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1

Critical path analysis using a dynamically bounded delay model  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper focuses on static timing analysis in the presence of capacitive coupling. We propose a novel gate delay model, the dynamically bounded delay model. In contrast to the min-max or bounded delay model which assumes a fixed delay range, [dmin, dmax], for each circuit component, our new model allows for the specification of delay variations and the conditions upon

Soha Hassoun

2000-01-01

2

A heterogeneous boundedly rational expectation model for housing market  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research aims to test the housing price dynamics when considering heterogeneous boundedly rational expectations such\\u000a as naive expectation, adaptive expectation and biased belief. The housing market is investigated as an evolutionary system\\u000a with heterogeneous and competing expectations. The results show that the dynamics of the expected housing price varies substantially\\u000a when heterogeneous expectations are considered together with some other

Andrew Y. T. Leung; Jia-na Xu; Wing Shum Tsui

2009-01-01

3

Maximum allowable delay bounds of networked control systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes a new method to obtain a maximum allowable delay bound for a scheduling of networked control systems. The proposed method is formulated in terms of linear matrix inequalities and can give a much less conservative delay bound than the existing methods. A network scheduling method is presented based on the delay obtained through the proposed method, the

Dong-Sung Kim; Young Sam Lee; Wook Hyun Kwon; Hong Seong Park

2003-01-01

4

Explicit bounds on some new nonlinear integral inequalities with delay  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of the present note is to establish some new delay integral inequalities, which provide explicit bounds on unknown functions and generalize some results of Li et al. [Some new delay integral inequalities and their applications, J. Comput. Appl. Math. 180 (2005) 191-200]. The inequalities given here can be used to investigate the qualitative properties of certain delay differential equations and delay integral equations.

Jiang, Fangcui; Meng, Fanwei

2007-08-01

5

Determining End-to-End Delay Bounds in Heterogeneous Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

We define a class of Guaranteed Rate (GR) sche- duling algorithms. The GR class includes Virtual Clock, Packet-by-Packet Generalized Processor Sharing and Self- Clocked Fair Queuing. For networks that employ scheduling algorithms belonging to GR, we present a method for deter- mining an upper bound on end-to-end delay. The method facilitates determination of end-to-end delay bounds for a variety of

Pawan Goyal; Simon S. Lam; Harrick M. Vin

1995-01-01

6

The Online Expectations of College-Bound Juniors and Seniors. E-Expectations Report, 2012  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Noel-Levitz, OmniUpdate, CollegeWeekLive, and NRCCUA[R] (National Research Center for College & University Admissions) conducted a survey of 2,000 college-bound juniors and seniors about their expectations for college Web sites, mobile usage, e-mail, and social media. Among the findings: (1) More than 50 percent of students said the Web played a…

Noel-Levitz, Inc, 2012

2012-01-01

7

Bounded-skew clock and Steiner routing under Elmore delay  

Microsoft Academic Search

We study the minimum-cost bounded-skew routing tree problem under the Elmore delay model. We present two approaches to construct bounded-skew routing trees: (i) the Boundary Merging and Embedding (BME) method which utilizes merging points that are restricted to the boundaries of merging regions, and (ii) the Interior Merging and Embedding (IME) algorithm which employs a sampling strategy and dynamic programming

Jason Cong; Andrew B. Kahng; Cheng-Kok Koh; C.-W. Albert Tsao

1995-01-01

8

Bounds on Maximum Delay in Networks with Deflection Routing  

Microsoft Academic Search

We consider the problem of finding the worst case packet transit delay in networks using deflection routing. Several classes of networks are studied, including many topologies for which deflection routing has been proposed or implemented (e.g., hypercube, Manhattan Street Network, shuffle-exchange network). We derive new upper bounds on the evacuation time of batch admissions, and present simple proofs for several

Jack T. Brassil; Rene L. Cruz

1995-01-01

9

Bounded rational expectations and the stability of interest rate policy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The New Keynesian model has recently been subject to two serious criticisms: the model cannot produce plausible inflation and output dynamics following a monetary shock, and the stability of its dynamics suffers from indeterminacy. The procedures that have been proposed to eliminate these two shortcomings fall into two categories: the introduction of some sort of backward price indexation into the standard model and/or other forms of stickiness (like sticky information); and the adoption of some form of policy rule that completely offsets the effects of forward looking dynamics in the optimization process. In this paper we do not eradicate forward looking behavior from the dynamics of the New Keynesian model, neither do we impose some form of backward price indexation. We assume that private economic agents have forward looking behavior and that they do try to optimize with all available information; the only novelty is that they are allowed to make small mistakes near the rational expectations equilibrium, in a fully deterministic setup. These “near rational” or “bounded rational” expectations show that the dynamics of the model with active interest rate rules is much richer than the simple problem of local indeterminacy as is usually found in the literature.

Gomes, Orlando; Mendes, Diana A.; Mendes, Vivaldo M.

2008-06-01

10

Focusing Your E-Recruitment Efforts to Meet the Expectations of College-Bound Students. E-Expectations 2010  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Early in 2010, the E-Expectations research group surveyed more than 1,000 college-bound high school students, polling them on their online behaviors and expectations, as well as other key enrollment-related topics. Highlights of the study include: (1) 1 in 4 students reported removing a school from their prospective list because of a bad…

Noel-Levitz, Inc, 2010

2010-01-01

11

Packet Audio Playout Delay Adjustment: Performance Bounds and Algorithms  

Microsoft Academic Search

In packet audio applications, packets are buffered at a receiving site and their playout delayed in order to com- pensate for variable network delays. In this paper, we con- sider the problem of adaptively adjusting the playout delay in order to keep this delay as small as possible, while at the same time avoiding excessive \\

Sue B. Moon; James F. Kurose; Donald F. Towsley

1998-01-01

12

Effective Paging Schemes with Delay Bounds as QoS Constraints in Wireless Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper new paging schemes are presented for locating mobile users in wireless networks. Paging costs and delay bounds are considered since paging costs are associated with bandwidth utilization and delay bounds influence call setup time. In general, location tracking schemes require intensive computation to search for a mobile terminal in current PCS networks. To reduce the paging costs,

Wenye Wang; Ian F. Akyildiz; Gordon L. Stüber; Boo-young Chung

2001-01-01

13

An Upper Bound for the Expected Range of a Random Sample  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|We consider the expected range of a random sample of points chosen from the interval [0, 1] according to some probability distribution. We then use the notion of convexity to derive an upper bound for this expected range which is valid for all possible choices of this distribution. Finally we show that there is only one distribution for which…

Marengo, James; Lopez, Manuel

2010-01-01

14

On the expected discounted penalty function for the compound Poisson risk model with delayed claims  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we consider an extension to the compound Poisson risk model for which the occurrence of the claim may be delayed. Two kinds of dependent claims, main claims and by-claims, are defined, where every by-claim is induced by the main claim and may be delayed with a certain probability. Both the expected discounted penalty functions with zero initial

Jie-hua Xie; Wei Zou

2011-01-01

15

Future Beneficiary Expectations of the Returns to Delayed Social Security Benefit Claiming and Choice Behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report on our preliminary findings from an innovative module of survey questions in the RAND American Life Panel designed to measure willingness to delay take-up of Social Security benefits. Among respondents who expect to stop working full time prior to turning age 62, over 60 percent report that they expect to start claiming Social Security benefits after they turn

Jeff Dominitz; Angela Hung; Arthur vanSoest

2007-01-01

16

Delay Bounds for Voice over IP Calls Transported over Satellite Access Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Whether or not voice calls of traditional quality can be supported between two users connected to an IP backbone via satellite access systems depends largely on the mouth-to-ear delay, an important part of which is consumed by the satellite networks themselves. In this paper, a methodology is developed to calculate upper bounds for the latter delay component as a function

Jan Janssen; Danny De Vleeschauwer; Guido H. Petit; Rudi Windey; Jean-marie Leroy

2002-01-01

17

Counterexamples and Bounds for Graphs Solvable with Finite Delay.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A finite directed labelled graph G with vertices v sub i, i=1 to i=n and labels (sigma sub i) subscript (sigma sub i epsilon Sigma) is solvable with delay d if for every sequence of labels sigma sub 1,..., sigma sub k one can determine a sequence of verti...

A. Paz

1969-01-01

18

An estimate of impulse bounds in delayed BAM neural networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper further studies the exponential stability of delayed bidirectional associative memory neural networks and focuses on the impulse effect on the exponential stability property. It is shown that if the corresponding impulse-free DBAM is globally exponentially stable the impulsive analog will remain its stability property even if the measurements of the states are magnified to some extent at the

Hui Wang; Chuandong Li; Yongguang Yu

2008-01-01

19

On Algorithms for Minimum-Cost Quickest Paths with Multiple Delay-Bounds  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The quickest path problem deals with the transmission of a message of size ? from a source to a destination with the minimum end-to-end delay over a network with bandwidth and delay constraints on the\\u000a links. We adapt properties of the quickest path to solve the delay-bounded minimum-cost (DBMC) path problem that is known\\u000a to be the NP-hard. In this

Young-cheol Bang; Inki Hong; Sungchang Lee; Byungjun Ahn

2004-01-01

20

Early angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition in Alport syndrome delays renal failure and improves life expectancy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alport syndrome inevitably leads to end-stage renal disease and there are no therapies known to improve outcome. Here we determined whether angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors can delay time to dialysis and improve life expectancy in three generations of Alport families. Patients were categorized by renal function at the initiation of therapy and included 33 with hematuria or microalbuminuria, 115 with proteinuria,

Oliver Gross; Christoph Licht; Hans J Anders; Bernd Hoppe; Bodo Beck; Burkhard Tönshoff; Britta Höcker; Simone Wygoda; Jochen H H Ehrich; Lars Pape; Martin Konrad; Wolfgang Rascher; Jörg Dötsch; Dirk E Müller-Wiefel; Peter Hoyer; Bertrand Knebelmann; Yves Pirson; Jean-Pierre Grunfeld; Patrick Niaudet; Pierre Cochat; Laurence Heidet; Said Lebbah; Roser Torra; Tim Friede; Katharina Lange; Gerhard A Müller; Manfred Weber

2012-01-01

21

End-to-End Delay Bound for Prioritized Data Flows in Disruption-Tolerant Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper computes end-to-end delay bounds for prioritized data flows in disruption-tolerant networks (DTNs). DTNs suffer intermittent connectivity among nodes due to node mobility. When deployed in mission-critical applications, such as disaster response, an interesting question becomes to quantify end-to-end packet delays under assumptions on node mobility. In this paper, we answer this question for the special case of DTNs

M. Y. S. Uddin; F. Saremi; T. Abdelzaher

2010-01-01

22

Comparison of the Ziv-Zakai lower bound on time delay estimation with correlator performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Ziv-Zakai Lower Bound (ZZLB) on the mean square error (m.s.e.) of time delay estimators is compared with theoretical and computer simulation results for time delay estimation via cross-correlation. Comparisons are made for both lowpass and narrowband signal spectra. For both signal spectra it is shown that for sufficiently large time-bandwidth product the correlator performance is very close to the

J. Ianniello; E. Weinstein; Anthony Weiss

1983-01-01

23

Delayed birth of distillable entanglement in the evolution of bound entangled states  

Microsoft Academic Search

The dynamical creation of entanglement between three-level atoms coupled to the common vacuum is investigated. For the class of bound entangled initial states, we show that the dynamics of closely separated atoms generates stationary distillable entanglement of asymptotic states. We also find that the effect of delayed sudden birth of distillable entanglement occurs in the case of atoms separated by

Lech Jakobczyk; Lukasz Derkacz

2010-01-01

24

Expectancy of an open-book test decreases performance on a delayed closed-book test  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two experiments examined the influence of practice with, and the expectancy of, open-book tests (students viewed studied material while taking the test) versus closed-book tests (students completed the test without viewing the studied material) on delayed retention and transfer. Using GRE materials specifically designed for open-book testing, participants studied passages and then took initial open- or closed-book tests. Open-book testing

Pooja K. Agarwal; Henry L. Roediger III

2011-01-01

25

Synchronization in delayed Cohen-Grossberg neural networks with bounded external inputs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we study the drive-response-type synchronization in the delayed Cohen-Grossberg neural networks with bounded external inputs. The connection time delays between neurons can be of discrete or distributed formE By using the Lyapunov functional method, we establish three criteria all independent of the time delays for ensuring the occurrence of synchronization with exponential rates. Generally speaking, we prove that the exponential synchronization occurs provided some certain weighted sum of the connection and coupling strengths with other system parameters is positive enough no matter that the connection time delay is of discrete or distributed form. Our criteria improve and extend some existing ones. Furthermore, several concrete examples are provided to show that the three criteria do not include one another. Numerical simulations are also given to demonstrate the theoretical results.

Li, Chun-Hsien; Yang, Suh-Yuh

2009-04-01

26

A multi-band fast-locking delay-locked loop with jitter-bounded feature.  

PubMed

In this paper, a fast-locking delay-locked loop (DLL) with jitter-bounded feature is presented. In the proposed fast-locking mechanism, a frequency estimator and a programmable voltage circuit are developed to rapidly switch the control node of voltage-controlled delay line to a voltage level near the final required value. After that, the DLL output will be quickly locked by the following charge pumping on the loop filter. In the jitter-bounded approach, two phase-frequency detectors and a tunable delay are employed to hold the output clock jitter between two reference inputs after the DLL is locked. Furthermore, to enhance the flexibility of the presented DLL, a frequency multiplier with fewer active devices is also developed to provide high-frequency clock output for wideband applications. The presented DLL is implemented in a 0.18-?m 1P6M CMOS technology. The active area without contact pads is 0.34 × 0.41 mm(2). A minimum lock time of six clock cycles is measured from no reference input to locked state. The output frequency ranges of the DLL and the frequency multiplier can be measured from 200 to 400 MHz and from 1 to 2 GHz, respectively. The power dissipation of the presented DLL is 31.5 mW at a 1.8 V supply voltage. PMID:21244974

Kuo, Chien-Hung; Lai, Hung-Jing; Lin, Meng-Feng

2011-01-01

27

Anti-periodic solutions for Cohen-Grossberg neural networks with bounded and unbounded delays  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, a class of Cohen-Grossberg neural networks (CGNNs) with bounded and unbounded delays are considered. We establish some sufficient conditions on the existence and exponential stability of anti-periodic solutions for the following Cohen-Grossberg neural networks xi'(t)=-ai(xi(t))bi(xi(t))-?j=1ncij(t)fj(xj(t))-?j=1ndij(t)gj(xj(t-?ij(t)))-?j=1neij(t)?0?kij(?)hj(xj(t-?))d?-Ii(t),i=1,2,…,n. Moreover, we also present an example to illustrate the feasibility and effectiveness of our results.

Li, Yongkun; Yang, Li

2009-07-01

28

Effect of time delay on the upper bound of the time derivative of information entropy in a stochastic dynamical system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effects of the time delay on the upper bound of the time derivative of information entropy are investigated in a time-delayed dynamical system driven by correlated noise. Using the Markov approximation of the stochastic delay differential equations and the Schwartz inequality principle, we obtain an analytical expression for the upper bound UB(t) of the time derivative of the information entropy. The results show that there is a critical value of ? (delay time), and UB(t) presents opposite behaviours on difference sides of the critical value. For the case of the weak additive noise, ? can induce a reentrance transition. Delay time ? also causes a reversal behaviour in UB(t)-? plot, where ? denotes the degree of the correlation between the two noises.

Zhang, Min-Min; Wang, Can-Jun; Mei, Dong-Cheng

2011-11-01

29

The Elmore delay as bound for RC trees with generalized input signals  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Elmore delay is an extremely popular delay metric, par- ticularly for RC tree analysis. The widespread usage of this met- ric is mainly attributable to it being the most accurate delay measure that is a simple analytical function of the circuit param- eters. The only drawbacks to this delay metric are the uncertain- ty as to whether it is

Rohini Gupta; Byron Krauter; Bogdan Tutuianu; John Willis; Lawrence T. Pileggi

1995-01-01

30

The Elmore delay as a bound for RC trees with generalized input signals  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT The Elmore delay is an extremely popular delay metric, par- ticularly for RC tree analysis. The widespread usage of this met- ric is mainly attributable to it being the most accurate delay measure that is a simple analytical function of the circuit param- eters. The only drawbacks to this delay metric are the uncertain- ty as to whether it

Rohini Gupta; Bogdan Tutuianu; Lawrence T. Pileggi

1997-01-01

31

Factors Associated With Delayed Childbearing: From the Voices of Expectant Latina Adults and Teens in California  

Microsoft Academic Search

There has been limited research on the protective factors that help Latinas delay childbearing until adulthood. In-depth interviews were conducted with 65 pregnant Latina teenage and adult women in California who were about to have their first child. Lack of or inconsistent birth control use as teens was attributed to wanting or ambivalence toward childbearing, concern about contraceptive side effects

M. Antonia Biggs; Lauren Ralph; Alexandra M. Minnis; Abigail Arons; Kristen S. Marchi; Jocelyn A. Lehrer; Paula A. Braveman; Claire D. Brindis

2010-01-01

32

Factors Associated with Delayed Childbearing: From the Voices of Expectant Latina Adults and Teens in California  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|There has been limited research on the protective factors that help Latinas delay childbearing until adulthood. In-depth interviews were conducted with 65 pregnant Latina teenage and adult women in California who were about to have their first child. Lack of or inconsistent birth control use as teens was attributed to wanting or ambivalence…

Biggs, M. Antonia; Ralph, Lauren; Minnis, Alexandra M.; Arons, Abigail; Marchi, Kristen S.; Lehrer, Jocelyn A.; Braveman, Paula A.; Brindis, Claire D.

2010-01-01

33

Hemodynamic segmentation of brain perfusion images with delay and dispersion effects using an expectation-maximization algorithm.  

PubMed

Automatic identification of various perfusion compartments from dynamic susceptibility contrast magnetic resonance brain images can assist in clinical diagnosis and treatment of cerebrovascular diseases. The principle of segmentation methods was based on the clustering of bolus transit-time profiles to discern areas of different tissues. However, the cerebrovascular diseases may result in a delayed and dispersed local perfusion and therefore alter the hemodynamic signal profiles. Assessing the accuracy of the segmentation technique under delayed/dispersed circumstance is critical to accurately evaluate the severity of the vascular disease. In this study, we improved the segmentation method of expectation-maximization algorithm by using the results of hierarchical clustering on whitened perfusion data as initial parameters for a mixture of multivariate Gaussians model. In addition, Monte Carlo simulations were conducted to evaluate the performance of proposed method under different levels of delay, dispersion, and noise of signal profiles in tissue segmentation. The proposed method was used to classify brain tissue types using perfusion data from five normal participants, a patient with unilateral stenosis of the internal carotid artery, and a patient with moyamoya disease. Our results showed that the normal, delayed or dispersed hemodynamics can be well differentiated for patients, and therefore the local arterial input function for impaired tissues can be recognized to minimize the error when estimating the cerebral blood flow. Furthermore, the tissue in the risk of infarct and the tissue with or without the complementary blood supply from the communicating arteries can be identified. PMID:23894386

Lu, Chia-Feng; Guo, Wan-Yuo; Chang, Feng-Chi; Huang, Shang-Ran; Chou, Yen-Chun; Wu, Yu-Te

2013-07-19

34

Reliable bounds for the propagation delay in VLSI nano interconnects based on Multi Wall Carbon Nano Tubes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The upper and lower bounds of the time-delay due to the variations of some physical and geometrical characteristics of a nano-interconnect based on Multi Wall CNTs, suitable for the 32 and 22 nm technology, are evaluated. Interval Analysis is used to define the ranges of the of the p.u.l. parameters of a Transmission Line modeling the interconnect. The Vertex Analysis

Biagio De Vivo; Patrizia Lamberti; Giovanni Spinelli; Vincenzo Tucci

2010-01-01

35

Quadratic stabilization of continuous time systems with state-delay and norm-bounded time-varying uncertainties  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper develops a method for designing a feedback control law to stabilize a class of uncertain linear systems. The class of systems under consideration is described by a continuous-time model with variable-state delay and depends on time-varying unknown-but-bounded uncertain parameters. It is shown that the construction of the stabilizing controller involves solving a certain algebraic Riccati equation. Several previous

Magdi S. Mahmoud; Naser F. Al-Muthairi

1994-01-01

36

Nonlinear delay difference equations for housing dynamics assuming heterogeneous backward-looking expectations  

Microsoft Academic Search

China’s first interest rate hike during the last decade, aiming to cool down the seemingly overheated real estate market,\\u000a had aroused more caution on housing market. This paper aims to analyze the housing price dynamics after an unanticipated economic\\u000a shock, which was believed to have similar properties with the backward-looking expectation models. The analysis of the housing\\u000a price dynamics is

Andrew Y. T. Leung; Jia-na Xu; Wing Shum Tsui

2007-01-01

37

Expect Delays: An Analysis of Air Travel Trends in the United States  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

There has been talk about an airline passenger "Bill of Rights" for years, and this recent report from the Brookings Institution might renew calls for such a document. Released in October 2009, this report by Robert Puentes and Adie Tomer looks at national and metropolitan levels of commercial air patterns between 1990 and 2009 and finds that half of the country's flights are routes of less than 500 miles and that the 26 largest metropolitan airline hubs continue to have the lion's share of flight delays. The report notes that despite a bit of flight time recovery during the recent economic crisis, "the return of economic growth will resume the boost in travelers, a concomitant decline in on-time performance, and the hyper-concentration of U.S. air travel within major metropolitan areas." The report includes links to recent analyses of air travel trends in the intermountain West and the Great Lakes region, and an appendix of metropolitan hubs.

38

An optimal paging scheme for minimizing signaling costs under delay bounds  

Microsoft Academic Search

This letter introduces a method for minimizing paging costs in wireless systems with delay constraints. An optimal partition algorithm is proposed and the corresponding paging procedure is provided. Numerical results demonstrate that the new scheme outperforms other previous schemes for uniform and nonuniform location probability distributions

Wenye Wang; Ian F. Akyildiz; Gordon L. Stüber

2001-01-01

39

Delay in the progression of low-risk prostate cancer: Rationale and design of the Reduction by Dutasteride of Clinical Progression Events in Expectant Management (REDEEM) trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

PurposeMen with prostate cancer may live as long as men their age without prostate cancer. Those with low-risk disease may benefit from expectant management, which actively monitors disease progression. Dutasteride, a dual 5?-reductase inhibitor (5ARI), may delay prostate cancer progression or extend the time to initiation of more aggressive therapy.

Neil Fleshner; Leonard G. Gomella; Michael S. Cookson; Antonio Finelli; Andrew Evans; Samir S. Taneja; M. Scott Lucia; Eric Wolford; Matthew C. Somerville; Roger Rittmaster

2007-01-01

40

Life expectancy  

Microsoft Academic Search

We give simple upper and lower bounds on life expectancy. In a life-table population, if e(0) is the life expectancy at birth, M is the median length of life, and e(M) is the expected remaining life at age M, then (M+e(M))\\/2?e(0)?M+e(M)\\/2. In general, for any age x, if e(x) is the expected remaining life at age x, and ?(x) is

Joel E. Cohen

2011-01-01

41

An Approximate Method to Estimate an Upper Bound on the Effect of Multipath Delay Distortion on Digital Transmission  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microwave transmission on line-of-sight paths occasionally experiences severe fading associated with multiple transmission paths of differing propagation delays. An expression for the envelope delay distortion caused by two such paths is presented. Assuming that envelope delay distortions comparable to the symbol length of a digital signal could be intolerable, an expression is derived for critical pairvalues of fade depth and

WILLIAM C. JAKES

1979-01-01

42

MAC scheduling policies with reduced power consumption and bounded packet delays for centrally controlled TDD wireless networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

In networks with mobile nodes, power consumption is an important constraint due to the limited battery power available at the mobile nodes. Reduction of power consumption in mobile devices can be achieved by keeping these devices in a low power (standby) mode during periods of inactivity. This may, however, result in increased end-to-end delays leading to violation of the quality

Indraneel Chakraborty; Abhishek Kashyap; Apurva Kumar; Anupam Rastogi; Huzur Saran; Rajeev Shorey

2001-01-01

43

Necessary conditions for a maximum likelihood estimate to become asymptotically unbiased and attain the Cramer-Rao lower bound. Part I. General approach with an application to time-delay and Doppler shift estimation.  

PubMed

Analytic expressions for the first order bias and second order covariance of a general maximum likelihood estimate (MLE) are presented. These expressions are used to determine general analytic conditions on sample size, or signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), that are necessary for a MLE to become asymptotically unbiased and attain minimum variance as expressed by the Cramer-Rao lower bound (CRLB). The expressions are then evaluated for multivariate Gaussian data. The results can be used to determine asymptotic biases. variances, and conditions for estimator optimality in a wide range of inverse problems encountered in ocean acoustics and many other disciplines. The results are then applied to rigorously determine conditions on SNR necessary for the MLE to become unbiased and attain minimum variance in the classical active sonar and radar time-delay and Doppler-shift estimation problems. The time-delay MLE is the time lag at the peak value of a matched filter output. It is shown that the matched filter estimate attains the CRLB for the signal's position when the SNR is much larger than the kurtosis of the expected signal's energy spectrum. The Doppler-shift MLE exhibits dual behavior for narrow band analytic signals. In a companion paper, the general theory presented here is applied to the problem of estimating the range and depth of an acoustic source submerged in an ocean waveguide. PMID:11681372

Naftali, E; Makris, N C

2001-10-01

44

Lower Bounds on Consensus  

Microsoft Academic Search

We derive lower bounds on the number of messages and the number of message delays required by a nonblocking fault-tolerant consensus algorithm, and we show that variants of the Paxos algorithm achieve those bounds.

Leslie Lamport

45

Salivary Alpha Amylase and Cortisol Levels in Children with Global Developmental Delay and Their Relation with the Expectation of Dental Care and Behavior during the Intervention  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The purpose of this study was to analyze the alpha-amylase (sAA) and cortisol levels in children with Global developmental delay (GDD) before and after dental treatment and its association with the children's behavior during treatment. The morning salivary cortisol levels and activity of sAA of 33 children with GDD were evaluated before and after…

dos Santos, Marcio Jose Possari; Bernabe, Daniel Galera; Nakamune, Ana Claudia de Melo Stevanato; Perri, Silvia Helena Venturoli; de Aguiar, Sandra Maria Herondina Coelho Avila; de Oliveira, Sandra Helena Penha

2012-01-01

46

Salivary alpha amylase and cortisol levels in children with global developmental delay and their relation with the expectation of dental care and behavior during the intervention  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to analyze the alpha-amylase (sAA) and cortisol levels in children with Global developmental delay (GDD) before and after dental treatment and its association with the children's behavior during treatment. The morning salivary cortisol levels and activity of sAA of 33 children with GDD were evaluated before and after dental treatment and were compared to

Márcio José Possari dos Santos; Daniel Galera Bernabé; Ana Cláudia de Melo Stevanato Nakamune; Silvia Helena Venturoli Perri; Sandra Maria Herondina Coelho Ávila de Aguiar; Sandra Helena Penha de Oliveira

47

Delay in Contests  

Microsoft Academic Search

Why is there delay in contests? In this Paper we follow and extend the line of reasoning of Carl von Clausewitz to explain delay. For a given contest technology, delay may occur if there is an asymmetry between defense and attack, if the expected change in relative strengths is moderate, and if the additional cost of investment in future strength

Helmut Bester; Kai A Konrad

2003-01-01

48

Delay in contests  

Microsoft Academic Search

Why is there delay in contests? In this paper, we follow and extend the line of reasoning of Carl von Clausewitz to explain delay. For a given contest technology, delay may occur if there is an asymmetry between defense and attack, if the expected change in relative strengths is moderate, and if the additional cost of investment in future strength

Helmut Bester; Kai A. Konrad

2004-01-01

49

Delay in contests  

Microsoft Academic Search

Why is there delay in contests? In this paper we follow and extend the line of reasoning of Carl von Clausewitz to explain delay. For a given contest technology, delay may occur if there is an asymmetry between defense and attack, if the expected change in relative strengths is moderate, and if the additional cost of investment in future strength

Helmut Bester; Kai A. Konrad

2002-01-01

50

Expect Delays: Procrastination and the Graduate Student  

Microsoft Academic Search

|M? ?????????? ?? ???????? ?????? ?????, in a sense, with an act of procrastination. Back when I was an undergraduate, I simultaneously moonlighted as a professional dishwasher, and, as I attempted to juggle this (what seemed to me) hard labour with my fi rst year of study and its attendant classes, assignments, and social obligations, I began to form an

Theo Finigan

2008-01-01

51

Delayed Puberty  

MedlinePLUS

... wonder if there's anything wrong. What Is Delayed Puberty? Puberty is the time when your body grows ... is called delayed puberty. Continue What Causes Delayed Puberty? Puberty can be delayed for several reasons. Most ...

52

Great Expectations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Inside one Washington, DC, elementary school, Principal John Pannell has high hopes for his students and an expansive school vision. Malcolm X School compensates for disorder outside by clearly inculcating rules and behavior expectations. Children in school uniforms daily repeat a motto promoting Malcolm X as a school of love allowing no hitting,…

Natale, Jo Anna

1993-01-01

53

Complete Delay-Decomposing Approach to Asymptotic Stability for Neural Networks With Time-Varying Delays  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is concerned with the problem of sta- bility of neural networks with time-varying delays. A novel Lyapunov-Krasovskii functional decomposing the delays in all integral terms is proposed. By exploiting all possible information and considering independent upper bounds of the delay deriv- ative in various delay intervals, some new generalized delay- dependent stability criteria are established, which are different

Hong-Bing Zeng; Yong He; Min Wu; Chang-Fan Zhang

2011-01-01

54

-delayed proton emission branches in 43Cr  

SciTech Connect

The + decay of very neutron-deficient 43Cr was studied by means of an imaging time projection chamber that allowed recording tracks of charged particles. Events of -delayed emission of one, two, and three protons were clearly identified. The absolute branching ratios for these channels were determined to be (81 4)%, (7.1 0.4)%, and (0.08 0.03)%, respectively. 43Cr is thus established as the second case in which the -3p decay occurs. Although the feeding to the proton-bound states in 43V is expected to be negligible, the large branching ratio of (12 4)% for decays without proton emission is found.

Pomorski, M. [University of Warsaw; Miernik, K. [University of Warsaw; Dominik, W. [University of Warsaw; Janas, Z. [University of Warsaw; Pfutzner, M. [University of Warsaw; Bingham, C. R. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Czyrkowski, H. [University of Warsaw; Cwiok, Mikolaj [Warsaw University; Darby, Iain [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Dabrowski, Ryszard [Warsaw University; Ginter, T. N. [Michigan State University, East Lansing; Grzywacz, Robert Kazimierz [ORNL; Karny, M. [University of Warsaw; Korgul, A. [University of Warsaw; Kusmierz, W. [University of Warsaw; Liddick, Sean [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Rajabali, M. M. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Rykaczewski, Krzysztof Piotr [ORNL; Stolz, A. [Michigan State University, East Lansing

2011-01-01

55

?-delayed proton emission branches in Cr43  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ?+ decay of very neutron-deficient Cr43 was studied by means of an imaging time projection chamber that allowed recording tracks of charged particles. Events of ?-delayed emission of one, two, and three protons were clearly identified. The absolute branching ratios for these channels were determined to be (81±4)%, (7.1±0.4)%, and (0.08±0.03)%, respectively. Cr43 is thus established as the second case in which the ?-3p decay occurs. Although the feeding to the proton-bound states in V43 is expected to be negligible, the large branching ratio of (12±4)% for decays without proton emission is found.

Pomorski, M.; Miernik, K.; Dominik, W.; Janas, Z.; Pfützner, M.; Bingham, C. R.; Czyrkowski, H.; ?wiok, M.; Darby, I. G.; D?browski, R.; Ginter, T.; Grzywacz, R.; Karny, M.; Korgul, A.; Ku?mierz, W.; Liddick, S. N.; Rajabali, M.; Rykaczewski, K.; Stolz, A.

2011-01-01

56

Expected Value  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students will use the random integer command on their graphing calculators to simulate rolling a die. They will then use operations on lists to analyze the probability of rolling the first 1 on the 1st roll, 2nd roll, and so on and finally find the expected value. Teacher notes explain in detail how to perform these actions on the graphing calculator.

2008-10-17

57

Delay-dependent robust H ? control for uncertain systems with a state-delay  

Microsoft Academic Search

A robust H? control for uncertain linear systems with a state-delay is described. Systems with norm-bounded parameter uncertainties are considered and linear memoryless state feedback controllers are obtained. Firstly, a delay-dependent bounded real lemma for systems with a state-delay is presented in terms of linear matrix inequalities (LMIs). By taking a new Lyapunov–Krasovsii functional, neither model transformation nor bounding for

Y. S. Lee; Y. S. Moon; W. H. Kwon; P. G. Park

2004-01-01

58

Bounded-Latency Content Distribution: Feasibility and Evaluation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper investigates the performance of a content distribution network designed to provide bounded content access latency. Content can be divided into multiple classes with different configurable per-class delay bounds. The network uses a simple distributed algorithm to dynamically select subsets of its proxy servers for different classes such that a global per-class delay bound is achieved on content access.

Chengdu Huang; Tarek F. Abdelzaher

2005-01-01

59

Bounded Rationality  

Microsoft Academic Search

The observation of the actual behavior by economic decision makers in the lab and in the field justifies that bounded rationality has been a generally accepted assumption in many socio-economic models. The goal of this paper is to illustrate the difficulties involved in providing a correct definition of what a rational (or irrational) agent is. In this paper we describe

Coralio Ballester; Penélope Hernández

2010-01-01

60

Bounded Rationality  

Microsoft Academic Search

The observation of the actual behavior by economic decision makers in the lab and in the field justifies that bounded rationality has been a generally accepted assumption in many socio-economic models. The goal of this paper is to illustrate the difficulties involved in providing a correct definition of what a rational (or irrational) agent is. In this paper we describe

Penelope Hernandez; Coralio Ballester

2011-01-01

61

Routing on Delay Tolerant Sensor Networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Delay (or disruption) tolerant sensor networks may be modeled as Markovian evolving graphs [1]. We present experimental evidence showing that considering multiple (possibly not shortest) paths instead of one fixed (greedy) path can decrease the expected time to deliver a packet on such a network by as much as 65 per cent depending on the probability that an edge exists in a given time interval. We provide theoretical justification for this result by studying a special case of the Markovian evolving grid graph. We analyze a natural algorithm for routing on such networks and show that it is possible to improve the expected time of delivery by up to a factor of two depending upon the probability of an edge being up during a time step and the relative positions of the source and destination. Furthermore we show that this is optimal, i.e., no other algorithm can achieve a better expected running time. As an aside, our results give high probability bounds for Knuth’s toilet paper problem [11].

Keane, Michael; Kranakis, Evangelos; Krizanc, Danny; Narayanan, Lata

62

Time Discretisation and Rate of Convergence for the Optimal Control of Continuous-Time Stochastic Systems with Delay  

SciTech Connect

We study a semi-discretisation scheme for stochastic optimal control problems whose dynamics are given by controlled stochastic delay (or functional) differential equations with bounded memory. Performance is measured in terms of expected costs. By discretising time in two steps, we construct a sequence of approximating finite-dimensional Markovian optimal control problems in discrete time. The corresponding value functions converge to the value function of the original problem, and we derive an upper bound on the discretisation error or, equivalently, a worst-case estimate for the rate of convergence.

Fischer, Markus [University of Heidelberg, Institute for Applied Mathematics (Germany)], E-mail: fischer@statlab.uni-heidelberg.de; Nappo, Giovanna [University of Rome 'La Sapienza', Department of Mathematics (Italy)], E-mail: nappo@mat.uniroma1.it

2008-04-15

63

DELAYED HYPERSENSITIVITY  

PubMed Central

Guinea pigs with delayed hypersensitivity to protein antigens show a specific febrile response accompanied by a lymphopenia following injection of a desensitizing dose of specific antigen. No signs of shock are observed in highly sensitive animals following this injection. The response is not prevented in sensitive guinea pigs by inducing endotoxin tolerance or by pretreating with cortisone before specific challenge. Using a suitable antigen in sufficiently sensitive animals as little as 100 µg. can elicit a pronounced febrile response. Injection of a desensitizing dose of antigen specifically abolishes systemic as well as skin reactivity for several days. Normal or hypersensitive (delayed-type) animals passively sensitized with sufficient amounts of serum antibody show hypothermia after specific challenge and may show a delayed type of fatal shock. Differences were noted between their systemic reactivities, however, and the reactivity seen in specifically challenged tuberculous animals.

Uhr, Jonathan W.; Brandriss, M. W.

1958-01-01

64

Planning for the Future: An Investigation of Work-Bound Rural Youth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to explore the postsecondary educational and occupational expectations of work-bound rural youth. Three groups of work-bound youth were identified (work-bound, work-bound with future educational plans, and work-bound but unsure/undecided about postsecondary education), and each group was compared to college-bound

Hutchins, Bryan C.; Meece, Judith L.; Byun, Soo-yong; Farmer, Thomas W.

2012-01-01

65

Delayed puberty.  

