and Development

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A recently developed linear Navier-Stokes (LNS) codefootnote Y. Guo, M. R. Malik and C.-L. Chang, AIAA Paper 97-2027. is used for studies involving excitation and development of disturbances in boundary-layers. Similar to Streett,footnote C. L. Streett, Computation of wave packets in swept-wing flows. IUTAM Symp. on Nonlinear Instability & Transition in 3D Boundary Layers, July 1995 this code solves the linear Navier-Stokes equations for a harmonic disturbance. As a particular example, supersonic flow on a flat-plate is considered where harmonic disturbances are excited using unsteady suction and blowing. Such forcing results in the excitation of discrete modes and continuous spectra which are captured in the present simulation. For Mach 4.8 flow, our results are in qualitative agreement with the direct numerical simulation of Eissler & Bestek.footnote W. Eissler & H. Bestek, Spatial numerical simulations of nonlinear transition phenomena in supersonic boundary layers, FED-Vol. 151, ASME 1993, p. 69 The LNS code developed here is an efficient tool for studies of boundary-layer receptivity and instability in subsonic, supersonic and hypersonic flows.

Malik, Mujeeb R.; Guo, Yan; Chang, Chau-L.

1997-11-01

21

During the last decade there has been a surge in efforts to understand the processes at work in the inhomogeneous atmospheric boundary layer. Much of the interest in the problem has been driven by increasingly urgent needs to develop accurate assessments of man`s Contribution to climate change. It has been argued that subgrid-scale secondary circulations in the boundary layer can cause significant errors in parameterized turbulent surface fluxes. Such circulations -- variously termed ``inland breezes``, ``lake breezes``, ``snow breezes``, or ``nonclassical mesoscale circulations`` are becoming widely discussed and modeled. Because surface fluxes are part of the lower boundary condition for global climate models, it is important to understand when these circulations occur and what their effects are on overall turbulent transfer. What are not yet clear are the combinations of the ambient wind and the horizontal scale and intensity of surface flux variability under which we may expect boundary layer secondary circulations to occur. Several authors have modeled the development of these circulations for ad hoc situations of alternating surface characteristics, and SA have developed one parameterization relating the scale of surface heat flux variability and the ambient wind to the evolution of NCMCs. In this paper we present observations, collected in a region of inhomogeneous surface fluxes, that suggest the development of a ``farm breeze``, and we develop an alternative scaling argument to that of SA that better represents our measurement conditions.

Shaw, W.J.; Doran, J.C.

1994-03-01

22

Visualization of boundary-layer development on turbomachine blades with liquid crystals

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report documents a study of the use of liquid crystals to visualize boundary layer development on a turbomachine blade. A turbine blade model in a linear cascade of blades was used for the tests involved. Details of the boundary layer development on the suction surface of the turbine blade model were known from previous research. Temperature sensitive and shear sensitive liquid crystals were tried as visual agents. The temperature sensitive crystals were very effective in their ability to display the location of boundary layer flow separation and reattachment. Visualization of natural transition from laminar to turbulent boundary layer flow with the temperature sensitive crystals was possible but subtle. The visualization of separated flow reattachment with the shear sensitive crystals was easily accomplished when the crystals were allowed to make a transition from the focal-conic to a Grandjean texture. Visualization of flow reattachment based on the selective reflection properties of shear sensitive crystals was achieved only marginally because of the larger surface shear stress and shear stress gradient levels required for more dramatic color differences.

Vanzante, Dale E.; Okiishi, Theodore H.

1991-01-01

23

Field evidence of the viscous sublayer in a tidally forced developing boundary layer

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Field observations of boundary layer development within a tidally forced estuary revealed evidence of an observable viscous sublayer. Evidence is provided by several independent measures of the flow field, including hydrodynamic smoothness, an immobile bed, and characteristic velocity, constant stress, and higher-order moment structures. This investigation reports what may be the second comprehensive observation of the viscous sublayer in a marine environment, and what could be the first observation of a momentum balance that includes the viscous sublayer within a shallow estuarine environment. Hydrodynamic observations were made in a straight channel within the Great Bay Estuary of New Hampshire over a flat sandy mud with low water depth of 1.5 m at the sampling location. Beyond quantifying the role of the benthic boundary layer in nutrient dynamics, these observations are useful to provide insight into very near boundary stress estimates leading to incipient motion in estuarine and coastal environments.

Wengrove, M. E.; Foster, D. L.

2014-07-01

24

Parabolic - hyperbolic boundary layer

A boundary value problem related to a parabolic higher order operator with a small parameter is analized. When the small parameter tends to zero, the reduced operator is hyperbolic. When t tends to infinity a parabolic hyperbolic boundary layer appears. In this paper a rigorous asymptotic approximation uniformly valid for all t is established.

Monica De Angelis

2012-07-09

25

Boundary layer transition studies

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A small-scale wind tunnel previously used for turbulent boundary layer experiments was modified for two sets of boundary layer transition studies. The first study concerns a laminar separation/turbulent reattachment. The pressure gradient and unit Reynolds number are the same as the fully turbulent flow of Spalart and Watmuff. Without the trip wire, a laminar layer asymptotes to a Falkner & Skan similarity solution in the FPG. Application of the APG causes the layer to separate and a highly turbulent and approximately 2D mean flow reattachment occurs downstream. In an effort to gain some physical insight into the flow processes a small impulsive disturbance was introduced at the C(sub p) minimum. The facility is totally automated and phase-averaged data are measured on a point-by-point basis using unprecedently large grids. The evolution of the disturbance has been tracked all the way into the reattachment region and beyond into the fully turbulent boundary layer. At first, the amplitude decays exponentially with streamwise distance in the APG region, where the layer remains attached, i.e. the layer is viscously stable. After separation, the rate of decay slows, and a point of minimum amplitude is reached where the contours of the wave packet exhibit dispersive characteristics. From this point, exponential growth of the amplitude of the disturbance is observed in the detached shear layer, i.e. the dominant instability mechanism is inviscid. A group of large-scale 3D vortex loops emerges in the vicinity of the reattachment. Remarkably, the second loop retains its identify far downstream in the turbulent boundary layer. The results provide a level of detail usually associated with CFD. Substantial modifications were made to the facility for the second study concerning disturbances generated by Suction Holes for laminar flow Control (LFC). The test section incorporates suction through interchangeable porous test surfaces. Detailed studies have been made using isolated holes in the impervious test plate that used to establish the Blasius base flow. The suction is perturbed harmonically and data are averaged on the basis of the phase of the disturbance, for conditions corresponding to strong suction and without suction. The technique was enhanced by using up to nine multiple probes to reduce the experimental run-time. In both cases, 3D contour surfaces in the vicinity of the hole show highly 3D TS waves which fan out in the spanwise direction forming bow-shaped waves downstream. The case without suction has proved useful for evaluating calculation methods. With suction, the perturbations on the centerline are much stronger and decay less rapidly, while the TS waves in the far field are similar to the case without suction. Downstream, the contour surfaces of the TS waves develop spanwise irregularities which eventually form into clumps. The spanwise clumping is evidence of a secondary instability that could be associated with suction vortices. Designers of porous surfaces use Goldsmith's Criterion to minimize cross-stream interactions. It is shown that partial TS wave cancellation is possible, depending on the hole spacing, disturbance frequency and free-stream velocity. New high-performance Constant Temperature Hot-Wire Anemometers were designed and built, based on a linear system theory analysis that can be extended to arbitrary order. The motivation was to achieve the highest possible frequency reponse while ensuring overall system stability. The performance is equal to or superior to commercially available instruments at about 10% of the cost. Details, such as fabrication drawings and a parts list, have been published to enable the instrument to be construced by others.

Watmuff, Jonathan H.

1995-01-01

26

Studies on the influence on flexural wall deformations on the development of the flow boundary layer

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Flexural wave-like deformations can be used to excite boundary layer waves which in turn lead to the onset of turbulence in the boundary layer. The investigations were performed with flow velocities between 5 m/s and 40 m/s. With four different flexural wave transmissions a frequency range from 0.2 kc/s to 1.5 kc/s and a phase velocity range from 3.5 m/s to 12 m/s was covered. The excitation of boundary layer waves becomes most effective if the phase velocity of the flexural wave coincides with the phase velocity region of unstable boundary layer waves.

Schilz, W.

1978-01-01

27

Study of Boundary Layer Development in a Two-Stage Low-Pressure Turbine

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Experimental data from jet-engine tests have indicated that unsteady blade row interactions and separation can have a significant impact on the efficiency of low-pressure turbine stages. Measured turbine efficiencies at takeoff can be as much as two points higher than those at cruise conditions. Several recent studies have revealed that Reynolds number effects may contribute to the lower efficiencies at cruise conditions. In the current study numerical simulations have been performed to study the boundary layer development in a two-stage low-pressure turbine, and to evaluate the transition models available for low Reynolds number flows in turbomachinery. The results of the simulations have been compared with experimental data, including airfoil loadings and integral boundary layer quantities. The predicted unsteady results display similar trends to the experimental data, but significantly overestimate the amplitude of the unsteadiness. The time-averaged results show close agreement with the experimental data.

Dorney, Daniel J.; Ashpis, David E.; Halstead, David E.; Wisler, David C.

1999-01-01

28

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The nonlinear development is studied of the most unstable Gortler mode within a general 3-D boundary layer upon a suitably concave surface. The structure of this mode was first identified by Denier, Hall and Seddougui (1991) who demonstrated that the growth rate of this instability is O(G sup 3/5) where G is the Gortler number (taken to be large here), which is effectively a measure of the curvature of the surface. Previous researchers have described the fate of the most unstable mode within a 2-D boundary layer. Denier and Hall (1992) discussed the fully nonlinear development of the vortex in this case and showed that the nonlinearity causes a breakdown of the flow structure. The effect of crossflow and unsteadiness upon an infinitesimal unstable mode was elucidated by Bassom and Hall (1991). They demonstrated that crossflow tends to stabilize the most unstable Gortler mode, and for certain crossflow/frequency combinations the Gortler mode may be made neutrally stable. These vortex configurations naturally lend themselves to a weakly nonlinear stability analysis; work which is described in a previous article by the present author. Here we extend the ideas of Denier and Hall (1992) to the three-dimensional boundary layer problem. It is found that the numerical solution of the fully nonlinear equations is best conducted using a method which is essentially an adaption of that utilized by Denier and Hall (1992). The influence of crossflow and unsteadiness upon the breakdown of the flow is described.

Otto, S. R.; Bassom, Andrew P.

1992-01-01

29

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Within the framework of the EU project RECAB ("Regional Assessment and Model- ing of the Carbon Balance of Europe", EVK2-1999-00236), during July and December of 2001, convective boundary-layer measurements were performed systematically for several days at the coastline near El Saler (Valencia, Spain). A tethersonde sound- ing system was used, with a 1000 m maximum altitude. The measurement strategy included the realization of different profiles during the day: before or about sunrise to determine the characteristics of the drainage flow; at about the time of maximum boundary-layer development after noon; and in the afternoon-evening, to show the collapse of the diurnal flow. The objective was to document experimentally the struc- ture and daily evolution of the coastal boundary layer in the area, as well as to show seasonal variability in response to differences in mesoscale forcing. One of the most important aspects registered in the profiles, and expanding the previous evidences on the western Mediterranean coast, is the intense compensatory sinking on the coast oc- curring within the general subsidence process related to the persistent high pressure system in these latitudes during the summer period in response to the development of the sea breeze coastal cycles. This extra sinking, not present in the winter mea- surements (due to the fact that in this period meteorological processes are dominated by higher scale structures), gives rise to a rich thermal structure in the first hundreds meters of the atmosphere, creating intense superadiabatic lapse rates (a very strati- fied structure can often be appreciated, where different more-or-less uncoupled layers persist), which suppose an important barrier to the vertical diffusion of any surface emissions. This fact is very important for understanding the general process of the surface-atmosphere interchange mechanisms, and especially for modeling such pro- cesses with simple mixing layer schemes.

Mantilla, E.; Sanz, M. J.; Millán., M. M.

30

The Effects of Blade Count on Boundary Layer Development in a Low-Pressure Turbine

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Experimental data from jet-engine tests have indicated that turbine efficiencies at takeoff can be as much as two points higher than those at cruise conditions. Recent studies have shown that Reynolds number effects contribute to the lower efficiencies at cruise conditions. In the current study numerical simulations have been performed to study the boundary layer development in a two-stage low-pressure turbine, and to evaluate the models available for low Reynolds number flows in turbomachinery. In a previous study using the same geometry the predicted time-averaged boundary layer quantities showed excellent agreement with the experimental data, but the predicted unsteady results showed only fair agreement with the experimental data. It was surmised that the blade count approximation used in the numerical simulations generated more unsteadiness than was observed in the experiments. In this study a more accurate blade approximation has been used to model the turbine, and the method of post-processing the boundary layer information has been modified to more closely resemble the process used in the experiments. The predicted results show improved agreement with the unsteady experimental data.

Dorney, Daniel J.; Flitan, Horia C.; Ashpis, David E.; Solomon, William J.

2000-01-01

31

Nonequilibrium chemistry boundary layer integral matrix procedure

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The development of an analytic procedure for the calculation of nonequilibrium boundary layer flows over surfaces of arbitrary catalycities is described. An existing equilibrium boundary layer integral matrix code was extended to include nonequilibrium chemistry while retaining all of the general boundary condition features built into the original code. For particular application to the pitch-plane of shuttle type vehicles, an approximate procedure was developed to estimate the nonequilibrium and nonisentropic state at the edge of the boundary layer.

Tong, H.; Buckingham, A. C.; Morse, H. L.

1973-01-01

32

Development and Breakdown of Goertler Vortices in High Speed Boundary Layers

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The nonlinear development of G rtler instability over a concave surface gives rise to a highly distorted stationary flow in the boundary layer that has strong velocity gradients in both spanwise and wall-normal directions. This distorted flow is susceptible to strong, high frequency secondary instability that leads to the onset of transition. For high Mach number flows, the boundary layer is also subject to the second mode instability. The nonlinear development of G rtler vortices and the ensuing growth and breakdown of secondary instability, the G rtler vortex interactions with second mode instabilities as well as oblique second mode interactions are examined in the context of both internal and external hypersonic configurations using nonlinear parabolized stability equations, 2-D eigenvalue analysis and direct numerical simulation. For G rtler vortex development inside the Purdue Mach 6 Ludwieg tube wind tunnel, multiple families of unstable secondary eigenmodes are identified and their linear and nonlinear evolution is examined. The computation of secondary instability is continued past the onset of transition to elucidate the physical mechanisms underlying the laminar breakdown process. Nonlinear breakdown scenarios associated with transition over a Mach 6 compression cone configuration are also explored.

Li, Fei; Choudhari, Meelan; Chang, Chau-Lyan; Wu, Minwei; Greene, Ptrick T.

2010-01-01

33

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The end-wall boundary layer development in a compressor stage, including the inlet guide vane (IGV) passage and the rotor passage, was measured. The measurement upstream of the rotor and inside the IGV passage were carried out with a five-hole probe. The data (blade-to-blade) inside the IGV passage were carried out with a five-hole probe. The data (blade-to-blade) inside the rotor passage were measured using a three-sensor rotating hot-wire below the tip clearance region and "V' configuration probe inside the clearance region. The rotor exit measurements (blade-to-blade) were acquired with a laser Doppler velocimeter. The velocity profiles and the integral properties are presented and interpreted. The boundary layer is comparatively well behaved up to the leading edge of the rotor, beyond which complex interactions result in very unconventional profiles. The momentum thicknesses decrease in the leakage flow region of the rotor. The momentum thicknesses and the limiting streamline angles predicted from a momentum integral technique agree well with the data up to the leading edge of the rotor.

Lakshminarayana, B.; Murthy, K. N. S.; Pouagare, M.; Govindan, T. R.

1983-01-01

34

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper reports on progress towards developing a spatial stability code for compressible shear flows with two inhomogeneous directions, such as crossflow dominated swept-wing boundary layers and attachment line flows. Certain unique aspects of formulating a spatial, two-dimensional eigenvalue problem for the secondary instability of finite amplitude crossflow vortices are discussed. A primary test case used for parameter study corresponds to the low-speed, NLF-0415(b) airfoil configuration as tested in the ASU Unsteady Wind Tunnel, wherein a spanwise periodic array of roughness elements was placed near the leading edge in order to excite stationary crossflow modes with a specified fundamental wavelength. The two classes of flow conditions selected for this analysis include those for which the roughness array spacing corresponds to either the naturally dominant crossflow wavelength, or a subcritical wavelength that serves to reduce the growth of the naturally excited dominant crossflow modes. Numerical predictions are compared with the measured database, both as indirect validation for the spatial instability analysis and to provide a basis for comparison with a higher Reynolds number, supersonic swept-wing configuration. Application of the eigenvalue analysis to the supersonic configuration reveals that a broad spectrum of stationary crossflow modes can sustain sufficiently strong secondary instabilities as to potentially cause transition over this configuration. Implications of this finding for transition control in swept wing boundary layers are examined. Finally, extension of the spatial stability analysis to supersonic attachment line flows is also considered.

Li, Fei; Choudhari, Meelan M.

2008-01-01

35

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We performed DNS of particle-laden spatially developing turbulent boundary layer at Re?=1000-3200. We computed the Lagrangian trajectories of millions of fluid points and solid particles with Stokes number St=0.1, 1, and 5, where St=?p/?k, and ?k was computed at z+ at the streamwise location where particles were released. The particles were gradually released from a line source in the viscous sublayer, buffer layer, and log-layer. We computed the time development of particle mean displacement, dispersion, and turbulent diffusivity. Our DNS results of fluid point mean-displacements are in excellent agreement with those of Batchelor's (1964) theory. Also, our DNS results show that in general particle statistics are strongly influenced by particle's Stokes number. Such dependence is mostly caused by the particles tendency to preferentially accumulate in the viscous sublayer as their Stokes number increases. Furthermore, for t/T L < 1 where TL is the Lagrangian integral time scale, the streamwise and wall-normal dispersions are ? t2 for fluid points and ? t3 for solid particles. For 20 < t/TL < 80, the streamwise dispersion of fluid points and particles with St = 0.1 is approximately ? t5/3, while that of particles with St = 1 and 5 is approximately ? t5/2. For all cases studied and for 20 < t/T L < 80, the wall-normal dispersion is approximately ? t.

Ferrante, A.; Dodd, M.

2012-12-01

36

Boundary Layer Meteorology (METR 5103)

of the atmospheric boundary layer dynamics and thermodynamics will be taught. Basic concepts of turbulence theory will be discussed and analyzed. Applications of this theory in the atmospheric boundary layer and mesoscale modeling and simulation of turbulent flows in atmospheric boundary layers under different meteorological conditions

Droegemeier, Kelvin K.

37

METEOROLOGY 130 Boundary Layer Meteorology

is designed to introduce the student to the atmospheric boundary layer and its properties. The course 1. To be able to describe the atmospheric boundary layer conceptually using figures and plots. 2. To understand how measurements of the atmospheric boundary layer are made. Reading and Textbook Roland Stull

Clements, Craig

38

5, 31913223, 2005 Boundary layer

atmospheric research station (53.32 N, 9.90 W) on the west coast of Ireland.25 Boundary layer depthACPD 5, 3191Â3223, 2005 Boundary layer structure during NAMBLEX E. G. Norton et al. Title Page Discussions Boundary layer structure and decoupling from synoptic scale flow during NAMBLEX E. G. Norton 1 , G

Boyer, Edmond

39

Boundary Layer Meteorology (METR 5103)

of the atmospheric boundary layer dynamics and thermodynamics, including the basic concepts of turbulence theory conditions will be discussed and critically analyzed. Role of the boundary layer in atmospheric processes be considered. Atmospheric boundary layer types ranging from strongly stable to neutral and to strongly unstable

Droegemeier, Kelvin K.

40

10, 1990119938, 2010 Boundary layer

ACPD 10, 19901Â19938, 2010 Boundary layer dynamics over London J. F. Barlow et al. Title Page (ACP). Please refer to the corresponding final paper in ACP if available. Boundary layer dynamics over Boundary layer dynamics over London J. F. Barlow et al. Title Page Abstract Introduction Conclusions

Weber, Rodney

41

THE MARTIAN ATMOSPHERIC BOUNDARY LAYER

THE MARTIAN ATMOSPHERIC BOUNDARY LAYER A. Petrosyan,1 B. Galperin,2 S. E. Larsen,3 S. R. Lewis,4 A September 2011. [1] The planetary boundary layer (PBL) represents the part of the atmosphere), The Martian atmospheric boundary layer, Rev. Geophys., 49, RG3005, doi:10.1029/2010RG000351. 1. INTRODUCTION

Spiga, Aymeric

42

A hybrid RANS/LES framework to investigate spatially developing turbulent boundary layers

A hybrid RANS/LES framework is developed based on a recently proposed Improved Delayed Detached Eddy Simulation (IDDES) model combined with a variant of recycling and rescaling method of generating inflow turbulence. This framework was applied to investigate spatially developing flat plate turbulent boundary layer up to momentum thickness Reynolds number, $R_{\\theta} = 31000$ and the results are compared with the available experimental data. Good agreement was obtained for the global quantities such as mean velocity and skin friction at all momentum thickness Reynolds numbers considered. The trends obtained for the Reynolds stress components are in the right direction. At high $R_{\\theta$}, the shear stress distribution shows significant differences close to the wall indicating scope for further improving the near-wall modeling in such methods.

Arolla, Sunil K

2014-01-01

43

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The boundary layer stability, its active control by sound and surface heating and the effect of curvature are studied numerically and experimentally for subsonic flow. In addition, the experimental and flight test data are correlated using the stability theory for supersonic Mach numbers. Active transition fixing and feedback control of boundary layer by sound interactions are experimentally investigated at low speed over an airfoil. Numerical simulation of active control by surface heating and cooling in air shows that by appropriate phase adjustment a reduction in the level of perturbation can be obtained. This simulation is based on the solution of two-dimensional compressible Navier-Stokes equations for a flat plate. Goertler vortices are studied experimentally on an airfoil in the Low Turbulence Pressure Tunnel (LTPT). The flow pattern was visualized using the sublimating chemical technique and data were obtained using a three component laser velocimeter. The effect of curvature on swept leading-edge stability on a cylinder was numerically studied. The results suggest that transition is dominated by traveling disturbance waves and that the waves with the greatest total amplification has an amplitude ratio of e sup 11. Experimental data from the quiet supersonic tunnel and flight tests are analyzed using linear compressible stability theory.

Maestrello, L.; Bayliss, A.; Mangalam, S. M.; Malik, M. R.

1986-12-01

44

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The boundary layer stability, its active control by sound and surface heating and the effect of curvature are studied numerically and experimentally for subsonic flow. In addition, the experimental and flight test data are correlated using the stability theory for supersonic Mach numbers. Active transition fixing and feedback control of boundary layer by sound interactions are experimentally investigated at low speed over an airfoil. Numerical simulation of active control by surface heating and cooling in air shows that by appropriate phase adjustment a reduction in the level of perturbation can be obtained. This simulation is based on the solution of two-dimensional compressible Navier-Stokes equations for a flat plate. Goertler vortices are studied experimentally on an airfoil in the Low Turbulence Pressure Tunnel (LTPT). The flow pattern was visualized using the sublimating chemical technique and data were obtained using a three component laser velocimeter. The effect of curvature on swept leading-edge stability on a cylinder was numerically studied. The results suggest that transition is dominated by traveling disturbance waves and that the waves with the greatest total amplification has an amplitude ratio of e sup 11. Experimental data from the quiet supersonic tunnel and flight tests are analyzed using linear compressible stability theory.

Maestrello, L.; Bayliss, A.; Mangalam, S. M.; Malik, M. R.

1986-01-01

45

Recent developments of finite-difference approximations for boundary-layer equations

Finite-difference solutions for Prandtl's boundary-layer equations are described for steady, two- and three-dimensional laminar and turbulent flows. For three-dimensional flows only boundary sheets are considered and curvature effects in the direction normal to the wall are being neglected. The governing equations are presented in form of a matrix-vector equation. Its numerical stability is discussed for elementary finite-difference molecules. Non-orthogonal coordinates

E. Krause; HOCHSCHULE AACHEN

1975-01-01

46

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In this paper we discuss the semiconductor diode laser developments which will meet the requirements dictated by the Mars Doppler lidar application, and the development and use of a compact lidar for boundary layer measurements which embodies the same measurement approach as the Mars lidar concept.

Menzies, Robert T.; Cardell, Greg; Esproles, Carlos; Forouhar, Siamak; Hemmati, Hamid; Tratt, David

1998-01-01

47

Microgravity Effects on Plant Boundary Layers

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The goal of these series of experiment was to determine the effects of microgravity conditions on the developmental boundary layers in roots and leaves and to determine the effects of air flow on boundary layer development. It is hypothesized that microgravity induces larger boundary layers around plant organs because of the absence of buoyancy-driven convection. These larger boundary layers may affect normal metabolic function because they may reduce the fluxes of heat and metabolically active gases (e.g., oxygen, water vapor, and carbon dioxide. These experiments are to test whether there is a change in boundary layer associated with microgravity, quantify the change if it exists, and determine influence of air velocity on boundary layer thickness under different gravity conditions.

Stutte, Gary; Monje, Oscar

2005-08-01

48

Microgravity Effects on Plant Boundary Layers

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The goal of these series of experiment was to determine the effects of microgravity conditions on the developmental boundary layers in roots and leaves and to determine the effects of air flow on boundary layer development. It is hypothesized that microgravity induces larger boundary layers around plant organs because of the absence of buoyancy-driven convection. These larger boundary layers may affect normal metabolic function because they may reduce the fluxes of heat and metabolically active gases (e.g., oxygen, water vapor, and carbon dioxide. These experiments are to test whether there is a change in boundary layer associated with microgravity, quantify the change if it exists, and determine influence of air velocity on boundary layer thickness under different gravity conditions.

Stutte, Gary; Monje, Oscar

2005-01-01

49

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A low-turbulence subsonic wind tunnel was used to study the influence of acoustic disturbances on the development of small sinusoidal oscillations (Tollmien-Schlichting waves) which constitute the initial phase of turbulent transition. It is found that acoustic waves propagating opposite to the flow generate vibrations of the model (plate) in the flow. Neither the plate vibrations nor the acoustic field itself have any appreciable influence on the stability of the laminar boundary layer. The influence of an acoustic field on laminar boundary layer disturbances is limited to the generation of Tollmien-Schlichting waves at the leading-edge of the plate.

Kachanov, Y. S.; Kozlov, V. V.; Levchenko, V. Y.

1985-01-01

50

Hairpin vortices in the transitional and developed turbulence of a flat-plate boundary layer*

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The use of vortex lines to reveal vortical structures in turbulent shear flows has been in disfavor for some time, in spite of their successful use by Kim and Moin (1986, JFM 162) and Rogers and Moin (1987, JFM 176). This is because they are field lines that can be drawn wherever the flow is rotational, regardless of whether a true vortex exists in a part of the field or not. For this reason, it would be better to call them vorticity lines rather than vortex lines. A virtue that such lines have, however, is that the vortical structures they can reveal do not depend on setting a detection threshold, unlike all the vortex identifiers based on the velocity gradient tensor or based on a low pressure criterion. Furthermore, vorticity lines can be used to isolate a single vortical structure. We will show that individual hairpin vortices can be identified using vorticity lines in the transition region at Re?= 500, where turbulent spots merge, and in the developed turbulence at Re?= 1850 within a recent DNS of a flat-plate boundary layer, and that the vortices so identified have quite similar characteristics. These vortices emerge out of sheets of unorganized vorticity in the viscous sublayer. An attempt will be made to follow the temporal and spatial evolution of these vortical structures using simulation files closely separated in time. *CTR 2010 Summer Program research.

Wallace, J.; Wu, X.; Park, I.; Moin, P.

2010-11-01

51

Boundary layer receptivity and control

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Receptivity processes initiate natural instabilities in a boundary layer. The instabilities grow and eventually break down to turbulence. Consequently, receptivity questions are a critical element of the analysis of the transition process. Success in modeling the physics of receptivity processes thus has a direct bearing on technological issues of drag reduction. The means by which transitional flows can be controlled is also a major concern: questions of control are tied inevitably to those of receptivity. Adjoint systems provide a highly effective mathematical method for approaching many of the questions associated with both receptivity and control. The long term objective is to develop adjoint methods to handle increasingly complex receptivity questions, and to find systematic procedures for deducing effective control strategies. The most elementary receptivity problem is that in which a parallel boundary layer is forced by time-harmonic sources of various types. The characteristics of the response to such forcing form the building blocks for more complex receptivity mechanisms. The first objective of this year's research effort was to investigate how a parallel Blasius boundary layer responds to general direct forcing. Acoustic disturbances in the freestream can be scattered by flow non-uniformities to produce Tollmien-Schlichting waves. For example, scattering by surface roughness is known to provide an efficient receptivity path. The present effort is directed towards finding a solution by a simple adjoint analysis, because adjoint methods can be extended to more complex problems. In practice, flows are non-parallel and often three-dimensional. Compressibility may also be significant in some cases. Recent developments in the use of Parabolized Stability Equations (PSE) offer a promising possibility. By formulating and solving a set of adjoint parabolized equations, a method for mapping the efficiency with which external forcing excites the three-dimensional motions of a non-parallel boundary layer was developed. The method makes use of the same computationally efficient formulation that makes the PSE currently so appealing. In the area of flow control, adjoint systems offer a powerful insight into the effect of control forces. One of the simplest control strategies for boundary layers involves the application of localized mean wall suction.

Hill, D. C.

1993-01-01

52

Scaling the atmospheric boundary layer

We review scaling regimes of the idealized Atmospheric Boundary Layer. The main emphasis is given on recent findings for stable conditions. We present diagrams in which the scaling regimes are illustrated as a function of the major boundary-layer parameters. A discussion is given on the different properties of the scaling regimes in unstable and stable conditions.

A. A. M. Holtslag; F. T. M. Nieuwstadt

1986-01-01

53

Modeling the urban boundary layer

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A summary and evaluation is given of the Workshop on Modeling the Urban Boundary Layer; held in Las Vegas on May 5, 1975. Edited summaries from each of the session chairpersons are also given. The sessions were: (1) formulation and solution techniques, (2) K-theory versus higher order closure, (3) surface heat and moisture balance, (4) initialization and boundary problems, (5) nocturnal boundary layer, and (6) verification of models.

Bergstrom, R. W., Jr.

1976-01-01

54

Minimalist turbulent boundary layer model.

We discuss an elementary model of a turbulent boundary layer over a flat surface given as a vertical random distribution of spanwise Lamb-Oseen vortex configurations placed over a nonslip boundary-condition line. We are able to reproduce several important features of realistic flows, such as the viscous and logarithmic boundary sublayers, and the general behavior of the first statistical moments (turbulent intensity, skewness, and flatness) of the streamwise velocity fluctuations. As an application, we advance some heuristic considerations on the boundary layer underlying kinematics that could be associated with the phenomenon of drag reduction by polymers, finding a suggestive support from its experimental signatures. PMID:19518332

Moriconi, L

2009-04-01

55

Final Boundary Layer Research and Findings Report Draft Boundary Layer Research and Findings Report

IV Final Boundary Layer Research and Findings Report #12;Draft Boundary Layer Research and Findings Cases Associated with Boundary Layer Model Problems ............. 6 1.1 Problems Related to Atmospheric ......................................................... 9 2.1.3 Boundary Layer Formulation Factors

56

Removing Boundary Layer by Suction

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Through the utilization of the "Magnus effect" on the Flettner rotor ship, the attention of the public has been directed to the underlying physical principle. It has been found that the Prandtl boundary-layer theory furnishes a satisfactory explanation of the observed phenomena. The present article deals with the prevention of this separation or detachment of the flow by drawing the boundary layer into the inside of a body through a slot or slots in its surface.

Ackeret, J

1927-01-01

57

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Modification of the code STAN5 to properly include thermophoretic mass transport, and examination of selected test cases developing boundary layers which include variable properties, viscous dissipation, transition to turbulence and transpiration cooling. Under conditions representative of current and projected GT operation, local application of St(M)/St(M),o correlations evidently provides accurate and economical engineering design predictions, especially for suspended particles characterized by Schmidt numbers outside of the heavy vapor range.

Gokoglu, S. A.; Rosner, D. E.

1984-01-01

58

A Nonperturbing Boundary-Layer Transition Detector

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A laser interferometer technique is being applied to the characterization of boundary-layer conditions on models in supersonic and hypersonic wind tunnels in the von Kaman Facility at Arnold Engineering Development Center (AEDC). The Boundary-Layer Transition Detector (BLTD), based on lateral interferometry, is applicable for determining the turbulence frequency spectrum of boundary layers in compressible flow. The turbulence, in terms of air density fluctuations, is detected by monitoring interferometric fringe phase shifts (in real time) formed by one beam which passes through the boundary layer and a reference beam which is outside the boundary layer. This technique is nonintrusive to the flow field unlike other commonly used methods such as pitot tube probing and hot-wire anemometry. Model boundary-layer data are presented at Mach 8 and compared with data recorded using other methods during boundary-layer transition from laminar to turbulent flow. Spectra from the BLTD reveal the presence of a high-frequency peak during transition, which is characteristic of spectra obtained with hot wires. The BLTD is described along with operational requirements and limitations.

O'Hare, J. E.

1986-01-01

59

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Opposition control is a simple feedback control method which can be used to attenuate near-wall turbulence and reduce drag in wall-bounded turbulent flows [H. Choi, P. Moin, and J. Kim, J. Fluid Mech. 262, 75 (1994)]. The idea is to impose blowing and suction at the wall to counteract near-wall quasistreamwise vortical structures. Unfortunately, the effectiveness of this method decreases as the Reynolds number increases [Y. Chang, S. Scott Collis, and S. Ramakrishnan, Phys. Fluids 14, 4069 (2002)]. The present study proposes using a simple modification of opposition control (OC) to increase its performance at high Reynolds numbers. We demonstrate a significant improvement on drag reduction when performing a blowing-only opposition control, where the suction part of OC has been removed, on a spatially developing turbulent boundary layer at Re? ,?=960, based on the boundary layer thickness and the friction velocity.

Pamiès, Mathieu; Garnier, Eric; Merlen, Alain; Sagaut, Pierre

2007-10-01

60

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the last 5 years, the Small Unmanned Meteorological Observer SUMO has been developed as a flexible tool for atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) research to be operated as sounding system for the lowest 4 km of the atmosphere. Recently two main technical improvements have been accomplished. The integration of an inertial measurement unit (IMU) into the Paparazzi autopilot system has expanded the environmental conditions for SUMO operation. The implementation of a 5-hole probe for determining the 3D flow vector with 100 Hz resolution and a faster temperature sensor has enhanced the measurement capabilities. Results from two recent field campaigns are presented. During the first one, in Denmark, the potential of the system to study the effects of wind turbines on ABL turbulence was shown. During the second one, the BLLAST field campaign at the foothills of the Pyrenees, SUMO data proved to be highly valuable for studying the processes of the afternoon transition of the convective boundary layer.

Reuder, Joachim; Jonassen, Marius O.; Ólafsson, Haraldur

2012-10-01

61

Radiation-viscous boundary layer

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A viscous boundary layer (BL) is studied which is most likely to occur in astrophysical systems dominated by radiation pressure, in particular compact objects surrounded by a very optically thick envelope and radiating at close to the Eddington limit. Calculations are reported which show that a BL due to radiation viscosity behaves very differently from a 'classical' incompressible BL for flows with Mach number M much greater than unity far from the BL. In these flows the width of the BL is much larger than its incompressible value and scales as M-squared times the width of the imcompressible BL. The density inside the BL is much lower than that in the undisturbed fluid and scales as 1/M-squared with respect to the value far away from the BL. It is concluded that under certain circumstances a cocoon of low-density material will develop between a jet and its surrounding medium.

Arav, Nahum; Begelman, Mitchell C.

1992-01-01

62

This is a collaborative project with Dr. Ping Zhu at Florida International University. It was designed to address key issues regarding the treatment of boundary layer cloud processes in climate models with UM’s research focusing on the analyses of ARM cloud radar observations from MMCR and WACR and FIU’s research focusing on numerical simulations of boundary layer clouds. This project capitalized on recent advancements in the ARM Millimeter Cloud Radar (MMCR) processing and the development of the WACR (at the SGP) to provide high temporal and spatial resolution Doppler cloud radar measurements for characterizing in-cloud turbulence, large-eddy circulations, and high resolution cloud structures of direct relevance to high resolution numerical modeling studies. The principal focus of the observational component of this collaborative study during this funding period was on stratocumulus clouds over the SGP site and fair-weather cumuli over the Nauru site. The statistical descriptions of the vertical velocity structures in continental stratocumulus clouds and in the Nauru shallow cumuli that are part of this study represents the most comprehensive observations of the vertical velocities in boundary layer clouds to date and were done in collaboration with Drs. Virendra Ghate and Pavlos Kollias.

Albrecht, Bruce,

2013-07-12

63

Atmospheric Boundary Layer (ABL) Spring 2013

ATS 623 Atmospheric Boundary Layer (ABL) Spring 2013 Tues and Thurs 9 a.m. (2 contact hours per@atmos.colostate.edu) Course notes: Atmospheric Boundary Layer Notes (2013) by Richard H. Johnson (available online at http Â· Schlichting (1960) BoundaryÂLayer Theory Â· Sorbjan (1989) Structure of the Atmospheric Boundary Layer

64

Novel parameterisations in the boundary layer

Novel parameterisations in the boundary layer Bob Plant Department of Meteorology, University of Reading NCAS Boundary-Layer Workshop 1st July 2011 With thanks to: Emilie Carter, Chris Holloway, Sonja with the boundary layer: perspectives from ensemble forecasting Novel parameterisations in the boundary layer Â p.1

Plant, Robert

65

Investigation of Mesoscale Variability in Convective Boundary Layer Development Using LASE

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Throughout this research effort we have analyzed data collected from the Southern Great Plains 1997 (SGP) experiment to evaluate terms in the budget of water vapor in the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL). The analysis is centered on using data obtained from the Lidar Atmospheric Sensing Experiment (LASE) downward-looking differential absorption lidar (DIAL) that was flown on the NASA-P3 aircraft. The DIAL is able to measure vertical profiles of water vapor, as well as aerosol backscatter, throughout the ABL. Initial work on using the DIAL is summarized in the attached meeting preprint, which discusses results from a segment of the 12 July 1997 flight. Additional analysis has been carried out using both the DIAL data and in situ measurements to obtain more complete and detailed estimates of terms in the ABL water vapor budget. This includes data from the Canadian National Research Council Twin Otter aircraft, as well as from a spectrum of surface-based instruments. This work is expected to lead to a refereed article planned for submission to the Journal.

Lenschow, Donald H.

2000-01-01

66

DNS of Rough Surface Turbulent Boundary Layer

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A dynamic method for prescribing realistic inflow boundary conditions is presented for simulations of spatially developing turbulent boundary layers subject to surface roughness. Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) of a moderate Reynolds number, zero pressure gradient (ZPG) turbulent boundary layer was performed. The boundary layer was subjected to transitional, 24-grit sand grain surface roughness, modeled with a roughness parameter of k^+ ˜12 and a Reynolds number of R?= 2400. The computational method involves a synergy of the multi-scale dynamic approach and a new methodology for mapping high-resolution topographical surface data into a computational fluid dynamics environment. It is shown here that the multi-scale dynamic approach can be successfully extended to simulations, which incorporate surface roughness. In terms of the mean velocity and Reynolds stresses, the DNS results are encouraging as they demonstrate good agreement with the LDA measurements performed under similar conditions.

Cardillo, James; Araya, Guillermo; Chen, Yi; Jansen, Kenneth; Sahni, Onkar; Castillo, Luciano

2011-11-01

67

- Smoke visualization and schematics of gap flow (Sinha et al., 1982) .......... 57 Figure 41 - Streamline deflection on a swept wing .......................................................... 59 xiii Figure 42 - Swept wing boundary layer profile...

Hedderman, Simon Peter

2013-01-15

68

Stability of compressible boundary layers

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The stability of compressible 2-D and 3-D boundary layers is reviewed. The stability of 2-D compressible flows differs from that of incompressible flows in two important features: There is more than one mode of instability contributing to the growth of disturbances in supersonic laminar boundary layers and the most unstable first mode wave is 3-D. Whereas viscosity has a destabilizing effect on incompressible flows, it is stabilizing for high supersonic Mach numbers. Whereas cooling stabilizes first mode waves, it destabilizes second mode waves. However, second order waves can be stabilized by suction and favorable pressure gradients. The influence of the nonparallelism on the spatial growth rate of disturbances is evaluated. The growth rate depends on the flow variable as well as the distance from the body. Floquet theory is used to investigate the subharmonic secondary instability.

Nayfeh, Ali H.

1989-01-01

69

Tropical cyclone boundary layer shocks

This paper presents numerical solutions and idealized analytical solutions of axisymmetric, $f$-plane models of the tropical cyclone boundary layer. In the numerical model, the boundary layer radial and tangential flow is forced by a specified pressure field, which can also be interpreted as a specified gradient balanced tangential wind field $v_{\\rm gr}(r)$ or vorticity field $\\zeta_{\\rm gr}(r)$. When the specified $\\zeta_{\\rm gr}(r)$ field is changed from one that is radially concentrated in the inner core to one that is radially spread, the quasi-steady-state boundary layer flow transitions from a single eyewall shock-like structure to a double eyewall shock-like structure. To better understand these structures, analytical solutions are presented for two simplified versions of the model. In the simplified analytical models, which do not include horizontal diffusion, the $u(\\partial u/\\partial r)$ term in the radial equation of motion and the $u[f+(\\partial v/\\partial r)+(v/r)]$ term in the tangential equat...

Slocum, Christopher J; Taft, Richard K; Schubert, Wayne H

2014-01-01

70

The Martian Surface Boundary Layer

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The acquisition of meteorological data from the surface of Mars by the two Viking Landers and Mars Pathfinder make it possible to estimate atmospheric boundary layer parameters and surface properties at three different locations on the planet. Because the Martian atmosphere is so thin the majority of the solar radiance is converted to heat at the surface. The difference between surface and atmospheric temperature can also constraint surface albedo, thermal inertia, and infrared emissivity. The Mars Pathfinder Atmospheric Structure Instrument/Meteorological package (ASI/MET) was the most capable weather monitoring system ever sent to the surface of another planet to date. One of the prime objectives of the ASI/MET package is to characterize the surface boundary layer parameters, particularly the heat and momentum fluxes, scaling temperature and friction velocity, and estimate surface roughness. Other important boundary layer parameters, such as Richardson Number, Monin-Obukhov length, analysis of turbulence characteristics of wind and temperature, and atmospheric stability class can also be determined from these measurements.

Wilson, G. R.; Joshi, M.

1999-01-01

71

Numerical simulation of supersonic boundary layer transition

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The present contribution reviews some of the recent progress obtained at our group in the direct numerical simulation (DNS) of compressible boundary layer transition. Elements of the different simulation approaches and numerical techniques employed are surveyed. Temporal and spatial simulations, as well as comparisons with results obtained from Parabolized Stability Equations, are discussed. DNS results are given for flat plate boundary layers in the Mach number range 1.6 to 4.5. A temporal DNS at Mach 4.5 has been continued through breakdown all the way to the turbulent stage. In addition results obtained with a recently developed extended temporal DNS approach are presented, which takes into account some nonparallel effects of a growing boundary layer. Results from this approach are quite close to those of spatial DNS, while preserving the efficiency of the temporal DNS.

