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1

Exact admission control for networks with a bounded delay service  

Microsoft Academic Search

To support the requirements for the transmission of continuous media, such as audio andvideo, multiservice packet switching networks must provide service guarantees to connections,including guarantees on throughput, network delays, and network delay variations. For themost demanding applications, the network must offer a service which can provide deterministicguarantees for the maximum delay of packets from all connections, referred to as bounded

Jörg Liebeherr; Dallas E. Wrege; Domenico Ferrari

1996-01-01

2

The Online Expectations of College-Bound Juniors and Seniors. E-Expectations Report, 2012  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Noel-Levitz, OmniUpdate, CollegeWeekLive, and NRCCUA[R] (National Research Center for College & University Admissions) conducted a survey of 2,000 college-bound juniors and seniors about their expectations for college Web sites, mobile usage, e-mail, and social media. Among the findings: (1) More than 50 percent of students said the Web played a…

Noel-Levitz, Inc, 2012

2012-01-01

3

Packet Audio Playout Delay Adjustment: Performance Bounds and Algorithms \\Lambda  

E-print Network

Packet Audio Playout Delay Adjustment: Performance Bounds and Algorithms \\Lambda Sue B. Moon, Jim 01003 fsbmoon,kurose,towsleyg@cs.umass.edu Abstract In packet audio applications, packets are buffered, given a trace of packet audio receptions at a receiver, we present efficient algorithms for computing

Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

4

Academic delay of gratification and expectancy–value  

Microsoft Academic Search

Academic delay of gratification (ADOG) is defined as the postponement of immediately available rewards in order to pursue temporally remote but more valuable academic goals. The present study examined delay of gratification from motivational perspectives. This study (N=196) examined whether preferences to delay gratification in typical academic situations would be associated with motivational determinants of the alternatives in those settings.

Héfer Bembenutty

2008-01-01

5

Packet Audio Playout Delay Adjustment: Performance Bounds and Algorithms  

Microsoft Academic Search

In packet audio applications, packets are buffered at a receiving site and their playout delayed in order to com- pensate for variable network delays. In this paper, we con- sider the problem of adaptively adjusting the playout delay in order to keep this delay as small as possible, while at the same time avoiding excessive \\

Sue B. Moon; James F. Kurose; Donald F. Towsley

1998-01-01

6

Bounded Linear Stability Analysis - A Time Delay Margin Estimation Approach for Adaptive Control  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper presents a method for estimating time delay margin for model-reference adaptive control of systems with almost linear structured uncertainty. The bounded linear stability analysis method seeks to represent the conventional model-reference adaptive law by a locally bounded linear approximation within a small time window using the comparison lemma. The locally bounded linear approximation of the combined adaptive system is cast in a form of an input-time-delay differential equation over a small time window. The time delay margin of this system represents a local stability measure and is computed analytically by a matrix measure method, which provides a simple analytical technique for estimating an upper bound of time delay margin. Based on simulation results for a scalar model-reference adaptive control system, both the bounded linear stability method and the matrix measure method are seen to provide a reasonably accurate and yet not too conservative time delay margin estimation.

Nguyen, Nhan T.; Ishihara, Abraham K.; Krishnakumar, Kalmanje Srinlvas; Bakhtiari-Nejad, Maryam

2009-01-01

7

An Upper Bound for the Expected Range of a Random Sample  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We consider the expected range of a random sample of points chosen from the interval [0, 1] according to some probability distribution. We then use the notion of convexity to derive an upper bound for this expected range which is valid for all possible choices of this distribution. Finally we show that there is only one distribution for which this…

Marengo, James; Lopez, Manuel

2010-01-01

8

Analytical Stability Bound for a Class of Delayed Fractional-Order Dynamic Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Delayed Linear Time-Invariant (LTI) fractional-order dynamic systems areconsidered. The analytical stability bound is obtained by using Lambertfunction. Two examples are presented to illustrate the obtainedanalytical results.

YangQuan Chen; Kevin L. Moore

2002-01-01

9

Continuous time markov decision processes with nonuniformly bounded transition rate: expected total rewards  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper deals with a stationary continuous time Markov decision process with countable state space, nonuniformly bounded transition rate and extended real valued reward, under the criterion of expected total rewards. The model is transformed into an equivalent discrete time Markov decision process within stochastic stationary policies when the model is well-defined. Thus most results, for example, the optimality equation

Qiying. Hu; jinling. Wang

1998-01-01

10

Delayed birth of distillable entanglement in the evolution of bound entangled states  

SciTech Connect

The dynamical creation of entanglement between three-level atoms coupled to the common vacuum is investigated. For the class of bound entangled initial states, we show that the dynamics of closely separated atoms generates stationary distillable entanglement of asymptotic states. We also find that the effect of delayed sudden birth of distillable entanglement occurs in the case of atoms separated by a distance comparable with the radiation wavelength.

Derkacz, Lukasz; Jakobczyk, Lech [Opera Software International AS, Oddzialw Polsce, ul. Szewska 8, 50-122 Wroclaw (Poland); Institute of Theoretical Physics, University of Wroclaw, Plac Maxa Borna 9, 50-204 Wroclaw (Poland)

2010-08-15

11

Delayed birth of distillable entanglement in the evolution of bound entangled states  

E-print Network

The dynamical creation of entanglement between three-level atoms coupled to the common vacuum is investigated. For the class of bound entangled initial states we show that the dynamics of closely separated atoms generates stationary distillable entanglement of asymptotic states. We also find that the effect of delayed sudden birth of distillable entanglement occurs in the case of atoms separated by a distance comparable with the radiation wavelength.

?ukasz Derkacz; Lech Jakobczyk

2010-08-17

12

Stationary consensus of heterogeneous multi-agent systems with bounded communication delays  

Microsoft Academic Search

Consensus seeking is investigated for the discrete-time heterogeneous multi-agent systems composed of first-order agents and second-order agents, and two stationary consensus algorithms are constructed for the first-order agents and the second-order agents, respectively. Based on the properties of nonnegative matrices, sufficient consensus criteria are obtained for the agents with bounded communication delays under fixed topology and switching topologies, respectively. With

Cheng-Lin Liu; Fei Liu

2011-01-01

13

A Delay Discounting Measure of Great Expectations and the Effectiveness of Psychotherapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many clients prematurely terminate therapy before they have recovered. One possible explanation for treatment dropout is unmet expectations. Although the effects of unmet role expectations have received much attention in the literature, little is known about unmet outcome expectations. Two studies were designed to look at duration and effectiveness outcome expectations held by individuals within a primary referral base for

Joshua K. Swift; Jennifer L. Callahan

2008-01-01

14

Factors Associated with Delayed Childbearing: From the Voices of Expectant Latina Adults and Teens in California  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There has been limited research on the protective factors that help Latinas delay childbearing until adulthood. In-depth interviews were conducted with 65 pregnant Latina teenage and adult women in California who were about to have their first child. Lack of or inconsistent birth control use as teens was attributed to wanting or ambivalence toward…

Biggs, M. Antonia; Ralph, Lauren; Minnis, Alexandra M.; Arons, Abigail; Marchi, Kristen S.; Lehrer, Jocelyn A.; Braveman, Paula A.; Brindis, Claire D.

2010-01-01

15

BCDP: Budget Constrained and Delay-Bounded Placement for Hybrid Roadside Units in Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks  

PubMed Central

In vehicular ad hoc networks, roadside units (RSUs) placement has been proposed to improve the the overall network performance in many ITS applications. This paper addresses the budget constrained and delay-bounded placement problem (BCDP) for roadside units in vehicular ad hoc networks. There are two types of RSUs: cable connected RSU (c-RSU) and wireless RSU (w-RSU). c-RSUs are interconnected through wired lines, and they form the backbone of VANETs, while w-RSUs connect to other RSUs through wireless communication and serve as an economical extension of the coverage of c-RSUs. The delay-bounded coverage range and deployment cost of these two cases are totally different. We are given a budget constraint and a delay bound, the problem is how to find the optimal candidate sites with the maximal delay-bounded coverage to place RSUs such that a message from any c-RSU in the region can be disseminated to the more vehicles within the given budget constraint and delay bound. We first prove that the BCDP problem is NP-hard. Then we propose several algorithms to solve the BCDP problem. Simulation results show the heuristic algorithms can significantly improve the coverage range and reduce the total deployment cost, compared with other heuristic methods. PMID:25436656

Li, Peng; Huang, Chuanhe; Liu, Qin

2014-01-01

16

The Elmore delay as a bound for RC trees with generalized input signals  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT The Elmore delay is an extremely popular delay metric, par- ticularly for RC tree analysis. The widespread usage of this met- ric is mainly attributable to it being the most accurate delay measure that is a simple analytical function of the circuit param- eters. The only drawbacks to this delay metric are the uncertain- ty as to whether it

Rohini Gupta; Bogdan Tutuianu; Lawrence T. Pileggi

1997-01-01

17

The Elmore delay as bound for RC trees with generalized input signals  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Elmore delay is an extremely popular delay metric, par- ticularly for RC tree analysis. The widespread usage of this met- ric is mainly attributable to it being the most accurate delay measure that is a simple analytical function of the circuit param- eters. The only drawbacks to this delay metric are the uncertain- ty as to whether it is

Rohini Gupta; Byron Krauter; Bogdan Tutuianu; John Willis; Lawrence T. Pileggi

1995-01-01

18

CONTROL COMPENSATION BASED ON UPPER BOUND DELAY IN NETWORKED CONTROL N., Georges J.-P.a  

E-print Network

delay estimate is utilised in delay compensation for improving the Quality of Performance (Qo of the delay, and then to design a network scheduling procedure so that the delay is minimized. The second et al., 2001), gain adaptation of controllers (Tipsuwan and Chow, (2002), Smith predictor based

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

19

Bounds on Average Delays and Queue Size Averages and Variances in Input-Queued Cell-Based Switches  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we develop a general methodology, mainly based upon Lyapunov functions, to derive bounds on average delays, and on queue size averages and variances of complex systems of queues. We then apply this methodology to input-buffered, cell-based switch and router ar- chitectures. These architectures require a scheduling algorithm to select at each slot a subset of input-buffered cells

Emilio Leonardi; Marco Mellia; Fabio Neri; Marco Ajmone Marsan

2001-01-01

20

Bounded Control of Multiple-Delay Systems with Applications to ATM Networks  

E-print Network

) Minimum cell rate (MCR), 2) Peak cell rate (PCR), 3) cell delay variation (CDV), 4) maximum cell transfer required to guarantee an MCR and an PCR, and thus can adjust their rates to accomodate the level available

21

Delay in the progression of low-risk prostate cancer: Rationale and design of the Reduction by Dutasteride of Clinical Progression Events in Expectant Management (REDEEM) trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

PurposeMen with prostate cancer may live as long as men their age without prostate cancer. Those with low-risk disease may benefit from expectant management, which actively monitors disease progression. Dutasteride, a dual 5?-reductase inhibitor (5ARI), may delay prostate cancer progression or extend the time to initiation of more aggressive therapy.

Neil Fleshner; Leonard G. Gomella; Michael S. Cookson; Antonio Finelli; Andrew Evans; Samir S. Taneja; M. Scott Lucia; Eric Wolford; Matthew C. Somerville; Roger Rittmaster

2007-01-01

22

Bounding the Time Delay between High-energy Neutrinos and Gravitational-wave Transients from Gamma-ray Bursts  

E-print Network

We derive a conservative coincidence time window for joint searches of gravita-tional-wave (GW) transients and high-energy neutrinos (HENs, with energies above 100GeV), emitted by gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). The last are among the most interesting astrophysical sources for coincident detections with current and near-future detectors. We take into account a broad range of emission mechanisms. We take the upper limit of GRB durations as the 95% quantile of the T90's of GRBs observed by BATSE, obtaining a GRB duration upper limit of ~150s. Using published results on high-energy (>100MeV) photon light curves for 8 GRBs detected by Fermi LAT, we verify that most high-energy photons are expected to be observed within the first ~150s of the GRB. Taking into account the breakout-time of the relativistic jet produced by the central engine, we allow GW and HEN emission to begin up to 100s before the onset of observable gamma photon production. Using published precursor time differences, we calculate a time upper bound for precursor activity, obtaining that 95% of precursors occur within ~250s prior to the onset of the GRB. Taking the above different processes into account, we arrive at a time window of tHEN - tGW ~ [-500s,+500s]. Considering the above processes, an upper bound can also be determined for the expected time window of GW and/or HEN signals coincident with a detected GRB, tGW - tGRB ~ tHEN - tGRB ~ [-350s,+150s].

Bruny Baret; Imre Bartos; Boutayeb Bouhou; Alessandra Corsi; Irene Di Palma; Corinne Donzaud; Véronique Van Elewyck; Chad Finley; Gareth Jones; Antoine Kouchner; Szabolcs Màrka; Zsuzsa Màrka; Luciano Moscoso; Eric Chassande-Mottin; Maria Alessandra Papa; Thierry Pradier; Peter Raffai; Jameson Rollins; Patrick Sutton

2011-01-24

23

What to Expect from the Virtual Seismologist: Delay Times and Uncertainties of Initial Earthquake Alerts in California  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Virtual Seismologist (VS) method is a Bayesian approach to regional network-based earthquake early warning (EEW) originally formulated by Cua and Heaton (2007). Implementation of VS into real-time EEW codes has been an on-going effort of the Swiss Seismological Service at ETH Zürich since 2006, with support from ETH Zürich, various European projects, and the United States Geological Survey (USGS). VS is one of three EEW algorithms that form the basis of the California Integrated Seismic Network (CISN) ShakeAlert system, a USGS-funded prototype end-to-end EEW system that could potentially be implemented in California. In Europe, VS is currently operating as a real-time test system in Switzerland, western Greece and Istanbul. As part of the on-going EU project REAKT (Strategies and Tools for Real-Time Earthquake Risk Reduction), VS installations in southern Italy, Romania, and Iceland are planned or underway. The possible use cases for an EEW system will be determined by the speed and reliability of earthquake source parameter estimates. A thorough understanding of both is therefore essential to evaluate the usefulness of VS. For California, we present state-wide theoretical alert times for hypothetical earthquakes by analyzing time delays introduced by the different components in the VS EEW system. Taking advantage of the fully probabilistic formulation of the VS algorithm we further present an improved way to describe the uncertainties of every magnitude estimate by evaluating the width and shape of the probability density function that describes the relationship between waveform envelope amplitudes and magnitude. We evaluate these new uncertainty values for past seismicity in California through off-line playbacks and compare them to the previously defined static definitions of uncertainty based on real-time detections. Our results indicate where VS alerts are most useful in California and also suggest where most effective improvements to the VS EEW system can be made.

Behr, Y.; Cua, G. B.; Clinton, J. F.; Racine, R.; Meier, M.; Cauzzi, C.

2013-12-01

24

Deterministic delay bounds for VBR video in packet-switching networks: fundamental limits and practical trade-offs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Compressed digital video is one of the most impor- tant traffic types in future integrated services networks. However, a network service that supports delay-sensitive video imposes many problems since compressed video sources are variable bit rate (VBR) with a high degree of burstiness. In this paper, we consider a network service that can provide deterministic guarantees on the minimum throughput

Dallas E. Wrege; Edward W. Knightly; Hui Zhang; Jörg Liebeherr

1996-01-01

25

Salivary Alpha Amylase and Cortisol Levels in Children with Global Developmental Delay and Their Relation with the Expectation of Dental Care and Behavior during the Intervention  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to analyze the alpha-amylase (sAA) and cortisol levels in children with Global developmental delay (GDD) before and after dental treatment and its association with the children's behavior during treatment. The morning salivary cortisol levels and activity of sAA of 33 children with GDD were evaluated before and after…

dos Santos, Marcio Jose Possari; Bernabe, Daniel Galera; Nakamune, Ana Claudia de Melo Stevanato; Perri, Silvia Helena Venturoli; de Aguiar, Sandra Maria Herondina Coelho Avila; de Oliveira, Sandra Helena Penha

2012-01-01

26

Expected Value  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This online, interactive lesson on expected value provides examples, exercises, and applets in which students will explore relationships between the expected value of real-valued random variables and the center of the distribution. Students will also examine how expected values can be used to measure spread and correlation.

Siegrist, Kyle

27

Survey Expectations  

E-print Network

would be sufficient in the case of linear-quadratic decision problems where the utility (or cost) functions are quadratic and the constraints linear. For more general decision problems density expectations might be required. From an empirical viewpoint... Expectations formation is an integral part of the decision making process by households, firms, as well as the private and public institutions. At the theoretical level the rational expectations hypothesis as advanced by Muth (1961) has gained general...

Pesaran, M Hashem; Weale, Martin

2006-03-14

28

Signal Delay in RC Tree Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

In MOS integrated circuits, signals may propagate between stages with fanout. The MOS interconnect may be modeled by an RC tree. Exact calculation of signal delay through such networks is difficult. However, upper and lower bounds for delay that are computationally simple are presented here. The results can be used (1) to bound the delay, given the signal threshold; or

Jorge Rubinstein; Paul Penfield Jr.; Mark A. Horowitz

1983-01-01

29

Signal delay in RC tree networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

In MOS integrated circuits, signals may propagate between stages with fanout. The HOS interconnect may be modeled by an RC tree, Exact calculation of signal delay through such networks is difficult. However, upper and lower bounds for delay that are computationally simple are presented here. The results can be used (I) to bound the delay, given the signal threshold; or

P. Penfield; J. Jr. Rubinstein

1988-01-01

30

Signal delay in RC tree networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

In MOS integrated circuits, signals may propagate between stages with fanout. The MOS interconnect may be modeled by an RC tree. Exact calculation of signal delay through such networks is difficult. However, upper and lower bounds for delay that are computationally simple are presented here. The results can be used (1) to bound the delay, given the signal threshold; or

Paul Penfield Jr.; Jorge Rubinstein

1981-01-01

31

Scheduling A Delay Between Different Surgeons??? Cases in the Same Operating Room on the Same Day Using Upper Prediction Bounds for Case Durations  

Microsoft Academic Search

At some surgical suites, elective cases are only sched- uled if they can be completed during regularly sched- uled hours. At such a surgical suite, a surgeon may be scheduled to perform one or more cases in an operating room (OR), to be followed by another surgeon who will perform one or more cases. Scheduling a delay between the two

Franklin Dexter; Rodney D. Traub; Philip Lebowitz

2001-01-01

32

Delay-derivative-dependent stability for delayed neural networks with unbound distributed delay  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this brief, based on Lyapunov-Krasovskii functional approach and appropriate integral inequality, a new sufficient condition is derived to guarantee the global stability for delayed neural networks with unbounded distributed delay, in which the improved delay-partitioning technique and general convex combination are employed. The LMI-based criterion heavily depends on both the upper and lower bounds on time delay and its

Tao Li; Aiguo Song; Shumin Fei; Ting Wang

2010-01-01

33

Rational Expectations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Rational Expectations was set up by Ralph Lazar, former strategist and economist for Goldman Sachs, Barings & Credit Suisse First Boston, as a "resource for anyone interested in [emerging markets] economics -- students, teachers, lecturers, journalists, professionals, or just the curious." A fully comprehensive guide to the people, places, and events of the economics world, Rational Expectations includes an searchable database of over 1,000 organizations and institutions in OECD countries and emerging markets, a conference calendar, and job listings. The site also links to academic, professional, and government organizations, as well as a huge suggested publication list and macroeconomic and financial market data. Rational Expectations will be a welcome resource for anyone interested in emerging markets economics.

Lazar, Ralph.

34

Expected Value  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students will use the random integer command on their graphing calculators to simulate rolling a die. They will then use operations on lists to analyze the probability of rolling the first 1 on the 1st roll, 2nd roll, and so on and finally find the expected value. Teacher notes explain in detail how to perform these actions on the graphing calculator.

2012-08-30

35

Impaired delayed-type hypersensitivity response in mutant mice secreting soluble CD4 without expression of membrane-bound CD4  

PubMed Central

Delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) is an important in vivo manifestation of cell-mediated immunity. We examined the DTH response to methylated bovine serum albumin of a novel mutant strain of mice that have soluble CD4 (sCD4) in their circulation without expression of CD4 on the cell surface. The DTH response of the mutant mice was severely impaired, although the response of CD4 knockout (KO) mice, generated by homologous recombination, was comparable to that of wild-type mice. The response of the mutant mice was restored by the neutralization of sCD4 with anti-CD4, and that of CD4KO mice was markedly reduced by the implantation of a diffusion chamber containing sCD4 cDNA transfectant cells. The restored DTH response of the mutant mice treated with anti-CD4 was abolished by treatment with anti-interferon-? (IFN-?). IFN-? production by CD4 mutant and CD4KO mice was consistent with their DTH response and inversely related to the presence of sCD4 in their circulation, indicating that sCD4 impairs the DTH response by blocking the production of IFN-? in our mutant mice. These results raise the possibility that sCD4 could impair cell-mediated immunity. Our mutant mice would provide a useful tool with which to analyse the mechanisms of the DTH reaction. PMID:10929052

Wang, C-R; Hino, A; Yoshimoto, T; Nagase, H; Kato, T; Hirokawa, K; Matsuzawa, A; Nariuchi, H

2000-01-01

36

Delay-dependent robust H ? control for uncertain systems with a state-delay  

Microsoft Academic Search

A robust H? control for uncertain linear systems with a state-delay is described. Systems with norm-bounded parameter uncertainties are considered and linear memoryless state feedback controllers are obtained. Firstly, a delay-dependent bounded real lemma for systems with a state-delay is presented in terms of linear matrix inequalities (LMIs). By taking a new Lyapunov–Krasovsii functional, neither model transformation nor bounding for

Y. S. Lee; Y. S. Moon; W. H. Kwon; P. G. Park

2004-01-01

37

Modeling delay in genetic networks: From delay birth-death processes to delay stochastic differential equations  

SciTech Connect

Delay is an important and ubiquitous aspect of many biochemical processes. For example, delay plays a central role in the dynamics of genetic regulatory networks as it stems from the sequential assembly of first mRNA and then protein. Genetic regulatory networks are therefore frequently modeled as stochastic birth-death processes with delay. Here, we examine the relationship between delay birth-death processes and their appropriate approximating delay chemical Langevin equations. We prove a quantitative bound on the error between the pathwise realizations of these two processes. Our results hold for both fixed delay and distributed delay. Simulations demonstrate that the delay chemical Langevin approximation is accurate even at moderate system sizes. It captures dynamical features such as the oscillatory behavior in negative feedback circuits, cross-correlations between nodes in a network, and spatial and temporal information in two commonly studied motifs of metastability in biochemical systems. Overall, these results provide a foundation for using delay stochastic differential equations to approximate the dynamics of birth-death processes with delay.

Gupta, Chinmaya; López, José Manuel; Azencott, Robert; Ott, William [Department of Mathematics, University of Houston, Houston, Texas 77004 (United States); Bennett, Matthew R. [Department of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Rice University, Houston, Texas 77204, USA and Institute of Biosciences and Bioengineering, Rice University, Houston, Texas 77005 (United States); Josi?, Krešimir [Department of Mathematics, University of Houston, Houston, Texas 77004 (United States); Department of Biology and Biochemistry, University of Houston, Houston, Texas 77204 (United States)

2014-05-28

38

Modeling delay in genetic networks: From delay birth-death processes to delay stochastic differential equations  

E-print Network

Delay is an important and ubiquitous aspect of many biochemical processes. For example, delay plays a central role in the dynamics of genetic regulatory networks as it stems from the sequential assembly of first mRNA and then protein. Genetic regulatory networks are therefore frequently modeled as stochastic birth-death processes with delay. Here we examine the relationship between delay birth-death processes and their appropriate approximating delay chemical Langevin equations. We prove that the distance between these two descriptions, as measured by expectations of functionals of the processes, converges to zero with increasing system size. Further, we prove that the delay birth-death process converges to the thermodynamic limit as system size tends to infinity. Our results hold for both fixed delay and distributed delay. Simulations demonstrate that the delay chemical Langevin approximation is accurate even at moderate system sizes. It captures dynamical features such as the spatial and temporal distributions of transition pathways in metastable systems, oscillatory behavior in negative feedback circuits, and cross-correlations between nodes in a network. Overall, these results provide a foundation for using delay stochastic differential equations to approximate the dynamics of birth-death processes with delay.

Chinmaya Gupta; José Manuel López; Robert Azencott; Matthew R Bennett; Krešimir Josi?; William Ott

2014-01-12

39

An RFID Distance Bounding Protocol  

Microsoft Academic Search

Radio-frequency identification tokens, such as contactless smartcards, are vulnerable to relay attacks if they are used for proximity authentication. Attackers can circumvent the limited range of the radio channel using transponders that forward exchanged signals over larger distances. Cryptographic distance-bounding protocols that measure accurately the round-trip delay of the radio signal provide a possible countermeasure. They infer an upper bound

Gerhard P. Hancke; Markus G. Kuhn

2005-01-01

40

Minimum Delay Scheduling for Performance Guaranteed Switches With Optical Fabrics  

Microsoft Academic Search

We consider traffic scheduling in performance guaranteed switches with optical fabrics to ensure 100% throughput and bounded packet delay. Each switch reconfiguration consumes a constant period of time called reconfiguration overhead, during which no packet can be transmitted across the switch. To minimize the packet delay bound for an arbitrary traffic matrix, the number of switch configurations in the schedule

Bin Wu; Kwan L. Yeung; Pin-Han Ho; Xiaohong Jiang

2009-01-01

41

Distributed Delay Jitter Control In Packet-Switching Internetworks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Delay jitter is the variation of the delays with which packets traveling on a network connection reachtheir destination. For good quality of reception, continuous-media (video, audio, image) streams requirethat jitter be kept below a sufficiently small upper bound. This paper proposes a distributed mechanism forcontrolling delay jitter in a packet-switching network. The mechanism can be applied to an internetworkthat satisfies

Domenico Ferrari

1993-01-01

42

Design and Analysis of a High-Performance Packet Multiplexer for Multiservice Networks with Delay Guarantees  

Microsoft Academic Search

A major challenge for the design of multiservice networks with quality of service guaranteesis an efficient implementation of a bounded delay service, that is, a service that guaranteesmaximum end-to-end delays for every packet from a single traffic stream. A crucial componentof a bounded delay service is the packet multiplexing technique employed at network switchesthat must keep the variable statistical multiplexing

Jörg Liebeherr; Dallas E. Wrege

1994-01-01

43

Dissipativity analysis and synthesis of a class of nonlinear systems with time-varying delays  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, new results are established for the delay-independent and delay-dependent problems of dissipative analysis and state-feedback synthesis for a class of nonlinear systems with time-varying delays with polytopic uncertainties. This class consists of linear time-delay systems subject to nonlinear cone-bounded perturbations. Both delay-independent and delay-dependent dissipativity criteria are established as linear matrix inequality-based feasibility tests. The developed results

Magdi S. Mahmoud; Yan Shi; Fouad M. AL-Sunni

2009-01-01

44

Delaying Obsolescence.  

PubMed

This paper argues that those who emphasise that designers and engineers need to plan for obsolescence are too conservative. Rather, in addition to planning for obsolescence, designers and engineers should also think carefully about what they could do in order delay obsolescence. They should so this by thinking about the design itself, thinking of ways in which products could be useful and appealing for longer before becoming obsolete, as well thinking about the wider context in terms of the marketing of products, and also the social and legal. The paper also considers objections that these suggestions are unrealistically idealistic, failing to recognise the economic realities. I respond to these objections appealing to research in advertising, psychology, cognitive linguistics, philosophy, history, and economics, as well as drawing on the Statement of Ethical Principles developed by the Royal Academy of Engineering and the Engineering Council. PMID:24792878

Lawlor, Rob

2014-05-01

45

A Superintendent's High Expectations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article profiles Wanda Bamberg, superintendent of the Aldine (Texas) Independent School District. Bamberg is used to high expectations regardless of the circumstances. She is a firecracker of sorts who talks much and expects much from her staff members, teachers, and students, who are mostly at-risk, Black and Hispanic, and economically…

Pascopella, Angela

2009-01-01

46

Expectations across entertainment media  

E-print Network

An audience's satisfaction with an entertainment product is dependent on how well their expectations are fulfilled. This study delves into the implicit contract that is formed between the purveyor of an entertainment ...

Austin, Alexander Chance

2007-01-01

47

Willingness and Expectations  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper explores intergenerational differences in attitudes toward willingness to and expectations for parent care based on survey data collected during 1997-1999 with 777 one-child generation students and 110 current familial caregivers. Findings suggest that current caregivers have very low expectations for their children's provision of elder care in the future. Children from one-child families experienced high levels of obligation

Heying Jenny Zhan

2004-01-01

48

Planning for the Future: An Investigation of Work-Bound Rural Youth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to explore the postsecondary educational and occupational expectations of work-bound rural youth. Three groups of work-bound youth were identified (work-bound, work-bound with future educational plans, and work-bound but unsure/undecided about postsecondary education), and each group was compared to college-bound

Hutchins, Bryan C.; Meece, Judith L.; Byun, Soo-yong; Farmer, Thomas W.

2012-01-01

49

Delayed Macular Hole Closure  

PubMed Central

Purpose The presented case raises questions regarding the favorable scheduling of planned postoperative care and the ideal observation interval to decide for reoperations in macular hole surgery. Furthermore a discussion about the use of short- and long-acting gas tamponades in macular hole surgery is encouraged. Methods We present an interventional case report and a short review of the pertinent literature. Results We report a case of spontaneous delayed macular hole closure after vitreoretinal surgery had been performed initially without the expected success. A 73-year-old male Caucasian patient presented at our clinic with a stage 2 macular hole in his left eye. He underwent 23-gauge pars plana vitrectomy and internal limiting membrane peeling with a 20% C2F6-gas tamponade. Sixteen days after the procedure, an OCT scan revealed a persistent stage 2 macular hole, and the patient was scheduled for reoperation. Surprisingly, at the date of planned surgery, which was another 11 days later, the macular hole had resolved spontaneously without any further intervention. Conclusions So far no common opinion exists regarding the use of short- or long-acting gas in macular hole surgery. Our case of delayed macular hole closure after complete resorption of the gas tamponade raises questions about the need and duration of strict prone positioning after surgery. Furthermore short-acting gas might be as efficient as long-acting gas. We suggest to wait with a second intervention at least 4 weeks after the initial surgery, since a delayed macular hole closure is possible. PMID:24847257

Distelmaier, Peter; Meyer, Linda M.; Fischer, Marie T.; Philipp, Sebastian; Paquet, Patrick; Mammen, Antje; Haller, Katharina; Schönfeld, Carl-Ludwig

2014-01-01

50

Topology Transparent Scheduling, Synchronization, and Maximum Delay  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary form only given. Topology transparent scheduling for medium access control is an attractive technique for mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs) and sensor networks. The transmission schedule for each node is fixed and guarantees a bounded delay independent of which nodes are its neighbours, as long as the network is not too dense. Constructions of and performance criteria for topology

Wensong Chu; Charles J. Colbourn; Violet R. Syrotiuk

2004-01-01

51

Performance expectation plan  

SciTech Connect

This document outlines the significant accomplishments of fiscal year 1998 for the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Project Hanford Management Contract (PHMC) team. Opportunities for improvement to better meet some performance expectations have been identified. The PHMC has performed at an excellent level in administration of leadership, planning, and technical direction. The contractor has met and made notable improvement of attaining customer satisfaction in mission execution. This document includes the team`s recommendation that the PHMC TWRS Performance Expectation Plan evaluation rating for fiscal year 1998 be an Excellent.

Ray, P.E.