PubMed

Since puberty is a long ongoing developmental process with significant individual and population differences in timing, the definition of delayed puberty for a given individual needs to rest on simple, though arbitrary criteria based on epidemiological data. Although several genes involved in the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal maturation cascade have been characterized recently from familial or sporadic cases of primitive isolated hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, many genes regulating puberty onset remain undetermined. In case of delayed puberty and/or primary amenorrhea, a complete clinical examination including a detailed past history will evaluate the development of secondary sex characteristics, verify the association with a growth delay and look for specific indicative features pertaining to the etiological diagnosis. This clinical check-up completed if necessary with biological, ultrasonographic, radiological and genetic investigations will try to determine which girls will have a permanent sexual infantilism of gonadal, hypophyseal or hypothalamic origin, which girls will undergo spontaneous but delayed puberty and which girls have primary amenorrhea with developed secondary sex characteristics. Therapeutic attitude will have to integrate etiological factors, statural prognosis, bone mass preservation and psychological factors. PMID:22846526

Fenichel, Patrick

2012-07-25

66

Expected Reachability-Time Games  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In an expected reachability-time game (ERTG) two players, Min and Max, move a token along the transitions of a probabilistic timed automaton, so as to minimise and maximise, respectively, the expected time to reach a target. These games are concurrent since at each step of the game both players choose a timed move (a time delay and action under their control), and the transition of the game is determined by the timed move of the player who proposes the shorter delay. A game is turn-based if at any step of the game, all available actions are under the control of precisely one player. We show that while concurrent ERTGs are not always determined, turn-based ERTGs are positionally determined. Using the boundary region graph abstraction, and a generalisation of Asarin and Maler's simple function, we show that the decision problems related to computing the upper/lower values of concurrent ERTGs, and computing the value of turn-based ERTGs are decidable and their complexity is in NEXPTIME ? co-NEXPTIME.

Forejt, Vojt?ch; Kwiatkowska, Marta; Norman, Gethin; Trivedi, Ashutosh

67

On Q(H log H) Scaling of Network Delays  

Microsoft Academic Search

A recent result in network calculus theory provided statistical delay bounds for exponentially bounded traffic that grow as O(H logH) with the number of nodes on the network path.1 In this paper we establish the corresponding lower bound which shows that for such such types of traffic, typical end-to- end delays can indeed grow as ?( H logH). The lower

Almut Burchard; Jörg Liebeherr; Florin Ciucu

2007-01-01

68

Delay-range-dependent stability for fuzzy BAM neural networks with time-varying delays  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This Letter considers the problem of delay-range-dependent stability for fuzzy bi-directional associative memory (BAM) neural networks with time-varying interval delays. Based on Lyapunov-Krasovskii theory, the delay-range-dependent stability criteria are derived in terms of linear matrix inequalities (LMIs). By constructing new Lyapunov-Krasovskii functional, stability conditions are dependent on the upper and lower bounds of the delays, which is made possible by using some advanced techniques for achieving delay dependence. A numerical example is given to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

Liu, Bin; Shi, Peng

2009-05-01

69

Client expectation from doctors: Expectation - reality gap  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aims and objectives: To determine client expectation from doctors, a descriptive survey was conducted amongst people above 18 years of age and doctors of Faridpur District. Methodology: For this purpose a total of 400 patients and 30 doctors were involved. Both rural and urban population were included. A sample of 30 doctors was selected from the outdoor department of Faridpur

Rahman MM; Rahman S; Begum N; Asaduzzaman AKM

70

The realism of expectations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Levels of expectation are considered to be distributed along a continuum with realistic at one extreme and unrealistic at the other. Experimental data were analyzed with reference to the several criteria. Reliability and generality of the level of expectation were shown to be sensitive to the position of the expectations on the realism-unrealism continuum. Failure to control this characteristic of

Francis W. Irwin

1944-01-01

71

On passivity and passification of stochastic fuzzy systems with delays: the discrete-time case.  

PubMed

Takagi-Sugeno (T-S) fuzzy models, which are usually represented by a set of linear submodels, can be used to describe or approximate any complex nonlinear systems by fuzzily blending these subsystems, and so, significant research efforts have been devoted to the analysis of such models. This paper is concerned with the passivity and passification problems of the stochastic discrete-time T-S fuzzy systems with delay. We first propose the definition of passivity in the sense of expectation. Then, by utilizing the Lyapunov functional method, the stochastic analysis combined with the matrix inequality techniques, a sufficient condition in terms of linear matrix inequalities is presented, ensuring the passivity performance of the T-S fuzzy models. Finally, based on this criterion, state feedback controller is designed, and several criteria are obtained to make the closed-loop system passive in the sense of expectation. The results acquired in this paper are delay dependent in the sense that they depend on not only the lower bound but also the upper bound of the time-varying delay. Numerical examples are also provided to demonstrate the effectiveness and feasibility of our criteria. PMID:19900851

Liang, Jinling; Wang, Zidong; Liu, Xiaohui

2009-11-06

72

Delays in claiming social security benefits  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper focuses on Social Security benefit claiming behavior, a takeup decision that has been ignored in the previous literature. Using financial calculations and simulations based on an expected utility maximization model, we show that delaying benefit claim for a period of time after retirement is optimal in a wide variety of cases and that gains from delay may be

Courtney COILE; Peter DIAMOND; Jonathan GRUBER; Alain JOUSTEN

2000-01-01

73

Delays in claiming social security benefits  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper focuses on Social Security benefit claiming behavior, a take-up decision that has been ignored in the previous literature. Using financial calculations and simulations based on an expected utility maximization model, we show that delaying benefit claim for a period of time after retirement is optimal in a wide variety of cases and that gains from delay may be

Courtney Coile; Peter Diamond; Jonathan Gruber; Alain Jousten

2002-01-01

74

Delays in Claiming Social Security Benefits  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper focuses on Social Security benefit claiming behavior, a take-up decision that has been ignored in the previous literature. Using financial calculations and simulations based on an expected utility maximization model, we show that delaying benefit claim for a period of time after retirement is optimal in a wide variety of cases and that gains from delay may be

Courtney Coile; Peter Diamond; Jonathan Gruber; Alain Jousten

1999-01-01

75

A Superintendent's High Expectations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article profiles Wanda Bamberg, superintendent of the Aldine (Texas) Independent School District. Bamberg is used to high expectations regardless of the circumstances. She is a firecracker of sorts who talks much and expects much from her staff members, teachers, and students, who are mostly at-risk, Black and Hispanic, and economically…

Pascopella, Angela

2009-01-01

76

Exact matched filter bound for two-beam Rayleigh fading  

Microsoft Academic Search

The matched filter bound (MFB) is exactly evaluated for a channel modeled by the sum of two delayed and independently Rayleigh-fading beams. It is shown that, if the two beams have comparable average powers, and if the delay spread is moderate or large, then considerable gain is obtained from a diversity-like effect. That is, it is as if the two

J. E. Mazo

1991-01-01

77

On the Expected Size of the 2D Visibility Complex  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract We study the expected size of the 2D visibility complex,of randomly,distributed objects in the plane. We prove that the asymptotic expected number,of free bitangents (which correspond to 0-faces of the visibility complex) among unit discs (or polygons,of bounded,aspect ratio and similar size) is linear and exhibit bounds,in terms of the density of the objects. We also make,an experimental assessment

Hazel Everett; Sylvain Lazard; Sylvain Petitjean; Linqiao Zhang

2007-01-01

78

New delay-dependent asymptotic stability conditions concerning BAM neural networks of neutral type  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper deals with the problem of the delay-dependent asymptotic stability analysis for bidirectional associative memory (BAM) neural networks of neutral type. Two cases of time delays in which whether the neutral delays are equal to the state delays or not are involved. The activation functions are supposed to be bounded and globally Lipschitz continuous, which are more general than

Jia Liu; Guangdeng Zong

2009-01-01

79

Health expectancy indicators.  

PubMed Central

An outline is presented of progress in the development of health expectancy indicators, which are growing in importance as a means of assessing the health status of populations and determining public health priorities.

Robine, J. M.; Romieu, I.; Cambois, E.

1999-01-01

80

Asserting Performance Expectations.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Traditional techniques for performance analysis provide a means for extracting and analyzing raw performance information from applications. Users then reason about and compare this raw performance data to their performance expectations for important appli...

J. S. Vetter P. Worley

2002-01-01

81

Bound states and the Bekenstein bound  

SciTech Connect

We explore the validity of the generalized Bekenstein bound, S<= pi M a. We define the entropy S as the logarithm of the number of states which have energy eigenvalue below M and are localized to a flat space region of width alpha. If boundary conditions that localize field modes are imposed by fiat, then the bound encounters well-known difficulties with negative Casimir energy and large species number, as well as novel problems arising only in the generalized form. In realistic systems, however, finite-size effects contribute additional energy. We study two different models for estimating such contributions. Our analysis suggests that the bound is both valid and nontrivial if interactions are properly included, so that the entropy S counts the bound states of interacting fields.

Bousso, Raphael

2003-10-16

82

Measuring information-transfer delays.  

PubMed

In complex networks such as gene networks, traffic systems or brain circuits it is important to understand how long it takes for the different parts of the network to effectively influence one another. In the brain, for example, axonal delays between brain areas can amount to several tens of milliseconds, adding an intrinsic component to any timing-based processing of information. Inferring neural interaction delays is thus needed to interpret the information transfer revealed by any analysis of directed interactions across brain structures. However, a robust estimation of interaction delays from neural activity faces several challenges if modeling assumptions on interaction mechanisms are wrong or cannot be made. Here, we propose a robust estimator for neuronal interaction delays rooted in an information-theoretic framework, which allows a model-free exploration of interactions. In particular, we extend transfer entropy to account for delayed source-target interactions, while crucially retaining the conditioning on the embedded target state at the immediately previous time step. We prove that this particular extension is indeed guaranteed to identify interaction delays between two coupled systems and is the only relevant option in keeping with Wiener's principle of causality. We demonstrate the performance of our approach in detecting interaction delays on finite data by numerical simulations of stochastic and deterministic processes, as well as on local field potential recordings. We also show the ability of the extended transfer entropy to detect the presence of multiple delays, as well as feedback loops. While evaluated on neuroscience data, we expect the estimator to be useful in other fields dealing with network dynamics. PMID:23468850

Wibral, Michael; Pampu, Nicolae; Priesemann, Viola; Siebenhühner, Felix; Seiwert, Hannes; Lindner, Michael; Lizier, Joseph T; Vicente, Raul

2013-02-28

83

Performance expectation plan  

SciTech Connect

This document outlines the significant accomplishments of fiscal year 1998 for the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Project Hanford Management Contract (PHMC) team. Opportunities for improvement to better meet some performance expectations have been identified. The PHMC has performed at an excellent level in administration of leadership, planning, and technical direction. The contractor has met and made notable improvement of attaining customer satisfaction in mission execution. This document includes the team`s recommendation that the PHMC TWRS Performance Expectation Plan evaluation rating for fiscal year 1998 be an Excellent.

Ray, P.E.

1998-09-04

84

A matrix lower bound  

SciTech Connect

A matrix lower bound is defined that generalizes ideas apparently due to S. Banach and J. von Neumann. The matrix lower bound has a natural interpretation in functional analysis, and it satisfies many of the properties that von Neumann stated for it in a restricted case. Applications for the matrix lower bound are demonstrated in several areas. In linear algebra, the matrix lower bound of a full rank matrix equals the distance to the set of rank-deficient matrices. In numerical analysis, the ratio of the matrix norm to the matrix lower bound is a condition number for all consistent systems of linear equations. In optimization theory, the matrix lower bound suggests an identity for a class of min-max problems. In real analysis, a recursive construction that depends on the matrix lower bound shows that the level sets of continuously differential functions lie asymptotically near those of their tangents.

Grcar, Joseph F.

2002-02-04

85

Fractional calculus, delay dynamics and networked control systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

In networked control systems (NCS), the spiky nature of the random delays makes us wonder about the benefits we can expect if the spikiness, or what we call delay dynamics can be considered in the NCS controller design. It turns out that the spikiness of the network induced random delays can be better characterized by the so-called ?-stable processes, or

YangQuan Chen

2010-01-01

86

Early Developmental Delays: Neuropsychological Sequelae and Subsequent Diagnoses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Developmental delay is a frequent diagnosis given to young children when developmental milestones are not met in an age-expected time frame. Research on early delays in speech and motor milestones is unclear regarding possible long-term cognitive functioning. The purpose of this study was to investigate the neuropsychological profile of children who suffered early developmental delays in speech or motor function.

Robert Perna; Ashlee Loughan

2012-01-01

87

Expected Relationship Value  

Microsoft Academic Search

Managing collaborative business-to-business relationships demands an understanding of how relationships create value for the firm and a method to accurately assess that value. The purpose of this research is to propose a new construct, expected relationship value, and an innovative method for its measurement. The proposed methodology relies on qualitative research techniques to gather dispersed organizational knowledge about the relationship.

John E Hogan

2001-01-01

88

Great Expectations. [Lesson Plan].  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Based on Charles Dickens' novel "Great Expectations," this lesson plan presents activities designed to help students understand the differences between totalitarianism and democracy; and a that a writer of a story considers theme, plot, characters, setting, and point of view. The main activity of the lesson involves students working in groups to…

Devine, Kelley

89

Expectations of the System  

Microsoft Academic Search

Expectations of the System is a student-created film which details the findings of a participatory action research (PAR) project conducted in South Los Angeles. In the summer of 2008, a critical research team composed of seven high school-aged Black males and a mathematics education researcher (also a Black male) conducted qualitative and quantitative research to explore the incarceration and university

Terry Clarence L Sr

2009-01-01

90

It's To Be Expected  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students use a tree diagram on their graphing calculators to find theoretical probabilities. They then manipulate this information in a spreadsheet to find the expected value. This lesson includes teacher notes, a student worksheet with solutions, and a homework assignment with solutions.

2010-08-27

91

Behavior, Expectations and Status  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|We predict effects of behavior patterns and status on performance expectations and group inequality using an integrated theory developed by Fisek, Berger and Norman (1991). We next test those predictions using new experimental techniques we developed to control behavior patterns as independent variables. In a 10-condition experiment, predictions…

Webster, Jr, Murray; Rashotte, Lisa Slattery

2010-01-01

92

Separation Theorems and Expected Utilities.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper presents a number of separation theorems for linear spaces, then explores the relationships between these theorems and expected utility theory. Three topics in expected utility are discussed: axioms for expected utility; unanimous expectations;...

P. C. Fishburn

1974-01-01

93

H control of active vehicle suspensions with actuator time delay  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper deals with the H control problem for active vehicle suspension systems with actuator time delay. The time delay for the actuator is assumed as uncertain time-invariant but has a known constant bound. By suitably formulating the sprung mass acceleration, suspension deflection and tyre deflection as the optimization object and considering the actuator time delay, a delay-dependent memoryless state feedback H controller is designed in terms of the feasibility of certain delay-dependent matrix inequalities. A quarter-car model with active suspension system is considered in this paper and a numerical example is employed to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach. It is confirmed by the simulations that the designed controller not only can achieve the optimal performance for active suspensions but also preserves the closed-loop stability in spite of the existence of the actuator time delay within allowable bound.

Du, Haiping; Zhang, Nong

2007-03-01

94

Delayed Binary Search, or Playing Twenty Questions with a Procrastinator  

Microsoft Academic Search

  \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Abstract. We study the classic binary search problem, with a delay between query and answer. For all constant delays, we give matching\\u000a upper and lower bounds on the number of queries.

Andris Ambainis; Stephen A. Bloch; David L. Schweizer

2002-01-01

95

Exponential stability of BAM neural networks with transmission delays  

Microsoft Academic Search

By using some analytic techniques, several simple criteria are derived for the global exponential stability of delayed bi-directional associative memory (BAM) neural networks. Our results throw off the usual assumption that the activation function is of bounded character. Exponential converging velocity indexes are provided, which depend on the transmission delays and system parameters. A numerical example is also given to

Anping Chen; Jinde Cao; Lihong Huang

2004-01-01

96

Expectation States Theory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Expectation states theory is, in many ways, a textbook example of a theoretical research program. It is deductive, programmatic,\\u000a formalized mathematically, cumulative, precise, and predictive; and its propositions have been subjected to rigorous evaluation.\\u000a More importantly, however, it is a theory that illuminates core issues in social psychology and sociology more broadly. It\\u000a is fundamentally a “macro-micro-macro” explanation about one

Shelley J. Correll; Cecilia L. Ridgeway

97

Expectations and Achievement  

Microsoft Academic Search

The above quote illustrates the trajectory this teen would use to reach her personal and professional future goals. Children\\u000a begin to acquire a sense of their future during the period of early to mid adolescence. During this developmental period,\\u000a they develop hopes, dreams, and aspirations for their future. Life-course expectations influence the goals that girls set\\u000a for themselves and the

Faye Z. Belgrave

98

Virial Expansion Bounds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the 1960s, the technique of using cluster expansion bounds in order to achieve bounds on the virial expansion was developed by Lebowitz and Penrose (J. Math. Phys. 5:841, 1964) and Ruelle (Statistical Mechanics: Rigorous Results. Benjamin, Elmsford, 1969). This technique is generalised to more recent cluster expansion bounds by Poghosyan and Ueltschi (J. Math. Phys. 50:053509, 2009), which are related to the work of Procacci (J. Stat. Phys. 129:171, 2007) and the tree-graph identity, detailed by Brydges (Phénomènes Critiques, Systèmes Aléatoires, Théories de Jauge. Les Houches 1984, pp. 129-183, 1986). The bounds achieved by Lebowitz and Penrose can also be sharpened by doing the actual optimisation and achieving expressions in terms of the Lambert W-function. The different bound from the cluster expansion shows some improvements for bounds on the convergence of the virial expansion in the case of positive potentials, which are allowed to have a hard core.

Tate, Stephen James

2013-08-01

99

Virial Expansion Bounds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the 1960s, the technique of using cluster expansion bounds in order to achieve bounds on the virial expansion was developed by Lebowitz and Penrose (J. Math. Phys. 5:841, 1964) and Ruelle (Statistical Mechanics: Rigorous Results. Benjamin, Elmsford, 1969). This technique is generalised to more recent cluster expansion bounds by Poghosyan and Ueltschi (J. Math. Phys. 50:053509, 2009), which are related to the work of Procacci (J. Stat. Phys. 129:171, 2007) and the tree-graph identity, detailed by Brydges (Phénomènes Critiques, Systèmes Aléatoires, Théories de Jauge. Les Houches 1984, pp. 129-183, 1986). The bounds achieved by Lebowitz and Penrose can also be sharpened by doing the actual optimisation and achieving expressions in terms of the Lambert W-function. The different bound from the cluster expansion shows some improvements for bounds on the convergence of the virial expansion in the case of positive potentials, which are allowed to have a hard core.

Tate, Stephen James

2013-10-01

100

Lower Bound on the Number of Processors and Time for Scheduling Precedence Graphs with Communication Costs  

Microsoft Academic Search

A lower bound on the number of processors and finish time for the problem of scheduling precedence graphs with communication costs is presented. The notion of the earliest starting time of a task is formulated for the context of lower bounds. A lower bound on the completion time is proposed. A task delay which does not increase the earliest completion

Mayez A. Al-mouhamed

1990-01-01

101

Decentralized control of time-delayed uncertain symmetric composite systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reduced-order control design for a class of time–delayed uncertain nonlinear but nominally linear systems composed of identical nominal subsystems and symmetric interconnections is presented. Symmetric composite systems with time–delays and bounded parametric uncertainties both in subsystems and interconnections system matrices are considered for decentralized output control design using a controller–observer scheme. Luenberger–like delay–less observer is considered. First, an artificial reduced-order

L. Bakule

2003-01-01

102

An improved stabilization method for linear time-delay systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we combine a new approach for linear time delay systems based on a descriptor representation with a recent result on bounding of cross products of vectors. A delay-dependent criterion for determining the stability of systems with time-varying delays is obtained. This criterion is used to derive an efficient stabilizing state-feedback design method for systems with parameter uncertainty,

Emilia Fridman; Uri Shaked

2002-01-01

103

Delay test simulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The delay test simulator described here has two functions. First, it computes the actual timing to be used for each delay test. This computation requires delay distributions and tester tolerances. Second, it performs a parallel fault simulation to determine which delay faults have been detected.

T. M. Storey; J. W. Barry

1977-01-01

104

Optimizing delayed branches  

Microsoft Academic Search

Delayed branches are commonly found in micro-architectures. A compiler or assembler can exploit delayed branches. This is achieved by moving code from one of several points to the positions following the branch instruction. We present several strategies for moving code to utilize the branch delay, and discuss the requirements and benefits of these strategies. An algorithm for processing branch delays

Thomas R. Gross; John L. Hennessy

1982-01-01

105

Organically bound tritium  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tritium released into the environment may be incorporated into organic matter. Organically bound tritium in that case will show retention times in organisms that are considerably longer than those of tritiated water which has significant consequences on dose estimates. This article reviews the most important processes of organically bound tritium production and transport through food networks. Metabolic reactions in plant

Silvia Diabate; Siegfried Strack

1993-01-01

106

Bounded Finite State Controllers  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe a new approximation algorithm for solving partially observ- able MDPs. Our bounded policy iterationapproach searches through the space of bounded-size, stochastic finite state controllers, combining sev- eral advantages of gradient ascent (efficiency, search through restricted controller space) and policy iteration (less vulnerability to local optima).

Pascal Poupart; Craig Boutilier

2003-01-01

107

Definability with Bounded Number of Bound Variables  

Microsoft Academic Search

A theory satisfies the k-variable property if every first-order formula is equivalentto a formula with at most k bound variables (possibly reused). Gabbay has shownthat a model of temporal logic satisfies the k-variable property for some k if and onlyif there exists a finite basis for the temporal connectives over that model. We give amodel-theoretic method for establishing the k-variable

Neil Immerman; Dexter Kozen

1989-01-01

108

Great expectations: what do patients expect and how can expectations be managed?  

PubMed

Patients' expectations of their treatment are a key determinant in their satisfaction with treatment. Expectations may encompass not only notions of the outcome of treatment, but also the process of treatment. This article explores the processes by which expectations are formed, differences in expectations across patient groups, and the psychopathology of individuals with unrealistic expectations of treatment manifest in body dysmorphic disorder. PMID:23794691

Newton, J T; Cunningham, S J

2013-06-01

109

Organically bound tritium  

SciTech Connect

Tritium released into the environment may be incorporated into organic matter. Organically bound tritium in that case will show retention times in organisms that are considerably longer than those of tritiated water which has significant consequences on dose estimates. This article reviews the most important processes of organically bound tritium production and transport through food networks. Metabolic reactions in plant and animal organisms with tritiated water as a reaction partner are of great importance in this respect. The most important production process, in quantitative terms, is photosynthesis in green plants. The translocation of organically bound tritium from the leaves to edible parts of crop plants should be considered in models of organically bound tritium behavior. Organically bound tritium enters the human body on several pathways, either from the primary producers (vegetable food) or at a higher tropic level (animal food). Animal experiments have shown that the dose due to ingestion of organically bound tritium can be up to twice as high as a comparable intake of tritiated water in gaseous or liquid form. In the environment, organically bound tritium in plants and animals is often found to have higher specific tritium concentrations than tissue water. This is not due to some tritium enrichment effects but to the fact that no equilibrium conditions are reached under natural conditions. 66 refs.

Diabate, S.; Strack, S. (Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH, Karlsruhe (Germany))

1993-12-01

110

Multicast Routing with Delay and Delay Variation Constraints for Collaborative Applications on Overlay Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Computer supported collaborative applications on overlay networks are gaining popularity among users who are geographically dispersed. Examples of these kinds of applications include video-conferencing, distributed database replication, and online games. This type of application requires a multicasting subnetwork, using which messages should arrive at the destinations within a specified delay bound. These applications also require that destinations receive the message

Shankar M. Banik; Sridhar Radhakrishnan; Chandra N. Sekharan

2007-01-01

111

Probability density of quantum expectation values  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We consider the quantum expectation value A= of an observable A over the state |?>. We derive the exact probability distribution of A seen as a random variable when |?> varies over the set of all pure states equipped with the Haar-induced measure. To illustrate our results we compare the exact predictions for few concrete examples with the concentration bounds obtained using Levy's lemma. We also comment on the relevance of the central limit theorem and finally draw some results on an alternative statistical mechanics based on the uniform measure on the energy shell.

Campos Venuti, L.; Zanardi, P.

2013-10-01

112

Anticoagulant-bound Hemodialysis.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Seventeen hemodialyses have been performed in sheep using Cordis-Dow Model III hollowfiber artificial kidneys (HFAK), with heparin covalently bound to the fibers by the cyanogen bromide method. Comparison with 17 non-grafted control HFAK (blanks) used sim...

G. Schmer

1974-01-01

113

Spaceward Bound North Dakota  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report on Spaceward Bound North Dakota, an educational program designed to inspire and train students and teachers in the exploration of scientifically interesting geologic features in the upper midwest as an analog for exploration of Mars.

Rask, J. C.; McKay, C. P.; Schwert, D.; Clambey, G.; Lepper, K.; de Leon, P.; Bieri, S.

2010-03-01

114

True Time Delay Beamforming.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Wide aperture arrays for transmitting and receiving wideband signals suffer beam broadening when steered away from the array normal using phase delays between the array elements. This beam dispersion is eliminated if time delays instead of phase shifts ar...

L. H. Gesell R. E. Feinleib

1994-01-01

115

Delay-Insensitive Communication.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Communication is called delay insensitive if it is delay safe and it has absence of transmission interference hazard. The communication model proposed is introduced. The communication model provides a clear separation between the interpretation of physica...

H. M. J. Schols

1992-01-01

116

Broadside delay test  

Microsoft Academic Search

A broad-side delay test is a form of a scan-based delay test, where the first vector of the pair is scanned into the chain and the second vector of the pair is the combinational circuit's response to this first vector. This delay test form is called “broad-side” since the second vector of the delay test pair is provided in a

Jacob Savir; Srinivas Patil

1994-01-01

117

Environmentally Benign Pyrotechnic Delays.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Pyrotechnic delays are used in commercial and military items requiring a time delay between two energetic events. For example, US Army hand- held signals (HHS) use a delay element to properly sequence the expulsion of illuminating rounds at the rockets' a...

A. P. Shaw G. Chen J. C. Poret K. D. Oyler L. J. Groven

2012-01-01

118

Delay Discounting and Gambling  

PubMed Central

Delay discounting describes the decline in the value of a reinforcer as the delay to that reinforcer increases. A review of the available studies revealed that steep delay discounting is positively correlated with problem or pathological gambling. One hypothesis regarding this correlation derives from the discounting equation proposed by Mazur (1989). According to the equation, steeper discounting renders the difference between fixed-delayed rewards and gambling-like variable-delayed rewards larger; with the latter being more valuable. The present study was designed to test this prediction by first assessing rats’ impulsive choices across four delays to a larger-later reinforcer. A second condition quantified strength of preference for mixed- over fixed-delays, with the duration of the latter adjusted between sessions to achieve indifference. Strength of preference for the mixed-delay alternative is given by the fixed delay at indifference (lower fixed-delay values reflect stronger preferences). Percent impulsive choice was not correlated with the value of the fixed delay at indifference and, therefore, the prediction of the hyperbolic model of gambling was not supported. A follow-up assessment revealed a significant decrease in impulsive choice after the second condition. This shift in impulsive choice could underlie the failure to observe the predicted correlation between impulsive choice and degree of preference for mixed- over fixed delays.

Madden, Gregory J.; Francisco, Monica T.; Brewer, Adam T.; Stein, Jeffrey S.

2011-01-01

119

Bound anionic states of adenine  

PubMed Central

Anionic states of nucleic acid bases are involved in DNA damage by low-energy electrons and in charge transfer through DNA. Previous gas phase studies of free, unsolvated nucleic acid base parent anions probed only dipole-bound states, which are not present in condensed phase environments, but did not observe valence anionic states, which for purine bases are thought to be adiabatically unbound. Contrary to this expectation, we have demonstrated that some thus far ignored tautomers of adenine, which result from enamine-imine transformations, support valence anionic states with electron vertical detachment energies as large as 2.2 eV, and at least one of these anionic tautomers is adiabatically bound. Moreover, we predict that the new anionic tautomers should also dominate in solutions and should be characterized by larger values of electron vertical detachment energy than the canonical valence anion. All of the newfound anionic tautomers might be formed in the course of dissociative electron attachment followed by a hydrogen atom attachment to a carbon atom, and they might affect the structure and properties of DNA and RNA exposed to low-energy electrons. The new valence states observed here, unlike the dipole-bound state, could exist in condensed phases and might be relevant to radiobiological damage. The discovery of these valence anionic states of adenine was facilitated by the development of (i) an experimental method for preparing parent anions of nucleic acid bases for photoelectron experiments, and (ii) a combinatorial/quantum chemical approach for identification of the most stable tautomers of organic molecules.

Haranczyk, Maciej; Gutowski, Maciej; Li, Xiang; Bowen, Kit H.

2007-01-01

120

Statistical admission control using delay distribution measurements  

Microsoft Academic Search

Measurement-based admission control algorithms exploit the statis- tical multiplexing nature of input traffic to admit more flows into a system than is possible when assuming that each admitted flow is fully loaded. However, most previous measurement-based admission control algorithms did not have a satisfactory solution to the problem of guaranteeing distinct per-flow delay bounds while exploiting sta- tistical multiplexing. This

Kartik Gopalan; Lan Huang; Gang Peng; Tzi-cker Chiueh; Yow-jian Lin

2006-01-01

121

Great Expectations: Temporal Expectation Modulates Perceptual Processing Speed  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In a crowded dynamic world, temporal expectations guide our attention in time. Prior investigations have consistently demonstrated that temporal expectations speed motor behavior. We explore effects of temporal expectation on "perceptual" speed in three nonspeeded, cued recognition paradigms. Different hazard rate functions for the cue-stimulus…

Vangkilde, Signe; Coull, Jennifer T.; Bundesen, Claus

2012-01-01

122

Intervening in Expectation Communication: The "Alterability" of Teacher Expectations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Theoretical and practical implications of the proposition that teachers' differential behavior toward high and low expectation students serves a control function were tested. As predicted, initial performance expectations were found related to later perceptions of control over performance, even when the initial relationship between expectations

Cooper, Harris M.

123

Irony and Language Expectancy Theory: Evaluations of Expectancy Violation Outcomes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Language expectancy theory (LET) provides the basis for a study of the relationship of ironic and literal messages in terms of persuasiveness and expectedness. The experimental design was a 2 (literal vs. ironic) × 2 (compliment vs. criticism) factor design. The expectation was that literal messages would be more expected and criticisms less preferred to compliments. The results indicated that the ironic

Joshua M. Averbeck

2010-01-01

124

Delay discounting: Trait variable?  

PubMed Central

Delay discounting refers to the tendency for outcomes that are remote in time to have less value than more immediate outcomes. Steep discounting of delayed outcomes is associated with a variety of social maladies. The degree of sensitivity to delayed outcomes may be a stable and pervasive individual characteristic. In analyses of archival data, the present study found positive correlations between the degree of delay discounting for one outcome (as measured by the Area Under the Curve), and the degree of discounting for other outcomes. Along with additional evidence reviewed, these data suggest that delay discounting may be considered a personality trait. Recent research in epigenetics, neuroscience, and behavior suggests delay discounting may prove to be a beneficial target for therapeutic attempts to produce global reductions in impulsivity related to delay discounting.

Odum, Amy L.

2012-01-01

125

Speech and language delay in children.  

PubMed

Speech and language delay in children is associated with increased difficulty with reading, writing, attention, and socialization. Although physicians should be alert to parental concerns and to whether children are meeting expected developmental milestones, there currently is insufficient evidence to recommend for or against routine use of formal screening instruments in primary care to detect speech and language delay. In children not meeting the expected milestones for speech and language, a comprehensive developmental evaluation is essential, because atypical language development can be a secondary characteristic of other physical and developmental problems that may first manifest as language problems. Types of primary speech and language delay include developmental speech and language delay, expressive language disorder, and receptive language disorder. Secondary speech and language delays are attributable to another condition such as hearing loss, intellectual disability, autism spectrum disorder, physical speech problems, or selective mutism. When speech and language delay is suspected, the primary care physician should discuss this concern with the parents and recommend referral to a speech-language pathologist and an audiologist. There is good evidence that speech-language therapy is helpful, particularly for children with expressive language disorder. PMID:21568252

McLaughlin, Maura R

2011-05-15

126

Bounding the Bogoliubov coefficients  

SciTech Connect

While over the last century or more considerable effort has been put into the problem of finding approximate solutions for wave equations in general, and quantum mechanical problems in particular, it appears that as yet relatively little work seems to have been put into the complementary problem of establishing rigourous bounds on the exact solutions. We have in mind either bounds on parametric amplification and the related quantum phenomenon of particle production (as encoded in the Bogoliubov coefficients), or bounds on transmission and reflection coefficients. Modifying and streamlining an approach developed by one of the present authors [M. Visser, Phys. Rev. A 59 (1999) 427-438, (arXiv:quant-ph/9901030)], we investigate this question by developing a formal but exact solution for the appropriate second-order linear ODE in terms of a time-ordered exponential of 2x2 matrices, then relating the Bogoliubov coefficients to certain invariants of this matrix. By bounding the matrix in an appropriate manner, we can thereby bound the Bogoliubov coefficients.

Boonserm, Petarpa [School of Mathematics, Statistics, and Computer Science, Victoria University of Wellington, P.O. Box 600, Wellington (New Zealand); Visser, Matt [School of Mathematics, Statistics, and Computer Science, Victoria University of Wellington, P.O. Box 600, Wellington (New Zealand)], E-mail: matt.visser@mcs.vuw.ac.nz

2008-11-15

127

Fourth generation bound states  

SciTech Connect

We investigate the spectrum and wave functions of q{sup '}q{sup '} bound states for heavy fourth generation quarks (q{sup '}) that have a very small mixing with the three observed generations of standard model quarks. Such bound states come with different color, spin and flavor quantum numbers. Since the fourth generation Yukawa coupling, {lambda}{sub q}{sup '}, is large we include all perturbative corrections to the potential between the heavy quark and antiquark of order {lambda}{sub q}{sup '2}N{sub c}/16{pi}{sup 2} where N{sub c} is the number of colors, as well as relativistic corrections suppressed by (v/c){sup 2}. We find that the lightest fourth generation quark masses for which a bound state exists for color octet states. For the color singlet states, which always have a bound state, we analyze the influence that the Higgs couplings have on the size and binding energy of the bound states.

Ishiwata, Koji; Wise, Mark B. [California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California, 91125 (United States)

2011-04-01

128

Delayed ettringite formation — Processes and problems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The scope of the delayed ettringite formation (DEF) problem is reviewed. Based on the experience of the writer and others, DEF is to be expected in both steam cured and non-steam cured concrete. The microstructural details appear identical. The common association with alkalisilica reactions is explored, and explained in terms of both prior cracking providing space for ettringite and in

S. Diamond

1996-01-01

129

?-nuclear bound states revisited  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The strong energy dependence of the s-wave ?N scattering amplitude at and below threshold, as evident in coupled-channels K-matrix fits and chiral models that incorporate the S11N*(1535) resonance, is included self-consistently in ?-nuclear bound-state calculations. This approach, applied recently in calculations of kaonic atoms and K¯-nuclear bound states, is found to impose stronger constraints than ever on the onset of ?-nuclear binding, with a minimum value of Rea?0.9 fm required to accommodate an ?–He4 bound state. Binding energies and widths of ?-nuclear states are calculated within several underlying ?N models for nuclei across the periodic table, including Mg?25 for which some evidence was proposed in a recent COSY experiment.

Friedman, E.; Gal, A.; Mareš, J.

2013-10-01

130

Validation of EMP bounds  

SciTech Connect

Test data on canonical weapon-like fixtures are used to validate previously developed analytical bounding results. The test fixtures were constructed to simulate (but be slightly worse than) weapon ports of entry but have known geometries (and electrical points of contact). The exterior of the test fixtures exhibited exterior resonant enhancement of the incident fields at the ports of entry with magnitudes equal to those of weapon geometries. The interior consisted of loaded transmission lines adjusted to maximize received energy or voltage but incorporating practical weapon geometrical constraints. New analytical results are also presented for bounding the energies associated with multiple bolt joints and for bounding the exterior resonant enhancement of the exciting fields.

Warne, L.K.; Merewether, K.O.; Chen, K.C.; Jorgenson, R.E.; Morris, M.E.; Solberg, J.E.; Lewis, J.G. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Derr, W. [Derr Enterprises, Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1996-07-01

131

Growing Disparities in Life Expectancy.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In a continuation of long-term trends, life expectancy has been steadily increasing in the United States for the past several decades. Accompanying the recent increases, however, is a growing disparity in life expectancy between individuals with high and ...

2008-01-01

132

Nuclear-bound quarkonium  

SciTech Connect

We show that the QCD van der Waals interaction due to multiple gluon exchange provides a new kind of attractive nuclear force capable of binding heavy quarkonia to nuclei. The parameters of the potential are estimated by identifying multigluon exchange with the Pomeron contributions to elastic meson-nucleon scattering. The gluonic potential is then used to study the properties of {ital c{bar c}} nuclear-bound states. In particular, we predict bound states of the {eta}{sub {ital c}} with {sup 3}He and heavier nuclei. Production modes and rates are also discussed.

Brodsky, S.J.; Schmidt, I. (Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94309 (USA)); de Teramond, G.F. (Escuela de Fisica, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Jose, Costa Rica (CR))

1990-02-26

133

Duration-Limited Statistical Multiplexing of Delay-Sensitive Traffic in Packet Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel strategy for the transmission and multiplexing of delay-sensitive traffic, e.g., voice and video, in packet networks is described. The strategy provides bounded end-to-end delay to all delay-sensitive traffic guarantees loss-free transmission to any traffic with such a requirement. To achieve statistical multiplexing gain, loss performance is provided to the rest of delay-sensitive traffic on an as-needed basis, with

S. Jamaloddin Golestani

1991-01-01

134

Maximum Expected Utility via MCMC  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract This paper provides a pure simulation approach to solving maximum,expected utility (MEU) problems. MEU problems require both integration, to compute the expected utility, and optimization, to find the optimal decision. In most cases of interest, the expected utility does not have a analytical solution, even for a given value of the decision. One must apply gradient methods around numerical

Eric Jacquier; Michael Johannes; Nicholas Polson

135

Life expectancy and endogenous growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

We consider an overlapping generations model with uncertain lifetime and endogenous growth. Individuals have to choose the length of time devoted to schooling before starting to work. We show that it depends positively on life expectancy. Moreover, the effect of life expectancy on growth is positive for economies with a relatively low life expectancy, but could be negative in more

David de la Croix; Omar Licandro

1999-01-01

136

Using prediction to enhance remote robot supervision across time delay  

Microsoft Academic Search

The predictive interactive graphical interface (PIGI) is a suite of tools developed at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC) for supervising robots across expected Earth-moon time delays (5-10 second round trip). These tools improve interaction between a human supervisor and a remote robot by mitigating the effects of the time delay. Using a combination of robot behavior prediction and task queuing,

Robert R. Burridge; Kimberly A. Hambuchen

2009-01-01

137

Bound state transformation walls  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In four dimensional N = 2 supergravity theories, BPS bound states near marginal stability are described by configurations of widely separated constituents with nearly parallel central charges. When the vacuum moduli can be dialed adiabatically until the central charges become anti -parallel, a paradox arises. We show that this paradox is always resolved by the existence of "bound state transformation walls" across which the nature of the bound state changes, although the index does not jump. We find that there are two distinct phenomena that can take place on these walls, which we call recombination and conjugation. The latter is associated to the presence of singularities at finite distance in moduli space. Consistency of conjugation and wall-crossing rules near these singularities leads to new constraints on the BPS spectrum. Singular loci supporting massless vector bosons are particularly subtle in this respect. We argue that the spectrum at such loci necessarily contains massless magnetic monopoles, and that bound states around them transform by intricate hybrids of conjugation and recombination.

