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1

Performing Work with Asynchronous Processors: MessageDelaySensitive Bounds #  

E-print Network

Performing Work with Asynchronous Processors: Message­Delay­Sensitive Bounds # Dariusz R. Kowalski 1,2 kowalski@cse.uconn.edu Alex A. Shvartsman 1,3 aas@cse.uconn.edu 1 Computer Science & Engineering

Kowalski, Dariusz

2

Adaptive Neural Network Control of Nonlinear MIMO Time-delay Systems with Unknown Bounds on Delay Functionals  

E-print Network

Adaptive Neural Network Control of Nonlinear MIMO Time-delay Systems with Unknown Bounds on Delay) nonlinear time-delay systems with known bounds, but it was later commented that the results could for unknown nonlinear systems with uncertain time delays but known bounds on the delay functionals and known

Ge, Shuzhi Sam

3

Exact synchronization bound for coupled time-delay systems.  

PubMed

We obtain an exact bound for synchronization in coupled time-delay systems using the generalized Halanay inequality for the general case of time-dependent delay, coupling, and coefficients. Furthermore, we show that the same analysis is applicable to both uni- and bidirectionally coupled time-delay systems with an appropriate evolution equation for their synchronization manifold, which can also be defined for different types of synchronization. The exact synchronization bound assures an exponential stabilization of the synchronization manifold which is crucial for applications. The analytical synchronization bound is independent of the nature of the modulation and can be applied to any time-delay system satisfying a Lipschitz condition. The analytical results are corroborated numerically using the Ikeda system. PMID:23679553

Senthilkumar, D V; Pesquera, Luis; Banerjee, Santo; Ortn, Silvia; Kurths, J

2013-04-01

4

The Online Expectations of College-Bound Juniors and Seniors. E-Expectations Report, 2012  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Noel-Levitz, OmniUpdate, CollegeWeekLive, and NRCCUA[R] (National Research Center for College & University Admissions) conducted a survey of 2,000 college-bound juniors and seniors about their expectations for college Web sites, mobile usage, e-mail, and social media. Among the findings: (1) More than 50 percent of students said the Web played a

Noel-Levitz, Inc, 2012

2012-01-01

5

Packet Audio Playout Delay Adjustment: Performance Bounds and Algorithms \\Lambda  

E-print Network

compute upper and lower bounds (which are shown to be tight for the range of loss and delay values and performs close to the theoretical optimum over a range of parameter values of interest. Keywords is typically divided into ``talkspurts'' (periods of audio activity) and ``silence periods'' (periods of audio

Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

6

Delayed motherhood decreases life expectancy of mouse offspring.  

PubMed

This study analyzes the long-term effects of delayed motherhood on reproductive fitness and life expectancy of offspring in the mouse. Hybrid (C57BL/6JIco x CBA/JIco) first-generation (F1) females, either at the age of 10 or 51 wk, were individually housed with a randomly selected 12- to 14-wk-old hybrid male following a breeding pen system until females reached the end of their reproductive life. Reproductive fitness of second-generation (F2) females was tested from the age of 25 wk until the end of their reproductive life. In F2 males, the testing period ranged from the age of 52 wk until their natural death. Delayed motherhood of hybrid F1 female mice was associated with a decreased percentage of male F3 offspring at birth and lower life expectancy and body weight during adulthood of F2 offspring. There was, however, no evident negative effect of delayed motherhood on several reproductive fitness variables in either male or female F2 offspring. This included between-parturition interval, litter size at birth and at weaning, body weight at weaning and preweaning mortality of F3 pups, percentage of F3 litters with at least one pup cannibalized, and time at which female and male F2 offspring ceased their reproductive life. These data clearly show that delayed motherhood in the mouse is associated with negative long-term effects on offspring survival. PMID:15689534

Tarn, Juan J; Gmez-Piquer, Vanessa; Rausell, Francisco; Navarro, Samuel; Hermenegildo, Carlos; Cano, Antonio

2005-06-01

7

Minimum expected delay-based routing protocol (MEDR) for Delay Tolerant Mobile Sensor Networks.  

PubMed

It is a challenging work to develop efficient routing protocols for Delay Tolerant Mobile Sensor Networks (DTMSNs), which have several unique characteristics such as sensor mobility, intermittent connectivity, energy limit, and delay tolerability. In this paper, we propose a new routing protocol called Minimum Expected Delay-based Routing (MEDR) tailored for DTMSNs. MEDR achieves a good routing performance by finding and using the connected paths formed dynamically by mobile sensors. In MEDR, each sensor maintains two important parameters: Minimum Expected Delay (MED) and its expiration time. According to MED, messages will be delivered to the sensor that has at least a connected path with their hosting nodes, and has the shortest expected delay to communication directly with the sink node. Because of the changing network topology, the path is fragile and volatile, so we use the expiration time of MED to indicate the valid time of the path, and avoid wrong transmissions. Simulation results show that the proposed MEDR achieves a higher message delivery ratio with lower transmission overhead and data delivery delay than other DTMSN routing approaches. PMID:22163658

Feng, Yong; Liu, Ming; Wang, Xiaomin; Gong, Haigang

2010-01-01

8

Bounded rational expectations and the stability of interest rate policy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The New Keynesian model has recently been subject to two serious criticisms: the model cannot produce plausible inflation and output dynamics following a monetary shock, and the stability of its dynamics suffers from indeterminacy. The procedures that have been proposed to eliminate these two shortcomings fall into two categories: the introduction of some sort of backward price indexation into the standard model and/or other forms of stickiness (like sticky information); and the adoption of some form of policy rule that completely offsets the effects of forward looking dynamics in the optimization process. In this paper we do not eradicate forward looking behavior from the dynamics of the New Keynesian model, neither do we impose some form of backward price indexation. We assume that private economic agents have forward looking behavior and that they do try to optimize with all available information; the only novelty is that they are allowed to make small mistakes near the rational expectations equilibrium, in a fully deterministic setup. These near rational or bounded rational expectations show that the dynamics of the model with active interest rate rules is much richer than the simple problem of local indeterminacy as is usually found in the literature.

Gomes, Orlando; Mendes, Diana A.; Mendes, Vivaldo M.

2008-06-01

9

Focusing Your E-Recruitment Efforts to Meet the Expectations of College-Bound Students. E-Expectations 2010  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Early in 2010, the E-Expectations research group surveyed more than 1,000 college-bound high school students, polling them on their online behaviors and expectations, as well as other key enrollment-related topics. Highlights of the study include: (1) 1 in 4 students reported removing a school from their prospective list because of a bad

Noel-Levitz, Inc, 2010

2010-01-01

10

Packet Audio Playout Delay Adjustment: Performance Bounds and Algorithms  

Microsoft Academic Search

In packet audio applications, packets are buffered at a receiving site and their playout delayed in order to com- pensate for variable network delays. In this paper, we con- sider the problem of adaptively adjusting the playout delay in order to keep this delay as small as possible, while at the same time avoiding excessive \\

Sue B. Moon; James F. Kurose; Donald F. Towsley

1998-01-01

11

A MAC Protocol for Delay-Bounded Applications in Wireless Sensor Networks  

E-print Network

A MAC Protocol for Delay-Bounded Applications in Wireless Sensor Networks Guido Di Bacco , Tommaso are defined as aggregates of flows from multiple sources to a single receiver. A new distributed MAC protocol explicitly designed for Delay-Bounded Applications in Wireless Sensor Networks (DB-MAC) is also introduced

Melodia, Tommaso

12

Bounded Linear Stability Analysis - A Time Delay Margin Estimation Approach for Adaptive Control  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper presents a method for estimating time delay margin for model-reference adaptive control of systems with almost linear structured uncertainty. The bounded linear stability analysis method seeks to represent the conventional model-reference adaptive law by a locally bounded linear approximation within a small time window using the comparison lemma. The locally bounded linear approximation of the combined adaptive system is cast in a form of an input-time-delay differential equation over a small time window. The time delay margin of this system represents a local stability measure and is computed analytically by a matrix measure method, which provides a simple analytical technique for estimating an upper bound of time delay margin. Based on simulation results for a scalar model-reference adaptive control system, both the bounded linear stability method and the matrix measure method are seen to provide a reasonably accurate and yet not too conservative time delay margin estimation.

Nguyen, Nhan T.; Ishihara, Abraham K.; Krishnakumar, Kalmanje Srinlvas; Bakhtiari-Nejad, Maryam

2009-01-01

13

On the expected discounted penalty function for the compound Poisson risk model with delayed claims  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we consider an extension to the compound Poisson risk model for which the occurrence of the claim may be delayed. Two kinds of dependent claims, main claims and by-claims, are defined, where every by-claim is induced by the main claim and may be delayed with a certain probability. Both the expected discounted penalty functions with zero initial

Jie-hua Xie; Wei Zou

2011-01-01

14

Delay-Bounded MAC with Minimal Idle Listening for Sensor Networks  

E-print Network

Delay-Bounded MAC with Minimal Idle Listening for Sensor Networks Yang Peng, Zi Li, Daji Qiao--This paper presents a new receiver-initiated sensor network MAC protocol, called CyMAC, which has to the varying traffic condition. More importantly, CyMAC achieves the above goals without requiring time

Qiao, Daji

15

Stochastic resonance in a tumor-immune system subject to bounded noises and time delay  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Immunotherapy is one of the most recent approaches in cancer therapy. A mathematical model of tumor-immune interaction, subject to a periodic immunotherapy treatment (imitated by a periodic signal), correlative and bounded stochastic fluctuations and time delays, is investigated by numerical simulations for its signal power amplification (SPA). Within the tailored parameter regime, the synchronous response of tumor growth to the immunotherapy, stochastic resonance (SR), versus both the noises and delays is obtained. The details are as follows (i) the peak values of SPA versus the noise intensity (A) in the proliferation term of tumor cells decrease as the frequency of periodic signal increases, i.e. an increase of the frequency restrains the SR; (ii) an increase of the amplitude of periodic signal restrains the SR versus A, but boosts up the SR versus the noise intensity B in the immune term; (iii) there is an optimum cross-correlated degree between the two bounded noises, at which the system exhibits the strongest SR versus the delay time ??(the reaction time of tumor cell population to their surrounding environment constraints); (iv) upon increasing the delay time ??, double SR versus the delay time ?? (the time taken by both the tumor antigen identification and tumor-stimulated proliferation of effectors) emerges. These results may be helpful for an immunotherapy treatment for the sufferer.

Guo, Wei; Mei, Dong-Cheng

2014-12-01

16

Delayed birth of distillable entanglement in the evolution of bound entangled states  

E-print Network

The dynamical creation of entanglement between three-level atoms coupled to the common vacuum is investigated. For the class of bound entangled initial states we show that the dynamics of closely separated atoms generates stationary distillable entanglement of asymptotic states. We also find that the effect of delayed sudden birth of distillable entanglement occurs in the case of atoms separated by a distance comparable with the radiation wavelength.

?ukasz Derkacz; Lech Jakobczyk

2010-05-05

17

Delayed birth of distillable entanglement in the evolution of bound entangled states  

E-print Network

The dynamical creation of entanglement between three-level atoms coupled to the common vacuum is investigated. For the class of bound entangled initial states we show that the dynamics of closely separated atoms generates stationary distillable entanglement of asymptotic states. We also find that the effect of delayed sudden birth of distillable entanglement occurs in the case of atoms separated by a distance comparable with the radiation wavelength.

Derkacz, ?ukasz

2010-01-01

18

Bounded Mean-Delay Throughput and Non-Starvation Conditions in Aloha Network  

E-print Network

This paper considers the requirements to ensure bounded mean queuing delay and non-starvation in a slotted Aloha network operating the exponential backoff protocol. It is well-known that the maximum possible throughput of a slotted Aloha system with a large number of nodes is 1/e = 0.3679. Indeed, a saturation throughput of 1/e can be achieved with an exponential backoff factor of r = e/(e-1)=1.5820. The binary backoff factor of r = 2 is assumed in the majority of prior work, and in many practical multiple-access networks such as the Ethernet and WiFi. For slotted Aloha, the saturation throughput 0.3466 for r = 2 is reasonably close to the maximum of 1/e, and one could hardly raise objection to adopting r = 2 in the system. However, this paper shows that if mean queuing delay is to be bounded, then the sustainable throughput when r = 2 is only 0.2158, a drastic 41% drop from 1/e . Fortunately, the optimal setting of r = 1.3757 under the bounded mean-delay requirement allows us to achieve sustainable throughpu...

Liew, Soung Chang; Chen, Da Rui

2008-01-01

19

Harder than Expected: Increased Conflict in Clearly Disadvantageous Delayed Choices in a Computer Game  

PubMed Central

When choosing between immediate and temporally delayed goods, people sometimes decide disadvantageously. Here, we aim to provide process-level insight into differences between individually determined advantageous and disadvantageous choices. Participants played a computer game, deciding between two different rewards of varying size and distance by moving an agent towards the chosen reward. We calculated individual models of advantageous choices and characterized the decision process by analyzing mouse movements. The larger amount of participants choices was classified as advantageous and the disadvantageous choices were biased towards choosing sooner/smaller rewards. The deflection of mouse movements indicated more conflict in disadvantageous choices compared with advantageous choices when the utilities of the options differed clearly. Further process oriented analysis revealed that disadvantageous choices were biased by a tendency for choice-repetition and an undervaluation of the value information in favour of the delay information, making rather simple choices harder than could be expected from the properties of the decision situation. PMID:24260192

Leiberg, Susanne; Goschke, Thomas

2013-01-01

20

Coherence and spike death induced by bounded noise and delayed feedback in an excitable system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The FitzHugh-Nagumo model with bounded noise and delayed feedback is numerically investigated. A minimum of the coefficient of variation (R) of interspike intervals is observed both as a function of the noise intensity and as a function of the noise correlation time, viz, the coherence resonance phenomenon. Also, in the scenario of purely noise-sustained irregular oscillations, there exists a maximum of R as a function of the delay time (?d) of feedback, namely, the suppressed coherence. Moreover, in the scenario of purely noise-sustained regular oscillations, the R with multiple peaks as a function of ?d can be observed, that is, the oscillatory coherence. Additionally, within the tailored parameter regime, spike death phenomenon can be obtained. These results may be helpful for making artificial devices.

Guo, W.; Du, L. C.; Mei, D. C.

2012-06-01

21

The Mobile Browsing Behaviors and Expectations of College-Bound High School Students. An E-Expectations Trend Report  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The last decade marked a dramatic change in the college search experience as students flocked to the Internet as their primary tool for researching colleges. Institutions had to transform their recruitment efforts to keep up with the online demands and expectations of prospective students. The proliferation of smartphones is transforming the

Noel-Levitz, Inc, 2012

2012-01-01

22

Bounded consensus tracking of second-order multi-agent systems with sampling delay under directed networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The bounded consensus tracking problems of second-order multi-agent systems under directed networks with sampling delay are addressed in this paper. When the sampling delay is more than a sampling period, new protocols based on sampled-data control are proposed so that each agent can track the time-varying reference state of the virtual leader. By using the delay decomposition approach, the augmented matrix method, and the frequency domain analysis, necessary and sufficient conditions are obtained, which guarantee that the bounded consensus tracking is realized. Furthermore, some numerical simulations are presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of the theoretical results.

Li, Li; Fang, Hua-Jing

2013-11-01

23

Factors Associated with Delayed Childbearing: From the Voices of Expectant Latina Adults and Teens in California  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There has been limited research on the protective factors that help Latinas delay childbearing until adulthood. In-depth interviews were conducted with 65 pregnant Latina teenage and adult women in California who were about to have their first child. Lack of or inconsistent birth control use as teens was attributed to wanting or ambivalence toward

Biggs, M. Antonia; Ralph, Lauren; Minnis, Alexandra M.; Arons, Abigail; Marchi, Kristen S.; Lehrer, Jocelyn A.; Braveman, Paula A.; Brindis, Claire D.

2010-01-01

24

Reliable bounds for the propagation delay in VLSI nano interconnects based on Multi Wall Carbon Nano Tubes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The upper and lower bounds of the time-delay due to the variations of some physical and geometrical characteristics of a nano-interconnect based on Multi Wall CNTs, suitable for the 32 and 22 nm technology, are evaluated. Interval Analysis is used to define the ranges of the of the p.u.l. parameters of a Transmission Line modeling the interconnect. The Vertex Analysis

Biagio De Vivo; Patrizia Lamberti; Giovanni Spinelli; Vincenzo Tucci

2010-01-01

25

Expect Delays: An Analysis of Air Travel Trends in the United States  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

There has been talk about an airline passenger "Bill of Rights" for years, and this recent report from the Brookings Institution might renew calls for such a document. Released in October 2009, this report by Robert Puentes and Adie Tomer looks at national and metropolitan levels of commercial air patterns between 1990 and 2009 and finds that half of the country's flights are routes of less than 500 miles and that the 26 largest metropolitan airline hubs continue to have the lion's share of flight delays. The report notes that despite a bit of flight time recovery during the recent economic crisis, "the return of economic growth will resume the boost in travelers, a concomitant decline in on-time performance, and the hyper-concentration of U.S. air travel within major metropolitan areas." The report includes links to recent analyses of air travel trends in the intermountain West and the Great Lakes region, and an appendix of metropolitan hubs.

26

CONTROL COMPENSATION BASED ON UPPER BOUND DELAY IN NETWORKED CONTROL N., Georges J.-P.a  

E-print Network

. For the improvement of QoP, two delay compensation strategies, the Smith predictor based and the robust control based et al., 2001), gain adaptation of controllers (Tipsuwan and Chow, (2002), Smith predictor based

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

27

A graph theoretic approach to bounding delay in proxy-assisted, end-system multicast  

Microsoft Academic Search

End-system multicast provides a low-cost solution to scalably broadcast information to groups of users. However, last-mile bandwidth limitations constrain tree fanouts; leading to high end-to-end delivery delays. These delays can be reduced if the network provides forwarding proxies with high fanout capabilities at an additional cost. We use simple graph theoretic network models to explore the problem of building hybrid

Naceur M. Maloucht; Zhen Liu; Dan Rubenstein; Sambit Sahu

2002-01-01

28

On self-similar traffic in ATM queues: definitions, overflow probability bound, and cell delay distribution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent traffic measurements in corporate LANs, Variable-bit-rate video sources, ISDN control-channels and other communication systems, have indicated traffic behaviour of self-similar nature. This paper first discusses some definitions and properties of (second-order) self-similarity and gives simpler criteria for it. It then gives a model of self-similar traffic suitable for queueing system analysis of an ATM queue. A lower bound to

Boris Tsybakov; Nicoals D. Georganas

1997-01-01

29

Functional significance of delay-period activity of primate prefrontal neurons in relation to spatial working memory and reward\\/omission-of-reward expectancy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The lateral prefrontal cortex (LPFC) is important in cognitive control. During the delay period of a working memory (WM) task, primate LPFC neurons show sustained activity that is related to retaining task-relevant cognitive information in WM. However, it has not yet been determined whether LPFC delay neurons are concerned exclusively with the cognitive control of WM task performance. Recent studies

Masataka Watanabe; Kazuo Hikosaka; Masamichi Sakagami; Shu-ichiro Shirakawa

2005-01-01

30

Optimal Simultaneous Confidence Bounds.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The notion of a simultaneous confidence bound is redefined by requiring a bound on the expected coverage measure (ECM) instead of the coverage probability. This is analogous to a criterion introduced by Spjoetvoll for defining simultaneous tests of hypoth...

D. Q. Naiman

1984-01-01

31

Message delay in MANET  

Microsoft Academic Search

A generic stochastic model with only two input parameters is introduced to evaluate the message delay in mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs) where nodes may relay messages. The Laplace-Stieltjes transform (LST) of the message delay is obtained for two protocols: the two-hop and the unrestricted multicopy protocol. From these results we deduce the expected message delays. It is shown that,

Robin Groenevelt; Philippe Nain; Ger Koole

2005-01-01

32

Efficacy of fleece-bound sealing system (TachoSil) in delayed anterior tracheal lacerations secondary to ischemic tracheal necrosis after total thyroidectomy.  

PubMed

Thyroidectomy is one of the commonest surgical operations performed in endocrine surgery; results are generally excellent and morbidity and mortality usually are negligible. Total thyroidectomy's complication rates are low, with an overall incidence of 4.3% among experienced surgeons: the most frequent complications are vocal cord paresis or paralysis, hypoparathyroidism, hypocalcemia, haematoma and wound infection. Tracheal injury following thyroidectomy is even more rare. As reported from some authors, inadvertent tracheal injury has an incidence of 0-0.6% during thyroidectomy. Tracheal laceration (generally located in the posterolateral surface) is often recognized and repaired immediately, during the same intervention. Rarely, following a total thyroidectomy, a delayed tracheal rupture may occur secondary to an ischemic damage of the trachea. This has been described in few cases reported in literature. In this paper we report of a case in which delayed tracheal lacerations appeared 10 days after the patient underwent total thyroidectomy: a prompt surgical operation was efficient using both direct sutures of tracheal breaches and a patch of fibrinogen-thrombin coated collagen fleece covering the entire surface. PMID:22691831

Rosato, L; Ginardi, A; Mondini, G; Sandri, A; Oliaro, A; Filosso, P L

2012-06-01

33

Signal delay in RC tree networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

In MOS integrated circuits, signals may propagate between stages with fanout. The MOS interconnect may be modeled by an RC tree. Exact calculation of signal delay through such networks is difficult. However, upper and lower bounds for delay that are computationally simple are presented here. The results can be used (1) to bound the delay, given the signal threshold; or

Paul Penfield Jr.; Jorge Rubinstein

1981-01-01

34

Signal delay in RC tree networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

In MOS integrated circuits, signals may propagate between stages with fanout. The HOS interconnect may be modeled by an RC tree, Exact calculation of signal delay through such networks is difficult. However, upper and lower bounds for delay that are computationally simple are presented here. The results can be used (I) to bound the delay, given the signal threshold; or

P. Penfield; J. Jr. Rubinstein

1988-01-01

35

Signal Delay in RC Tree Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

In MOS integrated circuits, signals may propagate between stages with fanout. The MOS interconnect may be modeled by an RC tree. Exact calculation of signal delay through such networks is difficult. However, upper and lower bounds for delay that are computationally simple are presented here. The results can be used (1) to bound the delay, given the signal threshold; or

Jorge Rubinstein; Paul Penfield Jr.; Mark A. Horowitz

1983-01-01

36

Expected Value  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This online, interactive lesson on expected value provides examples, exercises, and applets in which students will explore relationships between the expected value of real-valued random variables and the center of the distribution. Students will also examine how expected values can be used to measure spread and correlation.

Siegrist, Kyle

2008-12-24

37

Survey Expectations  

E-print Network

that are quadratic in forecast errors and does not hold in more general settings where the loss function is non-quadratic or asymmetric. Properties of optimal forecasts under general loss functions are discussed in Patton & Timmermann (2004) where new testable... Expectations formation is an integral part of the decision making process by households, firms, as well as the private and public institutions. At the theoretical level the rational expectations hypothesis as advanced by Muth (1961) has gained general...

Pesaran, M Hashem; Weale, Martin

2006-03-14

38

Rational Expectations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Rational Expectations was set up by Ralph Lazar, former strategist and economist for Goldman Sachs, Barings & Credit Suisse First Boston, as a "resource for anyone interested in [emerging markets] economics -- students, teachers, lecturers, journalists, professionals, or just the curious." A fully comprehensive guide to the people, places, and events of the economics world, Rational Expectations includes an searchable database of over 1,000 organizations and institutions in OECD countries and emerging markets, a conference calendar, and job listings. The site also links to academic, professional, and government organizations, as well as a huge suggested publication list and macroeconomic and financial market data. Rational Expectations will be a welcome resource for anyone interested in emerging markets economics.

Lazar, Ralph.

39

Delay-dependent robust H ? control for uncertain systems with a state-delay  

Microsoft Academic Search

A robust H? control for uncertain linear systems with a state-delay is described. Systems with norm-bounded parameter uncertainties are considered and linear memoryless state feedback controllers are obtained. Firstly, a delay-dependent bounded real lemma for systems with a state-delay is presented in terms of linear matrix inequalities (LMIs). By taking a new LyapunovKrasovsii functional, neither model transformation nor bounding for

Y. S. Lee; Y. S. Moon; W. H. Kwon; P. G. Park

2004-01-01

40

Time-delay dependent robust dissipative control for a class of nonlinear time-delay systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The time-delay dependent robust dissipative control problem for a class of time-delay systems with nonlinear perturbations is discussed. Firstly we establish the time-delay robust dissipative criterion for the systems by the matrix inequalities, and point out the bound of the time-delay. Then we get the time-delay dependent robust dissipative memoryless state feedback controller and time-delay state feedback controller. At last

Li Yang; Qingling Zhang; Zhanzhi Qiu; Guoyi Liu

2006-01-01

41

Great Expectations for "Great Expectations."  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Designed to make the study of Dickens'"Great Expectations" an appealing and worthwhile experience, this paper presents a unit of study intended to help students gain (1) an appreciation of Dickens' skill at creating realistic human characters; (2) an insight into the problems of a young man confused by false values and unreal ambitions and ways to

Ridley, Cheryl

42

Delayed Puberty  

MedlinePLUS

... or a condition called polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). What is puberty? Puberty is the time of life when a ... Boys shoulders widen and they develop more muscle. What is delayed puberty? Delayed puberty is when a teen goes through ...

43

Time-Delay Dependent Robust Passive Control for a Class of Nonlinear Time-Delay Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The time-delay dependent robust passive control problem for a class of time-delay systems with nonlinear perturbations is discussed. Firstly we establish the time-delay robust passive criterion for the systems by the matrix inequalities, and point out the bound of the time-delay. Then we get the time-delay dependent robust passive state feedback controller. At last we testify the feasibility of the

Yang Li; Zhang Qingling

2007-01-01

44

Delay-dependent robust H ? controller design for a class of nonlinear uncertainty time-delay systems with input delay  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on an appropriate Lyapunov function, this paper analyzes the design of a delay-dependent robust H\\u000a ? state feedback control, with a focus on a class of nonlinear uncertainty linear time-delay systems with input delay using\\u000a linear matrix inequalities. Under the condition that the nonlinear uncertain functions are gain bounded, a sufficient condition\\u000a dependent on the delays of the state

Yanqing Wang; Xiumei Pang; Changsheng Jiang

2008-01-01

45

Robust Output Stabilization of Time-Varying Input Delay Systems using Attractive Ellipsoid Method  

E-print Network

Robust Output Stabilization of Time-Varying Input Delay Systems using Attractive Ellipsoid Method for linear system with unknown and time-varying input delay, bounded exogenous disturbances and bounded with known delays are studied for both linear and nonlinear systems, state, input and output delays ( see

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

46

New delay dependent stability criteria for recurrent neural networks with interval time-varying delay.  

PubMed

This paper is concerned with the delay dependent stability criteria for a class of static recurrent neural networks with interval time-varying delay. By choosing an appropriate Lyapunov-Krasovskii functional and employing a delay partitioning method, the less conservative condition is obtained. Furthermore, the LMIs-based condition depend on the lower and upper bounds of time delay. Finally, a numerical example is also designated to verify the reduced conservatism of developed criteria. PMID:24908560

Yang, Qiongfen; Ren, Quanhong; Xie, Xuemei

2014-07-01

47

Modeling delay in genetic networks: From delay birth-death processes to delay stochastic differential equations  

E-print Network

Delay is an important and ubiquitous aspect of many biochemical processes. For example, delay plays a central role in the dynamics of genetic regulatory networks as it stems from the sequential assembly of first mRNA and then protein. Genetic regulatory networks are therefore frequently modeled as stochastic birth-death processes with delay. Here we examine the relationship between delay birth-death processes and their appropriate approximating delay chemical Langevin equations. We prove that the distance between these two descriptions, as measured by expectations of functionals of the processes, converges to zero with increasing system size. Further, we prove that the delay birth-death process converges to the thermodynamic limit as system size tends to infinity. Our results hold for both fixed delay and distributed delay. Simulations demonstrate that the delay chemical Langevin approximation is accurate even at moderate system sizes. It captures dynamical features such as the spatial and temporal distributions of transition pathways in metastable systems, oscillatory behavior in negative feedback circuits, and cross-correlations between nodes in a network. Overall, these results provide a foundation for using delay stochastic differential equations to approximate the dynamics of birth-death processes with delay.

Chinmaya Gupta; Jos Manuel Lpez; Robert Azencott; Matthew R Bennett; Kreimir Josi?; William Ott

2014-01-12

48

Branch and Bound Algorithms for Maximizing Expected Improvement Functions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Deterministic computer simulations are often used as a replacement for complex physical experiments. Although less expensive than physical experimentation, computer codes can still be time-consuming to run. An effective strategy for exploring the response surface of the deterministic simulator is the use of an approximation to the computer code, such as a Gaussian process (GP) model, coupled with a sequential

Mark Franey; Pritam Ranjan; Hugh Chipman

2010-01-01

49

Branch and bound algorithms for maximizing expected improvement functions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Deterministic computer simulations are often used as replacement for complex physical experiments. Although less expensive than physical experimentation, computer codes can still be time-consuming to run. An effective strategy for exploring the response surface of the deterministic simulator is the use of an approximation to the computer code, such as a Gaussian process (GP) model, coupled with a sequential sampling

Mark Franey; Pritam Ranjan; Hugh Chipman

2011-01-01

50

Planning for the Future: An Investigation of Work-Bound Rural Youth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to explore the postsecondary educational and occupational expectations of work-bound rural youth. Three groups of work-bound youth were identified (work-bound, work-bound with future educational plans, and work-bound but unsure/undecided about postsecondary education), and each group was compared to college-bound

Hutchins, Bryan C.; Meece, Judith L.; Byun, Soo-yong; Farmer, Thomas W.

2012-01-01

51

A delay-dependent stability criterion for systems with uncertain time-invariant delays  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper provides a new stability criterion for systems with time-invariant uncertain delays. Based on an improved upper bound for the inner product of two vectors, a new delay-dependent robust stability criterion is derived, which is shown by an example less conservative than existing stability criteria

1999-01-01

52

Delay-dependent robust stabilization of uncertain systems with multiple state delays  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper deals with the problem of robust stabilization for uncertain systems with multiple state delays. The parameter uncertainties are time-varying and unknown but are norm-bounded, and the delays are time-varying. A new method for achieving robust stabilization is presented for a class of uncertain time-delay systems via linear memoryless state feedback control. The results depend on the size of

Yong-Yan Cao; You-Xian Sun; Chuwang Cheng

1998-01-01

53

Adaptive observers-based synchronization of a class of Lur'e systems with delayed  

E-print Network

nonlinearities and delayed outputs. The delay is assumed bounded and time varying and the information. On the other hand, the problem of observation of nonlinear systems in the case of delayed outputs), the authors propose a nonlinear observer for a class of drift observable nonlinear systems with a bounded time

Boyer, Edmond

54

Soliton bound states in semiconductor disk laser  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report what we believe is the first demonstration of a temporal soliton bound state in semiconductor disk laser. The laser was passively mode-locked using a quantum dot based semiconductor saturable absorber mirror (QD-SESAM). Two mode-locking regimes were observed where the laser would emit single or closely spaced double pulses (soliton bound state regime) per cavity round-trip. The pulses in soliton bound state regime were spaced by discrete, fixed time duration. We use a system of delay differential equations to model the dynamics of our device.

Viktorov, Evgeny A.; Butkus, Mantas; Erneux, Thomas; Hamilton, Craig J.; Malcolm, Graeme P. A.; Rafailov, Edik U.

2014-05-01

55

The Communication Expectations of College-Bound High School Students. An E-Expectations Trend Report  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

How do prospective college students want to communicate with campuses? When do they want to interact with their target colleges? Which communication methods make them feel most comfortable? Noel-Levitz, OmniUpdate, CollegeWeekLive, and NRCCUA[R] (National Research Center for College & University Admissions) conducted a survey of more than 1,300

Noel-Levitz, Inc, 2012

2012-01-01

56

Quantum metrological bounds for vector parameters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Precise measurement is crucial to science and technology. However, the rule of nature imposes various restrictions on the precision that can be achieved depending on specific methods of measurement. In particular, quantum mechanics poses the ultimate limit on precision which can only be approached but never be violated. Depending on analytic techniques, these bounds may not be unique. Here, in view of prior information, we investigate systematically the precision bounds of the total mean-square error of vector parameter estimation which contains d independent parameters. From quantum Ziv-Zakai error bounds, we derive two kinds of quantum metrological bounds for vector parameter estimation, both of which should be satisfied. By these bounds, we show that a constant advantage can be expected via a simultaneous estimation strategy over the optimal individual estimation strategy, which solves a long-standing problem. A general framework for obtaining the lower bounds in a noisy system is also proposed.

Zhang, Yu-Ran; Fan, Heng

2014-10-01

57

Quantum Metrological Bounds for Vector Parameter  

E-print Network

Precise measurement is crucial to science and technology. However, the rule of nature imposes various restrictions on the precision that can be achieved depending on specific methods of measurement. In particular, quantum mechanics poses the ultimate limit on precision which can only be approached but never be violated. Depending on analytic techniques, these bounds may not be unique. Here, in view of prior information, we investigate systematically the precision bounds of the total mean-square error of vector parameter estimation which contains $d$ independent parameters. From quantum Ziv-Zakai error bounds, we derive two kinds of quantum metrological bounds for vector parameter estimation, both of which should be satisfied. By these bounds, we show that a constant advantage can be expected via simultaneous estimation strategy over the optimal individual estimation strategy, which solves a long-standing problem. A general framework for obtaining the lower bounds in a noisy system is also proposed.

Yu-Ran Zhang; Heng Fan

2014-02-25

58

Inverse momentum expectation values for hydrogenic systems  

SciTech Connect

By using the Fourier transforms of the general hydrogenic bound state wave functions (as ultraspherical polynomials), one may find expectation values of arbitrary functions of momentum p. In this manner the effect of a reciprocity perturbation b/p can be evaluated for all hydrogenic states.

Delbourgo, R.; Elliott, D. [School of Mathematics and Physics, University of Tasmania, Private Bag 37, GPO, Hobart, Tasmania 7001 (Australia)

2009-06-15

59

Delayed conception and active and passive smoking  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To determine whether passive as well as active smoking by women or smoking by men is associated with delayed conception, after adjustment for confounding factors.Design: Population study of couples expecting a baby. Logistic regression was performed to identify factors associated with delayed conception.Setting: The Avon Health Authority area, United Kingdom.Patient(s): All couples expected to deliver between April 1991 and

Michael G. R Hull; Kate North; Hazel Taylor; Alexandra Farrow; W. Christopher L Ford

2000-01-01

60

Bounds on the Greedy Routing Algorithm for Array Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

We analyze the performance of greedy routing for array networks by providing bounds on the average delay and the average number of packets in the system for the dynamic routing problem. In this model packets are generated at each node according to a Poisson process, and each packet is sent to a destination chosen uniformly at random. Our bounds are

Michael Mitzenmacher

1996-01-01

61

Random -Expectations Marcel Nutz  

E-print Network

Random -Expectations Marcel Nutz First version: September 11, 2010. This version: June 28, 2012. Abstract We construct a time-consistent sublinear expectation in the setting of volatility uncertainty. This mapping extends Peng's -expectation by allowing the range of the volatility uncertainty to be stochastic

Nutz, Marcel

62

First Impressions and Expectancies  

Microsoft Academic Search

It was hypothesized that (a) impressions of a stranger as bad and potent would result in greater expectation of harm and less expectation of benefits than good and impotent impressions, and (b) disconfirmation of these expectations would result in changes in level of expressed attractiveness. Forty female introductory psychology students participated in an initial investigation, and 20 male introductory psychology

Robert C. Brown Jr; R. Bob Smith III; James T. Tedeschi

1975-01-01

63

Bounded Fraction Finder  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The same as "Bounded Fraction Pointer" but there is no arrow to help the user determine the value of a fraction between the two endpoints. Bounded Fraction Finder is one of the Interactivate assessment explorers.

64

HiggsBounds: Confronting arbitrary Higgs sectors with exclusion bounds from LEP and Tevatron  

E-print Network

HiggsBounds is a computer code which tests the Higgs sectors of new models against the current exclusion bounds from the Higgs searches at LEP and the Tevatron. As input, it requires a selection of model predictions, such as Higgs masses, branching ratios, effective couplings and total decay widths. HiggsBounds then uses the expected and observed topological cross section limits from the Higgs searches to determine which points in the parameter space have already been excluded at 95% CL. HiggsBounds will be updated to include new results as they become available.

P. Bechtle; O. Brein; S. Heinemeyer; G. Weiglein; K. E. Williams

2009-05-13

65

Bound states and the Bekenstein bound  

SciTech Connect

We explore the validity of the generalized Bekenstein bound, S<= pi M a. We define the entropy S as the logarithm of the number of states which have energy eigenvalue below M and are localized to a flat space region of width alpha. If boundary conditions that localize field modes are imposed by fiat, then the bound encounters well-known difficulties with negative Casimir energy and large species number, as well as novel problems arising only in the generalized form. In realistic systems, however, finite-size effects contribute additional energy. We study two different models for estimating such contributions. Our analysis suggests that the bound is both valid and nontrivial if interactions are properly included, so that the entropy S counts the bound states of interacting fields.

Bousso, Raphael

2003-10-16

66

The DMM bound: multivariate (aggregate) separation bounds  

E-print Network

In this paper we derive aggregate separation bounds, named after Davenport-Mahler-Mignotte (\\dmm), on the isolated roots of polynomial systems, specifically on the minimum distance between any two such roots. The bounds exploit the structure of the system and the height of the sparse (or toric) resultant by means of mixed volume, as well as recent advances on aggregate root bounds for univariate polynomials, and are applicable to arbitrary positive dimensional systems. We improve upon Canny's gap theorem \\cite{c-crmp-87} by a factor of $\\OO(d^{n-1})$, where $d$ bounds the degree of the polynomials, and $n$ is the number of variables. One application is to the bitsize of the eigenvalues and eigenvectors of an integer matrix, which also yields a new proof that the problem is strongly polynomial. We also compare against recent lower bounds on the absolute value of the root coordinates by Brownawell and Yap \\cite{by-issac-2009}, obtained under the hypothesis there is a 0-dimensional projection. Our bounds are in ...

Emiris, Ioannis Z; Tsigaridas, Elias

2010-01-01

67

A Rational Expectations Experiment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a simple classroom simulation of the Lucas supply curve mechanism with rational expectations. Concludes that the exercise has proved very useful as an introduction to the concepts of rational and adaptive expectations, the Lucas supply curve, the natural rate hypothesis, and random supply shocks. (DB)

Peterson, Norris A.

1990-01-01

68

Outside the Expected.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In examining the findings of "Pygmalion in the Classroom," an experimental study of the positive effects of favorable teacher expectations on the intellectual development of disadvantaged elementary school students, this review speculates about why the experimental students, whom the teachers expected to improve, and the control students, who were

Dienstfrey, Harris

1968-01-01

69

Delay-range-dependent stability for systems with time-varying delay  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is concerned with the stability analysis for systems with time-varying delay in a range. An appropriate type of Lyapunov functionals is proposed to investigate the delay-range-dependent stability problem. The present results may improve the existing ones due to a method to estimate the upper bound of the derivative of Lyapunov functional without ignoring some useful terms and the

Yong He; Qing-guo Wang; Chong Lin; Min Wu

2007-01-01

70

A matrix lower bound  

SciTech Connect

A matrix lower bound is defined that generalizes ideas apparently due to S. Banach and J. von Neumann. The matrix lower bound has a natural interpretation in functional analysis, and it satisfies many of the properties that von Neumann stated for it in a restricted case. Applications for the matrix lower bound are demonstrated in several areas. In linear algebra, the matrix lower bound of a full rank matrix equals the distance to the set of rank-deficient matrices. In numerical analysis, the ratio of the matrix norm to the matrix lower bound is a condition number for all consistent systems of linear equations. In optimization theory, the matrix lower bound suggests an identity for a class of min-max problems. In real analysis, a recursive construction that depends on the matrix lower bound shows that the level sets of continuously differential functions lie asymptotically near those of their tangents.