Guo, Y.; Adams, N. A.; Sandham, N. D.; Kleiser, L.

1994-01-01

72

Performance and boundary-layer evaluation of a sonic inlet

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Tests were conducted to determine the boundary layer characteristics and aerodynamic performance of a radial vane sonic inlet with a length/diameter ratio of 1 for several vane configurations. The sonic inlet was designed with a slight wavy wall type of diffuser geometry, which permits operation at high inlet Mach numbers (sufficiently high for good noise suppression) without boundary layer flow separation and with good total pressure recovery. A new method for evaluating the turbulent boundary layer was developed to separate the boundary layer from the inviscid core flow, which is characterized by a total pressure variation from hub to tip, and to determine the experimental boundary layer parameters.

Schmidt, J. F.; Ruggeri, R. S.

1976-01-01

73

Bursting frequency prediction in turbulent boundary layers

The frequencies of the bursting events associated with the streamwise coherent structures of spatially developing incompressible turbulent boundary layers were predicted using global numerical solution of the Orr-Sommerfeld and the vertical vorticity equations of hydrodynamic stability problems. The structures were modeled as wavelike disturbances associated with the turbulent mean flow. The global method developed here involves the use of second and fourth order accurate finite difference formula for the differential equations as well as the boundary conditions. An automated prediction tool, BURFIT, was developed. The predicted resonance frequencies were found to agree very well with previous results using a local shooting technique and measured data.

LIOU,WILLIAM W.; FANG,YICHUNG

2000-02-01

74

Secondary Görtler Instability in Hypersonic Boundary Layers

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In general, boundary layer flows become turbulent in three steps: 1) receptivity, 2) linear growth of disturbance, and 3) nonlinear effects in which the flow breaks down to turbulence. Görtler instability is one of the many B-L instability mechanisms. Görtler vortices appear in boundary layer flow along concave surfaces due to the imbalance between the pressure and centrifugal force. Many practical engineering designs, such as engine inlet, involve concave surfaces. Therefore, Görtler instability is an important subject in fluid mechanics. In this paper, Görtler instability is investigated using two approaches: Linear Stability Theory(LST) and Direct Numerical Simulation(DNS). Initial forcing disturbances are obtained from the LST, and subsequent linear and nonlinear development is simulated using Navier-Stokes equations. We investigate linear and nonlinear growth of Görtler vortices in hypersonic boundary layers. DNS is used to simulate Görtler vortices in hypersonic boundary layers. Two dimensional steady mean flow is computed using a fifth order explicit upwind scheme. Linear growth of disturbances is compared with the LST code to verify the DNS. Nonlinear effects of Görtler vortices are also investigated using DNS. Inflectional profiles develop due to the distortion of the mean flow caused by nonlinear growth of Görtler vortices which induces secondary instability. Secondary instability will be investigated using secondary instability theory and DNS.

Whang, C. W.; Zhong, X.

2000-11-01

75

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A dynamic procedure is developed to compute the model coefficients in the recently introduced modulated gradient models for both momentum and scalar fluxes. The magnitudes of the subgrid-scale (SGS) stress and the SGS flux are estimated using the local equilibrium hypothesis, and their structures (relative magnitude of each of the components) are given by the normalized gradient terms, which are derived from the Taylor expansion of the exact SGS stress/flux. Previously, the two model coefficients have been specified on the basis of theoretical arguments. Here, we develop a dynamic SGS procedure, wherein the model coefficients are computed dynamically according to the statistics of the resolved turbulence, rather than provided a priori or ad hoc. Results show that the two dynamically calculated coefficients have median values that are approximately constant throughout the turbulent atmospheric boundary layer (ABL), and their fluctuations follow a near log-normal distribution. These findings are consistent with the fact that, unlike eddy-viscosity/diffusivity models, modulated gradient models have been found to yield satisfactory results even with constant model coefficients. Results from large-eddy simulations of a neutral ABL and a stable ABL using the new closure show good agreement with reference results, including well-established theoretical predictions. For instance, the closure delivers the expected surface-layer similarity profiles and power-law scaling of the power spectra of velocity and scalar fluctuations. Further, the Lagrangian version of the model is tested in the neutral ABL case, and gives satisfactory results.

Lu, Hao; Porté-Agel, Fernando

2014-05-01

76

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A dynamic procedure is developed to compute the model coefficients in the recently introduced modulated gradient models for both momentum and scalar fluxes. The magnitudes of the subgrid-scale (SGS) stress and the SGS flux are estimated using the local equilibrium hypothesis, and their structures (relative magnitude of each of the components) are given by the normalized gradient terms, which are derived from the Taylor expansion of the exact SGS stress/flux. Previously, the two model coefficients have been specified on the basis of theoretical arguments. Here, we develop a dynamic SGS procedure, wherein the model coefficients are computed dynamically according to the statistics of the resolved turbulence, rather than provided a priori or ad hoc. Results show that the two dynamically calculated coefficients have median values that are approximately constant throughout the turbulent atmospheric boundary layer (ABL), and their fluctuations follow a near log-normal distribution. These findings are consistent with the fact that, unlike eddy-viscosity/diffusivity models, modulated gradient models have been found to yield satisfactory results even with constant model coefficients. Results from large-eddy simulations of a neutral ABL and a stable ABL using the new closure show good agreement with reference results, including well-established theoretical predictions. For instance, the closure delivers the expected surface-layer similarity profiles and power-law scaling of the power spectra of velocity and scalar fluctuations. Further, the Lagrangian version of the model is tested in the neutral ABL case, and gives satisfactory results.

Lu, Hao; Porté-Agel, Fernando

2014-06-01

77

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A program is developed to investigate the linear stability of three-dimensional compressible boundary layer flows over bodies of revolutions. The problem is formulated as a two dimensional (2D) eigenvalue problem incorporating the meanflow variations in the normal and azimuthal directions. Normal mode solutions are sought in the whole plane rather than in a line normal to the wall as is done in the classical one dimensional (1D) stability theory. The stability characteristics of a supersonic boundary layer over a sharp cone with 50 half-angle at 2 degrees angle of attack is investigated. The 1D eigenvalue computations showed that the most amplified disturbances occur around x(sub 2) = 90 degrees and the azimuthal mode number for the most amplified disturbances range between m = -30 to -40. The frequencies of the most amplified waves are smaller in the middle region where the crossflow dominates the instability than the most amplified frequencies near the windward and leeward planes. The 2D eigenvalue computations showed that due to the variations in the azimuthal direction, the eigenmodes are clustered into isolated confined regions. For some eigenvalues, the eigenfunctions are clustered in two regions. Due to the nonparallel effect in the azimuthal direction, the eigenmodes are clustered into isolated confined regions. For some eigenvalues, the eigenfunctions are clustered in two regions. Due to the nonparallel effect in the azimuthal direction, the most amplified disturbances are shifted to 120 degrees compared to 90 degrees for the parallel theory. It is also observed that the nonparallel amplification rates are smaller than that is obtained from the parallel theory.

Balakumar, P.; Jeyasingham, Samarasingham

1999-01-01

78

Orbiter Boundary Layer Transition Prediction Tool Enhancements

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Updates to an analytic tool developed for Shuttle support to predict the onset of boundary layer transition resulting from thermal protection system damage or repair are presented. The boundary layer transition tool is part of a suite of tools that analyze the local aerothermodynamic environment to enable informed disposition of damage for making recommendations to fly as is or to repair. Using mission specific trajectory information and details of each d agmea site or repair, the expected time (and thus Mach number) of transition onset is predicted to help define proper environments for use in subsequent thermal and stress analysis of the thermal protection system and structure. The boundary layer transition criteria utilized within the tool were updated based on new local boundary layer properties obtained from high fidelity computational solutions. Also, new ground-based measurements were obtained to allow for a wider parametric variation with both protuberances and cavities and then the resulting correlations were calibrated against updated flight data. The end result is to provide correlations that allow increased confidence with the resulting transition predictions. Recently, a new approach was adopted to remove conservatism in terms of sustained turbulence along the wing leading edge. Finally, some of the newer flight data are also discussed in terms of how these results reflect back on the updated correlations.

Berry, Scott A.; King, Rudolph A.; Kegerise, Michael A.; Wood, William A.; McGinley, Catherine B.; Berger, Karen T.; Anderson, Brian P.

2010-01-01

79

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As technology developments seek to improve learning, researchers, developers, and educators seek to understand how technological properties impact performance. This paper delineates how a traditional science course is enhanced through the use of simulation projects directed by the students themselves as a means to increase their level of knowledge…

Johnson, Tristan E.; Clayson, Carol Anne

80

This work presents the development of a laser-induced fluorescence technique to measure atmospheric formaldehyde. In conjunction with the technique, the design of a compact, narrow linewidth, etalon-tuned titanium: sapphire laser cavity which is pumped by the second harmonic of a kilohertz Nd:YAG laser is also presented. The fundamental tunable range is from 690-1100 nm depending on mirror reflectivities and optics

Anne Theresa Case Hanks

2008-01-01

81

Atmospheric boundary layer research at Cabauw

At Cabauw, The Netherlands, a 213 m high mast specifically built for meteorological research has been operational since 1973. Its site, construction, instrumentation and observation programs are reviewed. Regarding analysis of the boundary layer at Cabauw, the following subjects are discussed:- terrain roughness;- Monin-Obukhov theory in practice;- the structure of stable boundary layers;- observed evolution of fog layers;- inversion rise

A. P. VAN ULDEN; J. Wieringa

1996-01-01

82

Progress in modeling hypersonic turbulent boundary layers

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A good knowledge of the turbulence structure, wall heat transfer, and friction in turbulent boundary layers (TBL) at high speeds is required for the design of hypersonic air breathing airplanes and reentry space vehicles. This work reports on recent progress in the modeling of high speed TBL flows. The specific research goal described here is the development of a second order closure model for zero pressure gradient TBL's for the range of Mach numbers up to hypersonic speeds with arbitrary wall cooling requirements.

Zeman, Otto

1993-01-01

83

Wind-tunnel simulation of thick turbulent boundary layer

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An experimental study aimed at revealing the possibility of simulation, in a subsonic wind tunnel, of enhanced Reynolds numbers Re** via modeling a thick flat-plate boundary layer possessing the properties of a Clauser-equilibrium shear flow is reported. We show that turbulators prepared in the form of variable-height cylinders of height h and diameter d = 3 mm and installed in two rows along the normal to the streamlined wall offer rather an efficient means for modification of turbulent boundary layer in solving the problem. In the majority of cases, mean and fluctuating characteristics of the boundary layer exhibit values typical of naturally developing turbulent boundary layers at a distance of 530 cylinder diameters. The profiles of mean velocity with artificially enhanced boundary-layer thickness can be well approximated, in the law-of-the-wall variables, with the well-known distribution of velocities for canonical boundary layer.

Kornilov, V. I.; Boiko, A. V.

2012-06-01

84

Entropy production in relativistic jet boundary layers

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hot relativistic jets, passing through a background medium with a pressure gradient p ? r-? where 2 < ? ? 8/3, develop a shocked boundary layer containing a significant fraction of the jet power. In previous work, we developed a self-similar description of the boundary layer assuming isentropic flow, but we found that such models respect global energy conservation only for the special case ? = 8/3. Here, we demonstrate that models with ? < 8/3 can be made self-consistent if we relax the assumption of constant specific entropy. Instead, the entropy must increase with increasing r along the boundary layer, presumably due to multiple shocks driven into the flow as it gradually collimates. The increase in specific entropy slows the acceleration rate of the flow and provides a source of internal energy that could be channelled into radiation. We suggest that this process may be important for determining the radiative characteristics of tidal disruption events and gamma-ray bursts from collapsars.

Kohler, Susanna; Begelman, Mitchell C.

2015-01-01

85

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Through the use of theoretical predictions of fluid properties and experimental heat transfer and thrust measurements, the zones of laminar, transitional, and turbulent boundary layer flow were defined for the NASA Lewis 1030:1 area ratio rocket nozzle. Tests were performed on the nozzle at chamber pressures from 350 to 100 psia. For these conditions, the throat diameter Reynolds numbers varied from 300,000 to 1 million. The propellants used were gaseous hydrogen and gaseous oxygen. Thrust measurements and nozzle outer wall temperature measurements were taken during the 3-sec test runs. Comparison of experimental heat transfer and thrust data with the corresponding predictions from the Two-Dimensional Kinetics (TDK) nozzle analysis program indicated laminar flow in the nozzle at a throat diameter Reynolds number of 320,000 or chamber pressure of 360 psia. Comparison of experimental and predicted heat transfer data indicated transitional flow up to and including a chamber pressure of 1000 psia. Predicted values of the axisymmetric acceleration parameter within the convergent and divergent nozzle were consistent with the above results. Based upon an extrapolation of the heat transfer data and predicted distributions of the axisymmetric acceleration parameter, transitional flow was predicted up to a throat diameter Reynolds number of 220,000 or 2600-psia chamber pressure. Above 2600-psia chamber pressure, fully developed turbulent flow was predicted.

Smith, Tamara A.

1988-01-01

86

Boundary Layer Transition Results From STS-114

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The tool for predicting the onset of boundary layer transition from damage to and/or repair of the thermal protection system developed in support of Shuttle Return to Flight is compared to the STS-114 flight results. The Boundary Layer Transition (BLT) Tool is part of a suite of tools that analyze the aerothermodynamic environment of the local thermal protection system to allow informed disposition of damage for making recommendations to fly as is or to repair. Using mission specific trajectory information and details of each damage site or repair, the expected time of transition onset is predicted to help determine the proper aerothermodynamic environment to use in the subsequent thermal and stress analysis of the local structure. The boundary layer transition criteria utilized for the tool was developed from ground-based measurements to account for the effect of both protuberances and cavities and has been calibrated against flight data. Computed local boundary layer edge conditions provided the means to correlate the experimental results and then to extrapolate to flight. During STS-114, the BLT Tool was utilized and was part of the decision making process to perform an extravehicular activity to remove the large gap fillers. The role of the BLT Tool during this mission, along with the supporting information that was acquired for the on-orbit analysis, is reviewed. Once the large gap fillers were removed, all remaining damage sites were cleared for reentry as is. Post-flight analysis of the transition onset time revealed excellent agreement with BLT Tool predictions.

Berry, Scott A.; Horvath, Thomas J.; Cassady, Amy M.; Kirk, Benjamin S.; Wang, K. C.; Hyatt, Andrew J.

2006-01-01

87

The role of nonlinear critical layers in boundary layer transition

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Asymptotic methods are used to describe the nonlinear self-interaction between pairs of oblique instability modes that eventually develops when initially linear spatially growing instability waves evolve downstream in nominally two-dimensional laminar boundary layers. The first nonlinear reaction takes place locally within a so-called 'critical layer', with the flow outside this layer consisting of a locally parallel mean flow plus a pair of oblique instability waves - which may or may not be accompanied by an associated plane wave. The amplitudes of these waves, which are completely determined by nonlinear effects within the critical layer, satisfy either a single integro-differential equation or a pair of integro-differential equations with quadratic to quartic-type nonlinearities. The physical implications of these equations are discussed.

Goldstein, M.E.

1995-01-01

88

Numerical prediction of boundary layers and transitional flows

Mathematical models and numerical prediction methods for two dimensional boundary layer flows in turbomachines are reviewed. Special emphasis is given to the prediction of laminar turbulent transition, transitional flow and relaminarization. The various physical phenomena affecting the development of blade boundary layers are discussed. The various forms of laminar turbulent transition are physically described. A general classification of mathematical models

Georg Scheuerer

1991-01-01

89

Boundary layer calculations for the MHD insulator wall

A computer model has been used to obtain predictions concerning the current distribution, the friction, and the heat transfer on an insulating wall in the case of an inclusion of MHD effects. The model is based on a boundary-layer program developed by Crawford and Kays (1975). Modifications for the sidewall boundary layer take into account the electric fields and the

R. R. Rankin; R. H. Eustis

1976-01-01

90

Scaling the heterogeneously heated convective boundary layer

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have studied the heterogeneously heated convective boundary layer (CBL) by means of large-eddy simulations (LES) and direct numerical simulations (DNS). What makes our study different from previous studies on this subject are our very long simulations in which the system travels through multiple states and that from there we have derived scaling laws. In our setup, a stratified atmosphere is heated from below by square patches with a high surface buoyancy flux, surrounded by regions with no or little flux. By letting a boundary layer grow in time we let the system evolve from the so-called meso-scale to the micro-scale regime. In the former the heterogeneity is large and strong circulations can develop, while in the latter the heterogeneity is small and does no longer influence the boundary layer structure. Within each simulation we can now observe the formation of a peak in kinetic energy, which represents the 'optimal' heterogeneity size in the meso-scale, and the subsequent decay of the peak and the development towards the transition to the micro-scale. We have created a non-dimensional parameter space that describes all properties of this system. By studying the previously described evolution for different combinations of parameters, we have derived three important conclusions. First, there exists a horizontal length scale of the heterogeneity (L) that is a function of the boundary layer height (h) and the Richardson (Ri) number of the inversion at the top of the boundary layer. This relationship has the form L = h Ri^(3/8). Second, this horizontal length scale L allows for expressing the time evolution, and thus the state of the system, as a ratio of this length scale and the distance between two patches Xp. This ratio thus describes to which extent the circulation fills up the space that exists between two patch centers. The timings of the transition from the meso- to the micro-scale collapse under this scaling for all simulations sharing the same flux difference between patch and surroundings. Third, we found that the presence of a flux in the surroundings of patches is essential to create a circulation. The timing of the 'optimal' heterogeneity size follows the same scaling as that of the transition. We thus conclude that the optimum heterogeneity size, which results in the strongest circulations, should be expressed in a ratio of L and Xp. This is different than most previous studies, which express this as a ratio of the boundary layer height h and patch distance Xp. We believe that with our derived scalings, we are able to provide a general picture of the properties of the 'optimum' heterogeneity size and the transition between the meso- and micro-scale regime. Structure of the heterogeneously heated boundary layer at the onset of the merge from the meso-scale to the micro-scale regime.

Van Heerwaarden, C.; Mellado, J.; De Lozar, A.

2013-12-01

91

DNS of shock-turbulent boundary layer interaction

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A novel DNS/LES capability for high speed viscous flows on unstructured grids is being developed. Shock-turbulent boundary layer interaction results in flow separation, shock unsteadiness, and increased aerodynamic and thermal loads. This paper focuses on the DNS of a Mach 3 turbulent boundary layer flow past a 24 degree compression corner. In our simulations, the upstream turbulent boundary layer is obtained by roughness--induced transition of a laminar boundary layer, and not by rescaling methods. The simulations are performed at the conditions of experiments by Bookey et al (AIAA Paper 2005). The results will be compared to experimental data. We will present the evolution of the boundary layer flow across the shock, low frequency unsteadiness, and the upstream influence of the corner. Both numerical issues and their physical implications will be discussed.

Muppidi, Suman; Mahesh, Krishnan

2010-11-01

92

Planetary Boundary Layer Simulation Using TASS

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Boundary conditions to an existing large-eddy simulation model have been changed in order to simulate turbulence in the atmospheric boundary layer. Several options are now available, including the use of a surface energy balance. In addition, we compare convective boundary layer simulations with the Wangara and Minnesota field experiments as well as with other model results. We find excellent agreement of modelled mean profiles of wind and temperature with observations and good agreement for velocity variances. Neutral boundary simulation results are compared with theory and with previously used models. Agreement with theory is reasonable, while agreement with previous models is excellent.

Schowalter, David G.; DeCroix, David S.; Lin, Yuh-Lang; Arya, S. Pal; Kaplan, Michael

1996-01-01

93

Boundary layer influence on cavity noise generation.

]. Experiments were conducted in a open jet wind tunnel facility. The cavity took place in a flat plate such as the cavity geometry, the free stream velocity and the incoming boundary layer properties, [1]. In this paper

Lindken, Ralph

94

Propulsion via buoyancy driven boundary layer

Heating a sloped surface generates a well-studied boundary layer flow, but the resulting surface forces have never been studied in propulsion applications. We built a triangular wedge to test this effect by mounting a ...

Doyle, Brian Patrick

2011-01-01

95

Boundary-layer stability and airfoil design

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Several different natural laminar flow (NLF) airfoils have been analyzed for stability of the laminar boundary layer using linear stability codes. The NLF airfoils analyzed come from three different design conditions: incompressible; compressible with no sweep; and compressible with sweep. Some of the design problems are discussed, concentrating on those problems associated with keeping the boundary layer laminar. Also, there is a discussion on how a linear stability analysis was effectively used to improve the design for some of the airfoils.

Viken, Jeffrey K.

1986-01-01

96

BUBBLE – an Urban Boundary Layer Meteorology Project

Summary The Basel UrBan Boundary Layer Experiment (BUBBLE) was a year-long experimental effort to investigate in detail the boundary layer structure in the City of Basel, Switzerland. At several sites over different surface types (urban, sub-urban and rural reference) towers up to at least twice the main obstacle height provided turbulence observations at many levels. In addition, a Wind Profiler

M. W. Rotach; R. Vogt; C. Bernhofer; E. Batchvarova; A. Christen; A. Clappier; B. Feddersen; S.-E. Gryning; G. Martucci; H. Mayer; V. Mitev; T. R. Oke; E. Parlow; H. Richner; M. Roth; Y.-A. Roulet; D. Ruffieux; J. A. Salmond; M. Schatzmann; J. A. Voogt

2005-01-01

97

Large Eddy Simulation of Atmospheric Convective Boundary Layer with Realistic

Large Eddy Simulation of Atmospheric Convective Boundary Layer with Realistic Environmental atmospheric environmental forcings. Analysis of several simulated convec- tive boundary layer (CBL) cases toward dynamic adjustment of environmental parameters in LES of atmospheric boundary layer flows

Fedorovich, Evgeni

98

Observational Study of the Atmospheric Boundary Layer over Antarctica

During the austral summer of 1982\\/83, measurements of wind and temperature profiles were made through the atmospheric boundary layer in Adelie Land, East Antarctica, an area known for strong katabatic winds. It was found that a shallow but strong temperature inversion was developed at night, and destroyed during the day, resulting in the development of a well-mixed layer. Wind hodographs

Zbigniew Sorbjan; Yuji Kodama; Gerd Wendler

1986-01-01

99

Structure of turbulence in three-dimensional boundary layers

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report provides an overview of the three dimensional turbulent boundary layer concepts and of the currently available experimental information for their turbulence modeling. It is found that more reliable turbulence data, especially of the Reynolds stress transport terms, is needed to improve the existing modeling capabilities. An experiment is proposed to study the three dimensional boundary layer formed by a 'sink flow' in a fully developed two dimensional turbulent boundary layer. Also, the mean and turbulence field measurement procedure using a three component laser Doppler velocimeter is described.

Subramanian, Chelakara S.

1993-01-01

100

Boundary-layer receptivity and laminar-flow airfoil design

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Boundary-layer receptivity examines the way in which external disturbances generate instability waves in boundary layers. Receptivity theory is complementary to stability theory, which studies the evolution of disturbances that are already present in the boundary layer. A transition prediction method which combines receptivity with linear stability theory would directly account for the influence of free-stream disturbances and also consider the characteristics of the boundary layer upstream of the neutral stability point. The current e sup N transition prediction methods require empirical correlations for the influence of environmental disturbances, and totally ignore the boundary layer characteristics upstream of the neutral stability point. The regions where boundary-layer receptivity occurs can be separated into two classes, one near the leading edges and the other at the downstream points where the boundary layer undergoes rapid streamwise adjustments. Analyses were developed for both types of regions, and parametric studies which examine the relative importance of different mechanisms were carried out. The work presented here has focused on the low Mach number case. Extensions to high subsonic and supersonic conditions are presently underway.

Kerschen, Edward J.

1987-01-01

101

Modeling the summertime Arctic cloudy boundary layer

Global climate models have particular difficulty in simulating the low-level clouds during the Arctic summer. Model problems are exacerbated in the polar regions by the complicated vertical structure of the Arctic boundary layer. The presence of multiple cloud layers, a humidity inversion above cloud top, and vertical fluxes in the cloud that are decoupled from the surface fluxes, identified in Curry et al. (1988), suggest that models containing sophisticated physical parameterizations would be required to accurately model this region. Accurate modeling of the vertical structure of multiple cloud layers in climate models is important for determination of the surface radiative fluxes. This study focuses on the problem of modeling the layered structure of the Arctic summertime boundary-layer clouds and in particular, the representation of the more complex boundary layer type consisting of a stable foggy surface layer surmounted by a cloud-topped mixed layer. A hierarchical modeling/diagnosis approach is used. A case study from the summertime Arctic Stratus Experiment is examined. A high-resolution, one-dimensional model of turbulence and radiation is tested against the observations and is then used in sensitivity studies to infer the optimal conditions for maintaining two separate layers in the Arctic summertime boundary layer. A three-dimensional mesoscale atmospheric model is then used to simulate the interaction of this cloud deck with the large-scale atmospheric dynamics. An assessment of the improvements needed to the parameterizations of the boundary layer, cloud microphysics, and radiation in the 3-D model is made.

Curry, J.A.; Pinto, J.O. [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States); McInnes, K.L. [CSIRO Division of Atmospheric Research, Mordialloc (Australia)

1996-04-01

102

On similarity in the atmospheric boundary layer

A similarity theory for the atmospheric boundary layer is presented. The Monin-Obukhov similarity theory for the surface layer is a particular case of this new theory, for the case of z ? 0. Universal functions which are in agreement with empirical data are obtained for the stable and convective regimes.

Zbigniew Sorbjan

1986-01-01

103

Dependence of Boundary Layer Mixing On Lateral Boundary Conditions

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ocean circulation models often show strong mixing in association with lateral bound- ary layers. Such mixing is generally considered to be artifactual rather than real. Fur- thermore, the severity of the problem is boundary condition dependent. For example, an inconsistency between geostrophy and insulating boundary conditions on tempera- ture and salinity cause many modelers to opt for the no slip, rather than slip boundary condtion on the tangential component of momentum. As modellers increasingly move into the eddy revealing regime, biharmonic, rather than harmonic dissipative operators are likely to become more common. Biharmonic operators, however, require specifi- cation of additional boundary conditions. For example, there are several `natural ex- tensions' to each of the slip and no slip conditions. Here, these various possiblities are considered in the context of a simple model. Particular attention is payed to how mixing (and the associated overturning cell) is affected by the choice of boundary condition.

Straub, D.

104

Lear jet boundary layer/shear layer laser propagation experiments

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Optical degradations of aircraft turbulent boundary layers with shear layers generated by aerodynamic fences are analyzed. A collimated 2.5 cm diameter helium-neon laser (0.63 microns) traversed the approximate 5 cm thick natural aircraft boundary layer in double pass via a reflective airfoil. In addition, several flights examined shear layer-induced optical degradation. Flight altitudes ranged from 1.5 to 12 km, while Mach numbers were varied from 0.3 to 0.8. Average line spread function (LSF) and Modulation Transfer Function (MTF) data were obtained by averaging a large number of tilt-removed curves. Fourier transforming the resulting average MTF yields an LSF, thus affording a direct comparison of the two optical measurements. Agreement was good for the aerodynamic fence arrangement, but only fair in the case of a turbulent boundary layer. Values of phase variance inferred from the LSF instrument for a single pass through the random flow and corrected for a large aperture ranged from 0.08 to 0.11 waves (lambda = .63 microns) for the boundary layer. Corresponding values for the fence vary from 0.08 to 0.16 waves. Extrapolation of these values to 10.6 microns suggests negligible degradation for a CO2 laser transmitted through a 5 cm thick, subsonic turbulent boundary layer.

Gilbert, K.

1980-01-01

105

Boundary layer emission in luminous LMXBs

We show that aperiodic and quasiperiodic variability of bright LMXBs - atoll and Z- sources, on ~sec - msec time scales is caused primarily by variations of the boundary layer luminosity. The accretion disk emission is less variable on these time scales and its power density follows 1/f law, contributing to observed flux variation at low frequencies and low energies only. The kHz QPOs have the same origin as variability at lower frequencies - independent of the nature of the "clock", the actual luminosity modulation takes place on the NS surface. The boundary layer spectrum remains nearly constant during luminosity variations and can be represented by the Fourier frequency resolved spectrum. In the range of Mdot~(0.1-1)*Mdot_Edd it depends weakly on the global mass accretion rate and in the limit Mdot~Mdot_Edd is close to Wien spectrum with kT~2.4 keV. Its independence on the Mdot lends support to the suggestion by Inogamov & Sunyaev (1999) that the boundary layer is radiation pressure supported. Based on the knowledge of the boundary layer spectrum we attempt to relate the motion along the Z-track to changes of physically meaningful parameters. Our results suggest that the contribution of the boundary layer to the observed emission decreases along the Z-track from conventional ~50% on the horizontal branch to a rather small number on the normal branch. This decrease can be caused, for example, by obscuration of the boundary layer by the geometrically thickened accretion disk at Mdot~Mdot_Edd. Alternatively, this can indicate significant change of the structure of the accretion flow at Mdot~Mdot_Edd and disappearance of the boundary layer as a distinct region of the significant energy release associated with the NS surface.

M. Gilfanov; M. Revnivtsev

2005-12-14

106

FIFE atmospheric boundary layer budget methods

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The budget methods and the mixed layer model employed to analyze the aircraft data from the First ISLSCP Field Experiment (FIFE) are described. Vector budgets for the mixed layer are discussed on conserved variable diagrams. Theoretical solutions are presented for the critical surface Bowen ratio that produces no boundary layer moistening or equivalent potential temperature rise as a function of the Bowen ratio at the inversion.

Betts, A. K.

1992-01-01

107

Bypass transition in compressible boundary layers

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Transition to turbulence in aerospace applications usually occurs in a strongly disturbed environment. For instance, the effects of free-stream turbulence, roughness and obstacles in the boundary layer strongly influence transition. Proper understanding of the mechanisms leading to transition is crucial in the design of aircraft wings and gas turbine blades, because lift, drag and heat transfer strongly depend on the state of the boundary layer, laminar or turbulent. Unfortunately, most of the transition research, both theoretical and experimental, has focused on natural transition. Many practical flows, however, defy any theoretical analysis and are extremely difficult to measure. Morkovin introduced in his review paper the concept of bypass transition as those forms of transition which bypass the known mechanisms of linear and non-linear transition theories and are currently not understood by experiments. In an effort to better understand the mechanisms leading to transition in a disturbed environment, experiments are conducted studying simpler cases, viz. the effects of free stream turbulence on transition on a flat plate. It turns out that these experiments are very difficult to conduct, because generation of free stream turbulence with sufficiently high fluctuation levels and reasonable homogeneity is non trivial. For a discussion see Morkovin. Serious problems also appear due to the fact that at high Reynolds numbers the boundary layers are very thin, especially in the nose region of the plate where the transition occurs, which makes the use of very small probes necessary. The effects of free-stream turbulence on transition are the subject of this research and are especially important in a gas turbine environment, where turbulence intensities are measured between 5 and 20 percent, Wang et al. Due to the fact that the Reynolds number for turbine blades is considerably lower than for aircraft wings, generally a larger portion of the blade will be in a laminar transitional state. The effects of large free stream turbulence in compressible boundary layers at Mach numbers are examined both in the subsonic and transonic regime using direct numerical simulations. The flow is computed over a flat plate and curved surface. while many applications operate in the transonic regime. Due the nature of their numerical scheme, a non-conservation formulation of the Navier-Stokes equations, it is a non-trivial extension to compute flow fields in the transonic regime. This project aims at better understanding the effects of large free-stream turbulence in compressible boundary layers at mach number both in the subsonic and transonic regime using direct numerical simulations. The present project aims at computing the flow over a flat plate and curved surface. This research will provide data which can be used to clarify mechanisms leading to transition in an environment with high free stream turbulence. This information is useful for the development of turbulence models, which are of great importance for CFD applications, and are currently unreliable for more complex flows, such as transitional flows.

Vandervegt, J. J.

1992-01-01

108

Bypass transition in compressible boundary layers

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Transition to turbulence in aerospace applications usually occurs in a strongly disturbed environment. For instance, the effects of free-stream turbulence, roughness and obstacles in the boundary layer strongly influence transition. Proper understanding of the mechanisms leading to transition is crucial in the design of aircraft wings and gas turbine blades, because lift, drag and heat transfer strongly depend on the state of the boundary layer, laminar or turbulent. Unfortunately, most of the transition research, both theoretical and experimental, has focused on natural transition. Many practical flows, however, defy any theoretical analysis and are extremely difficult to measure. Morkovin introduced in his review paper the concept of bypass transition as those forms of transition which bypass the known mechanisms of linear and non-linear transition theories and are currently not understood by experiments. In an effort to better understand the mechanisms leading to transition in a disturbed environment, experiments are conducted studying simpler cases, viz. the effects of free stream turbulence on transition on a flat plate. It turns out that these experiments are very difficult to conduct, because generation of free stream turbulence with sufficiently high fluctuation levels and reasonable homogeneity is non trivial. For a discussion see Morkovin. Serious problems also appear due to the fact that at high Reynolds numbers the boundary layers are very thin, especially in the nose region of the plate where the transition occurs, which makes the use of very small probes necessary. The effects of free-stream turbulence on transition are the subject of this research and are especially important in a gas turbine environment, where turbulence intensities are measured between 5 and 20 percent, Wang et al. Due to the fact that the Reynolds number for turbine blades is considerably lower than for aircraft wings, generally a larger portion of the blade will be in a laminar transitional state. The effects of large free stream turbulence in compressible boundary layers at Mach numbers are examined both in the subsonic and transonic regime using direct numerical simulations. The flow is computed over a flat plate and curved surface. while many applications operate in the transonic regime. Due the nature of their numerical scheme, a non-conservation formulation of the Navier-Stokes equations, it is a non-trivial extension to compute flow fields in the transonic regime. This project aims at better understanding the effects of large free-stream turbulence in compressible boundary layers at mach number both in the subsonic and transonic regime using direct numerical simulations. The present project aims at computing the flow over a flat plate and curved surface.

Vandervegt, J. J.

1992-09-01

109

Boundary-Layer-Ingesting Inlet Flow Control

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An experimental study was conducted to provide the first demonstration of an active flow control system for a flush-mounted inlet with significant boundary-layer-ingestion in transonic flow conditions. The effectiveness of the flow control in reducing the circumferential distortion at the engine fan-face location was assessed using a 2.5%-scale model of a boundary-layer-ingesting offset diffusing inlet. The inlet was flush mounted to the tunnel wall and ingested a large boundary layer with a boundary-layer-to-inlet height ratio of 35%. Different jet distribution patterns and jet mass flow rates were used in the inlet to control distortion. A vane configuration was also tested. Finally a hybrid vane/jet configuration was tested leveraging strengths of both types of devices. Measurements were made of the onset boundary layer, the duct surface static pressures, and the mass flow rates through the duct and the flow control actuators. The distortion and pressure recovery were measured at the aerodynamic interface plane. The data show that control jets and vanes reduce circumferential distortion to acceptable levels. The point-design vane configuration produced higher distortion levels at off-design settings. The hybrid vane/jet flow control configuration reduced the off-design distortion levels to acceptable ones and used less than 0.5% of the inlet mass flow to supply the jets.

Owens, Lewis R.; Allan, Brian G.; Gorton, Susan A.

2008-01-01

110

High enthalpy hypersonic boundary layer flow

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A theoretical and experimental study of an ionizing laminar boundary layer formed by a very high enthalpy flow (in excess of 12 eV per atom or 7000 cal/gm) with allowance for the presence of helium driver gas is described. The theoretical investigation has shown that the use of variable transport properties and their respective derivatives is very important in the solution of equilibrium boundary layer equations of high enthalpy flow. The effect of low level helium contamination on the surface heat transfer rate is minimal. The variation of ionization is much smaller in a chemically frozen boundary layer solution than in an equilibrium boundary layer calculation and consequently, the variation of the transport properties in the case of the former was not essential in the integration. The experiments have been conducted in a free piston shock tunnel, and a detailed study of its nozzle operation, including the effects of low levels of helium driver gas contamination has been made. Neither the extreme solutions of an equilibrium nor of a frozen boundary layer will adequately predict surface heat transfer rate in very high enthalpy flows.

Yanow, G.

1972-01-01

111

The kinematics of turbulent boundary layer structure

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The long history of research into the internal structure of turbulent boundary layers has not provided a unified picture of the physics responsible for turbulence production and dissipation. The goals of the present research are to: (1) define the current state of boundary layer structure knowledge; and (2) utilize direct numerical simulation results to help close the unresolved issues identified in part A and to unify the fragmented knowledge of various coherent motions into a consistent kinematic model of boundary layer structure. The results of the current study show that all classes of coherent motion in the low Reynolds number turbulent boundary layer may be related to vortical structures, but that no single form of vortex is representative of the wide variety of vortical structures observed. In particular, ejection and sweep motions, as well as entrainment from the free-streem are shown to have strong spatial and temporal relationships with vortical structures. Disturbances of vortex size, location, and intensity show that quasi-streamwise vortices dominate the buffer region, while transverse vortices and vortical arches dominate the wake region. Both types of vortical structure are common in the log region. The interrelationships between the various structures and the population distributions of vortices are combined into a conceptual kinematic model for the boundary layer. Aspects of vortical structure dynamics are also postulated, based on time-sequence animations of the numerically simulated flow.

Robinson, Stephen Kern

1991-01-01

112

Atmospheric boundary layer over steep surface waves

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Turbulent air-sea interactions coupled with the surface wave dynamics remain a challenging problem. The needs to include this kind of interaction into the coupled environmental, weather and climate models motivate the development of a simplified approximation of the complex and strongly nonlinear interaction processes. This study proposes a quasi-linear model of wind-wave coupling. It formulates the approach and derives the model equations. The model is verified through a set of laboratory (direct measurements of an airflow by the particle image velocimetry (PIV) technique) and numerical (a direct numerical simulation (DNS) technique) experiments. The experiments support the central model assumption that the flow velocity field averaged over an ensemble of turbulent fluctuations is smooth and does not demonstrate flow separation from the crests of the waves. The proposed quasi-linear model correctly recovers the measured characteristics of the turbulent boundary layer over the waved water surface.

Troitskaya, Yuliya; Sergeev, Daniil A.; Druzhinin, Oleg; Kandaurov, Alexander A.; Ermakova, Olga S.; Ezhova, Ekaterina V.; Esau, Igor; Zilitinkevich, Sergej

2014-08-01

113

Nonstationary atmospheric boundary layer turbulence simulation

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Report on a new and general technique for simulating atmospheric turbulence-like random processes which are statistically homogeneous along the horizontal and nonhomogeneous along the vertical. This technique is general in the sense that it can be used for a broad class of similar problems. Like the other presently available schemes, the techniques presented are based on the Dryden hypothesis and Taylor's frozen eddy hypothesis; however, they go a step further by utilizing certain self-similarity properties of the Dryden spectral density function which permits the development of height invariant filters. These filters are in turn used to generate vertically homogeneous (statistically) random processes from which turbulence at any specified level in the boundary layer can be simulated, thus facilitating the simulation of a nonstationary turbulence process along the flight path of an aircraft during take-off or landing.

Fichtl, G. H.; Perlmutter, M.

1974-01-01

114

Chemistry of a polluted cloudy boundary layer

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A one-dimensional photochemical model for cloud-topped boundary layers has been developed to include descriptions of gas- and aqueous-phase chemistry and the radiation field in and below the cloud. The model is applied to the accumulation of pollutants during a wintertime episode with low stratus over Bakersfield, CA. The mechanisms of sulfate production and the balance between the concentrations of acids and bases are examined. It is shown that most of the sulfate production may be explained by the Fe(III)-catalyzed autoxidation of S(IV). Another source of sulfate is the oxidation of SO2 by OH in both the gas and the aqueous phase. It is shown that the sulfate production in the model is controlled by the availability of NH3. It is suggested that this explains the balance observed between total concentration of acids and bases.

Jacob, Daniel J.; Gottlieb, Elaine W.; Prather, Michael J.

1989-01-01

115

Chemistry of a polluted cloudy boundary layer

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A one-dimensional photochemical model for cloud-topped boundary layers has been developed to include descriptions of gas- and aqueous-phase chemistry and the radiation field in and below the cloud. The model is applied to the accumulation of pollutants during a wintertime episode with low stratus over Bakersfield, CA. The mechanisms of sulfate production and the balance between the concentrations of acids and bases are examined. It is shown that most of the sulfate production may be explained by the Fe(III)-catalyzed autoxidation of S(IV). Another source of sulfate is the oxidation of SO2 by OH in both the gas and the aqueous phase. It is shown that the sulfate production in the model is controlled by the availability of NH3. It is suggested that this explains the balance observed between total concentration of acids and bases.

Jacob, Daniel J.; Gottlieb, Elaine W.; Prather, Michael J.

1989-09-01

116

Boundary-layer depth and entrainment zone characterization with a boundary-layer profiler

A technique for determining the height of the convective atmospheric boundary layer (CBL) with a 915 MHz boundary-layer profiler is discussed. The results are compared with CBL heights determined from radiosonde measurements. The profiler provides continuous CBL height measurements with very good time resolution (30 minutes or less), allowing for detailed understanding of the growth and fluctuations of the CBL.

Wayne M. Angevine; Allen B. White; S. K. Avery

1994-01-01

117

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The fundamentals of stability theory, its chief results, and the physical mechanisms at work are presented. The stability theory of the laminar boundary determines whether a small disturbance introduced into the boundary layer will amplify or damp. If the disturbance damps, the boundary layer remains laminar. If the disturbance amplifies, and by a sufficient amount, then transition to turbulence eventually takes place. The stability theory establishes those states of the boundary layer which are most likely to lead to transition, identifys those frequencies which are the most dangerous, and indicates how the external parameters can best be changed to avoid transition.

Mack, L. M.

1967-01-01

118

Stability of separating subsonic boundary layers

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The primary and subharmonic instabilities of separating compressible subsonic two-dimensional boundary layers in the presence of a two-dimensional roughness element on a flat plate are investigated. The roughness elements considered are humps and forward- and backward-facing steps. The use of cooling and suction to control these instabilities is studied. The similarities and differences between the instability characteristics of separating boundary layers and those of the boundary layer over a flat plate with a zero pressure gradient are pointed out and discussed. The theoretical results agree qualitatively and quantitatively with the experimental data of Dovgal and Kozlov. Cooling and suction decrease the growth rates of primary and subharmonic waves in the attached-flow regions but increase them in the separated-flow regions.

Masad, Jamal A.; Nayfeh, Ali H.

1994-01-01

119

Improved Boundary Layer Depth Retrievals from MPLNET

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Continuous lidar observations of the planetary boundary layer (PBL) depth have been made at the Micropulse Lidar Network (MPLNET) site in Greenbelt, MD since April 2001. However, because of issues with the operational PBL depth algorithm, the data is not reliable for determining seasonal and diurnal trends. Therefore, an improved PBL depth algorithm has been developed which uses a combination of the wavelet technique and image processing. The new algorithm is less susceptible to contamination by clouds and residual layers, and in general, produces lower PBL depths. A 2010 comparison shows the operational algorithm overestimates the daily mean PBL depth when compared to the improved algorithm (1.85 and 1.07 km, respectively). The improved MPLNET PBL depths are validated using radiosonde comparisons which suggests the algorithm performs well to determine the depth of a fully developed PBL. A comparison with the Goddard Earth Observing System-version 5 (GEOS-5) model suggests that the model may underestimate the maximum daytime PBL depth by 410 m during the spring and summer. The best agreement between MPLNET and GEOS-5 occurred during the fall and they diered the most in the winter.