1998-09-04

52

The economics of time delayed salinity impact management in the River Murray  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Drainage from irrigation along the River Murray causes rising levels of saline discharge to the river and floodplains with adverse impacts including crop, water infrastructure and floodplain ecological health damage. These salinity impacts of drainage are time delayed by up to several decades. Investment in engineering infrastructure to pump saline water away from the river to evaporation basins has been a significant feature of public policy to address the issue. This article evaluates the costs and benefits of further engineering investments to offset expected future salinity growth. The analysis involves an integer programming optimization model that explicitly accounts for salinity impact time delays in benefit, cost accounting considering a long term, 100 year time horizon. A lower bound salinity growth scenario is evaluated involving increasingly efficient irrigation and further new irrigation development at locations where salinity impacts are comparatively small. This is compared to an upper bound salinity growth scenario with static irrigation efficiency and new irrigation development in high salinity impact areas. It is concluded that if conditions leading to the upper bound salinity growth scenario can not be avoided in the near term, the marginal costs of offsetting future salinity growth with additional engineering investment will exceed the marginal benefits several decades hence.

Connor, Jeff

2008-03-01

53

External Expectations of Transition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper examines the many external expectations confronting persons with disabilities and the skills required to survive and prosper in school, at home, on the job, and in the community. Data were obtained from 155 regular teachers, 110 special educators, 150 parents, and 55 employers through the use of the School Survival Skills Questionnaire.…

Nickles, James L.

54

Maintaining High Expectations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Author and husband, Roger Williams, is hearing and signs fluently, and author and wife, Sherry Williams, is deaf and uses both speech and signs, although she is most comfortable signing. As parents of six children--deaf and hearing--they are determined to encourage their children to do their best, and they always set their expectations high. They…

Williams, Roger; Williams, Sherry

2014-01-01

55

It's To Be Expected  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students use a tree diagram on their graphing calculators to find theoretical probabilities. They then manipulate this information in a spreadsheet to find the expected value. This lesson includes teacher notes, a student worksheet with solutions, and a homework assignment with solutions.

2010-08-27

56

Expectation, Performance, and Accountability  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The author distinguishes between social worker accountability, a product of intent, and effectiveness, the level of performance that derives from being accountable. It should be sufficient, he feels, to demonstrate that the profession is acting accountably. Client expectations, social worker-supervisor interaction, and social work education are…

Tropp, Emanuel

1974-01-01

57

Parenting with High Expectations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In some ways raising deaf or hard of hearing children is no different than raising hearing children; expectations must be established and periodically tweaked. Benna Hull Timperlake, who with husband Roger, raised two hearing children in addition to their deaf daughter, Genelle Timperlake Sanders, and Genelle, now a deaf professional, share their…

Timperlake, Benna Hull; Sanders, Genelle Timperlake

2014-01-01

58

Heterogeneity in expected longevities.  

PubMed

We develop a new methodology to compute differences in the expected longevity of individuals of a given cohort who are in different socioeconomic groups at a certain age. We address the two main problems associated with the standard use of life expectancy: (1) that people's socioeconomic characteristics change, and (2) that mortality has decreased over time. Our methodology uncovers substantial heterogeneity in expected longevities, yet much less heterogeneity than what arises from the naive application of life expectancy formulae. We decompose the longevity differences into differences in health at age 50, differences in the evolution of health with age, and differences in mortality conditional on health. Remarkably, education, wealth, and income are health-protecting but have very little impact on two-year mortality rates conditional on health. Married people and nonsmokers, however, benefit directly in their immediate mortality. Finally, we document an increasing time trend of the socioeconomic gradient of longevity in the period 1992-2008, and we predict an increase in the socioeconomic gradient of mortality rates for the coming years. PMID:25391225

Pijoan-Mas, Josep; Ríos-Rull, José-Víctor

2014-12-01

59

Stability interval for time-varying delay systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigate the stability analysis of linear time-delay systems. The time-delay is assumed to be a time-varying continuous function belonging to an interval (possibly excluding zero) with a bound on its derivative. To this end, we propose to use the quadratic separation framework to assess the intervals on the delay that preserves the stability. Nevertheless, to take the time-varying nature

Yassine Ariba; Frédéric Gouaisbaut; Karl Henrik Johansson

2010-01-01

60

Expected performance of m-solution backtracking  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper derives upper bounds on the expected number of search tree nodes visited during an m-solution backtracking search, a search which terminates after some preselected number m problem solutions are found. The search behavior is assumed to have a general probabilistic structure. The results are stated in terms of node expansion and contraction. A visited search tree node is said to be expanding if the mean number of its children visited by the search exceeds 1 and is contracting otherwise. It is shown that if every node expands, or if every node contracts, then the number of search tree nodes visited by a search has an upper bound which is linear in the depth of the tree, in the mean number of children a node has, and in the number of solutions sought. Also derived are bounds linear in the depth of the tree in some situations where an upper portion of the tree contracts (expands), while the lower portion expands (contracts). While previous analyses of 1-solution backtracking have concluded that the expected performance is always linear in the tree depth, the model allows superlinear expected performance.

Nicol, D. M.

1986-01-01

61

Markov Decision Problems where Means bound Variances  

E-print Network

) for which the variance of the opti- mal total reward can be bounded by a simple linear function of its, and combinatorial optimization. Key words : Markov decision problems, variance bounds, optimal total reward MSC2000 offers positive encouragement for MDP modelers whose objective is to maximize the expected total reward

Steele, J. Michael

62

Modeling Expectations with GENEFER – an Artificial Intelligence Approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Economic modeling of financial markets attempts to model highly complex systems in which expectations can be among the dominant driving forces. It is necessary, then, to focus on how agents form expectations. We believe that they look for patterns, hypothesize, try, make mistakes, learn and adapt. Agents' bounded rationality leads us to a rule-based approach which we model using Fuzzy

Eric Ringhut; Stefan Kooths

2003-01-01

63

Expectation States Theory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Expectation states theory is, in many ways, a textbook example of a theoretical research program. It is deductive, programmatic,\\u000a formalized mathematically, cumulative, precise, and predictive; and its propositions have been subjected to rigorous evaluation.\\u000a More importantly, however, it is a theory that illuminates core issues in social psychology and sociology more broadly. It\\u000a is fundamentally a “macro-micro-macro” explanation about one

Shelley J. Correll; Cecilia L. Ridgeway

64

Time Delay and Accretion Disk Size Measurements in the Lensed Quasar SBS 0909+532 from Multiwavelength Microlensing Analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present three complete seasons and two half-seasons of Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) r-band photometry of the gravitationally lensed quasar SBS 0909+532 from the U.S. Naval Observatory, as well as two seasons each of SDSS g-band and r-band monitoring from the Liverpool Robotic Telescope. Using Monte Carlo simulations to simultaneously measure the system's time delay and model the r-band microlensing variability, we confirm and significantly refine the precision of the system's time delay to \\Delta t_{AB} = 50^{+2}_{-4}\\,{days}, where the stated uncertainties represent the bounds of the formal 1? confidence interval. There may be a conflict between the time delay measurement and a lens consisting of a single galaxy. While models based on the Hubble Space Telescope astrometry and a relatively compact stellar distribution can reproduce the observed delay, the models have somewhat less dark matter than we would typically expect. We also carry out a joint analysis of the microlensing variability in the r and g bands to constrain the size of the quasar's continuum source at these wavelengths, obtaining log {(r s, r /cm)[cos i/0.5]1/2} = 15.3 ± 0.3 and log {(r s, g /cm)[cos i/0.5]1/2} = 14.8 ± 0.9, respectively. Our current results do not formally constrain the temperature profile of the accretion disk but are consistent with the expectations of standard thin disk theory.

Hainline, Laura J.; Morgan, Christopher W.; MacLeod, Chelsea L.; Landaal, Zachary D.; Kochanek, C. S.; Harris, Hugh C.; Tilleman, Trudy; Goicoechea, L. J.; Shalyapin, V. N.; Falco, Emilio E.

2013-09-01

65

Delay Discounting and Gambling  

PubMed Central

Delay discounting describes the decline in the value of a reinforcer as the delay to that reinforcer increases. A review of the available studies revealed that steep delay discounting is positively correlated with problem or pathological gambling. One hypothesis regarding this correlation derives from the discounting equation proposed by Mazur (1989). According to the equation, steeper discounting renders the difference between fixed-delayed rewards and gambling-like variable-delayed rewards larger; with the latter being more valuable. The present study was designed to test this prediction by first assessing rats’ impulsive choices across four delays to a larger-later reinforcer. A second condition quantified strength of preference for mixed- over fixed-delays, with the duration of the latter adjusted between sessions to achieve indifference. Strength of preference for the mixed-delay alternative is given by the fixed delay at indifference (lower fixed-delay values reflect stronger preferences). Percent impulsive choice was not correlated with the value of the fixed delay at indifference and, therefore, the prediction of the hyperbolic model of gambling was not supported. A follow-up assessment revealed a significant decrease in impulsive choice after the second condition. This shift in impulsive choice could underlie the failure to observe the predicted correlation between impulsive choice and degree of preference for mixed- over fixed delays. PMID:21352902

Madden, Gregory J.; Francisco, Monica T.; Brewer, Adam T.; Stein, Jeffrey S.

2011-01-01

66

Speech and language delay in children.  

PubMed

Speech and language delay in children is associated with increased difficulty with reading, writing, attention, and socialization. Although physicians should be alert to parental concerns and to whether children are meeting expected developmental milestones, there currently is insufficient evidence to recommend for or against routine use of formal screening instruments in primary care to detect speech and language delay. In children not meeting the expected milestones for speech and language, a comprehensive developmental evaluation is essential, because atypical language development can be a secondary characteristic of other physical and developmental problems that may first manifest as language problems. Types of primary speech and language delay include developmental speech and language delay, expressive language disorder, and receptive language disorder. Secondary speech and language delays are attributable to another condition such as hearing loss, intellectual disability, autism spectrum disorder, physical speech problems, or selective mutism. When speech and language delay is suspected, the primary care physician should discuss this concern with the parents and recommend referral to a speech-language pathologist and an audiologist. There is good evidence that speech-language therapy is helpful, particularly for children with expressive language disorder. PMID:21568252

McLaughlin, Maura R

2011-05-15

67

Delay discounting: Trait variable?  

PubMed Central

Delay discounting refers to the tendency for outcomes that are remote in time to have less value than more immediate outcomes. Steep discounting of delayed outcomes is associated with a variety of social maladies. The degree of sensitivity to delayed outcomes may be a stable and pervasive individual characteristic. In analyses of archival data, the present study found positive correlations between the degree of delay discounting for one outcome (as measured by the Area Under the Curve), and the degree of discounting for other outcomes. Along with additional evidence reviewed, these data suggest that delay discounting may be considered a personality trait. Recent research in epigenetics, neuroscience, and behavior suggests delay discounting may prove to be a beneficial target for therapeutic attempts to produce global reductions in impulsivity related to delay discounting. PMID:21385637

Odum, Amy L.

2012-01-01

68

Duration-Limited Statistical Multiplexing of Delay-Sensitive Traffic in Packet Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel strategy for the transmission and multiplexing of delay-sensitive traffic, e.g., voice and video, in packet networks is described. The strategy provides bounded end-to-end delay to all delay-sensitive traffic guarantees loss-free transmission to any traffic with such a requirement. To achieve statistical multiplexing gain, loss performance is provided to the rest of delay-sensitive traffic on an as-needed basis, with

S. Jamaloddin Golestani

1991-01-01

69

Medical Scholars (BS/MD) Program Expectations and Requirements  

E-print Network

Medical Scholars (BS/MD) Program Expectations and Requirements Undergraduate portion semester GPAs lower than 3.5 will trigger an automatic review by the Medical Scholars Committee of the Medical Scholars Committee, to delay their entry to medical school by one year to broaden their education

Fernandez, Eduardo

70

What Do Expectant Mothers Know about Neonatal Jaundice?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Neonatal jaundice (NNJ) is a common disorder worldwide and many affected babies become brain-damaged due to delay in seeking medical consultation. In order to assess the awareness and knowledge of expectant mothers about NNJ, women who registered for antenatal care at a tertiary health facility in the South-western part of Nigeria were…

Ogunfowora, Olusoga B.; Adefuye, Peter O.; Fetuga, Musili B.

2006-01-01

71

A Discounting Framework for Choice With Delayed and Probabilistic Rewards  

Microsoft Academic Search

When choosing between delayed or uncertain outcomes, individuals discount the value of such outcomes on the basis of the expected time to or the likelihood of their occurrence. In an integrative review of the expanding experimental literature on discounting, the authors show that although the same form of hyperbola-like function describes discounting of both delayed and probabilistic outcomes, a variety

Leonard Green; Joel Myerson

2004-01-01

72

Expecting the Best for Students: Teacher Expectations and Academic Outcomes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Research into teacher expectations has shown that these have an effect on student achievement. Some researchers have explored the impact of various student characteristics on teachers' expectations. One attribute of interest is ethnicity. Aims: This study aimed to explore differences in teachers' expectations and judgments of student…

Rubie-Davies, Christine; Hattie, John; Hamilton, Richard

2006-01-01

73

Research Module: Weekly Report Expectations. 82 Weekly Report Expectations  

E-print Network

Research Module: Weekly Report Expectations. 82 Weekly Report Expectations Week 1 Report: 1. Write product 3 or 6. · see the section in the manual on NMR and GC-MS to give you some help in what to look Report Expectations for students who did Scheme 4: Do as much as you can from the instructions above

Jasperse, Craig P.

74

FastStats: Life Expectancy  

MedlinePLUS

... this? Submit What's this? Submit Button NCHS Home Life Expectancy Share Compartir Data are for the U.S. ... Preliminary Data for 2011 [PDF - 1.7 MB] Life expectancy: 78.7 years Source: Deaths: Final Data ...

75

Time Delay and Accretion Disk Size Measurements in the Lensed Quasar SBS 0909+532 from Multiwavelength Microlensing Analysis  

E-print Network

We present three complete seasons and two half-seasons of SDSS r-band photometry of the gravitationally lensed quasar SBS 0909+532 from the U.S. Naval Observatory, as well as two seasons each of SDSS g-band and r-band monitoring from the Liverpool Robotic Telescope. Using Monte Carlo simulations to simultaneously measure the system's time delay and model the r-band microlensing variability, we confirm and significantly refine the precision of the system's time delay to \\Delta t_{AB} = 50^{+2}_{-4} days, where the stated uncertainties represent the bounds of the formal 1\\sigma\\ confidence interval. There may be a conflict between the time delay measurement and a lens consisting of a single galaxy. While models based on the Hubble Space Telescope astrometry and a relatively compact stellar distribution can reproduce the observed delay, the models have somewhat less dark matter than we would typically expect. We also carry out a joint analysis of the microlensing variability in the r- and g-bands to constrain th...

Hainline, Laura J; MacLeod, Chelsea L; Landaal, Zachary D; Kochanek, C S; Harris, Hugh C; Tilleman, Trudy; Goicoechea, L J; Shalyapin, V N; Falco, Emilio E

2013-01-01

76

Measuring Alcohol Expectancies in Youth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Beliefs about the consequences of using alcohol, alcohol expectancies, are powerful predictors of underage drinking. The Alcohol Expectancies Questionnaire-Adolescent form (AEQ-A) has been widely used to measure expectancies in youth. Despite its broad use, the factor structure of the AEQ-A has not been firmly established. It is also not known…

Randolph, Karen A.; Gerend, Mary A.; Miller, Brenda A.

2006-01-01

77

Andreev bound states in high temperature superconductors  

Microsoft Academic Search

:   Andreev bound states at the surface of superconductors are expected for any pair potential showing a sign change in different\\u000a k-directions with their spectral weight depending on the relative orientation of the surface and the pair potential. We report\\u000a on the observation of Andreev bound states in high temperature superconductors (HTS) employing tunneling spectroscopy on bicrystal\\u000a grain boundary Josephson

L. Alff; S. Kleefisch; U. Schoop; M. Zittartz; T. Kemen; T. Bauch; A. Marx; R. Gross

1998-01-01

78

The Strong Lensing Time Delay Challenge (2014)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Time delays between multiple images in strong lensing systems are a powerful probe of cosmology. At the moment the application of this technique is limited by the number of lensed quasars with measured time delays. However, the number of such systems is expected to increase dramatically in the next few years. Hundred such systems are expected within this decade, while the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) is expected to deliver of order 1000 time delays in the 2020 decade. In order to exploit this bounty of lenses we needed to make sure the time delay determination algorithms have sufficiently high precision and accuracy. As a first step to test current algorithms and identify potential areas for improvement we have started a "Time Delay Challenge" (TDC). An "evil" team has created realistic simulated light curves, to be analyzed blindly by "good" teams. The challenge is open to all interested parties. The initial challenge consists of two steps (TDC0 and TDC1). TDC0 consists of a small number of datasets to be used as a training template. The non-mandatory deadline is December 1 2013. The "good" teams that complete TDC0 will be given access to TDC1. TDC1 consists of thousands of lightcurves, a number sufficient to test precision and accuracy at the subpercent level, necessary for time-delay cosmography. The deadline for responding to TDC1 is July 1 2014. Submissions will be analyzed and compared in terms of predefined metrics to establish the goodness-of-fit, efficiency, precision and accuracy of current algorithms. This poster describes the challenge in detail and gives instructions for participation.

Liao, Kai; Dobler, G.; Fassnacht, C. D.; Treu, T.; Marshall, P. J.; Rumbaugh, N.; Linder, E.; Hojjati, A.

2014-01-01

79

Delayed recombination and cosmic parameters  

SciTech Connect

Current cosmological constraints from cosmic microwave background anisotropies are typically derived assuming a standard recombination scheme, however additional resonance and ionizing radiation sources can delay recombination, altering the cosmic ionization history and the cosmological inferences drawn from the cosmic microwave background data. We show that for recent observations of the cosmic microwave background anisotropy, from the Wilkinson microwave anisotropy probe satellite mission (WMAP) 5-year survey and from the arcminute cosmology bolometer array receiver experiment, additional resonance radiation is nearly degenerate with variations in the spectral index, n{sub s}, and has a marked effect on uncertainties in constraints on the Hubble constant, age of the universe, curvature and the upper bound on the neutrino mass. When a modified recombination scheme is considered, the redshift of recombination is constrained to z{sub *}=1078{+-}11, with uncertainties in the measurement weaker by 1 order of magnitude than those obtained under the assumption of standard recombination while constraints on the shift parameter are shifted by 1{sigma} to R=1.734{+-}0.028. From the WMAP5 data we obtain the following constraints on the resonance and ionization sources parameters: {epsilon}{sub {alpha}}<0.39 and {epsilon}{sub i}<0.058 at 95% c.l.. Although delayed recombination limits the precision of parameter estimation from the WMAP satellite, we demonstrate that this should not be the case for future, smaller angular scales measurements, such as those by the Planck satellite mission.

Galli, Silvia; Melchiorri, Alessandro [Universita di Roma 'La Sapienza', Ple Aldo Moro 2, 00185, Rome (Italy); Bean, Rachel [Department of Astronomy, Space Sciences Building, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853 (United States); Silk, Joseph [Astrophysics, Denys Wilkinson Building, University of Oxford, Keble Road, OX1 3RH, Oxford (United Kingdom)

2008-09-15

80

New delay-dependent robust stability criteria for cellular neural networks with variable delays and Uncertainties Via LMI approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

The stability of cellular neural networks (CNNs) with time-varying delays and parametric uncertainties is investigated in the present paper. By introducing a new Lyapunov-Krasovskii functional in virtue of the linearization of the model under investigation and considering the additional useful terms when estimating the upper bound of the derivative of Lyapunov functional, new delay-dependent stability criteria are established in term

Haixia Wu; Wei Zhang; Wei Feng; Pengcheng Wei

2008-01-01

81

Strong expectations cancel locality effects: evidence from Hindi.  

PubMed

Expectation-driven facilitation (Hale, 2001; Levy, 2008) and locality-driven retrieval difficulty (Gibson, 1998, 2000; Lewis & Vasishth, 2005) are widely recognized to be two critical factors in incremental sentence processing; there is accumulating evidence that both can influence processing difficulty. However, it is unclear whether and how expectations and memory interact. We first confirm a key prediction of the expectation account: a Hindi self-paced reading study shows that when an expectation for an upcoming part of speech is dashed, building a rarer structure consumes more processing time than building a less rare structure. This is a strong validation of the expectation-based account. In a second study, we show that when expectation is strong, i.e., when a particular verb is predicted, strong facilitation effects are seen when the appearance of the verb is delayed; however, when expectation is weak, i.e., when only the part of speech "verb" is predicted but a particular verb is not predicted, the facilitation disappears and a tendency towards a locality effect is seen. The interaction seen between expectation strength and distance shows that strong expectations cancel locality effects, and that weak expectations allow locality effects to emerge. PMID:25010700

Husain, Samar; Vasishth, Shravan; Srinivasan, Narayanan

2014-01-01

82

Strong Expectations Cancel Locality Effects: Evidence from Hindi  

PubMed Central

Expectation-driven facilitation (Hale, 2001; Levy, 2008) and locality-driven retrieval difficulty (Gibson, 1998, 2000; Lewis & Vasishth, 2005) are widely recognized to be two critical factors in incremental sentence processing; there is accumulating evidence that both can influence processing difficulty. However, it is unclear whether and how expectations and memory interact. We first confirm a key prediction of the expectation account: a Hindi self-paced reading study shows that when an expectation for an upcoming part of speech is dashed, building a rarer structure consumes more processing time than building a less rare structure. This is a strong validation of the expectation-based account. In a second study, we show that when expectation is strong, i.e., when a particular verb is predicted, strong facilitation effects are seen when the appearance of the verb is delayed; however, when expectation is weak, i.e., when only the part of speech “verb” is predicted but a particular verb is not predicted, the facilitation disappears and a tendency towards a locality effect is seen. The interaction seen between expectation strength and distance shows that strong expectations cancel locality effects, and that weak expectations allow locality effects to emerge. PMID:25010700

Husain, Samar; Vasishth, Shravan; Srinivasan, Narayanan

2014-01-01

83

Dynamic Network Delay Cartography  

E-print Network

Path delays in IP networks are important metrics, required by network operators for assessment, planning, and fault diagnosis. Monitoring delays of all source-destination pairs in a large network is however challenging and wasteful of resources. The present paper advocates a spatio-temporal Kalman filtering approach to construct network-wide delay maps using measurements on only a few paths. The proposed network cartography framework allows efficient tracking and prediction of delays by relying on both topological as well as historical data. Optimal paths for delay measurement are selected in an online fashion by leveraging the notion of submodularity. The resulting predictor is optimal in the class of linear predictors, and outperforms competing alternatives on real-world datasets.

Rajawat, Ketan; Giannakis, Georgios B

2012-01-01

84

Adaptive robust control schemes of uncertain time-delay systems and its applications to water pollution control systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The problem of adaptive robust stabilization is considered for a class of uncertain nonlinear time-delay dynamical systems. It is assumed that the upper bound of the nonlinear delayed state perturbations is a linear function of some parameters which are assumed to be unknown. It is also assumed that the time delays are time-varying, and can be any nonnegative continuous and

Hansheng Wu

2011-01-01

85

Expected Returns and Habit Persistence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using a consumption-based asset pricing model with infinite-horizon nonlinear habit formation, Campbell and Cochrane (1999) show that low consumption in surplus of habit should forecast high expected returns. This article argues that the finite-horizon linear habit model also implies an inverse relation between expected returns and surplus consumption. This article also presents empirical evidence, which indicates that expected returns on

Yuming Li

2001-01-01

86

Measuring Alcohol Expectancies in Youth  

Microsoft Academic Search

Beliefs about the consequences of using alcohol, alcohol expectancies, are powerful predictors of underage drinking. The Alcohol Expectancies Questionnaire-Adolescent form (AEQ-A) has been widely used to measure expectancies in youth. Despite its broad use, the factor structure of the AEQ-A has not been firmly established. It is also not known whether it assesses similar constructs (i.e., measurement invariance) between boys

Karen A. Randolph; Mary A. Gerend; Brenda A. Miller

2006-01-01

87

Strengthened quantum Hamming bound  

E-print Network

We report two analytical bounds for quantum error-correcting codes that do not have preexisting classical counterparts. Firstly the quantum Hamming and Singleton bounds are combined into a single tighter bound, and then the combined bound is further strengthened via the well-known Lloyd's theorem in classical coding theory, which claims that perfect codes, codes attaining the Hamming bound, do not exist if the Lloyd's polynomial has some non-integer zeros. Our bound characterizes quantitatively the improvement over the Hamming bound via the non-integerness of the zeros of the Lloyd's polynomial. In the case of 1-error correcting codes our bound holds true for impure codes as well, which we conjecture to be always true, and for stabilizer codes there is a 1-logical-qudit improvement for an infinite family of lengths.

Sixia Yu; C. H. Lai; C. H. Oh

2010-05-26

88

Do Juries Meet Our Expectations?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Surveys of public opinion indicate that people have high expectations for juries. When it comes to serious crimes, most people want errors of convicting the innocent (false positives) or acquitting the guilty (false negatives) to fall well below 10%. Using expected utility theory, Bayes' Theorem, signal detection theory, and empirical evidence from detection studies of medical decision making, eyewitness testimony,

Hal R. Arkes; Barbara A. Mellers

2002-01-01

89

Expectation-based intelligent control  

Microsoft Academic Search

New dynamics paradigms—negative diffusion and terminal attractors—are introduced to control noise and chaos. The applied control forces are composed of expectations governed by the associated Fokker–Planck and Liouville equations. The approach is expanded to a general concept of intelligent control via expectations. Relevance to control in livings is emphasized and illustrated by neural nets with mirror neurons.

Michail Zak

2006-01-01

90

Nobody expects the Spanish Inquistion  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Is any one really ready for the Spanish Inquisition? Assign studnets to participate in reading the play, The Spanish Inquisition by Monty Python. While readiang the play, display the following pictures at appropiate times. Nobody expects the Spanish Inquistion Confess!!! Get the Cushions!!!! Get the comfy Chair! Now you'll confess! Confess women, CONFESS!!! Nobody expects the Spanish Inquisition!!! ...

Hirschi, Mrs.

2005-04-08

91

Measuring Instructor Expectations and Perceptions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Because there are few instruments designed to measure the specific behaviors and characteristics instructors expect of college students and how well the majority of their students meet those expectations, an original survey instrument has been created to address that need. Focus group interviews were held, and as a result of those interviews, an…

Ginley, Kristine J.; Giraud, Gerald; Weglarz, Donna

2006-01-01

92

Delay in Atomic Photoionization  

SciTech Connect

We analyze the time delay between emission of photoelectrons from the outer valence ns and np subshells in noble gas atoms following absorption of an attosecond extreme ultraviolet pulse. Various processes such as elastic scattering of the photoelectron on the parent ion and many-electron correlation affect the apparent 'time zero' when the photoelectron leaves the atom. This qualitatively explains the time delay between photoemission from the 2s and 2p subshells of Ne as determined experimentally by attosecond streaking [Science 328, 1658 (2010)]. However, with our extensive numerical modeling, we were only able to account for less than half of the measured time delay of 21{+-}5 as. We argue that the extreme ultraviolet pulse alone cannot produce such a large time delay and it is the streaking IR field that is most likely responsible for this effect.

Kheifets, A. S. [Research School of Physical Sciences, Australian National University, Canberra ACT 0200 (Australia); Kavli Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106-4030 (United States); Ivanov, I. A. [Research School of Physical Sciences, Australian National University, Canberra ACT 0200 (Australia)

2010-12-03

93

Vernier Delay Unit  

SciTech Connect

This module will accept differential ECL pulses from the auxiliary rear panel or NIM level pulses from the front panel. The pulses are produced at the output with a fixed delay that is software programmable in steps of 0.1 ns over the range of 0.1 to 10.5 ns. Multiple outputs are available at the front panel. Minimum delay through the module is 9 ns.

Pierce, W.B.

1984-10-01

94

Delayed flowering and global warming  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Within general trends toward earlier spring, observed cases of species and ecosystems that have not advanced their phenology, or have even delayed it, appear paradoxical, especially when made in temperate regions experiencing significant warming. The typical interpretation of this pattern has been that non-responders are insensitive to relatively small levels of warming over the past 40 years, while species showing delays are often viewed as statistical noise or evidence for unknown confounding factors at play. However, plant physiology studies suggest that when winter chilling (vernalization) is required to initiate spring development, winter warming may retard spring events, masking expected advances caused by spring warming. Here, we analyzed long-term data on phenology and seasonal temperatures from 490 species on two continents and demonstrate that 1) apparent non-responders are indeed responding to warming, but their responses to winter and spring warming are opposite in sign, 2) observed trends in first flowering date depend strongly on the magnitude of a given species' response to autumn/winter versus spring warming, and 3) inclusion of these effects strongly improves hindcast predictions of long-term flowering trends. With a few notable exceptions, climate change research has focused on the overall mean trend towards phenological advance, minimizing discussion of apparently non-responding species. Our results illuminate an under-studied source of complexity in wild species responses and support the need for models incorporating diverse environmental cues in order to improve predictability of species responses to anthropogenic climate change.

Cook, B. I.; Wolkovich, E. M.; Parmesan, C.

2011-12-01

95

Delayed voice communication  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present results from simulated deep-space exploration missions that investigated voice communication with significant time delays. The simulations identified many challenges: confusion of sequence, blocked calls, wasted crew time, impaired ability to provide relevant information to the other party, losing track of which messages have reached the other party, weakened rapport between crew and ground, slow response to rapidly changing situations, and reduced situational awareness. These challenges were met in part with additional training; greater attention and foresight; longer, less frequent transmissions; meticulous recordkeeping and timekeeping; and specific alerting and acknowledging calls. Several simulations used both delayed voice and text messaging. Text messaging provided a valuable record of transmissions and allowed messages to be targeted to subsets of the flight and ground crew, but it was a poor choice for high-workload operators such as vehicle drivers and spacewalkers. Even with the foregoing countermeasures, delayed voice communication is difficult. Additional aids such as automatic delay timers and voice-to-text transcription would help. Tests comparing delays of 50 and 300 s unexpectedly revealed that communicating with the shorter delay was just as challenging as with the longer one.

Love, Stanley G.; Reagan, Marcum L.

2013-10-01

96

TIME DELAY AND ACCRETION DISK SIZE MEASUREMENTS IN THE LENSED QUASAR SBS 0909+532 FROM MULTIWAVELENGTH MICROLENSING ANALYSIS  

SciTech Connect

We present three complete seasons and two half-seasons of Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) r-band photometry of the gravitationally lensed quasar SBS 0909+532 from the U.S. Naval Observatory, as well as two seasons each of SDSS g-band and r-band monitoring from the Liverpool Robotic Telescope. Using Monte Carlo simulations to simultaneously measure the system's time delay and model the r-band microlensing variability, we confirm and significantly refine the precision of the system's time delay to {Delta}t{sub AB} = 50{sub -4}{sup +2} days, where the stated uncertainties represent the bounds of the formal 1{sigma} confidence interval. There may be a conflict between the time delay measurement and a lens consisting of a single galaxy. While models based on the Hubble Space Telescope astrometry and a relatively compact stellar distribution can reproduce the observed delay, the models have somewhat less dark matter than we would typically expect. We also carry out a joint analysis of the microlensing variability in the r and g bands to constrain the size of the quasar's continuum source at these wavelengths, obtaining log {l_brace}(r{sub s,r}/cm)[cos i/0.5]{sup 1/2}{r_brace} = 15.3 {+-} 0.3 and log {l_brace}(r{sub s,g}/cm)[cos i/0.5]{sup 1/2}{r_brace} = 14.8 {+-} 0.9, respectively. Our current results do not formally constrain the temperature profile of the accretion disk but are consistent with the expectations of standard thin disk theory.