Grcar, Joseph F.

2002-02-04

71

Expectations across entertainment media  

E-print Network

An audience's satisfaction with an entertainment product is dependent on how well their expectations are fulfilled. This study delves into the implicit contract that is formed between the purveyor of an entertainment ...

Austin, Alexander Chance

2007-01-01

72

Virial Expansion Bounds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the 1960s, the technique of using cluster expansion bounds in order to achieve bounds on the virial expansion was developed by Lebowitz and Penrose (J. Math. Phys. 5:841, 1964) and Ruelle (Statistical Mechanics: Rigorous Results. Benjamin, Elmsford, 1969). This technique is generalised to more recent cluster expansion bounds by Poghosyan and Ueltschi (J. Math. Phys. 50:053509, 2009), which are related to the work of Procacci (J. Stat. Phys. 129:171, 2007) and the tree-graph identity, detailed by Brydges (Phnomnes Critiques, Systmes Alatoires, Thories de Jauge. Les Houches 1984, pp. 129-183, 1986). The bounds achieved by Lebowitz and Penrose can also be sharpened by doing the actual optimisation and achieving expressions in terms of the Lambert W-function. The different bound from the cluster expansion shows some improvements for bounds on the convergence of the virial expansion in the case of positive potentials, which are allowed to have a hard core.

Tate, Stephen James

2013-10-01

73

Expected performance of m-solution backtracking  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper derives upper bounds on the expected number of search tree nodes visited during an m-solution backtracking search, a search which terminates after some preselected number m problem solutions are found. The search behavior is assumed to have a general probabilistic structure. The results are stated in terms of node expansion and contraction. A visited search tree node is said to be expanding if the mean number of its children visited by the search exceeds 1 and is contracting otherwise. It is shown that if every node expands, or if every node contracts, then the number of search tree nodes visited by a search has an upper bound which is linear in the depth of the tree, in the mean number of children a node has, and in the number of solutions sought. Also derived are bounds linear in the depth of the tree in some situations where an upper portion of the tree contracts (expands), while the lower portion expands (contracts). While previous analyses of 1-solution backtracking have concluded that the expected performance is always linear in the tree depth, the model allows superlinear expected performance.

Nicol, D. M.

1986-01-01

74

Holographic Weyl Entropy Bounds  

E-print Network

We consider the entropy bounds recently conjectured by Fischler, Susskind and Bousso, and proven in certain cases by Flanagan, Marolf and Wald (FMW). One of the FMW derivations supposes a covariant form of the Bekenstein entropy bound, the consequences of which we explore. The derivation also suggests that the entropy contained in a vacuum spacetime, e.g. Schwarzschild, is related to the shear on congruences of null rays. We find evidence for this intuition, but in a surprising way. We compare the covariant entropy bound to certain earlier discussions of black hole entropy, and comment on the separate roles of quantum mechanics and gravity in the entropy bound.

Andrew Chamblin; Joshua Erlich

2003-01-18

75

A Novel Stabilizing Control for Neural Nonlinear Systems with Time Delays by State and Dynamic Output Feedback  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel neural network model, termed the standard neural network model (SNNM), similar to the nominal model in linear robust control theory, is suggested to facilitate the synthesis of controllers for delayed (or non-delayed) nonlinear systems composed of neural networks. The model is composed of a linear dynamic system and a bounded static delayed (or non-delayed) nonlinear operator. Based on

Mei-Qin Liu; Hui-Fang Wang

2008-01-01

76

Time Delay and Accretion Disk Size Measurements in the Lensed Quasar SBS 0909+532 from Multiwavelength Microlensing Analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present three complete seasons and two half-seasons of Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) r-band photometry of the gravitationally lensed quasar SBS 0909+532 from the U.S. Naval Observatory, as well as two seasons each of SDSS g-band and r-band monitoring from the Liverpool Robotic Telescope. Using Monte Carlo simulations to simultaneously measure the system's time delay and model the r-band microlensing variability, we confirm and significantly refine the precision of the system's time delay to \\Delta t_{AB} = 50^{+2}_{-4}\\,{days}, where the stated uncertainties represent the bounds of the formal 1? confidence interval. There may be a conflict between the time delay measurement and a lens consisting of a single galaxy. While models based on the Hubble Space Telescope astrometry and a relatively compact stellar distribution can reproduce the observed delay, the models have somewhat less dark matter than we would typically expect. We also carry out a joint analysis of the microlensing variability in the r and g bands to constrain the size of the quasar's continuum source at these wavelengths, obtaining log {(r s, r /cm)[cos i/0.5]1/2} = 15.3 0.3 and log {(r s, g /cm)[cos i/0.5]1/2} = 14.8 0.9, respectively. Our current results do not formally constrain the temperature profile of the accretion disk but are consistent with the expectations of standard thin disk theory.

Hainline, Laura J.; Morgan, Christopher W.; MacLeod, Chelsea L.; Landaal, Zachary D.; Kochanek, C. S.; Harris, Hugh C.; Tilleman, Trudy; Goicoechea, L. J.; Shalyapin, V. N.; Falco, Emilio E.

2013-09-01

77

Performance expectation plan  

SciTech Connect

This document outlines the significant accomplishments of fiscal year 1998 for the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Project Hanford Management Contract (PHMC) team. Opportunities for improvement to better meet some performance expectations have been identified. The PHMC has performed at an excellent level in administration of leadership, planning, and technical direction. The contractor has met and made notable improvement of attaining customer satisfaction in mission execution. This document includes the team`s recommendation that the PHMC TWRS Performance Expectation Plan evaluation rating for fiscal year 1998 be an Excellent.

Ray, P.E.

1998-09-04

78

Conditional Expectations and Renormalization  

E-print Network

In optimal prediction methods one estimates the future behavior of underresolved systems by solving reduced systems of equations for expectations conditioned by partial data; renormalization group methods reduce the number of variables in complex systems through integration of unwanted scales. We establish the relation between these methods for systems in thermal equilibrium, and use this relation to find renormalization parameter flows and the coefficients in reduced systems by expanding conditional expectations in series and evaluating the coefficients by Monte-Carlo. We illustrate the construction by finding parameter flows for simple spin systems and then using the renormalized (=reduced) systems to calculate the critical temperature and the magnetization.

Alexandre J. Chorin

2002-04-17

79

Fast Branch & Bound Algorithm in Feature Selection  

Microsoft Academic Search

We introduce a novel algorithm for optimal subset selection. Due to its simple mechanism for predicting criterion values the algorithm finds optimum usually several times faster than an y other known Branch & Bound (5), (7) algorithm. This behavior is expected when the algorithm is used in conjunction with non- recursive and\\/or computationally expensive criterion fun ctions.

Petr Somol; Pavel Pudil; Francesc J. Ferri; Josef Kittler

80

Colorado Outward Bound School River Rafters' Manual.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Instructional sequences, safety rules, duties of crew members, and procedures for Colorado Outward Bound School river rafting trips are summarized in this manual. Designed to acquaint instructors with the duties expected of them on the trips, the information in the manual is presented in outline form and is intended for those with prior river

Leachman, Mark

81

Threshold Bound States  

E-print Network

Relationships between the coupling constant and the binding energy of threshold bound states are obtained in a simple manner from an iterative algorithm for solving the eigenvalue problem. The absence of threshold bound states in higher dimensions can be easily understood.

W. A. Berger; H. G. Miller; D. Waxman

2007-02-08

82

Adaptive variable structure control of time-varying delay nonlinear systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, adaptive variable structure control is proposed for a class of time-varying delay nonlinear systems with unknown constant control gain. The unknown function and the upper bound of the unknown time delay term are assumed to be in the form of nonlinear functions with unknown coefficients. The uncertain time delay terms are compensated for using appropriate Lyapunov-Krasovskii functional

Tian-Ping Zhang; Qi-Kun Shen; Hou-Bin Qian

2009-01-01

83

Bounding Species Distribution Models  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Species distribution models are increasing in popularity for mapping suitable habitat for species of management concern. Many investigators now recognize that extrapolations of these models with geographic information systems (GIS) might be sensitive to the environmental bounds of the data used in their development, yet there is no recommended best practice for "clamping" model extrapolations. We relied on two commonly used modeling approaches: classification and regression tree (CART) and maximum entropy (Maxent) models, and we tested a simple alteration of the model extrapolations, bounding extrapolations to the maximum and minimum values of primary environmental predictors, to provide a more realistic map of suitable habitat of hybridized Africanized honey bees in the southwestern United States. Findings suggest that multiple models of bounding, and the most conservative bounding of species distribution models, like those presented here, should probably replace the unbounded or loosely bounded techniques currently used [Current Zoology 57 (5): 642-647, 2011].

Stohlgren, Thomas J.; Jarnevich, Cahterine S.; Morisette, Jeffrey T.; Esaias, Wayne E.

2011-01-01

84

Bounding species distribution models  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Species distribution models are increasing in popularity for mapping suitable habitat for species of management concern. Many investigators now recognize that extrapolations of these models with geographic information systems (GIS) might be sensitive to the environmental bounds of the data used in their development, yet there is no recommended best practice for "clamping" model extrapolations. We relied on two commonly used modeling approaches: classification and regression tree (CART) and maximum entropy (Maxent) models, and we tested a simple alteration of the model extrapolations, bounding extrapolations to the maximum and minimum values of primary environmental predictors, to provide a more realistic map of suitable habitat of hybridized Africanized honey bees in the southwestern United States. Findings suggest that multiple models of bounding, and the most conservative bounding of species distribution models, like those presented here, should probably replace the unbounded or loosely bounded techniques currently used. ?? 2011 Current Zoology.

Stohlgren, T.J.; Jarnevich, C.S.; Esaias, W.E.; Morisette, J.T.

2011-01-01

85

It's To Be Expected  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students use a tree diagram on their graphing calculators to find theoretical probabilities. They then manipulate this information in a spreadsheet to find the expected value. This lesson includes teacher notes, a student worksheet with solutions, and a homework assignment with solutions.

2010-08-27

86

Parenting with High Expectations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In some ways raising deaf or hard of hearing children is no different than raising hearing children; expectations must be established and periodically tweaked. Benna Hull Timperlake, who with husband Roger, raised two hearing children in addition to their deaf daughter, Genelle Timperlake Sanders, and Genelle, now a deaf professional, share their

Timperlake, Benna Hull; Sanders, Genelle Timperlake

2014-01-01

87

Maintaining High Expectations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Author and husband, Roger Williams, is hearing and signs fluently, and author and wife, Sherry Williams, is deaf and uses both speech and signs, although she is most comfortable signing. As parents of six children--deaf and hearing--they are determined to encourage their children to do their best, and they always set their expectations high. They

Williams, Roger; Williams, Sherry

2014-01-01

88

Great Expectations. [Lesson Plan].  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Based on Charles Dickens' novel "Great Expectations," this lesson plan presents activities designed to help students understand the differences between totalitarianism and democracy; and a that a writer of a story considers theme, plot, characters, setting, and point of view. The main activity of the lesson involves students working in groups to

Devine, Kelley

89

Superconducting Delay Lines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many superconducting delay line structures have been implemented, using various technologies. In this paper, a comprehensive\\u000a overview of these delay-lines is given. The advantages and disadvantages of using different planar technologies for the construction\\u000a of superconducting delay lines are discussed in greater detail. It was revealed that most of the superconducting delay line\\u000a structures reported can be categorized into a

Hieng Tiong Su; Yi Wang; Frederick Huang; Michael J. Lancaster

2008-01-01

90

Delay Discounting and Gambling  

PubMed Central

Delay discounting describes the decline in the value of a reinforcer as the delay to that reinforcer increases. A review of the available studies revealed that steep delay discounting is positively correlated with problem or pathological gambling. One hypothesis regarding this correlation derives from the discounting equation proposed by Mazur (1989). According to the equation, steeper discounting renders the difference between fixed-delayed rewards and gambling-like variable-delayed rewards larger; with the latter being more valuable. The present study was designed to test this prediction by first assessing rats impulsive choices across four delays to a larger-later reinforcer. A second condition quantified strength of preference for mixed- over fixed-delays, with the duration of the latter adjusted between sessions to achieve indifference. Strength of preference for the mixed-delay alternative is given by the fixed delay at indifference (lower fixed-delay values reflect stronger preferences). Percent impulsive choice was not correlated with the value of the fixed delay at indifference and, therefore, the prediction of the hyperbolic model of gambling was not supported. A follow-up assessment revealed a significant decrease in impulsive choice after the second condition. This shift in impulsive choice could underlie the failure to observe the predicted correlation between impulsive choice and degree of preference for mixed- over fixed delays. PMID:21352902

Madden, Gregory J.; Francisco, Monica T.; Brewer, Adam T.; Stein, Jeffrey S.

2011-01-01

91

Testing the bounds on quantum probabilities Stefan Filipp #  

E-print Network

Testing the bounds on quantum probabilities Stefan Filipp # Atominstitut der ? Osterreichischen on quantum probabilities and expectation values are derived for experimental setups associ­ ated with Bell of quantum mechanics, correlation polytopes, probability theory # Electronic address: sfilipp

Svozil, Karl

92

Testing the bounds on quantum probabilities Stefan Filipp  

E-print Network

Testing the bounds on quantum probabilities Stefan Filipp Atominstitut der ¨Osterreichischen on quantum probabilities and expectation values are derived for experimental setups associ- ated with Bell of quantum mechanics, correlation polytopes, probability theory Electronic address: sfilipp

Svozil, Karl

93

Testing the bounds on quantum probabilities Stefan Filipp*  

E-print Network

Testing the bounds on quantum probabilities Stefan Filipp* Atominstitut der ?sterreichischen March 2004) Bounds on quantum probabilities and expectation values are derived for experimental setups probability of rainfall in both cities is 0.99. Would such a proposition appear reasonable? Certainly not

Svozil, Karl

94

EXPECTED LEARNING OUTCOMESEXPECTED LEARNING OUTCOMES Expected Learning Outcome (definition)  

E-print Network

44 EXPECTED LEARNING OUTCOMESEXPECTED LEARNING OUTCOMES Expected Learning Outcome (definition) An expected learning outcome is a formal statement of what students are expected to learn in a course. Expected learning outcome statements refer to specific knowledge, practical skills, areas of professional

Rock, Chris

95

Bounds on inference  

E-print Network

Lower bounds for the average probability of error of estimating a hidden variable X given an observation of a correlated random variable Y, and Fano's inequality in particular, play a central role in information theory. ...

Medard, Muriel

96

Delay discounting: Trait variable?  

PubMed Central

Delay discounting refers to the tendency for outcomes that are remote in time to have less value than more immediate outcomes. Steep discounting of delayed outcomes is associated with a variety of social maladies. The degree of sensitivity to delayed outcomes may be a stable and pervasive individual characteristic. In analyses of archival data, the present study found positive correlations between the degree of delay discounting for one outcome (as measured by the Area Under the Curve), and the degree of discounting for other outcomes. Along with additional evidence reviewed, these data suggest that delay discounting may be considered a personality trait. Recent research in epigenetics, neuroscience, and behavior suggests delay discounting may prove to be a beneficial target for therapeutic attempts to produce global reductions in impulsivity related to delay discounting. PMID:21385637

Odum, Amy L.

2012-01-01

97

Estimating Flight Departure Delay Distributions --A Statistical Approach With Long-term Trend  

E-print Network

Maximization algorithm, borrowing ideas from Genetic Algorithms. The model demonstrates reasonable goodness our model. Keywords: Smoothing spline, mixture model, Expectation Maximization (EM), Genetic Algorithm (GA), airline delay, airspace congestion, delay distribution. Corresponding author. 1 #12

Jank, Wolfgang

98

Speech and language delay in children.  

PubMed

Speech and language delay in children is associated with increased difficulty with reading, writing, attention, and socialization. Although physicians should be alert to parental concerns and to whether children are meeting expected developmental milestones, there currently is insufficient evidence to recommend for or against routine use of formal screening instruments in primary care to detect speech and language delay. In children not meeting the expected milestones for speech and language, a comprehensive developmental evaluation is essential, because atypical language development can be a secondary characteristic of other physical and developmental problems that may first manifest as language problems. Types of primary speech and language delay include developmental speech and language delay, expressive language disorder, and receptive language disorder. Secondary speech and language delays are attributable to another condition such as hearing loss, intellectual disability, autism spectrum disorder, physical speech problems, or selective mutism. When speech and language delay is suspected, the primary care physician should discuss this concern with the parents and recommend referral to a speech-language pathologist and an audiologist. There is good evidence that speech-language therapy is helpful, particularly for children with expressive language disorder. PMID:21568252

McLaughlin, Maura R

2011-05-15

99

Delay Sensitive Communications over Cognitive Radio Networks  

E-print Network

Supporting the quality of service of unlicensed users in cognitive radio networks is very challenging, mainly due to dynamic resource availability because of the licensed users' activities. In this paper, we study the optimal admission control and channel allocation decisions in cognitive overlay networks in order to support delay sensitive communications of unlicensed users. We formulate it as a Markov decision process problem, and solve it by transforming the original formulation into a stochastic shortest path problem. We then propose a simple heuristic control policy, which includes a threshold-based admission control scheme and and a largest-delay-first channel allocation scheme, and prove the optimality of the largest-delay-first channel allocation scheme. We further propose an improved policy using the rollout algorithm. By comparing the performance of both proposed policies with the upper-bound of the maximum revenue, we show that our policies achieve close-to-optimal performance with low complexities...

Wang, Feng; Zhao, Yuping

2012-01-01

100

Transition delay using control theory.  

PubMed

This review gives an account of recent research efforts to use feedback control for the delay of laminar-turbulent transition in wall-bounded shear flows. The emphasis is on reducing the growth of small-amplitude disturbances in the boundary layer using numerical simulations and a linear control approach. Starting with the application of classical control theory to two-dimensional perturbations developing in spatially invariant flows, flow control based on control theory has progressed towards more realistic three-dimensional, spatially inhomogeneous flow configurations with localized sensing/actuation. The development of low-dimensional models of the Navier-Stokes equations has played a key role in this progress. Moreover, shortcomings and future challenges, as well as recent experimental advances in this multi-disciplinary field, are discussed. PMID:21382819

Bagheri, S; Henningson, D S

2011-04-13

101

Time Bounds for Shared Objects in Partially Synchronous Systems  

E-print Network

folklore implementations) by proposing an implementation for a shared object with an arbitrary data type in distributed systems of n processes in which every message delay is bounded within [d-u, d] and the maximum skew between processes' clocks is epsilon...

Wang, Jiaqi

2012-02-14

102

Bounds on the greedy routing algorithm for array networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

We extend previous work on greedy routing for array networks by providing bounds on the average delay and the average number of packets in the system. We analyze the dynamic routing problem, where packets are generated at each node according to a Poisson process. Each packet is sent to a destination chosen uniformly at random. Packets are routed greedily, first

Michael Mitzenrnacher; U. G. Berkeley

1994-01-01

103

Common ratio using delay  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present an experiment in which we add a common delay in a choice between two risky prospects. The results show that delay\\u000a produces the same change in preferences as in the well-documented common ratio effect in risky lotteries. The added common\\u000a delay acts as if the probabilities were divided by some common ratio. Moreover, we show that there is

Manel Baucells; Franz H. Heukamp

2010-01-01

104

Research Module: Weekly Report Expectations. 82 Weekly Report Expectations  

E-print Network

Research Module: Weekly Report Expectations. 82 Weekly Report Expectations Week 1 Report: 1. Write at and what kind of formatting expections apply. 9. Note: Keep copies of your reports and NMR's and GC Report Expectations for students who did Scheme 4: Do as much as you can from the instructions above

Jasperse, Craig P.

105

Delayed recombination and cosmic parameters  

SciTech Connect

Current cosmological constraints from cosmic microwave background anisotropies are typically derived assuming a standard recombination scheme, however additional resonance and ionizing radiation sources can delay recombination, altering the cosmic ionization history and the cosmological inferences drawn from the cosmic microwave background data. We show that for recent observations of the cosmic microwave background anisotropy, from the Wilkinson microwave anisotropy probe satellite mission (WMAP) 5-year survey and from the arcminute cosmology bolometer array receiver experiment, additional resonance radiation is nearly degenerate with variations in the spectral index, n{sub s}, and has a marked effect on uncertainties in constraints on the Hubble constant, age of the universe, curvature and the upper bound on the neutrino mass. When a modified recombination scheme is considered, the redshift of recombination is constrained to z{sub *}=1078{+-}11, with uncertainties in the measurement weaker by 1 order of magnitude than those obtained under the assumption of standard recombination while constraints on the shift parameter are shifted by 1{sigma} to R=1.734{+-}0.028. From the WMAP5 data we obtain the following constraints on the resonance and ionization sources parameters: {epsilon}{sub {alpha}}<0.39 and {epsilon}{sub i}<0.058 at 95% c.l.. Although delayed recombination limits the precision of parameter estimation from the WMAP satellite, we demonstrate that this should not be the case for future, smaller angular scales measurements, such as those by the Planck satellite mission.

Galli, Silvia; Melchiorri, Alessandro [Universita di Roma 'La Sapienza', Ple Aldo Moro 2, 00185, Rome (Italy); Bean, Rachel [Department of Astronomy, Space Sciences Building, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853 (United States); Silk, Joseph [Astrophysics, Denys Wilkinson Building, University of Oxford, Keble Road, OX1 3RH, Oxford (United Kingdom)

2008-09-15

106

A Discounting Framework for Choice With Delayed and Probabilistic Rewards  

Microsoft Academic Search

When choosing between delayed or uncertain outcomes, individuals discount the value of such outcomes on the basis of the expected time to or the likelihood of their occurrence. In an integrative review of the expanding experimental literature on discounting, the authors show that although the same form of hyperbola-like function describes discounting of both delayed and probabilistic outcomes, a variety

Leonard Green; Joel Myerson

2004-01-01

107

Earth's extensive entropy bound  

E-print Network

The possibility of planetary mass black hole production by crossing entropy limits is addressed. Such a possibility is given by pointing out that two geophysical quantities have comparable values: first, Earth's total negative entropy flux integrated over geological time and, second, its extensive entropy bound, which follows as a tighter bound to the Bekenstein limit when entropy is an extensive function. The similarity between both numbers suggests that the formation of black holes from planets may be possible through a strong fluctuation toward thermodynamic equilibrium which results in gravothermal instability and final collapse. Briefly discussed are implications for the astronomical observation of low mass black holes and for Fermi's paradox.

A. M. Lisewski

2007-10-18

108

Nuclear-bound quarkonium  

SciTech Connect

We show that the QCD van der Waals interaction due to multiple gluon exchange provides a new kind of attractive nuclear force capable of binding heavy quarkonia to nuclei. The parameters of the potential are estimated by identifying multigluon exchange with the Pomeron contributions to elastic meson-nucleon scattering. The gluonic potential is then used to study the properties of {ital c{bar c}} nuclear-bound states. In particular, we predict bound states of the {eta}{sub {ital c}} with {sup 3}He and heavier nuclei. Production modes and rates are also discussed.

Brodsky, S.J.; Schmidt, I. (Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94309 (USA)); de Teramond, G.F. (Escuela de Fisica, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Jose, Costa Rica (CR))

1990-02-26

109

Bounding noncommutative QCD  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Jur?o, Mller, Schraml, Schupp, and Wess have shown how to construct noncommutative SU(/N) gauge theories from a consistency relation. Within this framework, we present the Feynman rules for noncommutative QCD and compute explicitly the most dangerous Lorentz-violating operator generated through radiative corrections. We find that interesting effects appear at the one-loop level, in contrast to conventional noncommutative U(/N) gauge theories, leading to a stringent bound. Our results are consistent with others appearing recently in the literature that suggest collider limits are not competitive with low-energy tests of Lorentz violation for bounding the scale of spacetime noncommutativity.

Carlson, C. E.; Carone, C. D.; Lebed, R. F.

2001-10-01

110

Delay-dependent anti-windup synthesis for stability of constrained state delay systems using pole-constraints.  

PubMed

This paper proposes the design of anti-windup compensator gain for stability of actuator input constrained state delay systems using constrained pole-position of the closed-loop. Based on Delay-Dependent Lyapunov-Krasovskii functionals and local sector conditions, a new LMI characterization is derived that ensures closed-loop asymptotic stability of constrained state delay systems while accounting upper bound fixed state delay and largest lower bound of the system's pole-position in the formulation of anti-windup gain. Besides, at saturation, the method significantly nullifies the inherent slow dynamics present in the system. It is shown in the comparative numerical examples that the LMI formulation draws stability with improved time-domain performance. PMID:21134673

Ahmed, Abrar; Rehan, Muhammad; Iqbal, Naeem

2011-04-01

111

Design of robust controllers for time-delay systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The problem of stabilizing linear dynamical time-delay systems subject to bounded uncertainties is investigated. Two memoryless feedback controllers are considered. It is established that when the matching conditions are met and certain bounding relations are satisfied, then the linear controller renders the zero-response of the system asymptotically stable. Saturation-type controllers are shown to guarantee that all system responses are uniformly

Magdi S. Mahmoud; Naser F. AI-Muthairi

1994-01-01

112

Digital time delay  

DOEpatents

Method and apparatus are provided for generating an output pulse following a trigger pulse at a time delay interval preset with a resolution which is high relative to a low resolution available from supplied clock pulses. A first lumped constant delay provides a first output signal at predetermined interpolation intervals corresponding to the desired high resolution time interval. Latching circuits latch the high resolution data to form a first synchronizing data set. A selected time interval has been preset to internal counters and corrected for circuit propagation delay times having the same order of magnitude as the desired high resolution. Internal system clock pulses count down the counters to generate an internal pulse delayed by an internal which is functionally related to the preset time interval. A second LCD corrects the internal signal with the high resolution time delay. A second internal pulse is then applied to a third LCD to generate a second set of synchronizing data which is complementary with the first set of synchronizing data for presentation to logic circuits. The logic circuits further delay the internal output signal with the internal pulses. The final delayed output signal thereafter enables the output pulse generator to produce the desired output pulse at the preset time delay interval following input of the trigger pulse.

Martin, A.D.

1986-05-09

113

Digital time delay  

Microsoft Academic Search

Method and apparatus are provided for generating an output pulse following a trigger pulse at a time delay interval preset with a resolution which is high relative to a low resolution available from supplied clock pulses. A first lumped constant delay provides a first output signal at predetermined interpolation intervals corresponding to the desired high resolution time interval. Latching circuits

1986-01-01

114

Academic delay of gratification  

Microsoft Academic Search

Academic delay of gratification (ADOG) refers to students' postponement of immediately available opportunities to satisfy impulses in favor of pursuing chosen important academic rewards or goals that are temporally remote but ostensibly more valuable. In Study 1, we developed a course-specific academic delay of gratification scale (ADOGS) with acceptable psychometric properties. Results of Study 2 supported the hypothesized association between

Hfer Bembenutty; Stuart A. Karabenick

1998-01-01

115

Computing Graphical Confidence Bounds  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Approximation for graphical confidence bounds is simple enough to run on programmable calculator. Approximation is used in lieu of numerical tables not always available, and exact calculations, which often require rather sizable computer resources. Approximation verified for collection of up to 50 data points. Method used to analyze tile-strength data on Space Shuttle thermal-protection system.

Mezzacappa, M. A.

1983-01-01

116

Bound states of quarks  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review consists of two parts, the phenomenology of non-relativistic potential models and the theoretical understanding of the forces between quarks. The first part reports on the description of hadrons as bound states of quarks by non-relativistic potential models. It starts with a brief sketch of the way in which information on the interquark potential may be gained from quantum

Wolfgang Lucha; Franz F. Schberl; Dieter Gromes

1991-01-01

117

The use of delay in multitrack production  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Delay, inevitable whenever sound propagates through space, is too often the bane of the acoustician's practice. An audible echo generally relegates a music performance hall-no matter how beautiful it otherwise might sound-to the lowest status. Multitrack music production on the other hand, with its aggressive use of overdubbing, editing, and signal processing, is not bound by those rules of time and space which determine the sound of a hall. In the recording studio, where music is synthesized for playback over loudspeakers, the delay is employed as a powerful, multipurpose tool. It is not avoided. It is in fact embraced. Echoes are used on purpose, strategically, to enhance the loudspeaker listening experience. Moreover, the humble delay is the basis for many nonecho effects. Flanging, chorus, and pitch shifting are delay-based effects regularly used in audio engineering practice. This paper discusses some of the more common delay-based effects, reviewing their technical structure, the psychoacoustic motivation behind them, and the musical value they create.

Case, Alexander U.

2003-04-01

118

Subjective probability and delay.  

PubMed

Human subjects indicated their preference between a hypothetical $1,000 reward available with various probabilities or delays and a certain reward of variable amount available immediately. The function relating the amount of the certain-immediate reward subjectively equivalent to the delayed $1,000 reward had the same general shape (hyperbolic) as the function found by Mazur (1987) to describe pigeons' delay discounting. The function relating the certain-immediate amount of money subjectively equivalent to the probabilistic $1,000 reward was also hyperbolic, provided that the stated probability was transformed to odds against winning. In a second experiment, when human subjects chose between a delayed $1,000 reward and a probabilistic $1,000 reward, delay was proportional to the same odds-against transformation of the probability to which it was subjectively equivalent. PMID:2037827

Rachlin, H; Raineri, A; Cross, D

1991-03-01

119

Dynamic Network Delay Cartography  

E-print Network

Path delays in IP networks are important metrics, required by network operators for assessment, planning, and fault diagnosis. Monitoring delays of all source-destination pairs in a large network is however challenging and wasteful of resources. The present paper advocates a spatio-temporal Kalman filtering approach to construct network-wide delay maps using measurements on only a few paths. The proposed network cartography framework allows efficient tracking and prediction of delays by relying on both topological as well as historical data. Optimal paths for delay measurement are selected in an online fashion by leveraging the notion of submodularity. The resulting predictor is optimal in the class of linear predictors, and outperforms competing alternatives on real-world datasets.

Rajawat, Ketan; Giannakis, Georgios B

2012-01-01

120

Higher-Dimensional Voronoi Diagrams in Linear Expected Time  

Microsoft Academic Search

A general method is presented for determining the mathematical expectation of the combinatorial complexity and other properties\\u000a of the Voronoi diagram ofn independent and identically distributed points. The method is applied to derive exact asymptotic bounds on the expected number\\u000a of vertices of the Voronoi diagram of points chosen from the uniform distribution on the interior of ad-dimensional ball; it

Rex A. Dwyer

1991-01-01

121

An Upper Bound for the Speedup of Parallel Best-Bound Branch-And-Bound Algorithms  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper derives an upper bound for the speedup obtainable by any parallel branch-and-bound algorithm using the best-bound search strategy. We confirm that parallel branch-and-bound can achieve nearly linear, or even super-linear, speedup under the appropriate conditions.

Michael J. Quinn; Narsingh Deo

1986-01-01

122

What Do Expectant Mothers Know about Neonatal Jaundice?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Neonatal jaundice (NNJ) is a common disorder worldwide and many affected babies become brain-damaged due to delay in seeking medical consultation. In order to assess the awareness and knowledge of expectant mothers about NNJ, women who registered for antenatal care at a tertiary health facility in the South-western part of Nigeria were

Ogunfowora, Olusoga B.; Adefuye, Peter O.; Fetuga, Musili B.

2006-01-01

123

Great Expectations: Temporal Expectation Modulates Perceptual Processing Speed  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In a crowded dynamic world, temporal expectations guide our attention in time. Prior investigations have consistently demonstrated that temporal expectations speed motor behavior. We explore effects of temporal expectation on "perceptual" speed in three nonspeeded, cued recognition paradigms. Different hazard rate functions for the cue-stimulus

Vangkilde, Signe; Coull, Jennifer T.; Bundesen, Claus

2012-01-01

124

New bounds for the atomic charge and momentum densities at the origin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Stieltjes moment problem technique together with the positivity and monotonic decreasing properties of the electronic density of an atom is used to find new and more accurate lower bounds for the charge density at the nucleus and the momentum density at the origin, in terms of radial and momentum expectation values, respectively. Bounds depending on two and three expectation values are given explicitly and a Hartree-Fock study of their quality is carried out. Also, the behavior of the new bounds at large Z's is discussed. The Stieltjes technique allows to find lower bounds of better accuracy by including expectation values of higher order.

Angulo, J. C.; Dehesa, J. S.; Galvez, F. J.

1991-06-01

125

Petawatt laser absorption bounded  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The interaction of petawatt (1015?W) lasers with solid matter forms the basis for advanced scientific applications such as table-top particle accelerators, ultrafast imaging systems and laser fusion. Key metrics for these applications relate to absorption, yet conditions in this regime are so nonlinear that it is often impossible to know the fraction of absorbed light f, and even the range of f is unknown. Here using a relativistic Rankine-Hugoniot-like analysis, we show for the first time that f exhibits a theoretical maximum and minimum. These bounds constrain nonlinear absorption mechanisms across the petawatt regime, forbidding high absorption values at low laser power and low absorption values at high laser power. For applications needing to circumvent the absorption bounds, these results will accelerate a shift from solid targets, towards structured and multilayer targets, and lead the development of new materials.

Levy, Matthew C.; Wilks, Scott C.; Tabak, Max; Libby, Stephen B.; Baring, Matthew G.

2014-06-01

126

Petawatt laser absorption bounded  

E-print Network

The interaction of petawatt ($10^{15}\\ \\mathrm{W}$) lasers with solid matter forms the basis for advanced scientific applications such as table-top particle accelerators, ultrafast imaging systems and laser fusion. Key metrics for these applications relate to absorption, yet conditions in this regime are so nonlinear that it is often impossible to know the fraction of absorbed light $f$, and even the range of $f$ is unknown. Here using a relativistic Rankine-Hugoniot-like analysis, we show for the first time that $f$ exhibits a theoretical maximum and minimum. These bounds constrain nonlinear absorption mechanisms across the petawatt regime, forbidding high absorption values at low laser power and low absorption values at high laser power. For applications needing to circumvent the absorption bounds, these results will accelerate a shift from solid targets, towards structured and multilayer targets, and lead the development of new materials.

Levy, Matthew C; Tabak, Max; Libby, Stephen B; Baring, Matthew G

2014-01-01

127

Bound States in Graphene  

E-print Network

We present a quantum analysis of the massless excitations in graphene with a charge impurity. When the effective charge exceeds a certain critical value, the spectrum is quantized and is unbounded from below. The corresponding eigenstates are square-integrable at infinity and have a rapidly oscillatory behaviour in the short distance, which can be interpreted as a fall to the centre. Using a cutoff regularization, we show that the effective Coulomb interaction strength is driven to its critical value under the renormalization group flow. In the subcritical region, we find bound states with imaginary values of the energy for certain range of the system parameters. The physical significance of these bound states with imaginary eigenvalues is discussed.

Kumar S. Gupta; Siddhartha Sen

2008-05-22

128

Distance-Bounding Protocols  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is often the case in applications of cryptographic protocols that one party would like to determine a practical upper-bound\\u000a on the physical distance to the other party. For instance, when a person conducts a cryptographic identification protocol\\u000a at an entrance to a building, the access control computer in the building would like to be ensured that the person giving

Stefan Brands; David ChaumZ

129

Stability and Flipping Dynamics of Delayed Genetic Toggle Switch  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A detailed analysis of the stability and flipping dynamics of a delayed exclusive toggle switch is performed. We use forward flux sampling method combined with delayed stochastic simulation algorithm to get the stationary distribution function, the switching rate, and pathways, as well as the transition state ensemble. Interestingly, under the influence of time delay, the stationary distribution corresponding to the stable states become narrower and the population in the transition region is significantly enhanced. In addition, the flipping rate increases monotonically with delay. Such findings demonstrate that time delay could reduce the stability of the bistable genetic switch dramatically. Furthermore, the transition pathways, characterized by the difference in the protein numbers and the state of operator, show larger discrepancy between the forward and backward switching process with increasing delay, indicating that transcriptional and translational delay can remarkably affect the flipping dynamics. Specifically, for the transition state, the difference in the probability of finding the operator site bound by the two different protein dimers is enlarged by delay, which further illustrates the crucial role of time delay on the stability and switching dynamics of genetic toggle switches.

Zhang, Rui-ting; Chen, Han-shuang; Hou, Zhong-huai

2012-02-01

130

Unification, Weak Unification, Upper Bound, Lower Bound, and Generalization Problems  

Microsoft Academic Search

We introduce E-unification, weak E-unification, E-upper bound, E-lower bound, and E-generalization problems, and the corresponding notions of unification, weak unification, upper bound, lower bound, and generalization type of an equational theory. When defining instantiation preorders on solutions of these problems, one can compared substitutions w.r.t. their behaviour on all variables or on finite sets of variables. We shall study the

Franz Baader

1991-01-01

131

CONSUMERS' EXPECTATIONS AND CONSUMPTION EXPENDITURE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some studies have examined the impact of consumers' expectations on consumption expenditure. However, none of these studies concludes a clear positive relationship between these variables. It has been argued that consumers' expectations about the economy's future should have an impact on consumers' decisions about how much to consume and how much to save. While consumers' expectations seem to be a

Shokoofeh Fazel

2005-01-01

132

Reflexive Expectation Formation Timo Ehrig  

E-print Network

Reflexive Expectation Formation Timo Ehrig J¨urgen Jost Abstract How do economic agents form expectations regarding asset prices and the development of macroeconomic quantities, when of expectations fold back to the realized economic process, and in particular, to the selection of one of multiple

Jost, Jürgen

133

The Art of Expectations Management  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the most valuable skills a software professional can develop, expectations management is something surprisingly few people know or practice. The author has witnessed more than 100 stakeholder software requirements negotiations in which inflated expectations about the simplicity of the problem or ease of providing a solution have caused the most difficulty. Expectations management holds the key to providing

Barry W. Boehm

2000-01-01

134

Gender Role Expectations of Juveniles  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses the development of two five-item Likert scales that classify juveniles' gender role expectations as highly traditional to nontraditional. One is composed of behavioral expectations that juveniles define as traditionally feminine and the other is composed of expectations they define as traditionally masculine. With a sample of junior and senior high school students, correlational and factor analyses of

Neal Shover; Stephen Norland; Jennifer James

1978-01-01

135

Quad nanosecond delay module  

SciTech Connect

Four nanosecond (ns) delay units have been designed to fit in a single-width NIM module. This module is particularly suited for use in conjunction with quad constant fraction timing discriminators (CFTDs) since it has four delay units that can be placed adjacent to the four units of the CFTD. A series of different length cables connected via DIP toggle switches provide delays of 0.60 ns in 4 ns increments. Thus, the CFTD delay can be optimized for pulses of different rise times from approx.10-100 ns. Design work for the PC board and silkscreening of the front panel were done with the MacDraw program on the Apple Mackintosh computer and printed with the Lasewriter printer. 6 refs.

McDonald, R.J.; Hunter, J.B.; Wozniak, G.J.

1986-04-01

136

Choice and reinforcement delay  

SciTech Connect

Previous studies of choice between two delayed reinforcers have indicated that the relative immediacy of the reinforcer is a major determinant of the relative frequency of responding. Parallel studies of choice between two interresponse times have found exceptions to this generality. The present study looked at the choice by pigeons between two delays, one of which was always four times longer than the other, but whose absolute durations were varied across conditions. The results indicated that choice is not uniquely determined by the relative immediacy of reinforcement, but that absolute delays are also involved. Models for concurrent chained schedules appear to be more applicable to the present data than the matching relation; however, these too failed to predict choice for long delays.

Gentry, G.D.; Marr, M.J.

