Science.gov

Sample records for bounded expected delay

  1. The Online Expectations of College-Bound Juniors and Seniors. E-Expectations Report, 2012

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noel-Levitz, Inc, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Noel-Levitz, OmniUpdate, CollegeWeekLive, and NRCCUA[R] (National Research Center for College & University Admissions) conducted a survey of 2,000 college-bound juniors and seniors about their expectations for college Web sites, mobile usage, e-mail, and social media. Among the findings: (1) More than 50 percent of students said the Web played a…

  2. Learning monopolies with delayed feedback on price expectations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsumoto, Akio; Szidarovszky, Ferenc

    2015-11-01

    We call the intercept of the price function with the vertical axis the maximum price and the slope of the price function the marginal price. In this paper it is assumed that a monopolistic firm has full information about the marginal price and its own cost function but is uncertain on the maximum price. However, by repeated interaction with the market, the obtained price observations give a basis for an adaptive learning process of the maximum price. It is also assumed that the price observations have fixed delays, so the learning process can be described by a delayed differential equation. In the cases of one or two delays, the asymptotic behavior of the resulting dynamic process is examined, stability conditions are derived. Three main results are demonstrated in the two delay learning processes. First, it is possible to stabilize the equilibrium which is unstable in the one delay model. Second, complex dynamics involving chaos, which is impossible in the one delay model, can emerge. Third, alternations of stability and instability (i.e., stability switches) occur repeatedly.

  3. Delay Bounds of Peer-to-Peer Video Streaming Electrical & Computer Engineering Department

    E-print Network

    Liu, Yong

    Delay Bounds of Peer-to-Peer Video Streaming Yong Liu Electrical & Computer Engineering Department bounds for P2P live streaming systems. We show that the bandwidth heterogeneity among peers can-ball streaming algorithm to approach the minimum delay bound in P2P live video streaming. Our analysis

  4. Quantum bounds for inequalities involving marginal expectation values

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolfe, Elie; Yelin, S. F.

    2012-07-01

    We review and develop an algorithm to determine arbitrary quantum bounds based on the seminal work of Tsirelson [Lett. Math. Phys.LMPHDY0377-901710.1007/BF00417500 4, 93 (1980)]. The potential of this algorithm is demonstrated by both deriving marginal-involving number-valued quantum bounds and identifying a generalized class of function-valued quantum bounds. Those results facilitate an eight-dimensional volume analysis of quantum mechanics which extends the work of Cabello [Phys. Rev. APLRAAN1050-294710.1103/PhysRevA.72.012113 72, 012113 (2005)]. We contrast the quantum volume defined by these bounds to that of macroscopic locality, defined by the inequalities corresponding to the first level of the hierarchy of Navascués [New J. Phys.1367-263010.1088/1367-2630/10/7/073013 10, 073013 (2008e)], proving our function-valued quantum bounds to be more complete.

  5. Focusing Your E-Recruitment Efforts to Meet the Expectations of College-Bound Students. E-Expectations 2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noel-Levitz, Inc, 2010

    2010-01-01

    Early in 2010, the E-Expectations research group surveyed more than 1,000 college-bound high school students, polling them on their online behaviors and expectations, as well as other key enrollment-related topics. Highlights of the study include: (1) 1 in 4 students reported removing a school from their prospective list because of a bad…

  6. A lower bound on expected communication cost of quantum state redistribution

    E-print Network

    Anurag Anshu

    2015-10-05

    We show a lower bound on expected communication cost of interactive entanglement assisted quantum state redistribution protocols and a slightly better lower bound for its special case, quantum state transfer. Our bound implies that the expected communication cost of interactive protocols is not significantly better than worst case communication cost, in terms of scaling of error. Furthermore, the bound is independent of the number of rounds. This is in contrast with the classical case, where protocols with expected communication cost significantly better than worst case communication cost are known.

  7. Bounded Linear Stability Analysis - A Time Delay Margin Estimation Approach for Adaptive Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, Nhan T.; Ishihara, Abraham K.; Krishnakumar, Kalmanje Srinlvas; Bakhtiari-Nejad, Maryam

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a method for estimating time delay margin for model-reference adaptive control of systems with almost linear structured uncertainty. The bounded linear stability analysis method seeks to represent the conventional model-reference adaptive law by a locally bounded linear approximation within a small time window using the comparison lemma. The locally bounded linear approximation of the combined adaptive system is cast in a form of an input-time-delay differential equation over a small time window. The time delay margin of this system represents a local stability measure and is computed analytically by a matrix measure method, which provides a simple analytical technique for estimating an upper bound of time delay margin. Based on simulation results for a scalar model-reference adaptive control system, both the bounded linear stability method and the matrix measure method are seen to provide a reasonably accurate and yet not too conservative time delay margin estimation.

  8. CRAM ER-RAO BOUNDS AND ESTIMATION ALGORITHMS FOR DELAY/DOPPLER AND CONVENTIONAL ALTIMETRY

    E-print Network

    Tourneret, Jean-Yves

    Charles Camichel, 31071 Toulouse, France ABSTRACT Delay/Doppler radar altimetry has been receiving likelihood estimation, SAR altimetry. 1. INTRODUCTION The concept of delay/Doppler radar altimetryCRAM ´ER-RAO BOUNDS AND ESTIMATION ALGORITHMS FOR DELAY/DOPPLER AND CONVENTIONAL ALTIMETRY A

  9. Bounded immune response in immunotherapy described by deterministic delay Kirschner-Panetta model

    E-print Network

    Tsygvintsev, Alexey V.

    Bounded immune response in immunotherapy described by deterministic delay Kirschner-Panetta model immune system behavior. Keywords: Delay Kirschner-Panetta model, Tumors, Immunotherapy, Boundedness. 1-field versions [7]. In some cases, the role of a delayed immune-response in the presence of stochastic processes

  10. An Upper Bound for the Expected Range of a Random Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marengo, James; Lopez, Manuel

    2010-01-01

    We consider the expected range of a random sample of points chosen from the interval [0, 1] according to some probability distribution. We then use the notion of convexity to derive an upper bound for this expected range which is valid for all possible choices of this distribution. Finally we show that there is only one distribution for which this…

  11. Stability and Hopf bifurcation for a business cycle model with expectation and delay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xiangdong; Cai, Wenli; Lu, Jiajun; Wang, Yangyang

    2015-08-01

    According to rational expectation hypothesis, the government will take into account the future capital stock in the process of investment decision. By introducing anticipated capital stock into an economic model with investment delay, we construct a mixed functional differential system including delay and advanced variables. The system is converted to the one containing only delay by variable substitution. The equilibrium point of the system is obtained and its dynamical characteristics such as stability, Hopf bifurcation and its stability and direction are investigated by using the related theories of nonlinear dynamics. We carry out some numerical simulations to confirm these theoretical conclusions. The results indicate that both capital stock's anticipation and investment lag are the certain factors leading to the occurrence of cyclical fluctuations in the macroeconomic system. Moreover, the level of economic fluctuation can be dampened to some extent if investment decisions are made by the reasonable short-term forecast on capital stock.

  12. Spectrum of a bounded sequence and inhomogeneous delay linear difference equations in a Banach space

    E-print Network

    Dang Vu Giang

    2015-08-31

    We study the asymptotic behavior of a bounded solution of an inhomogeneous delay linear difference equation in a Banach space by using the spectrum of bounded sequences. We get a significant extension of excellent results in [1]. A new simple proof is also found for the famous Gelfand spectral radius theorem. Moreover, among other things we prove that if the spectrum of a bounded sequence $\\{x_n\\}_n$ is finite then $x_n=c_1\\vartheta_1^n+c_2\\vartheta_2^n+\\cdots+c_k\\vartheta_k^n+o(1)$ as $n\\to\\infty$ where $|\\vartheta_1|=|\\vartheta_2|=\\cdots=|\\vartheta_k|=1$.

  13. Worst-Case Flit and Packet Delay Bounds in Wormhole Networks on Chip

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qian, Yue; Lu, Zhonghai; Dou, Wenhua

    We investigate per-flow flit and packet worst-case delay bounds in on-chip wormhole networks. Such investigation is essential in order to provide guarantees under worst-case conditions in cost-constrained systems, as required by many hard real-time embedded applications. We first propose analysis models for flow control, link and buffer sharing. Based on these analysis models, we obtain an open-ended service analysis model capturing the combined effect of flow control, link and buffer sharing. With the service analysis model, we compute equivalent service curves for individual flows, and then derive their flit and packet delay bounds. Our experimental results verify that our analytical bounds are correct and tight.

  14. Delayed birth of distillable entanglement in the evolution of bound entangled states

    E-print Network

    ?ukasz Derkacz; Lech Jakobczyk

    2010-08-17

    The dynamical creation of entanglement between three-level atoms coupled to the common vacuum is investigated. For the class of bound entangled initial states we show that the dynamics of closely separated atoms generates stationary distillable entanglement of asymptotic states. We also find that the effect of delayed sudden birth of distillable entanglement occurs in the case of atoms separated by a distance comparable with the radiation wavelength.

  15. Delayed birth of distillable entanglement in the evolution of bound entangled states

    SciTech Connect

    Derkacz, Lukasz; Jakobczyk, Lech

    2010-08-15

    The dynamical creation of entanglement between three-level atoms coupled to the common vacuum is investigated. For the class of bound entangled initial states, we show that the dynamics of closely separated atoms generates stationary distillable entanglement of asymptotic states. We also find that the effect of delayed sudden birth of distillable entanglement occurs in the case of atoms separated by a distance comparable with the radiation wavelength.

  16. Adaptive fuzzy predictive sliding control of uncertain nonlinear systems with bound-known input delay.

    PubMed

    Khazaee, Mostafa; Markazi, Amir H D; Omidi, Ehsan

    2015-11-01

    In this paper, a new Adaptive Fuzzy Predictive Sliding Mode Control (AFP-SMC) is presented for nonlinear systems with uncertain dynamics and unknown input delay. The control unit consists of a fuzzy inference system to approximate the ideal linearization control, together with a switching strategy to compensate for the estimation errors. Also, an adaptive fuzzy predictor is used to estimate the future values of the system states to compensate for the time delay. The adaptation laws are used to tune the controller and predictor parameters, which guarantee the stability based on a Lyapunov-Krasovskii functional. To evaluate the method effectiveness, the simulation and experiment on an overhead crane system are presented. According to the obtained results, AFP-SMC can effectively control the uncertain nonlinear systems, subject to input delays of known bound. PMID:26524958

  17. Transitions induced by cross-correlated bounded noises and time delay in a genotype selection model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Pei; Ning, Li Juan

    2016-01-01

    We present a numerical investigation of occurrence of transitions in a genotype selection model with time delay, where two bounded noises are cross-correlated. Stationary probability distribution (SPD) function is obtained. It is found that: the multiplicative bounded noise can facilitate the gene separation and it plays a constructive role in the genetic selection progress, while the additive bounded noise suppresses the gene separation. The strong correlation between noises gives a big chance to one type haploid out of the group. Besides, what is more interesting is that the correlation time ? can induce a new transitions (i.e., the curve of the SPD changes from unimodal to bimodal, and then to four peaks as the correlation time ? increases).

  18. Scrolling toward Enrollment: Web Site Content and the E-Expectations of College-Bound Seniors. E-Expectations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noel-Levitz, Inc, 2009

    2009-01-01

    Communicating with prospective students has undergone a profound transformation in the past ten years. Campus marketing--like marketing for any organization--had to adapt first to the Internet and e-mail and now to new social media formats like social networking and blogging. A recent survey of 1,000 college-bound seniors, however, shows that…

  19. The Mobile Browsing Behaviors and Expectations of College-Bound High School Students. An E-Expectations Trend Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noel-Levitz, Inc, 2012

    2012-01-01

    The last decade marked a dramatic change in the college search experience as students flocked to the Internet as their primary tool for researching colleges. Institutions had to transform their recruitment efforts to keep up with the online demands and expectations of prospective students. The proliferation of smartphones is transforming the…

  20. Effect of time delay on the upper bound of the time derivative of information entropy in a stochastic dynamical system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Min-Min; Wang, Can-Jun; Mei, Dong-Cheng

    2011-11-01

    The effects of the time delay on the upper bound of the time derivative of information entropy are investigated in a time-delayed dynamical system driven by correlated noise. Using the Markov approximation of the stochastic delay differential equations and the Schwartz inequality principle, we obtain an analytical expression for the upper bound UB(t) of the time derivative of the information entropy. The results show that there is a critical value of ? (delay time), and UB(t) presents opposite behaviours on difference sides of the critical value. For the case of the weak additive noise, ? can induce a reentrance transition. Delay time ? also causes a reversal behaviour in UB(t)-? plot, where ? denotes the degree of the correlation between the two noises.

  1. BCDP: Budget Constrained and Delay-Bounded Placement for Hybrid Roadside Units in Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks

    PubMed Central

    Li, Peng; Huang, Chuanhe; Liu, Qin

    2014-01-01

    In vehicular ad hoc networks, roadside units (RSUs) placement has been proposed to improve the the overall network performance in many ITS applications. This paper addresses the budget constrained and delay-bounded placement problem (BCDP) for roadside units in vehicular ad hoc networks. There are two types of RSUs: cable connected RSU (c-RSU) and wireless RSU (w-RSU). c-RSUs are interconnected through wired lines, and they form the backbone of VANETs, while w-RSUs connect to other RSUs through wireless communication and serve as an economical extension of the coverage of c-RSUs. The delay-bounded coverage range and deployment cost of these two cases are totally different. We are given a budget constraint and a delay bound, the problem is how to find the optimal candidate sites with the maximal delay-bounded coverage to place RSUs such that a message from any c-RSU in the region can be disseminated to the more vehicles within the given budget constraint and delay bound. We first prove that the BCDP problem is NP-hard. Then we propose several algorithms to solve the BCDP problem. Simulation results show the heuristic algorithms can significantly improve the coverage range and reduce the total deployment cost, compared with other heuristic methods. PMID:25436656

  2. BCDP: Budget constrained and delay-bounded placement for hybrid roadside units in vehicular ad hoc networks.

    PubMed

    Li, Peng; Huang, Chuanhe; Liu, Qin

    2014-01-01

    In vehicular ad hoc networks, roadside units (RSUs) placement has been proposed to improve the the overall network performance in many ITS applications. This paper addresses the budget constrained and delay-bounded placement problem (BCDP) for roadside units in vehicular ad hoc networks. There are two types of RSUs: cable connected RSU (c-RSU) and wireless RSU (w-RSU). c-RSUs are interconnected through wired lines, and they form the backbone of VANETs, while w-RSUs connect to other RSUs through wireless communication and serve as an economical extension of the coverage of c-RSUs. The delay-bounded coverage range and deployment cost of these two cases are totally different. We are given a budget constraint and a delay bound, the problem is how to find the optimal candidate sites with the maximal delay-bounded coverage to place RSUs such that a message from any c-RSU in the region can be disseminated to the more vehicles within the given budget constraint and delay bound. We first prove that the BCDP problem is NP-hard. Then we propose several algorithms to solve the BCDP problem. Simulation results show the heuristic algorithms can significantly improve the coverage range and reduce the total deployment cost, compared with other heuristic methods. PMID:25436656

  3. Factors Associated with Delayed Childbearing: From the Voices of Expectant Latina Adults and Teens in California

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biggs, M. Antonia; Ralph, Lauren; Minnis, Alexandra M.; Arons, Abigail; Marchi, Kristen S.; Lehrer, Jocelyn A.; Braveman, Paula A.; Brindis, Claire D.

    2010-01-01

    There has been limited research on the protective factors that help Latinas delay childbearing until adulthood. In-depth interviews were conducted with 65 pregnant Latina teenage and adult women in California who were about to have their first child. Lack of or inconsistent birth control use as teens was attributed to wanting or ambivalence toward…

  4. TB Treatment Delays in Odisha, India: Is It Expected Even after These Many Years of RNTCP Implementation?

    PubMed Central

    Ilangovan, Kumaravel; Nagaraja, Sharath Burugina; Ananthakrishnan, Ramya; Jacob, Anil G.; Tripathy, Jaya Prasad; Tamang, Deepak

    2015-01-01

    Background In India, the Revised National TB Control Programme (RNTCP) envisages initiation of TB treatment within seven days of diagnosis among smear-positive patients. After nearly two decades of RNTCP implementation, treatment delays are usually not expected. Objectives To determine the proportion of sputum smear-positive TB patients who were initiated on treatment after seven days and their associated risk factors. Methods The study was conducted in Cuttack and Rayagada districts of Odisha. It was a retrospective cohort study that involves review of TB treatment registers and laboratory registers for 2013. Results Among 1,800 pulmonary TB (PTB) patients, 1,074 (60%) had been initiated on treatment within seven days of diagnosis, 721 (40%) had been initiated on treatment more than seven days, and 354 (20%) had delays of more than 15 days. The mean duration between TB diagnosis and treatment initiation was 21 days with a range of 8–207 days (median = 14 days). Odds of treatment delay of more than seven days were 4.9 times (95% confidence interval [CI] 3.3-6.6) among those who had been previously treated, 6.2 times (95% CI 1.3-29.7) among those infected with HIV, and 1.8 times (95% CI 1.1-2.9) among those diagnosed outside district DMC. Conclusion Delay in initiation of TB treatment occurred in majority of the smear-positive patients. The RNTCP should focus on core areas of providing quality TB services with time-tested strategies. To have real-time monitoring mechanisms for diagnosed smear-positive TB patients is expected to be the way forward. PMID:25928294

  5. Direct Labeling, Tester Expectancy and Delay Maintenance Behavior in Scottish Preschool Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ritchie, Fiona K.; Toner, Ignatius J.

    1984-01-01

    Investigates the influence on Scottish preschool children's self-control of labels regarding patience given directly to the children themselves, and of the expectations regarding the children's patience provided to adult testers. Childrens self-control was assessed in a task in which each child's possession of accumulating candy rewards was made…

  6. Direct Labeling, Tester Expectancy and Delay Maintenance Behavior in Preschool Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ritchie, Fiona K.; Toner, Ignatius J.

    This study explored the hypotheses that (1) young children told (labeled) directly that they were "patient" by adults would demonstrate more subsequent self-control than children given an irrelevant label, and that (2) adult tester expectations regarding the children's self-control would influence only the subjects given the irrelevant label. The…

  7. Delay Bounds of Peer-to-Peer Video Streaming Electrical & Computer Engineering Department

    E-print Network

    Liu, Yong

    attracted a large number of users on the Internet. YouTube [4], the popular user-generated-content (UGC of peers watching the same channel are asynchronous with lags up to tens of seconds. In traditional client-server based video streaming systems, the video startup delay perceived by a client is determined by the delay

  8. Myosin Va bound to phagosomes binds to F-actin and delays microtubule-dependent motility.

    PubMed

    Al-Haddad, A; Shonn, M A; Redlich, B; Blocker, A; Burkhardt, J K; Yu, H; Hammer, J A; Weiss, D G; Steffen, W; Griffiths, G; Kuznetsov, S A

    2001-09-01

    We established a light microscopy-based assay that reconstitutes the binding of phagosomes purified from mouse macrophages to preassembled F-actin in vitro. Both endogenous myosin Va from mouse macrophages and exogenous myosin Va from chicken brain stimulated the phagosome-F-actin interaction. Myosin Va association with phagosomes correlated with their ability to bind F-actin in an ATP-regulated manner and antibodies to myosin Va specifically blocked the ATP-sensitive phagosome binding to F-actin. The uptake and retrograde transport of phagosomes from the periphery to the center of cells in bone marrow macrophages was observed in both normal mice and mice homozygous for the dilute-lethal spontaneous mutation (myosin Va null). However, in dilute-lethal macrophages the accumulation of phagosomes in the perinuclear region occurred twofold faster than in normal macrophages. Motion analysis revealed saltatory phagosome movement with temporarily reversed direction in normal macrophages, whereas almost no reversals in direction were observed in dilute-lethal macrophages. These observations demonstrate that myosin Va mediates phagosome binding to F-actin, resulting in a delay in microtubule-dependent retrograde phagosome movement toward the cell center. We propose an "antagonistic/cooperative mechanism" to explain the saltatory phagosome movement toward the cell center in normal macrophages. PMID:11553713

  9. Technical report associated with the paper "Cramer-Rao bounds and estimation algorithms for delay/Doppler and conventional altimetry"

    E-print Network

    Tourneret, Jean-Yves

    TECHNICAL REPORT ­ 2013, March Abstract Delay/Doppler radar altimetry has been receiving an increasing. INTRODUCTION The concept of delay/Doppler radar altimetry was introduced in [1]. However, more than 10 years for delay/Doppler and conventional altimetry" Abderrahim Halimi, Corinne Mailhes, Jean-Yves Tourneret

  10. Salivary Alpha Amylase and Cortisol Levels in Children with Global Developmental Delay and Their Relation with the Expectation of Dental Care and Behavior during the Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    dos Santos, Marcio Jose Possari; Bernabe, Daniel Galera; Nakamune, Ana Claudia de Melo Stevanato; Perri, Silvia Helena Venturoli; de Aguiar, Sandra Maria Herondina Coelho Avila; de Oliveira, Sandra Helena Penha

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the alpha-amylase (sAA) and cortisol levels in children with Global developmental delay (GDD) before and after dental treatment and its association with the children's behavior during treatment. The morning salivary cortisol levels and activity of sAA of 33 children with GDD were evaluated before and after…

  11. Salivary alpha amylase and cortisol levels in children with global developmental delay and their relation with the expectation of dental care and behavior during the intervention.

    PubMed

    dos Santos, Márcio José Possari; Bernabé, Daniel Galera; Nakamune, Ana Cláudia de Melo Stevanato; Perri, Silvia Helena Venturoli; de Aguiar, Sandra Maria Herondina Coelho Ávila; de Oliveira, Sandra Helena Penha

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the alpha-amylase (sAA) and cortisol levels in children with Global developmental delay (GDD) before and after dental treatment and its association with the children's behavior during treatment. The morning salivary cortisol levels and activity of sAA of 33 children with GDD were evaluated before and after dental treatment and were compared to 19 healthy children. The behavior of children with GDD during dental care was assessed by the Frankl scale. Children with GDD showed lower levels of sAA activity than healthy children, but this result was not significant. The salivary cortisol levels were similar between GDD and healthy children. GDD children showed increased levels of sAA (but not cortisol) prior to the dental treatment as compared to the post-treatment phase. GDD children who showed less favorable behavior during dental care had higher levels of sAA and salivary cortisol than GDD children with more favorable behavior, but only the sAA results were significant. In conclusion, GDD children show hyperactivity of the SNS-axis in anticipation of dental treatment which indicates the need for strategies to reduce their anxiety levels before and during dental care. PMID:22119698

  12. Further improved stability criteria for uncertain T-S fuzzy systems with time-varying delay by (m,N)-delay-partitioning approach.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jun; Luo, Wen-Pin; Wang, Yong-Hu; Cheng, Jun

    2015-11-01

    This paper mainly focuses on the robust stability criteria for uncertain T-S fuzzy systems with time-varying delay by (m,N)-delay-partitioning approach. A modified augmented LKF is established by partitioning the delay in all integral terms. Via taking into account of (i) the relationship between each subinterval and time-varying delay and (ii) the independent upper bounds of the delay derivative in the various delay intervals, some new results on tighter bounding inequalities such as Peng-Park?s integral inequality and Free-Matrix-based integral inequality are introduced to effectively reduce the enlargement in bounding the derivative of LKF as much as possible, therefore, significant less conservative results can be expected in terms of es and LMIs, which can be solved efficiently with the Matlab LMI toolbox. Furthermore, it is worth mentioning that, when the delay-partitioning number m is fixed, the conservatism is gradually reduced with the increase of another delay-partitioning number N, but without increasing any computing burden. Finally, two numerical examples are included to show that the proposed method is less conservative than existing ones. PMID:26365365

  13. Time-dependent local density approximation (TDLDA) studies of quantum phases and time delays in bound-continuum transitions of Kr

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magrakvelidze, Maia; Dixit, Gopal; Madjet, Mohamed; Chakraborty, Himadri

    2014-05-01

    We calculate the phases of photoionization and radiative recombination dipole matrix elements of valence and subvalent levels of atomic Kr. The group delays along these transition channels are determined in the well-known Wigner-Smith approach, involving the energy derivative of the phases. A framework of time-dependent local density approximation is employed that utilizes the Leeuwen and Baerends exchange-correlation functional to produce accurate asymptotic behavior of ground and continuum wavefunctions. Effects of dynamical correlations are found to significantly influence the phase and delay properties over most part of the spectra, particularly, in the vicinity of various Feshbach and shape resonances, as well as near the Cooper minima. Analysis of the TDLDA-derived complex induced potential reveals important insights. This work was supported by the National Science Foundation.

  14. -delayed proton emission branches in 43Cr

    SciTech Connect

    Pomorski, M.; Miernik, K.; Dominik, W.; Janas, Z.; Pfutzner, M.; Bingham, C. R.; Czyrkowski, H.; Cwiok, Mikolaj; Darby, Iain; Dabrowski, Ryszard; Ginter, T. N.; Grzywacz, Robert Kazimierz; Karny, M.; Korgul, A.; Kusmierz, W.; Liddick, Sean; Rajabali, M. M.; Rykaczewski, Krzysztof Piotr; Stolz, A.

    2011-01-01

    The + decay of very neutron-deficient 43Cr was studied by means of an imaging time projection chamber that allowed recording tracks of charged particles. Events of -delayed emission of one, two, and three protons were clearly identified. The absolute branching ratios for these channels were determined to be (81 4)%, (7.1 0.4)%, and (0.08 0.03)%, respectively. 43Cr is thus established as the second case in which the -3p decay occurs. Although the feeding to the proton-bound states in 43V is expected to be negligible, the large branching ratio of (12 4)% for decays without proton emission is found.

  15. Delay-derivative-dependent stability for delayed neural networks with unbound distributed delay.

    PubMed

    Li, Tao; Song, Aiguo; Fei, Shumin; Wang, Ting

    2010-08-01

    In this brief, based on Lyapunov-Krasovskii functional approach and appropriate integral inequality, a new sufficient condition is derived to guarantee the global stability for delayed neural networks with unbounded distributed delay, in which the improved delay-partitioning technique and general convex combination are employed. The LMI-based criterion heavily depends on both the upper and lower bounds on time delay and its derivative, which is different from the existent ones and has wider application fields than some present results. Finally, three numerical examples can illustrate the efficiency of the new method based on the reduced conservatism which can be achieved by thinning the delay interval. PMID:20667811

  16. Further improved stability criteria for uncertain T-S fuzzy systems with interval time-varying delay by delay-partitioning approach.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jun; Luo, Wenpin; Cheng, Jun; Wang, Yonghu

    2015-09-01

    This paper focuses on further improved stability criteria for uncertain T-S fuzzy systems with interval time-varying delay by a delay-partitioning approach. A modified augmented Lyapunov-Krasovskii functional (LKF) is established by partitioning the delay in all integral terms. Then some tighter bounding inequalities, i.e., Peng-Park?s integral inequality (reciprocally convex approach) and the Free-Matrix-Based integral inequality (which yields less conservative stability criteria than the use of Wirtinger-based inequality does) are introduced to reduce the enlargement in bounding the derivative of LKF as much as possible, therefore, less conservative results can be expected in terms of es and LMIs. Finally, a numerical example is included to show that the proposed methods are less conservative than existing ones. PMID:26073644

  17. Delayed Puberty

    MedlinePLUS

    ... for Kids for Teens Teens Home Body Mind Sexual Health Food & Fitness Diseases & Conditions Infections Q&A School & ... Guide to Body Image Delayed Puberty KidsHealth > Teens > Sexual Health > Your Changing Body > Delayed Puberty Print A A ...

  18. Delayed ejaculation

    MedlinePLUS

    Ejaculatory incompetence; Sex - delayed ejaculation; Retarded ejaculation; Anejaculation ... include: Religious background that makes the person view sex as sinful Lack of attraction for a partner ...

  19. Modeling delay in genetic networks: From delay birth-death processes to delay stochastic differential equations

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, Chinmaya; López, José Manuel; Azencott, Robert; Ott, William; Bennett, Matthew R.; Josi?, Krešimir

    2014-05-28

    Delay is an important and ubiquitous aspect of many biochemical processes. For example, delay plays a central role in the dynamics of genetic regulatory networks as it stems from the sequential assembly of first mRNA and then protein. Genetic regulatory networks are therefore frequently modeled as stochastic birth-death processes with delay. Here, we examine the relationship between delay birth-death processes and their appropriate approximating delay chemical Langevin equations. We prove a quantitative bound on the error between the pathwise realizations of these two processes. Our results hold for both fixed delay and distributed delay. Simulations demonstrate that the delay chemical Langevin approximation is accurate even at moderate system sizes. It captures dynamical features such as the oscillatory behavior in negative feedback circuits, cross-correlations between nodes in a network, and spatial and temporal information in two commonly studied motifs of metastability in biochemical systems. Overall, these results provide a foundation for using delay stochastic differential equations to approximate the dynamics of birth-death processes with delay.

  20. Time Discretisation and Rate of Convergence for the Optimal Control of Continuous-Time Stochastic Systems with Delay

    SciTech Connect

    Fischer, Markus Nappo, Giovanna

    2008-04-15

    We study a semi-discretisation scheme for stochastic optimal control problems whose dynamics are given by controlled stochastic delay (or functional) differential equations with bounded memory. Performance is measured in terms of expected costs. By discretising time in two steps, we construct a sequence of approximating finite-dimensional Markovian optimal control problems in discrete time. The corresponding value functions converge to the value function of the original problem, and we derive an upper bound on the discretisation error or, equivalently, a worst-case estimate for the rate of convergence.

  1. Outward Bound.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Outward Bound, Inc., Andover, MA.

    The Outward Bound concept was developed in Germany and Great Britain with the saving of human life as the ultimate goal. Courses are designed to help students discover their true physical and mental limits through development of skills including emergency medical aid, firefighting, search and rescue, mountaineering, and sailing. Five Outward Bound

  2. Delaying obsolescence.

    PubMed

    Lawlor, Rob

    2015-04-01

    This paper argues that those who emphasise that designers and engineers need to plan for obsolescence are too conservative. Rather, in addition to planning for obsolescence, designers and engineers should also think carefully about what they could do in order delay obsolescence. They should so this by thinking about the design itself, thinking of ways in which products could be useful and appealing for longer before becoming obsolete, as well thinking about the wider context in terms of the marketing of products, and also the social and legal. The paper also considers objections that these suggestions are unrealistically idealistic, failing to recognise the economic realities. I respond to these objections appealing to research in advertising, psychology, cognitive linguistics, philosophy, history, and economics, as well as drawing on the Statement of Ethical Principles developed by the Royal Academy of Engineering and the Engineering Council. PMID:24792878

  3. Upward Bound

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Aerospace Education, 1976

    1976-01-01

    Describes an Upward Bound program at Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University designed to assist disadvantaged high school juniors and seniors in overcoming academic deficiencies in order to enter and succeed in college. The Saturday program centered on various aspects of aviation, including career opportunities. (MLH)

  4. Branch and bound algorithms for maximizing expected improvement functions

    E-print Network

    Ranjan, Pritam

    a r t i c l e i n f o Article history: Received 19 October 2009 Received in revised form 11 May 2010.g., Jones et al., 1998; Villemonteix et al., 2006; Forrester and Jones, 2008) Contents lists available to be efficient if the initial design is not too sparse or deceptive (Forrester and Jones, 2008). The form

  5. Inverse momentum expectation values for hydrogenic systems

    E-print Network

    Robert Delbourgo; David Elliott

    2009-04-28

    By using the Fourier transforms of the general hydrogenic bound state wave functions (as ultraspherical polynomials) one may find expectation values of arbitrary functions of momentum p. In this manner the effect of a reciprocity perturbation 1/p can be evaluated for all hydrogenic states.

  6. Planning for the Future: An Investigation of Work-Bound Rural Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hutchins, Bryan C.; Meece, Judith L.; Byun, Soo-yong; Farmer, Thomas W.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the postsecondary educational and occupational expectations of work-bound rural youth. Three groups of work-bound youth were identified (work-bound, work-bound with future educational plans, and work-bound but unsure/undecided about postsecondary education), and each group was compared to college-bound

  7. The economics of time delayed salinity impact management in the River Murray

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Connor, Jeff

    2008-03-01

    Drainage from irrigation along the River Murray causes rising levels of saline discharge to the river and floodplains with adverse impacts including crop, water infrastructure and floodplain ecological health damage. These salinity impacts of drainage are time delayed by up to several decades. Investment in engineering infrastructure to pump saline water away from the river to evaporation basins has been a significant feature of public policy to address the issue. This article evaluates the costs and benefits of further engineering investments to offset expected future salinity growth. The analysis involves an integer programming optimization model that explicitly accounts for salinity impact time delays in benefit, cost accounting considering a long term, 100 year time horizon. A lower bound salinity growth scenario is evaluated involving increasingly efficient irrigation and further new irrigation development at locations where salinity impacts are comparatively small. This is compared to an upper bound salinity growth scenario with static irrigation efficiency and new irrigation development in high salinity impact areas. It is concluded that if conditions leading to the upper bound salinity growth scenario can not be avoided in the near term, the marginal costs of offsetting future salinity growth with additional engineering investment will exceed the marginal benefits several decades hence.

  8. Outside the Expected.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dienstfrey, Harris

    1968-01-01

    In examining the findings of "Pygmalion in the Classroom," an experimental study of the positive effects of favorable teacher expectations on the intellectual development of disadvantaged elementary school students, this review speculates about why the experimental students, whom the teachers expected to improve, and the control students, who were…

  9. Reflections on Expectations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santini, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    This article describes a teachers reflections on the matter of student expectations. Santini begins with a common understanding of the "Pygmalion effect" from research projects conducted in earlier years that intimated "people's expectations could influence other people in the world around them." In the world of deaf…

  10. An Unexpected Expected Value.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartzman, Steven

    1993-01-01

    Discusses the surprising result that the expected number of marbles of one color drawn from a set of marbles of two colors after two draws without replacement is the same as the expected number of that color marble after two draws with replacement. Presents mathematical models to help explain this phenomenon. (MDH)

  11. Cramer-Rao Bounds for Nonparametric Surface

    E-print Network

    . Conference on 3-D Digital Imaging and Modeling for review School of Computing University of Utah Salt Lake on the expected performance of a statistical estimator. The error bound depends on the general properties of the system, but not on the specific properties of the estimator or the solution. The Cramer-Rao error bound

  12. CramerRao Bounds for Nonparametric Surface

    E-print Network

    . Conference on 3­D Digital Imaging and Modeling for review School of Computing University of Utah Salt Lake on the expected performance of a statistical estimator. The error bound depends on the general properties of the system, but not on the specific properties of the estimator or the solution. The Cramer­Rao error bound

  13. Health expectancy indicators.

    PubMed Central

    Robine, J. M.; Romieu, I.; Cambois, E.

    1999-01-01

    An outline is presented of progress in the development of health expectancy indicators, which are growing in importance as a means of assessing the health status of populations and determining public health priorities. PMID:10083720

  14. Expectations across entertainment media

    E-print Network

    Austin, Alexander Chance

    2007-01-01

    An audience's satisfaction with an entertainment product is dependent on how well their expectations are fulfilled. This study delves into the implicit contract that is formed between the purveyor of an entertainment ...

  15. Tight Bounds for Clock Synchronization CHRISTOPH LENZEN, THOMAS LOCHER, AND ROGER WATTENHOFER

    E-print Network

    8 Tight Bounds for Clock Synchronization CHRISTOPH LENZEN, THOMAS LOCHER, AND ROGER WATTENHOFER ETH are optimal also with respect to the maximum clock drift, the uncertainty in message delays, and the imposed and the message delays may vary arbitrarily within pre-specified bounds. Furthermore, our algorithm exhibits

  16. Delay Discounting Visualization Tool

    E-print Network

    Reed, Derek D.

    2015-05-15

    clinical populations, the delay discounting literature is experiencing an exponential boom. Areas of application are diverse and widespread (e.g., addiction, obesity, gambling, environmental sustainability). While simple in nonlinear form, the delay...

  17. Expected performance of m-solution backtracking

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nicol, D. M.

    1986-01-01

    This paper derives upper bounds on the expected number of search tree nodes visited during an m-solution backtracking search, a search which terminates after some preselected number m problem solutions are found. The search behavior is assumed to have a general probabilistic structure. The results are stated in terms of node expansion and contraction. A visited search tree node is said to be expanding if the mean number of its children visited by the search exceeds 1 and is contracting otherwise. It is shown that if every node expands, or if every node contracts, then the number of search tree nodes visited by a search has an upper bound which is linear in the depth of the tree, in the mean number of children a node has, and in the number of solutions sought. Also derived are bounds linear in the depth of the tree in some situations where an upper portion of the tree contracts (expands), while the lower portion expands (contracts). While previous analyses of 1-solution backtracking have concluded that the expected performance is always linear in the tree depth, the model allows superlinear expected performance.

  18. Speech and Language Delay

    MedlinePLUS

    MENU Return to Web version Speech and Language Delay Overview How do I know if my child has speech delay? Every child develops at his or her ... of the same age, the problem may be speech delay. Your doctor may think your child has ...

  19. Performance expectation plan

    SciTech Connect

    Ray, P.E.

    1998-09-04

    This document outlines the significant accomplishments of fiscal year 1998 for the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Project Hanford Management Contract (PHMC) team. Opportunities for improvement to better meet some performance expectations have been identified. The PHMC has performed at an excellent level in administration of leadership, planning, and technical direction. The contractor has met and made notable improvement of attaining customer satisfaction in mission execution. This document includes the team`s recommendation that the PHMC TWRS Performance Expectation Plan evaluation rating for fiscal year 1998 be an Excellent.

  20. Great Expectations. [Lesson Plan].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Devine, Kelley

    Based on Charles Dickens' novel "Great Expectations," this lesson plan presents activities designed to help students understand the differences between totalitarianism and democracy; and a that a writer of a story considers theme, plot, characters, setting, and point of view. The main activity of the lesson involves students working in groups to…

  1. Relief expectation and sleep.

    PubMed

    Laverdure-Dupont, Danièle; Rainville, Pierre; Montplaisir, Jacques; Lavigne, Gilles

    2010-01-01

    Originally, a role for sleep in learning and memory has been advocated following the observation of sleep-dependent performance enhancements at simple procedural tasks. With the investigation of a variety of cognitive and behavioral abilities, multiple stages of memory were further suggested to benefit from the off-line reprocessing believed to occur during specific sleep stages. In particular, REM sleep has been implicated in the integration of new information into associative networks as well as in the abstraction and generalization of implicit rules allowing adaptive behaviors. In a recent study, we extended these observations by demonstrating that the mediating effect of expectation on placebo-induced analgesia is strengthened by sleep, and that the individual amount of REM sleep is predictive of the relief expected on the next morning. However, this relation is strongly modulated by the level of concordance between expectations and sensory information available prior to sleep. As placebo responses derive from the learned association between contextual cues and subsequent relief, these results are discussed in relation to the proposed roles of REM sleep in the integrative stages of memory processing. In light of the responsiveness of REM sleep to waking events, its expression is also proposed to reflect the cognitive demand associated with the offline reprocessing of information necessary for the assimilation of new expectations to one's belief system. PMID:21280456

  2. Parenting with High Expectations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Timperlake, Benna Hull; Sanders, Genelle Timperlake

    2014-01-01

    In some ways raising deaf or hard of hearing children is no different than raising hearing children; expectations must be established and periodically tweaked. Benna Hull Timperlake, who with husband Roger, raised two hearing children in addition to their deaf daughter, Genelle Timperlake Sanders, and Genelle, now a deaf professional, share their…

  3. Maintaining High Expectations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Roger; Williams, Sherry

    2014-01-01

    Author and husband, Roger Williams, is hearing and signs fluently, and author and wife, Sherry Williams, is deaf and uses both speech and signs, although she is most comfortable signing. As parents of six children--deaf and hearing--they are determined to encourage their children to do their best, and they always set their expectations high. They…

  4. Stability of uncertain impulsive complex-variable chaotic systems with time-varying delays.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Song

    2015-09-01

    In this paper, the robust exponential stabilization of uncertain impulsive complex-variable chaotic delayed systems is considered with parameters perturbation and delayed impulses. It is assumed that the considered complex-variable chaotic systems have bounded parametric uncertainties together with the state variables on the impulses related to the time-varying delays. Based on the theories of adaptive control and impulsive control, some less conservative and easily verified stability criteria are established for a class of complex-variable chaotic delayed systems with delayed impulses. Some numerical simulations are given to validate the effectiveness of the proposed criteria of impulsive stabilization for uncertain complex-variable chaotic delayed systems. PMID:26096956

  5. Optimal Clock Synchronization with Bounded Rates Christoph Lenzen, Thomas Locher, Roger Wattenhofer

    E-print Network

    Waldmann, Uwe

    Optimal Clock Synchronization with Bounded Rates Christoph Lenzen, Thomas Locher, Roger Wattenhofer of messages that need to be exchanged in a given time period and also the number of bits that any node must drifts and the message delays may vary arbitrarily within pre-specified bounds, and algorithms are bound

  6. Time Delay and Accretion Disk Size Measurements in the Lensed Quasar SBS 0909+532 from Multiwavelength Microlensing Analysis

    E-print Network

    Hainline, Laura J; MacLeod, Chelsea L; Landaal, Zachary D; Kochanek, C S; Harris, Hugh C; Tilleman, Trudy; Goicoechea, L J; Shalyapin, V N; Falco, Emilio E

    2013-01-01

    We present three complete seasons and two half-seasons of SDSS r-band photometry of the gravitationally lensed quasar SBS 0909+532 from the U.S. Naval Observatory, as well as two seasons each of SDSS g-band and r-band monitoring from the Liverpool Robotic Telescope. Using Monte Carlo simulations to simultaneously measure the system's time delay and model the r-band microlensing variability, we confirm and significantly refine the precision of the system's time delay to \\Delta t_{AB} = 50^{+2}_{-4} days, where the stated uncertainties represent the bounds of the formal 1\\sigma\\ confidence interval. There may be a conflict between the time delay measurement and a lens consisting of a single galaxy. While models based on the Hubble Space Telescope astrometry and a relatively compact stellar distribution can reproduce the observed delay, the models have somewhat less dark matter than we would typically expect. We also carry out a joint analysis of the microlensing variability in the r- and g-bands to constrain th...

  7. Past, Present, and Future of Healthy Life Expectancy.

    PubMed

    Beltrán-Sánchez, Hiram; Soneji, Samir; Crimmins, Eileen M

    2015-01-01

    The success of the current biomedical paradigm based on a "disease model" may be limited in the future because of large number of comorbidities inflicting older people. In recent years, there has been growing empirical evidence, based on animal models, suggesting that the aging process could be delayed and that this process may lead to increases in life expectancy accompanied by improvements in health at older ages. In this review, we explore past, present, and future prospects of healthy life expectancy and examine whether increases in average length of life associated with delayed aging link with additional years lived disability-free at older ages. Trends in healthy life expectancy suggest improvements among older people in the United States, although younger cohorts appear to be reaching old age with increasing levels of frailty and disability. Trends in health risk factors, such as obesity and smoking, show worrisome signs of negative impacts on adult health and mortality in the near future. However, results based on a simulation model of delayed aging in humans indicate that it has the potential to increase not only the length of life but also the fraction and number of years spent disability-free at older ages. Delayed aging would likely come with additional aggregate costs. These costs could be offset if delayed aging is widely applied and people are willing to convert their greater healthiness into more years of work. PMID:26525456

  8. Delayed recombination and cosmic parameters

    SciTech Connect

    Galli, Silvia; Melchiorri, Alessandro; Bean, Rachel; Silk, Joseph

    2008-09-15

    Current cosmological constraints from cosmic microwave background anisotropies are typically derived assuming a standard recombination scheme, however additional resonance and ionizing radiation sources can delay recombination, altering the cosmic ionization history and the cosmological inferences drawn from the cosmic microwave background data. We show that for recent observations of the cosmic microwave background anisotropy, from the Wilkinson microwave anisotropy probe satellite mission (WMAP) 5-year survey and from the arcminute cosmology bolometer array receiver experiment, additional resonance radiation is nearly degenerate with variations in the spectral index, n{sub s}, and has a marked effect on uncertainties in constraints on the Hubble constant, age of the universe, curvature and the upper bound on the neutrino mass. When a modified recombination scheme is considered, the redshift of recombination is constrained to z{sub *}=1078{+-}11, with uncertainties in the measurement weaker by 1 order of magnitude than those obtained under the assumption of standard recombination while constraints on the shift parameter are shifted by 1{sigma} to R=1.734{+-}0.028. From the WMAP5 data we obtain the following constraints on the resonance and ionization sources parameters: {epsilon}{sub {alpha}}<0.39 and {epsilon}{sub i}<0.058 at 95% c.l.. Although delayed recombination limits the precision of parameter estimation from the WMAP satellite, we demonstrate that this should not be the case for future, smaller angular scales measurements, such as those by the Planck satellite mission.

  9. Delayed recombination and cosmic parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galli, Silvia; Bean, Rachel; Melchiorri, Alessandro; Silk, Joseph

    2008-09-01

    Current cosmological constraints from cosmic microwave background anisotropies are typically derived assuming a standard recombination scheme, however additional resonance and ionizing radiation sources can delay recombination, altering the cosmic ionization history and the cosmological inferences drawn from the cosmic microwave background data. We show that for recent observations of the cosmic microwave background anisotropy, from the Wilkinson microwave anisotropy probe satellite mission (WMAP) 5-year survey and from the arcminute cosmology bolometer array receiver experiment, additional resonance radiation is nearly degenerate with variations in the spectral index, ns, and has a marked effect on uncertainties in constraints on the Hubble constant, age of the universe, curvature and the upper bound on the neutrino mass. When a modified recombination scheme is considered, the redshift of recombination is constrained to z*=1078±11, with uncertainties in the measurement weaker by 1 order of magnitude than those obtained under the assumption of standard recombination while constraints on the shift parameter are shifted by 1? to R=1.734±0.028. From the WMAP5 data we obtain the following constraints on the resonance and ionization sources parameters: ??<0.39 and ?i<0.058 at 95% c.l.. Although delayed recombination limits the precision of parameter estimation from the WMAP satellite, we demonstrate that this should not be the case for future, smaller angular scales measurements, such as those by the Planck satellite mission.

  10. Delayed Recombination and Cosmic Parameters

    E-print Network

    Silvia Galli; Rachel Bean; Alessandro Melchiorri; Joseph Silk

    2008-07-09

    Current cosmological constraints from Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) anisotropies are typically derived assuming a standard recombination scheme, however additional resonance and ionizing radiation sources can delay recombination, altering the cosmic ionization history and the cosmological inferences drawn from CMB data. We show that for recent observations of CMB anisotropy, from the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe satellite mission 5-year survey (WMAP5) and from the ACBAR experiment, additional resonance radiation is nearly degenerate with variations in the spectral index, n_s, and has a marked effect on uncertainties in constraints on the Hubble constant, age of the universe, curvature and the upper bound on the neutrino mass. When a modified recombination scheme is considered, the redshift of recombination is constrained to z_*=1078\\pm11, with uncertainties in the measurement weaker by one order of magnitude than those obtained under the assumption of standard recombination while constraints on the shift parameter are shifted by 1-sigma to R=1.734\\pm0.028. Although delayed recombination limits the precision of parameter estimation from the WMAP satellite, we demonstrate that this should not be the case for future, smaller angular scales measurements, such as those by the Planck satellite mission.

  11. Delay-dependent finite-time boundedness of a class of Markovian switching neural networks with time-varying delays.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Qishui; Cheng, Jun; Zhao, Yuqing

    2015-07-01

    In this paper, a novel method is developed for delay-dependent finite-time boundedness of a class of Markovian switching neural networks with time-varying delays. New sufficient condition for stochastic boundness of Markovian jumping neural networks is presented and proved by an newly augmented stochastic Lyapunov-Krasovskii functional and novel activation function conditions, the state trajectory remains in a bounded region of the state space over a given finite-time interval. Finally, a numerical example is given to illustrate the efficiency and less conservative of the proposed method. PMID:25683106

  12. Digital time delay

    DOEpatents

    Martin, A.D.

    1986-05-09

    Method and apparatus are provided for generating an output pulse following a trigger pulse at a time delay interval preset with a resolution which is high relative to a low resolution available from supplied clock pulses. A first lumped constant delay provides a first output signal at predetermined interpolation intervals corresponding to the desired high resolution time interval. Latching circuits latch the high resolution data to form a first synchronizing data set. A selected time interval has been preset to internal counters and corrected for circuit propagation delay times having the same order of magnitude as the desired high resolution. Internal system clock pulses count down the counters to generate an internal pulse delayed by an internal which is functionally related to the preset time interval. A second LCD corrects the internal signal with the high resolution time delay. A second internal pulse is then applied to a third LCD to generate a second set of synchronizing data which is complementary with the first set of synchronizing data for presentation to logic circuits. The logic circuits further delay the internal output signal with the internal pulses. The final delayed output signal thereafter enables the output pulse generator to produce the desired output pulse at the preset time delay interval following input of the trigger pulse.

  13. Stochastic dynamics of a delayed bistable system with multiplicative noise

    SciTech Connect

    Dung, Nguyen Tien E-mail: dungnt@fpt.edu.vn

    2014-05-15

    In this paper we investigate the properties of a delayed bistable system under the effect of multiplicative noise. We first prove the existence and uniqueness of the positive solution and show that its moments are uniformly bounded. Then, we study stochastic dynamics of the solution in long time, the lower and upper bounds for the paths and an estimate for the average value are provided.