Hainline, Laura J.; Morgan, Christopher W.; MacLeod, Chelsea L.; Landaal, Zachary D. [Department of Physics, United States Naval Academy, 572C Holloway Rd, Annapolis, MD 21402 (United States); Kochanek, C. S. [Department of Astronomy, The Ohio State University, 140 West 18th Ave, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Harris, Hugh C.; Tilleman, Trudy [United States Naval Observatory, Flagstaff Station, 10391 West Naval Observatory Road, Flagstaff, AZ 86001-8521 (United States); Goicoechea, L. J.; Shalyapin, V. N. [Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Cantabria, Avda. de Los Castros s/n, E-39005 Santander (Spain); Falco, Emilio E., E-mail: hainline@usna.edu, E-mail: cmorgan@usna.edu, E-mail: macleod@usna.edu, E-mail: m123894@usna.edu, E-mail: ckochanek@astronomy.ohio-state.edu, E-mail: hch@nofs.navy.mil, E-mail: trudy@nofs.navy.mil, E-mail: goicol@unican.es, E-mail: vshal@ukr.net, E-mail: falco@cfa.harvard.edu [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden St, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

2013-09-01

97

Higher-dimensional violations of the holographic entropy bound  

E-print Network

The holographic bound, $Sentropy $S$ of a system is bounded from above by a quarter of the area $A$ of a circumscribing surface measured in Planck areas. This bound is widely regarded as part of the elusive fundamental theory of nature. In fact, the bound is known to be valid for generic weakly gravitating isolated systems in {\\it three} spatial dimensions. Nevertheless, the entropy content of a physical system is expected to be an increasing function of the number of spatial dimensions (the more the dimensions, the more ways there are to split up a given amount of energy). Thus, one may expect the challenge to the holographic entropy bound to become more and more serious as the number of spatial dimensions increases. In this paper we explicitly show that thermal radiation in $D$ flat spatial dimensions with $D\\gtrsim 10^2$ may indeed violate the holographic entropy bound.

Shahar Hod

2011-06-20

98

Downhole delay assembly for blasting with series delay  

DOEpatents

A downhole delay assembly is provided which can be placed into a blasthole for initiation of explosive in the blasthole. The downhole delay assembly includes at least two detonating time delay devices in series in order to effect a time delay of longer than about 200 milliseconds in a round of explosions. The downhole delay assembly provides a protective housing to prevent detonation of explosive in the blasthole in response to the detonation of the first detonating time delay device. There is further provided a connection between the first and second time delay devices. The connection is responsive to the detonation of the first detonating time delay device and initiates the second detonating time delay device. A plurality of such downhole delay assemblies are placed downhole in unfragmented formation and are initiated simultaneously for providing a round of explosive expansions. The explosive expansions can be used to form an in situ oil shale retort containing a fragmented permeable mass of formation particles.

Ricketts, Thomas E. (Grand Junction, CO)

1982-01-01

99

Energy-Delay Trade-off of Wireless Data Collection in the Plane  

E-print Network

Energy-Delay Trade-off of Wireless Data Collection in the Plane Mihaela Mitici , Jasper Goseling and the energy needed by the devices to transmit their observations. Fundamental bounds on the energy-delay trade and ii) the transmission energy used by the wireless devices to transmit their observations, which

Boucherie, Richard J.

100

Thermalization time bounds for Pauli stabilizer Hamiltonians  

E-print Network

We prove a general lower bound to the spectral gap of the Davies generator for Pauli stabilizer Hamiltonians. These Hamiltonians, defined on the Hilbert space of $N$-qubits, serve as one of the most frequently considered candidates for a self-correcting quantum memory. A spectral gap bound on the Davies generator establishes an upper limit on the life time of such a quantum memory and can be used to estimate the time until the system relaxes to thermal equilibrium when brought into contact with a thermal heat bath. The bound can be shown to behave as $\\lambda \\geq {\\cal O}(N^{-1}\\exp(-2\\beta \\, \\overline{\\epsilon}))$, where $\\overline{\\epsilon}$ is a generalization of the well known energy barrier for logical operators. Particularly in the low temperature regime we expect this bound to provide the correct asymptotic scaling of the gap with the system size up to a factor of $N^{-1}$.

Kristan Temme

2014-12-09

101

QM Momentum Expectation Value Program  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The QM Momentum Expectation Value program displays the time evolution of the position-space wave function and the associated momentum expectation value. It is distributed as a ready-to-run (compiled) Java archive. Double clicking the qm_expectation_p.jar file will run the program if Java is installed. The default wave function is a Gaussian wave packet in a harmonic oscillator. Additional states and other potential energy functions can be specified using the Display | Switch GUI menu item. QM Momentum Expectation Value is one of 18 Open Source Physics programs that model time-dependent quantum mechanics using an energy eigenstate expansion. Other programs provide additional visualizations. They can be found by searching ComPADRE for Open Source Physics, OSP, or Superposition.

Christian, Wolfgang

2008-04-17

102

Optimal quadratic guaranteed cost control of a class of uncertain time-delay systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Indexing terms: Time-delay systems, Guaranteed cost control Abstract: The design of robust state feedback controllers for a class of uncertain linear time- delay systems with norm-bounded uncertainty is presented. The state feedback results extend previous results on quadratic guaranteed cost control to the case of uncertain time-delay systems. This is done by the authors' definition of quadratic stability for uncertain

S. O. R. Moheimani; I. R. Petersen

1997-01-01

103

Delay Discounting of Different Commodities  

Microsoft Academic Search

When outcomes are delayed, their value is decreased. Delay discounting is a much-studied topic because it is correlated with certain disorders (e.g., pathological gambling). The present study attempts to determine how people would delay discount a number of different commodities, ranging from money to dating partners to federal education legislation. Participants completed delay discounting tasks pertaining to 5 different commodities,

Jeffrey N. Weatherly; Heather K. Terrell; Adam Derenne

2010-01-01

104

Delayed enrollment and College Plans: is There a Postponement Penalty?  

PubMed Central

Using a representative longitudinal survey of Texas high school seniors who graduated in 2002, we investigate how college postponement is associated with four-year college expectations and attendance—focusing both on the length of delay and the pathway to the postsecondary system. Like prior studies, we show that family background and student academic achievement explains the negative association between delay and college expectations and that these factors, along with two-year college entry pathway, largely accounted for the negative association between postponement and enrollment at a four-year institution in 2006. Although delays of one year or longer are associated with significantly lower odds of attending a baccalaureate-granting institution four years after high school, the longest delays do not incur the most severe enrollment penalties. PMID:23606758

Niu, Sunny; Tienda, Marta

2012-01-01

105

A Fuzzy Delay Differential Equation Model for HIV Dynamics  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a process to obtain the solution (or flux) of a fuzzy delay system and to determine the fuzzy expected curve for the HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) when HIV-positive in- dividuals receive antiretroviral therapy. This delay is defined as the time between the infection of a CD4+ type T-lymphocyte cell by the virus and the production of new

Rosana Motta Jafelice; Laécio C. Barros; Rodney Carlos Bassanezi

2009-01-01

106

Control of time delay processes with uncertain delays: Time delay stability margins  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, the stability of time delay processes that have uncertain delays is considered, and the maximum allowable perturbation which may occur in the time delays so as to maintain stability are determined. In particular, the characteristic equations of time delay systems are quasipolynomials, whose roots determine the stability of such systems, and the root-locus of these equations in

Mohammad Bozorg; Edward J. Davison

2006-01-01

107

Broken Expectations: Violation of Expectancies, Not Novelty, Captures Auditory Attention  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The role of memory in behavioral distraction by auditory attentional capture was investigated: We examined whether capture is a product of the novelty of the capturing event (i.e., the absence of a recent memory for the event) or its violation of learned expectancies on the basis of a memory for an event structure. Attentional capture--indicated…

Vachon, Francois; Hughes, Robert W.; Jones, Dylan M.

2012-01-01

108

Delay Tracking of Spread-Spectrum Signals for Indoor Optical Ranging  

PubMed Central

Delay tracking of spread-spectrum signals is widely used for ranging in radio frequency based navigation. Its use in non-coherent optical ranging, however, has not been extensively studied since optical channels are less subject to narrowband interference situations where these techniques become more useful. In this work, an early-late delay-locked loop adapted to indoor optical ranging is presented and analyzed. The specific constraints of free-space infrared channels in this context substantially differ from those typically considered in radio frequency applications. The tracking stage is part of an infrared differential range measuring system with application to mobile target indoor localization. Spread-spectrum signals are used in this context to provide accurate ranging while reducing the effect of multipath interferences. The performance of the stage regarding noise and dynamic errors is analyzed and validated, providing expressions that allow an adequate selection of the design parameters depending on the expected input signal characteristics. The behavior of the stage in a general multipath scenario is also addressed to estimate the multipath error bounds. The results, evaluated under realistic conditions corresponding to an 870 nm link with 25 MHz chip-rate, built with low-cost up-to-date devices, show that an overall error below 6% of a chip time can be achieved. PMID:25490585

Salido-Monzú, David; Martín-Gorostiza, Ernesto; Lázaro-Galilea, José Luis; Martos-Naya, Eduardo; Wieser, Andreas

2014-01-01

109

Delay tracking of spread-spectrum signals for indoor optical ranging.  

PubMed

Delay tracking of spread-spectrum signals is widely used for ranging in radio frequency based navigation. Its use in non-coherent optical ranging, however, has not been extensively studied since optical channels are less subject to narrowband interference situations where these techniques become more useful. In this work, an early-late delay-locked loop adapted to indoor optical ranging is presented and analyzed. The specific constraints of free-space infrared channels in this context substantially differ from those typically considered in radio frequency applications. The tracking stage is part of an infrared differential range measuring system with application to mobile target indoor localization. Spread-spectrum signals are used in this context to provide accurate ranging while reducing the effect of multipath interferences. The performance of the stage regarding noise and dynamic errors is analyzed and validated, providing expressions that allow an adequate selection of the design parameters depending on the expected input signal characteristics. The behavior of the stage in a general multipath scenario is also addressed to estimate the multipath error bounds. The results, evaluated under realistic conditions corresponding to an 870 nm link with 25 MHz chip-rate, built with low-cost up-to-date devices, show that an overall error below 6% of a chip time can be achieved. PMID:25490585

Salido-Monzú, David; Martín-Gorostiza, Ernesto; Lázaro-Galilea, José Luis; Martos-Naya, Eduardo; Wieser, Andreas

2014-01-01

110

Dynamics of Deeply Bound {bar k} States  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dynamical effects for {bar K} deeply bound nuclear states are explored within a relativistic mean field (RMF) model. Varying the strength of {bar K} - nucleus interaction, we cover a wide range of binding energies in order to evaluate the corresponding widths. A lower limit ? {bar K} = 50 ± 10 MeV is placed on the width expected for binding energy in the range of B{bar K} ˜ 100 - 200 MeV. Substantial polarization of the core nucleus is found in light nuclei. We discuss the results of the FINUDA experiment at DA?NE which presented evidence for deeply bound K- pp states in Li and 12C.

Mareš, Ji?i; Friedman, Eliahu; Gal, Avraham

111

On the performance of data receivers with a restricted detection delay  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is well known that the performance of a data receiver for an intersymbol interference (ISI) channel can depend strongly on the detection delay delta. For a discrete-time communication system, this paper derives a lower bound on the bit-error probability as a function of delta. This 'restricted delay bound' is governed by a 'restricted-delay distance' (d delta). In many instances, it improves upon Forney's bound, which is governed by the minimum distance d(sub min). The effect of transforming a continuous-time channel into a discrete-time channel is discussed. Transformation via a matched filter, as in the ISI canceller and a Viterbi detector due to Ungerboeck and MacKechnie, is shown to result in poor restricted-delay properties. Implications of these results are illustrated by means of examples.

Kerpen, S. M.; Willems, M. J.; Bergmans, Jan W. M.

1994-06-01

112

Passivity and Passification of Memristor-Based Recurrent Neural Networks With Additive Time-Varying Delays.  

PubMed

This paper presents a new design scheme for the passivity and passification of a class of memristor-based recurrent neural networks (MRNNs) with additive time-varying delays. The predictable assumptions on the boundedness and Lipschitz continuity of activation functions are formulated. The systems considered here are based on a different time-delay model suggested recently, which includes additive time-varying delay components in the state. The connection between the time-varying delay and its upper bound is considered when estimating the upper bound of the derivative of Lyapunov functional. It is recognized that the passivity condition can be expressed in a linear matrix inequality (LMI) format and by using characteristic function method. For state feedback passification, it is verified that it is apathetic to use immediate or delayed state feedback. By constructing a Lyapunov-Krasovskii functional and employing Jensen's inequality and reciprocal convex combination technique together with a tighter estimation of the upper bound of the cross-product terms derived from the derivatives of the Lyapunov functional, less conventional delay-dependent passivity criteria are established in terms of LMIs. Moreover, second-order reciprocally convex approach is employed for deriving the upper bound for terms with inverses of squared convex parameters. The model based on the memristor with additive time-varying delays widens the application scope for the design of neural networks. Finally, pertinent examples are given to show the advantages of the derived passivity criteria and the significant improvement of the theoretical approaches. PMID:25415991

Rakkiyappan, Rajan; Chandrasekar, Arunachalam; Cao, Jinde

2014-11-13

113

Delay analysis of networked control systems based on 100 M switched Ethernet.  

PubMed

For the delay may degrade the performance of networked control systems, networked control systems based on 100 M switched Ethernet are proposed in this paper. According to the working principle of Ethernet switch, the formulas of the upper bound delay of the single-level switched Ethernet and the multiple-level switched Ethernet are deduced by the timing diagram method, and the values of the upper bound delay are also given. The key factors that influence the upper bound delay of switched Ethernet are analyzed; then, the characteristics of the upper bound delay are presented, which show that the delay induced by the single-level 100 M switched Ethernet has little effect on the performance of control systems, while the delay induced by the multiple-level 100 M switched Ethernet may meet the time requirements of all classes of control systems if the numbers of levels and the numbers of nodes connecting to switches are set properly. Finally, the performance of networked control systems is simulated by TrueTime, and the results further show the feasibility and superiority of 100 M switched Ethernet based networked control systems without modification of the network protocols. PMID:25003152

Li, Ming

2014-01-01

114

Delay Analysis of Networked Control Systems Based on 100?M Switched Ethernet  

PubMed Central

For the delay may degrade the performance of networked control systems, networked control systems based on 100?M switched Ethernet are proposed in this paper. According to the working principle of Ethernet switch, the formulas of the upper bound delay of the single-level switched Ethernet and the multiple-level switched Ethernet are deduced by the timing diagram method, and the values of the upper bound delay are also given. The key factors that influence the upper bound delay of switched Ethernet are analyzed; then, the characteristics of the upper bound delay are presented, which show that the delay induced by the single-level 100?M switched Ethernet has little effect on the performance of control systems, while the delay induced by the multiple-level 100?M switched Ethernet may meet the time requirements of all classes of control systems if the numbers of levels and the numbers of nodes connecting to switches are set properly. Finally, the performance of networked control systems is simulated by TrueTime, and the results further show the feasibility and superiority of 100?M switched Ethernet based networked control systems without modification of the network protocols. PMID:25003152

2014-01-01

115

Tourism motivation and expectation formation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This theoretical study introduces a model of tourism motivation and expectation formation. It is based on a discussion and operationalization of both the behaviorist notion of drive reduction and the cognitivist constructs of attitudes and values. While the satisfaction of inner-directed values and motivations depends on classes of objects, outer-directed values target specific objects. In the case of trying to

Juergen Gnoth

1997-01-01

116

Just What Do You Expect?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Boards should clearly establish what is expected of the university president, including the six elements of good leadership: tolerance of freedom, tolerance of uncertainty, the ability to integrate motives and efforts into a meaningful aggregate, the ability to persuade, the ability to represent the institution, and influence with superiors. (MSE)

Mason, Philip R.

1990-01-01

117

Unconscious Detection of Implicit Expectancies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The detection of unexpected events is a fundamental process of learning. Theories of cognitive control and previous imaging results indicate a prominent role of the prefrontal cortex in the evaluation of the congruency between expected and actual outcome. In most cases, this attributed function is based on results where the person is consciously aware of the discrepancy. In this functional

Michael Rose; Hilde Haider; Christian Büchel

2005-01-01

118

The Confusing Expectations for Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Frequently, the expectations placed on education can lead to confusion over its mission. How one college president, at career end, views the purpose of education is presented in this address. The paper details how educators have tried to meet myriad demands in the face of eroding social support systems, claiming that educators must limit their…

Farquhar, Robin H.

119

Expected utility with lower probabilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

An uncertain and not just risky situation may be modeled using so-called belief functions assigning lower probabilities to subsets of outcomes. In this article we extend the von Neumann-Morgenstern expected utility theory from probability measures to belief functions. We use this theory to characterize uncertainty neutrality and different degrees of uncertainty aversion.

Hans JØrgen Jacobsen; Birgitte Sloth; TORBEN TRANAES

1994-01-01

120

Training Focuses on Teachers' Expectations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article discusses a training program that aims to raise teachers' awareness of how they treat their students. The Teacher Expectations & Student Achievement, or TESA, program--which delves into whether teachers deal with their lower-achieving and higher-achieving students equitably--has been used nationally for more than 30 years. But its…

Gewertz, Catherine

2005-01-01

121

Metaphors As Storehouses of Expectation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explores how metaphors are used to identify and store some expectations that structure schools' interactions and communications. Outlines a systems-theoretical view of schools derived from Niklas Luhmann's social theories. Illustrates how the metaphors identified in an earlier study provide material contexts for identifying and storing structures…

Beavis, Allan K.; Thomas, A. Ross

1996-01-01

122

Bounding Species Distribution Models  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Species distribution models are increasing in popularity for mapping suitable habitat for species of management concern. Many investigators now recognize that extrapolations of these models with geographic information systems (GIS) might be sensitive to the environmental bounds of the data used in their development, yet there is no recommended best practice for "clamping" model extrapolations. We relied on two commonly used modeling approaches: classification and regression tree (CART) and maximum entropy (Maxent) models, and we tested a simple alteration of the model extrapolations, bounding extrapolations to the maximum and minimum values of primary environmental predictors, to provide a more realistic map of suitable habitat of hybridized Africanized honey bees in the southwestern United States. Findings suggest that multiple models of bounding, and the most conservative bounding of species distribution models, like those presented here, should probably replace the unbounded or loosely bounded techniques currently used [Current Zoology 57 (5): 642-647, 2011].

Stohlgren, Thomas J.; Jarnevich, Cahterine S.; Morisette, Jeffrey T.; Esaias, Wayne E.

2011-01-01

123

Congestion delays at hub airports  

E-print Network

A deterministic model was developed to study the effects of inefficient scheduling on flight delays at hub airports. The model bases the delay calculation on published schedule data and on user-defined airport capacities. ...

St. George, Martin J.

1986-01-01

124

Assessing delay discounting in mice.  

PubMed

Delay discounting (also intertemporal choice or impulsive choice) is the process by which delayed outcomes, such as delayed food delivery, are valued less than the same outcomes delivered immediately or with a shorter delay. This process is of interest because many psychopathologies, including substance dependence, pathological gambling, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, and conduct disorder, are characterized by heightened levels of delay discounting. Some of these disorders are heritable, and data indicate that delay discounting also has a genetic component. To identify the genes underlying the delay discounting decision-making process and genetic correlates of heightened discounting, researchers have used mouse models. This unit describes a protocol for generating delay discounting behavior in mice and discusses analysis techniques for such behavior. PMID:24510779

Mitchell, Suzanne H

2014-01-01

125

Effects of Stimulus Context, Study Time, and Delay on Visual Recognition Memory in Six-Month-Old Infants.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to determine whether context facilitated memory and whether this facilitation was still evident after a delay. Infants were expected to recognize pictures significantly longer when they were tested with the same context cues. This context effect was expected to be even after a 5-minute delay. The subjects were 64…

Faber, Melissa M.

126

Errors in time delay measurements  

Microsoft Academic Search

Simple delay and sum of sensors in a seismic array is an effective method for noise suppression. However, unless we have precise steering delays, much of the signal energy is lost during the beam forming process too. We have investigated possible error sources in time delay measurements, using a computerized cross-correlation procedure. Parameters perturbed are correlation window length and positioning,

H. Bungum; E. S. Husebye

1971-01-01

127

Dissipativity of the delay semigroup  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Under mild conditions a delay semigroup can be transformed into a (generalized) contraction semigroup by modifying the inner product on the (Hilbert) state space into an equivalent inner product. Applications to stability of differential equations with delay and stochastic differential equations with delay are given as examples.

Bierkens, Joris; van Gaans, Onno

2014-10-01

128

ATTRITION IN DISTRIBUTED DELAY MODELS  

EPA Science Inventory

Distributed time delay models are extended to deal with loss of entities from within the process being modeled. Analysis of a time-invariant distributed delay shows that the statistics of individual transit times through a delay process can be very sensitive to attrition incurred...

129

Time-Delay Interferometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Equal-arm detectors of gravitational radiation allow phase measurements many orders of magnitude below the intrinsic phase stability of the laser injecting light into their arms. This is because the noise in the laser light is common to both arms, experiencing exactly the same delay, and thus cancels when it is differenced at the photo detector. In this situation, much lower level secondary noises then set the overall performance. If, however, the two arms have different lengths (as will necessarily be the case with space-borne interferometers), the laser noise experiences different delays in the two arms and will hence not directly cancel at the detector. In order to solve this problem, a technique involving heterodyne interferometry with unequal arm lengths and independent phase-difference readouts has been proposed. It relies on properly time-shifting and linearly combining independent Doppler measurements, and for this reason it has been called time-delay interferometry (TDI). This article provides an overview of the theory, mathematical foundations, and experimental aspects associated with the implementation of TDI. Although emphasis on the application of TDI to the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) mission appears throughout this article, TDI can be incorporated into the design of any future space-based mission aiming to search for gravitational waves via interferometric measurements. We have purposely left out all theoretical aspects that data analysts will need to account for when analyzing the TDI data combinations.

Tinto, Massimo; Dhurandhar, Sanjeev V.

2014-08-01

130

Delayed coking process  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes improvement in a delayed premium coking process in which an aromatic mineral oil feedstock is heated to elevated temperature and introduced continuously to a coking drum under delayed coking conditions wherein the heated feedstock soaks in its contained heat to convert the feedstock to cracked vapors and premium coke at lower than normal coking temperatures in the range of about 780{degrees} F. to about 895{degrees} F. and in which the introduction of feedstock to the coking drum is discontinued after the coking drum is filled to a desired level. The improvement comprises: introducing additional aromatic mineral oil capable of forming coke admixed with a non-coking material to the coking drum under delayed coking conditions for a sufficient period of time to convert unconverted liquid material to coke wherein the concentration of aromatic mineral oil in the admixture is from 5 to 90 percent, and thereafter subjecting the contents of the coke drum to a heat soak at a temperature greater than the initial coking temperature whereby a premium coke having improved CTE and reduced fluff is obtained.

Shigley, J.K.; Roussel, K.M.; Harris, S.D.

1991-07-02

131

Programmable Differential Delay Circuit With Fine Delay Adjustment  

DOEpatents

Circuitry that provides additional delay to early arriving signals such that all data signals arrive at a receiving latch with same path delay. The delay of a forwarded clock reference is also controlled such that the capturing clock edge will be optimally positioned near quadrature (depending on latch setup/hold requirements). The circuitry continuously adapts to data and clock path delay changes and digital filtering of phase measurements reduce errors brought on by jittering data edges. The circuitry utilizes only the minimum amount of delay necessary to achieve objective thereby limiting any unintended jitter. Particularly, this programmable differential delay circuit with fine delay adjustment is designed to allow the skew between ASICS to be minimized. This includes skew between data bits, between data bits and clocks as well as minimizing the overall skew in a channel between ASICS.

DeRyckere, John F. (Eau Claire, WI); Jenkins, Philip Nord (Eau Claire, WI); Cornett, Frank Nolan (Chippewa Falls, WI)

2002-07-09

132

The Role of Maternal Employment, Role-Altering Strategies, and Gender in College Students’ Expectations of Work–Family Conflict  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined the relationship between maternal employment and college students’ expected work–family conflict as well as the\\u000a relationship between expected conflict and the anticipated use of family-altering and career-altering strategies. Results\\u000a indicated a positive relationship between the extensiveness of maternal employment and expected work–family conflict only\\u000a for men. In addition, students who expected extensive work–family conflict anticipated delaying marriage, limiting

Christy H. Weer; Jeffrey H. Greenhaus; S. Nihal Colakoglu; Sharon Foley

2006-01-01

133

Effects of the gaseous and liquid water content of the atmosphere on range delay and Doppler frequency  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

When high precision is required for range measurement on Earth space paths, it is necessary to correct as accurately as possible for excess range delays due to the dry air, water vapor, and liquid water content of the atmosphere. Calculations based on representative values of atmospheric parameters are useful for illustrating the order of magnitude of the expected delays. Range delay, time delay, and phase delay are simply and directly related. Doppler frequency variations or noise are proportional to the time rate of change of excess range delay. Tropospheric effects were examined as part of an overall consideration of the capability of precision two way ranging and Doppler systems.

Flock, W. L.

1981-01-01

134

An improved bounding-base method for multiarea probabilistic production costing  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an improved bounding-based procedure for estimating expected production costs for a multi-area power system. It uses a state space characterization of equipment outages and loads, combined with linear optimization methods, standard load duration curve-based production costing techniques, and clustering analysis. The method defines upper and lower bounds to the true expected cost, and tightens those bounds by

B. F. Hobbs; Y. Ji; C. W. Chang; K. A. Loparo; J. Jober; M. Ohman

1996-01-01

135

An improved bounding-based method for multiarea probabilistic production costing  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an improved bounding-based procedure for estimating expected production costs for a multi-area power system. The method uses a state-space characterization of equipment outages and loads, combined with linear optimization methods, standard load duration curve-based production costing techniques, and clustering analysis. The method defines upper and lower bounds to the true expected cost, and tightens those bounds by

Benjamin F. Hobbs; Yuandong Ji; Chih-Wei Chang; Kenneth A. Loparo; J. Jober; M. Ohman

1996-01-01

136

Vehicle barrier with access delay  

DOEpatents

An access delay vehicle barrier for stopping unauthorized entry into secure areas by a vehicle ramming attack includes access delay features for preventing and/or delaying an adversary from defeating or compromising the barrier. A horizontally deployed barrier member can include an exterior steel casing, an interior steel reinforcing member and access delay members disposed within the casing and between the casing and the interior reinforcing member. Access delay members can include wooden structural lumber, concrete and/or polymeric members that in combination with the exterior casing and interior reinforcing member act cooperatively to impair an adversarial attach by thermal, mechanical and/or explosive tools.

Swahlan, David J; Wilke, Jason

2013-09-03

137

Sudden ionospheric delay decorrelation and its impact on WAAS  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In the absence of selective availability, the ionosphere represents the largest source of positioning error for single-frequency users of the GPS. In differential GPS systems such as the Wide Angle Augmentation System, vertical ionospheric delays are modeled at regularly-spaced intervals in latitude and longitude. The broadcast bound on the error at each of these points is designated the grid ionospheric vertical erorr (GIVE). A critical integrity requirement of WAAS is that the broadcast GIVE bounds residual error with a very high degree of confidence.

Sparks, L.; Komjathy, A.; Boulat, B.; Mannucci, A.

2002-01-01

138

Exchange rate expectations of chartists and fundamentalists  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper provides novel evidence on exchange rate expectations of both chartists and fundamentalists separately. These groups indeed form expectations differently. Chartists change their expectations more often; however, all professionals' expectations vary considerably as they generally follow strong exchange rate trends. In line with non-linear exchange rate-modeling, professionals expect mean reversion only if exchange rates deviate much from PPP. Chartists

Christian D. Dick; Lukas Menkhoff

2012-01-01

139

Adaptive Phase Delay Generator  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

There are several experimental setups involving rotating machinery that require some form of synchronization. The adaptive phase delay generator (APDG) the Bencic-1000 is a flexible instrument that allows the user to generate pulses synchronized to the rising edge of a tachometer signal from any piece of rotating machinery. These synchronized pulses can vary by the delay angle, pulse width, number of pulses per period, number of skipped pulses, and total number of pulses. Due to the design of the pulse generator, any and all of these parameters can be changed independently, yielding an unparalleled level of versatility. There are two user interfaces to the APDG. The first is a LabVIEW program that has the advantage of displaying all of the pulse parameters and input signal data within one neatly organized window on the PC monitor. Furthermore, the LabVIEW interface plots the rpm of the two input signal channels in real time. The second user interface is a handheld portable device that goes anywhere a computer is not accessible. It consists of a liquid-crystal display and keypad, which enable the user to control the unit by scrolling through a host of command menus and parameter listings. The APDG combines all of the desired synchronization control into one unit. The experimenter can adjust the delay, pulse width, pulse count, number of skipped pulses, and produce a specified number of pulses per revolution. Each of these parameters can be changed independently, providing an unparalleled level of versatility when synchronizing hardware to a host of rotating machinery. The APDG allows experimenters to set up quickly and generate a host of synchronizing configurations using a simple user interface, which hopefully leads to faster results.

Greer, Lawrence

2013-01-01

140

Inoculation against Forgetting: Advantages of Immediate versus Delayed Initial Testing Due to Superior Verbatim Accessibility  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this study, potential benefits of early memory testing were examined in terms of "inoculating" eyewitness memory against forgetting. As predicted by fuzzy trace theory (e.g., Reyna & Titcomb, 1997), a larger testing advantage in the delayed recall of event details was expected after immediate testing than after delayed testing because of the…

Pansky, Ainat

2012-01-01

141

Paradoxical Effects of Alcohol Information on Alcohol Outcome Expectancies  

PubMed Central

Background Cognitive associations with alcohol predict both current and future use in youth and young adults. Much cognitive and social cognitive research suggests that exposure to information may have unconscious influences on thinking and behavior. The present study assessed the impact of information statements on the accessibility of alcohol outcome expectancies. Methods The 2 studies reported here investigated the effects of exposure to alcohol statements typical of informational approaches to prevention on the accessibility of alcohol outcome expectancies. High school and university students were presented with information statements about the effects of alcohol and other commercial products. The alcohol statements were taken from expectancy questionnaires. Some of these statements were presented as facts and others as myths. The retention of detailed information about these statements was manipulated by (i) divided attention versus focused attention or (ii) immediate versus delayed testing. Accessibility of personal alcohol outcome expectancies was subsequently measured using an open-ended question about the expected effects of alcohol. Results Participants reported more alcohol outcomes seen during the information task as personal expectations about the effects of alcohol use than similar unseen items. Paradoxically, myth statements were also more likely to be reported as expectancies than unseen items in all conditions. Additionally, myth statements were generated less often than fact statements only under the condition of immediate testing with strong content processing instructions. Conclusions These observations are consistent with findings from cognitive research where familiarity in the absence of explicit memory can have an unconscious influence on performance. In particular, the exposure to these items in an informational format increases accessibility of the seen items even when the participants were told that they were myths. The findings have implications for the development of effective prevention materials. PMID:20477773

Krank, Marvin D.; Ames, Susan L.; Grenard, Jerry L.; Schoenfeld, Tara; Stacy, Alan W.

2014-01-01

142

The Asynchronous Bounded-Cycle model?  