Lewis, Jasper R.; Welton, Ellsworth J.; Molod, Andrea M.; Joseph, Everette

2013-01-01

120

Calculation methods for compressible turbulent boundary layers, 1976

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Equations and closure methods for compressible turbulent boundary layers are discussed. Flow phenomena peculiar to calculation of these boundary layers were considered, along with calculations of three dimensional compressible turbulent boundary layers. Procedures for ascertaining nonsimilar two and three dimensional compressible turbulent boundary layers were appended, including finite difference, finite element, and mass-weighted residual methods.

Bushnell, D. M.; Cary, A. M., Jr.; Harris, J. E.

1977-01-01

121

ESE 134: BOUNDARY LAYER AND CLOUD DYNAMICS -SPRING 2013 SYLLABUS

of clouds and atmospheric boundary layers, from a phenomenological overview of cloud and boundary layer) Â· The Atmospheric Boundary Layer, J. R. Garratt (Cambridge UP, 1992) Â· Turbulence in the Atmosphere, J. C. WyngaardESE 134: BOUNDARY LAYER AND CLOUD DYNAMICS - SPRING 2013 SYLLABUS Introduction to the dynamics

Bordoni, Simona

122

Boundary-Layer Meteorology An International Journal of Physical,

Processes in the Atmospheric Boundary Layer ISSN 0006-8314 Volume 147 Number 1 Boundary-Layer Meteorol (20131 23 Boundary-Layer Meteorology An International Journal of Physical, Chemical and Biological after publication. #12;Boundary-Layer Meteorol (2013) 147:41Â50 DOI 10.1007/s10546-012-9777-7 ARTICLE

Marusic, Ivan

123

Runup and boundary layers on sloping beaches

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present study is devoted to discrepancies between experimental and theoretical runup heights on an inclined plane, which have occasionally been reported in the literature. In a new study on solitary wave-runup on moderately steep slopes, in a wave tank with 20 cm water depth, detailed observations are made for the shoreline motion and velocity profiles during runup. The waves are not breaking during runup, but they do break during the subsequent draw-down. Both capillary effects and viscous boundary layers are detected. In the investigated cases the onshore flow is close to the transitional regime between laminar and turbulent boundary layers. The flow behaviour depends on the amplitude of the incident wave and the location on the beach. Stable laminar flow, fluctuations (Tollmien-Schlichting waves), and formation of vortices are all observed. Comparison with numerical simulations showed that the experimental runup heights were markedly smaller than predictions from inviscid theory. The observed and computed runup heights are discussed in the context of preexisting theory and experiments. Similar deviations are apparent there, but have often been overlooked or given improper physical explanations. Guided by the absence of turbulence and irregular flow features in parts of the experiments we apply laminar boundary layer theory to the inundation flow. Outer flows from potential flow models are inserted in a nonlinear, numerical boundary layer model. Even though the boundary layer model is invalid near the moving the shoreline, the computed velocity profiles are found to compare well with experiments elsewhere, until instabilities are observed in the measurements. Analytical, linear boundary layer solutions are also derived both for an idealized swash zone motion and a polynomial representation of the time dependence of the outer flow. Due to lacking experimental or theoretical descriptions of the contact point dynamics no two-way coupling of the boundary layer model and the inviscid runup models is attempted. Instead, the effect of the boundary layer on the maximum runup is estimated through integrated losses of onshore volume transport and found to be consistent with the differences between inviscid theory and experiments.

Pedersen, G. K.; Lindstrøm, E.; Bertelsen, A. F.; Jensen, A.; Laskovski, D.; Sælevik, G.

2013-01-01

124

Dense gas boundary layer experiments: Visualization, pressure measurements, concentration evaluation

This technical report describes methods that were applied to investigate turbulent boundary layers generated by inviscid, baroclinic effects. The Cranz-Schardin 24-sparks camera was used to visualize the interactions of a planar shock wave with a Freon R12-layer. The shock propagates more slowly in the Freon layer than in air because of its smaller sound speed. This causes the shock front to be curved and to be reflected between the wall and the layer interface. As a consequence of the reflection process, a series of compression and expansion waves radiate from the layer. Large fluctuations in the streamwise velocity and in pressure develop for about 1 ms. These waves strongly perturb the interface shear layer, which rapidly transitions to a turbulent boundary flow. Pressure measurements showed that the fluctuations in the Freon layer reach a peak pressure 4 times higher than in the turbulent boundary flow. To characterize the preshock Freon boundary layer, concentration measurements were performed with a differential interferometry technique. The refraction index of Freon R12 is so high that Mach-Zehnder interferometry was not successful in these experiments. The evaluation of the concentration profile is described here in detail. Method and results of corresponding LDV measurements under the same conditions are presented in a different report, EMI Report T 9/92. The authors plan to continue the dense gas layer investigations with the gas combination helium/Freon.

Reichenbach, H.; Neuwald, P. [Ernst-Mach-Institut, Freiburg (DE); Kuhl, A.L. [R and D Associates, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

1992-11-01

125

Evaluation of boundary-layer type forecasts 1 Evaluation of boundary-layer type in a weather Many studies evaluating model boundary-layer schemes focus either on near-surface parameters, combined in a way to match model representation of the boundary layer as closely as possible, can be used

Hogan, Robin

126

INDIVIDUAL TURBULENT CELL INTERACTION: BASIS FOR BOUNDARY LAYER ESTABLISHMENT

Boundary layers are important in determining the forces on objects in flowing fluids, mixing characteristics, and other phenomena. For example, benthic boundary layers are frequently active resuspension layers that determine bottom turbidity and transniissivity. Traditionally, bo...

127

A simple model of the atmospheric boundary layer; sensitivity to surface evaporation

A simple formulation of the boundary layer is developed for use in large-scale models and other situations where simplicity is required. The formulation is suited for use in models where some resolution is possible within the boundary layer, but where the resolution is insufficient for resolving the detailed boundary-layer structure and overlying capping inversion. Surface fluxes are represented in terms

I B Troen; L. Mahrt

1986-01-01

128

Advection in Accretion Disk Boundary Layers

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Recent numerical simulations of accretion disk boundary layers have shown qualitatively the importance tance of advected energy in the inner region of the disk. In this short paper we present quantitative results of advective boundary layers in the optically thick regime. Numerical results are obtained for various systems, by means of a one-dimensional time-dependent numerical code. At high accretion mass rates, dot-M approx. = 10(exp -4) solar mass/yr, or low values of the viscosity parameter, alpha approx. = 0.001-0.01 (characteristic of FU Orionis systems and some symbiotic stars), the optical thickness in the inner part of the disk becomes very large (tau much greater than 1). The disk, unable to cool efficiently, becomes geometrically thick (H/r approx. = 0.5). The energy dissipated in the dynamical boundary layer is radiated outward to larger radii and advected into the star. The boundary-layer luminosity is only a fraction of its expected value; the rest of the energy is advected into the star. The fraction of the advected energy is zeta = L(sub adv)/L(sub acc) approx. = 0.1 in symbiotic stars (accretion onto a low-mass main-sequence star) and zeta approx. = 0.2 in FU Ori systems (accretion onto a pre-main sequence star).

Godon, Patrick

1997-01-01

129

Numerical methods in boundary-layer theory

Two particular methods, the Crank-Nicolson scheme and the Box scheme, appear to have a dominating position among the large variety of numerical methods which are used to solve the many flow problems to which boundary-layer theory is applied. Of the two methods, the Box scheme has the advantage that it can very easily be adapted to new classes of problems.

H. B. Keller

1978-01-01

130

Sound radiation from a turbulent boundary layer

Sound radiation due to fluctuating viscous wall shear stresses in a plane turbulent boundary layer is investigated by a two-stage procedure using direct numerical simulation (DNS) databases for incompressible turbulent Poiseuille flow in a plane channel, at Reynolds numbers up to Re?=1440. The power spectral density of radiated pressure and spectra of sound power per unit wall area are calculated

Zhiwei Hu; Christopher L. Morfey; Neil D. Sandham

2006-01-01

131

Sound radiation from a turbulent boundary layer

Sound radiation due to fluctuating viscous wall shear stresses in a plane turbulent boundary layer is investigated by a two-stage procedure using direct numerical simulation (DNS) databases for incompressible turbulent Poiseuille flow in a plane channel, at Reynolds numbers up to Retau=1440. The power spectral density of radiated pressure and spectra of sound power per unit wall area are calculated

Zhiwei Hu; Christopher L. Morfey; Neil D. Sandham

2006-01-01

132

Boundary Layer Transition on X-43A

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The successful Mach 7 and 10 flights of the first fully integrated scramjet propulsion systems by the Hyper-X (X-43A) program have provided the means with which to verify the original design methodologies and assumptions. As part of Hyper-X s propulsion-airframe integration, the forebody was designed to include a spanwise array of vortex generators to promote boundary layer transition ahead of the engine. Turbulence at the inlet is thought to provide the most reliable engine design and allows direct scaling of flight results to groundbased data. Pre-flight estimations of boundary layer transition, for both Mach 7 and 10 flight conditions, suggested that forebody boundary layer trips were required to ensure fully turbulent conditions upstream of the inlet. This paper presents the results of an analysis of the thermocouple measurements used to infer the dynamics of the transition process during the trajectories for both flights, on both the lower surface (to assess trip performance) and the upper surface (to assess natural transition). The approach used in the analysis of the thermocouple data is outlined, along with a discussion of the calculated local flow properties that correspond to the transition events as identified in the flight data. The present analysis has confirmed that the boundary layer trips performed as expected for both flights, providing turbulent flow ahead of the inlet during critical portions of the trajectory, while the upper surface was laminar as predicted by the pre-flight analysis.

Berry, Scott; Daryabeigi, Kamran; Wurster, Kathryn; Bittner, Robert

2008-01-01

133

Regional Carbon Fluxes and Boundary Layer Heights

Regional Carbon Fluxes and Boundary Layer Heights from the Airborne Carbon in the Mountains - Madison Department of Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences Advisor Signature Date #12;i ABSTRACT The Central Rocky Mountains, with its abundant forests ecosystem, is likely an im- portant carbon sink

Wisconsin at Madison, University of

134

Heat Transport in the Atmospheric Boundary Layer

The structure of turbulence and transport of heat is examined from data obtained from 11 aircraft soundings executed in heated boundary layers during the Air Mass Transformation Experiment. Various influences on the turbulent transport are revealed by analyzing properties of the joint frequency distribution in polar coordinate. Such an analysis allows determination of a correlation coefficient and fluctuation amplitude as

L. Mahrt; J. Paumier

1984-01-01

135

Boundary layer control device for duct silencers

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A boundary layer control device includes a porous cover plate, an acoustic absorber disposed under the porous cover plate, and a porous flow resistive membrane interposed between the porous cover plate and the acoustic absorber. The porous flow resistive membrane has a flow resistance low enough to permit sound to enter the acoustic absorber and high enough to damp unsteady flow oscillations.

Schmitz, Fredric H. (inventor); Soderman, Paul T. (inventor)

1993-01-01

136

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The paper experimentally studies the effects of periodic unsteady wake flow and different Reynolds numbers on boundary layer development, separation and re-attachment along the suction surface of a low pressure turbine blade. The experimental investigations were performed on a large scale, subsonic unsteady turbine cascade research facility at Turbomachinery Performance and Flow Research Laboratory (TPFL) of Texas A&M University. The experiments were carried out at Reynolds numbers of 110,000 and 150,000 (based on suction surface length and exit velocity). One steady and two different unsteady inlet flow conditions with the corresponding passing frequencies, wake velocities, and turbulence intensities were investigated. The reduced frequencies chosen cover the operating range of LP turbines. In addition to the unsteady boundary layer measurements, surface pressure measurements were performed. The inception, onset, and the extent of the separation bubble information collected from the pressure measurements were compared with the hot wire measurements. The results presented in ensemble-averaged, and the contour plot forms help to understand the physics of the separation phenomenon under periodic unsteady wake flow and different Reynolds number. It was found that the suction surface displayed a strong separation bubble for these three different reduced frequencies. For each condition, the locations defining the separation bubble were determined carefully analyzing and examining the pressure and mean velocity profile data. The location of the boundary layer separation was dependent of the Reynolds number. It is observed that starting point of the separation bubble and the re-attachment point move further downstream by increasing Reynolds number from 110,000 to 150,000. Also, the size of the separation bubble is smaller when compared to that for Re=110,000.

Schobeiri, M. T.; Ozturk, B.; Ashpis, David E.

2007-01-01

137

Feasibility study of optical boundary layer transition detection method

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A high sensitivity differential interferometer was developed to locate the region where the boundary layer flow undergoes transition from laminar to turbulent. Two laboratory experimental configurations were used to evaluate the performance of the interferometer: open shear layer, and low speed wind tunnel turbulent spot configuration. In each experiment, small temperature fluctuations were introduced as the signal source. Simultaneous cold wire measurements were compared with the interferometer data. The comparison shows that the interferometer is sensitive to very weak phase variations in the order of 0.001 the laser wavelength. An attempt to detect boundary layer transition over a flat plate at NASA-Langley Unitary Supersonic Wind Tunnel using the interferometer system was performed. The phase variations during boundary layer transition in the supersonic wind tunnel were beyond the minimum signal-to-noise level of the instrument.

Azzazy, M.; Modarress, D.; Trolinger, J. D.

1986-01-01

138

Streak breakup in turbulent boundary layers

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Direct numerical simulations are used to compute the evolution of a single streak in a laminar boundary layer (Re* = 450) and a turbulent boundary on a flat plate at zero pressure gradient (Re* = 900). The single streak is formed through fluid injection at the wall as in Acarlar and Smith (1987). It is found that the single streak undergoes an instability resulting in the formation of hairpin vortices. The resulting flow field is in very good agreement with the experimental results of Acarlar and Smith (1987). The instability can be explained through an Orr-Sommerfeld analysis of the velocity profile on the plane of symmetry of the streak. The predicted wavelength and eigenfunctions are in very good agreement with those obtained from the simulations. Application of the same analysis to streaks in a fully turbulent boundary layer reveal as good an agreement. It is argued that this instability is the basic mechanism responsible for streak breakup. Acarlar, M.S. and Smith, C.R., 1987. A study of hairpin vortices in a laminar boundary layer. Part 2. Hairpin vortices generated by fluid injection. J. Fluid Mech., 175, pp. 43-83.

Haritonidis, Joseph H.; Skote, Martin

1999-11-01

139

Particle motion in atmospheric boundary layers of Mars and Earth

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

To study the eolian mechanics of saltating particles, both an experimental investigation of the flow field around a model crater in an atmospheric boundary layer wind tunnel and numerical solutions of the two- and three-dimensional equations of motion of a single particle under the influence of a turbulent boundary layer were conducted. Two-dimensional particle motion was calculated for flow near the surfaces of both Earth and Mars. For the case of Earth both a turbulent boundary layer with a viscous sublayer and one without were calculated. For the case of Mars it was only necessary to calculate turbulent boundary layer flow with a laminar sublayer because of the low values of friction Reynolds number; however, it was necessary to include the effects of slip flow on a particle caused by the rarefied Martian atmosphere. In the equations of motion the lift force functions were developed to act on a single particle only in the laminar sublayer or a corresponding small region of high shear near the surface for a fully turbulent boundary layer. The lift force functions were developed from the analytical work by Saffman concerning the lift force acting on a particle in simple shear flow.

White, B. R.; Iversen, J. D.; Greeley, R.; Pollack, J. B.

1975-01-01

140

Slow Growth Formulation for DNS of Temporally Evolving Boundary Layers

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A formulation for DNS of temporally evolving boundary layers is developed and demonstrated. The formulation relies on a multiscale approach to account separately for the slow time evolution of statistical averages, and the fast time evolution of turbulent fluctuations. The source terms that arise from the multiscale analysis are modeled assuming a self-similar evolution of the averages. The performance of the formulation is evaluated using DNS of spatially evolving compressible boundary layers. This formulation was developed to provide data for the calibration of turbulence model parameters and enable the quantification of uncertainty due to the models. The extension of this formulation to homogenize spatially evolving boundary layers will also be discussed. This work is supported by the Department of Energy [National Nuclear Security Administration] under Award Number [DE-FC52-08NA28615].

Topalian, Victor; Sahni, Onkar; Oliver, Todd; Moser, Robert

2011-11-01

141

Hairpin vortices in turbulent boundary layers

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present work addresses the question whether hairpin vortices are a dominant feature of near-wall turbulence and which role they play during transition. First, the parent-offspring mechanism is investigated in temporal simulations of a single hairpin vortex introduced in a mean shear flow corresponding to turbulent channels and boundary layers up to Re? = 590. Using an eddy viscosity computed from resolved simulations, the effect of a turbulent background is also considered. Tracking the vortical structure downstream, it is found that secondary hairpins are created shortly after initialization. Thereafter, all rotational structures decay, whereas this effect is enforced in the presence of an eddy viscosity. In a second approach, a laminar boundary layer is tripped to transition by insertion of a regular pattern of hairpins by means of defined volumetric forces representing an ejection event. The idea is to create a synthetic turbulent boundary layer dominated by hairpin-like vortices. The flow for Re? < 250 is analysed with respect to the lifetime of individual hairpin-like vortices. Both the temporal and spatial simulations demonstrate that the regeneration process is rather short-lived and may not sustain once a turbulent background has formed. From the transitional flow simulations, it is conjectured that the forest of hairpins reported in former DNS studies is an outer layer phenomenon not being connected to the onset of near-wall turbulence.

Eitel-Amor, G.; Flores, O.; Schlatter, P.

2014-04-01

142

Enthalpy effects on hypervelocity boundary layers

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

More than 50 shots with air and 35 shots with carbon dioxide were carried out in the T5 shock tunnel at GALCIT to study enthalpy effects on hypervelocity boundary layers. The model tested was a 5° half-angle cone measuring approximately 1 meter in length. It was instrumented with 51 chromel-constantan coaxial thermocouples and the surface heat transfer rate was computed to deduce the state of the boundary layer and, when applicable, the transition location. Transitional boundary layers obtained confirm the stabilizing effect of enthalpy. As the reservoir enthalpy is increased, the transition Reynolds number evaluated at the reference conditions increases as well. The stabilizing effect is more rapid in gases with lower dissociation energy and it seems to level off when no further dissociation can be achieved. These effects do not appear when the transition location is normalized with the edge conditions. Further normalizing the reservoir enthalpy with the edge enthalpy appears to collapse the data for all gases onto a single curve. A similar collapse is obtained when normalizing both the transition location and the reservoir enthalpy with maximum temperature conditions obtained with BLIMPK, a nonequilibrium boundary layer code. The observation that the reference conditions seem more appropriate to normalize high enthalpy transition data was taken a step further by comparing the tunnel data with results from a reentry experiment. When the edge conditions are used, the tunnel data are around an order of magnitude below the flight data. This is commonly attributed to the fact that disturbance levels in tunnels are high, causing the boundary layer to transition prematurely. However, when the conditions at the reference temperature are used instead, the data come within striking distance of one another although the trend with enthalpy seems to be a destabilizing one for the flight data. This difference could be due to the cone bending and blunting observed during the reentry. Experimental laminar heat transfer levels were compared to numerical results obtained with BLIMPK. Results for air indicate that the reactions are probably in nonequilibrium and that the wall is catalytic. The catalycity is seen to yield higher surface heat transfer rates than the noncatalytic and frozen chemistry models. The results for carbon dioxide, however, are inconclusive. This is, perhaps, because of inadequate modeling of the actual reactions. Experimentally, an anomalous yet repeatable, rise in the laminar heat transfer level can be seen at medium enthalpies in carbon dioxide boundary layers.

Adam, Philippe H.

143

Enthalpy effects on hypervelocity boundary layers

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Shots with air and carbon dioxide were carried out in the T5 shock tunnel at GALCIT to study enthalpy effects on hypervelocity boundary layers. The model tested was a 1-meter long, 5-deg half-angle cone. It was instrumented with 51 chromel-constantan coaxial thermocouples and the surface heat transfer rate was computed to deduce the state of the boundary layer. Transitional boundary layers obtained confirm the stabilizing effect of enthalpy. As the reservoir enthalpy is increased, the transition Reynolds number evaluated at the reference conditions increases. This stabilizing effect is more rapid in gases with lower dissociation energy and it seems to level off when no further dissociation can be achieved. Normalizing the reservoir enthalpy with the edge enthalpy appears to collapse the data for all gases onto a single curve. A similar collapse is obtained when normalizing both the transition location and the reservoir enthalpy with the maximum temperature conditions obtained with BLIMPK, a nonequilibrium boundary layer code. The observation that reference conditions are more appropriate to normalize high enthalpy transition data was taken a step further by comparing the tunnel data with results from a reentry experiment. When the edge conditions are used, the tunnel and flight data are around an order of magnitude apart. This is commonly attributed to high disturbance levels in tunnels that cause the boundary layer to transition early. However, when the reference conditions are used instead, the tunnel and flight data come within striking distance of one another although the trends with enthalpy are reversed. This difference could be due to the cone bending and nose blunting. Experimental laminar heat transfer levels were compared to numerical results obtained with BLIMPK. Results for air indicate that the reactions are probably in nonequilibrium and that the wall is catalytic. The catalycity is seen to yield higher surface heat transfer rates than the noncatalytic and frozen chemistry models. The results for carbon dioxide, however, are inconclusive. This is, perhaps, because of inadequate modeling of the reactions. Experimentally, an anomalous yet repeatable, rise in the laminar heat transfer level can be seen at medium enthalpies in carbon dioxide boundary layers.

Adam, Philippe H.

144

Control of the Transitional Boundary Layer

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work makes advances in the delay of boundary layer transition from laminar to turbulent flow via feedback control. The applications include the reduction of drag over streamline bodies (e.g., airplane wings) and the decrease of mixing and heat transfer (e.g., over turbine blades in jet engines). A difficulty in many fields is designing feedback controllers for high-dimensional systems, be they experiments or high-fidelity simulations, because the required time and resources are too large. A cheaper alternative is to approximate the high-dimensional system with a reduced-order model and design a controller for the model. We implement several model reduction algorithms in "modred", an open source and publicly available library that is applicable to a wide range of problems. We use this library to study the role of sensors and actuators in feedback control of transition in the 2D boundary layer. Previous work uses a feedforward configuration in which the sensor is upstream of the actuator, but we show that the actuator-sensor pair is unsuitable for feedback control due to an inability to sense the exponentially-growing Tollmien-Schlichting waves. A new actuator-sensor pair is chosen that more directly affects and measures the TS waves, and as a result it is effective in a feedback configuration. Lastly, the feedback controller is shown to outperform feedforward controllers in the presence of unmodeled disturbances. Next, we focus on a specific type of actuator, the single dielectric barrier discharge (SDBD) plasma actuator. An array of these plasma actuators is oriented to produce stream-wise vorticity and thus directly cancel the structures with the largest transient growth (so-called stream-wise streaks). We design a feedback controller using only experimental data by first developing an empirical input-output quasi-steady model. Then, we design feedback controllers for the model such that the controllers perform well when applied to the experiment. Lastly, we also simulate the plasma actuators and determine a suitable numerical model for the forces they create by comparing with experimental results. This physical force model is essential to future numerical studies on delaying bypass transition via feedback control and plasma actuation.

Belson, Brandt A.

145

Two-fluid boundary layer stability

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The stability of a two-fluid boundary layer is investigated. A boundary layer shears a second fluid that is bounded by the wall and the shearing fluid. The eigenvalue problem governing the linear stability of the configuration is solved using an efficient shooting-search method. Besides the Tollmien-Schlichting mode (hard mode) found in the classical hydrodynamical stability theory an additional Yih-mode (interfacial mode) exists due to the two-fluid interface. Effects of viscosity and density stratifications, thickness of the bounded fluid, gravity, surface tension as well as the non-Newtonian character of the lower fluid on the stability characteristics are determined. The interfacial mode is found to be very sensitive against viscosity stratification. However, with a highly viscous liquid layer, the system approaches a single-layer behavior. The shear-thinning non-Newtonian liquid layer is observed to have a stabilizing effect for both of the modes. Surface tension is stabilizing for short waves for the interfacial mode but a more complex effect was observed for the hard mode. Gravity is stabilizing with a favorable density stratification. Density stratification alone is destabilizing for low and moderate values of this parameter but becomes stabilizing for higher values. When the external boundary layer profile is turbulent, the interfacial mode is more likely to be observed in an experiment. Agreement of the obtained results with experimental, theoretical and numerical results reported in the literature is good. This is encouraging as the study is intended for solving the stability characteristics of de/anti-icing fluid-air systems and comparing the results with the experimental data when they become available.

Özgen, S.; Degrez, G.; Sarma, G. S. R.

1998-11-01

146

Study of the marine atmospheric boundary layer

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The temporal and spatial (vertical) evolution of the atmospheric marine boundary layer in subtropical regions is investigated through observational and numerical approaches. The observational part was done with field experiments using simultaneous soundings from both atmosphere and ocean in the Cabo Frio region (23 deg S, 42 deg 08 min W). The numerical study used a second order closure model, as suggested by Mellor and Yamada (1982), coupled to an oceanic mixing layer model (OML) in order to determine the temperature of OML in terms of the energy balance. Although the field experiment had been done under a frontal system passage, that could create drawbacks in using those data, comparing the simulations against observations it was found that the simulated atmosphere boundary layer is consistent with the observed one during the experiment; it is also similar to that observed by Fitzjarrald and Garstang (1981) during the GATE. The simulated vertical profiles of the zonal, meridional and vertical components of the speed variance are typical from situations where the mechanic forcing is the main cause of mixing layer formation (forced convection). The increasing of temperature in the oceanic mixing layer, simultaneously with the deepening of OML is associated with the warm water advection, from the current of Brazil. The simulations of the OML during the experiment was intensified due the subsidence of South Atlantic Central Water (SACW).

Dourado, Marcelo Sandin

1994-02-01

147

Boundary layer control of rotating convection systems.

Turbulent rotating convection controls many observed features of stars and planets, such as magnetic fields, atmospheric jets and emitted heat flux patterns. It has long been argued that the influence of rotation on turbulent convection dynamics is governed by the ratio of the relevant global-scale forces: the Coriolis force and the buoyancy force. Here, however, we present results from laboratory and numerical experiments which exhibit transitions between rotationally dominated and non-rotating behaviour that are not determined by this global force balance. Instead, the transition is controlled by the relative thicknesses of the thermal (non-rotating) and Ekman (rotating) boundary layers. We formulate a predictive description of the transition between the two regimes on the basis of the competition between these two boundary layers. This transition scaling theory unifies the disparate results of an extensive array of previous experiments, and is broadly applicable to natural convection systems. PMID:19148097

King, Eric M; Stellmach, Stephan; Noir, Jerome; Hansen, Ulrich; Aurnou, Jonathan M

2009-01-15

148

BOREAS AFM-6 Boundary Layer Height Data

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Boreal Ecosystem-Atmosphere Study (BOREAS) Airborne Fluxes and Meteorology (AFM)-6 team from National Oceanic and Atmospheric Adminsitration/Environment Technology Laboratory (NOAA/ETL) operated a 915-MHz wind/Radio Acoustic Sounding System (RASS) profiler system in the Southern Study Area (SSA) near the Old Jack Pine (OJP) site. This data set provides boundary layer height information over the site. The data were collected from 21 May 1994 to 20 Sep 1994 and are stored in tabular ASCII files. The boundary layer height data are available from the Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC). The data files are available on a CD-ROM (see document number 20010000884).

Wilczak, James; Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Newcomer, Jeffrey A. (Editor); Smith, David E. (Technical Monitor)

2000-01-01

149

Nano boundary layers over stretching surfaces

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we present similarity solutions for the nano boundary layer flows with Navier boundary condition. We consider viscous flows over a two-dimensional stretching surface and an axisymmetric stretching surface. The resulting nonlinear ordinary differential equations are solved analytically by the Homotopy Analysis Method. Numerical solutions are obtained by using a boundary value problem solver, and are shown to agree well with the analytical solutions. The effects of the slip parameter K and the suction parameter s on the fluid velocity and on the tangential stress are investigated and discussed. As expected, we find that for such fluid flows at nano scales, the shear stress at the wall decreases (in an absolute sense) with an increase in the slip parameter K.

Van Gorder, Robert A.; Sweet, Erik; Vajravelu, K.

2010-06-01

150

The boundary layer on compressor cascade blades

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Some redesign of the cascade facility was necessary in order to incoporate the requirements of the LDA system into the design. Of particular importance was the intended use of a combination of suction upstream of the blade pack with diverging pack walls, as opposed to blade pack suction alone, for spanwise dimensionality control. An ARL blade was used to redo some tests using this arrangement. Preliminary testing and boundary layer measurements began on the double circular arc blades.

Deutsch, S.

1981-01-01

151

Boundary Layer Control for Hypersonic Airbreathing Vehicles

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Active and passive methods for tripping hypersonic boundary layers have been examined in NASA Langley Research Center wind tunnels using a Hyper-X model. This investigation assessed several concepts for forcing transition, including passive discrete roughness elements and active mass addition (or blowing), in the 20-Inch Mach 6 Air and the 31-Inch Mach 10 Air Tunnels. Heat transfer distributions obtained via phosphor thermography, shock system details, and surface streamline patterns were measured on a 0.333-scale model of the Hyper-X forebody. The comparisons between the active and passive methods for boundary layer control were conducted at test conditions that nearly match the Hyper-X nominal Mach 7 flight test-point of an angle-of-attack of 2-deg and length Reynolds number of 5.6 million. For passive roughness, the primary parametric variation was a range of trip heights within the calculated boundary layer thickness for several trip concepts. The passive roughness study resulted in a swept ramp configuration, scaled to be roughly 0.6 of the calculated boundary layer thickness, being selected for the Mach 7 flight vehicle. For the active blowing study, the manifold pressure was systematically varied (while monitoring the mass flow) for each configuration to determine the jet penetration height, with schlieren, and transition movement, with the phosphor system, for comparison to the passive results. All the blowing concepts tested, which included various rows of sonic orifices (holes), two- and three-dimensional slots, and random porosity, provided transition onset near the trip location with manifold stagnation pressures on the order of 40 times the model surface static pressure, which is adequate to ensure sonic jets. The present results indicate that the jet penetration height for blowing was roughly half the height required with passive roughness elements for an equivalent amount of transition movement.

Berry, Scott A.; Nowak, Robert J.; Horvath, Thomas J.

2004-01-01

152

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Accurate predictions of the thrust loss due to boundary layer effects and of the wall heat flux are very important to the design and performance evaluation of rocket nozzles. A method used in analytical procedures for liquid fuel rocket engine performance prediction and evaluation is presented. A computer program is examined that is a fast and accurate procedure for solving the set of boundary layer equation (momentum, energy, and species) for laminar or turbulent, chemically reacting flows with a wide variety of boundary conditions. Results of comparison of the various turbulent models are presented. A summary of the modifications and additions to the program is examined.

Evans, R. M.

1975-01-01

153

An Innovative Flow-Measuring Device: Thermocouple Boundary Layer Rake

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An innovative flow-measuring device, a thermocouple boundary layer rake, was developed. The sensor detects the flow by using a thin-film thermocouple (TC) array to measure the temperature difference across a heater strip. The heater and TC arrays are microfabricated on a constant-thickness quartz strut with low heat conductivity. The device can measure the velocity profile well into the boundary layer, about 65 gm from the surface, which is almost four times closer to the surface than has been possible with the previously used total pressure tube.

Hwang, Danny P.; Fralick, Gustave C.; Martin, Lisa C.; Wrbanek, John D.; Blaha, Charles A.

2001-01-01

154

Numerical Study of Boundary-Layer in Aerodynamics

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The accomplishments made in the following three tasks are described: (1) The first task was to study shock-wave boundary-layer interactions with bleed - this study is relevant to boundary-layer control in external and mixed-compression inlets of supersonic aircraft; (2) The second task was to test RAAKE, a code developed for computing turbulence quantities; and (3) The third task was to compute flow around the Ames ER-2 aircraft that has been retrofitted with containers over its wings and fuselage. The appendices include two reports submitted to AIAA for publication.

Shih, Tom I-P.

1997-01-01

155

Laminar boundary layer instability noise produced by an aerofoil

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

When a laminar boundary layer exists on the surface of an aerofoil up to the trailing edge, a tone or a number of tones are sometimes produced. These tones have been the subject of a number of investigations which have proposed a variety of different mechanisms regarding their production. This paper gives a brief overview of the previously proposed mechanisms and then describes the development of a theoretical model to estimate the tone frequencies. The model is validated against a number of well-known published experiments and also against the results of an experimental investigation undertaken by the authors. The model is compared with other models available for predicting laminar boundary layer instability noise and is shown to be accurate and robust. Unlike previous models, which are empirical, the model presented in this paper is purely theoretical and could be used to predict the frequency of laminar boundary layer instability noise produced by an arbitrary aerofoil.

Kingan, Michael J.; Pearse, John R.

2009-05-01

156

Orbiter Entry Aeroheating Working Group Viscous CFD Boundary Layer Transition Trailblazer Solutions

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Boundary layer transition correlations for the Shuttle Orbiter have been previously developed utilizing a two-layer boundary layer prediction technique. The particular two-layer technique that was used is limited to Mach numbers less than 20. To allow assessments at Mach numbers greater than 20, it is proposed to use viscous CFD to the predict boundary layer properties. This report addresses if the existing Orbiter entry aeroheating viscous CFD solutions, which were originally intended to be used for heat transfer rate predictions, adequately resolve boundary layer edge properties and if the existing two-layer results could be leveraged to reduce the number of needed CFD solutions. The boundary layer edge parameters from viscous CFD solutions are extracted along the wind side centerline of the Space Shuttle Orbiter at reentry conditions, and are compared with results from the two-layer boundary layer prediction technique. The differences between the viscous CFD and two-layer prediction techniques vary between Mach 6 and 18 flight conditions and Mach 6 wind tunnel conditions, and there is not a straightforward scaling between the viscous CFD and two-layer values. Therefore: it is not possible to leverage the existing two-layer Orbiter flight boundary layer data set as a substitute for a viscous CFD data set; but viscous CFD solutions at the current grid resolution are sufficient to produce a boundary layer data set suitable for applying edge-based boundary layer transition correlations.

Wood, William A.; Erickson, David W.; Greene, Francis A.

2007-01-01

157

The Role of Boundary Layer Processes in Limiting PV Homogenization

A ?-plane multilevel quasigeostrophic channel model with interactive static stability and a simplified parameterization of atmospheric boundary layer physics is used to study the role of different boundary layer processes ...

Zhang, Yang

158

Boundary layer measurements using hot-film sensors

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Measurements in the aerodynamic boundary layer using heat transfer, hot-film sensors are receiving a significant amount of effort at the Langley Research Center. A description of the basic sensor, the signal conditioning employed, and several manifestations of the sensor are given. Results of a flow reversal sensor development are presented, and future work areas are outlined.

Holmes, Harlan K.; Carraway, Debra L.

1986-01-01

159

ANALYTICAL PARAMETERIZATIONS OF DIFFUSION: THE CONVECTIVE BOUNDARY LAYER

A brief review is made of data bases which have been used for developing diffusion parameterizations for the convective boundary layer (CBL). A variety of parameterizations for lateral and vertical dispersion, (sigma sub) and (sigma sub z), are surveyed; some of these include mec...

160

On Tollmien–Schlichting-like waves in streaky boundary layers

The linear stability of the boundary layer developing on a flat plate in the presence of finite-amplitude, steady and spanwise periodic streamwise streaks is investigated. The streak amplitudes considered here are below the threshold for onset of the inviscid inflectional instability of sinuous perturbations. It is found that, as the amplitude of the streaks is increased, the most unstable viscous

Carlo Cossu; Luca Brandt

2004-01-01

161

Entrainment effects in the well-mixed atmospheric boundary layer

We discuss the structure and evolution of a cloud-free atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) during daytime over land, starting from a shallow ABL at sunrise and developing into a deep ABL with strong convection in the afternoon. The structure of the turbulence in the lower half of a convective ABL capped by an inversion is reasonably well understood. Less is known

A. G. M. Driedonks; H. Tennekes

1984-01-01

162

THE EFFECTS OF PERIODIC WAKE STRUCTURES ON TURBULENT BOUNDARY LAYERS

Compressor and turbine blade boundary layers in axial-flow turbomachines are subject to periodically disturbed flow. This study modelled these conditions in a wind tunnel with circular cylinders traversing in front of a flat plate. Turbulent boundary layer velocity profiles on the flat plate were measured with a hot-wire anemometer. The turbulence intensity in the boundary layer was found to be

R. M. Holland; R. L. Evans

1996-01-01

163

OFFSHORE BOUNDARY-LAYER MODELLING H. Bergstrm1

for this are excluded. Field experiments in the Baltic Sea area, [1], have shown that the atmospheric boundary layer farOFFSHORE BOUNDARY-LAYER MODELLING H. BergstrĂ¶m1 and R. Barthelmie2 1) Uppsala Univ., Dept. of Earth and low-level jets. The paper describes results from the boundary-layer modelling work package (WP4

164

CIRES Research Associate Arctic Cloud and Boundary Layer Processes

for a research associate, postdoctoral scientist to study Arctic atmospheric boundary- layer processes, the atmospheric boundary layer and the surface in the Arctic environment using existing observational data setsCIRES Research Associate Arctic Cloud and Boundary Layer Processes The Cooperative Institute

Colorado at Boulder, University of

165

Near surface turbulence in a smooth wall atmospheric boundary layer

1 Near surface turbulence in a smooth wall atmospheric boundary layer Scott C. Morris (s is to acquire measurements in the atmospheric boundary layer. For example, Van Atta and Chen (1970) used hot-wires in the atmospheric boundary layer over an ocean sur- face to learn more about structure functions in wall bounded

Morris, Scott C.

166

Thermal Effects in the Atmospheric Boundary Layer above the North

Thermal Effects in the Atmospheric Boundary Layer above the North Sea by Saskia Tautz A thesis Background 6 2.1 Atmospheric Boundary Layer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 2.1.1 Basics.1.5 Fluxes in the Boundary layer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 2.2 Measurement of Fluxes

Heinemann, Detlev

167

Symmetries in Turbulent Boundary Layer Flows

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The objective is the development of a new theory which enables the algorithmic computation of all self-similar mean velocity profiles. The theory is based on Liegroup analysis and unifies a large set of self-similar solutions for the mean velocity of stationary parallel turbulent shear flows. The results include the logarithmic law of the wall, an algebraic law, the viscous sublayer, the linear region in the middle of a Couette flow and in the middle of a rotating channel flow, and a new exponential mean velocity profile not previously reported. Experimental results taken in the outer parts of a high Reynolds number flat-plate boundary layer, strongly support the exponential profile. From experimental as well as from DNS data of a turbulent channel flow the algebraic scaling law could be confirmed in both the center region and in the near wall region. In the case of the logarithmic law of the wall, the scaling with the wall distance arises as a result of the analysis and has not been assumed in the derivation. The crucial part of the derivation of all the different mean velocity profiles is to consider the invariance of the equation for the velocity fluctuations at the same time as the invariance of the equation for the velocity product equations. The latter is the dyad product of the velocity fluctuations with the equation for the velocity fluctuations. It has been proven that all the invariant solutions are also consistent with similarity of all velocity moment equations up to any arbitrary order.

Oberlack, M.

1996-01-01

168

Boundary-Layer-Ingesting Inlet Flow Control

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper gives an overview of a research study conducted in support of the small-scale demonstration of an active flow control system for a boundary-layer-ingesting (BLI) inlet. The effectiveness of active flow control in reducing engine inlet circumferential distortion was assessed using a 2.5% scale model of a 35% boundary-layer-ingesting flush-mounted, offset, diffusing inlet. This experiment was conducted in the NASA Langley 0.3-meter Transonic Cryogenic Tunnel at flight Mach numbers with a model inlet specifically designed for this type of testing. High mass flow actuators controlled the flow through distributed control jets providing the active flow control. A vortex generator point design configuration was also tested for comparison purposes and to provide a means to examine a hybrid vortex generator and control jets configuration. Measurements were made of the onset boundary layer, the duct surface static pressures, and the mass flow through the duct and the actuators. The distortion and pressure recovery were determined by 40 total pressure measurements on 8 rake arms each separated by 45 degrees and were located at the aerodynamic interface plane. The test matrix was limited to a maximum free-stream Mach number of 0.85 with scaled mass flows through the inlet for that condition. The data show that the flow control jets alone can reduce circumferential distortion (DPCPavg) from 0.055 to about 0.015 using about 2.5% of inlet mass flow. The vortex generators also reduced the circumferential distortion from 0.055 to 0.010 near the inlet mass flow design point. Lower inlet mass flow settings with the vortex generator configuration produced higher distortion levels that were reduced to acceptable levels using a hybrid vortex generator/control jets configuration that required less than 1% of the inlet mass flow.

Owens, Lewis R.; Allan, Brian G.; Gorton, Susan A.

2006-01-01

169

Boundary-Layer-Ingesting Inlet Flow Control

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper gives an overview of a research study conducted in support of the small-scale demonstration of an active flow control system for a boundary-layer-ingesting (BLI) inlet. The effectiveness of active flow control in reducing engine inlet circumferential distortion was assessed using a 2.5% scale model of a 35% boundary-layer-ingesting flush-mounted, offset, diffusing inlet. This experiment was conducted in the NASA Langley 0.3-meter Transonic Cryogenic Tunnel at flight Mach numbers with a model inlet specifically designed for this type of testing. High mass flow actuators controlled the flow through distributed control jets providing the active flow control. A vortex generator point design configuration was also tested for comparison purposes and to provide a means to examine a hybrid vortex generator and control jets configuration. Measurements were made of the onset boundary layer, the duct surface static pressures, and the mass flow through the duct and the actuators. The distortion and pressure recovery were determined by 40 total pressure measurements on 8 rake arms each separated by 45 degrees and were located at the aerodynamic interface plane. The test matrix was limited to a maximum free-stream Mach number of 0.85 with scaled mass flows through the inlet for that condition. The data show that the flow control jets alone can reduce circumferential distortion (DPCP(sub avg)) from 0.055 to about 0.015 using about 2.5% of inlet mass flow. The vortex generators also reduced the circumferential distortion from 0.055 to 0.010 near the inlet mass flow design point. Lower inlet mass flow settings with the vortex generator configuration produced higher distortion levels that were reduced to acceptable levels using a hybrid vortex generator/control jets configuration that required less than 1% of the inlet mass flow.

Owens, Lewis R.; Allan, Brian G.; Gorton, Susan A.

2006-01-01

170

A sensitivity theory for the equilibrium boundary layer over land

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Due to the intrinsic complexities associated with modeling land-atmosphere interactions, global models typically use elaborate land surface and boundary layer physics parameterizations. Unfortunately, it is difficult to use elaborate models, by themselves, to develop a deeper understanding of how land surface parameters affect the coupled land-atmosphere system. At the same time, it is also increasingly important to gain a deeper understanding of the role of changes in land cover, land use, and ecosystem function as forcings and feedbacks in past and future climate change. To improve the foundation of our understanding, we outline a framework for boundary layer climate sensitivity based on surface energy balance; just as global climate sensitivity is based on top-of-atmosphere energy balance. We develop an analytic theory for the boundary layer climate sensitivity of an idealized model of a diurnally averaged well-mixed boundary layer over land. This analytic sensitivity theory identifies changes in the properties of the land surface—including moisture availability, albedo, and aerodynamic roughness—as forcings, and identifies strong negative feedbacks associated with the surface fluxes of latent and sensible heat. We show that our theory can explain nearly all of the sensitivity of the Betts (2000) full system of equations. Favorable comparison of the theory and the simulation results from a two-column radiative convective model suggests that the theory may be broadly useful for unifying our understanding of how changes in land use or ecosystem function may affect climate change.