Andriyash, Evgeny; Denef, Frederik; Jafferis, Daniel L.; Moore, Gregory W.

2012-03-01

138

Patient (customer) expectations in hospitals.  

PubMed

The expectations of patient are one of the determining factors of healthcare service. The purpose of this study is to measure the Patients' Expectations, based on Patient's Rights. This study was done with Likert-Survey in Trabzon population. The analyses showed that the level of the expectations of the patient was high on the factor of receiving information and at an acceptable level on the other factors. Statistical meaningfulness was determined between age, sex, education, health insurance, and the income of the family and the expectations of the patients (p<0.05). According to this study, the current legal regulations have higher standards than the expectations of the patients. The reason that the satisfaction of the patients high level is interpreted due to the fact that the level of the expectation is low. It is suggested that the educational and public awareness studies on the patients' rights must be done in order to increase the expectations of the patients. PMID:17028043

Bostan, Sedat; Acuner, Taner; Yilmaz, Gökhan

2006-10-06

139

Delayed coking operations examined  

SciTech Connect

Delayed coking remains an important process for the conversion of heavy residuum. Questions related to the delayed coking operation are presented in this article. In the operation of a delayed coker one commonly finds coke formation in the bottom of the fractionator and occasionally the formation of pitch in the suction line and in the fractionator bottoms pump casing. Adjustments in operation or in the equipment selection made to minimize this formation are discussed.

Not Available

1985-05-06

140

VARIABLE TIME DELAY MEANS  

DOEpatents

An electrically variable time delay line is described which may be readily controlled simuitaneously with variable impedance matching means coupied thereto such that reflections are prevented. Broadly, the delay line includes a signal winding about a magnetic core whose permeability is electrically variable. Inasmuch as the inductance of the line varies directly with the permeability, the time delay and characteristic impedance of the line both vary as the square root of the permeability. Consequently, impedance matching means may be varied similariy and simultaneously w:th the electrically variable permeability to match the line impedance over the entire range of time delay whereby reflections are prevented.

Clemensen, R.E.

1959-11-01

141

Leakage delays in BAM  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A well known bidirectional associative memory (BAM) model is generalized with the introduction of discrete time delays in the leakage (or forgetting) terms. By using a model transformation, the system is converted to one of a neutral delay system. Two sets of delay dependent sufficient conditions are derived for the existence of a unique equilibrium as well as its asymptotic and exponential stability. The methods of degenerate Lyapunov-Kravsovskii functionals and inequalities together with some properties of M-matrices are used in the derivation of sufficient conditions. In the absence of leakage delays, the sufficient conditions lead to some known sufficient conditions.

Gopalsamy, K.

2007-01-01

142

True time delay beamforming  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wide aperture arrays for transmitting and receiving wideband signals suffer beam broadening when steered away from the array normal using phase delays between the array elements. This beam dispersion is eliminated if time delays instead of phase shifts are used between antenna array elements. This report represents the results of a project to demonstrate the proof-of-principle of an acousto-optic signal processing concept that generates and controls, with a single tone, the set of time delays required for linear antenna array beamforming. This acousto-optic concept allows an array to scan a beam rapidly over a continuum of angles. In the approach described in this report, the time delays between elements are generated by using an acousto-optic Bragg cell as a continuous delay line, and indirectly tapping selected points in the Bragg cell to the output. This optical tapping is controlled with a second Bragg cell and other standard passive optical elements. Included in this concept is a passive optical element to ensure that the phase shifts of the carrier of the time delayed signals will be correct at the RF of the array. The time-delay controller also provides the proper relative phases between the carriers of the time delayed signals at the RF of the antenna array. A proof-of-principle breadboard of the time delay controller was assembled. Results of the demonstration of the breadboard are described.

Gesell, Leslie H.; Feinleib, Richard E.

1994-08-01

143

Delayed recombination and cosmic parameters  

SciTech Connect

Current cosmological constraints from cosmic microwave background anisotropies are typically derived assuming a standard recombination scheme, however additional resonance and ionizing radiation sources can delay recombination, altering the cosmic ionization history and the cosmological inferences drawn from the cosmic microwave background data. We show that for recent observations of the cosmic microwave background anisotropy, from the Wilkinson microwave anisotropy probe satellite mission (WMAP) 5-year survey and from the arcminute cosmology bolometer array receiver experiment, additional resonance radiation is nearly degenerate with variations in the spectral index, n{sub s}, and has a marked effect on uncertainties in constraints on the Hubble constant, age of the universe, curvature and the upper bound on the neutrino mass. When a modified recombination scheme is considered, the redshift of recombination is constrained to z{sub *}=1078{+-}11, with uncertainties in the measurement weaker by 1 order of magnitude than those obtained under the assumption of standard recombination while constraints on the shift parameter are shifted by 1{sigma} to R=1.734{+-}0.028. From the WMAP5 data we obtain the following constraints on the resonance and ionization sources parameters: {epsilon}{sub {alpha}}<0.39 and {epsilon}{sub i}<0.058 at 95% c.l.. Although delayed recombination limits the precision of parameter estimation from the WMAP satellite, we demonstrate that this should not be the case for future, smaller angular scales measurements, such as those by the Planck satellite mission.

Galli, Silvia; Melchiorri, Alessandro [Universita di Roma 'La Sapienza', Ple Aldo Moro 2, 00185, Rome (Italy); Bean, Rachel [Department of Astronomy, Space Sciences Building, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853 (United States); Silk, Joseph [Astrophysics, Denys Wilkinson Building, University of Oxford, Keble Road, OX1 3RH, Oxford (United Kingdom)

2008-09-15

144

Delayed recombination and cosmic parameters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Current cosmological constraints from cosmic microwave background anisotropies are typically derived assuming a standard recombination scheme, however additional resonance and ionizing radiation sources can delay recombination, altering the cosmic ionization history and the cosmological inferences drawn from the cosmic microwave background data. We show that for recent observations of the cosmic microwave background anisotropy, from the Wilkinson microwave anisotropy probe satellite mission (WMAP) 5-year survey and from the arcminute cosmology bolometer array receiver experiment, additional resonance radiation is nearly degenerate with variations in the spectral index, ns, and has a marked effect on uncertainties in constraints on the Hubble constant, age of the universe, curvature and the upper bound on the neutrino mass. When a modified recombination scheme is considered, the redshift of recombination is constrained to z*=1078±11, with uncertainties in the measurement weaker by 1 order of magnitude than those obtained under the assumption of standard recombination while constraints on the shift parameter are shifted by 1? to R=1.734±0.028. From the WMAP5 data we obtain the following constraints on the resonance and ionization sources parameters: ??<0.39 and ?i<0.058 at 95% c.l.. Although delayed recombination limits the precision of parameter estimation from the WMAP satellite, we demonstrate that this should not be the case for future, smaller angular scales measurements, such as those by the Planck satellite mission.

Galli, Silvia; Bean, Rachel; Melchiorri, Alessandro; Silk, Joseph

2008-09-01

145

Improved Bound for the PPSZ\\/Schöning-Algorithm for 3SAT  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract The PPSZ Algorithm presented by Paturi, Pudlak, Saks, and Zane in 1998 has the nice feature that the only satisfying solution of a uniquely satisable 3-SAT formula can be found in expected running time at most O(1:3071,) bound. Keywords: 3-SAT, worst case bound, bounded resolution, randomized local search Submitted January 2006; revised October 2006; published November 2006

Daniel Rolf

2006-01-01

146

A Delay Composition Theorem for Real-Time Pipelines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Uniprocessor schedulability theory made great strides, in part, due to the simplicity of composing the delay of a job from the execution times of higher-priority jobs that preempt it. In this paper, we bound the end-to-end delay of a job in a multistage pipeline as a function of higher-priority job execution times on different stages. We show that the end-to-

Praveen Jayachandran; Tarek F. Abdelzaher

2007-01-01

147

Music Cognition: Learning, Perception, Expectations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research in music cognition domain has shown that non musician listeners have implicit knowledge about the Western tonal musical\\u000a system. This knowledge, acquired by mere exposure to music in everyday life, influences perception of musical structures and\\u000a allows developing expectations for future incoming events. Musical expectations play a role for musical expressivity and influence\\u000a event processing: Expected events are processed

Barbara Tillmann

2007-01-01

148

Tonal expectations influence pitch perception  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, we investigated the influence of tonal relatedness on pitch perception in melodies. Tonal expectations for\\u000a target tones were manipulated in melodic contexts while controlling sensory expectations, thus allowing us to assess specifically\\u000a the influence of tonal expectations on pitch perception. Three experiments provided converging evidence that tonal relatedness\\u000a modulates pitch perception in nonmusician listeners. Experiment 1 showed,

F. Marmel; B. Tillmann; W. J. Dowling

2008-01-01

149

Digital time delay  

SciTech Connect

Method and apparatus are provided for generating an output pulse following a trigger pulse at a time delay interval preset with a resolution which is high relative to a low resolution available from supplied clock pulses. A first lumped constant delay provides a first output signal at predetermined interpolation intervals corresponding to the desired high resolution time interval. Latching circuits latch the high resolution data to form a first synchronizing data set. A selected time interval has been preset to internal counters and corrected for circuit propagation delay times having the same order of magnitude as the desired high resolution. Internal system clock pulses count down the counters to generate an internal pulse delayed by an internal which is functionally related to the preset time interval. A second LCD corrects the internal signal with the high resolution time delay. A second internal pulse is then applied to a third LCD to generate a second set of synchronizing data which is complementary with the first set of synchronizing data for presentation to logic circuits. The logic circuits further delay the internal output signal with the internal pulses. The final delayed output signal thereafter enables the output pulse generator to produce the desired output pulse at the preset time delay interval following input of the trigger pulse.

Martin, A.D.

1986-05-09

150

Bounded time-stamps  

Microsoft Academic Search

Time-stamps are labels which a system adds to its data items. These labels enable the system to keep track of the temporal precedence relations among its data elements. Many distributed protocols and some applications use the natural numbers as time-stamps. The natural numbers however are not useful for bounded protocols. In this paper we develop a theory ofbounded time-stamps. Time-stamp

Amos Israeli; Ming Li

1993-01-01

151

Bounded time-stamps  

Microsoft Academic Search

Time-stamps are numerical labels which enable a system to keep track of temporal precedence relation among its data elements. Traditionally time-stamps are used as unbounded numbers and inevitable overflows cause a loss of this precedence relation. In this paper we develop a complete theory of bounded time-stamps. Time-stamp systems are defined and the complexity of their implementation is fully analyzed.

Amos Israeli; Ming Li

1987-01-01

152

Bound Nonlocality and Activation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate nonlocality distillation using measures of nonlocality based on the Elitzur-Popescu-Rohrlich decomposition. For a certain number of copies of a given nonlocal box, we define two quantities of interest: (i) the nonlocal cost and (ii) the distillable nonlocality. We find that there exist boxes whose distillable nonlocality is strictly smaller than their nonlocal cost. Thus nonlocality displays a form of irreversibility which we term “bound nonlocality.” Finally, we show that nonlocal distillability can be activated.

Brunner, Nicolas; Cavalcanti, Daniel; Salles, Alejo; Skrzypczyk, Paul

2011-01-01

153

The use of delay in multitrack production  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Delay, inevitable whenever sound propagates through space, is too often the bane of the acoustician's practice. An audible echo generally relegates a music performance hall-no matter how beautiful it otherwise might sound-to the lowest status. Multitrack music production on the other hand, with its aggressive use of overdubbing, editing, and signal processing, is not bound by those rules of time and space which determine the sound of a hall. In the recording studio, where music is synthesized for playback over loudspeakers, the delay is employed as a powerful, multipurpose tool. It is not avoided. It is in fact embraced. Echoes are used on purpose, strategically, to enhance the loudspeaker listening experience. Moreover, the humble delay is the basis for many nonecho effects. Flanging, chorus, and pitch shifting are delay-based effects regularly used in audio engineering practice. This paper discusses some of the more common delay-based effects, reviewing their technical structure, the psychoacoustic motivation behind them, and the musical value they create.

Case, Alexander U.

2003-04-01

154

Bound Exciton Complexes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the preceding chapter, we concentrated on the properties of free excitons. These free excitons may move through the sample and hit a trap, a nonradiative or a radiative recombination center. At low temperatures, the latter case gives rise to either deep center luminescence, mentioned in Sect. 7.1 and discussed in detail in Chap. 9, or to the luminescence of bound exciton complexes (BE or BEC). The chapter continues with the most prominent of these BECs, namely A-excitons bound to neutral donors. The next aspects are the more weakly BEs at ionized donors. The Sect. 7.4 treats the binding or localization energies of BEC from a theoretical point of view, while Sect. 7.5 is dedicated to excited states of BECs, which contain either holes from deeper valence bands or an envelope function with higher quantum numbers. The last section is devoted to donor-acceptor pair transitions. There is no section devoted specifically to excitons bound to neutral acceptors, because this topic is still partly controversially discussed. Instead, information on these A0X complexes is scattered over the whole chapter, however, with some special emphasis seen in Sects. 7.1, 7.4, and 7.5.

Meyer, B. K.

155

How magic changes our expectations about autism.  

PubMed

In the vanishing-ball illusion, the magician's social cues misdirect the audience's expectations and attention so that the audience "sees" a ball vanish in the air. Because individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are less sensitive to social cues and have superior perception for nonsocial details compared with typically developing individuals, we predicted that they would be less susceptible to the illusion. Surprisingly, the opposite result was found, as individuals with ASD were more susceptible to the illusion than a comparison group. Eye-tracking data indicated that subtle temporal delays in allocating attention might explain their heightened susceptibility. Additionally, although individuals with ASD showed typical patterns of looking to the magician's face and eyes, they were slower to launch their first saccade to the face and had difficulty in fixating the fast-moving observable ball. Considered together, the results indicate that individuals with ASD have difficulties in rapidly allocating attention toward both people and moving objects. PMID:20855904

Kuhn, Gustav; Kourkoulou, Anastasia; Leekam, Susan R

2010-09-20

156

The age old question, which comes first? A simultaneous test of children's savings and children's college-bound identity  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study has three goals: (1) to provide an extensive review of research on the assets\\/expectation relationship, (2) to provide a conceptual framework for how children's savings effects children's college-bound identity (children's college expectations are a proxy for children's college-bound identity), and (3) to conduct a simultaneous test of whether owning a savings account leads to college-bound identity or college-bound

William Elliott; Eun Hee Choi; Mesmin Destin; Kevin H. Kim

2011-01-01

157

Genomic medicine: too great expectations?  

PubMed

As advances in genomic medicine have captured the interest and enthusiasm of the public, an unintended consequence has been the creation of unrealistic expectations. Because these expectations may have a negative impact on individuals as well as genomics in general, it is important that they be understood and confronted. PMID:23872832

O'Rourke, P P

2013-08-01

158

Nobody expects the Spanish Inquistion  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Is any one really ready for the Spanish Inquisition? Assign studnets to participate in reading the play, The Spanish Inquisition by Monty Python. While readiang the play, display the following pictures at appropiate times. Nobody expects the Spanish Inquistion Confess!!! Get the Cushions!!!! Get the comfy Chair! Now you'll confess! Confess women, CONFESS!!! Nobody expects the Spanish Inquisition!!! ...

Hirschi, Mrs.

2005-04-08

159

Expected stock returns and volatility  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the relation between stock returns and stock market volatility. We find evidence that the expected market risk premium (the expected return on a stock portfolio minus the Treasury bill yield) is positively related to the predictable volatility of stock returns. There is also evidence that unexpected stock market returns are negatively related to the unexpected change in

Kenneth R. French; G. William Schwert; Robert F. Stambaugh

1987-01-01

160

Name Stereotypes and Teachers' Expectations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The studies described here were executed to explore and verify the conjecture that teachers' expectations are likely to be systematically associated with implicit stereotyped perceptions of names, and these stereotypical expectations may in turn be reflected in teachers' subjective evaluation of student products and performance. (Author/RK)

Harari, Herbert; McDavid, John W.

1973-01-01

161

THE PERFORMANCE OF GLOBAL EXPECTATIONS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Expectancy plays a central role in both structural descriptions of music, as well as psychological explanations of the apprehension of such music structure. This experiment investigates some of the factors underlying global expectancy formation, using a production task. Performers saw a number of melodic and combined melodic\\/harmonic contexts, and were asked to complete these fragments in terms of how they

Mark A. Schmuckler

1990-01-01

162

Do Juries Meet Our Expectations?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Surveys of public opinion indicate that people have high expectations for juries. When it comes to serious crimes, most people want errors of convicting the innocent (false positives) or acquitting the guilty (false negatives) to fall well below 10%. Using expected utility theory, Bayes' Theorem, signal detection theory, and empirical evidence from detection studies of medical decision making, eyewitness testimony,

Hal R. Arkes; Barbara A. Mellers

2002-01-01

163

Health-Adjusted Life Expectancy  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1991, the National Task Force on Health Information recommended that in order to assess the health of Canadians, the health information system should include an aggregate index of population health. This article presents such an index—Health- Adjusted Life Expectancy (HALE)—as one possibility in a range of indicators. In contrast to conventional life expectancy, which considers all years as equal,

Michael C. Wolfson

1996-01-01

164

Smokers' expectations to quit smoking  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigate the effectiveness of different smoking policies on smokers' expectations to quit smoking using a choice experiment on a sample of smokers identified within the World Health Organization (WHO) MONICA Project. Our results indicate that restricted availability, increased cigarette prices, cessation subsidies and regulations at restaurants, bars and cafés increase the expected probability of smoking cessation. Regulations at work

Henrik Hammar; Fredrik Carlsson

2005-01-01

165

Approximate controllability of a system of parabolic equations with delay  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we give necessary and sufficient conditions for the approximate controllability of the following system of parabolic equations with delay: where [Omega] is a bounded domain in , D is an n×n nondiagonal matrix whose eigenvalues are semi-simple with nonnegative real part, the control and B[set membership, variant]L(U,Z) with , . The standard notation zt(x) defines a function from [-[tau],0] to (with x fixed) by zt(x)(s)=z(t+s,x), -[tau][less-than-or-equals, slant]s[less-than-or-equals, slant]0. Here [tau][greater-or-equal, slanted]0 is the maximum delay, which is supposed to be finite. We assume that the operator is linear and bounded, and [phi]0[set membership, variant]Z, [phi][set membership, variant]L2([-[tau],0];Z). To this end: First, we reformulate this system into a standard first-order delay equation. Secondly, the semigroup associated with the first-order delay equation on an appropriate product space is expressed as a series of strongly continuous semigroups and orthogonal projections related with the eigenvalues of the Laplacian operator (); this representation allows us to reduce the controllability of this partial differential equation with delay to a family of ordinary delay equations. Finally, we use the well-known result on the rank condition for the approximate controllability of delay system to derive our main result.

Carrasco, Alexander; Leiva, Hugo

2008-09-01

166

Bound-phrase searching in OCLC FirstSearch  

Microsoft Academic Search

A useful way to pinpoint information in OCLC FirstSearch is through a wordlist bound-phrase search. A bound-phrase search looks for the full title, author, and so forth. exactly as you type it. A wordlist search will tell you how many hits to expect before you are charged for a search. You can also browse through the wordlist for additional related

Janice Zlendich

1994-01-01

167

Memoryless H ? Controllers for Discrete-Time Systems with Time Delay  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper considers the problem of H? stabilization of discrete-time systems with state delays and exogenous bounded-energy l2 disturbances. Specifically, an H? state feedback control design problem for discrete-time systems with time delay is addressed. The principal result involves sufficient conditions in terms of a modified Riccati equation for characterizing state feedback controllers that enforce a bound on H? performance

VIKRAM KAPILA; WASSIM M. HADDAD

1998-01-01

168

78 FR 18326 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Comment Request; Upward Bound and Upward Bound Math...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Request; Upward Bound and Upward Bound Math Science Annual Performance Report AGENCY...Collection: Upward Bound and Upward Bound Math Science Annual Performance Report. OMB...regular Upward Bound (UB) and Upward Bound Math and Science (UBMS) Programs. The...

2013-03-26

169

Choice and reinforcement delay  

SciTech Connect

Previous studies of choice between two delayed reinforcers have indicated that the relative immediacy of the reinforcer is a major determinant of the relative frequency of responding. Parallel studies of choice between two interresponse times have found exceptions to this generality. The present study looked at the choice by pigeons between two delays, one of which was always four times longer than the other, but whose absolute durations were varied across conditions. The results indicated that choice is not uniquely determined by the relative immediacy of reinforcement, but that absolute delays are also involved. Models for concurrent chained schedules appear to be more applicable to the present data than the matching relation; however, these too failed to predict choice for long delays.

Gentry, G.D.; Marr, M.J.

1980-01-01

170

Trace formulas for time delay and the second virial coefficient  

Microsoft Academic Search

A high-temperature expansion for the quantum-mechanical second virial coefficient is derived using newly developed trace formulas for time delay in scattering theory. The known cancellation between the bound state and continuum contributions is explained in this general framework. The method cam be extended to higher virial coefficients.

D. Bollé; H. Smeesters

1977-01-01

171

Time delay spectrum conditioner  

DOEpatents

A device for delaying specified frequencies of a multiple frequency laser beam. The device separates the multiple frequency beam into a series of spatially separated single frequency beams. The propagation distance of the single frequency beam is subsequently altered to provide the desired delay for each specific frequency. Focusing reflectors can be utilized to provide a simple but nonadjustable system or, flat reflectors with collimating and focusing optics can be utilized to provide an adjustable system.

Greiner, Norman R. (Los Alamos, NM)

1980-01-01

172

Fractionally addressed delay lines  

Microsoft Academic Search

While traditional implementations of variable-length digital delay lines are based on a circular buffer accessed by two pointers, we propose an implementation where a single fractional pointer is used both for read and write operations. On modern general-purpose architectures, the proposed method is nearly as efficient as the popular interpolated circular buffer, and it behaves well for delay-length modulations commonly

Davide Rocchesso

2000-01-01

173

Vernier Delay Unit  

SciTech Connect

This module will accept differential ECL pulses from the auxiliary rear panel or NIM level pulses from the front panel. The pulses are produced at the output with a fixed delay that is software programmable in steps of 0.1 ns over the range of 0.1 to 10.5 ns. Multiple outputs are available at the front panel. Minimum delay through the module is 9 ns.

Pierce, W.B.

1984-10-01

174

Delay Differential Equations  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a In this chapter, applications of group analysis to delay differential equations are considered. Many mathematical models in\\u000a biology, physics and engineering, where there is a time lag or aftereffect, are described by delay differential equations.\\u000a These equations are similar to ordinary differential equations, but their evolution involves past values of the state variable.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a For the sake of completeness the chapter

Yurii Grigoriev; Nail Ibragimov; Vladimir Kovalev; Sergey Meleshko

175

A numerical study of bench blast row delay timing and its influence on percent-cast  

SciTech Connect

The computer program, DMC (Distinct Motion Code), which was developed for simulating the rock motion associated with blasting, has been used to study the influence of row delay timing on rock motion. The numerical simulations correspond with field observations in that very short delays (< 50ms) and very long delays (> 300ms) produce a lower percent-cast than a medium delay (100 to 200 ms). The DMC predicted relationship between row delay timing and percent-cast is more complex than expected with a dip in the curve where the optimum timing might be expected. More study is required to gain a full understanding of this phenomenon.

Preece, D.S.

1993-11-01

176

Delayed voice communication  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present results from simulated deep-space exploration missions that investigated voice communication with significant time delays. The simulations identified many challenges: confusion of sequence, blocked calls, wasted crew time, impaired ability to provide relevant information to the other party, losing track of which messages have reached the other party, weakened rapport between crew and ground, slow response to rapidly changing situations, and reduced situational awareness. These challenges were met in part with additional training; greater attention and foresight; longer, less frequent transmissions; meticulous recordkeeping and timekeeping; and specific alerting and acknowledging calls. Several simulations used both delayed voice and text messaging. Text messaging provided a valuable record of transmissions and allowed messages to be targeted to subsets of the flight and ground crew, but it was a poor choice for high-workload operators such as vehicle drivers and spacewalkers. Even with the foregoing countermeasures, delayed voice communication is difficult. Additional aids such as automatic delay timers and voice-to-text transcription would help. Tests comparing delays of 50 and 300 s unexpectedly revealed that communicating with the shorter delay was just as challenging as with the longer one.

Love, Stanley G.; Reagan, Marcum L.

2013-10-01

177

Delayed flowering and global warming  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Within general trends toward earlier spring, observed cases of species and ecosystems that have not advanced their phenology, or have even delayed it, appear paradoxical, especially when made in temperate regions experiencing significant warming. The typical interpretation of this pattern has been that non-responders are insensitive to relatively small levels of warming over the past 40 years, while species showing delays are often viewed as statistical noise or evidence for unknown confounding factors at play. However, plant physiology studies suggest that when winter chilling (vernalization) is required to initiate spring development, winter warming may retard spring events, masking expected advances caused by spring warming. Here, we analyzed long-term data on phenology and seasonal temperatures from 490 species on two continents and demonstrate that 1) apparent non-responders are indeed responding to warming, but their responses to winter and spring warming are opposite in sign, 2) observed trends in first flowering date depend strongly on the magnitude of a given species' response to autumn/winter versus spring warming, and 3) inclusion of these effects strongly improves hindcast predictions of long-term flowering trends. With a few notable exceptions, climate change research has focused on the overall mean trend towards phenological advance, minimizing discussion of apparently non-responding species. Our results illuminate an under-studied source of complexity in wild species responses and support the need for models incorporating diverse environmental cues in order to improve predictability of species responses to anthropogenic climate change.

Cook, B. I.; Wolkovich, E. M.; Parmesan, C.

2011-12-01

178

Immediacy Versus Anticipated Delay in the Time-Left Experiment: A Test of the Cognitive Hypothesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the time-left experiment (J. Gibbon & R. M. Church, 1981), animals are said to compare an expectation of a fixed delay to food, for one choice, with a decreasing delay expectation for the other, mentally representing both upcoming time to food and the difference between current time and upcoming time (the cognitive hypothesis). The results of 2 experiments support

D. T. Cerutti; J. E. R. Staddon

2004-01-01

179

Expected Power for the False Discovery Rate with Independence  

PubMed Central

The Benjamini–Hochberg procedure is widely used in multiple comparisons. Previous power results for this procedure have been based on simulations. This article produces theoretical expressions for expected power. To derive them, we make assumptions about the number of hypotheses being tested, which null hypotheses are true, which are false, and the distributions of the test statistics under each null and alternative. We use these assumptions to derive bounds for multiple dimensional rejection regions. With these bounds and a permanent based representation of the joint density function of the largest p-values, we use the law of total probability to derive the distribution of the total number of rejections. We derive the joint distribution of the total number of rejections and the number of rejections when the null hypothesis is true. We give an analytic expression for the expected power for a false discovery rate procedure that assumes the hypotheses are independent.

GLUECK, D. H.; MULLER, K. E.; KARIMPOUR-FARD, A.; HUNTER, L.

2010-01-01

180

Global Synchronization Control of General Delayed Discrete-Time Networks With Stochastic Coupling and Disturbances  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, the synchronization control problem is considered for two coupled discrete-time complex networks with time delays. The network under investigation is quite general to reflect the reality, where the state delays are allowed to be time varying with given lower and upper bounds, and the stochastic disturbances are assumed to be Brownian motions that affect not only the

Jinling Liang; Zidong Wang; Yurong Liu; Xiaohui Liu

2008-01-01

181

On the global robust asymptotic stability of BAM neural networks with time-varying delays  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, the global robust asymptotic stability of a class of delayed bi-directional associative memory (BAM) neural networks, which contain variable uncertain parameters whose values are unknown but bounded, is studied. Some new sufficient conditions are presented for the global stability of BAM neural networks with time-varying delays by constructing Lyapunov functional and using linear matrix inequality (LMI), Halanay's

Xuyang Lou; Baotong Cui

2006-01-01

182

New results for global robust stability of bidirectional associative memory neural networks with multiple time delays  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents some new sufficient conditions for the global robust asymptotic stability of the equilibrium point for bidirectional associative memory (BAM) neural networks with multiple time delays. The results we obtain impose constraint conditions on the network parameters of neural system independently of the delay parameter, and they are applicable to all bounded continuous non-monotonic neuron activation functions. We

Sibel Senan; Sabri Arik

2009-01-01

183

Global Robust Stability of Bidirectional Associative Memory Neural Networks With Multiple Time Delays  

Microsoft Academic Search

This correspondence presents a sufficient condition for the existence, uniqueness, and global robust asymptotic stability of the equilibrium point for bidirectional associative memory neural networks with discrete time delays. The results impose constraint conditions on the network parameters of the neural system independently of the delay parameter, and they are applicable to all bounded continuous nonmonotonic neuron activation functions. Some

Sibel Senan; Sabri Arik

2007-01-01

184

Global asymptotic stability of hybrid bidirectional associative memory neural networks with time delays  

Microsoft Academic Search

This Letter presents a sufficient condition for the existence, uniqueness and global asymptotic stability of the equilibrium point for bidirectional associative memory (BAM) neural networks with distributed time delays. The results impose constraint conditions on the network parameters of neural system independently of the delay parameter, and they are applicable to all bounded continuous non-monotonic neuron activation functions. The results

Sabri Arik

2006-01-01

185

OSCILLATION FOR EQUATIONS WITH POSITIVE AND NEGATIVE COEFFICIENTS AND WITH DISTRIBUTED DELAY I: GENERAL RESULTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

We study a scalar delay dierential equation with a bounded dis- tributed delay, ? x(t) + Z t h(t) x(s)d sR(t,s) Z t g(t) x(s)d sT(t,s) = 0, where R(t,s), T(t,s) are nonnegative nondecreasing in s for any t,

LEONID BEREZANSKY; ELENA BRAVERMAN

2003-01-01

186

Analysis of the effects of time delay spread on TCM performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigate the effect of time delay spread on trellis coded modulation (TCM) in a wireless radio environment where equalization is not employed to mitigate the effects of frequency selective fading when the time delay spread is small. Using a random variable decomposition technique and a Gaussian approximation of the intersymbol interference terms, we obtain explicit bounds for the pairwise

Pingyi Fan; Khaled Ben Letaief; Ross D. Murch

1999-01-01

187

Stability, queue length, and delay of deterministic and stochastic queueing networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present two types of stability problems: 1) conditions for queueing networks that render bounded queue lengths and bounded delay for customers, and 2) conditions for queueing networks in which the queue length distribution of a queue has an exponential tail with rate ?. To answer these two types of stability problems, we introduce two new notions of traffic characterization:

Cheng-Shang Chang

1994-01-01

188

Expectancy of line segment orientation.  

PubMed

The question was asked whether briefly flashed line segments are easier to detect when presented at an expected, rather than an unexpected, orientation. Detection rates were measured in a two-interval forced choice (2IFC) paradigm that did not require the subject to identify the orientation of the line segment, only to detect its presence. The 2IFC paradigm was used to rule out bias or criterion effects. Subjects were led to expect lines in a particular or primary orientation by being presented lines with that orientation as cues before every trial, and by being tested with only that orientation during practice. Lines of the orthogonal, probe orientation replaced the primary on 25% of experimental trials. When the stimulus location was known in advance, lines of the primary orientation were detected more accurately than were probe lines, but when stimulus location was not known, detection rates were equal. Detection rates were also equal when subjects were informed of the probe at the end of the practice period, so that both orientations were expected; hence the subjects' expectations, not the probability of stimulus occurrence, are necessary for the effect to occur. Thus expecting a line of a particular orientation at a particular location facilities its detection. PMID:8903137

Kurylo, D D; Reeves, A; Scharf, B

1996-01-01

189

Downhole delay assembly for blasting with series delay  

DOEpatents

A downhole delay assembly is provided which can be placed into a blasthole for initiation of explosive in the blasthole. The downhole delay assembly includes at least two detonating time delay devices in series in order to effect a time delay of longer than about 200 milliseconds in a round of explosions. The downhole delay assembly provides a protective housing to prevent detonation of explosive in the blasthole in response to the detonation of the first detonating time delay device. There is further provided a connection between the first and second time delay devices. The connection is responsive to the detonation of the first detonating time delay device and initiates the second detonating time delay device. A plurality of such downhole delay assemblies are placed downhole in unfragmented formation and are initiated simultaneously for providing a round of explosive expansions. The explosive expansions can be used to form an in situ oil shale retort containing a fragmented permeable mass of formation particles.

Ricketts, Thomas E. (Grand Junction, CO)

1982-01-01

190

Robust Stability Analysis for Fuzzy BAM Neural Networks with Time Varying Delays  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper deals with the problem of robust stability for fuzzy bi-directional associative memory (BAM) neural networks with time-varying interval delays. Here the delays are assumed be in given ranges. By constructing new Lyapunov-Krasovskii functional, stability conditions which are dependent on the upper and lower bounds of the delays, are given in term of linear matrix inequalities (LMIs). A numerical

Bin Liu; Xu Guang; Xu Qian

2008-01-01

191

Do juries meet our expectations?  

PubMed

Surveys of public opinion indicate that people have high expectations for juries. When it comes to serious crimes, most people want errors of convicting the innocent (false positives) or acquitting the guilty (false negatives) to fall well below 10%. Using expected utility theory, Bayes' Theorem, signal detection theory, and empirical evidence from detection studies of medical decision making, eyewitness testimony, and weather forecasting, we argue that the frequency of mistakes probably far exceeds these "tolerable" levels. We are not arguing against the use of juries. Rather, we point out that a closer look at jury decisions reveals a serious gap between what we expect from juries and what probably occurs. When deciding issues of guilt and/or punishing convicted criminals, we as a society should recognize and acknowledge the abundance of error. PMID:12508698

Arkes, Hal R; Mellers, Barbara A

2002-12-01

192

DELAY FAULT MODELS AND METRICS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The delay fault testing has become an important part of the overall test development process. But delay fault testing is not so mature as stuck-at fault testing. The paper surveys various delay fault models, their advantages and limitations. The current trends in test pattern generation for delay faults are analyzed, too. The test pattern gene- ration is directly related to

Vacius Jusas

193

[Delayed graft function].  

PubMed

Delayed return to kidney function after transplantation is characterized essentially by acute ischemic tubular necrosis. It remains frequent and has no curative treatment. However, an induction treatment of antilymphocyte serum may reduce the delay in recuperation. In patients with delayed function, the maintenance immunosuppressive treatment should take into account the excessive risk of acute rejection over the short term and the more rapid deterioration of renal function over the long term. This means that biopsies to screen for acute rejection should be done systematically before the end of the 3rd month and anticalcineurin toxicity-sparing treatment should be considered, replacing anticalcineurins immediately with belatacept or after the 3-month acute period with proliferation signal inhibitors, if the kidney histology tests permit. In all cases, the classical measures of kidney protection remain indispensable. PMID:19000884

Hertig, A

2008-10-01

194

Delayed star formation in galaxies  

SciTech Connect

The problem of delayed star formation in galaxies is formulated, and some possible approaches to solving it are discussed. Observational evidence suggests that galaxies undergo long periods (10/sup 8/--10/sup 10/ yr) when star formation is suppressed. Two modes of star formation are considered: 1) gravitational collapse and fragmentation of initially rarefied gas; 2) creation of stars through collisions of interstellar clouds. In these contexts three mechanisms are examined for suppressing star formation, each involving supernova outbursts: a) the gas density in the disk of a galaxy drops below its critical value; b) gravitationally bound fragments are disrupted through heating by external radiation sources (supernovae and supernova remnants); c) the cool interstellar gas phase decays when the heating rate rises above a critical value. Estimates of the heating rate indicate that star formation will be suppressed by mechanisms b and c. If the number of supernovae and supernova remnants was formerly one to three orders of magnitude greater than today, as could have happened in the Galaxy during active evolutionary phases, then star formation could indeed have been suppressed.

Suchkov, A.A.; Shchekinov, Y.A.

1979-11-01

195

A measurement of propagation delay  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A measurement method and associated uncertainty analysis have been developed for the measurement of propagation or group delay in electrical transmission lines and optical fibres. The measurement method and uncertainty analysis were applied to measurements of optical fibre delay lines that introduce tens of microseconds of delay (1 km, 2 km and 4 km fibre lengths) and trombone lines that introduce sub-nanosecond delays. For the measurement method described here, uncertainties in the measured delay are as low as 90 fs (95% confidence interval) for a propagation delay of 660 ps and less than 200 ps (95% confidence interval) for a propagation delay of 20 µs.

Larson, Donald R.; Paulter, Nicholas G., Jr.