PubMed Central

This paper shows how synchrony conditions can be added to the purely asynchronous model in a way that avoids any reference to message delays and computing step times, as well as system-wide constraints on execution patterns and network topology. Our Asynchronous Bounded-Cycle (ABC) model just bounds the ratio of the number of forward- and backward-oriented messages in certain (“relevant”) cycles in the space–time diagram of an asynchronous execution. We show that clock synchronization and lock-step rounds can be implemented and proved correct in the ABC model, even in the presence of Byzantine failures. Furthermore, we prove that any algorithm working correctly in the partially synchronous ?-Model also works correctly in the ABC model. In our proof, we first apply a novel method for assigning certain message delays to asynchronous executions, which is based on a variant of Farkas’ theorem of linear inequalities and a non-standard cycle space of graphs. Using methods from point-set topology, we then prove that the existence of this delay assignment implies model indistinguishability for time-free safety and liveness properties. We also introduce several weaker variants of the ABC model, and relate our model to the existing partially synchronous system models, in particular, the classic models of Dwork, Lynch and Stockmayer and the query–response model by Mostefaoui, Mourgaya, and Raynal. Finally, we discuss some aspects of the ABC model’s applicability in real systems, in particular, in the context of VLSI Systems-on-Chip. PMID:22031790

Robinson, Peter; Schmid, Ulrich

2011-01-01

143

Estimating magnitude and duration of incident delays  

SciTech Connect

Traffic congestion is a major operational problem on urban freeways. In the case of recurring congestion, travelers can plan their trips according to the expected occurrence and severity of recurring congestion. However, nonrecurring congestion cannot be managed without real-time prediction. Evaluating the efficiency of intelligent transportation systems (ITS) technologies in reducing incident effects requires developing models that can accurately predict incident duration along with the magnitude of nonrecurring congestion. This paper provides two statistical models for estimating incident delay and a model for predicting incident duration. The incident delay models showed that up to 85% of variation in incident delay can be explained by incident duration, number of lanes affected, number of vehicles involved, and traffic demand before the incident. The incident duration prediction model showed that 81% of variation in incident duration can be predicted by number of lanes affected, number of vehicles involved, truck involvement, time of day, police response time, and weather condition. These findings have implications for on-line applications within the context of advanced traveler information systems (ATIS).

Garib, A. [Zagazig Univ. (Egypt). Construction Engineering Dept.; Radwan, A.E.; Al-Deek, H. [Univ. of Central Florida, Orlando, FL (United States). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering

1997-11-01

144

Earth's extensive entropy bound  

E-print Network

The possibility of planetary mass black hole production by crossing entropy limits is addressed. Such a possibility is given by pointing out that two geophysical quantities have comparable values: first, Earth's total negative entropy flux integrated over geological time and, second, its extensive entropy bound, which follows as a tighter bound to the Bekenstein limit when entropy is an extensive function. The similarity between both numbers suggests that the formation of black holes from planets may be possible through a strong fluctuation toward thermodynamic equilibrium which results in gravothermal instability and final collapse. Briefly discussed are implications for the astronomical observation of low mass black holes and for Fermi's paradox.

A. M. Lisewski

2007-10-18

145

[Delayed effects of oncological therapy].  

PubMed

Due to therapy-associated improvements in survival rates, delayed effects of cancer are a rapidly increasing but as yet only poorly recognized problem. These delayed sequelae, which by definition occur years after the primary disease, include secondary tumors and many non-oncological internal medical problems. Little attention has so far been paid to the cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, renal and endocrinal delayed side effects and must be specifically addressed due to the often slowly progressing symptoms. PMID:24062025

Biersack, H; Brabant, G

2013-10-01

146

Changing expectancies: cognitive mechanisms and context effects.  

PubMed

This article presents the proceedings of a symposium at the 2002 RSA Meeting in San Francisco, organized by Reinout W. Wiers and Mark D. Wood. The symposium combined two topics of recent interest in studies of alcohol expectancies: cognitive mechanisms in expectancy challenge studies, and context-related changes of expectancies. With increasing recognition of the substantial role played by alcohol expectancies in drinking, investigators have begun to develop and evaluate expectancy challenge procedures as a potentially promising new prevention strategy. The two major issues addressed in the symposium were whether expectancy challenges result in changes in expectancies that mediate intervention (outcome relations), and the influence of simulated bar environments ("bar labs," in which challenges are usually done) on expectancies. The presentations were (1) An introduction, by Jack Darkes; (2) Investigating the utility of alcohol expectancy challenge with heavy drinking college students, by Mark D. Wood; (3) Effects of an expectancy challenge on implicit and explicit expectancies and drinking, by Reinout W. Wiers; (4) Effects of graphic feedback and simulated bar assessments on alcohol expectancies and consumption, by William R. Corbin; (5) Implicit alcohol associations and context, by Barry T Jones; and (6) A discussion by Kenneth J. Sher, who pointed out that it is important not only to study changes of expectancies in the paradigm of an expectancy challenge but also to consider the role of changing expectancies in natural development and in treatments not explicitly aimed at changing expectancies. PMID:12605068

Wiers, Reinout W; Wood, Mark D; Darkes, Jack; Corbin, William R; Jones, Barry T; Sher, Kenneth J

2003-02-01

147

Sex Differences in Occupational Performance Expectations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Investigated the effects of occupational sex-dominance on sex differences in occupational performance expectations. College students indicated their self-expectations and comparison person expectations (those of a "typical" male or female) regarding job performance for six occupations. Women reported lower expectations for themselves except for…

Bridges, Judith S.

1988-01-01

148

What to Expect Before Pulmonary Rehabilitation  

MedlinePLUS

... Rehabilitation » What To Expect Before Pulmonary Rehabilitation Explore Pulmonary Rehabilitation What Is... Who Needs What To Expect Before What to Expect During What to Expect After Benefits & Risks Links Related Topics Bronchitis COPD Cystic Fibrosis Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis Sarcoidosis Send a ...

149

Teachers' Expectations about Students' Motivation 1 Running Head: Teachers' Expectations about Students' Motivation  

E-print Network

Teachers' Expectations about Students' Motivation 1 Running Head: Teachers' Expectations about Students' Motivation The Effects of Teachers' Expectations about Students' Motivation On Teachers Autonomy and Exercise Psychology 4 (2006) 283-301" #12;Teachers' Expectations about Students' Motivation 2 Abstract

Boyer, Edmond

150

Bounded quantification is undecidable  

Microsoft Academic Search

F? is a typed ?-calculus with subtyping and bounded second-order polymorphism. First proposed by Cardelli and Wegner, it has been widely studied as a core calculus for type systems with subtyping.Curien and Ghelli proved the partial correctness of a recursive procedure for computing minimal types of F? terms and showed that the termination of this procedure is equivalent to the

Benjamin C. Pierce

1992-01-01

151

Bound states of quarks  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review consists of two parts, the phenomenology of non-relativistic potential models and the theoretical understanding of the forces between quarks. The first part reports on the description of hadrons as bound states of quarks by non-relativistic potential models. It starts with a brief sketch of the way in which information on the interquark potential may be gained from quantum

Wolfgang Lucha; Franz F. Schöberl; Dieter Gromes

1991-01-01

152

Delayed cure bismaleimide resins  

DOEpatents

Polybismaleimides prepared by delayed curing of bis-imides having the formula ##STR1## wherein R.sub.1 and R.sub.2 each independently is H, C.sub.1-4 -alkyl, C.sub.1-4 -alkoxy, Cl or Br, or R.sub.1 and R.sub.2 together form a fused 6-membered hydrocarbon aromatic ring, with the proviso that R.sub.1 and R.sub.2 are not t-butyl or t-butoxy; X is O, S or Se; n is 1-3; and the --(CH.sub.2).sub.n -- group, optionally, is substituted by 1-3 methyl groups or by fluorine.

Adams, Johnnie E. (Grandview, MO); Jamieson, Donald R. (Merriam, KS)

1984-08-07

153

Delay Estimation Using Adjustable Fractional Delay All-Pass Filters  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a novel time-delay estimator utilizing an fractional-delay all-pass filter and Newton's method. Solutions using a direct correlator and an average squared difference function are compared. Furthermore, an analysis of the effects of the batch length dependence is presented

Mattias Olsson; Håkan Johansson; Per Lowenborg

2006-01-01

154

Amplitude death in networks of delay-coupled delay oscillators  

E-print Network

Amplitude death is a dynamical phenomenon in which a network of oscillators settles to a stable state as a result of coupling. Here, we study amplitude death in a generalized model of delay-coupled delay oscillators. We derive analytical results for degree homogeneous networks that show that amplitude death is governed by certain eigenvalues of the network's adjacency matrix. In particular these results demonstrate that in delay-coupled delay oscillators amplitude death can occur for arbitrarily large coupling strength k. In this limit we find a region of amplitude death, which occurs already at small coupling delays that scale with 1/k. We show numerically that these results remain valid in random networks with heterogeneous degree distribution.

Johannes M. Höfener; Gautam C. Sethia; Thilo Gross

2012-10-06

155

Predictive MFCS for linear commensurate engineering mechanical systems with time delay  

Microsoft Academic Search

We can design linear predictive model following control system (PMFCS) with commensurate time-delay whose internal states are bounded. Time-delay widely exists among controlled objects in computer control processes, power systems, chemical processing systems, metallurgical processing systems, environmental systems and communication systems transmission systems and other industrial production activities [Hollot, et.al; 2002] ~ [Azuma, et.al; 1998], and makes it difficult to

Dazhong Wang; Shujing Wu; Shigenori Okubo; Zhe Wang

2009-01-01

156

Output Feedback Stabilization for a Discrete-Time System With a Time-Varying Delay  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study employs the free-weighting matrix approach to investigate the output feedback control of a linear discrete-time system with an interval time-varying delay. First, the delay-dependent stability is analyzed using a new method of estimating the upper bound on the difference of a Lyapunov function without ignoring any terms; and based on the results, a design criterion for a static

Yong He; Min Wu; Guo-Ping Liu; Jin-Hua She

2008-01-01

157

Bounds on intrinsic diffusivities in momentum dissipating holography  

E-print Network

Systems not conserving the total momentum have both extrinsic, momentum-dissipating and intrinsic, momentum-conserving interactions. Inspired by a recently conjectured universal bound for thermo-electric diffusion constants in critical incoherent strongly coupled systems and relying on holographic analytical computations, we obtain bounds for the intrinsic contributions to the diffusion constants in different holographic systems featuring momentum dissipation. The model-independence of the intrinsic contributions suggests a possible universal relevance of the results within, and possibly beyond, the gauge/gravity context. We also study an incoherent limit where the complete diffusion constants confirm the shape of the expected bounds, although presenting non-universal coefficients.

Amoretti, Andrea; Magnoli, Nicodemo; Musso, Daniele

2014-01-01

158

Estimating time delays for constructing dynamical networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dynamical networks - networks inferred from multivariate time series - have been widely applied to climate data and beyond, resulting in new insights into the underlying dynamics. However, these inferred networks can suffer from biases that need to be accounted for to properly interpret the results. Here, we report on a previously unrecognized bias in the estimate of time delays between nodes in dynamical networks inferred from cross-correlations, a method often used. This bias results in the maximum correlation occurring disproportionately often at large time lags. This is of particular concern in dynamical networks where the large number of possible links necessitates finding the correct time lag in an automated way. We show that this bias can arise due to the similarity of the estimator to a random walk, and are able to map them to each other explicitly for some cases. For the random walk there is an analytical solution for the bias that is closely related to the famous Lévy arcsine distribution, which provides an upper bound in many other cases. Finally, we show that estimating the cross-correlation in frequency space effectively eliminates this bias. Reanalysing large lag links (from a climate network) with this method results in a distribution peaked near zero instead, as well as additional peaks at the originally assigned lag. Links that are reassigned smaller time lags tend to have a smaller distance between them, which indicates that the new time delays are physically reasonable.

Martin, E. A.; Davidsen, J.

2014-09-01

159

Delay of gratification and delay discounting in rats.  

PubMed

Delay discounting (DD) and delay of gratification (DG) are two measures of impulsive behavior often viewed as reflecting the same or equivalent processes. However, there are some key differences in the contingencies of reinforcement between the procedures that may have implications for understanding impulsivity. This study used DD and DG procedures to determine if differences in contingencies of reinforcement specified by DD and DG alters how much organisms discount the value of delayed reinforcers. Twenty-four water-deprived rats performed one of two Adjusting Amount procedures, which consisted of repeated choices between a fixed amount of water (250 &mgr;l) delivered after a delay (0, 4, 8, 16, or 32 s) and an adjusting, usually lesser amount delivered immediately. Half of the rats (n=12) performed a DD procedure designed to assess preference for immediate over delayed reinforcers in which they had discrete choices between the immediate and delayed amounts of water. A DG procedure was used for the other half of the rats (n=12). In the DG procedure rats also selected between immediate and delayed alternatives, but if they chose the delayed alternative they could switch to and receive the immediate alternative at any time during the delay to the larger reward. In the DD procedure switching responses were not reinforced but were still recorded and used for analyses. The DD functions of the two groups did not differ significantly. However, at the longer delays, the DG group made significantly fewer switching responses than the DD group. A possible role of response inhibition in the DG procedure is discussed. PMID:12270518

Reynolds, Brady; de Wit, Harriet; Richards, Jerry

2002-09-30

160

Conical-Domain Model for Estimating GPS Ionospheric Delays  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The conical-domain model is a computational model, now undergoing development, for estimating ionospheric delays of Global Positioning System (GPS) signals. Relative to the standard ionospheric delay model described below, the conical-domain model offers improved accuracy. In the absence of selective availability, the ionosphere is the largest source of error for single-frequency users of GPS. Because ionospheric signal delays contribute to errors in GPS position and time measurements, satellite-based augmentation systems (SBASs) have been designed to estimate these delays and broadcast corrections. Several national and international SBASs are currently in various stages of development to enhance the integrity and accuracy of GPS measurements for airline navigation. In the Wide Area Augmentation System (WAAS) of the United States, slant ionospheric delay errors and confidence bounds are derived from estimates of vertical ionospheric delay modeled on a grid at regularly spaced intervals of latitude and longitude. The estimate of vertical delay at each ionospheric grid point (IGP) is calculated from a planar fit of neighboring slant delay measurements, projected to vertical using a standard, thin-shell model of the ionosphere. Interpolation on the WAAS grid enables estimation of the vertical delay at the ionospheric pierce point (IPP) corresponding to any arbitrary measurement of a user. (The IPP of a given user s measurement is the point where the GPS signal ray path intersects a reference ionospheric height.) The product of the interpolated value and the user s thin-shell obliquity factor provides an estimate of the user s ionospheric slant delay. Two types of error that restrict the accuracy of the thin-shell model are absent in the conical domain model: (1) error due to the implicit assumption that the electron density is independent of the azimuthal angle at the IPP and (2) error arising from the slant-to-vertical conversion. At low latitudes or at mid-latitudes under disturbed conditions, the accuracy of SBAS systems based upon the thin-shell model suffers due to the presence of complex ionospheric structure, high delay values, and large electron density gradients. Interpolation on the vertical delay grid serves as an additional source of delay error. The conical-domain model permits direct computation of the user s slant delay estimate without the intervening use of a vertical delay grid. The key is to restrict each fit of GPS measurements to a spatial domain encompassing signals from only one satellite. The conical domain model is so named because each fit involves a group of GPS receivers that all receive signals from the same GPS satellite (see figure); the receiver and satellite positions define a cone, the satellite position being the vertex. A user within a given cone evaluates the delay to the satellite directly, using (1) the IPP coordinates of the line of sight to the satellite and (2) broadcast fit parameters associated with the cone. The conical-domain model partly resembles the thin-shell model in that both models reduce an inherently four-dimensional problem to two dimensions. However, unlike the thin-shell model, the conical domain model does not involve any potentially erroneous simplifying assumptions about the structure of the ionosphere. In the conical domain model, the initially four-dimensional problem becomes truly two-dimensional in the sense that once a satellite location has been specified, any signal path emanating from a satellite can be identified by only two coordinates; for example, the IPP coordinates. As a consequence, a user s slant-delay estimate converges to the correct value in the limit that the receivers converge to the user s location (or, equivalently, in the limit that the measurement IPPs converge to the user s IPP).

Sparks, Lawrence; Komjathy, Attila; Mannucci, Anthony

2009-01-01

161

Linear rotary optical delay lines.  

PubMed

I present several classes of analytical and semi-analytical solutions for the design of high-speed rotary optical delay lines that use a combination of stationary and rotating curvilinear reflectors. Detailed analysis of four distinct classes of optical delay lines is presented. Particularly, I consider delay lines based on a single rotating reflector, a single rotating reflector and a single stationary reflector, two rotating reflectors, and two rotating reflectors and a single stationary reflector. I demonstrate that in each of these cases it is possible to design an infinite variety of the optical delay lines featuring linear dependence of the optical delay on the rotation angle. This is achieved via shape optimization of the rotating and stationary reflector surfaces. Moreover, in the case of two rotating reflectors a convenient spatial separation of the incoming and outgoing beams is possible. For the sake of example, all the blades presented in this paper are chosen to fit into a circle of 10 cm diameter and these delay lines feature in excess of 600 ps of optical delay. Finally, two prototypes of rotary delay lines were fabricated using CNC machining, and their optical properties are characterized. PMID:24921303

Skorobogatiy, Maksim

2014-05-19

162

Environment Delay in Haptic Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper will investigate the influence environ- ment delay has on haptic systems. Work presented in (9) and (ll) demonstrated that it is possible to account for environment delay (even though it is a non-passive behavior) and still achieve a stability result based on passivity concepts. The details were given for haptic systems with environments having impedance causal- ity. This

Brian E. Miller; J. Edward Colgate; Randy Freeman

2000-01-01

163

Dealing with delays does not transfer across sensorimotor tasks.  

PubMed

It is known that people can learn to deal with delays between their actions and the consequences of such actions. We wondered whether they do so by adjusting their anticipations about the sensory consequences of their actions or whether they simply learn to move in certain ways when performing specific tasks. To find out, we examined details of how people learn to intercept a moving target with a cursor that follows the hand with a delay and examined the transfer of learning between this task and various other tasks that require temporal precision. Subjects readily learned to intercept the moving target with the delayed cursor. The compensation for the delay generalized across modifications of the task, so subjects did not simply learn to move in a certain way in specific circumstances. The compensation did not generalize to completely different timing tasks, so subjects did not generally expect the consequences of their motor commands to be delayed. We conclude that people specifically learn to control the delayed visual consequences of their actions to perform certain tasks. PMID:25301016

de la Malla, Cristina; López-Moliner, Joan; Brenner, Eli

2014-01-01

164

A time delay controller for magnetic bearings  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The control of systems with unknown dynamics and unpredictable disturbances has raised some challenging problems. This is particularly important when high system performance needs to be guaranteed at all times. Recently, the Time Delay Control has been suggested as an alternative control scheme. The proposed control system does not require an explicit plant model nor does it depend on the estimation of specific plant parameters. Rather, it combines adaptation with past observations to directly estimate the effect of the plant dynamics. A control law is formulated for a class of dynamic systems and a sufficient condition is presented for control systems stability. The derivation is based on the bounded input-bounded output stability approach using L sub infinity function norms. The control scheme is implemented on a five degrees of freedom high speed and high precision magnetic bearing. The control performance is evaluated using step responses, frequency responses, and disturbance rejection properties. The experimental data show an excellent control performance despite the system complexity.

Youcef-Toumi, K.; Reddy, S.

1991-01-01

165

Heterogeneous delays in neural networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate heterogeneous coupling delays in complex networks of excitable elements described by the FitzHugh-Nagumo model. The effects of discrete as well as of uni- and bimodal continuous distributions are studied with a focus on different topologies, i.e., regular, small-world, and random networks. In the case of two discrete delay times resonance effects play a major role: depending on the ratio of the delay times, various characteristic spiking scenarios, such as coherent or asynchronous spiking, arise. For continuous delay distributions different dynamical patterns emerge depending on the width of the distribution. For small distribution widths, we find highly synchronized spiking, while for intermediate widths only spiking with low degree of synchrony persists, which is associated with traveling disruptions, partial amplitude death, or subnetwork synchronization, depending sensitively on the network topology. If the inhomogeneity of the coupling delays becomes too large, global amplitude death is induced.

Cakan, Caglar; Lehnert, Judith; Schöll, Eckehard

2014-03-01

166

Petawatt laser absorption bounded.  

PubMed

The interaction of petawatt (10(15)?W) lasers with solid matter forms the basis for advanced scientific applications such as table-top particle accelerators, ultrafast imaging systems and laser fusion. Key metrics for these applications relate to absorption, yet conditions in this regime are so nonlinear that it is often impossible to know the fraction of absorbed light f, and even the range of f is unknown. Here using a relativistic Rankine-Hugoniot-like analysis, we show for the first time that f exhibits a theoretical maximum and minimum. These bounds constrain nonlinear absorption mechanisms across the petawatt regime, forbidding high absorption values at low laser power and low absorption values at high laser power. For applications needing to circumvent the absorption bounds, these results will accelerate a shift from solid targets, towards structured and multilayer targets, and lead the development of new materials. PMID:24938656

Levy, Matthew C; Wilks, Scott C; Tabak, Max; Libby, Stephen B; Baring, Matthew G

2014-01-01

167

Bound States in Graphene  

E-print Network

We present a quantum analysis of the massless excitations in graphene with a charge impurity. When the effective charge exceeds a certain critical value, the spectrum is quantized and is unbounded from below. The corresponding eigenstates are square-integrable at infinity and have a rapidly oscillatory behaviour in the short distance, which can be interpreted as a fall to the centre. Using a cutoff regularization, we show that the effective Coulomb interaction strength is driven to its critical value under the renormalization group flow. In the subcritical region, we find bound states with imaginary values of the energy for certain range of the system parameters. The physical significance of these bound states with imaginary eigenvalues is discussed.

Kumar S. Gupta; Siddhartha Sen

2008-05-22

168

Petawatt laser absorption bounded  

PubMed Central

The interaction of petawatt (1015?W) lasers with solid matter forms the basis for advanced scientific applications such as table-top particle accelerators, ultrafast imaging systems and laser fusion. Key metrics for these applications relate to absorption, yet conditions in this regime are so nonlinear that it is often impossible to know the fraction of absorbed light f, and even the range of f is unknown. Here using a relativistic Rankine-Hugoniot-like analysis, we show for the first time that f exhibits a theoretical maximum and minimum. These bounds constrain nonlinear absorption mechanisms across the petawatt regime, forbidding high absorption values at low laser power and low absorption values at high laser power. For applications needing to circumvent the absorption bounds, these results will accelerate a shift from solid targets, towards structured and multilayer targets, and lead the development of new materials. PMID:24938656

Levy, Matthew C.; Wilks, Scott C.; Tabak, Max; Libby, Stephen B.; Baring, Matthew G.

2014-01-01

169

Simultaneous quadratic performance stabilization for linear time-delay systems * * This project was Supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (50335020, 60574011); Postdoctoral Fund (2005038553); Science Research Important Foundation in Hubei Provincial Department of Education(2002z04001)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A newly designed approach of simultaneous stabilization is given for linear discrete time-delay systems. The problem of stabilization for a collection of systems is discussed initially. Adequate condition are obtained in terms of linear matrix inequalities (LMIs) which are independent of time delays such that the resultant collection of discrete time-delay systems are stable with an upper bound of the

Yuepeng Chen; Zude Zhou; Huanbin Liu; Qingling Zhang

2006-01-01

170

Distance-Bounding Protocols  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is often the case in applications of cryptographic protocols that one party would like to determine a practical upper-bound\\u000a on the physical distance to the other party. For instance, when a person conducts a cryptographic identification protocol\\u000a at an entrance to a building, the access control computer in the building would like to be ensured that the person giving

Stefan Brands; David ChaumZ

171

A Holographic Bound on Cosmic Magnetic Fields  

E-print Network

Magnetic fields large enough to be observable are ubiquitous in astrophysics, even at extremely large length scales. This has led to the suggestion that such fields are seeded at very early (inflationary) times, and subsequently amplified by various processes involving, for example, dynamo effects. Many such mechanisms give rise to extremely large magnetic fields at the end of inflationary reheating, and therefore also during the quark-gluon plasma epoch of the early universe. Such plasmas have a well-known holographic description. We show that holography imposes an upper bound on the intensity of magnetic fields (scaled by the squared temperature) in these circumstances, and that the values expected in some models of cosmic magnetism come close to attaining that bound.

McInnes, Brett

2015-01-01

172

Characterizing expected benefits of biomarkers in treatment selection.  

PubMed

Biomarkers associated with heterogeneity in subject responses to treatment hold potential for treatment selection. In practice, the decision regarding whether to adopt a treatment-selection marker depends on the effect of using the marker on the rate of targeted disease and on the cost associated with treatment. We propose an expected benefit measure that incorporates both effects to quantify a marker's treatment-selection capacity. This measure builds upon an existing decision-theoretic framework, but is expanded to account for the fact that optimal treatment absent marker information varies with the cost of treatment. In addition, we establish upper and lower bounds on the expected benefit for a perfect treatment-selection rule which provides the basis for a standardized expected benefit measure. We develop model-based estimators for these measures in a randomized trial setting and evaluate their asymptotic properties. An adaptive bootstrap confidence interval is proposed for inference in the presence of non-regularity. Alternative estimators robust to risk model misspecification are also investigated. We illustrate our methods using the Diabetes Control and Complications Trial where we evaluate the expected benefit of baseline hemoglobin A1C in selecting diabetes treatment. PMID:25190512

Huang, Ying; Laber, Eric B; Janes, Holly

2014-09-01

173

Delayed traumatic intracerebral haemorrhage  

PubMed Central

Twenty-one out of 7,866 head injuries were complicated by the development of delayed intracerebral haematomata. The age distribution of patients with this condition closely resembled that of patients with subdural haematomata and differed sharply from patients with extradural haemorrhage. This finding, combined with the fact that the two conditions often coexisted, suggests the possibility of similar aetiological factors operating in their production. The injury producing the lesion was often minor and the larger haematomata appeared to be associated with longer `asymptomatic' intervals. The neurological deterioration was in most instances clearly the result of an increase in intracranial pressure. When possible, angiography followed by definitive craniotomy was the most satisfactory method of management and multiple burr holes even when combined with needling of the hemisphere yielded unsatisfactory results. The distribution of lesions tended to confirm their traumatic origin. On no occasion was there a vascular abnormality to account for the haemorrhage and, despite the fact that the ages of most patients were in the seventh and eighth decades, the incidence of degenerative vascular disease was small. Contusional injury causes a local failure of the mechanisms that regulate cerebral blood flow. Hypoxia, hypercapnia, and venous congestion produce cerebral hyperaemia which encourages gradual haematoma formation particularly at the sites of injury. This explains not only the situation of the lesions but also the latency between the trauma and their development. PMID:5084138

Baratham, Gopal; Dennyson, William G.

1972-01-01

174

Resource Slack and Propensity to Discount Delayed Investments of Time Versus Money  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors demonstrate that people discount delayed outcomes as a result of perceived changes over time in supplies of slack. Slack is the perceived surplus of a given resource available to complete a focal task. The present research shows that, in general, people expect slack for time to be greater in the future than in the present. Typically, this expectation

Gal Zauberman

2005-01-01

175

Global Life Expectancy Continues to Climb  

MedlinePLUS

... features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Global Life Expectancy Continues to Climb Women have slightly greater ... few decades ago, a new study indicates. Worldwide life expectancy rose from 65.3 years in 1990 ...

176

Temporal memory averaging and post-encoding alterations in temporal expectation  

PubMed Central

Recent work in our lab has demonstrated that rats trained to associate two different reinforcement delays with two different cues will generate a scalar temporal expectation at a time between these delays when presented with the cue compound. This work demonstrates that rats will integrate distinct temporal memories at retrieval, revealing that temporal expectation need not be a veridical representation of experience. Following from this recognition that processes occurring at or after memory retrieval may transform or bias temporal expectations, we suggest that previous pharmacological work that had been interpreted as resulting from sensorial, or clock-speed, changes, may be alternatively interpreted as resulting from mnemonic alterations. We end with a brief review of the impact of post-encoding alterations of memory on behavior other than timing. PMID:23454594

Matell, Matthew S.; Henning, Alexandra M.

2013-01-01

177

Memoryless Linear Adaptive Robust Controllers of Uncertain Systems with Nonlinear Time-Varying Delayed State Perturbations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The problem of adaptive robust stabilization is considered for a class of uncertain nonlinear time-delay dynamical systems. It is assumed that the upper bound of the nonlinear delayed state perturbations is a linear function of some parameters which are assumed to be unknown. It is also assumed that the time delays are time-varying, and can be any nonnegative continuous and bounded functions. In this paper, it is not required that the derivatives of the time-varying delays have to be less than one. For such a class of uncertain nonlinear time-delay systems, a new method is presented whereby a class of memoryless continuous adaptive robust state feedback controllers with a rather simpler structure is proposed. That is, being completely different from the related works reported in the control literature, the nonlinear perturbations are not included in the proposed control schemes. By employing a quasi-Lyapunov function, it is shown that the solutions of uncertain nonlinear time-delay systems can be guaranteed to be uniformly exponentially convergent towards a ball which can be as small as desired. Finally, as an application of the results, the problem of water pollution control is considered for uncertain river time-delay systems due to industrial waste treatment facility, and the corresponding simulations are given.

Wu, Hansheng

178

Community Expectations of College Completion and Attendance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Communities relay expectations of behavior that influence residents' decision making processes. The study's purpose was to define and identify social, cultural, and human capital variables relevant to understanding community expectations of postsecondary attainment. The study sought an operational model of community expectancy that would allow…

Derden, Michael Wade

2011-01-01

179

Measuring Generalized Expectancies for Negative Mood Regulation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research has suggested the utility of studying individual differences in the regulation of negative mood states. Generalized response expectancies for negative mood regulation were defined as expectancies that some overt behavior or cognition would alleviate negative mood states as they occur across situations. The Generalized Expectancy for…

Catanzaro, Salvatore J.; Mearns, Jack

180

Longitudinal evidence on financial expectations in Albania  

E-print Network

EA 4272 Longitudinal evidence on financial expectations in Albania: Do remittances matter? Laetitia-14Dec2010 #12;Longitudinal evidence on financial expectations in Albania: Do remittances matter of remittances on financial expectations in Albania using longitudinal data covering the period 2002

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

181

Expectancy Effects in Memory for Melodies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two experiments explored the relation between melodic expectancy and melodic memory. In Experiment 1, listeners rated the degree to which different endings confirmed their expectations for a set of melodies. After providing these expectancy ratings, listeners received a recognition memory test in which they discriminated previously heard melodies from new melodies. Recognition memory in this task positively correlated with perceived

MARK A. SCHMUCKLER

1997-01-01

182

Changing mortality and average cohort life expectancy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Period life expectancy varies with changes in mortality, and should not be confused with the life expectancy of those alive during that period. Given past and likely future mortality changes, a recent debate has arisen on the usefulness of the period life expectancy as the leading measure of survivorship. An alternative aggregate measure of period mortality which has been seen

Robert Schoen; Vladimir Canudas-Romo

2005-01-01

183

Teacher expectations and underachieving gifted children  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines how teacher expectations can contribute to gifted underachievement. Self?fulfilling prophecy, perceptual bias, and accuracy are reviewed as three ways in which teacher expectations relate to classroom performance. The evidence suggests that a teacher's low expectations for a child can create a climate that encourages underachievement. Underachievement may also occur when teachers inappropriately assign lower grades to gifted

Kathryn J. Kolb; Lee Jussim

1994-01-01

184

EXPECTATIONS AND DROPOUTS IN SCHOOLS OF NURSING  

Microsoft Academic Search

EXPECTATIONS AND EXPERIENCES OF STRESS AND SATISFACTION OF 1852 1ST-YR STUDENTS IN 43 NURSING SCHOOLS WERE ASSESSED BY QUESTIONNAIRE. LOW BUT SIGNIFICANT NEGATIVE CORRELATIONS WERE OBTAINED BETWEEN WITHDRAWAL AND (1) EXPERIENCED SATISFACTIONS, AND (2) CONFIRMATION OF EXPECTATIONS, ESPECIALLY WITH RESPECT TO SATISFACTIONS. WITHDRAWAL WAS UNRELATED TO EXPERIENCED STRESS, WHETHER EXPECTED OR UNEXPECTED.