1980-01-01

137

ANALYSIS OF A PAIR OF RELAXATION OSCILLATORS WITH TIME DELAYS  

E-print Network

143 APPENDIX B ANALYSIS OF A PAIR OF RELAXATION OSCILLATORS WITH TIME DELAYS For regions II and III the oscillators decreases. In region IV, we find that the time difference between the oscillators decreases only. This region is bounded by , where we use to denote the ini- tial time difference between the two oscillators

Wang, DeLiang "Leon"

138

Nonlinear stabilization when delay is a function of state  

E-print Network

conceptually (nor explicitly), for LTV systems with TV delays. Explicit design for LTI plants presented(t) is uniformly bounded from above (all inputs applied to the plant eventually reach the plant); · D(t) plant never feels input values that are older than the ones it has already felt-- input signal direction never

Sontag, Eduardo

139

Delayed voice communication  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present results from simulated deep-space exploration missions that investigated voice communication with significant time delays. The simulations identified many challenges: confusion of sequence, blocked calls, wasted crew time, impaired ability to provide relevant information to the other party, losing track of which messages have reached the other party, weakened rapport between crew and ground, slow response to rapidly changing situations, and reduced situational awareness. These challenges were met in part with additional training; greater attention and foresight; longer, less frequent transmissions; meticulous recordkeeping and timekeeping; and specific alerting and acknowledging calls. Several simulations used both delayed voice and text messaging. Text messaging provided a valuable record of transmissions and allowed messages to be targeted to subsets of the flight and ground crew, but it was a poor choice for high-workload operators such as vehicle drivers and spacewalkers. Even with the foregoing countermeasures, delayed voice communication is difficult. Additional aids such as automatic delay timers and voice-to-text transcription would help. Tests comparing delays of 50 and 300 s unexpectedly revealed that communicating with the shorter delay was just as challenging as with the longer one.

Love, Stanley G.; Reagan, Marcum L.

2013-10-01

140

Intersection Bounds: Estimation and Inference  

E-print Network

We develop a practical and novel method for inference on intersection bounds, namely bounds defined by either the infimum or supremum of a parametric or nonparametric function, or, equivalently, the value of a linear ...

Chernozhukov, Victor V.

141

Binary-coded decimal to binary digital input modification of a popular digital delay module  

Microsoft Academic Search

A simple modification is described for converting the digital program code format of an Evans Associates model 4145 programmable time delay module from binary-coded decimal to binary. The modification results in a delay module which is more easily interfaced to a computer, has a greater programmable delay range with equivalent temporal resolution, and requires less power. Similar modifications are expected

Stephen E. Bialkowski

1986-01-01

142

78 FR 18326 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Comment Request; Upward Bound and Upward Bound Math...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Request; Upward Bound and Upward Bound Math Science Annual Performance Report AGENCY...Collection: Upward Bound and Upward Bound Math Science Annual Performance Report. OMB...regular Upward Bound (UB) and Upward Bound Math and Science (UBMS) Programs. The...

2013-03-26

143

Bounded Existentials and Minimal Typing  

E-print Network

Bounded Existentials and Minimal Typing Giorgio Ghelli \\Lambda Benjamin Pierce y July 9, 1996 , with bounded existential types. Surprisingly, the most natural formulation of this extension lacks with bounded existential quantifiers to support programming with abstract data types is commonly regarded

Pierce, Benjamin C.

144

Neutrino mass bounds from cosmology  

E-print Network

Cosmology is at present one of the most powerful probes of neutrino properties. The advent of precision data from the cosmic microwave background and large scale structure has allowed for a very strong bound on the neutrino mass. Here, I review the status of cosmological bounds on neutrino properties with emphasis on mass bounds on light neutrinos.

Steen Hannestad

2004-12-14

145

Lower bounds for dynamic connectivity  

Microsoft Academic Search

We prove an ?(lg Erik n) cell-probe lower bound on maintaining connectivity in dynamic graphs, as well as a more general trade-off between updates and queries. Our bound holds even if the graph is formed by disjoint paths, and thus also applies to trees and plane graphs. The bound is known to be tight for these restricted cases, proving optimality

Mihai P?tra?cu; Erik D. Demaine

2004-01-01

146

Robust controller design of a class of nonlinear time delay systems via backstepping method  

Microsoft Academic Search

The robust control problem is investigated for nonlinear time delay systems with triangular structure. The uncertain delay disturbances are bounded by nonlinear functions with unknown coefficients. Via the backstepping method, we construct a state feedback controller with the help of Razumikhin lemma. Based on Lyapunov stability theory, we show that the resulting closed-loop system is UUB stable.

Changchun Hua; Gang Feng; Xinping Guan

2008-01-01

147

Output Feedback Stabilization for Time-Delay Nonlinear Interconnected Systems Using Neural Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, dynamic output feedback control problem is investigated for a class of nonlinear interconnected systems with time delays. Decentralized observer independent of the time delays is first designed. Then, we employ the bounds information of uncertain interconnections to construct the decentralized output feedback controller via backstepping design method. Based on Lyapunov stability theory, we show that the designed

Changchun Hua; Xinping Guan

2008-01-01

148

Adaptive observers for time-delay nonlinear systems in triangular form  

Microsoft Academic Search

A simple nonlinear observer with a dynamic gain is proposed for a class of bounded-state nonlinear systems subject to state delay. By saturating the states of the observer nonlinearities with either symmetric or non-symmetric saturation functions, we show that the observer exists, whatever the delay is. Furthermore, it will be highlighted that the observer design is free from any preliminary

Salim Ibrir

2009-01-01

149

On Time Delay Margin Estimation for Adaptive Control and Optimal Control Modification  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper presents methods for estimating time delay margin for adaptive control of input delay systems with almost linear structured uncertainty. The bounded linear stability analysis method seeks to represent an adaptive law by a locally bounded linear approximation within a small time window. The time delay margin of this input delay system represents a local stability measure and is computed analytically by three methods: Pade approximation, Lyapunov-Krasovskii method, and the matrix measure method. These methods are applied to the standard model-reference adaptive control, s-modification adaptive law, and optimal control modification adaptive law. The windowing analysis results in non-unique estimates of the time delay margin since it is dependent on the length of a time window and parameters which vary from one time window to the next. The optimal control modification adaptive law overcomes this limitation in that, as the adaptive gain tends to infinity and if the matched uncertainty is linear, then the closed-loop input delay system tends to a LTI system. A lower bound of the time delay margin of this system can then be estimated uniquely without the need for the windowing analysis. Simulation results demonstrates the feasibility of the bounded linear stability method for time delay margin estimation.

Nguyen, Nhan T.

2011-01-01

150

Robust stability of uncertain singular time-delay systems via LFT approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

The robust stability problem of continuous-time singular systems with multiple state delays and bounded parametric uncertainties is considered. Both commensurate and non-commensurate delays are investigated. On the basis of the linear fractional transformations (LFTs) framework and ?-analysis, a systematic approach is derived to convert the robustness problem to a robust nonsingularity problem. Some explicit conditions are proposed to guarantee the

Shin-Ju Chen; Lin-Goei Shiau

2011-01-01

151

Robust controller design for uncertain multiple-delay systems with unknown actuator parameters  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper considers the controller design problem for a class of uncertain systems with unknown actuator parameters. The considered systems are with multiple time delays and nonlinear uncertainties, and the uncertain nonlinearities are bounded by nonlinear functions with unknown coefficients. The actuator parameters are time-varying and their bounds are unknown, moreover the signs of them are not available. To deal

Chang-Chun Hua; Steven X. Ding; Xin-Ping Guan

152

Downhole delay assembly for blasting with series delay  

DOEpatents

A downhole delay assembly is provided which can be placed into a blasthole for initiation of explosive in the blasthole. The downhole delay assembly includes at least two detonating time delay devices in series in order to effect a time delay of longer than about 200 milliseconds in a round of explosions. The downhole delay assembly provides a protective housing to prevent detonation of explosive in the blasthole in response to the detonation of the first detonating time delay device. There is further provided a connection between the first and second time delay devices. The connection is responsive to the detonation of the first detonating time delay device and initiates the second detonating time delay device. A plurality of such downhole delay assemblies are placed downhole in unfragmented formation and are initiated simultaneously for providing a round of explosive expansions. The explosive expansions can be used to form an in situ oil shale retort containing a fragmented permeable mass of formation particles.

Ricketts, Thomas E. (Grand Junction, CO)

1982-01-01

153

New Stabilization for Dynamical System with Two Additive Time-Varying Delays  

PubMed Central

This paper provides a new delay-dependent stabilization criterion for systems with two additive time-varying delays. The novel functional is constructed, a tighter upper bound of the derivative of the Lyapunov functional is obtained. These results have advantages over some existing ones because the combination of the delay decomposition technique and the reciprocally convex approach. Two examples are provided to demonstrate the less conservatism and effectiveness of the results in this paper. PMID:24701159

Yang, Fan; Chen, Xiaozhou

2014-01-01

154

Music Cognition: Learning, Perception, Expectations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research in music cognition domain has shown that non musician listeners have implicit knowledge about the Western tonal musical\\u000a system. This knowledge, acquired by mere exposure to music in everyday life, influences perception of musical structures and\\u000a allows developing expectations for future incoming events. Musical expectations play a role for musical expressivity and influence\\u000a event processing: Expected events are processed

Barbara Tillmann

2007-01-01

155

DAU StatRefresher: Expectations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interactive tutorial on expectations helps students understand the concept of expectations, recognize and use variance and standard deviation, understand the method of moments, recognize and use co-variance, and solve exercise problems using expectations. Each component has its own explanation, demonstration and quiz questions. At the end, there is a series of questions to test the students full understanding of the concepts covered.

2009-08-31

156

TIME DELAY AND ACCRETION DISK SIZE MEASUREMENTS IN THE LENSED QUASAR SBS 0909+532 FROM MULTIWAVELENGTH MICROLENSING ANALYSIS  

SciTech Connect

We present three complete seasons and two half-seasons of Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) r-band photometry of the gravitationally lensed quasar SBS 0909+532 from the U.S. Naval Observatory, as well as two seasons each of SDSS g-band and r-band monitoring from the Liverpool Robotic Telescope. Using Monte Carlo simulations to simultaneously measure the system's time delay and model the r-band microlensing variability, we confirm and significantly refine the precision of the system's time delay to {Delta}t{sub AB} = 50{sub -4}{sup +2} days, where the stated uncertainties represent the bounds of the formal 1{sigma} confidence interval. There may be a conflict between the time delay measurement and a lens consisting of a single galaxy. While models based on the Hubble Space Telescope astrometry and a relatively compact stellar distribution can reproduce the observed delay, the models have somewhat less dark matter than we would typically expect. We also carry out a joint analysis of the microlensing variability in the r and g bands to constrain the size of the quasar's continuum source at these wavelengths, obtaining log {l_brace}(r{sub s,r}/cm)[cos i/0.5]{sup 1/2}{r_brace} = 15.3 {+-} 0.3 and log {l_brace}(r{sub s,g}/cm)[cos i/0.5]{sup 1/2}{r_brace} = 14.8 {+-} 0.9, respectively. Our current results do not formally constrain the temperature profile of the accretion disk but are consistent with the expectations of standard thin disk theory.

Hainline, Laura J.; Morgan, Christopher W.; MacLeod, Chelsea L.; Landaal, Zachary D. [Department of Physics, United States Naval Academy, 572C Holloway Rd, Annapolis, MD 21402 (United States); Kochanek, C. S. [Department of Astronomy, The Ohio State University, 140 West 18th Ave, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Harris, Hugh C.; Tilleman, Trudy [United States Naval Observatory, Flagstaff Station, 10391 West Naval Observatory Road, Flagstaff, AZ 86001-8521 (United States); Goicoechea, L. J.; Shalyapin, V. N. [Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Cantabria, Avda. de Los Castros s/n, E-39005 Santander (Spain); Falco, Emilio E., E-mail: hainline@usna.edu, E-mail: cmorgan@usna.edu, E-mail: macleod@usna.edu, E-mail: m123894@usna.edu, E-mail: ckochanek@astronomy.ohio-state.edu, E-mail: hch@nofs.navy.mil, E-mail: trudy@nofs.navy.mil, E-mail: goicol@unican.es, E-mail: vshal@ukr.net, E-mail: falco@cfa.harvard.edu [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden St, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

2013-09-01

157

Expectation Value in Bell's Theorem  

E-print Network

We will demonstrate in this paper that Bell's theorem (Bell's inequality) does not really conflict with quantum mechanics, the controversy between them originates from the different definitions for the expectation value using the probability distribution in Bell's inequality and the expectation value in quantum mechanics. We can not use quantum mechanical expectation value measured in experiments to show the violation of Bell's inequality and then further deny the local hidden-variables theory. Considering the difference of their expectation values, a generalized Bell's inequality is presented, which is coincided with the prediction of quantum mechanics.

Zheng-Chuan Wang

2006-04-26

158

August 7, 2006 17:14 Proceedings Trim Size: 9in x 6in mpmv31proc MINIMUM POWER MULTICASTING WITH DELAY  

E-print Network

WITH DELAY BOUND CONSTRAINTS IN AD HOC WIRELESS NETWORKS O. E. KUNDAKCIOGLU, K. BULBUL, T. ¨UNL¨UYURT, K for an important extension of the minimum power multicasting problem in ad hoc wireless networks 20,21. Assuming the minimum power multicasting (MPM) problem with delay bounds in ad hoc wireless networks. In this setting

Yanikoglu, Berrin

159

Autism and developmental delay  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveThis study improves the knowledge of early autistic symptomatology and research concerning (i) the significant differences\\u000a in the behaviors of children with autistic disorder (AD) and children with a developmental delay (DD), and (ii) the influence\\u000a of the cognitive delay on symptomatology.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a MethodTwo groups of 20 young children (742months) were compared: children with AD, and those with DD. The groups

Hugues Desombre; Joelle Malvy; Sylvie Roux; Rgis de Villard; Dominique Sauvage; Jean Dalery; Pascal Lenoir

2006-01-01

160

Expected stock returns and volatility  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the relation between stock returns and stock market volatility. We find evidence that the expected market risk premium (the expected return on a stock portfolio minus the Treasury bill yield) is positively related to the predictable volatility of stock returns. There is also evidence that unexpected stock market returns are negatively related to the unexpected change in

Kenneth R. French; G. William Schwert; Robert F. Stambaugh

1987-01-01

161

Expectancy Climate and School Effectiveness.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two questionnaire surveys of 89 Kansas public elementary and secondary schools examined, first, the relationship between school expectancy climate--teachers' expectations that their efforts would lead to positive student results--and school effectiveness, and, second, the change in that relationship through the school year. School effectiveness

Miskel, Cecil; Bloom, Susan

162

Do Juries Meet Our Expectations?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Surveys of public opinion indicate that people have high expectations for juries. When it comes to serious crimes, most people want errors of convicting the innocent (false positives) or acquitting the guilty (false negatives) to fall well below 10%. Using expected utility theory, Bayes' Theorem, signal detection theory, and empirical evidence from detection studies of medical decision making, eyewitness testimony,

Hal R. Arkes; Barbara A. Mellers

2002-01-01

163

The Ethics of Life Expectancy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some ethical dilemmas in health care, such as over the use of age as a criterion of patient selection, appeal to the notion of life expectancy. However, some features of this concept have not been discussed. Here I look in turn at two aspects: one positive our expectation of further life and the other negative the loss

Robin Small

2002-01-01

164

FastStats: Life Expectancy  

MedlinePLUS

... in 2010? Life expectancy at age 25, by sex and education level, Health, United States, 2011, figure 32 [PDF - 9.8 MB] Life expectancy at birth, at 65 and 75 years of age by sex, race and Hispanic origin Health, United States 2013, ...

165

On the bounded-skew clock and Steiner routing problems  

Microsoft Academic Search

We study the minimum-cost bounded-skewrouting tree (BST) problemunder the linear delay model. This problem captures severalengineering tradeoffs in the design of routing topologies with controlledskew. We propose three tradeoff heuristics. (1) For a fixedtopology Extended-DME (Ex-DME) extends the DME algorithmfor exact zero-skew trees via the concept of a merging region. (2)For arbitrary topology and arbitrary embedding, Extended GreedyDME (ExG-DME) very

Dennis J.-H. Huang; Andrew B. Kahng; Chung-Wen Albert Tsao

1995-01-01

166

Delayed choice without choice  

E-print Network

A critical note on some of the existing proposals for performing the "delayed choice" experiment is placed. By abandoning the original idea and intention, some modern theoretical proposals and experimental evidence are simply incorrectly understood/interpreted. In effect, the Complementarity principle remains practically intact.

M. Dugic

2012-11-07

167

Reduced Delay BCD Adder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Financial and commercial applications use decimal data and spend most of their time in decimal arithmetic. Software implementation of decimal arithmetic is typically at least 100 times slower than binary arithmetic implemented in hardware. Therefore, hardware support for decimal arithmetic is required. In this paper, a reduced delay binary coded decimal (BCD) adder is proposed. The proposed adder improves the

A. A. Bayrakci; A. Akkas

2007-01-01

168

Delayed enrollment and College Plans: is There a Postponement Penalty?  

PubMed Central

Using a representative longitudinal survey of Texas high school seniors who graduated in 2002, we investigate how college postponement is associated with four-year college expectations and attendancefocusing both on the length of delay and the pathway to the postsecondary system. Like prior studies, we show that family background and student academic achievement explains the negative association between delay and college expectations and that these factors, along with two-year college entry pathway, largely accounted for the negative association between postponement and enrollment at a four-year institution in 2006. Although delays of one year or longer are associated with significantly lower odds of attending a baccalaureate-granting institution four years after high school, the longest delays do not incur the most severe enrollment penalties. PMID:23606758

Niu, Sunny; Tienda, Marta

2012-01-01

169

Formation of "bound  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During degradation of organic pollutants in soil, metabolites, microbial biomass, CO2and "bound" residues ("non-extractable" residues in soil organic matter) are formed. Enhanced transformation of these contaminants into "bound" residues has been proposed as an alternative remediation method for polluted soils. However, this kind of residues may pose a potential risk for the environment due to their chemical structure and possible remobilization under different conditions. Therefore particular attention is given actually to "bound" residues. Part of these non-extractable residues may be "biogenic," because microorganisms use the carbon from the pollutant to form their biomass components (fatty acids, amino acids, amino sugars), which subsequently may be incorporated into soil organic matter. Furthermore, the CO2 originating from mineralization of xenobiotics, can be re-assimilated by microorganisms and also incorporated into "biogenic residue". The hazard posed by "bound" residues may be overestimated because they are "biogenic" (contain microbial fatty acids and amino acids). The knowledge about the pathways of "biogenic residue" formation is necessary for a proper assessment of the fate of tested pollutants and their turnover in the soil environment. Moreover, these data are needed to establish the realistic degradation rates of the contaminants in soil. The main objectives of this study are: to quantify the extent of "biogenic residue" (fatty acids, amino acids, amino sugars) formation during the degradation of a model pollutant (2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid = 2,4-D) and during CO2 assimilation by microorganisms and to evaluate which components are mainly incorporated into "bound" residues. To investigate the extent of "biogenic residue" formation in soil during the degradation of 2,4-D, experiments with either 14C-U-ring and 13C6-2,4-D or carboxyl-14C 2,4-D were performed. The incubation experiments were performed according to OECD test guideline 307, in the dark, at constant temp 20? C (+/-2? C) and with intermittent aeration. During incubation, the mineralization was quantified and soil samples were analyzed for the presence of both "biogenic residues" and remaining 2,4-D. Mineralization of 2,4-D in both experiments was very high. However, the 14CO2 evolution was higher from carboxyl-14C 2,4-D than from 14C-ring 2,4-D. After 7 days of incubation, 30% of initial amount of 14C in soil contaminated with 14C-ring 2,4-D was mineralized, whereas 40% of total radioactivity was evolved as CO2after 4 days from soil incubated with 14C-carboxyl 2,4-D. The amount of extractable 2,4-D residues was very low in both experiments (14C-ring 2,4-D: 2% and 14C-carboxyl 2,4-D: 1%). The soil incubated with 14C-ring 2,4-D contained 60% of "non-extractable" residues of 2,4-D after 7 days, while the amount of these residues in soil contaminated with 14C-carboxyl 2,4-D reached 50% of the initial radioactivity in the tested system 4 days after application. More "biogenic residues" were formed in soil spiked with 14C-U-ring 2,4-D (10%) than in soil with carboxyl 14C 2,4-D (7%). Both 2,4-D and CO2-derived C were incorporated mainly into microbial amino acids (9.5% at day 7 and 7.0% at day 4, respectively). After 7 days of incubation, 0.5% of initial applied radioactivity in system was found in microbial lipids in the soil contaminated with 14C-ring 2,4-D. Only 0.1% of the total radioactivity was incorporated into lipids in soil treated with 14C-carboxyl 2,4-D on day 4 after application. Thin Layer Chromatography identified the microbial lipids containing the radioactivity as phosphatidylethanolamine, a phospholipid typical for microorganisms. The amount of microbial lipids (which corresponds to phospholipids) in both cases decreased with time; this can be explained by the death of the microbial biomass. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on the formation of &qu

Nowak, K.; Kstner, M.; Miltner, A.

2009-04-01

170

Delayed fluorescence in photosynthesis.  

PubMed

Photosynthesis is a very efficient photochemical process. Nevertheless, plants emit some of the absorbed energy as light quanta. This luminescence is emitted, predominantly, by excited chlorophyll a molecules in the light-harvesting antenna, associated with Photosystem II (PS II) reaction centers. The emission that occurs before the utilization of the excitation energy in the primary photochemical reaction is called prompt fluorescence. Light emission can also be observed from repopulated excited chlorophylls as a result of recombination of the charge pairs. In this case, some time-dependent redox reactions occur before the excitation of the chlorophyll. This delays the light emission and provides the name for this phenomenon-delayed fluorescence (DF), or delayed light emission (DLE). The DF intensity is a decreasing polyphasic function of the time after illumination, which reflects the kinetics of electron transport reactions both on the (electron) donor and the (electron) acceptor sides of PS II. Two main experimental approaches are used for DF measurements: (a) recording of the DF decay in the dark after a single turnover flash or after continuous light excitation and (b) recording of the DF intensity during light adaptation of the photosynthesizing samples (induction curves), following a period of darkness. In this paper we review historical data on DF research and recent advances in the understanding of the relation between the delayed fluorescence and specific reactions in PS II. An experimental method for simultaneous recording of the induction transients of prompt and delayed chlorophyll fluorescence and decay curves of DF in the millisecond time domain is discussed. PMID:19548111

Goltsev, Vasilij; Zaharieva, Ivelina; Chernev, Petko; Strasser, Reto J

2009-01-01

171

Hydrodynamic lift on bound vesicles  

E-print Network

Bound vesicles subject to lateral forces such as arising from shear flow are investigated theoretically by combining a lubrication analysis of the bound part with a scaling approach to the global motion. A minor inclination of the bound part leads to significant lift due to the additive effects of lateral and tank-treading motions. With increasing shear rate, the vesicle unbinds from the substrate at a critical value. Estimates are in agreement with recent experimental data.

Udo Seifert

1999-01-12

172

The bound ?-decay of the free neutron  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An experiment to measure the bound ?-decay of the neutron into a hydrogen atom and an electron anti-neutrino is described. Observation of such a decay would open an alternative pathway to physics beyond the Standard Model, in particular right-handed current admixtures in the weak interaction as well as the handedness of the neutrino. The experiment is planned at the through-going beam tube SR6 at the FRM2 high-flux reactor in Garching. Although the branching ratio of this decay is expected to be only 4 . 10-6 of the normal neutron ?-decay [1], a sufficient decay rate due to the high flux of neutrons available for the experiment is expected. Simulations have shown that the measurement is feasible, with proper shielding being the critical factor. The experimental setup is currently being studied, testing different detection techniques for H(2s) at the TUM.

Schn, J.; Paul, S.; Emmerich, R.; Engels, R.; Faestermann, T.; Fierlinger, P.; Gabriel, M.; Gutsmied, E.; Hartmann, F. J.; Hertenberger, R.; McAndrew, J.; Rhrmoser, A.; Ruschel, S.; Schott, W.; Schubert, U.; Trautner, A.; Udem, T.; Ulrich, A.

2012-09-01

173

Raising NP lower bounds to parallel NP lower bounds  

Microsoft Academic Search

This issue's column surveys recent progress in raising NP-hardness lower bounds to parallel NP lower bounds. Complexity theorists will learn that Lewis Carroll (unbeknownst to himself) was a fellow complexity theorist. So that readers specializing in algorithms don't feel left out, let me mention that they are in even better company. Algorithms for apportioning the US House of Representatives were

Edith Hemaspaandra; Joerg Rothe

1997-01-01

174

QM Momentum Expectation Value Program  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The QM Momentum Expectation Value program displays the time evolution of the position-space wave function and the associated momentum expectation value. It is distributed as a ready-to-run (compiled) Java archive. Double clicking the qm_expectation_p.jar file will run the program if Java is installed. The default wave function is a Gaussian wave packet in a harmonic oscillator. Additional states and other potential energy functions can be specified using the Display | Switch GUI menu item. QM Momentum Expectation Value is one of 18 Open Source Physics programs that model time-dependent quantum mechanics using an energy eigenstate expansion. Other programs provide additional visualizations. They can be found by searching ComPADRE for Open Source Physics, OSP, or Superposition.

Christian, Wolfgang

2008-04-17

175

Expectancy theory and nascent entrepreneurship  

Microsoft Academic Search

Motivation is an important factor that distinguishes those nascent entrepreneurs who make progress towards an operating venture\\u000a from those who do not. Based on Vrooms (Work and motivation, 1964) expectancy theory, we predict that startup-specific instrumentality, valence and expectancy are key components of entrepreneurial\\u000a motivation and closely related to those intentions, efforts, and behaviors that will eventually lead to operating

Maija RenkoK; K. Galen Kroeck; Amanda Bullough

176

[Diagnosis of delayed puberty].  

PubMed

Puberty is the phenomenon that conducts once to reproductive maturation. Delayed puberty (DP) is defined by the absence of testicular development in boys beyond 14 years old (or a testicular volume lower than 4 ml) and by the absence of breast development in girls beyond 13 years old. DP occurs in approximatively 3% of cases. Most cases are functional DP, with a large amount of constitutional delay of puberty. Others etiologies are hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism like Kallmann syndrome, or hypergonadotrophic hypogonadism. Turner syndrome is a diagnostic one should not forget by its frequency. Treatment is hormonal replacement therapy and of the etiology. During the last decade, many genes have been identified and elucidated the etiological diagnosis of some hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism syndrome. Further studies are required in collaboration with molecular biologists to better understand the mechanism of hypothalamic pituitary gonadal axis abnormalities and of the neuroendocrine physiology of the onset of puberty. PMID:17658248

Busiah, K; Belien, V; Dallot, N; Fila, M; Guilbert, J; Harroche, A; Leger, J

2007-09-01

177

Delay Discounting in Schizophrenia  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND It is well known that individuals with schizophrenia have dopaminergic abnormalities as well as working memory difficulties, both of which are associated with impulsive decision making. We used a delay discounting measure to test the degree to which patients make future-oriented decisions. METHODS Forty-two patients with schizophrenia and 29 healthy comparison participants completed a delay discounting measure, along with tests of cognitive function and, in patients, current symptoms. RESULTS Patients discounted more steeply than did comparison participants. Discounting among patients related to measures of memory and tended to relate inversely to negative symptoms. CONCLUSIONS The impulsive decision-making evidenced by patients suggests that they may be prone to choosing immediate over long-term rewards, even when their interests are better served by choosing the latter. Improving working memory may enhance their ability to make future-oriented decisions. PMID:17453902

Heerey, Erin A.; Robinson, Benjamin; McMahon, Robert P.; Gold, James M.

2013-01-01

178

"Tiers of Delay"  

PubMed Central

Anticoagulation reversal is a common cause of operative delay. We sought to establish for the first time the impact this has on best practice tariff (BPT) for patients with hip fracture admitted on warfarin. All patients with hip fracture treated operatively over a 32-month period were reviewed. Basic demographics, time to theater, length of stay, and mortality were recorded for all patients. Independent samples t-tests were used to identify statistically significant differences between patients on warfarin and those not taking the drug. A total of 83 patients were admitted anticoagulated with a mean international normalized ratio of 2.65 and a median time to theater of 49.7 hours. Of these patients, 79% breached BPT, incurring significant financial loss. In the control group, 908 patients took a median 24.5 hours, a 28% breach of BPT (P < .01). Length of stay, Nottingham Hip Fracture Score, and predicted 30-day mortality were similar for both the groups. As well as affecting clinical outcome following hip fracture, delay due to anticoagulation causes considerable loss of BPT. Potential loss of revenue due to delays over the study period was 80 000, inspiring the establishment of an early trigger anticoagulation protocol. Although it is accepted that there are limitations to this work, it should raise awareness of the real impact of warfarin on patients with hip fracture both in terms of outcome and for the first time, loss of potential revenue. PMID:25360339

Macleod, K. E.; Freeman, H.; Tate, A.

2014-01-01

179

Time-Delay Interferometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Equal-arm detectors of gravitational radiation allow phase measurements many orders of magnitude below the intrinsic phase stability of the laser injecting light into their arms. This is because the noise in the laser light is common to both arms, experiencing exactly the same delay, and thus cancels when it is differenced at the photo detector. In this situation, much lower level secondary noises then set the overall performance. If, however, the two arms have different lengths (as will necessarily be the case with space-borne interferometers), the laser noise experiences different delays in the two arms and will hence not directly cancel at the detector. In order to solve this problem, a technique involving heterodyne interferometry with unequal arm lengths and independent phase-difference readouts has been proposed. It relies on properly time-shifting and linearly combining independent Doppler measurements, and for this reason it has been called time-delay interferometry (TDI). This article provides an overview of the theory, mathematical foundations, and experimental aspects associated with the implementation of TDI. Although emphasis on the application of TDI to the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) mission appears throughout this article, TDI can be incorporated into the design of any future space-based mission aiming to search for gravitational waves via interferometric measurements. We have purposely left out all theoretical aspects that data analysts will need to account for when analyzing the TDI data combinations.

Tinto, Massimo; Dhurandhar, Sanjeev V.

2014-08-01

180

?-delayed neutron emission studies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The study of ?-delayed neutron emission plays a major role in different fields such as nuclear technology, nuclear astrophysics and nuclear structure. However the quality of the existing experimental data nowadays is not sufficient for the various technical and scientific applications and new high precision measurements are necessary to improve the data bases. One key aspect to the success of these high precission measurements is the use of a very pure ion beam that ensures that only the ion of interest is produced. The combination of the IGISOL mass separator with the JYFLTRAP Penning trap is an excellent tool for this type of measurement because of the ability to deliver isobarically and even isomerically clean beams. Another key feature of the installation is the non-chemical selectivity of the IGISOL ion source which allows measurements in the important region of refractory elements. This paper summarises the ?-delayed neutron emission studies that have been carried out at the IGISOL facility with two different neutron detectors based on 3He counters in a polyethylene moderator: the Mainz neutron detector and the BEta deLayEd Neutron detector.

Gmez-Hornillos, M. B.; Rissanen, J.; Tan, J. L.; Algora, A.; Kratz, K. L.; Lhersonneau, G.; Pfeiffer, B.; Agramunt, J.; Cano-Ott, D.; Gorlychev, V.; Caballero-Folch, R.; Martnez, T.; Achouri, L.; Calvino, F.; Corts, G.; Eronen, T.; Garca, A.; Parlog, M.; Podolyak, Z.; Pretel, C.; Valencia, E.

2014-01-01

181

Congestion delays at hub airports  

E-print Network

A deterministic model was developed to study the effects of inefficient scheduling on flight delays at hub airports. The model bases the delay calculation on published schedule data and on user-defined airport capacities. ...

St. George, Martin J.

1986-01-01

182

Delay discounting by pathological gamblers.  

PubMed Central

Discounting of delayed rewards by pathological gamblers was compared to discounting of delayed rewards by matched control nongambling participants. All participants completed a hypothetical choice task in which they made repeated choices between dollars 1,000 available after a delay and an equal or lesser amount of money available immediately. The delay to the large amount of money was varied from 1 week to 10 years across conditions. Indifference points between immediate money and delayed money were identified at each delay condition by varying the amount of immediate money across choice trials. For the majority of participants, indifference points decreased monotonically across delays. Overall, gamblers discounted the delayed rewards more steeply than did control participants. PMID:14768665

Dixon, Mark R; Marley, Janice; Jacobs, Eric A

2003-01-01

183

Bounded Existentials and Minimal Typing  

Microsoft Academic Search

We study an extension of the second-order calculus of bounded quantification, System F?, with bounded existential types. Surprisingly, the most natural formulation of this extension lacks the important minimal typing property of F?, which ensures that the set of types possessed by a typeable term can be characterized by a single least element. We consider alternative formulations and give an

Giorgio Ghelli; Benjamin C. Pierce

1998-01-01

184

A Thesis for Bounded Concurrency  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent work, we have investigated the power of bounded cooperative concurrency. The underlying notion involves enriching computational devices with a bounded number of concurrent components that communicate, synchronize, or otherwise cooperate. Comparisons involving succinctness and the time complexity of reasoning about programs have been undertaken. The results, which are extremely robust, show that in all the cases we have

David Harel

1989-01-01

185

Bounding rationality to the world  

Microsoft Academic Search

Simon proposed that human rationality is bounded by both internal (mental) and external (environmental) constraints. Traditionally, these constraints have been seen as independent, leading to a notion of bounded rationality that is either the attempt to do as well as possible given the demands of the world the notion of optimization under constraints or as the suboptimal outcome

Peter M. Todd; Gerd Gigerenzer

2003-01-01

186

Memory-Bounded Bidirectional Search  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous approaches to bidirectional search require ex- ponential space, and they are either less efficient than unidirectional search for finding optimal solutions, or they cannot even find such solutions for difficult prob- lems. Based on a memory-bounded unidirectional algorithm for trees (SMA*), we developed a graph search extension, and we used it to construct a very ef- ficient memory-bounded bidirectional

Hermann Kaindl; Aliasghar Khorsand

1994-01-01

187

Bounds for Asian basket options  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we propose pricing bounds for European-style discrete arithmetic Asian basket options in a Black and Scholes framework. We start from methods used for basket options and Asian options. First, we use the general approach for deriving upper and lower bounds for stop-loss premia of sums of non-independent random variables as in Kaas et al. [Upper and lower bounds for sums of random variables, Insurance Math. Econom. 27 (2000) 151-168] or Dhaene et al. [The concept of comonotonicity in actuarial science and finance: theory, Insurance Math. Econom. 31(1) (2002) 3-33]. We generalize the methods in Deelstra et al. [Pricing of arithmetic basket options by conditioning, Insurance Math. Econom. 34 (2004) 55-57] and Vanmaele et al. [Bounds for the price of discrete sampled arithmetic Asian options, J. Comput. Appl. Math. 185(1) (2006) 51-90]. Afterwards we show how to derive an analytical closed-form expression for a lower bound in the non-comonotonic case. Finally, we derive upper bounds for Asian basket options by applying techniques as in Thompson [Fast narrow bounds on the value of Asian options, Working Paper, University of Cambridge, 1999] and Lord [Partially exact and bounded approximations for arithmetic Asian options, J. Comput. Finance 10 (2) (2006) 1-52]. Numerical results are included and on the basis of our numerical tests, we explain which method we recommend depending on moneyness and time-to-maturity.

Deelstra, Griselda; Diallo, Ibrahima; Vanmaele, Michle

2008-09-01

188

Metabolism of organically bound tritium  

SciTech Connect

The classic methodology for estimating dose to man from environmental tritium ignores the fact that organically bound tritium in foodstuffs may be directly assimilated in the bound compartment of tissues without previous oxidation. We propose a four-compartment model consisting of a free body water compartment, two organic compartments, and a small, rapidly metabolizing compartment. The utility of this model lies in the ability to input organically bound tritium in foodstuffs directly into the organic compartments of the model. We found that organically bound tritium in foodstuffs can increase cumulative total body dose by a factor of 1.7 to 4.5 times the free body water dose alone, depending on the bound-to-loose ratio of tritium in the diet. Model predictions are compared with empirical measurements of tritium in human urine and tissue samples, and appear to be in close agreement. 10 references, 4 figures, 3 tables.

Travis, C.C.

1984-01-01

189

Bounding analyses in NEPA documents: When are they appropriate  

SciTech Connect

Bounding analyses are simplified quantitative analyses that use conservative assumptions and analytical techniques to ensure that potential impacts are not underestimated. They are often used when an impact is expected to be minor or insignificant to avoid the effort required to predict precisely the magnitude of the impact. This common-sense use of bounding analysis is consistent with Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ) guidance (40 CFR 1501.1[d], 1501.7[a][3], and 1502.2) to focus efforts on the most significant impacts when implementing provisions of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA). It allows analysts, the public, and decision makers to focus on the most significant impacts without having their attentions diluted by minor impacts. On the other hand, the authors were concerned that the use of bounding analysis might inhibit achievement of NEPA's purposes (i.e., ''...to promote efforts which will prevent or eliminate damage to the environment and biosphere...'' [Section 2]) by impeding prevention or mitigation of small adverse impacts or by impeding assessment of cumulative impacts. This paper reviews examples of four situations in which bounding analyses are used and concludes that bounding analyses do not impede achievement of NEPA's purposes or compliance with its implementing regulations. On the contrary, bounding analysis facilitates considerations of cumulative impacts in some situations. The authors conclude that more frequent use of bounding analyses is warranted.

Saylor, R.E.; McCold, L.N. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States))

1994-12-01

190

Broken Expectations: Violation of Expectancies, Not Novelty, Captures Auditory Attention  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The role of memory in behavioral distraction by auditory attentional capture was investigated: We examined whether capture is a product of the novelty of the capturing event (i.e., the absence of a recent memory for the event) or its violation of learned expectancies on the basis of a memory for an event structure. Attentional capture--indicated

Vachon, Francois; Hughes, Robert W.; Jones, Dylan M.

2012-01-01

191

Dissipativity of the delay semigroup  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Under mild conditions a delay semigroup can be transformed into a (generalized) contraction semigroup by modifying the inner product on the (Hilbert) state space into an equivalent inner product. Applications to stability of differential equations with delay and stochastic differential equations with delay are given as examples.

Bierkens, Joris; van Gaans, Onno

2014-10-01

192

Raising Expectations for Mathematics Instruction in California: Algebra and beyond. Policy and Practice Brief  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As expectations for students to meet high academic standards have risen over the past two decades, so have the expectations for students to complete, and excel in, more rigorous mathematics courses. Once a course reserved only for the college-bound, algebra is now a graduation requirement for all California students as well as an early "gateway"

Bitter, Catherine; O'Day, Jennifer

2010-01-01

193

Delay choice versus delay maintenance: different measures of delayed gratification in capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella).  

PubMed

Delaying gratification involves 2 components: (1) delay choice (selecting a delayed reward over an immediate one) and (2) delay maintenance (sustaining the decision to delay gratification even if the immediate reward is available during the delay). Two tasks most commonly have explored these components in primates: the intertemporal choice task and the accumulation task. It is unclear whether these tasks provide equivalent measures of delay of gratification. Here, we compared the performance on the intertemporal choice task and the accumulation task of capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella) belonging to 2 study populations. We found only limited evidence of a significant correlation in performance. Consequently, in contrast to what is often assumed, our data provide only partial support for the hypothesis that these tasks provide equivalent measures of delay of gratification. PMID:23544770

Addessi, Elsa; Paglieri, Fabio; Beran, Michael J; Evans, Theodore A; Macchitella, Luigi; De Petrillo, Francesca; Focaroli, Valentina

2013-11-01

194

Nonlinear Control of Delay and PDE Systems  

E-print Network

time-delay, control- affine, nonlinear systems, IEEEtime- and state-dependent delay perturba- tions for nonlinear systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .181 Nonlinear Systems with Simultaneous Time-Varying Delays

Bekiaris-Liberis, Nikolaos

195

Adaptive Phase Delay Generator  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

There are several experimental setups involving rotating machinery that require some form of synchronization. The adaptive phase delay generator (APDG) the Bencic-1000 is a flexible instrument that allows the user to generate pulses synchronized to the rising edge of a tachometer signal from any piece of rotating machinery. These synchronized pulses can vary by the delay angle, pulse width, number of pulses per period, number of skipped pulses, and total number of pulses. Due to the design of the pulse generator, any and all of these parameters can be changed independently, yielding an unparalleled level of versatility. There are two user interfaces to the APDG. The first is a LabVIEW program that has the advantage of displaying all of the pulse parameters and input signal data within one neatly organized window on the PC monitor. Furthermore, the LabVIEW interface plots the rpm of the two input signal channels in real time. The second user interface is a handheld portable device that goes anywhere a computer is not accessible. It consists of a liquid-crystal display and keypad, which enable the user to control the unit by scrolling through a host of command menus and parameter listings. The APDG combines all of the desired synchronization control into one unit. The experimenter can adjust the delay, pulse width, pulse count, number of skipped pulses, and produce a specified number of pulses per revolution. Each of these parameters can be changed independently, providing an unparalleled level of versatility when synchronizing hardware to a host of rotating machinery. The APDG allows experimenters to set up quickly and generate a host of synchronizing configurations using a simple user interface, which hopefully leads to faster results.