2007-02-01

196

Autism and developmental delay  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective  This study improves the knowledge of early autistic symptomatology and research concerning (i) the significant differences\\u000a in the behaviors of children with autistic disorder (AD) and children with a developmental delay (DD), and (ii) the influence\\u000a of the cognitive delay on symptomatology.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Method  Two groups of 20 young children (7–42 months) were compared: children with AD, and those with DD. The groups

Hugues Desombre; Joelle Malvy; Sylvie Roux; Régis de Villard; Dominique Sauvage; Jean Dalery; Pascal Lenoir

2006-01-01

197

The reachability-bound problem  

Microsoft Academic Search

We define the reachability-bound problem to be the problem of finding a symbolic worst-case bound on the number of times a given control location inside a procedure is visited in terms of the inputs to that procedure. This has applications in bounding resources consumed by a program such as time, memory, network-traffic, power, as well as estimating quantitative properties (as

Sumit Gulwani; Florian Zuleger

2010-01-01

198

SOLVING LINEAR RATIONAL EXPECTATIONS MODELS  

Microsoft Academic Search

t = 1,...,T , where C is a vector of constants, z(t) is an exogenously evolving, possi- bly serially correlated, random disturbance, and ?(t) is an expectational error, satisfying Et?(t + 1 )= 0, all t. The ?(t) terms are not given exogenously, but instead are treated as determined as part of the model solution. Models with more lags, or

CHRISTOPHER A. SIMS

1996-01-01

199

Tourism motivation and expectation formation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This theoretical study introduces a model of tourism motivation and expectation formation. It is based on a discussion and operationalization of both the behaviorist notion of drive reduction and the cognitivist constructs of attitudes and values. While the satisfaction of inner-directed values and motivations depends on classes of objects, outer-directed values target specific objects. In the case of trying to

Juergen Gnoth

1997-01-01

200

Expectations of indoor climate control  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses reassessment of indoor climate control in the context of current thermal comfort practice and research. We review the limitations of comfort models and standards with several examples. We examine how people's thermal sensation and preference may be influenced by culture and climate and associated issues of thermal expectations and adaptation. Finally, we discuss how incorporating these factors

Marc Fountain; Gail Brager; Richard de Dear

1996-01-01

201

Children's Judgments of Expected Value.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Expected value judgments of 5- through 10-year-olds were studied by having children view roulette-type games and make judgments of how happy a puppet playing the game would be. Even the youngest children showed some understanding of probability dependence, with children under eight using an additive integration rule and children eight and older…

Schlottmann, Anne; Anderson, Norman H.

1994-01-01

202

Babbage's Expectations for his Engines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Babbage's expectations for his Difference Engine were those of a young enthusiast. Although he failed to complete his version of the engine, an independent implementation of his ideas was carried through by Georg and Edvard Scheutz. Two Scheutz engines were built and put to work, one at the Registrar-General's Office in London and one at the Dudley Observatory in Albany,

Maurice V. Wilkes

1991-01-01

203

Expectations in Incremental Discourse Processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

The way in which discourse features express connections back to the previous discourse has been described in the literature in terms of on a suitably defined right frontier, can be used to both process expectations and constrain discouse processing in general.

Dan Cristea; Bonnie Lynn Webber

1997-01-01

204

Optimal expectations with complete markets  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract Because agents have anticipatory feelings about future risks, it is optimal for them to manipulate their expectations. As in Brunnermeier and Parker (2003) and Gollier (2004), we examine the trade-off between the costs of erro- neous decisions based on these manipulated beliefs and the benefits of antici- pating a better future. In this paper, we assume that contingent markets

Christian Gollier

2007-01-01

205

Expectation Grammars: Leveraging High-Level Expectations for Activity Recognition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Video-based recognition and prediction of a temporally ex- tended activity can benefit from a detailed description of high-level expectations about the activity. Stochastic gr am- mars allow for an efficient representation of such expecta- tions and are well-suited for the specification of temporall y well-ordered activities. In this paper, we extend stochast ic grammars by adding event parameters, state checks,

David Minnen; Irfan A. Essa; Thad Starner

2003-01-01

206

Delayed enrollment and College Plans: is There a Postponement Penalty?  

PubMed

Using a representative longitudinal survey of Texas high school seniors who graduated in 2002, we investigate how college postponement is associated with four-year college expectations and attendance-focusing both on the length of delay and the pathway to the postsecondary system. Like prior studies, we show that family background and student academic achievement explains the negative association between delay and college expectations and that these factors, along with two-year college entry pathway, largely accounted for the negative association between postponement and enrollment at a four-year institution in 2006. Although delays of one year or longer are associated with significantly lower odds of attending a baccalaureate-granting institution four years after high school, the longest delays do not incur the most severe enrollment penalties. PMID:23606758

Niu, Sunny; Tienda, Marta

2013-01-01

207

Low density codes achieve the rate-distortion bound  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose a new construction for low-density source codes with multiple parameters that can be tuned to optimize the performance of the code. In addition, we introduce a set of analysis techniques for deriving upper bounds for the expected distortion of our construction, as well as more general low-density constructions. We show that (with an optimal encoding algorithm) our codes

Emin Martinian; Martin J. Wainwright

2006-01-01

208

Delayed crosslinker composition  

Microsoft Academic Search

A crosslinker composition is described that can produce delayed crosslinking of an aqueous solution of a crosslinkable organic polymer. It consists of about 1% to about 10% by weight of an organic zirconium complex and about 2% to about 37% by weight organic hydroxycarboxylic acid selected from the group consisting of lactic, mandelic and hydroxyacetic acids the pH of the

1989-01-01

209

Delayed coking process  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a process for delayed coking of heavy petroleum residue feedstock within a coker heater, a coke drum and a fractionator, wherein the feedstock and recycle material are heated in the heater and then passed to the coke drum to produce coke and overhead vapors, wherein the vapors are fed into a bottom primary section of the fractionator. A heavy

Mallari

1989-01-01

210

Delays of Interconnected Flows  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A rigorous approach to flows of particles in networks is presented. Under the assumption of independence of the transversal flows the asymptotic distributions of inter-delay times between particles are shown to be log-normal. In the case of dependent transversal traffic the ARCH and GARCH time series models, as well as martingale approach, have been applied.

Sorger, U.; Suchanecki, Z.

2011-07-01

211

Delayed Postoperative Extradural Hematoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Postcraniotomy complications include various types of intracranial hematomas and systemic complications like cardiac and renal failure. This is a report of a patient who underwent a reexploration of a previous craniotomy and then went into status epilepticus, which was controlled, but the patient developed acute renal failure and then a delayed extradural hematoma.

R. Ramnarayan; N. R. Sreehari; G. K. Ninan; K. M. John

2007-01-01

212

Older adults' beliefs about physician-estimated life expectancy: a cross-sectional survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Estimates of life expectancy assist physicians and patients in medical decision-making. The time-delayed benefits for many medical treatments make an older adult's life expectancy estimate particularly important for physicians. The purpose of this study is to assess older adults' beliefs about physician-estimated life expectancy. METHODS: We performed a mixed qualitative-quantitative cross-sectional study in which 116 healthy adults aged 70+

Christine E Kistler; Carmen L Lewis; Halle R Amick; Debra L Bynum; Louise C Walter; Lea C Watson

2006-01-01

213

Preliminary bounds on the expected postclosure performance of the Yucca Mountain Repository Site, southern Nevada  

Microsoft Academic Search

On the basis of current data and understanding of site characteristics at Yucca Mountain, the likely performance range of a mined repository for spent nuclear fuel can be calculated. Low flux through the unsaturated zone results in groundwater travel times to the water table that probably exceed 10,000 years and may exceed 100,000 years, far longer than required by the

S. Sinnock; Y. T. Lin; J. P. Brannen

1987-01-01

214

Preliminary bounds on the expected postclosure performance of the Yucca Mountain Repository Site, southern Nevada  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current data and understanding about the site conditions at Yucca Mountain provide a basis for calculating the likely range of performance of a mined repository for spent nuclear fuel. Low flux through the unsaturated zone results in groundwater travel times to the water table that probably exceed 10,000 years and may exceed 100,000 years, far longer than required by the

S. Sinnock; Y. T. Lin; J. P. Brannen

1984-01-01

215

Mothers’ developmental expectations for young  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of the study was to investigate the developmental timetables of rural and urban mothers in the Central Visayas, Philippines. Examined were mothers’ expectations for children’s development (physical\\/perceptual-motor, cognitive, and psychosocial) and mothers’ child rearing practices, as influenced by four selected variables (child’s gender and ordinal position, mother’s education, and rural or urban residence). The total sample size was

Phoebe Dauz Williams; Arthur R. Williams; Marcelo Lopez; Nenita P. Tayko

2000-01-01

216

Expectation to hydrologists on groundwater  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Water demands are increasing globally since the latter half of 20th century. Especially, underground water demands have been increasing rapidly everywhere in the world. As a result, various kinds of environmental destruction were also occurred world-widely. Climate change is accelerating to increase the severe disasters and water crisis including the underground water critical situation. Thus, underground hydrologist's duty is very important, and it is expected to research and solve the above-mentioned matters for them.

Takahasi, Yutaka

217

Youth – lifestyle, expectation and media  

Microsoft Academic Search

Characterises modern young people as adventurous, high-tech and time-poor, and reviews how media and brands are attempting to evolve to match the needs of this market. Focuses on how the UK’s fourth largest daily national newspaper “Metro” has designed itself to fit the urban 18-24 year olds group. Reports research carried out by “Metro” which identified ten expectations of young

Katharine King

2006-01-01

218

[The kidney and life expectancy].  

PubMed

Basic renal functions are physiologically determined as precisely regulated relation between more and less physical events with low energy consumption and energy dependent cellular transport mechanisms. All well in ageing as under various conditions of renal diseases adaptive processes become biologically effective, so that stabilisation of homöostasis is possible up to a loss of 95% of normal function. Life expectancy has to be defined under the new conditions of renal replacement therapy effective beyond this biologically defined border line. PMID:1796531

Schoeppe, W

1991-12-01

219

A bound on EMP coupling  

Microsoft Academic Search

A bound on the energy coupled to a load by means of an antenna or aperture subjected to a step function electromagnetic pulse (EMP) is given by the polarizabilities of the antenna or aperture. Examples of coupling bounds for a slender electric dipole antenna, a circular aperture, and a narrow slot aperture with depth are given. It is demonstrated, by

LARRY K. WARNE; KENNETH C. CHEN

1990-01-01

220

Modifications of the Griesmer Bound.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Griesmer bound is a classical technique (developed in 1960) for estimating the minimum length n required for a binary linear code with a given dimension k and minimum distance d. In this article, a unified derivation of the Griesmer bound and two new ...

R. J. Mceliece G. Solomon

1991-01-01

221

Remarks on form factor bounds  

SciTech Connect

Improved model independent upper bounds on the weak transition form factors are derived using inclusive sum rules. A comparison of the new bounds with the old ones is made for the form factors h{sub A{sub 1}} and h{sub V} in B{yields}D{sup *} decays. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society.

Chiang, Cheng-Wei [Department of Physics, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15213 (United States)

2000-03-01

222

Memory-Bounded Bidirectional Search  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous approaches to bidirectional search require ex- ponential space, and they are either less efficient than unidirectional search for finding optimal solutions, or they cannot even find such solutions for difficult prob- lems. Based on a memory-bounded unidirectional algorithm for trees (SMA*), we developed a graph search extension, and we used it to construct a very ef- ficient memory-bounded bidirectional

Hermann Kaindl; Aliasghar Khorsand

1994-01-01

223

Northwest Outward Bound Instructor's Manual.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Instructor responsibilities, procedures for completing activities safely, and instructional methods and techniques are outlined to assist instructors in the Northwest Outward Bound School (Portland, Oregon) as they strive for teaching excellence. Information is organized into six chapters addressing: history and philosophy of Outward Bound;…

Northwest Outward Bound School, Portland, OR.

224

Hopes and expectations with GREGOR  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This contribution to the series of GREGOR inauguration articles addresses the history of the GREGOR telescope. It was obvious since a long time that the study of the atmospheric dynamics on the Sun needs telescopes with a large aperture. So the first plans to replace the 40 years old Gregory-Coudé Telescope, with its 45 cm primary mirror, by a large, 1.5-meter telescope date back to 1997. After a positive review of the project by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft in 2000, the large financial support started in 2000. Unfortunately, the new technology of the Cesic mirrors was not yet ripe to produce the large primary mirror with this light-weight material. So, the project was much delayed. After recollecting for the reader several dates, I also go through some properties of GREGOR. I recall the aims of the project and discuss difficulties and ways to realise the intentions.

Kneer, F.

2012-11-01

225

Learning reward expectations in honeybees  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to test whether honeybees develop reward expectations. In our experiment, bees first learned to associate colors with a sugar reward in a setting closely resembling a natural foraging situation. We then evaluated whether and how the sequence of the animals’ experiences with different reward magnitudes changed their later behavior in the absence of reinforcement and within an otherwise similar context. We found that the bees that had experienced increasing reward magnitudes during training assigned more time to flower inspection 24 and 48 h after training. Our design and behavioral measurements allowed us to uncouple the signal learning and the nutritional aspects of foraging from the effects of subjective reward values. We thus found that the animals behaved differently neither because they had more strongly associated the related predicting signals nor because they were fed more or faster. Our results document for the first time that honeybees develop long-term expectations of reward; these expectations can guide their foraging behavior after a relatively long pause and in the absence of reinforcement, and further experiments will aim toward an elucidation of the neural mechanisms involved in this form of learning.

Gil, Mariana; De Marco, Rodrigo J.; Menzel, Randolf

2007-01-01

226

Dynamic Time Delay Models for Load Balancing. Part II: A Stochastic Analysis of the Effect of Delay Uncertainty  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a In large-scale distributed computing systems, in which the computational elements are physically or virtually distant from\\u000a each other, there are communication-related delays that can significantly alter the expected performance of load-balancing\\u000a policies that do not account for such delays. This is a particularly significant problem in systems for which the individual\\u000a units are connected by means of a shared broadband

Majeed M. Hayat; Sagar Dhakal; Chaouki T. Abdallah; J. Douglas Birdwell; John Chiasson

227

Metabolism of organically bound tritium  

SciTech Connect

The classic methodology for estimating dose to man from environmental tritium ignores the fact that organically bound tritium in foodstuffs may be directly assimilated in the bound compartment of tissues without previous oxidation. We propose a four-compartment model consisting of a free body water compartment, two organic compartments, and a small, rapidly metabolizing compartment. The utility of this model lies in the ability to input organically bound tritium in foodstuffs directly into the organic compartments of the model. We found that organically bound tritium in foodstuffs can increase cumulative total body dose by a factor of 1.7 to 4.5 times the free body water dose alone, depending on the bound-to-loose ratio of tritium in the diet. Model predictions are compared with empirical measurements of tritium in human urine and tissue samples, and appear to be in close agreement. 10 references, 4 figures, 3 tables.

Travis, C.C.

1984-01-01

228

Bounding analyses in NEPA documents: When are they appropriate  

SciTech Connect

Bounding analyses are simplified quantitative analyses that use conservative assumptions and analytical techniques to ensure that potential impacts are not underestimated. They are often used when an impact is expected to be minor or insignificant to avoid the effort required to predict precisely the magnitude of the impact. This common-sense use of bounding analysis is consistent with Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ) guidance (40 CFR 1501.1[d], 1501.7[a][3], and 1502.2) to focus efforts on the most significant impacts when implementing provisions of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA). It allows analysts, the public, and decision makers to focus on the most significant impacts without having their attentions diluted by minor impacts. On the other hand, the authors were concerned that the use of bounding analysis might inhibit achievement of NEPA's purposes (i.e., ''...to promote efforts which will prevent or eliminate damage to the environment and biosphere...'' [Section 2]) by impeding prevention or mitigation of small adverse impacts or by impeding assessment of cumulative impacts. This paper reviews examples of four situations in which bounding analyses are used and concludes that bounding analyses do not impede achievement of NEPA's purposes or compliance with its implementing regulations. On the contrary, bounding analysis facilitates considerations of cumulative impacts in some situations. The authors conclude that more frequent use of bounding analyses is warranted.

Saylor, R.E.; McCold, L.N. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States))

1994-12-01

229

[Corneal arcus and life expectancy].  

PubMed

In 1964-66, the authors completed the comprehensive medical screening of 1412 persons. Apart from the indicators of health state they also recorded their social and cultural parameters. The diagnoses they registered included AC, which has been covered in literature in rather contradicting ways. They found no data concerning survival; as analysing such a correlation is only possible within the frame-work of a several-decade follow-up study. By the end of the follow-up stage (31:12:1994), after 30 years, 1375 persons had died. Their death certificates and--if there were any--necropsy records have been processed and thoroughly analysed. They examined the occurrence of AC, life duration and survival probability--all in correlation with age, gender, constitution, certain diseases (hypertonia, ostheoarthrosis) and diagnoses at death (ischaemic heart diseases, acute myocardiac infarction, cerebrovascular diseases). They point it out that the occurrence of AC is significantly higher among males, but it increases in strong correlation with age in both sexes. Those who had AC were found to be older at the time of death, but it doesn't mean that AC correlates with better life expectancy--it means that AC occurs at older age. The survival probability of men over 75 was better than that of women. On the whole, AC is unfavourable concerning life expectancy, but the later it occurs, the less it can be used as an indicator of life expectancy. It was found that greater average weight correlated with longer average life duration, while among females the more a person weighed, the less frequent AC became. It was true for each weight group that those with AC had worse life expectancy. Altogether those with no AC were found to suffer from hypertonia significantly more frequently. The life expectancy of those with both AC and hypertonia, however, was always worse than those with hypertonia only, regardless of age and the type of hypertonia. Generally women are in a more favourable position, but in the 'serious' and 'very serious' hypertonia groups there is practically no difference in the survival of the two sexes. The authors have also found that AC has a significant negative prognostical value concerning survival and correlation with ostheoarthrosis, ischaemic heart diseases and cerebrovascular diseases. The correlation of AC with acute myocardiac infarction could not be proved convincingly. PMID:10628193

Károlyi, G; Balázsy, K

1999-12-01

230

Delayed coking process  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a delayed cooking process in which a heavy oil coker feedstock is heated to an elevated coking temperature in a furnace and the heated feedstock is subsequently subjected to delayed coking in a coker drum under superatmospheric pressure and the vaporous coking products are removed from the drum and passed to a coker fractionator from which a bottoms fraction is removed. The improvement comprises coking a feed without the addition of the bottoms fraction from the fractionator and adding to the feed to the coker drum a lower boiling hydrocarbon diluent having an end boiling point of not more than 450/sup 0/C, the lower boiling hydrocarbon diluent being added to the heated feedstock after the feedstock has passed through the furnace.

Dabkowski, M.J.; Malladi, M.

1987-04-28

231

Delayed coking process  

SciTech Connect

The liquid yield of a delayed coking process is improved by controlling the temperature of the vapor space above the carbonizing mass so that incipient coking and cracking of the vapors is reduced. The temperature is preferably controlled by introducing a quenching liquid into the vapor space; suitable liquids for this purpose include water, coker feedstock and the bottoms fraction derived from the coker products.

Audeh, C.A.; Yan, T.Y.

1983-09-13

232

Critique of ``Expected Value`` models  

SciTech Connect

There are a number of models in the defense community which use a methodology referred to as ``Expected Value`` to perform sequential calculations of unit attritions or expenditures. The methodology applied to two-sided, dependent, sequential events can result in an incorrect model. An example of such an incorrect model is offered to show that these models may yield results which deviate significantly from a stochastic or Markov process approach. The example was derived from an informal discussion at the Center for Naval Analyses.

May, W.L.

1996-06-01

233

Expectations for computational fluid dynamics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This article presents a sampling of the author's expectations for the field of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) in the areas of research, development and application. The primary focus of the discussion herein is related to the non-linear transonic flow regime, and more specifically, for calculations about commercial transport aircraft. However, many of these topics are pertinent to all flow field regimes and aircraft designs. The underlying goal is to enable the automation of multi-disciplinary design processes, which utilize state-of-the-art numerical simulation methods. These include issues pertaining to accuracy, robustness, efficiency, ease-of-use, uncertainty requirements and other challenges.

Vassberg, John C.

2005-11-01

234

Psychosocial assessment of expectant fathers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  \\u000a Background: Comprehensive antenatal psychosocial assessment of mothers prior to the birth is established in many regions. While the influence\\u000a of fathers on infant and maternal well-being is also recognised as commencing before birth, the early identification of needs\\u000a among expectant fathers has not been addressed.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods: The current study surveyed fathers attending antenatal classes in public and private hospitals

R. Fletcher; G. Vimpani; G. Russell; D. Sibbritt

2008-01-01

235

Spatial estimates for an equation with a delay term  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this note, we investigate the spatial behaviour of the solutions for a theory for the heat conduction with a delay term. We obtain an alternative of the Phragmen-Lindelof type. That is the solutions either decay in a exponential way or blow-up at infinity in a exponential way. We also describe how to obtain an upper bound for the amplitude term. It is worth noting that this is the first contribution on spatial behaviour for partial differential equations involving a delay term. We use the energy arguments to obtain our main results. The main point of the contribution is the use of a suitable weighted energy function.

Quintanilla, R.

2010-04-01

236

Saturating the holographic entropy bound  

SciTech Connect

The covariant entropy bound states that the entropy, S, of matter on a light sheet cannot exceed a quarter of its initial area, A, in Planck units. The gravitational entropy of black holes saturates this inequality. The entropy of matter systems, however, falls short of saturating the bound in known examples. This puzzling gap has led to speculation that a much stronger bound, S < or approx. A{sup 3/4}, may hold true. In this note, we exhibit light sheets whose entropy exceeds A{sup 3/4} by arbitrarily large factors. In open Friedmann-Robertson-Walker universes, such light sheets contain the entropy visible in the sky; in the limit of early curvature domination, the covariant bound can be saturated but not violated. As a corollary, we find that the maximum observable matter and radiation entropy in universes with positive (negative) cosmological constant is of order {Lambda}{sup -1} ({Lambda}{sup -2}), and not |{Lambda}|{sup -3/4} as had hitherto been believed. Our results strengthen the evidence for the covariant entropy bound, while showing that the stronger bound S < or approx. A{sup 3/4} is not universally valid. We conjecture that the stronger bound does hold for static, weakly gravitating systems.

Bousso, Raphael [Center for Theoretical Physics, Department of Physics University of California, Berkeley, California 94720-7300 (United States); Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720-8162 (United States); Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe, University of Tokyo, 5-1-5 Kashiwa-no-Ha, Kashiwa City, Chiba 277-8568 (Japan); Freivogel, Ben; Leichenauer, Stefan [Center for Theoretical Physics, Department of Physics University of California, Berkeley, California 94720-7300 (United States); Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720-8162 (United States)

2010-10-15

237

Price Stability and Monetary Policy Effectiveness when Nominal Interest Rates are Bounded at Zero  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper employs stochastic simulations of a small structural rational expectations model to investigate the consequences of the zero bound on nominal interest rates. We find that if the economy is subject to stochastic shocks similar in magnitude to those experienced in the United States over the 1980s and 1990s, the consequences of the zero bound are negligible for target

Athanasios Orphanides; Volker Wieland

2004-01-01

238

The unbalance and bounds on the average waiting time for periodic routing to one queue  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we introduce the combinatorial notion of unbalance for a periodic zero-one splitting sequence. Using this unbalance we derive an upper bound for the average expected waiting time of jobs which are routed to one queue according to a periodic zero-one splitting sequence. In the companion paper [16] the upper bound will be extended to the routing to

Arie Hordijk; Dinard van der Laan

2004-01-01

239

Topics in Time Delay Estimation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Time delay estimation forms the base from which passive localization and tracking may function accurately. This report considers both the practical and theoretical aspects of time delay estimation when classical optimal estimation techniques break down. O...

A. O. Hero S. C. Schwartz

1985-01-01

240

Delay discounting by pathological gamblers.  

PubMed Central

Discounting of delayed rewards by pathological gamblers was compared to discounting of delayed rewards by matched control nongambling participants. All participants completed a hypothetical choice task in which they made repeated choices between dollars 1,000 available after a delay and an equal or lesser amount of money available immediately. The delay to the large amount of money was varied from 1 week to 10 years across conditions. Indifference points between immediate money and delayed money were identified at each delay condition by varying the amount of immediate money across choice trials. For the majority of participants, indifference points decreased monotonically across delays. Overall, gamblers discounted the delayed rewards more steeply than did control participants.

Dixon, Mark R; Marley, Janice; Jacobs, Eric A

2003-01-01

241

Current Vaccine Shortages and Delays  

MedlinePLUS

... Current Vaccine Shortages & Delays Last updated September 11, 2013 On this page: Chart of Vaccines in Delay ... and Tdap) See note 1 Updated Sep 11, 2013 No change in Routine Recommendations Td No Haemophilus ...

242

On delayed discrete evolutionary dynamics.  

PubMed

We examine the asymptotic stability of equilibria where individuals react to delayed information and the delays are heterogeneously distributed. For symmetric games with binary actions, we derive conditions under which the stability/instability of equilibria does not depend on the delay distribution. As a corollary, we show that a unique mixed evolutionarily stable state in games in well-mixed populations is asymptotically stable under a class of delayed replicator dynamics, for any lag distribution. PMID:22266122

Iijima, Ryota

2012-01-18

243

HiggsBounds: Confronting arbitrary Higgs sectors with exclusion bounds from LEP and the Tevatron  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

HiggsBounds is a computer code that tests theoretical predictions of models with arbitrary Higgs sectors against the exclusion bounds obtained from the Higgs searches at LEP and the Tevatron. The included experimental information comprises exclusion bounds at 95% C.L. on topological cross sections. In order to determine which search topology has the highest exclusion power, the program also includes, for each topology, information from the experiments on the expected exclusion bound, which would have been observed in case of a pure background distribution. Using the predictions of the desired model provided by the user as input, HiggsBounds determines the most sensitive channel and tests whether the considered parameter point is excluded at the 95% C.L. HiggsBounds is available as a Fortran 77 and Fortran 90 code. The code can be invoked as a command line version, a subroutine version and an online version. Examples of exclusion bounds obtained with HiggsBounds are discussed for the Standard Model, for a model with a fourth generation of quarks and leptons and for the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model with and without CP-violation. The experimental information on the exclusion bounds currently implemented in HiggsBounds will be updated as new results from the Higgs searches become available. Catalogue identifier: AEFF_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEFF_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 55?733 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 1?986?213 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: Fortran 77, Fortran 90 (two code versions are offered). Computer: HiggsBounds can be built with any compatible Fortran 77 or Fortran 90 compiler. The program has been tested on x86 CPUs running under Linux (Ubuntu 8.04) and with the following compilers: The Portland Group Inc. Fortran compilers (pgf77, pgf90), the GNU project Fortran compilers (g77, gfortran). Operating system: Linux RAM: minimum of about 6000 kbytes (dependent on the code version) Classification: 11.1 External routines: HiggsBounds requires no external routines/libraries. Some sample programs in the distribution require the programs FeynHiggs 2.6.x or CPsuperH2 to be installed (see “Subprograms used”). Subprograms used:Cat IdTitleReferenceADKT_v2_0FeynHiggsv2.6.5CPC 180(2009)1426ADSR_v2_0CPsuperH2.0CPC 180(2009)312 Nature of problem: Determine whether a parameter point of a given model is excluded or allowed by LEP and Tevatron Higgs-boson search results. Solution method: The most sensitive channel from LEP and Tevatron searches is determined and subsequently applied to test this parameter point. The test requires as input model predictions for the Higgs-boson masses, branching ratios and ratios of production cross sections with respect to reference values. Restrictions: In the current version, results from decay-mode independent Higgs searches and results of searches for charged Higgs bosons are not taken into account. Running time: About 0.01 seconds (or less) for one parameter point using one processor of an Intel Core 2 Quad Q6600 CPU at 2.40 GHz for sample model scenarios with three Higgs bosons. It depends on the complexity of the Higgs sector (e.g. the number of Higgs bosons and the number of open decay channels) and on the code version.

Bechtle, P.; Brein, O.; Heinemeyer, S.; Weiglein, G.; Williams, K. E.

2010-01-01

244

Programmable Differential Delay Circuit With Fine Delay Adjustment  

DOEpatents

Circuitry that provides additional delay to early arriving signals such that all data signals arrive at a receiving latch with same path delay. The delay of a forwarded clock reference is also controlled such that the capturing clock edge will be optimally positioned near quadrature (depending on latch setup/hold requirements). The circuitry continuously adapts to data and clock path delay changes and digital filtering of phase measurements reduce errors brought on by jittering data edges. The circuitry utilizes only the minimum amount of delay necessary to achieve objective thereby limiting any unintended jitter. Particularly, this programmable differential delay circuit with fine delay adjustment is designed to allow the skew between ASICS to be minimized. This includes skew between data bits, between data bits and clocks as well as minimizing the overall skew in a channel between ASICS.

DeRyckere, John F. (Eau Claire, WI); Jenkins, Philip Nord (Eau Claire, WI); Cornett, Frank Nolan (Chippewa Falls, WI)

2002-07-09

245

Removal of Bound Metal Fasteners.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This project explored the removal of bound metal fasteners through the use of ultrasonically assisted wrenches. Two wrenches were designed, fabricated and tested. Previous studies had indicated an increase in thread tension for a given torque application ...

R. F. Kramer

1981-01-01

246

Structure Functions of Bound Neutrons.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

We describe an experiment measuring electron scattering on a neutron bound in deuterium with coincident detection of a fast, backward-going spectator proton. Our data map out the relative importance of the pure Plane Wave Impulse Approximation (PWIA) spec...

S. Kuhn

2005-01-01

247

Delayed plumage maturation and delayed reproductive investment in birds.  

PubMed

Delayed plumage maturation is the delayed acquisition of a definitive colour and pattern of plumage until after the first potential breeding period in birds. Here we provide a comprehensive overview of the numerous studies of delayed plumage maturation and a revised theoretical framework for understanding the function of delayed plumage maturation in all birds. We first distinguish between hypotheses that delayed plumage maturation is attributable to a moult constraint with no adaptive function and hypotheses that propose that delayed plumage maturation is a component of an adaptive life-history strategy associated with delayed reproductive investment. We then recognize three potential benefits of delayed plumage maturation: crypsis, mimicry and status signaling. Evidence suggests that delayed plumage maturation is not a consequence of developmental constraints and instead represents a strategy to maximize reproductive success in circumstances where young adults cannot effectively compete with older adults for limited resources, particularly breeding opportunities. A multi-factorial explanation that takes into account lifespan and the degree of competition for limited breeding resources and that combines the benefits of an inconspicuous appearance with the benefits of honest signaling of reduced competitiveness provides a general explanation for the function of delayed plumage maturation in most bird species. Delayed plumage maturation should be viewed as a component of alternative reproductive strategies that can include delay in both plumage and sexual development. Such strategies are frequently facultative, with individuals breeding prior to the acquisition of definitive plumages when conditions are favourable. Presumably, the benefits of delayed plumage maturation ultimately enhance lifetime reproductive success, and studying delayed plumage maturation within the context of lifetime reproductive success should be a goal of future studies. PMID:21790949

Hawkins, Gerard L; Hill, Geoffrey E; Mercadante, Austin

2011-07-27

248

Space-Bounded Quantum Complexity  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper investigates the computational power of space-bounded quantum Turing machines. Thefollowing facts are proved for space-constructible space bounds s satisfying s(n) =\\\\Omega\\\\Gamma454 n).1. Any quantum Turing machine (QTM) running in space s can be simulated by an unbounded errorprobabilistic Turing machine (PTM) running in space O(s). No assumptions on the probability oferror or running time for the QTM are

John Watrous

1999-01-01

249

Modified bounds for coveting codes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The covering radius of binary codes is studied. Bounds on K (n,R), the minimum cardinality of any binary code of length n and covering radius R, are found. Modifications of the van Wee lower bounds are proved for K(n,R), the minimal number of codewords in any binary code of length n and covering radius R. The first of the two

Iiro S. Honkala

1991-01-01

250

Phase and Group Delay Estimation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Motivation Phase and Group Delay Model of the Fringe Coherence Envelope Channeled Spectrum Methods of Tracking Fringe Phase Phase Tracking with Four Quarter-Wavelength Steps Phase Tracking with a Linear Pathlength Sweep Simultaneous Phase Measurements at Several Wavelengths Triangle vs Sawtooth Modulations Methods of Tracking Group-Delay Channeled Spectrum: Fast Fourier Transform Channeled Spectrum: Lomb-Scargle Periodogram Channeled Spectrum: Least-Squares Fit Multi-Wavelength Phasor Measurements: Fast or Direct Fourier - Transform Multi-Wavelength Phasor Measurements: "Optimal" Estimator Variance of Phase and Group Delay Estimates Variance of Phase Variance of Group Delay Phase and Group Delay Variance Compared Conclusion

Lawson, P. R.

251

[Delayed endolymphatic hydrops].  

PubMed

Delayed Endolymphatic Hydrops (DEH) is a disease entity that must be distinguished from idiopathic endolymphatic hydrops (Ménière's disease). Idiopathic hydrops is characterized by the following symptoms: 1) vertigo often accompanied by nausea and vomiting; 2) tinnitus; 3) hearing loss, usually fluctuating; and 4) sensation of pressure or fullness in the affected ear. Idiopathic hydrops most commonly occurs in middle-aged patients, usually between 30 and 50 years. It may involve one or both ears and usually exibits fluctuating hearing loss and episodic vertigo, although one symptom may precede the other by months or years. It is rare for Ménière's disease to present with a severe sensorineural hearing loss. Delayed Endolymphatic Hydrops was first described, under the name of "unilateral deafness with subsequent vertigo", by Wolfson and Lieberman and Nadol et al.; this was later confirmed by other authors. The disease is characterized by a profound sensorineural hearing loss in one ear, found to have been present in most cases from early childhood, due to an unknown cause, trauma or viral infections. After a prolonged period (usually many years) patients with DEH experience the onset of episodic vertigo from the deaf ear (Ipsilateral Delayed Endolymphatic Hydrops) or develop a fluctuating hearing loss and/or episodic vertigo in the opposite ear, previously with normal hearing (Controlateral Delayed Endolymphatic Hydrops). Vestibular symptoms are identical to those of Ménière's disease: in fact there is evidence that endolymphatic hydrops in the previously damaged ear or in the previously normal ear represents at least part of the labyrinthine pathology. Histopathology studies recently conducted on temporal bones of subjects affected with controlateral DEH show pathologic changes in the deaf ears similar to those found in viral labyrinthitis, whereas pathologic changes in the hearing ears resemble those known to occur in Ménière's disease. Medical treatment has not been found to be effective in patients with DEH, but it must be the first choice of treatment especially in controlateral forms of the disease. So far, surgical intervention has been demonstrated to give the best results; either conservative or more radical, depending on the type of DEH. Pharmacological labyrinthectomy with ototoxic drugs could be the therapy of choice in the future. In this paper we review the literature in order to summarize the clinical features and criteria for diagnosing DEH, we also report histopathologic findings and pathogenetic hypotheses formulated for this syndrome. Moreover, we discuss the best therapeutic approach for the ipsilateral and controlateral variants of DEH. PMID:10205936

Giannoni, B; Pagnini, P; Vannucchi, P

1998-08-01

252

Delay reduction: current status.  

PubMed Central

Delay-reduction theory states that the effectiveness of a stimulus as a conditioned reinforcer may be predicted most accurately by the reduction in time to primary reinforcement correlated with its onset. We review support for the theory and then discuss two new types of experiments that assess it. One compares models of choice in situations wherein the less preferred outcome is made more accessible; the other investigates whether frequency of conditioned reinforcement affects choice beyond the effect exerted by frequency of primary reinforcement.

Fantino, E; Preston, R A; Dunn, R

1993-01-01

253

Integrals, Expectation-Values and Entropy.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The maximum entropy principle, one of the cornerstones of equilibrium statistical mechanics, has been introduced into probability theory by E. T. JAYNES as part of a rational strategy for making plausible inferences from incomplete information. The conventional maximum entropy formalism, involving the familiar machinery of partition functions, is practically the same in both classical and quantum mechanical formulations of statistical mechanics. The present work undertakes to extend the maximum entropy principle to a generalized abstract formulation of probability theory, encompassing the familiar classical and quantal models as well as certain more exotic models uncovered by G. W. MACKEY in his axiomatization of quantum mechanics--the so-called quantum logics. In this more general approach, the conventional machinery of partition functions is not available. Instead, one makes use of a family of conditional entropy functions. In its dependence on the constraint conditions, the conditional entropy enjoys concavity and monotonicity properties analogous to those of the phenomenological entropy in equilibrium thermodynamics. The new formalism is able to take in stride the possibility that the constraints, although consistent, may fail to determine a unique maximum entropy state (probability distribution). Examples which demonstrate this possibility are readily constructed in both classical and quantal models of probability theory. One observes that, in the convex set of states compatible with the constraints, there is none of greatest entropy; typically this happens at or beyond a "barrier" where the conventional partition function becomes singular. Such examples should not simply be dismissed as "pathological"; they may perhaps have interesting physical interpretations (e.g., turbulence, disorder, chaos). In carrying out the above program it is essential to recognize that the expectation-values of an unbounded observable (real random variable) need not be finite: they may be infinite or indeterminate. A generalized convexity theory which allows, roughly speaking, for the inclusion of such "points at infinity" is developed in a mathematical appendix. As an interesting sidelight, a novel expression is obtained for the quantum mechanical expectation-value, related to the theory of quadratic forms; the conventional trace formula is generally valid only for bounded observables.

Barron, Arthur Randall

1982-03-01

254

FEM simulation model for signal delay in general distributed networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Distributed parameter elements are good models for polysilicon and diffusion lines are used as connecting wires in MOS integrated circuits. Simple bounds for the signal propagation delay in such networks are valuable in the timing analysis and in the simulation of digital MOS VLSI chips. In MOS interconnections the nonlinear capacitors usually appear, for example, as a nonlinear gate to the channel capacitance of a MOSFET load. The linear lines are considered with the telegraph equation model, linear resistors and nonlinear capacitors.