Cronin, Timothy W.

2013-12-01

171

The minisodar and planetary boundary layer studies

The minisodar, in addition to being smaller than conventional sodar, operates at higher frequencies, obtains usable signal returns closer to the surface, and can use smaller range gates. Because the max range is generally limited to the lower 200 m above the surface, the minisodar is not able to interrogate the entire daytime atmospheric Planetary Boundary Layer (PBL); however it can be a very useful tool for understanding the PBL. In concert with other instruments, the minisodar can add significant new insights to our understanding of the PBL. This paper gives examples of past and potential uses of minisodars in such situations.

Coulter, R.L.

1996-06-01

172

Supersonic and Hypersonic Boundary-Layer Flows

Supersonic and hypersonic numerical research activities of the “Lehrstuhl für Aerodynamik” at the Technische Universität München\\u000a are presented in this paper.\\u000a \\u000a Based on the ADM (Approximate Deconvolution Method), LES simulations of a turbulent ramp flow with a subsequent decompression\\u000a corner at M=2.95 are conducted (the Reynolds number based on the boundary-layer thickness at the inflow is Red<\\/font\\u000a>0=63 560Re_{\\\\delta_0}=63 560

Christian Stemmer; Nikolaus A. Adams

173

Boundary Layer Depth In Coastal Regions

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The results of earlier studies performed about sea breezes simulations have shown that this is a relevant feature of the Planetary Boundary Layer that still requires effort to be diagnosed properly by atmospheric models. Based on the observations made during the ESCOMPTE campaign, over the Mediterranean Sea, different CBL and SBL height estimation processes have been tested with a meso-scale model, TVM. The aim was to compare the critical points of the BL height determination computed using turbulent kinetic energy profile with some other standard evaluations. Moreover, these results have been analysed with different mixing length formulation. The sensitivity of formulation is also analysed with a simple coastal configuration.

Porson, A.; Schayes, G.

174

The boundary layer on compressor cascade blades

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The characteristics of the flow field about highly loaded turbocompressor blades in a cascade wind tunnel were investigated. Experimental tests were conducted at chord Reynolds number (R sub c) near 500,000. A laser Doppler anemometer was employed in flow velocity measurement. Suction surface mean velocity and turbulence intensity profiles at a single incidence angle are presented. These data contribute to further understanding of two-dimensional boundary layer profiles, points of separation, and transition zones for turbomachine blades, and concomitantly, to compressor cascade predictive models.

Deutsch, S.; Zierke, W. C.

1984-01-01

175

Boundary-layer Transition at Supersonic Speeds

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Recent results of the effects of Mach number, stream turbulence, leading-edge geometry, leading-edge sweep, surface temperature, surface finish, pressure gradient, and angle of attack on boundary-layer transition are summarized. Factors that delay transition are nose blunting, surface cooling, and favorable pressure gradient. Leading-edge sweep and excessive surface roughness tend to promote early transition. The effects of leading-edge blunting on two-dimensional surfaces and surface cooling can be predicted adequately by existing theories, at least in the moderate Mach number range.

Low, George M

1956-01-01

176

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An experimental investigation focused on the study of the physics of unsteady turbulent boundary layer separation under conditions relevant to the dynamic stall process that occurs in helicopter rotors is presented. A flat boundary layer development plate allows for the growth of a turbulent boundary layer of thickness sufficient for high spatial resolution measurements. Downstream of the flat plate, a convex ramp section imposes a streamwise adverse pressure gradient that gives rise to boundary layer separation. In order to impose an unsteady pressure gradient, an airfoil equipped with leading edge plasma flow control is located above the ramp section. Plasma flow control is used to alternately attach and separate the airfoil flow which gives rise to unsteady turbulent boundary layer separation on the convex ramp. Measurements of the resulting unsteady turbulent boundary layer separation via phase-locked two-component PIV, unsteady surface pressure measurements, and high speed digital imaging capture and quantify the dynamics the separation process at the wall and throughout the unsteady boundary layer. Two-component LDA measurements are used to characterize the motions of ejection and sweep events within the unsteady boundary layer using a quadrant splitting technique. Large amplitude quadrant 4 sweep events are the most dynamically significant in the near wall region during the unsteady separation process. The adverse pressure gradient boundary layer profiles throughout the unsteady cycle collapse remarkably well when scaled with embedded shear layer parameters. The implications of the experimental results for the development of flow control strategies for unsteady boundary layer separation are discussed.

Schatzman, David M.

177

Sound radiation due to boundary layer transition

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report describes progress made to date towards calculations of noise produced by the laminar-turbulence transition process in a low Mach number boundary layer formed on a rigid wall. The primary objectives of the study are to elucidate the physical mechanisms by which acoustic waves are generated, to clarify the roles of the fluctuating Reynolds stress and the viscous stress in the presence of a solid surface, and to determine the relative efficiency as a noise source of the various transition stages. In particular, we will examine the acoustic characteristics and directivity associated with three-dimensional instability waves, the detached high-shear layer, and turbulent spots following a laminar breakdown. Additionally, attention will be paid to the unsteady surface pressures during the transition, which provide a source of flow noise as well as a forcing function for wall vibration in both aeronautical and marine applications.

Wang, Meng

1993-01-01

178

Physical description of boundary-layer transition: Experimental evidence

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The problems of understanding the origins of turbulent flow and transition to turbulent flow are the most important unsolved problems of fluid mechanics and aerodynamics. It is well known that the stability, transition, and turbulent characteristics of bounded shear layers are fundamentally different from those of free shear layers. Likewise, the stability, transition, and turbulent characteristics of open systems are fundamentally different from those of closed systems. Because of the influence of indigenous disturbances, surface geometry and roughness, sound, heat transfer, and ablation, it is not possible to develop general prediction schemes for transition location and the nature of turbulent structures in boundary-layer flows. At the present time no mathematical model exists that can predict the transition Reynolds number on a flat plate. The recent progress in this area is encouraging, in that a number of distinct transition mechanisms have been found experimentally. The theoretical work finds them to be amplitude and Reynolds-number dependent. The theory remains rather incomplete with regard to predicting transition. Amplitude and spectral characteristics of the disturbances inside the laminar viscous layer strongly influence which type of transition occurs. The major need in this area is to understand how freestream disturbances are entrained into the boundary layer, i.e., to answer the question of receptivity. We refer receptivity to the mechanism(s) that cause freestream disturbances to enter the boundary layer and create the initial amplitudes for unstable waves.

Saric, William S.

1994-01-01

179

Sound Radiation from a Turbulent Boundary Layer

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

If the restriction of incompressibility in the turbulence problem is relaxed, the phenomenon of energy radiation in the form of sound from the turbulent zone arises. In order to calculate this radiated energy, it is shown that new statistical quantities, such as time-space correlation tensors, have to be known within the turbulent zone in addition to the conventional quantities. For the particular case of the turbulent boundary layer, indications are that the intensity of radiation becomes significant only in supersonic flows. Under these conditions, the recent work of Phillips is examined together with some experimental findings of the author. It is shown that the qualitative features of the radiation field (intensity, directionality) as predicted by the theory are consistent with the measurements; however, even for the highest Mach number flow, some of the assumptions of the asymptotic theory are not yet satisfied in the experiments. Finally, the question of turbulence damping due to radiation is discussed, with the result that in the Mach number range covered by the experiments, the energy lost from the boundary layer due to radiation is a small percentage of the work done by the wall shearing stresses.

Laufer, J.

1961-01-01

180

Transonic laminar boundary layers with surface curvature.

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The effect of surface curvature (both longitudinal and transverse) and the associated pressure gradient across the flow is investigated analytically for a laminar boundary layer subjected to pressure gradients along the flow. Property variation which results from heat transfer and compressibility is taken into account. Numerical solutions of the boundary layer equations are obtained for locally similar sonic flow through the throat of a nozzle for a range of flow conditions and for various shaped nozzle surfaces with different amounts of wall cooling. A few solutions were also obtained for the analogous flow around the shoulder of a flat-faced body in a supersonic flow. The effect of various parameters that arise in the equations upon application of the Levy-Mangler transformation are investigated and discussed with respect to their influence on the velocity and total enthalpy profiles and the corresponding profile slopes at the surface to which the shear stress and heat transfer are related. An important finding is that at throat Reynolds numbers less than 100,000 the heat transfer parameter at a nozzle throat decreases as the throat radius of curvature decreases.

Back, L. H.

1973-01-01

181

Boundary Layer Transition Flight Experiment Overview

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In support of the Boundary Layer Transition Flight Experiment (BLT FE) Project, a manufactured protuberance tile was installed on the port wing of Space Shuttle Orbiter Discovery for STS-119, STS-128, STS-131 and STS-133 as well as Space Shuttle Endeavour for STS-134. Additional instrumentation was installed in order to obtain more spatially resolved measurements downstream of the protuberance. This paper provides an overview of the BLT FE Project with emphasis on the STS-131 and STS-133 results. A high-level overview of the in-situ flight data is presented, along with a summary of the comparisons between pre- and post-flight analysis predictions and flight data. Comparisons show that empirically correlated predictions for boundary layer transition onset time closely match the flight data, while predicted surface temperatures were significantly higher than observed flight temperatures. A thermocouple anomaly observed on a number of the missions is discussed as are a number of the mitigation actions that will be taken on the final flight, STS-134, including potential alterations of the flight trajectory and changes to the flight instrumentation.

Berger, Karen T.; Anderson, Brian P.; Campbell, Charles H.; Garske, Michael T.; Saucedo, Luis A.; Kinder, Gerald R.; Micklos, Ann M.

2011-01-01

182

Radiation-dominated, relativistic jets and their boundary layers

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The energetics of certain astrophysical jets, such as those launched from the progenitors of long gamma-ray bursts and super-Eddington tidal disruption events, are likely dominated by radiation. In the limit that the outflow is optically thick, the shear boundary layer that develops between the jet and the ambient medium is mediated by radiation viscosity. We use the relativistic equations of radiation hydrodynamics in the viscous limit, accurate to first order in the mean-free path of a photon, to describe the dynamics of the boundary layer. A set of boundary layer equations is derived and we solve them in a self-similar manner, demonstrating in the process how the compressibility of the fluid, the variation of the viscosity coefficient, and the relativistic nature of the velocity affect the structure and dynamics of the boundary layer. We apply the model to the case of Swift J1644+57, the recently-observed, jetted, super-Eddington tidal distruption event, in an attempt to place tighter constraints on the physical characteristics of the jet.

Coughlin, Eric Robert; Begelman, Mitchell C.

2015-01-01

183

DNS of Turbulent Boundary Layer Subject Strong Adverse Pressure Gradient

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Direct Numerical Simulations of spatially evolving turbulent boundary layers with prescribed strong adverse pressure gradients are performed. The driven force behind this investigation is to analyze the interaction between the inner and outer layers in adverse pressure gradient with eventual separation. A method for prescribing realistic turbulent velocity inflow boundary conditions is employed. The approach is based on the rescaling-recycling method proposed by Lund et al. (1998) and the dynamic multi- scale method developed recently by Araya et al. (2009). The standard rescaling process requires prior knowledge about how the appropriate velocity and length scales are related between the inlet and recycle stations (e.g. classic scaling laws). Here a dynamic approach is proposed in which such information is deduced dynamically by involving an additional plane located between the inlet and recycle stations. The approach also distinguishes between the inner and outer regions of the boundary layer and enables the use of multiple velocity scales. This flexibility allows applications to boundary layer flows with arbitrary pressure gradients.

Araya, Guillermo; Castillo, Luciano

2010-11-01

184

On the Effects of Surface Roughness on Boundary Layer Transition

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Surface roughness can influence laminar-turbulent transition in many different ways. This paper outlines selected analyses performed at the NASA Langley Research Center, ranging in speed from subsonic to hypersonic Mach numbers and highlighting the beneficial as well as adverse roles of the surface roughness in technological applications. The first theme pertains to boundary-layer tripping on the forebody of a hypersonic airbreathing configuration via a spanwise periodic array of trip elements, with the goal of understanding the physical mechanisms underlying roughness-induced transition in a high-speed boundary layer. The effect of an isolated, finite amplitude roughness element on a supersonic boundary layer is considered next. The other set of flow configurations examined herein corresponds to roughness based laminar flow control in subsonic and supersonic swept wing boundary layers. A common theme to all of the above configurations is the need to apply higher fidelity, physics based techniques to develop reliable predictions of roughness effects on laminar-turbulent transition.

Choudhari, Meelan M.; Li, Fei; Chang, Chau-Lyan; Edwards, Jack

2009-01-01

185

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An investigation of the structure and development of streamwise vortices embedded in a turbulent boundary layer was conducted. The vortices were generated by a single spanwise row of rectangular vortex generator blades. A single embedded vortex was examined, as well as arrays of embedded counter rotating vortices produced by equally spaced vortex generators. Measurements of the secondary velocity field in the crossplane provided the basis for characterization of vortex structure. Vortex structure was characterized by four descriptors. The center of each vortex core was located at the spanwise and normal position of peak streamwise vorticity. Vortex concentration was characterized by the magnitude of the peak streamwise vorticity, and the vortex strength by its circulation. Measurements of the secondary velocity field were conducted at two crossplane locations to examine the streamwise development of the vortex arrays. Large initial spacings of the vortex generators produced pairs of strong vortices which tended to move away from the wall region while smaller spacings produced tight arrays of weak vortices close to the wall. A model of vortex interaction and development is constructed using the experimental results. The model is based on the structure of the Oseen Vortex. Vortex trajectories are modelled by including the convective effects of neighbors.

Wendt, Bruce J.; Greber, Isaac; Hingst, Warren R.

1991-01-01

186

s 1 ) mark the ITCZ and South Pacific convergence zone. Unreasonably large surface latent heat fluxes forecasting and climate simulation. Errors in the parameterized surface fluxes are particularly dangerous of a simple bulk boundary layer model (BBLM) to diagnose entrainment velocity, cumulus mass flux, and surface

Randall, David A.

187

Study of boundary-layer transition using transonic-cone preston tube data

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The laminar boundary layer on a 10 degree cone in a transonic wind tunnel was studied. The inviscid flow and boundary layer development were simulated by computer programs. The effects of pitch and yaw angles on the boundary layer were examined. Preston-tube data, taken on the boundary-layer-transition cone in the NASA Ames 11 ft transonic wind tunnel, were used to develope a correlation which relates the measurements to theoretical values of laminar skin friction. The recommended correlation is based on a compressible form of the classical law-of-the-wall. The computer codes successfully simulates the laminar boundary layer for near-zero pitch and yaw angles. However, in cases of significant pitch and/or yaw angles, the flow is three dimensional and the boundary layer computer code used here cannot provide a satisfactory model. The skin-friction correlation is thought to be valid for body geometries other than cones.

Reed, T. D.; Moretti, P. M.

1980-01-01

188

Chemistry of a polluted cloudy boundary layer

A one-dimensional photochemical model for cloud-topped boundary layers is developed which includes detailed descriptions of gas-phase and aqueous-phase chemistry, and of the radiation field in and below cloud. The model is used to interpret the accumulation of pollutants observed over Bakersfield, California, during a wintertime stagnation episode with low stratus. The main features of the observations are well simulated; in particular, sulfate accumulates progressively over the course of the episode due to sustained aqueous-phase oxidation of SO{sub 2} in the stratus cloud. The major source of sulfate is the reaction S(IV)+Fe(III), provided that this reaction proceeds by a non radical mechanism in which Fe(III) is not reduced. A radical mechanism with SO{sup {minus}}{sub 3} and Fe(II) as immediate products would quench sulfate production because of depletion of Fe(III). The model results suggest that the non radical mechanism is more consistent with observations, although this result follows from the absence of a rapid Fe(II) oxidation pathway in the model. Even with the non-radical mechanis most of the soluble iron is present as FE(II) because Fe(III) is rapidly reduced by O{sup {minus}}{sub 2}. The S(IV)+Fe(III) reacton provides the principal source of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} in the model; photochemical production of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} from HO{sub 2} or O{sub 2}({minus}I) is slow because HO{sub 2} is depleted by high levels of NO{sub {ital x}}. The aqueous-phase reaction S(IV)+OH initiates a radical-assisted S(IV) oxidation chain but we find that the chain is not propagated due to efficient termination by SO{sup {minus}}{sub 4}+Cl{sup {minus}} followed by Cl+H{sub 2}O. A major uncertainty attached to that result is that the reactivities of S(IV)-carbonyl adducts with radical oxidants are unknown.

Jacob, D.J.; Gottlieb, E.W. (Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences and Division of Applied Sciences, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts (US)); Prather, M.J. (NASA Goddard Institute of Space Studies, New York, New York)

1989-09-20

189

A stabilized platform has been developed to carry broadband short-wave and long-wave radiometric sensors on the tether line of a small tethered balloon that ascends through atmospheric depths of up to 1.5 km to obtain vertical profiles of radiative flux and flux divergence for evaluating atmospheric radiative transfer models. The Sky Platform was designed to keep the radiometers level despite unpredictable movements of the balloon and tether line occasioned by turbulence and wind shear. The automatic control loop drives motors, gears, and pulleys located on two of the vertices of the triangular frame to climb the harness lines to keep the platform level. Radiometric sensors, an electronic compass, and an on-board data acquisition system make up the remainder of the Sky Platform. Because knowledge of the dynamic response of the tether line-platform system is essential to properly close the automatic control loop on the Sky Platform, a Motion Sensing Platform (MSP) was developed to fly in place of the Sky Platform on the tether line to characterize the Sky Platform`s operating environment. This unstabilized platform uses an array of nine solid-state linear accelerometers to measure the lateral and angular accelerations, velocities, and displacements that the Sky Platform will experience. This paper presents field performance tests of the Sky and Motion Sensing Platforms, as conducted at Richland, Washington, on February 17, 1993. The tests were performed primarily to characterize the stabilization system on the Sky Platform. Test flights were performed on this cold winter day from 1400 to 1800 Pacific Standard Time (PST). During this period, temperature profiles were near the dry adiabatic lapse rate. Flights were made through a jet wind speed profile having peak wind speeds of 7 m/s at a height of 100 m AGL. Wind directions were from the northwest. All flights were performed as continuous ascents, rather than ascending in discrete steps with halts at set altitudes.

Whiteman, C.D.; Alzheimer, J.M.; Anderson, G.A.; Shaw, W.J.

1993-03-01

190

A stabilized platform has been developed to carry broadband short-wave and long-wave radiometric sensors on the tether line of a small tethered balloon that ascends through atmospheric depths of up to 1.5 km to obtain vertical profiles of radiative flux and flux divergence for evaluating atmospheric radiative transfer models. The Sky Platform was designed to keep the radiometers level despite unpredictable movements of the balloon and tether line occasioned by turbulence and wind shear. The automatic control loop drives motors, gears, and pulleys located on two of the vertices of the triangular frame to climb the harness lines to keep the platform level. Radiometric sensors, an electronic compass, and an on-board data acquisition system make up the remainder of the Sky Platform. Because knowledge of the dynamic response of the tether line-platform system is essential to properly close the automatic control loop on the Sky Platform, a Motion Sensing Platform (MSP) was developed to fly in place of the Sky Platform on the tether line to characterize the Sky Platform's operating environment. This unstabilized platform uses an array of nine solid-state linear accelerometers to measure the lateral and angular accelerations, velocities, and displacements that the Sky Platform will experience. This paper presents field performance tests of the Sky and Motion Sensing Platforms, as conducted at Richland, Washington, on February 17, 1993. The tests were performed primarily to characterize the stabilization system on the Sky Platform. Test flights were performed on this cold winter day from 1400 to 1800 Pacific Standard Time (PST). During this period, temperature profiles were near the dry adiabatic lapse rate. Flights were made through a jet wind speed profile having peak wind speeds of 7 m/s at a height of 100 m AGL. Wind directions were from the northwest. All flights were performed as continuous ascents, rather than ascending in discrete steps with halts at set altitudes.

Whiteman, C.D.; Alzheimer, J.M.; Anderson, G.A.; Shaw, W.J.

1993-03-01

191

Some Basic Aspects of Magnetohydrodynamic Boundary-Layer Flows

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An appraisal is made of existing solutions of magnetohydrodynamic boundary-layer equations for stagnation flow and flat-plate flow, and some new solutions are given. Since an exact solution of the equations of magnetohydrodynamics requires complicated simultaneous treatment of the equations of fluid flow and of electromagnetism, certain simplifying assumptions are generally introduced. The full implications of these assumptions have not been brought out properly in several recent papers. It is shown in the present report that for the particular law of deformation which the magnetic lines are assumed to follow in these papers a magnet situated inside the missile nose would not be able to take up any drag forces; to do so it would have to be placed in the flow away from the nose. It is also shown that for the assumption that potential flow is maintained outside the boundary layer, the deformation of the magnetic lines is restricted to small values. The literature contains serious disagreements with regard to reductions in heat-transfer rates due to magnetic action at the nose of a missile, and these disagreements are shown to be mainly due to different interpretations of reentry conditions rather than more complicated effects. In the present paper the magnetohydrodynamic boundary-layer equation is also expressed in a simple form that is especially convenient for physical interpretation. This is done by adapting methods to magnetic forces which in the past have been used for forces due to gravitational or centrifugal action. The simplified approach is used to develop some new solutions of boundary-layer flow and to reinterpret certain solutions existing in the literature. An asymptotic boundary-layer solution representing a fixed velocity profile and shear is found. Special emphasis is put on estimating skin friction and heat-transfer rates.

Hess, Robert V.

1959-01-01

192

The modified differential transform method for solving MHD boundary-layer equations

A new analytical method (DTM-Padé) was developed for solving magnetohydrodynamic boundary-layer equations. It was shown that differential transform method (DTM) solutions are only valid for small values of independent variable. Therefore the DTM is not applicable for solving MHD boundary-layer equations, because in the boundary-layer problem y??. Numerical comparisons between the DTM-Padé and numerical methods (by using a fourth-order Runge–Kutta

M. M. Rashidi

2009-01-01

193

Simulation of Atmospheric Boundary Layer Processes Using Local and Nonlocal-Closure Schemes

A soil-vegetation-atmospheric boundary layer model was developed to study the performance of two local- closure and two nonlocal-closure boundary layer mixing schemes for use in meteorological and air quality simulation models. Full interaction between the surface and atmosphere is achieved by representing surface characteristics and associated processes using a prognostic soil-vegetation scheme and atmospheric boundary layer schemes. There are 30

Kiran Alapaty; Jonathan E. Pleim; Sethu Raman; Devdutta S. Niyogi; Daewon W. Byun

1997-01-01

194

Modeling wave–current bottom boundary layers beneath shoaling and breaking waves

The boundary layer characteristics beneath waves transforming on a natural beach are affected by both waves and wave-induced\\u000a currents, and their predictability is more difficult and challenging than for those observed over a seabed of uniform depth.\\u000a In this research, a first-order boundary layer model is developed to investigate the characteristics of bottom boundary layers\\u000a in a wave–current coexisting environment

Chi Zhang; Jinhai Zheng; Yigang Wang; Zeki Demirbilek

2011-01-01

195

Persistent Structures in the Turbulent Boundary Layer

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Persistent structures in the turbulent boundary layer are located and analyzed. The data are taken from flight experiments on large commercial aircraft. An interval correlation technique is introduced which is able to locate the structures. The Morlet continuous wavelet is shown to not only locates persistent structures but has the added benefit that the pressure data are decomposed in time and frequency. To better understand how power is apportioned among these structures, a discrete Coiflet wavelet is used to decompose the pressure data into orthogonal frequency bands. Results indicate that some structures persist a great deal longer in the TBL than would be expected. These structure contain significant power and may be a primary source of vibration energy in the airframe.

Palumbo, Dan; Chabalko, Chris

2005-01-01

196

The boundary layer on compressor cascade blades

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The flow field about an airfoil in a cascade at chord Reynolds number (R sub C) near 50,000. The program is experimental and combines laser Doppler anemometry (LDA) with flow visualization techniques in order to obtain detailed flow data (e.g., boundary layer profiles, points of separation and the transition zone) on a cascade of highly-loaded compressor blades. The information provided is to serve as benchmark data for the evaluation of current and future compressor cascade predictive models, in this way aiding in the compressor design process. The completed pressure surface mean velocity profiles, as well as two detailed near wake velocity profiles, all at a single incidence angle are provided.

Deutsch, S.; Zierke, W. C.

1984-01-01

197

Acoustics of laminar boundary layers breakdown

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Boundary layer flow transition has long been suggested as a potential noise source in both marine (sonar-dome self noise) and aeronautical (aircraft cabin noise) applications, owing to the highly transient nature of process. The design of effective noise control strategies relies upon a clear understanding of the source mechanisms associated with the unsteady flow dynamics during transition. Due to formidable mathematical difficulties, theoretical predictions either are limited to early linear and weakly nonlinear stages of transition, or employ acoustic analogy theories based on approximate source field data, often in the form of empirical correlation. In the present work, an approach which combines direct numerical simulation of the source field with the Lighthill acoustic analogy is utilized. This approach takes advantage of the recent advancement in computational capabilities to obtain detailed information about the flow-induced acoustic sources. The transitional boundary layer flow is computed by solving the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations without model assumptions, thus allowing a direct evaluation of the pseudosound as well as source functions, including the Lighthill stress tensor and the wall shear stress. The latter are used for calculating the radiated pressure field based on the Curle-Powell solution of the Lighthill equation. This procedure allows a quantitative assessment of noise source mechanisms and the associated radiation characteristics during transition from primary instability up to the laminar breakdown stage. In particular, one is interested in comparing the roles played by the fluctuating volume Reynolds stress and the wall-shear-stresses, and in identifying specific flow processes and structures that are effective noise generators.

Wang, Meng

1994-12-01

198

Acoustics of laminar boundary layers breakdown

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Boundary layer flow transition has long been suggested as a potential noise source in both marine (sonar-dome self noise) and aeronautical (aircraft cabin noise) applications, owing to the highly transient nature of process. The design of effective noise control strategies relies upon a clear understanding of the source mechanisms associated with the unsteady flow dynamics during transition. Due to formidable mathematical difficulties, theoretical predictions either are limited to early linear and weakly nonlinear stages of transition, or employ acoustic analogy theories based on approximate source field data, often in the form of empirical correlation. In the present work, an approach which combines direct numerical simulation of the source field with the Lighthill acoustic analogy is utilized. This approach takes advantage of the recent advancement in computational capabilities to obtain detailed information about the flow-induced acoustic sources. The transitional boundary layer flow is computed by solving the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations without model assumptions, thus allowing a direct evaluation of the pseudosound as well as source functions, including the Lighthill stress tensor and the wall shear stress. The latter are used for calculating the radiated pressure field based on the Curle-Powell solution of the Lighthill equation. This procedure allows a quantitative assessment of noise source mechanisms and the associated radiation characteristics during transition from primary instability up to the laminar breakdown stage. In particular, one is interested in comparing the roles played by the fluctuating volume Reynolds stress and the wall-shear-stresses, and in identifying specific flow processes and structures that are effective noise generators.

Wang, Meng

1994-01-01

199

Large Eddy Simulation of the ventilated wave boundary layer

A Large Eddy Simulation (LES) of (1) a fully developed turbulent wave boundary layer and (2) case 1 subject to ventilation (i.e., suction and injection varying alternately in phase) has been performed, using the Smagorinsky subgrid-scale model to express the subgrid viscosity. The model was found to reproduce experimental results well. However, in case 1, the near-bed ensemble averaged velocity

I. P. Lohmann; J. Fredsøe; B. M. Sumer; E. D. Christensen

2006-01-01

200

Vortex/boundary-layer interactions: Data report, volume 1

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report summarizes the work done under NASA Grant NAGw-581, Vortex/Boundary Layer Interactions. The experimental methods are discussed in detail and numerical results are presented, but are not fully interpreted. This report should be useful to anyone who wishes to make further use of the data (available on floppy disc or magnetic tape) for the development of turbulence models or the validation of predictive methods. Journal papers are in course of preparation.

Cutler, A. D.; Bradshaw, P.

1987-01-01

201

Boundary Layer Transition Experiments in Support of the Hypersonics Program

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Two experimental boundary layer transition studies in support of fundamental hypersonics research are reviewed. The two studies are the HyBoLT flight experiment and a new ballistic range effort. Details are provided of the objectives and approach associated with each experimental program. The establishment of experimental databases from ground and flight are to provide better understanding of high-speed flows and data to validate and guide the development of simulation tools.

Berry, Scott A.; Chen, Fang-Jenq; Wilder, Michael C.; Reda, Daniel C.

2007-01-01

202

BLSTA: A boundary layer code for stability analysis

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A computer program is developed to solve the compressible, laminar boundary-layer equations for two-dimensional flow, axisymmetric flow, and quasi-three-dimensional flows including the flow along the plane of symmetry, flow along the leading-edge attachment line, and swept-wing flows with a conical flow approximation. The finite-difference numerical procedure used to solve the governing equations is second-order accurate. The flow over a wide range of speed, from subsonic to hypersonic speed with perfect gas assumption, can be calculated. Various wall boundary conditions, such as wall suction or blowing and hot or cold walls, can be applied. The results indicate that this boundary-layer code gives velocity and temperature profiles which are accurate, smooth, and continuous through the first and second normal derivatives. The code presented herein can be coupled with a stability analysis code and used to predict the onset of the boundary-layer transition which enables the assessment of the laminar flow control techniques. A user's manual is also included.

Wie, Yong-Sun

1992-01-01

203

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Stagnant meteorological conditions and high anthropogenic emissions make the Po Valley in Northern Italy one of Europe's most polluted regions. Understanding the processes controlling ozone production in this environment is essential for developing effective mitigation strategies. As both a source of HO2 radicals and an intermediate in the oxidation of most volatile organic compounds (VOCs), formaldehyde (HCHO) is a useful tracer for the oxidative processing of hydrocarbons that leads to ozone production. During the Pan-European Gas-AeroSOls Climate Interaction Study (PEGASOS), HCHO measurements were acquired via a Fiber Laser-Induced Fluorescence (FiLIF) instrument onboard a Zeppelin airship. This mission represents the first successful airborne deployment of the FiLIF instrument. With low flight speeds and vertical profiling capabilities, these Zeppelin-based observations in conjunction with other measurements may offer new insights into the spatial and temporal variability of atmospheric composition within the Po Valley region. Preliminary comparisons of modeled and measured HCHO concentrations at various altitudes and VOC/NOx regimes will be presented. Analysis will focus on 1) the transition from nocturnal to daytime boundary layers, and 2) the potential role of "non-classical" radical chemistry in ozone production.

Kaiser, J.; Wolfe, G. M.; Keutsch, F. N.

2012-12-01

204

Winds in the Marine Boundary Layer: A Forecaster's Guide

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This module is intended for experienced forecasters moving from a land-based area to a coastal or Great Lakes region where both over-land and over-water forecast areas exist. This module highlights the differences between marine boundary layer and terrestrial boundary layer winds. The experienced forecaster is relatively familiar with the boundary layer over land and the associated implications for the wind field. Using this as a base, the module compares this known quantity with the lesser-known processes that occur in the marine boundary layer. Three major topics that influence marine boundary layer winds are discussed: stability within the boundary layer, isallobaric influence, and the effects of convection and tropical cyclones.

Comet

2006-12-01

205

Spatial simulation of boundary layer instability - Effects of surface roughness

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The effects of an isolated, two-dimensional roughness element on the spatial development of instability waves in boundary layers are investigated by numerically integrating the two-dimensional, time-dependent, incompressible Navier-Stokes equations, using a finite difference/Chebyshev discretization. It is shown that (high) inviscid frequencies have higher growth rates than Tollmien-Schlichting frequencies, indicating that disturbances growing in the separation zone are controlled by the inviscid instability of the shear layer at the edge of the separation zone.

Danabasoglu, G.; Bringen, S.; Streett, C. L.

1993-01-01

206

Transition Zone as a Boundary Layer

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Three dimensional Earth models (Ritsema et al., 2004; Panning and Romanowicz, 2006; Kustowski et al., 2006) derived using data that have good control on the structure in the transition zone (body-wave waveforms or overtone measurements) all show a discontinuous or very rapid change in the spectrum of lateral heterogeneity at the boundary between the upper and lower mantle. This was first pointed out by Woodward et al. (1994) and discussed in detail by Gu et al. (2001). All models have a strong chemical/thermal/mechanical boundary layer beginning just under the Moho and extending to 200-250 km; this heterogeneity is dominated by degrees five and six caused by the distribution of cratons and mid-oceanic ridges. The power spectrum decreases rapidly below that depth, but then begins to increase at about 400 km. It is dominated by degree two down to the 660 km discontinuity. There, it changes from very red to white at the top of the lower mantle. This is a planetary scale phenomenon that which must affect the flow of material and mixing in the mantle. Similar spectra have been generated in mantle convection models that considered the effect of an endothermic phase change (Tackley et al., 1994). The existence of this boundary layer is supported by the pattern of large scale positive velocity anomalies in the transition zone in places where subduction occurs (thus indicating ponding of slabs), large-wavelength variations in the topography of the 660 km discontinuity, variations in thickness of the transition zone and deep earthquakes outside the main Wadati-Benioff zones as well as changes in their mechanisms. During the last decade, the debate on the scale of mantle convection was strongly affected by images of slabs appearing to penetrate into the lower mantle. Relatively detailed mapping of velocity anomalies in the vicinity of slabs is feasible, because of illumination of these regions by earthquakes; these models do not tell much aboutt velocity anomalies in other places. However, the power spectra estimates are global and tell us about the behavior of the mantle as the whole. The reported pattern of the power spectra does not exclude an exchange of material between the upper and lower mantle; there may be local penetration of subducted material or there may be episodic events such as "avalanches". However, successful models of mantle convection should be able to explain the change in the spectra of lateral heterogeneity such as revealed by global tomographic models, obtained with the requisite data sets.

Dziewonski, A. M.; Lekic, V.; Kustowski, B.; Romanowicz, B. A.

2006-12-01

207

Spectral instability of characteristic boundary layer flows

In this paper, we construct growing modes of the linearized Navier-Stokes equations about generic stationary shear flows of the boundary layer type in a regime of sufficiently large Reynolds number: $R \\to \\infty$. Notably, the shear profiles are allowed to be linearly stable at the infinite Reynolds number limit, and so the instability presented is purely due to the presence of viscosity. The formal construction of approximate modes is well-documented in physics literature, going back to the work of Heisenberg, C.C. Lin, Tollmien, Drazin and Reid, but a rigorous construction requires delicate mathematical details, involving for instance a treatment of primitive Airy functions and singular solutions. Our analysis gives exact unstable eigenvalues and eigenfunctions, showing that the solution could grow slowly at the rate of $e^{t/\\sqrt {R}}$. A new, operator-based approach is introduced, avoiding to deal with matching inner and outer asymptotic expansions, but instead involving a careful study of singularity in the critical layers by deriving pointwise bounds on the Green function of the corresponding Rayleigh and Airy operators.

Emmanuel Grenier; Yan Guo; Toan T. Nguyen

2014-06-15

208

Passive hypervelocity boundary layer control using an ultrasonically absorptive surface

A series of exploratory boundary layer transition experiments was performed on a sharp 5.06 degree half-angle round cone at zero angle-of-attack in the T5 Hypervelocity Shock Tunnel in order to test a novel hypersonic boundary layer control scheme. Recently performed linear stability analyses suggested that transition could be delayed in hypersonic boundary layers by using an ultrasonically absorptive surface that

Adam Rasheed

2001-01-01

209

Stratified Atmospheric Boundary Layers and Breakdown of Models

: The goal of this study is to assess complications in atmospheric stable boundary layers which are not included in numerical\\u000a models of the stably stratified boundary layer and to provide a formulation of surface fluxes for use in numerical models.\\u000a Based on an extensive interpretive literature survey and new eddy correlation data for the stable boundary layer, this study

L. Mahrt

1998-01-01

210

Wind flow over ridges in simulated atmospheric boundary layers

The flows over four two-dimensional triangular hills and three two-dimensional bell-shaped hills have been investigated in a simulated rural atmospheric boundary layer modelled to a scale of 1:300: Further measurements were made over two of the triangular hills in a simulated rural boundary layer of 1: 3000 scale and in a simulated urban boundary layer modelled to a scale of

J. R. Pearse; D. Lindley; D. C. Stevenson

1981-01-01

211

Boundary Layer Transition Flight Experiment Implementation on OV-103

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This slide presentation reviews the boundary layer transition experiment flown on Discovery. The purpose of the boundary layer transition flight experiment was to obtain hypersonic aero-thermodynamic data for the purpose of better understanding the flow transition from a laminar to turbulent boundary layer using a known height protuberance. The preparation of the shuttle is described, with the various groups responsibilities outlined. Views of the shuttle in flight with the experimental results are shown.

Spanos, Theodoros A.

2009-01-01

212

An experimental investigation of nozzle-exit boundary layers of highly heated free jets

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An experimental investigation of the effects of nozzle operating conditions on the development of nozzle-exit boundary layers of highly heated air free jets is reported in this paper. The total pressure measurements in the nozzle-exit boundary layer were obtained at a range of jet Mach numbers from 0.1 to 0.97 and jet total temperatures up to 900 K. The analysis of results shows that the nozzle-exit laminar boundary-layer development depends only on the nozzle-exit Reynolds number. For the nozzle-exit turbulent boundary layer, however, it appears that the effects of the jet total temperature on the boundary-layer integral characteristics are independent from the effects of the nozzle-exit Reynolds number. This surprizing finding has not yet been reported. Further, laminar boundary-layer profiles were compared with the Pohlhausen solution for a flat-wall converging channel and an acceptable agreement was found only for low Reynolds numbers. For turbulent boundary layers, the dependence of the shape factor on relative Mach numbers at a distance of one momentum thickness from the nozzle wall resembles Spence's prediction. Finally, the calculated total pressure loss coefficient was found to depend on the nozzle-exit Reynolds number for the laminar nozzle-exit boundary layer, while for the turbulent exit boundary layer this coefficient appears to be constant.

Lepicovsky, J.

1990-06-01

213

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Inviscid and viscous (laminar boundary-layer) flow-field calculations under perfect gas hypersonic wind tunnel and equilibrium real gas flight conditions are presented for the windward centerline of the Rockwell International 139 Space Shuttle Orbiter at a 30-deg angle of attack. Correlation parameters for laminar boundary-layer edge quantities and surface heat transfer are developed which properly account for entropy-layer-swallowing effects under both real and perfect gas conditions. Some implications of the proposed correlation parameters on boundary-layer transition are discussed.

Adams, J. C., Jr.; Martindale, W. R.; Mayne, A. W., Jr.; Marchand, E. O.

1976-01-01

214

Nonparallel stability of boundary layers with pressure gradients and suction

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An analysis is presented for the linear nonparallel stability of boundary layer flows with pressure gradients and suction. The effect of the boundary layer growth is included by using the method of multiple scales. The present analysis is compared with those of Bouthier and Gaster and the roles of the different definitions of the amplification rates are discussed. The results of these theories are compared with experimental data for the Blasius boundary layer. Calculations are presented for stability characteristics of boundary layers with pressure gradients and nonsimilar suction distributions.

Saric, W. S.; Nayfeh, A. H.

1977-01-01

215

Measurements of Flow in Boundary Layer Ingesting Serpentine Inlets.

??Highly integrated airframe-propulsion systems featuring ingestion of the airframe boundary layer oer reduced noise, emissions, and fuel consumption. Embedded engine systems are envisioned which require… (more)

Ferrar, Anthony Maurice

2012-01-01

216

Incorporation of the planetary boundary layer in atmospheric models

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The topics discussed include the following: perspectives on planetary boundary layer (PBL) measurements; current problems of PBL parameterization in mesoscale models; and convective cloud-PBL interactions.

Moeng, Chin-Hoh; Wyngaard, John; Pielke, Roger; Krueger, Steve

1993-01-01

217

Vortex Generator Induced Flow in a High Re Boundary Layer

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Stereoscopic Particle Image Velocimetry measurements have been conducted in cross-planes behind three different geometries of Vortex Generators (VGs) in a high Reynolds number boundary layer. The VGs have been mounted in a cascade producing counter-rotating vortices and the downstream flow development was examined. Three VG geometries were investigated: rectangular, triangular and cambered. The various VG geometries tested are seen to produce different impacts on the boundary layer flow. Helical symmetry of the generated vortices is confirmed for all investigated VG geometries in this high Reynolds number boundary layer. From the parameters resulting from this analysis, it is observed at the most upstream measurement position that the rectangular and triangular VGs produce vortices of similar size, strength and velocity induction whilst the cambered VGs produce smaller and weaker vortices. Studying the downstream development in the ensemble and spanwise averaged measurements, it is observed that the impact from the rectangular and triangular VGs differs. For the rectangular VGs, self-similarity in the streamwise component was confirmed.

Velte, C. M.; Braud, C.; Coudert, S.; Foucaut, J.-M.

2014-12-01

218

Improving Subtropical Boundary Layer Cloudiness in the 2011 NCEP GFS

The current operational version of National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) Global Forecasting System (GFS) shows significant low cloud bias. These biases also appear in the Coupled Forecast System (CFS), which is developed from the GFS. These low cloud biases degrade seasonal and longer climate forecasts, particularly of short-wave cloud radiative forcing, and affect predicted sea surface temperature. Reducing this bias in the GFS will aid the development of future CFS versions and contributes to NCEP's goal of unified weather and climate modelling. Changes are made to the shallow convection and planetary boundary layer parameterisations to make them more consistent with current knowledge of these processes and to reduce the low cloud bias. These changes are tested in a single-column version of GFS and in global simulations with GFS coupled to a dynamical ocean model. In the single-column model, we focus on changing parameters that set the following: the strength of shallow cumulus lateral entrainment, the conversion of updraught liquid water to precipitation and grid-scale condensate, shallow cumulus cloud top, and the effect of shallow convection in stratocumulus environments. Results show that these changes improve the single-column simulations when compared to large eddy simulations, in particular through decreasing the precipitation efficiency of boundary layer clouds. These changes, combined with a few other model improvements, also reduce boundary layer cloud and albedo biases in global coupled simulations.

Fletcher, J. K.; Bretherton, Christopher S.; Xiao, Heng; Sun, Ruiyu N.; Han, J.

2014-09-23

219

Improving subtropical boundary layer cloudiness in the 2011 NCEP GFS

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The current operational version of National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) Global Forecasting System (GFS) shows significant low cloud bias. These biases also appear in the Coupled Forecast System (CFS), which is developed from the GFS. These low cloud biases degrade seasonal and longer climate forecasts, particularly of short-wave cloud radiative forcing, and affect predicted sea surface temperature. Reducing this bias in the GFS will aid the development of future CFS versions and contributes to NCEP's goal of unified weather and climate modelling. Changes are made to the shallow convection and planetary boundary layer parameterisations to make them more consistent with current knowledge of these processes and to reduce the low cloud bias. These changes are tested in a single-column version of GFS and in global simulations with GFS coupled to a dynamical ocean model. In the single-column model, we focus on changing parameters that set the following: the strength of shallow cumulus lateral entrainment, the conversion of updraught liquid water to precipitation and grid-scale condensate, shallow cumulus cloud top, and the effect of shallow convection in stratocumulus environments. Results show that these changes improve the single-column simulations when compared to large eddy simulations, in particular through decreasing the precipitation efficiency of boundary layer clouds. These changes, combined with a few other model improvements, also reduce boundary layer cloud and albedo biases in global coupled simulations.

Fletcher, J. K.; Bretherton, C. S.; Xiao, H.; Sun, R.; Han, J.