Greer, Lawrence

2013-01-01

196

WHO expectation and industry goals  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is expected the world's vaccine market will show a robust growth over the next few years, yet this growth will predominantly come from introduction of new vaccines in industrialised countries. Economic market forces will increasingly direct vaccine sales and vaccine development towards the needs of markets with effective purchasing power. Yet the scientific and technological progress that drives the

Walter Vandersmissen

2001-01-01

197

Student expectations of computing majors  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes research into student motivation and satisfaction with various computing majors on campus. A survey was administered to 422 computing majors and a different survey was administered to approximately 800 non-computing majors at Brigham Young University. The objective was to discover student understanding and expectations of the Computer Science, Information Systems and Information Technology programs on campus. Students

C. Richard G. Helps; Robert B. Jackson; Marshall B. Romney

2005-01-01

198

Expectancy theory analysis of migration  

Microsoft Academic Search

An Expectancy Theory analysis was used to explain patterns of migration in Iran. Fifty-four Iranian males and females were interviewed about their perception of the probability of attaining certain life outcomes in an urban or rural environment, and the importance of each outcome. The subjects were divided into three samples: migrants to the capital city, villagers, and migrants who had

Martin M. Chemers; Roya Ayman; Carol Werner

1978-01-01

199

Metaphors As Storehouses of Expectation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explores how metaphors are used to identify and store some expectations that structure schools' interactions and communications. Outlines a systems-theoretical view of schools derived from Niklas Luhmann's social theories. Illustrates how the metaphors identified in an earlier study provide material contexts for identifying and storing structures

Beavis, Allan K.; Thomas, A. Ross

1996-01-01

200

Tourism motivation and expectation formation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This theoretical study introduces a model of tourism motivation and expectation formation. It is based on a discussion and operationalization of both the behaviorist notion of drive reduction and the cognitivist constructs of attitudes and values. While the satisfaction of inner-directed values and motivations depends on classes of objects, outer-directed values target specific objects. In the case of trying to

Juergen Gnoth

1997-01-01

201

Great Expectations and New Beginnings  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Great Expectation and New Beginnings is a prenatal family support program run by the Family, Infant, and Preschool Program (FIPP) in North Carolina. FIPP has developed an evidence-based integrated framework of early childhood intervention and family support that includes three primary components: providing intervention in everyday family

Davis, Frances A.

2009-01-01

202

Double-Entry Expectancy Tables.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Double-entry expectancy tables are used to make admissions, guidance, or employment decisions based on two predictors. Examples of their use in showing relationships between high school and college performance are explained. The advantages of double-entry expectacy tables given are: (1) relative simplicity of preparation requiring no formal

Wesman, Alexander G.

1966-01-01

203

Complex network synchronization of chaotic systems with delay coupling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The study of complex networks enables us to understand the collective behavior of the interconnected elements and provides vast real time applications from biology to laser dynamics. In this paper, synchronization of complex network of chaotic systems has been studied. Every identical node in the complex network is assumed to be in Lur'e system form. In particular, delayed coupling has been assumed along with identical sector bounded nonlinear systems which are interconnected over network topology.

Theesar, S. Jeeva Sathya; Ratnavelu, K.

2014-03-01

204

Downhole delay and Delamar  

SciTech Connect

In this report, the reliability of the downhole portion of the Delamar cooling and purge systems is estimated and recommendations to improve the reliability estimate are made. Reliability is the probability that the test does not fail. The reliability estimate shows that the important failure events are delays, leaks, pumps, the heat exchanger, and the purge system. The cooling and purge systems cause test failure if temperature or humidity get outside limits. The event sequence diagrams and worksheets in this report and problem diagnosis and planning during test preparations. The control and power cables and the uphole control system are not included in the reliability estimate.

George, L.L.

1987-03-04

205

DELAYED REINFORCEMENT OF OPERANT BEHAVIOR  

PubMed Central

The experimental analysis of delay of reinforcement is considered from the perspective of three questions that seem basic not only to understanding delay of reinforcement, but, also, by implication, the contributions of temporal relations between events to operant behavior. The first question is whether effects of the temporal relation between responses and reinforcers can be isolated from other features of the environment that often accompany delays, such as stimuli or changes in the temporal distribution or rate of reinforcement. The second question is that of the effects of delays on operant behavior. Beyond the common denominator of a temporal separation between reinforcers and the responses that produce them, delay of reinforcement procedures differ from one another along several dimensions, making delay effects circumstance dependent. The final question is one of interpreting delay of reinforcement effects. It centers on the role of the responsereinforcer temporal relation in the context of other, concurrently operating behavioral processes. PMID:20676272

Lattal, Kennon A

2010-01-01

206

EXACT RATES IN VAPNIK-CHERVONENKIS BOUNDS VITESSES EXACTES DANS LES BORNES DE VAPNIK-CHERVONENKIS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vapnik-Chervonenkis bounds on rates of uniform convergence of empirical means to their expectations have been continuously improved over the years since the precursory work in (26). The result obtained by Talagrand in 1994 (21) seems to provide the final word as far as universal bounds are concerned. However, in the case where there are some additional assumptions on the underlying

Nicolas VAYATIS

207

Gravity, massive particles, photons and Shapiro delay  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An impact model of gravity designed to emulate Newton's law of gravitation is applied to particles with relative motions at slow and relativistic speeds. Based on this model, a gravitational interaction mode is then conceived between photons and massive particles. This implies a deflection perpendicular to the propagation direction of a photon twice as large as expected from the mass-energy relation of photonsin accordance with observations and the General Theory of Relativity. The longitudinal interaction is compatible with the energy and momentum conservation principles applied to massless entities, and the results are consistent with the observed Shapiro delay.

Wilhelm, Klaus; Dwivedi, Bhola N.

2013-01-01

208

Mistake Bounds for Maximum Entropy Discrimination  

Microsoft Academic Search

We establish a mistake bound for an ensemble method for classification based on maximizing the entropy of voting weights subject to margin constraints. The bound is the same as a general bound proved for the Weighted Majority Algorithm, and similar to bounds for other variants of Winnow. We prove a more refined bound that leads to a nearly opti- mal

Philip M. Long; Xinyu Wu

2004-01-01

209

Fundamentals of Delayed Coking Joint Industry Project  

SciTech Connect

Delayed coking evolved steadily over the early to mid 1900s to enable refiners to convert high boiling, residual petroleum fractions to light products such as gasoline. Pound for pound, coking is the most energy intensive of any operation in a modern refinery. Large amounts of energy are required to heat the thick, poor-quality petroleum residuum to the 900 to 950 degrees F required to crack the heavy hydrocarbon molecules into lighter, more valuable products. One common misconception of delayed coking is that the product coke is a disadvantage. Although coke is a low valued (near zero economic value) byproduct, compared to transportation fuels, there is a significant worldwide trade and demand for coke as it is an economical fuel. Coke production has increased steadily over the last ten years, with further increases forecast for the foreseeable future. Current domestic production is near 111,000 tons per day. A major driving force behind this increase is the steady decline in crude quality available to refiners. Crude slates are expected to grow heavier with higher sulfur contents while environmental restrictions are expected to significantly reduce the demand for high-sulfur residual fuel oil. Light sweet crudes will continue to be available and in even greater demand than they are today. Refiners will be faced with the choice of purchasing light sweet crudes at a premium price, or adding bottom of the barrel upgrading capability, through additional new investments, to reduce the production of high-sulfur residual fuel oil and increase the production of low-sulfur distillate fuels. A second disadvantage is that liquid products from cokers frequently are unstable, i.e., they rapidly form gum and sediments. Because of intermediate investment and operating costs, delayed coking has increased in popularity among refiners worldwide. Based on the 2000 Worldwide Refining Survey published in the Oil and Gas, the delayed coking capacity for 101 refineries around the world is 2,937,439 barrels/calendar day. These cokers produce 154,607 tons of coke per day and delayed coking accounts for 88% of the world capacity. The delayed coking charge capacity in the United States is 1,787,860 b/cd. Despite its wide commercial use, only relatively few contractors and refiners are truly knowledgeable in delayed-coking design, so that this process carries with it a ''black art'' connotation. Until recently, the expected yield from cokers was determined by a simple laboratory test on the feedstock. As a result of Tulsa University's prior related research, a process model was developed that with additional work could be used to optimize existing delayed cokers over a wide range of potential feedstocks and operating conditions. The objectives of this research program are to: utilize the current micro, batch and pilot unit facilities at The University of Tulsa to enhance the understanding of the coking process; conduct additional micro and pilot unit tests with new and in-house resids and recycles to make current optimization models more robust; conduct focused kinetic experiments to enhance the furnace tube model and to enhance liquid production while minimizing sulfur in the products; conduct detailed foaming studies to optimize the process and minimize process upsets; quantify the parameters that affect coke morphology; and to utilize the knowledge gained from the experimental and modeling studies to enhance the computer programs developed in the previous JIP for optimization of the coking process. These refined computer models will then be tested against refinery data provided by the member companies. Novel concepts will also be explored for hydrogen sulfide removal of furnace gases as well as gas injection studies to reduce over-cracking.

Michael Volk; Keith Wisecarver

2003-09-26

210

Fundamentals of Delayed Coking Joint Industry Project  

SciTech Connect

Delayed coking evolved steadily over the early to mid 1900s to enable refiners to convert high boiling, residual petroleum fractions to light products such as gasoline. Pound for pound, coking is the most energy intensive of any operation in a modern refinery. Large amounts of energy are required to heat the thick, poor-quality petroleum residuum to the 900 to 950 degrees F required to crack the heavy hydrocarbon molecules into lighter, more valuable products. One common misconception of delayed coking is that the product coke is a disadvantage. Although coke is a low valued (near zero economic value) byproduct, compared to transportation fuels, there is a significant worldwide trade and demand for coke as it is an economical fuel. Coke production has increased steadily over the last ten years, with further increases forecast for the foreseeable future. Current domestic production is near 111,000 tons per day. A major driving force behind this increase is the steady decline in crude quality available to refiners. Crude slates are expected to grow heavier with higher sulfur contents while environmental restrictions are expected to significantly reduce the demand for high-sulfur residual fuel oil. Light sweet crudes will continue to be available and in even greater demand than they are today. Refiners will be faced with the choice of purchasing light sweet crudes at a premium price, or adding bottom of the barrel upgrading capability, through additional new investments, to reduce the production of high-sulfur residual fuel oil and increase the production of low-sulfur distillate fuels. A second disadvantage is that liquid products from cokers frequently are unstable, i.e., they rapidly form gum and sediments. Because of intermediate investment and operating costs, delayed coking has increased in popularity among refiners worldwide. Based on the 2000 Worldwide Refining Survey published in the Oil and Gas, the delayed coking capacity for 101 refineries around the world is 2,937,439 barrels/calendar day. These cokers produce 154,607 tons of coke per day and delayed coking accounts for 88% of the world capacity. The delayed coking charge capacity in the United States is 1,787,860 b/cd. Despite its wide commercial use, only relatively few contractors and refiners are truly knowledgeable in delayed-coking design, so that this process carries with it a ''black art'' connotation. Until recently, the expected yield from cokers was determined by a simple laboratory test on the feedstock. As a result of Tulsa University's prior related research, a process model was developed that with additional work could be used to optimize existing delayed cokers over a wide range of potential feedstocks and operating conditions. The objectives of this research program are to: utilize the current micro, batch and pilot unit facilities at The University of Tulsa to enhance the understanding of the coking process; conduct additional micro and pilot unit tests with new and in-house resids and recycles to make current optimization models more robust; conduct focused kinetic experiments to enhance the furnace tube model and to enhance liquid production while minimizing sulfur in the products; conduct detailed foaming studies to optimize the process and minimize process upsets; quantify the parameters that affect coke morphology; and to utilize the knowledge gained from the experimental and modeling studies to enhance the computer programs developed in the previous JIP for optimization of the coking process. These refined computer models will then be tested against refinery data provided by the member companies. Novel concepts will also be explored for hydrogen sulfide removal of furnace gases as well as gas injection studies to reduce over-cracking.

Michael Volk; Keith Wisecarver

2004-09-26

211

Bounded Memory and Permanent Reputations  

Microsoft Academic Search

A recent result in reputation games is that after an arbitrarily long history, any equilibrium of the continuation game must be an equilibrium of the complete information game. We show that for two-by-two zero-sum games with incomplete information, bounded memory may lead to permanent reputations. In fact, we show that if the game is su ciently noisy, a bounded memory

DANIEL MONTE

212

Forecasting Spanish natural life expectancy.  

PubMed

Knowledge of trends in life expectancy is of major importance for policy planning. It is also a key indicator for assessing future development of life insurance products, substantiality of existing retirement schemes, and long-term care for the elderly. This article examines the feasibility of decomposing age-gender-specific accidental and natural mortality rates. We study this decomposition by using the Lee and Carter model. In particular, we fit the Poisson log-bilinear version of this model proposed by Wilmoth and Brouhns et al. to historical (1975-1998) Spanish mortality rates. In addition, by using the model introduced by Wilmoth and Valkonen we analyze mortality-gender differentials for accidental and natural rates. We present aggregated life expectancy forecasts compared with those constructed using nondecomposed mortality rates. PMID:16297222

Guillen, Montserrat; Vidiella-i-Anguera, Antoni

2005-10-01

213

Group delay as an estimate of delay in logic  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract-It is an accepted practice in signal delay estimation to model MOS digital circuits as RC circuits. In most cases Elmores delay definition is applied. This paper has several objectives. First, it shows that Elmores definition is exactly equivalent to the group delay of the network at zero frequency. Second, it presents a computationally efficient noniterative method to calculate this

Jiri Vlach; James A. Barby; Anthony Vannelli; T. Talkhan; C.-J. Richard Shi

1991-01-01

214

Delayed response protocols for high-delay wireless networks  

E-print Network

Protocol. . 4. Indirect TCP 5. TCP Westwood . 6. TCP-Aware 7. Delayed Congestion Response Protocols . . . . . Motivation . . . . . . . . . . . . Organization 3 3 . . . . . . . 4 . . 6 9 11 . . . , . 12 13 15 II DELAYED RESPONSE PROTOCOLS... . 25 . 26 . 28 4. Goodput v/s Wireless Delay. . 5. Performance of DCR udth Mild Congestion. . . . 6. Perfonnance of DCR under Heavy Congestion 34 36 37 7. Perfonnance of DCR in the Presence of Cross Traffic . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 8...

Sadry, Nauzad Erach

2012-06-07

215

Anisotropic flow: Achievements, Difficulties, Expectations  

E-print Network

Anisotropic flow measurements play a crucial role in understanding the physics and bulk properties of the system created in heavy ion collisions. In this talk I briefly review the most important results obtained so far, recent developments in the analysis techniques and the interpretation of the results, and what should we expect next, both at RHIC and LHC. I also discuss event anisotropies sensitive to the strong parity violation effects.

Sergei A. Voloshin

2008-05-09

216

Menopause: Social expectations, women's realities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary\\u000a The experience of menopause, and the ramifications of that experience for psychiatric treatment, is significantly shaped by\\u000a social and historical context and by the implicit and explicit expectations they arouse in women. American society is heavily\\u000a youth-oriented. Although in fact many women experience this time as one of liberation and self-actualization, society views\\u000a them as bereft of their families

N. L. Stotland

2002-01-01

217

Flight parameter estimation using time delay and intersensor multipath delay measurements from a small aperture acoustic array.  

PubMed

A ground-based acoustic sensor array can be used to estimate the complete set of flight parameters of a jet aircraft or other airborne source of broadband sound in transit by measuring the differential time of arrival (DTOA), or the time delay, of the direct path signal at each sensor pair of the array over a sufficiently long period of time. This paper studies the possibility of using intersensor multipath delay measurements to improve the precision of the flight parameter estimates for a small aperture array, without increasing the array's intersensor spacing or the observation time for more time delay measurements. Intersensor multipath delay is defined as the DTOA of the direct path signal at one sensor and the ground-reflected path signal at another sensor. The flight parameter estimation algorithm is formulated and a simplified Cramer-Rao lower bound error analysis is presented, which shows that the standard deviations in the flight parameter estimates are greatly reduced when intersensor multipath delay measurements are used together with time delay measurements. The effectiveness of the proposed flight parameter estimation method for small aperture arrays is verified using both simulated and real data. PMID:23862781

Lo, Kam W

2013-07-01

218

Semistability of Nonlinear Systems Having a Continuum of Equilibria and Time-Varying Delays  

E-print Network

In this paper, we develop a semistability analysis framework for nonlinear systems with time-varying delays with applications to stability analysis of multiagent dynamic networks with consensus protocols in the presence of unknown heterogeneous time-varying delays along the communication links. We show that for such a nonlinear system having a continuum of equilibria, if the system asymptotically converges to a constant time-delay system and this new system is semistable, then the original time-varying delay system is semistable, provided that the delays are just bounded, not necessarily differentiable. In proving our results, we extend the limiting equation approach to the time-varying delay systems and also develop some new convergence results for functional differential equations.

Hui, Qing

2010-01-01

219

Bounding the mass of the graviton using binary pulsar observations  

E-print Network

The close agreement between the predictions of dynamical general relativity for the radiated power of a compact binary system and the observed orbital decay of the binary pulsars PSR B1913+16 and PSR B1534+12 allows us to bound the graviton mass to be less than 7.6 x 10^{-20} eV with 90% confidence. This bound is the first to be obtained from dynamic, as opposed to static-field, relativity. The resulting limit on the graviton mass is within two orders of magnitude of that from solar system measurements, and can be expected to improve with further observations.

Lee Samuel Finn; Patrick J. Sutton

2001-09-13

220

Lower bound techniques for data structures  

E-print Network

We describe new techniques for proving lower bounds on data-structure problems, with the following broad consequences: * the first [omega](lg n) lower bound for any dynamic problem, improving on a bound that had been ...

P?tra?cu, Mihai

2008-01-01

221

Tensor rank : some lower and upper bounds  

E-print Network

The results of Strassen [25] and Raz [19] show that good enough tensor rank lower bounds have implications for algebraic circuit/formula lower bounds. We explore tensor rank lower and upper bounds, focusing on explicit ...

Forbes, Michael Andrew

2011-01-01

222

77 FR 3751 - Extension of Deadlines; Upward Bound Program (Regular Upward Bound (UB))  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION Extension of Deadlines; Upward Bound Program (Regular Upward Bound (UB)) AGENCY: Office of Postsecondary Education...published in the Applications for New Awards; Upward Bound Program (Regular Upward Bound (UB)) notice...

2012-01-25

223

Delayed cure bismaleimide resins  

DOEpatents

Polybismaleimides prepared by delayed curing of bis-imides having the formula ##STR1## wherein R.sub.1 and R.sub.2 each independently is H, C.sub.1-4 -alkyl, C.sub.1-4 -alkoxy, Cl or Br, or R.sub.1 and R.sub.2 together form a fused 6-membered hydrocarbon aromatic ring, with the proviso that R.sub.1 and R.sub.2 are not t-butyl or t-butoxy; X is O, S or Se; n is 1-3; and the --(CH.sub.2).sub.n -- group, optionally, is substituted by 1-3 methyl groups or by fluorine.

Adams, Johnnie E. (Grandview, MO); Jamieson, Donald R. (Merriam, KS)

1984-08-07

224

Soviet delays raise prices  

SciTech Connect

The breakup of the Soviet Union is causing massive disruptions to methanol exports. The changeover to a Commonwealth of independent States has created logistical problems which have led some shipments of Russian methanol to be cancelled and delayed other deliveries by up to two weeks. In recent years the Soviet Union has exported 700,000 m.t./year-900,000 m.t./year of methanol, mainly to Western Europe. The product is made at 750,000-m.t./year plants at Tomsk and Gubakha in Russia and transported by rail for shipment from the ports of Ventspils, Latvia, on the Baltic Sea and Yuzhnyy in Ukraine, on the Black Sea. The exports were handled by state export agency Soyuzagrochim, mainly under contract to West European traders and consumers in areas like Scandinavia and France.

Young, I.

1992-01-15

225

The future is risky: discounting of delayed and uncertain outcomes.  

PubMed

The world is full of choices where outcomes are both delayed and probabilistic. Whilst the delay discounting framework provides a platform for examining the relationship between dimensions of time and probability, the majority of research has considered these factors in isolation, or made assumptions about their equivalence. In order to address these issues, we present a novel measurement approach for assessing the discounting of delayed and uncertain outcomes. We conducted two experiments which compared discounting on three types of delay discounting task (standard, uncertain outcome, and uncertain amount) and examined the robustness of using a delayed and uncertain outcome's certainty equivalent relative to its expected value as a method for measuring discount rates. Both experiments demonstrated that discounting is best modelled by a hyperbolic function that describes subjective values relative to their certain equivalents. Moreover, when modelled this way, clear differences emerged between the different aspects of uncertainty (outcome vs. amount) dependent on whether outcomes were delayed gains or losses. This was true for both group and individual delay discounting data, as well as for both outcomes that were uncertain with respect to whether they would occur or not and outcomes that were uncertain with respect to what their magnitude would be when they occurred. PMID:23201372

Blackburn, Marianna; El-Deredy, Wael

2013-03-01

226

Estimating magnitude and duration of incident delays  

SciTech Connect

Traffic congestion is a major operational problem on urban freeways. In the case of recurring congestion, travelers can plan their trips according to the expected occurrence and severity of recurring congestion. However, nonrecurring congestion cannot be managed without real-time prediction. Evaluating the efficiency of intelligent transportation systems (ITS) technologies in reducing incident effects requires developing models that can accurately predict incident duration along with the magnitude of nonrecurring congestion. This paper provides two statistical models for estimating incident delay and a model for predicting incident duration. The incident delay models showed that up to 85% of variation in incident delay can be explained by incident duration, number of lanes affected, number of vehicles involved, and traffic demand before the incident. The incident duration prediction model showed that 81% of variation in incident duration can be predicted by number of lanes affected, number of vehicles involved, truck involvement, time of day, police response time, and weather condition. These findings have implications for on-line applications within the context of advanced traveler information systems (ATIS).

Garib, A. [Zagazig Univ. (Egypt). Construction Engineering Dept.; Radwan, A.E.; Al-Deek, H. [Univ. of Central Florida, Orlando, FL (United States). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering

1997-11-01

227

Binary-coded decimal to binary digital input modification of a popular digital delay module  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A simple modification is described for converting the digital program code format of an Evans Associates model 4145 programmable time delay module from binary-coded decimal to binary. The modification results in a delay module which is more easily interfaced to a computer, has a greater programmable delay range with equivalent temporal resolution, and requires less power. Similar modifications are expected to have the same results on the models 4145-1 and 4146 modules.

Bialkowski, Stephen E.

1986-07-01

228

Bounds on quantum communication via Newtonian gravity  

E-print Network

Newtonian gravity yields specific observable consequences, the most striking of which is the emergence of a $1/r^2$ force. In so far as communication can arise via such interactions between distant particles, we can ask what would be expected for a theory of gravity that only allows classical communication. Many heuristic suggestions for gravity-induced decoherence have this restriction implicitly or explicitly in their construction. Here we show that communication via a $1/r^2$ force has a minimum noise induced in the system when the communication cannot convey quantum information, in a continuous time analogue to Bell's inequalities. Our derived noise bounds provide tight constraints from current experimental results on any theory of gravity that does not allow quantum communication.

D. Kafri; G. J. Milburn; J. M. Taylor

2014-04-11

229

Bound states in a strong magnetic field  

SciTech Connect

We expect a strong magnetic field to be produced in the perpendicular direction to the reaction plane, in a noncentral heavy-ion collision . The strength of the magnetic field is estimated to be eB{approx}m{sup 2}{sub {pi}}{approx} 0.02 GeV{sup 2} at the RHIC and eB{approx} 15m{sup 2}{sub {pi}}{approx} 0.3 GeV{sup 2} at the LHC. We investigate the effects of the magnetic field on B{sup 0} and D{sup 0} mesons, focusing on the changes of the energy levels and of the mass of the bound states.

Machado, C. S.; Navarra, F. S.; Noronha, J.; Oliveira, E. G. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade de Sao Paulo Rua do Matao, Travessa R, 187, 05508-090 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Ferreira Filho, L. G. [Departamento de Matematica e Computacao, Faculdade de Tecnologia, Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro Rodovia Presidente Dutra, km 298, Polo Industrial, CEP 27537-000, Resende, RJ (Brazil)

2013-03-25

230

Emulators Notation Data bounds CAM1 Lower Bounds CAM2 Extensions Conclusions Uncertainty Quantification for Emulators  

E-print Network

Emulators Notation Data bounds CAM1 Lower Bounds CAM2 Extensions Conclusions Uncertainty;Emulators Notation Data bounds CAM1 Lower Bounds CAM2 Extensions Conclusions Emulators, Surrogate functions Data bounds CAM1 Lower Bounds CAM2 Extensions Conclusions Noiseless non-parametric function estimation

Stark, Philip B.

231

Estimating time delays for constructing dynamical networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dynamical networks - networks inferred from multivariate time series - have been widely applied to climate data and beyond, resulting in new insights into the underlying dynamics. However, these inferred networks can suffer from biases that need to be accounted for to properly interpret the results. Here, we report on a previously unrecognized bias in the estimate of time delays between nodes in dynamical networks inferred from cross-correlations, a method often used. This bias results in the maximum correlation occurring disproportionately often at large time lags. This is of particular concern in dynamical networks where the large number of possible links necessitates finding the correct time lag in an automated way. We show that this bias can arise due to the similarity of the estimator to a random walk, and are able to map them to each other explicitly for some cases. For the random walk there is an analytical solution for the bias that is closely related to the famous Lvy arcsine distribution, which provides an upper bound in many other cases. Finally, we show that estimating the cross-correlation in frequency space effectively eliminates this bias. Reanalysing large lag links (from a climate network) with this method results in a distribution peaked near zero instead, as well as additional peaks at the originally assigned lag. Links that are reassigned smaller time lags tend to have a smaller distance between them, which indicates that the new time delays are physically reasonable.

Martin, E. A.; Davidsen, J.

2014-09-01

232

Efficient rejection-based simulation of biochemical reactions with stochastic noise and delays.  

PubMed

We propose a new exact stochastic rejection-based simulation algorithm for biochemical reactions and extend it to systems with delays. Our algorithm accelerates the simulation by pre-computing reaction propensity bounds to select the next reaction to perform. Exploiting such bounds, we are able to avoid recomputing propensities every time a (delayed) reaction is initiated or finished, as is typically necessary in standard approaches. Propensity updates in our approach are still performed, but only infrequently and limited for a small number of reactions, saving computation time and without sacrificing exactness. We evaluate the performance improvement of our algorithm by experimenting with concrete biological models. PMID:25296793

Thanh, Vo Hong; Priami, Corrado; Zunino, Roberto

2014-10-01

233

Efficient rejection-based simulation of biochemical reactions with stochastic noise and delays  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose a new exact stochastic rejection-based simulation algorithm for biochemical reactions and extend it to systems with delays. Our algorithm accelerates the simulation by pre-computing reaction propensity bounds to select the next reaction to perform. Exploiting such bounds, we are able to avoid recomputing propensities every time a (delayed) reaction is initiated or finished, as is typically necessary in standard approaches. Propensity updates in our approach are still performed, but only infrequently and limited for a small number of reactions, saving computation time and without sacrificing exactness. We evaluate the performance improvement of our algorithm by experimenting with concrete biological models.

Thanh, Vo Hong; Priami, Corrado; Zunino, Roberto

2014-10-01

234

A time delay controller for magnetic bearings  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The control of systems with unknown dynamics and unpredictable disturbances has raised some challenging problems. This is particularly important when high system performance needs to be guaranteed at all times. Recently, the Time Delay Control has been suggested as an alternative control scheme. The proposed control system does not require an explicit plant model nor does it depend on the estimation of specific plant parameters. Rather, it combines adaptation with past observations to directly estimate the effect of the plant dynamics. A control law is formulated for a class of dynamic systems and a sufficient condition is presented for control systems stability. The derivation is based on the bounded input-bounded output stability approach using L sub infinity function norms. The control scheme is implemented on a five degrees of freedom high speed and high precision magnetic bearing. The control performance is evaluated using step responses, frequency responses, and disturbance rejection properties. The experimental data show an excellent control performance despite the system complexity.

Youcef-Toumi, K.; Reddy, S.

1991-01-01

235

Time Warp Invariance by Recoding Time Delays into Time Delays  

E-print Network

Time Warp Invariance by Recoding Time Delays into Time Delays David J.C. MacKay University of Cambridge March 20th, 1996 Abstract A little investigation of how easy it is to get time warp invariance using your trick of coupling a decaying response g(t) to a time advance associated with a subthreshold

MacKay, David J.C.

236

Robust Adaptive Controller Design for Nonlinear Time-Delay Systems via TS Fuzzy Approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

The robust control problem is investigated for a class of uncertain nonlinear time-delay systems. Via the Takagi-Sugeno (T-S) fuzzification, we obtain the T-S fuzzy systems with each local model in the form of time-delay systems with uncertain nonlinear functions. The mismatched nonlinear functions satisfy the Lipschitz condition, while the matched parts are bounded by nonlinear functions with unknown coefficients. Based

Chang-Chun Hua; Qing-Guo Wang; Xin-Ping Guan

2009-01-01

237

Output control for time-delay nonlinear system providing exponential stability  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper deals with the output stabilization of time-delay systems with sector-bounded nonlinearity. In this paper we will consider the problem of absolute stability for a class of time-delay systems which can be represented as a feedback connection of a linear dynamical system with unknown parameters and a uncertain nonlinearity satisfying a sector constraint. For a class of output control

Alexey A. Bobtsov; Anton A. Pyrkin; Maxim V. Faronov

2011-01-01

238

LPV Systems with parameter-varying time delays: analysis and control  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we address the analysis and state-feedback synthesis problems for linear parameter-varying (LPV) systems with parameter-varying time delays. It is assumed that the state-space data and the time delays are dependent on parameters that are measurable in real-time and vary in a compact set with bounded variation rates. We explore the stability and the induced L2 norm performance

Fen Wu; Karolos M. Grigoriadis

2001-01-01

239

Inoculation against Forgetting: Advantages of Immediate versus Delayed Initial Testing Due to Superior Verbatim Accessibility  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this study, potential benefits of early memory testing were examined in terms of "inoculating" eyewitness memory against forgetting. As predicted by fuzzy trace theory (e.g., Reyna & Titcomb, 1997), a larger testing advantage in the delayed recall of event details was expected after immediate testing than after delayed testing because of the

Pansky, Ainat

2012-01-01

240

Delayed Symptom Onset and Increased Life Expectancy in Sandhoff Disease Mice Treated with N-Butyldeoxynojirimycin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sandhoff disease is a neurodegenerative disorder resulting from the autosomal recessive inheritance of mutations in the HEXB gene, which encodes the beta -subunit of beta -hexosaminidase. GM2 ganglioside fails to be degraded and accumulates within lysosomes in cells of the periphery and the central nervous system (CNS). There are currently no therapies for the glycosphingolipid lysosomal storage diseases that involve

Mylvaganam Jeyakumar; Terry D. Butters; Mario Cortina-Borja; Victoria Hunnam; Richard L. Proia; V. Hugh Perry; Raymond A. Dwek; Frances M. Platt

1999-01-01

241

Delayed Expected Loss Recognition and the Risk Profile of Banks Robert M. Bushman  

E-print Network

-Flagler Business School University of North Carolina-Chapel Hill Christopher D. Williams Ross School of Business University of Michigan First Draft: October 15, 2011 Bushman thanks Kenan-Flagler Business School, University and regulators argue that loan loss accounting can potentially reinforce pro- cyclical effects of bank capital

242

Parameter identification in periodic delay differential equations with distributed delay  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, a parameter identification approach for identifying the parameters of a periodic delayed system with distributed delay is introduced based on time series analysis and spectral element analysis. Using this approach the parameters of the distributed delayed system can be identified from the time series of the response of the system. The experimental or numerical data of the response is examined with Floquet theory and time series analysis techniques to estimate a reduced order dynamics, or truncated state space to identify the Floquet multipliers. Parameter identification is then completed using a dynamic map developed for the assumed model of the system which can relate the Floquet multipliers to the unknown parameters in the model. The parameter identification technique is validated numerically for first and second order delay differential equations with distributed delay.

Torkamani, Shahab; Butcher, Eric A.; Khasawneh, Firas A.

2013-04-01

243

Amplitude death in networks of delay-coupled delay oscillators  

E-print Network

Amplitude death is a dynamical phenomenon in which a network of oscillators settles to a stable state as a result of coupling. Here, we study amplitude death in a generalized model of delay-coupled delay oscillators. We derive analytical results for degree homogeneous networks that show that amplitude death is governed by certain eigenvalues of the network's adjacency matrix. In particular these results demonstrate that in delay-coupled delay oscillators amplitude death can occur for arbitrarily large coupling strength k. In this limit we find a region of amplitude death, which occurs already at small coupling delays that scale with 1/k. We show numerically that these results remain valid in random networks with heterogeneous degree distribution.

Johannes M. Hfener; Gautam C. Sethia; Thilo Gross

2012-10-06

244

On the Expected Complexity of Voronoi Diagrams on Terrains  

E-print Network

We investigate the combinatorial complexity of geodesic Voronoi diagrams on polyhedral terrains using a probabilistic analysis. Aronov etal [ABT08] prove that, if one makes certain realistic input assumptions on the terrain, this complexity is \\Theta(n + m \\sqrt n) in the worst case, where n denotes the number of triangles that define the terrain and m denotes the number of Voronoi sites. We prove that under a relaxed set of assumptions the Voronoi diagram has expected complexity O(n+m), given that the sites have a uniform distribution on the domain of the terrain(or the surface of the terrain). Furthermore, we present a worst-case construction of a terrain which implies a lower bound of Vmega(n m2/3) on the expected worst-case complexity if these assumptions on the terrain are dropped. As an additional result, we can show that the expected fatness of a cell in a random planar Voronoi diagram is bounded by a constant.

Driemel, Anne; Raichel, Benjamin

2011-01-01

245

Holographic bounds and finite inflation  

E-print Network

We compare two holographic arguments that impose especially strong bounds on the amount of inflation. One comes from the de Sitter Equilibrium cosmology and the other from the work of Banks and Fischler. We find that simple versions of these two approaches yield the same bound on the number of e-foldings. A careful examination reveals that while these pictures are similar in spirit, they are not necessarily identical prescriptions. We apply the two pictures to specific cosmologies which expose potentially important differences and which also demonstrate ways these seemingly simple proposals can be tricky to implement in practice.

Phillips, Daniel; Albrecht, Andreas

2014-01-01

246

Performance Bounds on Two Concatenated, Interleaved Codes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A method has been developed of computing bounds on the performance of a code comprised of two linear binary codes generated by two encoders serially concatenated through an interleaver. Originally intended for use in evaluating the performances of some codes proposed for deep-space communication links, the method can also be used in evaluating the performances of short-block-length codes in other applications. The method applies, more specifically, to a communication system in which following processes take place: At the transmitter, the original binary information that one seeks to transmit is first processed by an encoder into an outer code (Co) characterized by, among other things, a pair of numbers (n,k), where n (n > k)is the total number of code bits associated with k information bits and n k bits are used for correcting or at least detecting errors. Next, the outer code is processed through either a block or a convolutional interleaver. In the block interleaver, the words of the outer code are processed in blocks of I words. In the convolutional interleaver, the interleaving operation is performed bit-wise in N rows with delays that are multiples of B bits. The output of the interleaver is processed through a second encoder to obtain an inner code (Ci) characterized by (ni,ki). The output of the inner code is transmitted over an additive-white-Gaussian- noise channel characterized by a symbol signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) Es/No and a bit SNR Eb/No. At the receiver, an inner decoder generates estimates of bits. Depending on whether a block or a convolutional interleaver is used at the transmitter, the sequence of estimated bits is processed through a block or a convolutional de-interleaver, respectively, to obtain estimates of code words. Then the estimates of the code words are processed through an outer decoder, which generates estimates of the original information along with flags indicating which estimates are presumed to be correct and which are found to be erroneous. From the perspective of the present method, the topic of major interest is the performance of the communication system as quantified in the word-error rate and the undetected-error rate as functions of the SNRs and the total latency of the interleaver and inner code. The method is embodied in equations that describe bounds on these functions. Throughout the derivation of the equations that embody the method, it is assumed that the decoder for the outer code corrects any error pattern of t or fewer errors, detects any error pattern of s or fewer errors, may detect some error patterns of more than s errors, and does not correct any patterns of more than t errors. Because a mathematically complete description of the equations that embody the method and of the derivation of the equations would greatly exceed the space available for this article, it must suffice to summarize by reporting that the derivation includes consideration of several complex issues, including relationships between latency and memory requirements for block and convolutional codes, burst error statistics, enumeration of error-event intersections, and effects of different interleaving depths. In a demonstration, the method was used to calculate bounds on the performances of several communication systems, each based on serial concatenation of a (63,56) expurgated Hamming code with a convolutional inner code through a convolutional interleaver. The bounds calculated by use of the method were compared with results of numerical simulations of performances of the systems to show the regions where the bounds are tight (see figure).

Moision, Bruce; Dolinar, Samuel

2010-01-01

247

High resolution digital delay timer  

DOEpatents

Method and apparatus are provided for generating an output pulse following a trigger pulse at a time delay interval preset with a resolution which is high relative to a low resolution available from supplied clock pulses. A first lumped constant delay (20) provides a first output signal (24) at predetermined interpolation intervals corresponding to the desired high resolution time interval. Latching circuits (26, 28) latch the high resolution data (24) to form a first synchronizing data set (60). A selected time interval has been preset to internal counters (142, 146, 154) and corrected for circuit propagation delay times having the same order of magnitude as the desired high resolution. Internal system clock pulses (32, 34) count down the counters to generate an internal pulse delayed by an interval which is functionally related to the preset time interval. A second LCD (184) corrects the internal signal with the high resolution time delay. A second internal pulse is then applied to a third LCD (74) to generate a second set of synchronizing data (76) which is complementary with the first set of synchronizing data (60) for presentation to logic circuits (64). The logic circuits (64) further delay the internal output signal (72) to obtain a proper phase relationship of an output signal (80) with the internal pulses (32, 34). The final delayed output signal (80) thereafter enables the output pulse generator (82) to produce the desired output pulse (84) at the preset time delay interval following input of the trigger pulse (10, 12).

Martin, Albert D. (Los Alamos, NM)

1988-01-01

248

High resolution digital delay timer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Method and apparatus are provided for generating an output pulse following a trigger pulse at a time delay interval preset with a resolution which is high relative to a low resolution available from supplied clock pulses. A first lumped constant delay (20) provides a first output signal (24) at predetermined interpolation intervals corresponding to the desired high resolution time interval.

Albert D

1988-01-01

249

Delayed Auditory Feedback and Movement  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

It is well known that timing of rhythm production is disrupted by delayed auditory feedback (DAF), and that disruption varies with delay length. We tested the hypothesis that disruption depends on the state of the movement trajectory at the onset of DAF. Participants tapped isochronous rhythms at a rate specified by a metronome while hearing DAF

Pfordresher, Peter Q.; Dalla Bella, Simone

2011-01-01

250

Expected Limits on R-symmetric $?\\to e $ Processes at Project X  

E-print Network

We investigate $\\mu \\to e$ processes in the Minimal R-symmetric Standrad Model (MRSSM) with the expected limits from Project X. It is found that $\\mu \\to e$ conversion provides the tightest bound on the $\\mu \\to e$ mixing parameters at the order of $\\lesssim O(10^{-3})$. Whereas $\\mu \\to eee$ only slightly improves the bound in the region where incoherence among different contributions to $\\mu \\to e$ is significant. No improvements on the bounds are obtained from $\\mu \\to e \\gamma$.