  14. What Do Expectant Mothers Know about Neonatal Jaundice?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ogunfowora, Olusoga B.; Adefuye, Peter O.; Fetuga, Musili B.

    2006-01-01

    Neonatal jaundice (NNJ) is a common disorder worldwide and many affected babies become brain-damaged due to delay in seeking medical consultation. In order to assess the awareness and knowledge of expectant mothers about NNJ, women who registered for antenatal care at a tertiary health facility in the South-western part of Nigeria were…

  15. A new delay-independent condition for global robust stability of neural networks with time delays.

    PubMed

    Samli, Ruya

    2015-06-01

    This paper studies the problem of robust stability of dynamical neural networks with discrete time delays under the assumptions that the network parameters of the neural system are uncertain and norm-bounded, and the activation functions are slope-bounded. By employing the results of Lyapunov stability theory and matrix theory, new sufficient conditions for the existence, uniqueness and global asymptotic stability of the equilibrium point for delayed neural networks are presented. The results reported in this paper can be easily tested by checking some special properties of symmetric matrices associated with the parameter uncertainties of neural networks. We also present a numerical example to show the effectiveness of the proposed theoretical results. PMID:25839168

  16. Sociology of Low Expectations

    PubMed Central

    Samuel, Gabrielle; Williams, Clare

    2015-01-01

    Social scientists have drawn attention to the role of hype and optimistic visions of the future in providing momentum to biomedical innovation projects by encouraging innovation alliances. In this article, we show how less optimistic, uncertain, and modest visions of the future can also provide innovation projects with momentum. Scholars have highlighted the need for clinicians to carefully manage the expectations of their prospective patients. Using the example of a pioneering clinical team providing deep brain stimulation to children and young people with movement disorders, we show how clinicians confront this requirement by drawing on their professional knowledge and clinical expertise to construct visions of the future with their prospective patients; visions which are personalized, modest, and tainted with uncertainty. We refer to this vision-constructing work as recalibration, and we argue that recalibration enables clinicians to manage the tension between the highly optimistic and hyped visions of the future that surround novel biomedical interventions, and the exigencies of delivering those interventions in a clinical setting. Drawing on work from science and technology studies, we suggest that recalibration enrolls patients in an innovation alliance by creating a shared understanding of how the “effectiveness” of an innovation shall be judged. PMID:26527846

  17. Expectations and speech intelligibility.

    PubMed

    Babel, Molly; Russell, Jamie

    2015-05-01

    Socio-indexical cues and paralinguistic information are often beneficial to speech processing as this information assists listeners in parsing the speech stream. Associations that particular populations speak in a certain speech style can, however, make it such that socio-indexical cues have a cost. In this study, native speakers of Canadian English who identify as Chinese Canadian and White Canadian read sentences that were presented to listeners in noise. Half of the sentences were presented with a visual-prime in the form of a photo of the speaker and half were presented in control trials with fixation crosses. Sentences produced by Chinese Canadians showed an intelligibility cost in the face-prime condition, whereas sentences produced by White Canadians did not. In an accentedness rating task, listeners rated White Canadians as less accented in the face-prime trials, but Chinese Canadians showed no such change in perceived accentedness. These results suggest a misalignment between an expected and an observed speech signal for the face-prime trials, which indicates that social information about a speaker can trigger linguistic associations that come with processing benefits and costs. PMID:25994710

  18. Randomization does not Reduce the Average Delay in Parallel Packet Switches

    E-print Network

    Hay, David

    , Performance, Theory Keywords Load balancing, Inverse multiplexing, Packet switching, Clos networks, Queuing intermediate slower switches, operating at rate r queuing methodology for analyzing the maximal relative queuing delay; this clearly upper bounds their aver- age

  19. Positive mood effects on delay discounting.

    PubMed

    Hirsh, Jacob B; Guindon, Alex; Morisano, Dominique; Peterson, Jordan B

    2010-10-01

    Delay discounting is the process by which the value of an expected reward decreases as the delay to obtaining that reward increases. Individuals with higher discounting rates tend to prefer smaller immediate rewards over larger delayed rewards. Previous research has indicated that personality can influence an individual's discounting rates, with higher levels of Extraversion predicting a preference for immediate gratification. The current study examined how this relationship would be influenced by situational mood inductions. While main effects were observed for both Extraversion and cognitive ability in the prediction of discounting rates, a significant interaction was also observed between Extraversion and positive affect. Extraverted individuals were more likely to prefer an immediate reward when first put in a positive mood. Extraverts thus appear particularly sensitive to impulsive, incentive-reward-driven behavior by temperament and by situational factors heightening positive affect. PMID:21038955

  20. Local Bifurcations and Optimal Theory in a Delayed Predator-Prey Model with Threshold Prey Harvesting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tankam, Israel; Tchinda Mouofo, Plaire; Mendy, Abdoulaye; Lam, Mountaga; Tewa, Jean Jules; Bowong, Samuel

    2015-06-01

    We investigate the effects of time delay and piecewise-linear threshold policy harvesting for a delayed predator-prey model. It is the first time that Holling response function of type III and the present threshold policy harvesting are associated with time delay. The trajectories of our delayed system are bounded; the stability of each equilibrium is analyzed with and without delay; there are local bifurcations as saddle-node bifurcation and Hopf bifurcation; optimal harvesting is also investigated. Numerical simulations are provided in order to illustrate each result.

  1. How prior expectations shape multisensory perception.

    PubMed

    Gau, Remi; Noppeney, Uta

    2016-01-01

    The brain generates a representation of our environment by integrating signals from a common source, but segregating signals from different sources. This fMRI study investigated how the brain arbitrates between perceptual integration and segregation based on top-down congruency expectations and bottom-up stimulus-bound congruency cues. Participants were presented audiovisual movies of phonologically congruent, incongruent or McGurk syllables that can be integrated into an illusory percept (e.g. "ti" percept for visual «ki» with auditory /pi/). They reported the syllable they perceived. Critically, we manipulated participants' top-down congruency expectations by presenting McGurk stimuli embedded in blocks of congruent or incongruent syllables. Behaviorally, participants were more likely to fuse audiovisual signals into an illusory McGurk percept in congruent than incongruent contexts. At the neural level, the left inferior frontal sulcus (lIFS) showed increased activations for bottom-up incongruent relative to congruent inputs. Moreover, lIFS activations were increased for physically identical McGurk stimuli, when participants segregated the audiovisual signals and reported their auditory percept. Critically, this activation increase for perceptual segregation was amplified when participants expected audiovisually incongruent signals based on prior sensory experience. Collectively, our results demonstrate that the lIFS combines top-down prior (in)congruency expectations with bottom-up (in)congruency cues to arbitrate between multisensory integration and segregation. PMID:26419391

  2. Choice and reinforcement delay

    SciTech Connect

    Gentry, G.D.; Marr, M.J.

    1980-01-01

    Previous studies of choice between two delayed reinforcers have indicated that the relative immediacy of the reinforcer is a major determinant of the relative frequency of responding. Parallel studies of choice between two interresponse times have found exceptions to this generality. The present study looked at the choice by pigeons between two delays, one of which was always four times longer than the other, but whose absolute durations were varied across conditions. The results indicated that choice is not uniquely determined by the relative immediacy of reinforcement, but that absolute delays are also involved. Models for concurrent chained schedules appear to be more applicable to the present data than the matching relation; however, these too failed to predict choice for long delays.

  3. Delay in Atomic Photoionization

    SciTech Connect

    Kheifets, A. S.; Ivanov, I. A.

    2010-12-03

    We analyze the time delay between emission of photoelectrons from the outer valence ns and np subshells in noble gas atoms following absorption of an attosecond extreme ultraviolet pulse. Various processes such as elastic scattering of the photoelectron on the parent ion and many-electron correlation affect the apparent 'time zero' when the photoelectron leaves the atom. This qualitatively explains the time delay between photoemission from the 2s and 2p subshells of Ne as determined experimentally by attosecond streaking [Science 328, 1658 (2010)]. However, with our extensive numerical modeling, we were only able to account for less than half of the measured time delay of 21{+-}5 as. We argue that the extreme ultraviolet pulse alone cannot produce such a large time delay and it is the streaking IR field that is most likely responsible for this effect.

  4. Great Expectations: Temporal Expectation Modulates Perceptual Processing Speed

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vangkilde, Signe; Coull, Jennifer T.; Bundesen, Claus

    2012-01-01

    In a crowded dynamic world, temporal expectations guide our attention in time. Prior investigations have consistently demonstrated that temporal expectations speed motor behavior. We explore effects of temporal expectation on "perceptual" speed in three nonspeeded, cued recognition paradigms. Different hazard rate functions for the cue-stimulus…

  5. Bound states and the Bekenstein bound

    SciTech Connect

    Bousso, Raphael

    2003-10-16

    We explore the validity of the generalized Bekenstein bound, S<= pi M a. We define the entropy S as the logarithm of the number of states which have energy eigenvalue below M and are localized to a flat space region of width alpha. If boundary conditions that localize field modes are imposed by fiat, then the bound encounters well-known difficulties with negative Casimir energy and large species number, as well as novel problems arising only in the generalized form. In realistic systems, however, finite-size effects contribute additional energy. We study two different models for estimating such contributions. Our analysis suggests that the bound is both valid and nontrivial if interactions are properly included, so that the entropy S counts the bound states of interacting fields.

  6. Time delay spectrum conditioner

    DOEpatents

    Greiner, Norman R. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1980-01-01

    A device for delaying specified frequencies of a multiple frequency laser beam. The device separates the multiple frequency beam into a series of spatially separated single frequency beams. The propagation distance of the single frequency beam is subsequently altered to provide the desired delay for each specific frequency. Focusing reflectors can be utilized to provide a simple but nonadjustable system or, flat reflectors with collimating and focusing optics can be utilized to provide an adjustable system.

  7. On the Minimum Delay Peer-to-Peer Video Streaming: how Realtime can it be?

    E-print Network

    Liu, Yong

    -to-Peer Streaming, Realtime, Delay Bound 1. INTRODUCTION Video-over-IP applications have recently attracted a large num- ber of users on the Internet. Youtube [13] alone hosted some 45 terabytes of videos and attracted that the play- back delays range from tens of seconds to a couple of minutes. In traditional server-client video

  8. Energy-Delay Trade-off of Wireless Data Collection in the Plane

    E-print Network

    Boucherie, Richard J.

    Energy-Delay Trade-off of Wireless Data Collection in the Plane Mihaela Mitici , Jasper Goseling and the energy needed by the devices to transmit their observations. Fundamental bounds on the energy-delay trade and ii) the transmission energy used by the wireless devices to transmit their observations, which

  9. On Time Delay Margin Estimation for Adaptive Control and Optimal Control Modification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, Nhan T.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents methods for estimating time delay margin for adaptive control of input delay systems with almost linear structured uncertainty. The bounded linear stability analysis method seeks to represent an adaptive law by a locally bounded linear approximation within a small time window. The time delay margin of this input delay system represents a local stability measure and is computed analytically by three methods: Pade approximation, Lyapunov-Krasovskii method, and the matrix measure method. These methods are applied to the standard model-reference adaptive control, s-modification adaptive law, and optimal control modification adaptive law. The windowing analysis results in non-unique estimates of the time delay margin since it is dependent on the length of a time window and parameters which vary from one time window to the next. The optimal control modification adaptive law overcomes this limitation in that, as the adaptive gain tends to infinity and if the matched uncertainty is linear, then the closed-loop input delay system tends to a LTI system. A lower bound of the time delay margin of this system can then be estimated uniquely without the need for the windowing analysis. Simulation results demonstrates the feasibility of the bounded linear stability method for time delay margin estimation.

  10. TIME DELAY AND ACCRETION DISK SIZE MEASUREMENTS IN THE LENSED QUASAR SBS 0909+532 FROM MULTIWAVELENGTH MICROLENSING ANALYSIS

    SciTech Connect

    Hainline, Laura J.; Morgan, Christopher W.; MacLeod, Chelsea L.; Landaal, Zachary D.; Kochanek, C. S.; Harris, Hugh C.; Tilleman, Trudy; Goicoechea, L. J.; Shalyapin, V. N.

    2013-09-01

    We present three complete seasons and two half-seasons of Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) r-band photometry of the gravitationally lensed quasar SBS 0909+532 from the U.S. Naval Observatory, as well as two seasons each of SDSS g-band and r-band monitoring from the Liverpool Robotic Telescope. Using Monte Carlo simulations to simultaneously measure the system's time delay and model the r-band microlensing variability, we confirm and significantly refine the precision of the system's time delay to {Delta}t{sub AB} = 50{sub -4}{sup +2} days, where the stated uncertainties represent the bounds of the formal 1{sigma} confidence interval. There may be a conflict between the time delay measurement and a lens consisting of a single galaxy. While models based on the Hubble Space Telescope astrometry and a relatively compact stellar distribution can reproduce the observed delay, the models have somewhat less dark matter than we would typically expect. We also carry out a joint analysis of the microlensing variability in the r and g bands to constrain the size of the quasar's continuum source at these wavelengths, obtaining log {l_brace}(r{sub s,r}/cm)[cos i/0.5]{sup 1/2}{r_brace} = 15.3 {+-} 0.3 and log {l_brace}(r{sub s,g}/cm)[cos i/0.5]{sup 1/2}{r_brace} = 14.8 {+-} 0.9, respectively. Our current results do not formally constrain the temperature profile of the accretion disk but are consistent with the expectations of standard thin disk theory.

  11. Downhole delay assembly for blasting with series delay

    DOEpatents

    Ricketts, Thomas E. (Grand Junction, CO)

    1982-01-01

    A downhole delay assembly is provided which can be placed into a blasthole for initiation of explosive in the blasthole. The downhole delay assembly includes at least two detonating time delay devices in series in order to effect a time delay of longer than about 200 milliseconds in a round of explosions. The downhole delay assembly provides a protective housing to prevent detonation of explosive in the blasthole in response to the detonation of the first detonating time delay device. There is further provided a connection between the first and second time delay devices. The connection is responsive to the detonation of the first detonating time delay device and initiates the second detonating time delay device. A plurality of such downhole delay assemblies are placed downhole in unfragmented formation and are initiated simultaneously for providing a round of explosive expansions. The explosive expansions can be used to form an in situ oil shale retort containing a fragmented permeable mass of formation particles.

  12. Measuring Alcohol Expectancies in Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Randolph, Karen A.; Gerend, Mary A.; Miller, Brenda A.

    2006-01-01

    Beliefs about the consequences of using alcohol, alcohol expectancies, are powerful predictors of underage drinking. The Alcohol Expectancies Questionnaire-Adolescent form (AEQ-A) has been widely used to measure expectancies in youth. Despite its broad use, the factor structure of the AEQ-A has not been firmly established. It is also not known…

  13. Reading Expectancy and Regression Formulas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Robert M.; Byrd, Carol C.

    To determine the most accurate means of estimating the expected grade or reading level of 61 sixth grade students, three expectancy formulas were compared to a custom regression equation from a user friendly microcomputer program. The expectancy formulas, based in part on student I.Q. and chronological age, and the regression equations were…

  14. A lower bound on seller revenue in single buyer monopoly auctions

    E-print Network

    Tamuz, Omer

    2012-01-01

    We consider a monopoly seller who wishes to sell a single object to a single potential buyer. Given a distribution over the buyer's valuation of the object, Myerson auctions maximize the seller's expected revenue. A natural question is the relation between this revenue and other properties of the valuation distribution, and in particular which distribution characterizations can be used to bound the seller's revenue. An immediate upper bound on the seller's expected revenue is the expectation of the buyer's valuation. We show that a tight lower bound on the seller's expected revenue is 1/e times the geometric expectation of the valuation. This bound is uniquely achieved for the equal revenue distribution. We show also that when the valuation's expectation and geometric expectation are close, then the seller's expected revenue is close to the expected valuation.

  15. Strong Expectations Cancel Locality Effects: Evidence from Hindi

    PubMed Central

    Husain, Samar; Vasishth, Shravan; Srinivasan, Narayanan

    2014-01-01

    Expectation-driven facilitation (Hale, 2001; Levy, 2008) and locality-driven retrieval difficulty (Gibson, 1998, 2000; Lewis & Vasishth, 2005) are widely recognized to be two critical factors in incremental sentence processing; there is accumulating evidence that both can influence processing difficulty. However, it is unclear whether and how expectations and memory interact. We first confirm a key prediction of the expectation account: a Hindi self-paced reading study shows that when an expectation for an upcoming part of speech is dashed, building a rarer structure consumes more processing time than building a less rare structure. This is a strong validation of the expectation-based account. In a second study, we show that when expectation is strong, i.e., when a particular verb is predicted, strong facilitation effects are seen when the appearance of the verb is delayed; however, when expectation is weak, i.e., when only the part of speech “verb” is predicted but a particular verb is not predicted, the facilitation disappears and a tendency towards a locality effect is seen. The interaction seen between expectation strength and distance shows that strong expectations cancel locality effects, and that weak expectations allow locality effects to emerge. PMID:25010700

  16. Lightweight scheduling for delay and bandwidth assurance in differentiated services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Jitae; Lee, Daniel C.; Kuo, C.-C. Jay

    1999-11-01

    To overcome the inherent limitation of the single best- effort service currently provided the Internet, providing differentiated services for different classes of applications is being discussed in IETF. In this paper, we propose a lightweight packet scheduling algorithm that allocates forwarding resources to different classes, which we name controlled priority (CP) gateway algorithm. The proposed CP algorithm consists of two mechanisms denoted by CP-CQD (controllable queuing delay) and CP-STI (service time interval), respectively. CP-CQD controls the queuing delay for a class of delay/jitter-sensitive traffic. CP-STI is to service classes that require bandwidth assurance. The proposed algorithm can provide guaranteed bounds of delay, jitter, rate, and packet loss to certain aggregate flows. The CP-CQD can accommodate variable bit rate as well as constant bit rate flow without bandwidth reservation for end-to-end delay bound and minimum delay jitter. The CP-STI enables tagged classes to get guaranteed throughput. These two modules can control resources allocated to the traffic classes by adjusting parameters in response to local congestion level. The simulation results show that CP gateway algorithm can provide required quality of service to certain classes while easing the negative effects on best- effort classes.

  17. Thermalization time bounds for Pauli stabilizer Hamiltonians

    E-print Network

    Kristan Temme

    2014-12-09

    We prove a general lower bound to the spectral gap of the Davies generator for Pauli stabilizer Hamiltonians. These Hamiltonians, defined on the Hilbert space of $N$-qubits, serve as one of the most frequently considered candidates for a self-correcting quantum memory. A spectral gap bound on the Davies generator establishes an upper limit on the life time of such a quantum memory and can be used to estimate the time until the system relaxes to thermal equilibrium when brought into contact with a thermal heat bath. The bound can be shown to behave as $\\lambda \\geq {\\cal O}(N^{-1}\\exp(-2\\beta \\, \\overline{\\epsilon}))$, where $\\overline{\\epsilon}$ is a generalization of the well known energy barrier for logical operators. Particularly in the low temperature regime we expect this bound to provide the correct asymptotic scaling of the gap with the system size up to a factor of $N^{-1}$.

  18. Delayed enrollment and College Plans: is There a Postponement Penalty?

    PubMed Central

    Niu, Sunny; Tienda, Marta

    2012-01-01

    Using a representative longitudinal survey of Texas high school seniors who graduated in 2002, we investigate how college postponement is associated with four-year college expectations and attendance—focusing both on the length of delay and the pathway to the postsecondary system. Like prior studies, we show that family background and student academic achievement explains the negative association between delay and college expectations and that these factors, along with two-year college entry pathway, largely accounted for the negative association between postponement and enrollment at a four-year institution in 2006. Although delays of one year or longer are associated with significantly lower odds of attending a baccalaureate-granting institution four years after high school, the longest delays do not incur the most severe enrollment penalties. PMID:23606758

  19. Stability of Nonlinear Systems with Unknown Time-varying Feedback Delay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chunodkar, Apurva A.; Akella, Maruthi R.

    2015-08-01

    This paper considers the problem of stabilizing a class of nonlinear systems with unknown bounded delayed feedback wherein the time-varying delay is 1) piecewise constant 2) continuous with a bounded rate. We also consider application of these results to the stabilization of rigid-body attitude dynamics. In the first case, the time-delay in feedback is modeled specifically as a switch among an arbitrarily large set of unknown constant values with a known strict upper bound. The feedback is a linear function of the delayed states. In the case of linear systems with switched delay feedback, a new sufficiency condition for average dwell time result is presented using a complete type Lyapunov-Krasovskii (L-K) functional approach. Further, the corresponding switched system with nonlinear perturbations is proven to be exponentially stable inside a well characterized region of attraction for an appropriately chosen average dwell time. In the second case, the concept of the complete type L-K functional is extended to a class of nonlinear time-delay systems with unknown time-varying time-delay. This extension ensures stability robustness to time-delay in the control design for all values of time-delay less than the known upper bound. Model-transformation is used in order to partition the nonlinear system into a nominal linear part that is exponentially stable with a bounded perturbation. We obtain sufficient conditions which ensure exponential stability inside a region of attraction estimate. A constructive method to evaluate the sufficient conditions is presented together with comparison with the corresponding constant and piecewise constant delay. Numerical simulations are performed to illustrate the theoretical results of this paper.

  20. Virial Expansion Bounds

    E-print Network

    Stephen James Tate

    2013-07-24

    In the 1960s, the technique of using cluster expansion bounds in order to achieve bounds on the virial expansion was developed by Lebowitz and Penrose (1964) and Ruelle (1969). This technique is generalised to more recent cluster expansion bounds by Poghosyan and Ueltschi (2009), which are related to the work of Procacci (2007) and the tree-graph identity, detailed by Brydges (1986). The bounds achieved by Lebowitz and Penrose can also be sharpened by doing the actual optimisation and achieving expressions in terms of the Lambert W-function. The different bound from the cluster expansion shows some improvements for bounds on the convergence of the virial expansion in the case of positive potentials, which are allowed to have a hard core.

  1. Physical Uncertainty Bounds (PUB)

    SciTech Connect

    Vaughan, Diane Elizabeth; Preston, Dean L.

    2015-03-19

    This paper introduces and motivates the need for a new methodology for determining upper bounds on the uncertainties in simulations of engineered systems due to limited fidelity in the composite continuum-level physics models needed to simulate the systems. We show that traditional uncertainty quantification methods provide, at best, a lower bound on this uncertainty. We propose to obtain bounds on the simulation uncertainties by first determining bounds on the physical quantities or processes relevant to system performance. By bounding these physics processes, as opposed to carrying out statistical analyses of the parameter sets of specific physics models or simply switching out the available physics models, one can obtain upper bounds on the uncertainties in simulated quantities of interest.

  2. Delay Tracking of Spread-Spectrum Signals for Indoor Optical Ranging

    PubMed Central

    Salido-Monzú, David; Martín-Gorostiza, Ernesto; Lázaro-Galilea, José Luis; Martos-Naya, Eduardo; Wieser, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Delay tracking of spread-spectrum signals is widely used for ranging in radio frequency based navigation. Its use in non-coherent optical ranging, however, has not been extensively studied since optical channels are less subject to narrowband interference situations where these techniques become more useful. In this work, an early-late delay-locked loop adapted to indoor optical ranging is presented and analyzed. The specific constraints of free-space infrared channels in this context substantially differ from those typically considered in radio frequency applications. The tracking stage is part of an infrared differential range measuring system with application to mobile target indoor localization. Spread-spectrum signals are used in this context to provide accurate ranging while reducing the effect of multipath interferences. The performance of the stage regarding noise and dynamic errors is analyzed and validated, providing expressions that allow an adequate selection of the design parameters depending on the expected input signal characteristics. The behavior of the stage in a general multipath scenario is also addressed to estimate the multipath error bounds. The results, evaluated under realistic conditions corresponding to an 870 nm link with 25 MHz chip-rate, built with low-cost up-to-date devices, show that an overall error below 6% of a chip time can be achieved. PMID:25490585

  3. Delay tracking of spread-spectrum signals for indoor optical ranging.

    PubMed

    Salido-Monzú, David; Martín-Gorostiza, Ernesto; Lázaro-Galilea, José Luis; Martos-Naya, Eduardo; Wieser, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Delay tracking of spread-spectrum signals is widely used for ranging in radio frequency based navigation. Its use in non-coherent optical ranging, however, has not been extensively studied since optical channels are less subject to narrowband interference situations where these techniques become more useful. In this work, an early-late delay-locked loop adapted to indoor optical ranging is presented and analyzed. The specific constraints of free-space infrared channels in this context substantially differ from those typically considered in radio frequency applications. The tracking stage is part of an infrared differential range measuring system with application to mobile target indoor localization. Spread-spectrum signals are used in this context to provide accurate ranging while reducing the effect of multipath interferences. The performance of the stage regarding noise and dynamic errors is analyzed and validated, providing expressions that allow an adequate selection of the design parameters depending on the expected input signal characteristics. The behavior of the stage in a general multipath scenario is also addressed to estimate the multipath error bounds. The results, evaluated under realistic conditions corresponding to an 870 nm link with 25 MHz chip-rate, built with low-cost up-to-date devices, show that an overall error below 6% of a chip time can be achieved. PMID:25490585

  4. Passivity and Passification of Memristor-Based Recurrent Neural Networks With Additive Time-Varying Delays.

    PubMed

    Rakkiyappan, Rajan; Chandrasekar, Arunachalam; Cao, Jinde

    2015-09-01

    This paper presents a new design scheme for the passivity and passification of a class of memristor-based recurrent neural networks (MRNNs) with additive time-varying delays. The predictable assumptions on the boundedness and Lipschitz continuity of activation functions are formulated. The systems considered here are based on a different time-delay model suggested recently, which includes additive time-varying delay components in the state. The connection between the time-varying delay and its upper bound is considered when estimating the upper bound of the derivative of Lyapunov functional. It is recognized that the passivity condition can be expressed in a linear matrix inequality (LMI) format and by using characteristic function method. For state feedback passification, it is verified that it is apathetic to use immediate or delayed state feedback. By constructing a Lyapunov-Krasovskii functional and employing Jensen's inequality and reciprocal convex combination technique together with a tighter estimation of the upper bound of the cross-product terms derived from the derivatives of the Lyapunov functional, less conventional delay-dependent passivity criteria are established in terms of LMIs. Moreover, second-order reciprocally convex approach is employed for deriving the upper bound for terms with inverses of squared convex parameters. The model based on the memristor with additive time-varying delays widens the application scope for the design of neural networks. Finally, pertinent examples are given to show the advantages of the derived passivity criteria and the significant improvement of the theoretical approaches. PMID:25415991

  5. Expected Graduation Date _______________ ____ Original ____ Revision

    E-print Network

    Selmic, Sandra

    Expected Graduation Date _______________ ____ Original ____ Revision PLAN OF STUDY The Graduate ___________________________________________________________________ ____________________ Signature of Student Date Approved: __________________________________ _________ __________________________________ _________ Chairman, Advisory Committee Date Department Head Date

  6. Bounding Species Distribution Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stohlgren, Thomas J.; Jarnevich, Cahterine S.; Morisette, Jeffrey T.; Esaias, Wayne E.

    2011-01-01

    Species distribution models are increasing in popularity for mapping suitable habitat for species of management concern. Many investigators now recognize that extrapolations of these models with geographic information systems (GIS) might be sensitive to the environmental bounds of the data used in their development, yet there is no recommended best practice for "clamping" model extrapolations. We relied on two commonly used modeling approaches: classification and regression tree (CART) and maximum entropy (Maxent) models, and we tested a simple alteration of the model extrapolations, bounding extrapolations to the maximum and minimum values of primary environmental predictors, to provide a more realistic map of suitable habitat of hybridized Africanized honey bees in the southwestern United States. Findings suggest that multiple models of bounding, and the most conservative bounding of species distribution models, like those presented here, should probably replace the unbounded or loosely bounded techniques currently used [Current Zoology 57 (5): 642-647, 2011].

  7. Bounding species distribution models

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stohlgren, T.J.; Jarnevich, C.S.; Esaias, W.E.; Morisette, J.T.

    2011-01-01

    Species distribution models are increasing in popularity for mapping suitable habitat for species of management concern. Many investigators now recognize that extrapolations of these models with geographic information systems (GIS) might be sensitive to the environmental bounds of the data used in their development, yet there is no recommended best practice for "clamping" model extrapolations. We relied on two commonly used modeling approaches: classification and regression tree (CART) and maximum entropy (Maxent) models, and we tested a simple alteration of the model extrapolations, bounding extrapolations to the maximum and minimum values of primary environmental predictors, to provide a more realistic map of suitable habitat of hybridized Africanized honey bees in the southwestern United States. Findings suggest that multiple models of bounding, and the most conservative bounding of species distribution models, like those presented here, should probably replace the unbounded or loosely bounded techniques currently used. ?? 2011 Current Zoology.

  8. Neutral Delay and a Generalization of Electrodynamics

    E-print Network

    Jayme De Luca

    2013-02-26

    The equations for the electromagnetic two-body problem are neutral-delay equations that for generic initial data have solutions with discontinuous derivatives. If one wants to use these neutral-delay equations with arbitrary initial data, solutions with discontinuous derivatives must be allowed. Surprisingly, this same neutrality is compatible with the recently developed variational method with mixed-type boundaries for the Wheeler-Feynman electrodynamics. We show that two-body electromagnetic orbits with discontinuous velocities are physically necessary by showing that orbits with vanishing far-fields amost everywhere must have some discontinuous velocities on a few points. We generalize the Wheeler-Feynman electrodynamics with the variational method to include all continuous trajectories, allowing piecewise-differentiable weak solutions represented by trajectories with fields defined almost everywhere (but on a set of points of zero measure where velocities jump). Along with this generalization we formulate the generalized absorber hypothesis that the far-fields vanish asymptotically almost everywhere and show that bounded two-body orbits satisfying the generalized absorber hypothesis need to have discontinuous derivatives on a few points. We also give the general solution for the family of bounded non-radiating two-body orbits. We discuss the physics of orbits with discontinuous derivatives and show that these conserve the physical momentum, stressing the differences to classical variational methods. Last, we discuss how the electromagnetic variational method with mixed-type boundaries is well-posed but lacks reversibilty.

  9. Institutional Differences: Expectations and Perceptions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silver, Harold

    1982-01-01

    The history of higher education has paid scant attention to the attitudes and expectations of its customers, students, and employers of graduates. Recent research on student and employer attitudes toward higher education sectors has not taken into account these expectations in the context of recent higher education history. (Author/MSE)

  10. FastStats: Life Expectancy

    MedlinePLUS

    ... in 2010? Life expectancy at age 25, by sex and education level, Health, United States, 2011, figure 32 [PDF - 9.8 MB] Life expectancy at birth, at 65 and 75 years of age by sex, race and Hispanic origin Health, United States 2014, ...

  11. Teacher Expectations and Classroom Behaviors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkins, William E.

    To test the effect of teacher expectation on pupil achievement, subjects in 24 classrooms, grades 1-6, a) completed the Metropolitan Analysis of Learning Potential and the Metropolitan Achievement Test; b) completed a questionnaire regarding perceptions of teachers' differential expectations and treatment of students; and c) were ranked by their…

  12. Assessing delay discounting in mice

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, Suzanne H.

    2014-01-01

    Delay discounting (also intertemporal choice or impulsive choice) is the process by which delayed outcomes, such as delayed food delivery, are valued less than the same outcomes delivered immediately or with a shorter delay. This process is of interest because many psychopathologies, including substance dependence, pathological gambling, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and conduct disorder, are characterized by heightened levels of delay discounting. Some of these disorders are heritable, and data indicate that delay discounting also has a genetic component. To identify the genes underlying the delay discounting decision-making process and genetic correlates of heightened discounting, researchers have used mouse models. This unit describes a protocol for generating delay discounting behavior in mice and discusses analysis techniques for such behavior. PMID:24510779

  13. Congestion delays at hub airports

    E-print Network

    St. George, Martin J.

    1986-01-01

    A deterministic model was developed to study the effects of inefficient scheduling on flight delays at hub airports. The model bases the delay calculation on published schedule data and on user-defined airport capacities. ...

  14. Delayed pulsar kicks from the emission of sterile neutrinos

    E-print Network

    Alexander Kusenko; Bhabani Prasad Mandal; Alok Mukherjee

    2008-05-22

    The observed velocities of pulsars suggest the possibility that sterile neutrinos with mass of several keV are emitted from a cooling neutron star. The same sterile neutrinos could constitute all or part of cosmological dark matter. The neutrino-driven kicks can exhibit delays depending on the mass and the mixing angle, which can be compared with the pulsar data. We discuss the allowed ranges of sterile neutrino parameters, consistent with the latest cosmological and X-ray bounds, which can explain the pulsar kicks for different delay times.

  15. Multicolor Bound Soliton Molecule

    E-print Network

    Luo, Rui; Lin, Qiang

    2015-01-01

    We show a new class of bound soliton molecule that exists in a parametrically driven nonlinear optical cavity with appropriate dispersion characteristics. The composed solitons exhibit distinctive colors but coincide in time and share a common phase, bound together via strong inter-soliton four-wave mixing and Cherenkov radiation. The multicolor bound soliton molecule shows intriguing spectral locking characteristics and remarkable capability of spectrum management to tailor soliton frequencies, which may open up a great avenue towards versatile generation and manipulation of multi-octave spanning phase-locked Kerr frequency combs, with great potential for applications in frequency metrology, optical frequency synthesis, and spectroscopy.

  16. ATTRITION IN DISTRIBUTED DELAY MODELS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Distributed time delay models are extended to deal with loss of entities from within the process being modeled. Analysis of a time-invariant distributed delay shows that the statistics of individual transit times through a delay process can be very sensitive to attrition incurred...

  17. Programmable Differential Delay Circuit With Fine Delay Adjustment

    DOEpatents

    DeRyckere, John F. (Eau Claire, WI); Jenkins, Philip Nord (Eau Claire, WI); Cornett, Frank Nolan (Chippewa Falls, WI)

    2002-07-09

    Circuitry that provides additional delay to early arriving signals such that all data signals arrive at a receiving latch with same path delay. The delay of a forwarded clock reference is also controlled such that the capturing clock edge will be optimally positioned near quadrature (depending on latch setup/hold requirements). The circuitry continuously adapts to data and clock path delay changes and digital filtering of phase measurements reduce errors brought on by jittering data edges. The circuitry utilizes only the minimum amount of delay necessary to achieve objective thereby limiting any unintended jitter. Particularly, this programmable differential delay circuit with fine delay adjustment is designed to allow the skew between ASICS to be minimized. This includes skew between data bits, between data bits and clocks as well as minimizing the overall skew in a channel between ASICS.

  18. Physical activity extends life expectancy

    Cancer.gov

    Leisure-time physical activity is associated with longer life expectancy, even at relatively low levels of activity and regardless of body weight, according to a study by a team of researchers led by the NCI.

  19. Status Characteristics and Expectation States 

    E-print Network

    Berger, Joseph; Cohen, Bernard P.; Zelditch, Morris Jr.

    2015-07-19

    -Type text/plain; charset=UTF-8 STATUS CHARACTERISTICS AND EXPECTATION STATES* Joseph Berger Bernard P. Cohen Morris Zelditch, Jr. Research for this paper was conducted with the support of NSF grant #G23990? for investigation of authority...

  20. Delay choice versus delay maintenance: different measures of delayed gratification in capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella).

    PubMed

    Addessi, Elsa; Paglieri, Fabio; Beran, Michael J; Evans, Theodore A; Macchitella, Luigi; De Petrillo, Francesca; Focaroli, Valentina

    2013-11-01

    Delaying gratification involves 2 components: (1) delay choice (selecting a delayed reward over an immediate one) and (2) delay maintenance (sustaining the decision to delay gratification even if the immediate reward is available during the delay). Two tasks most commonly have explored these components in primates: the intertemporal choice task and the accumulation task. It is unclear whether these tasks provide equivalent measures of delay of gratification. Here, we compared the performance on the intertemporal choice task and the accumulation task of capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella) belonging to 2 study populations. We found only limited evidence of a significant correlation in performance. Consequently, in contrast to what is often assumed, our data provide only partial support for the hypothesis that these tasks provide equivalent measures of delay of gratification. PMID:23544770

  1. Delay Choice vs. Delay Maintenance: Different Measures of Delayed Gratification in Capuchin Monkeys (Cebus apella)

    PubMed Central

    Addessi, Elsa; Paglieri, Fabio; Beran, Michael J.; Evans, Theodore A.; Macchitella, Luigi; De Petrillo, Francesca; Focaroli, Valentina

    2013-01-01

    Delaying gratification involves two components: (i) delay choice (selecting a delayed reward over an immediate one), and (ii) delay maintenance (sustaining the decision to delay gratification even if the immediate reward is available during the delay). In primates, two tasks most commonly have explored these components, the Intertemporal choice task and the Accumulation task. It is unclear whether these tasks provide equivalent measures of delay of gratification. Here, we compared the performance of the same capuchin monkeys, belonging to two study populations, between these tasks. We found only limited evidence of a significant correlation in performance. Consequently, in contrast to what is often assumed, our data provide only partial support to the hypothesis that these tasks provide equivalent measures of delay of gratification. PMID:23544770

  2. Narrow deeply bound $K^-$ atomic states

    E-print Network

    E. Friedman; A. Gal

    1999-05-30

    Using optical potentials fitted to a comprehensive set of strong interaction level shifts and widths in $K^-$ atoms, we predict that the $K^-$ atomic levels which are inaccessible in the atomic cascade process are generally narrow, spanning a range of widths about 50 - 1500 keV over the entire periodic table. The mechanism for this narrowing is different from the mechanism for narrowing of pionic atom levels. Examples of such `deeply bound' $K^-$ atomic states are given, showing that in many cases these states should be reasonably well resolved. Several reactions which could be used to form these `deeply bound' states are mentioned. Narrow deeply bound states are expected also in $\\bar{p}$ atoms.

  3. Bound Anionic States of Aadenine

    SciTech Connect

    Haranczyk, Maciej; Gutowski, Maciej S.; Li, Xiang; Bowen, Kit H.

    2007-03-20

    The research described in this product was performed in part in the Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory, a national scientific user facility sponsored by the Department of Energy's Office of Biological and Environmental Research and located at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. Anionic states of nucleic acid bases are involved in DNA damage by low-energy electrons and in charge transfer through DNA. Previous gas phase studies of free, unsolvated nucleic acid base parent anions probed only dipole-bound states, which are not present in condensed phase environments, but did not observe valence anionic states, which for purine bases are thought to be adiabatically unbound. Contrary to this expectation,wehave demonstrated that some thus far ignored tautomers of adenine, which result from enamine-imine transformations, support valence anionic states with electron vertical detachment energies as large as 2.2 eV, and at least one of these anionic tautomers is adiabatically bound. Moreover, we predict that the new anionic tautomers should also dominate in solutions and should be characterized by larger values of electron vertical detachment energy than the canonical valence anion. All of the newfound anionic tautomers might be formed in the course of dissociative electron attachment followed by a hydrogen atom attachment to a carbon atom, and they might affect the structure and properties of DNA and RNA exposed to low-energy electrons. The new valence states observed here, unlike the dipole-bound state, could exist in condensed phases and might be relevant to radiobiological damage. The discovery of these valence anionic states of adenine was facilitated by the development of (i) an experimental method for preparing parent anions of nucleic acid bases for photoelectron experiments, and (ii) a combinatorial/quantum chemical approach for identification of the most stable tautomers of organic molecules.

  4. Bound Anionic States of Adenine

    SciTech Connect

    Haranczyk, Maciej; Gutowski, Maciej S.; Li, Xiang; Bowen, Kit H.

    2007-03-20

    The research described in this product was performed in part in the Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory, a national scientific user facility sponsored by the Department of Energy's Office of Biological and Environmental Research and located at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. Anionic states of nucleic acid bases are involved in DNA damage by low-energy electrons and in charge transfer through DNA. Previous gas phase studies of free, unsolvated nucleic acid base parent anions probed only dipole-bound states, which are not present in condensed phase environments, but did not observe valence anionic states, which for purine bases are thought to be adiabatically unbound. Contrary to this expectation, we have demonstrated that some thus far ignored tautomers of adenine, which result from enamine-imine transformations, support valence anionic states with electron vertical detachment energies as large as 2.2 eV, and at least one of these anionic tautomers is adiabatically bound. Moreover, we predict that the new anionic tautomers should also dominate in solutions and should be characterized by larger values of electron vertical detachment energy than the canonical valence anion. All of the newfound anionic tautomers might be formed in the course of dissociative electron attachment followed by a hydrogen atom attachment to a carbon atom, and they might affect the structure and properties of DNA and RNA exposed to low-energy electrons. The new valence states observed here, unlike the dipole-bound state, could exist in condensed phases and might be relevant to radiobiological damage. The discovery of these valence anionic states of adenine was facilitated by the development of (i) an experimental method for preparing parent anions of nucleic acid bases for photoelectron experiments, and (it) a combinatorial/quantum chemical approach for identification of the most stable tautomers of organic molecules.

  5. Effects of the gaseous and liquid water content of the atmosphere on range delay and Doppler frequency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flock, W. L.

    1981-01-01

    When high precision is required for range measurement on Earth space paths, it is necessary to correct as accurately as possible for excess range delays due to the dry air, water vapor, and liquid water content of the atmosphere. Calculations based on representative values of atmospheric parameters are useful for illustrating the order of magnitude of the expected delays. Range delay, time delay, and phase delay are simply and directly related. Doppler frequency variations or noise are proportional to the time rate of change of excess range delay. Tropospheric effects were examined as part of an overall consideration of the capability of precision two way ranging and Doppler systems.

  6. Pure delay effects on speech quality in telecommunications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitawaki, Nobuhiko; Itoh, Kenzo

    1991-05-01

    The effect of transmission delay on speech quality in telecommunications is described, with human factors such as conversational mode and the talker's knowledge of the cause of delay taken into account. Objective quality estimation methods for delay effects are proposed, and these methods are applied in an actual communications network. A talker expects a particular response time from a partner, and delay outside this expectation time window is noticed. Taking this information into account, subjective conversational experimentation is controlled by six kinds of tasks by varying the temporal characteristics. Thus, a subjective assessment of delay effects is obtained by laboratory tests in relation to the detectability threshold, opinion rating, and conversational efficiency. Objective quality measures for each test were defined as a linear combination of temporal parameters that correspond closely to subjective qualities. The subjective quality for delay effects in commercial telephone calls can be estimated by applying the proposed objective measures to commercial calls. Long roundtrip transmission dely in the range of 500 ms gives considerable subscriber difficulties in telecommunications.

  7. Vehicle barrier with access delay

    DOEpatents

    Swahlan, David J; Wilke, Jason

    2013-09-03

    An access delay vehicle barrier for stopping unauthorized entry into secure areas by a vehicle ramming attack includes access delay features for preventing and/or delaying an adversary from defeating or compromising the barrier. A horizontally deployed barrier member can include an exterior steel casing, an interior steel reinforcing member and access delay members disposed within the casing and between the casing and the interior reinforcing member. Access delay members can include wooden structural lumber, concrete and/or polymeric members that in combination with the exterior casing and interior reinforcing member act cooperatively to impair an adversarial attach by thermal, mechanical and/or explosive tools.

  8. Expected Power for the False Discovery Rate with Independence

    PubMed Central

    GLUECK, D. H.; MULLER, K. E.; KARIMPOUR-FARD, A.; HUNTER, L.

    2010-01-01

    The Benjamini–Hochberg procedure is widely used in multiple comparisons. Previous power results for this procedure have been based on simulations. This article produces theoretical expressions for expected power. To derive them, we make assumptions about the number of hypotheses being tested, which null hypotheses are true, which are false, and the distributions of the test statistics under each null and alternative. We use these assumptions to derive bounds for multiple dimensional rejection regions. With these bounds and a permanent based representation of the joint density function of the largest p-values, we use the law of total probability to derive the distribution of the total number of rejections. We derive the joint distribution of the total number of rejections and the number of rejections when the null hypothesis is true. We give an analytic expression for the expected power for a false discovery rate procedure that assumes the hypotheses are independent. PMID:20975846

  9. Fundamentals of Delayed Coking Joint Industry Project

    SciTech Connect

    Michael Volk; Keith Wisecarver

    2004-09-26

    Delayed coking evolved steadily over the early to mid 1900s to enable refiners to convert high boiling, residual petroleum fractions to light products such as gasoline. Pound for pound, coking is the most energy intensive of any operation in a modern refinery. Large amounts of energy are required to heat the thick, poor-quality petroleum residuum to the 900 to 950 degrees F required to crack the heavy hydrocarbon molecules into lighter, more valuable products. One common misconception of delayed coking is that the product coke is a disadvantage. Although coke is a low valued (near zero economic value) byproduct, compared to transportation fuels, there is a significant worldwide trade and demand for coke as it is an economical fuel. Coke production has increased steadily over the last ten years, with further increases forecast for the foreseeable future. Current domestic production is near 111,000 tons per day. A major driving force behind this increase is the steady decline in crude quality available to refiners. Crude slates are expected to grow heavier with higher sulfur contents while environmental restrictions are expected to significantly reduce the demand for high-sulfur residual fuel oil. Light sweet crudes will continue to be available and in even greater demand than they are today. Refiners will be faced with the choice of purchasing light sweet crudes at a premium price, or adding bottom of the barrel upgrading capability, through additional new investments, to reduce the production of high-sulfur residual fuel oil and increase the production of low-sulfur distillate fuels. A second disadvantage is that liquid products from cokers frequently are unstable, i.e., they rapidly form gum and sediments. Because of intermediate investment and operating costs, delayed coking has increased in popularity among refiners worldwide. Based on the 2000 Worldwide Refining Survey published in the Oil and Gas, the delayed coking capacity for 101 refineries around the world is 2,937,439 barrels/calendar day. These cokers produce 154,607 tons of coke per day and delayed coking accounts for 88% of the world capacity. The delayed coking charge capacity in the United States is 1,787,860 b/cd. Despite its wide commercial use, only relatively few contractors and refiners are truly knowledgeable in delayed-coking design, so that this process carries with it a ''black art'' connotation. Until recently, the expected yield from cokers was determined by a simple laboratory test on the feedstock. As a result of Tulsa University's prior related research, a process model was developed that with additional work could be used to optimize existing delayed cokers over a wide range of potential feedstocks and operating conditions. The objectives of this research program are to: utilize the current micro, batch and pilot unit facilities at The University of Tulsa to enhance the understanding of the coking process; conduct additional micro and pilot unit tests with new and in-house resids and recycles to make current optimization models more robust; conduct focused kinetic experiments to enhance the furnace tube model and to enhance liquid production while minimizing sulfur in the products; conduct detailed foaming studies to optimize the process and minimize process upsets; quantify the parameters that affect coke morphology; and to utilize the knowledge gained from the experimental and modeling studies to enhance the computer programs developed in the previous JIP for optimization of the coking process. These refined computer models will then be tested against refinery data provided by the member companies. Novel concepts will also be explored for hydrogen sulfide removal of furnace gases as well as gas injection studies to reduce over-cracking.

  10. Fundamentals of Delayed Coking Joint Industry Project

    SciTech Connect

    Michael Volk; Keith Wisecarver

    2003-09-26

    Delayed coking evolved steadily over the early to mid 1900s to enable refiners to convert high boiling, residual petroleum fractions to light products such as gasoline. Pound for pound, coking is the most energy intensive of any operation in a modern refinery. Large amounts of energy are required to heat the thick, poor-quality petroleum residuum to the 900 to 950 degrees F required to crack the heavy hydrocarbon molecules into lighter, more valuable products. One common misconception of delayed coking is that the product coke is a disadvantage. Although coke is a low valued (near zero economic value) byproduct, compared to transportation fuels, there is a significant worldwide trade and demand for coke as it is an economical fuel. Coke production has increased steadily over the last ten years, with further increases forecast for the foreseeable future. Current domestic production is near 111,000 tons per day. A major driving force behind this increase is the steady decline in crude quality available to refiners. Crude slates are expected to grow heavier with higher sulfur contents while environmental restrictions are expected to significantly reduce the demand for high-sulfur residual fuel oil. Light sweet crudes will continue to be available and in even greater demand than they are today. Refiners will be faced with the choice of purchasing light sweet crudes at a premium price, or adding bottom of the barrel upgrading capability, through additional new investments, to reduce the production of high-sulfur residual fuel oil and increase the production of low-sulfur distillate fuels. A second disadvantage is that liquid products from cokers frequently are unstable, i.e., they rapidly form gum and sediments. Because of intermediate investment and operating costs, delayed coking has increased in popularity among refiners worldwide. Based on the 2000 Worldwide Refining Survey published in the Oil and Gas, the delayed coking capacity for 101 refineries around the world is 2,937,439 barrels/calendar day. These cokers produce 154,607 tons of coke per day and delayed coking accounts for 88% of the world capacity. The delayed coking charge capacity in the United States is 1,787,860 b/cd. Despite its wide commercial use, only relatively few contractors and refiners are truly knowledgeable in delayed-coking design, so that this process carries with it a ''black art'' connotation. Until recently, the expected yield from cokers was determined by a simple laboratory test on the feedstock. As a result of Tulsa University's prior related research, a process model was developed that with additional work could be used to optimize existing delayed cokers over a wide range of potential feedstocks and operating conditions. The objectives of this research program are to: utilize the current micro, batch and pilot unit facilities at The University of Tulsa to enhance the understanding of the coking process; conduct additional micro and pilot unit tests with new and in-house resids and recycles to make current optimization models more robust; conduct focused kinetic experiments to enhance the furnace tube model and to enhance liquid production while minimizing sulfur in the products; conduct detailed foaming studies to optimize the process and minimize process upsets; quantify the parameters that affect coke morphology; and to utilize the knowledge gained from the experimental and modeling studies to enhance the computer programs developed in the previous JIP for optimization of the coking process. These refined computer models will then be tested against refinery data provided by the member companies. Novel concepts will also be explored for hydrogen sulfide removal of furnace gases as well as gas injection studies to reduce over-cracking.