2014-09-01

220

Review of Orbiter Flight Boundary Layer Transition Data

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In support of the Shuttle Return to Flight program, a tool was developed to predict when boundary layer transition would occur on the lower surface of the orbiter during reentry due to the presence of protuberances and cavities in the thermal protection system. This predictive tool was developed based on extensive wind tunnel tests conducted after the loss of the Space Shuttle Columbia. Recognizing that wind tunnels cannot simulate the exact conditions an orbiter encounters as it re-enters the atmosphere, a preliminary attempt was made to use the documented flight related damage and the orbiter transition times, as deduced from flight instrumentation, to calibrate the predictive tool. After flight STS-114, the Boundary Layer Transition Team decided that a more in-depth analysis of the historical flight data was needed to better determine the root causes of the occasional early transition times of some of the past shuttle flights. In this paper we discuss our methodology for the analysis, the various sources of shuttle damage information, the analysis of the flight thermocouple data, and how the results compare to the Boundary Layer Transition prediction tool designed for Return to Flight.

Mcginley, Catherine B.; Berry, Scott A.; Kinder, Gerald R.; Barnell, maria; Wang, Kuo C.; Kirk, Benjamin S.

2006-01-01

221

A Sensitivity Theory for the Equilibrium Boundary Layer Over Land

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Due to the intrinsic complexities associated with modeling land-atmosphere interactions, global models typically use elaborate land surface and boundary layer physics parameterizations. Unfortunately, it is difficult to use elaborate models, by themselves, to develop a deeper understanding of how land surface parameters affect the coupled land-atmosphere system. At the same time, it is also increasingly important to gain a deeper understanding of the role of changes in land cover, land use, and ecosystem function as forcings and feedbacks in past and future climate change. Here, we outline the new framework of boundary layer climate sensitivity, which is based on surface energy balance, just as global climate sensitivity is based on top-of-atmosphere energy balance. We develop an analytic theory for the boundary layer climate sensitivity of an idealized model of a diurnally-averaged well-mixed boundary layer over land (Betts, 2000). This analytic sensitivity theory identifies changes in the properties of the land surface - including moisture availability, albedo, and aerodynamic roughness - as forcings, and identifies strong negative feedbacks associated with the surface fluxes of latent and sensible heat. We show that our theory can explain nearly all of the sensitivity of the Betts (2000) full system of equations, and find that nonlinear forcing functions are key to understanding changes in temperature caused by large changes in surface properties; this is directly analogous to the case of climate sensitivity, where nonlinear radiative forcing functions are key to understanding the response of global temperature to large changes in greenhouse gas concentrations. Favorable comparison of the theory and the simulation results from a two-column radiative convective model suggests that the theory may be broadly useful for unifying our understanding of how changes in land use or ecosystem function may affect climate change.

Cronin, T.

2013-12-01

222

The simulation of coherent structures in a laminar boundary layer

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Coherent structures in turbulent shear flows were studied extensively by several techniques, including the VITA technique which selects rapidly accelerating or decelerating regions in the flow. The evolution of a localized disturbance in a laminar boundary layer shows strong similarity to the evolution of coherent structures in a turbulent-wall bounded flow. Starting from a liftup-sweep motion, a strong shear layer develops which shares many of the features seen in conditionally-sampled turbulent velocity fields. The structure of the shear layer, Reynolds stress distribution, and wall pressure footprint are qualitatively the same, indicating that the dynamics responsible for the structure's evolution are simple mechanisms dependent only on the presence of a high mean shear and a wall and independent of the effects of local random fluctuations and outer flow effects. As the disturbance progressed, the development of streak-like-high- and low-speed regions associated with the three-dimensionality.

Breuer, Kenny; Landahl, Marten T.; Spalart, Philippe R.

1987-01-01

223

The unsteady pressure and boundary layers on a turbomachinery blade row arising from periodic wakes due to upstream blade rows are investigated in this paper. Numerical simulations are carried out to understand the effects of the wake velocity defect and the wake turbulence intensity on the development of unsteady blade boundary layers. The boundary layer transition on the blade is found to be strongly influenced by the unsteady wake passing. Periodic transitional patches are generated by the high turbulence intensity in the passing wakes and transported downstream. The time-dependent transition results in large unsteadiness in the instantaneous local skin friction coefficient and a smoother time-averaged transition curve than the one observed in the steady boundary layer. A parametric study is then carried out to determine the influence of wake parameters on the development of the unsteady blade boundary layers. It is shown that the unsteadiness in the blade boundary layer increases with a decrease in the axial gap, an increase in wake/blade count ratio, or an increase in the wake traverse speed. The time-averaged boundary layer momentum thickness at the trailing edge of the blade is found to increase significantly for higher wake/blade count ratio and larger wake traverse speed. Increase of the wake/blade count ratio also results in higher frictional drag of the blade.

Fan, S.; Lakshminarayana, B. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States). Center for Gas Turbines and Power

1996-01-01

224

Boundary layer features observed during NAME 2004

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

S-Pol radar data from the North American Monsoon Experiment (NAME) are examined to investigate the characteristics of sea breezes that occurred during the North American Monsoon in the late summer of 2004, as well as their role in modulating monsoon convection. Zero degree plan position indicated (PPI) scans were examined to determine the presence of a sea breeze fine line in the S-Pol radar data. Sea breeze fine lines were typically observed over land very near the coast of the Gulf of California (GoC), and usually moved onshore around 1700--1800 UTC (11:00 AM--12:00 PM local time), and then continued to move slowly inland on the coastal plain. The sea breezes typically moved on land and dissipated before any significant interactions with Sierra Madre Occidental (SMO) convection could occur. Fine lines varied in reflectivity strength, but were typically around 10 to 20 dBZ. Surface winds from the Estacion Obispo (ETO) supersite were analyzed to confirm the presence of a shift in wind direction on days in which a fine line had been identified. Typically winds changed from light and variable to consistently out of the west or southwest. Vertical plots of S-Pol reflectivity were created to examine sea breeze structure in the vertical, but these were not found to be useful as the sea breeze signature was nearly impossible to distinguish from other boundary layer features. Horizontal structure was further investigated using wind profiler relative reflectivity, vertical velocity, and horizontal winds from the profiler located at ETO. Relative reflectivity and vertical velocity fields revealed a complex boundary layer structure on some days of repeating updrafts and downdrafts. Further examination of S-Pol PPI data revealed that these vertical motions are likely due to the presence of horizontal convective rolls. Profiler horizontal winds revealed that the depth and vertical structure of the sea breezes varied significantly from day to day, but that the height of the sea breeze is around 1 km above the ground. Sea breezes observed during NAME almost never initiated convection on their own. It is hypothesized that a weak thermal contrast between the GoC and the land leads to comparatively weak sea breezes, which don't have enough lift to trigger convection.

Stuckmeyer, Elizabeth A.

2011-12-01

225

A class of unsteady, three-dimensional flow structures in turbulent boundary layers

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A restricted class of mathematically admissible, unsteady, three dimensional flows was identified which may constitute part of the structure observed in turbulent boundary layers. The development of the model and some general results are discussed. The resulting solution has characteristics which suggest how upwelling low speed flow can trigger a downward jetting of irrotational high speed fluid into the boundary layer.

Ash, R. L.

1981-01-01

226

The Lagrangian stochastic probability density function (PDF) model developed by Cassiani et al. [Atmos. Environ. (2005) Part 1] is extended to the atmospheric convective boundary layer. The model is applied to simulate concentration statistics and PDF generated by passive releases from point and line sources in the convective boundary layer. A dynamical time-expandable grid is implemented, which optimises the computational

M. Cassiani; P. Franzese; U. Giostra

2005-01-01

227

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The focus was on developing means of controlling and reducing unsteady pressure loads in separated shock wave turbulent boundary layer interactions. Section 1 describes how vortex generators can be used to effectively reduce loads in compression ramp interaction, while Section 2 focuses on the effects of 'boundary-layer separators' on the same interaction.

Dolling, David S.; Barter, John W.

1995-01-01

228

Measurements of Instability and Transition in Hypersonic Boundary Layers

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Several studies on boundary-layer instability and transition have been conducted in the Boeing/AFOSR-Mach 6 Quiet Tunnel (BAM6QT) and the Sandia Hypersonic Wind Tunnels (HWT) at Mach 5 and 8. The first study looked at the effect of freestream noise on roughness- induced transition on a blunt cone. Temperature-sensitive paints were used to visualize the wake of an isolated roughness element at zero deg angle of attack in the BAM6QT. Transition was always delayed under quiet flow compared to noisy flow, even for an effective trip height. The second study measured transitional surface pressure fluctuations on a seven degree half-angle sharp cone in the HWT under noisy flow and in the BAM6QT under noisy and quiet flow. Fluctuations under laminar boundary layers reflected tunnel noise levels. Transition on the model only occurred under noisy flow, and fluctuations peaked during transition. Measurements of second- mode waves showed the waves started to grow under a laminar boundary layer, saturated, and then broke down near the peak in transitional pressure fluctuations. The third study looked at the development of wave packets and turbulent spots on the BAM6QT nozzle wall. A spark perturber was used to generate controlled disturbances. Measurements of the internal structure of the pressure field of the disturbances were made.

Casper, K. M.; Schneider, S. P.; Beresh, S. J.

2011-08-01

229

Turbulent boundary layer over porous surfaces with different surface geometries

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The turbulent boundary layer over three porous walls with different surface geometries was studied in order to investigate the individual influences of porosity and small roughness, as well as their combined effects, on turbulent boundary layer behavior. The tests were conducted in a 2 m x 2 m tunnel on a large axisymmetric model at speeds corresponding to Re(L) = 5,000,000-6,000,000. The development of the turbulent boundary layer was compared for that of sintered metal, bonded screening, and perforated sheet and then to that for the flow over a solid smooth wall and a solid, sand-roughened wall. The comparisons reveal that the effect of porosity is to shift the logarithmic region of the wall law down by a certain amount from the solid wall results and to increase the skin friction values by about 30-40%. The downward shift of the logarithmic region of the wall law and the increase of the skin friction value by the combined effects of small roughness and porosity are found to be roughly the sum of their individual effects.

Kong, F. Y.; Schetz, J. A.

1982-01-01

230

Boundary-layer equations in generalized curvilinear coordinates

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A set of higher-order boundary-layer equations is derived valid for three-dimensional compressible flows. The equations are written in a generalized curvilinear coordinate system, in which the surface coordinates are nonorthogonal; the third axis is restricted to be normal to the surface. Also, higher-order viscous terms which are retained depend on the surface curvature of the body. Thus, the equations are suitable for the calculation of the boundary layer about arbitrary vehicles. As a starting point, the Navier-Stokes equations are derived in a tensorian notation. Then by means of an order-of-magnitude analysis, the boundary-layer equations are developed. To provide an interface between the analytical partial differentiation notation and the compact tensor notation, a brief review of the most essential theorems of the tensor analysis related to the equations of the fluid dynamics is given. Many useful quantities, such as the contravariant and the covariant metrics and the physical velocity components, are written in both notations.

Panaras, Argyris G.

1987-01-01

231

Advanced boundary layer transition measurement methods for flight applications

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In modern laminar flow flight research, it is important to understand the specific cause(s) of laminar to turbulent boundary-layer transition. Such information is crucial to the exploration of the limits of practical application of laminar flow for drag reduction on aircraft. The transition modes of interest in current flight investigations include the viscous Tollmien-Schlichting instability, the inflectional instability at laminar separation, and the crossflow inflectional instability, as well as others. This paper presents the results to date of research on advanced devices and methods used for the study of laminar boundary-layer transition phenomena in the flight environment. Recent advancements in the development of arrayed hot-film devices and of a new flow visualization method are discussed. Arrayed hot-film devices have been designed to detect the presence of laminar separation, and of crossflow vorticity. The advanced flow visualization method utilizes color changes in liquid-crystal coatings to detect boundary-layer transition at high altitude flight conditions. Flight and wind tunnel data are presented to illustrate the design and operation of these advanced methods. These new research tools provide information on disturbance growth and transition mode which is essential to furthering our understanding of practical design limits for applications of laminar flow technology.

Holmes, B. J.; Croom, C. C.; Gail, P. D.; Manuel, G. S.; Carraway, D. L.

1986-01-01

232

Secondary instabilities in compressible boundary layers

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The secondary instability mechanisms in a two-dimensional (2-D) compressible boundary layer over a flat plate have been examined for a range of Mach numbers up to 4.5. For subsonic and low supersonic flows, fundamental resonance dominates when the amplitude of the (2-D) primary disturbance is high, while subharmonic resonance prevails in an environment with a low primary disturbance. At a high supersonic Mach number of 4.5, the secondary instability of the second-mode primary is stronger than that of the first-mode primary. Further, the subharmonic and the combination resonance modes, which are slightly detuned from the subharmonic, are the dominant instabilities. The influence of the propagation direction of the primary disturbance on secondary instabilities is investigated at Mach 1.6. Whereas the fundamental and the subharmonic disturbances propagate synchronously with a 2-D primary wave, this is not true for an oblique primary. A subset of the secondary instability results is verified against direct numerical simulations. Some comparisons between spatial and temporal secondary instabilities have been made at Mach 1.6.

Ng, Lian L.; Erlebacher, Gordon

1992-01-01

233

Secondary instabilities in compressible boundary layers

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Secondary instabilities are examined in compressible boundary layers at Mach numbers M(sub infinity) = 0, 0.8, 1.6, and 4.5. It is found that there is a broad-band of highly unstable 3-d secondary disturbances whose growth rates increase with increasing primary wave amplitude. At M(sub infinity) is less than or equal to 1.6, fundamental resonance dominates at relatively high (2-d) primary disturbance amplitude, while subharmonic resonance is characterized by a low (2-d) primary amplitude. At M(sub infinity) = 4.5, the subharmonic instability which arises from the second mode disturbance is the strongest type of secondary instability. The influence of the inclination, theta, of the primary wave with respect to the mean flow direction on secondary instability is investigated at M(sub infinity) = 1.6 for small to moderate values of theta. It is found that the strongest fundamental instability occurs when the primary wave is inclined at 10 deg to the mean flow direction, although a 2-d primary mode yields the most amplified subharmonic. The subharmonic instability at a high value of theta (namely, theta = 45 deg) is also discussed. Finally, a subset of the secondary instability results are compared against direct numerical simulations.

Ng, Lian; Erlebacher, Gordon

1990-01-01

234

Effect of sound on boundary layer stability

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Experiments are conducted in the Arizona State University Unsteady Wind Tunnel with a zero-pressure-gradient flat-plate model that has a 67:1 elliptical leading edge. Boundary-layer measurements are made of the streamwise fluctuating-velocity component in order to identify the amplified T-S waves that are forced by downstream-traveling sound waves. Measurements are taken with circular 3-D roughness elements placed at the Branch 1 neutral stability point for the frequency under consideration, and then with the roughness element downstream of Branch 1. These roughness elements have a principal chord dimension equal to 2 lambda(sub TS)/pi of the T-S waves under study and are 'stacked' in order to resemble a Gaussian height distribution. Measurements taken just downstream of the roughness (with leading-edge T-S waves, surface roughness T-S waves, instrumentation sting vibrations, and the Stokes wave subtracted) show the generation of 3-D T-S waves, but not in the characteristic heart-shaped disturbance field predicted by 3-D asymptotic theory. Maximum disturbance amplitudes are found on the roughness centerline. However, some near-field characteristics predicted by numerical modeling are observed.

Saric, William S.; Spencer, Shelly Anne

1993-01-01

235

The boundary layer on compressor cascade blades

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The purpose of NASA Research Grant NSG-3264 is to characterize the flowfield about an airfoil in a cascade at chord Reynolds number(R sub C)near 5 x 10 to the 5th power. The program is experimental and combines laser Doppler velocimeter (LDV) measurements with flow visualization techniques in order to obtain detailed flow data, e.g., boundary layer profiles, points of separation and the transition zone, on a cascade of highly-loaded compressor blades. The information provided by this study is to serve as benchmark data for the evaluation of current and future compressor cascade predictive models, in this way aiding in the compressor design process. Summarized is the research activity for the period 1 December 1985 through 1 June 1986. Progress made from 1 June 1979 through 1 December 1985 is presented. Detailed measurements have been completed at the initial cascade angle of 53 deg. (incidence angle 5 degrees). A three part study, based on that data, has been accepted as part of the 1986 Gas Turbine Conference and will be submitted for subsequent journal publication. Also presented are data for a second cascade angle of 45 deg (an incidence angle of 3 degrees).

Deutsch, S.; Zierke, W. C.

1986-01-01

236

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have developed instrumentation packages for unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) to measure ocean surface processes along with momentum fluxes and latent, sensible, and radiative heat fluxes in the marine atmospheric boundary layer (MABL). The packages have been flown over land on BAE Manta C1s and over water on Boeing-Insitu ScanEagles. The low altitude required for accurate surface flux measurements (< 30 m) is below the typical safety limit of manned research aircraft; however, with advances in laser altimeters, small-aircraft flight control, and real-time kinematic differential GPS, low-altitude flight is now within the capability of small UAV platforms. Fast-response turbulence, hygrometer, and temperature probes permit turbulent flux measurements, and short- and long-wave radiometers allow the determination of net radiation, surface temperature, and albedo. Onboard laser altimetry and high-resolution visible and infrared video permit observations of surface waves and fine-scale (O(10) cm) ocean surface temperature structure. Flight tests of payloads aboard ScanEagle UAVs were conducted in April 2012 at the Naval Surface Warfare Center Dahlgren Division (Dahlgren, VA), where measurements of water vapor, heat, and momentum fluxes were made from low-altitude (31-m) UAV flights over water (Potomac River). ScanEagles are capable of ship-based launch and recovery, which can extend the reach of research vessels and enable scientific measurements out to ranges of O(10-100) km and altitudes up to 5 km. UAV-based atmospheric and surface observations can complement observations of surface and subsurface phenomena made from a research vessel and avoid the well-known problems of vessel interference in MABL measurements. We present a description of the instrumentation, summarize results from flight tests, and discuss potential applications of these UAVs for ship-based MABL studies.

Reineman, B. D.; Lenain, L.; Statom, N.; Melville, W. K.

2012-12-01

237

A boundary-layer treatment for turbulent detonation waves

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The profile of turbulent intensity versus Reynolds number from bursts found in an ignition front agrees with the Orr-Sommerfeld solutions for unstable boundary-layer flow. This result provides the first evidence of a formal connection between bursting transition to turbulence in flows which share the boundary-layer approximation but which are otherwise unrelated.

Johnson, J. A., III

1980-01-01

238

Helical circulations in the typhoon boundary layer Ryan Ellis1

., 2008]. Numerical studies include two-scale boundary layer models [Ginis et al., 2004] and 3-D idealized observations of Zhang et al. [2008] and the two-scale boundary layer model of Ginis et al. [2004]. Ginis et al. [2008]. This may help explain damage patterns observed by Fujita [1992] in hurricanes Andrew and Iniki

Businger, Steven

239

Planetary boundary layer dynamics over the Amazon rain forest

Observations of the diurnal evolution of the planetary boundary layer (PBL) over the Amazon rain forest, in the area of the Amazon boundary layer experiment (ABLE) 2A and 2B experiments showed the existence of a low level circulation with low level nocturnal maxima winds. These circulations are shown to be induced by the thermal contrast between the river and the

Amauri Pereiradeoliveira

1990-01-01

240

The Application of Optimal Control to Boundary Layer Flow

Modern optimal control theory can be used to calculate the optimal steady suction needed to e.g. relaminarize the flow or to delay transition. This has been used to devise the best possible suction distributions for keeping the flow laminar, and applied for flat plate boundary layers as well as boundary layers on swept wings of airplanes. Optimal control theory can

D. Henningson; A. Hanifi

241

Experiments on the wind tunnel simulation of atmospheric boundary layers

The simulation of atmospheric boundary layers using spires, a barrier wall, and a fetch of roughness elements is discussed in the light of experiments carried out to reproduce the characteristics of a boundary layer for urban terrain conditions. Comparisons of wind tunnel and atmospheric data are presented, including mean-velocity profiles, turbulence intensities, turbulence spectra, and turbulence length scales, in particular

Cesar Farell; Arun K. S. Iyengar

1999-01-01

242

Turbulent boundary layer at moving surface of cylindrical body

An analysis is made of the two dimensional turbulent boundary on the moving surface of a cylindrical body (a Rankine oval with an aspect ratio of 4) moving at constant velocity in an incompressible fluid. A numerical simulation is used in which the boundary layer is divided in accordance with a two layer model into inner and outer regions, for

V. M. Zubarev

1986-01-01

243

End-wall boundary layer prediction for axial compressors

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An integral boundary layer procedure has been developed for the computation of viscous and secondary flows along the annulus walls of an axial compressor. The procedure is an outgrowth and extension of the pitch-averaged methods of Mellor and Horlock. In the present work secondary flow theory is used to develop approximations for the velocity profiles inside a rotating blade row and for the blade force deficit terms in the momentum integral equations. The computer code based on this procedure has been iteratively coupled to a quasi-one-dimensional model for the external inviscid flow. Computed results are compared with measurements in a compressor cascade.

Sockol, P. M.

1978-01-01

244

End-wall boundary layer prediction for axial compressors

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An integral boundary layer procedure was developed for the computation of viscous and secondary flows along the annulus walls of an axial compressor. The procedure is an outgrowth and extension of the pitch-averaged methods of Mellor and Horlock. In the present work secondary flow theory is used to develop approximations for the velocity profiles inside a rotating blade row and for the blade force deficit terms in the momentum integral equations. The computer code based on this procedure was iteratively coupled to a quasi-one-dimensional model for the external inviscid flow. Computed results are compared with measurements in a compressor cascade.

Sockol, P. M.

1978-01-01

245

Pitot-probe displacement in a supersonic turbulent boundary layer

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Eight circular pitot probes ranging in size from 2 to 70 percent of the boundary-layer thickness were tested to provide experimental probe displacement results in a two-dimensional turbulent boundary layer at a nominal free-stream Mach number of 2 and unit Reynolds number of 8 million per meter. The displacement obtained in the study was larger than that reported by previous investigators in either an incompressible turbulent boundary layer or a supersonic laminar boundary layer. The large probes indicated distorted Mach number profiles, probably due to separation. When the probes were small enough to cause no appreciable distortion, the displacement was constant over most of the boundary layer. The displacement in the near-wall region decreased to negative displacement in some cases. This near-wall region was found to extend to about one probe diameter from the test surface.

Allen, J. M.

1972-01-01

246

Experiment on turbulent boundary layers on a concave wall

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The present experiment describes the behavior of a turbulent boundary layer on a concave wall. At the onset of curvature there appears a fairly coherent wavelike transverse profile of mean velocity. This disturbance might be interpreted as a kind of large scale Taylor-Goertler type instability superimposed on a conventional turbulent boundary layer; further downstream the coherence degenerates as the turbulence level increases. Boundary-layer profile measurements were made at positions of maxima and minima of transverse profiles of (U-component) mean velocity. The boundary layer at the minima positions is found to be twice as thick as that at the maxima positions. Also, turbulent intensities inside the boundary layer are substantially increased as a result of the concave curvature of the surface.

So, R. M. C.; Mellor, G. L.

1975-01-01

247

Dusty boundary layer in a surface-burst explosion

Dusty boundary layers are an inherent feature of explosions over ground surfaces. Detailed knowledge of dusty boundary layer characteristics is needed in explosion safety analysis (e.g., to calculate the drag loads on structures). Also, to predicct the amount of dust in the rising fireball of an explsion, one must know the dusty boundary layer swept up during the positive and negative phases of the blast wave and how much of this boundary layer dust is entrained into the stem of the dust cloud. This paper describes the results of numerical simulations of the dusty boundary layer created by a surface burst explosion. The evolution of the flow was calculated by a high-order Godunov code that solves the nonsteady conservation laws.

Kuhl, A.L. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., El Segundo, CA (United States); Ferguson, R.E.; Chien, K.Y.; Collins, J.P. [Naval Surface Warfare Center, Silver Spring, MD (United States)

1993-08-01

248

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The primary objective in the two research investigations performed under NASA Langley sponsorship (Turbulence measurements in hypersonic boundary layers using constant temperature anemometry and Reynolds stress measurements in hypersonic boundary layers) has been to increase the understanding of the physics of hypersonic turbulent boundary layers. The study began with an extension of constant-temperature thermal anemometry techniques to a Mach 11 helium flow, including careful examinations of hot-wire construction techniques, system response, and system calibration. This was followed by the application of these techniques to the exploration of a Mach 11 helium turbulent boundary layer (To approximately 290 K). The data that was acquired over the course of more than two years consists of instantaneous streamwise mass flux measurements at a frequency response of about 500 kHz. The data are of exceptional quality in both the time and frequency domain and possess a high degree of repeatability. The data analysis that has been performed to date has added significantly to the body of knowledge on hypersonic turbulence, and the data reduction is continuing. An attempt was then made to extend these thermal anemometry techniques to higher enthalpy flows, starting with a Mach 6 air flow with a stagnation temperature just above that needed to prevent liquefaction (To approximately 475 F). Conventional hot-wire anemometry proved to be inadequate for the selected high-temperature, high dynamic pressure flow, with frequent wire breakage and poor system frequency response. The use of hot-film anemometry has since been investigated for these higher-enthalpy, severe environment flows. The difficulty with using hot-film probes for dynamic (turbulence) measurements is associated with construction limitations and conduction of heat into the film substrate. Work continues under a NASA GSRP grant on the development of a hot film probe that overcomes these shortcomings for hypersonic flows. Each of the research tasks performed during the NASA Langley research grants is discussed separately below.

Spina, Eric F.

1995-01-01

249

An Equation for the Mean Velocity Distribution of Boundary Layers

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A general relation, empirical in origin, for the mean velocity distribution of both laminar and turbulent boundary layers is proposed. The equation, in general, accurately describes the profiles in both laminar and turbulent flows. The calculation of profiles is based on a prior knowledge of momentum, displacement, and boundary-layer thickness together with free-stream conditions. The form for turbulent layers agrees with the present concepts of similarity of the outer layer. For the inner region or turbulent boundary layers the present relation agrees very closely with experimental measurements even in cases where the logarithmic law of the wall is inadequate. A unique relation between profile form factors and the ratio of displacement thickness to boundary-layer thickness is obtained for turbulent separation. A similar criterion is also obtained for laminar separation. These relations are demonstrated to serve as an accurate criterion for identifying separation in known profiles.

Sandborn, V. A.

1959-01-01

250

Integral method for the calculation of three-dimensional, laminar and turbulent boundary layers

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The method for turbulent flows is a further development of an existing method; profile families with two parameters and a lag entrainment method replace the simple entrainment method and power profiles with one parameter. The method for laminar flows is a new development. Moment of momentum equations were used for the solution of the problem, the profile families were derived from similar solutions of boundary layer equations. Laminar and turbulent flows at the wings were calculated. The influence of wing tapering on the boundary layer development was shown. The turbulent boundary layer for a revolution ellipsoid is calculated for 0 deg and 10 deg incidence angles.

Stock, H. W.

1978-01-01

251

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The method presented is designed to improve the accuracy and computational efficiency of existing numerical methods for the solution of flows with compressible turbulent boundary layers. A compressible defect stream function formulation of the governing equations assuming an arbitrary turbulence model is derived. This formulation is advantageous because it has a constrained zero-order approximation with respect to the wall shear stress and the tangential momentum equation has a first integral. Previous problems with this type of formulation near the wall are eliminated by using empirically based analytic expressions to define the flow near the wall. The van Driest law of the wall for velocity and the modified Crocco temperature-velocity relationship are used. The associated compressible law of the wake is determined and it extends the valid range of the analytical expressions beyond the logarithmic region of the boundary layer. The need for an inner-region eddy viscosity model is completely avoided. The near-wall analytic expressions are patched to numerically computed outer region solutions at a point determined during the computation. A new boundary condition on the normal derivative of the tangential velocity at the surface is presented; this condition replaces the no-slip condition and enables numerical integration to the surface with a relatively coarse grid using only an outer region turbulence model. The method was evaluated for incompressible and compressible equilibrium flows and was implemented into an existing Navier-Stokes code using the assumption of local equilibrium flow with respect to the patching. The method has proven to be accurate and efficient.

Wahls, Richard A.

1990-01-01

252

Aerodynamic Models for Hurricanes III. Modeling hurricane boundary layer

The third paper of the series (see previous ones in Refs.[1-2]) discusses basic physicalprocesses in the (quasi-) steady hurricane boundary layer (HBL), develops an approximate airflow model, establishes the HBL structure, and presents integral balance relations for dynamic and thermodynamic variables in HBL. Models of evaporation and condensation are developed, where the condensation is treated similarly to the slow combustion theory. A turbulent approximation for the lower sub-layer of HBL is applied to the sea-air interaction to establish the observed increase in angular momentum in the outer region of HBL.A closed set of balance relations has been obtained. Simple analytical solution of the set yields expressions for the basic dynamic variables - maximal tangential and radial velocities in hurricane, maximal vertical speed in eye wall, the affinity speed of hurricane travel, and the maximal temperature increase after condensation. Estimated values of the variables seem to be realistic. An attempt is also ...

Leonov, Arkady I

2008-01-01

253

Boundary Layer Control by Means of Plasma Actuators

The development of controlled transition in a flat-plate boundary layer is investigated using Large Eddy Simulations (LES) with the dynamic Smagorinsky model. The analysis of flow control with the objective to optimize the effects of Tollmien-Schlichting waves on a flat plate by means of plasma actuators was studied. The plasma effect is modeled as a body force in the momentum equations. These equations are solved in a uniform grid using a 2nd-order finite difference scheme in time and space. The response of plasma actuators operating in different time-dependent conditions, produced by transient or periodic inputs at different frequencies, is also analyzed.

Quadros, R. [UFRGS/PPGMAp-TUD-Stroemungslehre und Aerodynamik, Technische Universitaet Darmstadt, Petersenstr. 30, 64287 Darmstadt (Germany); Bortoli, A. L. de [UFRGS/DMPA-Departamento de Matematica Pura e Aplicada, Bento Goncalves 9500, Agronomia-P.O. Box 15080, Porto Alegre-RS (Brazil); Tropea, C. [TUD/SLA-Stroemungslehre und Aerodynamik, Technische Universitaet Darmstadt, Petersenstr. 30, 64287 Darmstadt (Germany)

2007-09-06

254

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A finite difference boundary layer algorithm was developed to model viscous effects when an inviscid core flow solution is given. This algorithm solved each boundary layer equation separately, then iterated to find a solution. Solving the boundary layer equations sequentially was 2.4 to 4.0 times faster than solving the boundary layer equations simultaneously. This algorithm used a modified Baldwin-Lomax turbulence model, a weighted average of forward and backward differencing of the pressure gradient, and a backward sweep of the pressure. With these modifications, the boundary layer algorithm was able to model flows with and without separation. The number of grid points used in the boundary layer algorithm affected the stability of the algorithm affected the stability of the algorithm as well as the accuracy of the predictions of friction coefficients and momentum thicknesses. Results of this boundary layer algorithm compared well with experimental observations of friction coefficients and momentum thicknesses. In addition, when used interactively with an inviscid flow algorithm, this boundary layer algorithm corrected for viscous effects to give a good match with experimental observations for pressures in a supersonic inlet.

Roach, Robert L.; Nelson, Chris; Sakowski, Barbara; Darling, Douglas; Van De Wall, Allan G.

1992-01-01

255

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A finite difference boundary layer algorithm was developed to model viscous effects when an inviscid core flow solution is given. This algorithm solved each boundary layer equation separately, then iterated to find a solution. Solving the boundary layer equations sequentially was 2.4 to 4.0 times faster than solving the boundary layer equations simultaneously. This algorithm used a modified Baldwin-Lomax turbulence model, a weighted average of forward and backward differencing of the pressure gradient, and a backward sweep of the pressure. With these modifications, the boundary layer algorithm was able to model flows with and without separation. The number of grid points used in the boundary layer algorithm affected the stability of the algorithm as well as the accuracy of the predictions of friction coefficients and momentum thicknesses. Results of this boundary layer algorithm compared well with experimental observations of friction coefficients and momentum thicknesses. In addition, when used interactively with an inviscid flow algorithm, this boundary layer algorithm corrected for viscous effects to give a good match with experimental observations for pressures in a supersonic inlet.

Roach, Robert L.; Nelson, Chris; Sakowski, Barbara; Darling, Douglas; Vandewall, Allan G.

1992-01-01

256

The nature of angular momentum transport in the boundary layers of accretion disks has been one of the central and long-standing issues of accretion disk theory. In this work we demonstrate that acoustic waves excited by supersonic shear in the boundary layer serve as an efficient mechanism of mass, momentum, and energy transport at the interface between the disk and the accreting object. We develop the theory of angular momentum transport by acoustic modes in the boundary layer, and support our findings with three-dimensional hydrodynamical simulations, using an isothermal equation of state. Our first major result is the identification of three types of global modes in the boundary layer. We derive dispersion relations for each of these modes that accurately capture the pattern speeds observed in simulations to within a few percent. Second, we show that angular momentum transport in the boundary layer is intrinsically nonlocal, and is driven by radiation of angular momentum away from the boundary layer into both the star and the disk. The picture of angular momentum transport in the boundary layer by waves that can travel large distances before dissipating and redistributing angular momentum and energy to the disk and star is incompatible with the conventional notion of local transport by turbulent stresses. Our results have important implications for semianalytical models that describe the spectral emission from boundary layers.

Belyaev, Mikhail A.; Rafikov, Roman R.; Stone, James M., E-mail: rrr@astro.princeton.edu [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Ivy Lane, Princeton, NJ 08540 (United States)

2013-06-10

257

Titan's planetary boundary layer structure at the Huygens landing site

Huygens Atmospheric Structure Instrument (HASI) for the first time performed an in situ measurement of the thermal structure in Titan's atmosphere with a vertical resolution sufficient to analyze the planetary boundary layer (PBL). The vertical potential temperature profile reveals the presence of a weakly convective PBL, with a surface layer thickness of 10 m and an outer layer with a

Tetsuya Tokano; Francesca Ferri; Giacomo Colombatti; Teemu Mäkinen; Marcello Fulchignoni

2006-01-01

258

Influences on the Height of the Stable Boundary Layer as seen in LES

Climate models, numerical weather prediction (NWP) models, and atmospheric dispersion models often rely on parameterizations of planetary boundary layer height. In the case of a stable boundary layer, errors in boundary layer height estimation can result in gross errors in boundary-layer evolution and in prediction of turbulent mixing within the boundary layer.

Kosovic, B; Lundquist, J

2004-06-15

259

Infrared Imaging of Boundary Layer Transition Flight Experiments

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Hypersonic Thermodynamic Infrared Measurement (HYTHIRM) project is presently focused on near term support to the Shuttle program through the development of an infrared imaging capability of sufficient spatial and temporal resolution to augment existing on-board Orbiter instrumentation. Significant progress has been made with the identification and inventory of relevant existing optical imaging assets and the development, maturation, and validation of simulation and modeling tools for assessment and mission planning purposes, which were intended to lead to the best strategies and assets for successful acquisition of quantitative global surface temperature data on the Shuttle during entry. However, there are longer-term goals of providing global infrared imaging support to other flight projects as well. A status of HYTHIRM from the perspective of how two NASA-sponsored boundary layer transition flight experiments could benefit by infrared measurements is provided. Those two flight projects are the Hypersonic Boundary layer Transition (HyBoLT) flight experiment and the Shuttle Boundary Layer Transition Flight Experiment (BLT FE), which are both intended for reducing uncertainties associated with the extrapolation of wind tunnel derived transition correlations for flight application. Thus, the criticality of obtaining high quality flight data along with the impact it would provide to the Shuttle program damage assessment process are discussed. Two recent wind tunnel efforts that were intended as risk mitigation in terms of quantifying the transition process and resulting turbulent wedge locations are briefly reviewed. Progress is being made towards finalizing an imaging strategy in support of the Shuttle BLT FE, however there are no plans currently to image HyBoLT.

Berry, Scott A.; Horvath, Thomas J., Jr.; Schwartz, Richard; Ross, Martin; Anderson, Brian; Campbell, Charles H.

2008-01-01

260

Boundary layer receptivity to convected gusts and sound

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The receptivity of a laminar boundary layer to sound and convected gusts is examined experimentally, considering the coupling between these external disturbances and the boundary layer in the vicinity of a 24:1 elliptic leading edge, a porous strip, and a forward-facing step. A conventional loudspeaker generates the acoustic disturbance, and an array of oscillating ribbons produces a vortical disturbance in the form of a periodic convected gust. Techniques for decoupling the excitation from the boundary layer response and comparisons of receptivity mechanisms are discussed.

Parekh, D. E.; Pulvin, P.; Wlezien, R. W.

261

Structure of the zero-pressure-gradient turbulent boundary layer.

A processing of recent experimental data by Nagib and Hites [Nagib, H. & Hites, M. (1995) AIAA paper 95-0786, Reno, NV) shows that the flow in a zero-pressure-gradient turbulent boundary layer, outside the viscous sublayer, consists of two self-similar regions, each described by a scaling law. The results concerning the Reynolds-number dependence of the coefficients of the wall-region scaling law are consistent with our previous results concerning pipe flow, if the proper definition of the boundary layer Reynolds number (or boundary layer thickness) is used. PMID:11038559

Barenblatt, G I; Chorin, A J; Hald, O H; Prostokishin, V M

1997-07-22

262

Shock wave-boundary layer interactions in rarefied gas flows

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A numerical study is presented, using the direct simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) method, of shock wave-boundary layer interactions in low density supersonic flows. Test cases include two-dimensional, axially-symmetric and three-dimensional flows. The effective displacement angle of the boundary layer is calculated for representative flat plate, wedge, and cone flows. The maximum pressure, shear stress, and heat transfer in the shock formation region is determined in each case. The two-dimensional reflection of an oblique shock wave from a flat plate is studied, as is the three-dimensional interaction of such a wave with a sidewall boundary layer.

Bird, G. A.

1991-01-01

263

A novel concept for subsonic inlet boundary-layer control

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A self-bleeding method for boundary layer control is described and tested for a subsonic inlet designed to operate in the flowfield generated by high angles of attack. Naturally occurring surface static pressure gradients are used to remove the boundary layer from a separation-prone region of the inlet and to reinject it at a less critical location with a net performance gain. The results suggest that this self-bleeding method for boundary-layer control might be successfully applied to other inlets operating at extreme aerodynamic conditions.

Miller, B. A.

1977-01-01

264

Further Improvements to Nozzle Boundary Layer Calculations in BLIMPJ

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Further improvements made to advance the current Boundary Layer Integral Matrix Procedure - Version J (BLIMPJ) containing previously modeled simplified calculation methods by accounting for condensed phase, thick boundary layer and free stream turbulence effects are discussed. The condensed phase effects were included through species composition effect considered via input to the code and through particle damping effect considered via a turbulence model. The thrust loss calculation procedure for thick boundary layer effects was improved and the optimization of net thrust with respect to nozzle length was performed. The effects of free stream turbulence were approximately modeled in the turbulence model.

Praharaj, S. C.; Gross, Klaus W.

1989-01-01

265

Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is useful for materials defect analysis and inspection with the additional possibility of quantitative dimensional metrology. Here, we present an automated image-processing algorithm for OCT analysis of roll-to-roll multilayers in 3D manufacturing of advanced ceramics. It has the advantage of avoiding filtering and preset modeling, and will, thus, introduce a simplification. The algorithm is validated for its capability of measuring the thickness of ceramic layers, extracting the boundaries of embedded features with irregular shapes, and detecting the geometric deformations. The accuracy of the algorithm is very high, and the reliability is better than 1 µm when evaluating with the OCT images using the same gauge block step height reference. The method may be suitable for industrial applications to the rapid inspection of manufactured samples with high accuracy and robustness. PMID:24562018

Ekberg, Peter; Su, Rong; Chang, Ernest W.; Yun, Seok Hyun; Mattsson, Lars

2014-01-01

266

Performance of a boundary layer ingesting propulsion system

This thesis presents an assessment of the aerodynamic performance of an aircraft propulsion system, with embedded engines, in the presence of aircraft fuselage boundary layer ingestion (BLI). The emphasis is on defining ...

Plas, Angélique (Angélique Pascale)

2006-01-01

267

Mathematical models of momentum transfer in the boundary layer

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Consideration has been given to the processes of momentum transfer in the laminar and turbulent boundary layers on a plate and in a tube. Original models for calculation of the tangential stress, friction factors, boundary-layer thickness, and coefficients of momentum transfer in the boundary layers on a plate and in a tube have been obtained under different conditions of motion of the gas medium. Examples of calculation of the indicated characteristics have been given; the results obtained have been compared to the existing experimental data. The obtained equations and methods of determination of the characteristics of the boundary layer can be used in designing industrial heat- and mass-exchange apparatuses of various structures and other equipment.

Laptev, A. G.; Farakhov, T. M.

2013-05-01

268

Distributed Roughness Receptivity in a Flat Plate Boundary Layer

(Re_(k) = 220), the discrete element created a turbulent wedge 15 boundary layer thicknesses downstream. When the distributed roughness was added around the discrete roughness, the wake amplitude decreased at the sub-critical Reynolds number...

Kuester, Matthew Scott

2014-04-18

269

ATMOSPHERIC DISPERSION MODELING BASED UPON BOUNDARY LAYER PARAMETERIZATION

Characteristic scaling parameters in the planetary boundary layer have been applied to estimate the dispersion of nonbuoyant gaseous pollutants. Vertical and lateral spread are treated separately, and the choice of parameters for the dispersion models depends upon the actual stat...

270

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The wake characteristics of a two-dimensional rectangular forebody with a smooth leading edge and a blunt trailing edge are investigated. Wall suction is applied along the forebody in order to modify the developing boundary layer. An initially laminar boundary layer subject to suction yields an asymptotic suction boundary layer at the trailing edge of the body, whereas a high enough suction coefficient relaminarizes an initially turbulent boundary layer. The critical suction velocity required to achieve this significant modification of the boundary layer properties is typically in the order of 1% of the free-stream velocity, where the critical suction coefficient depends on the Reynolds number. We show that a thinner boundary layer induces a higher vortex shedding frequency and a lower base pressure. Furthermore, the boundary layer state, laminar or turbulent, has a significant influence on the wake. For example, the Strouhal number based on the effective body thickness is being reduced by 25% from laminar to turbulent inlet conditions.

Trip, Renzo; Fransson, Jens H. M.

2014-12-01

271

Effect of Protuberance Shape and Orientation on Space Shuttle Orbiter Boundary-Layer Transition

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This document describes an experimental study conducted to examine the effects of protuberances on hypersonic boundary-layer transition. The experiment was conducted in the Langley 20-Inch Mach 6 Tunnel on a series of 0.9%-scale Shuttle Orbiter models. The data were acquired to complement the existing ground-based boundary-layer transition database that was used to develop Version 1.0 of the boundary-layer transition RTF (return-to-flight) tool. The existing ground-based data were all acquired on 0.75%-scale Orbiter models using diamond-shaped ( pizza-box ) trips. The larger model scale facilitated in manufacturing higher fidelity protuberances. The end use of this experimental database will be to develop a technical basis (in the form of a boundary-layer transition correlation) to assess representative protrusion shapes, e.g., gap fillers and protrusions resulting from possible tile repair concepts. The primary objective of this study is to investigate the effects of protuberance-trip location and geometry on Shuttle Orbiter boundary-layer transition. Secondary goals are to assess the effects of gap-filler orientation and other protrusion shapes on boundary-layer transition. Global heat-transfer images using phosphor thermography of the Orbiter windward surface and the corresponding streamwise and spanwise heating distributions were used to infer the state of the boundary layer, i.e., laminar, transitional, or turbulent.