Ricky Fok

2012-08-31

251

Temporally remote destabilization of prediction after rare breaches of expectancy.  

PubMed

While neural signatures of breaches of expectancy and their immediate effects have been investigated, thus far, temporally more remote effects have been neglected. The present fMRI study explored neural correlates of temporally remote destabilization of prediction following rare breaches of expectancy with a mean delay of 14 s. We hypothesized temporally remote destabilization to be reflected either in an attenuation of areas related to long-term memory or in an increase of lateral fronto-parietal loops related to the encoding of new stimuli. Monitoring a deterministic 24-digit sequence, subjects were asked to indicate occasional sequential omissions by key press. Temporally remote destabilization of prediction was expected to be revealed by contrasting sequential events whose equivalent was omitted in the preceding sequential run n-1 (destabilized events) with sequential events without such history (nondestabilized events). Temporally remote destabilization of prediction was reflected in an attenuation of activity in the dorsal frontomedian cortex (Brodmann Area (BA) 9) bilaterally. Moreover, activation of the left medial BA 9 was enhanced by contrasting nondestabilized events with breaches. The decrease of dorsal frontomedian activation in the case of destabilized events might be interpreted as a top-down modulation on perception causing a less expectation-restricted encoding of the current stimulus and hence enabling the adaptation of expectation and prediction in the long run. PMID:21674697

Khn, Anne B; Schubotz, Ricarda I

2012-08-01

252

PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT PROCESS SETTING EXPECTATIONS, FEEDBACK & APPRAISAL  

E-print Network

PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT PROCESS SETTING EXPECTATIONS, FEEDBACK & APPRAISAL PMP EMPLOYEE FORM Name: Period Covered: Job Title: Department: Division: Supervisor: EXPECTATION SETTING MEETING HELD AND JOB and excellent work are widely recognized. Performance consistently exceeds all defined expectations, producing

Adali, Tulay

253

Delayed cure bismaleimide resins  

SciTech Connect

Polybismaleimides prepared by delayed curing of bisimides having a formula 1-R/sub 1/,2-R/sub 2/,4-(2,5-DI(O=)-3-Pyrrolin-3-YL),4-((2,5-DI(O=)-3-Pyrrolin-3-YL)-(4-R/sub 1/,5-R/sub 2/-1,2Phenylene)-X-(CH/sub 2/)N-X-)Benzene wherein R/sub 1/ and R/sub 2/ each independently is H,C/sub 1//sup -//sub 4/-alkyl, C/sub 1//sup -//sub 4/-alkoxy, C1 or Br, or R/sub 1/ and R/sub 2/ together form a fused 6-membered hydrocarbon aromatic ring, with the proviso that R/sub 1/ and R/sub 2/ are not t-butyl or t-butoxy; X is O, S or Se; n is 1-3; and the-(CH/sub 2/) /SUB n/ -group, optionally, is substituted by 1-3 methyl groups or by fluorine.

Adams, J.E.; Jamieson, D.R.

1984-08-07

254

Great expectations: teaching ethics to medical students in South Africa.  

PubMed

Many academic philosophers and ethicists are appointed to teach ethics to medical students. We explore exactly what this task entails. In South Africa the Health Professions Council's curriculum for training medical practitioners requires not only that students be taught to apply ethical theory to issues and be made aware of the legal and regulatory requirements of their profession, it also expects moral formation and the inculcation of professional virtue in students. We explore whether such expectations are reasonable. We defend the claim that physicians ought to be persons of virtuous character, on the grounds of the social contract between society and the profession. We further argue that since the expectations of virtue of health care professionals are reasonable, it is also sound reasoning to expect ethics teachers to try to inculcate such virtues in their students, so far as this is possible. Furthermore, this requires of such teachers that they be suitable role models of ethical practice and virtue, themselves. We claim that this applies to ethics teachers who are themselves not members of the medical profession, too, even though they are not bound by the same social contract as doctors. We conclude that those who accept employment as teachers of ethics to medical students, where as part of their contractual obligation they are expected to inculcate moral values in their students, ought to be prepared to accept their responsibility to be professionally ethical, themselves. PMID:23409954

Behrens, Kevin Gary; Fellingham, Robyn

2014-12-01

255

Titania bound sodium titanate ion exchanger  

DOEpatents

This invention is method for preparing a titania bound ion exchange composition comprising admixing crystalline sodium titanate and a hydrolyzable titanium compound and, thereafter drying the titania bound crystalline sodium titanate and subjecting the dried titania bound ion exchange composition to optional compaction and calcination steps to improve the physical strength of the titania bound composition.

DeFilippi, Irene C. G. (Palatine, IL); Yates, Stephen Frederic (Rolling Meadows, IL); Shen, Jian-Kun (Lake Zurich, IL); Gaita, Romulus (Morton Grove, IL); Sedath, Robert Henry (Bensenville, IL); Seminara, Gary Joseph (Chicago, IL); Straszewski, Michael Peter (Novi, MI); Anderson, David Joseph (Oak Lawn, IL)

1999-03-23

256

Variational Bounds for Creeping Composites  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the paper time dependent variational bounds are derived based on Extended Hashin-Shtrikman variational principles. Direct calculation leads to explicit formulas to be presented in the text. For various mechanical properties easy coding in Excel, say, can be used and verification of accuracy for numerical procedures is available using the derived formulas.

Petr Prochzka

2010-01-01

257

Variational Bounds for Creeping Composites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the paper time dependent variational bounds are derived based on Extended Hashin-Shtrikman variational principles. Direct calculation leads to explicit formulas to be presented in the text. For various mechanical properties easy coding in Excel, say, can be used and verification of accuracy for numerical procedures is available using the derived formulas.

Prochzka, Petr

2010-05-01

258

Performance bounds for fractal coding  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reports on investigations concerning the performance of fractal transforms. Emerging from the structural constraints of fractal coding schemes, lower bounds for the reconstruction error are given without regarding quantization noise. This implies finding an at least locally optimal transformation matrix. A full search approach is by definition optimal but also intractable for practical implementations. In order to simplify the calculation

Bernd Hiirtgen; Rwth Aachen

1995-01-01

259

Online Scheduling with Bounded Migration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Consider the classical online scheduling problem where jobs that arrive one by one are assigned to identical parallel ma- chines with the objective of minimizing the makespan. We general- ize this problem by allowing the current assignment to be changed whenever a new job arrives, subject to the constraint that the to- tal size of moved jobs is bounded by

Peter Sanders; Naveen Sivadasan; Martin Skutella

2004-01-01

260

Loosely-Bound Diatomic Molecules.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses concept of covalent bonding as related to homonuclear diatomic molecules. Article draws attention to the existence of bound rare gas and alkaline earth diatomic molecules. Summarizes their molecular parameters and offers spectroscopic data. Strength and variation with distance of interatomic attractive forces is given. (Author/SA)

Balfour, W. J.

1979-01-01

261

Pinning sampled-data synchronization for complex networks with probabilistic coupling delay  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We deal with the problem of pinning sampled-data synchronization for a complex network with probabilistic time-varying coupling delay. The sampling period considered here is assumed to be less than a given bound. Without using the Kronecker product, a new synchronization error system is constructed by using the property of the random variable and input delay approach. Based on the Lyapunov theory, a delay-dependent pinning sampled-data synchronization criterion is derived in terms of linear matrix inequalities (LMIs) that can be solved effectively by using MATLAB LMI toolbox. Numerical examples are provided to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed scheme.

Wang, Jian-An; Nie, Rui-Xing; Sun, Zhi-Yi

2014-05-01

262

Precise delay generation using coupled oscillators  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new delay generator based on a series of coupled ring oscillators has been developed; it produces precise delays with subgate delay resolution for chip testing applications. It achieves a delay resolution equal to a buffer delay divided by the number of rings. The coupling employed forces the outputs of a linear array of ring oscillators oscillating at the same

J. G. Maneatis; M. A. Horowitz

1993-01-01

263

Food reinforcement, delay discounting and obesity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Choice is a central construct in behavioral economics, with choice research divided into choice of concurrent alternative reinforcers, which is conceptualized as relative reinforcing value, or choice of small immediate versus larger delayed rewards, usually of the same commodity, which is conceptualized as delay of gratification and delay discounting. Relative reinforcing value, delay of gratification and delay discounting paradigms can

Leonard H. Epstein; Sarah J. Salvy; Katelyn A. Carr; Kelly K. Dearing; Warren K. Bickel

2010-01-01

264

Construction project delay-analysis techniques  

E-print Network

delays using the most appropriate delay-analysis technique. The selection of delay-analysis method to analyze a delay is a critical factor that can dramatically affect the delay analysis results. There is a pressing need to resolve conflicts among...

Al-Humaidi, Hanouf M

2012-06-07

265

IEEE JOURNAL ON SELECTED AREAS IN COMMUNICATIONS, VOL. 29, NO. 1, JANUARY 2011 129 Probabilistic Delay Control and Road Side Unit  

E-print Network

side unit (RSU). We present an analytical framework, which takes into account the randomness of vehicle from the RSU to exceed a required delay bound). Our study also investigates the effect of the vehicle

Zhuang, Weihua

266

A theoretical account of cognitive effects in delay discounting  

PubMed Central

Although delay discounting, the attenuation of the value of future rewards, is a robust finding, the mechanism of discounting is not known. We propose a potential mechanism for delay discounting such that discounting emerges from a search process trying to determine what rewards will be available in the future. In this theory, the delay dependence of the discounting of future expected rewards arises from three assumptions. First, that evaluation of outcomes involves a search process. Second, that value is assigned to an outcome proportionally to how easy it is to find. Third, that outcomes that are less delayed are typically easier for the search process to find. By relaxing this third assumption (for example, by assuming that episodically cued outcomes are easier to find), our model suggests that it is possible to dissociate discounting from delay. Our theory thereby explains the empirical result that discounting is slower to episodically-imagined outcomes, because these outcomes are easier for the search process to find. Additionally, the theory explains why improving cognitive resources such as working memory slows discounting, by improving searches and thereby making rewards easier to find. The three assumptions outlined here are likely to be instantiated during deliberative decision-making, but unlikely in habitual decision-making. We model two simple implementations of this theory and show that they unify empirical results about the role of cognitive function in delay discounting, and make new neural, behavioral, and pharmacological predictions. PMID:22487035

Kurth-Nelson, Zeb; Bickel, Warren; Redish, A. David

2012-01-01

267

Dealing with delays does not transfer across sensorimotor tasks.  

PubMed

It is known that people can learn to deal with delays between their actions and the consequences of such actions. We wondered whether they do so by adjusting their anticipations about the sensory consequences of their actions or whether they simply learn to move in certain ways when performing specific tasks. To find out, we examined details of how people learn to intercept a moving target with a cursor that follows the hand with a delay and examined the transfer of learning between this task and various other tasks that require temporal precision. Subjects readily learned to intercept the moving target with the delayed cursor. The compensation for the delay generalized across modifications of the task, so subjects did not simply learn to move in a certain way in specific circumstances. The compensation did not generalize to completely different timing tasks, so subjects did not generally expect the consequences of their motor commands to be delayed. We conclude that people specifically learn to control the delayed visual consequences of their actions to perform certain tasks. PMID:25301016

de la Malla, Cristina; Lpez-Moliner, Joan; Brenner, Eli

2014-01-01

268

New results on stability analysis for time-varying delay systems with non-linear perturbations.  

PubMed

The problem of stability for linear time-varying delay systems under nonlinear perturbation is discussed, with delay assumed as time-varying. Delay decomposition approach allows information of the delayed plant states to be fully considered. A less conservative delay-dependent robust stability condition is derived, using integral inequality approach to express the relationship of Leibniz-Newton formula terms in the within the framework of linear matrix inequalities (LMIs). Merits of the proposed results lie in lesser conservatism, which are realized by choosing different Lyapunov matrices in the decomposed integral intervals and estimating the upper bound of some cross term more exactly. Numerical examples are given to illustrate the effectiveness and lesser conservatism of the proposed method. PMID:23294851

Liu, Pin-Lin

2013-05-01

269

Apparent enrichment of organically bound tritium in rivers explained by the heritage of our past.  

PubMed

The global inventory of naturally produced tritium (3H) is estimated at 2.65kg, whereas more than 600kg have been released during atmospheric nuclear tests (NCRP, 1979; UNSCEAR, 2000) constituting the main source of artificial tritium throughout the Anthropocene. The behaviour of this radioactive isotope in the environment has been widely studied since the 1950s, both through laboratory experiments and, more recently, through field observations (e.g., Cline, 1953; Kirchmann etal., 1979; Daillant etal., 2004; McCubbin etal., 2001; Kim etal., 2012). In its "free" forms, [i.e. 3H gas or 3H hydride (HT); methyl 3H gas (CH3T); tritiated H2O or 3H-oxide (HTO); and Tissue Free Water 3H (TFWT)], tritium closely follows the water cycle. However, 3H bound with organic compounds, mainly during the basic stages of photosynthesis or through weak hydrogen links, is less exchangeable with water, which explains its persistence in the carbon cycle as re underlined recently by Baglan etal. (2013), Jean-Batiste and Fourr (2013), Kim etal. (2013a,b). In this paper, we demonstrate that terrestrial biomass pools, historically contaminated by global atmospheric fallout from nuclear testing, have constituted a significant delayed source of organically bound tritium (OBT) for aquatic systems, resulting in an apparent enrichment of OBT as compared to HTO. This finding helps to explain concentration factors (tritium concentration in biota/concentration in water) greater than 1 observed in areas that are not directly affected by industrial radioactive wastes, and thus sheds light on the controversies regarding tritium 'bioaccumulation'. Such apparent enrichment of OBT is expected to be more pronounced in the Northern Hemisphere where fallout was most significant, depending on the nature and biodegradability of terrestrial biomass at the regional scale. We further believe that OBT transfers from the continent to oceans have been sufficient to affect tritium concentrations in coastal marine biota (i.e., near river inputs). Our findings demonstrate that the persistence of terrestrial organic (3)H explains imbalances between organically bound tritium and free (3)H in most river systems in particular those not impacted by releases from nuclear facilities. PMID:24956583

Eyrolle-Boyer, Frdrique; Boyer, Patrick; Claval, David; Charmasson, Sabine; Cossonnet, Catherine

2014-10-01

270

Time-Delay Nonlinear System Modelling via Delayed Neural Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, nonlinear systems on-line identification via delayed dynamic neural networks is studied. Dynamic series-parallel neural network model with time delay is presented and the stability conditions are derived using Lyapunov-Krasovskii approach. The conditions for passivity, asymptotic stability are established in some senses. All the results are described by linear matrix inequality (LMI). We conclude that the gradient algorithm

Jose de Jess Rubio; Wen Yu; Xiaoou Li

2006-01-01

271

Teachers' Expectations about Students' Motivation 1 Running Head: Teachers' Expectations about Students' Motivation  

E-print Network

Teachers' Expectations about Students' Motivation 1 Running Head: Teachers' Expectations about Students' Motivation The Effects of Teachers' Expectations about Students' Motivation On Teachers Autonomy and Exercise Psychology 4 (2006) 283-301" #12;Teachers' Expectations about Students' Motivation 2 Abstract

Boyer, Edmond

272

Model for Delay Faults Based upon Paths  

Microsoft Academic Search

Delay testing of combinational logic in a clocked environment is analyzed. A model based upon paths is introduced for delay faults. Any path with a total delay exceeding the clock interval is called a \\

Gordon L. Smith

1985-01-01

273

High Quality Compact Delay Test Generation  

E-print Network

frequency. Small delay defects that previously were benign now produce delay faults, due to reduced timing margins. This research focuses on the development of new test methods for small delay defects, within the limits of affordable test generation cost...

Wang, Zheng

2011-08-08

274

Cellular Control Systems with Delays  

E-print Network

of DNA replication and cell growth in E. coli. Cellular Control ­ p.2/32 #12;Escherichia coli Cells DNA for Escherichia coli are pre- sented with delays for transcription and translation. Feedback controls

Mahaffy, Joseph M.

275

Ikeda Delay Differential Equation Model  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Ikeda Delay Differential Equation model shows the dynamics of a delay differential equation that depends on the value of the dynamical variable x(t) at a previous time x(t-τ). Sprott shows that these systems provide elegant examples of chaos in systems that are too simple to exhibit chaos without the time delay. This model demonstrates how EJS provides a natural syntax for implementing these models. The Ikeda Delay Differential Equation Model was developed using the Easy Java Simulations (EJS) modeling tool version 4.3.3. It is distributed as a ready-to-run (compiled) Java archive. Double clicking the ejs_chaos_IkedaDDE.jar file will run the program if Java is installed.

Christian, Wolfgang; Franciscouembre

2011-03-28

276

Simultaneous fault and state estimation in time-delay nonlinear systems having triangular form  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper investigates the problem of simultaneous fault and state estimation of either bounded state or globally Lipschtiz nonlinear systems subject to time delay and unknown input. We assume that the system has a triangular structure and the fault is a scalar and polynomial time dependent function. Based on the Lyapunov analysis method, we show that the observer design is

Salim Ibrir

2009-01-01

277

Robust H? adaptive control for a class of time-delay nonlinear systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper deals with the time-delay terms of nonlinear systems skillfully by modifying backstepping procedure and constructs the robust Hinfin adaptive controller, which renders the closed-loop system asymptotically stable and makes Hinfin norm bound. Further, the illustrative example and simulation results verify the effectiveness of the presented approach.

Bi Weiping; Luo Chengxun; Li Sha; Mu Xuegang

2008-01-01

278

Robust Output Feedback Tracking Control for Time-Delay Nonlinear Systems Using Neural Network  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, the problem of robust output tracking control for a class of time-delay nonlinear systems is considered. The systems are in the form of triangular structure with unmodeled dynamics. First, we construct an observer whose gain matrix is scheduled via linear matrix inequality approach. For the case that the information of uncertainties bounds is not completely available, we

Changchun Hua; Xinping Guan; Peng Shi

2007-01-01

279

Adaptive control of time delay nonlinear systems with unknown control direction  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, robust adaptive control is proposed for a class of time delay nonlinear systems with unknown constant control gain and control direction. The design is based on the principle of sliding mode control and the use of Nussbaum-type function in solving the problem of the completely unknown control gain. The unknown function and the upper bound of the

Tianping Zhang; Hui Wen; Qiuqin Zhu

2010-01-01

280

Efficient Aggregation of Delay-Constrained Data in Wireless Sensor Networks Kemal Akkaya and Mohamed Younis  

E-print Network

Efficient Aggregation of Delay-Constrained Data in Wireless Sensor Networks Kemal Akkaya. For instance, in monitoring applications some queries that are subject to aggregation may require a bounded-network data aggregation should not only be performed in an energy-efficient manner but should also achieve

Younis, Mohamed

281

Robust stability and stabilization for singular systems with state delay and parameter uncertainty  

Microsoft Academic Search

Considers the problems of robust stability and stabilization for uncertain continuous singular systems with state delay. The parametric uncertainty is assumed to be norm bounded. The purpose of the robust stability problem is to give conditions such that the uncertain singular system is regular, impulse free, and stable for all admissible uncertainties, while the purpose of the robust stabilization is

Shengyuan Xu; Paul Van Dooren; R. Stefan; J. Lam

2002-01-01

282

Analytic bounds on transmission probabilities  

SciTech Connect

We develop some new analytic bounds on transmission probabilities (and the related reflection probabilities and Bogoliubov coefficients) for generic one-dimensional scattering problems. To do so we rewrite the Schroedinger equation for some complicated potential whose properties we are trying to investigate in terms of some simpler potential whose properties are assumed known, plus a (possibly large) 'shift' in the potential. Doing so permits us to extract considerable useful information without having to exactly solve the full scattering problem.

Boonserm, Petarpa, E-mail: petarpa.boonserm@gmail.co [Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Science Chulalongkorn University, Phayathai Rd., Pathumwan Bangkok 10330 (Thailand); Visser, Matt, E-mail: matt.visser@msor.vuw.ac.n [School of Mathematics, Statistics, and Operations Research, Victoria University of Wellington (New Zealand)

2010-07-15

283

Holographic bound and protein linguistics  

E-print Network

The holographic bound in physics constrains the complexity of life. The finite storage capability of information in the observable universe requires the protein linguistics in the evolution of life. We find that the evolution of genetic code determines the variance of amino acid frequencies and genomic GC content among species. The elegant linguistic mechanism is confirmed by the experimental observations based on all known entire proteomes.

Dirson Jian Li; Shengli Zhang

2007-04-10

284

Entropy bounds and dark energy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Entropy bounds render quantum corrections to the cosmological constant ? finite. Under certain assumptions, the natural value of ? is of order the observed dark energy density ?10?10eV4, thereby resolving the cosmological constant problem. We note that the dark energy equation of state in these scenarios is w?p\\/?=0 over cosmological distances, and is strongly disfavored by observational data. Alternatively, ?

Stephen D. H. Hsu

2004-01-01

285

REAL-TIME DELAY ESTIMATION BASED ON DELAY HISTORY IN MANY-SERVER SERVICE SYSTEMS WITH  

E-print Network

REAL-TIME DELAY ESTIMATION BASED ON DELAY HISTORY IN MANY-SERVER SERVICE SYSTEMS WITH TIME on delay estimators exploiting recent customer delay history. We show that time-varying arrival rates can introduce significant estimation bias in delay- history-based delay estimators when the system experiences

Whitt, Ward

286

Search for Quasi Bound $?$ Mesons  

E-print Network

The search for a quasi bound $\\eta$ meson in atomic nuclei is reviewed. This tentative state is studied theoretically as well as experimentally. The theory starts from elastic $\\eta$ nucleon scattering which is derived from production data within some models. From this interaction the $\\eta$ nucleus interaction is derived. Model calculations predict binding energies and widths of the quasi bound state. Another method is to derive the $\\eta$ nucleus interaction from excitation functions of $\\eta$ production experiments. The $s$ wave interaction is extracted from such data via final state interaction theorem. We give the derivation of $s$ wave amplitudes in partial wave expansion and in helicity amplitudes and their relation to observables. Different experiments extracting the final state interaction are discussed as are production experiments. So far only three experiments give evidence for the existence of the quasi bound state: a pion double charge exchange experiment, an effective mass measurement, and a transfer reaction at recoil free kinematics with observation of the decay of the state.

H. Machner

2014-10-22

287

Resource Slack and Propensity to Discount Delayed Investments of Time Versus Money  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors demonstrate that people discount delayed outcomes as a result of perceived changes over time in supplies of slack. Slack is the perceived surplus of a given resource available to complete a focal task. The present research shows that, in general, people expect slack for time to be greater in the future than in the present. Typically, this expectation

Gal Zauberman

2005-01-01

288

Teaching Effectiveness, Course Evaluation, and Academic Performance: The Role of Academic Delay of Gratification  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Academic delay of gratification is a significant and positive predictor of students' final course grades, even after controlling for the effect of their rating of the course, expected grade, and degree of interest, importance, and utility of the academic task. Students' expected course grades are by far the strongest predictor of their final

Bembenutty, Hefer

2009-01-01

289

of immigration and extinction are indeed to be expected under some circumstances. Secondly, they demonstrate  

E-print Network

of immigration and extinction are indeed to be expected under some circumstances. Secondly arise. JS rightly state that integration of delayed extinction and immigration is needed to understand biodiversity in a changing environment: extinction debt, immigration credit and species turnover. Trends Ecol

Sax, Dov

290

Semi-blind channel identification and equalization in OFDM: an expectation-maximization approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper proposes an expectation-maximization approach to channel identification and equalization in OFDM. The algorithm exploits the natural constraints imposed by the channel (sparsity, maximum delay spread, and a priori statistical information) and those imposed by the transmitter (pilots, cyclic prefix, and the finite alphabet constraint). These constraints are used to reduce the number of pilots needed for channel and

Tareq Y. Al-Naffouri; Ahmad Bahai; Arogyaswami Paulraj

2002-01-01

291

A Discounting Framework for Choice With Delayed and Probabilistic Rewards  

PubMed Central

When choosing between delayed or uncertain outcomes, individuals discount the value of such outcomes on the basis of the expected time to or the likelihood of their occurrence. In an integrative review of the expanding experimental literature on discounting, the authors show that although the same form of hyperbola-like function describes discounting of both delayed and probabilistic outcomes, a variety of recent findings are inconsistent with a single-process account. The authors also review studies that compare discounting in different populations and discuss the theoretical and practical implications of the findings. The present effort illustrates the value of studying choice involving both delayed and probabilistic outcomes within a general discounting framework that uses similar experimental procedures and a common analytical approach. PMID:15367080

Green, Leonard; Myerson, Joel

2005-01-01

292

On Relationship between the Boston Bound and Well-Known Bounds for Cyclic Codes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For a cyclic code, the BCH Bound and the Hartmann-Tzeng bound are two of well-known lower bounds for its minimum distance. New bounds are proposed by N. Boston in 2001, that depend on defining set of cyclic code. In this paper, we consider the between the Boston bound and these two bounds for non-binary cyclic codes from numerical examples.

Zheng, Junru; Kaida, Takayasu

293

Fundamentals of Delayed Coking Joint Industry Project  

SciTech Connect

Delayed coking evolved steadily over the early to mid 1900s to enable refiners to convert high boiling, residual petroleum fractions to light products such as gasoline. Pound for pound, coking is the most energy intensive of any operation in a modern refinery. Large amounts of energy are required to heat the thick, poor-quality petroleum residuum to the 900 to 950 degrees F required to crack the heavy hydrocarbon molecules into lighter, more valuable products. One common misconception of delayed coking is that the product coke is a disadvantage. Although coke is a low valued (near zero economic value) byproduct, compared to transportation fuels, there is a significant worldwide trade and demand for coke as it is an economical fuel. Coke production has increased steadily over the last ten years, with further increases forecast for the foreseeable future. Current domestic production is near 111,000 tons per day. A major driving force behind this increase is the steady decline in crude quality available to refiners. Crude slates are expected to grow heavier with higher sulfur contents while environmental restrictions are expected to significantly reduce the demand for high-sulfur residual fuel oil. Light sweet crudes will continue to be available and in even greater demand than they are today. Refiners will be faced with the choice of purchasing light sweet crudes at a premium price, or adding bottom of the barrel upgrading capability, through additional new investments, to reduce the production of high-sulfur residual fuel oil and increase the production of low-sulfur distillate fuels. A second disadvantage is that liquid products from cokers frequently are unstable, i.e., they rapidly form gum and sediments. Because of intermediate investment and operating costs, delayed coking has increased in popularity among refiners worldwide. Based on the 2000 Worldwide Refining Survey published in the Oil and Gas, the delayed coking capacity for 101 refineries around the world is 2,937,439 barrels/calendar day. These cokers produce 154,607 tons of coke per day and delayed coking accounts for 88% of the world capacity. The delayed coking charge capacity in the United States is 1,787,860 b/cd. Despite its wide commercial use, only relatively few contractors and refiners are truly knowledgeable in delayed-coking design, so that this process carries with it a ''black art'' connotation. Until recently, the expected yield from cokers was determined by a simple laboratory test on the feedstock. As a result of Tulsa University's prior related research, a process model was developed that with additional work could be used to optimize existing delayed cokers over a wide range of potential feedstocks and operating conditions. The objectives of this research program are to: utilize the current micro, batch and pilot unit facilities at The University of Tulsa to enhance the understanding of the coking process; conduct additional micro and pilot unit tests with new and in-house resids and recycles to make current optimization models more robust; conduct focused kinetic experiments to enhance the furnace tube model and to enhance liquid production while minimizing sulfur in the products; conduct detailed foaming studies to optimize the process and minimize process upsets; quantify the parameters that affect coke morphology; and to utilize the knowledge gained from the experimental and modeling studies to enhance the computer programs developed in the previous JIP for optimization of the coking process. These refined computer models will then be tested against refinery data provided by the member companies. Novel concepts will also be explored for hydrogen sulfide removal of furnace gases as well as gas injection studies to reduce over-cracking. The following deliverables are scheduled from the two projects of the three-year JIP: (1) A novel method for enhancing liquid yields from delayed cokers and data that provide insight as to the optimum temperature to remove hydrogen sulfide from furnace gases. (2) An understanding of what causes foaming in c

Michael Volk Jr; Keith Wisecarver

2005-10-01

294

Input-to-state stability of switched nonlinear systems with time delays under asynchronous switching.  

PubMed

This paper is concerned with analyzing input-to-state stability (ISS) for a class of switched nonlinear systems with time delays under asynchronous switching. Due to the existence of switching delay, the switching of the controller does not coincide accurately with the switching of the system.When the subsystem is stabilized with the matched controller, the subsystem is ISS; otherwise, the subsystem may be not ISS. We establish efficient condition, in terms of an upper bound on the switching delay, and in terms of a lower bound on the matched time intervals for the subsystem and the controller, which ensures ISS for the whole switched nonlinear system. Finally, an illustrative example is presented to demonstrate the efficacy of the results. PMID:23757523

Wang, Yue-E; Sun, Xi-Ming; Shi, Peng; Zhao, Jun

2013-12-01

295

Intracellular delay limits cyclic changes in gene expression  

E-print Network

Based on previously published experimental observations and mathematical models for Hes1, p53 and NF-kB gene expression, we improve these models through a distributed delay formulation of the time lag between transcription factor binding and mRNA production. This description of natural variability for delays introduces a transition from a stable steady state to limit cycle oscillations and then a second transition back to a stable steady state which has not been observed in previously published models. On the basis of our results and following recent discussions about the role of delay-induced oscillations in gene transcription we establish the hypothesis that the period of the delay-induced cyclic changes should be characterized by an upper bound so that it cannot be greater then the period of fundamental biological cycles. We demonstrate our approach for two models. The first model describes Hes1 autorepression with equations for Hes1 mRNA production and Hes1 protein translation. The second model describes Hes1 repression by the protein complex Gro/TLE1/Hes1, where Gro/TLE1 is activated by Hes1 phosphorylation.

Katja Rateitschak; Olaf Wolkenhauer

2006-02-07

296

Should a High School Adopt Advanced Placement or a Concurrent Enrollment Program? An Expected Benefit Approach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article provides an explicit framework for evaluating the expected benefit to college-bound students of courses offered by Advanced Placement (AP) versus concurrent enrollment programs (CEP). District personnel can use it to assess the relative merits of these programs, given the characteristics of their students, in deciding which model to

Dutkowsky, Donald H.; Evensky, Jerry M.; Edmonds, Gerald S.

2009-01-01

297

Dynamic Scheduling of Pigeons for Delay Constrained Applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Information collection in the disaster area is an important application of pigeon networks - a special type of delay tolerant networks (DTN). The aim of this paper is to explore highly efficient dynamic scheduling strategies of pigeons for such applications. The upper bound of traffic that can be supported under the deadline constraints for the basic on-demand strategy is given through the analysis. Based on the analysis, a waiting based packing strategy is introduced. Although the latter strategy could not change the maximum traffic rate that a pigeon can support, it improves the efficiency of the pigeon largely. The analytical results are verified by the simulations.

Zhou, Jiazhen; Li, Jiang; Burge, Legand

298

Three-body systems with Coulomb interaction. Bound and quasi-bound S-states  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A simple Mathematica (versions 7-9) code for computing S-state energies and wave functions of three-particles systems is presented. The relevant systems include two-electron atoms, molecular electronic ions and mesomolecular exotic species. In addition to the bound S-states the code enables one to compute the positions and widths of the lowest resonance, quasi-bound, states. The elegant technique derived from the classical papers of Pekeris is applied. The basis functions are composed of Laguerre functions. The method is based on the perimetric coordinates and specific properties of the Laguerre polynomials. A direct solution of the generalized eigenvalues and eigenvectors problem is used, distinct from Pekeris' works. The complex scaling method is applied for calculating the resonance states. The resultant wave functions have a simple analytical form, that enables calculation of expectation values of arbitrary physical operators without any difficulties. Only one mathematical parameter characterizing the basis size is required in the input. The other input parameters are of the physical nature.

Liverts, Evgeny Z.; Barnea, Nir

2013-11-01

299

Least expected time paths in stochastic, time-varying transportation networks  

SciTech Connect

The authors consider stochastic, time-varying transportation networks, where the arc weights (arc travel times) are random variables with probability distribution functions that vary with time. Efficient procedures are widely available for determining least time paths in deterministic networks. In stochastic but time-invariant networks, least expected time paths can be determined by setting each random arc weight to its expected value and solving an equivalent deterministic problem. This paper addresses the problem of determining least expected time paths in stochastic, time-varying networks. Two procedures are presented. The first procedure determines the a priori least expected time paths from all origins to a single destination for each departure time in the peak period. The second procedure determines lower bounds on the expected times of these a priori least expected time paths. This procedure determines an exact solution for the problem where the driver is permitted to react to revealed travel times on traveled links en route, i.e. in a time-adaptive route choice framework. Modifications to each of these procedures for determining least expected cost (where cost is not necessarily travel time) paths and lower bounds on the expected costs of these paths are given. Extensive numerical tests are conducted to illustrate the algorithms` computational performance as well as the properties of the solution.

Miller-Hooks, E.D. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering; Mahmassani, H.S. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States)

1999-06-01

300

Large deviation bounds for matrix Brownian motion  

Microsoft Academic Search

. We prove large deviation bounds for the convergence of Hermitian matrix valued Brownian motion towards free Brownian motion.\\u000a As a consequence, we obtain upper and lower bounds on the microstates entropy introduced by Voiculescu [24].

P. Biane; M. Capitaine; A. Guionnet

2003-01-01

301

Teacher Race and Expectations for Student Achievement.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Whether the race of elementary school teachers in black schools was associated with teachers' expectations for student achievement and perceptions of effort was investigated. Evidence suggested that teacher race was associated only with expectations for college success. (Author/GK)

Beady, Charles H., Jr.; Hansell, Stephen

1981-01-01

302

EpidemiologyQJE.tex Macroeconomic Expectations of  

E-print Network

, with important macroeconomic consequences. Keywords: inflation, expectations, unemployment, monetary policy JEL of macroeconomics by John Maynard Keynes [1936], economists have understood that macroeconomic outcomes depend upon expectations. Keynes himself believed that economies could experience fluc- tuations that reflected movements

Niebur, Ernst

303

Bounding Switching Delay in Mobile TV Broadcast Networks Cheng-Hsin Hsu and Mohamed Hefeeda  

E-print Network

used in many deployed mobile TV networks, and we show that it is not efficient in terms of controlling the proposed schemes in a mobile TV testbed to show their practicability and to validate our theoretical on the move has become a reality. Mobile TV trials or commer- cial services have been deployed in more than 40

Hefeeda, Mohammed

304

Uniform dynamical bounds for the Fibonacci Hamiltonian  

E-print Network

We prove quantum dynamical upper bounds for operators from the Fibonacci hull. These bounds hold for sufficiently large coupling and they are uniform in the phase. This extends recent work by Killip, Kiselev and Last who obtained these bounds for one particular phase. The main ingredient in our proof is a detailed combinatorial analysis of the sequences in the Fibonacci hull.

David Damanik

2001-12-08

305

Entropy bounds and dark energy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Entropy bounds render quantum corrections to the cosmological constant ? finite. Under certain assumptions, the natural value of ? is of order the observed dark energy density ~10-10 eV4, thereby resolving the cosmological constant problem. We note that the dark energy equation of state in these scenarios is w?p/?=0 over cosmological distances, and is strongly disfavored by observational data. Alternatively, ? in these scenarios might account for the diffuse dark matter component of the cosmological energy density. Permanent address: Institute of Theoretical Science and Department of Physics, University of Oregon, Eugene, OR 97403.

Hsu, Stephen D. H.

2004-07-01

306

Hard Core entropy: lower bounds  

E-print Network

We establish lower bounds for the entropy of the Hard Core Model on a few 2d lattices $\\scriptstyle {\\rm {\\bf L}}.$ In this model the allowed configurations inside $\\scriptstyle \\{0,1\\}^{{\\rm {\\bf L}}}$ are the one's in which the nearest neighbor $\\scriptstyle 1$'s are forbidden. Our method which is based on a sequential fill-in scheme is unbiassed and thereby yields in principle arbitrarily good estimates for the topological entropy. The procedure also gives some detailed information on the support of the measure of maximal entropy.

Kari Eloranta

2009-07-23

307

Fractional Laplacian in bounded domains.  

PubMed

The fractional Laplacian operator -(-delta)(alpha/2) appears in a wide class of physical systems, including Lvy flights and stochastic interfaces. In this paper, we provide a discretized version of this operator which is well suited to deal with boundary conditions on a finite interval. The implementation of boundary conditions is justified by appealing to two physical models, namely, hopping particles and elastic springs. The eigenvalues and eigenfunctions in a bounded domain are then obtained numerically for different boundary conditions. Some analytical results concerning the structure of the eigenvalue spectrum are also obtained. PMID:17930015

Zoia, A; Rosso, A; Kardar, M

2007-08-01

308

Learning, Adaptive Expectations and Technology Shocks &ast  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study explores the macroeconomic implications of adaptive expectations in a standard growth model. We show that the self-confirming equilibrium under adaptive expectations is the same as the steady state rational expectations equilibrium for all admissible parameter values, but that dynamics around the steady state are substantially different between the two equilibria. The differences are driven mainly by the dampened

Kevin X. D. Huang; Zheng Liu; Tao Zha

2009-01-01

309

UTSC Undergraduate Degree Level Expectations March, 2008  

E-print Network

UTSC Undergraduate Degree Level Expectations March, 2008 Introduction is document sets out the goals and expectations that UTSC has for its undergraduate degrees and programs of study. ese degree expectations will be used to assess existing and new programs. ey also provide a standard by which students can

Wells, Mathew G. - Department of Physical and Environmental Sciences, University of Toronto

310

Longitudinal evidence on financial expectations in Albania  

E-print Network

EA 4272 Longitudinal evidence on financial expectations in Albania: Do remittances matter? Laetitia-14Dec2010 #12;Longitudinal evidence on financial expectations in Albania: Do remittances matter of remittances on financial expectations in Albania using longitudinal data covering the period 2002

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

311

Measuring Generalized Expectancies for Negative Mood Regulation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research has suggested the utility of studying individual differences in the regulation of negative mood states. Generalized response expectancies for negative mood regulation were defined as expectancies that some overt behavior or cognition would alleviate negative mood states as they occur across situations. The Generalized Expectancy for

Catanzaro, Salvatore J.; Mearns, Jack

312

Formal Modeling of Biological Systems with Delays  

Microsoft Academic Search

Delays in biological systems may appear at any level of detail of the modeled system, in particular delays may be used to model events for which the underline dynamics can not be completely observed. There exist constant and variable (e.g. time- dependent, state-dependent) forms of delays and dierent modeling techniques for interpreting delays. In this thesis we address the problem

Giulio Caravagna

2009-01-01

313

REAL TIME IDENTIFICATION OF DELAY Lotfi Belkoura  

E-print Network

REAL TIME IDENTIFICATION OF DELAY SYSTEMS Lotfi Belkoura , Jean-Pierre Richard and Michel Fliess deals with real time and possibly closed loop identification of delay systems. It is based on non are provided. Keywords: Delay systems, Closed loop Identification. 1. INTRODUCTION The real time delay

Boyer, Edmond

314

Synchronization in general complex delayed dynamical networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper investigates synchronization dynamics of a general model of complex delayed networks as well as the effects of time delays. Some simple yet generic criteria ensuring delay-independent and delay-dependent synchronization are derived, which are less conservative than those reported so far in the literature. Moreover, a scale \\

Jin Zhou; Tianping Chen

2006-01-01

315

Temporal memory averaging and post-encoding alterations in temporal expectation  

PubMed Central

Recent work in our lab has demonstrated that rats trained to associate two different reinforcement delays with two different cues will generate a scalar temporal expectation at a time between these delays when presented with the cue compound. This work demonstrates that rats will integrate distinct temporal memories at retrieval, revealing that temporal expectation need not be a veridical representation of experience. Following from this recognition that processes occurring at or after memory retrieval may transform or bias temporal expectations, we suggest that previous pharmacological work that had been interpreted as resulting from sensorial, or clock-speed, changes, may be alternatively interpreted as resulting from mnemonic alterations. We end with a brief review of the impact of post-encoding alterations of memory on behavior other than timing. PMID:23454594

Matell, Matthew S.; Henning, Alexandra M.