MILDRED E. KATZELL

1968-01-01

185

Are Grade Expectations Rational? A Classroom Experiment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examines students' expectations about their final grade. An attempt is made to determine whether students form expectations rationally. Expectations in economics, rational or otherwise, carry valuable information and have important implications in terms of both teaching effectiveness and the role of grades as an incentive structure…

Hossain, Belayet; Tsigaris, Panagiotis

2015-01-01

186

Model for Delay Faults Based upon Paths  

Microsoft Academic Search

Delay testing of combinational logic in a clocked environment is analyzed. A model based upon paths is introduced for delay faults. Any path with a total delay exceeding the clock interval is called a \\

Gordon L. Smith

1985-01-01

187

Nuclear dynamics of K¯ bound states  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

K¯ nuclear bound states were generated dynamically within a relativistic mean field (RMF) model. Substantial polarization of the core nucleus was found for light nuclei. The behavior of the dynamically calculated width ?K¯ as function of the K¯ binding energy was studied. A lower limit of ?K¯ ˜ 35 - 45 MeV for 1s K¯ nuclear states in light nuclei such as 12C was placed on the width expected for deep binding in the range B K¯ ˜ 100 - 200 MeV.

Mareš, J.; Friedman, E.; Gal, A.

2006-07-01

188

Universal Delay-Limited Simulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract—We consider the problem,of universal delay?limited simulation,of an,unknown,information,source,of a certain parametric family (e.g., the family of memoryless sources or Markov sources), given a training sequence from that source and,a stream,of purely,random,bits. In the,delay?limited setting, the simulation algorithm generates a random sequence sequentially, by delivering one symbol for each training symbol that is made available after a given initial delay, whereas

Neri Merhav; Gadiel Seroussi; Marcelo J. Weinberger

2008-01-01

189

Tight lower bounds for probabilistic solitude verification on anonymous rings  

Microsoft Academic Search

A model that captures communication on asynchronous unidirectional rings is formalized. Our model incorporates both probabilistic and nondeterministic features and is strictly more powerful than a purely probabilistic model. Using this model, a collection of tools are developed that facilitate studying lower bounds on the expected communication complexity of Monte Carlo algorithms for language recognition problems on anonymous asynchronous unidirectional

Karl R. Abrahamson; Andrew Adler; Lisa Highám; David G. Kirkpatrick

1994-01-01

190

A bounding approach to multiarea probabilistic production costing  

Microsoft Academic Search

The expected production cost of a multiarea power system is estimated by constructing a sequence of upper and lower bounds. The approach uses a state space characterization of equipment availability and loads, combined with network optimization methods and standard load duration curve based production costing techniques. Convergence of the algorithms is proved. An illustrative application is presented

B. F. Hobbs; Yuandong Ji

1995-01-01

191

Ikeda Delay Differential Equation Model  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Ikeda Delay Differential Equation model shows the dynamics of a delay differential equation that depends on the value of the dynamical variable x(t) at a previous time x(t-τ). Sprott shows that these systems provide elegant examples of chaos in systems that are too simple to exhibit chaos without the time delay. This model demonstrates how EJS provides a natural syntax for implementing these models. The Ikeda Delay Differential Equation Model was developed using the Easy Java Simulations (EJS) modeling tool version 4.3.3. It is distributed as a ready-to-run (compiled) Java archive. Double clicking the ejs_chaos_IkedaDDE.jar file will run the program if Java is installed.

Christian, Wolfgang; Franciscouembre

2011-03-28

192

Delayed presentation of anorectal malformations  

PubMed Central

Aims and Objectives: Delayed management of anorectal malformation (ARM) increases the surgical and functional complications for the patient. We defined “delayed presentation of ARM” and reviewed our patients with ARM to find out the incidence and causes of delayed presentation. Materials and Methods: Patients satisfying the criteria of “delayed presentation of ARM” were involved. Detailed information of each patient including the mode of presentation, associated anomalies, plan of management and follow-up was obtained from the hospital records. Results: Between 2003 and 2006, 43 patients satisfied our criteria of “delayed presentation of ARM”. There were 21 males and 22 females. Seventeen of these males presented with low-type ARM. Eleven of them were managed by a single-stage procedure. These “delayed presenters” had to live with constipation, inadequate weight gain and parental anxiety for a greater time. Analysis of the outcomes showed more functional complications in patients who had undergone failed perineal surgery previously. In females with low ARM, the procedure of choice was anterior sagittal anorectoplasty (ASARP). Single stage surgery provides good outcomes for most of low type of ARMs. High-type ARMs in males and females were managed by a staged procedure. Conclusion: “Delayed presentation of ARM” is a major group of ARM in our setup. The management and results of their treatment are not different from those of the early presenters. The most common cause of delayed ARM is wrong advice given by the health care providers followed by inadequate treatment elsewhere. Corrective surgeries taking second attempt in perineum always produces poor outcomes. PMID:20011470

Sinha, Shandip Kumar; Kanojia, Ravi P.; Wakhlu, Ashish; Rawat, J. D.; Kureel, S. N.; Tandon, R. K.

2008-01-01

193

Conditioning with delayed vitamin injections.  

PubMed

Rats deficient in thiamine were allowed to drink saccharin-fla vored water. They were then given an injection of thiamine which caused their intake of the nonnutritive fluid to increase. Delay of the intramuscular injection up to 30 minutes had no effect upon the acquisition of this condi tioning. Presumably, this delay reflects specialization in the central integrative mechanisms which serve these afferent modalities. PMID:6016955

Garcia, J; Ervin, F R; Yorke, C H; Koelling, R A

1967-02-10

194

Should a High School Adopt Advanced Placement or a Concurrent Enrollment Program? An Expected Benefit Approach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article provides an explicit framework for evaluating the expected benefit to college-bound students of courses offered by Advanced Placement (AP) versus concurrent enrollment programs (CEP). District personnel can use it to assess the relative merits of these programs, given the characteristics of their students, in deciding which model to…

Dutkowsky, Donald H.; Evensky, Jerry M.; Edmonds, Gerald S.

2009-01-01

195

Do Out-of-Pocket Health Care Costs Delay Retirement?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rising health care costs threaten many older Americans’ financial security, perhaps leading people to delay retirement. For workers receiving health benefits from their employers, continued work reduces the risk of high out-of-pocket health care costs. Working longer also increases retirement incomes, making health care costs more affordable. This paper examines the impact of expected future out-of-pocket medical spending on retirement

Richard W. Johnson; Rudolph G. Penner; Desmond Toohey

2008-01-01

196

Rapid Expectation Adaptation during Syntactic Comprehension  

PubMed Central

When we read or listen to language, we are faced with the challenge of inferring intended messages from noisy input. This challenge is exacerbated by considerable variability between and within speakers. Focusing on syntactic processing (parsing), we test the hypothesis that language comprehenders rapidly adapt to the syntactic statistics of novel linguistic environments (e.g., speakers or genres). Two self-paced reading experiments investigate changes in readers’ syntactic expectations based on repeated exposure to sentences with temporary syntactic ambiguities (so-called “garden path sentences”). These sentences typically lead to a clear expectation violation signature when the temporary ambiguity is resolved to an a priori less expected structure (e.g., based on the statistics of the lexical context). We find that comprehenders rapidly adapt their syntactic expectations to converge towards the local statistics of novel environments. Specifically, repeated exposure to a priori unexpected structures can reduce, and even completely undo, their processing disadvantage (Experiment 1). The opposite is also observed: a priori expected structures become less expected (even eliciting garden paths) in environments where they are hardly ever observed (Experiment 2). Our findings suggest that, when changes in syntactic statistics are to be expected (e.g., when entering a novel environment), comprehenders can rapidly adapt their expectations, thereby overcoming the processing disadvantage that mistaken expectations would otherwise cause. Our findings take a step towards unifying insights from research in expectation-based models of language processing, syntactic priming, and statistical learning. PMID:24204909

Fine, Alex B.; Jaeger, T. Florian; Farmer, Thomas A.; Qian, Ting

2013-01-01

197

Expected and unexpected imaging features after oesophageal cancer treatment.  

PubMed

Oesophageal cancer is a leading cause of cancer-related mortality worldwide. Various surgical procedures are performed for oesophageal malignancies. The advancement in surgical technique as well as post-surgical care has significantly reduced the complication rate. However, various complications may still occur either immediately (infection, aspiration, anastomotic leak, ischaemic necrosis, fistulae, chylothorax) or late after surgery (strictures, tumour recurrence, fistulae, delayed emptying). The palliative treatment options of radiotherapy and stent placement may also be accompanied by complications, such as radiation necrosis, stricture, and stent ingrowth by the tumour. This review presents the expected post-surgical appearance as well as various complications after surgical and non-surgical treatments of oesophageal cancer. PMID:24857676

Sonavane, S; Watts, J; Terry, N; Singh, S P

2014-08-01

198

Sudden ionospheric delay decorrelation and its impact on the Wide Area Augmentation System (WAAS)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the absence of selective availability, the ionosphere represents the largest source of positioning error for single-frequency users of the Global Positioning System (GPS). In differential GPS systems such as the Wide Area Augmentation System (WAAS), vertical ionospheric delays are modeled at regularly spaced intervals in geographic latitude and longitude. The broadcast bound on the error at each of these

L. Sparks; A. Komjathy; A. J. Mannucci

2004-01-01

199

Delayed Detached Eddy Simulation of 3-D Wing Flutter with Fully Coupled Fluid-Structural Interaction  

E-print Network

Delayed Detached Eddy Simulation of 3-D Wing Flutter with Fully Coupled Fluid Wing 445.6 flutter bound- ary in a transonic flow. A dual-time step implicit unfactored Gauss is implemented as a massive parallel solver in a MPI environment. The computed flutter boundary of AGARD Wing 445

Zha, Gecheng

200

Wirtinger-Based Integral Inequality: Application to Time-Delay Systems  

E-print Network

-bounded uncertainties and the use of scaled small gain theorem [? ? ], Integral Quadratic Constraints (IQCWirtinger-Based Integral Inequality: Application to Time-Delay Systems A. Seuret a,b F. Gouaisbaut) [? ], or quadratic separa- tion approach [? ] allows then to derive efficient stabil- ity criteria. The challenge

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

201

Network Lifetime Maximization in Delay-Tolerant Sensor Networks With a Mobile Sink  

E-print Network

to the sink, subject to the bounded delay on data delivery and the given potential sink location space. Due, there is only a single stationary sink (a base station), that has unlimited power supply serving as the gate, where the sensors within one-hop from the sink have to relay data for other remote sensors. As a result

Liang, Weifa

202

A Population Based Incremental Learning for Delay Constrained Network Coding Resource Minimization  

E-print Network

.g. video conferencing and distributed game, should be bounded. It is therefore important to minimize codingA Population Based Incremental Learning for Delay Constrained Network Coding Resource Minimization-possible nodes [3,4,5]. As they consume public resources, e.g. buffer and computational resources, coding

Qu, Rong

203

A general approach to dynamic packet routing with bounded buffers  

SciTech Connect

We prove a sufficient condition for the stability of dynamic packet routing algorithms. Our approach reduces the problem of steady state analysis to the easier and better understood question of static routing. We show that certain high probability and worst case bounds on the quasistatic (finite past) performance of a routing algorithm imply bounds on the performance of the dynamic version of that algorithm. Our technique is particularly useful in analyzing routing on networks with bounded buffers where complicated dependencies make standard queuing techniques inapplicable. We present several applications of our approach. In all cases we start from a known static algorithm, and modify it to fit our framework. In particular we give the first dynamic algorithm for routing on a butterfly with bounded buffers. Both the injection rate for which the algorithm is stable, and the expected time a packet spends in the system are optimal up to constant factors. Our approach is also applicable to the recently introduced adversarial input model.

Broder, A.Z. [Digital Systems Research Center, Palo Alto, CA (United States); Frieze, A.M. [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Upfal, E. [IBM Almaden Research Center, San Jose, CA (United States); [Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot (Israel)

1996-12-31

204

[16] F. P. Kelly. Reversability and stochastic networks. Wiley, New York, 1979. [17] J. Liebeherr, D. Wrege, and D. Ferrari. Exact admission control for networks with a bounded  

E-print Network

, D. Wrege, and D. Ferrari. Exact admission control for networks with a bounded delay service. IEEE to the information age? IEEE Communications Magazine, 24:8 -- 15, 1986. [25] D. Wrege and J. Liebeherr. A near

Andrews, Matthew

205

A bounded jump for the bounded Turing degrees  

E-print Network

We define the bounded jump of A by A^b = {x | Exists i 1 we have X Shoenfield inversion holds for the bounded jump on the bounded Turing degrees. That is, for every X such that 0^b <=_[bT] X <=_[bT] 0^[2b], there is a Y <=_[bT] 0^b such that Y^b =_[bT] X.

Anderson, Bernard A

2010-01-01

206

Expectancy–Value Theory of Achievement Motivation  

Microsoft Academic Search

We discuss the expectancy–value theory of motivation, focusing on an expectancy–value model developed and researched by Eccles, Wigfield, and their colleagues. Definitions of crucial constructs in the model, including ability beliefs, expectancies for success, and the components of subjective task values, are provided. These definitions are compared to those of related constructs, including self-efficacy, intrinsic and extrinsic motivation, and interest.

Allan Wigfield; Jacquelynne S. Eccles

2000-01-01

207

The range of time delay and the global stability of the equilibrium for an IVGTT model?  

PubMed Central

Diabetes mellitus has become a prevalent disease in the world. Diagnostic protocol for the onset of diabetes mellitus is the initial step in the treatments. The intravenous glucose tolerance test (IVGTT) has been considered as the most accurate method to determine the insulin sensitivity and glucose effectiveness. It is well known that there exists a time delay in insulin secretion stimulated by the elevated glucose concentration level. However, the range of the length of the delay in the existing IVGTT models are not fully discussed and thus in many cases the time delay may be assigned to a value out of its reasonable range. In addition, several attempts had been made to determine when the unique equilibrium point is globally asymptotically stable. However, all these conditions are delay-independent. In this paper, we discuss the range of the time delay and provide easy-to-check delay-dependent conditions for the global asymptotic stability of the equilibrium point for a recent IVGTT model through Liapunov function approach. Estimates of the upper bound of the delay for global stability are given in corollaries. In addition, the numerical simulation in this paper is fully incorporated with functional initial conditions, which is natural and more appropriate in delay differential equation system. PMID:22123436

Li, Jiaxu; Wang, Minghu; De Gaetano, Andrea; Palumbo, Pasquale; Panunzi, Simona

2011-01-01

208

Adaptive subsample delay estimation using windowed correlation  

Microsoft Academic Search

An on-line delay estimation algorithm based upon the windowed average magnitude difference function (AMDF) that is suitable for determining the subsample delay between two noisy signals is introduced. The new estimator uses the AMDF to directly update the delay estimate, which is in turn used to adapt the coefficients of a fractional delay filter (FDF). The new estimator consists predominately

Douglas L. Maskell; Graham S. Woods

2004-01-01

209

Prescription stimulant expectancies in recreational and medical users: results from a preliminary expectancy questionnaire.  

PubMed

Given the rise of prescription stimulant misuse, examination of effect expectancies could prove helpful. The Prescription Stimulant Expectancy Questionnaire (PSEQ) was designed to explore positive and negative prescription stimulant-related expectancies. In 2006, 157 participants nationwide completed an Internet survey of prescription stimulant use, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms, and expectancies. Multiple regressions demonstrate that positive, but not negative expectancies, predicted frequency of use. Recreational and medical users were classified by hierarchical cluster analysis. Recreational users reported fewer positive and negative expectancies than medical users. Implications and limitations are discussed. Future research is warranted on prescription stimulant expectancies and the utility of the PSEQ. PMID:19938932

Looby, Alison; Earleywine, Mitch

2009-01-01

210

Predicting problem behaviors with multiple expectancies: expanding expectancy-value theory.  

PubMed

Expectancy-value theory emphasizes the importance of outcome expectancies for behavioral decisions, but most tests of the theory focus on a single behavior and a single expectancy. However, the matching law suggests that individuals consider expected outcomes for both the target behavior and alternative behaviors when making decisions. In this study, we expanded expectancy-value theory to evaluate the contributions of two competing expectancies to adolescent behavior problems. One hundred twenty-one high school students completed measures of behavior problems, expectancies for both acting out and academic effort, and perceived academic competence. Students' self-reported behavior problems covaried mostly with perceived competence and academic expectancies and only nominally with problem behavior expectancies. We suggest that behavior problems may result from students perceiving a lack of valued or feasible alternative behaviors, such as studying. We discuss implications for interventions and suggest that future research continue to investigate the contribution of alternative expectancies to behavioral decisions. PMID:15673229

Borders, Ashley; Earleywine, Mitchell; Huey, Stanley J

2004-01-01

211

Spectroscopic Bounds on New Physics  

E-print Network

We use atomic spectra to extend pure Coulomb's law tests to larger masses. We interpret these results in terms of constraints for hidden sector photons. With existing data the bounds for hidden photons are not improved. However we find that our atomic spectra bounds are an especially clean and model-independent complement to existing ones from other methods. We also show that data from future tests of true muonium and muonic atoms could produce atomic spectra bounds which probe untested parameter space.

Joerg Jaeckel; Sabyasachi Roy

2010-11-02

212

Teacher Expectations and the Able Child.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two middle school teachers and two students in each of the teacher's classes were assessed for field dependence-independence (FDI). The teachers were interviewed about their students. Found that one teacher had higher expectations and one had lower expectations for the student who had the same FDI orientation as the teacher than for the student…

Lee-Corbin, Hilary

1994-01-01

213

Raising Expectations is Aim of New Effort  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Researchers and policymakers agree that teachers' expectations of what their students can do can become self-fulfilling prophecies for children's academic performance. Yet while the "soft bigotry of low expectations" has become an education catchphrase, scholars and advocates are just beginning to explore whether it is possible to prevent such…

Sparks, Sarah D.

2010-01-01

214

Sexually deviant behavior in expectant fathers  

Microsoft Academic Search

A group of 91 expectant fathers examined in a court psychiatric clinic is compared with a group of 91 nonexpectant married males equated for age, race, and yr. of arrest. The hypothesis that sexually deviant reactions are more frequent in expectant fathers is statistically substantiated. Other findings are reported and discussed including the frequent occurrence of sexual offenses during the

A. Arthur Hartman; Robert C. Nicolay

1966-01-01

215

Expected utility theory without the completeness axiom  

Microsoft Academic Search

We study the problem of obtaining an expected utility representation for a potentially incomplete preference relation over lotteries by means of a set of von Neumann–Morgenstern utility functions. It is shown that, when the prize space is a compact metric space, a preference relation admits such a multi-utility representation provided that it satisfies the standard axioms of expected utility theory.

Juan Dubra; Fabio Maccheroni; Efe A. Ok

2004-01-01

216

Framing expectations in early HIV cure research  

PubMed Central

Language used to describe clinical research represents a powerful opportunity to educate volunteers. In the case of HIV cure research there is an emerging need to manage expectations by using the term ‘experiment’. Cure experiments are proof-of-concept studies designed to evaluate novel paradigms to reduce persistent HIV-1 reservoirs, without any expectation of medical benefit. PMID:25280965

Dubé, Karine; Henderson, Gail E.; Margolis, David M.

2014-01-01

217

Rising Tides: Faculty Expectations of Library Websites  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Looking at 2003-2009 LibQUAL+ responses at research-oriented universities in the United States, faculty library users report a significant and consistent rise in desires and expectations for library-provided online tools and websites, even as student user groups show declining or leveling expectations. While faculty, like students, also report…

Nicol, Erica Carlson; O'English, Mark

2012-01-01

218

Course Expectations and Career Management Skills  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Course completion and student satisfaction is likely to be influenced by how realistic the expectations of students are when they enroll. This report explores the idea that students' expectations would be more realistic if students have well developed career management competencies. Recent research argues that lack of information is not the…

Kennedy, Marnie L.; Haines, Ben

2008-01-01

219

Expectations and the Black Market Premium  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this paper is to gain a better understanding of the black market premium--the percentage differential between the black market and the official exchange rate. Tests are used to see whether the black market premium responds to variations in expectations about the official exchange rate in Argentina, Brazil, Colombia, and Mexico. Expectations of devaluation do cause movements in

Susan Pozo; Mark Wheeler

1999-01-01

220

EXPECT: Intelligent Support for Knowledge Base Refinement  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effective knowledge acquisition amounts to having good sources of expectations that can provide guidance about what knowledge needs to be acquired from users. Current approaches to knowledge acquisition often rely on strong models of the problem-solving method used in the task domain to form expectations. These methods are often implicit in the tool, which is a strong limitation for their

Cécile Paris; Yolanda Gil

1993-01-01

221

Framing expectations in early HIV cure research.  

PubMed

Language used to describe clinical research represents a powerful opportunity to educate volunteers. In the case of HIV cure research there is an emerging need to manage expectations by using the term 'experiment'. Cure experiments are proof-of-concept studies designed to evaluate novel paradigms to reduce persistent HIV-1 reservoirs, without any expectation of medical benefit. PMID:25280965

Dubé, Karine; Henderson, Gail E; Margolis, David M

2014-10-01

222

Expectations of Vocational Teachers for Handicapped Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study examined three components of the initial expectations of 66 secondary vocational teachers toward mainstreamed educable mentally retarded and learning disabled children. Among findings was that presence of the labels lowered the initial academic and behavioral expectations of teachers in the sample. (SB)

Minner, Sam

1982-01-01

223

Effects of naturally induced teacher expectancies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Examined a natural quasi experiment as a test of the teacher expectancy hypothesis. 1st-grade achievement scores were obtained for 79 younger siblings who had been preceded in school by bright or dull older siblings. It was hypothesized that pupils taught by the same teacher as their older siblings (expectancy condition) would perform better than those taught by a different teacher

W. Burleigh Seaver

1973-01-01

224

Predictability is necessary for closed-loop visual feedback delay adaptation.  

PubMed

In case of delayed visual feedback during visuomotor tasks, like in some sluggish computer games, humans can modulate their behavior to compensate for the delay. However, opinions on the nature of this compensation diverge. Some studies suggest that humans adapt to feedback delays with lasting changes in motor behavior (aftereffects) and a recalibration of time perception. Other studies have shown little or no evidence for such semipermanent recalibration in the temporal domain. We hypothesize that predictability of the reference signal (target to be tracked) is necessary for semipermanent delay adaptation. To test this hypothesis, we trained participants with a 200 ms visual feedback delay in a visually guided manual tracking task, varying the predictability of the reference signal between conditions, but keeping reference motion and feedback delay constant. In Experiment 1, we focused on motor behavior. Only training in the predictable condition brings about all of the adaptive changes and aftereffects expected from delay adaptation. In Experiment 2, we used a synchronization task to investigate perceived simultaneity (perceptuomotor learning). Supporting the hypothesis, participants recalibrated subjective visuomotor simultaneity only when trained in the predictable condition. Such a shift in perceived simultaneity was also observed in Experiment 3, using an interval estimation task. These results show that delay adaptation in motor control can modulate the perceived temporal alignment of vision and kinesthetically sensed movement. The coadaptation of motor prediction and target prediction (reference extrapolation) seems necessary for such genuine delay adaptation. This offers an explanation for divergent results in the literature. PMID:24599942

Rohde, Marieke; van Dam, Loes C J; Ernst, Marc O

2014-01-01

225

Expectancy-Value Theory of Achievement Motivation.  

PubMed

We discuss the expectancy-value theory of motivation, focusing on an expectancy-value model developed and researched by Eccles, Wigfield, and their colleagues. Definitions of crucial constructs in the model, including ability beliefs, expectancies for success, and the components of subjective task values, are provided. These definitions are compared to those of related constructs, including self-efficacy, intrinsic and extrinsic motivation, and interest. Research is reviewed dealing with two issues: (1) change in children's and adolescents' ability beliefs, expectancies for success, and subjective values, and (2) relations of children's and adolescents' ability-expectancy beliefs and subjective task values to their performance and choice of activities. Copyright 2000 Academic Press. PMID:10620382

Wigfield; Eccles

2000-01-01

226

Delay-Adaptive Full-State Predictor Feedback for Systems With Unknown Long Actuator Delay  

E-print Network

1 Delay-Adaptive Full-State Predictor Feedback for Systems With Unknown Long Actuator Delay with actuator delay of substantial length and of completely unknown value is an important problem that has never by employing a framework where the actuator delay is represented as a transport PDE, by estimating the delay

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

227

Wire length and width bound generation for high-speed MCM and PCB designs  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper a methodology for computation of bounds on MCM and PCB net length and width consistent with timing and noise constraints is proposed. In this method. The initial length and width of each net are used for the AWE-based simulation. For the simulated length and width of the line, the delay and overshoot at receivers are expanded in

Haizhou Chen; Eugene Shragowitz; Jaebum Lee

1997-01-01

228

Electronically variable time delay in ultrasonic Lamb wave delay lines  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is concerned with the effect of a biasing electric field on the propagation of ultrasonic Lamb waves in thin plates. The biasing field is applied parallel to the direction of substrate thickness. Since the plate is very thin, large values of electric field can be obtained with low bias voltages. Our experiments have utilized Lamb wave delay lines

S. G. Joshi

1996-01-01

229

Variable Delay Testing Using ONE  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper investigates the effect of long and changing propagation delays on the performance of TCP file transfers. Tests are performed with machines that emulate communication from a low/medium-earth satellite to Earth by way of a geosynchronous satellite. As a result of these tests, we find that TCP is fairly robust to varying delays given a high enough TCP timer granularity. However, performance degrades noticeably for larger file transfers when a finer timer granularity is used. Such results have also been observed in previous simulations by other researchers, and thus, this work serves as an extension of those results.

Ishac, Joseph

2002-01-01

230

Stochastic gene expression with delay.  

PubMed

The expression of genes usually follows a two-step procedure. First, a gene (encoded in the genome) is transcribed resulting in a strand of (messenger) RNA. Afterwards, the RNA is translated into protein. We extend the classical stochastic jump model by adding delays (with arbitrary distributions) to transcription and translation. Already in the classical model, production of RNA and protein comes in bursts by activation and deactivation of the gene, resulting in a large variance of the number of RNA and proteins in equilibrium. We derive precise formulas for this second-order structure with the model including delay in equilibrium. PMID:25285895

Jansen, Martin; Pfaffelhuber, Peter

2015-01-01

231

Inoculation against forgetting: advantages of immediate versus delayed initial testing due to superior verbatim accessibility.  

PubMed

In this study, potential benefits of early memory testing were examined in terms of "inoculating" eyewitness memory against forgetting. As predicted by fuzzy trace theory (e.g., Reyna & Titcomb, 1997), a larger testing advantage in the delayed recall of event details was expected after immediate testing than after delayed testing because of the decline in accessibility of verbatim traces over time. However, memory for only the gist of these details was expected to be relatively stable over time, resulting in a smaller (if any) effect of the timing of interpolated testing. After viewing a target event, participants were questioned about event items immediately, after a 24-hr delay, or after a 48-hr delay and were free to respond at either the gist or the verbatim level. Verbatim memory for event details was tested 72 hr after the event. As expected, immediate interpolated testing improved verbatim memory performance on the final test more than delayed testing did, yielding a larger testing effect. Furthermore, the effect of the timing of interpolated testing on the magnitude of the testing effect was mediated by verbatim accessibility at interpolated testing. In contrast, memory for only the gist of event details was unaffected by the timing of interpolated testing, both on the interpolated test and on the final test. The findings highlight the role of declining verbatim memory over time in accounting for the advantage of immediate over delayed interpolated testing in inoculating eyewitness memory against forgetting of detailed information. PMID:22582965

Pansky, Ainat

2012-11-01

232

Expected degree for RNA secondary structure networks.  

PubMed

Consider the network of all secondary structures of a given RNA sequence, where nodes are connected when the corresponding structures have base pair distance one. The expected degree of the network is the average number of neighbors, where average may be computed with respect to the either the uniform or Boltzmann probability. Here, we describe the first algorithm, RNAexpNumNbors, that can compute the expected number of neighbors, or expected network degree, of an input sequence. For RNA sequences from the Rfam database, the expected degree is significantly less than the constrained minimum free energy structure, defined to have minimum free energy (MFE) over all structures consistent with the Rfam consensus structure. The expected degree of structural RNAs, such as purine riboswitches, paradoxically appears to be smaller than that of random RNA, yet the difference between the degree of the MFE structure and the expected degree is larger than that of random RNA. Expected degree does not seem to correlate with standard structural diversity measures of RNA, such as positional entropy and ensemble defect. The program RNAexpNumNbors is written in C, runs in cubic time and quadratic space, and is publicly available at http://bioinformatics.bc.edu/clotelab/RNAexpNumNbors. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25382310

Clote, Peter

2015-01-15

233

Parental expectations of their adolescents' teachers.  

PubMed

In spite of increasing parental participation in their children's education, and the growing research interest in this trend, the study of one of the central components of parental involvement, namely, parental expectations of teachers, has been scarce. The present research focuses on this important, albeit neglected, topic. We examined the effects of the sex of the parent and the sex and grade level of the specific child on parental expectations of teachers. Seven hundred and sixty-five Israeli parents of students attending 31 educational institutions participated in the study. They completed the Expectations of Teachers questionnaire, consisting of 12 items describing behavioural characteristics of teachers subsumed under three broad categories: Help and Assistance, Teaching Competence, and Fairness. Greater expectations for Help and Assistance were reported by the parents, followed by Teaching Competence and Fairness on the part of the teacher. Mothers hold higher Fairness and Help and Assistance expectations as compared with fathers. Help and competence expectations were higher for parents of female students as compared with parents of boys. Conclusions from our study call for increasing efforts geared toward the building of a sustainable and beneficial partnership between teachers and parents for the best interest of the students and for the further elucidation of teachers' expectations of parents. PMID:10936019

Tatar, M; Horenczyk, G

2000-08-01

234

Northwest Outward Bound Instructor's Manual.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Instructor responsibilities, procedures for completing activities safely, and instructional methods and techniques are outlined to assist instructors in the Northwest Outward Bound School (Portland, Oregon) as they strive for teaching excellence. Information is organized into six chapters addressing: history and philosophy of Outward Bound; course…

Northwest Outward Bound School, Portland, OR.

235

Memory for expectation-violating concepts: the effects of agents and cultural familiarity.  

PubMed

Previous research has shown that ideas which violate our expectations, such as schema-inconsistent concepts, enjoy privileged status in terms of memorability. In our study, memory for concepts that violate cultural (cultural schema-level) expectations (e.g., "illiterate teacher", "wooden bottle", or "thorny grass") versus domain-level (ontological) expectations (e.g., "speaking cat", "jumping maple", or "melting teacher") was examined. Concepts that violate cultural expectations, or counter-schematic, were remembered to a greater extent compared with concepts that violate ontological expectations and with intuitive concepts (e.g., "galloping pony", "drying orchid", or "convertible car"), in both immediate recall, and delayed recognition tests. Importantly, concepts related to agents showed a memory advantage over concepts not pertaining to agents, but this was true only for expectation-violating concepts. Our results imply that intuitive, everyday concepts are equally attractive and memorable regardless of the presence or absence of agents. However, concepts that violate our expectations (cultural-schema or domain-level) are more memorable when pertaining to agents (humans and animals) than to non-agents (plants or objects/artifacts). We conclude that due to their evolutionary salience, cultural ideas which combine expectancy violations and the involvement of an agent are especially memorable and thus have an enhanced probability of being successfully propagated. PMID:24714568

Porubanova, Michaela; Shaw, Daniel Joel; McKay, Ryan; Xygalatas, Dimitris

2014-01-01

236

What to Expect Before a Heart Transplant  

MedlinePLUS

... on Twitter. What To Expect Before a Heart Transplant The Heart Transplant Waiting List Patients who are eligible for a ... cardiac rehab after the transplant. Contact With the Transplant Center During the Wait Patients on the waiting ...