King, RUdolph A.; Berry, Scott A.; Kegerise, Michael A.

2008-01-01

272

Boundary layer response to wind gusts

Souadary- Layer Oscillstioas and Transition on a Plat Plate. " NACA Report 909. 2. pailer, c. E. ) sErperlaental Heat 'Transfer snd soundary Layer Sehavior uith 100 c. P. s. Plow Oscll, lstions. RASA TH S-2521. 3. Noore, p, K. and Ostrach, S...

Morland, Bruce Thomas

1968-01-01

273

Turbulent oceanic western-boundary layers at low latitude

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Low latitude oceanic western-boundary layers range within the most turbulent regions in the worlds ocean. The Somali current system with the Great Whirl and the Brazilian current system with its eddy shedding are the most prominent examples. Results from analytical calculations and integration of a one layer reduced-gravity fine resolution shallow water model is used to entangle this turbulent dynamics. Two types of wind-forcing are applied: a remote Trade wind forcing with maximum shear along the equator and a local Monsoon wind forcing with maximum shear in the vicinity of the boundary. For high values of the viscosity (> 1000m2s-1) the stationary solutions compare well to analytical predictions using Munk and inertial layer theory. When lowering the friction parameter time dependence results. The onset of instability is strongly influenced by inertial effects. The unstable boundary current proceeds as a succession of anti-cyclonic coherent eddies performing a chaotic dynamics in a turbulent flow. The dynamics is governed by the turbulent fluxes of mass and momentum. We determine these fluxes by analyzing the (potential) vorticity dynamics. We demonstrate that the boundary-layer can be separated in four sub-layers, which are (starting from the boundary): (1) the viscous sub-layer (2) the turbulent buffer-layer (3) the layer containing the coherent structures and (4) the extended boundary layer. The characteristics of each sub-layer and the corresponding turbulent fluxes are determined, as are the dependence on latitude and the type of forcing. A new pragmatic method of determining the eddy viscosity, based on Munk-layer theory, is proposed. Results are compared to observations and solutions of the multi-level primitive equation model (DRAKKAR).

Quam Cyrille Akuetevi, Cataria; Wirth, Achim

2013-04-01

274

Tropical boundary layer equilibrium in the last ice age

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A radiative-convective boundary layer model is used to assess the effect of changing sea surface temperature, pressure, wind speed, and the energy export from the tropics on the boundary layer equilibrium equivalent potential temperature. It remains difficult to reconcile the observations that during the last glacial maximum (18,000 yr BP) the snowline on the tropical mountains fell 950 m, while the tropical sea surface temperatures fell only 1-2 K.

Betts, Alan K.; Ridgway, W.

1992-01-01

275

Study of a turbulent boundary layer by laser plane visualization

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Flow visualization was implemented with a laser light plane longitudinal to the flow in wind tunnel experiments. The experimental setup was complemented by wall friction sensors and hot film transducers. The influence of large eddy breakup devices was also tested. The visualization results are in accord with those obtained by FALCO. When manipulating the boundary layer, the results confirm the screen effect played by the wake on the fluid penetration in the inside part of the boundary layer.

Stanislas, M.; Hoyez, M. C.; Pruvost, J.

1988-12-01

276

A note on boundary-layer friction in baroclinic cyclones

The interaction between extratropical cyclones and the underlying boundary layer has been a topic of recent discussion in papers by Adamson et. al. (2006) and Beare (2007). Their results emphasise different mechanisms through which the boundary layer dynamics may modify the growth of a baroclinic cyclone. By using different sea-surface temperature distributions and comparing the low-level winds, the differences are exposed and both of the proposed mechanisms appear to be acting within a single simulation.

Boutle, I A; Belcher, S E; Plant, R S

2008-01-01

277

Composite Structure of Plumes in Stratus-topped Boundary Layers

Knowledge of convective plumes within the clear convective boundary layer (CBL) is quite advanced owing to direct measurements, tank experiments, and large-eddy simulation studies. As a result, modeling of the CBL is relatively successful. Progress for the stratus-topped boundary layer (STBL), however, is slow. This study compares the plume structure of the surface-heated CBL with that of the cloud-top-cooled STBL

Chin-Hoh Moeng; Ulrich Schumann

1991-01-01

278

Acoustic emissions from unsteady transitional boundary layer flow structures

The acoustic radiation contribution of boundary layer flow structures has long been the subject of debate. The research described critically examines the popular approaches to modeling the radiation mechanisms and attempts to bring some degree of closure to the physical and practical significance of noise and pseudo-noise originating in the laminar-to-turbulent transition zone within a natural boundary layer. This includes

Richard Chostner Marboe

2000-01-01

279

Reynolds Stress Budgets in Couette and Boundary Layer Flows

Reynolds stress budgets for both Couette and boundary layer flows are evaluated and presented. Data are taken from direct\\u000a numerical simulations of rotating and non-rotating plane turbulent Couette flow and turbulent boundary layer with and without\\u000a adverse pressure gradient. Comparison of the total shear stress for the two types of flows suggests that the Couette case\\u000a may be regarded as

Jukka Komminaho; Martin Skote

2002-01-01

280

Turbulence in rough-wall boundary layers: universality issues

Wind tunnel measurements of turbulent boundary layers over three-dimensional rough surfaces have been carried out to determine\\u000a the critical roughness height beyond which the roughness affects the turbulence characteristics of the entire boundary layer.\\u000a Experiments were performed on three types of surfaces, consisting of an urban type surface with square random height elements,\\u000a a diamond-pattern wire mesh and a sand-paper

Mohammad Amir; Ian P. Castro

2011-01-01

281

Flow visualization of shock-boundary layer interaction

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Two and three-dimensional shock-boundary layer interaction data were obtained from supersonic wind tunnel tests. These interactions are studied both with and without boundary layer bleed. The data verify computational fluid dynamic codes. Surface static pressure, pitot pressure, flow angularity, and bleed rates, are studied by flow visualization techniques. Surface oil flow using fluorescent dye and laser sheet using water droplets as the scattering material are used for flow visualization.

Hingst, W. R.; Jurkovich, M.

1982-01-01

282

The axisymmetric boundary layer beneath a Rankine-like vortex

An experimental investigation of the three-dimensional boundary layer induced by a Rankine-like vortex with its axis normal\\u000a to a stationary disk is described. The velocity field through the boundary layer was measured for Reynolds number Re (based on the tangential velocity and radius at the disk edge) ranging from 10?000 to 25?000 at various radial distances\\u000a by means of a

B. C. Khoo; K. S. Yeo; D. F. Lim

1997-01-01

283

Integral-matrix procedure for boundary-layer problems

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Program, BLIMP, provides fast, highly accurate solution to general class of gas-phase boundary layer flow problems encompassing broad range of boundary conditions. Program is capable of obtaining accurate and economical solutions to governing differential equations of momentum, energy, and species.

Gross, K. W.; Evans, R. M.

1977-01-01

284

Inflow Turbulence Generation and Oblique Shock \\/ Turbulent Boundary Layer Interaction

Large-eddy simulation of an oblique shock impinging on a supersonic turbulent boundary layer (M? = 2.28, = 8 , Retheta = 1800, 5100) is carried out with a high-order compact differencing scheme using localized artificial diffusivity for shock capturing. Solution sensitivity is investigated with regards to mesh resolution, spanwise domain, Reynolds number, and inflow turbulence boundary conditions. Through analysis of

Brandon Morgan; Soshi Kawai; Sanjiva Lele

2010-01-01

285

Interaction of a Boundary Layer with a Turbulent Wake

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The objective of this grant was to study the transition mechanisms on a flat-plate boundary layer interacting with the wake of a bluff body. This is a simplified configuration presented and designed to exemplify the phenomena that occur in multi-element airfoils, in which the wake of an upstream element impinges on a downstream one. Some experimental data is available for this configuration at various Reynolds numbers. The first task carried out was the implementation and validation of the immersed-boundary method. This was achieved by performing calculations of the flow over a cylinder at low and moderate Reynolds numbers. The low-Reynolds number results are discussed, which is enclosed as Appendix A. The high-Reynolds number results are presented in a paper in preparation for the Journal of Fluid Mechanics. We performed calculations of the wake-boundary-layer interaction at two Reynolds numbers, Re approximately equal to 385 and 1155. The first case is discussed and a comparison of the two calculations is reported. The simulations indicate that at the lower Reynolds number the boundary layer is buffeted by the unsteady Karman vortex street shed by the cylinder. This is shown: long streaky structures appear in the boundary layer in correspondence of the three-dimensionalities in the rollers. The fluctuations, however, cannot be self-sustained due to the low Reynolds-number, and the flow does not reach a turbulent state within the computational domain. In contrast, in the higher Reynolds-number case, boundary-layer fluctuations persist after the wake has decayed (due, in part, to the higher values of the local Reynolds number Re achieved in this case); some evidence could be observed that a self-sustaining turbulence generation cycle was beginning to be established. A third simulation was subsequently carried out at a higher Reynolds number, Re=3900. This calculation gave results similar to those of the Re=l155 case. Turbulence was established at fairly low Reynolds number, as a consequence of the high level of the free-stream perturbation. An instantaneous flow visualization for that case is shown. A detailed examination of flow statistics in the transitional and turbulent regions, including the evolution of the turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) budget and frequency spectra showed the formation and evolution of turbulent spots characteristic of the bypass transition mechanism. It was also observed that the turbulent eddies achieved an equilibrium, fully developed turbulent states first, as evidenced by the early agreement achieved by the terms in the TKE budget with those observed in turbulent flows. Once a turbulent Reynolds stress profile had been established, the velocity profile began to resemble a turbulent one, first in the inner region and later in the outer region of the wall layer. An extensive comparison of the three cases, including budgets, mean velocity and Reynolds stress profiles and flow visualization, is included. The results obtained are also presented.

Piomelli, Ugo

2004-01-01

286

Modelling Unsteady Wall Pressures Beneath Turbulent Boundary Layers

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

As a structural entity of turbulence, hairpin vortices are believed to play a major role in developing and sustaining the turbulence process in the near wall region of turbulent boundary layers and may be regarded as the simplest conceptual model that can account for the essential features of the wall pressure fluctuations. In this work we focus on fully developed typical hairpin vortices and estimate the associated surface pressure distributions and their corresponding spectra. On the basis of the attached eddy model, we develop a representation of the overall surface pressure spectra in terms of the eddy size distribution. Instantaneous wavenumber spectra and spatial correlations are readily derivable from this representation. The model is validated by comparison of predicted wavenumber spectra and cross-correlations with existing emperical models and experimental data.

Ahn, B-K.; Graham, W. R.; Rizzi, S. A.

2004-01-01

287

Turbulent boundary layer in high Rayleigh number convection in air.

Flow visualizations and particle image velocimetry measurements in the boundary layer of a Rayleigh-Bénard experiment are presented for the Rayleigh number Ra=1.4×1010. Our visualizations indicate that the appearance of the flow structures is similar to ordinary (isothermal) turbulent boundary layers. Our particle image velocimetry measurements show that vorticity with both positive and negative sign is generated and that the smallest flow structures are 1 order of magnitude smaller than the boundary layer thickness. Additional local measurements using laser Doppler velocimetry yield turbulence intensities up to I=0.4 as in turbulent atmospheric boundary layers. From our observations, we conclude that the convective boundary layer becomes turbulent locally and temporarily although its Reynolds number Re?200 is considerably smaller than the value 420 underlying existing phenomenological theories. We think that, in turbulent Rayleigh-Bénard convection, the transition of the boundary layer towards turbulence depends on subtle details of the flow field and is therefore not universal. PMID:24724653

du Puits, Ronald; Li, Ling; Resagk, Christian; Thess, André; Willert, Christian

2014-03-28

288

Orbiter Boundary Layer Transition Stability Modeling at Flight Entry Conditions

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

State of the art boundary layer stability modeling capabilities are increasingly seeing application to entry flight vehicles. With the advent of user friendly and robust implementations of two-dimensional chemical nonequilibrium stability modeling with the STABL/PSE-CHEM software, the need for flight data to calibrate such analyses capabilities becomes more critical. Recent efforts to perform entry flight testing with the Orbiter geometry related to entry aerothermodynamics and boundary layer transition is allowing for a heightened focus on the Orbiter configuration. A significant advancement in the state of the art can likely be achieved by establishing a basis of understanding for the occurrence of boundary layer transition on the Orbiter due to discrete protruding gap fillers and the nominal distributed roughness of the actual thermal protection system. Recent success in demonstrating centerline two-dimensional stability modeling on the centerline of the Orbiter at flight entry conditions provides a starting point for additional investigations. The more detailed paper will include smooth Orbiter configuration boundary layer stability results for several typical orbiter entry conditions. In addition, the numerical modeling approach for establishing the mean laminar flow will be reviewed and the method for determining boundary layer disturbance growth will be overviewed. In addition, if actual Orbiter TPS surface data obtained via digital surface scans become available, it may be possible to investigate the effects of an as-flown flight configuration on boundary layer transition compared to a smooth CAD reference.

Bartkowicz, Matt; Johnson, Heath; Candler, Graham; Campbell, Charles H.

2009-01-01

289

Climatic equilibrium of the atmospheric convective boundary layer over a tropical ocean

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A radiative-convective boundary layer model was developed by coupling a thermodynamic model of a partially mixed convective boundary layer (CBL) with a radiation model, and energy balance constraints were used to study coupled boundary layer (CBL) equilibrium over three timescales (about 1 day, about 10 days, and more than 100 days). It is shown that the variation in cloud top decreases with greater coupling to the atmosphere and the ocean. The slope of the latent heat flux with increasing SST decreases with more tropospheric coupling, and reverses sign with a coupled ocean.

Ridgway, W.; Betts, Alan K.

1989-01-01

290

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The capability of the OVERFLOW code to accurately compute high-speed turbulent boundary layers and turbulent shock-boundary layer interactions is being evaluated. Configurations being investigated include a Mach 2.87 flat plate to compare experimental velocity profiles and boundary layer growth, a Mach 6 flat plate to compare experimental surface heat transfer,a direct numerical simulation (DNS) at Mach 2.25 for turbulent quantities, and several Mach 3 compression ramps to compare computations of shock-boundary layer interactions to experimental laser doppler velocimetry (LDV) data and hot-wire data. The present paper describes outlines the study and presents preliminary results for two of the flat plate cases and two small-angle compression corner test cases.

Oliver, A. B.; Lillard, R. P.; Blaisdell, G. A.; Lyrintizis, A. S.

2006-01-01

291

Onset of new particle formation in boundary layer

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

At this moment, the mechanisms of atmospheric new particle formation (NPF), and the vapors participating in this process are not truly understood. Especially, in which part of the atmosphere the NPF takes place, is still an open question. To detect directly the very first steps of NPF in the atmosphere, we measured these chemical and physical processes within the Planetary Boundary Layer (PBL). We used airborne Zeppelin and Cessna measurements, and ground based in-situ measurements. Using Zeppelin, we focused on the time of the development of the PBL (altitudes up to 1 km) from sunrise until noon to measure vertical profiles of aerosol particles and chemical compounds. This is also the time when NPF typically occurs at ground level. On summer 2012, Zeppelin was measuring nucleation occurring in the polluted Po Valley area, Northern Italy, especially over the San Pietro Capofiume field site. A year later, Zeppelin had a spring campaign in boreal forest area, close to Hyytiälä field site in Southern Finland. During both campaigns, we aimed on measuring the vertical and the horizontal extension for NPF events using an instrumented Zeppelin. The vertical profile measurements represent the particle and gas concentrations in the lower parts of the atmosphere: the residual layer, the nocturnal boundary layer, and the PBL. At the same time, the ground based measurements records present conditions in the surface layer. The key instruments to measure the onset of NPF were an Atmospheric Pressure interface Time-Of-Flight mass spectrometer (APi-TOF), a Particle Size Magnifier (PSM), and a Neutral cluster and Air Ion Spectrometer (NAIS). These instruments are able to measure particles at the size range ~1-2 nm where atmospheric nucleation and cluster activation takes place. The onset of NPF was usually observed onboard Zeppelin when it was measuring inside the rising mixed layer which is connected to the surface layer by effective vertical mixing. The newly formed, subsequently growing, particles were observed to be homogeneously distributed inside the mixed layer. These measurements are part of the PEGASOS project which aims to quantify the magnitude of regional to global feedbacks between the atmospheric chemistry and physics, and thus quantify the changing climate.

Manninen, Hanna E.; Lampilahti, Janne; Mirme, Sander; Nieminen, Tuomo; Ehn, Mikael; Pullinen, Iida

2014-05-01

292

Boundary Layer Height and Structure during the NATO LASIE Campaign

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The NATO Ligurian Air-Sea Interaction Experiment (LASIE) took place in 2007, from 16 to 22 June, in the Mediterranean Sea. This filed campaign was organized under the auspices of the NATO Undersea Research Centre (NURC), located in La Spezia, Italy. The main scientific goal was to contribute to the evaluation and development of parameterizations of the oceanic and atmospheric boundary layers and their interactions. Extensive meteorological and oceanographic measurements were collected, on board the research vessels Leonardo, Planet, and Urania, and from the spar buoy ODAS Italia 1. In this study ceilometer (Vaisala CL31) and atmospheric radiosondes (Vaisala DigiCORA) measurements are used to assess the evolution of the marine atmospheric boundary layer (MABL) structure and height during the LASIE cruise. The ceilometer measured continuously the cloud height base, while the radiosondes, launched every 3 hours, recorded vertical profiles of wind speed, wind direction, potential temperature and relative humidity. Several methods available in the literature are used to determine the height of the MABL from observations. The results from these methods are compared with the MABL heights from the limited-area numeric weather prediction models WRF (Weather Research and Forecasting) and MM5 (Fifth-Generation Mesoscale Model).

Tomé, R.; Sempreviva, A. M.; Schiano, E.; Bozzano, R.; Miranda, P. M.; Pensieri, S.; Semedo, A.; Teixeira, J.

2009-09-01

293

Low Cost Geothermal Separators BLISS Boundary Layer Inline Separator Scrubber

A new compact, low cost, and high performance separator is being developed to help reduce the installed and O and M cost of geothermal power generation. This device has been given the acronym ''BLISS'' that stands for ''Boundary Layer Inline Separator Scrubber''. The device is the first of a series of separators, and in the case of injectates, scrubbers to address the cost-reduction needs of the industry. The BLISS is a multi-positional centrifugal separator primarily designed to be simply installed between pipe supports, in a horizontal position. This lower profile reduces the height safety concern for workers, and significantly reduces the total installation cost. The vessel can demand as little as one-quarter (25%) the amount of steel traditionally required to fabricate many large vertical separators. The compact nature and high separating efficiency of this device are directly attributable to a high centrifugal force coupled with boundary layer control. The pseudo isokinetic flow design imparts a self-cleaning and scale resistant feature. This polishing separator is designed to remove moderate amounts of liquid and entrained solids.

Jung, Douglas; Wai, King

2000-05-26

294

Turbulence in a Convective Marine Atmospheric Boundary Layer

The structure and kinetic energy budget of turbulence in the convective marine atmospheric boundary layer as observed by aircraft during a cold air outbreak have been studied using mixed layer scaling. The results are significantly different from those of previous studies under conditions closer to free convection. The normalized turbulent kinetic energy and turbulent transport are about twice those found

Shu-Hsien Chou; David Atlas; Eueng-Nan Yeh

1986-01-01

295

Basic entrainment equations for the atmospheric boundary layer

The parameterization of penetrative convection and other cases of turbulent entrainment by the atmospheric boundary layer is reviewed in this paper. The conservation equations for a one-layer model of entrainment are straightforward; all modeling problems arise in the context of the parameterization of various terms in the budget of turbulent kinetic energy. There is no consensus in the literature on

H. Tennekes; A. G. M. Driedonks

1981-01-01

296

Multiple paths to subharmonic laminar breakdown in a boundary layer

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Numerical simulations demonstrate that laminar breakdown in a boundary layer induced by the secondary instability of two-dimensional Tollmien-Schlichting waves to three-dimensional subharmonic disturbances need not take the conventional lambda vortex/high-shear layer path.

Zang, Thomas A.; Hussaini, M. Yousuff

1989-01-01

297

Urban air pollution modelling and measurements of boundary layer height

An urban field trial has been undertaken with the aim of assessing the performance of the boundary layer height (BLH) determination of two models: the Met Office Unified Model (UM) and a Gaussian-type plume model, ADMS. Pulsed Doppler lidar data were used to measure mixing layer height and cloud base heights for a variety of meteorological conditions over a 3

F. Davies; D. R. Middleton; K. E. Bozier

2007-01-01

298

This paper presents improvements in the 'classical boundary layer' (CBL) approximation method to obtain simple but robust initial characterization of aquifer contamination processes. Contaminants are considered to penetrate into the groundwater through the free surface of the aquifer. The improved method developed in this study is termed the 'top specified boundary layer' (TSBL) approach. It involves the specification of the contaminant concentration at the top of the contaminated 'region of interest' (ROI), which is simulated as a boundary layer. the TSBL modification significantly improves the ability of the boundary layer method to predict the development of concentration profiles over both space and time. The TSBL method can be useful for the simulation of cases in which the contaminant concentration is prescribed at the aquifer's free surface as well as for cases in which the contaminant mass flux is prescribed at the surface.

Rubin, H.; Buddemeier, R.W.

1996-01-01

299

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A method is developed for predicting three-dimensional turbulent boundary layers occurring in internal flows, including rotor blades of turbomachinery. These boundary layers are complex, turbulent, and are subject to Coriolis and centrifugal forces. The algebraic Reynolds stress model (ARSM) developed in this paper satisfies the realizability conditions exactly and captures the changes in turbulenet structure arising from curvature and rotation. The prediction of pressure driven secondary flow agrees well with the data and all the three turbulent models (k-e, algebraic eddy viscosity, and ARSM) show the same level of agreement. The prediction of boundary layer on rotor blades shows much better agreement with the ARSM. It is essential to employ the higher order models to capture the effects of rotation and curvature and three-dimensional boundary layers in turbomachinery.

Zhang, J.; Lakshminarayana, B.

1989-01-01

300

EART 265 Lecture Notes: Boundary Layers We're interested here mainly in boundary layers relevant to planets, i.e. those of planetary atmo- spheres, oceans and uid cores. Of these, the atmospheric boundary. There is a another class of important boundary layer problems involving aerodynamics of objects moving in uids, i

Nimmo, Francis

301

DNS and the theory of receptivity of a supersonic boundary layer to free-stream disturbances

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Direct numerical simulation (DNS) of receptivity of a boundary layer over flat plate is carried out. The free stream Mach number is equal to 6. The following two-dimensional disturbances are introduced into the free-stream flow: fast and slow acoustic waves, temperature spottiness. A theoretical model describing the excitation of unstable waves in the boundary layer is developed using the biorthogonal eigenfunction decomposition method. The DNS results agree with the theoretical predictions.

Soudakov, Vitaly; Fedorov, Alexander; Ryzhov, Alexander

2011-12-01

302

Shipboard measurements of the cloud-capped marine boundary layer during FIRE/ASTEX

Results are reported on measurements of the cloud-capped marine boundary layer during FIRE/ASTEX. A method was developed from the ASTEX dataset for measuring profiles of liquid water content, droplet size and concentration from cloud radar/microwave radiometer data in marine boundary layer clouds. Profiles were also determined from the first three moments of the Doppler spectrum measured in drizzle with the ETL cloud radar during ASTEX.

NONE

1997-09-01

303

A study in transitional flat plate boundary layers: measurement and visualization

This study is concerned with transition in flat plate boundary layer flow. Sets of results are obtained as follows: (1) Very\\u000a clear pictures of the formation and the development of the butterfly-like structures rather than ?-structures in the K-regime of boundary layer transition are obtained. (2) A chain of ring like vortices, which generate the high-frequency spikes\\u000a on the time

C. B. Lee; Z. X. Hong; Y. S. Kachanov; V. I. Borodulin; V. V. Gaponenko

2000-01-01

304

Horton, pipe hydraulics, and the atmospheric boundary layer (The Robert E. Horton Memorial Lecture)

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The early stages of Horton's scientific career which provided the opportunity and stimulus to delve into the origins of some contemporary concepts on the atmospheric boundary layer are reviewed. The study of Saph and Schoder provided basis for the experimental verification and validation of similarity by Blasius, Staton and Pannel, and for the subsequent developments that led to the present understanding of the turbulent boundary layer. Particular attention is given to incorporation of similarity and scaling in the analysis of turbulent flow.

Brutsaert, Wilfried

1993-01-01

305

Calculation of three-dimensional compressible turbulent boundary layers

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

From comparisons of high speed data with low speed closure procedures using variable mean density, there does not appear to be any appreciable influence of compressibility upon turbulent shear stress modeling in compressible turbulent boundary layers, even for extreme cases such as Mach 14 to 20 with a change in density across the layer of up to a factor of 100. Other evidence of apparent lack of compressibility caused new physics which may alter the shear stress for the compressible boundary layer cases including: (1) fluctuation Mach number was generally less than 1; (2) the shear stress distribution through the boundary layer was not a function of Mach number for zero pressure gradient flows; (3) the Morkovin hypothesis was valid up to Mach 5 (based on fluctuation data); (4) profile N power was not a function of Mach number, at least up to Mach 10; and (5) the nondimensional burst period was approximately the same as that for low speed.

1977-01-01

306

Dense gas boundary layer experiments: Visualization, pressure measurements, concentration evaluation

This technical report describes methods that were applied to investigate turbulent boundary layers generated by inviscid, baroclinic effects. The Cranz-Schardin 24-sparks camera was used to visualize the interactions of a planar shock wave with a Freon R12-layer. The shock propagates more slowly in the Freon layer than in air because of its smaller sound speed. This causes the shock front

H. Reichenbach; P. Neuwald; A. L. Kuhl

1992-01-01

307

The Temporal Behavior of the Atmospheric Boundary Layer in Israel

Upper-air measurements collected for three consecutive years (1987-89) from the Israel Meteorological Service permanent sounding site, in Beit-Dagan, Israel, enabled the temporal behavior of the atmospheric boundary layer over Israel to be characterized. Data analyzed consisted of the layer depth, the thermal gradient within the layer, and occurrence frequency of radiative and elevated inversions. To adequately represent the multiyear seasonal

Uri Dayan; Jacob Rodnizki

1999-01-01

308

Three-dimensional Large Eddy Simulation of wave bottom boundary layer

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bottom boundary layer developed under surface waves has been widely studied in the past few decades because of the crucial role it plays in hydrodynamic dissipation and sediment transport. However, most of the previous numerical research simplified the wave field above the bottom boundary layer as fully-developed oscillatory flow. Many processes, such as boundary layer streaming, are neglected. With the aim of better understanding bottom boundary layer processes under real waves and to further investigate the interaction between the surface generated turbulence (e.g., breaking waves; wave-current interaction) and bottom boundary layer turbulence, a numerical study of three-dimensional Large Eddy Simulation (LES) is carried out. OpenFOAM, an open-source C++ toolbox which provides a solver of 3D Navier-Stokes equations and free-surface tracking, is utilized with a dynamic Smagorinsky closure. An idealized domain that contains a single wave is established with periodic boundary conditions in the streamwise and spanwise directions. The width of the channel is sufficiently large to contain the largest turbulent eddies. Firstly, laboratory data of bottom boundary layer under non-breaking waves is used to validate the numerical model and a good agreement is obtained. A more detailed investigation of the three-dimensional bottom boundary layer of non-breaking waves, e.g., the distribution of shear stress, turbulence structure and boundary layer streaming are investigated. Model results are compared with those in an oscillatory channel flow to contrast the effect of the inhomogeneous wave field. During the conference, we will also present preliminary results for wave-current interaction and wave breaking processes.

Zhou, Z.; Hsu, T.

2012-12-01

309

The Boundary Layer Late Afternoon and Sunset Turbulence Project

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The BLLAST (Boundary Layer Late Afternoon and Sunset Turbulence) project aims at better understanding the turbulence processes which occur during the transition from a well-mixed convective boundary layer to a residual layer overlying a stabilized nocturnal layer. This phase of the diurnal cycle is challenging from both modeling and observational perspectives: it is transitory, most of the forcings are small or null during the transition and the turbulence regime changes from the fully convective regime of turbulence, close to homogeneous and isotropic, toward more heterogeneous and intermittent turbulence during its decay. Those issues motivated a field campaign that was conducted from 14 June to 8 July 2011 in southern France in complex terrain and consisted of a range of integrated instrument platforms including: full-size aircraft, Remotely Piloted Airplane Systems (RPAS), remote sensing instruments, radiosoundings, tethered balloons, surface flux stations, and various meteorological towers deployed over different surface covers. The boundary layer, from the earth's surface to free troposphere was densely probed during the entire day, with a focus and intense observations from midday until sunset. The field dataset now forms the base of a set of studies utilizing the observations and several types of models including: Large Eddy Simulation, Mesoscale models, forecast models. The presentation will expose an overview of this experiment and of the current observational and modeling studies, with the focus on: the turbulence decay process within the entire boundary layer from surface to the top, the mesoscale forcings of importance during BLLAST, the ability of the forecast models to represent the diurnal cycle, the relevance of the Monin Obukhov similarity theory, and shallow drainage flows. Reference: Lothon M. et al., 2012. The Boundary-Layer Late Afternoon and Sunset Turbulence field experiment, Proc. of the 20th Symposium on Boundary-Layers and Turbulence, 7-13 July, Boston, MA, USA.

Lothon, Marie; Lohou, Fabienne; Darbieu, Clara; Couvreux, Fleur; Pino, David; Blay, Estel; Vila-Guerau de Arellano, Jordi; Pietersen, Henk; Hartogensis, Oscar; Pardyjak, Eric; Alexander, Daniel; Reuder, Joachim; Baaserud, Line; Nilsson, Erik; Jimenez, Maria Antonia; Faloona, Ian; Sastre-Marugan, Mariano; Angevine, Wayne M.; Canut, Guylaine; Bazile, Eric

2014-05-01

310

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A summary report of boundary layer studies is presented. Preliminary results of experimental measurements show that: (1) A very thin layer (approximately 0.4 mm) of the boundary layer seems to be accelerated; (2) the static pressure of the outer flow does not remain exactly constant through the boundary layer; and (3) an oncoming boundary layer which is already turbulent at the suction point can again become laminar behind this point without being completely sucked off.

Vanness, W.

1978-01-01

311

Surface modes in sheared boundary layers over impedance linings

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Surface modes, being duct modes localized close to the duct wall, are analysed within a lined cylindrical duct with uniform flow apart from a thin boundary layer. As well as full numerical solutions of the Pridmore-Brown equation, simplified mathematical models are given where the duct lining and boundary layer are lumped together and modelled using a single boundary condition (a modification of the Myers boundary condition previously proposed by the author), from which a surface mode dispersion relation is derived. For a given frequency, up to six surface modes are shown to exist, rather than the maximum of four for uniform slipping flow. Not only is the different number and behaviour of surface modes important for frequency-domain mode-matching techniques, which depend on having found all relevant modes during matching, but the thin boundary layer is also shown to lead to different convective and absolute stability than for uniform slipping flow. Numerical examples are given comparing the predictions of the surface mode dispersion relation to full solutions of the Pridmore-Brown equation, and the accuracy with which surface modes are predicted is shown to be significantly increased compared with the uniform slipping flow assumption. The importance of not only the boundary layer thickness but also its profile (tanh or linear) is demonstrated. A Briggs-Bers stability analysis is also performed under the assumption of a mass-spring-damper or Helmholtz resonator impedance model.

Brambley, E. J.

2013-08-01

312

Stabilization of boundary layer streaks by plasma actuators

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A flow's transition from laminar to turbulent leads to increased levels of skin friction. In recent years, dielectric barrier discharge actuators have been shown to be able to delay the onset of turbulence in boundary layers. While the laminar to turbulent transition process can be initiated by several different instability mechanisms, so far, only stabilization of the Tollmien-Schlichting path to transition has received significant attention, leaving the stabilization of other transition paths using these actuators less explored. To fill that void, a bi-global stability analysis is used here to examine the stabilization of boundary layer streaks in a laminar boundary layer. These streaks, which are important to both transient and by-pass instability mechanisms, are damped by the addition of a flow-wise oriented plasma body force to the boundary layer. Depending on the magnitude of the plasma actuation, this damping can be up to 25% of the perturbation's kinetic energy. The damping mechanism appears to be due to highly localized effects in the immediate vicinity of the body force, and when examined using a linearized Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes energy balance, indicate negative production of the perturbation's kinetic energy. Parametric studies of the stabilization have also been performed, varying the magnitude of the plasma actuator's body force and the spanwise wavenumber of the actuation. Based on these parametric studies, the damping of the boundary layer streaks appears to be linear with respect to the total amount of body force applied to the flow.

Riherd, Mark; Roy, Subrata

2014-03-01

313

Linear and nonlinear PSE for compressible boundary layers

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Compressible stability of growing boundary layers is studied by numerically solving the partial differential equations under a parabolizing approximation. The resulting parabolized stability equations (PSE) account for nonparallel as well as nonlinear effects. Evolution of disturbances in compressible flat-plate boundary layers are studied for freestream Mach numbers ranging from 0 to 4.5. Results indicate that the effect of boundary-layer growth is important for linear disturbances. Nonlinear calculations are performed for various Mach numbers. Two-dimensional nonlinear results using the PSE approach agree well with those from direct numerical simulations using the full Navier-Stokes equations while the required computational time is less by an order of magnitude. Spatial simulation using PSE were carried out for both the fundamental and subharmonic type breakdown for a Mach 1.6 boundary layer. The promising results obtained show that the PSE method is a powerful tool for studying boundary-layer instabilities and for predicting transition over a wide range of Mach numbers.

Chang, Chau-Lyan; Malik, Mujeeb R.; Erlebacher, Gordon; Hussaini, M. Yousuff

1993-01-01

314

Bending Boundary Layers in Laminated-Composite Circular Cylindrical Shells

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A study of the attenuation of bending boundary layers in balanced and unbalanced, symmetrically and unsymmetrically laminated cylindrical shells is presented for nine contemporary material systems. The analysis is based on the linear Sanders-Koiter shell equations and specializations to the Love-Kirchhoff shell equations and Donnell's equations are included. Two nondimensional parameters are identified that characterize the effects of laminate orthotropy and anisotropy on the bending boundary-layer decay length in a very general manner. A substantial number of structural design technology results are presented for a wide range of laminated-composite cylinders. For all laminates considered, the results show that the differences between results obtained with the Sanders-Koiter shell equations, the Love-Kirchhoff shell equations, and Donnell's equations are negligible. The results also show that the effect of anisotropy in the form of coupling between pure bending and twisting has a negligible effect on the size of the bending boundary-layer decay length of the balanced, symmetrically laminated cylinders considered. Moreover, the results show that coupling between the various types of shell anisotropies has a negligible effect on the calculation of the bending boundary-layer decay length in most cases. The results also show that, in some cases, neglecting the shell anisotropy results in underestimating the bending boundary-layer decay length and, in other cases, results in an overestimation.

Nemeth, Michael P.; Smeltzer, Stanley S., III

2000-01-01

315

Reynolds number effects on the turbulence field in compressible boundary layers

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Detailed experiments were conducted in a zero pressure gradient, supersonic turbulent boundary layer, including measurements of the three components of velocity fluctuations and the turbulent shear stress, for Reynolds numbers ranging from 11.7 million to 105 million at a freestream Mach number of 2.3. The mean flow measurements established the fully developed and equilibrium nature of the boundary layer. Measurements of the turbulence field show that the vertical and transverse fluctuations are essentially equal throughout the boundary layer at all Reynolds numbers, a feature that is different from observations in incompressible flows. The data show that the boundary layer exhibits similarity in the turbulence profiles for the entire Reynolds number range and agrees with previous compressible and incompressible data using Morkovin's scaling to account for compressibility effects.

Acharya, M.; Horstman, C. C.; Kussoy, M. I.

1979-01-01

316

Goertler instability in compressible boundary layers along curved surfaces with suction and cooling

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Goertler instability of the laminar compressible boundary layer flows along concave surfaces is investigated. The linearized disturbance equations for the three-dimensional, counter-rotating streamwise vortices in two-dimensional boundary layers are presented in an orthogonal curvilinear coordinate. The basic approximation of the disturbance equations, that includes the effect of the growth of the boundary layer, is considered and solved numerically. The effect of compressibility on critical stability limits, growth rates, and amplitude ratios of the vortices is evaluated for a range of Mach numbers for 0 to 5. The effect of wall cooling and suction of the boundary layer on the development of Goertler vortices is investigated for different Mach numbers.

El-Hady, N.; Verma, A. K.

1982-01-01

317

Effects of Riblets on Skin Friction in High-Speed Turbulent Boundary Layers

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Direct numerical simulations of spatially developing turbulent boundary layers over riblets are conducted to examine the effects of riblets on skin friction at supersonic speeds. Zero-pressure gradient boundary layers with an adiabatic wall, a Mach number of M1 = 2.5, and a Reynolds number based on momentum thickness of Re = 1720 are considered. Simulations are conducted for boundary-layer flows over a clean surface and symmetric V- groove riblets with nominal spacings of 20 and 40 wall units. The DNS results confirm the few existing experimental observations and show that a drag reduction of approximately 7% is achieved for riblets with proper spacing. The influence of riblets on turbulence statistics is analyzed in detail with an emphasis on identifying the differences, if any, between the drag reduction mechanisms for incompressible and high-speed boundary layers.

Duan, Lian; Choudhari, Meelan M.

2012-01-01

318

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The flow conditions for which heating distributions were measured on corrugated surfaces and wavy walls in turbulent boundary layers are shown, along with the ratio of the displacement thickness to the roughness height versus the local edge Mach number for an equivalent smooth surface. The present data are seen to greatly extend the range of data available on corrugated surfaces in turbulent boundary layers. These data were obtained by testing fullscale corrugation roughened panels in the wall boundary layer of a supersonic and hypersonic wind tunnel. The experimental program used to obtain the data is described. The data are analyzed and correlated in terms of the pertinent flow and geometric parameters. The developed correlations are compared with the available thin boundary layer data, as well as with previously published correlation techniques.

Brandon, H. J.; Masek, R. V.

1974-01-01

319

Investigations of shock wave boundary layer interaction on suction side of compressor profile

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The shock wave boundary layer interaction on the suction side of transonic compressor blade is one of main objectives of TFAST project (Transition Location Effect on Shock Wave Boundary Layer Interaction). In order to look more closely into the flow structure on the suction side of a blade, a design of a generic test section in linear transonic wind tunnel was proposed. The test section which could reproduce flow structure, shock wave location, pressure distribution and boundary layer development similar to the obtained on a cascade profile is the main objective of the presented here design. The design of the proposed test section is very challenging, because of shock wave existence, its interaction with boundary layer and its influence on the 3-D flow structure in the test section.

Piotrowicz, M.; Flaszy?ski, P.; Doerffer, P.

2014-08-01

320

Large-eddy simulation of plume dispersion under various thermally stratified boundary layers

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Contaminant gas dispersion in atmospheric boundary layer is of great concern to public health. For the accurate prediction of the dispersion problem, the present study numerically investigates the behavior of plume dispersion by taking into account the atmospheric stability which is classified into three types; neutral, stable, and convective boundary layers. We first proposed an efficient method to generate spatially-developing, thermally-stratified boundary layers and examined the usefulness of our approach by comparing to wind tunnel experimental data for various thermal boundary layers. The spreads of plume in the spanwise direction are quantitatively underestimated especially at large downwind distances from the point source, owing to the underestimation of turbulence intensities for the spanwise component; however, the dependence of the spanwise spreads to atmospheric stability is well represented in a qualitative sense. It was shown that the large-eddy simulation (LES) model provides physically reasonable results.

Nakayama, H.; Takemi, T.; Nagai, H.

2014-07-01

321

Gelled propellant flow: Boundary layer theory for power-law fluids in a converging planar channel

A boundary layer theory for the flow of power-law fluids in a converging planar channel has been developed. This theory suggests a Reynolds number for such flows, and following numerical integration, a boundary layer thickness. This boundary layer thickness has been used in the generation of a finite element mesh for the finite element code FIDAP. FIDAP was then used to simulate the flow of power-law fluids through a converging channel. Comparison of the analytic and finite element results shows the two to be in very good agreement in regions where entrance and exit effects (not considered in the boundary layer theory) can be neglected. 6 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

Kraynik, A.M.; Geller, A.S.; Glick, J.H.

1989-10-01

322

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Algorithms are developed to extract atmospheric boundary layer profiles for turbulence kinetic energy (TKE) and energy dissipation rate (EDR), with data from a meteorological tower as input. The profiles are based on similarity theory and scalings for the atmospheric boundary layer. The calculated profiles of EDR and TKE are required to match the observed values at 5 and 40 m. The algorithms are coded for operational use and yield plausible profiles over the diurnal variation of the atmospheric boundary layer.

Han, Jongil; Arya, S. Pal; Shaohua, Shen; Lin, Yuh-Lang; Proctor, Fred H. (Technical Monitor)

2000-01-01

323

Transition and Breakdown to Turbulence in Incompressible Boundary Layers

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We have developed a code where the nonlinear terms are treated implicitly. The equations are discretized using the two-point fourth order compact scheme in the y-direction and the backward Euler method in the x-direction. We investigated the transition process in a Blasius boundary layer due to fundamental type breakdown. With 8 modes in the w and 3 planes, we could compute the evolution of disturbances up to Re(x)=910, which is well into the strongly nonlinear region. The transition onset point is located around Re(x)=850. The comparison with the measurements and with the DNS computations are very good up to Re(x)=880.

Balakumar, Ponnampalam

1998-01-01

324

Combined core/boundary layer transport simulations in tokamaks

Significant new numerical results are presented from self-consistent core and boundary or scrape-off layer plasma simulations with 3-D neutral transport calculations. For a symmetric belt limiter it is shown that, for plasma conditions considered here, the pump limiter collection efficiency increases from 11% to 18% of the core efflux as a result of local reionization of blade deflected neutrals. This hitherto unobserved effect causes a significant amplification of upstream ion flux entering the pump limiter. Results from coupling of an earlier developed two-zone edge plasma model ODESSA to the PROCTR core plasma simulation code indicates that intense recycling divertor operation may not be possible because of stagnation of upstream flow velocity. This results in a self-consistent reduction of density gradient in an intermediate region between the central plasma and separatrix, and a concomitant reduction of core-efflux. There is also evidence of increased recycling at the first wall.

Prinja, A.K.; Schafer, R.F. Jr.; Conn, R.W.; Howe, H.C.

1986-04-01

325

Boundary-layer-ingesting inlet flow control system

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A system for reducing distortion at the aerodynamic interface plane of a boundary-layer-ingesting inlet using a combination of active and passive flow control devices is disclosed. Active flow control jets and vortex generating vanes are used in combination to reduce distortion across a range of inlet operating conditions. Together, the vortex generating vanes can reduce most of the inlet distortion and the active flow control jets can be used at a significantly reduced control jet mass flow rate to make sure the inlet distortion stays low as the inlet mass flow rate varies. Overall inlet distortion, measured and described as average SAE circumferential distortion descriptor, was maintained at a value of 0.02 or less. Advantageous arrangements and orientations of the active flow control jets and the vortex generating vanes were developed using computational fluid dynamics simulations and wind tunnel experimentations.