2013-01-01

316

Magnetic bearing optical delay line  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

TNO TPD, in close cooperation with Micromega-Dynamics and Dutch Space, has developed an advanced Optical Delay Line (ODL) for use in PRIMA, GENIE and other ground based interferometers. The delay line design is modular and flexible, which makes scaling for other applications a relatively easy task. The developed technology can also be applied in future cryogenic space interferometers, such as DARWIN, and TPF-I. The ODL has a single linear motor actuator for Optical Path Difference (OPD) control, driving a two-mirror cat's eye with SiC mirrors and CFRP structure. Magnetic bearings provide frictionless and wear free operation with zero-hysteresis. The delay line has been assembled and is currently being subjected to a comprehensive test program.

van den Dool, Teun C.; Kamphues, Fred; Fouss, B.; Henrioulle, K.; Hogenhuis, Harm

2004-09-01

317

Endurance bounds of aerial systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Within the past few years micro aerial vehicles (MAVs) have received much more attention and are starting to proliferate into military as well as civilian roles. However, one of the major drawbacks for this technology currently, has been their poor endurance, usually below 10 minutes. This is a direct result of the inefficiencies inherent in their design. Often times, designers do not consider the various components in the vehicle design and match their performance to the desired mission for the vehicle. These vehicles lack a prescribed set of design guidelines or empirically derived design equations which often limits their design to selection of commercial off-the-shelf components without proper consideration of their affect on vehicle performance. In the current study, the design space for different vehicle configurations has been examined including insect flapping, avian flapping, rotary wing, and fixed wing, and their performance bounds are established. The propulsion system typical of a rotary wing vehicle is analyzed to establish current baselines for efficiency of vehicles at this scale. The power draw from communications is analyzed to determine its impact on vehicle performance. Finally, a representative fixed wing MAV is examined and the effects of adaptive structures as a means for increasing vehicle endurance and range are examined. This paper seeks to establish the performance bounds for micro air vehicles and establish a path forward for future designs so that efficiency may be maximized.

Harrington, Aaron M.; Kroninger, Christopher M.

2014-06-01

318

Upper Higgs boson mass bounds from a chirally invariant lattice Higgs-Yukawa model  

E-print Network

We establish the cutoff-dependent upper Higgs boson mass bound by means of direct lattice computations in the framework of a chirally invariant lattice Higgs-Yukawa model emulating the same chiral Yukawa coupling structure as in the Higgs-fermion sector of the Standard Model. As expected from the triviality picture of the Higgs sector, we observe the upper mass bound to decrease with rising cutoff parameter $\\Lambda$. Moreover, the strength of the fermionic contribution to the upper mass bound is explored by comparing to the corresponding analysis in the pure $\\Phi^4$-theory.

P. Gerhold; K. Jansen

2010-02-23

319

Analytical Properties of Credibilistic Expectation Functions  

PubMed Central

The expectation function of fuzzy variable is an important and widely used criterion in fuzzy optimization, and sound properties on the expectation function may help in model analysis and solution algorithm design for the fuzzy optimization problems. The present paper deals with some analytical properties of credibilistic expectation functions of fuzzy variables that lie in three aspects. First, some continuity theorems on the continuity and semicontinuity conditions are proved for the expectation functions. Second, a differentiation formula of the expectation function is derived which tells that, under certain conditions, the derivative of the fuzzy expectation function with respect to the parameter equals the expectation of the derivative of the fuzzy function with respect to the parameter. Finally, a law of large numbers for fuzzy variable sequences is obtained leveraging on the Chebyshev Inequality of fuzzy variables. Some examples are provided to verify the results obtained. PMID:24723800

Wang, Bo; Watada, Junzo

2014-01-01

320

Bounds on halo-particle interactions from interstellar calorimetry  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

It is shown that the existence of neutral interstellar clouds constrains the interaction of any particulate dark-matter candidate with atomic hydrogen to be quite small. Even for a halo particle of mass 1 PeV (10 to the 6 GeV), it is shown that the cross section with hydrogen must be smaller than the typical atomic cross section that is expected for a positively charged particle bound to an electron. The argument presented is that if the clouds are in equilibrium, then the rate at which energy is deposited by collisions with dark-matter particles must be smaller than the rate at which the cloud can cool. This argument is used to constrain the interaction cross section of dark matter with hydrogen. Remarks are made on the general viability of charged dark matter. Comments are also made on a bound which derives from the dynamical stability of the halo.

Chivukula, Sekhar R.; Cohen, Andrew G.; Dimopoulos, Savas; Walker, Terry P.

1990-01-01

321

Asymptotic stability, contractivity and dissipativity of one-leg theta-method for non-autonomous delay functional differential equations  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper focuses on asymptotic stability, contractivity and dissipativity of non-autonomous nonlinear delay functional differential equations with bounded lag, and the corresponding dynamical properties of one-leg ?-method. Sufficient conditions for these delay functional differential equations to be dissipative, asymptotically stable and contractive are established. One-leg ?-method is constructed to solve such equations numerically. An important result on the growth of

Hongjiong Tian; Ni Guo

2008-01-01

322

Observer-based passive control for linear system with time-varying delays in state and control input  

Microsoft Academic Search

The robust passivity synthesis problem is addressed for a class of uncertain delayed systems with time-varying delays in both state and control input. The parameter uncertainties are norm-bounded and allowed to appear in all the matrices of the model. The problem aims at designing an observer-based dynamic controller that renders the closed-loop systems strongly robustly stable with strictly passive for

Li Guifang; Sun Yongcheng; Li Huiying; Yang Chengwu

2005-01-01

323

Electromechanical Delay of the Knee Flexor Muscles Is Impaired After Harvesting Hamstring Tendons for Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Changes in electromechanical delay during muscle activation are expected when there are substantial alterations in the structural properties of the musculotendinous tissue. In anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction, specific tendons are being harvested for grafts. Thus, there is an associated scar tissue development at the tendon that may affect the corresponding electromechanical delay.Purpose: This study was conducted to investigate whether

Stavros Ristanis; Elias Tsepis; Dimitrios Giotis; Nicholas Stergiou; Guiliano Cerulli; Anastasios D. Georgoulis

2009-01-01

324

Cosmological bounds on tachyonic neutrinos  

E-print Network

Recent time-of-flight measurements on muon neutrinos in the OPERA neutrino oscillation experiment have found anomalously short times compared to the light travel-times, corresponding to a superluminal velocity, $v-1=2.37\\pm0.32\\times 10^{-5}$ in units where $c=1$. We show that cosmological bounds rule out an explanation involving a Lorentz invariant tachyonic neutrino. At the OPERA energy scale, nucleosynthesis constraints imply $v-1<0.86\\times 10^{-12}$ and the Cosmic Microwave Background observations imply $v-1<7.1\\times 10^{-23}$. The CMB limit on the velocity of a tachyon with an energy of 10 MeV is stronger than the SN1987A limit. Superluminal neutrinos that could be observed at particle accelerator energy scales would have to be associated with Lorentz symmetry violation.

P. C. W. Davies; Ian G. Moss

2012-01-16

325

Separate valuation subsystems for delay and effort decision costs.  

PubMed

Decision making consists of choosing among available options on the basis of a valuation of their potential costs and benefits. Most theoretical models of decision making in behavioral economics, psychology, and computer science propose that the desirability of outcomes expected from alternative options can be quantified by utility functions. These utility functions allow a decision maker to assign subjective values to each option under consideration by weighting the likely benefits and costs resulting from an action and to select the one with the highest subjective value. Here, we used model-based neuroimaging to test whether the human brain uses separate valuation systems for rewards (erotic stimuli) associated with different types of costs, namely, delay and effort. We show that humans devalue rewards associated with physical effort in a strikingly similar fashion to those they devalue that are associated with delays, and that a single computational model derived from economics theory can account for the behavior observed in both delay discounting and effort discounting. However, our neuroimaging data reveal that the human brain uses distinct valuation subsystems for different types of costs, reflecting in opposite fashion delayed reward and future energetic expenses. The ventral striatum and the ventromedial prefrontal cortex represent the increasing subjective value of delayed rewards, whereas a distinct network, composed of the anterior cingulate cortex and the anterior insula, represent the decreasing value of the effortful option, coding the expected expense of energy. Together, these data demonstrate that the valuation processes underlying different types of costs can be fractionated at the cerebral level. PMID:20962229

Prvost, Charlotte; Pessiglione, Mathias; Mtreau, Elise; Clry-Melin, Marie-Laure; Dreher, Jean-Claude

2010-10-20

326

Time-Variation in Expected Returns  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article characterizes the stochastic behavior of expected retu rns on common stocks. The authors assume market efficiency and postulate an autoregressive process for conditional expected returns. They use weekly returns of ten size-based portfolios over the 1962-8 5 period and find that (1) the variation through time in expected returns is well characterized by a stationary first-order autoregression process;

Jennifer Conrad; Gautam Kaul

1988-01-01

327

ExpectancyValue Theory of Achievement Motivation  

Microsoft Academic Search

We discuss the expectancyvalue theory of motivation, focusing on an expectancyvalue model developed and researched by Eccles, Wigfield, and their colleagues. Definitions of crucial constructs in the model, including ability beliefs, expectancies for success, and the components of subjective task values, are provided. These definitions are compared to those of related constructs, including self-efficacy, intrinsic and extrinsic motivation, and interest.

Allan Wigfield; Jacquelynne S. Eccles

2000-01-01

328

Predictability is necessary for closed-loop visual feedback delay adaptation.  

PubMed

In case of delayed visual feedback during visuomotor tasks, like in some sluggish computer games, humans can modulate their behavior to compensate for the delay. However, opinions on the nature of this compensation diverge. Some studies suggest that humans adapt to feedback delays with lasting changes in motor behavior (aftereffects) and a recalibration of time perception. Other studies have shown little or no evidence for such semipermanent recalibration in the temporal domain. We hypothesize that predictability of the reference signal (target to be tracked) is necessary for semipermanent delay adaptation. To test this hypothesis, we trained participants with a 200 ms visual feedback delay in a visually guided manual tracking task, varying the predictability of the reference signal between conditions, but keeping reference motion and feedback delay constant. In Experiment 1, we focused on motor behavior. Only training in the predictable condition brings about all of the adaptive changes and aftereffects expected from delay adaptation. In Experiment 2, we used a synchronization task to investigate perceived simultaneity (perceptuomotor learning). Supporting the hypothesis, participants recalibrated subjective visuomotor simultaneity only when trained in the predictable condition. Such a shift in perceived simultaneity was also observed in Experiment 3, using an interval estimation task. These results show that delay adaptation in motor control can modulate the perceived temporal alignment of vision and kinesthetically sensed movement. The coadaptation of motor prediction and target prediction (reference extrapolation) seems necessary for such genuine delay adaptation. This offers an explanation for divergent results in the literature. PMID:24599942

Rohde, Marieke; van Dam, Loes C J; Ernst, Marc O

2014-01-01

329

Choice, changing over, and reinforcement delays.  

PubMed Central

In three experiments, pigeons were used to examine the independent effects of two normally confounded delays to reinforcement associated with changing between concurrently available variable-interval schedules of reinforcement. In Experiments 1 and 2, combinations of changeover-delay durations and fixed-interval travel requirements were arranged in a changeover-key procedure. The delay from a changeover-produced stimulus change to a reinforcer was varied while the delay between the last response on one alternative and a reinforcer on the other (the total obtained delay) was held constant. Changeover rates decreased as a negative power function of the total obtained delay. The delay between a changeover-produced stimulus change had a small and inconsistent effect on changeover rates. In Experiment 3, changeover delays and fixed-interval travel requirements were arranged independently. Changeover rates decreased as a negative power function of the total obtained delay despite variations in the delay from a change in stimulus conditions to a reinforcer. Periods of high-rate responding following a changeover, however, were higher near the end of the delay from a change in stimulus conditions to a reinforcer. The results of these experiments suggest that the effects of changeover delays and travel requirements primarily result from changes in the delay between a response at one alternative and a reinforcer at the other, but the pattern of responding immediately after a changeover depends on the delay from a changeover-produced change in stimulus conditions to a reinforcer. PMID:11218228

Shahan, T A; Lattal, K A

2000-01-01

330

Effect of magnetic fields on bound localized electron states  

E-print Network

An approximate analytic solution for the ground electron state are found to the Schroedinger equation for a combination of a uniform magnetic field and single attractive delta-potential. Effect of the magnetic field on this bound localized electron state is discussed. We show that above effect leads to appearing the probability current density in some region centered in the point of the delta-potential as well as to enlarging (for a number of physical models) the localization region of the electron in the plane perpendicular to the magnetic field. We are expected that these properties can be of importance for real quantum mechanical systems.

F. Kh. Chibirova; V. R. Khalilov

2004-07-01

331

A class of delayed renewal risk processes with a threshold dividend strategy  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper considers a class of delayed renewal risk processes with a threshold dividend strategy. The main result is an expression\\u000a of the Gerber-Shiu expected discounted penalty function in the delayed renewal risk model in terms of the corresponding Gerber-Shiu\\u000a function in the ordinary renewal model. Subsequently, this relationship is considered in more detail in both the stationary\\u000a renewal risk

Wu-yuan Jiang; Zai-ming Liu

2010-01-01

332

Delayed Neutron and Delayed Photon Characteristics from Photofission of Actinides  

SciTech Connect

Delayed neutron (DN) and delayed photon (DP) emissions from photofission reactions play an important role for applications involving nuclear material detection and characterization. To provide new, accurate, basic nuclear data for evaluations and data libraries, an experimental programme of DN and DP measurements has been undertaken for actinides with bremsstrahlung endpoint energy in the giant resonance region ({approx}15 MeV). In this paper, the experimental setup and the data analysis method will be described. Experimental results for DN and DP characteristics will be presented for {sup 232}Th, {sup 235,238}U, {sup 237}Np, and {sup 239}Pu. Finally, an example of an application to study the contents of nuclear waste packages will be briefly discussed.

Dore, D.; Berthoumieux, E.; Leprince, A.; Ridikas, D. [DSM/IRFUS/PhN, CEA/Saclay, Gif-sur-Yvette, F-91191 (France); Ledoux, X. [CEA/DAM/DIF, Arpajon, F-91297 (France); Agelou, M.; Carrel, F.; Gmar, M. [CEA, LIST, Gif-sur-Yvette, F-91191 (France)

2011-12-13

333

Chapter 5. Measurements of Expectations: The Maryland Physics Expectations (MPEX) Survey  

E-print Network

138 Chapter 5. Measurements of Expectations: The Maryland Physics Expectations (MPEX) Survey I. OVERVIEW A. What are Expectations? In chapter 2, several examples were used from the Physics Education or her own experiences, brings to the physics class a set of expectations about what sorts of things

Maryland at College Park, University of

334

Home Visitation Assessing Progress, Managing Expectations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Early intervention efforts to promote healthy child development have long been a central feature of social service and public health reforms. Today, prenatal care, well-baby visits, and assessments to detect possible developmental delays are commonplace in most communities. Recently, child abuse prevention advocates have applied a developmental

Daro, Deborah

2006-01-01

335

Upper bounds on superpartner masses from upper bounds on the Higgs boson mass.  

PubMed

The LHC is putting bounds on the Higgs boson mass. In this Letter we use those bounds to constrain the minimal supersymmetric standard model (MSSM) parameter space using the fact that, in supersymmetry, the Higgs mass is a function of the masses of sparticles, and therefore an upper bound on the Higgs mass translates into an upper bound for the masses for superpartners. We show that, although current bounds do not constrain the MSSM parameter space from above, once the Higgs mass bound improves big regions of this parameter space will be excluded, putting upper bounds on supersymmetry (SUSY) masses. On the other hand, for the case of split-SUSY we show that, for moderate or large tan?, the present bounds on the Higgs mass imply that the common mass for scalars cannot be greater than 10(11)??GeV. We show how these bounds will evolve as LHC continues to improve the limits on the Higgs mass. PMID:22324671

Cabrera, M E; Casas, J A; Delgado, A

2012-01-13

336

Delaying corn rootworm resistance to Bt corn.  

PubMed

Transgenic crops producing Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxins for insect control have been successful, but their efficacy is reduced when pests evolve resistance. To delay pest resistance to Bt crops, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has required refuges of host plants that do not produce Bt toxins to promote survival of susceptible pests. Such refuges are expected to be most effective if the Bt plants deliver a dose of toxin high enough to kill nearly all hybrid progeny produced by matings between resistant and susceptible pests. In 2003, the EPA first registered corn, Zea mays L., producing a Bt toxin (Cry3Bb1) that kills western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte, one of the most economically important crop pests in the United States. The EPA requires minimum refuges of 20% for Cry3Bb1 corn and 5% for corn producing two Bt toxins active against corn rootworms. We conclude that the current refuge requirements are not adequate, because Bt corn hybrids active against corn rootworms do not meet the high-dose standard, and western corn rootworm has rapidly evolved resistance to Cry3Bb1 corn in the laboratory, greenhouse, and field. Accordingly, we recommend increasing the minimum refuge for Bt corn targeting corn rootworms to 50% for plants producing one toxin active against these pests and to 20% for plants producing two toxins active against these pests. Increasing the minimum refuge percentage can help to delay pest resistance, encourage integrated pest management, and promote more sustainable crop protection. PMID:22812111

Tabashnik, Bruce E; Gould, Fred

2012-06-01

337

Dynamical Bounds for Sturmian Schrdinger Operators  

E-print Network

The Fibonacci Hamiltonian, that is a Schr\\"{o}dinger operator associated to a quasiperiodical sturmian potential with respect to the golden mean has been investigated intensively in recent years. Damanik and Tcheremchantsev developed a method and find a non trivial dynamical upper bound for this model. In this paper, we use this method to generalize to a large family of Sturmian operators dynamical upper bounds and show at sufficently large coupling anomalous transport for operators associated to irrational number with a generic diophantine condition. As a counter example, we exhibit a pathological irrational number which do not verify this condition and show its associated dynamic exponent only has ballistic bound. Moreover, we establish a global lower bound for the lower box counting dimension of the spectrum that is used to obtain a dynamical lower bound for bounded density irrational numbers.

L. Marin

2009-06-10

338

Mean square stability of uncertain stochastic BAM neural networks with interval time-varying delays.  

PubMed

The robust asymptotic stability analysis for uncertain BAM neural networks with both interval time-varying delays and stochastic disturbances is considered. By using the stochastic analysis approach, employing some free-weighting matrices and introducing an appropriate type of Lyapunov functional which takes into account the ranges for delays, some new stability criteria are established to guarantee the delayed BAM neural networks to be robustly asymptotically stable in the mean square. Unlike the most existing mean square stability conditions for BAM neural networks, the supplementary requirements that the time derivatives of time-varying delays must be smaller than 1 are released and the lower bounds of time varying delays are not restricted to be 0. Furthermore, in the proposed scheme, the stability conditions are delay-range-dependent and rate-dependent/independent. As a result, the new criteria are applicable to both fast and slow time-varying delays. Three numerical examples are given to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed criteria. PMID:24082964

Wu, Haixia; Liao, Xiaofeng; Feng, Wei; Guo, Songtao

2012-10-01

339

Antioxidant Activity of Albumin-Bound Bilirubin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bilirubin, when bound to human albumin and at concentrations present in normal human plasma, protects albumin-bound linoleic acid from peroxyl radical-induced oxidation in vitro. Initially, albumin-bound bilirubin (Alb-BR) is oxidized at the same rate as peroxyl radicals are formed and biliverdin is produced stoichiometrically as the oxidation product. On an equimolar basis, Alb-BR successfully competes with uric acid for peroxyl

Roland Stocker; Alexander N. Glazer; Bruce N. Ames

1987-01-01

340

Efficient Bounds for Point-Based Animations  

Microsoft Academic Search

We introduce a new and efficient approach for collision detection in point-based animations, based on the fast computation of tight surface bounds. Our approach is able to tightly bound a high-resolution surface with a cost linear in the number of simulation nodes, which is typically small. We extend concepts about bounds of convex sets to the point-based deformation setting, and

Denis Steinemann; Miguel A. Otaduy; Markus H. Gross

2007-01-01

341

Teaching Rational Expectations at 'A' Level.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explains the economic concept of Rational Expectations (RE) and demonstrates how it can be introduced to British 'A' level students. Illustrates the implications of RE for the Cobweb and Augmented Phillips Curve market models. Outlines some attractions and limitations of rational expectations. (Author/DH)

Beachill, Bob

1987-01-01

342

Expectations of Vocational Teachers for Handicapped Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study examined three components of the initial expectations of 66 secondary vocational teachers toward mainstreamed educable mentally retarded and learning disabled children. Among findings was that presence of the labels lowered the initial academic and behavioral expectations of teachers in the sample. (SB)

Minner, Sam

1982-01-01

343

Framing expectations in early HIV cure research  

PubMed Central

Language used to describe clinical research represents a powerful opportunity to educate volunteers. In the case of HIV cure research there is an emerging need to manage expectations by using the term experiment. Cure experiments are proof-of-concept studies designed to evaluate novel paradigms to reduce persistent HIV-1 reservoirs, without any expectation of medical benefit. PMID:25280965

Dube, Karine; Henderson, Gail E.; Margolis, David M.

2014-01-01

344

Course Expectations and Career Management Skills  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Course completion and student satisfaction is likely to be influenced by how realistic the expectations of students are when they enroll. This report explores the idea that students' expectations would be more realistic if students have well developed career management competencies. Recent research argues that lack of information is not the

Kennedy, Marnie L.; Haines, Ben

2008-01-01

345

College students' dining expectations in Cyprus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose The primary purpose of the study is to investigate college students' dining expectations and define the factors that shape their dining choices. In addition, the study investigates whether gender, ethnic origin, prior food and beverage working experience, spending habits and dining frequency influence students' dining expectations. Design\\/methodology\\/approach A quantitative questionnaire was developed and randomly administered to college

Anastasios Zopiatis; Jovana Pribic

2007-01-01

346

Expectations of two-level telegraph noise  

E-print Network

We find expectation values of functions of time integrated two-level telegraph noise. Expectation values of this noise are evaluated under simple control pulses. Both the Gaussian limit and $1/f$ noise are considered. We apply the results to a specific superconducting quantum computing example, which illustrates the use of this technique for calculating error probabilities.

Jesse Fern

2006-11-02

347

LIFE EXPECTANCY IN ALZHEIMER'S DISEASE (AD)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Survival following a diagnosis of AD is important information for health planners, caregivers, patients, and their families. AD is associated with variable, but shortened life expectancy. Knowing the expected survival time may empower people with AD and their families, but clinicians currently have limited predictive information. A better knowledge about prognosis in patients affected by AD and related disorders should

O. Zanetti; S. B. Solerte; F. Cantoni

2009-01-01

348

The Expectant Reader in Theory and Practice.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Offers a method of using reader response theory that emphasizes the expectations about a text and how those expectations are fulfilled or deflated. Specifically, students read traditional fables, fairy tales, and parables, and compare them to contemporary works such as Kafka's "Metamorphosis" and Marquez's "The Very Old Man With Enormous Wings."

Fowler, Lois Josephs; McCormick, Kathleen

1986-01-01

349

Marijuana Primes, Marijuana Expectancies, and Arithmetic Efficiency*  

PubMed Central

Objective: Previous research has shown that primes associated with alcohol influence behavior consistent with specific alcohol expectancies. The present study examined whether exposure to marijuana-related primes and marijuana expectancies interact to produce similar effects. Specifically, the present study examined whether marijuana primes and marijuana expectancies regarding cognitive and behavioral impairment interact to influence performance on an arithmetic task. Method: Two independent samples (N = 260) of undergraduate students (both marijuana users and nonusers) first completed measures of marijuana-outcome expectancies associated with cognitive and behavioral impairment and with general negative effects (Sample 2). Later in the semester, participants were exposed to marijuana-related (or neutral) primes and then completed an arithmetic task. Results: Results from Sample 1 indicated that participants who were exposed to marijuana-themed magazine covers performed more poorly on the arithmetic task if they expected that marijuana would lead to cognitive and behavioral impairment. Results from Sample 2 indicated that, for marijuana users, cognitive and behavioral impairment expectancies, but not expectancies regarding general negative effects, similarly moderated arithmetic performance for participants exposed to marijuana-related words. Conclusions: Results support the hypothesis that the implicit activation of specific marijuana-outcome expectancies can influence cognitive processes. Implications for research on marijuana are discussed. PMID:19371490

Hicks, Joshua A.; Pedersen, Sarah L.; McCarthy, Denis M.; Friedman, Ronald S.

2009-01-01

350

What Respondents Really Expect from Researchers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article addresses the issue of falling response rates in telephone surveys. To better understand and maintain respondent goodwill, concepts of psychological contract and respondent expectations are introduced and explored. Results of the qualitative study show that respondent expectations are not only socially contingent but also

Kolar, Tomaz; Kolar, Iztok

2008-01-01

351

Grief Experiences and Expectance of Suicide  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Suicide is generally viewed as an unexpected cause of death. However, some suicides might be expected to a certain extent, which needs to be further studied. The relationships between expecting suicide, feeling understanding for the suicide, and later grief experiences were explored. In total, 142 bereaved participants completed the Grief

Wojtkowiak, Joanna; Wild, Verena; Egger, Jos

2012-01-01

352

Vent conditions for expected eruptions at Vesuvius  

Microsoft Academic Search

Determining consistent sets of vent conditions for next expected eruptions at Vesuvius is crucial for the simulation of the sub-aerial processes originating the volcanic hazard and the eruption impact. Here we refer to the expected eruptive scales and conditions defined in the frame of the EC Exploris project, and simulate the dynamics of magma ascent along the volcanic conduit for

Paolo Papale; Antonella Longo

2008-01-01

353

Framing expectations in early HIV cure research.  

PubMed

Language used to describe clinical research represents a powerful opportunity to educate volunteers. In the case of HIV cure research there is an emerging need to manage expectations by using the term 'experiment'. Cure experiments are proof-of-concept studies designed to evaluate novel paradigms to reduce persistent HIV-1 reservoirs, without any expectation of medical benefit. PMID:25280965

Dub, Karine; Henderson, Gail E; Margolis, David M

2014-10-01

354

Expectancy in mediational models of cocaine use  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several theoretical explanations of how expectancies may influence cocaine use were studied. Hypotheses from these approaches use trait (sensation seeking and social conformity), cognitive (expectancy), and state-like (depression and loneliness) constructs to explain cocaine use and its problem consequences. Constructs from these different approaches were compared as predictors of cocaine use among a community sample of adults. Results revealed that

Alan W. Stacy; Michael D. Newcomb; Peter M. Bentler

1995-01-01

355

On the Time Times Temperature Bound  

E-print Network

Recently Hod proposes a lower bound on the relaxation time of a perturbed thermodynamic system. For gravitational systems this bound transforms into a condition on the fundamental quasinormal frequency. We test the bound in some spacetimes whose quasinormal frequencies are calculated exactly, as the three-dimensional BTZ black hole, the D-dimensional de Sitter spacetime, and the D-dimensional Nariai spacetime. We find that for some of these spacetimes their fundamental quasinormal frequencies do not satisfy the bound proposed by Hod.

A. Lopez-Ortega

2010-06-28

356

Sharpening bounds on principal effects with covariates.  

PubMed

Estimation of treatment effects in randomized studies is often hampered by possible selection bias induced by conditioning on or adjusting for a variable measured post-randomization. One approach to obviate such selection bias is to consider inference about treatment effects within principal strata, that is, principal effects. A challenge with this approach is that without strong assumptions principal effects are not identifiable from the observable data. In settings where such assumptions are dubious, identifiable large sample bounds may be the preferred target of inference. In practice these bounds may be wide and not particularly informative. In this work we consider whether bounds on principal effects can be improved by adjusting for a categorical baseline covariate. Adjusted bounds are considered which are shown to never be wider than the unadjusted bounds. Necessary and sufficient conditions are given for which the adjusted bounds will be sharper (i.e., narrower) than the unadjusted bounds. The methods are illustrated using data from a recent, large study of interventions to prevent mother-to-child transmission of HIV through breastfeeding. Using a baseline covariate indicating low birth weight, the estimated adjusted bounds for the principal effect of interest are 63% narrower than the estimated unadjusted bounds. PMID:24245800

Long, Dustin M; Hudgens, Michael G

2013-12-01

357

Colour-octet bound states, induced by Higgs mechanism  

E-print Network

The current limits for fourth generation quarks allows to expect their mass of the order of 500 GeV. In this mass region for quark-anti-quark pair the additional Yukawa-type attraction due to Higgs mechanism is expected to emerge. This Higgs induced attraction greatly exceeds strong interaction between quarks and leads to the formation of bound states in both colour octet $S^{(8)}$ and singlet $S^{(1)}$ states. In the key of recent works on significance of colour octet channel for production of colour singlet state of fourth generation $Q\\bar{Q}$ we calculated the binding energies for both octet and singlet states. Such attraction localizes quarks in extremely small area. Hence colour octet pair of fourth generation quarks can form the "nucleus" and together with colour neutralizing light particle that is captured by strong interaction in orbit around the nucleus, create particle, similar by its structure to Deuterium.

Bladwell, S; Flambaum, V V; Kozlov, A

2012-01-01

358

?-delayed fission of 180Tl  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The detailed analysis of the ?-delayed fission data of 180Tl is presented. The experiment was performed by producing a pure beam of 180Tl by means of highly selective resonance laser ionization followed by mass separation with the ISOLDE (CERN, Geneva) isotope separator. A surprising asymmetric mass distribution of fission fragments from 180Hg, the daughter of 180Tl ? decays, was observed. Here, the energy calibration of the silicon detectors, which is crucial for a proper determination of the fission fragments energy and mass split, is presented and the total kinetic energy and its dependence on the mass split ratio is discussed. A more precise ?-delayed fission probability P?DF(180Tl)=3.2(2)10-3% was deduced.

Elseviers, J.; Andreyev, A. N.; Huyse, M.; Van Duppen, P.; Antalic, S.; Barzakh, A.; Bree, N.; Cocolios, T. E.; Comas, V. F.; Diriken, J.; Fedorov, D.; Fedosseev, V. N.; Franchoo, S.; Ghys, L.; Heredia, J. A.; Ivanov, O.; Kster, U.; Marsh, B. A.; Nishio, K.; Page, R. D.; Patronis, N.; Seliverstov, M. D.; Tsekhanovich, I.; Van den Bergh, P.; Van De Walle, J.; Venhart, M.; Vermote, S.; Veselsk, M.; Wagemans, C.

2013-10-01

359

Sliding mode control experiments of uncertain dynamical systems with time delay  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This article presents the simulation and experimental studies for the nonlinear time-delayed dynamical systems with uncertainties. A rotary flexible joint made by Quanser is chosen as the model system to investigate the method for sliding mode control design. We considered the geometric nonlinearity of the flexible joint consisting of two linear springs. The system is assumed to have constant delay time and uncertain parameters with known upper and lower bounds. We also design an optimal sliding surface for the sliding mode control. Simulations and experiments are carried out to demonstrate the utility of the control method. Finally, the results from the simulations and experiments are in excellent agreement.

Qin, Zhi-Chang; Zhong, Shun; Sun, Jian-Qiao

2013-12-01

360

Stochastic sampled-data control for state estimation of time-varying delayed neural networks.  

PubMed

This study examines the state estimation problem for neural networks with a time-varying delay. Unlike other studies, the sampled-data with stochastic sampling is used to design the state estimator using a novel approach that divides the bounding of the activation function into two subintervals. To fully use the sawtooth structure characteristics of the sampling input delay, a discontinuous Lyapunov functional is proposed based on the extended Wirtinger inequality. The desired estimator gain can be characterized in terms of the solution to linear matrix inequalities (LMIs). Finally, the proposed method is applied to two numerical examples to show the effectiveness of our result. PMID:23727440

Lee, Tae H; Park, Ju H; Kwon, O M; Lee, S M

2013-10-01

361

Distributed traffic regulation and delay guarantees with a centralized controller in WDM passive optical networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We address the problem of providing delay guarantees for virtual circuits comprising variable-length packets in wavelength-division multiplexing (WDM) passive optical networks. A centralized controller is used for regulating and scheduling traffic from multiple client nodes. A round-robin earliest available time-scheduling algorithm is used for scheduling packet transmission. An analytical model for delay bounding is provided by use of filtering theory under (max,+) algebra. Shift-varying filtering theory under (max,+) algebra is introduced for time-dependent traffic models.

Karumanchi, Ashok; Varadarajan, Sridhar; Talabattula, Srinivas

2003-07-01

362

Local Effects of Delayed Food  

Microsoft Academic Search

Five pigeons were trained on a procedure in which seven concurrent variable-interval schedules arranged seven different food-rate ratios in random sequence in each session. Each of these components lasted for 10 response-produced food deliveries, and components were separated by 10-s blackouts. We varied delays to food (signaled by blackout) between the two response alternatives in an experiment with three phases:

Michael Davison; WILLIAM M. BAUM

2007-01-01

363

Court delays and crime deterrence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using Italian data in the period 19992002, we estimate the impact of trial delays on the willingness to commit crimes against\\u000a property. However, the endogenous relationship that links the former to the latter could generate serious problems of inconsistency\\u000a in the estimation procedure. Since geographical distance can be considered an exogenous determinant of the probability of\\u000a belonging to peripheral courts,

Lucia Dalla Pellegrina

2008-01-01

364

Teriparatide Induced Delayed Persistent Hypercalcemia  

PubMed Central

Teriparatide, a recombinant PTH, is an anabolic treatment for osteoporosis that increases bone density. Transient hypercalcemia is a reported side effect of teriparatide that is seen few hours following administration of teriparatide and resolves usually within 16 hours of drug administration. Persistent hypercalcemia, although not observed in clinical trials, is rarely reported. The current case describes a rare complication of teriparatide induced delayed persistent hypercalcemia.

Thiruchelvam, Nirosshan; Randhawa, Jaskirat; Sadiek, Happy; Kistangari, Gaurav

2014-01-01

365

Conditional Bounds on Polarization Transfer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The implications of constraints on unitary transformations of spin operators with respect to the accessible regions of Liouville space are analyzed. Specifically, the effects of spin-permutation symmetry on the unitary propagators are investigated. The influence of S2 and S3 propagator symmetry on two-dimensional bounds for F z = ? Ni=1 I iz ? G z = ? Mj=1 S jz polarization transfer in IS and I 2S spin- {1}/{2} systems is examined in detail. One result is that the maximum achievable F z ? G z polarization transfer is not reduced by permutation symmetry among the spins. For I 2S spin systems, S3 symmetry in the unitary propagator is shown to significantly reduce the accessible region in the 2D F z-S z Liouville subspace compared to the case restricted by unitarity alone. That result is compared with transformations under symmetric dipolar and scalar J coupling as well as shift and RF interactions. An important practical implication is that the refined spin thermodynamic theory of Levitt, Suter, and Ernst ( J. Chem. Phys.84, 4243, 1986) for cross polarization in solid-state NMR does not predict experimental outcomes incompatible with constraints of unitarity and spin-permutation symmetry.

Nielsen, N. C.; Sorensen, O. W.

366

A quantum delayed choice experiment  

E-print Network

Quantum systems exhibit particle-like or wave-like behaviour depending on the experimental apparatus they are confronted by. This wave-particle duality is at the heart of quantum mechanics, and is fully captured in Wheeler's famous delayed choice gedanken experiment. In this variant of the double slit experiment, the observer chooses to test either the particle or wave nature of a photon after it has passed through the slits. Here we report on a quantum delayed choice experiment, based on a quantum controlled beam-splitter, in which both particle and wave behaviours can be investigated simultaneously. The genuinely quantum nature of the photon's behaviour is tested via a Bell inequality, which here replaces the delayed choice of the observer. We observe strong Bell inequality violations, thus showing that no model in which the photon knows in advance what type of experiment it will be confronted by, hence behaving either as a particle or as wave, can account for the experimental data.

Alberto Peruzzo; Peter J. Shadbolt; Nicolas Brunner; Sandu Popescu; Jeremy L. O'Brien

2012-05-22

367

Delayed recombination and standard rulers  

SciTech Connect

Measurements of baryonic acoustic oscillations (BAOs) in galaxy surveys have been recognized as a powerful tool for constraining dark energy. However, this method relies on the knowledge of the size of the acoustic horizon at recombination derived from cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropy measurements. This estimate is typically derived assuming a standard recombination scheme; additional radiation sources can delay recombination altering the cosmic ionization history and the cosmological inferences drawn from CMB and BAO data. In this paper we quantify the effect of delayed recombination on the determination of dark energy parameters from future BAO surveys such as the Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey and the Wide-Field Multi-Object Spectrograph. We find the impact to be small but still not negligible. In particular, if recombination is nonstandard (to a level still allowed by CMB data), but this is ignored, future surveys may incorrectly suggest the presence of a redshift-dependent dark energy component. On the other hand, in the case of delayed recombination, adding to the analysis one extra parameter describing deviations from standard recombination does not significantly degrade the error bars on dark energy parameters and yields unbiased estimates. This is due to the CMB-BAO complementarity.

De Bernardis, Francesco; Melchiorri, Alessandro [Universita' di Roma 'La Sapienza', Ple Aldo Moro 2, 00185, Rome (Italy); Bean, Rachel [Department of Astronomy, Space Sciences Building, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853 (United States); Galli, Silvia [Universita di Roma 'La Sapienza', Ple Aldo Moro 2, 00185, Rome (Italy); Laboratoire Astroparticule et Cosmologie (APC), Universite Paris Diderot, 75205 Paris cedex 13 (France); Silk, Joseph I. [Astrophysics, Denys Wilkinson Building, University of Oxford, Keble Road, OX1 3RH, Oxford (United Kingdom); Verde, Licia [Institute of Space Sciences (IEEC-CSIC), Facultat Ciencies, Campus UAB, Bellaterra (Spain)

2009-02-15

368

49 CFR 236.563 - Delay time.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...REPAIR OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Automatic Train Stop, Train Control and Cab Signal Systems Rules...Delay time. Delay time of automatic train stop or train control system shall not exceed 8...

2010-10-01

369

Network coding for delay challenged environments  

E-print Network

Delay is a fundamental problem of data communication and networks, a problem that is not usually addressed in classical coding, information or networking theory. We focus on the general problem of delay challenged networks. ...

Lucani, Daniel Enrique

2010-01-01

370

Omission of expected reward agitates Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar).  

PubMed

The evolutionary background for cognition and awareness is currently under ardent scrutiny. Poikilothermic vertebrates such as teleost fishes are capable of classical conditioning and have long-term memories, but it remains unknown to what degree such capabilities are associated with affective states. Here, we investigate whether the concept of frustration may apply to Atlantic salmon. In mammals, this paradigm comprises the omission of an expected reward (OER), which elicits behavioural and physiological coping responses (e.g. aggression and stress reactions). Six groups with 200 fish in each were conditioned to associate a flashing light (CS) with feeding. Conditioning over 22 days led to a change from aversion to attraction to the CS. Subsequently, 3 groups served as control, and 3 groups were subjected to an OER paradigm for 9 days, in which the expected food reward was delayed for 30 min during two out of three daily meals. Compared to controls, OER groups displayed higher levels of aggression and more heterogeneous growth rates, indicating a more pronounced social hierarchy. Cortisol levels did, however, not differ between treatments and both groups responded similarly to acute stress. These results indicate that teleost fishes, like mammals, respond aggressively to OER. The capacity to respond behaviourally to frustrating conditions thus likely reflects an adaptive response to environmental unpredictability, which has been conserved throughout vertebrate evolution. PMID:22622814

Vindas, Marco A; Folkedal, Ole; Kristiansen, Tore S; Stien, Lars H; Braastad, Bjarne O; Mayer, Ian; verli, yvind

2012-09-01

371

Pancreaticoduodenectomy: expected post-operative anatomy and complications.  