Hara, Veikko

1988-02-01

255

DELAYED REINFORCEMENT OF OPERANT BEHAVIOR  

PubMed Central

The experimental analysis of delay of reinforcement is considered from the perspective of three questions that seem basic not only to understanding delay of reinforcement, but, also, by implication, the contributions of temporal relations between events to operant behavior. The first question is whether effects of the temporal relation between responses and reinforcers can be isolated from other features of the environment that often accompany delays, such as stimuli or changes in the temporal distribution or rate of reinforcement. The second question is that of the effects of delays on operant behavior. Beyond the common denominator of a temporal separation between reinforcers and the responses that produce them, delay of reinforcement procedures differ from one another along several dimensions, making delay effects circumstance dependent. The final question is one of interpreting delay of reinforcement effects. It centers on the role of the response–reinforcer temporal relation in the context of other, concurrently operating behavioral processes.

Lattal, Kennon A

2010-01-01

256

Fundamentals of Delayed Coking Joint Industry Project  

SciTech Connect

Delayed coking evolved steadily over the early to mid 1900s to enable refiners to convert high boiling, residual petroleum fractions to light products such as gasoline. Pound for pound, coking is the most energy intensive of any operation in a modern refinery. Large amounts of energy are required to heat the thick, poor-quality petroleum residuum to the 900 to 950 degrees F required to crack the heavy hydrocarbon molecules into lighter, more valuable products. One common misconception of delayed coking is that the product coke is a disadvantage. Although coke is a low valued (near zero economic value) byproduct, compared to transportation fuels, there is a significant worldwide trade and demand for coke as it is an economical fuel. Coke production has increased steadily over the last ten years, with further increases forecast for the foreseeable future. Current domestic production is near 111,000 tons per day. A major driving force behind this increase is the steady decline in crude quality available to refiners. Crude slates are expected to grow heavier with higher sulfur contents while environmental restrictions are expected to significantly reduce the demand for high-sulfur residual fuel oil. Light sweet crudes will continue to be available and in even greater demand than they are today. Refiners will be faced with the choice of purchasing light sweet crudes at a premium price, or adding bottom of the barrel upgrading capability, through additional new investments, to reduce the production of high-sulfur residual fuel oil and increase the production of low-sulfur distillate fuels. A second disadvantage is that liquid products from cokers frequently are unstable, i.e., they rapidly form gum and sediments. Because of intermediate investment and operating costs, delayed coking has increased in popularity among refiners worldwide. Based on the 2000 Worldwide Refining Survey published in the Oil and Gas, the delayed coking capacity for 101 refineries around the world is 2,937,439 barrels/calendar day. These cokers produce 154,607 tons of coke per day and delayed coking accounts for 88% of the world capacity. The delayed coking charge capacity in the United States is 1,787,860 b/cd. Despite its wide commercial use, only relatively few contractors and refiners are truly knowledgeable in delayed-coking design, so that this process carries with it a ''black art'' connotation. Until recently, the expected yield from cokers was determined by a simple laboratory test on the feedstock. As a result of Tulsa University's prior related research, a process model was developed that with additional work could be used to optimize existing delayed cokers over a wide range of potential feedstocks and operating conditions. The objectives of this research program are to: utilize the current micro, batch and pilot unit facilities at The University of Tulsa to enhance the understanding of the coking process; conduct additional micro and pilot unit tests with new and in-house resids and recycles to make current optimization models more robust; conduct focused kinetic experiments to enhance the furnace tube model and to enhance liquid production while minimizing sulfur in the products; conduct detailed foaming studies to optimize the process and minimize process upsets; quantify the parameters that affect coke morphology; and to utilize the knowledge gained from the experimental and modeling studies to enhance the computer programs developed in the previous JIP for optimization of the coking process. These refined computer models will then be tested against refinery data provided by the member companies. Novel concepts will also be explored for hydrogen sulfide removal of furnace gases as well as gas injection studies to reduce over-cracking.

Michael Volk; Keith Wisecarver

2003-09-26

257

Fundamentals of Delayed Coking Joint Industry Project  

SciTech Connect

Delayed coking evolved steadily over the early to mid 1900s to enable refiners to convert high boiling, residual petroleum fractions to light products such as gasoline. Pound for pound, coking is the most energy intensive of any operation in a modern refinery. Large amounts of energy are required to heat the thick, poor-quality petroleum residuum to the 900 to 950 degrees F required to crack the heavy hydrocarbon molecules into lighter, more valuable products. One common misconception of delayed coking is that the product coke is a disadvantage. Although coke is a low valued (near zero economic value) byproduct, compared to transportation fuels, there is a significant worldwide trade and demand for coke as it is an economical fuel. Coke production has increased steadily over the last ten years, with further increases forecast for the foreseeable future. Current domestic production is near 111,000 tons per day. A major driving force behind this increase is the steady decline in crude quality available to refiners. Crude slates are expected to grow heavier with higher sulfur contents while environmental restrictions are expected to significantly reduce the demand for high-sulfur residual fuel oil. Light sweet crudes will continue to be available and in even greater demand than they are today. Refiners will be faced with the choice of purchasing light sweet crudes at a premium price, or adding bottom of the barrel upgrading capability, through additional new investments, to reduce the production of high-sulfur residual fuel oil and increase the production of low-sulfur distillate fuels. A second disadvantage is that liquid products from cokers frequently are unstable, i.e., they rapidly form gum and sediments. Because of intermediate investment and operating costs, delayed coking has increased in popularity among refiners worldwide. Based on the 2000 Worldwide Refining Survey published in the Oil and Gas, the delayed coking capacity for 101 refineries around the world is 2,937,439 barrels/calendar day. These cokers produce 154,607 tons of coke per day and delayed coking accounts for 88% of the world capacity. The delayed coking charge capacity in the United States is 1,787,860 b/cd. Despite its wide commercial use, only relatively few contractors and refiners are truly knowledgeable in delayed-coking design, so that this process carries with it a ''black art'' connotation. Until recently, the expected yield from cokers was determined by a simple laboratory test on the feedstock. As a result of Tulsa University's prior related research, a process model was developed that with additional work could be used to optimize existing delayed cokers over a wide range of potential feedstocks and operating conditions. The objectives of this research program are to: utilize the current micro, batch and pilot unit facilities at The University of Tulsa to enhance the understanding of the coking process; conduct additional micro and pilot unit tests with new and in-house resids and recycles to make current optimization models more robust; conduct focused kinetic experiments to enhance the furnace tube model and to enhance liquid production while minimizing sulfur in the products; conduct detailed foaming studies to optimize the process and minimize process upsets; quantify the parameters that affect coke morphology; and to utilize the knowledge gained from the experimental and modeling studies to enhance the computer programs developed in the previous JIP for optimization of the coking process. These refined computer models will then be tested against refinery data provided by the member companies. Novel concepts will also be explored for hydrogen sulfide removal of furnace gases as well as gas injection studies to reduce over-cracking.

Michael Volk; Keith Wisecarver

2004-09-26

258

Delayed Symptom Onset and Increased Life Expectancy in Sandhoff Disease Mice Treated with N-Butyldeoxynojirimycin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sandhoff disease is a neurodegenerative disorder resulting from the autosomal recessive inheritance of mutations in the HEXB gene, which encodes the beta -subunit of beta -hexosaminidase. GM2 ganglioside fails to be degraded and accumulates within lysosomes in cells of the periphery and the central nervous system (CNS). There are currently no therapies for the glycosphingolipid lysosomal storage diseases that involve

Mylvaganam Jeyakumar; Terry D. Butters; Mario Cortina-Borja; Victoria Hunnam; Richard L. Proia; V. Hugh Perry; Raymond A. Dwek; Frances M. Platt

1999-01-01

259

A new sufficient condition for global robust stability of bidirectional associative memory neural networks with multiple time delays  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an easily verifiable delay independent sufficient condition for the global robust asymptotic stability of the equilibrium point for bidirectional associative memory (BAM) neural networks with time delays by employing a class of Lyapunov functionals. The obtained results are applicable to all bounded continuous non-monotonic neuron activation functions. Some numerical examples are given to compare our results with

Neyir Ozcan; Sabri Arik

2009-01-01

260

Delay-dependent robust stability and stabilization of uncertain linear delay systems: a linear matrix inequality approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper considers the problems of robust stability analysis and robust control design for a class of uncertain linear systems with a constant time-delay. The uncertainty is assumed to be norm-bounded and appears in all the matrices of the state-space model. We develop methods for robust stability analysis and robust stabilization. The proposed methods are dependent on the size of

Xi Li; Carlos E. de Souza

1997-01-01

261

Photometric stereo via expectation maximization.  

PubMed

This paper presents a robust and automatic approach to photometric stereo, where the two main components, namely surface normals and visible surfaces, are respectively optimized by Expectation Maximization (EM). A dense set of input images is conveniently captured using a digital video camera while a handheld spotlight is being moved around the target object and a small mirror sphere. In our approach, the inherently complex optimization problem is simplified into a two-step optimization, where EM is employed in each step: 1) Using the dense input, the weight or importance of each observation is alternately optimized with the normal and albedo at each pixel and 2) using the optimized normals and employing the Markov Random Fields (MRFs), surface integrabilities and discontinuities are alternately optimized in visible surface reconstruction. Our mathematical derivation gives simple updating rules for the EM algorithms, leading to a stable, practical, and parameter-free implementation that is very robust even in the presence of complex geometry, shadows, highlight, and transparency. We present high-quality results on normal and visible surface reconstruction, where fine geometric details are automatically recovered by our method. PMID:20075477

Wu, Tai-Pang; Tang, Chi-Keung

2010-03-01

262

Group delay as an estimate of delay in logic  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract-It is an accepted practice in signal delay estimation to model MOS digital circuits as RC circuits. In most cases Elmore’s delay definition is applied. This paper has several objectives. First, it shows that Elmore’s definition is exactly equivalent to the group delay of the network at zero frequency. Second, it presents a computationally efficient noniterative method to calculate this

Jiri Vlach; James A. Barby; Anthony Vannelli; T. Talkhan; C.-J. Richard Shi

1991-01-01

263

Stability analysis of fuzzy Markovian jumping Cohen-Grossberg BAM neural networks with mixed time-varying delays  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we investigate the robust stability of uncertain fuzzy Markovian jumping Cohen-Grossberg BAM neural networks with discrete and distributed time-varying delays. A new delay-dependent stability condition is derived under uncertain switching probabilities by Takagi-Sugeno fuzzy model. Based on the linear matrix inequality (LMI) technique, upper bounds for the discrete and distributed delays are calculated using the LMI toolbox in MATLAB. Numerical examples are provided to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

Sathy, R.; Balasubramaniam, P.

2011-04-01

264

An Expectancy Model of Laboratory Preparedness Effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experiments investigating differential unconditioned stimulus (UCS) expectancy during fear-relevant (prepared) and fear-irrelevant (unprepared) stimuli revealed that (a) a UCS expectancy bias is apparent before conditioning, (b) initial differential UCS expectancy appears in spite of instructions informing the Ss of no UCS presentations, (c) differential UCS expectancies to fear-relevant and fear-irrelevant stimuli dissipate with continued nonreinforcement, (d) differential UCS expectancies may

Graham C. L. Davey

1992-01-01

265

Razumikhin method and exponential stability of hybrid stochastic delay interval systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper deals with the exponential stability of hybrid stochastic delay interval systems (also known as stochastic delay interval systems with Markovian switching). The known results in this area (see, e.g., [X., Mao, Exponential stability of stochastic delay interval systems with Markovian switching, IEEE Trans. Automat. Control 47 (10) (2002) 1604-1612]) require the time delay to be a constant or a differentiable function and the main reason for such a restriction is due to the analysis of mathematics. The main aim of this paper is to remove this restriction to allow the time delay to be a bounded variable only. The Razumikhin method is developed to cope with the difficulty arisen from the nondifferentiability of the time delay.

Mao, Xuerong; Lam, James; Xu, Shengyuan; Gao, Huijun

2006-02-01

266

Behavioral reactions reflecting differential reward expectations in monkeys.  

PubMed

Learning theory emphasizes the importance of expectations in the control of instrumental action. This study investigated the variation of behavioral reactions toward different rewards as an expression of differential expectations of outcomes in primates. We employed several versions of two basic behavioral paradigms, the spatial delayed response task and the delayed reaction task. These tasks are commonly used in neurobiological studies of working memory, movement preparation, and event expectation involving the frontal cortex and basal ganglia. An initial visual instruction stimulus indicated to the animal which one of several food or liquid rewards would be delivered after each correct behavioral response, or whether or not a reward could be obtained. We measured the reaction times of the operantly conditioned arm movement necessary for obtaining the reward, and the durations of anticipatory licking prior to liquid reward delivery as a Pavlovian conditioned response. The results showed that both measures varied depending on the reward predicted by the initial instruction. Arm movements were performed with significantly shorter reaction times for foods or liquids that were more preferred by the animal than for less preferred ones. Still larger differences were observed between rewarded and unrewarded trials. An interesting effect was found in unrewarded trials, in which reaction times were significantly shorter when a highly preferred reward was delivered in the alternative rewarded trials of the same trial block as compared to a less preferred reward. Anticipatory licks preceding the reward were significantly longer when highly preferred rather than less preferred rewards, or no rewards, were predicted. These results demonstrate that behavioral reactions preceding rewards may vary depending on the predicted future reward and suggest that monkeys differentially expect particular outcomes in the presently investigated tasks. PMID:11685405

Watanabe, M; Cromwell, H C; Tremblay, L; Hollerman, J R; Hikosaka, K; Schultz, W

2001-10-01

267

Endogenous Fluctuations in a Bounded Rationality Economy: Learning Non-perfect Foresight Equilibria  

Microsoft Academic Search

We study forward-looking economic models assuming that agents take one step ahead expectations looking back k time periods. We show that the dynamics of the economy with such an expectation function are characterized by the coexistence of perfect foresight and nonperfect foresight cycles. The stability of all these periodic solutions under bounded rationality is related to the stability of the

Emilio Barucci; Gian Italo Bischi; Laura Gardini

1999-01-01

268

Unitarity bound for gluon shadowing  

SciTech Connect

Although at small Bjorken x gluons originated from different nucleons in a nucleus overlap in the longitudinal direction, most of them are still well separated in the transverse plane and therefore cannot fuse. For this reason the gluon density in nuclei cannot drop at small x below a certain bottom bound, which we evaluated in a model independent manner assuming the maximal strength of gluon fusion. We also calculated gluon shadowing in the saturated regime using the Balitsky-Kovchegov equation and found the nuclear ratio to be well above the unitarity bound. The recently updated analysis of parton distributions in nuclei, including BNL Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) data on high-p{sub T} hadron production at forward rapidities, led to strong gluon shadowing. Such strong shadowing and therefore the interpretation of the nuclear modification of the p{sub T} spectra in dA collisions at RHIC seem to be inconsistent with this unitarity bound.

Kopeliovich, B. Z. [Departamento de Fisica y Centro de Estudios Subatomicos, Universidad Tecnica Federico Santa Maria, Casilla 110-V, Valparaiso (Chile); Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation); Levin, E. [Department of Particle Physics, School of Physics and Astronomy, Raymond and Beverly Sackler, Faculty of Exact Science, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 69978 (Israel); Potashnikova, I. K.; Schmidt, Ivan [Departamento de Fisica y Centro de Estudios Subatomicos, Universidad Tecnica Federico Santa Maria, Casilla 110-V, Valparaiso (Chile)

2009-06-15

269

Soviet delays raise prices  

SciTech Connect

The breakup of the Soviet Union is causing massive disruptions to methanol exports. The changeover to a Commonwealth of independent States has created logistical problems which have led some shipments of Russian methanol to be cancelled and delayed other deliveries by up to two weeks. In recent years the Soviet Union has exported 700,000 m.t./year-900,000 m.t./year of methanol, mainly to Western Europe. The product is made at 750,000-m.t./year plants at Tomsk and Gubakha in Russia and transported by rail for shipment from the ports of Ventspils, Latvia, on the Baltic Sea and Yuzhnyy in Ukraine, on the Black Sea. The exports were handled by state export agency Soyuzagrochim, mainly under contract to West European traders and consumers in areas like Scandinavia and France.

Young, I.

1992-01-15

270

Astrophysical bounds on superlight gravitinos  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We derive the allowed mass range for the superlight gravitino present in a large class of supersymmetric models from the observed neutrino luminosity from Supernova 1987A. We find that for photino masses of order of 100 GeV, the mass range 2.6 × 10-8 eV <= mg~ <= 2.2 × 10-6 eV for the gravitino g~ is excluded by SN1987A observations. Unlike the bounds on mg~ from nucleosynthesis, the bounds in the present paper do not depend critically upon the uncertainties of the observational input.

Grifols, J. A.; Mohapatra, R. N.; Riotto, A.

1997-02-01

271

On lower bounds for polarisability  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The response of molecular systems to external fields was one of the first areas studied after development of the new quantum mechanics. Early work by Kirkwood and Buckingham developed polarisability lower bounds that are still used today. This work uses an inequality proposed by Linderberg to develop a treatment of polarisability lower bounds that unifies the work of Kirkwood and Buckingham with Hylleraas' variational perturbation theory. In particular, the prehistory of the works of Kirkwood and Buckingham is described. Numerical examples are presented to demonstrate the convergence of approximate wavefunctions in the confined atom problem. The applicability of dimensional scaling and its utility in the analysis of confined systems are also discussed.

Montgomery, H. E.; Pupyshev, V. I.

2013-09-01

272

Demographic determinants of delayed divorce.  

PubMed

This study identifies factors that predict delayed divorce in the US. The findings show that factors which influence marital stability in general also correlate with delayed divorce in the same direction. Wife's age at marriage, age of the youngest child, wife's religion, region of residence, and metropolitan residence have substantial effects of delayed divorce, but the effects of race, parental divorce, premarital pregnancy, and socioeconomic status are small. PMID:12316281

Chan, L Y; Heaton, T B

1989-01-01

273

Stochastic Delay-Differential Equations  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a This chapter concerns the effect of noise on linear and nonlinear delay-differential equations. Currently there exists no\\u000a formalism to exactly compute the effects of noise in nonlinear systems with delays. The standard Fokker–Planck approach is\\u000a not justified because it is meant for Markovian systems. Delay-differential systems are non-Markovian, although various approximations\\u000a to them might be Markovian.

André Longtin

274

Microwave Delay Techniques Using YIG  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent developments in microwave delay techniques employing single-crystal yttrium iron gamet (YIG) are described. In particular, the operation of a two-port, electronically variable-delay device utilizing long-wavelength spin-wave propagation in single-crystal YIG is presented in detail. Specific advantages of this device are transmission-type operation, delay continuously variable from zero to several microseconds by means of magnetic field, and lack of critical

F. A. Olson; J. R. Yaeger

1965-01-01

275

Obesity and Trends in Life Expectancy  

PubMed Central

Background. Increasing levels of obesity over recent decades have been expected to lead to an epidemic of diabetes and a subsequent reduction in life expectancy, but instead all-cause and cardiovascular-specific mortality rates have decreased steadily in most developed countries and life expectancy has increased. Methods. This paper suggests several factors that may be masking the effects of obesity on life expectancy. Results. It is possible that health and life expectancy gains could be even greater if it was not for the increasing prevalence of extreme obesity. It is also possible that the principal impact of obesity is on disability-free life expectancy rather than on life expectancy itself. Conclusion. If the principal impact of obesity were through disability-free life expectancy rather than on life expectancy itself, this would have substantial implications for the health of individuals and the future burden on the health care system.

Walls, Helen L.; Backholer, Kathryn; Proietto, Joseph; McNeil, John J.

2012-01-01

276

Low Density Codes Achieve theRate-Distortion Bound  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract: We propose a new construction for low-density source codes with mul-tiple parameters that can be tuned to optimize the performance of the code. In addition, we introduce a set of analysis techniques for deriving upper bounds for the expected distortion of our construction, as well as more general low-density construc-tions. We show that (with an optimal encoding algorithm) our

Emin Martinian; Martin J. Wainwright

2006-01-01

277

PRECISION TIME-DELAY CIRCUIT  

DOEpatents

A tine-delay circuit which produces a delay time in d. The circuit a capacitor, an te back resistance, connected serially with the anode of the diode going to ground. At the start of the time delay a negative stepfunction is applied to the series circuit and initiates a half-cycle transient oscillatory voltage terminated by a transient oscillatory voltage of substantially higher frequency. The output of the delay circuit is taken at the junction of the inductor and diode where a sudden voltage rise appears after the initiation of the higher frequency transient oscillations.

Creveling, R.

1959-03-17

278

Global stability and local stability of Hopfield neural networks with delays  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is well known that Hopfield neural networks without delays exhibit no oscillations and possess global stability (i.e., all trajectories tend to some equilibrium). In the present paper we show that if the bound taubeta||T2||0, interconnection matrix T2 associated with delays, and gain of the neurons given by beta, will exhibit similar qualitative properties as the original Hopfield neural network

Hui Ye; Anthony N. Michel; Kaining Wang

1994-01-01

279

Decentralized H? robust stability for switched uncertain nonlinear time-delay composite systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper mainly studies the problem of Hinfin robust stability for a new type of uncertain nonlinear time-delay composite systems. Switched uncertain nonlinear time-delay composite systems. Based on single Lyapunov function and multiple Lyapunov function, respectively, two design schemes of decentralized switching laws are obtained, under which the systems are shown to be asymptotically stable with Hinfin-norm bound. As a

Hong Nie; Ping Li; Zhengyi Song; Jun Zhao

2008-01-01

280

Delay composition in preemptive and non-preemptive real-time pipelines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Uniprocessor schedulability theory made great strides, in part, due to the simplicity of composing the delay of a job from\\u000a the execution times of higher-priority jobs that preempt it. In this paper, we bound the end-to-end delay of a job in a multistage\\u000a pipeline as a function of job execution times on different stages under preemptive as well as non-preemptive

Praveen Jayachandran; Tarek F. Abdelzaher

2008-01-01

281

Global robust stability of bidirectional associative memory neural networks with multiple time delays.  

PubMed

This correspondence presents a sufficient condition for the existence, uniqueness, and global robust asymptotic stability of the equilibrium point for bidirectional associative memory neural networks with discrete time delays. The results impose constraint conditions on the network parameters of the neural system independently of the delay parameter, and they are applicable to all bounded continuous nonmonotonic neuron activation functions. Some numerical examples are given to compare our results with the previous robust stability results derived in the literature. PMID:17926717

Senan, Sibel; Arik, Sabri

2007-10-01

282

Global asymptotic stability of hybrid bidirectional associative memory neural networks with time delays  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This Letter presents a sufficient condition for the existence, uniqueness and global asymptotic stability of the equilibrium point for bidirectional associative memory (BAM) neural networks with distributed time delays. The results impose constraint conditions on the network parameters of neural system independently of the delay parameter, and they are applicable to all bounded continuous non-monotonic neuron activation functions. The results are also compared with the previous results derived in the literature.

Arik, Sabri

2006-02-01

283

Circuit allocation in all optical networks with average packet delay cost criterion  

Microsoft Academic Search

An optimal circuit allocation problem for all-optical circuit-switched backbone networks with average packet delay cost criterion is considered. Multiple classes of traffic flows arrive at the network edge routers, where they can be queued until an end-to-end optical circuit can be allocated. Assuming fluid traffic and circuit allocation of fixed periods, a lower bound on the optimal average packet delay

Zvi Rosberg

2006-01-01

284

Circuit Allocation in All Optical Networks with Average Packet Delay Cost Criterion1  

Microsoft Academic Search

An optimal circuit allocation problem for all-optical circuit-switched backbone networks with average packet delay cost criterion is considered. Multiple classes of traffic flows arrive at the network edge routers, where they can be queued until an end-to-end optical circuit can be allocated. Assuming fluid traffic and circuit allocation of fixed periods, a lower bound on the optimal average packet delay

Zvi Rosberg

2003-01-01

285

Fundamental limitations in passive time delay estimation--Part I: Narrow-band systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Time delay estimation of a noise-like random signal observed at two or more spatially separated receivers is a problem of considerable practical interest in passive radar\\/sonar applications. A new method is presented to analyze the mean-square error performance of delay estimation schemes based on a modified (improved) version of the Ziv-Zakai lower bound (ZZLB). This technique is shown to yield

A. Weiss; E. Weinstein

1983-01-01

286

Titania bound sodium titanate ion exchanger  

DOEpatents

This invention is method for preparing a titania bound ion exchange composition comprising admixing crystalline sodium titanate and a hydrolyzable titanium compound and, thereafter drying the titania bound crystalline sodium titanate and subjecting the dried titania bound ion exchange composition to optional compaction and calcination steps to improve the physical strength of the titania bound composition.

DeFilippi, Irene C. G. (Palatine, IL); Yates, Stephen Frederic (Rolling Meadows, IL); Shen, Jian-Kun (Lake Zurich, IL); Gaita, Romulus (Morton Grove, IL); Sedath, Robert Henry (Bensenville, IL); Seminara, Gary Joseph (Chicago, IL); Straszewski, Michael Peter (Novi, MI); Anderson, David Joseph (Oak Lawn, IL)

1999-03-23

287

Holographic bound from second law of thermodynamics  

Microsoft Academic Search

A necessary condition for the validity of the holographic principle is the holographic bound: the entropy of a system is bounded from above by a quarter of the area of a circumscribing surface measured in Planck areas. This bound cannot be derived at present from consensus fundamental theory. We show with suitable gedanken experiments that the holographic bound follows from

Jacob D. Bekenstein

2000-01-01

288

New performance bounds for turbo codes  

Microsoft Academic Search

We derive a new upper bound on the word- and bit-error probabilities of turbo codes with maximum-likelihood decoding by using the Gallager bound. Since the derivation of the bound for a given interleaver is intractable, we assume uniform interleaving as in the derivation of the standard union bound for turbo codes. The result is a generalization of the transfer function

Tolga M. Duman; Masoud Salehi

1998-01-01

289

Parameter identification in periodic delay differential equations with distributed delay  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, a parameter identification approach for identifying the parameters of a periodic delayed system with distributed delay is introduced based on time series analysis and spectral element analysis. Using this approach the parameters of the distributed delayed system can be identified from the time series of the response of the system. The experimental or numerical data of the response is examined with Floquet theory and time series analysis techniques to estimate a reduced order dynamics, or truncated state space to identify the Floquet multipliers. Parameter identification is then completed using a dynamic map developed for the assumed model of the system which can relate the Floquet multipliers to the unknown parameters in the model. The parameter identification technique is validated numerically for first and second order delay differential equations with distributed delay.

Torkamani, Shahab; Butcher, Eric A.; Khasawneh, Firas A.

2013-04-01

290

Counting strings, wound and bound  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We analyze zero mode counting problems for Dirac operators that find their origin in string theory backgrounds. A first class of quantum mechanical models for which we compute the number of ground states arises from a string winding an isometric direction in a geometry, taking into account its energy due to tension. Alternatively, the models arise from deforming marginal bound states of a string winding a circle, and moving in an orthogonal geometry. After deformation, the number of bound states is again counted by the zero modes of a Dirac operator. We count these bound states in even dimensional asymptotically linear dilaton backgrounds as well as in Euclidean Taub-NUT. We show multiple pole behavior in the fugacities keeping track of a U(1) charge. We also discuss a second class of counting problems that arises when these backgrounds are deformed via the application of a heterotic duality transformation. We discuss applications of our results to Appell-Lerch sums and the counting of domain wall bound states.

Ashok, Sujay K.; Nampuri, Suresh; Troost, Jan

2013-04-01

291

Correlation effects and bound states  

SciTech Connect

Bound states in a simple quark model that are due to correlation effects are analyzed. The confining properties of this model in meson (quark-antiquark and diquark) channels manifest themselves at any quark momenta, and an extra potential field may only enhance the confining effect.

Zinovjev, G. M. [National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Bogolyubov Institute for Theoretical Physics (Ukraine); Molodtsov, S. V., E-mail: molodtsov@itep.ru [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (Russian Federation)

2012-11-15

292

Bounds on universal extra dimensions  

Microsoft Academic Search

We show that the bound from the electroweak data on the size of extra dimensions accessible to all the standard model fields is rather loose. These ``universal'' extra dimensions could have a compactification scale as low as 300 GeV for one extra dimension. This is because the Kaluza-Klein number is conserved and thus the contributions to the electroweak observables arise

Thomas Appelquist; Hsin-Chia Cheng; Bogdan A. Dobrescu

2001-01-01

293

Four-quark bound states  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the framework of simple non-relativistic potential models, we examine the system consisting of two quarks and two antiquarks with equal or unequal masses. We search for possible bound states below the threshold for the spontaneous dissociation into two mesons. We solve the four body problem by empirical or systematic variational methods and we include explicitly the virtual meson-meson components

S. Zouzou; B. Silvestre-Brac; C. Gignoux; J. M. Richard

1986-01-01

294

Removal of bound metal fasteners  

Microsoft Academic Search

This project explored the removal of bound metal fasteners through the use of ultrasonically assisted wrenches. Two wrenches were designed, fabricated and tested. Previous studies had indicated an increase in thread tension for a given torque application under the influence of ultrasonics. Based on this, the loosening of seized and corroded fasteners with the aid of ultrasonics was explored. Experimental

R. F. Kramer

1981-01-01

295

Performance bounds for fractal coding  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reports on investigations concerning the performance of fractal transforms. Emerging from the structural constraints of fractal coding schemes, lower bounds for the reconstruction error are given without regarding quantization noise. This implies finding an at least locally optimal transformation matrix. A full search approach is by definition optimal but also intractable for practical implementations. In order to simplify the calculation

Bernd Hiirtgen; Rwth Aachen

1995-01-01

296

Wronskian Method for Bound States  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|We propose a simple and straightforward method based on Wronskians for the calculation of bound-state energies and wavefunctions of one-dimensional quantum-mechanical problems. We explicitly discuss the asymptotic behaviour of the wavefunction and show that the allowed energies make the divergent part vanish. As illustrative examples we consider…

Fernandez, Francisco M.

2011-01-01

297

Variational Bounds for Creeping Composites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the paper time dependent variational bounds are derived based on Extended Hashin-Shtrikman variational principles. Direct calculation leads to explicit formulas to be presented in the text. For various mechanical properties easy coding in Excel, say, can be used and verification of accuracy for numerical procedures is available using the derived formulas.

Procházka, Petr

2010-05-01

298

Deconstructing delayed posttraumatic stress disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

According to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, delayed posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) must be diagnosed in individuals fulfilling criteria for PTSD if the onset of symptoms is at least six months after the trauma. The purpose of this thesis was to establish the prevalence of delayed PTSD and to examine factors that may explain its occurrence. We

G. E. Smid

2011-01-01

299

DELAYED SCHOOL ENROLMENT: EVIDENCE FROM  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper attempts to understand why children often delay school enrolment despite the prediction of human capital theory that schooling should begin at the earliest possible age. We explore different explanations of delayed enrolment but focus particularly on the effect of child health on the timing of human capital investment and on ultimate attainment. We improve on past studies in

Hayfa Grira

300

Flight Delays in Spanish Airports  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper analyses the duration of flight delays at Spanish airports. To do so, several hazard models are adopted to take into account the delays observed. The results show that the most important factors are certain airport characteristics and contextual characteristics. The policy implications are derived.

Carlos Pestana Barros; Ester Gutiérrez; Sebastián Lozano

2008-01-01

301

Delayed coking process  

SciTech Connect

In a process for delayed coking of heavy petroleum residue feedstock within a coker heater, a coke drum and a fractionator, wherein the feedstock and recycle material are heated in the heater and then passed to the coke drum to produce coke and overhead vapors, wherein the vapors are fed into a bottom primary section of the fractionator. A heavy gas oil product is fractionared and withdrawn from a secondary section of the fractionator, wherein a light gas oil and other lighter distillates products are fractionated and withdrawn from the succeeding sections of the fractionator, wherein a naptha and gaseous constituents are fractionated and withdrawn from the top section of the fractionator. A selected portion of the coke drum overhead vapors is condensed as heavy recycle in the primary section of the fractionator and combined with the preheated but unvaporized feedstock, wherein a selected quantity ratio of the heavy recycle and the feedstock is charged to the coker heater, wherein a flow rate of the combined heavy recycle and feedstock is adjusted to operate the choker heater at a selected inlet cold oil velocity.

Mallari, R.M.

1989-01-10

302

Resource Bounded Unprovability of Computational Lower Bounds (Part 1)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper introduces new notions of asymptotic proofs, PT(polynomial-time)- extensions, PTM(polynomial-time Turing machine)-?-consistency, etc. on formal theories of arithmetic including PA (Peano Arithmetic). An asymptotic proof is a set of infinitely many formal proofs, which is introduced to define and characterize a property, PTM-?-consistency, of a formal theory. Informally speaking, PTM-?-consistency is a polynomial-time bounded version (in asymptotic proofs) of

Tatsuaki Okamoto; Ryo Kashima

303

Community Expectations of College Completion and Attendance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Communities relay expectations of behavior that influence residents' decision making processes. The study's purpose was to define and identify social, cultural, and human capital variables relevant to understanding community expectations of postsecondary attainment. The study sought an operational model of community expectancy that would allow…

Derden, Michael Wade

2011-01-01

304

Parental Expectations of Their Adolescents' Teachers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines parental expectations of their children's teachers through use of the Expectations of Teachers questionnaire. Participating parents (N=765) reported greater expectations for help and assistance, followed by teaching competence and fairness on the part of the teacher. Mothers were found to hold higher fairness, help, and assistance…

Tatar, Moshe; Horenczyk, Gabriel

2000-01-01

305

Delay discounting of different commodities.  

PubMed

When outcomes are delayed, their value is decreased. Delay discounting is a much-studied topic because it is correlated with certain disorders (e.g., pathological gambling). The present study attempts to determine how people would delay discount a number of different commodities, ranging from money to dating partners to federal education legislation. Participants completed delay discounting tasks pertaining to 5 different commodities, with a different set of 5 commodities for 2 groups. Results showed that different commodities were often discounted differently. Both data sets were also subjected to factor analysis. A 2-factor solution was found for both, suggesting that there are multiple "domains" of commodities. This finding is of interest because it suggests that measuring delay discounting for one commodity within a particular domain of commodities will be predictive of how people discount other commodities within that domain but will not be predictive of how they discount commodities within another domain. PMID:20718227

Weatherly, Jeffrey N; Terrell, Heather K; Derenne, Adam

306

Exact Maximum Expected Difierential and Linear Probability for 2Round Advanced Encryption Standard (AES)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Provable security of a block cipher against difierential \\/ lin- ear cryptanalysis is based on the maximum expected difierential \\/ linear probability (MEDP \\/ MELP) over T ‚ 2 core rounds. Over the past few years, several results have provided increasingly tight upper and lower bounds in the case T = 2 for the Advanced Encryption Standard (AES). We show

Liam Keliher; Jiayuan Sui

2005-01-01

307

Measuring Student Expectations and Their Effects on Satisfaction: The Importance of Managing Student Expectations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two studies investigate the relationship between student expectations and student satisfaction. Can students’ satisfaction with a course be accurately predicted by comparing their perceptions to their expectations (as suggested by the expectancy\\/disconfirmation paradigm)? The results of these studies suggest that the answer to this question is strongly affected by the method used to measure student expectations. When recalled expectations and

Sara L. Appleton-Knapp; Kathleen A. Krentler

2006-01-01

308

A theoretical account of cognitive effects in delay discounting  

PubMed Central

Although delay discounting, the attenuation of the value of future rewards, is a robust finding, the mechanism of discounting is not known. We propose a potential mechanism for delay discounting such that discounting emerges from a search process trying to determine what rewards will be available in the future. In this theory, the delay dependence of the discounting of future expected rewards arises from three assumptions. First, that evaluation of outcomes involves a search process. Second, that value is assigned to an outcome proportionally to how easy it is to find. Third, that outcomes that are less delayed are typically easier for the search process to find. By relaxing this third assumption (for example, by assuming that episodically cued outcomes are easier to find), our model suggests that it is possible to dissociate discounting from delay. Our theory thereby explains the empirical result that discounting is slower to episodically-imagined outcomes, because these outcomes are easier for the search process to find. Additionally, the theory explains why improving cognitive resources such as working memory slows discounting, by improving searches and thereby making rewards easier to find. The three assumptions outlined here are likely to be instantiated during deliberative decision-making, but unlikely in habitual decision-making. We model two simple implementations of this theory and show that they unify empirical results about the role of cognitive function in delay discounting, and make new neural, behavioral, and pharmacological predictions.

Kurth-Nelson, Zeb; Bickel, Warren; Redish, A. David

2012-01-01

309

Secure key from bound entanglement.  

PubMed

We characterize the set of shared quantum states which contain a cryptographically private key. This allows us to recast the theory of privacy as a paradigm closely related to that used in entanglement manipulation. It is shown that one can distill an arbitrarily secure key from bound entangled states. There are also states that have less distillable private keys than the entanglement cost of the state. In general, the amount of distillable key is bounded from above by the relative entropy of entanglement. Relationships between distillability and distinguishability are found for a class of states which have Bell states correlated to separable hiding states. We also describe a technique for finding states exhibiting irreversibility in entanglement distillation. PMID:15904201

Horodecki, Karol; Horodecki, Micha?; Horodecki, Pawe?; Oppenheim, Jonathan

2005-04-26

310

Entropy bounds and dark energy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Entropy bounds render quantum corrections to the cosmological constant ? finite. Under certain assumptions, the natural value of ? is of order the observed dark energy density ?10?10 eV4, thereby resolving the cosmological constant problem. We note that the dark energy equation of state in these scenarios is w?p\\/?=0 over cosmological distances, and is strongly disfavored by observational data. Alternatively, ?

Stephen D. H. Hsu

2004-01-01

311

Analytic bounds on transmission probabilities  

SciTech Connect

We develop some new analytic bounds on transmission probabilities (and the related reflection probabilities and Bogoliubov coefficients) for generic one-dimensional scattering problems. To do so we rewrite the Schroedinger equation for some complicated potential whose properties we are trying to investigate in terms of some simpler potential whose properties are assumed known, plus a (possibly large) 'shift' in the potential. Doing so permits us to extract considerable useful information without having to exactly solve the full scattering problem.