237

What to Expect during a Heart Transplant  

MedlinePLUS

... on Twitter. What To Expect During a Heart Transplant Just before heart transplant surgery, the patient will ... not replaced as part of the surgery. Heart Transplant Figure A shows where the diseased heart is ...

238

What to Expect During a Lung Transplant  

MedlinePLUS

... on Twitter. What To Expect During a Lung Transplant Just before lung transplant surgery, you will get ... and its blood vessels to your heart. Lung Transplant The illustration shows the process of a lung ...

239

What to Expect After a Heart Transplant  

MedlinePLUS

... on Twitter. What To Expect After a Heart Transplant Staying in the Hospital The amount of time ... if you have too many side effects. Managing Transplant Medicines and Their Side Effects You'll have ...

240

Anesthesia: What to Expect (For Parents)  

MedlinePLUS

... by the anesthesiologist, using your input. Back Continue In the Operating Room If general anesthesia is used, the anesthesiologist will ... for Surgery Word! Surgery Word! Anesthesia What Happens in the Operating Room? Types of Anesthesia Anesthesia - What to Expect What's ...

241

Brain MRI Classification using the Expectation Maximization  

E-print Network

Brain MRI Classification using the Expectation Maximization made a brain magnetic resonance image (MRI) classification algorithm that uses a twostage applied to a set of normal brain MR images for further testing. We accomplished a working

Chen, Tsuhan

242

Expectant Dads May Also Have Hormonal Changes  

MedlinePLUS

... Dec. 15 in the American Journal of Human Biology . Edelstein and her team followed 29 expectant heterosexual ... Dec. 15, 2014, online, American Journal of Human Biology HealthDay Copyright (c) 2014 HealthDay . All rights reserved. ...

243

Leverage Expectations and Bond Credit Spreads  

E-print Network

In an efficient market, spreads will reflect both the issuer’s current risk and investors’ expectations about how that risk might change over time. Collin-Dufresne and Goldstein (2001) show analytically that a firm’s ...

Flannery, Mark J.; Nikolova, Stanislava; Ö ztekin, Ö zde

2012-08-04

244

Delaying corn rootworm resistance to Bt corn.  

PubMed

Transgenic crops producing Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxins for insect control have been successful, but their efficacy is reduced when pests evolve resistance. To delay pest resistance to Bt crops, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has required refuges of host plants that do not produce Bt toxins to promote survival of susceptible pests. Such refuges are expected to be most effective if the Bt plants deliver a dose of toxin high enough to kill nearly all hybrid progeny produced by matings between resistant and susceptible pests. In 2003, the EPA first registered corn, Zea mays L., producing a Bt toxin (Cry3Bb1) that kills western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte, one of the most economically important crop pests in the United States. The EPA requires minimum refuges of 20% for Cry3Bb1 corn and 5% for corn producing two Bt toxins active against corn rootworms. We conclude that the current refuge requirements are not adequate, because Bt corn hybrids active against corn rootworms do not meet the high-dose standard, and western corn rootworm has rapidly evolved resistance to Cry3Bb1 corn in the laboratory, greenhouse, and field. Accordingly, we recommend increasing the minimum refuge for Bt corn targeting corn rootworms to 50% for plants producing one toxin active against these pests and to 20% for plants producing two toxins active against these pests. Increasing the minimum refuge percentage can help to delay pest resistance, encourage integrated pest management, and promote more sustainable crop protection. PMID:22812111

Tabashnik, Bruce E; Gould, Fred

2012-06-01

245

Overt Expression of Experimenter Expectancies, Interaction with Subject Expectancies, and Performance on a Psychomotor Task.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Subjects (N=48) attempted 24 trials of a psychomotor task to avoid aversive stimulus. Subject-experimenters, with solution expectancies instilled, offered information to subjects. Found that subject-experimenter expectancies were communicated to subjects via periodic comments. Expectancies affected subjects' task performance. Previous similar task…

Callaway, John W.; And Others

1980-01-01

246

Measuring Student Expectations and Their Effects on Satisfaction: The Importance of Managing Student Expectations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two studies investigate the relationship between student expectations and student satisfaction. Can students' satisfaction with a course be accurately predicted by comparing their perceptions to their expectations (as suggested by the expectancy/disconfirmation paradigm)? The results of these studies suggest that the answer to this question is…

Appleton-Knapp, Sara L.; Krentler, Kathleen A.

2006-01-01

247

Dependence of line shapes in femtosecond broadband stimulated Raman spectroscopy on pump-probe time delay  

PubMed Central

The effect of the time delay between the picosecond Raman pump and the femtosecond Stokes probe pulse on the Raman gain line shape in femtosecond broadband stimulated Raman spectroscopy (FSRS) is presented. Experimental data are obtained for cyclohexane to investigate the dependence of the FSRS line shape on this time delay. Theoretical simulations of the line shapes as a function of the time delay using the coupled wave theory agree well with experimental data, recovering broad line shapes at positive time delays and narrower bands with small Raman loss side wings at negative time delays. The analysis yields the lower bounds of the vibrational dephasing times of 2.0 ps and 0.65 ps for the 802 and 1027 cm?1 modes for cyclohexane, respectively. The theoretical description and simulation using the coupled wave theory are also consistent with the observed Raman gain intensity profile over time delay, reaching the maximum at a slightly negative time delay (??21 ps), and show that the coupled wave theory is a good model for describing FSRS. PMID:15638596

Yoon, Sangwoon; McCamant, David W.; Kukura, Philipp; Mathies, Richard A.; Zhang, Donghui; Lee, Soo-Y.

2005-01-01

248

Prospection and emotional memory: how expectation affects emotional memory formation following sleep and wake  

PubMed Central

Successful prospective memory is necessarily driven by an expectation that encoded information will be relevant in the future, leading to its preferential placement in memory storage. Like expectation, emotional salience is another type of cue that benefits human memory formation. Although separate lines of research suggest that both emotional information and information explicitly expected to be important in the future benefit memory consolidation, it is unknown how expectation affects the processing of emotional information and whether sleep, which is known to maximize memory consolidation, plays a critical role. The purpose of this study was to investigate how expectation would impact the consolidation of emotionally salient content, and whether this impact would differ across delays of sleep and wake. Participants encoded scenes containing an emotionally charged negative or neutral foreground object placed on a plausible neutral background. After encoding, half of the participants were informed they would later be tested on the scenes (expected condition), while the other half received no information about the test (unexpected condition). At recognition, following a 12-h delay of sleep or wakefulness, the scene components (objects and backgrounds) were presented separately and one at a time, and participants were asked to determine if each component was old or new. Results revealed a greater disparity for memory of negative objects over their paired neutral backgrounds for both the sleep and wake groups when the memory test was expected compared to when it was unexpected, while neutral memory remained unchanged. Analyzing each group separately, the wake group showed a threefold increase in the magnitude of this object/background trade-off for emotional scenes when the memory test was expected compared to when it was unexpected, while those who slept performed similarly across conditions. These results suggest that emotional salience and expectation cues interact to benefit emotional memory consolidation during a delay of wakefulness. The sleeping brain, however, may automatically tag emotionally salient information as important, such that explicit instruction of an upcoming memory test does not further improve memory performance. PMID:25136328

Cunningham, Tony J.; Chambers, Alexis M.; Payne, Jessica D.

2014-01-01

249

Apparent enrichment of organically bound tritium in rivers explained by the heritage of our past.  

PubMed

The global inventory of naturally produced tritium (3H) is estimated at 2.65 kg, whereas more than 600 kg have been released during atmospheric nuclear tests (NCRP, 1979; UNSCEAR, 2000) constituting the main source of artificial tritium throughout the Anthropocene. The behaviour of this radioactive isotope in the environment has been widely studied since the 1950s, both through laboratory experiments and, more recently, through field observations (e.g., Cline, 1953; Kirchmann et al., 1979; Daillant et al., 2004; McCubbin et al., 2001; Kim et al., 2012). In its "free" forms, [i.e. 3H gas or 3H hydride (HT); methyl 3H gas (CH3T); tritiated H2O or 3H-oxide (HTO); and Tissue Free Water 3H (TFWT)], tritium closely follows the water cycle. However, 3H bound with organic compounds, mainly during the basic stages of photosynthesis or through weak hydrogen links, is less exchangeable with water, which explains its persistence in the carbon cycle as re underlined recently by Baglan et al. (2013), Jean-Batiste and Fourré (2013), Kim et al. (2013a,b). In this paper, we demonstrate that terrestrial biomass pools, historically contaminated by global atmospheric fallout from nuclear testing, have constituted a significant delayed source of organically bound tritium (OBT) for aquatic systems, resulting in an apparent enrichment of OBT as compared to HTO. This finding helps to explain concentration factors (tritium concentration in biota/concentration in water) greater than 1 observed in areas that are not directly affected by industrial radioactive wastes, and thus sheds light on the controversies regarding tritium 'bioaccumulation'. Such apparent enrichment of OBT is expected to be more pronounced in the Northern Hemisphere where fallout was most significant, depending on the nature and biodegradability of terrestrial biomass at the regional scale. We further believe that OBT transfers from the continent to oceans have been sufficient to affect tritium concentrations in coastal marine biota (i.e., near river inputs). Our findings demonstrate that the persistence of terrestrial organic (3)H explains imbalances between organically bound tritium and free (3)H in most river systems in particular those not impacted by releases from nuclear facilities. PMID:24956583

Eyrolle-Boyer, Frédérique; Boyer, Patrick; Claval, David; Charmasson, Sabine; Cossonnet, Catherine

2014-10-01

250

Beyond Just a Job: Expectations of Computer Science Students  

Microsoft Academic Search

A survey of job expectations among computer science students was conducted. The purpose of the study was to examine relationships between computer science education, gender, and job expectations. A factor analysis revealed that students have four types of expectations, including: intrinsic expectations (nonmaterialistic expectations involving job satisfaction and personal achievement), extrinsic expectations (materialistic expectations involving monetary compensation, status, and prestige),

Laura Marie Leventhal; David Warner Chilson

1989-01-01

251

Mixed arithmetic architecture: a solution to the iteration bound for resource efficient FPGA and CPLD recursive digital filters  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a new approach for negating the iteration bound of recursive digital filters. The approach is based on first applying equivalence transforms to the recursive section signal flow graph to determine the maximum allowable pipeline delay for each feedback loop and then selecting bit-parallel arithmetic where pipelined digit-serial computation does not meet these delay limits. Scattered look-ahead pipelining

J. Living; Bashir M. Al-hashimi

1999-01-01

252

Vacuum Stability Bound on Extended GMSB Models  

E-print Network

Extensions of GMSB models were explored to explain the recent reports of the Higgs boson mass around 124-126 GeV. Some models predict a large mu term, which can spoil the vacuum stability of the universe. We study two GMSB extensions: i) the model with a large trilinear coupling of the top squark, and ii) that with extra vector-like matters. In both models, the vacuum stability condition provides upper bounds on the gluino mass if combined with the muon g-2. The whole parameter region is expected to be covered by LHC at sqrt{s} = 14 TeV. The analysis is also applied to the mSUGRA models with the vector-like matters.

Motoi Endo; Koichi Hamaguchi; Sho Iwamoto; Norimi Yokozaki

2012-02-13

253

Bounds on quantum communication via Newtonian gravity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Newtonian gravity yields specific observable consequences, the most striking of which is the emergence of a 1/{{r}2} force. In so far as communication can arise via such interactions between distant particles, we can ask what would be expected for a theory of gravity that only allows classical communication. Many heuristic suggestions for gravity-induced decoherence have this restriction implicitly or explicitly in their construction. Here we show that communication via a 1/{{r}2} force has a minimum noise induced in the system when the communication cannot convey quantum information, in a continuous time analogue to Bell?s inequalities. Our derived noise bounds provide tight constraints from current experimental results on any theory of gravity that does not allow quantum communication.

Kafri, D.; Milburn, G. J.; Taylor, J. M.

2015-01-01

254

Bound states in a strong magnetic field  

SciTech Connect

We expect a strong magnetic field to be produced in the perpendicular direction to the reaction plane, in a noncentral heavy-ion collision . The strength of the magnetic field is estimated to be eB{approx}m{sup 2}{sub {pi}}{approx} 0.02 GeV{sup 2} at the RHIC and eB{approx} 15m{sup 2}{sub {pi}}{approx} 0.3 GeV{sup 2} at the LHC. We investigate the effects of the magnetic field on B{sup 0} and D{sup 0} mesons, focusing on the changes of the energy levels and of the mass of the bound states.

Machado, C. S.; Navarra, F. S.; Noronha, J.; Oliveira, E. G. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade de Sao Paulo Rua do Matao, Travessa R, 187, 05508-090 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Ferreira Filho, L. G. [Departamento de Matematica e Computacao, Faculdade de Tecnologia, Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro Rodovia Presidente Dutra, km 298, Polo Industrial, CEP 27537-000, Resende, RJ (Brazil)

2013-03-25

255

A Holographic Bound on Cosmic Magnetic Fields  

E-print Network

Magnetic fields large enough to be observable are ubiquitous in astrophysics, even at extremely large length scales. This has led to the suggestion that such fields are seeded at very early (inflationary) times, and subsequently amplified by various processes involving, for example, dynamo effects. Many such mechanisms give rise to extremely large magnetic fields at the end of inflationary reheating, and therefore also during the quark-gluon plasma epoch of the early universe. Such plasmas have a well-known holographic description in terms of a thermal asymptotically AdS black hole. We show that holography imposes an upper bound on the intensity of magnetic fields ($\\approx \\; 3.6 \\times 10^{18}\\;\\; \\text{gauss}$ at the hadronization temperature) in these circumstances; this is above, but not far above, the values expected in some models of cosmic magnetogenesis.

Brett McInnes

2015-01-01

256

Uncertainty evaluation of delayed neutron decay parameters  

E-print Network

In a nuclear reactor, delayed neutrons play a critical role in sustaining a controllable chain reaction. Delayed neutron’s relative yields and decay constants are very important for modeling reactivity control and have been studied for decades...

Wang, Jinkai

2009-05-15

257

Components of attention modulated by temporal expectation.  

PubMed

By varying the probabilities that a stimulus would appear at particular times after the presentation of a cue and modeling the data by the theory of visual attention (Bundesen, 1990), Vangkilde, Coull, and Bundesen (2012) provided evidence that the speed of encoding a singly presented stimulus letter into visual short-term memory (VSTM) is modulated by the observer's temporal expectations. We extended the investigation from single-stimulus recognition to whole report (Experiment 1) and partial report (Experiment 2). Cue-stimulus foreperiods were distributed geometrically using time steps of 500 ms. In high expectancy conditions, the probability that the stimulus would appear on the next time step, given that it had not yet appeared, was high, whereas in low expectancy conditions, the probability was low. The speed of encoding the stimuli into VSTM was higher in the high expectancy conditions. In line with the Easterbrook (1959) hypothesis, under high temporal expectancy, the processing was also more focused (selective). First, the storage capacity of VSTM was lower, so that fewer stimuli were encoded into VSTM. Second, the distribution of attentional weights across stimuli was less even: The efficiency of selecting targets rather than distractors for encoding into VSTM was higher, as was the spread of the attentional weights of the target letters. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:25068851

Sørensen, Thomas Alrik; Vangkilde, Signe; Bundesen, Claus

2015-01-01

258

Expectations for melodic contours transcend pitch.  

PubMed

The question of what makes a good melody has interested composers, music theorists, and psychologists alike. Many of the observed principles of good "melodic continuation" involve melodic contour-the pattern of rising and falling pitch within a sequence. Previous work has shown that contour perception can extend beyond pitch to other auditory dimensions, such as brightness and loudness. Here, we show that the generalization of contour perception to nontraditional dimensions also extends to melodic expectations. In the first experiment, subjective ratings for 3-tone sequences that vary in brightness or loudness conformed to the same general contour-based expectations as pitch sequences. In the second experiment, we modified the sequence of melody presentation such that melodies with the same beginning were blocked together. This change produced substantively different results, but the patterns of ratings remained similar across the 3 auditory dimensions. Taken together, these results suggest that (a) certain well-known principles of melodic expectation (such as the expectation for a reversal following a skip) are dependent on long-term context, and (b) these expectations are not unique to the dimension of pitch and may instead reflect more general principles of perceptual organization. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:25365571

Graves, Jackson E; Micheyl, Christophe; Oxenham, Andrew J

2014-12-01

259

Price regulation and relative delays in generic drug adoption.  

PubMed

Increasing the adoption of generic drugs has the potential to improve static efficiency in a health system without harming pharmaceutical innovation. However, very little is known about the timing of generic adoption and diffusion. No prior study has empirically examined the differential launch times of generics across a comprehensive set of markets, or more specifically the delays in country specific adoption of generics relative to the first country of (generic) adoption. Drawing on data containing significant country and product variation across a lengthy time period (1999-2008), we use duration analysis to examine relative delays, across countries, in the adoption of generic drugs. Our results suggest that price regulation has a significant effect on reducing the time to launch of generics, with faster adoption in higher priced markets. The latter result is dependent on the degree of competition and the expected market size. PMID:25200940

Costa-Font, Joan; McGuire, Alistair; Varol, Nebibe

2014-12-01

260

SAMPLE EXPECTED LEARNING OUTCOMES STATEMENTSSAMPLE EXPECTED LEARNING OUTCOMES STATEMENTS The following pages depict some sample expected learning outcome statements from  

E-print Network

The following pages depict some sample expected learning outcome statements from selected courses. United States and individuals associated with the history of the United States. Introduction to Business At the end democratic principles · Outline the structure of the Constitution of the U.S. · Identity and define

Rock, Chris

261

Synchronization by small time delays  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Synchronization is a phenomenon observed in all of the living and in much of the non-living world, for example in the heart beat, Huygens' clocks, the flashing of fireflies and the clapping of audiences. Depending on the number of degrees of freedom involved, different mathematical approaches have been used to describe it, most prominently integrate-and-fire oscillators and the Kuramoto model of coupled oscillators. In the present work, we study a very simple and general system of smoothly evolving oscillators, which continue to interact even in the synchronized state. We find that under very general circumstances, synchronization generically occurs in the presence of a (small) time delay. Strikingly, the synchronization time is inversely proportional to the time delay.

Pruessner, G.; Cheang, S.; Jensen, H. J.

2015-02-01

262

Time delay and distance measurement  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A method for measuring time delay and distance may include providing an electromagnetic radiation carrier frequency and modulating one or more of amplitude, phase, frequency, polarization, and pointing angle of the carrier frequency with a return to zero (RZ) pseudo random noise (PN) code. The RZ PN code may have a constant bit period and a pulse duration that is less than the bit period. A receiver may detect the electromagnetic radiation and calculate the scattering profile versus time (or range) by computing a cross correlation function between the recorded received signal and a three-state RZ PN code kernel in the receiver. The method also may be used for pulse delay time (i.e., PPM) communications.

Abshire, James B. (Inventor); Sun, Xiaoli (Inventor)

2011-01-01

263

Information structure expectations in sentence comprehension  

PubMed Central

In English, new information typically appears late in the sentence, as does primary accent. Because of this tendency, perceivers might expect the final constituent or constituents of a sentence to contain informational focus. This expectation should in turn affect how they comprehend focus-sensitive constructions such as ellipsis sentences. Results from four experiments on sluicing sentences (e.g., The mobster implicated the thug, but we can’t find out who else) suggest that perceivers do prefer to place focus late in the sentence, though that preference can be mitigated by prosodic information (pitch accents, Experiment 2) or syntactic information (clefted sentences, Experiment 3) indicating that focus is located elsewhere. Furthermore, it is not necessarily the direct object, but the informationally-focused constituent that is the preferred antecedent (Experiment 4). Expectations regarding the information structure of a sentence, which are only partly cancelable by means of overt focus markers, may explain persistent biases in ellipsis resolution. PMID:18609404

Carlson, Katy; Dickey, Michael Walsh; Frazier, Lyn; Clifton, Charles

2009-01-01

264

A Delayed Choice Quantum Eraser  

E-print Network

This paper reports a "delayed choice quantum eraser" experiment proposed by Scully and Dr\\"{u}hl in 1982. The experimental results demonstrated the possibility of simultaneously observing both particle-like and wave-like behavior of a quantum via quantum entanglement. The which-path or both-path information of a quantum can be erased or marked by its entangled twin even after the registration of the quantum.

Yoon-Ho Kim; R. Yu; S. P. Kulik; Y. H. Shih; Marlan . O. Scully

1999-03-13

265

Delay fairness in demand priority networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

A demand priority network is a high speed local area network. Compared with a fast Ethernet, it is known to have advantages in transmission of delay-sensitive traffic. However, in a demand priority network, the packet delay time is unbounded and the delay levels experienced at stations are unfair. In this paper, we consider Round Robin and FCFS schemes for scheduling

Kwang Jun Lee; Cheon Won Choi

1999-01-01

266

40 CFR 1500.5 - Reducing delay.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Reducing delay. 1500.5 Section 1500.5 Protection of Environment...ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY PURPOSE, POLICY, AND MANDATE § 1500.5 Reducing delay. Agencies shall reduce delay by: (a)...

2010-07-01

267

Contingency Tracking during Unsignaled Delayed Reinforcement  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Three experiments were conducted with rats in which responses on one lever (labeled the functional lever) produced reinforcers after an unsignaled delay period that reset with each response during the delay. Responses on a second, nonfunctional, lever did not initiate delays, but, in the first and third experiments, such responses during the last…

Keely, Josue; Feola, Tyler; Lattal, Kennon A.

2007-01-01

268

Research Article Individual Differences in Delay  

E-print Network

Research Article Individual Differences in Delay Discounting Relation to Intelligence, Working, Washington University ABSTRACT--Lower delay discounting (better self-control) is linked to higher (WM) processes, we assessed delay discounting, intelligence (g), WM (span tasks, 3-back task), and WM

269

Delayed Recombination and Standard Rulers  

E-print Network

Measurements of Baryonic Acoustic Oscillations in galaxy surveys have been recognized as a powerful tool for constraining dark energy. However, this method relies on the knowledge of the size of the acoustic horizon at recombination derived from Cosmic Microwave Background Anisotropy measurements. This estimate is typically derived assuming a standard recombination scheme; additional radiation sources can delay recombination altering the cosmic ionization history and the cosmological inferences drawn from CMB and BAO data. In this paper we quantify the effect of delayed recombination on the determination of dark energy parameters from future BAO surveys such as BOSS and WFMOS. We find the impact to be small but still not negligible. In particular, if recombination is non-standard (to a level still allowed by CMB data), but this is ignored, future surveys may incorrectly suggest the presence of a redshift dependent dark energy component. On the other hand, in the case of delayed recombination, adding to the analysis one extra parameter describing deviations from standard recombination, does not significantly degrade the error-bars on dark energy parameters and yields unbiased estimates.

Francesco De Bernardis; Rachel Bean; Silvia Galli; Alessandro Melchiorri; Joseph Silk; Licia Verde

2008-12-18

270

Delayed recombination and standard rulers  

SciTech Connect

Measurements of baryonic acoustic oscillations (BAOs) in galaxy surveys have been recognized as a powerful tool for constraining dark energy. However, this method relies on the knowledge of the size of the acoustic horizon at recombination derived from cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropy measurements. This estimate is typically derived assuming a standard recombination scheme; additional radiation sources can delay recombination altering the cosmic ionization history and the cosmological inferences drawn from CMB and BAO data. In this paper we quantify the effect of delayed recombination on the determination of dark energy parameters from future BAO surveys such as the Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey and the Wide-Field Multi-Object Spectrograph. We find the impact to be small but still not negligible. In particular, if recombination is nonstandard (to a level still allowed by CMB data), but this is ignored, future surveys may incorrectly suggest the presence of a redshift-dependent dark energy component. On the other hand, in the case of delayed recombination, adding to the analysis one extra parameter describing deviations from standard recombination does not significantly degrade the error bars on dark energy parameters and yields unbiased estimates. This is due to the CMB-BAO complementarity.

De Bernardis, Francesco; Melchiorri, Alessandro [Universita' di Roma 'La Sapienza', Ple Aldo Moro 2, 00185, Rome (Italy); Bean, Rachel [Department of Astronomy, Space Sciences Building, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853 (United States); Galli, Silvia [Universita di Roma 'La Sapienza', Ple Aldo Moro 2, 00185, Rome (Italy); Laboratoire Astroparticule et Cosmologie (APC), Universite Paris Diderot, 75205 Paris cedex 13 (France); Silk, Joseph I. [Astrophysics, Denys Wilkinson Building, University of Oxford, Keble Road, OX1 3RH, Oxford (United Kingdom); Verde, Licia [Institute of Space Sciences (IEEC-CSIC), Facultat Ciencies, Campus UAB, Bellaterra (Spain)

2009-02-15

271

Maximum likelihood delay estimation in a navigation receiver for aeronautical applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

The potential of the SAGE (Space Alternating Generalized Expectation Maximization) algorithm for navigation systems in order to distinguish the line-of-sight signal (LOSS) is to be considered. The SAGE algorithm is a low-complexity generalization of the EM (Expectation-Maximization) algorithm, which iteratively approximates the maximum likelihood estimator (MLE) and has been successfully applied for parameter estimation (relative delay, incident azimuth, incident elevation,

F. Antreich; J. A. Nossek; W. Utschick

2008-01-01

272

Delay-dependent stability analysis of linear systems with time-varying delay  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stability analysis of linear systems with time- varying delay is investigated. In order to highlight the relations between the variation of the delay and the states, redundant equations are introduced to construct a new modeling of the delay system. New types of Lyapunov Krasovskii functionals are then proposed allowing to reduce the conservatism of the stability criterion. Delay dependent stability

Yassine Ariba; F. Gouaisbaut

2007-01-01

273

Confidentiality Expectations and Preferences of College Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Confidentiality in psychotherapy has long been assumed. Recently, this confidentiality has been threatened by computer filing systems, the courts, and third party payers of client expenses. This study investigates client expectations of confidentiality and information subject to disclosure. Subjects (N=185) were undergraduate students who…

Tillinghast, Margo Amy; VandeCreek, Leon

274

New book expected soon! Innovating Minds  

E-print Network

New book ­ expected soon! Innovating Minds: A Thinking Framework for Creativity and Change Wilma goals, whether working on our own or together with others? Innovating Minds offers us a science interplay of our minds, brains, and environments. Drawing on research findings ranging from brain networks

Koutstaal, Wilma

275

Expectations Evaporate for Online MBA Programs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes how, for online Master's of Business Administration programs, enrollments are low and business deals are falling through. Despite initial hype, expectations are now lower in the face of economic uncertainty; programs partnering with businesses and school-run programs both face challenges. (EV)

Mangan, Katherine S.

2001-01-01

276

What To Expect Before a Lung Transplant  

MedlinePLUS

... on Twitter. What To Expect Before a Lung Transplant If you get into a medical center's transplant program, you'll be placed on the Organ ... and Transplantation Network's (OPTN's) national waiting list. Your transplant team will work with you to make sure ...

277

Future Expectations of Brasilian Street Youth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Future expectations of youth surviving on the streets of Porto Alegre, Brasil, were examined. The sample consisted of 35 boys and 34 girls aged 10-18 (M age 14.4) who participated in a sentence completion task and semi-structured interviews. Responses to two incomplete sentences regarding the future revealed a mismatch between hoped-for and…

Raffaelli, M.; Koller, S.H.

2005-01-01

278

Unrealistic Expectations Businesses Have about Translators.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Increased international business and technological advances that speed business communication are affecting the expectations that business has for translators. More companies are asking translation agencies to translate such items as English business letters, advertising campaigns, flyers, brochures, and technical manuals into other languages,…

Rodriguez, Cecilia M.

279

Expecting Too Much of Performance Pay?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Pay for performance is not a new idea, and reformers should not ignore the dismal record of merit pay over the past century. Initially adopted with a flourish of expectations during several waves of popularity in the past, every plan eventually fell into disuse. These plans proved to be unexpectedly costly and cumbersome to run. They often…

Johnson, Susan Moore; Papay, John P.

2010-01-01

280

Opinions and Expectations. 1972 Freshmen Class.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Approximately 1,250 entering freshmen at the State University of New York, Buffalo completed a self-report form called the Inventory of Opinions and Expectations. It was found that 88% of the sample were public high school graduates, that they felt their high school courses had been interesting, that their parents strongly encouraged them to…

Ameele, Martha; Jones, Griffith

281

The Adult Mathematics Learner: Attitudes, Expectations, Attributions.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study was designed to identify characteristics of college freshmen taking mathematics courses. Students enrolled in basic algebra courses at a regional campus of a large midwestern university participated in the study. Students were administered an instrument which included a "math autobiography," the Adult Mathematics Expectation Scale…

Lehmann, Christine H.

282

NCAA Penalizes Fewer Teams than Expected  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article reports that the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) has penalized fewer teams than it expected this year over athletes' poor academic performance. For years, officials with the NCAA have predicted that strikingly high numbers of college sports teams could be at risk of losing scholarships this year because of their…

Sander, Libby

2008-01-01

283

Destination Visual Image and Expectation of Experiences  

Microsoft Academic Search

A unique experience is the essence of tourism sought by tourists. The most effective way to communicate the notion of a tourism experience at a destination is to provide visual cues that stimulate the imagination and connect with potential tourists in a personal way. This study aims at understanding how a visual image is relevant to the expectation of experiences

Helen Ye; Iis P. Tussyadiah

2011-01-01

284

Expectations and Experiences of Substitute Teachers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article explores the expectations of support for and the experiences of substitute teachers in an urban school division in Saskatchewan. Data were collected in semistructured interviews with seven substitute teachers. The purpose of the study was to explore how substitute teachers frame their professional experiences and construct their roles…

Duggleby, Patricia; Badali, Sal

2007-01-01

285

College Students' Instructional Expectations and Evaluations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Typical end-of-course faculty ratings were questioned for their inability to measure actual classroom interaction. Extending the concept of these evaluations to include the student instructional expectations dimension, the study proposed that the classroom experience be related to the process and systems approaches, more dependent upon monitoring…

Calista, Donald J.

286

Men's Alcohol Expectancies at Selected Community Colleges  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Men's alcohol expectancies are an important cognitive-behavioral component of their consumption; yet, sparse research details such behaviors for men in two-year colleges. Selected for inclusion with the current study were 563 men from seven Illinois community colleges. Logistic regression analysis indicated four significant, positive relationships…

Derby, Dustin C.