PubMed

Pancreaticoduodenectomy is a complex, high-risk surgical procedure performed for tumours of the pancreatic head and other periampullary structures. The rate of perioperative mortality has decreased in the past number of years but perioperative morbidity remains high. This pictorial review illustrates expected findings in early and late post-operative periods, including mimickers of pathology. It aims to familiarize radiologists with the imaging appearances of common and unusual post-operative complications. These are classified into early non-vascular complications such as delayed gastric emptying, post-operative collections, pancreatic fistulae and bilomas; late non-vascular complications, for example, biliary strictures and hepatic abscesses; and vascular complications including haemorrhage and ischaemia. Options for minimally invasive image-guided management of vascular and non-vascular complications are discussed. Familiarity with normal anatomic findings is essential in order to distinguish expected post-operative change from surgical complications or recurrent disease. This review summarizes the normal and abnormal radiological findings following pancreaticoduodenectomy. PMID:25026968

McEvoy, S H; Lavelle, L P; Hoare, S M; O'Neill, A C; Awan, F N; Malone, D E; Ryan, E R; McCann, J W; Heffernan, E J

2014-09-01

372

Delayed q-deformed logistic map  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The delay logistic map with two types of q-deformations: Tsallis and Quantum-group type are studied. The stability of the logistic map and its bifurcation scheme is analyzed as a function of the deformation and delay parameters. Chaos is suppressed in a certain region of deformation and delay parameter space. By introducing delay, the steady state in one type of deformation is maintained while chaotic behavior is recovered in another type.

Shrimali, Manish Dev; Banerjee, Subhashish

2013-11-01

373

Generic bounds on dipolar gravitational radiation from inspiralling compact binaries  

E-print Network

Various alternative theories of gravity predict dipolar gravitational radiation in addition to quadrupolar radiation. We show that gravitational wave (GW) observations of inspiralling compact binaries can put interesting constraints on the strengths of the dipole modes of GW polarizations. We put forward a physically motivated gravitational waveform for dipole modes, in the Fourier domain, in terms of two parameters: one which captures the relative amplitude of the dipole mode with respect to the quadrupole mode ($\\alpha$) and the other a dipole term in the phase ($\\beta$). We then use this two parameter representation to discuss typical bounds on their values using GW measurements. We obtain the expected bounds on the amplitude parameter $\\alpha$ and the phase parameter $\\beta$ for Advanced LIGO (AdvLIGO) and Einstein Telescope (ET) noise power spectral densities using Fisher information matrix. AdvLIGO and ET may at best bound $\\alpha$ to an accuracy of $\\sim10^{-2}$ and $\\sim10^{-3}$ and $\\beta$ to an accuracy of $\\sim10^{-5}$ and $\\sim10^{-6}$ respectively.

K. G. Arun

2012-02-27

374

Bounds on Invisible Higgs Boson Decays Extracted from LHC tt[over ]H Production Data.  

PubMed

We present an upper bound on the branching fraction of the Higgs boson to invisible particles by recasting a CMS Collaboration search for stop quarks decaying to tt[over ]+E_{T}^{miss}. The observed (expected) bound, BF(H?inv.)<0.40(0.65) at 95%C.L., is the strongest direct limit to date, benefiting from a downward fluctuation in the CMS data in that channel. In addition, we combine this new constraint with existing published constraints to give an observed (expected) bound of BF(H?inv.)<0.40(0.40) at 95%C.L., and we show some of the implications for theories of dark matter which communicate through the Higgs portal. PMID:25375702

Zhou, Ning; Khechadoorian, Zepyoor; Whiteson, Daniel; Tait, Tim M P

2014-10-10

375

Bounds on Invisible Higgs Boson Decays Extracted from LHC ttH Production Data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present an upper bound on the branching fraction of the Higgs boson to invisible particles by recasting a CMS Collaboration search for stop quarks decaying to tt+ETmiss. The observed (expected) bound, BF(H?inv.)<0.40(0.65) at 95% C.L., is the strongest direct limit to date, benefiting from a downward fluctuation in the CMS data in that channel. In addition, we combine this new constraint with existing published constraints to give an observed (expected) bound of BF(H?inv.)<0.40(0.40) at 95% C.L., and we show some of the implications for theories of dark matter which communicate through the Higgs portal.

Zhou, Ning; Khechadoorian, Zepyoor; Whiteson, Daniel; Tait, Tim M. P.

2014-10-01

376

Buffer insertion for noise and delay optimization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Buffer insertion has successfully been applied to reduce delay in global interconnect paths; however, existing techniques only optimize delay and timing slack. With the increasing ratio of coupling to total capacitance and the use of aggressive dynamic logic circuit families, noise is becoming a major design bottleneck. We present comprehensive buffer insertion techniques for noise and delay optimization. Our experiments

Charles J. Alpert; Anirudh Devgan; Stephen T. Quay

1998-01-01

377

Contingency Tracking during Unsignaled Delayed Reinforcement  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Three experiments were conducted with rats in which responses on one lever (labeled the functional lever) produced reinforcers after an unsignaled delay period that reset with each response during the delay. Responses on a second, nonfunctional, lever did not initiate delays, but, in the first and third experiments, such responses during the last

Keely, Josue; Feola, Tyler; Lattal, Kennon A.

2007-01-01

378

Academic Delay of Gratification and Academic Achievement  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The ability to delay gratification is the cornerstone of all academic achievement and education. It is by delaying gratification that learners can pursue long-term academic and career goals. In general, "delay of gratification" refers to an individual's ability to forgo immediate rewards for the sake of more valuable ones later (Mischel, 1996).

Bembenutty, Hefer

2011-01-01

379

Access network delay in networked games  

Microsoft Academic Search

The end-to-end delay (also referred to as latency) experienced by gaming users has a significant impact on the quality of online games. In this paper we concentrate on the delay introduced in access networks. This access network delay depends on the access technology used, the network load, the link rate configured on the access links (also referred to as the

Tom Jehaes; Danny De Vleeschauwer; Toon Coppens; Bart Van Doorselaer; Eva Deckers; W. Naudts; K. Spruyt; R. Smets

2003-01-01

380

On Multiple UAV Routing with Stochastic Targets: Performance Bounds and Algorithms  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we consider the following problem. A number of Uninhabited Aerial Vehicles (UAVs), modeled as vehicles moving at constant speed along paths of bounded curvature, must visit stochastically-generated targets in a convex, compact region of the plane. Targets are generated according to a spatio-temporal Poisson process, uniformly in the region. It is desired to minimize the expected waiting

J. J. Enright; E. Frazzoli

2005-01-01

381

Maximum-likelihood estimation under bound restriction and order and uniform bound restrictions  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper studies the maximization of a function over a closed convex set and applies the result to bound restricted, order and uniform bound restricted MLE problems. The dominance of restricted MLE over some other estimators is also discussed.

Xiaomi Hu

1997-01-01

382

Intro Accuracy Theory Bounds CAM1 Bounds2 CAM2 Extensions Conclusions Mini-Minimax Uncertainty of Emulators  

E-print Network

Intro Accuracy Theory Bounds CAM1 Bounds2 CAM2 Extensions Conclusions Mini-Minimax Uncertainty Luxembourg 9 July 2013 #12;Intro Accuracy Theory Bounds CAM1 Bounds2 CAM2 Extensions Conclusions Why Uncertainty Quantification Matters ?? James Bashford / AP #12;Intro Accuracy Theory Bounds CAM1 Bounds2 CAM2

Stark, Philip B.

383

MARTINGALES AND SHARP BOUNDS FOR FOURIER ...  

E-print Network

upper bounds, and especially those obtained in recent years, are also lower bounds, hereby enlarging the class of ... where the predictable sequence v takes values in [0, 1] instead of [?1, 1]. ..... where the so-called spectral measure ? is finite and non-zero on S. By the appropriate choice of ? and ..... ||SAf||p ? Cp,b,B|

2011-09-22

384

Bounds on double-diffusive convection  

Microsoft Academic Search

enard convection also serves as a bound on the double-diffusive problem (with the thermal Rayleigh number equal to that of the unstably stratified component). In order to incorporate a dependence of the bound on the stably stratified component, an additional constraint must be included, like that used by Joseph (Stability of Fluid Motion, 1976, Springer) to improve the energy stability

EIL J. B ALMFORTH; SHILPA A. G HADGE

2006-01-01

385

Outward Bound: An Innovative Patient Education Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A 1975 Dartmouth Outward Bound Mental Health Project, begun with a pilot project for disturbed adolescents, has evolved into an ongoing treatment option in three separate clinical settings for psychiatric patients and recovering alcoholics. Outward Bound consists of a series of prescribed physical and social tasks where the presence of stress,

Stich, Thomas F.; Gaylor, Michael S.

386

Semidefinite code bounds based on quadruple distances  

E-print Network

The approach outlined above of course suggests a hierarchy of upper bounds by ... and design theory, as we give new upper bounds for codes and show that the quadruply .... display these values in the table, and we do not need to solve the...

2010-05-20

387

Original Article Error Bounds and Metric Subregularity  

E-print Network

theory of error bounds of extended real-valued functions. .... relationships lead to a simple hierarchy of the error bound and metric subregularity criteria. ..... apply the criteria in Corollaries 2.3 and 2.4, one needs to compute the slopes of.

2014-06-18

388

Mean Shift Is a Bound Optimization  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT We build on the current understanding of mean shift as an optimization procedure We demonstrate that in the case of piecewise constant kernels mean shift is equivalent to Newton's method Further, we prove that for all kernels the mean shift procedure is a quadratic bound maximization INDEX TERMS Mean shift, bound optimization, Newton's method, adaptive gradient descent, mode seeking

Mark Fashing; Carlo Tomasi

2005-01-01

389

Spectral Bounds on General Hard Core Predicates ?  

E-print Network

of functions computable in AC 0 . The above bound on sensitivity is obtained by (lower) bounding the high order(x). A hard core predicate, though a basic primitive, has remarkably potency: { If f is a permutation, a hard of Goldmann and Naslund [2] shows that they cannot, in general, be computed in AC 0 . We strengthen

Russell, Alexander

390

Efficient Tracking with the Bounded Hough Transform  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Bounded Hough Transform is introduced to track objects in a sequence of sparse range images. The method is based upon a variation of the General Hough Transform that exploits the coherence across image frames that results from the relationship between known bounds on the object's velocity and the sensor frame rate. It is extremely efficient, running in O(N) for

Michael A. Greenspan; Limin Shang; Piotr Jasiobedzki

2004-01-01

391

Strict Lower Bounds for Model Checking BPA  

E-print Network

Strict Lower Bounds for Model Checking BPA Richard Mayr Institut f¨ur Informatik, Technische lower bounds for the complexity of several model checking problems for BPA and branching­time logics Algebra (BPA) processes were defined by Bergstra and Klop in [BK85]. They are transition systems

?ayr, Richard

392

New bounds on isotropic Lorentz violation  

SciTech Connect

Violations of Lorentz invariance that appear via operators of dimension four or less are completely parameterized in the Standard Model Extension (SME). In the pure photonic sector of the SME, there are nineteen dimensionless, Lorentz-violating parameters. Eighteen of these have experimental upper bounds ranging between 10{sup -11} and 10{sup -32}; the remaining parameter, ktr, is isotropic and has a much weaker bound of order 10{sup -4}. In this Brief Report, we point out that ktr gives a significant contribution to the anomalous magnetic moment of the electron and find a new upper bound of order 10{sup -8}. With reasonable assumptions, we further show that this bound may be improved to 10{sup -14} by considering the renormalization of other Lorentz-violating parameters that are more tightly constrained. Using similar renormalization arguments, we also estimate bounds on Lorentz violating parameters in the pure gluonic sector of QCD.

Chris Carone; Marc Sher; Marc Vanderhaeghen

2006-09-19

393

Entropy Bounds for Hierarchical Molecular Networks  

PubMed Central

In this paper we derive entropy bounds for hierarchical networks. More precisely, starting from a recently introduced measure to determine the topological entropy of non-hierarchical networks, we provide bounds for estimating the entropy of hierarchical graphs. Apart from bounds to estimate the entropy of a single hierarchical graph, we see that the derived bounds can also be used for characterizing graph classes. Our contribution is an important extension to previous results about the entropy of non-hierarchical networks because for practical applications hierarchical networks are playing an important role in chemistry and biology. In addition to the derivation of the entropy bounds, we provide a numerical analysis for two special graph classes, rooted trees and generalized trees, and demonstrate hereby not only the computational feasibility of our method but also learn about its characteristics and interpretability with respect to data analysis. PMID:18769487

Dehmer, Matthias; Borgert, Stephan; Emmert-Streib, Frank

2008-01-01

394

Mutually unbiased bases and bound entanglement  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this contribution we relate two different key concepts: mutually unbiased bases (MUBs) and entanglement. We provide a general toolbox for analyzing and comparing entanglement of quantum states for different dimensions and numbers of particles. In particular we focus on bound entanglement, i.e. highly mixed states which cannot be distilled by local operations and classical communications. For a certain class of statesfor which the state-space forms a magic simplexwe analyze the set of bound entangled states detected by the MUB criterion for different dimensions d and number of particles n. We find that the geometry is similar for different d and n, consequently the MUB criterion opens possibilities to investigate the typicality of positivity under partial transposition (PPT)-bound and multipartite bound entanglement more deeply and provides a simple experimentally feasible tool to detect bound entanglement.

Hiesmayr, Beatrix C.; Lffler, Wolfgang

2014-04-01

395

An interval branch and bound algorithm for bound constrained optimization problems  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we propose modifications to a prototypical branch and bound algorithm for nonlinear optimization so that the algorithm efficiently handles constrained problems with constant bound constraints. The modifications involve treating subregions of the boundary identically to interior regions during the branch and bound process, but using reduced gradients for the interval Newton method. The modifications also involve preconditioners

R. Baker Kearfott

1992-01-01

396

A branch and bound algorithm for bound constrained optimization problems without derivatives  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we give a new branch and bound algorithm for the global optimization problem with bound constraints. The algorithm is based on the use of inclusion functions. The bounds calculated for the global minimum value are proved to be correct, all rounding errors are rigorously estimated. Our scheme attempts to exclude most uninteresting parts of the search domain

Christian Jansson; Olaf Knppel

1995-01-01

397

An upper bound algorithm for limit and shakedown analysis of bounded linearly kinematic hardening structures  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper develops a new FEM based algorithm for shakedown analysis of structures made of elastic plastic bounded linearly kinematic hardening material. The hardening effect is simulated by using a two-surface plastic model to bound the Melan-Prager model. The initial yield surface can translate inside the bounding surface, without changing its shape and size. The translated yield surface may touch

Phu Tinh Phm; Manfred Staat

2013-01-01

398

STUDENT EXPECTATIONS FOR RESIDENCE PROGRAMS January 2013  

E-print Network

comments, and other offensive language or behavior are not acceptable; d. Bullying, in any form or to any expect that the student will treat this experience as a an academic one in a school environment

Ellis, Randy

399

Rational Expectations Model of Financial Contagion.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

We develop a multiple asset rational expectations model of securities prices to explain the determinants of nancial market contagion. Our primary focus is on con- tagion through the cross-market hedging (rebalancing) of shared macroeconomic risks. Through...

L. E. Kodres, M. Pritsker

1999-01-01

400

What to Expect during Heart Surgery  

MedlinePLUS

... the NHLBI on Twitter. What To Expect During Heart Surgery Heart surgery is done in a hospital, ... surgery, takes about 36 hours. Traditional Open-Heart Surgery For this type of surgery, you'll ...

401

Suggestibility and Expectancy in a Counseling Analogue  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The data indicated that (a) subjectively experienced suggestibility was more closely related to attitude change than was objective suggestibility, and (b) the generalized expectancy treatments were ineffective in influencing different criterion scores. (Author)

Kaul, Theodore J.; Parker, Clyde A.

1971-01-01

402

Brain MRI Classification using the Expectation Maximization  

E-print Network

Brain MRI Classification using the Expectation Maximization made a brain magnetic resonance image (MRI) classification algorithm that uses a twostage applied to a set of normal brain MR images for further testing. We accomplished a working

Chen, Tsuhan

403

FACULTY EXPECTATIONS: COLLEGE OF ARTS & SCIENCES  

E-print Network

arts and sciences education. For CAS faculty in their capacity as teachers education and the liberal arts should also inform research and scholarship 1 FACULTY EXPECTATIONS: COLLEGE OF ARTS & SCIENCES DRAFT

Goldberg, Bennett

404

What to Expect After Heart Surgery  

MedlinePLUS

... the NHLBI on Twitter. What To Expect After Heart Surgery Recovery in the Hospital You may spend a ... care unit (ICU), depending on the type of heart surgery you have. An intravenous (IV) needle might be ...

405

Expectations of Secondary Science: Realisation and Retrospect.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses a series of interviews with students at the end of their first year of studying science in secondary schools. Compares and contrasts students' perceptions of reality with their expectations. (DDR)

Hawkey, Roy; Clay, John

1998-01-01

406

Women's attitudes and expectations regarding gynaecological examination  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectiveto describe women's expectations of doctors and nurses during gynaecological examination, to identify if women have a preference for the doctor's gender, to investigate women's feelings during examination, and to determine why women consult the gynaecological outpatient clinic.

Emre Yanikkerem; Meral zdemir; Hilal Bingol; Ay?e Tatar; Glten Karadeniz

2009-01-01

407

What to Expect Before a Heart Transplant  

MedlinePLUS

... on Twitter. What To Expect Before a Heart Transplant The Heart Transplant Waiting List Patients who are eligible for a ... cardiac rehab after the transplant. Contact With the Transplant Center During the Wait Patients on the waiting ...

408

An expectation model of referring expressions  

E-print Network

This thesis introduces EMRE, an expectation-based model of referring expressions. EMRE is proposed as a model of non-syntactic dependencies - in particular, discourse-level semantic dependencies that bridge sentence gaps. ...

Krmer, John, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2010-01-01

409

Classics in the Classroom: Great Expectations Fulfilled.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes how an English teacher in a Queens, New York, ghetto school introduced her grade nine students to Charles Dickens's "Great Expectations." Focuses on students' responses, which eventually became enthusiastic, and discusses the use of classics within the curriculum. (KH)

Pearl, Shela

1986-01-01

410

Expected Utility Distributions for Flexible, Contingent Execution  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper presents a method for using expected utility distributions in the execution of flexible, contingent plans. A utility distribution maps the possible start times of an action to the expected utility of the plan suffix starting with that action. The contingent plan encodes a tree of possible courses of action and includes flexible temporal constraints and resource constraints. When execution reaches a branch point, the eligible option with the highest expected utility at that point in time is selected. The utility distributions make this selection sensitive to the runtime context, yet still efficient. Our approach uses predictions of action duration uncertainty as well as expectations of resource usage and availability to determine when an action can execute and with what probability. Execution windows and probabilities inevitably change as execution proceeds, but such changes do not invalidate the cached utility distributions, thus, dynamic updating of utility information is minimized.

Bresina, John L.; Washington, Richard

2000-01-01

411

Delay-Independent Sliding Mode Control of Nonlinear Time-Delay Systems  

E-print Network

Delay-Independent Sliding Mode Control of Nonlinear Time-Delay Systems F. Hong, S. S. Ge, and T. H results are reported. In [5] and [6], the authors have studied a class of nonlinear time-delay systems. In this paper, we present a practical adaptive sliding mode control for a class of nonlinear time-delay systems

Ge, Shuzhi Sam

412

Delay estimation algorithm for nonlinear time-delay systems with unknown inputs  

E-print Network

Delay estimation algorithm for nonlinear time-delay systems with unknown inputs J.-P. Barbot G an essential alge- braic equation (which will be recalled in the next section) for nonlinear time delay systems for nonlinear time delay systems. Moreover, this algorithm is robust with respect to noise. This paper

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

413

ADHD and Delay Aversion: The Influence of Non-Temporal Stimulation on Choice for Delayed Rewards  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Delay aversion, the motivation to escape or avoid delay, results in preference for small immediate over large delayed rewards. Delay aversion has been proposed as one distinctive psychological process that may underlie the behavioural symptoms and cognitive deficits of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Furthermore, the

Antrop, Inge; Stock, Pieter; Verte, Sylvie; Wiersema, Jan Roelt; Baeyens, Dieter; Roeyers, Herbert

2006-01-01

414

Manipulation of Expectancies about Counseling and Psychotherapy: Review and Analysis of Expectancy Manipulation Strategies and Results.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews investigations attempting to manipulate clients' expectations for counseling or psychotherapy. Describes and evaluates six strategies used in attempting expectancy manipulation, none with significant success. Audiotaped and videotaped interventions proved most effective, verbal interactions ineffective, and printed documents of dubious

Tinsley, Howard E. A.; And Others

1988-01-01

415

Converting customer expectations into achievable results.  

PubMed

It is not enough in today's environment to just meet customers' expectations--we must exceed them. Therefore, one must learn what constitutes expectations. These needs have expanded during the past few years from just manufacturing the product and looking at the outcome from a provincial standpoint. Now we must understand and satisfy the entire supply chain. To manage this process and satisfy the customer, the process now involves the supplier, the manufacturer, and the entire distribution system. PMID:10623140

Landis, G A

1999-11-01

416

Women's expectations and experiences of childbirth  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: to explore, describe and understand the expectations during pregnancy and subsequent experiences of childbirth in primiparae.Design: a qualitative study using a phenomenological approach. Data were collected using unstructured, tape-recorded interviews in late pregnancy and at two weeks post birth.Setting: the north of England.Participants: eight pregnant women, expecting their first baby.Findings: the women all wanted to take an active part

Jo Gibbins; Ann M. Thomson

2001-01-01

417

Effect of Expected Rewards on Children's Creativity  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the effect of expected rewards on children's creativity. Sixty-one female gymnasts (ages 4-17) were randomly assigned to a no-reward or expected reward condition. A11 partici- pants completed both a training task that required di- vergent thinking (generating themes for a gymnastics gala) and a transfer task (using circles to make pic- tures). The reward contingency was in

Mireille Joussemet; Richard Koestner

1999-01-01

418

Incorporating life expectancy in glaucoma care  

Microsoft Academic Search

AimTo calculate for which combinations of age and perimetric disease stage glaucoma patients are unlikely to become visually impaired during their lifetime.MethodsWe used residual life expectancy data (life expectancy adjusted for the age already reached) as provided by Statistics Netherlands and rates of progression as derived from published studies. We calculated the baseline mean deviation (MD) for which an individual

C Wesselink; R Stoutenbeek; N M Jansonius

2011-01-01

419

Delaying Orthostatic Syncope With Mental Challenge  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

At orthostatic vasovagal syncope there appears to be a sudden withdrawl of sympathetic activity. As mental challenge activates the sympathetic system, we hypothesized that doing mental arithmetic in volunteers driven to the end point of their cardiovascular stability may delay the onset of orthostatic syncope. We investigated this in healthy male subjects. Each subject underwent a head up tilt (HUT) + graded lower body negative pressure (LBNP) up to presyncope session (control) to determine the orthostatic tolerance time, OTT (Time from HUT commencement to development of presyncopal symptoms/signs). Once the tolerance time was known, a randomized crossover protocol was used: either 1) Repeat HUT + LBNP to ensure reproducibility of repeated run or 2) HUT + LBNP run but with added mental challenge (two min before the expected presyncope time). Test protocols were separated by two weeks. Our studies on five male test subjects indicate that mental challenge improves orthostatic tolerance significantly. Additional mental loading could be a useful countermeasure to alleviate the orthostatic responses of persons, particularly in those with histories of dizziness on standing up, or to alleviate hypotension that frequently occurs during hemodialysis or on return to earth from the spaceflight environment of microgravity.

Goswami, Nandu; Roessler, Andreas; Hinghofer-Szalkay, Helmut; Montani, Jean-Pierre; Steptoe, Andrew

2012-07-01

420

A geometric delay model for Space VLBI  

E-print Network

A relativistic delay model for space very long baseline interferometry (hereafter SVLBI) observation of sources at infinite distance is derived. In SVLBI, where one station is on a spacecraft, the orbiting station's maximum speed in an elliptical Earth orbit is much bigger than the ground VLBI (here after GVLBI), leading to a higher delay rate . The delay models inside the VLBI correlators are usually expressed as fifth-order polynomials in time that good for a limited time interval, which are evaluated by the correlator firmware and track the interferometer delays over a limited time interval. The higher SVLBI delay rate requires more accurate polynomial fitting and evalution, more frequent model updates.

Liao, Shi-Long; Qi, Zhao-Xiang

2014-01-01

421

Memory for Expectation-Violating Concepts: The Effects of Agents and Cultural Familiarity  

PubMed Central

Previous research has shown that ideas which violate our expectations, such as schema-inconsistent concepts, enjoy privileged status in terms of memorability. In our study, memory for concepts that violate cultural (cultural schema-level) expectations (e.g., illiterate teacher, wooden bottle, or thorny grass) versus domain-level (ontological) expectations (e.g., speaking cat, jumping maple, or melting teacher) was examined. Concepts that violate cultural expectations, or counter-schematic, were remembered to a greater extent compared with concepts that violate ontological expectations and with intuitive concepts (e.g., galloping pony, drying orchid, or convertible car), in both immediate recall, and delayed recognition tests. Importantly, concepts related to agents showed a memory advantage over concepts not pertaining to agents, but this was true only for expectation-violating concepts. Our results imply that intuitive, everyday concepts are equally attractive and memorable regardless of the presence or absence of agents. However, concepts that violate our expectations (cultural-schema or domain-level) are more memorable when pertaining to agents (humans and animals) than to non-agents (plants or objects/artifacts). We conclude that due to their evolutionary salience, cultural ideas which combine expectancy violations and the involvement of an agent are especially memorable and thus have an enhanced probability of being successfully propagated. PMID:24714568

Porubanova, Michaela; Shaw, Daniel Joel; McKay, Ryan; Xygalatas, Dimitris

2014-01-01

422

Neural precursors of delayed insight.  

PubMed

The solution of a problem left unresolved in the evening can sometimes pop into mind as a sudden insight after a night of sleep in the following morning. Although favorable effects of sleep on insightful behavior have been experimentally confirmed, the neural mechanisms determining this delayed insight remain unknown. Here, using fMRI, we characterize the neural precursors of delayed insight in the number reduction task (NRT), in which a hidden task structure can be learned implicitly, but can also be recognized explicitly in an insightful process, allowing immediate qualitative improvement in task performance. Normal volunteers practiced the NRT during two fMRI sessions (training and retest), taking place 12 hours apart after a night of sleep. After this delay, half of the subjects gained insight into the hidden task structure ("solvers," S), whereas the other half did not ("nonsolvers," NS). Already at training, solvers and nonsolvers differed in their cerebral responses associated with implicit learning. In future solvers, responses were observed in the superior frontal sulcus, posterior parietal cortex, and the insula, three areas mediating controlled processes and supporting early learning and novice performance. In contrast, implicit learning was related to significant responses in the hippocampus in nonsolvers. Moreover, the hippocampus was functionally coupled with the basal ganglia in nonsolvers and with the superior frontal sulcus in solvers, thus potentially biasing participants' strategy towards implicit or controlled processes of memory encoding, respectively. Furthermore, in solvers but not in nonsolvers, response patterns were further transformed overnight, with enhanced responses in ventral medial prefrontal cortex, an area previously implicated in the consolidation of declarative memory. During retest in solvers, before they gain insight into the hidden rule, significant responses were observed in the same medial prefrontal area. After insight, a distributed set of parietal and frontal areas is recruited among which information concerning the hidden rule can be shared in a so-called global workspace. PMID:20666600

Darsaud, Annabelle; Wagner, Ullrich; Balteau, Evelyne; Desseilles, Martin; Sterpenich, Virginie; Vandewalle, Gilles; Albouy, Genevive; Dang-Vu, Thanh; Collette, Fabienne; Boly, Melanie; Schabus, Manuel; Degueldre, Christian; Luxen, Andre; Maquet, Pierre

2011-08-01

423

Observer-based passive control for uncertain linear systems with delay in state and control input  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper deals with the robust passivity synthesis problem for a class of uncertain linear systems with time-varying delay in state and control input. The parameter uncertainties are norm-bounded and allowed to appear in all matrices of the model. The problem aims at designing an observer-based dynamic output-feedback controller that robustly stabilizes the uncertain systems and achieves the strict passivity

Gui-Fang Li; Hui-Ying Li; Cheng-Wu Yang

2005-01-01

424

Robust controller design for uncertain systems with time delays: LMI approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a robust output feedback controller design method for linear systems with norm-bounded time-varying parameter uncertainties and time-varying delays in both states and controls. And sufficient conditions for the existence of the robust output feedback controller of any order are given in terms of three linear matrix inequalities (LMIs). Furthermore, we provide a parameterization of all robust controllers from

Eun Tae Jeung; Do Chang Oh; Jong Hae Kim; Hong Bae Park

1996-01-01

425

Adaptive Neural Control for a Class of Perturbed Time-delay Nonlinear Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, an adaptive neural control for a class of time-delay nonlinear systems with perturbed is posed, Based on radius basis function(RBF)neural networks, The radius basis function (RBF) neural networks is employed to estimate the unknown continuous functions. It is shown that the proposed method guarantees the semi-globally uniformly ultimately bounded ness of all signals in the adaptive closed-loop

Ruliang Wang; Jie Li

2011-01-01

426

Sensor fault diagnosis for a class of time delay uncertain nonlinear systems using neural network  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, a sliding mode observer scheme of sensor fault diagnosis is proposed for a class of time delay nonlinear systems\\u000a with input uncertainty based on neural network. The sensor fault and the system input uncertainty are assumed to be unknown\\u000a but bounded. The radial basis function (RBF) neural network is used to approximate the sensor fault. Based on

Mou Chen; Chang-Sheng Jiang; Qing-Xian Wu

2008-01-01

427

Photothermally induced delayed tissue death.  

PubMed

We report pronounced delayed tissue death in photothermal surgery performed on the livers of live healthy rats with highly concentrated sunlight (ultrabright noncoherent light). Exposure times and power levels were selected to produce immediate necroses of the order of hundreds of cubic millimeters. Pathology reveals that lesion volumes increase by up to a factor of 5 within approximately 24 h after surgery, and then stabilize. Islands of viable cells can persist within damaged tissue, in the immediate vicinity of blood vessels, but also necrose within about 48 h. PMID:16822049

Gordon, Jeffrey M; Shaco-Levy, Ruthy; Feuermann, Daniel; Huleihil, Mahmoud; Mizrahi, Solly

2006-01-01

428

Stochastic switching in delay-coupled oscillators  

E-print Network

A delay is known to induce multistability in periodic systems. Under influence of noise, coupled oscillators can switch between coexistent orbits with different frequencies and different oscillation patterns. For coupled phase oscillators we reduce the delay system to a non-delayed Langevin equation, which allows us to analytically compute the distribution of frequencies, and their corresponding residence times. The number of stable periodic orbits scales with the roundtrip delay time and coupling strength, but the noisy system visits only a fraction of the orbits, which scales with the square root of the delay time and is independent of the coupling strength. In contrast, the residence time in the different orbits is mainly determined by the coupling strength and the number of oscillators, and only weakly dependent on the coupling delay. Finally we investigate the effect of a detuning between the oscillators. We demonstrate the generality of our results with delay-coupled FitzHugh-Nagumo oscillators.

Otti D'Huys; Thomas Juengling; Wolfgang Kinzel

2014-09-01

429

Precise delay measurement through combinatorial logic  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A high resolution circuit and method for facilitating precise measurement of on-chip delays for FPGAs for reliability studies. The circuit embeds a pulse generator on an FPGA chip having one or more groups of LUTS (the "LUT delay chain"), also on-chip. The circuit also embeds a pulse width measurement circuit on-chip, and measures the duration of the generated pulse through the delay chain. The pulse width of the output pulse represents the delay through the delay chain without any I/O delay. The pulse width measurement circuit uses an additional asynchronous clock autonomous from the main clock and the FPGA propagation delay can be displayed on a hex display continuously for testing purposes.

Burke, Gary R. (Inventor); Chen, Yuan (Inventor); Sheldon, Douglas J. (Inventor)

2010-01-01

430

Nanoparticle albumin-bound paclitaxel in a patient with locally advanced breast cancer and taxane-induced skin toxicity: a case report  

PubMed Central

Introduction Taxanes have demonstrated effectiveness in the treatment of breast cancer, the most common type of cancer in women. The toxicity profile of taxanes (including skin toxicities) induces dose adjustment, delay, or discontinuation, which prevents a sufficient dose intensity to achieve a response. Nanoparticle albumin-bound paclitaxel, a solvent-free form of paclitaxel, prevents toxicities and reduces the pharmacokinetic interferences between paclitaxel and other drugs. Case presentation We describe the case of a 55-year-old Caucasian woman with locally advanced breast cancer treated with neoadjuvant therapy who developed secondary skin toxicity due to delayed hypersensitivity to taxanes. She received Adriamycin (doxorubicin), cyclophosphamide and docetaxel and developed toxicity that promoted treatment delay and a switch to weekly paclitaxel. After the third and fourth weeks of treatment, paclitaxel toxicities also induced treatment delay and paclitaxel was switched to nanoparticle albumin-bound paclitaxel. She completed the five planned nanoparticle albumin-bound paclitaxel cycles with acceptable tolerability (including persistent grade 2 neuropathy) and without dose delay or adjustments. Clinical response was achieved although pathological response was not good. Conclusions Nanoparticle albumin-bound paclitaxel treatment is a good option for patients with breast cancer with taxanes-related skin toxicity. This drug allows the treatment to be completed with acceptable tolerance in our case. PMID:24386978

2014-01-01

431

Maximum likelihood delay estimation in a navigation receiver for aeronautical applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

The potential of the SAGE (Space Alternating Generalized Expectation Maximization) algorithm for navigation systems in order to distinguish the line-of-sight signal (LOSS) is to be considered. The SAGE algorithm is a low-complexity generalization of the EM (Expectation-Maximization) algorithm, which iteratively approximates the maximum likelihood estimator (MLE) and has been successfully applied for parameter estimation (relative delay, incident azimuth, incident elevation,

F. Antreich; J. A. Nossek; W. Utschick

2008-01-01

432

Match-bounded String Rewriting Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We introduce a new class of automated proof methods for the termination of rewriting systems on strings. The basis of all these methods is to show that rewriting preserves regular languages. To this end, letters are annotated with natural numbers, called match heights. If the minimal height of all positions in a redex is h+1 then every position in the reduct will get height h+1. In a match-bounded system, match heights are globally bounded. Using recent results on deleting systems, we prove that rewriting by a match-bounded system preserves regular languages. Hence it is decidable whether a given rewriting system has a given match bound. We also provide a sufficient criterion for the abence of a match-bound. The problem of existence of a match-bound is still open. Match-boundedness for all strings can be used as an automated criterion for termination, for match-bounded systems are terminating. This criterion can be strengthened by requiring match-boundedness only for a restricted set of strings, for instance the set of right hand sides of forward closures.

Geser, Alfons; Hofbauer, Dieter; Waldmann, Johannes

2003-01-01

433

A normalized PID controller in networked control systems with varying time delays.  

PubMed

It requires not only simplicity and flexibility but also high specified stability and robustness of system to design a PI/PID controller in such complicated networked control systems (NCSs) with delays. By gain and phase margins approach, this paper proposes a novel normalized PI/PID controller for NCSs based on analyzing the stability and robustness of system under the effect of network-induced delays. Specifically, We take into account the total measured network delays to formulate the gain and phase margins of the closed-loop system in the form of a set of equations. With pre-specified values of gain and phase margins, this set of equations is then solved for calculating the closed forms of control parameters which enable us to propose the normalized PI/PID controller simultaneously satisfying the following two requirements: (1) simplicity without re-solving the optimization problem for a new process, (2) high flexibility to cope with large scale of random delays and deal with many different processes in different conditions of network. Furthermore, in our method, the upper bound of random delay can be estimated to indicate the operating domain of proposed PI/PID controller. Finally, simulation results are shown to demonstrate the advantages of our proposed controller in many situations of network-induced delays. PMID:23810432

Tran, Hoang-Dung; Guan, Zhi-Hong; Dang, Xuan-Kien; Cheng, Xin-Ming; Yuan, Fu-Shun

2013-09-01

434

Explicit finite difference methods for the delay pseudoparabolic equations.  

PubMed

Finite difference technique is applied to numerical solution of the initial-boundary value problem for the semilinear delay Sobolev or pseudoparabolic equation. By the method of integral identities two-level difference scheme is constructed. For the time integration the implicit rule is being used. Based on the method of energy estimates the fully discrete scheme is shown to be absolutely stable and convergent of order two in space and of order one in time. The error estimates are obtained in the discrete norm. Some numerical results confirming the expected behavior of the method are shown. PMID:24688392

Amirali, I; Amiraliyev, G M; Cakir, M; Cimen, E

2014-01-01

435

[Delayed death following strangulation (hanging)].  

PubMed

6 cases of suicide by hanging with delayed death are presented in tables laying out the circumstances and the findings. All the persons involved remained continuously unconscious after initially successful reanimation; two were at this time already dead. The survival times lay between 18 hours and 4 days. In two cases intravital vertebral death occurred. In the other cases death was due indirectly to hypoxial brain-damage which had led to a greater or lesser extent to elective parenchymal necrosis. In 3 of 4 histologically investigated cases there was evidence of extensive cell destruction in the PCA muscle which was, however, not specifically related to the process of hanging since lesions of this nature also occur with other cases of delayed death after reanimation. In 7th case the problems encountered in compiling an expert opinion are discussed in cases where there are no corresponding procedural details. A 44 year old man died 3 weeks after having been submitted to bondage in a brothel at his own request (including binding of the neck). Compression of the throat with emphasis on one side was evident resulting in extensive ganglial cell damage in one half of the cerebral cortex. PMID:3439832

Maxeiner, H

1987-01-01

436

Cross delay line sensor characterization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There exists a wealth of information in the scientific literature on the physical properties and device characterization procedures for complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS), charge coupled device (CCD) and avalanche photodiode (APD) format detectors. Numerous papers and books have also treated photocathode operation in the context of photomultiplier tube (PMT) operation for either non imaging applications or limited night vision capability. However, much less information has been reported in the literature about the characterization procedures and properties of photocathode detectors with novel cross delay line (XDL) anode structures. These allow one to detect single photons and create images by recording space and time coordinate (X, Y & T) information. In this paper, we report on the physical characteristics and performance of a cross delay line anode sensor with an enhanced near infrared wavelength response photocathode and high dynamic range micro channel plate (MCP) gain (> 106 ) multiplier stage. Measurement procedures and results including the device dark event rate (DER), pulse height distribution, quantum and electronic device efficiency (QE & DQE) and spatial resolution per effective pixel region in a 25 mm sensor array are presented. The overall knowledge and information obtained from XDL sensor characterization allow us to optimize device performance and assess capability. These device performance properties and capabilities make XDL detectors ideal for remote sensing field applications that require single photon detection, imaging, sub nano-second timing response, high spatial resolution (10's of microns) and large effective image format.

Owens, Israel J.; Remelius, Dennis K.; Tiee, Joe J.; Buck, Steven E.; Whittemore, Stephen R.; Thompson, David C.; Shirey, Robert

2010-04-01

437

Bioavailability of albumin-bound testosterone.  

PubMed

The unbound fraction of plasma testosterone (T) can freely enter tissues, whereas the bioavailability of the albumin-bound T is controversial. A clinical observation in hirsute women receiving spironolactone suggested an experimental paradigm to test the effect of albumin binding on T bioavailability. We found an increase in the non-T-estrogen-binding globulin-bound fraction of plasma T in women from 24.1 +/- 3.9% to 42.0 +/- 8.1% (+/-SEM) while they received spironolactone. Computer modeling indicated that the absolute increase in the albumin-bound T concentration would be about 22.4-fold greater than that in the unbound T concentration (the ratio of albumin-bound to free T remaining virtually constant) because of the binding of T to albumin. We reasoned that the addition of graded amounts of spironolactone and its metabolites to plasma would provide a means to increase the albumin-bound T concentration appreciably. We evaluated the biological effects of this perturbation of T transport by spironolactone and its metabolites in a bioassay system using the Oldendorf technique. Bioavailable T increased proportionately with increments in free and albumin-bound T (r = 0.85; P less than 0.01). A major portion of the albumin-bound T (i.e. 55%) entered tissues under all conditions; the amount that was bioavailable vastly exceeded the amount of T that was unbound in the injected samples. An index of the amount of bioavailable T can be determined using the ammonium sulfate precipitation technique, as the percentage of non-T-estrogen-binding globulin-bound T in vitro correlated well with T bioavailability in vitro (r = 0.86; P less than 0.01). These studies support the conclusion that albumin-bound T is biologically important. PMID:4040924

Manni, A; Pardridge, W M; Cefalu, W; Nisula, B C; Bardin, C W; Santner, S J; Santen, R J

1985-10-01

438

Expectations for melodic contours transcend pitch.  