Boonserm, Petarpa, E-mail: petarpa.boonserm@gmail.co [Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Science Chulalongkorn University, Phayathai Rd., Pathumwan Bangkok 10330 (Thailand); Visser, Matt, E-mail: matt.visser@msor.vuw.ac.n [School of Mathematics, Statistics, and Operations Research, Victoria University of Wellington (New Zealand)

2010-07-15

312

BOUNDS ON BLACK HOLE SPINS  

SciTech Connect

Beam powers and black hole masses of 48 extended radio sources are combined to obtain lower bounds on the spins and magnetic field strengths of supermassive black holes. This is done in the context of the models of Blandford and Znajek (the 'BZ' model) and Meier; a parameterization for bounds in the context of other models is suggested. The bounds obtained for very powerful classical double radio sources in the BZ model are consistent with black hole spins of order unity for sources at high redshift. The black hole spins are largest for the highest redshift sources and decrease for sources at lower redshift; the sources studied have redshifts between zero and two. Lower-power radio sources associated with central dominant galaxies may have black hole spins that are significantly less than one. Combining this analysis with other results suggests that the maximum values of black hole spin associated with powerful radio galaxies decline from values of order unity at a redshift of 2 to values of order 0.7 at a redshift of zero, falling roughly as {radical}(()1+z), while lower power radio sources have spin values that range from about 0.1 to 0.8. These black hole spin values decrease if the data are considered in the context of the Meier model rather than the BZ model.

Daly, Ruth A. [Department of Physics, Penn State University, Berks Campus, P.O. Box 7009, Reading, PA 19610 (United States)], E-mail: rdaly@psu.edu

2009-05-01

313

Interconnect Criticality-Driven Delay Relaxation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Due to decreasing transistor sizes and increasing clock frequency, interconnect delay is a dominant factor in achieving timing closure in deep-submicrometer designs. In field programmable gate arrays (FPGA), interconnect delay is contributed by programmable routing switches. This increases the wire delay significantly. In FPGA devices, the interconnect delay is usually more than 40% of the total delay. Techniques like wire

Love Singhal; Elaheh Bozorgzadeh; David Eppstein

2007-01-01

314

Local Effects of Delayed Food  

PubMed Central

Five pigeons were trained on a procedure in which seven concurrent variable-interval schedules arranged seven different food–rate ratios in random sequence in each session. Each of these components lasted for 10 response-produced food deliveries, and components were separated by 10-s blackouts. We varied delays to food (signaled by blackout) between the two response alternatives in an experiment with three phases: In Phase 1, the delay on one alternative was 0?s, and the other was varied between 0 and 8?s; in Phase 2, both delays were equal and were varied from 0 to 4?s; in Phase 3, the two delays summed to 8?s, and each was varied from 1 to 7?s. The results showed that increasing delay affected local choice, measured by a pulse in preference, in the same way as decreasing magnitude, but we found also that increasing the delay at the other alternative increased local preference. This result casts doubt on the traditional view that a reinforcer strengthens a response depending only on the reinforcer's value discounted by any response–reinforcer delay. The results suggest that food guides, rather than strengthens, behavior.

Davison, Michael; Baum, William M

2007-01-01

315

Delayed toxicity and delayed neurotoxicity of phosphorothioate and phosphonothioate esters  

Microsoft Academic Search

The delayed neurotoxicity to hens and delayed toxicity to rats of the isomeric trimethyl phosphorothioates, trimethyl phosphate, and a series of the methyl and ethyl esters of methyl?, ethyl?, and phenylphosphonate and phosphonothioates were examined. All the O,O?dialkyl phosphonothioates, phosphorothioates, and their corresponding oxons were relatively nontoxic to rats, with oral LD50 values greater than the 150–450 mg\\/kg tested. The

J. Gary Hollingshaus; David Armstrong; Robert F. Toia; Linda McCloud; T. Roy Fukuto

1981-01-01

316

Resource Slack and Propensity to Discount Delayed Investments of Time Versus Money  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors demonstrate that people discount delayed outcomes as a result of perceived changes over time in supplies of slack. Slack is the perceived surplus of a given resource available to complete a focal task. The present research shows that, in general, people expect slack for time to be greater in the future than in the present. Typically, this expectation

Gal Zauberman

2005-01-01

317

Compression efficiency and delay tradeoffs for hierarchical B-pictures and pulsed-quality frames.  

PubMed

Real-time video applications require tight bounds on end-to-end delay. Hierarchical bidirectional prediction requires buffering frames in the encoder input buffer, thereby contributing to encoder input delay. Long-term frame prediction with pulsed quality requires buffering at the encoder output, increasing the output buffer delay. Both hierarchical B-pictures and pulsed-quality coders involve uneven bit-rate allocation. Both the encoder and decoder buffering requirements depend on the rate allocation. We derive an efficient rate allocation for hierarchical B-pictures using the power spectral density of a wide-sense stationary process. In addition, we discuss important aspects of hierarchical predictive coding, such as the effect of the temporal prediction distance and delay tradeoffs for prediction branch truncation. Finally, we investigate experimentally the tradeoff between delay and compression efficiency. PMID:17605372

Leontaris, Athanasios; Cosman, Pamela C

2007-07-01

318

Women's Retirement Expectations: How Stable Are They?  

PubMed Central

Objective Using the National Longitudinal Survey of Mature Women, we examine between- and within-person differences in expected retirement age as a key element of the retirement planning process. The expectation typologies of 1,626 women born between 1923 and 1937 were classified jointly on the basis of specificity and consistency. Methods Latent class analysis was used to determine retirement expectation patterns over a 7-year span. Multinomial logistic regression analyses were employed to estimate the effects of demographic and status characteristics on the likelihood of reporting 4 distinct longitudinal patterns of retirement expectations. Results Substantial heterogeneity in reports of expected retirement age between and within individuals over the 7-year span was found. Demographic and status characteristics, specifically age, race, marital status, job tenure, and recent job change, sorted respondents into different retirement expectation patterns. Conclusions The frequent within-person fluctuations and substantial between-person heterogeneity in retirement expectations indicate uncertainty and variability in both expectations and process of expectation formation. Variability in respondents' reports suggests that studying retirement expectations at multiple time points better captures the dynamics of preretirement planning.

Hardy, Melissa A.

2009-01-01

319

Delayed awakening in dystonia patients undergoing deep brain stimulation surgery.  

PubMed

We aimed to identify the incidence, duration and causes of delayed emergence from anesthesia in patients with dystonia undergoing surgery for deep brain stimulation (DBS) placement. A retrospective review of patients with dystonia who underwent DBS placement was conducted and the following characteristics were noted: age, gender, comorbid conditions, American Society of Anesthesiologists classification, anesthetic agents used, amount of initial dose, amount of infusion dose, duration of the infusion and the time needed for emergence. Twenty-four patients underwent 33 DBS procedures for dystonia. Propofol was administered to 21 patients, in 29 of the 33 procedures. Dexmedetomidine was administered to three patients, in four procedures. The average propofol loading dose was 0.7mg/kg, and the infusion rate was 80microg/kg per minute (min), for an average duration of 89min. The average time of emergence was 36min. Only 31% of patients emerged from propofol anesthesia during the expected time frame, 69% of patients had some degree of delayed emergence, and 24% had a significant delay in emergence. Delayed emergence was more common in younger patients due to the higher loading doses these patients received. This study shows a 69% incidence of delayed emergence in dystonia patients undergoing DBS surgery. It also suggests an association between delayed emergence and younger patients who receive higher loading doses. A possible cause of delayed emergence is excessive anesthetic potentiation of the low output pallidal state in dystonia which may depress the pallido-thalamo-cortical circuitry. Delayed emergence could also result from depression of the previously affected ventral pallidal inputs to the septo-hippocampal system that mediates general anesthesia and awareness. Complex neurotransmitter disturbances may also be involved. PMID:20466547

Trombetta, Carlos; Deogaonkar, Anupa; Deogaonkar, Milind; Ebrahim, Zeyd; Rezai, Ali; Machado, Andre; Farag, Ehab

2010-05-13

320

Grief experiences and expectance of suicide.  

PubMed

Suicide is generally viewed as an unexpected cause of death. However, some suicides might be expected to a certain extent, which needs to be further studied. The relationships between expecting suicide, feeling understanding for the suicide, and later grief experiences were explored. In total, 142 bereaved participants completed the Grief Experience Questionnaire and additional measurements on expectance and understanding. Results supported the prediction of a link between expecting suicide and understanding the suicide. Higher expectance and understanding were related to less searching for explanation and preoccupation with the suicide. There was no direct association with other grief experiences. We conclude that more attention should be brought to the relation between expecting the suicide of a loved one and later grief responses in research and in clinical practice. PMID:22276805

Wojtkowiak, Joanna; Wild, Verena; Egger, Jos

2012-01-25

321

42 CFR 136a.32 - Delayed implementation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-10-01 false Delayed implementation. 136a.32 Section 136a.32...Provisions § 136a.32 Delayed implementation. (a) The eligibility requirements...b) During the six month delayed implementation period the former eligibility...

2012-10-01

322

42 CFR 136a.32 - Delayed implementation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-10-01 false Delayed implementation. 136a.32 Section 136a.32...Provisions § 136a.32 Delayed implementation. (a) The eligibility requirements...b) During the six month delayed implementation period the former eligibility...

2011-10-01

323

Delay Test Generation for Synchronous Sequential Circuits.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

We address the problem of generating tests for delay faults in non-scan synchronous sequential circuits. Delay test generation for sequential circuits is a considerably more difficult problem than delay testing of combinational circuits and has received m...

S. Devadas

1989-01-01

324

14 CFR 1214.106 - Minor delays.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...to accommodate customer requested minor launch delays. Such delays will normally be requested just prior to launch. Except for potential optional service...of proration will be established in the launch agreement. Delays beyond 72 hours...

2012-01-01

325

Tooth formation - delayed or absent  

MedlinePLUS

Specific diseases can have a profound effect on tooth shape, tooth color, time of appearance, or tooth absence. Delayed or absent tooth formation can result from many different conditions, including: Apert syndrome Cleidocranial dysostosis ...

326

Delayed gamma Rays from Fission.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Studies of delayed gamma rays from fission at early times were conducted using the pulsed beams of neutrons and bremsstrahlung x rays from an electron linear accelerator to produce fissions. Measurements of the energy spectrum of isomeric gamma rays from ...

R. B. Walton R. E. Sund

1965-01-01

327

Stability in Linear Delay Equations.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

For linear autonomous differential difference equations of retarded or neutral type, necessary and sufficient conditions are given for the zero solution to be stable (hyperbolic) for all values of the delays. (Author)

J. K. Hale E. F. Infante F. S. P. Tsen

1985-01-01

328

expect: Curing Those Uncontrollable Fits of Interaction  

Microsoft Academic Search

UNIX programs used to be designed so that they could be connected with pipes createdby a shell. This paradigm is insufficient when dealing with many modern programsthat demand to be used interactively.expect is a program designed to control interactive programs. expect reads a scriptthat resembles the dialogue itself but which may include multiple paths through it.Scripts include:. send\\/expect sequences -

Don Libes

1990-01-01

329

Time-Variation in Expected Returns  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article characterizes the stochastic behavior of expected retu rns on common stocks. The authors assume market efficiency and postulate an autoregressive process for conditional expected returns. They use weekly returns of ten size-based portfolios over the 1962-8 5 period and find that (1) the variation through time in expected returns is well characterized by a stationary first-order autoregression process;

Jennifer Conrad; Gautam Kaul

1988-01-01

330

Optimal power flow with expected security costs  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses the expected-security-cost optimal power flow (ESCOPF) problem. The objective of the problem is to minimize the expected total cost of system operation subject to power system constraints and expected security costs. The probabilities of operating in the pre-contingency operating state and the probabilities of operating in all possible post-contingency states are considered. In addition, the ESCOPF problem

John Condren; Thomas W. Gedra; P. Damrongkulkamjorn

2006-01-01

331

Increasing hope by addressing clients' outcome expectations.  

PubMed

Addressing clients' outcome expectations is an important clinical process that can lead to a strong therapeutic alliance, more positive treatment outcomes, and decreased rates of premature termination from psychotherapy. Five interventions designed to foster appropriate outcome expectations are discussed, including presenting a convincing treatment rationale, increasing clients' faith in their therapists, expressing faith in clients, providing outcome education, and comparing progress with expectations. Clinical examples and research support are provided for each. PMID:24000836

Swift, Joshua K; Derthick, Annie O

2013-09-01

332

Analysis and measurement of session setup delay and jitter in VoWLAN using composite metrics  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we look at the signaling for session mobility using the Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) and the Session Description Protocol (SDP). Bearing in mind that perceived voice quality is sensitive mostly to delay variation (also called jitter), we work on bounding that value for providing a better voice Quality of Service over Wireless LAN (WLAN). For mobility we

Muslim Elkotob; Karl Andersson

2008-01-01

333

Robust stability of interval bidirectional associative memory neural network with time delays  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, the conventional bidirectional associative memory (BAM) neural network with signal transmission delay is intervalized in order to study the bounded effect of deviations in network parameters and external perturbations. The resultant model is referred to as a novel interval dynamic BAM (IDBAM) model. By combining a number of different Lyapunov functionals with the Razumikhin technique, some sufficient

Xiaofeng Liao; Kwok-wo Wong

2004-01-01

334

Oscillation of solutions for certain impulsive vector parabolic differential equations with delays  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, sufficient conditions are established for H-oscillation of solutions of the following impulsive vector parabolic differential equations with delays where R+=[0,[infinity]), [Omega] is a bounded domain in Rn with a piecewise smooth boundary [partial differential][Omega], and H is a unit vector in RM.

Li, Wei Nian; Han, Maoan

2007-02-01

335

Robust stability and stabilization for singular systems with state delay and parameter uncertainty  

Microsoft Academic Search

Considers the problems of robust stability and stabilization for uncertain continuous singular systems with state delay. The parametric uncertainty is assumed to be norm bounded. The purpose of the robust stability problem is to give conditions such that the uncertain singular system is regular, impulse free, and stable for all admissible uncertainties, while the purpose of the robust stabilization is

Shengyuan Xu; Paul Van Dooren; R. Stefan; J. Lam

2002-01-01

336

Improved Bound for the PPSZ\\/Schöning-Algorithm for 3SAT  

Microsoft Academic Search

The PPSZ Algorithm presented by Paturi, Pudlak, Saks, and Zane in 1998 has the nice feature that the only satisfying solution of a uniquely satisable 3-SAT formula can be found in expected running time at most O(1:3071n). Its bound degenerates when the number of solutions increases. In 1999, Schoning proved an O(1:3334n) bound for 3-SAT. In 2003, Iwama and Tamaki

Daniel Rolf

2005-01-01

337

Nonuniversal lower bound for the shear viscosity to entropy density ratio  

SciTech Connect

The lower bound of the shear viscosity to entropy density ratio is examined using an exact representation of the ratio through the density of states. Under certain assumptions it can be shown that the lower bound of the ratio is not universal; its value is determined by the entropy density. Some examples of physical systems are discussed in the paper where one can expect violation of the conformal 1/4{pi} value.

Jakovac, Antal [Physics Institute, BME Technical University, H-1111 Budapest (Hungary)

2010-02-15

338

Algorithmic stability and sanity-check bounds for leave-one-out cross-validation  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we prove sanity-check bounds for the error of the leave-one-out cross- validation estimate of the generalization error: that is, bounds showing that the worst-case error of this estimate is not much worse than that of the training error estimate. The name sanity-check refers to the fact that although we often expect the leave-one-out estimate to perform considerably

Michael J. Kearns; Dana Ron

1997-01-01

339

New Bounds for Multi-Dimensional Packing.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

New upper and lower bounds are presented for a multi-dimensional generalization of bin packing called box packing. Several variants of this problem, including bounded space box packing, square packing, variable sized box packing and resource augmented box...

R. Van Stee S. Seiden

2001-01-01

340

Tunable silicon CROW delay lines  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tunable coupled resonator optical waveguides (CROWs) are powerful and versatile devices that can be used to dynamically control the delay of optical data streams on chip. In this contribution we show that CROW delay lines fabricated on a silicon on insulator (SOI) platform are suitable for applications in the emerging scenario of optical systems at 100 Gbit/s. Issues concerning technology, design, limits and applications of SOI CROWs are discussed. The performances of silicon CROW delay lines activated by thermal tuning are compared to those of glass CROW in terms of power consumption, thermal crosstalk and reconfiguration speed. The continuous delay of 10-ps long optical pulses by 8 bit length is demonstrated by using a silicon CROW with a bandwidth of 87 GHz and made of 12 RRs. At 100 Gbit/s this structure provides comparable figures of merit (fractional delay of 0.75 bit/RR and fractional loss of 0.7 dB per bit-delay) of state-of-the art glass CROW operating at 10 Gbit/s, yet the area of the latter being three order of magnitude larger. The compatibility of silicon CROW with the emerging 100 Gbit/s systems is demonstrated by showing error-free phase-preserving propagation of a 100 Gbit/s return-to-zero (RZ) polarization-division-multiplexing (PolDM) differential quaternary phase shit keying (DQPSK) signal dynamically delayed by the CROW. It is also demonstrated that a silicon CROW can be used in a PolDM system to introduce a polarization selective delay in order to optimize the time interleaving of the two orthogonally polarized data streams.

Morichetti, Francesco; Canciamilla, Antonio; Torregiani, Matteo; Ferrari, Carlo; Melloni, Andrea; Martinelli, Mario

2010-04-01

341

Parallel multi-delay simulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT The Multi-DelayPara llel (MDP) algorithm is an unconventional multi-delay algorithm in that it uses no timing wheel, or any event-sorting mechanism of any kind. Instead, wide bit-fields containing net values for several different times are used to resolve out-of-order events, and bit-parallel operations are performed to simulate the required gates. The MDP algorithm was designed to be implemented in

Yun Sik Lee; Peter M. Maurer

1993-01-01

342

The management of enthusiasm: motives and expectations in cardiovascular medicine.  

PubMed

Debates about appropriate action in medicine often turn on finding the right emotional orientation to new developments. In this article enthusiasm emerges as a key term in a professional 'vocabulary of motive' around innovation, complicating current sociological interest in expectations. The negative associations that adhere to this word among clinical researchers indicate awareness with the difficulty of managing hype and public hopes, but analysis of its use by cardiologists over the past two decades also reveals tension around more specific professional dangers, including 'credulity' and inappropriate activism. An emphasis on clinical trials offers one resolution, but additional narrative strategies can be identified when discussing when to start such trials here illustrated for stem cells for cardiac repair. In particular, while some suggest delaying trials until there is good knowledge of mechanism gained in the laboratory, others support early clinical research through gestures of therapeutic and epistemic modesty. PMID:20974691

Will, Catherine M

2010-11-01

343

Fundamentals of Delayed Coking Joint Industry Project  

SciTech Connect

Delayed coking evolved steadily over the early to mid 1900s to enable refiners to convert high boiling, residual petroleum fractions to light products such as gasoline. Pound for pound, coking is the most energy intensive of any operation in a modern refinery. Large amounts of energy are required to heat the thick, poor-quality petroleum residuum to the 900 to 950 degrees F required to crack the heavy hydrocarbon molecules into lighter, more valuable products. One common misconception of delayed coking is that the product coke is a disadvantage. Although coke is a low valued (near zero economic value) byproduct, compared to transportation fuels, there is a significant worldwide trade and demand for coke as it is an economical fuel. Coke production has increased steadily over the last ten years, with further increases forecast for the foreseeable future. Current domestic production is near 111,000 tons per day. A major driving force behind this increase is the steady decline in crude quality available to refiners. Crude slates are expected to grow heavier with higher sulfur contents while environmental restrictions are expected to significantly reduce the demand for high-sulfur residual fuel oil. Light sweet crudes will continue to be available and in even greater demand than they are today. Refiners will be faced with the choice of purchasing light sweet crudes at a premium price, or adding bottom of the barrel upgrading capability, through additional new investments, to reduce the production of high-sulfur residual fuel oil and increase the production of low-sulfur distillate fuels. A second disadvantage is that liquid products from cokers frequently are unstable, i.e., they rapidly form gum and sediments. Because of intermediate investment and operating costs, delayed coking has increased in popularity among refiners worldwide. Based on the 2000 Worldwide Refining Survey published in the Oil and Gas, the delayed coking capacity for 101 refineries around the world is 2,937,439 barrels/calendar day. These cokers produce 154,607 tons of coke per day and delayed coking accounts for 88% of the world capacity. The delayed coking charge capacity in the United States is 1,787,860 b/cd. Despite its wide commercial use, only relatively few contractors and refiners are truly knowledgeable in delayed-coking design, so that this process carries with it a ''black art'' connotation. Until recently, the expected yield from cokers was determined by a simple laboratory test on the feedstock. As a result of Tulsa University's prior related research, a process model was developed that with additional work could be used to optimize existing delayed cokers over a wide range of potential feedstocks and operating conditions. The objectives of this research program are to: utilize the current micro, batch and pilot unit facilities at The University of Tulsa to enhance the understanding of the coking process; conduct additional micro and pilot unit tests with new and in-house resids and recycles to make current optimization models more robust; conduct focused kinetic experiments to enhance the furnace tube model and to enhance liquid production while minimizing sulfur in the products; conduct detailed foaming studies to optimize the process and minimize process upsets; quantify the parameters that affect coke morphology; and to utilize the knowledge gained from the experimental and modeling studies to enhance the computer programs developed in the previous JIP for optimization of the coking process. These refined computer models will then be tested against refinery data provided by the member companies. Novel concepts will also be explored for hydrogen sulfide removal of furnace gases as well as gas injection studies to reduce over-cracking. The following deliverables are scheduled from the two projects of the three-year JIP: (1) A novel method for enhancing liquid yields from delayed cokers and data that provide insight as to the optimum temperature to remove hydrogen sulfide from furnace gases. (2) An understanding of what causes foaming in c

Michael Volk Jr; Keith Wisecarver

2005-10-01

344

Removal of bound metal fasteners  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This project explored the removal of bound metal fasteners through the use of ultrasonically assisted wrenches. Two wrenches were designed, fabricated and tested. Previous studies had indicated an increase in thread tension for a given torque application under the influence of ultrasonics. Based on this, the loosening of seized and corroded fasteners with the aid of ultrasonics was explored. Experimental data confirmed our prior analysis of the torque-tension relationship under the influence of ultrasonics; however, our progress did not satisfy the requirements necessary to loosen seized studs in a shipyard environment.

Kramer, R. F.

1981-04-01

345

Bayesian Estimation With Distance Bounds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We consider the problem of estimating a random state vector when there is information about the maximum distances between its subvectors. The estimation problem is posed in a Bayesian framework in which the minimum mean square error (MMSE) estimate of the state is given by the conditional mean. Since finding the conditional mean requires multidimensional integration, an approximate MMSE estimator is proposed. The performance of the proposed estimator is evaluated in a positioning problem. Finally, the application of the estimator in inequality constrained recursive filtering is illustrated by applying the estimator to a dead-reckoning problem. The MSE of the estimator is compared with two related posterior Cram\\'er-Rao bounds.

Zachariah, Dave; Skog, Isaac; Jansson, Magnus; Handel, Peter

2012-12-01

346

Entropy bounds and dark energy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Entropy bounds render quantum corrections to the cosmological constant ? finite. Under certain assumptions, the natural value of ? is of order the observed dark energy density ~10-10 eV4, thereby resolving the cosmological constant problem. We note that the dark energy equation of state in these scenarios is w?p/?=0 over cosmological distances, and is strongly disfavored by observational data. Alternatively, ? in these scenarios might account for the diffuse dark matter component of the cosmological energy density. Permanent address: Institute of Theoretical Science and Department of Physics, University of Oregon, Eugene, OR 97403.

Hsu, Stephen D. H.

2004-07-01

347

Prescription stimulant expectancies in recreational and medical users: results from a preliminary expectancy questionnaire.  

PubMed

Given the rise of prescription stimulant misuse, examination of effect expectancies could prove helpful. The Prescription Stimulant Expectancy Questionnaire (PSEQ) was designed to explore positive and negative prescription stimulant-related expectancies. In 2006, 157 participants nationwide completed an Internet survey of prescription stimulant use, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms, and expectancies. Multiple regressions demonstrate that positive, but not negative expectancies, predicted frequency of use. Recreational and medical users were classified by hierarchical cluster analysis. Recreational users reported fewer positive and negative expectancies than medical users. Implications and limitations are discussed. Future research is warranted on prescription stimulant expectancies and the utility of the PSEQ. PMID:19938932

Looby, Alison; Earleywine, Mitch

2009-01-01

348

Improved bounds on entropic uncertainty relations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Entropic uncertainty relations place nontrivial lower bounds to the sum of Shannon information entropies for noncommuting observables. Here we obtain a lower bound on the entropy sum for general pairs of observables in finite-dimensional Hilbert space, which improves on the best bound known to date [H. Maassen and J. B. M. Uffink, Phys. Rev. Lett. 60, 1103 (1988)] for a

Julio I. de Vicente; Jorge Sánchez-Ruiz

2008-01-01

349

PATTERN SEARCH ALGORITHMS FOR BOUND CONSTRAINED MINIMIZATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a convergence theory for pattern search methods for solving bound constrained nonlinear programs. The analysis relies on the abstract structure of pattern search methods and an understanding of how the pattern interacts with the bound constraints. This analysis makes it possible to develop pattern search methods for bound constrained problems while only slightly restricting the flexibility present in

ROBERT MICHAEL LEWIS; VIRGINIA TORCZON

350

Bounds for Orthogonal 3-D Graph Drawing  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper studies 3-D orthogonal grid drawings for graphs of arbi- trary degree, in particular Kn, with vertices drawn as boxes. It estab- lishes asymptotic lower bounds for the volume of the bounding box and the number of bends of such drawings and exhibits a construction that achieves these bounds. No edge route in this construction bends more than three

Therese C. Biedl; Thomas C. Shermer; Sue Whitesides; Stephen K. Wismath

1999-01-01

351

Bounded complete models of topological spaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article we show that each complete metric space is the maximal point space of a continuous, bounded complete dcpo (in other common terminology, we show that such a space has a bounded complete computational model). This gives a positive answer to J. Lawson's question of whether each completely metrizable space is the maximal point space of a continuous, bounded

Ralph Kopperman; Hans-Peter A. Künzi; Pawe? Waszkiewicz

2004-01-01

352

Capacity bounds for secure network coding  

Microsoft Academic Search

We consider the problem of how to securely communicate over networks subject to presence of eavesdroppers. We obtain inner and outer bounds for the set of rate-capacity tuples at which data can be robustly and securely transmitted across an acyclic network under the assumption of error-free links. These bounds generalize the inner and outer bounds obtained for network coding given

Terence Chan; Alex Grant

2008-01-01

353

Lower bounds for parametric estimation with constraints  

Microsoft Academic Search

A Chapman-Robbins form of the Barankin bound is used to derive a multiparameter Cramer-Rao (CR) type lower bound on estimator error covariance when the parameter ??Rn is constrained to lie in a subset of the parameter space. A simple form for the constrained CR bound is obtained when the constraint set ?C, can be expressed as a smooth functional inequality

John D. Gorman; Alfred O. Hero III

1990-01-01

354

Frame bounds for finite dimensional frames  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the study of wavelet theory, frames and the computation of frame bounds play an important role. This short letter details the calculation of frame bounds in the case where the frame is composed of a finite number of elements. The final step in solving for the frame bounds uses the Rayleigh principle.

Pierre, John W.

1996-10-01

355

The effects of caffeine and expectancy on attention and memory.  

PubMed

The present study contrasted caffeine's effects on individuals who expect caffeine to stimulate them and those who do not. Secondly, whether a message that caffeine rather than placebo was administered would also affect these two groups of subjects differently was investigated. The study was conducted single-blind in a 2x2x2 mixed design. The between subjects factor was whether they expected caffeine to stimulate them (E+) or not (E-) according to their self reports obtained before the experiment began. The within subjects factors were message (told caffeine vs told placebo) and beverage type (given caffeine vs placebo). Sixteen subjects in each group (n=32) performed on signal detection, memory scanning and delayed free recall tasks following ingestion of either caffeinated or decaffeinated coffee on two sessions each, a total of four experimental sessions. On each session, subjects were given a message regarding their drink (told caffeine vs told placebo). However, on two sessions there was a mismatch between the message and drink given. For signal detection, performance under caffeine was better than placebo in the E+ but not the E- group. However, subjects in the E+ group did not benefit more than the E- group in either message condition. On memory scanning, detections and false alarms did not differ for either beverage, nor was there a differential finding in the E+ and E- groups. However, reaction time under caffeine condition was shorter. No effects of message were found. Caffeine and message also did not have any effect on performance on the delayed free recall task. The hypothesis that caffeine and message would affect E+ and E- subjects differentially was partly supported. PMID:15742338

Oei, Adam; Hartley, Laurence R

2005-04-01

356

Do Out-of-Pocket Health Care Costs Delay Retirement?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rising health care costs threaten many older Americans’ financial security, perhaps leading people to delay retirement. For workers receiving health benefits from their employers, continued work reduces the risk of high out-of-pocket health care costs. Working longer also increases retirement incomes, making health care costs more affordable. This paper examines the impact of expected future out-of-pocket medical spending on retirement

Richard W. Johnson; Rudolph G. Penner; Desmond Toohey

2008-01-01

357

Delay-Bounded and Energy-Efficient Composite Event Monitoring in Heterogeneous Wireless Sensor Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wireless sensor networks can be used for event warning applications. Till date, in most of the proposed schemes, the raw or aggregated sensed data are periodically sent to a data consuming center. However, with those schemes, the occurrence of an emergency event such as a fire is hardly reported timely, which is a strict requirement for event warning applications. In

Yingshu Li; Chunyu Ai; Chinh T. Vu; Yi Pan; Raheem A. Beyah

2010-01-01

358

Bounded delay timing analysis of a class of CSP programs with choice  

Microsoft Academic Search

We extend our technique for determining exact time separation of events in systems with just concurrency to a restricted but still useful class of systems with both choice and concurrency. Such a system is described using a CSP program (including Martin's probe operator) with the restrictions that the communication behavior is data-independent, that there is no OR-causality, and that guard

Henrik Hulgaard; Steven M. Burns

1994-01-01

359

Robust stability of interval bidirectional associative memory neural network with time delays.  

PubMed

In this paper, the conventional bidirectional associative memory (BAM) neural network with signal transmission delay is intervalized in order to study the bounded effect of deviations in network parameters and external perturbations. The resultant model is referred to as a novel interval dynamic BAM (IDBAM) model. By combining a number of different Lyapunov functionals with the Razumikhin technique, some sufficient conditions for the existence of unique equilibrium and robust stability are derived. These results are fairly general and can be verified easily. To go further, we extend our investigation to the time-varying delay case. Some robust stability criteria for BAM with perturbations of time-varying delays are derived. Besides, our approach for the analysis allows us to consider several different types of activation functions, including piecewise linear sigmoids with bounded activations as well as the usual C1-smooth sigmoids. We believe that the results obtained have leading significance in the design and application of BAM neural networks. PMID:15376859

Liao, Xiaofeng; Wong, Kwok-wo

2004-04-01

360

Analysis on the Capacity of a Cognitive Radio Network under Delay Constraints  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, performance analysis of a cognitive radio network is conducted. In the network, there is imperfect sensing and the wireless channel is a Gilbert-Elliott channel. The focus is on the network's capacity in serving traffic with delay constraints. Specifically, the maximum traffic arrival rates of both primary users and secondary users, which the network can support with guaranteed delay bounds, are investigated. The analysis is based on stochastic network calculus. A general relationship between delay bounds, traffic patterns and important characteristics such as spectrum sensing errors and channel fading of the cognitive radio network is derived. This relationship lays a foundation for finding the capacity under different traffic scenarios. Two specific traffic types are exemplified, namely periodic traffic and Poisson traffic. Analytical results are presented in comparison with simulation results. The comparison shows a good match between them, validating the analysis.

Gao, Yuehong; Jiang, Yuming

361

International Variations in Measuring Customer Expectations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Discussion of customer expectations of library service quality and SERVQUAL as a measurement tool focuses on two studies: one that compared a survey of Chinese university students' expectations of service quality to New Zealand students; and one that investigated national culture as a source of attitudes to customer service. (Author/LRW)|

Calvert, Philip J.

2001-01-01

362

Antecedents and Consequences of TESOL Student Expectations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Affective variables can help understand differences in student performance. This paper presents student expectations as an affective variable that has so far received little research attention. Students have expectations from educational providers, the fulfilment of which can create a positive learning environment leading to better performance.…

Bordia, Sarbari; Wales, Lynn; Gallois, Cindy; Pittam, Jeffery

2008-01-01

363

PESSIMISTIC PORTFOLIO ALLOCATION AND CHOQUET EXPECTED UTILITY  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent developments in the theory of choice under uncertain ty and risk yield a pessimistic decision theory that replaces the c lassical expected utility criterion with a Choquet expectation that accentuates the l ikelihood of the least favorable outcomes. A parallel theory has recently emerged in the literature on risk assessment. It is shown that a general form of pessimistic

364

Raising Expectations is Aim of New Effort  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Researchers and policymakers agree that teachers' expectations of what their students can do can become self-fulfilling prophecies for children's academic performance. Yet while the "soft bigotry of low expectations" has become an education catchphrase, scholars and advocates are just beginning to explore whether it is possible to prevent such…

Sparks, Sarah D.

2010-01-01

365

Parental Educational Expectations for Adolescents with Disabilities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Using data on eighth-grade students from the National Education Longitudinal Study of 1988, this study compared parent expectations for students with visual impairment, hearing impairment, deafness, orthopedic impairment, or no disability. Parental educational expectations were higher for students with disabilities than for those without. Student…

Masino, Linda L.; Hodapp, Robert M.

1996-01-01

366

Socioeconomic inequalities in health expectancy in Belgium  

Microsoft Academic Search

Various international studies have demonstrated socio-economic differences in health. Linking the 1991 Census to the National Register and using the Health Interview Survey 1997 has enabled assessment of the association between the level of education and health in Belgium using the composite indicator ‘health expectancy’.The Sullivan method was used to calculate health expectancy on the basis of current probability of

N Bossuyt; S Gadeyne; P Deboosere; H Van Oyen

2004-01-01

367

Do Students Expect Compensation for Wage Risk?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|We use a unique data set about the wage distribution that Swiss students expect for themselves ex ante, deriving parametric and non-parametric measures to capture expected wage risk. These wage risk measures are unfettered by heterogeneity which handicapped the use of actual market wage dispersion as risk measure in earlier studies. Students in…

Schweri, Juerg; Hartog, Joop; Wolter, Stefan C.

2011-01-01

368

Information structure expectations in sentence comprehension  

Microsoft Academic Search

In English, new information typically appears late in the sentence, as does primary accent. Because of this tendency, perceivers might expect the final constituent or constituents of a sentence to contain informational focus. This expectation should in turn affect how they comprehend focus-sensitive constructions such as ellipsis sentences. Results from four experiments on sluicing sentences (e.g., The mobster implicated the

Katy Carlson; Michael Walsh Dickey; Lyn Frazier; Charles Clifton Jr

2009-01-01

369

Employer Expectations of Students Attending Job Fairs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reports on a survey about employer expectations of students attending job fairs, including how students should conduct themselves and dress. More than one-third indicated they expect students to be knowledgeable about their company. According to respondents, lack of clear career objectives accounts for the most common mistake made by students.…

Palomares, Amber

2000-01-01

370

Health expectancies in the older Thai population  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study aims to investigate health expectancies in five domains: cognitive health, psychological health, physical health, functional ability and self-perceived global health (SPGH) in the older Thai population. There are few studies reporting health expectancies in multidimensional health domains, most of which reported only one health dimension. The dataset used was from the Bangkok Longitudinal Study by Siriraj Hospital for

Weerasak Muangpaisan; Prasert Assantachai; Somboon Intalapaporn; Kathryn Richardson; Carol Brayne

2011-01-01

371

What Respondents Really Expect from Researchers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article addresses the issue of falling response rates in telephone surveys. To better understand and maintain respondent goodwill, concepts of psychological contract and respondent expectations are introduced and explored. Results of the qualitative study show that respondent expectations are not only socially contingent but also…

Kolar, Tomaz; Kolar, Iztok

2008-01-01

372

What Respondents Really Expect from Researchers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article addresses the issue of falling response rates in telephone surveys. To better understand and maintain respondent goodwill, concepts of psychological contract and respondent expectations are introduced and explored. Results of the qualitative study show that respondent expectations are not only socially contingent but also…

Kolar, Tomaz; Kolar, Iztok

2008-01-01

373

Parents' Role in Adolescents' Educational Expectations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The present study examined the extent to which mothers' and fathers' expectations for their offspring's future education, their level of education, and adolescents' academic achievement predict adolescents' educational expectations. To investigate this, 230 adolescents were examined twice while they were in comprehensive school (in the 7th and…

Rimkute, Laura; Hirvonen, Riikka; Tolvanen, Asko; Aunola, Kaisa; Nurmi, Jari-Erik

2012-01-01

374

Grief Experiences and Expectance of Suicide  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Suicide is generally viewed as an unexpected cause of death. However, some suicides might be expected to a certain extent, which needs to be further studied. The relationships between expecting suicide, feeling understanding for the suicide, and later grief experiences were explored. In total, 142 bereaved participants completed the Grief…

Wojtkowiak, Joanna; Wild, Verena; Egger, Jos

2012-01-01

375

College students' dining expectations in Cyprus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The primary purpose of the study is to investigate college students' dining expectations and define the factors that shape their dining choices. In addition, the study investigates whether gender, ethnic origin, prior food and beverage working experience, spending habits and dining frequency influence students' dining expectations. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – A quantitative questionnaire was developed and randomly administered to college

Anastasios Zopiatis; Jovana Pribic

2007-01-01

376

Rising Tides: Faculty Expectations of Library Websites  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Looking at 2003-2009 LibQUAL+ responses at research-oriented universities in the United States, faculty library users report a significant and consistent rise in desires and expectations for library-provided online tools and websites, even as student user groups show declining or leveling expectations. While faculty, like students, also report…

Nicol, Erica Carlson; O'English, Mark

2012-01-01

377

Trends in Life Expectancy in Wellbeing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Objectives: This paper describes and discusses trends in life expectancy in wellbeing between 1989 and 1998. Methods: Data on wellbeing by the Bradburn Affect Balance Scale is obtained from the Netherlands Continuous Health Interview Surveys for the calendar years from 1989 to 1998. Using Sullivan's method, life expectancy in wellbeing is…

Perenboom, R. J. M.; Van Herten, L. M.; Boshuizen, H. C.; Van Den Bos, G. A. M.