  11. Sex Steroid and Gonadotropin Treatment in Male Delayed Puberty.

    PubMed

    Howard, Sasha; Dunkel, Leo

    2016-01-01

    Male delayed puberty is common, affecting up to 3% of the population. Management of patients with pubertal delay is dependent on the underlying cause. The main differential diagnoses of delayed puberty in males include constitutional delay of growth and puberty (CDGP), idiopathic hypogonadotropic hypogonadism and hypergonadotropic hypogonadism. Treatment of isolated CDGP involves expectant observation or short courses of low-dose sex steroid supplementation. More complex and involved management is required in males with hypogonadism to achieve both development of secondary sexual characteristics and to maximise the potential for fertility. This review will cover the options for management involving androgen or gonadotropin therapy, with discussion of benefits, limitations and specific considerations of the different treatment options. PMID:26680579

  12. Existence and uniqueness theorem for a class of delay differential equations with left and right Caputo fractional derivatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maraaba (Abdeljawad), Thabet; Baleanu, Dumitru; Jarad, Fahd

    2008-08-01

    The existence and uniqueness theorems for functional right-left delay and left-right advanced fractional functional differential equations with bounded delay and advance, respectively, are proved. The continuity with respect to the initial function for these equations is also proved under some Lipschitz kind conditions. The Q-operator is used to transform the delay-type equation to an advanced one and vice versa. An example is given to clarify the results.

  13. Complex network synchronization of chaotic systems with delay coupling

    SciTech Connect

    Theesar, S. Jeeva Sathya Ratnavelu, K.

    2014-03-05

    The study of complex networks enables us to understand the collective behavior of the interconnected elements and provides vast real time applications from biology to laser dynamics. In this paper, synchronization of complex network of chaotic systems has been studied. Every identical node in the complex network is assumed to be in Lur’e system form. In particular, delayed coupling has been assumed along with identical sector bounded nonlinear systems which are interconnected over network topology.

  14. Adaptive Phase Delay Generator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greer, Lawrence

    2013-01-01

    There are several experimental setups involving rotating machinery that require some form of synchronization. The adaptive phase delay generator (APDG) the Bencic-1000 is a flexible instrument that allows the user to generate pulses synchronized to the rising edge of a tachometer signal from any piece of rotating machinery. These synchronized pulses can vary by the delay angle, pulse width, number of pulses per period, number of skipped pulses, and total number of pulses. Due to the design of the pulse generator, any and all of these parameters can be changed independently, yielding an unparalleled level of versatility. There are two user interfaces to the APDG. The first is a LabVIEW program that has the advantage of displaying all of the pulse parameters and input signal data within one neatly organized window on the PC monitor. Furthermore, the LabVIEW interface plots the rpm of the two input signal channels in real time. The second user interface is a handheld portable device that goes anywhere a computer is not accessible. It consists of a liquid-crystal display and keypad, which enable the user to control the unit by scrolling through a host of command menus and parameter listings. The APDG combines all of the desired synchronization control into one unit. The experimenter can adjust the delay, pulse width, pulse count, number of skipped pulses, and produce a specified number of pulses per revolution. Each of these parameters can be changed independently, providing an unparalleled level of versatility when synchronizing hardware to a host of rotating machinery. The APDG allows experimenters to set up quickly and generate a host of synchronizing configurations using a simple user interface, which hopefully leads to faster results.

  15. Flight parameter estimation using time delay and intersensor multipath delay measurements from a small aperture acoustic array.

    PubMed

    Lo, Kam W

    2013-07-01

    A ground-based acoustic sensor array can be used to estimate the complete set of flight parameters of a jet aircraft or other airborne source of broadband sound in transit by measuring the differential time of arrival (DTOA), or the time delay, of the direct path signal at each sensor pair of the array over a sufficiently long period of time. This paper studies the possibility of using intersensor multipath delay measurements to improve the precision of the flight parameter estimates for a small aperture array, without increasing the array's intersensor spacing or the observation time for more time delay measurements. Intersensor multipath delay is defined as the DTOA of the direct path signal at one sensor and the ground-reflected path signal at another sensor. The flight parameter estimation algorithm is formulated and a simplified Cramer-Rao lower bound error analysis is presented, which shows that the standard deviations in the flight parameter estimates are greatly reduced when intersensor multipath delay measurements are used together with time delay measurements. The effectiveness of the proposed flight parameter estimation method for small aperture arrays is verified using both simulated and real data. PMID:23862781

  16. Inoculation against Forgetting: Advantages of Immediate versus Delayed Initial Testing Due to Superior Verbatim Accessibility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pansky, Ainat

    2012-01-01

    In this study, potential benefits of early memory testing were examined in terms of "inoculating" eyewitness memory against forgetting. As predicted by fuzzy trace theory (e.g., Reyna & Titcomb, 1997), a larger testing advantage in the delayed recall of event details was expected after immediate testing than after delayed testing because of the…

  17. Validation of EMP bounds

    SciTech Connect

    Warne, L.K.; Merewether, K.O.; Chen, K.C.; Jorgenson, R.E.; Morris, M.E.; Solberg, J.E.; Lewis, J.G.; Derr, W.

    1996-07-01

    Test data on canonical weapon-like fixtures are used to validate previously developed analytical bounding results. The test fixtures were constructed to simulate (but be slightly worse than) weapon ports of entry but have known geometries (and electrical points of contact). The exterior of the test fixtures exhibited exterior resonant enhancement of the incident fields at the ports of entry with magnitudes equal to those of weapon geometries. The interior consisted of loaded transmission lines adjusted to maximize received energy or voltage but incorporating practical weapon geometrical constraints. New analytical results are also presented for bounding the energies associated with multiple bolt joints and for bounding the exterior resonant enhancement of the exciting fields.

  18. Career Expectations of Accounting Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elam, Dennis; Mendez, Francis

    2010-01-01

    The demographic make-up of accounting students is dramatically changing. This study sets out to measure how well the profession is ready to accommodate what may be very different needs and expectations of this new generation of students. Non-traditional students are becoming more and more of a tradition in the current college classroom.…

  19. Evaluation of Behavioral Expectation Scales.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zedeck, Sheldon; Baker, Henry T.

    Behavioral Expectation Scales developed by Smith and Kendall were evaluated. Results indicated slight interrater reliability between Head Nurses and Supervisors, moderate dependence among five performance dimensions, and correlation between two scales and tenure. Results are discussed in terms of procedural problems, critical incident problems,…

  20. Earth's extensive entropy bound

    E-print Network

    A. M. Lisewski

    2012-12-20

    The possibility of planetary mass black hole production by crossing entropy limits is addressed. Such a possibility is given by pointing out that two geophysical quantities have comparable values: first, Earth's total negative entropy flux integrated over geological time and, second, its extensive entropy bound, which follows as a tighter bound to the Bekenstein limit when entropy is an extensive function. The similarity between both numbers suggests that the formation of black holes from planets may be possible through a strong fluctuation toward thermodynamic equilibrium which results in gravothermal instability and final collapse. Briefly discussed are implications for the astronomical observation of low mass black holes and for Fermi's paradox.

  1. Delayed cure bismaleimide resins

    DOEpatents

    Adams, Johnnie E. (Grandview, MO); Jamieson, Donald R. (Merriam, KS)

    1984-08-07

    Polybismaleimides prepared by delayed curing of bis-imides having the formula ##STR1## wherein R.sub.1 and R.sub.2 each independently is H, C.sub.1-4 -alkyl, C.sub.1-4 -alkoxy, Cl or Br, or R.sub.1 and R.sub.2 together form a fused 6-membered hydrocarbon aromatic ring, with the proviso that R.sub.1 and R.sub.2 are not t-butyl or t-butoxy; X is O, S or Se; n is 1-3; and the --(CH.sub.2).sub.n -- group, optionally, is substituted by 1-3 methyl groups or by fluorine.

  2. Soviet delays raise prices

    SciTech Connect

    Young, I.

    1992-01-15

    The breakup of the Soviet Union is causing massive disruptions to methanol exports. The changeover to a Commonwealth of independent States has created logistical problems which have led some shipments of Russian methanol to be cancelled and delayed other deliveries by up to two weeks. In recent years the Soviet Union has exported 700,000 m.t./year-900,000 m.t./year of methanol, mainly to Western Europe. The product is made at 750,000-m.t./year plants at Tomsk and Gubakha in Russia and transported by rail for shipment from the ports of Ventspils, Latvia, on the Baltic Sea and Yuzhnyy in Ukraine, on the Black Sea. The exports were handled by state export agency Soyuzagrochim, mainly under contract to West European traders and consumers in areas like Scandinavia and France.

  3. Preservation of Stability in Delay Equations under Delay Perturbations

    E-print Network

    Turi, Janos

    Preservation of Stability in Delay Equations under Delay Perturbations #3; J. Math. Anal. Appl solution of the equation at hand is preserved under these perturbations. As an example we show how our, which guarantees the preservation of asymptotic stability under perturbations. It turns out

  4. Pseudofunctional Delay Tests For High Quality Small Delay Defect Testing 

    E-print Network

    Lahiri, Shayak

    2012-02-14

    of structural delay tests in which we extended traditional launch-on-capture delay testing to additional launch and capture cycles. We call these Pseudofunctional Tests (PFT). A test pattern is scanned into the circuit, and then multiple functional clock cycles...

  5. Defect Detection Capability of Delay Tests for Path Delay Faults

    E-print Network

    Krovi, Venkat

    Defect Detection Capability of Delay Tests for Path Delay Faults Sreejit Chakravarty Dept show that adding at speed tests to test suites detects defective ICs missed by slow speed and I DDQ often fail to detect many defects that causes faulty dynamic faulty behaviour. This implies

  6. 378 INTEGRATED CIRCUIT SIGNAL DELAY INTEGRATED CIRCUIT SIGNAL DELAY

    E-print Network

    Friedman, Eby G.

    378 INTEGRATED CIRCUIT SIGNAL DELAY INTEGRATED CIRCUIT SIGNAL DELAY Technologies for designing commercial discrete circuits (ICs) were in- troduced in the late 1950s (1) (monolithic integrated circuits were introduced in the 1960s). As predicted by Moore's law in the 1960s (2), integrated-circuit density

  7. Computing Graphical Confidence Bounds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mezzacappa, M. A.

    1983-01-01

    Approximation for graphical confidence bounds is simple enough to run on programmable calculator. Approximation is used in lieu of numerical tables not always available, and exact calculations, which often require rather sizable computer resources. Approximation verified for collection of up to 50 data points. Method used to analyze tile-strength data on Space Shuttle thermal-protection system.

  8. Capacity of Strong and Very Strong Gaussian Interference Relay-without-delay Channels

    E-print Network

    Chang, Hyunseok

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we study the interference relay-without-delay channel which is an interference channel with a relay helping the communication. We assume the relay's transmit symbol depends not only on its past received symbols but also on its current received symbol, which is an appropriate model for studying amplify-and-forward type relaying when the overall delay spread is much smaller than the inverse of the bandwidth. For the discrete memoryless interference relay-without-delay channel, we show an outer bound using genie-aided outer bounding. For the Gaussian interference relay-without-delay channel, we define strong and very strong interference relay-without-delay channels and propose an achievable scheme based on instantaneous amplify-and-forward (AF) relaying. We also propose two outer bounds for the strong and very strong cases. Using the proposed achievable scheme and outer bounds, we show that our scheme can achieve the capacity exactly when the relay's transmit power is greater than a certain thresh...

  9. National Airspace System Delay Estimation Using Weather Weighted Traffic Counts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chatterji, Gano B.; Sridhar, Banavar

    2004-01-01

    Assessment of National Airspace System performance, which is usually measured in terms of delays resulting from the application of traffic flow management initiatives in response to weather conditions, volume, equipment outages and runway conditions, is needed both for guiding flow control decisions during the day of operations and for post operations analysis. Comparison of the actual delay, resulting from the traffic flow management initiatives, with the expected delay, based on traffic demand and other conditions, provides the assessment of the National Airspace System performance. This paper provides a method for estimating delay using the expected traffic demand and weather. In order to identify the cause of delays, 517 days of National Airspace System delay data reported by the Federal Aviation Administration s Operations Network were analyzed. This analysis shows that weather is the most important causal factor for delays followed by equipment and runway delays. Guided by these results, the concept of weather weighted traffic counts as a measure of system delay is described. Examples are given to show the variation of these counts as a function of time of the day. The various datasets, consisting of aircraft position data, enroute severe weather data, surface wind speed and visibility data, reported delay data and number of aircraft handled by the Centers data, and their sources are described. The procedure for selecting reference days on which traffic was minimally impacted by weather is described. Different traffic demand on each reference day of the week, determined by analysis of 42 days of traffic and delay data, was used as the expected traffic demand for each day of the week. Next, the method for computing the weather weighted traffic counts using the expected traffic demand, derived from reference days, and the expanded regions around severe weather cells is discussed. It is shown via a numerical example that this approach improves the dynamic range of the weather weighted traffic counts considerably. Time histories of these new weather weighted traffic counts are used for synthesizing two statistical features, six histogram features and six time domain features. In addition to these enroute weather features, two surface weather features of number of major airports in the United States with high mean winds and low mean visibility are also described. A least squares procedure for establishing a functional relation between the features, using combinations of these features, and system delays is explored using 36 days of data. Best correlations between the estimated delays using the functional relation and the actual delays provided by the Operations Network are obtained with two different combinations of features: 1) six time domain features of weather weighted traffic counts plus two surface weather features, and 2) six histogram features and mean of weather weighted traffic counts along with the two surface weather features. Correlation coefficient values of 0.73 and 0.83 were found in these two instances.

  10. Amplitude death in networks of delay-coupled delay oscillators

    E-print Network

    Johannes M. Höfener; Gautam C. Sethia; Thilo Gross

    2012-10-06

    Amplitude death is a dynamical phenomenon in which a network of oscillators settles to a stable state as a result of coupling. Here, we study amplitude death in a generalized model of delay-coupled delay oscillators. We derive analytical results for degree homogeneous networks that show that amplitude death is governed by certain eigenvalues of the network's adjacency matrix. In particular these results demonstrate that in delay-coupled delay oscillators amplitude death can occur for arbitrarily large coupling strength k. In this limit we find a region of amplitude death, which occurs already at small coupling delays that scale with 1/k. We show numerically that these results remain valid in random networks with heterogeneous degree distribution.

  11. Delayed Recovery from Anaesthesia in a Patient with Optimised Hypothyroidism and Incidental Hypokalemia

    PubMed Central

    Laheri, Vandana V; Waigankar, Tejasi; Wagh, Charchill

    2015-01-01

    Delayed recovery/awakening/ emergence can occur under anaesthesia and is multifactorial, could be drug or non drug related. Similarly, we report a case of delayed recovery in a 68-year-old patient, for laparoscopic cholecystectomy, a known case of hypertension, bronchial asthma and hypothyroidism. Preoperatively, she was optimised for her medical disorders; however, she had delayed recovery from general anaesthesia. The delayed recovery, often, would be expected in a case of hypothyroidism, however in our patient it was found to be associated with inadvertent hypokalemia PMID:25738065

  12. Conical-Domain Model for Estimating GPS Ionospheric Delays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sparks, Lawrence; Komjathy, Attila; Mannucci, Anthony

    2009-01-01

    The conical-domain model is a computational model, now undergoing development, for estimating ionospheric delays of Global Positioning System (GPS) signals. Relative to the standard ionospheric delay model described below, the conical-domain model offers improved accuracy. In the absence of selective availability, the ionosphere is the largest source of error for single-frequency users of GPS. Because ionospheric signal delays contribute to errors in GPS position and time measurements, satellite-based augmentation systems (SBASs) have been designed to estimate these delays and broadcast corrections. Several national and international SBASs are currently in various stages of development to enhance the integrity and accuracy of GPS measurements for airline navigation. In the Wide Area Augmentation System (WAAS) of the United States, slant ionospheric delay errors and confidence bounds are derived from estimates of vertical ionospheric delay modeled on a grid at regularly spaced intervals of latitude and longitude. The estimate of vertical delay at each ionospheric grid point (IGP) is calculated from a planar fit of neighboring slant delay measurements, projected to vertical using a standard, thin-shell model of the ionosphere. Interpolation on the WAAS grid enables estimation of the vertical delay at the ionospheric pierce point (IPP) corresponding to any arbitrary measurement of a user. (The IPP of a given user s measurement is the point where the GPS signal ray path intersects a reference ionospheric height.) The product of the interpolated value and the user s thin-shell obliquity factor provides an estimate of the user s ionospheric slant delay. Two types of error that restrict the accuracy of the thin-shell model are absent in the conical domain model: (1) error due to the implicit assumption that the electron density is independent of the azimuthal angle at the IPP and (2) error arising from the slant-to-vertical conversion. At low latitudes or at mid-latitudes under disturbed conditions, the accuracy of SBAS systems based upon the thin-shell model suffers due to the presence of complex ionospheric structure, high delay values, and large electron density gradients. Interpolation on the vertical delay grid serves as an additional source of delay error. The conical-domain model permits direct computation of the user s slant delay estimate without the intervening use of a vertical delay grid. The key is to restrict each fit of GPS measurements to a spatial domain encompassing signals from only one satellite. The conical domain model is so named because each fit involves a group of GPS receivers that all receive signals from the same GPS satellite (see figure); the receiver and satellite positions define a cone, the satellite position being the vertex. A user within a given cone evaluates the delay to the satellite directly, using (1) the IPP coordinates of the line of sight to the satellite and (2) broadcast fit parameters associated with the cone. The conical-domain model partly resembles the thin-shell model in that both models reduce an inherently four-dimensional problem to two dimensions. However, unlike the thin-shell model, the conical domain model does not involve any potentially erroneous simplifying assumptions about the structure of the ionosphere. In the conical domain model, the initially four-dimensional problem becomes truly two-dimensional in the sense that once a satellite location has been specified, any signal path emanating from a satellite can be identified by only two coordinates; for example, the IPP coordinates. As a consequence, a user s slant-delay estimate converges to the correct value in the limit that the receivers converge to the user s location (or, equivalently, in the limit that the measurement IPPs converge to the user s IPP).

  13. Do Not Delay! Immunization Form

    E-print Network

    Wu, Shin-Tson

    Important! Do Not Delay! Immunization Form REQUIRED for you to proceed with Class Registration vaccinations for meningococcal meningitis. By action of the Florida State University System Board of Governors for registration at UCF. Incomplete information may result in your registration being delayed or even blocked

  14. Delayed Reinforcement of Operant Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lattal, Kennon A.

    2010-01-01

    The experimental analysis of delay of reinforcement is considered from the perspective of three questions that seem basic not only to understanding delay of reinforcement but also, by implication, the contributions of temporal relations between events to operant behavior. The first question is whether effects of the temporal relation between…

  15. High resolution digital delay timer

    DOEpatents

    Martin, Albert D. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1988-01-01

    Method and apparatus are provided for generating an output pulse following a trigger pulse at a time delay interval preset with a resolution which is high relative to a low resolution available from supplied clock pulses. A first lumped constant delay (20) provides a first output signal (24) at predetermined interpolation intervals corresponding to the desired high resolution time interval. Latching circuits (26, 28) latch the high resolution data (24) to form a first synchronizing data set (60). A selected time interval has been preset to internal counters (142, 146, 154) and corrected for circuit propagation delay times having the same order of magnitude as the desired high resolution. Internal system clock pulses (32, 34) count down the counters to generate an internal pulse delayed by an interval which is functionally related to the preset time interval. A second LCD (184) corrects the internal signal with the high resolution time delay. A second internal pulse is then applied to a third LCD (74) to generate a second set of synchronizing data (76) which is complementary with the first set of synchronizing data (60) for presentation to logic circuits (64). The logic circuits (64) further delay the internal output signal (72) to obtain a proper phase relationship of an output signal (80) with the internal pulses (32, 34). The final delayed output signal (80) thereafter enables the output pulse generator (82) to produce the desired output pulse (84) at the preset time delay interval following input of the trigger pulse (10, 12).

  16. Delayed Auditory Feedback and Movement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pfordresher, Peter Q.; Dalla Bella, Simone

    2011-01-01

    It is well known that timing of rhythm production is disrupted by delayed auditory feedback (DAF), and that disruption varies with delay length. We tested the hypothesis that disruption depends on the state of the movement trajectory at the onset of DAF. Participants tapped isochronous rhythms at a rate specified by a metronome while hearing DAF…

  17. A time delay controller for magnetic bearings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Youcef-Toumi, K.; Reddy, S.

    1991-01-01

    The control of systems with unknown dynamics and unpredictable disturbances has raised some challenging problems. This is particularly important when high system performance needs to be guaranteed at all times. Recently, the Time Delay Control has been suggested as an alternative control scheme. The proposed control system does not require an explicit plant model nor does it depend on the estimation of specific plant parameters. Rather, it combines adaptation with past observations to directly estimate the effect of the plant dynamics. A control law is formulated for a class of dynamic systems and a sufficient condition is presented for control systems stability. The derivation is based on the bounded input-bounded output stability approach using L sub infinity function norms. The control scheme is implemented on a five degrees of freedom high speed and high precision magnetic bearing. The control performance is evaluated using step responses, frequency responses, and disturbance rejection properties. The experimental data show an excellent control performance despite the system complexity.

  18. 78 FR 18326 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Comment Request; Upward Bound and Upward Bound Math...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-26

    ...Request; Upward Bound and Upward Bound Math Science Annual Performance Report AGENCY...Collection: Upward Bound and Upward Bound Math Science Annual Performance Report. OMB...regular Upward Bound (UB) and Upward Bound Math and Science (UBMS) Programs. The...

  19. Petawatt laser absorption bounded

    PubMed Central

    Levy, Matthew C.; Wilks, Scott C.; Tabak, Max; Libby, Stephen B.; Baring, Matthew G.

    2014-01-01

    The interaction of petawatt (1015?W) lasers with solid matter forms the basis for advanced scientific applications such as table-top particle accelerators, ultrafast imaging systems and laser fusion. Key metrics for these applications relate to absorption, yet conditions in this regime are so nonlinear that it is often impossible to know the fraction of absorbed light f, and even the range of f is unknown. Here using a relativistic Rankine-Hugoniot-like analysis, we show for the first time that f exhibits a theoretical maximum and minimum. These bounds constrain nonlinear absorption mechanisms across the petawatt regime, forbidding high absorption values at low laser power and low absorption values at high laser power. For applications needing to circumvent the absorption bounds, these results will accelerate a shift from solid targets, towards structured and multilayer targets, and lead the development of new materials. PMID:24938656

  20. Bound States in Graphene

    E-print Network

    Kumar S. Gupta; Siddhartha Sen

    2008-06-03

    We present a quantum analysis of the massless excitations in graphene with a charge impurity. When the effective charge exceeds a certain critical value, the spectrum is quantized and is unbounded from below. The corresponding eigenstates are square-integrable at infinity and have a rapidly oscillatory behaviour in the short distance, which can be interpreted as a fall to the centre. Using a cutoff regularization, we show that the effective Coulomb interaction strength is driven to its critical value under the renormalization group flow. In the subcritical region, we find bound states with imaginary values of the energy for certain range of the system parameters. The physical significance of these bound states with imaginary eigenvalues is discussed.

  1. Bounding gauged Skyrmion masses

    SciTech Connect

    Brihaye, Yves; Hill, Christopher T.; Zachos, Cosmas K.

    2004-12-01

    Normally, standard (ungauged) skyrmion masses are proportional to the coupling of the Skyrme term needed for stability, and so can grow to infinite magnitude with increasing coupling. In striking contrast, when skyrmions are gauged, their masses are bounded above for any Skyrme coupling, and, instead, are of the order of monopole masses, O(v/g), so that the coupling of the Skyrme term is not very important. This boundedness phenomenon and its implications are investigated.

  2. Delayed Ionization of Fullerenes and Fullerene Derivatives upon Laser Desorption and Surface Collision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beck, R. D.; Weis, P.; Rockenberger, J.; Kappes, M. M.

    Delayed electron emission has been observed upon laser desorption for several fullerenes, endohedral metallofullerenes, and large carbon clusters formed by coalescence reactions. Odd-numbered carbon clusters and fullerene derivatives with exohedral functional groups do not show delayed ionization under similar conditions, presumably due to lower dissociation energies. Thus, delayed electron emission is suggested to be a characteristic indicator for strongly bound fullerene structures. Measurements of the rate of delayed electron emission are used together with structural information from other sources to calculate ionization potentials for these species. Selective observation of delayed electron emission from scattered {C}60* after surface impact and neutralization of {C}+{60 on graphite confirms an earlier report of this process by Whetten et al.6

  3. Delay of Gratification and Delay Discounting: A Unifying Feedback Model of Delay-Related Impulsive Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, Brady; Schiffbauer, Ryan

    2005-01-01

    Delay of Gratification (DG) and Delay Discounting (DD) represent two indices of impulsive behavior often treated as though they represent equivalent or the same underlying processes. However, there are key differences between DG and DD procedures, and between certain research findings with each procedure, that suggest they are not equivalent. In…

  4. Delay Adjusted Incidence Infographic

    Cancer.gov

    This Infographic shows the National Cancer Institute SEER Incidence Trends. The graphs show the Average Annual Percent Change (AAPC) 2002-2011. For Men, Thyroid: 5.3*,Liver & IBD: 3.6*, Melanoma: 2.3*, Kidney: 2.0*, Myeloma: 1.9*, Pancreas: 1.2*, Leukemia: 0.9*, Oral Cavity: 0.5, Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma: 0.3*, Esophagus: -0.1, Brain & ONS: -0.2*, Bladder: -0.6*, All Sites: -1.1*, Stomach: -1.7*, Larynx: -1.9*, Prostate: -2.1*, Lung & Bronchus: -2.4*, and Colon & Rectum: -3/0*. For Women, Thyroid: 5.8*, Liver & IBD: 2.9*, Myeloma: 1.8*, Kidney: 1.6*, Melanoma: 1.5, Corpus & Uterus: 1.3*, Pancreas: 1.1*, Leukemia: 0.6*, Brain & ONS: 0, Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma: -0.1, All Sites: -0.1, Breast: -0.3, Stomach: -0.7*, Oral Cavity: -0.7*, Bladder: -0.9*, Ovary: -0.9*, Lung & Bronchus: -1.0*, Cervix: -2.4*, and Colon & Rectum: -2.7*. * AAPC is significantly different from zero (p<.05). Rates were adjusted for reporting delay in the registry. www.cancer.gov Source: Special section of the Annual Report to the Nation on the Status of Cancer, 1975-2011.

  5. Delayed unlatching mechanism

    DOEpatents

    Bzorgi, Fariborz M.

    2015-05-19

    In various embodiments an apparatus is presented for securing a structure such as a door, window, hatch, or gate that moves between an open and a closed position relative to a fixed structure to provide or deny access to a compartment, a room, an outdoor area, or a facility. Various embodiments provide a delay in opening the closure of sufficient duration to frustrate a rapid activation that might be desired by a person who is attempting to pass through the closure for some illicit purpose. Typically, hydraulics are used to activate the apparatus and no electrical energy or electronic signals are employed. In one embodiment, a plurality of actuations of a hand lever operates a hydraulic pump that moves a locking bolt from a first position in which a locking bolt is engaged with a recess in the fixed structure (preventing opening of a gate) to a second position in which the locking bolt is disengaged from the recess to permit opening of the gate.

  6. Malaria epidemic expected in Mozambique.

    PubMed

    Sidley, P

    2000-03-11

    Health experts fear epidemics of several infectious diseases in Mozambique as floods recede and mosquitoes begin breeding. According to Pierre Kahozi of WHO, malaria is already endemic in the region but there are fears that a much greater outbreak might occur. Scores of suspected cases of cholera were reported and more are expected, along with cases of other diarrheal conditions. Neil Cameron, chief director of communicable diseases at the health department in South Africa, said that more cases are expected within a month when the breeding cycle of mosquitoes is renewed. He reported that the number of malaria cases in South Africa increased from 12,000 in 1995 to 50,000 in 1999, and a number of people had been dying from this disease. The increase could be attributed partly to climatic changes and resistance to certain drugs. DDT had been used in the past to control mosquitoes, and it¿s possible that it will be used again in Mozambique. The issues involved in tackling malaria are now being considered as part of a special development initiative on infectious diseases that is being undertaken jointly by the health departments of three countries: South Africa, Mozambique, and Swaziland. PMID:10710569

  7. Great expectations: teaching ethics to medical students in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Behrens, Kevin Gary; Fellingham, Robyn

    2014-12-01

    Many academic philosophers and ethicists are appointed to teach ethics to medical students. We explore exactly what this task entails. In South Africa the Health Professions Council's curriculum for training medical practitioners requires not only that students be taught to apply ethical theory to issues and be made aware of the legal and regulatory requirements of their profession, it also expects moral formation and the inculcation of professional virtue in students. We explore whether such expectations are reasonable. We defend the claim that physicians ought to be persons of virtuous character, on the grounds of the social contract between society and the profession. We further argue that since the expectations of virtue of health care professionals are reasonable, it is also sound reasoning to expect ethics teachers to try to inculcate such virtues in their students, so far as this is possible. Furthermore, this requires of such teachers that they be suitable role models of ethical practice and virtue, themselves. We claim that this applies to ethics teachers who are themselves not members of the medical profession, too, even though they are not bound by the same social contract as doctors. We conclude that those who accept employment as teachers of ethics to medical students, where as part of their contractual obligation they are expected to inculcate moral values in their students, ought to be prepared to accept their responsibility to be professionally ethical, themselves. PMID:23409954

  8. Delayed Geodynamo in Hadean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arkani-Hamed, J.

    2014-12-01

    Paleointensity measurements of Archean rocks reveal a strong geodynamo at ~3.45 Ga, while excess nitrogen content of lunar soil samples implies no geodynamo at ~3.9 Ga. Here I propose that initiation of a strong geodynamo is delayed due to accretion style of Earth, involving collision and merging of a few dozen Moon to Mars size planetary embryos. Two accretion scenarios consisting of 25 and 50 embryos are investigated. The collision of an embryo heats the proto-Earth's core differentially and the rotating low-viscosity core stably stratifies, creating a spherically symmetric and radially increasing temperature distribution. Convection starts in the outer core after each impact but is destroyed by the next impact. The iron core of an impacting embryo descends in the mantle and merges to the proto-Earth's core. Both adiabatic and non-adiabatic merging cases are studied. A major part of the gravitational energy released due to core merging is used to lift up the upper portion of the core to emplace the impactor core material at the neutrally buoyant level in the proto-Earth's core. The remaining energy is converted to heat. In the adiabatic case the merging embryo's core retains all of the remaining energy, while in the non-adiabatic merging 50% of the remaining energy is shared with the outer part of the proto-Earth's core where the embryo's core descends. The two merging models result in significantly different temperature distributions in the core at the end of accretion. After the accretion, the convecting shell in the outer core grows monotonically and generates geodynamo gradually. It takes about 50-100 Myr for the convecting shell to generate a strong dipole field at the surface, 50,000 to 100,000 nT, in the presence of a large stably stratified liquid inner core when the convecting outer core thickness exceeds about one half the radius of the Earth's core.

  9. The Effects of Instructor Expectation and Performance on Child Comprehension and Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toner, Ignatius J.; Hagan, Margaret S.

    To investigate the influence of instructional behaviors and adult expectations on children's task performance, 48 boys either 5 to 6 or 8 to 9 years of age individually viewed instructional videotapes and participated in a delay of gratification task. In the first phase of the study, videotapes were produced in which instructors were told to…

  10. Wind effects on bounding flight.

    PubMed

    Sachs, Gottfried

    2013-01-01

    The effects of the wind on the energy expenditure of bounding flight and on the travelling speed are dealt with. For this purpose, a mathematical model of bounding flight in moving air is developed. Introducing an appropriate non-dimensionalization, results and findings of generally valid nature are derived. It is shown that bounding flight yields a flight mechanical advantage in headwinds when compared with continuous flapping flight. This is because the minimum energy expenditure is lower and the associated travelling speed is higher. The body lift in the bound phase has an advantageous influence. The effects of tailwinds yield less differences between bounding flight and continuous flapping flight. PMID:22981923

  11. 78 FR 59422 - Delayed Applications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-26

    ... Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration Delayed Applications AGENCY: Office of Hazardous Materials Safety, Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (PHMSA), DOT. ACTION: List of... Paquet, Director, Office of Hazardous Materials Special Permits and Approvals, Pipeline and...

  12. Current Vaccine Shortages and Delays

    MedlinePLUS

    ... and Immunizations Share Compartir Current Vaccine Shortages & Delays Last Updated December 7, 2015 On this Page Chart ... DOC, PPT, MPEG) on this site? Print Page last reviewed: May 16, 2013 Page last updated: December ...

  13. Analysis of delay correlation matrices

    E-print Network

    K. B. K. Mayya; R. E. Amritkar

    2006-01-13

    We construct and analyze symmetrized delay correlation matrices for empirical data sets for atmopheric and financial data to derive information about correlation between different entities of the time series over time. The information about correlations is obtained by comparing the results for the eigenvalue distribution with the analytical results for the independent, identically distributed random data sets. For the atmospheric case we find long term correlations between different entities of the multivariable time series. For the financial time series we find little correlations between different entities over a time delay beyond about two days. Most of the eigenvalues for the symmetrized delay correlation matrices for the financial data are symmetrically distributed about zero. The delay correlation results for the financial data are similar to the analytical results for the random data sets. However there are considerable deviations for the atmospheric data from the random case.

  14. Parental Discipline and Delayed Gratification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weller, Leonard; Berkowitz, Edith

    1975-01-01

    It was hypothesized that children brought up under coercive power would be more likely to exhibit immediate gratification, whereas children brought up under noncoercive power would be more likely to delay gratification. The hypothesis was confirmed. (Author)

  15. On mild and strong solutions of fractional differential equations with delay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qasem, Sayyedah A.; Ibrahim, Rabha W.; Siri, Zailan

    2015-10-01

    In this note, we shall introduce the generalized concept of resolvent of fractional order, in the sense of Caputo derivative. This study deals with the existence and uniqueness of bounded m- solutions (type mild) for fractional integro-differential equations with fractional resolvent and unbounded delay. We show that under some conditions, the mild solution is strongly solution.

  16. Effect of Delay and Buffering on Jitter-Free Streaming over Random VBR Channels

    E-print Network

    Liang, Ben

    1 Effect of Delay and Buffering on Jitter-Free Streaming over Random VBR Channels Guanfeng Liang and some statistical information of an arbitrary VBR channel, to bound the probability of jitter-free of variable bit-rate (VBR) video over a random VBR channel. The goal of a streaming application is to enable

  17. Effect of Delay and Buffering on Jitter-Free Streaming over Random VBR Channels

    E-print Network

    Liang, Ben

    1 Effect of Delay and Buffering on Jitter-Free Streaming over Random VBR Channels Guanfeng Liang of an arbitrary VBR channel, to bound the probability of jitter-free playout under the constraint of initial of variable bit-rate (VBR) video over a random VBR channel. The goal of a streaming application is to enable

  18. The bound ?-decay of the free neutron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schön, J.; Paul, S.; Emmerich, R.; Engels, R.; Faestermann, T.; Fierlinger, P.; Gabriel, M.; Gutsmied, E.; Hartmann, F. J.; Hertenberger, R.; McAndrew, J.; Röhrmoser, A.; Ruschel, S.; Schott, W.; Schubert, U.; Trautner, A.; Udem, T.; Ulrich, A.

    2012-09-01

    An experiment to measure the bound ?-decay of the neutron into a hydrogen atom and an electron anti-neutrino is described. Observation of such a decay would open an alternative pathway to physics beyond the Standard Model, in particular right-handed current admixtures in the weak interaction as well as the handedness of the neutrino. The experiment is planned at the through-going beam tube SR6 at the FRM2 high-flux reactor in Garching. Although the branching ratio of this decay is expected to be only 4 . 10-6 of the normal neutron ?-decay [1], a sufficient decay rate due to the high flux of neutrons available for the experiment is expected. Simulations have shown that the measurement is feasible, with proper shielding being the critical factor. The experimental setup is currently being studied, testing different detection techniques for H(2s) at the TUM.

  19. Changing expectancies: cognitive mechanisms and context effects.

    PubMed

    Wiers, Reinout W; Wood, Mark D; Darkes, Jack; Corbin, William R; Jones, Barry T; Sher, Kenneth J

    2003-02-01

    This article presents the proceedings of a symposium at the 2002 RSA Meeting in San Francisco, organized by Reinout W. Wiers and Mark D. Wood. The symposium combined two topics of recent interest in studies of alcohol expectancies: cognitive mechanisms in expectancy challenge studies, and context-related changes of expectancies. With increasing recognition of the substantial role played by alcohol expectancies in drinking, investigators have begun to develop and evaluate expectancy challenge procedures as a potentially promising new prevention strategy. The two major issues addressed in the symposium were whether expectancy challenges result in changes in expectancies that mediate intervention (outcome relations), and the influence of simulated bar environments ("bar labs," in which challenges are usually done) on expectancies. The presentations were (1) An introduction, by Jack Darkes; (2) Investigating the utility of alcohol expectancy challenge with heavy drinking college students, by Mark D. Wood; (3) Effects of an expectancy challenge on implicit and explicit expectancies and drinking, by Reinout W. Wiers; (4) Effects of graphic feedback and simulated bar assessments on alcohol expectancies and consumption, by William R. Corbin; (5) Implicit alcohol associations and context, by Barry T Jones; and (6) A discussion by Kenneth J. Sher, who pointed out that it is important not only to study changes of expectancies in the paradigm of an expectancy challenge but also to consider the role of changing expectancies in natural development and in treatments not explicitly aimed at changing expectancies. PMID:12605068

  20. Fundamentals of Delayed Coking Joint Industry Project

    SciTech Connect

    Michael Volk Jr; Keith Wisecarver

    2005-10-01

    Delayed coking evolved steadily over the early to mid 1900s to enable refiners to convert high boiling, residual petroleum fractions to light products such as gasoline. Pound for pound, coking is the most energy intensive of any operation in a modern refinery. Large amounts of energy are required to heat the thick, poor-quality petroleum residuum to the 900 to 950 degrees F required to crack the heavy hydrocarbon molecules into lighter, more valuable products. One common misconception of delayed coking is that the product coke is a disadvantage. Although coke is a low valued (near zero economic value) byproduct, compared to transportation fuels, there is a significant worldwide trade and demand for coke as it is an economical fuel. Coke production has increased steadily over the last ten years, with further increases forecast for the foreseeable future. Current domestic production is near 111,000 tons per day. A major driving force behind this increase is the steady decline in crude quality available to refiners. Crude slates are expected to grow heavier with higher sulfur contents while environmental restrictions are expected to significantly reduce the demand for high-sulfur residual fuel oil. Light sweet crudes will continue to be available and in even greater demand than they are today. Refiners will be faced with the choice of purchasing light sweet crudes at a premium price, or adding bottom of the barrel upgrading capability, through additional new investments, to reduce the production of high-sulfur residual fuel oil and increase the production of low-sulfur distillate fuels. A second disadvantage is that liquid products from cokers frequently are unstable, i.e., they rapidly form gum and sediments. Because of intermediate investment and operating costs, delayed coking has increased in popularity among refiners worldwide. Based on the 2000 Worldwide Refining Survey published in the Oil and Gas, the delayed coking capacity for 101 refineries around the world is 2,937,439 barrels/calendar day. These cokers produce 154,607 tons of coke per day and delayed coking accounts for 88% of the world capacity. The delayed coking charge capacity in the United States is 1,787,860 b/cd. Despite its wide commercial use, only relatively few contractors and refiners are truly knowledgeable in delayed-coking design, so that this process carries with it a ''black art'' connotation. Until recently, the expected yield from cokers was determined by a simple laboratory test on the feedstock. As a result of Tulsa University's prior related research, a process model was developed that with additional work could be used to optimize existing delayed cokers over a wide range of potential feedstocks and operating conditions. The objectives of this research program are to: utilize the current micro, batch and pilot unit facilities at The University of Tulsa to enhance the understanding of the coking process; conduct additional micro and pilot unit tests with new and in-house resids and recycles to make current optimization models more robust; conduct focused kinetic experiments to enhance the furnace tube model and to enhance liquid production while minimizing sulfur in the products; conduct detailed foaming studies to optimize the process and minimize process upsets; quantify the parameters that affect coke morphology; and to utilize the knowledge gained from the experimental and modeling studies to enhance the computer programs developed in the previous JIP for optimization of the coking process. These refined computer models will then be tested against refinery data provided by the member companies. Novel concepts will also be explored for hydrogen sulfide removal of furnace gases as well as gas injection studies to reduce over-cracking. The following deliverables are scheduled from the two projects of the three-year JIP: (1) A novel method for enhancing liquid yields from delayed cokers and data that provide insight as to the optimum temperature to remove hydrogen sulfide from furnace gases. (2) An understanding of what causes foaming in c

  1. North Dome decision expected soon

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-08-01

    Decisions soon will be made which will set in motion the development of Qatar's huge North Dome gas field. The government and state company, Qatar General Petroleum Corp. (QGPC) is studying the results of 2 feasibility studies on the economics of LNG export, although initially North Dome exploitation will be aimed at the domestic market. Decisions on the nature and timing of the North Dome development are the most important that have had to be faced in the short 10-yr history of the small Gulf state. The country's oil production is currently running at approximately 500,000 bpd, with 270,000 bpd originating from 3 offshore fields. Output is expected to decline through 1990, and it generally is accepted that there is little likelihood of further major crude discoveries. Therefore, Qatar has to begin an adjustment from an economy based on oil to one based on gas, while adhering to the underlying tenets of long-term conservation and industrial diversification.

  2. Bound anionic states of adenine

    SciTech Connect

    Haranczyk, Maciej; Gutowski, Maciej S.; Li, Xiang; Bowen, Kit H.

    2007-03-20

    Anionic states of nucleic acid bases are involved in DNA damage by low-energy electrons and in charge transfer through DNA. Previous gas phase studies of free, unsolvated nucleic acid base parent anions probed only dipole-bound states, which are not present in condensed phase environments, but did not observe valence anionic states, which for purine bases, are thought to be adiabatically unbound. Contrary to this expectation, we have demonstrated that some thus far ignored tautomers of adenine, which result from enamine-imine transformations, support valence anionic states with electron vertical detachment energies as large as 2.2 eV, and at least one of these anionic tautomers is adiabatically bound. Moreover, we predict that the new anionic tautomers should also dominate in solutions and should be characterized by larger values of electron vertical detachment energy than the canonical valence anion. All of the new-found anionic tautomers might be formed in the course of dissociative electron attachment followed by a hydrogen atom attachment to a carbon atom, and they might affect the structure and properties of DNA and RNA exposed to low-energy electrons. The discovery of these valence anionic states of adenine was facilitated by the development of: (i) a new experimental method for preparing parent anions of nucleic acid bases for photoelectron experiments, and (ii) a new combinatorial/ quantum chemical approach for identification of the most stable tautomers of organic molecules. The computational portion of this work was supported by the: (i) Polish State Committee for Scientific Research (KBN) Grants: DS/8000-4-0140-7 (M.G.) and N204 127 31/2963 (M.H.), (ii) European Social Funds (EFS) ZPORR/2.22/II/2.6/ARP/U/2/05 (M.H.), and (iii) US DOE Office of Biological and Environmental Research, Low Dose Radiation Research Program (M.G.). M.H. holds the Foundation for Polish Science (FNP) award for young scientists. The calculations were performed at the Academic Computer Center in Gda?sk (TASK) and at the Molecular Science Computing Facility (MSCF) in the William R. Wiley Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory, a national scientific user facility sponsored by the U.S. DOE OBER and located at PNNL, which is operated by Battelle for the US DOE. The MSCF resources were available through a Computational Grand Challenge Application grant. The experimental material in this paper (K.H.B.) is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. CHE-0517337.

  3. Intracellular delay limits cyclic changes in gene expression

    E-print Network

    Katja Rateitschak; Olaf Wolkenhauer

    2006-02-07

    Based on previously published experimental observations and mathematical models for Hes1, p53 and NF-kB gene expression, we improve these models through a distributed delay formulation of the time lag between transcription factor binding and mRNA production. This description of natural variability for delays introduces a transition from a stable steady state to limit cycle oscillations and then a second transition back to a stable steady state which has not been observed in previously published models. On the basis of our results and following recent discussions about the role of delay-induced oscillations in gene transcription we establish the hypothesis that the period of the delay-induced cyclic changes should be characterized by an upper bound so that it cannot be greater then the period of fundamental biological cycles. We demonstrate our approach for two models. The first model describes Hes1 autorepression with equations for Hes1 mRNA production and Hes1 protein translation. The second model describes Hes1 repression by the protein complex Gro/TLE1/Hes1, where Gro/TLE1 is activated by Hes1 phosphorylation.

  4. Expected geoneutrino signal at JUNO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strati, Virginia; Baldoncini, Marica; Callegari, Ivan; Mantovani, Fabio; McDonough, William F.; Ricci, Barbara; Xhixha, Gerti

    2015-12-01

    Constraints on the Earth's composition and on its radiogenic energy budget come from the detection of geoneutrinos. The Kamioka Liquid scintillator Antineutrino Detector (KamLAND) and Borexino experiments recently reported the geoneutrino flux, which reflects the amount and distribution of U and Th inside the Earth. The Jiangmen Underground Neutrino Observatory (JUNO) neutrino experiment, designed as a 20 kton liquid scintillator detector, will be built in an underground laboratory in South China about 53 km from the Yangjiang and Taishan nuclear power plants, each one having a planned thermal power of approximately 18 GW. Given the large detector mass and the intense reactor antineutrino flux, JUNO aims not only to collect high statistics antineutrino signals from reactors but also to address the challenge of discriminating the geoneutrino signal from the reactor background. The predicted geoneutrino signal at JUNO is terrestrial neutrino unit (TNU), based on the existing reference Earth model, with the dominant source of uncertainty coming from the modeling of the compositional variability in the local upper crust that surrounds (out to approximately 500 km) the detector. A special focus is dedicated to the 6° × 4° local crust surrounding the detector which is estimated to contribute for the 44% of the signal. On the basis of a worldwide reference model for reactor antineutrinos, the ratio between reactor antineutrino and geoneutrino signals in the geoneutrino energy window is estimated to be 0.7 considering reactors operating in year 2013 and reaches a value of 8.9 by adding the contribution of the future nuclear power plants. In order to extract useful information about the mantle's composition, a refinement of the abundance and distribution of U and Th in the local crust is required, with particular attention to the geochemical characterization of the accessible upper crust where 47% of the expected geoneutrino signal originates and this region contributes the major source of uncertainty.

  5. 77 FR 28305 - Temporary Rule To Delay Start Date of 2012-2013 South Atlantic Black Sea Bass Commercial Fishing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-14

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 622 RIN 0648-BB98 Temporary Rule To Delay Start...: Temporary rule; emergency action. SUMMARY: NMFS issues this temporary rule to delay the start date of the... Amendment 18A is not expected to be effective until after June 1, the start of the black sea bass...

  6. 49 CFR 236.563 - Delay time.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Delay time. 236.563 Section 236.563 Transportation... Cab Signal Systems Rules and Instructions; Locomotives § 236.563 Delay time. Delay time of automatic... requirements of § 236.24 shall take into consideration the delay time....

  7. 49 CFR 236.563 - Delay time.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Delay time. 236.563 Section 236.563 Transportation... Cab Signal Systems Rules and Instructions; Locomotives § 236.563 Delay time. Delay time of automatic... requirements of § 236.24 shall take into consideration the delay time....

  8. High Quality Compact Delay Test Generation 

    E-print Network

    Wang, Zheng

    2011-08-08

    is calculated, which will help accelerate the path generation. The min-max PERT delay of a 11 gate is the min-max delay from this gate to capture points, without considering any logic constraints. Delays are extracted from a standard delay format (SDF...

  9. 49 CFR 236.563 - Delay time.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Delay time. 236.563 Section 236.563 Transportation... Cab Signal Systems Rules and Instructions; Locomotives § 236.563 Delay time. Delay time of automatic... requirements of § 236.24 shall take into consideration the delay time....

  10. Time-delay interferometry for LISA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tinto, Massimo; Estabrook, F. B.; Armstrong, J. W.