2011-01-01

287

Estimation of lifetime expectancies of motors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methods for evaluating lifetime expectations are discussed. Factors that affect the life of bearings and brushes and of wire coil insulation are identified. Thermal life of insulation and methods for accelerated testing are discussed. Examples are included to assist in the calculation of such factors as motor temperature-rise conditions and the benefits to be realized through upgrading the thermal classification

Emanuel L. Brancato

1992-01-01

288

Harmonic and rhythmic influences on musical expectancy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of harmony and rhythm on expectancy formation were studied in two experiments. In both studies, we generated musical passages consisting of a melodic line accompanied by four har- monic (chord) events. These sequences varied in their harmonic content, the rhythmic periodicity of the three context chords prior to the final chord, and the ending time of the final

MARK A. SCHMUCKLER; MARILYN G. BOLTZ

1994-01-01

289

Life expectancy of children with cerebral palsy  

E-print Network

Life expectancy of children with cerebral palsy J L Hutton, K Hemming and UKCP collaboration What is UKCP? Information about the physical effects of cerebral palsy on the everyday lives of children with cerebral palsy which collect information about children within specific local areas. They are the Mersey

Hutton, Jane

290

Solving Rational Expectations Models Using Excel  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Simple problems of discrete-time optimal control can be solved using a standard spreadsheet software. The employed-solution method of backward iteration is intuitively understandable, does not require any programming skills, and is easy to implement so that it is suitable for classroom exercises with rational-expectations models. The author…

Strulik, Holger

2004-01-01

291

High Expectations and Differentiation Equal Academic Success  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Consciously or unconsciously, teachers often act differently toward students based on the assumptions they have about the individual learner's capabilities. Studies show that the lack of high expectations tends to go hand-in-hand with low achieving classrooms. In these classrooms, teachers generally view their students as limited in their ability…

Tkatchov, Oran; Pollnow, Shelly

2008-01-01

292

Effects of Syntactic Expectations on Speech Segmentation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although the effect of acoustic cues on speech segmentation has been extensively investigated, the role of higher order information (e.g., syntax) has received less attention. Here, the authors examined whether syntactic expectations based on subject-verb agreement have an effect on segmentation and whether they do so despite conflicting acoustic…

Mattys, Sven L.; Melhorn, James F.; White, Laurence

2007-01-01

293

Children's Physical Appearance and Adult Expectations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Caregivers' expectancies and behaviors in relationship to young handicapped children were investigated in this paper. Two studies were conducted in an attempt to answer three questions: (1) How will caregivers respond to the young handicapped child? (2) Do the child's stimulus characteristics, such as physical appearance, create biases in…

Feeg, Veronica DeCarolis; Peters, Donald L.

294

Are Low Career Expectations Shortchanging Girls?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A 40-year longitudinal study of creativity that began in 1958 in two schools in Minneapolis, Minnesota, found that girls identified as highly creative in elementary school have been fulfilling that potential as adults to a significantly higher degree those who were less creative. Sex role expectations are discussed. (Contains references.) (CR)

Millar, Garnet W.; Torrance, E. Paul

2002-01-01

295

UNCORRECTEDPROOF 1 Option price without expected utility  

E-print Network

UNCORRECTEDPROOF 1 Option price without expected utility 2 Paan Jindapon a, , W. Douglass Shaw b 3 of Agricultural Economics, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX 77843-2124, United States 5 a r t i c l e i n

Shaw, W. Douglass

296

Maximizing expected utility over a knapsack constraint  

E-print Network

variables so as to maximize the expected utility of the total value of the items picked ..... Following the set S0, let the items added into the solution by the greedy .... constant relative risk aversion (CRRA) utility function in the economics literature.

2014-08-11

297

Post-Secondary Expectations and Educational Attainment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study utilized student, teacher, and parent expectations during high school to analyze their predictive effect on post-secondary education status two years after scheduled graduation. The sample included 5,353 students, parents and teachers who participated in the Educational Longitudinal Study (ELS; 2002-2006). The researchers analyzed data…

Sciarra, Daniel T.; Ambrosino, Katherine E.

2011-01-01

298

Teacher expectation and West Indian underachievement  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Interim Report of the Rampton Committee (1981) claimed that unintentional racism is widespread within the teaching profession and contributes, via the self?fulfilling prophecy, to the relative academic failure of West Indian children. This paper examines both aspects of the claim, dealing with the latter in terms of the model of teacher expectations advanced by Brophy and Good (1970).The relevant

Geoffrey Short

1985-01-01

299

How Students Verify Conjectures: Teachers' Expectations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Eight teachers were interviewed concerning how students verify conjectures. The study is a sequel to a previous study, "How Students Verify Conjectures" [Bergqvist, T. (2000). "How students verify conjectures." "Research reports in Mathematics Education" 3]. Teachers' expectations of students' reasoning and performance are examined, and also how…

Bergqvist, Tomas

2005-01-01

300

Expanding Expectations for Students through Accelerated Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The national Accelerated Schools Project has proven accelerated learning is not just for the gifted. Data show teachers have gotten sustained results in student achievement through the project, which helps them change their expectations, focus on data, and commit to a process of professional learning.

Byrd, Sandra P.; Finnan, Christine

2003-01-01

301

Demystify Learning Expectations to Address Grade Inflation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes the subject of "grade inflation," a reference to educators giving higher grades to student work than their expectations for student achievement warrant. Of the many reasons why this practice happens, Hodges specifically discusses inflating grades as "a natural consequence" when the faculty really…

Hodges, Linda C.

2014-01-01

302

Children and Computers: Greek Parents' Expectations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This survey investigated the expectations of Greek parents with regard to the potential impact of children's computer use on the fields of education, interpersonal relationships, and professional and social life. Considers socio-cultural environment; sex and age; and whether the parents had knowledge of computers, used computers at work, or had a…

Vryzas, Konstantinos; Tsitouridou, Melpomene

2002-01-01

303

Performance Bounds on Two Concatenated, Interleaved Codes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A method has been developed of computing bounds on the performance of a code comprised of two linear binary codes generated by two encoders serially concatenated through an interleaver. Originally intended for use in evaluating the performances of some codes proposed for deep-space communication links, the method can also be used in evaluating the performances of short-block-length codes in other applications. The method applies, more specifically, to a communication system in which following processes take place: At the transmitter, the original binary information that one seeks to transmit is first processed by an encoder into an outer code (Co) characterized by, among other things, a pair of numbers (n,k), where n (n > k)is the total number of code bits associated with k information bits and n k bits are used for correcting or at least detecting errors. Next, the outer code is processed through either a block or a convolutional interleaver. In the block interleaver, the words of the outer code are processed in blocks of I words. In the convolutional interleaver, the interleaving operation is performed bit-wise in N rows with delays that are multiples of B bits. The output of the interleaver is processed through a second encoder to obtain an inner code (Ci) characterized by (ni,ki). The output of the inner code is transmitted over an additive-white-Gaussian- noise channel characterized by a symbol signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) Es/No and a bit SNR Eb/No. At the receiver, an inner decoder generates estimates of bits. Depending on whether a block or a convolutional interleaver is used at the transmitter, the sequence of estimated bits is processed through a block or a convolutional de-interleaver, respectively, to obtain estimates of code words. Then the estimates of the code words are processed through an outer decoder, which generates estimates of the original information along with flags indicating which estimates are presumed to be correct and which are found to be erroneous. From the perspective of the present method, the topic of major interest is the performance of the communication system as quantified in the word-error rate and the undetected-error rate as functions of the SNRs and the total latency of the interleaver and inner code. The method is embodied in equations that describe bounds on these functions. Throughout the derivation of the equations that embody the method, it is assumed that the decoder for the outer code corrects any error pattern of t or fewer errors, detects any error pattern of s or fewer errors, may detect some error patterns of more than s errors, and does not correct any patterns of more than t errors. Because a mathematically complete description of the equations that embody the method and of the derivation of the equations would greatly exceed the space available for this article, it must suffice to summarize by reporting that the derivation includes consideration of several complex issues, including relationships between latency and memory requirements for block and convolutional codes, burst error statistics, enumeration of error-event intersections, and effects of different interleaving depths. In a demonstration, the method was used to calculate bounds on the performances of several communication systems, each based on serial concatenation of a (63,56) expurgated Hamming code with a convolutional inner code through a convolutional interleaver. The bounds calculated by use of the method were compared with results of numerical simulations of performances of the systems to show the regions where the bounds are tight (see figure).

Moision, Bruce; Dolinar, Samuel

2010-01-01

304

Patient Expectations from Consultation with Family Physician  

PubMed Central

Aim To assess patient expectations from a consultation with a family physician and determine the level and area of patient involvement in the communication process. Method We videotaped 403 consecutive patient-physician consultations in the offices of 27 Estonian family physicians. All videotaped patients completed a questionnaire about their expectations before and after the consultation. Patient assessment of expected and obtained psychosocial support and biomedical information during the consultation with physician were compared. Two investigators independently assessed patient involvement in the consultation process on the basis of videotaped consultations, using a 5-point scale. Results Receiving an explanation of biomedical information and discussing psychosocial aspects was assessed as important by 57.4-66.8% and 17.8-36.1% patients, respectively. The physicians did not meet patient expectations in the case of three biomedical aspects of consultation: cause of symptoms, severity of symptoms, and test results. Younger patients evaluated the importance of discussing psychological problems higher than older patients. The involvement of the patients was high in the problem defining process, in the physicians' overall responsiveness to the patients, and in their picking up of the patient's cues. The patients were involved less in the decision making process. Conclusion Discussing biomedical issues was more important for the patients than discussing psychological issues. The patients wanted to hear more about the cause and seriousness of their symptoms and about test results. The family physicians provided more psychosocial care than the patients had expected. Considering high patient involvement in the consultation process and the overall responsiveness of the family physicians to the patients during the consultation, Estonian physicians provide patient-centered consultations. PMID:16489708

Tähep?ld, Heli; van den Brink-Muinen, Atie; Maaroos, Heidi-Ingrid

2006-01-01

305

Explicit finite difference methods for the delay pseudoparabolic equations.  

PubMed

Finite difference technique is applied to numerical solution of the initial-boundary value problem for the semilinear delay Sobolev or pseudoparabolic equation. By the method of integral identities two-level difference scheme is constructed. For the time integration the implicit rule is being used. Based on the method of energy estimates the fully discrete scheme is shown to be absolutely stable and convergent of order two in space and of order one in time. The error estimates are obtained in the discrete norm. Some numerical results confirming the expected behavior of the method are shown. PMID:24688392

Amirali, I; Amiraliyev, G M; Cakir, M; Cimen, E

2014-01-01

306

Precise delay measurement through combinatorial logic  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A high resolution circuit and method for facilitating precise measurement of on-chip delays for FPGAs for reliability studies. The circuit embeds a pulse generator on an FPGA chip having one or more groups of LUTS (the "LUT delay chain"), also on-chip. The circuit also embeds a pulse width measurement circuit on-chip, and measures the duration of the generated pulse through the delay chain. The pulse width of the output pulse represents the delay through the delay chain without any I/O delay. The pulse width measurement circuit uses an additional asynchronous clock autonomous from the main clock and the FPGA propagation delay can be displayed on a hex display continuously for testing purposes.

Burke, Gary R. (Inventor); Chen, Yuan (Inventor); Sheldon, Douglas J. (Inventor)

2010-01-01

307

Guaranteeing bandwidth and minimizing delay in packet-switched (ATM) networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Future high-speed networks that will support integrated video, voice and data applications are expected to utilize the concepts of ATM fast packet switching. The concepts of isolating misbehaving users and sharing resources to achieve optimal delay performance are extremely important to consider when designing queue service policies for practical implementations. Most previous service policies have been designed to satisfy one,

Pramod Pancha; Mark Karol

1995-01-01

308

Measurement of Gravitational Lens Time Delays with LSST (SULI Paper)  

SciTech Connect

The proposed Large Synoptic Survey Telescope will be the first to explore multiple dark energy probes simultaneously, including baryon acoustic oscillations, weak lensing, and strong gravitational lensing. The large data sample, covering the entire visible sky every few nights, will allow an unprecedented survey of deep supernova sources and their lensed images. The latter have not yet been observed. Notably, LSST will measure the time delays between different strong-lensed images of the same supernova. This will provide a unique probe of dark matter, dark energy, and the expansion rate of the Universe. By simulating LSST observations under realistic conditions, we determined the time delay precision of multiple images from a representative strong-lensed Type Ia supernova. The output of the simulation was a set of light curves according to field and filter, which were subsequently analyzed to determine the experimental time delays. We find that a time delay precision of better then 10% can be achieved under suitable conditions. Firstly, a minimum observed peak-magnitude of 22 is required for the lensed image, corresponding to an intrinsic source magnitude of about 24. The number of such supernova sources expected for LSST is under investigation, but it could amount to several thousand. Secondly, a minimum of about 50 visits per field is required, and, moreover, these visits must be evenly distributed over the duration of the event. The visit frequency should be approximately once per week, or better. Thirdly, the sky brightness should be below 21 magnitude arcsec{sup -2} to allow sufficient sensitivity to distance sources. Under the nominal LSST visiting schedule and field conditions, 15% of all fields satisfy these criteria, and allow time delay measurements of better than 10% precision. This performance can be further improved by fitting the predicted supernova light curves to the observations, rather than using the simple weighted mean as in the present study. Of the well-measured fields, 85% involve observations taken with the r filter, which has a wavelength acceptance that is well-matched to supernova spectra. This filter therefore represents the best choice for strong gravitational lens observations with LSST. Our primary conclusion is that the visiting schedule is the single most important parameter to optimize for time delay measurements, and, once a lensed supernova has been detected, that frequent, regular observations should be scheduled to search with the highest sensitivity for multiple, delayed lensed images.

Kirkby, Lowry Anna; /Oxford U. /SLAC

2006-01-04

309

Global robust stability criterion for uncertain cellular neural networks with time-varying delay: An LMI approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, global robust stability problem of norm-bounded uncertain cellular neural networks with time-varying delay is studied. By applying Lyapunov-Krasovskii functional and S-procedure, the global robust stability criterion is obtained in the form of linear matrix inequality (LMI). The effectiveness of the presented robust stability criterion is demonstrated by a numerical example

Xiaobing Zhou; Yue Wu; Yihong Zeng

2006-01-01

310

Was it me when it happened too early? Experience of delayed effects shapes sense of agency.  

PubMed

Sense of agency, the feeling of causing a certain event, depends largely on the delay between an action and its ensuing effect: The feeling to control an effect that is caused by our preceding action is stronger the closer the effect follows the action in time. Yet, repeatedly experiencing an effect after a constant delay might alter this general rule. Here, we assessed sense of agency for effects that occurred 0-250ms after an action in conditions in which the effect either mostly occurred immediately or mostly delayed after 250ms after the action. Participants who experienced mostly delayed effects rated their influence over the effect's occurrence to be larger the longer the action-effect interval was. Thus, sense of agency is not always stronger at shorter action-effect intervals, but rather depends on the match between the agent's expectations and the actual timing of events. PMID:25490127

Haering, Carola; Kiesel, Andrea

2015-03-01

311

Mutual information challenges entropy bounds  

E-print Network

We consider some formulations of the entropy bounds at the semiclassical level. The entropy S(V) localized in a region V is divergent in quantum field theory (QFT). Instead of it we focus on the mutual information I(V,W)=S(V)+S(W)-S(V\\cup W) between two different non-intersecting sets V and W. This is a low energy quantity, independent of the regularization scheme. In addition, the mutual information is bounded above by twice the entropy corresponding to the sets involved. Calculations of I(V,W) in QFT show that the entropy in empty space cannot be renormalized to zero, and must be actually very large. We find that this entropy due to the vacuum fluctuations violates the FMW bound in Minkowski space. The mutual information also gives a precise, cutoff independent meaning to the statement that the number of degrees of freedom increases with the volume in QFT. If the holographic bound holds, this points to the essential non locality of the physical cutoff. Violations of the Bousso bound would require conformal theories and large distances. We speculate that the presence of a small cosmological constant might prevent such a violation.

H. Casini

2006-09-27

312

Expected Performance of the GLAST Burst Monitor  

SciTech Connect

The GLAST Burst Monitor (GBM) will enhance LAT observations of GRBs by extending the spectral coverage from the LAT threshold down to {approx}8 keV, and will provide a trigger for re-orienting the spacecraft to observe delayed emission from selected bursts outside the LAT field of view. GBM consists of twelve NaI scintillation detectors operating in the 8 keV to 1 MeV energy range and two BGO scintillation detectors operating in the 150 keV to 30 MeV energy range. Detector resolution, effective area, and angular response have been determined by calibrations. Analyses indicate that the on-board burst threshold will be {approx}0.7 photons cm{sup -2}s{sup -1} and the on-board burst localization accuracy will typically be better than 8 deg.

Meegan, Charles; Fishman, Gerald; Kouveliotou, Chryssa; Wilson-Hodge, Colleen [NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, AL (United States); Bhat, Narayana; Briggs, Michael; Connaughton, Valerie; Paciesas, William; Preece, Robert [University of Alabama Huntsville, Huntsville, AL (United States); Bissaldi, Elisabetta; Diehl, Roland; Greiner, Jochen; Kienlin, Andreas von; Lichti, Giselher; Steinle, Helmut [Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics, Garching (Germany); Kippen, R. Marc [Los Alamos National Laboratory Los Alamos, NM (United States)

2008-05-22

313

Expected Performance of the GLAST Burst Monitor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The GLAST Burst Monitor (GBM) will enhance LAT observations of GRBs by extending the spectral coverage from the LAT threshold down to approx. 8 kev, and will provide a trigger for re-orienting the spacecraft to observe delayed emission from selected bursts outside the LAT field of view. GBM consists of twelve NaI scintillation detectors operating in the 8 kev to 1 MeV energy range and two BGO scintillation detectors operating in the 150 keV to 30 MeV energy range. Detector resolution, effective area, and angular response have been determined by calibrations. Analyses indicate that the on-board burst threshold will be approx. 0.7 photon/cm2/s and the on-board burst localization accuracy will typically be better than 8 degrees.

Meegan, Charles; Fishman, Gerald; Kouveliotou, Chryssa; Wilson-Hodge, Colleen; Paciesas, William; Preece, Robert; Briggs, Michael; Bhat, Narayana; Connaughton, Valerie; Greiner, Jochen; vonKienlin, Andreas; Diehl, Roland; Steinle, Helmut; Bissaldi, Elisabetta; Kippen, R. Marc

2007-01-01

314

A normalized PID controller in networked control systems with varying time delays.  

PubMed

It requires not only simplicity and flexibility but also high specified stability and robustness of system to design a PI/PID controller in such complicated networked control systems (NCSs) with delays. By gain and phase margins approach, this paper proposes a novel normalized PI/PID controller for NCSs based on analyzing the stability and robustness of system under the effect of network-induced delays. Specifically, We take into account the total measured network delays to formulate the gain and phase margins of the closed-loop system in the form of a set of equations. With pre-specified values of gain and phase margins, this set of equations is then solved for calculating the closed forms of control parameters which enable us to propose the normalized PI/PID controller simultaneously satisfying the following two requirements: (1) simplicity without re-solving the optimization problem for a new process, (2) high flexibility to cope with large scale of random delays and deal with many different processes in different conditions of network. Furthermore, in our method, the upper bound of random delay can be estimated to indicate the operating domain of proposed PI/PID controller. Finally, simulation results are shown to demonstrate the advantages of our proposed controller in many situations of network-induced delays. PMID:23810432

Tran, Hoang-Dung; Guan, Zhi-Hong; Dang, Xuan-Kien; Cheng, Xin-Ming; Yuan, Fu-Shun

2013-09-01

315

Evacuation Expectations During an evacuation -department management and staff are expected to implement the  

E-print Network

with you: keys, wallet, eyeglasses, medications, etc. Shut down critical equipment in the areaEvacuation Expectations During an evacuation - department management and staff are expected, if possible, without placing yourself or your research at risk. Department Response Teams shall activate

Ford, James

316

Differences in Life Expectancy and Disability Free Life Expectancy in Italy. A Challenge to Health Systems  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Measures of health expectancy such as Disability Free Life Expectancy are used to evaluate and compare regional/national health statuses. These indicators are useful for understanding changes in the health status and defining health policies and decisions on the provision of services because provide useful information on possible areas…

Burgio, A.; Murianni, L.; Folino-Gallo, P.

2009-01-01

317

Teachers' Expectations of Teacher-Student Interaction: Complementary and Distinctive Expectancy Patterns  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this study it is investigated what student responses teachers expect in particular teacher behaviour vignettes, and whether experience and gender produce differences in expectations. Teacher behaviour vignettes were presented to teachers (N = 46), who described the student responses they anticipated. Anticipated student responses were then…

de Jong, R. J.; van Tartwijk, J.; Verloop, N.; Veldman, I.; Wubbels, T.

2012-01-01

318

Variable delay-to-signal: a fast paradigm for assessment of aspects of impulsivity in rats  

PubMed Central

Testing impulsive behavior in rodents is challenging and labor-intensive. We developed a new behavioral paradigm—the Variable Delay-to-Signal (VDS) test—that provides rapid and simultaneous assessment of response and decision impulsivity in rodents. Presentation of a light at variable delays signals the permission for action (nose poke) contingent with a reward. 2 blocks of 25 trials at 3 s delay flank a block of 70 trials in which light is presented with randomly selected 6 or 12 s delays. Exposure to such large delays boosts the rate of premature responses when the delay drops to 3 s in the final block, an effect that is blunted by an acute methamphetamine challenge and that correlates with the delay-discounting (DD) paradigm (choice impulsivity). Finally, as expected, treatment with the NMDA antagonist MK-801 caused a generalized response increase in all VDS blocks. The pharmacological validation, particularly with methamphetamine which has a well established dual effect on response and decision impulsivity, and the correlations between the impulsive behavior in the DD and VDS paradigms, suggests that the later is able to provide, in a single session, a multi-dimensional assessment of impulsive behavior. PMID:24167478

Leite-Almeida, Hugo; Melo, António; Pêgo, José M.; Bernardo, Sara; Milhazes, Nuno; Borges, Fernanda; Sousa, Nuno; Almeida, Armando; Cerqueira, João J.

2013-01-01

319

Diagnostic Yield of Delayed Phase Imaging in CT Angiography of the Head and Neck: A Retrospective Study  

PubMed Central

Purpose To evaluate how often delayed images, obtained during neurovascular CTA, provide unique information relative to early phase imaging alone. Materials and Methods Informed consent was waived by the institutional review body for this study. Neurovascular CTAs from January through June 2009 were searched to identify those with delayed phase imaging. Reports were reviewed to identify cases where delayed images provided potentially unique information. The studies with potentially unique information were re-interpreted to determine if the information was indeed unique. Results 645 CTAs with delayed phase imaging were identified. There were 324 men and 310 women (median age 67 years; range 20–96 years). 59 studies (59/645: 9.1%) had findings on the delayed images. There were 13 cases with hemorrhage, with 4 showing progression on delayed views. Of the remaining 46 cases, 28 had occlusion of a vessel that did not reconstitute on the delayed images, 6 had occlusion of a vessel that did reconstitute on the delayed images, 7 had a string sign which was unchanged on the delayed views and 5 had no abnormal findings. Thus in 10 cases the findings were unique to the delayed images (10/645: 1.55%). Four showed active bleeding, three showed proximal occlusion with distal internal carotid filling from ophthalmic collaterals, two showed pial vessels filling distal to proximal MCA occlusion, and one showed retrograde vertebral artery filling due to subclavian steal. 95% confidence limits of the expected incidence of unique information from the delayed phase images are 0.6% – 2.5%. Conclusion Obtaining delayed phase imaging for neurovascular CTA should be an active decision and not the default protocol. This avoids imaging with little, if any value. If delayed images had not been obtained in our cohort, no detriment in patient management would have occurred. PMID:24905932

Bennett, Debbie L.; Hamberg, Leena M.; Wang, Bing; Hirsch, Joshua A.; González, R. Gilberto; Hunter, George J.

2014-01-01

320

Faculty Expectations and Development: The Tenure Case  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Professionals seeking careers in academia should understand the tenure process, and how to prepare successfully for the evaluations linked to the tenure decision. This chapter offers suggestions for persons pursuing tenure-track faculty positions in the discipline of food science. The first promotion process in academia (i.e., from assistant professor to associate professor) is typically linked to tenure consideration. The focus of this chapter is explaining tenure, tenure expectations, resources for guidance, how to manage the process, and how to prepare the tenure and promotion document. While most people are fearful of the promotion and tenure process, this fear and apprehension can be minimized by understanding the process and its expectations, and having good advice to follow to help ensure success.

Nielsen, S. Suzanne

321

Young infants have biological expectations about animals.  

PubMed

What are the developmental origins of our concept of animal? There has long been controversy concerning this question. At issue is whether biological reasoning develops from earlier forms of reasoning, such as physical and psychological reasoning, or whether from a young age children endow animals with biological properties. Here we demonstrate that 8-mo-old infants already expect novel objects they identify as animals to have insides. Infants detected a violation when an object that was self-propelled and agentive (but not an object that lacked one or both of these properties) was revealed to be hollow. Infants also detected a violation when an object that was self-propelled and furry (but not an object that lacked one or both of these properties) either was shown to be hollow or rattled (when shaken) as although mostly hollow. Young infants' expectations about animals' insides may serve as a foundation for the development of more advanced biological knowledge. PMID:24003134

Setoh, Peipei; Wu, Di; Baillargeon, Renée; Gelman, Rochel

2013-10-01

322

Young infants have biological expectations about animals  

PubMed Central

What are the developmental origins of our concept of animal? There has long been controversy concerning this question. At issue is whether biological reasoning develops from earlier forms of reasoning, such as physical and psychological reasoning, or whether from a young age children endow animals with biological properties. Here we demonstrate that 8-mo-old infants already expect novel objects they identify as animals to have insides. Infants detected a violation when an object that was self-propelled and agentive (but not an object that lacked one or both of these properties) was revealed to be hollow. Infants also detected a violation when an object that was self-propelled and furry (but not an object that lacked one or both of these properties) either was shown to be hollow or rattled (when shaken) as although mostly hollow. Young infants’ expectations about animals’ insides may serve as a foundation for the development of more advanced biological knowledge. PMID:24003134

Setoh, Peipei; Wu, Di; Baillargeon, Renée; Gelman, Rochel

2013-01-01

323

First Contact: Expectations of Beginning Astronomy Students  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Three hundred seven undergraduate students enrolled in Introductory Astronomy were surveyed at the beginning of class to determine their expectations for course content. The course serves as a survey of astronomy for non-science majors and is a distribution course for general education core requirements. The course has no prerequisites, meets three times each week for 50 minutes, and represents three semester credit hours. The university catalog describes the course with the title "PHYSICS 101 - Mysteries of the Sky" and the official course description is: a survey of the struggle to understand the Universe and our place therein. The structure, growth, methods, and limitations of science will be illustrated using the development of astronomy as a vehicle. Present day views of the Universe are presented. Two questions were asked as open response items: What made you decide to take this course? and What do you expect to learn in this course? The reasons that students cited to take the course, in order of frequency, were: interested in astronomy, interesting or fun sounding course, required general education fulfillment, recommendation by peer. Secondary reasons cited were required for major or minor, general interest in science, and was available in the schedule. Tertiary reasons listed were recommendation by advisor or orientation leader, inflate grade point average, and heard good things about the teacher. The students' expectations about what they would learn in the course were numerous. The most common objects listed, in order of frequency, were: stars, constellations, planets, galaxies, black holes, solar system, comets, galaxies, asteroids, moon, and Sun. More interesting were the aspects not specifically related to astronomy. These were weather, atmosphere, UFOs and the unexplained, generally things in the sky. A mid-course survey suggests that students expected to learn more constellations and that the topics would be less in-depth.

Lacey, T. L.; Slater, T. F.

1999-05-01

324

Estimating Expected Shortfall with Stochastic Kriging  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract We present an ecient,two-level simulation procedure which uses stochastic kriging, a meta- modeling technique, to estimate expected shortfall, a portfolio risk measure. The outer level simulates,nancial scenarios and the inner level of simulation estimates the portfolio value given a scenario. Spatial metamodeling enables inference about portfolio values in a scenario based on inner-level simulation of nearby scenarios, reducing the

Ming Liu

325

Unitarity bound for gluon shadowing  

SciTech Connect

Although at small Bjorken x gluons originated from different nucleons in a nucleus overlap in the longitudinal direction, most of them are still well separated in the transverse plane and therefore cannot fuse. For this reason the gluon density in nuclei cannot drop at small x below a certain bottom bound, which we evaluated in a model independent manner assuming the maximal strength of gluon fusion. We also calculated gluon shadowing in the saturated regime using the Balitsky-Kovchegov equation and found the nuclear ratio to be well above the unitarity bound. The recently updated analysis of parton distributions in nuclei, including BNL Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) data on high-p{sub T} hadron production at forward rapidities, led to strong gluon shadowing. Such strong shadowing and therefore the interpretation of the nuclear modification of the p{sub T} spectra in dA collisions at RHIC seem to be inconsistent with this unitarity bound.

Kopeliovich, B. Z. [Departamento de Fisica y Centro de Estudios Subatomicos, Universidad Tecnica Federico Santa Maria, Casilla 110-V, Valparaiso (Chile); Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation); Levin, E. [Department of Particle Physics, School of Physics and Astronomy, Raymond and Beverly Sackler, Faculty of Exact Science, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 69978 (Israel); Potashnikova, I. K.; Schmidt, Ivan [Departamento de Fisica y Centro de Estudios Subatomicos, Universidad Tecnica Federico Santa Maria, Casilla 110-V, Valparaiso (Chile)

2009-06-15

326

Delay jitter control for real-time communication in a packet switching network  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study is made of the feasibility of bounding the delay jitter for real-time channels in a packet-switched store-and-forward wide-area network with general topology, extending the scheme proposed in previous papers. The authors prove the correctness of the solution, and study its effectiveness by means of simulations. The results show that the scheme is capable of providing a significant reduction

Dinesh C. Verma; Hui Zhang; Domenico Ferrari

1991-01-01

327

Joint estimation of time delays and directions of arrival of multiple reflections of a known signal  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present an efficient algorithm for estimating the time delays and the directions-of-arrival (DOAs) of multiple reflections of a known signal. The algorithm is based on an iterative scheme that transforms the multidimensional maximum likelihood criterion into two sets of simple one-dimensional (1-D) maximization problems. Simulation results illustrating the performance of the algorithm in comparison with the Cramer-Rao bound are

Mati Wax; Amir Leshem

1997-01-01

328

Learning what to expect (in visual perception)  

PubMed Central

Expectations are known to greatly affect our experience of the world. A growing theory in computational neuroscience is that perception can be successfully described using Bayesian inference models and that the brain is “Bayes-optimal” under some constraints. In this context, expectations are particularly interesting, because they can be viewed as prior beliefs in the statistical inference process. A number of questions remain unsolved, however, for example: How fast do priors change over time? Are there limits in the complexity of the priors that can be learned? How do an individual’s priors compare to the true scene statistics? Can we unlearn priors that are thought to correspond to natural scene statistics? Where and what are the neural substrate of priors? Focusing on the perception of visual motion, we here review recent studies from our laboratories and others addressing these issues. We discuss how these data on motion perception fit within the broader literature on perceptual Bayesian priors, perceptual expectations, and statistical and perceptual learning and review the possible neural basis of priors. PMID:24187536

Seriès, Peggy; Seitz, Aaron R.

2013-01-01

329

Reward expectation influences audiovisual spatial integration.  