2004-01-01

378

Bicameralism and Representation: partisanship and party expectations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract Major party affiliated Upper House representatives in the Australian Parliament face two forms of representative expectations: Party and factors that are ancillary to party (often competing). The party and competing expectations on major party Senators are evolving with the increased professionalisation of political operations in Australia. Partisanship in the Senate is not necessarily driven primarily by loyalty or ideological

Peter van Onselen

2004-01-01

379

Adjusted expectations, satisfaction and loyalty development  

Microsoft Academic Search

The primary contribution of this article is an analysis of the influence of the use of individual's expectations about a service consumption on the behavior models, that examine the process according to which loyalty and satisfaction are generated. More specifically, the research examines the implications of considering adjusted expectations, namely those that tourists have after having visited a destination, rather

Ramón Rufín; Cayetano Medina; Manuel Rey

2012-01-01

380

Marijuana Primes, Marijuana Expectancies, and Arithmetic Efficiency*  

PubMed Central

Objective: Previous research has shown that primes associated with alcohol influence behavior consistent with specific alcohol expectancies. The present study examined whether exposure to marijuana-related primes and marijuana expectancies interact to produce similar effects. Specifically, the present study examined whether marijuana primes and marijuana expectancies regarding cognitive and behavioral impairment interact to influence performance on an arithmetic task. Method: Two independent samples (N = 260) of undergraduate students (both marijuana users and nonusers) first completed measures of marijuana-outcome expectancies associated with cognitive and behavioral impairment and with general negative effects (Sample 2). Later in the semester, participants were exposed to marijuana-related (or neutral) primes and then completed an arithmetic task. Results: Results from Sample 1 indicated that participants who were exposed to marijuana-themed magazine covers performed more poorly on the arithmetic task if they expected that marijuana would lead to cognitive and behavioral impairment. Results from Sample 2 indicated that, for marijuana users, cognitive and behavioral impairment expectancies, but not expectancies regarding general negative effects, similarly moderated arithmetic performance for participants exposed to marijuana-related words. Conclusions: Results support the hypothesis that the implicit activation of specific marijuana-outcome expectancies can influence cognitive processes. Implications for research on marijuana are discussed.

Hicks, Joshua A.; Pedersen, Sarah L.; McCarthy, Denis M.; Friedman, Ronald S.

2009-01-01

381

Changes in life expectancy 1900-1990.  

PubMed

Life expectancy at birth has risen in all industrialized countries during the last 100 years, but mortality improvements by gender and region often have proceeded at very different rates. Although some countries have experienced increases in overall mortality during recent decades, the levels of life expectancy gains in countries such as Japan have confounded demographic predictions and have led to renewed research and debate over future mortality decline and the limits to human life. This paper reviews levels of and changes in life expectancy at birth and at older ages in industrialized countries during the 20th century. Trends in mortality and morbidity at older ages are summarized in the context of the historic epidemiological disease transition from infectious to chronic. Cause-specific and active/inactive decompositions of life expectancy are examined, as are initial attempts to correlate life expectancy with physical attributes that may reflect differential nutritional status. PMID:1590256

Kinsella, K G

1992-06-01

382

Dynamical Horizon Entropy Bound Conjecture in Loop Quantum Cosmology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The covariant entropy bound conjecture is an important hint for the quantum gravity, with several versions available in the literature. For cosmology, Ashtekar and Wilson-Ewing ever show the consistence between the loop gravity theory and one version of this conjecture. Recently, He and Zhang [J. High Energy Phys. 10 (2007) 077] proposed a version for the dynamical horizon of the universe, which validates the entropy bound conjecture for the cosmology filled with perfect fluid in the classical scenario when the universe is far away from the big bang singularity. However, their conjecture breaks down near big bang region. We examine this conjecture in the context of the loop quantum cosmology. With the example of photon gas, this conjecture is protected by the quantum geometry effects as expected.

Li, Li-Fang; Zhu, Jian-Yang

2012-07-01

383

Direct computation of wall bounded aerosol turbulent flow interactions  

SciTech Connect

A method is described for direct numerical simulations of the statistical interactions between spherical solid particles and a turbulent carrier gas that entrains them. At the present stage of method development, the emphasis is on analysis of wall bounded turbulent, two phase, compressible flow. The bounding geometry described here is a two dimensional channel. The numerical procedure is designed to resolve statistical flow features of both dispersed and continuous phases. The numerical simulations combine a truncated spectral transform collocation procedure for the continuous phase with a Monte Carlo Lagrangian procedure for the dispersed phase. The continuous phase is iteratively matched at discrete time intervals to a random-walk Lagrangian statistical sampling procedure for the dispersed phase momenta and position expectancies. Ensemble averaging produces statistical velocity moments for both dispersed and continuous phases. 20 refs., 8 figs.

Buckingham, A.C.

1986-01-01

384

Dynamic Scheduling of Pigeons for Delay Constrained Applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Information collection in the disaster area is an important application of pigeon networks - a special type of delay tolerant networks (DTN). The aim of this paper is to explore highly efficient dynamic scheduling strategies of pigeons for such applications. The upper bound of traffic that can be supported under the deadline constraints for the basic on-demand strategy is given through the analysis. Based on the analysis, a waiting based packing strategy is introduced. Although the latter strategy could not change the maximum traffic rate that a pigeon can support, it improves the efficiency of the pigeon largely. The analytical results are verified by the simulations.

Zhou, Jiazhen; Li, Jiang; Burge, Legand

385

Home Visitation Assessing Progress, Managing Expectations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Early intervention efforts to promote healthy child development have long been a central feature of social service and public health reforms. Today, prenatal care, well-baby visits, and assessments to detect possible developmental delays are commonplace in most communities. Recently, child abuse prevention advocates have applied a developmental…

Daro, Deborah

2006-01-01

386

Creating multiphoton-polarization bound entangled states  

SciTech Connect

Bound entangled states are the exotic objects in the entangled world. They require entanglement to create them, but once they are formed, it is not possible to locally distill any free entanglement from them. It is only until recently that a few bound entangled states were realized in the laboratory. Motivated by these experiments, we propose schemes for creating various classes of bound entangled states with photon polarization. These include Acin-Bruss-Lewenstein-Sanpara states, Duer's states, Lee-Lee-Kim bound entangled states, and an unextendible-product-basis bound entangled state.

Wei, Tzu-Chieh; Lavoie, Jonathan; Kaltenbaek, Rainer [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, V6T 1Z1 (Canada); Institute for Quantum Computing and Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario, N2L 3G1 (Canada); Institute for Quantum Computing and Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario, N2L 3G1, (Canada); Faculty of Physics, University of Vienna, Boltzmanngasse 5, A-1090 Vienna (Austria)

2011-03-15

387

Effects of Sexual Expectancies on Early Sexualized Behavior Among Urban Minority Youth  

PubMed Central

This study examines the effects of different types of sexual expectancies on early sexual behavior among racial/ethnic minority young adolescents. African American and Latino participants between 11 and 13 years old were recruited through schools and community-based agencies in the South Bronx, New York (N = 223). Multiple logistic regression analyses were used to predict early sexual behavior outcomes, which include engagement in sexual possibility situations, kissing, and sexual touching. The moderating effect of gender was examined using multiplicative interaction terms. Higher expectations categorized as personal/parental and romantic/peer expectancies related to the negative consequences of sexual intercourse decreased the odds of engagement in early sexual behavior; whereas higher academic/career and sexual health expectancies did not. Gender moderated the relationships between personal/parental expectancies and engagement in sexual possibility situations and romantic/peer expectancies and kissing. Social workers formulating sexual health promotion and HIV prevention programs for racial/ethnic minority young adolescents should focus on personal/parental and romantic/peer expectancies in favor of negative expectancies regarding academic/career achievement, pregnancy, and HIV. Social work interventions to delay sexual debut should include a family-based component and should be sensitive to gender differences in sexual expectancies.

Holloway, Ian W.; Traube, Dorian E.; Schrager, Sheree M.; Levine, Brooklyn; Alicea, Stacey; Watson, Janet L.; Miranda, Ana; McKay, Mary M.

2012-01-01

388

Primary Care Clinician Expectations Regarding Aging  

PubMed Central

Purpose:?Expectations regarding aging (ERA) in community-dwelling older adults are associated with personal health behaviors and health resource usage. Clinicians’ age expectations likely influence patients’ expectations and care delivery patterns; yet, limited research has explored clinicians’ age expectations. The Expectations Regarding Aging Survey (ERA-12) was used to assess (a) age expectations in a sample of primary care clinicians practicing in the United States and (b) clinician characteristics associated with ERA-12 scores.?Design and Methods:?This study was a cross-sectional survey of primary care clinicians affiliated with 5 practice-based research networks, October 2008 to June 2009. A total of 374 of the 1,510 distributed surveys were returned (24.8% response rate); 357 analyzed. Mean respondent age was 48.6 years (SD = 11.6; range 23–87 years); 88.0% physicians, 96.0% family medicine, 94.9% White, and 61.9% male.?Results:?Female clinicians reported higher ERA-12 scores; clinicians’ age expectations decreased with greater years in practice. Among the clinicians, higher ERA-12 scores were associated with higher clinician ratings of the importance of and personal skill in administering preventive counseling and the importance of delivering preventive services. Agreement with individual ERA-12 items varied widely.?Implications:?Unrealistically high or low ERA could negatively influence the quality of care provided to patients and patients’ own age expectations. Research should examine the etiology of clinicians’ age expectations and their association with older adult diagnoses and treatment. Medical education must incorporate strategies to promote clinician attitudes that facilitate successful patient aging.

Davis, Melinda M.; Bond, Lynne A.; Howard, Alan; Sarkisian, Catherine A.

2011-01-01

389

Synchronization in general complex delayed dynamical networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper investigates synchronization dynamics of a general model of complex delayed networks as well as the effects of time delays. Some simple yet generic criteria ensuring delay-independent and delay-dependent synchronization are derived, which are less conservative than those reported so far in the literature. Moreover, a scale \\

Jin Zhou; Tianping Chen

2006-01-01

390

Formal Modeling of Biological Systems with Delays  

Microsoft Academic Search

Delays in biological systems may appear at any level of detail of the modeled system, in particular delays may be used to model events for which the underline dynamics can not be completely observed. There exist constant and variable (e.g. time- dependent, state-dependent) forms of delays and dierent modeling techniques for interpreting delays. In this thesis we address the problem

Giulio Caravagna

2009-01-01

391

Omission of expected reward agitates Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar).  

PubMed

The evolutionary background for cognition and awareness is currently under ardent scrutiny. Poikilothermic vertebrates such as teleost fishes are capable of classical conditioning and have long-term memories, but it remains unknown to what degree such capabilities are associated with affective states. Here, we investigate whether the concept of frustration may apply to Atlantic salmon. In mammals, this paradigm comprises the omission of an expected reward (OER), which elicits behavioural and physiological coping responses (e.g. aggression and stress reactions). Six groups with 200 fish in each were conditioned to associate a flashing light (CS) with feeding. Conditioning over 22 days led to a change from aversion to attraction to the CS. Subsequently, 3 groups served as control, and 3 groups were subjected to an OER paradigm for 9 days, in which the expected food reward was delayed for 30 min during two out of three daily meals. Compared to controls, OER groups displayed higher levels of aggression and more heterogeneous growth rates, indicating a more pronounced social hierarchy. Cortisol levels did, however, not differ between treatments and both groups responded similarly to acute stress. These results indicate that teleost fishes, like mammals, respond aggressively to OER. The capacity to respond behaviourally to frustrating conditions thus likely reflects an adaptive response to environmental unpredictability, which has been conserved throughout vertebrate evolution. PMID:22622814

Vindas, Marco A; Folkedal, Ole; Kristiansen, Tore S; Stien, Lars H; Braastad, Bjarne O; Mayer, Ian; Øverli, Øyvind

2012-05-24

392

An Adaptive Loss-Aware Flow Control Scheme for Delay-Sensitive Applications in OBS Networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Optical Burst Switching (OBS) is one of the most promising switching technologies for next generation optical networks. As delay-sensitive applications such as Voice-over-IP (VoIP) have recently become popular, OBS networks should guarantee stringent Quality of Service (QoS) requirements for such applications. Thus, this paper proposes an Adaptive Loss-aware Flow Control (ALFC) scheme, which adaptively decides on the burst offset time based on loss-rate information delivered from core nodes for assigning a high priority to delay-sensitive application traffic. The proposed ALFC scheme also controls the upper-bounds of the factors inducing delay and jitter for guaranteeing the delay and jitter requirements of delay-sensitive application traffic. Moreover, a piggybacking method used in the proposed scheme accelerates the guarantee of the loss, delay, and jitter requirements because the response time for flow control can be extremely reduced up to a quarter of the Round Trip Time (RTT) on average while minimizing the signaling overhead. Simulation results show that our mechanism can guarantee a 10-3 loss-rate under any traffic load while offering satisfactory levels of delay and jitter for delay-sensitive applications.

Jeong, Hongkyu; Choi, Jungyul; Mo, Jeonghoon; Kang, Minho

393

A neural network model with dopamine-like reinforcement signal that learns a spatial delayed response task  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated how the simulated response of dopamine neurons to reward-related stimuli could be used as reinforcement signal for learning a spatial delayed response task. Spatial delayed response tasks assess the functions of frontal cortex and basal ganglia in short-term memory, movement preparation and expectation of environmental events. In these tasks, a stimulus appears for a short period at

R. E. Suri; W. Schultz

1999-01-01

394

Bound excitons in Sr2CuO3.  

PubMed

We investigated temperature dependent optical spectra of the one-dimensional chain compound Sr2CuO3. The charge transfer transition polarized along the chain direction shows a strongly asymmetric line shape as expected in one-dimensional extended Hubbard model. At low temperature, the charge transfer peak shows a large blueshift and reveals additional sharp peaks at the gap. Even though many spectroscopic studies suggest that this material cannot have a bound exciton based on the one-dimensional extended Hubbard model, we attribute the additional sharp peaks to excitons, which come to exist due to the long-range Coulomb interaction. PMID:18999786

Kim, K W; Gu, G D; Homes, C C; Noh, T W

2008-10-24

395

Using tolerance bounds in scientific investigations  

SciTech Connect

Assessment of the variability in population values plays an important role in the analysis of scientific data. Analysis of scientific data often involves developing a bound on a proportion of a population. Sometimes simple probability bounds are obtained using formulas involving known mean and variance parameters and replacing the parameters by sample estimates. The resulting bounds are only approximate and fail to account for the variability in the estimated parameters. Tolerance bounds provide bounds on population proportions which account for the variation resulting from the estimated mean and variance parameters. A beta content, gamma confidence tolerance interval is constructed so that a proportion beta of the population lies within the region bounded by the interval with confidence gamma. An application involving corrosion measurements is used to illustrate the use of tolerance bounds for different situations. Extensions of standard tolerance intervals are applied to generate regression tolerance bounds, tolerance bounds for more general models of measurements collected over time, and tolerance intervals for varying precision data. Tolerance bounds also provide useful information for designing the collection of future data.

Wendelberger, J.R.

1996-07-01

396

Training across Cultures: What To Expect.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Discusses four critical dimensions that help explain the variation in cultural expectations: (1) egalitarianism versus hierarchy; (2) individualism versus collectivism; (3) achievement versus relationship orientation; and (4) loose versus tight structure. Explains how to apply these dimensions in training. (JOW)|

Weech, William A.

2001-01-01

397

What Can We Expect from Future Accelerators.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This talk covers a general but highly subjective overview of the expectation for new accelerator development. An updated version of the Livingston chart demonstrates the exponential growth in time of the equivalent laboratory energy of accelerators. A sim...

W. K. H. Panofsky

1984-01-01

398

Training across Cultures: What To Expect.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses four critical dimensions that help explain the variation in cultural expectations: (1) egalitarianism versus hierarchy; (2) individualism versus collectivism; (3) achievement versus relationship orientation; and (4) loose versus tight structure. Explains how to apply these dimensions in training. (JOW)

Weech, William A.

2001-01-01

399

Rational Expectations Model of Financial Contagion.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

We develop a multiple asset rational expectations model of securities prices to explain the determinants of nancial market contagion. Our primary focus is on con- tagion through the cross-market hedging (rebalancing) of shared macroeconomic risks. Through...

L. E. Kodres M. Pritsker

1999-01-01

400

5 CFR 470.301 - Program expectations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT RESEARCH PROGRAMS AND DEMONSTRATIONS PROJECTS...Demonstration Projects § 470.301 Program expectations. ...procedures to be used to assess the success or failure of the project from...improve personnel management programs or...

2013-01-01

401

Preferences as expectation-driven inferences: effects of affective expectations on affective experience.  

PubMed

Presents a model arguing that affect and emotion are often formed in an expectation-driven fashion. A pilot study and 2 experiments manipulated undergraduate Ss' affective expectations (e.g., how funny they expected a set of cartoons to be) and whether Ss' expectations were confirmed (e.g., whether the cartoons really were funny). When the value of a stimulus was consistent with an affective expectation, people formed evaluations relatively quickly. Even when the value of a stimulus was discrepant from an affective expectation, people sometimes assimilated the value of the stimulus to their expectations. Other times, such as when making a more fine-grained evaluation of the cartoons, people noticed that they were discrepant from their affective expectations. Under these conditions, people appeared to have more difficulty forming preferences. They took longer to evaluate and spent more time thinking about the cartoons. PMID:2709307

Wilson, T D; Lisle, D J; Kraft, D; Wetzel, C G

1989-04-01

402

Stability criteria for q-expectation values  

Microsoft Academic Search

In statistical physics lately a specific kind of average, called the q-expectation value, has been extensively used in the context of q-generalized statistics dealing with distributions following power laws. In this context q-expectation value appear naturally. Since it was recently shown that this non-linear functional is instable, using a very strong notion of stability, it is therefore of high interest

Rudolf Hanel; Stefan Thurner

2009-01-01

403

Quality in pediatric nursing care: children's expectations.  

PubMed

Children's perceptions of pediatric nursing care have not been systematically taken into account in the development of the quality of care. Usually, parents have evaluated children's care and its quality. The purpose of this study was to examine children's expectations concerning the quality of pediatric nursing care by interviewing 20 preschool and 20 school-aged children in Finland. Twenty of them had insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) and visited the hospital on a regular basis, and 20 were treated on a surgical ward for a short period. Using content analysis, the interviews were coded and categories and subcategories identified. The children's expectations concerning the quality of nursing care were related to the nurse, nursing activities, and environment. They expected the nurses to be humane and reliable, have a good sense of humor, and wear colorful clothes at work. Both the nurses and the parents were expected to take part in nursing activities. The children expected from nurses, in particular, entertainment, educational, caring, and safety activities, while parents were expected to relieve fears and longing and to provide company. The children also emphasized the role of other children as part of good care. The results demonstrate that children are capable of offering valuable insights into the quality of pediatric nursing care. The results open new avenues for strengthening children's perspectives on pediatric nursing. PMID:15371112

Pelander, Tiina; Leino-Kilpi, Helena

404

Effect of temporal focus on the recall of expectancy-consistent and expectancy-inconsistent information  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research examined the impact of temporal focus on the recall of information that is consistent or inconsistent with an expectation. A consistent pattern of results across 4 experiments indicates that when Ss' expectations are temporally unfocused, better memory for consistent information is observed. In contrast, when expectations are focused in time—that is, Ss know when the relevant events are

Scott F. Madey; Thomas Gilovich

1993-01-01

405

Aging and memory for expected and unexpected objects in real-world settings.  

PubMed

Adult age differences in the consistency effect were examined in 3 experiments. The consistency effect refers to items inconsistent with expectations being better remembered than items consistent with expectations. Younger and older adults walked into an office room and viewed objects that varied in their consistency with expectation. Immediate and delayed recognition tests on item information (i.e., distractors were defined by their semantic identity) revealed that both age groups recognized unexpected items better than expected items. However, when recognition of token information was requested (i.e., distractors were defined by their physical appearance), younger adults, in contrast to older adults, exhibited consistency effects. Also, under divided attention, young adults revealed the same pattern of data as did elderly adults under full attention. The results are discussed in terms of capacity-related differences in distinctive encoding. PMID:1447553

Mäntylä, T; Bäckman, L

1992-11-01

406

Separate valuation subsystems for delay and effort decision costs.  

PubMed

Decision making consists of choosing among available options on the basis of a valuation of their potential costs and benefits. Most theoretical models of decision making in behavioral economics, psychology, and computer science propose that the desirability of outcomes expected from alternative options can be quantified by utility functions. These utility functions allow a decision maker to assign subjective values to each option under consideration by weighting the likely benefits and costs resulting from an action and to select the one with the highest subjective value. Here, we used model-based neuroimaging to test whether the human brain uses separate valuation systems for rewards (erotic stimuli) associated with different types of costs, namely, delay and effort. We show that humans devalue rewards associated with physical effort in a strikingly similar fashion to those they devalue that are associated with delays, and that a single computational model derived from economics theory can account for the behavior observed in both delay discounting and effort discounting. However, our neuroimaging data reveal that the human brain uses distinct valuation subsystems for different types of costs, reflecting in opposite fashion delayed reward and future energetic expenses. The ventral striatum and the ventromedial prefrontal cortex represent the increasing subjective value of delayed rewards, whereas a distinct network, composed of the anterior cingulate cortex and the anterior insula, represent the decreasing value of the effortful option, coding the expected expense of energy. Together, these data demonstrate that the valuation processes underlying different types of costs can be fractionated at the cerebral level. PMID:20962229

Prévost, Charlotte; Pessiglione, Mathias; Météreau, Elise; Cléry-Melin, Marie-Laure; Dreher, Jean-Claude

2010-10-20

407

An Algorithmic Branch and Bound Method for PLA Test Pattern Generation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method for PLA (programmable logic-array) test-pattern generation based on a branch-and-bound algorithm that function monotonicity is presented. The algorithm makes irrevocable input assignments first, resulting in the efficient generation of compact test sets. In most cases there is no backtracking. An intelligent branching heuristic is presented. The algorithm handles extended fault models, including cross-point and delay faults. Heuristics which

Markus Robinson; Janusz Rajski

1988-01-01

408

Bounds on variable-length compound jumps  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In Euclidean space there is a trivial upper bound on the maximum length of a compound ``walk'' built up of variable-length jumps, and a considerably less trivial lower bound on its minimum length. The existence of this non-trivial lower bound is intimately connected to the triangle inequalities, and the more general ``polygon inequalities.'' Moving beyond Euclidean space, when a modified version of these bounds is applied in ``rapidity space'' they provide upper and lower bounds on the relativistic composition of velocities. Similarly, when applied to ``transfer matrices'' these bounds place constraints either (in a scattering context) on transmission and reflection coefficients or (in a parametric excitation context) on particle production. Physically these are very different contexts, but mathematically there are intimate relations between these superficially very distinct systems.

Boonserm, Petarpa; Visser, Matt

2013-09-01

409

Dynamical Bounds for Sturmian SCHRÖDINGER Operators  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Fibonacci Hamiltonian, that is a Schrödinger operator associated to a quasiperiodical Sturmian potential with respect to the golden mean has been investigated intensively in recent years. Damanik and Tcheremchantsev developed a method in [10] and used it to exhibit a non trivial dynamical upper bound for this model. In this paper, we use this method to generalize to a large family of Sturmian operators dynamical upper bounds and show at sufficently large coupling anomalous transport for operators associated to irrational number with a generic diophantine condition. As a counterexample, we exhibit a pathological irrational number which does not verify this condition and show its associated dynamic exponent only has ballistic bound. Moreover, we establish a global lower bound for the lower box counting dimension of the spectrum that is used to obtain a dynamical lower bound for bounded density irrational numbers.

Marin, L.

410

Delayed puberty in chronic illness  

Microsoft Academic Search

Delayed puberty can be defined as the lack of pubertal development at an age of 2SD above the mean, which corresponds to an age of approximately 14 years for males and 13 years for females, taking both sex and ethnic origin into consideration. Its incidence associated with chronic illnesses is unknown; however, its clinical importance is relevant due to the

Jesús Pozo; Jesús Argente

2002-01-01

411

Fractionally-addressed delay lines  

Microsoft Academic Search

While traditional implementations of variable- length digital delay lines are based on a circular buffer ac- cessed by two pointers, we propose an implementation where a single fractional pointer is used both for read and write operations. On modern general-purpose architectures, the proposed method is nearly as efficient as the popular inter- polated circular buffer, and it behaves well for

Davide Rocchesso

2000-01-01

412

Delayed coker fractionator advanced control  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a delayed coking process, as coke drum switches are made, rapid changes occur in both the fractionator feed rate and composition. With conventional control, it is not unusual to see long transient behavior of large swings in both quality and flowrates of coker gas oils. This can extract a heavy economic toll, not only in coker operation, but in

R. Jaisinghani; B. Minter; A. Tica; A. Puglesi; R. Ojeda

1993-01-01

413

Delayed gamma Rays from Fission.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Measurements of the energy spectrum of delayed gamma rays from the neutron fission of PU239 and U235 were performed with a naI detector at a number of time intervals between 2 and 80 microsec. The data showed three new prominent gamma rays with energies o...

R. B. Walton R. E. Sund

1966-01-01

414

Local Effects of Delayed Food  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Five pigeons were trained on a procedure in which seven concurrent variable-interval schedules arranged seven different food-rate ratios in random sequence in each session. Each of these components lasted for 10 response-produced food deliveries, and components were separated by 10-s blackouts. We varied delays to food (signaled by blackout)…

Davison, Michael; Baum, William M.

2007-01-01

415

Equilibrium analysis of delayed CNNs  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors present two new results on the global stability of cellular neural networks with delay (DCCNs). First, a sufficient condition for the uniqueness and global asymptotic stability of the equilibrium point is given. Then, a sufficient condition for the existence of a stable equilibrium point in the total saturation region is obtained. The significance of the conditions is that

Sabri Arik; Vedat Tavsanoglu

1998-01-01

416

Testing Delay-Insensitive Circuits.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

We show that a single stuck-at fault in a non-redundant delay- insensitive circuit results in a transition either not taking place or firing prematurely, or both, during an execution of the circuit. A transition not taking place can be tested easily, as t...

A. J. Martin P. J. Hazewindus

1990-01-01

417

XM714 Delay Fuze Tests.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Presented in this report are the results of the XM714 delay fuze tests performed by AFATL at Eglin AFB, Florida. The fuze was carried by a lightweight, thin-walled 20mm projectile body with a mechanically locked plastic rotating band. Forty inert fuzes an...

W. F. Wade

1976-01-01

418

Variable Delay Testing Using ONE.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper investigates the effect of long and changing propagation delays on the performance of TCP file transfers. Tests are performed with machines that emulate communication from a low/medium-earth satellite to Earth by way of a geosynchronous satelli...

J. Ishac

2002-01-01

419

Locating bound structure in an accelerating universe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Given the overwhelming evidence that the Universe is currently undergoing an accelerated expansion, the question of what are the largest gravitationally bound structures remains. A couple of groups, Busha et al. (B03) and Dünner et al. (D06), have attempted to analytically define these limits, arriving at substantially different estimates due to differences in their assumptions about the velocities at the present epoch. In an effort to locate the largest bound structures in the Universe, we selected the Aquarius (ASC), Microscopium (MSC), Corona Borealis (CBSC) and Shapley (SSC) superclusters for study, due to their high number density of rich Abell clusters. Simple N-body simulations, which assumed negligible intercluster mass, were used to assess the likelihood of these structures being gravitationally bound, and the predictions of the models of B03 and D06 were compared with those results. We find that ASC, and MSC contain pairs of clusters which are gravitationally bound, A2541/A2546 and A3695/A3696, respectively, with no other structures having a significant chance of being bound. For SSC, we find a group of five clusters, A3554, A3556, A3558, A3560 and A3562 that are bound, with an additional pair, A1736/A3559, having a slight chance of being bound. We find that CBSC has no extended bound structure, contrary to the findings of Small et al., who claim that the entire supercluster is bound. In regards to the analytical models, we find that B03 will identify structure that is definitely bound, but tends to underestimate the true extent of the structure, while D06 will identify all structure that is bound while overestimating its extent. Combined, the two models can provide lower and upper limits to the extent of bound structures so long as there are no other significant structures nearby or no significant dark matter exterior to the clusters.

Pearson, David W.; Batuski, David J.

2013-11-01

420

[Knowledge and expectations of childbirth in primigravidas].  

PubMed

The primigravida's experience of childbirth is influenced by the knowledge and expectations she has of childbirth. Her expectations of childbirth are based on the information she got from the antenatal clinic, the nursing staff, her mother, friends and family. The purpose of this research was to determine the knowledge and expectations the primigravida has of childbirth. An exploratory, descriptive design was used within the context of an academic hospital in Johanneburg. The survey method was used. The method of research firstly consisted of a literature study of the primigravida's knowledge and expectations of childbirth. This was done in order to put the problem in perspective and also to serve as a theoretical framework for the study. Secondly, a structured questionnaire was used to make a survey of the primigravida's knowledge and expectations of childbirth. From this research it is clear that the respondents had insufficient knowledge of childbirth and the handling of pain during childbirth. This insufficient knowledge can mainly be attributed to the poor attendance of antenatal preparation classes, inadequate professional counselling and the mother of the primigravida as the primary source of information on childbirth. The respondents, however, had realistic expectations with regard to their handling of labour, as well as of the role of the midwife and the doctor. From this research it is clear that a large gap exists in the primigravida's preparation for childbirth. The group participating in this research is therefore not adequately prepared for childbirth to have realistic expectations. The group must rely on the support of the midwife in the labour ward.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1301309

Bester, M B; Nolte, A G

1992-12-01

421

Entropy bounds for charged and rotating systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It was shown in a previous work that, for systems in which the entropy is an extensive function of the energy and volume, the Bekenstein and the holographic entropy bounds predict new results. In this paper, we go further and derive improved upper bounds to the entropy of extensive charged and rotating systems. Furthermore, it is shown that for charged and rotating systems (including non-extensive ones), the total energy that appears in both the Bekenstein entropy bound (BEB) and the causal entropy bound (CEB) can be replaced by the internal energy of the system. In addition, we propose possible corrections to the BEB and the CEB.

Gour, Gilad

2003-08-01

422

Bounds on Transport Coefficients of Porous Media  

SciTech Connect

An analytical formulation of conductivity bounds by Bergman and Milton is used in a different way to obtain rigorous bounds on the real transport coefficients (electrical conductivity, thermal conductivity, and/or fluid permeability) of a fluid-saturated porous medium. These bounds do not depend explicitly on the porosity, but rather on two formation factors--one associated with the pore space and the other with the solid frame. Hashin-Shtrikman bounds for transport in random polycrystals of porous-material laminates will also be discussed.

Berryman, J G

2005-03-21

423

Alcohol Expectancy Priming and Drinking Behavior: The Role of Compatibility between Prime and Expectancy Content  

PubMed Central

According to information-processing models of alcohol use, alcohol expectancies constitute representations in long-term memorythat may be activated in the presence of drinking-related cues, thereby influencing alcohol consumption. A fundamental implication of this approach is that primed expectancies should affect drinking only for those individuals who possess the specific expectancies primed. To test this notion, in the present study, participants were initially assessed on three distinct domains of positive alcohol expectancies. Approximately one week later, they completed an ad libitum drinking study during which only a single expectancy domain (sociability) was primed in the experimental condition. Consistent with predictions, following exposure to sociability primes, but not control primes, individuals with stronger expectancies that alcohol would enhance sociability uniquely showed increased placebo consumption of nonalcoholic beer. These results, which demonstrate the moderating role of compatibility between the specific content of primes and that of underlying expectancies, offer new, direct support for memory network-based models of drinking behavior.

Friedman, Ronald S.; McCarthy, Denis M.; Pedersen, Sarah L.; Hicks, Joshua A.

2009-01-01

424

Inoculation against forgetting: advantages of immediate versus delayed initial testing due to superior verbatim accessibility.  

PubMed

In this study, potential benefits of early memory testing were examined in terms of "inoculating" eyewitness memory against forgetting. As predicted by fuzzy trace theory (e.g., Reyna & Titcomb, 1997), a larger testing advantage in the delayed recall of event details was expected after immediate testing than after delayed testing because of the decline in accessibility of verbatim traces over time. However, memory for only the gist of these details was expected to be relatively stable over time, resulting in a smaller (if any) effect of the timing of interpolated testing. After viewing a target event, participants were questioned about event items immediately, after a 24-hr delay, or after a 48-hr delay and were free to respond at either the gist or the verbatim level. Verbatim memory for event details was tested 72 hr after the event. As expected, immediate interpolated testing improved verbatim memory performance on the final test more than delayed testing did, yielding a larger testing effect. Furthermore, the effect of the timing of interpolated testing on the magnitude of the testing effect was mediated by verbatim accessibility at interpolated testing. In contrast, memory for only the gist of event details was unaffected by the timing of interpolated testing, both on the interpolated test and on the final test. The findings highlight the role of declining verbatim memory over time in accounting for the advantage of immediate over delayed interpolated testing in inoculating eyewitness memory against forgetting of detailed information. PMID:22582965

Pansky, Ainat

2012-05-14

425

Delaying corn rootworm resistance to Bt corn.  

PubMed

Transgenic crops producing Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxins for insect control have been successful, but their efficacy is reduced when pests evolve resistance. To delay pest resistance to Bt crops, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has required refuges of host plants that do not produce Bt toxins to promote survival of susceptible pests. Such refuges are expected to be most effective if the Bt plants deliver a dose of toxin high enough to kill nearly all hybrid progeny produced by matings between resistant and susceptible pests. In 2003, the EPA first registered corn, Zea mays L., producing a Bt toxin (Cry3Bb1) that kills western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte, one of the most economically important crop pests in the United States. The EPA requires minimum refuges of 20% for Cry3Bb1 corn and 5% for corn producing two Bt toxins active against corn rootworms. We conclude that the current refuge requirements are not adequate, because Bt corn hybrids active against corn rootworms do not meet the high-dose standard, and western corn rootworm has rapidly evolved resistance to Cry3Bb1 corn in the laboratory, greenhouse, and field. Accordingly, we recommend increasing the minimum refuge for Bt corn targeting corn rootworms to 50% for plants producing one toxin active against these pests and to 20% for plants producing two toxins active against these pests. Increasing the minimum refuge percentage can help to delay pest resistance, encourage integrated pest management, and promote more sustainable crop protection. PMID:22812111

Tabashnik, Bruce E; Gould, Fred

2012-06-01

426

On Multiple UAV Routing with Stochastic Targets: Performance Bounds and Algorithms  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we consider the following problem. A number of Uninhabited Aerial Vehicles (UAVs), modeled as vehicles moving at constant speed along paths of bounded curvature, must visit stochastically-generated targets in a convex, compact region of the plane. Targets are generated according to a spatio-temporal Poisson process, uniformly in the region. It is desired to minimize the expected waiting

J. J. Enright; E. Frazzoli

2005-01-01

427

A branch and bound algorithm for single-machine production scheduling integrated with preventive maintenance planning  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper deals with an integrated optimisation model for production scheduling and preventive maintenance (PM) in a single machine with its time to failure subject to a Weibull probability distribution. The objective is to minimise the total expected weighted completion time of jobs. To solve this problem, we develop a branch and bound (B&B) algorithm (hereafter called the B&BA). Several

Shijin Wang; Ming Liu

2012-01-01

428

Simultaneous propagation of both bound and leaky dominant modes on conductor-backed coplanar strips  

Microsoft Academic Search

Contrary to expectations, the authors recently found that a new leaky, dominant mode may be present on conductor-backed coplanar strips at the same time as the conventional bound dominant mode. The frequency range over which both of these modes can propagate simultaneously increases as the strips become wider, and can be quite large even for fairly narrow strips. These new

M. Tsuji; H. Shigesawa; A. A. Oliner

1993-01-01

429

Early LHC phenomenology of Yukawa-bound heavy QQ¯ mesons  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Current limits from the LHC on fourth generation quarks are already at the unitarity bound of 500 GeV or so. If they exist, the strong Yukawa couplings are turning nonperturbative, and may form bound states. We study the domain of mb' and mt' in the range of 500 to 700 GeV, where we expect binding energies are mainly of Yukawa origin, with QCD subdominant. To be consistent with electroweak precision tests, the t' and b' quarks have to be nearly degenerate, exhibiting a new “isospin.” Comparing relativistic expansion with a relativistic bound state approach, we find the most interesting is the production of a color octet, isosinglet vector meson (a “gluon-prime”) via qq¯??8. Leading decay modes are ?8±W?, ?80Z0, and constituent quark decay, with qq¯ and tt¯' and bb¯' subdominant. The color octet, isovector pseudoscalar ?8 meson decays via constituent quark decay, or to Wg. These decay rates are parameterized by the decay constant, the binding energy and mass differences, and Vtb'. For small Vt'b, one could have a spectacular signal of WWg, where a soft W accompanies a very massive Wg pair. In general, however, one has high multiplicity signals with b, W, and t jet substructures that are not so different from the t't¯' and b'b¯' search.

Enkhbat, Tsedenbaljir; Hou, Wei-Shu; Yokoya, Hiroshi

2011-11-01

430

Unequal Geographic Unequal Geographic Expectancy in Seoul.  