    2002-04-01

    LISA (Laser Interferometer Space Antenna) is a mission to detect and study low-frequency cosmic gravitational radiation through its influence on the phases or frequencies of laser beams exchanged between three remote spacecraft. We previously showed how, with lasers of identical frequencies on stationary spacecraft, the measurement of twelve time series of Doppler shifts could be combined to cancel exactly the phase noise of the lasers and the Doppler fluctuations due to noninertial motions of the six optical benches, while preserving gravitational wave signals. Here we generalize those results on gravitational wave detection with time-delay interferometry to the expected LISA instrument. The six lasers have different center frequencies (in the nominal LISA configuration these center frequencies may well differ by several hundred megahertz) and the distances between spacecraft pairs will change with time (these slowly varying orbital Doppler shifts are expected to be up to tens of megahertz). We develop time-delay data combinations which, as previously, preserve gravitational waves and exactly cancel the leading noise source (phase fluctuations of the six lasers); these data combinations then imply transfer functions for the remaining system noises. Using these, we plot frequency and phase power spectra for modeled system noises in the unequal Michelson combination X and the symmetric Sagnac combination ?. Although optical bench noise can no longer be cancelled exactly, with the current LISA specifications it is suppressed to negligible levels. It is known that the presently anticipated laser center frequency differences and the orbital Doppler drifts introduce another source of phase noise, arising from the onboard oscillators required to track the photodetector fringes. For the presently planned mission, our analysis indeed demonstrates that noise from current-generation ultrastable oscillators would, if uncorrected, dominate the LISA noise budget. To meet the LISA sensitivity goals either achievable improvements in oscillator stability must be combined with much stricter requirements on the allowed laser center frequency differences and on the allowed Doppler shifts from orbital drifts or, as has been previously suggested, additional calibrating interspacecraft data must be taken, by modulating the laser beams and considerably increasing system complexity. We generalize prior schemes for obtaining the required oscillator instability calibration data to the case of six proof masses, six lasers, and three onboard oscillators. For this realistic configuration we derive appropriate time-delayed combinations of the calibrating data to correct each of the laser-noise-free data combinations.

  11. Lyth bound revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Qing-Guo

    2015-06-01

    Imposing that the excursion distance of the inflaton in field space during inflation be less than the Planck scale, we derive an upper bound on the tensor-to-scalar ratio at the cosmic microwave background scales, i.e., r*,max , in the general canonical single-field slow-roll inflation model, in particular, the model with non-negligible running of the spectral index ?s and/or the running of running ?s. We find that r*,max?7 ×10-4 for ns=0.9645 without running and running of running, and r*,max is significantly relaxed to the order of O (10-2˜10-1) in the inflation model with ?s and/or ?s˜+O (10-2) which are marginally preferred by the Planck 2015 data.

  12. Dynamic Scheduling of Pigeons for Delay Constrained Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Jiazhen; Li, Jiang; Burge, Legand

    Information collection in the disaster area is an important application of pigeon networks - a special type of delay tolerant networks (DTN). The aim of this paper is to explore highly efficient dynamic scheduling strategies of pigeons for such applications. The upper bound of traffic that can be supported under the deadline constraints for the basic on-demand strategy is given through the analysis. Based on the analysis, a waiting based packing strategy is introduced. Although the latter strategy could not change the maximum traffic rate that a pigeon can support, it improves the efficiency of the pigeon largely. The analytical results are verified by the simulations.

  13. Tight Bounds for the Performance of Longest in System Micah Adlery

    E-print Network

    Rosén, Adi

    of the model of adversarial queuing theory" pro- posed by Borodin et al. 9 , under which an adversary deterministic polynomial bounds on queue sizes and packet delays in the framework of adversarial queuing theory of adversarial queuing theory" introduced by Borodin et al. 9 . Informally, in this model an adversary can inject

  14. SR-ARQ Delay Statistics on N-State Markov Channels with finite Round Trip Delay

    E-print Network

    Rossi, Michele

    the statistics of the delivery delay, defined in the literature [1] as the sum of transmission delay and reSR-ARQ Delay Statistics on N-State Markov Channels with finite Round Trip Delay Michele Rossi,lbadia,mzorzi}@ing.unife.it Abstract-- In this paper the packet delay statistics of a fully reliable Selective Repeat (SR) ARQ scheme

  15. UWB delay and multiply receiver

    DOEpatents

    Dallum, Gregory E.; Pratt, Garth C.; Haugen, Peter C.; Romero, Carlos E.

    2013-09-10

    An ultra-wideband (UWB) delay and multiply receiver is formed of a receive antenna; a variable gain attenuator connected to the receive antenna; a signal splitter connected to the variable gain attenuator; a multiplier having one input connected to an undelayed signal from the signal splitter and another input connected to a delayed signal from the signal splitter, the delay between the splitter signals being equal to the spacing between pulses from a transmitter whose pulses are being received by the receive antenna; a peak detection circuit connected to the output of the multiplier and connected to the variable gain attenuator to control the variable gain attenuator to maintain a constant amplitude output from the multiplier; and a digital output circuit connected to the output of the multiplier.

  16. Least expected time paths in stochastic, time-varying transportation networks

    SciTech Connect

    Miller-Hooks, E.D.; Mahmassani, H.S.

    1999-06-01

    The authors consider stochastic, time-varying transportation networks, where the arc weights (arc travel times) are random variables with probability distribution functions that vary with time. Efficient procedures are widely available for determining least time paths in deterministic networks. In stochastic but time-invariant networks, least expected time paths can be determined by setting each random arc weight to its expected value and solving an equivalent deterministic problem. This paper addresses the problem of determining least expected time paths in stochastic, time-varying networks. Two procedures are presented. The first procedure determines the a priori least expected time paths from all origins to a single destination for each departure time in the peak period. The second procedure determines lower bounds on the expected times of these a priori least expected time paths. This procedure determines an exact solution for the problem where the driver is permitted to react to revealed travel times on traveled links en route, i.e. in a time-adaptive route choice framework. Modifications to each of these procedures for determining least expected cost (where cost is not necessarily travel time) paths and lower bounds on the expected costs of these paths are given. Extensive numerical tests are conducted to illustrate the algorithms` computational performance as well as the properties of the solution.

  17. Formation of "bound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nowak, K.; Kästner, M.; Miltner, A.

    2009-04-01

    During degradation of organic pollutants in soil, metabolites, microbial biomass, CO2and "bound" residues ("non-extractable" residues in soil organic matter) are formed. Enhanced transformation of these contaminants into "bound" residues has been proposed as an alternative remediation method for polluted soils. However, this kind of residues may pose a potential risk for the environment due to their chemical structure and possible remobilization under different conditions. Therefore particular attention is given actually to "bound" residues. Part of these non-extractable residues may be "biogenic," because microorganisms use the carbon from the pollutant to form their biomass components (fatty acids, amino acids, amino sugars), which subsequently may be incorporated into soil organic matter. Furthermore, the CO2 originating from mineralization of xenobiotics, can be re-assimilated by microorganisms and also incorporated into "biogenic residue". The hazard posed by "bound" residues may be overestimated because they are "biogenic" (contain microbial fatty acids and amino acids). The knowledge about the pathways of "biogenic residue" formation is necessary for a proper assessment of the fate of tested pollutants and their turnover in the soil environment. Moreover, these data are needed to establish the realistic degradation rates of the contaminants in soil. The main objectives of this study are: to quantify the extent of "biogenic residue" (fatty acids, amino acids, amino sugars) formation during the degradation of a model pollutant (2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid = 2,4-D) and during CO2 assimilation by microorganisms and to evaluate which components are mainly incorporated into "bound" residues. To investigate the extent of "biogenic residue" formation in soil during the degradation of 2,4-D, experiments with either 14C-U-ring and 13C6-2,4-D or carboxyl-14C 2,4-D were performed. The incubation experiments were performed according to OECD test guideline 307, in the dark, at constant temp 20Ë? C (+/-2Ë? C) and with intermittent aeration. During incubation, the mineralization was quantified and soil samples were analyzed for the presence of both "biogenic residues" and remaining 2,4-D. Mineralization of 2,4-D in both experiments was very high. However, the 14CO2 evolution was higher from carboxyl-14C 2,4-D than from 14C-ring 2,4-D. After 7 days of incubation, 30% of initial amount of 14C in soil contaminated with 14C-ring 2,4-D was mineralized, whereas 40% of total radioactivity was evolved as CO2after 4 days from soil incubated with 14C-carboxyl 2,4-D. The amount of extractable 2,4-D residues was very low in both experiments (14C-ring 2,4-D: 2% and 14C-carboxyl 2,4-D: 1%). The soil incubated with 14C-ring 2,4-D contained 60% of "non-extractable" residues of 2,4-D after 7 days, while the amount of these residues in soil contaminated with 14C-carboxyl 2,4-D reached 50% of the initial radioactivity in the tested system 4 days after application. More "biogenic residues" were formed in soil spiked with 14C-U-ring 2,4-D (10%) than in soil with carboxyl 14C 2,4-D (7%). Both 2,4-D and CO2-derived C were incorporated mainly into microbial amino acids (9.5% at day 7 and 7.0% at day 4, respectively). After 7 days of incubation, 0.5% of initial applied radioactivity in system was found in microbial lipids in the soil contaminated with 14C-ring 2,4-D. Only 0.1% of the total radioactivity was incorporated into lipids in soil treated with 14C-carboxyl 2,4-D on day 4 after application. Thin Layer Chromatography identified the microbial lipids containing the radioactivity as phosphatidylethanolamine, a phospholipid typical for microorganisms. The amount of microbial lipids (which corresponds to phospholipids) in both cases decreased with time; this can be explained by the death of the microbial biomass. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on the formation of &qu

  18. Race Gap in Life Expectancy Is Narrowing

    MedlinePLUS

    ... medlineplus/news/fullstory_155566.html Race Gap in Life Expectancy Is Narrowing: U.S. Study Difference is now ... Black Americans are catching up to whites in life expectancy -- largely due to declining rates of death ...

  19. Containment consensus with measurement noises and time-varying communication delays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Feng; Wang, Zheng-Jie; Fan, Ning-Jun

    2015-02-01

    In this paper, we consider the containment consensus control problem for multi-agent systems with measurement noises and time-varying communication delays under directed networks. By using stochastic analysis tools and algebraic graph theory, we prove that the followers can converge to the convex hull spanned by the leaders in the sense of mean square if the allowed upper bound of the time-varying delays satisfies a certain sufficient condition. Moreover, the time-varying delays are asymmetric for each follower agent, and the time-delay-dependent consensus condition is derived. Finally, numerical simulations are provided to illustrate the effectiveness of the obtained theoretical results. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 11102019), the Aeronautical Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 2013ZC72006), and the Research Foundation of Beijing Institute of Technology, China.

  20. Interpersonal Expectancy Effects: A Forty Year Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenthal, Robert

    Interpersonal expectancy effects--the unintentional expectations that experimenters, teachers, and authority figures bring to experiments, classrooms, and other situations--can wield significant influence on individuals. Some of the issues surrounding expectancy effects are detailed in this paper. The effect itself has been recreated in…

  1. Are Grade Expectations Rational? A Classroom Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hossain, Belayet; Tsigaris, Panagiotis

    2015-01-01

    This study examines students' expectations about their final grade. An attempt is made to determine whether students form expectations rationally. Expectations in economics, rational or otherwise, carry valuable information and have important implications in terms of both teaching effectiveness and the role of grades as an incentive structure…

  2. Optimistic Expectancies and Cell-Mediated Immunity: The Role of Positive Affect

    PubMed Central

    Segerstrom, Suzanne C.; Sephton, Sandra E.

    2014-01-01

    Optimistic expectancies affect many psychosocial outcomes and may also predict immune system changes and health, but the nature and mechanisms of any such physiological effects have not been identified. The present study related law-school expectancies to cell-mediated immunity (CMI), examining the within- and between-person components of this relationship and affective mediators. First-year law students (N = 124) completed questionnaire measures of expectancies and affect and received delayed-type hypersensitivity skin tests at five time points. A positive relationship between optimistic expectancies and CMI occurred, in which that changes in optimism correlated with changes in CMI. Likewise, changes in optimism predicted changes in positive and, to a lesser degree, negative affect, but the relationship between optimism and immunity was partially accounted for only by positive affect. This dynamic relationship between expectancies and immunity has positive implications for psychological interventions to improve health, particularly those that increase positive affect. PMID:20424083

  3. Northwest Outward Bound Instructor's Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Northwest Outward Bound School, Portland, OR.

    Instructor responsibilities, procedures for completing activities safely, and instructional methods and techniques are outlined to assist instructors in the Northwest Outward Bound School (Portland, Oregon) as they strive for teaching excellence. Information is organized into six chapters addressing: history and philosophy of Outward Bound; course…

  4. Metabolism of organically bound tritium

    SciTech Connect

    Travis, C.C.

    1984-01-01

    The classic methodology for estimating dose to man from environmental tritium ignores the fact that organically bound tritium in foodstuffs may be directly assimilated in the bound compartment of tissues without previous oxidation. We propose a four-compartment model consisting of a free body water compartment, two organic compartments, and a small, rapidly metabolizing compartment. The utility of this model lies in the ability to input organically bound tritium in foodstuffs directly into the organic compartments of the model. We found that organically bound tritium in foodstuffs can increase cumulative total body dose by a factor of 1.7 to 4.5 times the free body water dose alone, depending on the bound-to-loose ratio of tritium in the diet. Model predictions are compared with empirical measurements of tritium in human urine and tissue samples, and appear to be in close agreement. 10 references, 4 figures, 3 tables.

  5. Reward expectancy-related prefrontal neuronal activities: are they neural substrates of "affective" working memory?

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Masataka; Hikosaka, Kazuo; Sakagami, Masamichi; Shirakawa, Shu-ichiro

    2007-01-01

    Primate prefrontal delay neurons are involved in retaining task-relevant cognitive information in working memory (WM). Recent studies have also revealed primate prefrontal delay neurons that are related to reward/omission-of-reward expectancy. Such reward-related delay activities might constitute "affective WM" (Davidson, 2002). "Affective" and "cognitive" WM are both concerned with representing not what is currently being presented, but rather what was presented previously or might be presented in the future. However, according to the original and widely accepted definition, WM is the "temporary storage and manipulation of information for complex cognitive tasks". Reward/omission-of-reward expectancy-related neuronal activity is neither prerequisite nor essential for accurate task performance; thus, such activity is not considered to comprise the neural substrates of WM. Also, "affective WM" might not be an appropriate usage of the term "WM". We propose that WM- and reward/omission-of-reward expectancy-related neuronal activity are concerned with representing which response should be performed in order to attain a goal (reward) and the goal of the response, respectively. We further suggest that the prefrontal cortex (PFC) plays a crucial role in the integration of cognitive (for example, WM-related) and motivational (for example, reward expectancy-related) operations for goal-directed behaviour. The PFC could then send this integrated information to other brain areas to control the behaviour. PMID:17334207

  6. Characteristics of a Delayed System with Time-dependent Delay Time

    E-print Network

    Won-Ho Kye; Muhan Choi; Sunghwan Rim; M. S. Kurdoglyan; Chil-Min Kim; Young-Jai Park

    2004-05-11

    The characteristics of a time-delayed system with time-dependent delay time is investigated. We demonstrate the nonlinearity characteristics of the time-delayed system are significantly changed depending on the properties of time-dependent delay time and especially that the reconstructed phase trajectory of the system is not collapsed into simple manifold, differently from the delayed system with fixed delay time. We discuss the possibility of a phase space reconstruction and its applications.

  7. Local Effects of Delayed Food

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davison, Michael; Baum, William M.

    2007-01-01

    Five pigeons were trained on a procedure in which seven concurrent variable-interval schedules arranged seven different food-rate ratios in random sequence in each session. Each of these components lasted for 10 response-produced food deliveries, and components were separated by 10-s blackouts. We varied delays to food (signaled by blackout)…

  8. Tooth formation - delayed or absent

    MedlinePLUS

    ... at which the tooth comes in varies. Most infants get their first tooth between 6 and 9 months, but it may ... in"? What other symptoms are also present? An infant with delayed or absent tooth formation may have other symptoms and signs that ...

  9. Prior expectations facilitate metacognition for perceptual decision.

    PubMed

    Sherman, M T; Seth, A K; Barrett, A B; Kanai, R

    2015-09-01

    The influential framework of 'predictive processing' suggests that prior probabilistic expectations influence, or even constitute, perceptual contents. This notion is evidenced by the facilitation of low-level perceptual processing by expectations. However, whether expectations can facilitate high-level components of perception remains unclear. We addressed this question by considering the influence of expectations on perceptual metacognition. To isolate the effects of expectation from those of attention we used a novel factorial design: expectation was manipulated by changing the probability that a Gabor target would be presented; attention was manipulated by instructing participants to perform or ignore a concurrent visual search task. We found that, independently of attention, metacognition improved when yes/no responses were congruent with expectations of target presence/absence. Results were modeled under a novel Bayesian signal detection theoretic framework which integrates bottom-up signal propagation with top-down influences, to provide a unified description of the mechanisms underlying perceptual decision and metacognition. PMID:25973773

  10. Rapid Expectation Adaptation during Syntactic Comprehension

    PubMed Central

    Fine, Alex B.; Jaeger, T. Florian; Farmer, Thomas A.; Qian, Ting

    2013-01-01

    When we read or listen to language, we are faced with the challenge of inferring intended messages from noisy input. This challenge is exacerbated by considerable variability between and within speakers. Focusing on syntactic processing (parsing), we test the hypothesis that language comprehenders rapidly adapt to the syntactic statistics of novel linguistic environments (e.g., speakers or genres). Two self-paced reading experiments investigate changes in readers’ syntactic expectations based on repeated exposure to sentences with temporary syntactic ambiguities (so-called “garden path sentences”). These sentences typically lead to a clear expectation violation signature when the temporary ambiguity is resolved to an a priori less expected structure (e.g., based on the statistics of the lexical context). We find that comprehenders rapidly adapt their syntactic expectations to converge towards the local statistics of novel environments. Specifically, repeated exposure to a priori unexpected structures can reduce, and even completely undo, their processing disadvantage (Experiment 1). The opposite is also observed: a priori expected structures become less expected (even eliciting garden paths) in environments where they are hardly ever observed (Experiment 2). Our findings suggest that, when changes in syntactic statistics are to be expected (e.g., when entering a novel environment), comprehenders can rapidly adapt their expectations, thereby overcoming the processing disadvantage that mistaken expectations would otherwise cause. Our findings take a step towards unifying insights from research in expectation-based models of language processing, syntactic priming, and statistical learning. PMID:24204909

  11. Delayed Neutron and Delayed Photon Characteristics from Photofission of Actinides

    SciTech Connect

    Dore, D.; Berthoumieux, E.; Leprince, A.; Ridikas, D.

    2011-12-13

    Delayed neutron (DN) and delayed photon (DP) emissions from photofission reactions play an important role for applications involving nuclear material detection and characterization. To provide new, accurate, basic nuclear data for evaluations and data libraries, an experimental programme of DN and DP measurements has been undertaken for actinides with bremsstrahlung endpoint energy in the giant resonance region ({approx}15 MeV). In this paper, the experimental setup and the data analysis method will be described. Experimental results for DN and DP characteristics will be presented for {sup 232}Th, {sup 235,238}U, {sup 237}Np, and {sup 239}Pu. Finally, an example of an application to study the contents of nuclear waste packages will be briefly discussed.

  12. Can Large Time Delays Observed in Light Curves of Coronal Loops be Explained by Impulsive Heating?

    E-print Network

    Lionello, Roberto; Winebarger, Amy R; Linker, Jon A; Miki?, Zoran

    2015-01-01

    The light curves of solar coronal loops often peak first in channels associated with higher temperatures and then in those associated with lower. The time delays between the different narrowband EUV channels have been measured for many individual loops and recently for every pixel of an active region observation. Time delays between channels for an active region exhibit a wide range of values, with maxima $>$ 5,000\\,s. These large time delays make up 3-26\\% (depending on the channel pair) of the pixels where a significant, positive time delay is measured. It has been suggested that time delays can be explained by impulsive heating. In this paper, we investigate whether the largest observed time delays can be explained by this hypothesis by simulating a series of coronal loops with different heating rates, loop lengths, abundances, and geometries to determine the range of expected time delays between a set of four EUV channels. We find that impulsive heating cannot address the largest time delays observed in t...

  13. Experimental Activation of Bound Entanglement

    E-print Network

    Fumihiro Kaneda; Ryosuke Shimizu; Satoshi Ishizaka; Yasuyoshi Mitsumori; Hideo Kosaka; Keiichi Edamatsu

    2011-11-26

    Entanglement is one of the essential resources in quantum information and communication technology (QICT). The entanglement thus far explored and applied to QICT has been pure and distillable entanglement. Yet there is another type of entanglement, called 'bound entanglement', which is not distillable by local operations and classical communication (LOCC). We demonstrate the experimental 'activation' of the bound entanglement held in the four-qubit Smolin state, unleashing its immanent entanglement in distillable form, with the help of auxiliary two-qubit entanglement and LOCC. We anticipate that it opens the way to a new class of QICT applications that utilize more general classes of entanglement than ever, including bound entanglement.

  14. Uncertainty evaluation of delayed neutron decay parameters 

    E-print Network

    Wang, Jinkai

    2009-05-15

    In a nuclear reactor, delayed neutrons play a critical role in sustaining a controllable chain reaction. Delayed neutron’s relative yields and decay constants are very important for modeling reactivity control and have ...

  15. Apparent enrichment of organically bound tritium in rivers explained by the heritage of our past.

    PubMed

    Eyrolle-Boyer, Frédérique; Boyer, Patrick; Claval, David; Charmasson, Sabine; Cossonnet, Catherine

    2014-10-01

    The global inventory of naturally produced tritium (3H) is estimated at 2.65 kg, whereas more than 600 kg have been released during atmospheric nuclear tests (NCRP, 1979; UNSCEAR, 2000) constituting the main source of artificial tritium throughout the Anthropocene. The behaviour of this radioactive isotope in the environment has been widely studied since the 1950s, both through laboratory experiments and, more recently, through field observations (e.g., Cline, 1953; Kirchmann et al., 1979; Daillant et al., 2004; McCubbin et al., 2001; Kim et al., 2012). In its "free" forms, [i.e. 3H gas or 3H hydride (HT); methyl 3H gas (CH3T); tritiated H2O or 3H-oxide (HTO); and Tissue Free Water 3H (TFWT)], tritium closely follows the water cycle. However, 3H bound with organic compounds, mainly during the basic stages of photosynthesis or through weak hydrogen links, is less exchangeable with water, which explains its persistence in the carbon cycle as re underlined recently by Baglan et al. (2013), Jean-Batiste and Fourré (2013), Kim et al. (2013a,b). In this paper, we demonstrate that terrestrial biomass pools, historically contaminated by global atmospheric fallout from nuclear testing, have constituted a significant delayed source of organically bound tritium (OBT) for aquatic systems, resulting in an apparent enrichment of OBT as compared to HTO. This finding helps to explain concentration factors (tritium concentration in biota/concentration in water) greater than 1 observed in areas that are not directly affected by industrial radioactive wastes, and thus sheds light on the controversies regarding tritium 'bioaccumulation'. Such apparent enrichment of OBT is expected to be more pronounced in the Northern Hemisphere where fallout was most significant, depending on the nature and biodegradability of terrestrial biomass at the regional scale. We further believe that OBT transfers from the continent to oceans have been sufficient to affect tritium concentrations in coastal marine biota (i.e., near river inputs). Our findings demonstrate that the persistence of terrestrial organic (3)H explains imbalances between organically bound tritium and free (3)H in most river systems in particular those not impacted by releases from nuclear facilities. PMID:24956583

  16. Expectancy and Repetition in Task Preparation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruthruff, E.; Remington, R. W.; Johnston, James C.; Null, Cynthia H. (Technical Monitor)

    1996-01-01

    We studied the mechanisms of task preparation using a design that pitted task expectancy against task repetition. In one experiment, two simple cognitive tasks were presented in a predictable sequence containing both repetitions and non-repetitions. The typical task sequence was AABBAABB. Occasional violations of this sequence allowed us to measure the effects of valid versus invalid expectancy. With this design, we were able to study the effects of task expectancy, task repetition, and interaction.

  17. Home Visitation Assessing Progress, Managing Expectations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daro, Deborah

    2006-01-01

    Early intervention efforts to promote healthy child development have long been a central feature of social service and public health reforms. Today, prenatal care, well-baby visits, and assessments to detect possible developmental delays are commonplace in most communities. Recently, child abuse prevention advocates have applied a developmental…

  18. Price regulation and relative delays in generic drug adoption.

    PubMed

    Costa-Font, Joan; McGuire, Alistair; Varol, Nebibe

    2014-12-01

    Increasing the adoption of generic drugs has the potential to improve static efficiency in a health system without harming pharmaceutical innovation. However, very little is known about the timing of generic adoption and diffusion. No prior study has empirically examined the differential launch times of generics across a comprehensive set of markets, or more specifically the delays in country specific adoption of generics relative to the first country of (generic) adoption. Drawing on data containing significant country and product variation across a lengthy time period (1999-2008), we use duration analysis to examine relative delays, across countries, in the adoption of generic drugs. Our results suggest that price regulation has a significant effect on reducing the time to launch of generics, with faster adoption in higher priced markets. The latter result is dependent on the degree of competition and the expected market size. PMID:25200940

  19. Equilibrium and Disequilibrium Dynamics in Cobweb Models with Time Delays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gori, Luca; Guerrini, Luca; Sodini, Mauro

    2015-06-01

    This paper aims to study price dynamics in two different continuous time cobweb models with delays close to [Hommes, 1994]. In both cases, the stationary equilibrium may be not representative of the long-term dynamics of the model, since it is possible to observe endogenous and persistent fluctuations (supercritical Hopf bifurcations) even if a deterministic context without external shocks is considered. In the model in which markets are in equilibrium every time, we show that the existence of time delays in the expectations formation mechanism may cause chaotic dynamics similar to those obtained in [Hommes, 1994] in a discrete time context. From a mathematical point of view, we apply the Poincaré-Lindstedt perturbation method to study the local dynamic properties of the models. In addition, several numerical experiments are used to investigate global properties of the systems.

  20. Understanding Housing Delays and Relocations Within the Housing First Model.

    PubMed

    Zerger, Suzanne; Pridham, Katherine Francombe; Jeyaratnam, Jeyagobi; Hwang, Stephen W; O'Campo, Patricia; Kohli, Jaipreet; Stergiopoulos, Vicky

    2016-01-01

    This study explores factors contributing to delays and relocations during the implementation of the Housing First model in Toronto, Ontario. While interruptions in housing tenure are expected en route to recovery and housing stability, consumer and service provider views on finding and keeping housing remain largely unknown. In-person interviews and focus groups were conducted with 48 study participants, including 23 case managers or housing workers and 25 consumers. The following three factors contributed to housing delays and transfers: (1) the effectiveness of communication and collaboration among consumers and service providers, (2) consumer-driven preferences and ambivalence, and (3) provider prioritization of consumer choice over immediate housing access. Two strategies-targeted communications and consumer engagement in housing searches-supported the housing process. Several factors affect the timing and stability of housing. Communication between and among providers and consumers, and a shared understanding of consumer choice, can further support choice and recovery. PMID:24807648

  1. Delay locked loop integrated circuit.

    SciTech Connect

    Brocato, Robert Wesley

    2007-10-01

    This report gives a description of the development of a Delay Locked Loop (DLL) integrated circuit (IC). The DLL was developed and tested as a stand-alone IC test chip to be integrated into a larger application specific integrated circuit (ASIC), the Quadrature Digital Waveform Synthesizer (QDWS). The purpose of the DLL is to provide a digitally programmable delay to enable synchronization between an internal system clock and external peripherals with unknown clock skew. The DLL was designed and fabricated in the IBM 8RF process, a 0.13 {micro}m CMOS process. It was designed to operate with a 300MHz clock and has been tested up to 500MHz.

  2. Synchronization by small time delays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pruessner, G.; Cheang, S.; Jensen, H. J.

    2015-02-01

    Synchronization is a phenomenon observed in all of the living and in much of the non-living world, for example in the heart beat, Huygens' clocks, the flashing of fireflies and the clapping of audiences. Depending on the number of degrees of freedom involved, different mathematical approaches have been used to describe it, most prominently integrate-and-fire oscillators and the Kuramoto model of coupled oscillators. In the present work, we study a very simple and general system of smoothly evolving oscillators, which continue to interact even in the synchronized state. We find that under very general circumstances, synchronization generically occurs in the presence of a (small) time delay. Strikingly, the synchronization time is inversely proportional to the time delay.

  3. Time delay and distance measurement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abshire, James B. (Inventor); Sun, Xiaoli (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A method for measuring time delay and distance may include providing an electromagnetic radiation carrier frequency and modulating one or more of amplitude, phase, frequency, polarization, and pointing angle of the carrier frequency with a return to zero (RZ) pseudo random noise (PN) code. The RZ PN code may have a constant bit period and a pulse duration that is less than the bit period. A receiver may detect the electromagnetic radiation and calculate the scattering profile versus time (or range) by computing a cross correlation function between the recorded received signal and a three-state RZ PN code kernel in the receiver. The method also may be used for pulse delay time (i.e., PPM) communications.

  4. Articulatory Preparation in the Delayed Naming Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kawamoto, Alan H.; Liu, Qiang; Mura, Keith; Sanchez, Adrianna

    2008-01-01

    The assumptions that acoustic onset must follow articulatory onset by a fixed delay and that response execution level processes are always effectively isolated in the delayed naming task were investigated with respect to the issue of articulatory preparation in three experiments. The results of these experiments showed that for the delayed naming…

  5. Direct-reading group-delay measurement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trowbridge, D. L.

    1978-01-01

    Technique for measuring modulation signal retardation in microwave components gives direct plot of dependence of delay time on carrier frequency. Recorder sensitivity can be adjusted to give convenient scale factor for group delay. From family of such recordings, it is possible to observe changes in group delay due to temperature, mechanical stress, and other factors.

  6. Introduction Linear Two-Delay Differential Equation

    E-print Network

    Mahaffy, Joseph M.

    Introduction Linear Two-Delay Differential Equation Return to Example Discussion Increased Regions of Stability for a Two-Delay Differential Equation UBC ­ IAM Seminar Joseph M. Mahaffy jmahaffy@mail.sdsu.edu UBC ­ IAM Seminar -- (1/57) #12;Introduction Linear Two-Delay Differential Equation Return to Example

  7. Children's Delay of Gratification and Preschool Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scoville, Satsuki; Chambliss, Catherine

    This study investigated the relationship between delay of gratification and preschool performance in 20 students aged 4 and 5 years old, and enrolled in a Head Start program. Gratification delay was measured through an experiment that allowed the students to choose between a smaller immediate reward or a larger delayed reward. Preschool…

  8. Imposed Inhibition and Delay of Gratification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nisan, Mordecai

    1974-01-01

    Presents a study in which 128 children, from preschool to third grade, chose between an immediate reward and a larger, delayed reward. Imposed delay of response led to more choices to the delayed reward in second graders, but did not affect the choices of younger or older children. (Author/SDH)

  9. Delayed-Dictionary Compression for Packet Networks

    E-print Network

    Matias, Yossi

    Delayed-Dictionary Compression for Packet Networks Yossi Matias School of Computer Science Tel-Aviv University, Israel matias@post.tau.ac.il Raanan Refua School of Computer Science Tel-Aviv University, Israel algorithm for packet networks: delayed-dictionary compression. By allowing delay in the dictionary

  10. Research Article Individual Differences in Delay

    E-print Network

    , Washington University ABSTRACT--Lower delay discounting (better self-control) is linked to higher- related neural activity (using functional magnetic reso- nance imaging) in 103 healthy adults. Delay discounting was negatively correlated with g and WM. WM explained no variance in delay discounting beyond

  11. Task Experience and Attitudes Toward Delaying Reward

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodman, Paul S.; Theodore, Eustace D.

    1973-01-01

    High school students were hired to work on a door-to-door selling task, so designed that delaying a sale produced a larger sales commission. Subjects who recognized and selected a delayed strategy in the task shifted toward a preference for delaying reward. (Authors)

  12. Contingency Tracking during Unsignaled Delayed Reinforcement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keely, Josue; Feola, Tyler; Lattal, Kennon A.

    2007-01-01

    Three experiments were conducted with rats in which responses on one lever (labeled the functional lever) produced reinforcers after an unsignaled delay period that reset with each response during the delay. Responses on a second, nonfunctional, lever did not initiate delays, but, in the first and third experiments, such responses during the last…

  13. A Note on Auslander Bounds

    E-print Network

    Wei, Jiaqun

    2008-01-01

    We investigate the basic properties of Auslander bounds and give some methods to calculate them. The results obtained in this way are connected with some homoloagical conjectures, e.g., finitistic Auslander Conjecture.

  14. Method for calcining delayed coke

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, J.H.

    1981-02-17

    Delayed petroleum coke is calcined in an internally-fired vertical shaft kiln. A downwardly-moving bed of green coke is preheated in the top of the kiln by rising combustion gases, then heat soaked at calcining temperatures in the intermediate section of the kiln, and finally cooled by recycle gas moving upwardly from the lower part of the kiln. Partially cooled calcined coke is recovered from the bottom of the kiln.

  15. Delayed recombination and standard rulers

    SciTech Connect

    De Bernardis, Francesco; Melchiorri, Alessandro; Bean, Rachel; Galli, Silvia; Silk, Joseph I.; Verde, Licia

    2009-02-15

    Measurements of baryonic acoustic oscillations (BAOs) in galaxy surveys have been recognized as a powerful tool for constraining dark energy. However, this method relies on the knowledge of the size of the acoustic horizon at recombination derived from cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropy measurements. This estimate is typically derived assuming a standard recombination scheme; additional radiation sources can delay recombination altering the cosmic ionization history and the cosmological inferences drawn from CMB and BAO data. In this paper we quantify the effect of delayed recombination on the determination of dark energy parameters from future BAO surveys such as the Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey and the Wide-Field Multi-Object Spectrograph. We find the impact to be small but still not negligible. In particular, if recombination is nonstandard (to a level still allowed by CMB data), but this is ignored, future surveys may incorrectly suggest the presence of a redshift-dependent dark energy component. On the other hand, in the case of delayed recombination, adding to the analysis one extra parameter describing deviations from standard recombination does not significantly degrade the error bars on dark energy parameters and yields unbiased estimates. This is due to the CMB-BAO complementarity.

  16. Delayed Recombination and Standard Rulers

    E-print Network

    Francesco De Bernardis; Rachel Bean; Silvia Galli; Alessandro Melchiorri; Joseph Silk; Licia Verde

    2008-12-18

    Measurements of Baryonic Acoustic Oscillations in galaxy surveys have been recognized as a powerful tool for constraining dark energy. However, this method relies on the knowledge of the size of the acoustic horizon at recombination derived from Cosmic Microwave Background Anisotropy measurements. This estimate is typically derived assuming a standard recombination scheme; additional radiation sources can delay recombination altering the cosmic ionization history and the cosmological inferences drawn from CMB and BAO data. In this paper we quantify the effect of delayed recombination on the determination of dark energy parameters from future BAO surveys such as BOSS and WFMOS. We find the impact to be small but still not negligible. In particular, if recombination is non-standard (to a level still allowed by CMB data), but this is ignored, future surveys may incorrectly suggest the presence of a redshift dependent dark energy component. On the other hand, in the case of delayed recombination, adding to the analysis one extra parameter describing deviations from standard recombination, does not significantly degrade the error-bars on dark energy parameters and yields unbiased estimates.

  17. Pancreaticoduodenectomy: expected post-operative anatomy and complications

    PubMed Central

    Lavelle, L P; Hoare, S M; O'Neill, A C; Awan, F N; Malone, D E; Ryan, E R; McCann, J W; Heffernan, E J

    2014-01-01

    Pancreaticoduodenectomy is a complex, high-risk surgical procedure performed for tumours of the pancreatic head and other periampullary structures. The rate of perioperative mortality has decreased in the past number of years but perioperative morbidity remains high. This pictorial review illustrates expected findings in early and late post-operative periods, including mimickers of pathology. It aims to familiarize radiologists with the imaging appearances of common and unusual post-operative complications. These are classified into early non-vascular complications such as delayed gastric emptying, post-operative collections, pancreatic fistulae and bilomas; late non-vascular complications, for example, biliary strictures and hepatic abscesses; and vascular complications including haemorrhage and ischaemia. Options for minimally invasive image-guided management of vascular and non-vascular complications are discussed. Familiarity with normal anatomic findings is essential in order to distinguish expected post-operative change from surgical complications or recurrent disease. This review summarizes the normal and abnormal radiological findings following pancreaticoduodenectomy. PMID:25026968

  18. Timing-Based Delay Test for Screening Small Delay Nisar Ahmed, Mohammad Tehranipoor

    E-print Network

    Tehranipoor, Mohammad

    on their least slack path and the detectable delay defect size. A new delay defect size metric based clock domain at a time). This shows that a delay defect will be detected only when it causes failure. The detection of small delay defects on long paths is a quality is- sue. For a particular defect

  19. ADHD and Delay Aversion: The Influence of Non-Temporal Stimulation on Choice for Delayed Rewards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Antrop, Inge; Stock, Pieter; Verte, Sylvie; Wiersema, Jan Roelt; Baeyens, Dieter; Roeyers, Herbert

    2006-01-01

    Background: Delay aversion, the motivation to escape or avoid delay, results in preference for small immediate over large delayed rewards. Delay aversion has been proposed as one distinctive psychological process that may underlie the behavioural symptoms and cognitive deficits of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Furthermore, the…

  20. New aspects of leptogenesis bounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blanchet, Steve; Di Bari, Pasquale

    2009-01-01

    We present a general analysis that reveals new aspects of the leptogenesis bounds on neutrino masses and on the reheat temperature of the Universe. After revisiting a known effect coming from an unbounded term in the total CP asymmetry, we show that an unbounded term in the flavored CP asymmetries has a stronger impact. It relaxes the lower bound on the reheat temperature down to 10 GeV for (M-M)/M=O(1-100) and for a mild tuning of the parameters in the see-saw orthogonal matrix. We also consider the effect of the Higgs asymmetry, showing that it lowers the upper bound on the neutrino masses in the so-called fully flavored regime where classic Boltzmann equations can be used. Imposing independence of the initial conditions contributes to lower the upper bound on neutrino masses as well. We study the conditions for the validity of the usual N-dominated scenario and for the applicability of the lower bound on the lightest right-handed (RH) neutrino mass M. We find that except for the two effective RH neutrino scenario, recovered for M?10 GeV, and for values Mbound on M more stringent for (M-M)/M=O(0.1).

  1. Leverage Expectations and Bond Credit Spreads

    E-print Network

    Flannery, Mark J.; Nikolova, Stanislava; Ö ztekin, Ö zde

    2012-08-04

    In an efficient market, spreads will reflect both the issuer’s current risk and investors’ expectations about how that risk might change over time. Collin-Dufresne and Goldstein (2001) show analytically that a firm’s expected future leverage...

  2. Trends in Life Expectancy in Wellbeing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perenboom, R. J. M.; Van Herten, L. M.; Boshuizen, H. C.; Van Den Bos, G. A. M.

    2004-01-01

    Objectives: This paper describes and discusses trends in life expectancy in wellbeing between 1989 and 1998. Methods: Data on wellbeing by the Bradburn Affect Balance Scale is obtained from the Netherlands Continuous Health Interview Surveys for the calendar years from 1989 to 1998. Using Sullivan's method, life expectancy in wellbeing is…

  3. Do Students Expect Compensation for Wage Risk?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schweri, Juerg; Hartog, Joop; Wolter, Stefan C.

    2011-01-01

    We use a unique data set about the wage distribution that Swiss students expect for themselves ex ante, deriving parametric and non-parametric measures to capture expected wage risk. These wage risk measures are unfettered by heterogeneity which handicapped the use of actual market wage dispersion as risk measure in earlier studies. Students in…

  4. Rising Tides: Faculty Expectations of Library Websites

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nicol, Erica Carlson; O'English, Mark

    2012-01-01

    Looking at 2003-2009 LibQUAL+ responses at research-oriented universities in the United States, faculty library users report a significant and consistent rise in desires and expectations for library-provided online tools and websites, even as student user groups show declining or leveling expectations. While faculty, like students, also report…

  5. The Expectant Reader in Theory and Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fowler, Lois Josephs; McCormick, Kathleen

    1986-01-01

    Offers a method of using reader response theory that emphasizes the expectations about a text and how those expectations are fulfilled or deflated. Specifically, students read traditional fables, fairy tales, and parables, and compare them to contemporary works such as Kafka's "Metamorphosis" and Marquez's "The Very Old Man With Enormous Wings."…

  6. Grief Experiences and Expectance of Suicide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wojtkowiak, Joanna; Wild, Verena; Egger, Jos

    2012-01-01

    Suicide is generally viewed as an unexpected cause of death. However, some suicides might be expected to a certain extent, which needs to be further studied. The relationships between expecting suicide, feeling understanding for the suicide, and later grief experiences were explored. In total, 142 bereaved participants completed the Grief…

  7. 47 CFR 90.743 - Renewal expectancy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Renewal expectancy. 90.743 Section 90.743 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES PRIVATE LAND MOBILE RADIO SERVICES Regulations Governing Licensing and Use of Frequencies in the 220-222 MHz Band § 90.743 Renewal expectancy. (a)...

  8. Alcohol expectancies in a Native American population.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Andrade, C; Wall, T L; Ehlers, C L

    1996-11-01

    Native Americans, as a group, have a high prevalence of alcohol abuse and alcohol dependence, although specific risk factors for alcoholism among this population have yet to be clearly identified. One set of factors that may contribute to the development of alcoholism are expectations of alcohol's effects. Previous research has shown that heavy drinkers and alcoholics have higher alcohol-related expectancies. Some studies have also shown an association between alcohol expectancies and a positive familial history of alcoholism. To examine factors that are related to expectations of alcohol's effects in a Native American population, this study evaluated healthy, nonalcoholic Mission Indian men between the ages of 18 and 25 years using the short form of the Alcohol Expectancy Questionnaire (AEQ). The influence of recent drinking history, family history of alcoholism, and degree of Native American heritage on alcohol-related expectancies was determined using regression analyses for the total AEQ score and for each of the six AEQ subscales. Recent drinking history accounted for a significant proportion of the variance in the total score, as well as scale I (global positive changes) and scale VI (arousal and power) of the AEQ. Degree of Native American heritage and family history of alcoholism did not account for a significant amount of variability in alcohol expectancies. These results suggest that, consistent with findings in other populations, alcohol expectancies are related to drinking patterns in Mission Indians. However, no association with two other potential risk factors were found in this sample of Native Americans. PMID:8947322

  9. Dynamically variable electronic delays for ultrasound imaging.

    PubMed

    Landini, L; Santarelli, F; Pomata, F; Verrazzani, L

    1991-11-01

    A novel programmable delay line system (Patent 67595-A/89 from the Ministero dell'Università e della Ricerca Scientifica e Tecnologica, Italy) for electronic control of delay profile in ultrasound real-time imaging systems is described. The line consists of a number of LC filters. The capacitance is obtained by using varicap diodes, so that electronic control over the desired depth is obtained by changing the diode inverse polarization voltage. This delay line exhibits a dramatic simplification and a broader time delay excursion than alternative techniques. Based on computer simulations, a delay line system was designed and integrated into an annular transducer-based echographic apparatus. PMID:1770806

  10. Delaying Orthostatic Syncope With Mental Challenge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goswami, Nandu; Roessler, Andreas; Hinghofer-Szalkay, Helmut; Montani, Jean-Pierre; Steptoe, Andrew

    2012-07-01

    At orthostatic vasovagal syncope there appears to be a sudden withdrawl of sympathetic activity. As mental challenge activates the sympathetic system, we hypothesized that doing mental arithmetic in volunteers driven to the end point of their cardiovascular stability may delay the onset of orthostatic syncope. We investigated this in healthy male subjects. Each subject underwent a head up tilt (HUT) + graded lower body negative pressure (LBNP) up to presyncope session (control) to determine the orthostatic tolerance time, OTT (Time from HUT commencement to development of presyncopal symptoms/signs). Once the tolerance time was known, a randomized crossover protocol was used: either 1) Repeat HUT + LBNP to ensure reproducibility of repeated run or 2) HUT + LBNP run but with added mental challenge (two min before the expected presyncope time). Test protocols were separated by two weeks. Our studies on five male test subjects indicate that mental challenge improves orthostatic tolerance significantly. Additional mental loading could be a useful countermeasure to alleviate the orthostatic responses of persons, particularly in those with histories of dizziness on standing up, or to alleviate hypotension that frequently occurs during hemodialysis or on return to earth from the spaceflight environment of microgravity.

  11. Time-domain nature of group delay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jian-Wu; Feng, Zheng-He

    2015-10-01

    The characteristic of group delay is analyzed based on an electronic circuit, and its time-domain nature is studied with time-domain simulation and experiment. The time-domain simulations and experimental results show that group delay is the delay of the energy center of the amplitude-modulated pulse, rather than the propagation delay of the electromagnetic field. As group velocity originates from the definition of group delay and group delay is different from the propagation delay, the superluminality or negativity of group velocity does not mean the superluminal or negative propagation of the electromagnetic field. Project supported by the National Basic Research Program of China (Grant No. 2013CB329002) and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 61371012).

  12. Fault simulation and test generation for small delay faults 

    E-print Network

    Qiu, Wangqi

    2007-04-25

    Delay faults are an increasingly important test challenge. Traditional delay fault models are incomplete in that they model only a subset of delay defect behaviors. To solve this problem, a more realistic delay fault model has been developed which...

  13. A normalized PID controller in networked control systems with varying time delays.

    PubMed

    Tran, Hoang-Dung; Guan, Zhi-Hong; Dang, Xuan-Kien; Cheng, Xin-Ming; Yuan, Fu-Shun

    2013-09-01

    It requires not only simplicity and flexibility but also high specified stability and robustness of system to design a PI/PID controller in such complicated networked control systems (NCSs) with delays. By gain and phase margins approach, this paper proposes a novel normalized PI/PID controller for NCSs based on analyzing the stability and robustness of system under the effect of network-induced delays. Specifically, We take into account the total measured network delays to formulate the gain and phase margins of the closed-loop system in the form of a set of equations. With pre-specified values of gain and phase margins, this set of equations is then solved for calculating the closed forms of control parameters which enable us to propose the normalized PI/PID controller simultaneously satisfying the following two requirements: (1) simplicity without re-solving the optimization problem for a new process, (2) high flexibility to cope with large scale of random delays and deal with many different processes in different conditions of network. Furthermore, in our method, the upper bound of random delay can be estimated to indicate the operating domain of proposed PI/PID controller. Finally, simulation results are shown to demonstrate the advantages of our proposed controller in many situations of network-induced delays. PMID:23810432

  14. An alternative derivation of the neutral atmospheric delay formula.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Haojian

    The integration methods along the chord pointed from source to receiver, which was proposed by Moritz (1967), are developed for various observation scenario. According to different accuracy requirements the mapping function is represented as a main term plus correction terms. An asymmetric atmospheric distribution is taken into account by means of a horizontal gradient compensation. The suggested procedures are expected to offer a high accuracy for the elevation angle down to below 10 degrees, and might be conveniently used both in modeling and in calculating the neutral atmospheric delays for different atmospheric profiles.

  15. Bounding the Heat Trace of a Calabi-Yau Manifold

    E-print Network

    Marc-Antoine Fiset; Johannes Walcher

    2015-06-28

    The SCHOK bound states that the number of marginal deformations of certain two-dimensional conformal field theories is bounded linearly from above by the number of relevant operators. In conformal field theories defined via sigma models into Calabi-Yau manifolds, relevant operators can be estimated, in the point-particle approximation, by the low-lying spectrum of the scalar Laplacian on the manifold. In the strict large volume limit, the standard asymptotic expansion of Weyl and Minakshisundaram-Pleijel diverges with the higher-order curvature invariants. We propose that it would be sufficient to find an a priori uniform bound on the trace of the heat kernel for large but finite volume. As a first step in this direction, we then study the heat trace asymptotics, as well as the actual spectrum of the scalar Laplacian, in the vicinity of a conifold singularity. The eigenfunctions can be written in terms of confluent Heun functions, the analysis of which gives evidence that regions of large curvature will not prevent the existence of a bound of this type. This is also in line with general mathematical expectations about spectral continuity for manifolds with conical singularities. A sharper version of our results could, in combination with the SCHOK bound, provide a basis for a global restriction on the dimension of the moduli space of Calabi-Yau manifolds.

  16. Bounding the heat trace of a Calabi-Yau manifold

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fiset, Marc-Antoine; Walcher, Johannes

    2015-09-01

    The SCHOK bound states that the number of marginal deformations of certain two-dimensional conformal field theories is bounded linearly from above by the number of relevant operators. In conformal field theories defined via sigma models into Calabi-Yau manifolds, relevant operators can be estimated, in the point-particle approximation, by the low-lying spectrum of the scalar Laplacian on the manifold. In the strict large volume limit, the standard asymptotic expansion of Weyl and Minakshisundaram-Pleijel diverges with the higher-order curvature invariants. We propose that it would be sufficient to find an a priori uniform bound on the trace of the heat kernel for large but finite volume. As a first step in this direction, we then study the heat trace asymptotics, as well as the actual spectrum of the scalar Laplacian, in the vicinity of a conifold singularity. The eigenfunctions can be written in terms of confluent Heun functions, the analysis of which gives evidence that regions of large curvature will not prevent the existence of a bound of this type. This is also in line with general mathematical expectations about spectral continuity for manifolds with conical singularities. A sharper version of our results could, in combination with the SCHOK bound, provide a basis for a global restriction on the dimension of the moduli space of Calabi-Yau manifolds.