Owens, Lewis R. (Inventor); Allan, Brian G. (Inventor)

2010-01-01

326

Three velocity component, nonhomogeneous atmospheric boundary layer turbulence modeling

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The vertical nonhomogeneous character of turbulence in the atmospheric boundary layer results in a non-stationary turbulence process relative to an aircraft during takeoff and landing despite the fact that the turbulence statistics can be horizontally homogeneous. The simulation of the three components of the turbulent winds which include the nonstationary aspect of atmospheric turbulence is the subject of this paper. A procedure is developed and demonstrated to generate the three components of a turbulence ramdom process field, u sub i(x,z) where x and z denote horizontal and vertical coordinates and u sub i, i = 1,2,3 are the three orthogonal components of the turbulent random field. This field satisfies any desired one point auto spectra as well as two point statistics (interlevel correlations). By use of Taylors frozen eddy hypothesis we can transform the turbulent random field into the time domain and obtain the random turbulence along an aircraft trajectory.

Perlmutter, M.; Frost, W.; Fichtl, G. H.

1976-01-01

327

Turbulence in the convective boundary layer observed by microwave interferometry

A 9-antenna, 400 meter microwave interferometer was utilized in SALSA MEX on the San Pedro River area in July and August, 1997, to measure the turbulence in the Convective Boundary Layer. Water vapor has an appreciable index of refraction at radio frequencies around 10 GHz, and acts as a passive tracer of the magnitude and motion of turbulence. The relative phase changes of a signal from a satellite were tracked by an array of 9 antennas, and the phase differences between antennas were then used to derive the turbulence properties of the boundary layer. Preliminary analysis shows clearly different characteristics for the convection activity of the boundary layer between day and night. From the structure function analysis they can see that the turbulence structure starts to decorrelate at scale sizes of 200 meters for a temporal passband around 100 seconds. Derivation of average wind fields is currently in process.

Shao, X.M.; Carlos, R.C.; Kirkland, M.W.

1997-12-01

328

Method for laminar boundary layer transition visualization in flight

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Disclosed is a method of visualizing laminar to turbulent boundary layer transition, shock location, and laminar separation bubbles around a test surface. A liquid crystal coating is formulated using an unencapsulated liquid crystal operable in a temperature bandwidth compatible with the temperature environment around the test surface. The liquid crystal coating is applied to the test surface, which is preferably pretreated by painting with a flat, black paint to achieve a deep matte coating, after which the surface is subjected to a liquid or gas flow. Color change in the liquid crystal coating is produced in response to differences in relative shear stress within the boundary layer around the test surface. The novelty of this invention resides in the use of liquid crystals which are sensitive to shear stress to show aerodynamic phenomena such as a boundary layer transition, shock location, and laminar separation bubbles around a test surface.

Holmes, Bruce J. (inventor); Gall, Peter D. (inventor)

1988-01-01

329

Numerical Simulations of Wake/Boundary Layer Interactions

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Direct and large-eddy simulations of the interaction between the wake of a circular cylinder and a flat-plate boundary layer are conducted. Two Reynolds numbers are examined. The simulations indicate that at the lower Reynolds number the boundary layer is buffeted by the unsteady Karman vortex street shed by the cylinder. The fluctuations, however, cannot be self-sustained due to the low Reynolds-number, and the flow does not reach a turbulent state within the computational domain. In contrast, in the higher Reynolds-number case, boundary-layer fluctuations persist after the wake has decayed (due, in part, to the higher values of the local Reynolds number Re(sub theta) achieved in this case); some evidence could be observed that a self-sustaining turbulence generation cycle was beginning to be established.

Piomelli, Ugo; Choudhari, Meelan M.; Ovchinnikov, Victor; Balaras, Elias

2003-01-01

330

Effect of Blowing on Boundary Layer of Scarf Inlet

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

When aircraft operate in stationary or low speed conditions, airflow into the engine accelerates around the inlet lip and pockets of turbulence that cause noise and vibration can be ingested. This problem has been encountered with engines equipped with the scarf inlet, both in full scale and in model tests, where the noise produced during the static test makes it difficult to assess the noise reduction performance of the scarf inlet. NASA Langley researchers have implemented boundary layer control in an attempt to reduce the influence of the flow nonuniformity in a 12-in. diameter model of a high bypass fan engine mounted in an anechoic chamber. Static pressures and boundary layer profiles were measured in the inlet and far field acoustic measurements were made to assess the effectiveness of the blowing treatment. The blowing system was found to lack the authority to overcome the inlet distortions. Methods to improve the implementation of boundary layer control to reduce inlet distortion are discussed.

Gerhold, Carl H.; Clark, Lorenzo R.

2004-01-01

331

Roughness Induced Transition in a Supersonic Boundary Layer

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Direct numerical simulation is used to investigate the transition induced by threedimensional isolated roughness elements in a supersonic boundary layer at a free stream Mach number of 3.5. Simulations are performed for two different configurations: one is a square planform roughness and the other is a diamond planform roughness. The mean-flow calculations show that the roughness induces counter rotating streamwise vortices downstream of the roughness. These vortices persist for a long distance downstream and lift the low momentum fluid from the near wall region and place it near the outer part of the boundary layer. This forms highly inflectional boundary layer profiles. These observations agree with recent experimental observations. The receptivity calculations showed that the amplitudes of the mass-flux fluctuations near the neutral point for the diamond shape roughness are the same as the amplitude of the acoustic disturbances. They are three times smaller for the square shape roughness.

Balakumar, Ponnampalam; Kergerise, Michael A.

2013-01-01

332

Boundary layer integral matrix procedure: Verification of models

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The three turbulent models currently available in the JANNAF version of the Aerotherm Boundary Layer Integral Matrix Procedure (BLIMP-J) code were studied. The BLIMP-J program is the standard prediction method for boundary layer effects in liquid rocket engine thrust chambers. Experimental data from flow fields with large edge-to-wall temperature ratios are compared to the predictions of the three turbulence models contained in BLIMP-J. In addition, test conditions necessary to generate additional data on a flat plate or in a nozzle are given. It is concluded that the Cebeci-Smith turbulence model be the recommended model for the prediction of boundary layer effects in liquid rocket engines. In addition, the effects of homogeneous chemical reaction kinetics were examined for a hydrogen/oxygen system. Results show that for most flows, kinetics are probably only significant for stoichiometric mixture ratios.

Bonnett, W. S.; Evans, R. M.

1977-01-01

333

Optical measurements of degradation in aircraft boundary layers

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Visible wavelength measurements of the degradation of optical beams when transmitted through the thin aerodynamic boundary layers around an aircraft are reviewed. The measured results indicated degradation levels for the KC-135 airplanes between 0.10 to 0.13 lambda increasing to 0.18 lambda (rms wavefront distortion). For the Lear Jet, degradation with a 25 mm diameter optics was roughly 0.07 lambda. The corresponding infinite aperture degradation levels are also calculated. The corresponding measured correlation lengths of roughly 12 mm for the KC-135 aircraft and 6 mm for the Lear Jet scale to roughly 20 and 25 mm, respectively, for infinite apertures. These boundary layer correlation lengths do not appear to reflect the different boundary layer thicknesses on the two different aircraft.

Kelsall, D.

1980-01-01

334

Boundary layer effects on particle impaction and capture

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The inertial impaction and deposition of small particles on larger bodies with viscous boundary layers are considered theoretically, in a detailed comment on a paper by Menguturk et al. (1983). Topics addressed include cushion effects, the dimensionless groups corresponding to the diameter range (3-6 microns) examined by Menguturk et al. in a numerical example, analogous effects of particle-gas energy and mass exchange in boundary layers, and the combined effects of particle inertia and diffusion. It is argued that the inertial effects can be characterized in terms of a body, boundary-layer, or sublayer Stokes number. In a reply by Menguturk et al., the focus is on the application of the theoretical model to the erosion of blade surfaces in large gas turbines; the Stokes number is found to be of limited practical value in these cases, because the particle motion is not primarily normal to the blade surfaces.

Rosner, D. E.; Fernandez De La Mora, J.

1984-01-01

335

Three dimensional boundary layer separation in supersonic flow

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An account is given of a detailed experimental investigation of three dimensional boundary layer separation in supersonic flow. In investigating three dimensional effects on supersonic separation, models were chosen which exhibited departures from two dimensional flow in the simplest way. The plane compression corner was replaced by a plate attached to a swept back wedge formed by two obliquely intersecting planes. Maintaining a constant tunnel Mach number of 2.5, surface pressure measurements were made on these models at static orifices spaced along the centerline and along three parallel lines. The flow parameters in the boundary layer and separated regions adjacent to the model surface were measured by traversing hot wire and pitot probes. The traverses were taken across the boundary layer and reversed flow regions in a direction normal to the body surface; they were made in several vertical planes, including the plane of symmetry.

Bachalo, W. D.; Holt, M.

1976-01-01

336

An investigation of shock/turbulent boundary layer bleed interactions

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A numerical investigation was conducted to determine the effect of bleed on oblique shock wave/turbulent boundary layer interactions. The numerical solution to the compressible Navier-Stokes equations reveal the flow details throughout the interaction zone and inside the normal bleed slot. Results are presented for an incident oblique shock of sufficient strength to cause boundary layer separation in the absence of bleed. Bleed is applied across the shock impingement location over a range of bleed mass flow rates corresponding to different values of plenum pressures. The results indicate a complex flow structure with large variations in both normal and tangential flow velocities across the bleed slot. The flow entrainment into the slot is accompanied by an expansion-compression wave system with a bow shock originating inside the bleed slot. Increasing the bleed mass flow by decreasing the plenum pressure caused an initial decrease then a later increase in the boundary layer momentum and displacement thickness downstream of the interaction.

Hamed, A.; Shih, S. H.; Yeuan, J. J.

1992-01-01

337

Finite volume solution of the compressible boundary-layer equations

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A box-type finite volume discretization is applied to the integral form of the compressible boundary layer equations. Boundary layer scaling is introduced through the grid construction: streamwise grid lines follow eta = y/h = const., where y is the normal coordinate and h(x) is a scale factor proportional to the boundary layer thickness. With this grid, similarity can be applied explicity to calculate initial conditions. The finite volume method preserves the physical transparency of the integral equations in the discrete approximation. The resulting scheme is accurate, efficient, and conceptually simple. Computations for similar and non-similar flows show excellent agreement with tabulated results, solutions computed with Keller's Box scheme, and experimental data.

Loyd, B.; Murman, E. M.

1986-01-01

338

Sound from boundary layer flow over steps and gaps

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study is concerned with the radiated sound from boundary layer flows over small forward and backward steps and gap configurations of similar dimension. These measurements were performed in the Virginia Tech Anechoic Wall Jet Facility for step heights that ranged from approximately 10 percent to 100 percent of the incoming boundary layer height. The results show the influence of step height and boundary layer edge velocity on the far-field sound from forward and backward steps. Neither source shows clear dipole directivity and at least the larger step heights considered in this study are shown to not be acoustically compact. A new mixed scaling normalization is proposed for the far-field spectra from both types of step. Backward steps are shown to be much weaker producers of far-field sound than similarly sized forward steps. The implications of this behavior are discussed with respect to the far-field sound measured from various gap flows.

Ryan Catlett, M.; Devenport, William; Glegg, Stewart A. L.

2014-09-01

339

Boundary-Layer Turbulence Over The Nebraska Sandhills

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Data from National Centre for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) Queen Air boundary-layer flights over the Nebraska Sandhills are analyzed to investigate the effects of these low hills on boundary-layer turbulence. The Sandhills are an area of anisotropic rolling terrain with characteristic wavelengths of order 2km and rms height variations of order 25m. The biggest impact is found in early morning flight data where horizontal velocity perturbations appear at the same wavelengths as the terrain and variances (normalised by u 2 , where u is the local friction velocity) are significantly enhanced relative to standard flat terrain values. By contrast the vertical velocity variance seems less affected and terrain effects are much less evident in data from the afternoon convective boundary layer.

Mengesha, Yoseph G.; Taylor, Peter A.; Lenschow, Donald H.

340

Numerical simulation of separated boundary-layer flow

The numerical simulation of time-dependent, 2-D compressible boundary-layer flow containing a region of separation is studied. The separation is generated by the introduction of an adverse pressure gradient along the freestream boundary. In order to validate the numerical method, a low Mach-number laminar separation bubble flow is considered, which enables an extensive comparison with incompressible results. The generation of an

B. Wasistho; B. J. Geurts; J. G. M. Kuerten

1997-01-01

341

Numerical Simulation of Secondary Instability in Hypersonic Boundary Layers

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Secondary Gortler instability in a Mach 15 flow over a blunt wedge with a concave surface is investigated using direct numerical simulation (DNS). Initial forcing disturbances in the simulation are obtained from linear stability theory (LST), and subsequent linear and nonlinear development of the hypersonic Gortler vortices and their secondary instability are studied by computing the full Navier-Stokes equations using a fifth order finite difference upwind scheme and a shock fitting method. The nonlinear development of Gortler vortices distorts the mean flow and leads to highly inflectional profiles not only in wall normal direction, but also in spanwise direction which induce the secondary instability. In the break-down process of Gortler vortices, unsteady fluctuations appear in the vortices. Such a process is through a secondary instability mechanism. Nonlinear development of Gortler vortices in the Mach 15 flow has been studied by imposing strong disturbances obtained from LST at the inlet of computational domain. A two-dimensional linear stability code is applied for the distorted mean flow in order to find secondary modes of hypersonic Gortler vortices. The mode obtained by linear stability analysis is imposed at the entrance of the computational domain. Subsequent development of the secondary mode is carried out by solving the full Navier-Stokes equations. The numerical results of nonlinear development of hypersonic gortler vortices show the inflectional profiles in boundary layers. The numerical results of secondary instability show that the interaction of Görtler vortices with the strong varicose mode leads to the development of a horseshoe vortex.

Whang, Chong; Zhong, Xiaolin

2001-11-01

342

Effect of Far-Field Boundary Conditions on Boundary-Layer Transition

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The effect of far-field boundary conditions on the evolution of a finite-amplitude two-dimensional wave in the Blasius boundary layer is assessed. With the use of the parabolized stability equations (PSE) theory for the numerical computations, either asymptotic, Dirichlet, Neumann or mixed boundary conditions are imposed at various distances from the wall. The results indicate that asymptotic and mixed boundary conditions yield the most accurate mean-flow distortion and unsteady instability modes in comparison with the results obtained with either Dirichlet or Neumann conditions.

Bertolotti, Fabio P.; Joslin, Ronald D.

1994-01-01

343

Effect of Far-Field Boundary Conditions on Boundary-Layer Transition

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The effect of far-field boundary conditions on the evolution of a finite-amplitude two-dimensional wave in the Blasius boundary layer is assessed. With the use of the parabolized stability equations (PSE) theory for the numerical computations, either asymptotic, Dirichlet, Neumann or mixed boundary conditions are imposed at various distances from the wall. The results indicate that asymptotic and mixed boundary conditions yield the most accurate mean-flow distortion and unsteady instability modes in comparison with the results obtained with either Dirichlet or Neumann conditions.

Bertolotti, Fabio P.; Joslin, Ronald D.

1995-01-01

344

Second mode interactions in supersonic boundary layers

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The nonlinear evolution of a two-dimensional second mode unstable wave in a Mach 4.5 wall-bounded flow is computed by solving the full time-dependent compressible Navier-Stokes equations. A highly accurate solution is obtained using spectral collocation methods. It is shown that departure from linearity first occurs in the critical layer due to the cubic nonlinearities in the momentum equation. This is a direct result of the large density perturbations in this regime. Time evolution studies of the growth rate as a function of normal distance from the plate suggests that the mode is evolving toward a nonlinear saturated state, and that this problem is possibly amenable to standard weakly nonlinear perturbation methods.

Erlebacher, Gordon; Hussaini, M. Y.

1990-01-01

345

Spectral scales in the atmospheric boundary layer

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Wind data taken from 10 levels between 18 and 305 m were examined to determine the properties of atmospheric turbulence within and above the atmospheric surface layer into the PBL. The samples were averaged over 40 min intervals, with all periods of rain, fog, and other disturbances being eliminated from the 16 days of monitoring. Turbulence spectra were calculated using a fast Fourier transformation. The tower was located in rolling terrain covered with pine forests, waist-high scrub, and cultivated fields. Results are presented for the wavelength and Eulerian length scales, considering the neutral, stable, and unstable PBL. Correlation coefficients were found between velocity fluctuations and wavelengths for the stability classes. Good agreements were found for measured and computed spectra in all but unstable conditions.

Weber, A. H.; Irwin, J. S.; Mathis, J. J., Jr.; Kahler, J. P.; Petersen, W. B.

1982-01-01

346

Secondary instability in boundary-layer flows

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The stability of a secondary Tollmien-Schlichting wave, whose wavenumber and frequency are nearly one half those of a fundamental Tollmien-Schlichting instability wave is analyzed using the method of multiple scales. Under these conditions, the fundamental wave acts as a parametric exciter for the secondary wave. The results show that the amplitude of the fundamental wave must exceed a critical value to trigger this parametric instability. This value is proportional to a detuning parameter which is the real part of k - 2K, where k and K are the wavenumbers of the fundamental and its subharmonic, respectively. For Blasius flow, the critical amplitude is approximately 29% of the mean flow, and hence many other secondary instabilities take place before this parametric instability becomes significant. For other flows where the detuning parameter is small, such as free-shear layer flows, the critical amplitude can be small, thus the parametric instability might play a greater role.

Nayfeh, A. H.; Bozatli, A. N.

1979-01-01

347

Time Scales of the Trade Wind Boundary Layer Adjustment GILLES BELLON

of the trade wind atmospheric boundary layer to an abrupt sea surface warming is in- vestigated using a large of the boundary layer depth. 1. Introduction The trade wind atmospheric boundary layer can be consideredTime Scales of the Trade Wind Boundary Layer Adjustment GILLES BELLON Centre National de Recherches

Ribes, AurĂ©lien

348

with the empirical form found in the atmospheric boundary layer. In the inertial subrange the momentum flux of turbulence spectral properties have been conducted in the atmospheric boundary layer, e.g., the 1968 Kansas spectral properties in the oceanic boundary layer com- pared to studies in the atmospheric boundary layer

Lien, Ren-Chieh

349

De Bilt, 2010 | Technical report; TR-315 Assimilation of Cabauw boundary layer

;#12;Assimilation of Cabauw boundary layer observations in an atmospheric single-column model using an ensemble the structure and transport properties of the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL). Boundary layer processes have the full atmospheric column over the Netherland of which the atmospheric boundary layer forms the lowest

Stoffelen, Ad

350

understanding of homogeneous stable boundary layers (SBLs). However, in general, the atmospheric boundary layerSurface heterogeneity effects on regional-scale fluxes in stable boundary layers: surface temperature distributions on regional-scale turbulent fluxes in the stable boundary layer (SBL). Simulations

Stoll, Rob

351

A simple numerical method for the calculation of the laminar boundary layer

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An iteration difference method for the calculation of the incompressible laminar boundary layer is described. The method uses Prandtl's boundary layer equation and the boundary conditions directly and permits the attainment of an arbitrary accuracy. The method has been tested successfully in the continuation of the Blasius profile on the flat plate, on the circular cylinder investigated by Heimenz and on an elliptical cylinder of fineness ratio 1:4. The method makes possible the testing of previously developed methods, all of which contain important assumptions.

Schroder, K

1952-01-01

352

Skin friction in zero-pressure-gradient boundary layers.

A global approach leading to a self-consistent solution to the Navier-Stokes-Prandtl equations for zero-pressure-gradient boundary layers is presented. It is shown that as Re(?)? ?, the dynamically defined boundary layer thickness ?(x) ? x/ln2 ?Rex and the skin friction ? = 2?(w)/?U(0)(2) ? 1/ln2 ??(x). Here ?(w) and U0 are the wall shear stress and free stream velocity, respectively. The theory is formulated as an expansion in powers of a small dimensionless parameter d?(x)/dx ? 0 in the limit x ? ?. PMID:21230338

Yakhot, Victor

2010-10-01

353

Solid\\/free-surface juncture boundary layer and wake

The Reynolds-averaged flow for a solid\\/free-surface juncture boundary layer and wake is documented. The three mean-velocity\\u000a components and five of the Reynolds stresses are measured for a surface-piercing flat plate in a towing tank using a laser-Doppler\\u000a velocimeter system for both boundary-layer and wake planes in regions close to the free surface. The experimental method is\\u000a described, including the foil-plate

J. Longo; H. P. Huang; F. Stern

1998-01-01

354

Flow separation in oblique shock wave turbulent boundary layer interactions

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Available experimental data on flow separation in shock wave turbulent boundary layer interactions are reviewed at hypersonic and supersonic speeds in two dimensional and axisymmetric interactions. The conditions leading to flow separation and the subsequent changes in the flow are discussed. The effects of the Mach number, Reynolds number, surface cooling and the methods of detecting separation are discussed. Pertinent experimental data for the separated flow characteristics in turbulent boundary layer oblique shock wave interactions are also presented and discussed. Empirical correlations for separated flows are also reviewed.

Hamed, A.

1990-01-01

355

Circulation and boundary layers in differentially heated rotating strarified fluid

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent laboratory experiments with rotating stratified water in a cylinder have revealed many of the predictions of linearized, analytic theory. Earlier measurements of the velocity field generated in a cylinder by top heating compared well with theory. Large stratification clearly suppressed Ekman pumping so that the interior velocity field (primarily azimuthal) responded by satisfying no-slip top and bottom boundary conditions without the need for Ekman layers. This interior flow also occupied a boundary layer of greater thickness than the Ekman layer under some conditions. Theory and experiments have now been conducted for sidewall heating. As before, experiment and theory agree well over some parameter ranges. But for some parameters, the flow is unstable. The exact nature of the instability remains poorly understood. The size of one combination of both vertical and horizontal boundary layers is governed by the Rossby radius of deformation multiplied by the square root of the Prandtl number. Sidewall boundary layers and their scales will be reviewed with the present results in mind.

Whitehead, J. A.; Pedlosky, J.

2000-01-01

356

Turbulent boundary layers subjected to multiple curvatures and pressure gradients

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The effects of abruptly applied cycles of curvatures and pressure gradients on turbulent boundary layers are examined experimentally. Two two-dimensional curved test surfaces are considered: one has a sequence of concave and convex longitudinal surface curvatures and the other has a sequence of convex and concave curvatures. The choice of the curvature sequences were motivated by a desire to study the asymmetric response of turbulent boundary layers to convex and concave curvatures. The relaxation of a boundary layer from the effects of these two opposite sequences has been compared. The effect of the accompaying sequences of pressure gradient has also been examined but the effect of curvature dominates. The growth of internal layers at the curvature junctions have been studied. Measurements of the Gortler and corner vortex systems have been made. The boundary layer recovering from the sequence of concave to convex curvature has a sustained lower skin friction level than in that recovering from the sequence of convex to concave curvature. The amplification and suppression of turbulence due to the curvature sequences have also been studied.

Bandyopadhyay, Promode R.; Ahmed, Anwar

1993-01-01

357

Nanoscale Hot-Wire Probes for Boundary-Layer Flows

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Hot-wire probes having dimensions of the order of nanometers have been proposed for measuring temperatures (and possibly velocities) in boundary-layer flows at spatial resolutions much finer and distances from walls much smaller than have been possible heretofore. The achievable resolutions and minimum distances are expected to be of the order of tens of nanometers much less than a typical mean free path of a molecule and much less than the thickness of a typical flow boundary layer in air at standard temperature and pressure. An additional benefit of the small scale of these probes is that they would perturb the measured flows less than do larger probes. The hot-wire components of the probes would likely be made from semiconducting carbon nanotubes or ropes of such nanotubes. According to one design concept, a probe would comprise a single nanotube or rope of nanotubes laid out on the surface of an insulating substrate between two metallic wires. According to another design concept, a nanotube or rope of nanotubes would be electrically connected and held a short distance away from the substrate surface by stringing it between two metal electrodes. According to a third concept, a semiconducting nanotube or rope of nanotubes would be strung between the tips of two protruding electrodes made of fully conducting nanotubes or ropes of nanotubes. The figure depicts an array of such probes that could be used to gather data at several distances from a wall. It will be necessary to develop techniques for fabricating the probes. It will also be necessary to determine whether the probes will be strong enough to withstand the aerodynamic forces and impacts of micron-sized particles entrained in typical flows of interest.

Tedjojuwono, Ken T.; Herring, Gregory C.

2003-01-01

358

DNS Study on Physics of Late Boundary Layer Transition

This paper serves as a review of our recent new DNS study on physics of late boundary layer transition. This includes mechanism of the large coherent vortex structure formation, small length scale generation and flow randomization. The widely spread concept vortex breakdown to turbulence,which was considered as the last stage of flow transition, is not observed and is found theoretically incorrect. The classical theory on boundary layer transition is challenged and we proposed a new theory with five steps, i.e. receptivity, linear instability, large vortex formation, small length scale generation, loss of symmetry and randomization to turbulence. We have also proposed a new theory about turbulence generation. The new theory shows that all small length scales (turbulence) are generated by shear layer instability which is produced by large vortex structure with multiple level vortex rings, multiple level sweeps and ejections, and multiple level negative and positive spikes near the laminar sub-layers.Therefore,...

Liu, Chaoqun

2014-01-01

359

Environmental boundaries to energy development

Public concern about the environment, health and safety consequences of energy technology has been growing steadily for more than two decades in the United States. This concern forms an important boundary condition as the United States seeks to develop a new National Energy Strategy. Furthermore, the international aspects of the energy/environment interface such as acid rain global climate change and stratospheric ozone depletion are very prominent in US thinking. In fact, the energy systems of the world are becoming more closely coupled environmentally and otherwise. Now where is this coupling more important than that between the industrialized and developing world; the choices made by each will have profound effects on the other. The development of energy technologies compatible with both economic growth and improving and sustaining environmental quality represents a major R D challenge to the US and USSR. Decision about adoption of new technology and R D priorities can be improved by better measurements of how energy sources and uses are changing throughout the world and better methods to project the potential consequences of these decisions. Such projection require understanding relative risks of alternating existing and evolving technologies. All of these R D areas, technology improvement energy system monitoring and projection and comparative risk assessment are the topics of this seminar. Progress in each may be enhanced by collaboration and cooperation between our two countries. 7 refs., 27 figs., 5 tabs.

Trivelpiece, A.W.

1989-01-01

360

Characteristics of the atmospheric boundary layer at Summit, Greenland

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To determine impacts of snow photochemistry upon the composition of surface snow and its overlying atmosphere field measurements were made at Summit, Greenland. A detailed understanding of the processes involved in air-snow interactions is necessary for the development of reliable models of present and past atmospheric chemistry. This dissertation works towards that goal by utilizing data from the atmospheric boundary layer at Summit in pursuit of the following objectives: (1) to demonstrate that intermittent turbulence can be characterized using existing instrumentation; (2) to parameterize scalar transfers in the near-surface layer; and (3) to describe the annual energy budget and its impact on atmospheric conditions. Spectral analyses of velocity and temperature during stationary runs show that order in the spectral domain does exist, which supports the use of similarity laws. This order is verified by comparisons of spectral peak frequencies to established empirical curves and model results. Cospectra of momentum follow surface layer similarity whereas vertical heat fluxes do not collapse onto expected -4/3 slopes in the inertial subrange. To capture almost all of the turbulent heat flux, sampling rates of no more than 15 Hz are necessary. An ensemble of nonstationary runs show that 50% of the total flux during a 30-minute interval is realized in less than 23% of the total time, while stationary fluxes take about 34% of the total time. The major controls on intermittence are wind speed and degree of stability during stable conditions. Fluxes of momentum and sensible heat are constant with height (+/-20%). Analyses of turbulence data confirm that linear relationships for non-dimensional wind (?m) and temperature (? h) profiles exist in stable conditions. Because most unstable cases at Summit are near neutral, the choice of stability correction in these conditions is not critical. Functions derived in this study to correct fluxes in stable conditions perform better than those currently in use. These functions are used to calculate energy exchanges in all seasons. Importantly, fluxes of sensible heat directed away from the surface in summertime result in the formation of a shallow, mixed boundary layer, which in the absence of synoptic forcing extends to heights of 300 m. These near neutral (unstable) conditions are important in controlling katabatic forcing over the ice sheet.

Cullen, Nicolas J.

361

The diurnal cycle of the Urban Convective Boundary Layer over London

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The daily evolution of the Urban Convective Boundary Layer is of importance in terms of the dispersion of pollutants and for initializing models. In particular, morning and afternoon transition periods are of interest for initializing prognostic models and also for basic understanding of significant processes such as the nocturnal low level jet (LLJ) and the whole structure of the nocturnal atmospheric boundary layer. Moreover, significant differences in the diurnal cycle of fluxes and boundary layer depths of urban and rural sites are expected due to different surface energy balance observed in urban and rural areas. Yet, long term observations of fluxes and boundary layer depth at both urban and rural sites are rear. The aim of the present study is to examine the major phases (morning expansion, midday developed and afternoon decay) of the diurnal cycle of the Convective Boundary Layer. Towards this aim more than 1 year of measurements of a HALO Photonics Doppler Lidar and eddy covariance systems deployed in the frame of the ACTUAL (Advanced Climate Technology Urban Atmospheric Laboratory) project in central London, UK were analyzed. The urban lidar was operating in two modes: continuous stare mode (pointing vertically) and Doppler Beam Swinging (DBS) mode measuring the turbulence and the wind speed vertical profile respectively. The urban CBL is compared to the CBL over a nearby rural site (Chilbolton) and differences in urban and rural boundary layers are analyzed in terms of atmospheric stability and direction of the prevailing flow.

Halios, Christos; Barlow, Janet; Wood, Curtis

2014-05-01

362

PLIF Visualization of Active Control of Hypersonic Boundary Layers Using Blowing

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) imaging was used to visualize the boundary layer flow on a 1/3-scale Hyper-X forebody model. The boundary layer was perturbed by blowing out of orifices normal to the model surface. Two blowing orifice configurations were used: a spanwise row of 17-holes spaced at 1/8 inch, with diameters of 0.020 inches and a single-hole orifice with a diameter of 0.010 inches. The purpose of the study was to visualize and identify laminar and turbulent structures in the boundary layer and to make comparisons with previous phosphor thermography measurements of surface heating. Jet penetration and its influence on the boundary layer development was also examined as was the effect of a compression corner on downstream boundary layer transition. Based upon the acquired PLIF images, it was determined that global surface heating measurements obtained using the phosphor thermography technique provide an incomplete indicator of transitional and turbulent behavior of the corresponding boundary layer flow. Additionally, the PLIF images show a significant contribution towards transition from instabilities originating from the underexpanded jets. For this experiment, a nitric oxide/nitrogen mixture was seeded through the orifices, with nitric oxide (NO) serving as the fluorescing gas. The experiment was performed in the 31-inch Mach 10 Air Tunnel at NASA Langley Research Center.

Bathel, Brett F.; Danehy, Paul M.; Inman, Jennifer A.; Alderfer, David W.; Berry, Scott A.

2008-01-01

363

A boundary-layer cloud study using Southern Great Plains Cloud and radiation testbed (CART) data

Boundary layer clouds-stratus and fairweather cumulus - are closely coupled involves the radiative impact of the clouds on the surface energy budget and the strong dependence of cloud formation and maintenance on the turbulent fluxes of heat and moisture in the boundary layer. The continuous data collection at the Southern Great Plains (SGP) Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) site provides a unique opportunity to study components of the coupling processes associated with boundary layer clouds and to provide descriptions of cloud and boundary layer structure that can be used to test parameterizations used in climate models. But before the CART data can be used for process studies and parameterization testing, it is necessary to evaluate and validate data and to develop techniques for effectively combining the data to provide meaningful descriptions of cloud and boundary layer characteristics. In this study we use measurements made during an intensive observing period we consider a case where low-level stratus were observed at the site for about 18 hours. This case is being used to examine the temporal evolution of cloud base, cloud top, cloud liquid water content, surface radiative fluxes, and boundary layer structure. A method for inferring cloud microphysics from these parameters is currently being evaluated.

Albrecht, B.; Mace, G.; Dong, X.; Syrett, W. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States)] [and others

1996-04-01

364

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The basic governing equations for the second-order three-dimensional hypersonic thermal and chemical nonequilibrium boundary layer are derived by means of an order-of-magnitude analysis. A two-temperature concept is implemented into the system of boundary-layer equations by simplifying the rather complicated general three-temperature thermal gas model. The equations are written in a surface-oriented non-orthogonal curvilinear coordinate system, where two curvilinear coordinates are non-orthogonial and a third coordinate is normal to the surface. The equations are described with minimum use of tensor expressions arising from the coordinate transformation, to avoid unnecessary confusion for readers. The set of equations obtained will be suitable for the development of a three-dimensional nonequilibrium boundary-layer code. Such a code could be used to determine economically the aerodynamic/aerothermodynamic loads to the surfaces of hypersonic vehicles with general configurations. In addition, the basic equations for three-dimensional stagnation flow, of which solution is required as an initial value for space-marching integration of the boundary-layer equations, are given along with the boundary conditions, the boundary-layer parameters, and the inner-outer layer matching procedure. Expressions for the chemical reaction rates and the thermodynamic and transport properties in the thermal nonequilibrium environment are explicitly given.

Lee, Jong-Hun

1993-01-01

365

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A technique has been developed to produce artificially thickened boundary layers on a uniformly rough surface which have two-dimensional, equilibrium properties representative of normal behavior at the level of spectra of the longitudinal velocity fluctuations. Skin surface friction coefficients and Stanton numbers are obtained for rough surface boundary layers much thicker than those previously studied. The results provide additional understanding of turbulent shear flow and a basis for testing engineering calculation schemes and design procedures for situations where thick, rough-wall boundary layers are present. The Stanton numbers and skin friction coefficients are shown to be representative of natural behavior because three higher levels of information, as well as the turbulent transport of momentum and heat, are the same as would have existed in naturally developed layers of the same thickness.

Ligrani, P. M.; Moffat, R. J.; Kays, W. M.

1983-06-01

366

Magnetic field maxima in the low latitude boundary layer

The magnetic field often exhibits a maximum in the Earth's low-latitude boundary layer. The authors show examples of this behavior, using data from the AMPTE/IRM spacecraft, and argue that two fundamentally distinct causes exist for the excess field: (1) a depression, within the layer, of the population of medium-energy ions of magnetospheric origin; (2) field curvature effects associated with undulations of the magnetopause itself.

Sonnerup, B. (Dartmouth College, Hannover, NH (United States)); Paschmann, G.; Phan, T.D. (Max-Planck-Institut fuer Extraterrestrische Physik, Garching (Germany)); Luehr, H. (Technische Universitaet, Braunschweig (Germany))

1992-09-04

367

Some Turbulence Characteristics in Stable Atmospheric Boundary Layer Flow

Atmospheric boundary layer measurements during stable and near neutral condition from seven sites in different kinds of terrain have been analyzed in order to find relationships among turbulence parameters.The shape of the spectral and cospectral distributions turned out to be well represented by the universal expressions found for ideal sites.For near neutral conditions in the surface layer w\\/u( increases and

Ann-Sofi Smedman

1991-01-01

368

New aspects of turbulent boundary-layer structure

Using flow visualization techniques and hot wire measurements, the structure of the zero-pressure-gradient turbulent boundary-layer is studied over the Reynolds number range of 500 less than Re sub theta less than 17,500. A section of the turbulent layer, filled with smoke, is illuminated by an intense plane of light, and a low-speed wind tunnel with a very long working section

M. R. Head; P. Bandyopadhyay

1981-01-01

369

A second-order bulk boundary-layer model

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Bulk mass-flux models represent the large eddies that are primarily responsible for the turbulent fluxes in the planetary boundary layer as convective circulations, with an associated convective mass flux. In order for such models to be useful, it is necessary to determine the fractional area covered by rising motion in the convective circulations. This fraction can be used as an estimate of the cloud amount, under certain conditions. 'Matching' conditions have been developed that relate the convective mass flux to the ventilation and entrainment mass fluxes. These are based on conservation equations for the scalar means and variances in the entrainment and ventilation layers. Methods are presented to determine both the fractional area covered by rising motion and the convective mass flux. The requirement of variance balance is used to relax the 'well-mixed' assumption. The vertical structures of the mean state and the turbulent fluxes are determined analytically. Several aspects of this simple model's formulation are evaluated using results from large-eddy simulations.

Randall, David A.; Shao, Qingqiu; Moeng, Chin-Hoh

1992-01-01

370

Studies of planetary boundary layer by infrared thermal imagery

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The IR camera is a relatively novel device for remote sensing of atmospheric thermal processes from the Planetary Boundary Layer (PBL) based on measurements of the infrared radiation. Infrared radiation is energy radiated by the motion of atoms and molecules on the surface of aerosols, when their temperature is more than absolute zero. The IR camera measures directly the intensity of radiation emitted by aerosols which is converted by an imaging sensor into an electric signal, resulting a thermal image. Every image pixel that corresponds to a specific radiance is pre-processed to identify the brightness temperature. The thermal infrared imaging radiometer used in this study, NicAir, is a precision radiometer developed by Prata et al. The device was calibrated for the temperature range of 270-320 K and using a calibration table along with image processing software, important information about variations in temperature can be extracted from acquired IR images. The PBL is the lowest layer of the troposphere where the atmosphere interacts with the ground surfaces. The importance of PBL lies in the fact that it provides a finite but varying volume in which pollutants can disperse. The aim of this paper is to analyze the PBL altitude and thickness variations over Iasi region using the IR imaging camera as well as its behavior from day to night and thermal processes occurring in PBL.

Albina, Bogdan; Cazacu, Marius Mihai; Timofte, Adrian; Dimitriu, Dan Gheorghe; Gurlui, Silviu Octavian

2014-11-01

371

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The paper experimentally studies the effects of periodic unsteady wake flow and different Reynolds numbers on boundary layer development, separation and re-attachment along the suction surface of a low pressure turbine blade. The experimental investigations were performed on a large scale, subsonic unsteady turbine cascade research facility at Turbomachinery Performance and Flow Research Laboratory (TPFL) of Texas A&M University. The experiments were carried out at Reynolds numbers of 110,000 and 150,000 (based on suction surface length and exit velocity). One steady and two different unsteady inlet flow conditions with the corresponding passing frequencies, wake velocities, and turbulence intensities were investigated. The reduced frequencies chosen cover the operating range of LP turbines. In addition to the unsteady boundary layer measurements, surface pressure measurements were performed. The inception, onset, and the extent of the separation bubble information collected from the pressure measurements were compared with the hot wire measurements. The results presented in ensemble-averaged, and the contour plot forms help to understand the physics of the separation phenomenon under periodic unsteady wake flow and different Reynolds number. It was found that the suction surface displayed a strong separation bubble for these three different reduced frequencies. For each condition, the locations defining the separation bubble were determined carefully analyzing and examining the pressure and mean velocity profile data. The location of the boundary layer separation was dependent of the Reynolds number. It is observed that starting point of the separation bubble and the re-attachment point move further downstream by increasing Reynolds number from 110,000 to 150,000. Also, the size of the separation bubble is smaller when compared to that for Re=110,000.

Ozturk, B.; Schobeiri, M. T.; Ashpis, David E.

2005-01-01

372

Three-dimensional boundary layer stability and transition

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Nonparallel and nonlinear stability of a three-dimensional boundary layer, subject to crossflow instability, is investigated using parabolized stability equations (PSEs). Both traveling and stationary disturbances are considered and nonparallel effect on crossflow instability is found to be destabilizing. Our linear PSE results for stationary disturbances agree well with the results from direct solution of Navier-Stokes equations obtained by Spalart (1989). Nonlinear calculations have been carried out for stationary vortices and the computed wall vorticity pattern results in streamwise streaks which resemble remarkably well with the surface oil-flow visualizations in swept-wing experiments. Other features of the stationary vortex development (half-mushroom structure, inflected velocity profiles, vortex doubling, etc.) are also captured in our nonlinear calculations. Nonlinear interaction of the stationary amplitude of the stationary vortex is large as compared to the traveling mode, and the stationary vortex dominates most of the downstream development. When the two modes have the same initial amplitude, the traveling mode dominates the downstream development owing to its higher growth rate, and there is a tendency for the stationary mode to be suppressed. The effect of nonlinear wave development on the skin-friction coefficient is also computed.

Malik, M. R.; Li, F.

1992-01-01

373

Kinetic Boundary Layers and FluidKinetic Coupling in Semiconductors

Kinetic Boundary Layers and FluidÂKinetic Coupling in Semiconductors Pierre Degond 1 and Christian Schmeiser 2 Abstract. The semiconductor Boltzmann equation with elastic collisions as the dominating decomposition approach are presented. Key words: Semiconductor Boltzmann equation, spherical harmonics ex

Schmeiser, Christian

374

Boundary-Layer Meteorology An International Journal of Physical,

1 23 Boundary-Layer Meteorology An International Journal of Physical, Chemical and Biological and evolution of persistent inversions. It is found that the inversion formed mainly because of the interaction affect human lives and health because the stable air traps air pollutants near the surface and allows

Pu, Zhaoxia

375

ACTIVE FLOW CONTROL ON A BOUNDARY-LAYER-INGESTING INLET

Boundary layer ingestion (BLI) is explored as a means to improve overall system performance for a Blended Wing Body configuration. The benefits of BLI for vehicle system performance benefit are assessed with a process derived from first principles suitable for highly-integrated propulsion systems. This performance evaluation process provides a framework within which to assess the benefits of an integrated BLI

Susan Althoff Gorton; Lewis R. Owens; Luther N. Jenkins; Brian G. Allan; Ernest P. Schuster

376

Numerical Study of Flat-Plate Boundary Layer Bypass Transition.

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Previous numerical simulations of boundary-layer bypass transition due to free-stream-turbulence (FST) have focused primarily on the transition region itself, using an ad hoc inflow condition downstream of the plate leading edge. This approach involves significant assumptions regarding the spatial evolution of FST and its penetration into the boundary layer. Additionally, the effects of FST length-scale have largely been ignored, which can lead to incorrect decay rates over the boundary layer, making a quantitative comparison with experiments difficult. We present DNS of boundary-layer bypass transition, which addresses some of the above limitations by including the super-elliptic leading edge of the flat-plate model inside the computational domain. The FST is generated upstream of the plate, enabling the leading-edge/FST interaction region to be fully captured in the simulations. The FST also has the same decay rate as in the experiments of Roach and Brierlay (1992), facilitating a direct comparison with the experimental data.

Ovchinnikov, Victor; Piomelli, Ugo; Choudhari, Meelan M.

2004-11-01

377

ON HYDROMAGNETIC STRESSES IN ACCRETION DISK BOUNDARY LAYERS

Detailed calculations of the physical structure of accretion disk boundary layers, and thus their inferred observational properties, rely on the assumption that angular momentum transport is opposite to the radial angular frequency gradient of the disk. The standard model for turbulent shear viscosity satisfies this assumption by construction. However, this behavior is not supported by numerical simulations of turbulent magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) accretion disks, which show that angular momentum transport driven by the magnetorotational instability (MRI) is inefficient in disk regions where, as expected in boundary layers, the angular frequency increases with radius. In order to shed light on physically viable mechanisms for angular momentum transport in this inner disk region, we examine the generation of hydromagnetic stresses and energy density in differentially rotating backgrounds with angular frequencies that increase outward in the shearing-sheet framework. We isolate the modes that are unrelated to the standard MRI and provide analytic solutions for the long-term evolution of the resulting shearing MHD waves. We show that, although the energy density of these waves can be amplified significantly, their associated stresses oscillate around zero, rendering them an inefficient mechanism to transport significant angular momentum (inward). These findings are consistent with the results obtained in numerical simulations of MHD accretion disk boundary layers and challenge the standard assumption of efficient angular momentum transport in the inner disk regions. This suggests that the detailed structure of turbulent MHD accretion disk boundary layers could differ appreciably from those derived within the standard framework of turbulent shear viscosity.