PubMed

This study examined life expectancies in 25 gus, administrative districts of Seoul, the capital of Korea, by gender in 1995, 2002, and 2008 to explore trends in mortality inequality among areas. The authors constructed single-decrement life tables and employed between-group variance, the Theil index, and mean log deviation to measure absolute and relative disparities in life expectancy among areas during the periods 1995-2002 and 2002-2008. It was found that life expectancy gaps between gus have widened in absolute and relative terms in both genders over the decade, and that this pattern was particularly dramatic in females after 2002. This increasing gap could be attributable to the more negative health impact on females since the late 1990s stemming from the economic crisis, eventually reflected in their places of residence. Thus, a social buffer system to narrow the health gap between geographic areas and social classes must be established. PMID:22535557

Kim, Sangmi; Yi, Seonju; Kim, Meekyung; Kim, Bokyung; Lee, Hwayoung; Jeon, Taekryeon; Cho, Youngtae

2012-05-01

431

Life expectancy of persons with chronic disabilities.  

PubMed

The life expectancy is an important summary measure of an individual's prognosis for survival. The life table is the preferred method for computing life expectancies, but it is not always feasible. We show that for several chronic disabilities, the logarithms of the age-specific mortality ratios (relative to the general population) decline linearly with age, reaching parity at age 85 or older. This, combined with a standard modeling of an individual's current mortality rate, yields a set of age-specific mortality rates that can be used to produce a "customized" life table. The life expectancy is then immediately available. In a series of empirical comparisons the method performed better than an assumption of constant excess death rate (EDR), and much better than one of constant mortality ratio (MR). The method may be useful for a variety of non-progressive disabilities, such as cerebral palsy and injuries of the brain or spinal cord. PMID:10339302

Strauss, D; Shavelle, R

1998-01-01

432

Measuring developmental changes in alcohol expectancies.  

PubMed

The goal of this study was to measure shifts in alcohol expectancies from childhood into adolescence while controlling for changes in the psychometric properties of the instrument. One thousand nine hundred ninety-three 4th-grade and 1,632 9th-grade students from South Dakota rated the likelihood that 23 outcomes would result from alcohol use. These expectancies were modeled using a 2-factor confirmatory factor analysis. After differences in the psychometric properties of the instrument were controlled, the cohorts were distinguished by a large difference in Alcohol Positivity, with older participants viewing alcohol's effects more positively. Additionally, older participants displayed greater Alcohol Potency, believing that alcohol has a larger impact on all outcomes. There were also significant differences in the interpretation of the alcohol expectancies items across cohorts. PMID:16011394

Schell, Terry L; Martino, Steven C; Ellickson, Phyllis L; Collins, Rebecca L; McCaffrey, Daniel

2005-06-01

433

Reflections on meeting women's childbirth expectations.  

PubMed

When care providers support their personal worth, use caring communication, facilitate consumer participation in decision making, seek optimal outcomes, and know the patient holistically, female patients feel that their dignity is respected. We compare women's expectations for dignified care in contemporary society with the expectations of women 40 years ago. Some progress has been made toward valuing women's voices and participation in decision making, the availability of interventions for optimal outcomes, and recognition of the importance of cultural competence. Continued work is needed to meet women's expectations for receiving individualized and tailored care, information about intervention effectiveness and risks, and support for the birth process that the family desires. A renewed focus on the recipient of care as a coparticipant in her birthing experiences may result in improved outcomes and resolution of tensions between childbearing women and sociopolitical forces and standards of care. PMID:21771068

Records, Kathie; Wilson, Barbara L

434

Information structure expectations in sentence comprehension  

PubMed Central

In English, new information typically appears late in the sentence, as does primary accent. Because of this tendency, perceivers might expect the final constituent or constituents of a sentence to contain informational focus. This expectation should in turn affect how they comprehend focus-sensitive constructions such as ellipsis sentences. Results from four experiments on sluicing sentences (e.g., The mobster implicated the thug, but we can’t find out who else) suggest that perceivers do prefer to place focus late in the sentence, though that preference can be mitigated by prosodic information (pitch accents, Experiment 2) or syntactic information (clefted sentences, Experiment 3) indicating that focus is located elsewhere. Furthermore, it is not necessarily the direct object, but the informationally-focused constituent that is the preferred antecedent (Experiment 4). Expectations regarding the information structure of a sentence, which are only partly cancelable by means of overt focus markers, may explain persistent biases in ellipsis resolution.

Carlson, Katy; Dickey, Michael Walsh; Frazier, Lyn; Clifton, Charles

2009-01-01

435

Expected Time of Arrival Model for School Bus Transit Using Real-Time Global Positioning System-Based Automatic Vehicle Location Data  

Microsoft Academic Search

The school bus is a major transportation mode for students in Canada. Unexpected delay of a school bus may be a major source of inconvenience for students and their parents. Accordingly, the provision of timely and reliable information on the expected arrivals of school buses would be of great benefit to them. This study develops an expected time of arrival

Eui-Hwan Chung; Amer Shalaby

2007-01-01

436

Ultrasonic measurements of velocity for modulus assessment of a material using a delay line approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In an effort to evaluate the modulus of materials at elevated temperatures, an ultrasonic delay line approach was developed. The setup was tested with a known material, an aluminum alloy, using delay lines at ambient temperature to examine the feasibility of this approach. Due to the low frequency used, interference occurred between multiple passes of the ultrasound through the material resulting a lower than expected measured velocity. Incorporation of a transmission coefficient in the model of the experiment corrected the expected timing of the ultrasonic signals, reconciling the model to measurements of velocity.

Ko, R. T.; Chen, M. Y.; Hoppe, W. C.; Blackshire, J. L.

2013-01-01

437

Polystyrene nanofiber materials modified with an externally bound porphyrin photosensitizer.  

PubMed

Polystyrene ion-exchange nanofiber materials with large surface areas and adsorption capacities were prepared by electrospinning followed by the sulfonation and adsorption of a cationic 5,10,15,20-tetrakis(1-methylpyridinium-4-yl)porphyrin (TMPyP) photosensitizer on the nanofiber surfaces. The morphology, structure, and photophysical properties of these nanofiber materials were characterized by microscopic methods and steady-state and time-resolved fluorescence and absorption spectroscopies. The externally bound TMPyP can be excited by visible light to form triplet states and singlet oxygen O2((1)?g) and singlet oxygen-sensitized delayed fluorescence (SODF). The photophysical properties of the nanofibers were strongly dependent on the amount of bound TMPyP molecules and their organization on the nanofiber surfaces. The nanofibers demonstrated photooxidative activity toward inorganic and organic molecules and antibacterial activity against E. coli due to the sensitized formation of O2((1)?g) that is an effective oxidation/cytotoxic agent. The nanofiber materials also adsorbed heavy metal cations (Pb(2+)) and removed them from the water environment. PMID:23566280

Henke, Petr; Lang, Kamil; Kubát, Pavel; Sýkora, Jan; Slouf, Miroslav; Mosinger, Ji?í

2013-04-23

438

Characterization of group delay in linearly and circularly polarized lossless stacked patch antennas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, we investigate the group delay characteristics of linearly and circularly polarized lossless stacked patch antennas. A new closed-form analytic expression for group delay was derived for both polarizations to obtain physical insight and have an efficient technique for conducting parametric studies of the antenna group delay characteristics. The analytical model was constructed by employing an equivalent circuit, consisting of resonant RLC sections that model the lossless patches. The group delay is calculated via the frequency derivative of the input phase function (disregarding the far-field phase contribution, a second-order effect), which is obtained in closed form. The group delay is a function of the circuit parameters (Rl,u, Ll,u, Cl,u) , the values of which must be determined for a particular antenna. We employ a reduced-order Padé approximation to extract the parameter values by making use of sampled data obtained from either a full-wave simulation or alternatively via measured data. A circuit synthesis methodology is then employed to map the extracted Padé expansion coefficients onto a known impedance function. Comparison of the analytical results with the full-wave numerical calculations of the impedance, phase, and group delay quantities show very good agreement. The reduced-order approximation is a balanced compromise between the fidelity of the equivalent circuit model and the ability to obtain the group delay in an analytically exact fashion. Results shown herein establish that the group delay of a stacked patch antenna is proportional to the patch Q and the patch capacitance. The peak group delay of the antenna approaches an asymptotic value as the input resistance increases without bound, and the rate at which this occurs is inversely proportional to the patch Q. Results also illustrate that the peak group delay of the stacked patch approaches infinity as the inductance decreases, and approaches an asymptotic value as the inductance increases. Interestingly, all of these characteristics are independent of antenna polarization.

Villegas, Frank J.; Rousseau, Paul

2010-08-01

439

Nonperturbative Bounds on the Number of Constituents.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

We show how to account approximately for the soft fluctuating gluon, and quark (anti-quark) fields, present in hadrons. Summing tree diagrams we get lower bounds on the virtualities of the hard constituents, which translate themselves into the upper bound...

J. M. Namyslowski

1986-01-01

440

Bounding Volume Hierarchies of Slab Cut Balls  

Microsoft Academic Search

We introduce a bounding volume hierarchy based on the Slab Cut Ball. This novel type of enclosing volume provides an attractive balance between tightness of fit, cost of overlap testing, and memory requirement. The hierarchy construction algorithm includes a new method for the con- struction of tight bounding volumes in worst case O(n) time, which means our tree data structure

Thomas Larsson; Tomas Akenine-möller

2009-01-01

441

Mean Shift Is a Bound Optimization  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT We build on the current understanding of mean shift as an optimization procedure We demonstrate that in the case of piecewise constant kernels mean shift is equivalent to Newton's method Further, we prove that for all kernels the mean shift procedure is a quadratic bound maximization INDEX TERMS Mean shift, bound optimization, Newton's method, adaptive gradient descent, mode seeking

Mark Fashing; Carlo Tomasi

2005-01-01

442

New combinatorial bounds for universal hash functions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using combinatorial analysis, we introduce a new lower bound for the key length in an almost universal hash function, which is tighter than another similar bound derived from a well-studied equivalence between almost universal hashes and error-correcting codes. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time that combinatorial analysis has been demonstrated to yield a better universal

L. H. Nguyen; A. W. Roscoe

443

Constrained bounds on measures of entanglement  

SciTech Connect

Entanglement measures constructed from two positive, but not completely positive, maps on density operators are used as constraints in placing bounds on the entanglement of formation, the tangle, and the concurrence of 4N mixed states. The maps are the partial transpose map and the phi map introduced by Breuer [H.-P. Breuer, Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 080501 (2006)]. The norm-based entanglement measures constructed from these two maps, called negativity and phi negativity, respectively, lead to two sets of bounds on the entanglement of formation, the tangle, and the concurrence. We compare these bounds and identify the sets of 4N density operators for which the bounds from one constraint are better than the bounds from the other. In the process, we present a derivation of the already known bound on the concurrence based on the negativity. We compute bounds on the three measures of entanglement using both the constraints simultaneously. We demonstrate how such doubly constrained bounds can be constructed. We discuss extensions of our results to bipartite states of higher dimensions and with more than two constraints.

Datta, Animesh; Flammia, Steven T.; Shaji, Anil; Caves, Carlton M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87131-1156 (United States)

2007-06-15

444

Lower Bounds for Natural Proof Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two decidable logical theories are presented, one complete for deterministic polynomial time, one complete for polynomial space. Both have natural proof systems. A lower space bound of n\\/log(n) is shown for the proof system for the PTIME complete theory and a lower length bound of 2cn\\/log(n) is shown for the proof system for the PSPACE complete theory.

Dexter Kozen

1977-01-01

445

Characterizing Topologies With Bounded Complete Computational Models  

Microsoft Academic Search

We give several characterizations of maximal point spaces of bounded continuous dcpos. Among them: they are regular second countable spaces which arise from a quasimetric whose dual gives rise to a compact space. In [2], we use one of these characterizations to show that the Polish spaces are the maximal point spaces of bounded continuous dcpos.

Krzysztof Ciesielski; Bob Flagg; Ralph Kopperman

1999-01-01

446

Outward Bound: an Experience in Human Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Two authors describe how their participation in an outward bound program has helped them develop a greater degree of general self confidence, greater ease in dealing with complex and frustrating problems, and a greater appreciation of man's place in the natural environment. They also describe Outward Bound courses that have been especially…

Danenburg, William; Gaggi, Silvio

1974-01-01

447

Outward Bound: An Innovative Patient Education Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A 1975 Dartmouth Outward Bound Mental Health Project, begun with a pilot project for disturbed adolescents, has evolved into an ongoing treatment option in three separate clinical settings for psychiatric patients and recovering alcoholics. Outward Bound consists of a series of prescribed physical and social tasks where the presence of stress,…

Stich, Thomas F.; Gaylor, Michael S.

448

BOUNDS ON NORMS OF SCATTERING MATRICES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Scattering matrices play an important role in transmission-line network, theory and in electromagnetic topology. Norms of such matrices are used in bounding system response. Using power considerations, bounds for the 2-norm of such matrices can be found. Appropriate constraints on the normalizing admittance (impedance) matrix for the N waves defining the scattering matrix are made. A renormalizing procedure is defined

Carl Baum

1986-01-01

449

Bounded cascade models as nonstationary multifractals  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigate a class of bounded random-cascade models which are multiplicative by construction yet additive with respect to some but not all of their properties. We assume the multiplicative weights go to unity as the cascade proceeds; then the resulting field has upper and lower bounds. Two largely complementary multifractal statistical methods of analysis are used, singular measures and structure

A. Marshak; A. Davis; R. Cahalan; W. Wiscombe

1994-01-01

450

Preliminary Bounding Experiments in a Dynamic Hexapod.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper describes the implementation of a preliminary bounding gait in a small hexapod, RHex 1, with compliant legs. A four-legged bounding gait, which uses only the front and back leg pairs, achieves an average speed of 1.5 m/s and a low specific resi...

D. Campbell M. Buehler

2005-01-01

451

Malabsorption of protein bound vitamin B12  

Microsoft Academic Search

Patients with subnormal serum vitamin B12 concentrations were tested for absorption of protein bound vitamin B12 and compared with controls. Absorption of the protein bound vitamin appeared to decrease with increasing age in healthy subjects. Differences between the result of this test and the result of the Schilling test in patients who had undergone gastric surgery were confirmed; such differences

D W Dawson; A H Sawers; R K Sharma

1984-01-01

452

Delay locked loop integrated circuit.  

SciTech Connect

This report gives a description of the development of a Delay Locked Loop (DLL) integrated circuit (IC). The DLL was developed and tested as a stand-alone IC test chip to be integrated into a larger application specific integrated circuit (ASIC), the Quadrature Digital Waveform Synthesizer (QDWS). The purpose of the DLL is to provide a digitally programmable delay to enable synchronization between an internal system clock and external peripherals with unknown clock skew. The DLL was designed and fabricated in the IBM 8RF process, a 0.13 {micro}m CMOS process. It was designed to operate with a 300MHz clock and has been tested up to 500MHz.

Brocato, Robert Wesley

2007-10-01

453

Delayed postconditioning: not too late?  

PubMed

Ischemic postconditioning applied at the onset of reperfusion reduces myocardial infarction in both animals and humans. Our recent study on the mouse myocardium showed for the first time that delayed postconditioning (applied up to 30 min after the onset of reperfusion) can decrease infarct size. The existence of a longer cardioprotection window is conceptually relevant for clinical application and also in the case of a pharmacological strategy. PMID:22959920

Barrère-Lemaire, Stéphanie; Nargeot, Joël; Piot, Christophe

2012-09-05

454

Trace and delay eyeblink conditioning: contrasting phenomena of declarative and nondeclarative memory.  

PubMed

We tested the proposal that trace and delay eyeblink conditioning aref fundamentally different kinds of learning. Strings of one, two, three, or four trials with the conditioned stimulus (CS) alone and strings of one, two, three, or four trials with paired presentations of both the CS and the unconditioned stimulus (US) occurred in such a way that the probability of a US was independent of string length. Before each trial, participants predicted the likelihood of the US on the next trial. During both delay (n = 20) and trace (n = 18) conditioning, participants exhibited high expectation of the US following strings of CS-alone trials and low expectation of the US following strings of CS-US trials--a phenomenon known as the gambler's fallacy. During delay conditioning, conditioned responses (CRs) were not influenced by expectancy but by the associative strength of the CS and US. Thus, CR probability was high following a string of CS-US trials and low following a string of CS-alone trials. The results for trace conditioning were opposite. CR probability was high when expectancy of the US was high and low when expectancy of the US was low: The results show that trace and delay eyeblink conditioning are fundamentally different phenomena. We consider how the findings can be understood in terms of the declarative and nondeclarative memory systems that support eyeblink classical conditioning. PMID:11476097

Clark, R E; Manns, J R; Squire, L R

2001-07-01

455

An Axiomatic Theory of Conjoint, Expected Risk  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an axiomatization of subjective risk judgments that leads to a represen- tation of risk in terms of seven free parameters. This is shown to have considerable predictive ability for risk judgments made by 10 subjects. The risk function retains many of the features of the expectation modeIs--e.g., a constant number of parameters independent of the number of

R. DUNCAN LUCE; ELKE U. WEBER

1988-01-01

456

Solving Rational Expectations Models Using Excel  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Simple problems of discrete-time optimal control can be solved using a standard spreadsheet software. The employed-solution method of backward iteration is intuitively understandable, does not require any programming skills, and is easy to implement so that it is suitable for classroom exercises with rational-expectations models. The author…

Strulik, Holger

2004-01-01

457

Remote Library Users: Needs and Expectations  

Microsoft Academic Search

LIBRARIES OF M.I. TYPM iwk: PROVIDING an increasing number of resources that users can access from remote sites. Academic libraries, in particular, are becoming partners in their parent institutions' distance learning programs. As a result, library staff now work with remote users (both students and faculty) with their own unique characteristics, needs, and expectations. To promote user satisfaction, library staff

Rosemarie Cooper; Paula R. Dempsey

1998-01-01

458

Expected Environmental Impacts of Pervasive Computing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pervasive Computing will bring about both additional loads on and benefits to the environment. The prevailing assessment of positive and negative effects will depend on how effectively energy and waste policy governs the development of ICT infrastructures and applications in the coming years. Although Pervasive Computing is not expected to change the impact of the technosphere on the environment radically,

Andreas Köhler; Lorenz Erdmann

2004-01-01

459

Interethnic Interactions: Expectancies, Emotions, and Behavioral Intentions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two studies examine Hispanic and non-Hispanic White people's responses to interethnic interactions. Consistent with previous findings regarding White\\/Black interactions, participants who had negative expectations about intergroup interactions reported more anger and anxiety about interethnic interactions. These negative emotional responses, in turn, were associated with negative behavioral intentions such as the desire to avoid interethnic interactions and the externalization of blame

E. Ashby Plant; David A. Butz; Margarita Tartakovsky

2008-01-01

460

Some Eclectic Considerations Regarding Student Expectations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The occupational and educational expectations of high school seniors in 1970 were compared to those of seniors in 1963. Data were obtained in 1963 for 1,200 seniors and in 1970 for 3,100. Both samples were from North Carolina high schools, although the 1970 sample had a much larger urban component and included non-public school students. The…

Drabick, Lawrence W.

461

Minority Faculty Job Experience, Expectations, and Satisfaction.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Looks at the reasons educators of color gave for entering pedagogy, what they expected from academia, and whether they thought they would remain in education, or return to the professional media full time. Attempts to describe minority faculty academic and professional training. Finds that minority educators had more education and media…

Daufin, E-K.

2001-01-01

462

SELECTED DETERMINANTS OF ADOLESCENT EDUCATIONAL EXPECTATIONS.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|QUESTIONNAIRE DATA WERE USED TO DETERMINE THE RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN ADOLESCENT EDUCATIONAL EXPECTIONS (DEPENDENT VARIABLE) AND PATERNAL EDUCATION, FAMILY SOCIAL STATUS, PARENTAL EDUCATIONAL PRESSURE, AND FAMILY SIZE (INDEPENDENT OF PREDICTOR VARIABLES). THE DATA WERE GATHERED FROM 2,852 MALE SOPHOMORES (HIGH SCHOOL), LIVING IN SIX MIDDLE-SIZE…

REHBERG, RICHARD A.

463

Harmonic and rhythmic influences on musical expectancy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of harmony and rhythm on expectancy formation were studied in two experiments. In both studies, we generated musical passages consisting of a melodic line accompanied by four har- monic (chord) events. These sequences varied in their harmonic content, the rhythmic periodicity of the three context chords prior to the final chord, and the ending time of the final

MARK A. SCHMUCKLER; MARILYN G. BOLTZ

1994-01-01

464

Online service failure, consumer attributions and expectations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to examine the differences in consumers' attributions of blame for service failures and its affect on their expectations for recovery in both online and offline settings. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – A sample of non-student adults participated in a 2 (service type) by 2 (shopping medium) experimental design testing the affects of on- and offline

Katherine E. Harris; Lois A. Mohr; Kenneth L. Bernhardt

2006-01-01

465

Lapse rate modeling: a rational expectation approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

The surrender option embedded in many life insurance products is a clause that allows policyholders to terminate the contract early. Pricing techniques based on the American Contingent Claim (ACC) theory are often used, though the actual policyholders' behavior is far from optimal. Inspired by many prepayment models for mortgage backed securities, this paper builds a Rational Expectation (RE) model describing

Domenico De Giovanni

2010-01-01

466

Social skills, expectancies, and drinking in adolescents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research in the field of teenage drinking behavior has shown relationships between both social skills and drinking and alcohol expectancies and drinking. The present research investigated the comparative power of both of these sets of variables in predicting teenage drinking behavior, as well as looking at the contribution of more global cognitive structures. It was hypothesised that adolescents with high

Lisa Rosenthal Gaffney; Karen Thorpe; Ross Young; Robyn Collett; Stefano Occhipinti

1998-01-01

467

Expecting Too Much of Performance Pay?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Pay for performance is not a new idea, and reformers should not ignore the dismal record of merit pay over the past century. Initially adopted with a flourish of expectations during several waves of popularity in the past, every plan eventually fell into disuse. These plans proved to be unexpectedly costly and cumbersome to run. They often…

Johnson, Susan Moore; Papay, John P.

2010-01-01

468

Organizational expectations of the novice teacher  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study focuses on the teacher as an “organization person”, that is, a professional working in an organizational setting, and forms part of its administrative and human fabric. The purpose of the article is to describe the novice teacher’s expectations from teaching as a profession and from the school as a work organization. The novice teachers who participated in trainee

Isaac A. Friedman

2004-01-01

469

Children and Computers: Greek Parents' Expectations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This survey investigated the expectations of Greek parents with regard to the potential impact of children's computer use on the fields of education, interpersonal relationships, and professional and social life. Considers socio-cultural environment; sex and age; and whether the parents had knowledge of computers, used computers at work, or had a…

Vryzas, Konstantinos; Tsitouridou, Melpomene

2002-01-01

470

Sociocultural expectations of attractiveness for males  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sociocultural expectations of attractiveness for women have been studied extensively, but little research has focused on this topic with males. Using the two most popular men's fashion magazines (GQand Esquire), this study examined article and advertisement content as well as male models' body sizes to determine the extent to which men have received messages from the media on how to

Trent A. Petrie; Laura J. Austin; Barbara J. Crowley; Annette Helmcamp; Courtney E. Johnson; Regan Lester; Rebecca Rogers; Jeff Turner; Kevin Walbrick

1996-01-01

471

Audience uses and Gratifications: An Expectancy Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Investigations as to why people attend to mass communications have generally not dealt with one of the assumed basic concepts of uses and gratifications research, namely, expectations about gratification. Nor have studies i n the area shown much concern for the question of whether gratifications sought from exposure to media are subsequently obtained; and if so, or if not, how

John J. Galloway

1981-01-01

472

Leaf palatability, life expectancy and herbivore damage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Observations on leaves from plants with a wide range of life-forms, ruderals to trees, indicate that palatability to insect herbivores is strongly correlated with the life-expectancy of the leaves. The amount of damage suffered in the field is however inversely correlated with palatability; although the rate of damage is less on unpalatable leaves, their longer life means that they accumulate

T. R. E. Southwood; V. K. Brown; P. M. Reader

1986-01-01

473

Suggestion and Expectancy in Emotional Socialization.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Building on previous research indicating that among first, third, and fifth graders, older children expect affective expressive behavior to be regulated, a study was made of children's beliefs about rationales for and consequences of regulated affective expressive behavior. Children's beliefs were examined in conjunction with their parents' (1)…

Saarni, Carolyn

474

Influencing audience satisfaction by manipulating expectations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four studies examined whether people manipulate audience expectations about outcomes to influence audience satisfaction. Studies 1 and 2 revealed that waiting customers often receive overestimations of the time they must wait before they can speak to a customer service representative (Study 1) or receive a table at a restaurant (Study 2). Studies 3 and 4 revealed that restaurant staff members

James A. Shepperd; Kate Sweeny; Lisa C. Cherry

2007-01-01

475

Expect Respect television advertising campaign: evaluation report  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Expect Respect project was a social marketing campaign to increase young people’s knowledge of the dynamics of healthy and unhealthy relationships. It represented the latest stage in an ongoing campaign by the Kids Really Count interagency committee (a collaboration between the Ballina Byron Family Centre, the NSW Strategy to Reduce Violence Against Women, Lismore & District Women’s Health Centre,

Chris White; Sallie Newell; Anne Graham

2006-01-01

476

The biological basis of expected utility anomalies  

Microsoft Academic Search

We assess the biological basis of expected utility anomalies through an experiment of the Allais paradox. A questionnaire study of 120 subjects replicates the anomalies and further gathers information about the respondents’ bio-characteristics, such as gender, age, parenthood, handedness, second to fourth digit ratio, current emotional state, past negative experiences, and religiousness. We find that some of those bio-characteristics matter

Raul Matsushita; Dinorá Baldo; Bruna Martin; Sergio Da Silva

2007-01-01

477

Beyond Life Expectancy: Social Work with Centenarians  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although the older population as a whole is increas- ing faster than any other age group, the most dramatic growth is in the oldest old. Centenarians, those individuals who have survived 100 or more years, have increased ten times in size over the past forty years. This population trajectory is expected to accelerate even more into the next century. Unfomately,

Nancy P. Kropf; Katherine L. Pugh

1995-01-01

478

Verbal expectancies and performance after alcohol  

Microsoft Academic Search

New verbal expectancies about the effects of alcohol were experimentally induced in subjects by suggesting in writing and verbally that food had positive, negative, or neutral effects on performance after alcohol. Subjects (n = 120, male) received this suggestion, food (fed or fasted), and alcohol (alcohol or placebo) in a between-subjects design. Alcohol impaired reaction time and tracking (with a

Richard Hammersley; Frances Finnigan; Keith Millar

1998-01-01

479

Effects of Syntactic Expectations on Speech Segmentation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Although the effect of acoustic cues on speech segmentation has been extensively investigated, the role of higher order information (e.g., syntax) has received less attention. Here, the authors examined whether syntactic expectations based on subject-verb agreement have an effect on segmentation and whether they do so despite conflicting acoustic…

Mattys, Sven L.; Melhorn, James F.; White, Laurence

2007-01-01

480

Expecting Too Much of Performance Pay?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Pay for performance is not a new idea, and reformers should not ignore the dismal record of merit pay over the past century. Initially adopted with a flourish of expectations during several waves of popularity in the past, every plan eventually fell into disuse. These plans proved to be unexpectedly costly and cumbersome to run. They often…

Johnson, Susan Moore; Papay, John P.

2010-01-01

481

Effects of Syntactic Expectations on Speech Segmentation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although the effect of acoustic cues on speech segmentation has been extensively investigated, the role of higher order information (e.g., syntax) has received less attention. Here, the authors examined whether syntactic expectations based on subject-verb agreement have an effect on segmentation and whether they do so despite conflicting acoustic…

Mattys, Sven L.; Melhorn, James F.; White, Laurence

2007-01-01

482

Future Expectations of Brasilian Street Youth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Future expectations of youth surviving on the streets of Porto Alegre, Brasil, were examined. The sample consisted of 35 boys and 34 girls aged 10-18 (M age 14.4) who participated in a sentence completion task and semi-structured interviews. Responses to two incomplete sentences regarding the future revealed a mismatch between hoped-for and…

Raffaelli, M.; Koller, S.H.

2005-01-01

483

Outcome Expectancies and Risk-Taking Behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

One explanation for risk-taking behavior despite warnings about the dangers is that anticipated positive consequences outweigh possible negative outcomes. In a five-part investigation, a new questionnaire was developed to assess outcome expectancies for the potential consequences of involvement in a variety of risky activities. Conceptual and methodological limitations of previously available questionnaires were addressed and content, construct, and criterion validity

Kim Fromme; Elizabeth C. Katz; Kathy Rivet

1997-01-01

484

EXPECTATIONS FOR THE FUTURE OF DNA TESTING  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The benefits of DNA testing are briefly discussed. The number of DNA tests for quantitative traits in beef cattle has increased rapidly over the past four years and this trend is expected to continue. With the rapid growth of DNA testing in beef cattle, breeders have many decisions to make and littl...

485

Expected benefits of information security investments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ideally, decisions concerning investments of scarce resources in new or additional procedures and technologies that are expected to enhance information security will be informed by quantitative analyses. But security is notoriously hard to quantify, since absence of activity challenges us to establish whether lack of successful attacks is the result of good security or merely due to good luck. However,

Julie J. C. H. Ryan; Daniel J. Ryan

2006-01-01

486

Enhanced Expectancies Improve Performance Under Pressure  

PubMed Central

Beyond skill, beliefs in requisite abilities and expectations can affect performance. This experiment examined effects of induced perceptions of ability to perform well under generic situations of challenge. Participants (N?=?31) first completed one block of 20 trials on a throwing accuracy task. They then completed questionnaires ostensibly measuring individual differences in the ability to perform under pressure. Enhanced-expectancy group participants were told that they were well-suited to perform under pressure, while the control group received neutral information. Subsequently, all participants completed another block of 20 trials on the throwing task, with their performance videotaped and under the assumption that they could secure a prize for themselves and a paired participant with successful performance. Both groups had similar accuracy scores on the first trial block. The enhanced-expectancy group significantly increased their throwing accuracy in the higher-pressure situation (second block), whereas the control group showed no change in performance. Furthermore, beliefs regarding performance under challenge predicted throwing accuracy on the second block. The present findings provide evidence that enhancing individuals’ generic expectancies regarding performance under pressure can affect their motor performance.

McKay, Brad; Lewthwaite, Rebecca; Wulf, Gabriele

2012-01-01

487

Culture and Caregiving: Goals, Expectations, & Conflict.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|"Zero to Three" is a single-focus bulletin of the National Center for Infants, Toddlers, and Families providing insight from multiple disciplines on the development of infants, toddlers, and their families. This issue focuses on the goals, expectations, and conflict in the relationship between culture and child caregiving and other care services.…

Fenichel, Emily, Ed.

2003-01-01

488

Dense Photometric Stereo by Expectation Maximization  

Microsoft Academic Search

We formulate a robust method using Expectation Maximiza- tion (EM) to address the problem of dense photometric stereo. Previous approaches using Markov Random Fields (MRF) utilized a dense set of noisy photometric images for estimating an initial normal to encode the matching cost at each pixel, followed by normal refinement by consid- ering the neighborhood of the pixel. In this

Tai-pang Wu; Chi-keung Tang

2006-01-01

489

Children's Physical Appearance and Adult Expectations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Caregivers' expectancies and behaviors in relationship to young handicapped children were investigated in this paper. Two studies were conducted in an attempt to answer three questions: (1) How will caregivers respond to the young handicapped child? (2) Do the child's stimulus characteristics, such as physical appearance, create biases in…

Feeg, Veronica DeCarolis; Peters, Donald L.

490

A Rational Expectations Model of Financial Contagion  

Microsoft Academic Search

We develop a multiple asset rational expectations model of asset prices to explain nancial market contagion. Although the model allows contagion through several chan- nels, our focus is on contagion through cross-market rebalancing. Through this channel, investors transmit idiosyncratic shocks from one market to others by adjusting their portfolios' exposures to shared macroeconomic risks. The pattern and severity of nan-

Laura E. Kodres; Matthew Pritsker

1999-01-01

491

A Rational Expectations Model of Financial Contagion  

Microsoft Academic Search

We develop a multiple asset rational expectations model of asset prices to explain financial market contagion. Although the model allows contagion through several channels, our focus is on contagion through cross-market rebalancing. Through this channel, investors transmit idiosyncratic shocks from one market to others by adjusting their portfolios' exposures to shared macroeconomic risks. The pattern and severity of financial contagion

Laura E; Matthew Pritsker

2002-01-01

492

Men's Alcohol Expectancies at Selected Community Colleges  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Men's alcohol expectancies are an important cognitive-behavioral component of their consumption; yet, sparse research details such behaviors for men in two-year colleges. Selected for inclusion with the current study were 563 men from seven Illinois community colleges. Logistic regression analysis indicated four significant, positive…

Derby, Dustin C.

2011-01-01

493

Rough probability and rough expected value models  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rough set theory is a new and effective mathematical theory used for processing incomplete, uncertain and vague data. In this paper, new set-theoretic operators - rough operators are proposed based on Pawlak rough set. On the basis of rough operators, a self-duality measure -rough probability is presented. On the rough probability space, rough variable, rough distribution, and rough expected value

Yi-Jun Fan; Da-Zeng Tian; Ming-Hu Ha

2008-01-01

494

Teaching Objectives in Biology: Priorities and Expectations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|There are differences between experienced BSCS biology teachers and those beginning to use BSCS, with respect to the ranking of objectives in order of importance and in the estimation of the ease of achieving the objectives. There is a disparity between the teachers' priorities and their expectations of achieving the objectives. (AL)|

Tamir, P.; Jungwirth, E.

1972-01-01

495

Nonverbal expectancy violations and conversational involvement  

Microsoft Academic Search

A central feature of nonverbal expectancy violations theory is that unexpected behaviors trigger a cognitive-affective appraisal of such behavior, leading to a valencing of the behavior(s) as positive or negative. It has been proposed that communicator reward mediates the interpretation and evaluation of such violations but may be more important when the violative act is ambiguous in meaning than when

Judee K. Burgoon; Deborah A. Newton; Joseph B. Walther; E. James Baesler

1989-01-01

496

Entropy Bounds for Hierarchical Molecular Networks  

PubMed Central

In this paper we derive entropy bounds for hierarchical networks. More precisely, starting from a recently introduced measure to determine the topological entropy of non-hierarchical networks, we provide bounds for estimating the entropy of hierarchical graphs. Apart from bounds to estimate the entropy of a single hierarchical graph, we see that the derived bounds can also be used for characterizing graph classes. Our contribution is an important extension to previous results about the entropy of non-hierarchical networks because for practical applications hierarchical networks are playing an important role in chemistry and biology. In addition to the derivation of the entropy bounds, we provide a numerical analysis for two special graph classes, rooted trees and generalized trees, and demonstrate hereby not only the computational feasibility of our method but also learn about its characteristics and interpretability with respect to data analysis.

Dehmer, Matthias; Borgert, Stephan; Emmert-Streib, Frank

2008-01-01

497

New bounds on isotropic Lorentz violation  

SciTech Connect

Violations of Lorentz invariance that appear via operators of dimension four or less are completely parameterized in the Standard Model Extension (SME). In the pure photonic sector of the SME, there are nineteen dimensionless, Lorentz-violating parameters. Eighteen of these have experimental upper bounds ranging between 10{sup -11} and 10{sup -32}; the remaining parameter, ktr, is isotropic and has a much weaker bound of order 10{sup -4}. In this Brief Report, we point out that ktr gives a significant contribution to the anomalous magnetic moment of the electron and find a new upper bound of order 10{sup -8}. With reasonable assumptions, we further show that this bound may be improved to 10{sup -14} by considering the renormalization of other Lorentz-violating parameters that are more tightly constrained. Using similar renormalization arguments, we also estimate bounds on Lorentz violating parameters in the pure gluonic sector of QCD.

Chris Carone; Marc Sher; Marc Vanderhaeghen

2006-09-19

498

Covariant entropy bound and loop quantum cosmology  

SciTech Connect

We examine Bousso's covariant entropy bound conjecture in the context of radiation filled, spatially flat, Friedmann-Robertson-Walker models. The bound is violated near the big bang. However, the hope has been that quantum gravity effects would intervene and protect it. Loop quantum cosmology provides a near ideal setting for investigating this issue. For, on the one hand, quantum geometry effects resolve the singularity and, on the other hand, the wave function is sharply peaked at a quantum corrected but smooth geometry, which can supply the structure needed to test the bound. We find that the bound is respected. We suggest that the bound need not be an essential ingredient for a quantum gravity theory but may emerge from it under suitable circumstances.

Ashtekar, Abhay; Wilson-Ewing, Edward [Institute for Gravitation and the Cosmos and Physics Department, Penn State, University Park, Pennsylvania 16802 (United States)

2008-09-15

499

Alcohol Expectancy Priming and Drinking Behavior: The Role of Compatibility Between Prime and Expectancy Content  

Microsoft Academic Search

According to information-processing models of alcohol use, alcohol expectancies constitute representations in long-term memory that may be activated in the presence of drinking-related cues, thereby influencing alcohol consumption. A fundamental implication of this approach is that primed expectancies should affect drinking only for those individuals who possess the specific expectancies primed. To test this notion, in the present study, participants

Ronald S. Friedman; Denis M. McCarthy; Sarah L. Pedersen; Joshua A. Hicks

2009-01-01

500

The influence of temporal factors on automatic priming and conscious expectancy in a simple reaction time task  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract In a previous study, we have reported a dissociation between subjective expectancy and motor behavior in a simple associative learning task (Perruchet, Cleeremans, & Destrebecqz, 2006). According to previous conditioning studies (Clark, Manns, & Squire, 2001), this dissociation is observed when the to-be-associated events co-terminate and thus overlap in time (a training regimen called delay conditioning), but not when

Arnaud Destrebecqz; Pierre Perruchet; Axel Cleeremans; Steven Laureys; Pierre Maquet; Philippe Peigneux

2009-01-01