  17. Measurement of Gravitational Lens Time Delays with LSST (SULI Paper)

    SciTech Connect

    Kirkby, Lowry Anna; /Oxford U. /SLAC

    2006-01-04

    The proposed Large Synoptic Survey Telescope will be the first to explore multiple dark energy probes simultaneously, including baryon acoustic oscillations, weak lensing, and strong gravitational lensing. The large data sample, covering the entire visible sky every few nights, will allow an unprecedented survey of deep supernova sources and their lensed images. The latter have not yet been observed. Notably, LSST will measure the time delays between different strong-lensed images of the same supernova. This will provide a unique probe of dark matter, dark energy, and the expansion rate of the Universe. By simulating LSST observations under realistic conditions, we determined the time delay precision of multiple images from a representative strong-lensed Type Ia supernova. The output of the simulation was a set of light curves according to field and filter, which were subsequently analyzed to determine the experimental time delays. We find that a time delay precision of better then 10% can be achieved under suitable conditions. Firstly, a minimum observed peak-magnitude of 22 is required for the lensed image, corresponding to an intrinsic source magnitude of about 24. The number of such supernova sources expected for LSST is under investigation, but it could amount to several thousand. Secondly, a minimum of about 50 visits per field is required, and, moreover, these visits must be evenly distributed over the duration of the event. The visit frequency should be approximately once per week, or better. Thirdly, the sky brightness should be below 21 magnitude arcsec{sup -2} to allow sufficient sensitivity to distance sources. Under the nominal LSST visiting schedule and field conditions, 15% of all fields satisfy these criteria, and allow time delay measurements of better than 10% precision. This performance can be further improved by fitting the predicted supernova light curves to the observations, rather than using the simple weighted mean as in the present study. Of the well-measured fields, 85% involve observations taken with the r filter, which has a wavelength acceptance that is well-matched to supernova spectra. This filter therefore represents the best choice for strong gravitational lens observations with LSST. Our primary conclusion is that the visiting schedule is the single most important parameter to optimize for time delay measurements, and, once a lensed supernova has been detected, that frequent, regular observations should be scheduled to search with the highest sensitivity for multiple, delayed lensed images.

  18. Viewing Majorana Bound States by Rabi Oscillations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhi; Liang, Qi-Feng; Yao, Dao-Xin; Hu, Xiao

    2015-07-01

    We propose to use Rabi oscillation as a probe to view the fractional Josepshon relation (FJR) associated with Majorana bound states (MBSs) expected in one-dimensional topological superconductors. The system consists of a quantum dot (QD) and an rf-SQUID with MBSs at the Josephson junction. Rabi oscillations between energy levels formed by MBSs are induced by ac gate voltage controlling the coupling between QD and MBS when the photon energy proportional to the ac frequency matches gap between quantum levels formed by MBSs and QD. As a manifestation of the Rabi oscillation in the whole system involving MBSs, the electron occupation on QD oscillates with time, which can be measured by charge sensing techniques. With Floquet theorem and numerical analysis we reveal that from the resonant driving frequency for coherent Rabi oscillation one can directly map out the FJR cos(??/?0) as a signature of MBSs, with ? the magnetic flux through SQUID and ?0?=?hc/2e the flux quantum. The present scheme is expected to provide a clear evidence for MBSs under intensive searching.

  19. Viewing Majorana Bound States by Rabi Oscillations.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhi; Liang, Qi-Feng; Yao, Dao-Xin; Hu, Xiao

    2015-01-01

    We propose to use Rabi oscillation as a probe to view the fractional Josepshon relation (FJR) associated with Majorana bound states (MBSs) expected in one-dimensional topological superconductors. The system consists of a quantum dot (QD) and an rf-SQUID with MBSs at the Josephson junction. Rabi oscillations between energy levels formed by MBSs are induced by ac gate voltage controlling the coupling between QD and MBS when the photon energy proportional to the ac frequency matches gap between quantum levels formed by MBSs and QD. As a manifestation of the Rabi oscillation in the whole system involving MBSs, the electron occupation on QD oscillates with time, which can be measured by charge sensing techniques. With Floquet theorem and numerical analysis we reveal that from the resonant driving frequency for coherent Rabi oscillation one can directly map out the FJR cos(??/?0) as a signature of MBSs, with ? the magnetic flux through SQUID and ?0?= hc/2e the flux quantum. The present scheme is expected to provide a clear evidence for MBSs under intensive searching. PMID:26153250

  20. Viewing Majorana Bound States by Rabi Oscillations

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhi; Liang, Qi-Feng; Yao, Dao-Xin; Hu, Xiao

    2015-01-01

    We propose to use Rabi oscillation as a probe to view the fractional Josepshon relation (FJR) associated with Majorana bound states (MBSs) expected in one-dimensional topological superconductors. The system consists of a quantum dot (QD) and an rf-SQUID with MBSs at the Josephson junction. Rabi oscillations between energy levels formed by MBSs are induced by ac gate voltage controlling the coupling between QD and MBS when the photon energy proportional to the ac frequency matches gap between quantum levels formed by MBSs and QD. As a manifestation of the Rabi oscillation in the whole system involving MBSs, the electron occupation on QD oscillates with time, which can be measured by charge sensing techniques. With Floquet theorem and numerical analysis we reveal that from the resonant driving frequency for coherent Rabi oscillation one can directly map out the FJR cos(??/?0) as a signature of MBSs, with ? the magnetic flux through SQUID and ?0?=?hc/2e the flux quantum. The present scheme is expected to provide a clear evidence for MBSs under intensive searching. PMID:26153250

  1. Modeling Job Lifespan Delays in Volunteer Computing Projects Trilce Estrada, Michela Taufer

    E-print Network

    Taufer, Michela

    University of Delaware {estrada, taufer}@udel.edu Kevin Reed IBM knreed@ibm.us.com Abstract Volunteer Computing (VC) projects harness the power of computers owned by volunteers across the Internet to perform important issue that can be affected by delays in job lifespan. Volunteers expect to be acknowledged

  2. 75 FR 45628 - Delayed Update of the HHS Poverty Guidelines for the Remainder of 2010

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-03

    ... SERVICES Office of the Secretary Delayed Update of the HHS Poverty Guidelines for the Remainder of 2010... update of the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) poverty guidelines for the remainder of 2010, and until the 2011 poverty guidelines are published, which is expected to occur in late January...

  3. Resource Slack and Propensity to Discount Delayed Investments of Time Versus Money

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zauberman, Gal; Lynch, John G.

    2005-01-01

    The authors demonstrate that people discount delayed outcomes as a result of perceived changes over time in supplies of slack. Slack is the perceived surplus of a given resource available to complete a focal task. The present research shows that, in general, people expect slack for time to be greater in the future than in the present. Typically,…

  4. Mutual information challenges entropy bounds

    E-print Network

    H. Casini

    2007-03-14

    We consider some formulations of the entropy bounds at the semiclassical level. The entropy S(V) localized in a region V is divergent in quantum field theory (QFT). Instead of it we focus on the mutual information I(V,W)=S(V)+S(W)-S(V\\cup W) between two different non-intersecting sets V and W. This is a low energy quantity, independent of the regularization scheme. In addition, the mutual information is bounded above by twice the entropy corresponding to the sets involved. Calculations of I(V,W) in QFT show that the entropy in empty space cannot be renormalized to zero, and must be actually very large. We find that this entropy due to the vacuum fluctuations violates the FMW bound in Minkowski space. The mutual information also gives a precise, cutoff independent meaning to the statement that the number of degrees of freedom increases with the volume in QFT. If the holographic bound holds, this points to the essential non locality of the physical cutoff. Violations of the Bousso bound would require conformal theories and large distances. We speculate that the presence of a small cosmological constant might prevent such a violation.

  5. Neural precursors of delayed insight.

    PubMed

    Darsaud, Annabelle; Wagner, Ullrich; Balteau, Evelyne; Desseilles, Martin; Sterpenich, Virginie; Vandewalle, Gilles; Albouy, Geneviève; Dang-Vu, Thanh; Collette, Fabienne; Boly, Melanie; Schabus, Manuel; Degueldre, Christian; Luxen, Andre; Maquet, Pierre

    2011-08-01

    The solution of a problem left unresolved in the evening can sometimes pop into mind as a sudden insight after a night of sleep in the following morning. Although favorable effects of sleep on insightful behavior have been experimentally confirmed, the neural mechanisms determining this delayed insight remain unknown. Here, using fMRI, we characterize the neural precursors of delayed insight in the number reduction task (NRT), in which a hidden task structure can be learned implicitly, but can also be recognized explicitly in an insightful process, allowing immediate qualitative improvement in task performance. Normal volunteers practiced the NRT during two fMRI sessions (training and retest), taking place 12 hours apart after a night of sleep. After this delay, half of the subjects gained insight into the hidden task structure ("solvers," S), whereas the other half did not ("nonsolvers," NS). Already at training, solvers and nonsolvers differed in their cerebral responses associated with implicit learning. In future solvers, responses were observed in the superior frontal sulcus, posterior parietal cortex, and the insula, three areas mediating controlled processes and supporting early learning and novice performance. In contrast, implicit learning was related to significant responses in the hippocampus in nonsolvers. Moreover, the hippocampus was functionally coupled with the basal ganglia in nonsolvers and with the superior frontal sulcus in solvers, thus potentially biasing participants' strategy towards implicit or controlled processes of memory encoding, respectively. Furthermore, in solvers but not in nonsolvers, response patterns were further transformed overnight, with enhanced responses in ventral medial prefrontal cortex, an area previously implicated in the consolidation of declarative memory. During retest in solvers, before they gain insight into the hidden rule, significant responses were observed in the same medial prefrontal area. After insight, a distributed set of parietal and frontal areas is recruited among which information concerning the hidden rule can be shared in a so-called global workspace. PMID:20666600

  6. Modeling of SAW Delay Lines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, William C.; Atkinson, Gary M.

    2007-01-01

    Integrated Vehicle Health Monitoring (IVHM) of aerospace vehicles requires rugged sensors having reduced volume, mass, and power that can be used to measure a variety of phenomena. Wireless systems are preferred when retro-fitting sensors onto existing vehicles. Surface Acoustic Wave (SAW) devices are capable of sensing: temperature, pressure, strain, chemical species, mass loading, acceleration, and shear stress. SAW technology is low cost, rugged, lightweight, and extremely low power. To aid in the development of SAW sensors for IVHM applications, a first order model of a SAW Delay line has been created.

  7. What to Expect during Heart Surgery

    MedlinePLUS

    ... the NHLBI on Twitter. What To Expect During Heart Surgery Heart surgery is done in a hospital, ... surgery, takes about 3–6 hours. Traditional Open-Heart Surgery For this type of surgery, you'll ...

  8. Classics in the Classroom: Great Expectations Fulfilled.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearl, Shela

    1986-01-01

    Describes how an English teacher in a Queens, New York, ghetto school introduced her grade nine students to Charles Dickens's "Great Expectations." Focuses on students' responses, which eventually became enthusiastic, and discusses the use of classics within the curriculum. (KH)

  9. Parental outcome expectations on children's TV viewing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Children's TV viewing has been associated with increased sedentary behavior and poor eating habits. Positive intervention effects have been observed when addressing outcome expectations as a mediator in interventions targeting children's dietary behavior. Little is known about parental outcome expec...

  10. What To Expect Before a Lung Transplant

    MedlinePLUS

    ... NHLBI on Twitter. What To Expect Before a Lung Transplant If you get into a medical center's ... friends also can offer support. When a Donor Lung Becomes Available OPTN matches donor lungs to recipients ...

  11. What to Expect During a Lung Transplant

    MedlinePLUS

    ... NHLBI on Twitter. What To Expect During a Lung Transplant Just before lung transplant surgery, you will ... airway and its blood vessels to your heart. Lung Transplant The illustration shows the process of a ...

  12. An expectation model of referring expressions

    E-print Network

    Kræmer, John, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2010-01-01

    This thesis introduces EMRE, an expectation-based model of referring expressions. EMRE is proposed as a model of non-syntactic dependencies - in particular, discourse-level semantic dependencies that bridge sentence gaps. ...

  13. Titania bound sodium titanate ion exchanger

    DOEpatents

    DeFilippi, Irene C. G. (Palatine, IL); Yates, Stephen Frederic (Rolling Meadows, IL); Shen, Jian-Kun (Lake Zurich, IL); Gaita, Romulus (Morton Grove, IL); Sedath, Robert Henry (Bensenville, IL); Seminara, Gary Joseph (Chicago, IL); Straszewski, Michael Peter (Novi, MI); Anderson, David Joseph (Oak Lawn, IL)

    1999-03-23

    This invention is method for preparing a titania bound ion exchange composition comprising admixing crystalline sodium titanate and a hydrolyzable titanium compound and, thereafter drying the titania bound crystalline sodium titanate and subjecting the dried titania bound ion exchange composition to optional compaction and calcination steps to improve the physical strength of the titania bound composition.

  14. Search for quasi bound ? mesons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Machner, H.

    2015-04-01

    The search for a quasi bound ? meson in atomic nuclei is reviewed. This tentative state is studied theoretically as well as experimentally. The theory starts from elastic ? nucleon scattering which is derived from production data within some models. From this interaction the ? nucleus interaction is derived. Model calculations predict binding energies and widths of the quasi bound state. Another method is to derive the ? nucleus interaction from excitation functions of ? production experiments. The s wave interaction is extracted from such data via final state interaction (FSI) theorem. We give the derivation of s wave amplitudes in partial wave expansion and in helicity amplitudes and their relation to observables. Different experiments extracting the FSI are discussed as are production experiments. So far only three experiments give evidence for the existence of the quasi bound state: a pion double charge exchange experiment, an effective mass measurement, and a transfer reaction at recoil free kinematics with observation of the decay of the state.

  15. Viscosity bound and causality violation.

    PubMed

    Brigante, Mauro; Liu, Hong; Myers, Robert C; Shenker, Stephen; Yaida, Sho

    2008-05-16

    In recent work we showed that, for a class of conformal field theories (CFT) with Gauss-Bonnet gravity dual, the shear viscosity to entropy density ratio, eta/s, could violate the conjectured Kovtun-Starinets-Son viscosity bound, eta/s > or = 1/4 pi. In this Letter we argue, in the context of the same model, that tuning eta/s below (16/25)(1/4 pi) induces microcausality violation in the CFT, rendering the theory inconsistent. This is a concrete example in which inconsistency of a theory and a lower bound on viscosity are correlated, supporting the idea of a possible universal lower bound on eta/s for all consistent theories. PMID:18518436

  16. Delay equation models for populations that experience competition at immature life stages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gourley, Stephen A.; Liu, Rongsong

    2015-09-01

    We consider stage-structured population models of intra- and inter-specific competition at immature life stages. A prototype delay model is derived for a single species that experiences larval competition. Its solutions are bounded for any birth function. Other ways of modelling the birth rate can lead to nonlinear integral equations. In some situations the technique of reducing an age-structured model to a system of delay equations applies. In the case of immature competition the delay equations cannot always be written down explicitly because their right hand sides depend on the solutions of the nonlinear ordinary differential equations that arise when one solves the nonlinear age-structured equations that determine the maturation rates in terms of the birth rates. This situation arises in the case of competition between two strains or species. However, in our two-strain competition model, vital properties of those right hand sides can be indirectly inferred using monotone systems theory.

  17. Robust H? control of uncertain systems with two additive time-varying delays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Syed, Ali M.; Saravanakumar, R.

    2015-09-01

    This paper is concerned with the problem of delay-dependent robust H? control for a class of uncertain systems with two additive time-varying delays. A new suitable Lyapunov-Krasovskii functional (LKF) with triple integral terms is constructed and a tighter upper bound of the derivative of the LKF is derived. By applying a convex optimization technique, new delay-dependent robust H? stability criteria are derived in terms of linear matrix inequalities (LMI). Based on the stability criteria, a state feedback controller is designed such that the closed-loop system is asymptotically stable. Finally, numerical examples are given to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed method. Comparison results show that our results are less conservative than the existing methods. Project supported by the Fund from the Department of Science and Technology of India (Grant No. SR/FTP/MS-039/2011).

  18. CT of multiple sclerosis: reassessment of delayed scanning with high doses of contrast material

    SciTech Connect

    Spiegel, S.M.; Vinuela, F.; Fox, A.J.; Pelz, D.M.

    1985-09-01

    A prospective study involving 87 patients was carried out to evaluate the necessity for a high dose of contrast material in addition to delayed computed tomographic (CT) scanning for optimal detection of the lesions of multiple sclerosis in the brain. In patients with either clinically definite multiple sclerosis or laboratory-supported definite multiple sclerosis, CT scans were obtained with a uniform protocol. Lesions consistent with multiple sclerosis were demonstrated on the second scan in 54 patients. In 36 of these 54 patients, the high-dose delayed scan added information. These results are quite similar to those of a previous study from this institution using different patients, in whom the second scan was obtained immediately after the bolus injection of contrast material containing 40 g of organically bound iodine. The lack of real difference in the results of the two studies indicate that the increased dose, not just the delay in scanning, is necessary for a proper study.

  19. Bounding Switching Delay in Mobile TV Broadcast Networks Cheng-Hsin Hsu and Mohamed Hefeeda

    E-print Network

    Hefeeda, Mohammed

    countries,1 and users are already using it to watch TV shows and sports events while traveling. The mobile TV market is excepted to grow to up to 20 billion Euros with 500 million customers by 2011.2 Since

  20. Switch-and-Navigate: Controlling Data Ferry Mobility under Bounded Message Delays

    E-print Network

    Leung, Kin K.

    to physical obstacles, limited radio transmission range, severe environmental conditions, or simply security and the U.K. Ministry of Defence and was accomplished under Agreement Number W911NF-06-3-0001. The views, the U.K. Ministry of Defence or the U.K. Government. The U.S. and U.K. Governments are authorized

  1. A multistate analysis of active life expectancy.

    PubMed Central

    Rogers, A; Rogers, R G; Branch, L G

    1989-01-01

    With today's lower mortality rates, longer expectations of life, and new medical technologies, the nation's health policy focus has shifted from emphasis on individual survival to emphasis on personal health and independent living. Using longitudinal data sets and new methodological techniques, researchers have begun to assess active life expectancies, estimating not only how long a subpopulation can expect to live beyond each age, but what fractions of the expected remaining lifetime will be lived as independent, dependent, or institutionalized. New ideas are addressed, applying recently developed multistate life table methods to Waves One and Two of the Massachusetts Health Care Panel Study. Expectations of active life are presented for those 65 and older who initially are in one of two functional states of well-being. Included are expectations of life, for those, for example, who were independent and remained so, or those who were dependent and became independent. Although public health officials are concerned about the number of elderly who cease being independent, preliminary analysis shows that a significant number of the dependent elderly regain their independence, a situation which needs to be addressed in health care planning. PMID:2498971

  2. Bounds for Completely Decomposable Jacobians

    E-print Network

    Duursma, Iwan

    2010-01-01

    A curve over the field of two elements with completely decomposable Jacobian is shown to have at most six rational points and genus at most 26. The bounds are sharp. The previous upper bound for the genus was 145. We also show that a curve over the field of $q$ elements with more than $q^{m/2}+1$ rational points has at least one Frobenius angle in the open interval $(\\pi/m,3\\pi/m)$. The proofs make use of the explicit formula method.

  3. Holographic bounds and finite inflation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phillips, Daniel; Scacco, Andrew; Albrecht, Andreas

    2015-02-01

    We compare two holographic arguments that impose especially strong bounds on the amount of inflation. One comes from the de Sitter equilibrium cosmology and the other from the work of Banks and Fischler. We find that simple versions of these two approaches yield the same bound on the number of e-foldings. A careful examination reveals that while these pictures are similar in spirit, they are not necessarily identical prescriptions. We apply the two pictures to specific cosmologies which expose potentially important differences and which also demonstrate ways these seemingly simple proposals can be tricky to implement in practice.

  4. Bounds for nonlocality distillation protocols

    SciTech Connect

    Forster, Manuel

    2011-06-15

    Nonlocality can be quantified by the violation of a Bell inequality. Since this violation may be amplified by local operations, an alternative measure has been proposed--distillable nonlocality. The alternative measure is difficult to calculate exactly due to the double exponential growth of the parameter space. In this paper, we give a way to bound the distillable nonlocality of a resource by the solutions to a related optimization problem. Our upper bounds are exponentially easier to compute than the exact value and are shown to be meaningful in general and tight in some cases.

  5. Delayed (sudden) birth of entanglement

    E-print Network

    Z. Ficek; R. Tanas

    2008-04-06

    The concept of time delayed creation of entanglement by the dissipative process of spontaneous emission is investigated. A threshold effect for the creation of entanglement is found that the initially unentangled qubits can be entangled after a finite time despite the fact that the coherence between the qubits exists for all times. This delayed creation of entanglement, that we call sudden birth of entanglement, is opposite to the currently extensively discussed sudden death of entanglement and is characteristic for transient dynamics of one-photon entangled states of the system. We determine the threshold time for the creation of entanglement and find that it is related to time at which the antisymmetric state remains the only excited state being populated. It is shown that the threshold time can be controlled by the distance between the qubits and the direction of initial excitation relative to the interatomic axis. This effect suggests a new alternative for the study of entanglement and provides an interesting resource for creation on demand of entanglement between two qubits.

  6. Cross delay line sensor characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Owens, Israel J; Remelius, Dennis K; Tiee, Joe J; Buck, Steven E; Whittemore, Stephen R; Thompson, David C; Shirey, Robert

    2010-01-01

    There exists a wealth of information in the scientific literature on the physical properties and device characterization procedures for complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS), charge coupled device (CCD) and avalanche photodiode (APD) format detectors. Numerous papers and books have also treated photocathode operation in the context of photomultiplier tube (PMT) operation for either non imaging applications or limited night vision capability. However, much less information has been reported in the literature about the characterization procedures and properties of photocathode detectors with novel cross delay line (XDL) anode structures. These allow one to detect single photons and create images by recording space and time coordinate (X, Y & T) information. In this paper, we report on the physical characteristics and performance of a cross delay line anode sensor with an enhanced near infrared wavelength response photocathode and high dynamic range micro channel plate (MCP) gain (> 10{sup 6}) multiplier stage. Measurement procedures and results including the device dark event rate (DER), pulse height distribution, quantum and electronic device efficiency (QE & DQE) and spatial resolution per effective pixel region in a 25 mm sensor array are presented. The overall knowledge and information obtained from XDL sensor characterization allow us to optimize device performance and assess capability. These device performance properties and capabilities make XDL detectors ideal for remote sensing field applications that require single photon detection, imaging, sub nano-second timing response, high spatial resolution (10's of microns) and large effective image format.

  7. LOWER BOUNDS ON MAGNETIC FIELDS IN INTERGALACTIC VOIDS FROM LONG-TERM GeV-TeV LIGHT CURVES OF THE BLAZAR MRK 421

    SciTech Connect

    Takahashi, Keitaro; Mori, Masaki; Ichiki, Kiyotomo; Inoue, Susumu; Takami, Hajime

    2013-07-10

    Lower bounds are derived on the amplitude B of intergalactic magnetic fields (IGMFs) in the region between Galaxy and the blazar Mrk 421, from constraints on the delayed GeV pair-echo flux that are emitted by secondary e {sup -} e {sup +} produced in {gamma}{gamma} interactions between primary TeV gamma rays and the cosmic infrared background. The distribution of galaxies mapped by the Sloan Digital Sky Survey shows that this region is dominated by a large intergalactic void. We utilize data from long-term, simultaneous GeV-TeV observations by the Fermi Large Area Telescope and the ARGO-YBJ experiment extending over 850 days. For an assumed value of B, we evaluate the daily GeV pair-echo flux expected from the TeV data, select the dates where this exceeds the Fermi 2{sigma} sensitivity, compute the probability that this flux is excluded by the Fermi data for each date, and then combine the probabilities using the inverse normal method. Consequently, we exclude B < 10{sup -20.5} G for a field coherence length of 1 kpc at {approx}4{sigma} level, as long as plasma instabilities are unimportant for cooling of the pair beam. This is much more significant than the 2{sigma} bounds we obtained previously from observations of Mrk 501, by virtue of more extensive data from the ARGO-YBJ, as well as improved statistical analysis. Compared with most other studies of IGMF bounds, the evidence we present here for a non-zero IGMF is more robust as it does not rely on unproven assumptions on the primary TeV emission during unobserved periods.

  8. Effect of Departure Delays on Manned Mars Mission Selection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Desai, Prasun N.; Tartabini, Paul V.

    1995-01-01

    This study determines the effect on the initial mass in low Earth orbit (IMLEO) of delaying departure from Mars and Earth by 5, 15, and 30 days, once a nominal mission to Mars has been selected. Additionally, the use of a deep-space maneuver (DSM) is considered in order to alleviate the IMLEO penalties. Three different classes of missions are analyzed, using chemical and nuclear thermal propulsion systems in the 2000-2025 time frame: opposition, conjunction, and fast-transfer conjunction. The results indicate that Mars and Earth delays can lead to large IMLEO penalties. Opposition and fast-transfer conjunction-class missions have the highest IMLEO penalties, upwards of 432.4 and 1977.3 metric tons (mt), respectively. Conjunction-class missions, on the other hand, tend to be insensitive to Mars and Earth delays, having IMLEO penalties under 103.5 mt. As expected, nuclear thermal propulsion had significantly lower IMLEO penalties than chemical propulsion. The use of a DSM does not significantly reduce the penalties. The results of this study can enable mission designers to incorporate the influence of off-nominal departure conditions of the interplanetary trajectory in the overall conceptual design of a Mars transfer vehicle.

  9. The neural basis of cultural differences in delay discounting

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Bokyung; Sung, Young Shin; McClure, Samuel M.

    2012-01-01

    People generally prefer to receive rewarding outcomes sooner rather than later. Such preferences result from delay discounting, or the process by which outcomes are devalued for the expected delay until their receipt. We investigated cultural differences in delay discounting by contrasting behaviour and brain activity in separate cohorts of Western (American) and Eastern (Korean) subjects. Consistent with previous reports, we find a dramatic difference in discounting behaviour, with Americans displaying much greater present bias and elevated discount rates. Recent neuroimaging findings suggest that differences in discounting may arise from differential involvement of either brain reward areas or regions in the prefrontal and parietal cortices associated with cognitive control. We find that the ventral striatum is more greatly recruited in Americans relative to Koreans when discounting future rewards, but there is no difference in prefrontal or parietal activity. This suggests that a cultural difference in emotional responsivity underlies the observed behavioural effect. We discuss the implications of this research for strategic interrelations between Easterners and Westerners. PMID:22271781

  10. Time-delay Cosmography: Increased Leverage with Angular Diameter Distances

    E-print Network

    Jee, Inh; Suyu, Sherry H; Huterer, Dragan

    2015-01-01

    Strong lensing time-delay systems constrain cosmological parameters via the so-called time-delay distance and the angular diameter distance to the lens. In previous studies, only the former information was used. In this paper, we show that the cosmological constraints improve significantly when the latter information is also included. Specifically, the angular diameter distance plays a crucial role in breaking the degeneracy between the curvature of the Universe and the time-varying equation of state of dark energy. Using a mock sample of 55 bright quadruple lens systems based on expectations for ongoing/future imaging surveys, we find that adding the angular diameter distance information to the time-delay distance information and the cosmic microwave background data of Planck improves the constraint on the constant equation of state by 30%, on the time variation in the equation of state by a factor of two, and on the Hubble constant in the flat $\\Lambda$CDM model by a factor of two. Therefore, previous forec...

  11. IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INFORMATION THEORY, VOL. 58, NO. 8, AUGUST 2012 5233 Upper Bounds on the Capacities of Noncontrollable

    E-print Network

    Kavcic, Aleksandar

    IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INFORMATION THEORY, VOL. 58, NO. 8, AUGUST 2012 5233 Upper Bounds on Information Theory. X. Huang and X. Ma are with the Department of Electronic and Communi- cation Engineering information rate from the new channel input (including the source and the delayed channel state) sequence

  12. COSMOGRAIL: the COSmological MOnitoring of GRAvItational Lenses. XV. Assessing the achievability and precision of time-delay measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonvin, V.; Tewes, M.; Courbin, F.; Kuntzer, T.; Sluse, D.; Meylan, G.

    2016-01-01

    COSMOGRAIL is a long-term photometric monitoring of gravitationally lensed quasars aimed at implementing Refsdal's time-delay method to measure cosmological parameters, in particular H0. Given the long and well sampled light curves of strongly lensed quasars, time-delay measurements require numerical techniques whose quality must be assessed. To this end, and also in view of future monitoring programs or surveys such as the LSST, a blind signal processing competition named Time Delay Challenge 1 (TDC1) was held in 2014. The aim of the present paper, which is based on the simulated light curves from the TDC1, is double. First, we test the performance of the time-delay measurement techniques currently used in COSMOGRAIL. Second, we analyse the quantity and quality of the harvest of time delays obtained from the TDC1 simulations. To achieve these goals, we first discover time delays through a careful inspection of the light curves via a dedicated visual interface. Our measurement algorithms can then be applied to the data in an automated way. We show that our techniques have no significant biases, and yield adequate uncertainty estimates resulting in reduced ?2 values between 0.5 and 1.0. We provide estimates for the number and precision of time-delay measurements that can be expected from future time-delay monitoring campaigns as a function of the photometric signal-to-noise ratio and of the true time delay. We make our blind measurements on the TDC1 data publicly available.

  13. Delay banking for air traffic management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, Steven M. (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    A method and associated system for time delay banking for aircraft arrival time, aircraft departure time and/or en route flight position. The delay credit value for a given flight may decrease with passage of time and may be transferred to or traded with other flights having the same or a different user (airline owner or operator). The delay credit value for a given aircraft flight depends upon an initial delay credit value, which is determined by a central system and depends upon one or more other flight characteristics. Optionally, the delay credit value decreases with passage of time. Optionally, a transaction cost is assessed against a delay credit value that is used on behalf of another flight with the same user or is traded with a different user.

  14. A lower bound for routing on a completely connected optical communication parallel computer

    SciTech Connect

    Goldberg, L.A.; Jerrum, M.; MacKenzie, P.D.

    1993-08-03

    The task of routing a 2-relation on an n-processor completely connected optical communication parallel computer (OCPC) is considered. A lower bound is presented that applies to any randomized distributed algorithm for this task: specifically, it is shown that the expected number of steps required to route a 2-relation is {Omega}({radical} log log n) in the worst case. For comparison, the best upper bound known is O(log log n).

  15. Uncertainty inequalities among frequency moments and radial expectation values: Applications to atomic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angulo, J. C.; Bouvrie, P. A.; Antolín, J.

    2012-04-01

    Rigorous and universal bounds on frequency moments of one-particle densities in terms of radial expectation values in the conjugate space are obtained. The results, valid for any d-dimensional quantum-mechanical system, are derived by using Rényi-like position-momentum inequalities in an information-theoretical framework. Especially interesting are the upper bounds on the Dirac exchange and Thomas-Fermi kinetic energies, as well as the disequilibrium or self-similarity of both position and momentum distributions. A variety of bounds for these functionals in a given space are known, but most usually in terms of quantities defined within the same space. Very few results including a density functional on one space, and expectation values on the conjugate one, are found in the literature. A pioneering bound on the disequilibrium in terms of the kinetic energy is improved in this work. A numerical study of the aforementioned relationships is carried out for atomic systems in their ground state. Some results are given in terms of relevant physical quantities, including the kinetic and electron-nucleus attraction energies, the diamagnetic susceptibility and the height of the peak of the Compton profile, among others.

  16. Terrestrial Planet Finder cryogenic delay line development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smythe, Robert F.; Swain, Mark R.; Alvarez-Salazar, Oscar; Moore, James D.

    2004-01-01

    Delay lines provide the path-length compensation that makes the measurement of interference fringes possible. When used for nulling interferometry, the delay line must control path-lengths so that the null is stable and controlled throughout the measurement. We report on a low noise, low disturbance, and high bandwidth optical delay line capable of meeting the TPF interferometer optical path length control requirements at cryogenic temperatures.

  17. Compact programmable photonic variable delay devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yao, X. Steve (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    Optical variable delay devices for providing variable true time delay to multiple optical beams simultaneously. A ladder-structured variable delay device comprises multiple basic building blocks stacked on top of each other resembling a ladder. Each basic building block has two polarization beamsplitters and a polarization rotator array arranged to form a trihedron; Controlling an array element of the polarization rotator array causes a beam passing through the array element either going up to a basic building block above it or reflect back towards a block below it. The beams going higher on the ladder experience longer optical path delay. An index-switched optical variable delay device comprises of many birefringent crystal segments connected with one another, with a polarization rotator array sandwiched between any two adjacent crystal segments. An array element in the polarization rotator array controls the polarization state of a beam passing through the element, causing the beam experience different refractive indices or path delays in the following crystal segment. By independently control each element in each polarization rotator array, variable optical path delays of each beam can be achieved. Finally, an index-switched variable delay device and a ladder-structured variable device are cascaded to form a new device which combines the advantages of the two individual devices. This programmable optic device has the properties of high packing density, low loss, easy fabrication, and virtually infinite bandwidth. The device is inherently two dimensional and has a packing density exceeding 25 lines/cm.sup.2. The delay resolution of the device is on the order of a femtosecond (one micron in space) and the total delay exceeds 10 nanosecond. In addition, the delay is reversible so that the same delay device can be used for both antenna transmitting and receiving.

  18. [The effects of teacher expectancy and self-expectancy on performance].

    PubMed

    Choi, K S

    1987-08-01

    The present study was designed to investigate the effect on performance of the relationship between teacher expectancy and self-expectancy. For the induced expectancy, a random half of 96 high school students enrolled in a four-week summer language course of a Christian association were described to the instructors as having high success potential. The remaining trainees served as controls. Correct scores on the learning task, instructor ratings of behavior and attitude of the instructors were measured on three sessions of the course. Ratings of teacher's behavior were factor-analyzed and four interpretable factors emerged: Support, Caring, Attention, and Tutoring. The induced expectancy and specific levels of self-expectancy had significant effects on the subjects' performance and ratings of the instructor. It was concluded that self-expectancy mediates the effects of teacher expectancy on learning performance. Implications of these results for the Pygmalion effect were discussed. PMID:3450908

  19. 78 FR 18326 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Comment Request; Upward Bound and Upward Bound Math...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-26

    ... Agency Information Collection Activities; Comment Request; Upward Bound and Upward Bound Math Science... Upward Bound Math Science Annual Performance Report. OMB Control Number: 1840-NEW. Type of Review: New... under the regular Upward Bound (UB) and Upward Bound Math and Science (UBMS) Programs. The Department...

  20. Correlation effects and bound states

    SciTech Connect

    Zinovjev, G. M.; Molodtsov, S. V.

    2012-11-15

    Bound states in a simple quark model that are due to correlation effects are analyzed. The confining properties of this model in meson (quark-antiquark and diquark) channels manifest themselves at any quark momenta, and an extra potential field may only enhance the confining effect.

  1. Bounds on Universal Extra Dimensions

    E-print Network

    Thomas Appelquist; Hsin-Chia Cheng; Bogdan A. Dobrescu

    2001-06-29

    We show that the bound from the electroweak data on the size of extra dimensions accessible to all the standard model fields is rather loose. These "universal" extra dimensions could have a compactification scale as low as 300 GeV for one extra dimension. This is because the Kaluza-Klein number is conserved and thus the contributions to the electroweak observables arise only from loops. The main constraint comes from weak-isospin violation effects. We also compute the contributions to the S parameter and the $Zb\\bar{b}$ vertex. The direct bound on the compactification scale is set by CDF and D0 in the few hundred GeV range, and the Run II of the Tevatron will either discover extra dimensions or else it could significantly raise the bound on the compactification scale. In the case of two universal extra dimensions, the current lower bound on the compactification scale depends logarithmically on the ultra-violet cutoff of the higher dimensional theory, but can be estimated to lie between 400 and 800 GeV. With three or more extra dimensions, the cutoff dependence may be too strong to allow an estimate.

  2. Loosely-Bound Diatomic Molecules.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balfour, W. J.

    1979-01-01

    Discusses concept of covalent bonding as related to homonuclear diatomic molecules. Article draws attention to the existence of bound rare gas and alkaline earth diatomic molecules. Summarizes their molecular parameters and offers spectroscopic data. Strength and variation with distance of interatomic attractive forces is given. (Author/SA)

  3. Wronskian Method for Bound States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernandez, Francisco M.

    2011-01-01

    We propose a simple and straightforward method based on Wronskians for the calculation of bound-state energies and wavefunctions of one-dimensional quantum-mechanical problems. We explicitly discuss the asymptotic behaviour of the wavefunction and show that the allowed energies make the divergent part vanish. As illustrative examples we consider…

  4. Extracting Low-Dimensional Latent Structure from Time Series in the Presence of Delays.

    PubMed

    Lakshmanan, Karthik C; Sadtler, Patrick T; Tyler-Kabara, Elizabeth C; Batista, Aaron P; Yu, Byron M

    2015-09-01

    Noisy, high-dimensional time series observations can often be described by a set of low-dimensional latent variables. Commonly used methods to extract these latent variables typically assume instantaneous relationships between the latent and observed variables. In many physical systems, changes in the latent variables manifest as changes in the observed variables after time delays. Techniques that do not account for these delays can recover a larger number of latent variables than are present in the system, thereby making the latent representation more difficult to interpret. In this work, we introduce a novel probabilistic technique, time-delay gaussian-process factor analysis (TD-GPFA), that performs dimensionality reduction in the presence of a different time delay between each pair of latent and observed variables. We demonstrate how using a gaussian process to model the evolution of each latent variable allows us to tractably learn these delays over a continuous domain. Additionally, we show how TD-GPFA combines temporal smoothing and dimensionality reduction into a common probabilistic framework. We present an expectation/conditional maximization either (ECME) algorithm to learn the model parameters. Our simulations demonstrate that when time delays are present, TD-GPFA is able to correctly identify these delays and recover the latent space. We then applied TD-GPFA to the activity of tens of neurons recorded simultaneously in the macaque motor cortex during a reaching task. TD-GPFA is able to better describe the neural activity using a more parsimonious latent space than GPFA, a method that has been used to interpret motor cortex data but does not account for time delays. More broadly, TD-GPFA can help to unravel the mechanisms underlying high-dimensional time series data by taking into account physical delays in the system. PMID:26079746

  5. Oscillation onset in neural delayed feedback

    SciTech Connect

    Longtin, A.

    1990-01-01

    This paper studies dynamical aspects of neural systems with delayed negative feedback modelled by nonlinear delay-differential equations. These systems undergo a Hopf bifurcation from a stable fixed point to a limit cycle oscillation as certain parameters are varied. We show that their frequency of oscillation is robust to parameter variations and noisy fluctuations, a property that makes these systems good candidates for pacemakers. The onset of oscillation is postponed by both additive and parametric noise in the sense that the state variable spends more time near the fixed point. Finally, we show that a distributed delay (rather than a fixed delay) also stabilizes the fixed point solution. 40 refs., 2 figs.

  6. Food reinforcement, delay discounting and obesity.

    PubMed

    Epstein, Leonard H; Salvy, Sarah J; Carr, Katelyn A; Dearing, Kelly K; Bickel, Warren K

    2010-07-14

    Choice is a central construct in behavioral economics, with choice research divided into choice of concurrent alternative reinforcers, which is conceptualized as relative reinforcing value, or choice of small immediate versus larger delayed rewards, usually of the same commodity, which is conceptualized as delay of gratification and delay discounting. Relative reinforcing value, delay of gratification and delay discounting paradigms can be used to study obesity, which involves strong motivation to obtain and consume food reinforcers. Strong food reinforcement and difficulties in delay of gratification are risk factors for child weight gain, and both are related to individual differences in overweight/obesity. Delay discounting interacts with food reinforcement to predict energy intake. We provide a selective review of research on each of these areas, and argue that the division of choice into reinforcing value versus delay discounting is based on an arbitrary definition based on the temporality of choices. We present a model that integrates reinforcing value and delay discounting approaches. Implications of this theoretical approach to better understand excess energy intake and obesity are discussed. The paper represents an invited review by a symposium, award winner or keynote speaker at the Society for the Study of Ingestive Behavior [SSIB] Annual Meeting in Portland, July 2009. PMID:20435052

  7. Literacy Activities for Developmentally Delayed Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giordano, Gerard; D'Alonzo, Bruno J.

    1993-01-01

    Reviews six models of prereading programs for developmentally delayed adults: readinglike behavior, picture reading, global features of books, print in the environment, labeling, and rebus symbols. (SK)

  8. Dynamics of a neutral delay equation for an insect population with long larval and short adult phases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gourley, Stephen A.; Kuang, Yang

    We present a global study on the stability of the equilibria in a nonlinear autonomous neutral delay differential population model formulated by Bocharov and Hadeler. This model may be suitable for describing the intriguing dynamics of an insect population with long larval and short adult phases such as the periodical cicada. We circumvent the usual difficulties associated with the study of the stability of a nonlinear neutral delay differential model by transforming it to an appropriate non-neutral nonautonomous delay differential equation with unbounded delay. In the case that no juveniles give birth, we establish the positivity and boundedness of solutions by ad hoc methods and global stability of the extinction and positive equilibria by the method of iteration. We also show that if the time adjusted instantaneous birth rate at the time of maturation is greater than 1, then the population will grow without bound, regardless of the population death process.

  9. STABILITY CRITERIA FOR LPV TIME-DELAYED SYSTEMS: THE DELAY-INDEPENDENT CASE1

    E-print Network

    Tsiotras, Panagiotis

    . stability is delay-dependent (Niculescu et al., 1997a). Delay-dependent stability conditions for LPV time to show (global) asymptotic stability in this paper. Theorem 1.1. ((Verriest, 1994; Niculescu et al., 1997

  10. Spike phase synchronization in delayed-coupled neural networks: Uniform vs. non-uniform transmission delay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jalili, Mahdi

    2013-03-01

    In this paper, we investigated phase synchronization in delayed dynamical networks. Non-identical spiking Hindmarsh-Rose neurons were considered as individual dynamical systems and coupled through a number of network structures such as scale-free, Erd?s-Rényi, and modular. The individual neurons were coupled through excitatory chemical synapses with uniform or distributed time delays. The profile of spike phase synchrony was different when the delay was uniform across the edges as compared to the case when it was distributed, i.e., different delays for the edges. When an identical transmission delay was considered, a quasi-periodic pattern was observed in the spike phase synchrony. There were specific values of delay where the phase synchronization reached to its peaks. The behavior of the phase synchronization in the networks with non-uniform delays was different with the former case, where the phase synchrony decreased as distributed delays introduced to the networks.

  11. EXPECT: Explicit Representations for Flexible Acquisition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swartout, BIll; Gil, Yolanda

    1995-01-01

    To create more powerful knowledge acquisition systems, we not only need better acquisition tools, but we need to change the architecture of the knowledge based systems we create so that their structure will provide better support for acquisition. Current acquisition tools permit users to modify factual knowledge but they provide limited support for modifying problem solving knowledge. In this paper, the authors argue that this limitation (and others) stem from the use of incomplete models of problem-solving knowledge and inflexible specification of the interdependencies between problem-solving and factual knowledge. We describe the EXPECT architecture which addresses these problems by providing an explicit representation for problem-solving knowledge and intent. Using this more explicit representation, EXPECT can automatically derive the interdependencies between problem-solving and factual knowledge. By deriving these interdependencies from the structure of the knowledge-based system itself EXPECT supports more flexible and powerful knowledge acquisition.

  12. Information structure expectations in sentence comprehension

    PubMed Central

    Carlson, Katy; Dickey, Michael Walsh; Frazier, Lyn; Clifton, Charles

    2009-01-01

    In English, new information typically appears late in the sentence, as does primary accent. Because of this tendency, perceivers might expect the final constituent or constituents of a sentence to contain informational focus. This expectation should in turn affect how they comprehend focus-sensitive constructions such as ellipsis sentences. Results from four experiments on sluicing sentences (e.g., The mobster implicated the thug, but we can’t find out who else) suggest that perceivers do prefer to place focus late in the sentence, though that preference can be mitigated by prosodic information (pitch accents, Experiment 2) or syntactic information (clefted sentences, Experiment 3) indicating that focus is located elsewhere. Furthermore, it is not necessarily the direct object, but the informationally-focused constituent that is the preferred antecedent (Experiment 4). Expectations regarding the information structure of a sentence, which are only partly cancelable by means of overt focus markers, may explain persistent biases in ellipsis resolution. PMID:18609404

  13. Reflections on meeting women's childbirth expectations.

    PubMed

    Records, Kathie; Wilson, Barbara L

    2011-01-01

    When care providers support their personal worth, use caring communication, facilitate consumer participation in decision making, seek optimal outcomes, and know the patient holistically, female patients feel that their dignity is respected. We compare women's expectations for dignified care in contemporary society with the expectations of women 40 years ago. Some progress has been made toward valuing women's voices and participation in decision making, the availability of interventions for optimal outcomes, and recognition of the importance of cultural competence. Continued work is needed to meet women's expectations for receiving individualized and tailored care, information about intervention effectiveness and risks, and support for the birth process that the family desires. A renewed focus on the recipient of care as a coparticipant in her birthing experiences may result in improved outcomes and resolution of tensions between childbearing women and sociopolitical forces and standards of care. PMID:21771068

  14. Upper Higgs boson mass bounds from a chirally invariant lattice Higgs-Yukawa model

    E-print Network

    P. Gerhold; K. Jansen

    2010-02-23

    We establish the cutoff-dependent upper Higgs boson mass bound by means of direct lattice computations in the framework of a chirally invariant lattice Higgs-Yukawa model emulating the same chiral Yukawa coupling structure as in the Higgs-fermion sector of the Standard Model. As expected from the triviality picture of the Higgs sector, we observe the upper mass bound to decrease with rising cutoff parameter $\\Lambda$. Moreover, the strength of the fermionic contribution to the upper mass bound is explored by comparing to the corresponding analysis in the pure $\\Phi^4$-theory.

  15. Attosecond time delay in the photoionization of Mn in the $3p \\rightarrow 3d$ giant resonance region

    E-print Network

    Dolmatov, V K; Deshmukh, P C; Manson, S T

    2014-01-01

    The dramatic effect of the $3p \\rightarrow 3d$ giant autoionization resonance on time delay of photoemission from the $3d$ and $4s$ valence subshells of the Mn atom is unraveled. Strong sensitivity of the time delay of the $4s$ photoemission to the final-state term of the ion-remainder [${\\rm Mn^{+}}(4s^{1},$$^{5}S)$ vs. ${\\rm Mn^{+}}(4s^{1},$$^{7}S)$] is discovered. The features of time delay uncovered in Mn photoionization are expected to be general properties of transition-metal atoms and ions. The "spin-polarized" random phase approximation with exchange was employed in the study.

  16. Early life exposure to PCB126 results in delayed mortality and growth impairment in the zebrafish larvae.

    PubMed

    Di Paolo, Carolina; Groh, Ksenia J; Zennegg, Markus; Vermeirssen, Etiënne L M; Murk, Albertinka J; Eggen, Rik I L; Hollert, Henner; Werner, Inge; Schirmer, Kristin

    2015-12-01

    The occurrence of chronic or delayed toxicity resulting from the exposure to sublethal chemical concentrations is an increasing concern in environmental risk assessment. The Fish Embryo Toxicity (FET) test with zebrafish provides a reliable prediction of acute toxicity in adult fish, but it cannot yet be applied to predict the occurrence of chronic or delayed toxicity. Identification of sublethal FET endpoints that can assist in predicting the occurrence of chronic or delayed toxicity would be advantageous. The present study characterized the occurrence of delayed toxicity in zebrafish larvae following early exposure to PCB126, previously described to cause delayed effects in the common sole. The first aim was to investigate the occurrence and temporal profiles of delayed toxicity during zebrafish larval development and compare them to those previously described for sole to evaluate the suitability of zebrafish as a model fish species for delayed toxicity assessment. The second aim was to examine the correlation between the sublethal endpoints assessed during embryonal and early larval development and the delayed effects observed during later larval development. After exposure to PCB126 (3-3000ng/L) until 5 days post fertilization (dpf), larvae were reared in clean water until 14 or 28 dpf. Mortality and sublethal morphological and behavioural endpoints were recorded daily, and growth was assessed at 28 dpf. Early life exposure to PCB126 caused delayed mortality (300ng/L and 3000ng/L) as well as growth impairment and delayed development (100ng/L) during the clean water period. Effects on swim bladder inflation and cartilaginous tissues within 5 dpf were the most promising for predicting delayed mortality and sublethal effects, such as decreased standard length, delayed metamorphosis, reduced inflation of swim bladder and column malformations. The EC50 value for swim bladder inflation at 5 dpf (169ng/L) was similar to the LC50 value at 8 dpf (188 and 202ng/L in two experiments). Interestingly, the patterns of delayed mortality and delayed effects on growth and development were similar between sole and zebrafish. This indicates the comparability of critical developmental stages across divergent fish species such as a cold water marine flatfish and a tropical freshwater cyprinid. Additionally, sublethal effects in early embryo-larval stages were found promising for predicting delayed lethal and sublethal effects of PCB126. Therefore, the proposed method with zebrafish is expected to provide valuable information on delayed mortality and delayed sublethal effects of chemicals and environmental samples that may be extrapolated to other species. PMID:26551687

  17. Hiding message in Delay Time: Encryption with Synchronized time-delayed systems

    E-print Network

    Won-Ho Kye; Muhan Choi; Chil-Min Kim; Young-Jai Park

    2005-02-22

    We propose a new communication scheme that uses time-delayed chaotic systems with delay time modulation. In this method, the transmitter encodes a message as an additional modulation of the delay timeand then the receiver decodes the message by tracking the delay time.We demonstrate our communication scheme in a system of coupled logistic maps.Also we discuss the error of the transferred message due to an external noiseand present its correction method.