PubMed

The question of what makes a good melody has interested composers, music theorists, and psychologists alike. Many of the observed principles of good "melodic continuation" involve melodic contour-the pattern of rising and falling pitch within a sequence. Previous work has shown that contour perception can extend beyond pitch to other auditory dimensions, such as brightness and loudness. Here, we show that the generalization of contour perception to nontraditional dimensions also extends to melodic expectations. In the first experiment, subjective ratings for 3-tone sequences that vary in brightness or loudness conformed to the same general contour-based expectations as pitch sequences. In the second experiment, we modified the sequence of melody presentation such that melodies with the same beginning were blocked together. This change produced substantively different results, but the patterns of ratings remained similar across the 3 auditory dimensions. Taken together, these results suggest that (a) certain well-known principles of melodic expectation (such as the expectation for a reversal following a skip) are dependent on long-term context, and (b) these expectations are not unique to the dimension of pitch and may instead reflect more general principles of perceptual organization. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:25365571

Graves, Jackson E; Micheyl, Christophe; Oxenham, Andrew J

2014-12-01

439

Bounded uncertainty and climate change economics.  

PubMed

It has been argued recently that the combination of risk aversion and an uncertainty distribution of future temperature change with a heavy upper tail invalidates mainstream economic analyses of climate change policy. A simple model is used to explore the effect of imposing an upper bound on future temperature change. The analysis shows that imposing even a high bound reverses the earlier argument and that the optimal policy, as measured by the willingness to pay to avoid climate change, is relatively insensitive to this bound over a wide range. PMID:20404189

Costello, Christopher J; Neubert, Michael G; Polasky, Stephen A; Solow, Andrew R

2010-05-01

440

Dynamical Upper Bounds for the Fibonacci Hamiltonian  

E-print Network

We consider transport exponents associated with the dynamics of a wavepacket in a discrete one-dimensional quantum system and develop a general method for proving upper bounds for these exponents in terms of the norms of transfer matrices at complex energies. Using this method, we prove such upper bounds for the Fibonacci Hamiltonian. Together with the known lower bounds, this shows that these exponents are strictly between zero and one for sufficiently large coupling and the large coupling behavior follows a law predicted by Abe and Hiramoto.

David Damanik; Serguei Tcheremchantsev

2005-01-31

441

Bounded uncertainty and climate change economics  

PubMed Central

It has been argued recently that the combination of risk aversion and an uncertainty distribution of future temperature change with a heavy upper tail invalidates mainstream economic analyses of climate change policy. A simple model is used to explore the effect of imposing an upper bound on future temperature change. The analysis shows that imposing even a high bound reverses the earlier argument and that the optimal policy, as measured by the willingness to pay to avoid climate change, is relatively insensitive to this bound over a wide range. PMID:20404189

Costello, Christopher J.; Neubert, Michael G.; Polasky, Stephen A.; Solow, Andrew R.

2010-01-01

442

?cN bound states revisited  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The one-boson exchange potential model for ?cN is constructed and the possibility of ?cN bound states is examined. We consider an effective Lagrangian for the charmed baryons, ?c, ?c, and ?c*, reflecting the heavy quark symmetry, chiral symmetry, and hidden local symmetry. We determine the coupling constants using various methods. With the derived nonrelativistic potentials, we study the bound state problem of the ?cN system and relevant coupled channel effects. It is found that molecular bound states of ?cN are plausible, for which the channel couplings of ?cN and ?c*N are essential.

Liu, Yan-Rui; Oka, Makoto

2012-01-01

443

Sound velocity bound and neutron stars  

E-print Network

It has been conjectured that the velocity of sound in any medium is smaller than the velocity of light in vacuum divided by $\\sqrt{3}$. Simple arguments support this bound in non-relativistic and/or weakly coupled theories. The bound has been demonstrated in several classes of strongly coupled theories with gravity duals and is saturated only in conformal theories. We point out that the existence of neutron stars with masses around two solar masses combined with the knowledge of the equation of state of hadronic matter at "low" densities is in strong tension with this bound.

Paulo F. Bedaque; Andrew W. Steiner

2014-08-21

444

Beyond Just a Job: Expectations of Computer Science Students  

Microsoft Academic Search

A survey of job expectations among computer science students was conducted. The purpose of the study was to examine relationships between computer science education, gender, and job expectations. A factor analysis revealed that students have four types of expectations, including: intrinsic expectations (nonmaterialistic expectations involving job satisfaction and personal achievement), extrinsic expectations (materialistic expectations involving monetary compensation, status, and prestige),

Laura Marie Leventhal; David Warner Chilson

1989-01-01

445

14 CFR 417.221 - Time delay analysis.  

...analysis must include a time delay analysis that establishes the mean...required by 417.213. (b) Analysis constraints. A time delay analyses must determine a time delay...time delays for each potential failure scenario, including...

2014-01-01

446

14 CFR 417.221 - Time delay analysis.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...analysis must include a time delay analysis that establishes the mean...required by 417.213. (b) Analysis constraints. A time delay analyses must determine a time delay...time delays for each potential failure scenario, including...

2013-01-01

447

14 CFR 417.221 - Time delay analysis.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...analysis must include a time delay analysis that establishes the mean...required by 417.213. (b) Analysis constraints. A time delay analyses must determine a time delay...time delays for each potential failure scenario, including...

2012-01-01

448

Fault simulation and test generation for small delay faults  

E-print Network

Delay faults are an increasingly important test challenge. Traditional delay fault models are incomplete in that they model only a subset of delay defect behaviors. To solve this problem, a more realistic delay fault model has been developed which...

Qiu, Wangqi

2007-04-25

449

Identifiability and algebraic identification of time delay systems  

E-print Network

Identifiability and algebraic identification of time delay systems Lotfi Belkoura LAGIS(FRE 3303 and algebraic identification of time delay systems are investigated in this paper. Identifiability results: Time delay system, Identifiability, Identification. 1. INTRODUCTION The real time delay identification

Boyer, Edmond

450

Measurement of Gravitational Lens Time Delays with LSST (SULI Paper)  

SciTech Connect

The proposed Large Synoptic Survey Telescope will be the first to explore multiple dark energy probes simultaneously, including baryon acoustic oscillations, weak lensing, and strong gravitational lensing. The large data sample, covering the entire visible sky every few nights, will allow an unprecedented survey of deep supernova sources and their lensed images. The latter have not yet been observed. Notably, LSST will measure the time delays between different strong-lensed images of the same supernova. This will provide a unique probe of dark matter, dark energy, and the expansion rate of the Universe. By simulating LSST observations under realistic conditions, we determined the time delay precision of multiple images from a representative strong-lensed Type Ia supernova. The output of the simulation was a set of light curves according to field and filter, which were subsequently analyzed to determine the experimental time delays. We find that a time delay precision of better then 10% can be achieved under suitable conditions. Firstly, a minimum observed peak-magnitude of 22 is required for the lensed image, corresponding to an intrinsic source magnitude of about 24. The number of such supernova sources expected for LSST is under investigation, but it could amount to several thousand. Secondly, a minimum of about 50 visits per field is required, and, moreover, these visits must be evenly distributed over the duration of the event. The visit frequency should be approximately once per week, or better. Thirdly, the sky brightness should be below 21 magnitude arcsec{sup -2} to allow sufficient sensitivity to distance sources. Under the nominal LSST visiting schedule and field conditions, 15% of all fields satisfy these criteria, and allow time delay measurements of better than 10% precision. This performance can be further improved by fitting the predicted supernova light curves to the observations, rather than using the simple weighted mean as in the present study. Of the well-measured fields, 85% involve observations taken with the r filter, which has a wavelength acceptance that is well-matched to supernova spectra. This filter therefore represents the best choice for strong gravitational lens observations with LSST. Our primary conclusion is that the visiting schedule is the single most important parameter to optimize for time delay measurements, and, once a lensed supernova has been detected, that frequent, regular observations should be scheduled to search with the highest sensitivity for multiple, delayed lensed images.

Kirkby, Lowry Anna; /Oxford U. /SLAC

2006-01-04

451

Parent Perceptions of the Anticipated Needs and Expectations for Support for Their College-Bound Students with Asperger's Syndrome  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many students with Asperger's Syndrome have the cognitive ability and specific interests to be successful academically at the college level. However, these students often have difficulties navigating social systems, and higher education presents great challenges. The purpose of this study was to explore parent perceptions regarding the: (a)

Morrison, Julie Q.; Sansosti, Frank J.; Hadley, Wanda M.

2009-01-01

452

The Bank of Japan's Struggle with the Zero Lower Bound on Nominal Interest Rates: Exercises in Expectations Management  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reviews and evaluates the Bank of Japan (BOJ)'s monetary policy during the period 1998-2005. In doing so, it pays particular attention to the development of academic thinking on what Central Banks can do at or near zero interest rates and its relationship with the actual policy measures adopted by the BOJ. The paper argues that the BOJ has

Kazuo Ueda

2005-01-01

453

Automatic circuit redesign for delay fault testability using constrained quadratic 0-1 programming  

SciTech Connect

We discuss three methods of automatically redesigning Very Large Scale Integrated circuits so that they can test themselves for excessive delay. A delay fault occurs when a circuit signal arrives too late as it propagates through the circuit. A hazard is the occurrence of multiple circuit signal transitions in a very short time interval. For delay fault testing to be accurate, we must eliminate hazards in the circuit by adding hardware. Our three methods for determining where to place this additional hardware are: (1) Good machine simulation using a higher-order Boolean algebra, (2) A graph algorithm to bound the enumeration of paths and find points where hazards appear, and (3) Quadratic 0-1 Programming to balance all cycles in the circuit graph. We discuss the mathematics of these three methods, present results, and discuss the inadequacies of each method. We conclude by proposing a greedy algorithm that combines two of these methods to make added hardware.

Bushnell, M.; Shaik, I.

1994-12-31

454

Unequal Geographic Unequal Geographic Expectancy in Seoul.  

PubMed

This study examined life expectancies in 25 gus, administrative districts of Seoul, the capital of Korea, by gender in 1995, 2002, and 2008 to explore trends in mortality inequality among areas. The authors constructed single-decrement life tables and employed between-group variance, the Theil index, and mean log deviation to measure absolute and relative disparities in life expectancy among areas during the periods 1995-2002 and 2002-2008. It was found that life expectancy gaps between gus have widened in absolute and relative terms in both genders over the decade, and that this pattern was particularly dramatic in females after 2002. This increasing gap could be attributable to the more negative health impact on females since the late 1990s stemming from the economic crisis, eventually reflected in their places of residence. Thus, a social buffer system to narrow the health gap between geographic areas and social classes must be established. PMID:22535557

Kim, Sangmi; Yi, Seonju; Kim, Meekyung; Kim, Bokyung; Lee, Hwayoung; Jeon, Taekryeon; Cho, Youngtae

2012-05-01

455

Reflections on meeting women's childbirth expectations.  

PubMed

When care providers support their personal worth, use caring communication, facilitate consumer participation in decision making, seek optimal outcomes, and know the patient holistically, female patients feel that their dignity is respected. We compare women's expectations for dignified care in contemporary society with the expectations of women 40 years ago. Some progress has been made toward valuing women's voices and participation in decision making, the availability of interventions for optimal outcomes, and recognition of the importance of cultural competence. Continued work is needed to meet women's expectations for receiving individualized and tailored care, information about intervention effectiveness and risks, and support for the birth process that the family desires. A renewed focus on the recipient of care as a coparticipant in her birthing experiences may result in improved outcomes and resolution of tensions between childbearing women and sociopolitical forces and standards of care. PMID:21771068

Records, Kathie; Wilson, Barbara L

2011-01-01

456

Major League Baseball Players' Life Expectancies*  

PubMed Central

Objective We examine the importance of anthropometric and performance measures, and age, period, and cohort effects in explaining life expectancies among major league baseball (MLB) players over the past century. Methods We use discrete time hazard models to calculate life tables with covariates with data from Total Baseball, a rich source of information on all players who played in the major league. Results Compared to 20-year-old U.S. males, MLB players can expect almost five additional years of life. Height, weight, handedness, and player ratings are unassociated with the risk of death in this population of highly active and successful adults. Career length is inversely associated with the risk of death, likely because those who play longer gain additional incomes, physical fitness, and training. Conclusions Our results indicate improvements in life expectancies with time for all age groups and indicate possible improvements in longevity in the general U.S. population. PMID:19756205

Saint Onge, Jarron M.; Rogers, Richard G.; Krueger, Patrick M.

2009-01-01

457

Stability analysis of Markovian jump stochastic BAM neural networks with impulse control and mixed time delays.  

PubMed

This paper discusses the issue of stability analysis for a class of impulsive stochastic bidirectional associative memory neural networks with both Markovian jump parameters and mixed time delays. The jumping parameters are modeled as a continuous-time discrete-state Markov chain. Based on a novel Lyapunov-Krasovskii functional, the generalized Ito?'s formula, mathematical induction, and stochastic analysis theory, a linear matrix inequality approach is developed to derive some novel sufficient conditions that guarantee the exponential stability in the mean square of the equilibrium point. At the same time, we also investigate the robustly exponential stability in the mean square of the corresponding system with unknown parameters. It should be mentioned that our stability results are delay-dependent, which depend on not only the upper bounds of time delays but also their lower bounds. Moreover, the derivatives of time delays are not necessarily zero or smaller than one since several free matrices are introduced in our results. Consequently, the results obtained in this paper are not only less conservative but also generalize and improve many earlier results. Finally, two numerical examples and their simulations are provided to show the effectiveness of the theoretical results. PMID:24808552

Zhu, Quanxin; Cao, Jinde

2012-03-01

458

Motion synchronization in unmanned aircrafts formation control with communication delays  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper proposes a formation control strategy for unmanned aircrafts using a virtual structure. Cross coupled sliding mode controllers are introduced to cope with uncertainties in the attitude measurement systems of the unmanned aircrafts and unmeasurable bounded external disturbances such as wind effects, and also to provide motion synchronization in the multi-agent system. This motion synchronization strategy improves the agents convergence to their desired positions, and this is useful for a multi-agent system with faulty agents. Moreover, the proposed motion synchronization strategy is not restricted to specific communication topologies, and sufficient conditions are provided to guarantee the multi-agent system stability in the presence of communication delays. Numerical simulations are presented for a team of five unmanned aircrafts to make a pentagon formation and confirm the accepted performance of the proposed control strategy.

Rezaee, Hamed; Abdollahi, Farzaneh

2013-03-01

459

Fear extinction in humans: effects of acquisition-extinction delay and masked stimulus presentations.  

PubMed

Fear extinction can be viewed as an inhibitory learning process. This is supported by post-extinction phenomena demonstrating the return of fear, such as reinstatement. Recent work has questioned this account, claiming that extinction initiated immediately after fear acquisition can abolish the return of fear. In the current study, participants were fear conditioned to four different conditioned stimuli (CS) and underwent extinction either immediately or after a 24 h delay. During extinction, we manipulated CS contingency awareness by presenting two of the CSs (one CS+, one CS-) under non-masked conditions and the other two CSs under masked conditions. Compared to delayed extinction, immediate extinction of non-masked CSs promoted less extinction of fear-potentiated startle and shock expectancy ratings and less reinstatement of fear-potentiated startle without affecting shock expectancy ratings. Critically, future research should clarify how the differences between immediate and delayed extinction in within-session extinction modulate the recovery of fear. PMID:22898744

Golkar, Armita; hman, Arne

2012-10-01

460

Great expectations. Eating expectancies as mediators of reinforcement sensitivity and eating.  

PubMed

Eating expectancies are proposed as cognitive pathways linking reinforcement (reward and punishment) sensitivities and the tendency to over-eat in response to appetitive and emotional cues. In Study One (N=243 university women) explicit eating expectancies were tested as potential mediators of reinforcement sensitivities and eating styles. Broadly, expectancies that eating alleviates negative affect/boredom mediated both reward and punishment sensitivity and emotional eating. The expectancy that eating is pleasurable and rewarding mediated reward sensitivity and external eating. In Study Two (N=109), using an implicit eating expectancy task, reward sensitivity and external eating was mediated via positive expectancy statements, notably, that eating is pleasurable and rewarding. Reward sensitivity and emotional eating was mediated specifically by expectancies that eating manages boredom. Punishment sensitivity was not associated with any implicit expectancies. Findings support the role of expectancies as cognitive mediators in the relationship between reinforcement sensitivities and emotionally-driven versus externally-driven eating styles. However, the largely appetitive implicit expectancies task only supported an association with reward sensitivity. PMID:23932947

Hennegan, Julie M; Loxton, Natalie J; Mattar, Ameerah

2013-12-01

461

Calculation of the pulsed Feynman-and Rossi-alpha formulae with delayed neutrons  

E-print Network

and Energy Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464 and the sake of insight, the formal derivation was performed in a model without delayed neutrons. In this paper planned to be operated in a pulsed mode, hence the pulsed neutron (or area-ratio) method is expected

Pázsit, Imre

462

Liouville heat kernel: regularity and bounds  

E-print Network

We initiate in this paper the study of analytic properties of the Liouville heat kernel. In particular, we establish regularity estimates on the heat kernel and derive non trivial lower and upper bounds.

Pascal Maillard; Rmi Rhodes; Vincent Vargas; Ofer Zeitouni

2014-06-02

463

Unlocking the Mysteries of the Bounding Box  

E-print Network

algorithms as well as spatial indexing systems. Despite their ubiquity and common use, bounding boxes are more complicated than they first appear. The phrase that spatial is special applies to this humble representation as well as to more sophisticated...

Caldwell, Douglas R.

2005-08-29

464

Connection between bound state and tunneling problems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The transfer matrix formalism is used to show that the problem of finding the bound states of a quantum well with an arbitrary one-dimensional potential energy profile Ec(x) can be reformulated as a tunneling problem. The following theorem is proved: for an electron confined to a quantum well of size W with an arbitrary conduction band energy profile Ec(x) and maximum depth V0, the bound state energies (E1, E2, E3,) can be found by adding a barrier of width d and height V0 on either side of the quantum well and calculating the energies at which the transmission through the resulting resonant tunneling structure reaches unity. More precisely, the energies at which the transmission coefficient reaches unity converge towards the bound state energy levels when the thickness d tends to infinity. Numerically, the bound state energies can be determined with enough accuracy by using barrier thicknesses of a few nm.

Bosken, M.; Steller, A.; Waring, B.; Cahay, M.

2014-11-01

465

Estimating Bounds for Quadratic Assignment Problems Associated ...  

E-print Network

design [15], image processing [30], and communications [6, 25]. For more ... communication system is index assignment where the purpose is to minimize ...... emphasis is on obtaining improved bounds at reasonable speed and we are using.

2010-09-17

466

Probabilistic Error Bounds for Simulation Quantile Estimators  

E-print Network

Probabilistic Error Bounds for Simulation Quantile Estimators Xing Jin · Michael C. Fu · Xiaoping recently, Hsu and Nelson (1990) and Hesterberg and Nelson (1998) apply control variates to obtain variance

Fu, Michael

467

Error bounds: necessary and sufficient conditions  

E-print Network

from the primal as well as from the dual space are used to characterize the error bound ... School of Information Technology and Mathematical Sciences, Centre for .... (e.g. [25,45,49]) with various subdifferentials (Frchet, limiting, outer).

2010-01-27

468

Supernova bounds on Weinberg's Goldstone bosons  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently, Weinberg proposed a scenario where Goldstone bosons may be masquerading as fractional cosmic neutrinos. We calculate the energy loss rates through the emission of these Goldstone bosons in a postcollapse supernova core. Invoking the well-established emissivity bound from the Supernova 1987A observations and simulations, we find that nuclear bremsstrahlung processes can notably impose a bound on the Goldstone boson coupling to the Standard Model Higgs, g, dependent on the mass of the associated radial field, mr. We apply the supernova emissivity bound at typical core conditions: a density of ? =31014g/cm3 and a temperature T =30 MeV. Even in the conservative limit where mr is large enough compared with the Goldstone boson energies attainable at this temperature, our bound |g|?0.011(mr/500 MeV)2 is very competitive to those derived from current and projected sensitivities of collider experiments.

Keung, Wai-Yee; Ng, Kin-Wang; Tu, Huitzu; Yuan, Tzu-Chiang

2014-10-01

469

Compositional encoding for bounded model checking  

Microsoft Academic Search

Verification techniques like SAT-based bounded model checking have been successfully applied to a variety of system models.\\u000a Applying bounded model checking to compositional process algebras is, however, a highly non-trivial task. One challenge is\\u000a that the number of system states for process algebra models is not statically known, whereas exploring the full state space\\u000a is computationally expensive. This paper presents

Jun Sun; Yang Liu; Jin Song Dong; Jing Sun

2008-01-01

470

Possible Existence of -Nucleus Bound States  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Charmonium () bound states in few-nucleon systems, 2H, 4He and 8Be, are studied via Gaussian Expansion Method (GEM). We adopt a Gaussian potential as an effective -nucleon ( N) interaction. The relation between two-body - N scattering length and the binding energies B of -nucleus bound states are given. Recent lattice QCD data of corresponds to MeV for He and 2 MeV for Be in our results.

Yokota, Akira; Hiyama, Emiko; Oka, Makoto

2014-08-01

471

Performance bounds for queues via generating functions  

E-print Network

concentrated on computable (mostly linear) performance bounds. We show that the linear bounds can be ob­ tained action w i # {0, 1} encodes whether machine #(i) serves bu#er b i (in which case w i = 1). We set w i = 0. Denote by # n the time of the nth event and by F n the #­algebra of events up to # n . Denote by x(n) (w

Shwartz, Adam

472

Experimental generation of pseudo-bound-entanglement  

SciTech Connect

We use nuclear magnetic resonance to experimentally generate a bound-entangled (more precisely: pseudo-bound-entangled) state, i.e., a quantum state which is nondistillable but nevertheless entangled. Our quantum system consists of three qubits. We characterize the produced state via state tomography to show that the created state has a positive partial transposition with respect to any bipartite splitting, and we use a witness operator to prove its pseudoentanglement.

Kampermann, Hermann; Bruss, Dagmar; Peng Xinhua; Suter, Dieter [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik III, Heinrich-Heine-Universitaet Duesseldorf, D-40225 Duesseldorf (Germany); Experimentelle Physik IIIa, Technische Universitaet Dortmund, D-44221 Dortmund (Germany) and Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Sciences at Microscale and Department of Modern Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Experimentelle Physik IIIa, Technische Universitaet Dortmund, D-44221 Dortmund (Germany)

2010-04-15

473

Giant Gravitons, BPS bounds and Noncommutativity  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has been recently suggested that gravitons moving in $AdS_m \\\\times S^n$\\u000aspacetimes along the $S^n$ blow up into spherical $(n-2)$ branes whose radius\\u000aincreases with increasing angular momentum. This leads to an upper bound on the\\u000aangular momentum, thus ``explaining'' the stringy exclusion principle. We show\\u000athat this bound is present only for states which saturate a BPS-like condition

Sumit R. Das; Antal Jevicki; Samir D. Mathur

2000-01-01

474

Preliminary Bounding Experiments in a Dynamic Hexapod  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the implementation of a preliminary bounding gait in a small hexapod, RHex (1), with compliant legs. A four-legged bounding gait, which uses only the front and back leg pairs, achieves an average speed of 1.5 m\\/s and a low specific resistance. Leg touchdown angles and desired stance trajectories are fixed a priori. The only feedback employed is

D. Campbell; Martin Buehler

2002-01-01

475

Match-Bounded String Rewriting Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a We investigate rewriting systems on strings by annotating letters with natural numbers, so called match heights. A position in a reduct will get height h+1 if the minimal height of all positions in the redex is h. In a match-bounded system, match heights are globally bounded. Exploiting recent results on deleting systems, we prove that it is decidable whether a

Alfons Geser; Dieter Hofbauer; Johannes Waldmann

2003-01-01

476

Elastic scattering with weakly bound projectiles  

SciTech Connect

Possible effects of the break-up channel on the elastic scattering threshold anomaly has been investigated. We used the weakly bound 6,7Li nuclei, which is known to undergo break-up, as projectiles in order to study the elastic scattering on a 27Al target. In this contribution we present preliminary results of these experiments, which were analyzed in terms of the Optical Model and compared with other elastic scattering data using weakly bound nuclei as projectile.

Figueira, J. M. [Laboratorio TANDAR, Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Av. General Paz 1499, 1650 San Martin, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Departamento de Fisica, FCEyN, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Ciudad Universitaria, Pabellon 1, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina); Abriola, D.; Arazi, A.; Capurro, O. A.; Marti, G. V.; Martinez Heinmann, D.; Pacheco, A. J.; Testoni, J. E.; Barbara, E. de [Laboratorio TANDAR, Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Av. General Paz 1499, 1650 San Martin, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Fernandez Niello, J. O. [Laboratorio TANDAR, Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Av. General Paz 1499, 1650 San Martin, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Escuela de Ciencia y Tecnologia, Universidad Nacional de General San Martin, Martin de Irigoyen 3100, 1650 San Martin, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Padron, I.; Gomes, P. R. S.; Lubian, J. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Avenida Litoranea s/n, Gragoata, Niteroi, R. J., 24210-340 (Brazil)

2007-02-12

477

Strict Lower Bounds for Model Checking BPA  

Microsoft Academic Search

We show strict lower bounds for the complexity of several modelchecking problems for BPA and branching-time logics. Model checkingwith Hennessy-Milner Logic PSPACE-hard, while model checkingwith the modal ??-calculus is EXPTIME-hard. By combining these resultswith already established upper bounds it follows that the modelchecking problems are PSPACE-complete and EXPTIME-complete,respectively.1 IntroductionBasic Process Algebra (BPA) processes were defined by Bergstra and Klopin...

Richard Mayr

1998-01-01

478

Delay banking for air traffic management  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A method and associated system for time delay banking for aircraft arrival time, aircraft departure time and/or en route flight position. The delay credit value for a given flight may decrease with passage of time and may be transferred to or traded with other flights having the same or a different user (airline owner or operator). The delay credit value for a given aircraft flight depends upon an initial delay credit value, which is determined by a central system and depends upon one or more other flight characteristics. Optionally, the delay credit value decreases with passage of time. Optionally, a transaction cost is assessed against a delay credit value that is used on behalf of another flight with the same user or is traded with a different user.

Green, Steven M. (Inventor)

2007-01-01

479

RESPONSE ACQUISITION BY HUMANS WITH DELAYED REINFORCEMENT  

PubMed Central

The present experiment examined whether a response class was acquired by humans with delayed reinforcement. Eight white circles were presented on a computer touch screen. If the undergraduates touched two of the eight circles in a specified sequence (i.e., touching first the upper-left circle then the bottom-left circle), then the touches initiated an unsignaled resetting delay culminating in point delivery. Participants experienced one of three different delays (0 s, 10 s, or 30 s). Rates of the target two-response sequence were higher with delayed reinforcement than with no reinforcement. Terminal rates of the target sequence decreased and postreinforcement pauses increased as a function of delay duration. Other undergraduates exposed to yoked schedules of response-independent point deliveries failed to acquire the sequence. The results demonstrate that a response class was acquired with delayed reinforcement, extending the generality of this phenomenon found with nonhuman animals to humans. PMID:19949494

Okouchi, Hiroto

2009-01-01

480

Impact of heterogeneous delays on cluster synchronization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate cluster synchronization in coupled map networks in the presence of heterogeneous delays. We find that while the parity of heterogeneous delays plays a crucial role in determining the mechanism of cluster formation, the cluster synchronizability of the network gets affected by the amount of heterogeneity. In addition, heterogeneity in delays induces a rich cluster pattern as compared to homogeneous delays. The complete bipartite network stands as an extreme example of this richness, where robust ideal driven clusters observed for the undelayed and homogeneously delayed cases dismantle, yielding versatile cluster patterns as heterogeneity in the delay is introduced. We provide arguments behind this behavior using a Lyapunov function analysis. Furthermore, the interplay between the number of connections in the network and the amount of heterogeneity plays an important role in deciding the cluster formation.

Jalan, Sarika; Singh, Aradhana

2014-10-01

481

Stochastic switching in delay-coupled oscillators  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A delay is known to induce multistability in periodic systems. Under influence of noise, coupled oscillators can switch between coexistent orbits with different frequencies and different oscillation patterns. For coupled phase oscillators we reduce the delay system to a nondelayed Langevin equation, which allows us to analytically compute the distribution of frequencies and their corresponding residence times. The number of stable periodic orbits scales with the roundtrip delay time and coupling strength, but the noisy system visits only a fraction of the orbits, which scales with the square root of the delay time and is independent of the coupling strength. In contrast, the residence time in the different orbits is mainly determined by the coupling strength and the number of oscillators, and only weakly dependent on the coupling delay. Finally we investigate the effect of a detuning between the oscillators. We demonstrate the generality of our results with delay-coupled FitzHugh-Nagumo oscillators.

D'Huys, Otti; Jngling, Thomas; Kinzel, Wolfgang

2014-09-01

482

Nanoscale Observation of Alkane Delayering  

E-print Network

Noncontact Atomic Force Microscopy and synchrotron x-ray scattering measurements on dotriacontane (n-C32H66 or C32) films adsorbed on SiO2-coated Si(100) wafers reveal a narrow temperature range near the bulk C32 melting point Tb in which a monolayer phase of C32 molecules oriented perpendicular to surface is stable. This monolayer phase undergoes a delayering transition to a three-dimensional (3D) fluid phase on heating to just above Tb and to a solid 3D phase on cooling below Tb. An equilibrium phase diagram provides a useful framework for interpreting the unusual spreading and receding of the monolayer observed in transitions to and from the respective 3D phases.

M. Bai; K. Knorr; M. J. Simpson; S. Trogisch; H. Taub; S. N. Ehrlich; H. Mo; U. G. Volkmann; F. Y. Hansen

2006-11-18

483

Posttraumatic delayed subdural tension pneumocephalus  

PubMed Central

Background: Pneumocephalus is a complication of head injury in 3.9-9.7% of the cases, it also appears after supratentorial craniotomy in 100% of cases. The accumulation of intracranial air can be acute (<72 hours) or delayed (?72 hours). When intracranial air causes intracranial hypertension and has a mass-effect with neurological deterioration, it is called tension pneumocephalus. Case description: We represent a clinical case of a 75-year-old male patient with open penetrating head injury, complicated by tension pneumocephalus on the fifth day after trauma and underwent urgent surgical correction. Operation performed: Burr-hole placement in the right frontal region, evacuation of tension pneumocephalus. Conclusion: Tension pneumocephalus is a life-threatening neurosurgical emergency case, which needs to undergo immediate surgical or conservative treatment. PMID:23607059

Solomiichuk, Volodymyr O.; Lebed, Vitaliy O.; Drizhdov, Konstantin I.

2013-01-01

484

Uncertainties drive arsenic rule delay  

SciTech Connect

The US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) is under court order to sign a proposed rule for arsenic by Nov. 30, 1995. The agency recently announced that it will not meet this deadline, citing the need to gather additional information. Development of a National Interim Primary Drinking Water Regulation for arsenic has been delayed several times over the past 10 years because of uncertainties regarding health issues and costs associated with compliance. The early history of development of the arsenic rule has been reviewed. Only recent developments are reviewed here. The current maximum contaminant level (MCL) for arsenic in drinking water is 0.05 mg/L. This MCL was set in 1975, based on the 1962 US Public Health Standards. The current Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA) requires that the revised arsenic MCL be set as close to the MCL goal (MCLG) as is feasible using best technology, treatment techniques, or other means and taking cost into consideration.

Pontius, F.W.

1995-04-01

485

Dynamic pricing of network goods with boundedly rational consumers.  

PubMed

We present a model of dynamic monopoly pricing for a good that displays network effects. In contrast with the standard notion of a rational-expectations equilibrium, we model consumers as boundedly rational and unable either to pay immediate attention to each price change or to make accurate forecasts of the adoption of the network good. Our analysis shows that the seller's optimal price trajectory has the following structure: The price is low when the user base is below a target level, is high when the user base is above the target, and is set to keep the user base stationary once the target level has been attained. We show that this pricing policy is robust to a number of extensions, which include the product's user base evolving over time and consumers basing their choices on a mixture of a myopic and a "stubborn" expectation of adoption. Our results differ significantly from those that would be predicted by a model based on rational-expectations equilibrium and are more consistent with the pricing of network goods observed in practice. PMID:24367101

Radner, Roy; Radunskaya, Ami; Sundararajan, Arun

2014-01-01

486

Dynamic pricing of network goods with boundedly rational consumers  

PubMed Central

We present a model of dynamic monopoly pricing for a good that displays network effects. In contrast with the standard notion of a rational-expectations equilibrium, we model consumers as boundedly rational and unable either to pay immediate attention to each price change or to make accurate forecasts of the adoption of the network good. Our analysis shows that the sellers optimal price trajectory has the following structure: The price is low when the user base is below a target level, is high when the user base is above the target, and is set to keep the user base stationary once the target level has been attained. We show that this pricing policy is robust to a number of extensions, which include the products user base evolving over time and consumers basing their choices on a mixture of a myopic and a stubborn expectation of adoption. Our results differ significantly from those that would be predicted by a model based on rational-expectations equilibrium and are more consistent with the pricing of network goods observed in practice. PMID:24367101

Radner, Roy; Radunskaya, Ami; Sundararajan, Arun

2014-01-01

487

Measuring the expectations of kidney donors: initial psychometric properties of the Living Donation Expectancies Questionnaire.  

PubMed

We report on the initial development and validation of the Living Donation Expectancies Questionnaire (LDEQ), designed to measure the expectations of living kidney donor candidates. Potential living donors (n=443) at two transplant centers were administered the LDEQ and other questionnaires, and their medical records were reviewed. Factor analysis provides support for six LDEQ scales: Interpersonal Benefit, Personal Growth, Spiritual Growth, Quid Pro Quo, Health Consequences, and Miscellaneous Consequences. All but one scale showed good internal consistency. Expected benefits of donation were associated with higher optimism and lower mental health; expected consequences of donation were associated with lower optimism and lower physical and mental health. More potential donors with relative or absolute contraindications had high Interpersonal Benefit (P<0.0001), Personal Growth (P<0.01), Quid Pro Quo (P<0.0001), and Health Consequences (P<0.0001) expectations. The LDEQ has promise in evaluating donor candidates' expectations. PMID:18475176

Rodrigue, James R; Guenther, Robert; Kaplan, Bruce; Mandelbrot, Didier A; Pavlakis, Martha; Howard, Richard J

2008-05-15

488

Expect Respect television advertising campaign: evaluation report  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Expect Respect project was a social marketing campaign to increase young peoples knowledge of the dynamics of healthy and unhealthy relationships. It represented the latest stage in an ongoing campaign by the Kids Really Count interagency committee (a collaboration between the Ballina Byron Family Centre, the NSW Strategy to Reduce Violence Against Women, Lismore & District Womens Health Centre,

Chris White; Sallie Newell; Anne Graham

2006-01-01

489

Macroeconomics after Two Decades of Rational Expectations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses real business cycle analysis, growth theory, and other economic concepts in the context of the rational expectations revolution in macroeconomics. Focuses on post-1982 research. Concludes that the rejuvenation of growth analysis is an encouraging development because it could lead to changes in welfare policy. (CFR)

McCallum, Bennett T.

1994-01-01

490

Planning and Expectations of the Retirement Experience.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Seminars on financial, estate, and leisure planning for retirement were attended by 34 adults. Measures of formal seminar participation and informal gathering of retirement information over time indicated that leisure planning had a stronger impact on expectations than financial planning. Informal, longer-term planning had a significant impact on

Taylor-Carter, Mary Anne; And Others

1997-01-01

491

Federal Intervention in Education: Expectations and Frustrations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses instances of federal intervention in education that failed to live up to expectations (support of curriculum reform in the 1960s, civil rights legislation, and equity policy). Suggests that the success of such interventions depends on (1) understanding of the causes underlying the problem under consideration, and (2) relevance of

Broudy, Harry S.

1983-01-01

492

Expectations and Experiences of Substitute Teachers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article explores the expectations of support for and the experiences of substitute teachers in an urban school division in Saskatchewan. Data were collected in semistructured interviews with seven substitute teachers. The purpose of the study was to explore how substitute teachers frame their professional experiences and construct their roles

Duggleby, Patricia; Badali, Sal

2007-01-01

493

Athletes' expectations with regard to officiating competence  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study aimed to identify the cues upon which athletes rely when developing their expectations with regard to the competence of sports officials and to examine the sources of information, which are given priority in different kinds of sport (i.e. team, racquet and fighting sports). A questionnaire the Athlete Perception of Sports Officials Questionnaire (APSO-Q) was developed in

Fabrice Dosseville; Sylvain Laborde; Marjorie Bernier

2012-01-01

494

Where does subjective expected utility fail descriptively?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Subjective expected utility (SEU) rests on and implies four tenets of rational preferences; transitivity, monotonicity of consequences, independence of a common consequence, and accounting equivalences. Empirical evidence against transitivity and monotonicity is reevaluated and the opposite conclusion drawn using more recent data. The more complex accounting equivalences are descriptively implausible. The three simplestidempotence, complementarity, and event commutativityseem to be the

R. Duncan Luce

1992-01-01

495

NCAA Penalizes Fewer Teams than Expected  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article reports that the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) has penalized fewer teams than it expected this year over athletes' poor academic performance. For years, officials with the NCAA have predicted that strikingly high numbers of college sports teams could be at risk of losing scholarships this year because of their

Sander, Libby

2008-01-01

496

Parents Share Their Attitudes and Expectations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Investigates the attitudes and expectations of parents of sixth-grade students concerning science education in the elementary school. Discusses parents' responses with regard to the role of science education, time allotted for science, comparisons with other subjects, helping children with science homework, important topics, and views of science.

Smith, Leigh K.; Tolman, Marvin N.

1997-01-01

497

An Expectation Maximization Approach for Integrated  

E-print Network

with ambiguous intensity patterns [1]. On the other hand, aligning an atlas to these anatomical structures aids the regis- tration of an atlas with the segmentation of MR images. We use an Expectation Maximization, anatomical labelmap, and a mapping from the atlas to the image space. An example of the approach is given

Fisher III, John

498

Predictive Automatic Relevance Determination by Expectation Propagation  

E-print Network

Predictive Automatic Relevance Determination by Expectation Propagation Yuan (Alan) Qi yuanqi Neuroscience Unit, UCL, 17 Queen Square, London, WC1N 3AR, UK Abstract In many real-world classification Pre- dictive ARD based on estimating the predictive performance of the classifier. While the actual

Ghahramani, Zoubin

499

Entrepreneurs' coping with challenging role expectations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose The purpose of this study is to analyze entrepreneurs' coping strategies used to face stakeholders' expectations. Design\\/methodology\\/approach The paper draws from the general management, role theory, and entrepreneurship literature to develop hypotheses that are tested by using hierarchical regression techniques on a sample of 183 Slovenian entrepreneurs. The paper develops and tests four coping strategies (structural role

Daniel rtqvist; Mateja Drnovsek; Joakim Wincent

2007-01-01

500

Standard Model Expectations for CP Violation  

E-print Network

I review the predictions and expectations of the CKM model for CP violation in both the $K^0-\\bar K^0$ and $B^0-\\bar B^0$ systems. A brief discussion of CP violation in charged $K$- and $B$-decays is also included, as well as some remarks on the electric dipole moments of the neutron and the electron.

R. D. Peccei; Ucla

1993-12-30