Pessah, Martin E. [Niels Bohr International Academy, Niels Bohr Institute, Blegdamsvej 17, 2100 Copenhagen O (Denmark); Chan, Chi-kwan, E-mail: mpessah@nbi.dk, E-mail: ckch@nordita.org [NORDITA, Roslagstullsbacken 23, 106 91 Stockholm (Sweden)

2012-05-20

378

Stability of Supersonic Boundary Layers Over Blunt Wedges

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Receptivity and stability of supersonic boundary layers over blunt flat plates and wedges are numerically investigated at a free stream Mach number of 3.5 and at a high Reynolds number of 10(exp 6)/inch. Both the steady and unsteady solutions are obtained by solving the full Navier-Stokes equations using the 5th-order accurate weighted essentially non-oscillatory (WENO) scheme for space discretization and using third-order total-variation-diminishing (TVD) Runge-Kutta scheme for time integration. Computations are performed for a flat plate with leading edge thicknesses of 0.0001, 0.001, 0.005 and 0.01 inches that give Reynolds numbers based on the leading edge thickness ranging from 1000 to 10000. Calculations are also performed for a wedge of 10 degrees half angle with different leading edge radii 0.001 and 0.01 inches. The linear stability results showed that the bluntness has a strong stabilizing effect on the stability of two-dimensional boundary layers. The transition Reynolds number for a flat plate with a leading edge thickness of 0.01 inches is about 3.5 times larger than it is for the Blasius boundary layer. It was also revealed that boundary layers on blunt wedges are far more stable than on blunt flat plates.

Balakumar, Ponnampalam

2006-01-01

379

Effect of heat transfer on turbulent boundary layers

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We use direct numerical simulation to gather a database of hypersonic turbulent boundary layers at different flow conditions varying heat transfer. A statistical description of the data is given, including the effect of wall-temperature condition on fluctuation levels, Reynolds stresses, energy and vorticity budgets, Reynolds analogies, skin friction, wall- pressure loading, and entrainment. Additionally, the turbulence structure is visualized and characterized.

Beekman, Izaak; Pino Martin, M.

2008-11-01

380

Retinal layer segmentation of macular OCT images using boundary classification

Optical coherence tomography (OCT) has proven to be an essential imaging modality for ophthalmology and is proving to be very important in neurology. OCT enables high resolution imaging of the retina, both at the optic nerve head and the macula. Macular retinal layer thicknesses provide useful diagnostic information and have been shown to correlate well with measures of disease severity in several diseases. Since manual segmentation of these layers is time consuming and prone to bias, automatic segmentation methods are critical for full utilization of this technology. In this work, we build a random forest classifier to segment eight retinal layers in macular cube images acquired by OCT. The random forest classifier learns the boundary pixels between layers, producing an accurate probability map for each boundary, which is then processed to finalize the boundaries. Using this algorithm, we can accurately segment the entire retina contained in the macular cube to an accuracy of at least 4.3 microns for any of the nine boundaries. Experiments were carried out on both healthy and multiple sclerosis subjects, with no difference in the accuracy of our algorithm found between the groups. PMID:23847738

Lang, Andrew; Carass, Aaron; Hauser, Matthew; Sotirchos, Elias S.; Calabresi, Peter A.; Ying, Howard S.; Prince, Jerry L.

2013-01-01

381

CFD simulation of the atmospheric boundary layer: wall function problems

Accurate Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations of atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) flow are essential for a wide variety of atmospheric studies including pollutant dispersion and deposition. The accuracy of such simulations can be seriously compromised when wall-function roughness modifications based on experimental data for sand-grain roughened pipes and channels are applied at the bottom of the computational domain. This type

Bert Blocken; Ted Stathopoulos; Jan Carmeliet

382

An analytical model of capped turbulent oscillatory bottom boundary layers

An analytical model of capped turbulent oscillatory bottom boundary layers (BBLs) is proposed using eddy viscosity of a quadratic form. The common definition of friction velocity based on maximum bottom shear stress is found unsatisfactory for BBLs under rotating flows, and a possible extension based on turbulent kinetic energy balance is proposed. The model solutions show that the flow may

Kenji Shimizu

2010-01-01

383

Turbulence Modulation by MicroParticles in Boundary Layers

Turbulent dispersed flows over boundary layers are crucial in a number of industrial and environmental applications. In most applications, the key information is the spatial distribution of inertial particles, which is known to be highly non-homogeneous and may exhibit a complex pattern driven by the structures of the turbulent flow field. Theoretical and experimental evidence shows that fluid motions in

Maurizio Picciotto; Andrea Giusti; Cristian Marchioli; Alfredo Soldati

384

Detection of boundary-layer transitions in wind tunnels

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Accelerometer replaces stethoscope in technique for detection of laminar-to-turbulent boundary-layer transitions on wind-tunnel models. Technique allows measurements above or below atmospheric pressure because human operator is not required within tunnel. Data may be taken from accelerometer, and pressure transducer simultaneously, and delivered to systems for analysis.

Wood, W. R.; Somers, D. M.

1978-01-01

385

A Simulation of the Wangara Atmospheric Boundary Layer Data

Previously, the authors have studied a hierarchy of turbulent boundary layer models, all based on the same closure assumptions for the triple turbulence moments. The models differ in complexity by virtue of a systematic process of neglecting certain of the tendency and diffusion terms in the dynamic equations for the turbulent moments. Based on this work a Level 3 model

Tetsuji Yamada; George Mellor

1975-01-01

386

Response of the Tropical Boundary Layer to Weak Surface Forcing

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

During the Tropical Ocean Global Atmosphere Coupled Ocean Atmosphere Response Experiment (TOGA COARE), a series of airborne thermal infrared observations and in situ atmospheric measurements were made near the sea surface through heights exceeding 4 km. Air movements associated with the sea surface temperature and the marine atmospheric boundary layer were studied.

Hagan, D.; Rogers, D.

1995-01-01

387

Von Kármán's Constant in Atmospheric Boundary Layer Flow: Reevaluated

A field experiment has been carried out with the specific objective in mind to determine the value of von Kármán's constant in atmospheric boundary layer flow, and also to investigate its possible dependence on the surface Rossby number Ro0. Data from three field measurement campaigns at Marsta, Sweden, were used in the analysis. Depending on the ground cover: deep snow

Ulf Högström

1985-01-01

388

Current problems in the stratocumulus-topped atmospheric boundary layer

Extended sheets of stratocumulus (Sc) in the upper part of the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) often occur under appropriate meteorological conditions. These cloud decks are important both in climate studies and in weather forecasting. We review the current knowledge of the turbulent structure of the ABL capped by a cloud deck, in the light of recent observations and model studies.

A. G. M. Driedonks; P. G. Duynkerke

1989-01-01

389

FLUID MODELING OF ATMOSPHERIC DISPERSION IN THE CONVECTIVE BOUNDARY LAYER

Study of convective boundary layer (CBL) processes has depended largely upon laboratory analogs for many years. The pioneering work of Willis and Deardorff (1974) and some 35 subsequent papers by the same authors showed that much useful research could be accomplished with a re...

390

CFD simulation of the atmospheric boundary layer: wall function problems

Accurate Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations of atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) flow are essential for a wide variety of atmospheric studies including pollutant dispersion and deposition. The accuracy of such simulations can be seriously compromised when wall-function roughness modifications based on experimental data for sand-grain roughened pipes and channels are applied at the bottom of the computational domain. This type

Bert Blocken; Ted Stathopoulos; Jan Carmeliet

2007-01-01

391

Atmospheric boundary layer studies in FIFE - Challenges and advances

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A review is presented of a number of other articles concerning the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) that focus on challenges and progress in experimental design and analysis represented by those studies. The articles address problems posed by the experimental site itself (inhomogeneity of terrain, size, and vegetation) and examine relationships between the ABL and remote sensing measurements.

Kelly, Robert D.

1992-01-01

392

Atmospheric boundary layer evening transitions over West Texas

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A systemic analysis of the atmospheric boundary layer behavior during some evening transitions over West Texas was done using the data from an extensive array of instruments which included small and large aperture scintillometers, net radiometers, and meteorological stations. The analysis also comp...

393

Pressure Drag of Obstacles in the Atmospheric Boundary Layer

Pressure drag of obstacles in the atmospheric boundary layer is computed with a mesoscale numerical model of the troposphere. Different parts of the drag can be separated from the numerical results: total pressure drag is determined from the surface pressure distribution, hydrostatic drag from the temperature distribution in the atmosphere, and form drag as a residual. The dependence of the

Stefan Emeis

1990-01-01

394

Fluid-dynamic boundary layers in CFB boilers

The characteristics of the fluid-dynamic boundary layer (FBL) were studied in the 12 MW circulating fluidized bed boiler at Chalmers University of Technology. For a comparison, some additional measurements were made in a 165 MW CFB boiler. The FBL consists mainly of the falling film of particles at the furnace wall. The distance from the wall to the zero net

Wennan Zhang; Filip Johnsson; Bo Leckner

1995-01-01

395

Stability of hypersonic boundary-layer flows with chemistry

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The effects of nonequilibrium chemistry and three dimensionality on the stability characteristics of hypersonic flows are discussed. In two-dimensional (2-D) and axisymmetric flows, the inclusion of chemistry causes a shift of the second mode of Mack to lower frequencies. This is found to be due to the increase in size of the region of relative supersonic flow because of the lower speeds of sound in the relatively cooler boundary layers. Although this shift in frequency is present in both the equilibrium and nonequilibrium air results, the equilibrium approximation predicts modes which are not observed in the nonequilibrium calculations (for the flight conditions considered). These modes are superpositions of incoming and outgoing unstable disturbances which travel supersonically relative to the boundary-layer edge velocity. Such solutions are possible because of the finite shock stand-off distance. Their corresponding wall-normal profiles exhibit an oscillatory behavior in the inviscid region between the boundary-layer edge and the bow shock. For the examination of three-dimensional (3-D) effects, a rotating cone is used as a model of a swept wing. An increase of stagnation temperature is found to be only slightly stabilizing. The correlation of transition location (N = 9) with parameters describing the crossflow profile is discussed. Transition location does not correlate with the traditional crossflow Reynolds number. A new parameter that appears to correlate for boundary-layer flow was found. A verification with experiments on a yawed cone is provided.

Reed, Helen L.; Stuckert, Gregory K.; Haynes, Timothy S.

1993-01-01

396

Scaling the Urban Boundary Layer S. E. Belcher & O. Coceal

, there are applications of urban meteorology, such as modelling urban air quality, that require estimates of the transport for the dynamical effect of urban areas on the atmospheric boundary layer, and one that models the winds actually, (ii) some measures of the winds are resolved within the urban canopy, and finally (iii) the model

Reading, University of

397

On the transition from stratocumulus to cumulus toped boundary layers

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Large areas of the subtropical and tropical oceans are dominated by moist convective boundary layers. These boundary layers are often associated with different types of low-level cloud regimes, including stratocumulus (Sc), shallow cumulus (Cu) and deep convective clouds. Since these boundary layers (in particular Sc) play a key role in modulating the Earth's global climate through radiative forcing, understanding the Sc to Cu transition is of paramount importance for simulating present day and future climate change. Although numerous studies examined the possible physical mechanisms that lead to the transition from Sc to Cu dominated boundary layers, there is still no agreement on which are the key processes responsible for the transition. In this study we combine single column modeling results, reanalysis and observational data to derive a simple model that describes the transition from Sc to Cu. This model is based on vertically integrated bulk equations. We show that the simplification of these equations leads to some of the well-known criteria for the transition, including ones involving lower-tropospheric-stability and top-entrainment-instability parameters. We further propose to use the results of this study to investigate the realism of the Sc to Cu transition in the global climate models.

Suselj, K.; Teixeira, J.

2012-04-01

398

Insulating wall boundary layer in a Faraday MHD generator

The velocity profile at the center of the insulating wall in an MHD generator was measured using a dual beam real fringe anemometer system with an argon ion laser. The analytic model involved the computer solution, using finte difference techniques, of the momentum, energy, and electrical equations including MHD effects for the turbulent insulating wall boundary layer. The turbulence model

R. R. Rankin

1978-01-01

399

ATMOSPHERIC DISPERSION IN THE ARCTIC: WINTERTIME BOUNDARY-LAYER MEASUREMENTS

The wintertime arctic atmospheric boundary layer was investigated with micro-meteorological and SF6 tracer measurements collected in Prudhoe Bay, AK. he flat, snow-covered tundra surface at this site generates a very small (0.03 cm) surface roughness. he relatively warm maritime ...

400

Energetic ion composition in the subsolar magnetopause and boundary layer

Energetic ion mass spectrometer data obtained on ISEE 1 have shown that the plasma in the subsolar magnetospheric boundary layer, magnetopause, and adjacent magnetosheath have an ionospheric component (He\\/sup +\\/ and O\\/sup +\\/) in addition to the solar wind component (H\\/sup +\\/ and He\\/sup + +\\/). We have examined in detail nine intervals where the location of the subsolar magnetopause

W.K. Peterson; E. G. Shelley; G. Haerendel; G. Paschmann

1982-01-01

401

Laminar boundary-layer solutions in three dimensions

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

As an alternative to pure finite-difference techniques, the Method of Integral Relations (MIR) is formulated for three-dimensional boundary-layer flows with separation, and applied to two problems. The first concerns an incompressible laminar flow over a plate with an attached cylinder, where the potential solution of the flow round the circular cylinder is used as the boundary condition. In the second application the solution to the three-dimensional boundary-layer flow over blunt bodies is discussed and results for an ellipsoid of revolution at 30 deg incidence are presented. In both cases the results are found to be in satisfactory agreement with those obtained by finite-difference methods.

Modarress, D.; Holt, M.

1976-01-01

402

On Supersonic-Inlet Boundary-Layer Bleed Flow

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Boundary-layer bleed in supersonic inlets is typically used to avoid separation from adverse shock-wave/boundary-layer interactions and subsequent total pressure losses in the subsonic diffuser and to improve normal shock stability. Methodologies used to determine bleed requirements are reviewed. Empirical sonic flow coefficients are currently used to determine the bleed hole pattern. These coefficients depend on local Mach number, pressure ratio, hole geometry, etc. A new analytical bleed method is presented to compute sonic flow coefficients for holes and narrow slots and predictions are compared with published data to illustrate the accuracy of the model. The model can be used by inlet designers and as a bleed boundary condition for computational fluid dynamic studies.

Harloff, Gary J.; Smith, Gregory E.

1995-01-01

403

Boundary-Layer Meteorol (2009) 132:129149 DOI 10.1007/s10546-009-9380-8

integrity of the wind turbines. In fact, the ability to predict the spatial distribu- tion of the mean-Tunnel Investigation of Wind-Turbine Wakes: Boundary-Layer Turbulence Effects Leonardo P. Chamorro Â· Fernando PortĂ© to study turbulence in the wake of a model wind turbine placed in a boundary layer developed over rough

PortĂ©-Agel, Fernando

404

The role of subsidence in a weakly unstable marine boundary layer: a case study

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The diurnal evolution of a cloud free, marine boundary layer is studied by means of experimental measurements and numerical simulations. Experimental data belong to an investigation of the mixing height over inner Danish waters. The mixed-layer height measured over the sea is generally nearly constant, and does not exhibit the diurnal cycle characteristic of boundary layers over land. A case study, during summer, showing an anomalous development of the mixed layer under unstable and nearly neutral atmospheric conditions, is selected in the campaign. Subsidence is identified as the main physical mechanism causing the sudden decrease in the mixing layer height. This is quantified by comparing radiosounding profiles with data from numerical simulations of a mesoscale model, and a large-eddy simulation model. Subsidence not only affects the mixing layer height, but also the turbulent fluctuations within it. By analyzing wind and scalar spectra, the role of subsidence is further investigated and a more complete interpretation of the experimental results emerges.

Mazzitelli, I. M.; Cassol, M.; Miglietta, M. M.; Rizza, U.; Sempreviva, A. M.; Lanotte, A. S.

2014-04-01

405

Characteristics of nonlinear evolution of wavepackets in boundary layers

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The nonlinear evolution of a finite-amplitude disturbance in a 3-D supersonic boundary layer over a cone was investigated recently by Liu et al. using direct numerical simulation (DNS). It was found that certain small-scale 3-D disturbances amplified rapidly. These disturbances exhibit the characteristics of second modes, and the most amplified components have a well-defined spanwise wavelength, indicating a clear selectivity of the amplification. In the case of a cone, the three-dimensionality of the base flow and the disturbances themselves may be responsible for the rapid amplification. In order to ascertain which of these two effects are essential, in this study we carried out DNS of the nonlinear evolution of a spanwise localized disturbance (wavepacket) in a flat-plate boundary layer. A similar amplification of small-scale disturbances was observed, suggesting that the direct reason for the rapid amplification is the three-dimensionality of the disturbances rather than the three-dimensional nature of the base flow, even though the latter does alter the spanwise distribution of the disturbance. The rapid growth of 3-D waves may be attributed to the secondary instability mechanism. Further simulations were performed for a wavepacket of first modes in a supersonic boundary layer and of Tollmien-Schlichting (T-S) waves in an incompressible boundary layer. The results show that the amplifying components are in the band centered at zero spanwise wavenumber rather than at a finite spanwise wavenumber. It is therefore concluded that the rapid growth of 3-D disturbances in a band centered at a preferred large spanwise wavenumber is the main characteristic of nonlinear evolution of second mode disturbances in supersonic boundary layers.

Yu, Min; Luo, JiSheng; Li, Jia

2013-02-01

406

Linear segmentation algorithm for detecting layer boundary with lidar.

The automatic detection of aerosol- and cloud-layer boundary (base and top) is important in atmospheric lidar data processing, because the boundary information is not only useful for environment and climate studies, but can also be used as input for further data processing. Previous methods have demonstrated limitations in defining the base and top, window-size setting, and have neglected the in-layer attenuation. To overcome these limitations, we present a new layer detection scheme for up-looking lidars based on linear segmentation with a reasonable threshold setting, boundary selecting, and false positive removing strategies. Preliminary results from both real and simulated data show that this algorithm cannot only detect the layer-base as accurate as the simple multi-scale method, but can also detect the layer-top more accurately than that of the simple multi-scale method. Our algorithm can be directly applied to uncalibrated data without requiring any additional measurements or window size selections. PMID:24216909

Mao, Feiyue; Gong, Wei; Logan, Timothy

2013-11-01

407

Provenance of the K/T boundary layers

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An array of chemical, physical and isotopic evidence indicates that an impact into oceanic crust terminated the Cretaceous Period. Approximately 1500 cu km of debris, dispersed by the impact fireball, fell out globally in marine and nonmarine environments producing a 2 to 4 mm thick layer (fireball layer). In North American locales, the fireball layer overlies a 15 to 25 mm thick layer of similar but distinct composition. This 15 to 25 mm layer (ejecta layer) may represent approximately 1000 cu km of lower energy ejecta from a nearby impact site. Isotopic and chemical evidence supports a mantle provenance for the bulk of the layers. The extraordinary REE pattern of the boundary clays was modelled as a mixture of oceanic crust, mantle, and approximately 10 percent continental material. The results are presented. If the siderophiles of the ejecta layer were derived solely from the mantle, a test may be available to see if the siderophile element anomaly of the fireball layer had an extraterrestrial origin. Radiogenic Os-187 is depleted in the mantle relative to an undifferentiated chondritic source. Os-187/Os-186 ratios of 1.049 and 1.108 were calculated for the ejecta and fireball layers, respectively.

Hildebrand, A. R.; Boynton, W. V.

1988-01-01

408

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A general integral form of the boundary-layer equation, valid for either laminar or turbulent incompressible boundary-layer flow, is derived. By using the experimental finding that all velocity profiles of the turbulent boundary layer form essentially a single-parameter family, the general equation is changed to an equation for the space rate of change of the velocity-profile shape parameter. The lack of precise knowledge concerning the surface shear and the distribution of the shearing stress across turbulent boundary layers prevented the attainment of a reliable method for calculating the behavior of turbulent boundary layers.

Tetervin, Neal; Lin, Chia Chiao

1951-01-01

409

Hypersonic Turbulent Boundary-Layer and Free Sheer Database Datasets

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A critical assessment and compilation of data are presented on attached hypersonic turbulent boundary layers in pressure gradients and compressible turbulent mixing layers. Extensive searches were conducted to identify candidate experiments, which were subjected to a rigorous set of acceptance criteria. Accepted datasets are both tabulated and provided in machine-readable form. The purpose of this database effort is to make existing high quality data available in detailed form for the turbulence-modeling and computational fluid dynamics communities. While significant recent data were found on the subject of compressible turbulent mixing, the available boundary-layer/pressure-gradient experiments are all older ones of which no acceptable data were found at hypersonic Mach numbers.

Settles, Gary S.; Dodson, Lori J.

1993-01-01

410

Turbulent boundary layer on a convex, curved surface

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The effects of strong convex curvature on boundary layer turbulence were investigated. The data gathered on the behavior of Reynolds stress suggested the formulation of a simple turbulence model. Three sets of data were taken on two separate facilities. Both rigs had flow from a flat surface, over a convex surface with 90 deg of turning, and then onto a flat recovery surface. The geometry was adjusted so that, for both rigs, the pressure gradient along the test surface was zero - thus avoiding any effects of streamwise acceleration on the wall layers. Results show that after a sudden introduction of curvature, the shear stress in the outer part of the boundary layer is sharply diminished and is even slightly negative near the edge. The wall shear also drops off quickly downstream. In contrast, when the surface suddenly becomes flat again, the wall shear and shear stress profiles recover very slowly towards flat wall conditions.

Gillis, J. C.; Johnston, J. P.; Kays, W. M.; Moffat, R. J.

1980-01-01

411

Gasdynamic simulations of the solar wind interaction with Venus - Boundary layer formation

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A 2D gasdynamic simulation of the mass-loaded solar wind flow around the dayside of Venus is presented. For average ionopause conditions near 300 km, the simulations show that mass loading from the pickup of oxygen ions produces a boundary layer of finite thickness along the ionopause. Within this layer and toward the ionopause, the temperature decreases and the total mass density increases significantly. Furthermore, there is a shear in the bulk flow velocity across the boundary layer, such that the tangential flow decreases in speed as the ionopause is approached and remains low along the ionopause which is consistent with Pioneer Venus observations. Numerical simulations are carried out for various mass addition rates and demonstrate that the boundary layer develops when oxygen ion production exceeds approximately 2 x 10 exp 5/cu m per s.

McGary, J. E.

1993-05-01

412

Grain boundary diffusion and growth of titanium silicide layers on silicon

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A kinetics study of titanium silicide formation is described. The results show that a fine grained precursor layer exist in between the well developed C-54 silicide layer and the unreacted titanium film. This layer is a mixture of C49-TiSiV2 and unreacted titanium. The fact that no C54-TiSi2 formed directly from the Ti-Si reaction suggests that the nucleation of C49-TiSi2 is easier than that of C54-TiSi2 under our annealing conditions. The silicide layer growth has a non-t1/2 dependence and is much better described by a grain boundary diffusion limited model giving different kinetics. This indicates that grain boundary diffusion is the major atomic transportation mechanism. The growth rate depends on both the grain boundary diffusion coefficient and the silicide grain growth rate.

Corcoran, Yunji L.; King, Alexander H.; de Lanerolle, Nimal; Kim, Bonggi

1990-11-01

413

Effect of boundary layers on solid walls in three-dimensional subsonic wind tunnels

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A linear method is developed which accounts for the effects of boundary layers on solid walls in subsonic three-dimensional wind tunnels. The streamwise gradient of the displacement thickness for a solid-wall boundary layer is expressed in terms of the von Karman momentum integral. The growth of the boundary layer due to the wall shearing stress is small compared to the variation caused by the model-induced pressure gradient. The viscous boundary condition can be expressed in terms of the edge velocity gradient and the gradient of the inviscid velocity potential function at the wall. Utilizing this analysis on the solid walls of several three-dimensional wind tunnel configurations shows that the most pronounced wall boundary-layer effect is on solid blockage for completely closed wind tunnels. For solid-wall tunnel configurations, the streamline curvature interference factor is reduced by a significant amount, while the lift interference factor at the model station does not depend on the boundary-layer parameter. For combination wall configurations, the slot effect of the horizontal walls dominates the viscous effect of the solid sidewalls.

Adcock, J. B.; Barnwell, R. W.

1983-01-01

414

An important feature of continents and oceans is that they are underlain by chemically distinct mantle, made intrinsically buoyant and highly viscous by melt depletion and accompanying dehydration, respectively. Of interest here are the influences of these preexisting chemical boundary layers on small-scale convective processes (as opposed to large-scale processes, which govern the drift of continents and the eventual fate

Cin-Ty Aeolus Lee; Adrian Lenardic; Catherine M. Cooper; Fenglin Niu; Alan Levander

2005-01-01

415

Influences on the Height of the Stable Boundary Layer as seen in Large-Eddy Simulations

Numerical weather prediction (NWP) models and atmospheric dispersion models rely on parameterizations of planetary boundary layer height. In the case of a stable boundary layer, errors in boundary layer height estimation can result in gross errors in boundary-layer evolution and in prediction of turbulent mixing within the boundary layer. We use large-eddy simulations (LES) of moderately stable boundary layers to characterize the effects of various physical processes on stable boundary layers. The stable boundary layer height is assumed to be a function of surface friction velocity, geostrophic wind, Monin-Obukhov length, and the strength of the temperature inversion atop the stable boundary layer. This temperature inversion induces gravity waves with a frequency determined by the strength of the temperature inversion.

Kosovic, B; Lundquist, J K

2004-03-29

416

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Laminar flow control and drag reduction research requires accurate boundary layer solutions as input to the three-dimensional stability analysis procedures currently under development. In support of these major programs, a fourth-order accurate finite difference scheme for solving the three-dimensional, compressible boundary layer equations has been developed and is presented in this paper. The method employs a two-point scheme in the wall normal direction and second order zigzag scheme in the cross flow direction. Accurate procedures to interface with the inviscid results are also presented. The results of applying the procedure to laminar flow on wings and fuselages are presented.

Iyer, Venkit; Harris, Julius E.

1989-01-01

417

A Study of stable Atmospheric Boundary Layer over highveld South Africa

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The study is part of the South African - Norwegian Programme for Research and Co-operation Phase II "Analysis and Possibility for Control of Atmospheric Boundary Layer Processes to Facilitate Adaptation to Environmental Changes". The research strategy of the project is based on 4 legged approach. 1) Application and further development of contemporary atmospheric boundary layer theory. 2) Use of modeling based on large eddy simulation techniques. 3) Experimental investigation of turbulent fluxes. 4) Training and developing academics capable of dealing with the present and new challenges. The paper presents some preliminary results on the micrometeorological variability of the basic meteorological parameters and turbulent fluxes.

Luhunga, P.; Esau, I.; Djolov, G.

2010-08-01

418

Lidar analysis techniques for use in the atmospheric boundary layer

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

There is a growing body of observational and theoretical evidence which suggests that local climate characteristics are associated with variations in the earth's surface. The link between surface variability and local-scale processes must be made if we are to improve our understanding of the feedback mechanisms involved in surface-atmosphere dynamics. However, to understand these interactions, the surface-atmosphere interface must be studied as a large-scale spatial system. Lidars are ideal tools to study the spatial properties of the atmosphere. The described techniques were developed for use with the Los Alamos Water Raman-Lidar, but are applicable to many other types of lidar. The methodology of the analysis of lidar data is summarized in order to determine meteorological parameters in the atmospheric boundary layer. The techniques are not exhaustive but are intended to show the depth and breadth of the information which can be obtained from lidars. Two methods for the computation of water-vapor fluxes were developed. The first uses the fact that the water vapor concentration in the vertical direction follows a logarithmic profile when corrected for atmospheric stability. The second method involves using inertial dissipation techniques in which lidar-derived spatial and temporal power spectra are used to determine the flux.

Eichinger, William E.; Cooper, Daniel I.; Hof, Doug; Holtkamp, David; Quick, Robert, Jr.; Tiee, Joe; Karl, Robert

1992-01-01

419

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over warm, shallow coral reefs the surface radiation and energy fluxes differ from those of the open ocean and result in modification to the marine atmospheric boundary layer via the development of convective internal boundary layers. The complex interrelationships between the surface energy balance and boundary-layer characteristics influence local weather (wind, temperature, humidity) and hydrodynamics (water temperature and currents), as well as larger scale processes, including cloud field properties and precipitation. The nature of these inter-relationships has not been accurately described for coral reef environments. This study presents the first measurements of the surface energy balance, radiation budget and boundary layer thermodynamics made over a coral reef using an eddy-covariance system and radiosonde aerological profiling of the lower atmosphere. Results show that changes in surface properties and the associated energetics across the ocean-reef boundary resulted in modification to the marine atmospheric boundary layer during the Austral winter and summer. Internal convective boundary layers developed within the marine atmospheric boundary layer over the reef and were found to be deeper in the summer, yet more unstable during the winter when cold and drier flow from the mainland enhances heat and moisture fluxes to the atmosphere. A mixed layer was identified in the marine atmospheric boundary layer varying from 375 to 1,200 m above the surface, and was deeper during the summer, particularly under stable anticyclonic conditions. Significant cloud cover and at times rain resulted in the development of a stable stratified atmosphere over the reef. Our findings show that, for Heron Reef, a lagoonal platform reef, there was a horizontal discontinuity in surface energy fluxes across the ocean-reef boundary, which modified the marine atmospheric boundary layer.

MacKellar, Mellissa C.; McGowan, Hamish A.; Phinn, Stuart R.; Soderholm, Joshua S.

2013-02-01

420

Overview of Boundary Layer Transition Research in Support of Orbiter Return To Flight

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A predictive tool for estimating the onset of boundary layer transition resulting from damage to and/or repair of the thermal protection system was developed in support of Shuttle Return to Flight. The boundary layer transition tool is part of a suite of tools that analyze the aerothermodynamic environment to the local thermal protection system to allow informed disposition of damage for making recommendations to fly as is or to repair. Using mission specific trajectory information and details of each damage site or repair, the expected time (and thus Mach number) at transition onset is predicted to help define the aerothermodynamic environment to use in the subsequent thermal and stress analysis of the local thermal protection system and structure. The boundary layer transition criteria utilized for the tool was developed from ground-based measurements to account for the effect of both protuberances and cavities and has been calibrated against select flight data. Computed local boundary layer edge conditions were used to correlate the results, specifically the momentum thickness Reynolds number over the edge Mach number and the boundary layer thickness. For the initial Return to Flight mission, STS-114, empirical curve coefficients of 27, 100, and 900 were selected to predict transition onset for protuberances based on height, and cavities based on depth and length, respectively.

Berry, Scott A.; Horvath, Thomas J.; Greene, Francis A.; Kinder, Gerald R.; Wang, K. C.

2006-01-01

421

Influence of bulk turbulence and entrance boundary layer thickness on the curved duct flow field

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The influence of bulk turbulence and boundary layer thickness on the secondary flow development in a square, 90 degree turning duct was investigated. A three-dimensional laser velocimetry system was utilized to measure the mean and fluctuating components of velocity at six cross-planes in the duct. The results from this investigation, with entrance boundary layer thickness of 20 percent, were compared with the thin boundary layer results documented in NASA CR-174811. The axial velocity profiles, cross-flow velocities, and turbulence intensities were compared and evaluated with regard to the influence of bulk turbulence intensity and boundary layer thickness, and the influence was significant. The results of this investigation expand the 90 degree curved duct experimental data base to higher turbulence levels and thicker entrance boundary layers. The experimental results provide a challenging benchmark data base for computational fluid dynamics code development and validation. The variation of inlet bulk turbulence intensity provides additional information to aid in turbulence model evaluation.

Crawford, R. A.

1988-01-01

422

Boundary-Layer Meteorol (2010) 134:367-386 DOI 10.1007/s10546-009-9452-9

Â· Synoptically-forced boundary layer 1 Introduction The atmospheric boundary layers is typically thought of underBoundary-Layer Meteorol (2010) 134:367-386 DOI 10.1007/s10546-009-9452-9 The Moist Boundary Layer layer in this transport. We expand a conceptual model of dry boundary-layer structure under synoptic

Reading, University of

423

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We have begun an investigation of the formation of the dayside low latitude boundary layer under different solar wind conditions using data from the THEMIS spacecraft. We present two cases of magnetopause/LLBL interface crossings made by the five spacecraft; one under long lasting northward IMF and a second for a period of southward IMF. All spacecraft during these observations traversed the dayside magnetosphere in a string-of-pearls configuration with the farthest distance between spacecraft less than approx.2 R(sub E). The sequence of observations from spacecraft, as they crossed the magnetopause, shows the development of a highly structured boundary layer regardless of the polarity of the IMF. We discuss possible scenarios for the development of such structured boundary layers, including low latitude reconnection under northward IMF as well as double reconnection in opposite hemispheres.

Avanov, Levon A.; Chandler, Michael O.

2008-01-01

424

Beam stresses induced by a turbulent boundary layer and simulated with a reverberant acoustic field

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Unsteady pressure fluctuations are a feature of the flow field of an airplane or a space vehicle in atmospheric flight. Undesirable effects of these fluctuations range from internal (cabin) noise to structural fatigue and damage of avionic and ordnance systems. The integrity to withstand these fluctuating loads is established through reverberant room acoustical qualification testing. The purpose of this paper is to develop a methodology of simulating turbulent boundary layer fluctuating pressure loading for a simply supported beam with a reverberant acoustic field. This goal was accomplished using normal mode vibration analysis. The main results were developed in terms of dimensionless quantities such as turbulent boundary layer spectrums, reverberant acoustical field simulation spectrums, and stress response spectrums with parameters: dimensionless fundamental frequency, Mach number, and relative boundary layer displacement thickness.

Schutzenhofer, L. A.

1981-01-01

425

Turbulence spectra of the FIRE stratocumulus-topped boundary layers

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

There are at least four physical phenomena which contribute to the FIRE boundary layer turbulence spectra: boundary layer spanning eddies resulting from buoyant and mechanical production of turbulent kinetic energy (the microscale subrange); inertial subrange turbulence which cascades this energy to smaller scales; quasi-two dimensional mesoscale variations; and gravity waves. The relative contributions of these four phenomena to the spectra depend on the altitude of observation and variable involved (vertical velocity, temperature and moisture spectra are discussed). The physical origins of these variations in relative contribution are discussed. As expected from the theory (Kaimal et al., 1976), mixed layer scaling of the spectra (i.e., nondimensionalizing wavelength by Z(sub i) and spectral density by Z(sub i) and the dissipation rates) is successful for the microscale subrange and inertial subrange but not for the mesoscale subrange. The most striking feature of the normalized vertical velocity spectra is the lack of any significant mesoscale contribution. The spectral peak results from buoyant and mechanical production on scales similar to the boundary layer depth. The decrease in spectral density at larger scales results from the suppression of vertical velocity perturbations with large horizontal scales by the shallowness of the atmosphere. The spectral density also decreases towards smaller scales following the well known inertial subrange slope. There is a significant variation in the shape of the normalized spectra with height.

Young, G. S.; Nucciarone, J. J.; Albrecht, Bruce A.

1990-01-01

426

Polymer Effects on Heat Transport in Laminar Boundary Layer Flow

We consider a laminar Blasius boundary-layer flow above a slightly heated horizontal plate and study the effect of polymer additives on the heat transport. We show that the action of the polymers can be understood as a space-dependent effective viscosity that first increases from the zero-shear value then decreases exponentially back to the zero-shear value as one moves away from the boundary. We find that with such an effective viscosity, both the horizontal and vertical velocities near the plate are decreased thus leading to an increase in the friction drag and a decrease in the heat transport in the flow.

Roberto Benzi; Emily S. C. Ching; Vivien W. S. Chu

2011-04-21

427

Numerical Simulation of a Spatially Evolving Supersonic Turbulent Boundary Layer

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The results from direct numerical simulations of a spatially evolving, supersonic, flat-plate turbulent boundary-layer flow, with free-stream Mach number of 2.25 are presented. The simulated flow field extends from a transition region, initiated by wall suction and blowing near the inflow boundary, into the fully turbulent regime. Distributions of mean and turbulent flow quantities are obtained and an analysis of these quantities is performed at a downstream station corresponding to Re(sub x)= 5.548 x10(exp 6) based on distance from the leading edge.

Gatski, T. B.; Erlebacher, G.

2002-01-01

428

Turbulent flow over a surface-mounted 2-D block in thermally-stratified boundary layers

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Turbulent boundary-layer flows over complex topography have been of great interest in the atmospheric sciences and wind engineering communities. The geometry of the topography, surface characteristics and atmospheric thermal stability play important roles in determining momentum and scalar flux distribution. Studies of turbulent flow over simplified topography, such as 2-D or 3-D blocks and 2-D or 3-D sinusoidal hills, conducted under neutrally stratified boundary-layer conditions have provided insightful information of fluid dynamics. However, atmospheric thermal stability has rarely been incorporated into laboratory simulations, in particular, wind-tunnel experiments. Extension of such studies in thermally-stratified wind tunnels will fill this gap and advance our understanding of the underlying physics of flow over complex topography. Additionally, experimental data are useful for the development of new parameterizations for surface fluxes and validation of numerical models such as Large-Eddy Simulation (LES). A series of experiments involving neutral and thermally-stratified boundary-layer flows over a surface-mounted 2-D block, conducted at the Saint Anthony Falls Laboratory boundary-layer wind tunnel, will be presented. The 2-D block, with a width to height ratio of 2:1, occupied the lowest 25% of the turbulent boundary layer. Thermal stratification of the boundary layer was achieved by independently controlling the temperature of both the airflow, the test section floor and block surfaces. Measurements using high-resolution PIV, x-wire/cold-wire anemometry, thermal-couples and surface heat flux sensors were made to identify and quantify the turbulent flow properties, including the size of the recirculation zone, coherent vortex structures and the subsequent boundary layer recovery. Emphasis will be put on addressing thermal stability effects on momentum and scalar flux distribution.

Zhang, W.; Markfort, C. D.; Porte-Agel, F.

2013-12-01

429

Post-doctoral position in atmospheric boundary layer dynamics Analysis of BLLAST field experiment

Post-doctoral position in atmospheric boundary layer dynamics Analysis of BLLAST field experiment. Background: The international BLLAST project (Boundary Layer Late Afternoon and Sunset Turbulence, http the daytime well-mixed, convective boundary layer (CBL), decays to an intermittently turbulent "residual layer

430

Snodar: a new instrument to measure the height of the boundary layer on the Antarctic plateau

of the atmospheric boundary layer at Dome A and Dome C on the Antarctic plateau. Snodar, or Surface layer Non of the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) over the Antarctic plateau is of interest to meteorologists, atmosphericSnodar: a new instrument to measure the height of the boundary layer on the Antarctic plateau Colin

Ashley, Michael C. B.

431

Local and Bi-Global Stability Analysis of a Plasma Actuated Boundary Layer

Local and Bi-Global Stability Analysis of a Plasma Actuated Boundary Layer Mark Riherd and Subrata discharge actuators on a laminar, zero pressure gradi- ent boundary layer. Both methods indicate layer. The general behavior of boundary layer stabilization is consistent with experimental results

Roy, Subrata

432

Structure Identification Within a Transitioning Swept-Wing Boundary Layer

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Extensive measurements are made in a transitioning swept-wing boundary layer using hot-film, hot-wire and cross-wire anemometry. The crossflow-dominated flow contains stationary vortices that breakdown near mid-chord. The most amplified vortex wavelength is forced by the use of artificial roughness elements near the leading edge. Two-component velocity and spanwise surface shear-stress correlation measurements are made at two constant chord locations, before and after transition. Streamwise surface shear stresses are also measured through the entire transition region. Correlation techniques are used to identify stationary structures in the laminar regime and coherent structures in the turbulent regime. Basic techniques include observation of the spatial correlations and the spatially distributed auto-spectra. The primary and secondary instability mechanisms are identified in the spectra in all measured fields. The primary mechanism is seen to grow, cause transition and produce large-scale turbulence. The secondary mechanism grows through the entire transition region and produces the small-scale turbulence. Advanced techniques use Linear Stochastic Estimation (LSE) and Proper Orthogonal Decomposition (POD) to identify the spatio-temporal evolutions of structures in the boundary layer. LSE is used to estimate the instantaneous velocity fields using temporal data from just two spatial locations and the spatial correlations. Reference locations are selected using maximum RMS values to provide the best available estimates. POD is used to objectively determine modes characteristic of the measured flow based on energy. The stationary vortices are identified in the first laminar modes of each velocity component and shear component. Experimental evidence suggests that neighboring vortices interact and produce large coherent structures with spanwise periodicity at double the stationary vortex wavelength. An objective transition region detection method is developed using streamwise spatial POD solutions which isolate the growth of the primary and secondary instability mechanisms in the first and second modes, respectively. Temporal evolutions of dominant POD modes in all measured fields are calculated. These scalar POD coefficients contain the integrated characteristics of the entire field, greatly reducing the amount of data to characterize the instantaneous field. These modes may then be used to train future flow control algorithms based on neural networks.

Chapman, Keith; Glauser, Mark

1996-01-01

433

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A new turbulent boundary-layer method is developed which models the inner region with the law of the wall while the outer region uses Clauser's eddy viscosity in Matsuno's finite-difference method. The match point between the inner and outer regions as well as the wall shear stress are determined at each marching step during the computation. Results obtained for incompressible, two-dimensional flow over flat plates and ellipses are compared with solutions from a baseline method which uses a finite-difference method for the entire boundary layer. Since the present method used the finite-difference method in the outer region only, the number of grid points required was about half that needed for the baseline method. Accurate displacement and momentum thicknesses were predicted for all cases. Skin friction was predicted well for the flat plate, but the accuracy decreased significantly for the ellipses. Adding a wake functions to the law of the wall allows some of the pressure gradient effect to be taken into account thereby increasing the accuracy of the method.

Barnwell, R. W.; Dejarnette, F. R.; Wahls, R. A.

1987-01-01

434

Nonlinear Interaction of Frequency-Detuned Modes in Boundary Layers

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The present critical-layer asymptotic analysis for the nonlinear interaction of frequency-detuned modes in boundary-layer transition indicates that the interaction between a plane mode at the fundamental frequency and a pair of symmetrical oblique waves at the near-subharmonic frequency amplifies another pair of symmetrical oblique waves at the 'mirror frequency'. This type of interaction is stronger in the frequency-detuned case than the resonant triad case, and leads to a sharp drop in the oblique waves' peak with small detuning.

Mankbadi, Reda R.

1993-01-01

435

Atmospheric tides on Venus. III - The planetary boundary layer

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Diurnal solar heating of Venus' surface produces variable temperatures, winds, and pressure gradients within a shallow layer at the bottom of the atmosphere. The corresponding asymmetric mass distribution experiences a tidal torque tending to maintain Venus' slow retrograde rotation. It is shown that including viscosity in the boundary layer does not materially affect the balance of torques. On the other hand, friction between the air and ground can reduce the predicted wind speeds from about 5 to about 1 m/sec in the lower atmosphere, more consistent with the observations from Venus landers and descent probes. Implications for aeolian activity on Venus' surface and for future missions are discussed.

Dobrovolskis, A. R.

1983-01-01

436

Boundary layer integral matrix procedure code modifications and verifications

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A summary of modifications to Aerotherm's Boundary Layer Integral Matrix Procedure (BLIMP) code is presented. These modifications represent a preliminary effort to make BLIMP compatible with other JANNAF codes and to adjust the code for specific application