  18. Characterization of gain-aware routing in delay tolerant networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hajiaghajani, Faezeh; Piolet Thulasidharan, Yogesh; Taghizadeh, Mahmoud; Biswas, Subir

    2013-05-01

    Majority of the existing Delay Tolerant Network (DTN) routing protocols, attempt to minimize one of the popular DTN routing indices, i.e. message delay, forwarding count and storage. However, for many DTN applications such as distributing commercial content, targeting the best performance for one index and compromising the others is insufficient. A more practical solution would be to strike a balance between multiple of these indices. Gain Dissemination Protocol (GDP) is one of the protocols which targets this aim by introducing a gain concept which tries reach a maximum gain of delivery by keeping the balance between the value achieved via delivering the packet to the destination and the forwarding cost involved with that. In this paper, we focus on characterizing the GDP protocol in the scope of mobility. We also propose an upper bound for gain in multicast routing problem, i.e. the Union of Unicast Benchmark (UUB) and compare the performance of a few DTN routing protocols with the former. This eventually reveals the performance scope of a potential gain-aware DTN dissemination protocol.

  19. Crystal-bound vs surface-bound thiols on nanocrystals.

    PubMed

    Turo, Michael J; Macdonald, Janet E

    2014-10-28

    The use of thiol ligands as a sulfur source for nanocrystal synthesis has recently come en vogue, as the products are often high quality. A comparative study was performed of dodecanethiol-capped Cu2S prepared with elemental sulfur and thiol sulfur reagents. XPS and TGA-MS provide evidence for differing binding modes of the capping thiols. Under conditions where the thiol acts only as a ligand, the capping thiols are "surface-bound" and bond to surface cations in low coordination number sites. In contrast, when thiols are used as a sulfur source, "crystal-bound" thiols result that sit in high coordination sites and are the terminal S layer of the crystal. A (1)H NMR study shows suppressed surface reactivity and ligand exchange with crystal-bound thiols, which could limit further application of the particles. To address the challenge and opportunity of nonlabile ligands, dodecyl-3-mercaptopropanoate, a molecule possessing both a thiol and an ester, was used as the sulfur source for the synthesis of Cu2S and CuInS2. A postsynthetic base hydrolysis cleaves the ester, leaving a carboxylate corona around the nanocrystals and rendering the particles water-soluble. PMID:25219599

  20. Chaos Synchronization of delayed systems in the presence of delay time modulation

    E-print Network

    Won-Ho Kye; Muhan Choi; Myung-Woon Kim; Soo-Young Lee; Sunghwan Rim; Chil-Min Kim; Young-Jai Park

    2005-03-18

    We investigate synchronization in the presence of delay time modulation for application to communication. We have observed that the robust synchronization is established by a common delay signal and its threshold is presented using Lyapunov exponents analysis. The influence of the delay time modulation in chaotic oscillators is also discussed.

  1. Assessing expected accuracy of probe vehicle travel time reports

    SciTech Connect

    Hellinga, B.; Fu, L.

    1999-12-01

    The use of probe vehicles to provide estimates of link travel times has been suggested as a means of obtaining travel times within signalized networks for use in advanced travel information systems. Past research in the literature has proved contradictory conclusions regarding the expected accuracy of these probe-based estimates, and consequently has estimated different levels of market penetration of probe vehicles required to sustain accurate data within an advanced traveler information system. This paper examines the effect of sampling bias on the accuracy of the probe estimates. An analytical expression is derived on the basis of queuing theory to prove that bias in arrival time distributions and/or in the proportion of probes associated with each link departure turning movement will lead to a systematic bias in the sample estimate of the mean delay. Subsequently, the potential for and impact of sampling bias on a signalized link is examined by simulating an arterial corridor. The analytical derivation and the simulation analysis show that the reliability of probe-based average link travel times is highly affected by sampling bias. Furthermore, this analysis shows that the contradictory conclusions of previous research are directly related to the presence of absence of sample bias.

  2. Lower bound for quantum phase estimation

    SciTech Connect

    Bessen, Arvid J.

    2005-04-01

    We obtain a query lower bound for quantum algorithms solving the phase estimation problem. Our analysis generalizes existing lower-bound approaches to the case where the oracle Q is given by controlled powers Q{sup p} of Q, as it is, for example, in Shor's order-finding algorithm. In this setting we will prove a {omega}(log 1/{epsilon}) lower bound for the number of applications of Q{sup p{sub 1}}, Q{sup p{sub 2}},.... This bound is tight due to a matching upper bound. We obtain the lower bound using a technique based on frequency analysis.

  3. Delay Banking for Managing Air Traffic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, Steve

    2008-01-01

    Delay banking has been invented to enhance air-traffic management in a way that would increase the degree of fairness in assigning arrival, departure, and en-route delays and trajectory deviations to aircraft impacted by congestion in the national airspace system. In delay banking, an aircraft operator (airline, military, general aviation, etc.) would be assigned a numerical credit when any of their flights are delayed because of an air-traffic flow restriction. The operator could subsequently bid against other operators competing for access to congested airspace to utilize part or all of its accumulated credit. Operators utilize credits to obtain higher priority for the same flight, or other flights operating at the same time, or later, in the same airspace, or elsewhere. Operators could also trade delay credits, according to market rules that would be determined by stakeholders in the national airspace system. Delay banking would be administered by an independent third party who would use delay banking automation to continually monitor flights, allocate delay credits, maintain accounts of delay credits for participating airlines, mediate bidding and the consumption of credits of winning bidders, analyze potential transfers of credits within and between operators, implement accepted transfers, and ensure fair treatment of all participating operators. A flow restriction can manifest itself in the form of a delay in assigned takeoff time, a reduction in assigned airspeed, a change in the position for the aircraft in a queue of all aircraft in a common stream of traffic (e.g., similar route), a change in the planned altitude profile for an aircraft, or change in the planned route for the aircraft. Flow restrictions are typically imposed to mitigate traffic congestion at an airport or in a region of airspace, particularly congestion due to inclement weather, or the unavailability of a runway or region of airspace. A delay credit would be allocated to an operator of a flight that has accepted, or upon which was imposed, a flow restriction. The amount of the credit would increase with the amount of delay caused by the flow restriction, the exact amount depending on which of several candidate formulas is eventually chosen. For example, according to one formula, there would be no credit for a delay smaller than some threshold value (e.g., 30 seconds) and the amount of the credit for a longer delay would be set at the amount of the delay minus the threshold value. Optionally, the value of a delay credit could be made to decay with time according to a suitable formula (e.g., an exponential decay). Also, optionally, a transaction charge could be assessed against the value of a delay credit that an operator used on a flight different from the one for which the delay originated or that was traded with a different operator. The delay credits accumulated by a given airline could be utilized in various ways. For example, an operator could enter a bid for priority handling in a new flow restriction that impacts one or more of the operator s flights; if the bid were unsuccessful, all or a portion of the credit would be returned to the bidder. If the bid pertained to a single aircraft that was in a queue, delay credits could be consumed in moving the aircraft to an earlier position within the queue. In the case of a flow restriction involving a choice of alternate routes, planned altitude profile, aircraft spacing, or other non-queue flow restrictions, delay credits could be used to bid for an alternative assignment.

  4. College for some to college for all: social background, occupational expectations, and educational expectations over time.

    PubMed

    Goyette, Kimberly A

    2008-06-01

    The educational expectations of 10th-graders have dramatically increased from 1980 to 2002. Their rise is attributable in part to the changing educational composition of students' parents and related to the educational profiles of their expected occupations. Students whose parents have gone to college are more likely to attend college themselves, and students expect occupations that are more prestigious in 2002 than in 1980. The educational requirements of particular occupation categories have risen only slightly. These analyses also reveal that educational expectations in recent cohorts are more loosely linked to social background and occupational plans than they were in 1980. The declining importance of parents' background and the decoupling of educational and occupational plans, in addition to a strong and significant effect of cohort on educational expectations, suggest that the expectation of four-year college attainment is indeed becoming the norm. PMID:19069055

  5. Phase synchronization of bursting neural networks with electrical and delayed dynamic chemical couplings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Megam Ngouonkadi, Elie B.; Nono, Martial Kabong; Tamba, Victor Kamdoum; Fotsin, Hilaire B.

    2015-11-01

    Diffusive electrical connections in neuronal networks are instantaneous, while excitatory or inhibitory couplings through chemical synapses contain a transmission time-delay. Moreover, chemical synapses are nonlinear dynamical systems whose behavior can be described by nonlinear differential equations. In this work, neuronal networks with diffusive electrical couplings and time-delayed dynamic chemical couplings are considered. We investigate the effects of distributed time delays on phase synchronization of bursting neurons. We observe that in both excitatory and Inhibitory chemical connections, the phase synchronization might be enhanced when time-delay is taken into account. This distributed time delay can induce a variety of phase-coherent dynamical behaviors. We also study the collective dynamics of network of bursting neurons. The network model presents the so-called Small-World property, encompassing neurons whose dynamics have two time scales (fast and slow time scales). The neuron parameters in such Small-World network, are supposed to be slightly different such that, there may be synchronization of the bursting (slow) activity if the coupling strengths are large enough. Bounds for the critical coupling strengths to obtain burst synchronization in terms of the network structure are given. Our studies show that the network synchronizability is improved, as its heterogeneity is reduced. The roles of synaptic parameters, more precisely those of the coupling strengths and the network size are also investigated.

  6. Stable closed-loop fiber-optic delay of arbitrary radio-frequency waveforms.

    PubMed

    Ben-Amram, A; Stern, Y; London, Y; Antman, Y; Zadok, A

    2015-11-01

    Thermal drifts in long fiber-optic delay lines are compensated based on chromatic dispersion. An arbitrary input radio-frequency (RF) waveform and a control RF sine wave modulate two different tunable laser sources and are coupled into the fiber delay line. The RF phase of the control tone at the output of the delay line is monitored and used to adjust the wavelengths of both sources, so that the effects of thermal drifts and dispersion cancel out. The input and control waveforms are separated in the optical domain, and no restrictions are imposed on their RF spectra. A figure of merit is proposed, in terms of the fiber delay, range of temperature changes that may be compensated for, and residual delay variations. An upper bound on performance is established in terms of the specifications of the tunable lasers. The principle is used in the stable distribution of sine waves and of broadband linear frequency-modulated (LFM) waveforms, which are commonly employed in radar systems. Lastly, the method is incorporated in stable interrogation of a localized hot-spot within a high-resolution, distributed Brillouin fiber sensing setup. The results demonstrate the applicability of the proposed protocol in the processing of arbitrary waveforms, as part of larger, more complex systems. PMID:26561095

  7. Deformation invariant bounding spheres for dynamic active constraints in surgery.

    PubMed

    Bowyer, Stuart A; Rodriguez Y Baena, Ferdinando

    2014-04-01

    Active constraints are collaborative robot control strategies, which can be used to guide a surgeon or protect delicate tissue structures during robot-assisted surgery. Tissue structures of interest often move and deform throughout a surgical intervention, and therefore, dynamic active constraints, which adapt and conform to these changes, are required. A fundamental element of an active constraint controller is the computation of the geometric relationship between the constraint geometry and the surgical instrument. For a static active constraint, there are a variety of computationally efficient methods for computing this relative configuration; however, for a dynamic active constraint, it becomes significantly more challenging. Deformation invariant bounding spheres are a novel bounding volume formulation, which can be used within a hierarchy to allow efficient proximity queries within dynamic active constraints. These bounding spheres are constructed in such a way that as the surface deforms, they do not require time-consuming rebuilds or updates, rather they are implicitly updated and continue to represent the underlying geometry as it changes. Experimental results show that performing proximity queries with deformation invariant bounding sphere hierarchies is faster than common methods from the literature when the deformation rate is within the range expected from conventional imaging systems. PMID:24622983

  8. Demystify Learning Expectations to Address Grade Inflation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodges, Linda C.

    2014-01-01

    This article describes the subject of "grade inflation," a reference to educators giving higher grades to student work than their expectations for student achievement warrant. Of the many reasons why this practice happens, Hodges specifically discusses inflating grades as "a natural consequence" when the faculty really…

  9. Macroeconomics after Two Decades of Rational Expectations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCallum, Bennett T.

    1994-01-01

    Discusses real business cycle analysis, growth theory, and other economic concepts in the context of the rational expectations revolution in macroeconomics. Focuses on post-1982 research. Concludes that the rejuvenation of growth analysis is an encouraging development because it could lead to changes in welfare policy. (CFR)

  10. Colleges and Companies Sharing Great Expectations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council for Industry and Higher Education (United Kingdom).

    Companies have high expectations of the 440 colleges of further education, which will be the largest source of the skilled middle-range staff on whom industrial efficiency and innovation depend. Colleges look to employers to play four distinct roles--as customers, as places of learning, as advisors, and as joint planners in the regional or local…

  11. Future Expectations of Brasilian Street Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raffaelli, M.; Koller, S.H.

    2005-01-01

    Future expectations of youth surviving on the streets of Porto Alegre, Brasil, were examined. The sample consisted of 35 boys and 34 girls aged 10-18 (M age 14.4) who participated in a sentence completion task and semi-structured interviews. Responses to two incomplete sentences regarding the future revealed a mismatch between hoped-for and…

  12. Perspective Great Expectations: Using Whole-Brain

    E-print Network

    Deco, Gustavo

    Neuron Perspective Great Expectations: Using Whole-Brain Computational Connectomics for Understanding Neuropsychiatric Disorders Gustavo Deco1,2,* and Morten L. Kringelbach3,4 1Center for Brain://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuron.2014.08.034 The study of human brain networks with in vivo neuroimaging has given

  13. Unrealistic Expectations Businesses Have about Translators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriguez, Cecilia M.

    Increased international business and technological advances that speed business communication are affecting the expectations that business has for translators. More companies are asking translation agencies to translate such items as English business letters, advertising campaigns, flyers, brochures, and technical manuals into other languages,…

  14. NCAA Penalizes Fewer Teams than Expected

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sander, Libby

    2008-01-01

    This article reports that the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) has penalized fewer teams than it expected this year over athletes' poor academic performance. For years, officials with the NCAA have predicted that strikingly high numbers of college sports teams could be at risk of losing scholarships this year because of their…

  15. Life expectancy of children with cerebral palsy

    E-print Network

    Wirosoetisno, Djoko

    Life expectancy of children with cerebral palsy J L Hutton, K Hemming and UKCP collaboration What is UKCP? Information about the physical effects of cerebral palsy on the everyday lives of children with cerebral palsy which collect information about children within specific local areas. They are the Mersey

  16. Effects of Evaluation Expectation on Artistic Creativity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amabile, Teresa M.

    Conditions are examined under which the imposition of an extrinsic constraint upon performance of an activity can lead to decrements in creativity. Female college students worked on an art activity either with or without the expectation of external evaluation. In addition, subjects were asked to focus upon either the creative or the technical…

  17. Men's Alcohol Expectancies at Selected Community Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Derby, Dustin C.

    2011-01-01

    Men's alcohol expectancies are an important cognitive-behavioral component of their consumption; yet, sparse research details such behaviors for men in two-year colleges. Selected for inclusion with the current study were 563 men from seven Illinois community colleges. Logistic regression analysis indicated four significant, positive relationships…

  18. What to Expect After Pulmonary Rehabilitation

    MedlinePLUS

    ... NHLBI on Twitter. What To Expect After Pulmonary Rehabilitation Most pulmonary rehabilitation (PR) programs last a few months. At the ... of the program will show whether your symptoms, physical activity level, and ... your medical therapy. Or, your doctor might recommend more tests. These ...

  19. Culture and Caregiving: Goals, Expectations, & Conflict.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fenichel, Emily, Ed.

    2003-01-01

    "Zero to Three" is a single-focus bulletin of the National Center for Infants, Toddlers, and Families providing insight from multiple disciplines on the development of infants, toddlers, and their families. This issue focuses on the goals, expectations, and conflict in the relationship between culture and child caregiving and other care services.…

  20. Developing expectations regarding the boundaries of expertise.

    PubMed

    Landrum, Asheley R; Mills, Candice M

    2015-01-01

    Three experiments examined elementary school-aged children's and adults' expectations regarding what specialists (i.e., those with narrow domains of expertise) and generalists (i.e., those with broad domains of expertise) are likely to know. Experiment 1 demonstrated developmental differences in the ability to differentiate between generalists and specialists, with younger children believing generalists have more specific trivia knowledge than older children and adults believed. Experiment 2 demonstrated that children and adults expected generalists to have more underlying principles knowledge than specific trivia knowledge about unfamiliar animals. However, they believed that generalists would have more of both types of knowledge than themselves. Finally, Experiment 3 demonstrated that children and adults recognized that underlying principles knowledge can be generalized between topics closely related to the specialists' domains of expertise. However, they did not recognize when this knowledge was generalizable to topics slightly less related, expecting generalists to know only as much as they would. Importantly, this work contributes to the literature by showing how much of and what kinds of knowledge different types of experts are expected to have. In sum, this work provides insight into some of the ways children's notions of expertise change over development. The current research demonstrates that between the ages of 5 and 10, children are developing the ability to recognize how experts' knowledge is likely to be limited. That said, even older children at times struggle to determine the breadth of an experts' knowledge. PMID:25460394

  1. Diversity in Literary Response: Revisiting Gender Expectations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brendler, Beth M.

    2014-01-01

    Drawing on and reexamining theories on gender and literacy, derived from research performed between 1974 and 2002, this qualitative study explored the gender assumptions and expectations of Language Arts teachers in a graduate level adolescent literature course at a university in the Midwestern United States. The theoretical framework was…

  2. 10 CFR 63.304 - Reasonable expectation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Reasonable expectation. 63.304 Section 63.304 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DISPOSAL OF HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTES IN A GEOLOGIC REPOSITORY AT YUCCA MOUNTAIN, NEVADA Postclosure Public Health and Environmental Standards §...

  3. Risk Acceptance and Expectations of Laryngeal Allotransplantation

    PubMed Central

    Jo, Hyun Kyo; Park, Jang Wan; Hwang, Jae Ha; Lee, Sam Yong; Shin, Jun Ho

    2014-01-01

    Background Laryngeal allotransplantation (LA) is a technique involving transplantation of a deceased donor's larynx into a recipient, and it may be substituted for conventional laryngeal reconstruction. There are widely different views on LA, as the recipient is administered continuous, potentially life-threatening, immunosuppressive therapy for a functional or aesthetic result, which is not directly related to life extension. The purpose of this study was to analyze the difference in risk acceptance and expectations of LA between four population groups. Methods A survey was performed to examine patients' risk acceptance and expectations of LA. The survey included 287 subjects in total (general public, n=100; kidney transplant recipients, n=53; post-laryngectomy patients, n=34; doctors, n=100), using a Korean translated version of the louisville instrument for transplantation (LIFT) questionnaire. Results All four groups responded differently at various levels of their perception in risk acceptance and expectations. The kidney transplant recipients reported the highest risk acceptance and expectations, and the doctor group the lowest. Conclusions This study examined the disparate perception between specific population groups of the risks and benefits of using LA for the promotion of the quality of life. By addressing the information gaps about LA in the different populations that have been highlighted from this survey, we suggest that LA can become a more viable alternative to classical surgery with resultant improved quality of life for patients. PMID:25276642

  4. Young Infants' Expectations about Hidden Objects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruffman, Ted; Slade, Lance; Redman, Jessica

    2005-01-01

    Infants aged 3-5 months (mean of approximately 4 months) were given a novel anticipatory looking task to test object permanence understanding. They were trained to expect an experimenter to retrieve an object from behind a transparent screen upon hearing a cue (''Doors up, here comes the hand''). The experimenter then hid the object behind one of…

  5. Robust estimation by expectation maximization algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koch, Karl Rudolf

    2013-02-01

    A mixture of normal distributions is assumed for the observations of a linear model. The first component of the mixture represents the measurements without gross errors, while each of the remaining components gives the distribution for an outlier. Missing data are introduced to deliver the information as to which observation belongs to which component. The unknown location parameters and the unknown scale parameter of the linear model are estimated by the EM algorithm, which is iteratively applied. The E (expectation) step of the algorithm determines the expected value of the likelihood function given the observations and the current estimate of the unknown parameters, while the M (maximization) step computes new estimates by maximizing the expectation of the likelihood function. In comparison to Huber's M-estimation, the EM algorithm does not only identify outliers by introducing small weights for large residuals but also estimates the outliers. They can be corrected by the parameters of the linear model freed from the distortions by gross errors. Monte Carlo methods with random variates from the normal distribution then give expectations, variances, covariances and confidence regions for functions of the parameters estimated by taking care of the outliers. The method is demonstrated by the analysis of measurements with gross errors of a laser scanner.

  6. Solving Rational Expectations Models Using Excel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strulik, Holger

    2004-01-01

    Simple problems of discrete-time optimal control can be solved using a standard spreadsheet software. The employed-solution method of backward iteration is intuitively understandable, does not require any programming skills, and is easy to implement so that it is suitable for classroom exercises with rational-expectations models. The author…

  7. Effects of Syntactic Expectations on Speech Segmentation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mattys, Sven L.; Melhorn, James F.; White, Laurence

    2007-01-01

    Although the effect of acoustic cues on speech segmentation has been extensively investigated, the role of higher order information (e.g., syntax) has received less attention. Here, the authors examined whether syntactic expectations based on subject-verb agreement have an effect on segmentation and whether they do so despite conflicting acoustic…

  8. Caps and Robbers: What Can You Expect?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zager, Laura A.; Verghese, George C.

    2007-01-01

    The "matching" hats problem is a classic exercise in probability: if "n" people throw their hats in a box, and then each person randomly draws one out again, what is the expected number of people who draw their own hat? This paper presents several extensions to this problem, with solutions that involve interesting tricks with iterated…

  9. Discounting of Delayed Rewards Is Not Hyperbolic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luhmann, Christian C.

    2013-01-01

    Delay discounting refers to decision-makers' tendency to value immediately available goods more than identical goods available only after some delay. In violation of standard economic theory, decision-makers frequently exhibit dynamic inconsistency; their preferences change simply due to the passage of time. The standard explanation for this…

  10. Analyzing delay causes in Egyptian construction projects

    PubMed Central

    Marzouk, Mohamed M.; El-Rasas, Tarek I.

    2013-01-01

    Construction delays are common problems in civil engineering projects in Egypt. These problems occur frequently during project life-time leading to disputes and litigation. Therefore, it is essential to study and analyze causes of construction delays. This research presents a list of construction delay causes retrieved from literature. The feedback of construction experts was obtained through interviews. Subsequently, a questionnaire survey was prepared. The questionnaire survey was distributed to thirty-three construction experts who represent owners, consultants, and contractor’s organizations. Frequency Index, Severity Index, and Importance Index are calculated and according to the highest values of them the top ten delay causes of construction projects in Egypt are determined. A case study is analyzed and compared to the most important delay causes in the research. Statistical analysis is carried out using analysis of variance ANOVA method to test delay causes, obtained from the survey. The test results reveal good correlation between groups while there is significant difference between them for some delay causes and finally roadmap for prioritizing delay causes groups is presented. PMID:25685471

  11. Oscillation of nonlinear delay difference equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, J. C.; Tang, X. H.

    2002-09-01

    In this paper, some new oscillation criteria are obtained for all solutions of the nonlinear delay difference equation of the form xn+1-xn+pnf(xn-k)=0, n=0,1,2,... . Our results also improve some well-known results in the literature even when applying them to the linear delay difference equation.

  12. 49 CFR 236.831 - Time, delay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Time, delay. 236.831 Section 236.831 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... Time, delay. As applied to an automatic train stop or train control system, the time which...

  13. Gate Delay Calculation Considering the Crosstalk Capacitances

    E-print Network

    Pedram, Massoud

    1 Gate Delay Calculation Considering the Crosstalk Capacitances Soroush Abbaspour and Massoud Conference 2004 Soroush Abbaspour ASP-DAC 2004 Massoud Pedram Outline ! Motivation ! Background ! Effective Abbaspour ASP-DAC 2004 Massoud Pedram Motivation ! The stage delay in a VLSI circuit consists of the gate

  14. Motivational Determinants of Academic Delay of Gratification.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karabenick, Stuart A.; Bembenutty, Hefer

    This study examined motivational determinants of academic delay of gratification (ADOG) with 196 undergraduate college students at a large midwestern university. Students completed the academic delay of gratification scale, in which students are presented with 10 hypothetical situations and they indicate their preference among options offering…

  15. Delaying gratification depends on social trust.

    PubMed

    Michaelson, Laura; de la Vega, Alejandro; Chatham, Christopher H; Munakata, Yuko

    2013-01-01

    Delaying gratification is hard, yet predictive of important life outcomes, such as academic achievement and physical health. Prominent theories focus on the role of self-control, hypersensitivity to immediate rewards, and the cost of time spent waiting. However, delaying gratification may also require trust in people delivering future rewards as promised. To test the role of social trust, participants were presented with character vignettes and faces that varied in trustworthiness, and then choose between hypothetical smaller immediate or larger delayed rewards from those characters. Across two experiments, participants were less willing to wait for delayed rewards from less trustworthy characters, and perceived trustworthiness predicted willingness to delay gratification. These findings provide the first demonstration of a causal role for social trust in willingness to delay gratification, independent of other relevant factors, such as self-control or reward history. Thus, delaying gratification requires choosing not only a later reward, but a reward that is potentially less likely to be delivered, when there is doubt about the person promising it. Implications of this work include the need to revise prominent theories of delay of gratification, and new directions for interventions with populations characterized by impulsivity. PMID:23801977

  16. Delaying Developmental Mathematics: The Characteristics and Costs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Marianne; Kuennen, Eric

    2004-01-01

    This paper investigates which students delay taking a required developmental mathematics course and the impact of delay on student performance in introductory microeconomics. Analysis of a sample of 1462 students at a large Midwestern university revealed that, although developmental-level mathematics students did not reach the same level of…

  17. Minimizing the Delay at Traffic Lights

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Hecke, Tanja

    2009-01-01

    Vehicles holding at traffic lights is a typical queuing problem. At crossings the vehicles experience delay in both directions. Longer periods with green lights in one direction are disadvantageous for the vehicles coming from the other direction. The total delay for getting through the traffic point is what counts. This article presents an…

  18. The Tunnel Vision Syndrome: Massively Delaying Progress

    E-print Network

    Hartenstein, Reiner

    The Tunnel Vision Syndrome: Massively Delaying Progress Reiner Hartenstein, Professor, IEEE fellow facet as the complete answer are far from solving the problem. What is the reason of these slow-down- stream-based computing was delayed for decades by the tunnel vision syndrome. The History of Systolic

  19. On Delay and Security in Network Coding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dikaliotis, Theodoros K.

    2013-01-01

    In this thesis, delay and security issues in network coding are considered. First, we study the delay incurred in the transmission of a fixed number of packets through acyclic networks comprised of erasure links. The two transmission schemes studied are routing with hop-by-hop retransmissions, where every node in the network simply stores and…

  20. 49 CFR 236.831 - Time, delay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Time, delay. 236.831 Section 236.831 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... Time, delay. As applied to an automatic train stop or train control system, the time which...

  1. 49 CFR 236.831 - Time, delay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Time, delay. 236.831 Section 236.831 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... Time, delay. As applied to an automatic train stop or train control system, the time which...

  2. A symbolic information approach to determine anticipated and delayed synchronization in neuronal circuit models.

    PubMed

    Montani, Fernando; Rosso, Osvaldo A; Matias, Fernanda S; Bressler, Steven L; Mirasso, Claudio R

    2015-12-13

    The phenomenon of synchronization between two or more areas of the brain coupled asymmetrically is a relevant issue for understanding mechanisms and functions within the cerebral cortex. Anticipated synchronization (AS) refers to the situation in which the receiver system synchronizes to the future dynamics of the sender system while the intuitively expected delayed synchronization (DS) represents exactly the opposite case. AS and DS are investigated in the context of causal information formalism. More specifically, we use a multi-scale symbolic information-theory approach for discriminating the time delay displayed between two areas of the brain when they exchange information. PMID:26527818

  3. Preferences for fixed and variable food sources: variability in amount and delay.

    PubMed Central

    Bateson, M; Kacelnik, A

    1995-01-01

    Much research has focused on the effects of environmental variability on foraging decisions. However, the general pattern of preference for variability in delay to reward and aversion to variability in amount of reward remains unexplained a either a mechanistic or a functional level. Starlings' preferences between a fixed and a variable option were studied in two treatments, A and D. The fixed option was the same in both treatments (20-s fixed-interval delay, five units food). In Treatment A the variable option gave two equiprobable amounts of food (20-s delay, three or seven units) and in D it gave two equiprobable delays to food (2.5-s or 60.5-s delays, five units). In both treatments the programmed ratio [amount/(intertrial interval+latency+delay)] in the fixed option equaled the arithmetic mean of the two possible ratios in the variable option (ITI = 40 s, latency = 1 s). The variable option was strongly preferred in Treatment D and was weakly avoided in Treatment A. These results are discussed in the light of two theoretical models, a form of constrained rate maximization and a version of scalar expectancy theory. The latter accommodates more of the data and is based on independently verifiable assumptions, including Weber's law. PMID:7751835

  4. Time delays in two-photon ionization.

    PubMed

    Su, Jing; Ni, Hongcheng; Jaro?-Becker, Agnieszka; Becker, Andreas

    2014-12-31

    We present results of ab initio numerical simulations of time delays in two-photon ionization of the helium atom using the attosecond streaking technique. The temporal shifts in the streaking traces consist of two contributions, namely, a time delay acquired during the absorption of the two photons from the extreme-ultraviolet field and a time delay accumulated by the photoelectron after photoabsorption. In the case of a nonresonant transition, the absorption of the two photons is found to occur without time delay. In contrast, for a resonant transition a substantial absorption time delay is found, which scales linearly with the duration of the ionizing pulse. The latter can be related to the phase acquired during the transition of the electron from the initial ground state to the continuum and the influence of the streaking field on the resonant structure of the atom. PMID:25615320

  5. Holographic bound and protein linguistics

    E-print Network

    Dirson Jian Li; Shengli Zhang

    2007-04-10

    The holographic bound in physics constrains the complexity of life. The finite storage capability of information in the observable universe requires the protein linguistics in the evolution of life. We find that the evolution of genetic code determines the variance of amino acid frequencies and genomic GC content among species. The elegant linguistic mechanism is confirmed by the experimental observations based on all known entire proteomes.

  6. The TCD[sub 50] and regrowth delay assay in human tumor xenografts: Differences and implications

    SciTech Connect

    Budach, W.; Budach, V.; Stuschke, M.; Dinges, S.; Sack, H. )

    1993-01-15

    The response to irradiation of five human xenograft cell lines - a malignant paraganglioma, a neurogenic sarcoma, a malignant histiocytoma, a primary lymphoma of the brain, and a squamous cell carcinoma - were tested in nude mice. All mice underwent 5 Gy whole body irradiation prior to xenotransplantation to minimize the residual immune response. The subcutaneous tumors were irradiated at a tumor volume of 120 mm[sup 3] under acutely hypoxic conditions with single doses between 8 Gy and 80 Gy depending on the expected radiation sensitivity of the tumor line. Endpoints of the study were the tumor control dose 50% (TCD[sub 50]) and the regrowth delay endpoints growth delay, specific growth delay, and the tumor bed effect corrected specific growth delay. Specific growth delay and corrected specific growth delay at 76% of the TCD[sub 50] was used in order to compare the data to previously published data from spheroids. The lowest TCD[sub 50] was found in the lymphoma with 24.9 Gy, whereas the TCD[sub 50] of the soft tissue sarcomas and the squamous cell carcinoma ranged from 57.8 Gy to 65.6 Gy. The isoeffective dose levels for the induction of 30 days growth delay, a specific growth delay of 3, and a corrected specific growth delay of 3 ranged from 15.5 Gy (ECL1) to 37.1 Gy (FADU), from 7.2 Gy (ENE2) to 45.6 Gy (EPG1) and from 9.2 Gy (ENE2) to 37.6 Gy (EPG1), respectively. The corrected specific growth delay at 76% of the TCD[sub 50] was correlated with the number of tumor rescue units per 100 cells in spheroids, which was available for three tumor lines, and with the tumor doubling time in xenografts (n = 5). The TCD[sub 50] values corresponded better to the clinical experience than the regrowth delay data. There was no correlation between TCD[sub 50] and any of the regrowth delay endpoints. This missing correlation was most likely a result of large differences in the number of tumor rescue units in human xenografts of the same size.

  7. Breastfeeding the NICU Infant: What to Expect.

    PubMed

    Wight, Nancy E

    2015-12-01

    Approximately 14% of infants born in the United States are admitted to neonatal intensive care units (NICU). The evidence for the use of human milk in the NICU is convincing. NICU mothers are at greater risk of delayed onset of lactation and insufficient milk when compared with healthy breastfeeding couplets. Unfortunately many infants leave the NICU not receiving sufficient or any breastmilk. A mother's success depends upon the obstetric and NICU environment, and the knowledge and attitudes of those who care for her and her infant(s). Obstetrician-gynecologists have a significant role in the decision to breastfeed and the success of the provision of human milk and breastfeeding in the NICU. PMID:26398299

  8. Expected Performance of the GLAST Burst Monitor

    SciTech Connect

    Meegan, Charles; Fishman, Gerald; Kouveliotou, Chryssa; Wilson-Hodge, Colleen; Bissaldi, Elisabetta; Diehl, Roland; Greiner, Jochen; Kienlin, Andreas von; Lichti, Giselher; Steinle, Helmut; Kippen, R. Marc

    2008-05-22

    The GLAST Burst Monitor (GBM) will enhance LAT observations of GRBs by extending the spectral coverage from the LAT threshold down to {approx}8 keV, and will provide a trigger for re-orienting the spacecraft to observe delayed emission from selected bursts outside the LAT field of view. GBM consists of twelve NaI scintillation detectors operating in the 8 keV to 1 MeV energy range and two BGO scintillation detectors operating in the 150 keV to 30 MeV energy range. Detector resolution, effective area, and angular response have been determined by calibrations. Analyses indicate that the on-board burst threshold will be {approx}0.7 photons cm{sup -2}s{sup -1} and the on-board burst localization accuracy will typically be better than 8 deg.

  9. Bounds on halo-particle interactions from interstellar calorimetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chivukula, Sekhar R.; Cohen, Andrew G.; Dimopoulos, Savas; Walker, Terry P.

    1990-01-01

    It is shown that the existence of neutral interstellar clouds constrains the interaction of any particulate dark-matter candidate with atomic hydrogen to be quite small. Even for a halo particle of mass 1 PeV (10 to the 6 GeV), it is shown that the cross section with hydrogen must be smaller than the typical atomic cross section that is expected for a positively charged particle bound to an electron. The argument presented is that if the clouds are in equilibrium, then the rate at which energy is deposited by collisions with dark-matter particles must be smaller than the rate at which the cloud can cool. This argument is used to constrain the interaction cross section of dark matter with hydrogen. Remarks are made on the general viability of charged dark matter. Comments are also made on a bound which derives from the dynamical stability of the halo.

  10. Dynamical Horizon Entropy Bound Conjecture in Loop Quantum Cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Li-Fang; Zhu, Jian-Yang

    2012-07-01

    The covariant entropy bound conjecture is an important hint for the quantum gravity, with several versions available in the literature. For cosmology, Ashtekar and Wilson-Ewing ever show the consistence between the loop gravity theory and one version of this conjecture. Recently, He and Zhang [J. High Energy Phys. 10 (2007) 077] proposed a version for the dynamical horizon of the universe, which validates the entropy bound conjecture for the cosmology filled with perfect fluid in the classical scenario when the universe is far away from the big bang singularity. However, their conjecture breaks down near big bang region. We examine this conjecture in the context of the loop quantum cosmology. With the example of photon gas, this conjecture is protected by the quantum geometry effects as expected.

  11. Virial Expansion Bounds Through Tree Partition Schemes

    E-print Network

    Sanjay Ramawadh; Stephen James Tate

    2015-04-09

    In this paper, we use tree partition schemes and an algebraic expression for the virial coefficients in terms of the cluster coefficients in order to derve upper bounds on the virial coefficients and consequently lower bounds on the radius of convergence of the virial expansion $\\mathcal{R}_{\\textrm{Vir}}$. The bound on the radius of convergence in the case of the Penrose partition scheme is the same as that proposed by Groeneveld and improves the bound achieved by Lebowitz and Penrose.

  12. Differences in Life Expectancy and Disability Free Life Expectancy in Italy. A Challenge to Health Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burgio, A.; Murianni, L.; Folino-Gallo, P.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Measures of health expectancy such as Disability Free Life Expectancy are used to evaluate and compare regional/national health statuses. These indicators are useful for understanding changes in the health status and defining health policies and decisions on the provision of services because provide useful information on possible areas…

  13. Expected Value and Variance 6.1 Expected Value of Discrete Random Variables

    E-print Network

    Indiana University

    a fair coin three times. Let X denote the number of heads which appear. Then the possible values of XChapter 6 Expected Value and Variance 6.1 Expected Value of Discrete Random Variables When a large for the probability distribution of a numerically-valued random variable. In this and in the next section, we shall

  14. Telepresence, time delay, and adaptation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Held, Richard; Durlach, Nathaniel

    1989-01-01

    Displays are now being used extensively throughout the society. More and more time is spent watching television, movies, computer screens, etc. Furthermore, in an increasing number of cases, the observer interacts with the display and plays the role of operator as well as observer. To a large extent, the normal behavior in the normal environment can also be thought of in these same terms. Taking liberties with Shakespeare, it might be said, all the world's a display and all the individuals in it are operators in and on the display. Within this general context of interactive display systems, a discussion is began with a conceptual overview of a particular class of such systems, namely, teleoperator systems. The notion is considered of telepresence and the factors that limit telepresence, including decorrelation between the: (1) motor output of the teleoperator as sensed directly via the kinesthetic/tactual system, and (2) the motor output of the teleoperator as sensed indirectly via feedback from the slave robot, i.e., via a visual display of the motor actions of the slave robot. Finally, the deleterious effect of time delay (a particular decorrelation) on sensory-motor adaptation (an important phenomenon related to telepresence) is examined.

  15. Induced Seismicity: What is the Size of the Largest Expected Earthquake?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zoeller, G.; Holschneider, M.

    2014-12-01

    The injections of fluids is a well-known origin for the triggering of earthquake sequences. The growing number of projects related to enhanced geothermal systems, fracking and others has led to the question, which maximum earthquake magnitude can be expected as a consequence of fluid injection. This question is addressed from the perspective of statistical analysis. Using basic empirical laws of earthquake statistics, we estimate the magnitude MT of the maximum expected earthquake in a pre-defined future time window T. A case study of the fluid injection site at Paradox Valley, Colorado, USA, demonstrates that the magnitude m=4.3 of the largest observed earthquake on 27 May 2000 is lying very well within the expectation from past seismicity without adjusting any parameters. Vice versa, for a given maximum tolerable earthquake at an injection site, we can constrain the corresponding amount of injected fluids that must not be exceeded within pre-defined confidence bounds.

  16. Methodology for Analysis, Modeling and Simulation of Airport Gate-waiting Delays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jianfeng

    This dissertation presents methodologies to estimate gate-waiting delays from historical data, to identify gate-waiting-delay functional causes in major U.S. airports, and to evaluate the impact of gate operation disruptions and mitigation strategies on gate-waiting delay. Airport gates are a resource of congestion in the air transportation system. When an arriving flight cannot pull into its gate, the delay it experiences is called gate-waiting delay. Some possible reasons for gate-waiting delay are: the gate is occupied, gate staff or equipment is unavailable, the weather prevents the use of the gate (e.g. lightning), or the airline has a preferred gate assignment. Gate-waiting delays potentially stay with the aircraft throughout the day (unless they are absorbed), adding costs to passengers and the airlines. As the volume of flights increases, ensuring that airport gates do not become a choke point of the system is critical. The first part of the dissertation presents a methodology for estimating gate-waiting delays based on historical, publicly available sources. Analysis of gate-waiting delays at major U.S. airports in the summer of 2007 identifies the following. (i) Gate-waiting delay is not a significant problem on majority of days; however, the worst delay days (e.g. 4% of the days at LGA) are extreme outliers. (ii) The Atlanta International Airport (ATL), the John F. Kennedy International Airport (JFK), the Dallas/Fort Worth International Airport (DFW) and the Philadelphia International Airport (PHL) experience the highest gate-waiting delays among major U.S. airports. (iii) There is a significant gate-waiting-delay difference between airlines due to a disproportional gate allocation. (iv) Gate-waiting delay is sensitive to time of a day and schedule peaks. According to basic principles of queueing theory, gate-waiting delay can be attributed to over-scheduling, higher-than-scheduled arrival rate, longer-than-scheduled gate-occupancy time, and reduced gate availability. Analysis of the worst days at six major airports in the summer of 2007 indicates that major gate-waiting delays are primarily due to operational disruptions---specifically, extended gate occupancy time, reduced gate availability and higher-than-scheduled arrival rate (usually due to arrival delay). Major gate-waiting delays are not a result of over-scheduling. The second part of this dissertation presents a simulation model to evaluate the impact of gate operational disruptions and gate-waiting-delay mitigation strategies, including building new gates, implementing common gates, using overnight off-gate parking and adopting self-docking gates. Simulation results show the following effects of disruptions: (i) The impact of arrival delay in a time window (e.g. 7 pm to 9 pm) on gate-waiting delay is bounded. (ii) The impact of longer-than-scheduled gate-occupancy times in a time window on gate-waiting delay can be unbounded and gate-waiting delay can increase linearly as the disruption level increases. (iii) Small reductions in gate availability have a small impact on gate-waiting delay due to slack gate capacity, while larger reductions have a non-linear impact as slack gate capacity is used up. Simulation results show the following effects of mitigation strategies: (i) Implementing common gates is an effective mitigation strategy, especially for airports with a flight schedule not dominated by one carrier, such as LGA. (ii) The overnight off-gate rule is effective in mitigating gate-waiting delay for flights stranded overnight following departure cancellations. This is especially true at airports where the gate utilization is at maximum overnight, such as LGA and DFW. The overnight off-gate rule can also be very effective to mitigate gate-waiting delay due to operational disruptions in evenings. (iii) Self-docking gates are effective in mitigating gate-waiting delay due to reduced gate availability.

  17. Some Educational Implications & Contributions of Outward Bound.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Australian Outward Bound School, Sydney.

    The development of Outward Bound, from the early beginnings in Britain through expansion in over 30 locations throughout the world, is outlined, and Outward Bound educational aspects are analyzed in terms of the Australian Outward Bound School. The concepts of experiential education, lifelong education, and the broader Australian educational scene…

  18. Stable bound orbits around black rings

    SciTech Connect

    Igata, Takahisa; Ishihara, Hideki; Takamori, Yohsuke

    2010-11-15

    We examine bound orbits of particles around singly rotating black rings. We show that there exist stable bound orbits in toroidal spiral shape near the 'axis' of the ring, and also stable circular orbits on the axis as special cases. The stable bound orbits can have arbitrary large size if the thickness of the ring is less than a critical value.

  19. Time-Bounded Verification Joel Ouaknine1

    E-print Network

    Worrell, James

    Time-Bounded Verification Jo¨el Ouaknine1 , Alexander Rabinovich2 , and James Worrell1 1 Oxford prob- lems for timed automata over time intervals of fixed, bounded length. One of our main results is that time-bounded language inclusion for timed automata is 2EXPSPACE-complete. We also investigate the satis

  20. Young infants have biological expectations about animals

    PubMed Central

    Setoh, Peipei; Wu, Di; Baillargeon, Renée; Gelman, Rochel

    2013-01-01

    What are the developmental origins of our concept of animal? There has long been controversy concerning this question. At issue is whether biological reasoning develops from earlier forms of reasoning, such as physical and psychological reasoning, or whether from a young age children endow animals with biological properties. Here we demonstrate that 8-mo-old infants already expect novel objects they identify as animals to have insides. Infants detected a violation when an object that was self-propelled and agentive (but not an object that lacked one or both of these properties) was revealed to be hollow. Infants also detected a violation when an object that was self-propelled and furry (but not an object that lacked one or both of these properties) either was shown to be hollow or rattled (when shaken) as although mostly hollow. Young infants’ expectations about animals’ insides may serve as a foundation for the development of more advanced biological knowledge. PMID:24003134

  1. PLATO Simulator: Realistic simulations of expected observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marcos-Arenal, P.; Zima, W.; De Ridder, J.; Aerts, C.; Huygen, R.; Samadi, R.; Green, J.; Piotto, G.; Salmon, S.; Catala, C.; Rauer, H.

    2015-06-01

    PLATO Simulator is an end-to-end simulation software tool designed for the performance of realistic simulations of the expected observations of the PLATO mission but easily adaptable to similar types of missions. It models and simulates photometric time-series of CCD images by including models of the CCD and its electronics, the telescope optics, the stellar field, the jitter movements of the spacecraft, and all important natural noise sources.

  2. First Contact: Expectations of Beginning Astronomy Students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lacey, T. L.; Slater, T. F.

    1999-05-01

    Three hundred seven undergraduate students enrolled in Introductory Astronomy were surveyed at the beginning of class to determine their expectations for course content. The course serves as a survey of astronomy for non-science majors and is a distribution course for general education core requirements. The course has no prerequisites, meets three times each week for 50 minutes, and represents three semester credit hours. The university catalog describes the course with the title "PHYSICS 101 - Mysteries of the Sky" and the official course description is: a survey of the struggle to understand the Universe and our place therein. The structure, growth, methods, and limitations of science will be illustrated using the development of astronomy as a vehicle. Present day views of the Universe are presented. Two questions were asked as open response items: What made you decide to take this course? and What do you expect to learn in this course? The reasons that students cited to take the course, in order of frequency, were: interested in astronomy, interesting or fun sounding course, required general education fulfillment, recommendation by peer. Secondary reasons cited were required for major or minor, general interest in science, and was available in the schedule. Tertiary reasons listed were recommendation by advisor or orientation leader, inflate grade point average, and heard good things about the teacher. The students' expectations about what they would learn in the course were numerous. The most common objects listed, in order of frequency, were: stars, constellations, planets, galaxies, black holes, solar system, comets, galaxies, asteroids, moon, and Sun. More interesting were the aspects not specifically related to astronomy. These were weather, atmosphere, UFOs and the unexplained, generally things in the sky. A mid-course survey suggests that students expected to learn more constellations and that the topics would be less in-depth.

  3. Investigating expectation effects using multiple physiological measures

    PubMed Central

    Siller, Alexander; Ambach, Wolfgang; Vaitl, Dieter

    2015-01-01

    The study aimed at experimentally investigating whether the human body can anticipate future events under improved methodological conditions. Previous studies have reported contradictory results for the phenomenon typically called presentiment. If the positive findings are accurate, they call into doubt our views about human perception, and if they are inaccurate, a plausible conventional explanation might be based on the experimental design of the previous studies, in which expectation due to item sequences was misinterpreted as presentiment. To address these points, we opted to collect several physiological variables, to test different randomization types and to manipulate subjective significance individually. For the latter, we combined a mock crime scenario, in which participants had to steal specific items, with a concealed information test (CIT), in which the participants had to conceal their knowledge when interrogated about items they had stolen or not stolen. We measured electrodermal activity, respiration, finger pulse, heart rate (HR), and reaction times. The participants (n = 154) were assigned randomly to four different groups. Items presented in the CIT were either drawn with replacement (full) or without replacement (pseudo) and were either presented category-wise (cat) or regardless of categories (nocat). To understand how these item sequences influence expectation and modulate physiological reactions, we compared the groups with respect to effect sizes for stolen vs. not stolen items. Group pseudo_cat yielded the highest effect sizes, and pseudo_nocat yielded the lowest. We could not find any evidence of presentiment but did find evidence of physiological correlates of expectation. Due to the design differing fundamentally from previous studies, these findings do not allow for conclusions on the question whether the expectation bias is being confounded with presentiment. PMID:26500600

  4. Statistical Inference of DNA Translocation using Parallel Expectation Maximization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emmett, Kevin; Rosenstein, Jacob; Pfau, David; Bamberger, Akiva; Shepard, Ken; Wiggins, Chris

    2013-03-01

    DNA translocation through a nanopore is an attractive candidate for a next-generation DNA sequencing platform, however the stochastic motion of the molecules within the pore, allowing both forward and backward movement, prevents easy inference of the true sequence from observed data. We model diffusion of an input DNA sequence through a nanopore as a biased random walk with noise, and describe an algorithm for efficient statistical reconstruction of the input sequence, given data consisting of a set of time series traces. The data is modeled as a Hidden Markov Model, and parallel expectation maximization is used to learn the most probable input sequence generating the observed traces. Bounds on inference accuracy are analyzed as a function of model parameters, including forward bias, error rate, and the number of traces. The number of traces is shown to have the strongest influence on algorithm performance, allowing for high inference accuracy even in extremely noisy environments. Incorrectly identified state transitions account for the majority of inference errors, and we introduce entropy-based metaheuristics for identifying and eliminating these errors. Inference is robust, fast, and scales to input sequences on the order of several kilobases.

  5. Setting clear expectations for safety basis development

    SciTech Connect

    MORENO, M.R.

    2003-05-03

    DOE-RL has set clear expectations for a cost-effective approach for achieving compliance with the Nuclear Safety Management requirements (10 CFR 830, Nuclear Safety Rule) which will ensure long-term benefit to Hanford. To facilitate implementation of these expectations, tools were developed to streamline and standardize safety analysis and safety document development resulting in a shorter and more predictable DOE approval cycle. A Hanford Safety Analysis and Risk Assessment Handbook (SARAH) was issued to standardized methodologies for development of safety analyses. A Microsoft Excel spreadsheet (RADIDOSE) was issued for the evaluation of radiological consequences for accident scenarios often postulated for Hanford. A standard Site Documented Safety Analysis (DSA) detailing the safety management programs was issued for use as a means of compliance with a majority of 3009 Standard chapters. An in-process review was developed between DOE and the Contractor to facilitate DOE approval and provide early course correction. As a result of setting expectations and providing safety analysis tools, the four Hanford Site waste management nuclear facilities were able to integrate into one Master Waste Management Documented Safety Analysis (WM-DSA).

  6. 14 CFR 417.221 - Time delay analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...analysis must include a time delay analysis that establishes the mean...required by § 417.213. (b) Analysis constraints. A time delay analyses must determine a time delay...Tracking systems; (ii) Data processing systems,...

  7. A Search for Gravitationally Bound Cloud Cores within the CMZ

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gehret, Elizabeth; Battersby, Cara

    2016-01-01

    In general, current star formation theories successfully model the rate at which stars are forming throughout our Galaxy as well as others, with the star formation rate (SFR) in a given region being proportional to the amount of gas above a threshold density. The Central Molecular Zone (CMZ) of our Galaxy is an excellent place to test these models. It is home to the highest amount of dense, molecular gas within our Galaxy-and yet, the SFR within this region is an order of magnitude lower than would be expected using current star formation models. This project utilizes data taken from the SMA Legacy Survey of the CMZ, in a search for gravitationally bound structures within three small gas clouds near the Galactic Center, as well as the 1.6 degree cloud. Dense gas structures are detected using H2CO-a dense gas tracer, and 1.3mm cold, dust continuum. These regions are catalogued using dendrograms to identify which structures have continuous and significant H2CO emission. Gravitationally bound candidates were identified by deriving each structure's virial ratio. Within the three clouds near the GC, 40 structures were catalogued, with one structure that was found to be gravitationally bound. Very large virial ratios are the result of large H2CO line widths, possibly due to a high degree of tidal compression. This analysis is also performed on the 1.6 degree cloud, in a region with two suspected bound cores. One of these two cores is close to virial equilibrium and likely gravitationally bound, thus providing support for the use of this method on other clouds within the CMZ. This work supported in part by the NSF REU and DoD ASSURE programs under grant no. 1262851 and by the Smithsonian Institution.

  8. Delayed facial palsy in Miller Fisher syndrome.

    PubMed

    Tan, Cheng-Yin; Yuki, Nobuhiro; Shahrizaila, Nortina

    2015-11-15

    Miller Fisher syndrome is characterised by the triad of ophthalmoplegia, ataxia and areflexia. However, facial palsy can occur during the course of the illness although development of facial palsy when other cardinal signs of Miller Fisher syndrome have reached nadir or improving, is unusual. This delayed appearance of facial palsy can be easily overlooked by the treating clinician. Here, we report four patients with Miller Fisher syndrome and delayed-onset facial palsy. We discuss the possible underlying reasons behind the delay in facial palsy. PMID:26277343

  9. Spectral solution of delayed random walks.

    PubMed

    Bhat, H S; Kumar, N

    2012-10-01

    We develop a spectral method for computing the probability density function for delayed random walks; for such problems, the method is exact to machine precision and faster than existing approaches. In conjunction with a step function approximation and the weak Euler-Maruyama discretization, the spectral method can be applied to nonlinear stochastic delay differential equations (SDDE). In essence, this means approximating the SDDE by a delayed random walk, which is then solved using the spectral method. We carry out tests for a particular nonlinear SDDE that show that this method captures the solution without the need for Monte Carlo sampling. PMID:23214645

  10. Calculus for network delays and a note on topologies of interconnection networks. Doctoral thesis

    SciTech Connect

    Cruz, R.L.

    1987-07-01

    A calculus is developed for obtaining bounds on delay in a buffered communication network that applies to a wide variety of models for network operation. The theory developed is different from traditional approaches to analyzing delay because the model used to describe the entry of data into the network is non-probabilistic. It is assumed that the data stream entered into the network by any given user satisfies burstiness constraints--that is, the quantity of data from the stream contained in any interval of time is less than a value that depends on the length of the interval. Given this model, it is shown that data traffic streams on each internal link of the network satisfy burstiness constraints. This allows attainment of upper bounds on network delay and buffering requirements. A mechanism called regulation is studied for enforcing burstiness constraints on an arbitrary data stream. The effect of employing these regulation mechanisms inside the network is noted. Theoretical design issues for topologies of interconnection networks are examined.

  11. Gamma ray burst delay times probe the geometry of momentum space

    E-print Network

    Laurent Freidel; Lee Smolin

    2011-03-29

    We study the application of the recently proposed framework of relative locality to the problem of energy dependent delays of arrival times of photons that are produced simultaneously in distant events such as gamma ray bursts. Within this framework, possible modifications of special relativity are coded in the geometry of momentum space. The metric of momentum space codes modifications in the energy momentum relation, while the connection on momentum space describes possible non-linear modifications in the laws of conservation of energy and momentum. In this paper, we study effects of first order in the inverse Planck scale, which are coded in the torsion and non-metricity of momentum space. We find that time delays of order Distance * Energies/m_p are coded in the non-metricity of momentum space. Current experimental bounds on such time delays hence bound the components of this tensor of order 1/m_p. We also find a new effect, whereby photons from distant sources can appear to arrive from angles slightly off the direction to the sources, which we call gravitational lensing. This is found to be coded into the torsion of momentum space.

  12. Patient delays and system delays in breast cancer treatment in developed and developing countries.

    PubMed

    Freitas, Angela Gabrielly Quirino; Weller, Mathias

    2015-10-01

    Delays in treating breast cancer have been associated with a more advanced stage of the disease and a decrease in patient survival rates. The scope of this integrative review was to analyze the main causal factors and types of patient and system delays. The underlying causal factors of delays were compared among studies conducted in developing and developed countries. Of the 53 studies selected, 24 were carried out in developing countries and 29 in developed countries, respectively. Non-attribution of symptoms to cancer, fear of the disease and treatment and low educational level were the most frequent causes of patient delay. Less comprehensive health insurance coverage, older/younger age and false negative diagnosis tests were the three most common causal factors of system delay. The effects of factors such as age were not decisive per se and depended mainly on the social and cultural context. Some factors caused both patient delay and system delay. Studies conducted in developing countries identified more causal factors of patient delay and had a stronger focus on patient delay or the combination of both. Studies conducted in developed countries had a stronger focus on aspects of system delay during treatment and guidance of breast cancer patients in the health care system. PMID:26465859

  13. Entropy bounds and dark energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Stephen D. H.

    2004-07-01

    Entropy bounds render quantum corrections to the cosmological constant ? finite. Under certain assumptions, the natural value of ? is of order the observed dark energy density ~10-10 eV4, thereby resolving the cosmological constant problem. We note that the dark energy equation of state in these scenarios is w?p/?=0 over cosmological distances, and is strongly disfavored by observational data. Alternatively, ? in these scenarios might account for the diffuse dark matter component of the cosmological energy density. Permanent address: Institute of Theoretical Science and Department of Physics, University of Oregon, Eugene, OR 97403.

  14. Error bounds in cascading regressions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Karlinger, M.R.; Troutman, B.M.

    1985-01-01

    Cascading regressions is a technique for predicting a value of a dependent variable when no paired measurements exist to perform a standard regression analysis. Biases in coefficients of a cascaded-regression line as well as error variance of points about the line are functions of the correlation coefficient between dependent and independent variables. Although this correlation cannot be computed because of the lack of paired data, bounds can be placed on errors through the required properties of the correlation coefficient. The potential meansquared error of a cascaded-regression prediction can be large, as illustrated through an example using geomorphologic data. ?? 1985 Plenum Publishing Corporation.

  15. Voronoi Diagrams Without Bounding Boxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sang, E. T. K.

    2015-10-01

    We present a technique for presenting geographic data in Voronoi diagrams without having to specify a bounding box. The method restricts Voronoi cells to points within a user-defined distance of the data points. The mathematical foundation of the approach is presented as well. The cell clipping method is particularly useful for presenting geographic data that is spread in an irregular way over a map, as for example the Dutch dialect data displayed in Figure 2. The automatic generation of reasonable cell boundaries also makes redundant a frequently used solution to this problem that requires data owners to specify region boundaries, as in Goebl (2010) and Nerbonne et al (2011).

  16. Barankin bound: instability in certain estimation problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbey, Craig K.; Denny, John L.

    1996-04-01

    Variance bounds are attractive for use in assessing quantitative system performance because they tell us how well a system can perform an estimation task without specifying a particular estimator. The most familiar of the variance bounds is the Cramer-Rao Bound also known as the Fisher-Information Bound. While suitable for many estimation problems, the Cramer-Rao Bound is often unachievable when applied to the very noisy data from imaging systems in nuclear medicine. This leads to overly optimistic estimates of system performance. As a result, some researchers have turned to the Barankin Bound as an alterative to the Cramer-Rao Bound. Our main result is that if no unbiased estimator exists, the Barankin Bound is infinite and computational methods for finding the Barankin Bound are unstable. This result is most conveniently seen in a simple 1D test problem we have developed here for demonstration purposes. The implications of this work are that caution must be used in applying the Barankin Bound to a given problem. In the absence of an unbiased estimator, this bound is misleading and other measures must be used.

  17. Apparatus and Method for Compensating for Process, Voltage, and Temperature Variation of the Time Delay of a Digital Delay Line

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seefeldt, James (Inventor); Feng, Xiaoxin (Inventor); Roper, Weston (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A process, voltage, and temperature (PVT) compensation circuit and a method of continuously generating a delay measure are provided. The compensation circuit includes two delay lines, each delay line providing a delay output. The two delay lines may each include a number of delay elements, which in turn may include one or more current-starved inverters. The number of delay lines may differ between the two delay lines. The delay outputs are provided to a combining circuit that determines an offset pulse based on the two delay outputs and then averages the voltage of the offset pulse to determine a delay measure. The delay measure may be one or more currents or voltages indicating an amount of PVT compensation to apply to input or output signals of an application circuit, such as a memory-bus driver, dynamic random access memory (DRAM), a synchronous DRAM, a processor or other clocked circuit.

  18. Thermodynamic law from the entanglement entropy bound

    E-print Network

    Park, Chanyong

    2015-01-01

    From black hole thermodynamics, the Bekenstein bound has been proposed as a universal thermal entropy bound. It has been further generalized to an entanglement entropy bound which is valid even in a quantum system. In a quantumly entangled system, the non-negativity of the relative entropy leads to the entanglement entropy bound. When the entanglement entropy bound is saturated, a quantum system satisfies the thermodynamics-like law with an appropriately defined entanglement temperature. We show that the saturation of the entanglement entropy bound accounts for a universal feature of the entanglement temperature proportional to the inverse of the system size. In addition, we also find that a global quench unlike the excitation does not preserve the entanglement entropy bound.

  19. Thermodynamic law from the entanglement entropy bound

    E-print Network

    Chanyong Park

    2015-11-07

    From black hole thermodynamics, the Bekenstein bound has been proposed as a universal thermal entropy bound. It has been further generalized to an entanglement entropy bound which is valid even in a quantum system. In a quantumly entangled system, the non-negativity of the relative entropy leads to the entanglement entropy bound. When the entanglement entropy bound is saturated, a quantum system satisfies the thermodynamics-like law with an appropriately defined entanglement temperature. We show that the saturation of the entanglement entropy bound accounts for a universal feature of the entanglement temperature proportional to the inverse of the system size. In addition, we also find that a global quench unlike the excitation does not preserve the entanglement entropy bound.

  20. Nash-Williams and Heat Kernel Lower Bounds, Probabilistically Itai Benjamini

    E-print Network

    Benjamini, Itai

    ) denote the green function for the refined graph, that is the expect* * number of visits to u of the SRW Itai Benjamini The Weizmann Institute Let G be a graph. Consider|Cn| = 1, then the SRW on G is recurrent. Proof: To handle graphs admitting no bound on the degrees

  1. Improved modelling of tropospheric wet delay and its vertical approximation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dousa, Jan; Elias, Michal

    2014-05-01

    The troposphere modelling is a limiting factor in GNSS positioning, in particular when kinematic application suffers from a high correlation between estimated height and tropospheric path delay parameters. The path delay reaches up to 2.5 meters in the zenith above the antenna and up to a few tens of meters in low elevations. The main difficulty, however, resists in the modelling of 10 per cent of the total path delay, so called wet path delay, due to temporally and spatially variable moisture in the atmosphere. It can not be precisely modelled from in situ observations and additional information about the vertical profile is important, at least. Until recently, external meteorological data were not considered as helpful for the wet delay modelling in positioning. However, with recent improvements in quality and temporal and spatial resolution of numerical weather models, these might be suitable for a future support of kinematic GNSS positioning including airborne applications. In such cases, the accuracy is expected at the level from centimetres to decimetres and external tropospheric data could be helpful for eliminating (or decorrelating) the troposphere from the height. In past decades, various models for zenith wet delay (ZWD) were derived, but the most commonly used one was developed 25 years ago by Askne and Nordius (1987). Their analytical formula is highly suitable for designing a tropospheric correcting model for geodetic positioning. The approach was thus originally used at the University of New Brunswick and later adopted in the Minimum Operational Performance Standards (MOPS) for the Wide Area Augmentation Systems (WAAS) like EGNOS in Europe. Recently, we have studied an optimal vertical approximation of ZWD and we defined an independent lapse rate this parameter. Using new formulation supporting more flexible parametrization, we demonstrated actually the best results in vertical approximation when compared with other existing approaches. Additionally, the new defined lapse rate was used for a significant improvement in the calculation of ZWD by the modification of the model by Askne and Nordius. Our method thus consists of two important enhancements - a) ZWD calculation itself by analytical formula and b) ZWD vertical reduction. We expect that the new ZWD model, in particular for its high flexibility with respect to meteorological input parameters (and also a legacy to MOPS or other models based on Askne and Nordius formula), is well suited for developing future tropospheric augmentation models in support of positioning or various other related applications. The presentation describes the background of the new lapse rate definition and formula derivation. We demonstrate its flexible usage and a significantly improved performance compared to any existing approximation model, i.e. with exception of numerical integration through the vertical profile. The evaluation was carried out carefully for different seasons and locations with support of radiosonde profiles from the British Atmospheric Data Centre (BADC) and meteorological data from the ERA-Interim reanalysis model provided by the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF).

  2. Bounds on invisible Higgs boson decays extracted from LHC ttH production data.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Ning; Khechadoorian, Zepyoor; Whiteson, Daniel; Tait, Tim M P

    2014-10-10

    We present an upper bound on the branching fraction of the Higgs boson to invisible particles by recasting a CMS Collaboration search for stop quarks decaying to tt + E(T)(miss). The observed (expected) bound, BF(H ? inv.) < 0.40(0.65) at 95% C.L., is the strongest direct limit to date, benefiting from a downward fluctuation in the CMS data in that channel. In addition, we combine this new constraint with existing published constraints to give an observed (expected) bound of BF(H ? inv.) < 0.40(0.40) at 95% C.L., and we show some of the implications for theories of dark matter which communicate through the Higgs portal. PMID:25375702

  3. Resonance Effects in Photoemission Time Delays.

    PubMed

    Sabbar, M; Heuser, S; Boge, R; Lucchini, M; Carette, T; Lindroth, E; Gallmann, L; Cirelli, C; Keller, U

    2015-09-25

    We present measurements of single-photon ionization time delays between the outermost valence electrons of argon and neon using a coincidence detection technique that allows for the simultaneous measurement of both species under identical conditions. The analysis of the measured traces reveals energy-dependent time delays of a few tens of attoseconds with high energy resolution. In contrast to photoelectrons ejected through tunneling, single-photon ionization can be well described in the framework of Wigner time delays. Accordingly, the overall trend of our data is reproduced by recent Wigner time delay calculations. However, besides the general trend we observe resonance features occurring at specific photon energies. These features have been qualitatively reproduced and identified by a calculation using the multiconfigurational Hartree-Fock method, including the influence of doubly excited states and ionization thresholds. PMID:26451550

  4. Dynamical Systems with Delays Benefits and detriments

    E-print Network

    1 Dynamical Systems with Delays Benefits and detriments S.-I. Niculescu, C.T. Abdallah, W. Michiels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 II-B Networks Examples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 III-B Beneficial effects

  5. Dynamical Systems with Delays Benefits and detriments

    E-print Network

    1 Dynamical Systems with Delays Benefits and detriments S.-I. Niculescu, C.T. Abdallah, W. Michiels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 II-B Examples From Networks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 III-B Beneficial effects

  6. Dynamical Systems with Delays Benefits and detriments

    E-print Network

    1 Dynamical Systems with Delays Benefits and detriments S.-I. Niculescu, C.T. Abdallah, W. Michiels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 II-B Examples From Networks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 III-B Beneficial effects

  7. Diagrammatic approach to attosecond delays in photoionization

    E-print Network

    J. M. Dahlström; T. Carette; E. Lindroth

    2012-11-12

    We study laser-assisted photoionization by attosecond pulses using a time-independent formalism based on diagrammatic many-body perturbation theory. Our aim is to provide an ab inito route to the "delays" for this above-threshold ionization process, which is essential for a quantitative understanding of attosecond metrology. We present correction curves for characterization schemes of attosecond pulses, such as "streaking", that account for the delayed atomic response in ionization from neon and argon. We also verify that photoelectron delays from many-electron atoms can be measured using similar schemes if, instead, the so-called continuum--continuum delay is subtracted. Our method is general and it can be extended also to more complex systems and additional correlation effects can be introduced systematically.

  8. STEADY MODES IN RELAY SYSTEMS WITH DELAY

    E-print Network

    Fridman, Emilia

    gas in the fuel injector automotive control systems (see for example [8], [22]). · Actuators have in discontinuous systems, are quite useful for design of an efficient control. On the other hand, time delay

  9. 34 CFR 303.10 - Developmental delay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...OFFICE OF SPECIAL EDUCATION AND REHABILITATIVE SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION EARLY INTERVENTION PROGRAM FOR INFANTS AND TODDLERS WITH DISABILITIES General Purpose, Eligibility, and Other General Provisions § 303.10 Developmental delay....

  10. 34 CFR 303.10 - Developmental delay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...OFFICE OF SPECIAL EDUCATION AND REHABILITATIVE SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION EARLY INTERVENTION PROGRAM FOR INFANTS AND TODDLERS WITH DISABILITIES General Purpose, Eligibility, and Other General Provisions § 303.10 Developmental delay....

  11. How Can Atherosclerosis Be Prevented or Delayed?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. How Can Atherosclerosis Be Prevented or Delayed? Taking action to control ... Rate This Content: NEXT >> Featured Video What is atherosclerosis? 05/22/2014 Describes how the build-up ...

  12. Time to implement delayed cord clamping.

    PubMed

    McAdams, Ryan M

    2014-03-01

    Immediate umbilical cord clamping after delivery is routine in the United States despite little evidence to support this practice. Numerous trials in both term and preterm neonates have demonstrated the safety and benefit of delayed cord clamping. In premature neonates, delayed cord clamping has been shown to stabilize transitional circulation, lessening needs for inotropic medications and reducing blood transfusions, necrotizing enterocolitis, and intraventricular hemorrhage. In term neonates, delayed cord clamping has been associated with decreased iron-deficient anemia and increased iron stores with potential valuable effects that extend beyond the newborn period, including improvements in long-term neurodevelopment. The failure to more broadly implement delayed cord clamping in neonates ignores published benefits of increased placental blood transfusion at birth and may represent an unnecessary harm for vulnerable neonates. PMID:24499758

  13. Phase synchronization in time-delay systems

    E-print Network

    D. V. Senthilkumar; M. Lakshmanan; J. Kurths

    2006-09-15

    Though the notion of phase synchronization has been well studied in chaotic dynamical systems without delay, it has not been realized yet in chaotic time-delay systems exhibiting non-phase coherent hyperchaotic attractors. In this article we report the first identification of phase synchronization in coupled time-delay systems exhibiting hyperchaotic attractor. We show that there is a transition from non-synchronized behavior to phase and then to generalized synchronization as a function of coupling strength. These transitions are characterized by recurrence quantification analysis, by phase differences based on a new transformation of the attractors and also by the changes in the Lyapunov exponents. We have found these transitions in coupled piece-wise linear and in Mackey-Glass time-delay systems.

  14. The Long Arm of Expectancies: Adolescent Alcohol Expectancies Predict Adult Alcohol Use

    PubMed Central

    Patrick, Megan E.; Wray-Lake, Laura; Finlay, Andrea K.; Maggs, Jennifer L.

    2010-01-01

    Aims: Alcohol expectancies are strong concurrent predictors of alcohol use and problems, but the current study addressed their unique power to predict from adolescence to midlife. Method: Long-term longitudinal data from the national British Cohort Study 1970 (N = 2146, 59.8% female) were used to predict alcohol use and misuse in the mid-30s by alcohol expectancies reported in adolescence. Results: Cohort members with more positive alcohol expectancies at age 16 reported greater alcohol quantity concurrently, increases in alcohol quantity relative to their peers between ages 16 and 35, and a higher likelihood of lifetime and previous year alcohol misuse at age 35, independent of gender, social class in family of origin, age of alcohol use onset, adolescent delinquent behavior and age 16 exam scores. Conclusions: Alcohol expectancies were strong proximal predictors of alcohol use and predicted relative change in alcohol use and misuse across two decades into middle adulthood. PMID:19808940

  15. Expectancy and Treatment Interactions: A Dissociation between Acupuncture Analgesia and Expectancy Evoked Placebo Analgesia

    E-print Network

    Kong, Jian

    Recent advances in placebo research have demonstrated the mind's power to alter physiology. In this study, we combined an expectancy manipulation model with both verum and sham acupuncture treatments to address: 1) how and ...

  16. Endurance bounds of aerial systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrington, Aaron M.; Kroninger, Christopher M.

    2014-06-01

    Within the past few years micro aerial vehicles (MAVs) have received much more attention and are starting to proliferate into military as well as civilian roles. However, one of the major drawbacks for this technology currently, has been their poor endurance, usually below 10 minutes. This is a direct result of the inefficiencies inherent in their design. Often times, designers do not consider the various components in the vehicle design and match their performance to the desired mission for the vehicle. These vehicles lack a prescribed set of design guidelines or empirically derived design equations which often limits their design to selection of commercial off-the-shelf components without proper consideration of their affect on vehicle performance. In the current study, the design space for different vehicle configurations has been examined including insect flapping, avian flapping, rotary wing, and fixed wing, and their performance bounds are established. The propulsion system typical of a rotary wing vehicle is analyzed to establish current baselines for efficiency of vehicles at this scale. The power draw from communications is analyzed to determine its impact on vehicle performance. Finally, a representative fixed wing MAV is examined and the effects of adaptive structures as a means for increasing vehicle endurance and range are examined. This paper seeks to establish the performance bounds for micro air vehicles and establish a path forward for future designs so that efficiency may be maximized.

  17. STRONG LENS TIME DELAY CHALLENGE. II. RESULTS OF TDC1

    SciTech Connect

    Liao, Kai; Treu, Tommaso; Marshall, Phil; Fassnacht, Christopher D.; Rumbaugh, Nick; Dobler, Gregory; Aghamousa, Amir; Bonvin, Vivien; Courbin, Frederic; Meylan, Georges; Hojjati, Alireza; Jackson, Neal; Kashyap, Vinay; Mandel, Kaisey; Rathna Kumar, S.; Prabhu, Tushar P.; Linder, Eric; Meng, Xiao-Li; Moustakas, Leonidas A.; Romero-Wolf, Andrew [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, M and others

    2015-02-10

    We present the results of the first strong lens time delay challenge. The motivation, experimental design, and entry level challenge are described in a companion paper. This paper presents the main challenge, TDC1, which consisted of analyzing thousands of simulated light curves blindly. The observational properties of the light curves cover the range in quality obtained for current targeted efforts (e.g., COSMOGRAIL) and expected from future synoptic surveys (e.g., LSST), and include simulated systematic errors. Seven teams participated in TDC1, submitting results from 78 different method variants. After describing each method, we compute and analyze basic statistics measuring accuracy (or bias) A, goodness of fit ?{sup 2}, precision P, and success rate f. For some methods we identify outliers as an important issue. Other methods show that outliers can be controlled via visual inspection or conservative quality control. Several methods are competitive, i.e., give |A| < 0.03, P < 0.03, and ?{sup 2} < 1.5, with some of the methods already reaching sub-percent accuracy. The fraction of light curves yielding a time delay measurement is typically in the range f = 20%-40%. It depends strongly on the quality of the data: COSMOGRAIL-quality cadence and light curve lengths yield significantly higher f than does sparser sampling. Taking the results of TDC1 at face value, we estimate that LSST should provide around 400 robust time-delay measurements, each with P < 0.03 and |A| < 0.01, comparable to current lens modeling uncertainties. In terms of observing strategies, we find that A and f depend mostly on season length, while P depends mostly on cadence and campaign duration.

  18. Delay expression of limonoid UDP-glucosyltransferase makes delayed bitterness in citrus.

    PubMed

    Zaare-Nahandi, Fariborz; Hosseinkhani, Saman; Zamani, Zabihollah; Asadi-Abkenar, Asad; Omidbaigi, Reza

    2008-06-20

    Genes encoding limonoid UDP-glucosyltransferase from albedo of six Citrus species with different levels of delayed bitterness are isolated and cloned in vector pTZ57R/T. Our results indicate that gene sequence of sweet lime (with intense juice delayed bitterness) have complete identity with Satsuma mandarin (without distinctive juice delayed bitterness). Also gene sequence of Marsh seedless grapefruit, local orange and Thompson navel orange (with mild juice delayed bitterness) have very similarity with Satsuma mandarin. On the other hand, this gene started to express 60, 120, and 210 days after full blooming in albedo of Satsuma mandarin, sweet oranges and sour orange, and both grapefruit and sweet lime, respectively. Expression pattern of limonoid glucosyltransferase gene in leaves was quite different with albedo. Thus, we supposed the delayed bitterness in this species was related to delay in expression of limonoid glucosyltransferase gene in albedo and lower limonoid glucoside accumulation in fruits. PMID:18407832

  19. Delayed sleep onset in depressed young people

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The circadian abnormality of delayed sleep phase has been suggested to characterise a subgroup of depressed young adults with different risk factors and course of illness. We aim to assess the prevalence and factors, particularly substance use, associated with such delay in a large help-seeking cohort of young people with mental health problems. Methods From a consecutively recruited sample of 802 help-seeking young people, 305 (38%) had at least moderate depressive symptoms (QIDS-C16 >10), sleep data and did not have a chronic severe mental illness. Demographic and clinical characteristics were evaluated through self report and clinical interview. Delayed sleep phase was defined as a sleep onset between the hours of 02:00 a.m. – 06:00 a.m. and the characteristics of this group were compared to normal phase sleepers. Results Delayed sleep onset was reported amongst 18% (n?=?56/305) of the depressed group compared to 11% of the non-depressed young people. Amongst the depressed group, delayed sleep onset was associated with tobacco, alcohol and cannabis misuse and short sleep duration (x?: 5.8 hrs vs. x?: 7.8 hrs). There were no differences in demographic factors, personality traits or symptoms. Tobacco smoking was very common: In logistic regression analyses only tobacco use (OR 2.28, 95% CI: 1.04 - 5.01) was associated with delayed sleep onset. There was no interaction with age. Conclusions Delayed sleep onset was twice as common in depressed young people as the general population and young people with other mental health problems, and is a potential marker for a subgroup of mood disorders. Those with delayed sleep onset were not more severely depressed but had short sleep duration, a risk for chronic psychological ill health, and higher levels of tobacco use. Nicotine use was common in this group, has biological evidence as a sleep disrupter, and requires specifically addressing in this population. PMID:24506941

  20. Delayed onset of the 2002 Indian monsoon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flatau, M. K.; Flatau, P. J.; Schmidt, J.; Kiladis, G. N.

    2003-07-01

    We show that there is a set of dynamical predictors, which facilitate forecasting of a delayed monsoon onset. The main dynamical contributor is the early May propagation of the ``bogus onset Intraseasonal Oscillation'' which triggers a set of events precluding the climatological monsoon onset. We analyze in detail the 2002 monsoon onset and show that it followed a pattern described in our previous study. We notice that the 2003 monsoon onset followed very similar pattern and was delayed.

  1. A probability based approach on ananlyzing dynamics of oscillators on a bidirectional ring with propagation delay

    E-print Network

    Shuishi Yang

    2005-07-01

    In this paper, we presented a model of pulse-coupled oscillators distributed on a bidirectional ring with propagation delay. In numerical simulations based on this model, we observed phenomena of asynchrony in a certain range of delay factor $\\alpha$. To find the cause of these phenomena, we used a new probability based approach of analyzing. In this approach, the mathematical expectation of influence on one oscillator's phase change caused by its neighbor, which is regarded as a random factor, is calculated. By adding this expectation of influence into the firing map $h(\\phi)$ introduced by Mirolla and Strogatz, a probability firing map $H$ is invented. By observing the behavior of $H$ 's iteration from $H$ 's graph, we successfully constructed a connection between the asynchrony phenomena and $H$ 's graph.

  2. Cardinality bounds for triangulations with bounded minimum angle

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell, S.A.

    1994-05-01

    We consider bounding the cardinality of an arbitrary triangulation with smallest angle {alpha}. We show that if the local feature size (i.e. distance between disjoint vertices or edges) of the triangulation is within a constant factor of the local feature size of the input, then N < O(1/{alpha})M, where N is the cardinality of the triangulation and M is the cardinality of any other triangulation with smallest angle at least {alpha}. Previous results had an O(1/{alpha}{sup 1/{alpha}}) dependence. Our O(1/{alpha}) dependence is tight for input with a large length to height ratio, in which triangles may be oriented along the long dimension.

  3. Efficient semiclassical approach for time delays

    E-print Network

    Jack Kuipers; Dmitry V. Savin; Martin Sieber

    2014-12-11

    The Wigner time delay, defined by the energy derivative of the total scattering phase shift, is an important spectral measure of an open quantum system characterising the duration of the scattering event. It is related to the trace of the Wigner-Smith matrix Q that also encodes other time-delay characteristics. For chaotic cavities, these exhibit universal fluctuations that are commonly described within random matrix theory. Here, we develop a new semiclassical approach to the time-delay matrix which is formulated in terms of the classical trajectories that connect the exterior and interior regions of the system. This approach is superior to previous treatments because it avoids the energy derivative. We demonstrate the method's efficiency by going beyond previous work in studying the time-delay statistics for chaotic cavities with perfectly connected leads. In particular, the universality for moment generating functions of the proper time-delays (eigenvalues of Q) is established up to third order in the inverse number of scattering channels for systems with and without time-reversal symmetry. Semiclassical results are then obtained for a further two orders. We also show the equivalence of random matrix and semiclassical results for the second moments and for the variance of the Wigner time delay at any channel number.

  4. Stochastic Delay Accelerates Signaling in Gene Networks

    PubMed Central

    Shiau, LieJune; Bennett, Matthew R.

    2011-01-01

    The creation of protein from DNA is a dynamic process consisting of numerous reactions, such as transcription, translation and protein folding. Each of these reactions is further comprised of hundreds or thousands of sub-steps that must be completed before a protein is fully mature. Consequently, the time it takes to create a single protein depends on the number of steps in the reaction chain and the nature of each step. One way to account for these reactions in models of gene regulatory networks is to incorporate dynamical delay. However, the stochastic nature of the reactions necessary to produce protein leads to a waiting time that is randomly distributed. Here, we use queueing theory to examine the effects of such distributed delay on the propagation of information through transcriptionally regulated genetic networks. In an analytically tractable model we find that increasing the randomness in protein production delay can increase signaling speed in transcriptional networks. The effect is confirmed in stochastic simulations, and we demonstrate its impact in several common transcriptional motifs. In particular, we show that in feedforward loops signaling time and magnitude are significantly affected by distributed delay. In addition, delay has previously been shown to cause stable oscillations in circuits with negative feedback. We show that the period and the amplitude of the oscillations monotonically decrease as the variability of the delay time increases. PMID:22102802

  5. Time delay control of hysteretic composite plate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Long-Xiang; Li, Shi-Hong; Liu, Kun; Cai, Guo-Ping; Li, Hong-Guang

    2015-04-01

    Due to boosting usage of flexible and damping materials, it is of great significance for both science and engineering to explore active control methods for vibration within time-delayed hysteretic structures. This paper conducts theoretical and experimental research on a time-delayed controller for a flexible plate with a single-layer rubber glued on its back. First of all, the dynamic equation for a composite plate is given on the base of the Kirchhoff-Love assumption, where damping-restoring force is described by the Bouc-Wen hysteresis model. Then, the influence of time delay is taken into account and the state equation of the plate with time delay is obtained. Next, a standard state equation, with implicit time delay, is derived using one specific form of integral transformation and vector augmentation. Finally, an instantaneous optimal control method is used to design an active controller. This controller does not only involve state feedback of the current step, but also a linear addition of former state feedbacks within several steps. In order to verify this method, experimental work is conducted. Problems encountered like differential computation and lifting of displacement signal are also handled. According to a comparison between simulations and experiments, the control method given in this paper is feasible and valid, and it is available for both small and large time delay.

  6. Ladder-structured photonic variable delay device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yao, X. Steve (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    An ladder-structured variable delay device for providing variable true time delay to multiple optical beams simultaneously. The device comprises multiple basic units stacked on top of each other resembling a ladder. Each basic unit comprises a polarization sensitive corner reflector formed by two polarization beamsplitters and a polarization rotator array placed parallel to the hypotenuse of the corner reflector. Controlling an array element of the polarization rotator array causes an optical beam passing through the array element to either go up to a basic unit above it or reflect back towards output. The beams going higher on the ladder experience longer optical path delay. Finally, the ladder-structured variable device can be cascaded with another multi-channel delay device to form a new device which combines the advantages of the two individual devices. This programmable optic device has the properties of high packing density, low loss, easy fabrication, and virtually infinite bandwidth. In addition, the delay is reversible so that the same delay device can be used for both antenna transmitting and receiving.

  7. The semidiurnal variation in GPS-derived zenith neutral delay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Humphreys, T. E.; Kelley, M. C.; Huber, N.; Kintner, P. M.

    2005-12-01

    Zenith neutral delay (ZND) estimates derived from ground-based GPS receivers exhibit variations at harmonics of the solar day. The aim of this work is to characterize the semidiurnal (S2) variation and determine its probable origin. Data from 100 GPS sites are compared with surface pressure measurements to reveal close agreement between the estimated ZND S2 variation and the S2 surface pressure tide. Error analysis suggests that the S2 variation in ZND estimates is not due primarily to orbit, solid earth, or Earth orientation modeling errors. Atmospheric loading and mapping function errors are each expected to contribute less than 11% to the estimated ZND S2 amplitude. Local incongruities reflect the influence of water vapor or site-dependent errors.

  8. The WFIRST Microlensing Survey: Expectations and Unexpectations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaudi, B. Scott; Penny, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    The WFIRST microlensing survey will provide the definitive determination of the demographics of cool planets with semimajor axes > 1 AU and masses greater than that of the Earth, including free-floating planets. Together with the results from Kepler, TESS, and PLATO, WFIRST will complete the statistical census of planets in the Galaxy. These expectations are based on the most basic and conservative assumptions about the data quality, and assumes that the analysis methodologies will be similar to that used for current ground-based microlensing. Yet, in fact, the data quality will be dramatically better, and information content substantially richer, for the WFIRST microlensing survey as compared to current ground-based surveys. Thus WFIRST should allow for orders of magnitude improvement in both sensitivity and science yield. We will review some of these expected improvements and opportunities (the "known unknowns"), and provide a "to do list" of what tasks will need to be completed in order to take advantage of these opportunities. We will then speculate on the opportunities that we may not be aware of yet (the "unknown unknowns"), how we might go about determining what those opportunities are, and how we might figure out what we will need to do to take advantage of them.This work was partially supported by NASA grant NNX14AF63G.

  9. The superego, narcissism and Great Expectations.

    PubMed

    Ingham, Graham

    2007-06-01

    The author notes that the concepts of the superego and narcissism were linked at conception and that superego pathology may be seen as a determining factor in the formation of a narcissistic disorder; thus an examination of the superego can function as a "biopsy", indicating the condition of the personality as a whole. Charles Dickens's novel "Great Expectations" is presented as a penetrating exploration of these themes and it is argued that in Pip, the central character, Dickens provides a perceptive study of the history of a narcissistic condition. Other key figures in the book are understood as superego representations and, as such, integral to the vicissitudes of Pip's development. In particular, the lawyer Jaggers is considered as an illustration of Bion's notion of the "ego-destructive superego". In the course of the paper, the author suggests that Great Expectations affirms the psychoanalytic understanding that emotional growth and some recovery from narcissistic difficulties necessarily take place alongside modification of the superego, allowing for responsible knowledge of the state of the object and the possibility of realistic reparation. PMID:17537703

  10. Expectations and Interpretations During Causal Learning

    PubMed Central

    Luhmann, Christian C.; Ahn, Woo-kyoung

    2012-01-01

    In existing models of causal induction, 4 types of covariation information (i.e., presence/absence of an event followed by presence/absence of another event) always exert identical influences on causal strength judgments (e.g., joint presence of events always suggests a generative causal relationship). In contrast, we suggest that, due to expectations developed during causal learning, learners give varied interpretations to covariation information as it is encountered and that these interpretations influence the resulting causal beliefs. In Experiments 1A–1C, participants’ interpretations of observations during a causal learning task were dynamic, expectation based, and, furthermore, strongly tied to subsequent causal judgments. Experiment 2 demonstrated that adding trials of joint absence or joint presence of events, whose roles have been traditionally interpreted as increasing causal strengths, could result in decreased overall causal judgments and that adding trials where one event occurs in the absence of another, whose roles have been traditionally interpreted as decreasing causal strengths, could result in increased overall causal judgments. We discuss implications for traditional models of causal learning and how a more top-down approach (e.g., Bayesian) would be more compatible with the current findings. PMID:21534705

  11. Anticipatory looks reveal expectations about discourse relations.

    PubMed

    Rohde, Hannah; Horton, William S

    2014-12-01

    Previous research provides evidence for expectation-driven processing within sentences at phonological, lexical, and syntactic levels of linguistic structure. Less well-established is whether comprehenders also anticipate pragmatic relationships between sentences. To address this, we evaluate a unit of discourse structure that comprehenders must infer to hold between sentences in order for a discourse to make sense-the intersentential coherence relation. In a novel eyetracking paradigm, we trained participants to associate particular spatial locations with particular coherence relations. Experiment 1 shows that the subset of listeners who successfully acquired the location?relation mappings during training subsequently looked to these locations during testing in response to a coherence-signaling intersentential connective. Experiment 2 finds that listeners' looks during sentences containing coherence-biasing verbs reveal expectations about upcoming sentence types. This work extends existing research on prediction beyond sentence-internal structure and provides a new methodology for examining the cues that comprehenders use to establish relationships at the discourse level. PMID:25247235

  12. The expected anisotropy in solid inflation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartolo, Nicola; Peloso, Marco; Ricciardone, Angelo; Unal, Caner

    2014-11-01

    Solid inflation is an effective field theory of inflation in which isotropy and homogeneity are accomplished via a specific combination of anisotropic sources (three scalar fields that individually break isotropy). This results in specific observational signatures that are not found in standard models of inflation: a non-trivial angular dependence for the squeezed bispectrum, and a possibly long period of anisotropic inflation (to drive inflation, the ``solid'' must be very insensitive to any deformation, and thus background anisotropies are very slowly erased). In this paper we compute the expected level of statistical anisotropy in the power spectrum of the curvature perturbations of this model. To do so, we account for the classical background values of the three scalar fields that are generated on large (superhorizon) scales during inflation via a random walk sum, as the perturbation modes leave the horizon. Such an anisotropy is unavoidably generated, even starting from perfectly isotropic classical initial conditions. The expected level of anisotropy is related to the duration of inflation and to the amplitude of the squeezed bispectrum. If this amplitude is close to its current observational limit (so that one of the most interesting predictions of the model can be observed in the near future), we find that a level of statistical anisotropy F2 gives frozen and scale invariant vector perturbations on superhorizon scales.

  13. Identifying, meeting, and assessing customer expectations

    SciTech Connect

    Danner, T.A.

    1995-02-01

    Maintaining proficiency in carrying out mission goals is fundamental to the success of any organization. The definitive mission of the Waste Management and Remedial Action Division (WMRAD) of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is {open_quotes}to conduct waste management activities in a compliant, publicly acceptable, technically sound, and cost-efficient manner{close_quotes}. In order to effectively fulfill this mission, must meet or exceed several standards in respect to our customers. These include: (1) identifying current and future customer expectations; (2) managing our relationships with our customers; (3) ensuring our commitment to our customers; and (4) measuring our success m customer satisfaction. Our customers have a great variety of requirements and expectations. Many of these are in the form of local, state, and federal regulations and environmental standards. Others are brought to our attention through inquires made to the Department of Energy (DOE).Consumer surveys have proven to be effective tools which have been used to make improvements, enhance certain program elements, and identify beneficial areas in already existing programs. In addition, national working groups, technology transfer meetings, and manager/contractor`s meeting offer excellent opportunities to assess our activities.

  14. The expected anisotropy in solid inflation

    SciTech Connect

    Bartolo, Nicola; Ricciardone, Angelo; Peloso, Marco; Unal, Caner E-mail: peloso@physics.umn.edu E-mail: unal@physics.umn.edu

    2014-11-01

    Solid inflation is an effective field theory of inflation in which isotropy and homogeneity are accomplished via a specific combination of anisotropic sources (three scalar fields that individually break isotropy). This results in specific observational signatures that are not found in standard models of inflation: a non-trivial angular dependence for the squeezed bispectrum, and a possibly long period of anisotropic inflation (to drive inflation, the ''solid'' must be very insensitive to any deformation, and thus background anisotropies are very slowly erased). In this paper we compute the expected level of statistical anisotropy in the power spectrum of the curvature perturbations of this model. To do so, we account for the classical background values of the three scalar fields that are generated on large (superhorizon) scales during inflation via a random walk sum, as the perturbation modes leave the horizon. Such an anisotropy is unavoidably generated, even starting from perfectly isotropic classical initial conditions. The expected level of anisotropy is related to the duration of inflation and to the amplitude of the squeezed bispectrum. If this amplitude is close to its current observational limit (so that one of the most interesting predictions of the model can be observed in the near future), we find that a level of statistical anisotropy F{sup 2} gives frozen and scale invariant vector perturbations on superhorizon scales.

  15. Towards sensor array materials: can failure be delayed?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mekid, Samir; Saheb, Nouari; Khan, Shafique M. A.; Qureshi, Khurram K.

    2015-06-01

    Further to prior development in enhancing structural health using smart materials, an innovative class of materials characterized by the ability to feel senses like humans, i.e. ‘nervous materials’, is discussed. Designed at all scales, these materials will enhance personnel and public safety, and secure greater reliability of products. Materials may fail suddenly, but any system wishes that failure is known in good time and delayed until safe conditions are reached. Nervous materials are expected to be the solution to this statement. This new class of materials is based on the novel concept of materials capable of feeling multiple structural and external stimuli, e.g. stress, force, pressure and temperature, while feeding information back to a controller for appropriate real-time action. The strain-stress state is developed in real time with the identified and characterized source of stimulus, with optimized time response to retrieve initial specified conditions, e.g. shape and strength. Sensors are volumetrically embedded and distributed, emulating the human nervous system. Immediate applications are in aircraft, cars, nuclear energy and robotics. Such materials will reduce maintenance costs, detect initial failures and delay them with self-healing. This article reviews the common aspects and challenges surrounding this new class of materials with types of sensors to be embedded seamlessly or inherently, including appropriate embedding manufacturing techniques with modeling and simulation methods.

  16. 5 CFR 351.807 - Certification of Expected Separation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... false Certification of Expected Separation. 351.807 Section 351.807 ...351.807 Certification of Expected Separation. (a) For the purpose of enabling...agency may issue a Certificate of Expected Separation to a competing employee who...

  17. Relationship between early motor delay and later communication delay in infants at risk for autism

    PubMed Central

    Bhat, A. N.; Galloway, J. C.; Landa, R. J.

    2012-01-01

    Background Motor delays have been reported in retrospective studies of young infants who later develop Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs). Objective In this study, we prospectively compared the gross motor development of a cohort at risk for ASDs; infant siblings of children with ASDs (AU sibs) to low risk typically developing (LR) infants. Methods 24 AU sibs and 24 LR infants were observed at 3 and 6 months using a standardized motor measure, the Alberta Infant Motor Scale (AIMS). In addition, as part of a larger study, the AU sibs also received a follow-up assessment to determine motor and communication performance at 18 months using the Mullen Scales of Early Learning. Results Significantly more AU sibs showed motor delays at 3 and 6 months than LR infants. The majority of the AU sibs showed both early motor delays and later communication delays. Limitations Small sample size and limited follow-up. Conclusions Early motor delays are more common in infant AU sibs than LR infants. Communication delays later emerged in 67–73% of the AU sibs who had presented with early motor delays. Overall, early motor delays may be predictive of future communication delays in children at risk for autism. PMID:22982285

  18. Derivation and computation of discrete-delay and continuous-delay SDEs in mathematical biology.

    PubMed

    Allen, Edward J

    2014-06-01

    Stochastic versions of several discrete-delay and continuous-delay differential equations, useful in mathematical biology, are derived from basic principles carefully taking into account the demographic, environmental, or physiological randomness in the dynamic processes. In particular, stochastic delay differential equation (SDDE) models are derived and studied for Nicholson's blowflies equation, Hutchinson's equation, an SIS epidemic model with delay, bacteria/phage dynamics, and glucose/insulin levels. Computational methods for approximating the SDDE models are described. Comparisons between computational solutions of the SDDEs and independently formulated Monte Carlo calculations support the accuracy of the derivations and of the computational methods. PMID:24506546

  19. The future of life expectancy and life expectancy inequalities in England and Wales: Bayesian spatiotemporal forecasting

    PubMed Central

    Bennett, James E; Li, Guangquan; Foreman, Kyle; Best, Nicky; Kontis, Vasilis; Pearson, Clare; Hambly, Peter; Ezzati, Majid

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background To plan for pensions and health and social services, future mortality and life expectancy need to be forecast. Consistent forecasts for all subnational units within a country are very rare. Our aim was to forecast mortality and life expectancy for England and Wales' districts. Methods We developed Bayesian spatiotemporal models for forecasting of age-specific mortality and life expectancy at a local, small-area level. The models included components that accounted for mortality in relation to age, birth cohort, time, and space. We used geocoded mortality and population data between 1981 and 2012 from the Office for National Statistics together with the model with the smallest error to forecast age-specific death rates and life expectancy to 2030 for 375 of England and Wales' 376 districts. We measured model performance by withholding recent data and comparing forecasts with this withheld data. Findings Life expectancy at birth in England and Wales was 79·5 years (95% credible interval 79·5–79·6) for men and 83·3 years (83·3–83·4) for women in 2012. District life expectancies ranged between 75·2 years (74·9–75·6) and 83·4 years (82·1–84·8) for men and between 80·2 years (79·8–80·5) and 87·3 years (86·0–88·8) for women. Between 1981 and 2012, life expectancy increased by 8·2 years for men and 6·0 years for women, closing the female–male gap from 6·0 to 3·8 years. National life expectancy in 2030 is expected to reach 85·7 (84·2–87·4) years for men and 87·6 (86·7–88·9) years for women, further reducing the female advantage to 1·9 years. Life expectancy will reach or surpass 81·4 years for men and reach or surpass 84·5 years for women in every district by 2030. Longevity inequality across districts, measured as the difference between the 1st and 99th percentiles of district life expectancies, has risen since 1981, and is forecast to rise steadily to 8·3 years (6·8–9·7) for men and 8·3 years (7·1–9·4) for women by 2030. Interpretation Present forecasts underestimate the expected rise in life expectancy, especially for men, and hence the need to provide improved health and social services and pensions for elderly people in England and Wales. Health and social policies are needed to curb widening life expectancy inequalities, help deprived districts catch up in longevity gains, and avoid a so-called grand divergence in health and longevity. Funding UK Medical Research Council and Public Health England. PMID:25935825

  20. Estimating characteristic phase and delay from broadband interaural time difference tuning curves.

    PubMed

    Lehmann, Jessica; Tellers, Philipp; Wagner, Hermann; Führ, Hartmut

    2015-02-01

    Characteristic delay and characteristic phase are shape parameters of interaural time difference tuning curves. The standard procedure for the estimation of these parameters is based on the measurement of delay curves measured for tonal stimuli with varying frequencies. Common to all procedures is the detection of a linear behavior of the phase spectrum. Hence a reliable estimate can only be expected if sufficiently many relevant frequencies are tested. Thus, the estimation precision depends on the given bandwidth. Based on a linear model, we develop and implement methods for the estimation of characteristic phase and delay from a single broadband tuning curve. We present two different estimation algorithms, one based on a Fourier-analytic interpretation of characteristic delay and phase, and the other based on mean square error minimization. Estimation precision and robustness of the algorithms are tested on artificially generated data with predetermined characteristic delay and phase values, and on sample data from electrophysiological measurements in birds and in mammals. Increasing the signal-to-noise ratio or the bandwidth increases the estimation accuracy of the algorithms. Frequency band location and strong rectification also affect the estimation accuracy. For realistic bandwidths and signal-to-noise ratios, the minimization algorithm reliably and robustly estimates characteristic delay and phase and is superior to the Fourier-analytic method. Bandwidth-dependent significance thresholds allow to assess whether the estimated characteristic delay and phase values are meaningful shape parameters of a measured tuning curve. These thresholds also indicate the sampling rates needed to obtain reliable estimates from interaural time difference tuning curves. PMID:25278284

  1. On Extended Dissipativity of Discrete-Time Neural Networks With Time Delay.

    PubMed

    Feng, Zhiguang; Zheng, Wei Xing

    2015-12-01

    In this brief, the problem of extended dissipativity analysis for discrete-time neural networks with time-varying delay is investigated. The definition of extended dissipativity of discrete-time neural networks is proposed, which unifies several performance measures, such as the H? performance, passivity, l2 - l? performance, and dissipativity. By introducing a triple-summable term in Lyapunov function, the reciprocally convex approach is utilized to bound the forward difference of the triple-summable term and then the extended dissipativity criterion for discrete-time neural networks with time-varying delay is established. The derived condition guarantees not only the extended dissipativity but also the stability of the neural networks. Two numerical examples are given to demonstrate the reduced conservatism and effectiveness of the obtained results. PMID:25706893

  2. Robustness analysis of uncertain dynamical neural networks with multiple time delays.

    PubMed

    Senan, Sibel

    2015-10-01

    This paper studies the problem of global robust asymptotic stability of the equilibrium point for the class of dynamical neural networks with multiple time delays with respect to the class of slope-bounded activation functions and in the presence of the uncertainties of system parameters of the considered neural network model. By using an appropriate Lyapunov functional and exploiting the properties of the homeomorphism mapping theorem, we derive a new sufficient condition for the existence, uniqueness and global robust asymptotic stability of the equilibrium point for the class of neural networks with multiple time delays. The obtained stability condition basically relies on testing some relationships imposed on the interconnection matrices of the neural system, which can be easily verified by using some certain properties of matrices. An instructive numerical example is also given to illustrate the applicability of our result and show the advantages of this new condition over the previously reported corresponding results. PMID:26218349

  3. Performance Bounds of Quaternion Estimators.

    PubMed

    Xia, Yili; Jahanchahi, Cyrus; Nitta, Tohru; Mandic, Danilo P

    2015-12-01

    The quaternion widely linear (WL) estimator has been recently introduced for optimal second-order modeling of the generality of quaternion data, both second-order circular (proper) and second-order noncircular (improper). Experimental evidence exists of its performance advantage over the conventional strictly linear (SL) as well as the semi-WL (SWL) estimators for improper data. However, rigorous theoretical and practical performance bounds are still missing in the literature, yet this is crucial for the development of quaternion valued learning systems for 3-D and 4-D data. To this end, based on the orthogonality principle, we introduce a rigorous closed-form solution to quantify the degree of performance benefits, in terms of the mean square error, obtained when using the WL models. The cases when the optimal WL estimation can simplify into the SWL or the SL estimation are also discussed. PMID:25643416

  4. Antibaryon-nucleus bound states

    E-print Network

    J. Hrtánková; J. Mareš

    2014-11-27

    We calculated antibaryon ($\\bar{B}$ = $\\bar{p}$, $\\bar{\\Lambda}$, $\\bar{\\Sigma}$, $\\bar{\\Xi}$) bound states in selected nuclei within the relativistic mean-field (RMF) model. The G-parity motivated $\\bar{B}$-meson coupling constants were scaled to yield corresponding potentials consistent with available experimental data. Large polarization of the nuclear core caused by $\\bar{B}$ was confirmed. The $\\bar{p}$ annihilation in the nuclear medium was incorporated by including a phenomenological imaginary part of the optical potential. The calculations using a complex $\\bar{p}$-nucleus potential were performed fully self-consistently. The $\\bar{p}$ widths significantly decrease when the phase space reduction is considered for $\\bar{p}$ annihilation products, but they still remain sizeable for potentials consistent with $\\bar{p}$-atom data.

  5. Expected background in the LZ experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kudryavtsev, Vitaly A.

    2015-08-01

    The LZ experiment, featuring a 7-tonne active liquid xenon target, is aimed at achieving unprecedented sensitivity to WIMPs with the background expected to be dominated by astrophysical neutrinos. To reach this goal, extensive simulations are carried out to accurately calculate the electron recoil and nuclear recoil rates in the detector. Both internal (from target material) and external (from detector components and surrounding environment) backgrounds are considered. A very efficient suppression of background rate is achieved with an outer liquid scintillator veto, liquid xenon skin and fiducialisation. Based on the current measurements of radioactivity of different materials, it is shown that LZ can achieve the reduction of a total background for a WIMP search down to about 2 events in 1000 live days for 5.6 tonne fiducial mass.

  6. Preparing for TESS: What to Expect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berta-Thompson, Zachory K.

    2015-08-01

    The Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite (TESS) will launch in 2017 as a NASA Explorer mission, and will discover hundreds of new small planets transiting nearby, bright stars. As has been the case with Kepler, understanding and limiting systematic noise sources will be key to squeezing the best photometric precision out of the TESS instrument. I will describe our efforts at MIT to minimize such systematics, speaking both generally and in regard to one very specific challenge: mitigating the scourge of cosmic rays passing through TESS's thick CCD detectors. I will present the current data collection strategy and its expected performance in light of these known error sources, and I will share detailed simulations of what the TESS survey data will be like. Harnessing the unique opportunity offered by this focus meeting, I hope to solicit feedback from the ExoStats community on what additional lessons from Kepler should be considered in advance of the launch of TESS.

  7. Expected results of Cassini Radio Science experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castillo, J.; Rappaport, N.

    Cassini gravity radio science experiments scheduled from February 2005 to July 2008 are expected to improve our knowledge of the Saturnian system through direct measurements of gravity parameters performed in a multidisciplinary and comparative planetary science approach. In 2005, direct mass determination will be achieved for Enceladus, Hyperion, and Dione, as well as gravity field measurement of Rhea. Detection of an ocean suspected to lie within Titan is expected to happen by 2007. However, after the two first flybys scheduled in 2006, the determination of the dimensionless moment of inertia of this body will provide scientists with enough information to build detailed models to be compared with the Galilean satellites. Density determination of all major satellites will be performed through navigation passes scheduled throughout the tour. Accurate and independent determination of Saturn's high zonal harmonics up to degree 8 will provide crucial constraints on the interior of this giant planet by the end of the initial mission. Comparison of direct mass determination with values inferred from analytical theories is very important. Besides, density distribution sampling in the Saturnian system will provide new constraints on the models of evolution of Saturn's subnebula, as well as references for compared planetology with the Jovian satellites. This is particularly timely as a mission toward Jupiter is being scheduled in the frame of NASA New Frontiers program. Fresh geophysical observations of icy satellites and the finding or absence of a deep ocean within Titan will be crucial inputs for constraining numerical models of internal and external dynamics of this category of bodies. We will especially stress out the synergy between the information provided by the Radio Science Subsystems with the other instruments onboard Cassini to leverage our understanding of the phenomena responsible for the dynamics and evolution of the icy satellites.

  8. Measurement of time delays in gated radiotherapy for realistic respiratory motions

    SciTech Connect

    Chugh, Brige P.; Quirk, Sarah; Conroy, Leigh; Smith, Wendy L.

    2014-09-15

    Purpose: Gated radiotherapy is used to reduce internal motion margins, escalate target dose, and limit normal tissue dose; however, its temporal accuracy is limited. Beam-on and beam-off time delays can lead to treatment inefficiencies and/or geographic misses; therefore, AAPM Task Group 142 recommends verifying the temporal accuracy of gating systems. Many groups use sinusoidal phantom motion for this, under the tacit assumption that use of sinusoidal motion for determining time delays produces negligible error. The authors test this assumption by measuring gating time delays for several realistic motion shapes with increasing degrees of irregularity. Methods: Time delays were measured on a linear accelerator with a real-time position management system (Varian TrueBeam with RPM system version 1.7.5) for seven motion shapes: regular sinusoidal; regular realistic-shape; large (40%) and small (10%) variations in amplitude; large (40%) variations in period; small (10%) variations in both amplitude and period; and baseline drift (30%). Film streaks of radiation exposure were generated for each motion shape using a programmable motion phantom. Beam-on and beam-off time delays were determined from the difference between the expected and observed streak length. Results: For the system investigated, all sine, regular realistic-shape, and slightly irregular amplitude variation motions had beam-off and beam-on time delays within the AAPM recommended limit of less than 100 ms. In phase-based gating, even small variations in period resulted in some time delays greater than 100 ms. Considerable time delays over 1 s were observed with highly irregular motion. Conclusions: Sinusoidal motion shapes can be considered a reasonable approximation to the more complex and slightly irregular shapes of realistic motion. When using phase-based gating with predictive filters even small variations in period can result in time delays over 100 ms. Clinical use of these systems for patients with highly irregular patterns of motion is not advised due to large beam-on and beam-off time delays.

  9. Delay differential analysis of time series.

    PubMed

    Lainscsek, Claudia; Sejnowski, Terrence J

    2015-03-01

    Nonlinear dynamical system analysis based on embedding theory has been used for modeling and prediction, but it also has applications to signal detection and classification of time series. An embedding creates a multidimensional geometrical object from a single time series. Traditionally either delay or derivative embeddings have been used. The delay embedding is composed of delayed versions of the signal, and the derivative embedding is composed of successive derivatives of the signal. The delay embedding has been extended to nonuniform embeddings to take multiple timescales into account. Both embeddings provide information on the underlying dynamical system without having direct access to all the system variables. Delay differential analysis is based on functional embeddings, a combination of the derivative embedding with nonuniform delay embeddings. Small delay differential equation (DDE) models that best represent relevant dynamic features of time series data are selected from a pool of candidate models for detection or classification. We show that the properties of DDEs support spectral analysis in the time domain where nonlinear correlation functions are used to detect frequencies, frequency and phase couplings, and bispectra. These can be efficiently computed with short time windows and are robust to noise. For frequency analysis, this framework is a multivariate extension of discrete Fourier transform (DFT), and for higher-order spectra, it is a linear and multivariate alternative to multidimensional fast Fourier transform of multidimensional correlations. This method can be applied to short or sparse time series and can be extended to cross-trial and cross-channel spectra if multiple short data segments of the same experiment are available. Together, this time-domain toolbox provides higher temporal resolution, increased frequency and phase coupling information, and it allows an easy and straightforward implementation of higher-order spectra across time compared with frequency-based methods such as the DFT and cross-spectral analysis. PMID:25602777

  10. Delay Differential Analysis of Time Series

    PubMed Central

    Lainscsek, Claudia; Sejnowski, Terrence J.

    2015-01-01

    Nonlinear dynamical system analysis based on embedding theory has been used for modeling and prediction, but it also has applications to signal detection and classification of time series. An embedding creates a multidimensional geometrical object from a single time series. Traditionally either delay or derivative embeddings have been used. The delay embedding is composed of delayed versions of the signal, and the derivative embedding is composed of successive derivatives of the signal. The delay embedding has been extended to nonuniform embeddings to take multiple timescales into account. Both embeddings provide information on the underlying dynamical system without having direct access to all the system variables. Delay differential analysis is based on functional embeddings, a combination of the derivative embedding with nonuniform delay embeddings. Small delay differential equation (DDE) models that best represent relevant dynamic features of time series data are selected from a pool of candidate models for detection or classification. We show that the properties of DDEs support spectral analysis in the time domain where nonlinear correlation functions are used to detect frequencies, frequency and phase couplings, and bispectra. These can be efficiently computed with short time windows and are robust to noise. For frequency analysis, this framework is a multivariate extension of discrete Fourier transform (DFT), and for higher-order spectra, it is a linear and multivariate alternative to multidimensional fast Fourier transform of multidimensional correlations. This method can be applied to short or sparse time series and can be extended to cross-trial and cross-channel spectra if multiple short data segments of the same experiment are available. Together, this time-domain toolbox provides higher temporal resolution, increased frequency and phase coupling information, and it allows an easy and straightforward implementation of higher-order spectra across time compared with frequency-based methods such as the DFT and cross-spectral analysis. PMID:25602777

  11. 48 CFR 42.1304 - Government delay of work.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Government delay of work... CONTRACT MANAGEMENT CONTRACT ADMINISTRATION AND AUDIT SERVICES Suspension of Work, Stop-Work Orders, and Government Delay of Work 42.1304 Government delay of work. (a) The clause at 52.242-17, Government Delay...

  12. 48 CFR 42.1304 - Government delay of work.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Government delay of work... CONTRACT MANAGEMENT CONTRACT ADMINISTRATION AND AUDIT SERVICES Suspension of Work, Stop-Work Orders, and Government Delay of Work 42.1304 Government delay of work. (a) The clause at 52.242-17, Government Delay...

  13. A framework for delay emulation of large-scale internetworks 

    E-print Network

    Venkata, Shravan Rangaraju

    2001-01-01

    , and Delay Injector. The Virtual Host Configuration Module enables a machine to act as a set of virtual hosts with arbitrary IP addresses. The Delay Estimator can compute delay values for any two arbitrary IP addresses. The Delay Injector captures packets...

  14. 48 CFR 42.1304 - Government delay of work.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Government delay of work... CONTRACT MANAGEMENT CONTRACT ADMINISTRATION AND AUDIT SERVICES Suspension of Work, Stop-Work Orders, and Government Delay of Work 42.1304 Government delay of work. (a) The clause at 52.242-17, Government Delay...

  15. The viscosity bound in string theory

    E-print Network

    Aninda Sinha; Robert C. Myers

    2009-09-11

    The ratio of shear viscosity to entropy density $\\eta/s$ of any material in nature has been conjectured to have a lower bound of $1/4\\pi$, the famous KSS bound. We examine string theory models for evidence in favour of and against this conjecture. We show that in a broad class of models quantum corrections yield values of $\\eta/s$ just above the KSS bound. However, incorporating matter fields in the fundamental representation typically leads to violations of this bound. We also outline a program to extend AdS/CFT methods to RHIC phenomenology.

  16. Bounds on Transport Coefficients of Porous Media

    SciTech Connect

    Berryman, J G

    2005-03-21

    An analytical formulation of conductivity bounds by Bergman and Milton is used in a different way to obtain rigorous bounds on the real transport coefficients (electrical conductivity, thermal conductivity, and/or fluid permeability) of a fluid-saturated porous medium. These bounds do not depend explicitly on the porosity, but rather on two formation factors--one associated with the pore space and the other with the solid frame. Hashin-Shtrikman bounds for transport in random polycrystals of porous-material laminates will also be discussed.

  17. Delay correlation analysis and representation for vital complaint VHDL models

    DOEpatents

    Rich, Marvin J.; Misra, Ashutosh

    2004-11-09

    A method and system unbind a rise/fall tuple of a VHDL generic variable and create rise time and fall time generics of each generic variable that are independent of each other. Then, according to a predetermined correlation policy, the method and system collect delay values in a VHDL standard delay file, sort the delay values, remove duplicate delay values, group the delay values into correlation sets, and output an analysis file. The correlation policy may include collecting all generic variables in a VHDL standard delay file, selecting each generic variable, and performing reductions on the set of delay values associated with each selected generic variable.

  18. Quantum-gravity decoherence effects in neutrino oscillations: Expected constraints from CNGS and J-PARC

    SciTech Connect

    Mavromatos, Nick E.; Sarkar, Sarben; Meregaglia, Anselmo; Sakharov, Alexander S.

    2008-03-01

    Quantum decoherence, the evolution of pure states into mixed states, may be a feature of quantum-gravity models. In most cases, such models lead to fewer neutrinos of all active flavors being detected in a long-baseline experiment as compared to three-flavor standard neutrino oscillations. We discuss the potential of the CNGS and J-PARC beams in constraining models of quantum-gravity induced decoherence using neutrino oscillations as a probe. We use as much as possible model-independent parametrizations, even though they are motivated by specific microscopic models, for fits to the expected experimental data which yield bounds on quantum-gravity decoherence parameters.

  19. Advanced Transport Delay Compensation Algorithms: Results of Delay Measurement and Piloted Performance Tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guo, Liwen; Cardullo, Frank M.; Kelly, Lon C.

    2007-01-01

    This report summarizes the results of delay measurement and piloted performance tests that were conducted to assess the effectiveness of the adaptive compensator and the state space compensator for alleviating the phase distortion of transport delay in the visual system in the VMS at the NASA Langley Research Center. Piloted simulation tests were conducted to assess the effectiveness of two novel compensators in comparison to the McFarland predictor and the baseline system with no compensation. Thirteen pilots with heterogeneous flight experience executed straight-in and offset approaches, at various delay configurations, on a flight simulator where different predictors were applied to compensate for transport delay. The glideslope and touchdown errors, power spectral density of the pilot control inputs, NASA Task Load Index, and Cooper-Harper rating of the handling qualities were employed for the analyses. The overall analyses show that the adaptive predictor results in slightly poorer compensation for short added delay (up to 48 ms) and better compensation for long added delay (up to 192 ms) than the McFarland compensator. The analyses also show that the state space predictor is fairly superior for short delay and significantly superior for long delay than the McFarland compensator.

  20. Emulation and Approximation of a Flexible Delay Line by Parallel Non-overtaking Delay Lines

    E-print Network

    Chang, Cheng-Shang

    policy, order statistics I. INTRODUCTION A most fundamental research issue in optical networks are typically constructed using optical switches and fiber delay lines. Within an optical buffer, packets must times of the non-overtaking delay lines behaved as if they followed the order statistics of uniform

  1. The Effects of Delay of Feedback on a Delayed Concept Formation Transfer Task.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schroth, Marvin L.

    1992-01-01

    Delay and completeness of verbal information feedback were investigated within a transfer of learning paradigm involving concept formation. An experiment with 192 undergraduates indicates that, although delay of feedback (up to 30 seconds) slows speed of learning on the initial task, it has positive effects on the transfer task. (SLD)

  2. Intrinsic delay of permeable base transistor

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Wenchao; Guo, Jing; So, Franky

    2014-07-28

    Permeable base transistors (PBTs) fabricated by vacuum deposition or solution process have the advantages of easy fabrication and low power operation and are a promising device structure for flexible electronics. Intrinsic delay of PBT, which characterizes the speed of the transistor, is investigated by solving the three-dimensional Poisson equation and drift-diffusion equation self-consistently using finite element method. Decreasing the emitter thickness lowers the intrinsic delay by improving on-current, and a thinner base is also preferred for low intrinsic delay because of fewer carriers in the base region at off-state. The intrinsic delay exponentially decreases as the emitter contact Schottky barrier height decreases, and it linearly depends on the carrier mobility. With an optimized emitter contact barrier height and device geometry, a sub-nano-second intrinsic delay can be achieved with a carrier mobility of ?10?cm{sup 2}/V/s obtainable in solution processed indium gallium zinc oxide, which indicates the potential of solution processed PBTs for GHz operations.

  3. Semilocal density functional obeying a strongly tightened bound for exchange

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Jianwei; Perdew, John P.; Ruzsinszky, Adrienn

    2015-01-01

    Because of its useful accuracy and efficiency, density functional theory (DFT) is one of the most widely used electronic structure theories in physics, materials science, and chemistry. Only the exchange-correlation energy is unknown, and needs to be approximated in practice. Exact constraints provide useful information about this functional. The local spin-density approximation (LSDA) was the first constraint-based density functional. The Lieb–Oxford lower bound on the exchange-correlation energy for any density is another constraint that plays an important role in the development of generalized gradient approximations (GGAs) and meta-GGAs. Recently, a strongly and optimally tightened lower bound on the exchange energy was proved for one- and two-electron densities, and conjectured for all densities. In this article, we present a realistic “meta-GGA made very simple” (MGGA-MVS) for exchange that respects this optimal bound, which no previous beyond-LSDA approximation satisfies. This constraint might have been expected to worsen predicted thermochemical properties, but in fact they are improved over those of the Perdew–Burke–Ernzerhof GGA, which has nearly the same correlation part. MVS exchange is however radically different from that of other GGAs and meta-GGAs. Its exchange enhancement factor has a very strong dependence upon the orbital kinetic energy density, which permits accurate energies even with the drastically tightened bound. When this nonempirical MVS meta-GGA is hybridized with 25% of exact exchange, the resulting global hybrid gives excellent predictions for atomization energies, reaction barriers, and weak interactions of molecules. PMID:25561554

  4. Improved delay-leaping simulation algorithm for biochemical reaction systems with delays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, Na; Zhuang, Gang; Da, Liang; Wang, Yifei

    2012-04-01

    In biochemical reaction systems dominated by delays, the simulation speed of the stochastic simulation algorithm depends on the size of the wait queue. As a result, it is important to control the size of the wait queue to improve the efficiency of the simulation. An improved accelerated delay stochastic simulation algorithm for biochemical reaction systems with delays, termed the improved delay-leaping algorithm, is proposed in this paper. The update method for the wait queue is effective in reducing the size of the queue as well as shortening the storage and access time, thereby accelerating the simulation speed. Numerical simulation on two examples indicates that this method not only obtains a more significant efficiency compared with the existing methods, but also can be widely applied in biochemical reaction systems with delays.

  5. Modeling of delays in PKPD: classical approaches and a tutorial for delay differential equations.

    PubMed

    Koch, Gilbert; Krzyzanski, Wojciech; Pérez-Ruixo, Juan Jose; Schropp, Johannes

    2014-08-01

    In pharmacokinetics/pharmacodynamics (PKPD) the measured response is often delayed relative to drug administration, individuals in a population have a certain lifespan until they maturate or the change of biomarkers does not immediately affects the primary endpoint. The classical approach in PKPD is to apply transit compartment models (TCM) based on ordinary differential equations to handle such delays. However, an alternative approach to deal with delays are delay differential equations (DDE). DDEs feature additional flexibility and properties, realize more complex dynamics and can complementary be used together with TCMs. We introduce several delay based PKPD models and investigate mathematical properties of general DDE based models, which serve as subunits in order to build larger PKPD models. Finally, we review current PKPD software with respect to the implementation of DDEs for PKPD analysis. PMID:25142056

  6. Time-delayed feedback control of delay-coupled neurosystems and lasers

    E-print Network

    Philipp Hövel; Markus A. Dahlem; Thomas Dahms; Gerald Hiller; Eckehard Schöll

    2009-12-17

    We discuss applications of time-delayed feedback control to delay-coupled neural systems and lasers, in the framework of the FitzHugh-Nagumo neuron model and the Lang-Kobayashi laser model, respectively. In the context of neural systems, we will point out some complex scenarios of synchronized in-phase or antiphase oscillations, bursting patterns, or amplitude death, induced by delayed coupling in combination with delayed self-feedback in simple network motifs. For optical systems, we will show that multiple time-delayed feedback, realized by a Fabry-Perot resonator coupled to the laser, provides a valuable tool for the suppression of unwanted intensity pulsations, and leads to stable continuous-wave operation.

  7. Does Television Viewing Cultivate Unrealistic Expectations About Marriage?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Segrin, Chris; Nabi, Robin L.

    2002-01-01

    Examines relationship between television viewing, holding idealistic expectations about marriage, and intentions to marry among undergraduate students. Finds overall television viewing has a negative association with idealistic marriage expectations; romantic genre programming was positively associated with high expectations; and expectations were…

  8. Expectations of Achievement: Student, Teacher and Parent Perceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubie-Davies, Christine M.; Peterson, Elizabeth; Irving, Earl; Widdowson, Deborah; Dixon, Robyn

    2010-01-01

    Teachers' expectations of students have been extensively studied for forty years. However, students' self-expectations and the expectations of parents are less well understood. The aim of the study was to investigate the role of student, teacher and parent expectations in relation to student achievement from the perspective of each group. Focus…

  9. Increasing life expectancy of water resources literature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heistermann, M.; Francke, T.; Georgi, C.; Bronstert, A.

    2014-06-01

    In a study from 2008, Larivière and colleagues showed, for the field of natural sciences and engineering, that the median age of cited references is increasing over time. This result was considered counterintuitive: with the advent of electronic search engines, online journal issues and open access publications, one could have expected that cited literature is becoming younger. That study has motivated us to take a closer look at the changes in the age distribution of references that have been cited in water resources journals since 1965. Not only could we confirm the findings of Larivière and colleagues. We were also able to show that the aging is mainly happening in the oldest 10-25% of an average reference list. This is consistent with our analysis of top-cited papers in the field of water resources. Rankings based on total citations since 1965 consistently show the dominance of old literature, including text books and research papers in equal shares. For most top-cited old-timers, citations are still growing exponentially. There is strong evidence that most citations are attracted by publications that introduced methods which meanwhile belong to the standard toolset of researchers and practitioners in the field of water resources. Although we think that this trend should not be overinterpreted as a sign of stagnancy, there might be cause for concern regarding how authors select their references. We question the increasing citation of textbook knowledge as it holds the risk that reference lists become overcrowded, and that the readability of papers deteriorates.

  10. Rising Expectations: Access to Biomedical Information

    PubMed Central

    Lindberg, D. A. B.; Humphreys, B. L.

    2008-01-01

    Summary Objective To provide an overview of the expansion in public access to electronic biomedical information over the past two decades, with an emphasis on developments to which the U.S. National Library of Medicine contributed. Methods Review of the increasingly broad spectrum of web-accessible genomic data, biomedical literature, consumer health information, clinical trials data, and images. Results The amount of publicly available electronic biomedical information has increased dramatically over the past twenty years. Rising expectations regarding access to biomedical information were stimulated by the spread of the Internet, the World Wide Web, advanced searching and linking techniques. These informatics advances simplified and improved access to electronic information and reduced costs, which enabled inter-organizational collaborations to build and maintain large international information resources and also aided outreach and education efforts The demonstrated benefits of free access to electronic biomedical information encouraged the development of public policies that further increase the amount of information available. Conclusions Continuing rapid growth of publicly accessible electronic biomedical information presents tremendous opportunities and challenges, including the need to ensure uninterrupted access during disasters or emergencies and to manage digital resources so they remain available for future generations. PMID:18587496

  11. When sentences live up to your expectations.

    PubMed

    Tuennerhoff, Johannes; Noppeney, Uta

    2016-01-01

    Speech recognition is rapid, automatic and amazingly robust. How the brain is able to decode speech from noisy acoustic inputs is unknown. We show that the brain recognizes speech by integrating bottom-up acoustic signals with top-down predictions. Subjects listened to intelligible normal and unintelligible fine structure speech that lacked the predictability of the temporal envelope and did not enable access to higher linguistic representations. Their top-down predictions were manipulated using priming. Activation for unintelligible fine structure speech was confined to primary auditory cortices, but propagated into posterior middle temporal areas when fine structure speech was made intelligible by top-down predictions. By contrast, normal speech engaged posterior middle temporal areas irrespective of subjects' predictions. Critically, when speech violated subjects' expectations, activation increases in anterior temporal gyri/sulci signalled a prediction error and the need for new semantic integration. In line with predictive coding, our findings compellingly demonstrate that top-down predictions determine whether and how the brain translates bottom-up acoustic inputs into intelligible speech. PMID:26363344

  12. Expectation values of the e{sup +}PsH system

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, J.-Y.; Mitroy, J.

    2007-07-15

    Close to converged energies and expectation values for e{sup +}PsH are computed using a ground-state wave function consisting of 1500 explicitly correlated Gaussians. The best estimate of the e{sup +}PsH{sup {infinity}} energy was -0.810 254 hartrees, which has a binding energy of 0.021 057 hartrees against dissociation into e{sup +}+PsH. The 2{gamma} annihilation rate was 2.7508x10{sup 9} s{sup -1}. Binding energies and annihilation rates are also given for the different finite-mass variants of e{sup +}PsH. Comparisons between expectation values for e{sup +}PsH and PsH provide compelling evidence that the e{sup +}PsH ground state can be regarded as consisting of a weakly bound positron orbiting the PsH ground state.

  13. Delayed switching applied to memristor neural networks

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Frank Z.; Yang Xiao; Lim Guan; Helian Na; Wu Sining; Guo Yike; Rashid, Md Mamunur

    2012-04-01

    Magnetic flux and electric charge are linked in a memristor. We reported recently that a memristor has a peculiar effect in which the switching takes place with a time delay because a memristor possesses a certain inertia. This effect was named the ''delayed switching effect.'' In this work, we elaborate on the importance of delayed switching in a brain-like computer using memristor neural networks. The effect is used to control the switching of a memristor synapse between two neurons that fire together (the Hebbian rule). A theoretical formula is found, and the design is verified by a simulation. We have also built an experimental setup consisting of electronic memristive synapses and electronic neurons.

  14. Time Delay in Swiss Cheese Gravitational Lensing

    E-print Network

    Chen, Bin; Dai, Xinyu

    2010-01-01

    We compute time delays for gravitational lensing in a flat LambdaCDM Swiss cheese universe. We assume a primary and secondary pair of light rays are deflected by a single point mass condensation described by a Kottler metric (Schwarzschild with Lambda) embedded in an otherwise homogeneous cosmology. We find that the cosmological constant's effect on the difference in arrival times is non-linear and at most around 0.002% for a large cluster lens; however, we find differences from time delays predicted by conventional linear lensing theory that can reach ~4% for these large lenses. The differences in predicted delay times are due to the failure of conventional lensing to incorporate the lensing mass into the mean mass density of the universe.

  15. Time delay in Swiss cheese gravitational lensing

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, B.; Kantowski, R.; Dai, X.

    2010-08-15

    We compute time delays for gravitational lensing in a flat {Lambda} dominated cold dark matter Swiss cheese universe. We assume a primary and secondary pair of light rays are deflected by a single point mass condensation described by a Kottler metric (Schwarzschild with {Lambda}) embedded in an otherwise homogeneous cosmology. We find that the cosmological constant's effect on the difference in arrival times is nonlinear and at most around 0.002% for a large cluster lens; however, we find differences from time delays predicted by conventional linear lensing theory that can reach {approx}4% for these large lenses. The differences in predicted delay times are due to the failure of conventional lensing to incorporate the lensing mass into the mean mass density of the universe.

  16. Time Delay in Swiss Cheese Gravitational Lensing

    E-print Network

    Bin Chen; Ronald Kantowski; Xinyu Dai

    2010-06-17

    We compute time delays for gravitational lensing in a flat LambdaCDM Swiss cheese universe. We assume a primary and secondary pair of light rays are deflected by a single point mass condensation described by a Kottler metric (Schwarzschild with Lambda) embedded in an otherwise homogeneous cosmology. We find that the cosmological constant's effect on the difference in arrival times is non-linear and at most around 0.002% for a large cluster lens; however, we find differences from time delays predicted by conventional linear lensing theory that can reach ~4% for these large lenses. The differences in predicted delay times are due to the failure of conventional lensing to incorporate the lensing mass into the mean mass density of the universe.

  17. Flight Simulator Visual-Display Delay Compensation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crane, D. Francis

    1981-01-01

    A piloted aircraft can be viewed as a closed-loop man-machine control system. When a simulator pilot is performing a precision maneuver, a delay in the visual display of aircraft response to pilot-control input decreases the stability of the pilot-aircraft system. The less stable system is more difficult to control precisely. Pilot dynamic response and performance change as the pilot attempts to compensate for the decrease in system stability. The changes in pilot dynamic response and performance bias the simulation results by influencing the pilot's rating of the handling qualities of the simulated aircraft. The study reported here evaluated an approach to visual-display delay compensation. The objective of the compensation was to minimize delay-induced change in pilot performance and workload, The compensation was effective. Because the compensation design approach is based on well-established control-system design principles, prospects are favorable for successful application of the approach in other simulations.

  18. Time-Delayed Quantum Feedback Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grimsmo, Arne L.

    2015-08-01

    A theory of time-delayed coherent quantum feedback is developed. More specifically, we consider a quantum system coupled to a bosonic reservoir creating a unidirectional feedback loop. It is shown that the dynamics can be mapped onto a fictitious series of cascaded quantum systems, where the system is driven by past versions of itself. The derivation of this model relies on a tensor network representation of the system-reservoir time propagator. For concreteness, this general theory is applied to a driven two-level atom scattering into a coherent feedback loop. We demonstrate how delay effects can qualitatively change the dynamics of the atom and how quantum control can be implemented in the presence of time delays.

  19. Delayed leukoencephalopathy after acute carbon monoxide intoxication.

    PubMed

    Geraldo, Ana Filipa; Silva, Cristiana; Neutel, Dulce; Neto, Lia Lucas; Albuquerque, Luísa

    2014-05-01

    Delayed leukoencephalopathy is an uncommon complication of hypoxic-ischemic events of different etiologies, including carbon monoxide intoxication. We present a case of a 40-year-old male patient who was admitted with rapidly progressive neurocognitive and behavioral deficits. There was a history of accidental carbon monoxide intoxication one month before, presenting with loss of consciousness and short hospitalization, followed by a complete clinical recovery. The imaging studies in the delayed phase depicted confluent, symmetric supra-tentorial white matter lesions in keeping with diffuse demyelinization. Restricted diffusion and metabolite abnormalities in magnetic resonance proton spectroscopy were also seen. The diagnosis of CO-mediated delayed post-hypoxic leukoencephalopathy was assumed after exclusion of other mimickers. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy was tentatively performed and the patient had a favorable clinical and radiological evolution. PMID:25426224

  20. Expectations Lead to Performance: The Transformative Power of High Expectations in Preschool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Ye; Engler, Karen S.; Oetting, Tara L.

    2014-01-01

    This article describes the preschool program at Missouri State University where deaf and hard of hearing children with all communication modalities and all styles of personal assistive listening devices are served. The job of the early intervention providers is to model for parents what high expectations look like and how to translate those…

  1. It Is Not What You Expect: Dissociating Conflict Adaptation from Expectancies in a Stroop Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jimenez, Luis; Mendez, Amavia

    2013-01-01

    In conflict tasks, congruency effects are modulated by the sequence of preceding trials. This modulation effect has been interpreted as an influence of a proactive mechanism of adaptation to conflict (Botvinick, Nystrom, Fissell, Carter, & Cohen, 1999), but the possible contribution of explicit expectancies to this adaptation effect remains…

  2. What To Expect When You're Expected To Teach: The Anxious Craft of Teaching Composition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bramblett, Anne, Ed.; Knoblauch, Alison, Ed.

    This collection of essays addresses the anxieties and problems of beginning writing teachers and provides a reality check for those who expect success from "day one." Following an Introduction: "Silences in Our Teaching Stories; What Do We Leave Out and Why?" (Thomas Newkirk), essays in the collection are: (1) "Forty-Eight Eyeballs" (Carrie…

  3. Circadian photoentrainment: parameters of phase delaying.

    PubMed

    DeCoursey, P J

    1986-01-01

    Experiments were carried out using simulated den cages to delineate specific characteristics of phase delaying in circadian photoentrainment of a nocturnal rodent, the flying squirrel. The principal experiments entailed presentation of one to five consecutive 15-min white-light pulses per activity cycle at activity onset to animals free-running in darkness, in order to determine the immediate and final phase-shifting effect. Auxiliary experiments recorded entrainment patterns on light-dark (LD) schedules in the den cages. Phase response curves (PRCs) based on 15-min white-light pulses in standard wheel cages were also constructed for these animals as background information for interpreting the phase-delaying experiments. Exposure of a den animal to light by light sampling at the time of initial arousal from the rest state at circadian time (CT) 12, either by an LD schedule or by a 15-min light pulse, resulted in a return to the nest box for a short rest period. The phase delay occurring after a single light exposure at activity onset was equal to the induced rest, thus suggesting an immediate phase shift. The maximum delay was about 1 1/2 hr/cycle, with the amount of delay related to the number of light exposures. During the photoentrained state on an LD schedule, the activity rhythm of a den-housed animal was essentially free-running on the days following a phase delay. The data are used to expand current models for photoentrainment of circadian activity rhythms in nocturnal rodents. PMID:2979583

  4. Delayed Recompression for Decompression Sickness: Retrospective Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Hadanny, Amir; Fishlev, Gregori; Bechor, Yair; Bergan, Jacob; Friedman, Mony; Maliar, Amit; Efrati, Shai

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Most cases of decompression sickness (DCS) occur soon after surfacing, with 98% within 24 hours. Recompression using hyperbaric chamber should be administrated as soon as feasible in order to decrease bubble size and avoid further tissue injury. Unfortunately, there may be a significant time delay from surfacing to recompression. The time beyond which hyperbaric treatment is non effective is unclear. The aims of the study were first to evaluate the effect of delayed hyperbaric treatment, initiated more than 48h after surfacing for DCS and second, to evaluate the different treatment protocols. Methods From January 2000 to February 2014, 76 divers had delayed hyperbaric treatment (?48h) for DCS in the Sagol center for Hyperbaric medicine and Research, Assaf-Harofeh Medical Center, Israel. Data were collected from their medical records and compared to data of 128 patients treated earlier than 48h after surfacing at the same hyperbaric institute. Results There was no significant difference, as to any of the baseline characteristics, between the delayed and early treatment groups. With respect to treatment results, at the delayed treatment divers, complete recovery was achieved in 76% of the divers, partial recovery in 17.1% and no improvement in 6.6%. Similar results were achieved when treatment started early, where 78% of the divers had complete recovery, 15.6% partial recovery and 6.2% no recovery. Delayed hyperbaric treatment using US Navy Table 6 protocol trended toward a better clinical outcome yet not statistically significant (OR=2.786, CI95%[0.896-8.66], p=0.07) compared to standard hyperbaric oxygen therapy of 90 minutes at 2 ATA, irrespective of the symptoms severity at presentation. Conclusions Late recompression for DCS, 48 hours or more after surfacing, has clinical value and when applied can achieve complete recovery in 76% of the divers. It seems that the preferred hyperbaric treatment protocol should be based on US Navy Table 6. PMID:25906396

  5. Theoretical Prediction of Microgravity Ignition Delay of Polymeric Fuels in Low Velocity Flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fernandez-Pello, A. C.; Torero, J. L.; Zhou, Y. Y.; Walther, D.; Ross, H. D.

    2001-01-01

    A new flammability apparatus and protocol, FIST (Forced Flow Ignition and Flame Spread Test), is under development. Based on the LIFT (Lateral Ignition and Flame Spread Test) protocol, FIST better reflects the environments expected in spacebased facilities. The final objective of the FIST research is to provide NASA with a test methodology that complements the existing protocol and provides a more comprehensive assessment of material flammability of practical materials for space applications. Theoretical modeling, an extensive normal gravity data bank and a few validation space experiments will support the testing methodology. The objective of the work presented here is to predict the ignition delay and critical heat flux for ignition of solid fuels in microgravity at airflow velocities below those induced in normal gravity. This is achieved through the application of a numerical model previously developed of piloted ignition of solid polymeric materials exposed to an external radiant heat flux. The model predictions will provide quantitative results about ignition of practical materials in the limiting conditions expected in space facilities. Experimental data of surface temperature histories and ignition delay obtained in the KC-135 aircraft are used to determine the critical pyrolysate mass flux for ignition and this value is subsequently used to predict the ignition delay and the critical heat flux for ignition of the material. Surface temperature and piloted ignition delay calculations for Polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) and a Polypropylene/Fiberglass (PP/GL) composite were conducted under both reduced and normal gravity conditions. It was found that ignition delay times are significantly shorter at velocities below those induced by natural convection.

  6. Time Delays, Bends, Acceleration and Array Reconfigurations

    SciTech Connect

    Faltens, A.

    2011-06-24

    This note was originally one of the parts of the work on a 50 MeV and 500 MeV Rb{sup +} driver and part of work on delay lines for a 60 GeV U{sup +12} driver. It is slightly expanded here to make it more generally applicable. The emphasis is on beam manipulations such as joining and separating beams at the two ends of a driver and providing various time delays between beams as required by the target.

  7. Simulation of a Signalized Intersection Delay Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Minghui; Xue, Lian; Yan, Hui; Yu, Chunyan

    Signalized intersection delay is an important evaluation index of the signalized intersection capacity and level of service. This paper presents a signalized intersection delay model for signalized intersection. The model uses time series and queuing theory. It discusses the operation characteristics of the process of arrival and leaving and optimizes the intersection signal timing and gets the best signal cycle time. A scientific model and a more complete analysis are founded in the paper. These methods have a good reference value to the relevant departments.

  8. At-Speed Path Delay Test 

    E-print Network

    Chakraborty, Swati

    2015-04-27

    the case of time-borrowing in latches in high speed circuits and proposes structural delay testing in those cases. It targets long paths in successive blocks for delay testing. The work in [34] discusses about canary logic. The canary flop helps... to prevent timing error in the design. Comparison of the values in main flip-flop and the canary flip-flop determines the correctness of operation. It is an alternative to Razor [35] logic. The use of canary logic in preventing age-related timing...

  9. Diagnosis delay in Libyan female breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Aims To study the diagnosis delay and its impact on stage of disease among women with breast cancer on Libya. Methods 200 women, aged 22 to 75 years with breast cancer diagnosed during 2008–2009 were interviewed about the period from the first symptoms to the final histological diagnosis of breast cancer. This period (diagnosis time) was categorized into 3 periods: <3 months, 3–6 months, and >6 months. If diagnosis time was longer than 3 months, the diagnosis was considered delayed (diagnosis delay). Consultation time was the time taken to visit the general practitioner after the first symptoms. Retrospective preclinical and clinical data were collected on a form (questionnaire) during an interview with each patient and from medical records. Results The median of diagnosis time was 7.5 months. Only 30.0% of patients were diagnosed within 3 months after symptoms. 14% of patients were diagnosed within 3–6 months and 56% within a period longer than 6 months. A number of factors predicted diagnosis delay: Symptoms were not considered serious in 27% of patients. Alternative therapy (therapy not associated with cancer) was applied in 13.0% of the patients. Fear and shame prevented the visit to the doctor in 10% and 4.5% of patients, respectively. Inappropriate reassurance that the lump was benign was an important reason for prolongation of the diagnosis time. Diagnosis delay was associated with initial breast symptom(s) that did not include a lump (p?delay was associated with bigger tumour size (p <0.0001), with positive lymph nodes (N2, N3; p?delay is very serious problem in Libya. Diagnosis delay was associated with complex interactions between several factors and with advanced stages. There is a need for improving breast cancer awareness and training of general practitioners to reduce breast cancer mortality by promoting early detection. The treatment guidelines should pay more attention to the early phases of breast cancer. Especially, guidelines for good practices in managing detectable of tumors are necessary. PMID:22909280

  10. Delay of Transition Using Forced Damping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Exton, Reginald J.

    2014-01-01

    Several experiments which have reported a delay of transition are analyzed in terms of the frequencies of the induced disturbances generated by different flow control elements. Two of the experiments employed passive stabilizers in the boundary layer, one leading-edge bluntness, and one employed an active spark discharge in the boundary layer. It is found that the frequencies generated by the various elements lie in the damping region of the associated stability curve. It is concluded that the creation of strong disturbances in the damping region stabilizes the boundary-layer and delays the transition from laminar to turbulent flow.

  11. Divisible quantum dynamics satisfies temporal Tsirelson's bound

    E-print Network

    Thao Le; Felix A. Pollock; Tomasz Paterek; Mauro Paternostro; Kavan Modi

    2015-10-15

    We show that divisibility of qubit quantum processes implies temporal Tsirelson's bound. We also prove that the classical bound of the temporal Bell's inequality holds for dynamics that can be described by entanglement-breaking channels---a more general class of dynamics than that allowed by classical physics.

  12. Fluctuation bounds on charge and heat diffusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovtun, Pavel

    2015-07-01

    We study thermal fluctuation corrections to charge and heat conductivity in systems with locally conserved energy and charge, but without locally conserved momentum. Thermal fluctuations may naturally lead to a lower bound on diffusion constants for thermoelectric transport, and need to be taken into account when discussing potential bounds on transport coefficients.

  13. Fluctuation bounds on charge and heat diffusion

    E-print Network

    Pavel Kovtun

    2015-07-21

    We study thermal fluctuation corrections to charge and heat conductivity in systems with locally conserved energy and charge, but without locally conserved momentum. Thermal fluctuations may naturally lead to a lower bound on diffusion constants for thermoelectric transport, and need to be taken into account when discussing potential bounds on transport coefficients.

  14. Resetting Bounding Nodes in Acquiring Spanish.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cebreiros, Ramiro

    1996-01-01

    This paper addresses the issue of whether second language (L2) learners can reset parameters, by testing English speakers learning Spanish on their ability to reset the subjacency and bounding node parameters. The bounding nodes are IP and NP in English and CP and NP in Spanish. Eight American graduate students, highly proficient in the Spanish…

  15. BOUND SYSTEMS 4.A Binding Energy

    E-print Network

    Boal, David

    CHAPTER 4 BOUND SYSTEMS 4.A Binding Energy The mass-energy equation (3.2) is valid for a single linear momentum and its energy. While we introduced the equation in order to describe the energy is measurable. The implication of (4.1) taken with (3.2) is that the mass energy of a bound state is less than

  16. Estimation Bounds for Localization Cheng Chang

    E-print Network

    California at Berkeley, University of

    Estimation Bounds for Localization Cheng Chang Electrical Engineering and Computer Science@eecs.berkeley.edu Abstract-- The localization problem is fundamentally important for sensor networks. We study the Cram´er- Rao lower bound (CRB) for two kinds of localization based on noisy range measurements. The first

  17. Arctic Climate Change: Where Reality Exceeds Expectations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serreze, M. C.

    2007-12-01

    It was probably around the year 2000 when I had an epiphany. A realization, after years of sitting on the fence, that the changes unfolding in the Arctic were too persistent, and too coherent among different parts of the system, to be simply dismissed as natural climate fluctuations. Seven years have passed, and despite imprints of natural variability , the Arctic has continued along a warming path. The emerging surprise is the rapidity of change. In many ways, it seems that reality has exceeded expectations, and that our vision of the Arctic's future is already upon us. The most visually striking evidence of rapid change is the Arctic's shrinking sea ice cover. While climate models tell us that sea ice extent should already be declining in response to greenhouse gas loading, observed trends are much steeper - we are perhaps 30 years ahead of schedule. Climate models also tell us that largely as a result of sea ice loss, Arctic warming will be outsized compared to the rest of the northern hemisphere. However, this so-called Arctic Amplification is already here. The signal appears to be firm, and growing in strength. In turn, the Greenland ice sheet seems to be stirring in ways quite unexpected ten years ago, with disturbing implications for sea level rise. Why is the Arctic changing so rapidly? What are the missing pieces of the puzzle? Given where we stand today, might we realize a seasonally ice free Arctic Ocean as soon as 30 years from now? This Nye lecture will attempt to shed some light on these issues.

  18. Water in stars: expected and unexpected

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsuji, T.; Aoki, W.; Ohnaka, K.

    1999-03-01

    We have confirmed the presence of water in the early M giant ? Cet (M1.5III) and supergiant KK Per (M2Iab) by the highest resolution grating mode of SWS, but this result is quite unexpected from present model atmospheres. In late M giant and supergiant stars, water observed originates partly in the photosphere as expected by the model atmospheres, but ISO SWS has revealed that the 2.7 mic\\ absorption bands appear to be somewhat stronger than predicted while 6.5 mic\\ bands weaker, indicating the contamination by an emission component. In the mid-infrared region extending to 45 mic, pure rotation lines of hho\\ appear as distinct emission on the high resolution SWS spectra of 30g Her (M7III) and S Per (M4-7Ia), along with the dust emission at 10, 13, 20 mic\\ and a new unidentified feature at 30 mic. Thus, together with the dust, water contributes to the thermal balance of the outer atmosphere already in the mid-infrared. The excitation temperature of hho\\ gas is estimated to be 500 - 1000 K. In view of this result for late M (super)giants, unexpected water observed in early M (super)giants should also be of non-photospheric in origin. Thus, ISO has finally established the presence of a new component of the outer atmosphere - a warm molecular envelope - in red giant and supergiant stars from early to late types. Such a rather warm molecular envelope will be a site of various activities such as chemical reactions, dust formation, mass-outflow etc.

  19. Preliminary Results on the Experimental Investigation of the Structure Functions of Bound Nucleons

    SciTech Connect

    Bodek, Arie

    2015-09-01

    We present preliminary results on an experimental study of the nuclear modification of the longitudinal (sL) and transverse (sT ) structure functions of nucleons bound in nuclear targets. The origin of these modifications (commonly referred as as the EMC effect) is not fully understood. Our measurements of R= sL=sT for nuclei (RA) and for deuterium (RD) indicate that nuclear modifications of the structure functions of bound nucleons are different for the longitudinal and transverse structure functions, and that contrary to expectation from several theoretical models, RA < RD.

  20. New bounds on isotropic Lorentz violation

    SciTech Connect

    Chris Carone; Marc Sher; Marc Vanderhaeghen

    2006-09-19

    Violations of Lorentz invariance that appear via operators of dimension four or less are completely parameterized in the Standard Model Extension (SME). In the pure photonic sector of the SME, there are nineteen dimensionless, Lorentz-violating parameters. Eighteen of these have experimental upper bounds ranging between 10{sup -11} and 10{sup -32}; the remaining parameter, ktr, is isotropic and has a much weaker bound of order 10{sup -4}. In this Brief Report, we point out that ktr gives a significant contribution to the anomalous magnetic moment of the electron and find a new upper bound of order 10{sup -8}. With reasonable assumptions, we further show that this bound may be improved to 10{sup -14} by considering the renormalization of other Lorentz-violating parameters that are more tightly constrained. Using similar renormalization arguments, we also estimate bounds on Lorentz violating parameters in the pure gluonic sector of QCD.