PubMed

In order to determine the spatial location of an object that is simultaneously seen and heard, the brain assigns higher weights to the sensory inputs that provide the most reliable information. For example, in the well-known ventriloquism effect, the perceived location of a sound is shifted toward the location of a concurrent but spatially misaligned visual stimulus. This perceptual illusion can be explained by the usually much higher spatial resolution of the visual system as compared to the auditory system. Recently, it has been demonstrated that this cross-modal binding process is not fully automatic, but can be modulated by emotional learning. Here we tested whether cross-modal binding is similarly affected by motivational factors, as exemplified by reward expectancy. Participants received a monetary reward for precise and accurate localization of brief auditory stimuli. Auditory stimuli were accompanied by task-irrelevant, spatially misaligned visual stimuli. Thus, the participants' motivational goal of maximizing their reward was put in conflict with the spatial bias of auditory localization induced by the ventriloquist situation. Crucially, the amounts of expected reward differed between the two hemifields. As compared to the hemifield associated with a low reward, the ventriloquism effect was reduced in the high-reward hemifield. This finding suggests that reward expectations modulate cross-modal binding processes, possibly mediated via cognitive control mechanisms. The motivational significance of the stimulus material, thus, constitutes an important factor that needs to be considered in the study of top-down influences on multisensory integration. PMID:24874263

Bruns, Patrick; Maiworm, Mario; Röder, Brigitte

2014-08-01

330

Bounded Control of Multiple-Delay Systems with Applications to ATM Networks  

E-print Network

. This contract will guarantee the follwoing QoS parameters: 1 Minimum cell rate MCR, 2 Peak cell rate PCR, 3 cell. The ABR sources on the other hand, are only required to guarantee an MCR and an PCR, and thus can adjust

331

Bounded Control of Multiple-Delay Systems with Applications to ATM Networks1  

E-print Network

. This contract will guarantee the following QoS parameters: 1) Minimum cell rate (MCR), 2) Peak cell rate (PCR of the network. The ABR sources on the other hand, are only required to guarantee an MCR and an PCR, and thus can

332

A Delay-Bounded Event-Monitoring and Adversary-Identification Protocol in  

E-print Network

data in a multi-hop setting is important. First con- sider the smart power grid where myriad sensors on the inputs from the sensors to determine if corrective action is needed, such as, reducing the load on a sub-station

Zhang, Junshan

333

Cramer-Rao Lower Bounds for the Time Delay Estimation of UWB Signals  

E-print Network

The Cramer-Shoup Encryption Scheme is Plaintext Aware in the Standard Model (Version 3.0) Alexander to the Cramer-Shoup hybrid scheme acting on fixed length messages and deduce that the Cramer-Shoup scheme

Abhayapala, Thushara D.

334

Delay-bounded Routing in Vehicular Ad-hoc Networks Antonios Skordylis  

E-print Network

accidents, road faults and traffic congestion. On detection of an interesting event, vehicles attempt, information about a serious accident has higher priority than information about a road fault. The former must, Parks Road Oxford, OX1 3QD, United Kingdom ABSTRACT Ad hoc networks formed by traveling vehicles

Martin, Ralph R.

335

Titania bound sodium titanate ion exchanger  

DOEpatents

This invention is method for preparing a titania bound ion exchange composition comprising admixing crystalline sodium titanate and a hydrolyzable titanium compound and, thereafter drying the titania bound crystalline sodium titanate and subjecting the dried titania bound ion exchange composition to optional compaction and calcination steps to improve the physical strength of the titania bound composition.

DeFilippi, Irene C. G. (Palatine, IL); Yates, Stephen Frederic (Rolling Meadows, IL); Shen, Jian-Kun (Lake Zurich, IL); Gaita, Romulus (Morton Grove, IL); Sedath, Robert Henry (Bensenville, IL); Seminara, Gary Joseph (Chicago, IL); Straszewski, Michael Peter (Novi, MI); Anderson, David Joseph (Oak Lawn, IL)

1999-03-23

336

Fuzzy Upper Bounds in Groupoids  

PubMed Central

The notion of a fuzzy upper bound over a groupoid is introduced and some properties of it are investigated. We also define the notions of an either-or subset of a groupoid and a strong either-or subset of a groupoid and study some of their related properties. In particular, we consider fuzzy upper bounds in Bin(X), where Bin(X) is the collection of all groupoids. Finally, we define a fuzzy-d-subset of a groupoid and investigate some of its properties. PMID:24982979

Ahn, Sun Shin; Kim, Young Hee; Neggers, J.

2014-01-01

337

Sharp bounds for harmonic numbers  

E-print Network

In the paper, we first survey some results on inequalities for bounding harmonic numbers or Euler-Mascheroni constant, and then we establish a new sharp double inequality for bounding harmonic numbers as follows: For $n\\in\\mathbb{N}$, the double inequality -\\frac{1}{12n^2+{2(7-12\\gamma)}/{(2\\gamma-1)}}\\le H(n)-\\ln n-\\frac1{2n}-\\gamma<-\\frac{1}{12n^2+6/5} is valid, with equality in the left-hand side only when $n=1$, where the scalars $\\frac{2(7-12\\gamma)}{2\\gamma-1}$ and $\\frac65$ are the best possible.

Qi, Feng

2010-01-01

338

Cross delay line sensor characterization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There exists a wealth of information in the scientific literature on the physical properties and device characterization procedures for complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS), charge coupled device (CCD) and avalanche photodiode (APD) format detectors. Numerous papers and books have also treated photocathode operation in the context of photomultiplier tube (PMT) operation for either non imaging applications or limited night vision capability. However, much less information has been reported in the literature about the characterization procedures and properties of photocathode detectors with novel cross delay line (XDL) anode structures. These allow one to detect single photons and create images by recording space and time coordinate (X, Y & T) information. In this paper, we report on the physical characteristics and performance of a cross delay line anode sensor with an enhanced near infrared wavelength response photocathode and high dynamic range micro channel plate (MCP) gain (> 106 ) multiplier stage. Measurement procedures and results including the device dark event rate (DER), pulse height distribution, quantum and electronic device efficiency (QE & DQE) and spatial resolution per effective pixel region in a 25 mm sensor array are presented. The overall knowledge and information obtained from XDL sensor characterization allow us to optimize device performance and assess capability. These device performance properties and capabilities make XDL detectors ideal for remote sensing field applications that require single photon detection, imaging, sub nano-second timing response, high spatial resolution (10's of microns) and large effective image format.ÿ

Owens, Israel J.; Remelius, Dennis K.; Tiee, Joe J.; Buck, Steven E.; Whittemore, Stephen R.; Thompson, David C.; Shirey, Robert

2010-04-01

339

Delayed (sudden) birth of entanglement  

E-print Network

The concept of time delayed creation of entanglement by the dissipative process of spontaneous emission is investigated. A threshold effect for the creation of entanglement is found that the initially unentangled qubits can be entangled after a finite time despite the fact that the coherence between the qubits exists for all times. This delayed creation of entanglement, that we call sudden birth of entanglement, is opposite to the currently extensively discussed sudden death of entanglement and is characteristic for transient dynamics of one-photon entangled states of the system. We determine the threshold time for the creation of entanglement and find that it is related to time at which the antisymmetric state remains the only excited state being populated. It is shown that the threshold time can be controlled by the distance between the qubits and the direction of initial excitation relative to the interatomic axis. This effect suggests a new alternative for the study of entanglement and provides an interesting resource for creation on demand of entanglement between two qubits.

Z. Ficek; R. Tanas

2008-04-06

340

CT of multiple sclerosis: reassessment of delayed scanning with high doses of contrast material  

SciTech Connect

A prospective study involving 87 patients was carried out to evaluate the necessity for a high dose of contrast material in addition to delayed computed tomographic (CT) scanning for optimal detection of the lesions of multiple sclerosis in the brain. In patients with either clinically definite multiple sclerosis or laboratory-supported definite multiple sclerosis, CT scans were obtained with a uniform protocol. Lesions consistent with multiple sclerosis were demonstrated on the second scan in 54 patients. In 36 of these 54 patients, the high-dose delayed scan added information. These results are quite similar to those of a previous study from this institution using different patients, in whom the second scan was obtained immediately after the bolus injection of contrast material containing 40 g of organically bound iodine. The lack of real difference in the results of the two studies indicate that the increased dose, not just the delay in scanning, is necessary for a proper study.

Spiegel, S.M.; Vinuela, F.; Fox, A.J.; Pelz, D.M.

1985-09-01

341

A lower bound for routing on a completely connected optical communication parallel computer  

SciTech Connect

The task of routing a 2-relation on an n-processor completely connected optical communication parallel computer (OCPC) is considered. A lower bound is presented that applies to any randomized distributed algorithm for this task: specifically, it is shown that the expected number of steps required to route a 2-relation is {Omega}({radical} log log n) in the worst case. For comparison, the best upper bound known is O(log log n).

Goldberg, L.A. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Jerrum, M. [Edinburgh Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Computer Science; MacKenzie, P.D. [Texas Univ., Austin, TX (United States). Dept. of Computer Sciences

1993-08-03

342

Synthesis of tobermorite: A cement phase expected under repository conditions  

SciTech Connect

In this study I have synthesized tobermorite, Ca{sub 5}Si{sub 6}O{sub l6}(OH){sub 2.}4H{sub 2}0, a principal crystalline phase expected to form in cementitious materials subjected to elevated temperatures in a potential nuclear waste repository. Fluids interacting with these materials may have a profound effect on the integrity of the waste package and on transport of radionuclides. At ambient temperature, Portland cement reacts with water to form an amorphous calcium-silicate-hydrate (C-S-H) gel. At elevated temperatures, crystalline phases of various hydration states form. The C-S-H system has not been well characterized at elevated temperatures up to 250{degrees}C, which has been considered a bounding temperature for the potential Yucca Mountain repository. Physical, chemical, and thermodynamic data for these cement minerals that are predicted to be stable at these temperatures must be obtained from synthetic or natural samples to help predict fluid chemistry. For some of these minerals natural samples are difficult to obtain in sufficient quantity and purity. Therefore, monomineralic phases must be synthesized in order to unambiguously define their behavior. The synthetic or natural phases will be characterized as part of a comprehensive study to define the behavior of cementitious materials in a repository environment.

Martin, S.I.

1994-11-01

343

Stochastic switching in delay-coupled oscillators  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A delay is known to induce multistability in periodic systems. Under influence of noise, coupled oscillators can switch between coexistent orbits with different frequencies and different oscillation patterns. For coupled phase oscillators we reduce the delay system to a nondelayed Langevin equation, which allows us to analytically compute the distribution of frequencies and their corresponding residence times. The number of stable periodic orbits scales with the roundtrip delay time and coupling strength, but the noisy system visits only a fraction of the orbits, which scales with the square root of the delay time and is independent of the coupling strength. In contrast, the residence time in the different orbits is mainly determined by the coupling strength and the number of oscillators, and only weakly dependent on the coupling delay. Finally we investigate the effect of a detuning between the oscillators. We demonstrate the generality of our results with delay-coupled FitzHugh-Nagumo oscillators.

D'Huys, Otti; Jüngling, Thomas; Kinzel, Wolfgang

2014-09-01

344

Stochastic switching in delay-coupled oscillators.  

PubMed

A delay is known to induce multistability in periodic systems. Under influence of noise, coupled oscillators can switch between coexistent orbits with different frequencies and different oscillation patterns. For coupled phase oscillators we reduce the delay system to a nondelayed Langevin equation, which allows us to analytically compute the distribution of frequencies and their corresponding residence times. The number of stable periodic orbits scales with the roundtrip delay time and coupling strength, but the noisy system visits only a fraction of the orbits, which scales with the square root of the delay time and is independent of the coupling strength. In contrast, the residence time in the different orbits is mainly determined by the coupling strength and the number of oscillators, and only weakly dependent on the coupling delay. Finally we investigate the effect of a detuning between the oscillators. We demonstrate the generality of our results with delay-coupled FitzHugh-Nagumo oscillators. PMID:25314515

D'Huys, Otti; Jüngling, Thomas; Kinzel, Wolfgang

2014-09-01

345

Delay banking for air traffic management  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A method and associated system for time delay banking for aircraft arrival time, aircraft departure time and/or en route flight position. The delay credit value for a given flight may decrease with passage of time and may be transferred to or traded with other flights having the same or a different user (airline owner or operator). The delay credit value for a given aircraft flight depends upon an initial delay credit value, which is determined by a central system and depends upon one or more other flight characteristics. Optionally, the delay credit value decreases with passage of time. Optionally, a transaction cost is assessed against a delay credit value that is used on behalf of another flight with the same user or is traded with a different user.

Green, Steven M. (Inventor)

2007-01-01

346

Fuzzy neural-based control for nonlinear time-varying delay systems.  

PubMed

In this paper, a partially known nonlinear dynamic system with time-varying delays of the input and state is approximated by N fuzzy-based linear subsystems described by a state-space model with average delay. To shape the response of the closed-loop system, a set of fuzzy reference models is established. Similarly, the same fuzzy sets of the system rule are employed to design a fuzzy neural-based control. The proposed control contains a radial-basis function neural network to learn the uncertainties caused by the approximation error of the fuzzy model (e.g., time-varying delays and parameter variations) and the interactions resulting from the other subsystems. As the norm of the switching surface is inside of a defined set, the learning law starts; in this situation, the proposed method is an adaptive control possessing an extra compensation of uncertainties. As it is outside of the other set, which is smaller than the aforementioned set, the learning law stops; under this circumstance, the proposed method becomes a robust control without the compensation of uncertainties. A transition between robust control and adaptive control is also assigned to smooth the possible discontinuity of the control input. No assumption about the upper bound of the time-varying delays for the state and the input is required. However, two time-average delays are needed to simplify the controller design: 1) the stabilized conditions for every transformed delay-free subsystem must be satisfied; and 2) the learning uncertainties must be relatively bounded. The stability of the overall system is verified by Lyapunov stability theory. Simulations as compared with a linear transformed state feedback with integration control are also arranged to consolidate the usefulness of the proposed control. PMID:18179067

Hwang, Chih-Lyang; Chang, Li-Jui

2007-12-01

347

Classification of Hadron Bound States  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Consider a system where a small number of valence fermions interact with each other through an unspecified potential. As usual, a complete set of commuting operators define a set of bound states that are orthonormal. We work with density matrices so that a complete basis set of bound states are primitive idempotents that annihilate each other. That is, ?n?m= ?n?nm and tr(?) = 1. As an example, we use the bound states of the hydrogen atom. In order to model deeply bound particles, we suppose that the continuous degrees of freedom for the wave functions is reduced to a small finite number. We analyze the structure of complete basis sets of primitive idempotent NxN complex matrices for N=2 and N=3. For the baryons, we assume that the three colors of the valence quarks give N=3 and conclude that their resonances will appear in groups of three with the same quantum numbers, for example, ?(1232), ?(1600), ?(1920) each of which is P33. We discuss applications of the theory to classifying the mesons. We discuss Koide's mass formulas for the leptons and extensions to formulas for triples of hadrons.

Brannen, Carl

2008-05-01

348

Wronskian Method for Bound States  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We propose a simple and straightforward method based on Wronskians for the calculation of bound-state energies and wavefunctions of one-dimensional quantum-mechanical problems. We explicitly discuss the asymptotic behaviour of the wavefunction and show that the allowed energies make the divergent part vanish. As illustrative examples we consider…

Fernandez, Francisco M.

2011-01-01

349

Online Scheduling with Bounded Migration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Consider the classical online scheduling problem where jobs that arrive one by one are assigned to identical parallel ma- chines with the objective of minimizing the makespan. We general- ize this problem by allowing the current assignment to be changed whenever a new job arrives, subject to the constraint that the to- tal size of moved jobs is bounded by

Peter Sanders; Naveen Sivadasan; Martin Skutella

2004-01-01

350

Algebraic methods and bounded formulas  

E-print Network

than what is obtain­ able by the topological method. Namely, the non­definability result is extendedAlgebraic methods and bounded formulas Domenico Zambella 1 Department of Mathematics and Computer of the purposes of these article is to expose them to a public with interests ranging from arithmetic to finite

Amsterdam, University of

351

Correlation effects and bound states  

SciTech Connect

Bound states in a simple quark model that are due to correlation effects are analyzed. The confining properties of this model in meson (quark-antiquark and diquark) channels manifest themselves at any quark momenta, and an extra potential field may only enhance the confining effect.

Zinovjev, G. M. [National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Bogolyubov Institute for Theoretical Physics (Ukraine); Molodtsov, S. V., E-mail: molodtsov@itep.ru [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (Russian Federation)

2012-11-15

352

Gyromagnetic Ratios of Bound Particles  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new approach to calculation of the binding corrections to the magnetic moments of the constituents in a loosely bound system based, on the Bargmann–Michel–Telegdi equation, is suggested. Binding corrections are calculated in this framework, and the results confirm earlier calculations performed by other methods. Our method clearly demonstrates independence of the binding corrections on the magnitude of the spin

Michael I. Eides; Howard Grotch

1997-01-01

353

Compact programmable photonic variable delay devices  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Optical variable delay devices for providing variable true time delay to multiple optical beams simultaneously. A ladder-structured variable delay device comprises multiple basic building blocks stacked on top of each other resembling a ladder. Each basic building block has two polarization beamsplitters and a polarization rotator array arranged to form a trihedron; Controlling an array element of the polarization rotator array causes a beam passing through the array element either going up to a basic building block above it or reflect back towards a block below it. The beams going higher on the ladder experience longer optical path delay. An index-switched optical variable delay device comprises of many birefringent crystal segments connected with one another, with a polarization rotator array sandwiched between any two adjacent crystal segments. An array element in the polarization rotator array controls the polarization state of a beam passing through the element, causing the beam experience different refractive indices or path delays in the following crystal segment. By independently control each element in each polarization rotator array, variable optical path delays of each beam can be achieved. Finally, an index-switched variable delay device and a ladder-structured variable device are cascaded to form a new device which combines the advantages of the two individual devices. This programmable optic device has the properties of high packing density, low loss, easy fabrication, and virtually infinite bandwidth. The device is inherently two dimensional and has a packing density exceeding 25 lines/cm.sup.2. The delay resolution of the device is on the order of a femtosecond (one micron in space) and the total delay exceeds 10 nanosecond. In addition, the delay is reversible so that the same delay device can be used for both antenna transmitting and receiving.

Yao, X. Steve (Inventor)

1999-01-01

354

Multipath Delay Estimation for Frequency Hopping Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The multipath delay estimation problem for a slow frequency hopping system is studied. High resolution delay estimation algorithms are proposed by exploiting invariance structures in the data packet. The proposed approach converts the problem of delay estimation using temporally received packets to one of estimating directions-of-arrival in array processing. Two closed-form estimators are developed. The first algorithm is based on

Prashanth Hande; Lang Tong; Ananthram Swami

2002-01-01

355

The Overseas Doctors Training Scheme: failing expectations.  

PubMed Central

The Overseas Doctors Training Scheme needs appraisal. Set up 10 years ago to improve the quality of postgraduate training that overseas (non-European) doctors receive in Britain, the scheme has been popular, but it is questionable how far it has achieved its aims. If Britain is to continue to employ large numbers of overseas doctors in training grades, both through the scheme and through independent arrangements, the apparent mismatch between their expectations and the reality of what Britain offers must be tackled. Images p1629-a PMID:7993422

Richards, T.

1994-01-01

356

Relapsed perinatal neuroblastoma after expectant observation.  

PubMed

The Children's Oncology Group (COG) study ANBL00P2 showed that expectant observation of patients younger than six months of age with perinatal neuroblastoma presenting as a small adrenal mass yields excellent overall survival and spares surgical resection to the majority of patients. We report a 5-year-old female who was initially diagnosed with a perinatal neuroblastoma. The patient was observed on COG study ANBL00P2. By nine months of age she had no ultrasonographic or biochemical evidence of disease. She presented four years later with abdominal pain and was found to have high-risk stage 4 MYCN amplified neuroblastoma. PMID:25174838

Salloum, Ralph; Garrison, Aaron; von Allmen, Daniel; Sheridan, Rachel; Towbin, Alexander J; Adams, Denise; Weiss, Brian

2015-01-01

357

Helpful and harmful expectations of premarital interventions.  

PubMed

Despite the demonstrated effectiveness of premarital programs, estimates indicate that only 30% of couples use these services. This study examined the helpful and harmful aspects of premarital programs that may encourage or discourage participation. As expected, participants identified improved communication and problem solving skills as most beneficial. Disclosing secrets or past relationship issues that threaten the stability of the relationship was viewed as most harmful. Implications for the recruitment of couples and for the design and implementation of premarital programs are discussed. PMID:11928181

Valiente, Carlos E; Belanger, Catherine J; Estrada, Ana U

2002-01-01

358

Distributed computing environment monitoring and user expectations  

SciTech Connect

This paper discusses the growing needs for distributed system monitoring and compares it to current practices. It then goes on to identify the components of distributed system monitoring and shows how they are implemented and successfully used at one site today to address the Local Area Network (LAN), network services and applications, the Wide Area Network (WAN), and host monitoring. It shows how this monitoring can be used to develop realistic service level expectations and also identifies the costs. Finally, the paper briefly discusses the future challenges in network monitoring.

Cottrell, R.L.A.; Logg, C.A.

1995-11-01

359

Models for Light QCD Bound States  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

After a brief overview of Regge, tower, and heavy -quark experimental data, we examine two massless wave equations relevant to quark bound states. We establish general conditions on the Lorentz scalar and Lorentz vector potentials which yield arbitrary leading Regge trajectories for the case of circular classical motion. A semi-classical approximation which includes radial motion reproduces remarkably well the exact solutions. Conditions for tower structure are examined, and found to be incompatible with conditions which give a Nambu string-like Regge slope. We then propose a generalization of the usual potential model of quark bound states in which the confining flux tube is a dynamical object carrying both angular momentum and energy. The QQ-string system with spinless quarks is quantized using an implicit operator technique and the resulting relativistic wave equation is solved. For heavy quarks the usual Schrodinger valence-quark model is recovered. The Regge slope with light quarks agrees with the classical rotating-string result and is significantly larger than that given by the normal potential model. Quark mass variation and the effects of short-range forces are also considered. A relativistic generalization of the quantized flux tube model predicts the glueball ground state mass to be sqrt {3/alpha^'}~eq 1.9 GeV where alpha^' is the normal Regge slope. The groundstate as well as excited levels lie considerably above the expectations of previous models and also above various proposed experimental candidates. The glueball Regge slope is only about three -eighths that for valence quark hadrons. A semi-classical calculation of the Regge slope is in good agreement with a numerically exact value.

Lacourse, Daniel Peter

360

The Long Arm of Expectancies: Adolescent Alcohol Expectancies Predict Adult Alcohol Use  

PubMed Central

Aims: Alcohol expectancies are strong concurrent predictors of alcohol use and problems, but the current study addressed their unique power to predict from adolescence to midlife. Method: Long-term longitudinal data from the national British Cohort Study 1970 (N = 2146, 59.8% female) were used to predict alcohol use and misuse in the mid-30s by alcohol expectancies reported in adolescence. Results: Cohort members with more positive alcohol expectancies at age 16 reported greater alcohol quantity concurrently, increases in alcohol quantity relative to their peers between ages 16 and 35, and a higher likelihood of lifetime and previous year alcohol misuse at age 35, independent of gender, social class in family of origin, age of alcohol use onset, adolescent delinquent behavior and age 16 exam scores. Conclusions: Alcohol expectancies were strong proximal predictors of alcohol use and predicted relative change in alcohol use and misuse across two decades into middle adulthood. PMID:19808940

Patrick, Megan E.; Wray-Lake, Laura; Finlay, Andrea K.; Maggs, Jennifer L.

2010-01-01

361

Expectancy and Treatment Interactions: A Dissociation between Acupuncture Analgesia and Expectancy Evoked Placebo Analgesia  

E-print Network

Recent advances in placebo research have demonstrated the mind's power to alter physiology. In this study, we combined an expectancy manipulation model with both verum and sham acupuncture treatments to address: 1) how and ...

Kong, Jian

362

Reliability and Validity of the Self Efficacy Expectations and Outcome Expectations After ICD Implantation Scales  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study was to assess the reliability and validity characteristics of two new scales that measure self-efficacy expectations (SE-ICD) and outcome expectations (OE-ICD) in survivors (n=168) of sudden cardiac arrest (SCA), all of whom received an implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD). Cronbach's alpha reliability demonstrated good internal consistency (SE-ICD ? = 0.93 and OE-ICD ? = 0.81). Correlations with other self-efficacy instruments (general self-efficacy and social self-efficacy) were consistently high. The instruments were responsive to change across time with effect sizes of 0.46 for SE-ICD, and 0.26 for OE-ICD. These reliable, valid, and responsive instruments for measurement of self-efficacy expectations and outcome expectations after an ICD can be used in research and clinical settings. PMID:17693214

Dougherty, Cynthia M.; Johnston, Sandra K.; Thompson, Elaine Adams

2009-01-01

363

When feeling bad is expected to be good: emotion regulation and outcome expectancies in social conflicts.  

PubMed

According to the instrumental approach to emotion regulation, people may want to experience even unpleasant emotions to attain instrumental benefits. Building on value-expectancy models of self-regulation, we tested whether people want to feel bad in certain contexts specifically because they expect such feelings to be useful to them. In two studies, participants were more likely to try to increase their anger before a negotiation when motivated to confront (vs. collaborate with) a negotiation partner. Participants motivated to confront (vs. collaborate with) their partner expected anger to be more useful to them, and this expectation in turn, led them to try to increase their anger before negotiating. The subsequent experience of anger, following random assignment to emotion inductions (Study 1) or engagement in self-selected emotion regulation activities (Study 2), led participants to be more successful at getting others to concede to their demands, demonstrating that emotional preferences have important pragmatic implications. PMID:21728413

Tamir, Maya; Ford, Brett Q

2012-08-01

364

Computation of signal delays in RC networks  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A model for signal delay computation in RC networks is presented. The strength of the paradigm is its generality and simplicity. The definition of delay is applicable to RC meshes with potential resistive attenuating paths to ground. The algorithms can also be applied to undriven circuits (static charge sharing) and circuits with initial charge. To compute the delays, each node in the network is explored locally to derive a system of sparse linear equations. The solutions of the system are delay values based on the Elmore time constant at each point in the circuit.

Hidalgo, Juan Carlos; Narendran, Paliath; Chaiken, Seth

1993-01-01

365

Oscillation onset in neural delayed feedback  

SciTech Connect

This paper studies dynamical aspects of neural systems with delayed negative feedback modelled by nonlinear delay-differential equations. These systems undergo a Hopf bifurcation from a stable fixed point to a limit cycle oscillation as certain parameters are varied. We show that their frequency of oscillation is robust to parameter variations and noisy fluctuations, a property that makes these systems good candidates for pacemakers. The onset of oscillation is postponed by both additive and parametric noise in the sense that the state variable spends more time near the fixed point. Finally, we show that a distributed delay (rather than a fixed delay) also stabilizes the fixed point solution. 40 refs., 2 figs.

Longtin, A.

1990-01-01

366

Angular resolved time delay in photoemission  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate theoretically the relative time delay of photoelectrons originating from different atomic subshells of noble gases. This quantity was measured via attosecond streaking and studied theoretically by Schultze et al (2010 Science 328 1658) for neon. A substantial discrepancy was found between the measured and the calculated values of the relative time delay. Several theoretical studies were put forward to resolve this issue, e.g., by including correlation effects. In the present paper we explore a further aspect, namely the directional dependence of time delay. In contrast to neon, for argon target a strong angular dependence of the time delay is found near the Cooper minimum.

Wätzel, J.; Moskalenko, A. S.; Pavlyukh, Y.; Berakdar, J.

2015-01-01

367

Delay discounting as a measure of impulsivity.  

E-print Network

??Delay discounting as a behavioral measure of impulsivity has been widely used in neuroeconomy, psychopathology, clinical neuroscience, and drug addiction studies. Previous psychological studies have… (more)

Gu, Lidan

2012-01-01

368

Teleseismic P and S Delay Times within Tectonically Active and Stable North America  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have measured teleseismic P and S relative delay times within 1) Stable North America (SNA) using waveforms from IRIS PASSCAL seismic arrays MOMA (Fischer et al., 1995), ABBA (Roecker and Beavan, 1995), Abitibi (Hearn and Mareschal, 1996), and FLED (Wysession and Fischer, 2001), and 2) Tectonically-active North America (TNA) using Earthscope's Transportable Array (TA). To study the contribution of mantle structure to these delays we subtracted delays predicted for topography and crustal structure, using CRUST 2.0 (Bassin et al., 2000). Preliminary analyses of delay times from earthquakes with Mw>=6.5 show surprising differences between the heterogeneity of the mantle beneath SNA and TNA. While the range of delay times is expectedly small for an intra-shield array such as Abitibi, the range of delay times from Proterozoic basement in the midwest to Paleozoic margin in New England is much larger and slightly exceeds that for the TA in TNA. This suggests that that the mantle of SNA is slightly more heterogeneous than TNA, despite there being relatively little surface expression of this heterogeneity. Patterns of P and S relative delay times measured in TNA correlate better with surface tectonics, suggesting that the mantle in TNA has a greater effect on the surface geology than in SNA. The central and southern Basin and Range are characterized by positive delays. As shown in previous studies, the Snake River Plain is also well delineated by positive delays. These delays exhibit a significant peak at station H17A in Yellowstone National Park. Teleseismic P and S waves arriving at stations in the Rocky Mountains are much faster, including in northern Idaho and western Washington, but not in western Oregon. For both SNA and TNA, the measured S and P delay times have a significant linear correlation, with S delays at approximately 3 times the P delays, which confirms the dominant effect of mantle temperature on mantle velocity structure. However, the slope of this correlation appears slightly higher for SNA than for TNA, which could indicate a compositional effect that has a relatively larger effect on S waves, such as significant lateral variation in water or iron content.

Lou, X.; van der Lee, S.

2009-12-01

369

Upper Higgs boson mass bounds from a chirally invariant lattice Higgs-Yukawa model  

E-print Network

We establish the cutoff-dependent upper Higgs boson mass bound by means of direct lattice computations in the framework of a chirally invariant lattice Higgs-Yukawa model emulating the same chiral Yukawa coupling structure as in the Higgs-fermion sector of the Standard Model. As expected from the triviality picture of the Higgs sector, we observe the upper mass bound to decrease with rising cutoff parameter $\\Lambda$. Moreover, the strength of the fermionic contribution to the upper mass bound is explored by comparing to the corresponding analysis in the pure $\\Phi^4$-theory.

P. Gerhold; K. Jansen

2010-02-23

370

Cell probing by delayed luminescence  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Delayed luminescence (D.L.) is a measure that provides important information on biological systems fields, structures and activities, by counting impinging and emitted photons. Many recent experimental works have shown the existence of a close connection, sometimes analytically expressed between the biological state of the system and D.L. parameters. Our investigations aim to show that D.L. is a workable analytical technique covering a large number of disciplinary fields, from agriculture to pollution control and from medical diagnostics to food quality control. The authors have conducted systematic research about D.L. from unicellular alga Acetabularia acetabulum to Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast cultures and about more complex systems such as Soya seed (Glycine max, L.) and its dependence on sample preparation, history, intracellular signaling, metabolism and pollutant presence. We will discuss the most relevant results together with theoretical considerations on the basic interaction at work between biological systems and electromagnetic fields.

Musumeci, Francesco; Ballerini, Monica; Baroni, Giuliana; Costato, Michele; Ferraro, Lorenzo; Milani, Marziale; Scordino, Agata; Triglia, Antonio

1999-05-01

371

Nanoscale Observation of Alkane Delayering  

E-print Network

Noncontact Atomic Force Microscopy and synchrotron x-ray scattering measurements on dotriacontane (n-C32H66 or C32) films adsorbed on SiO2-coated Si(100) wafers reveal a narrow temperature range near the bulk C32 melting point Tb in which a monolayer phase of C32 molecules oriented perpendicular to surface is stable. This monolayer phase undergoes a delayering transition to a three-dimensional (3D) fluid phase on heating to just above Tb and to a solid 3D phase on cooling below Tb. An equilibrium phase diagram provides a useful framework for interpreting the unusual spreading and receding of the monolayer observed in transitions to and from the respective 3D phases.

M. Bai; K. Knorr; M. J. Simpson; S. Trogisch; H. Taub; S. N. Ehrlich; H. Mo; U. G. Volkmann; F. Y. Hansen

2006-11-18

372

Identifying, meeting, and assessing customer expectations  

SciTech Connect

Maintaining proficiency in carrying out mission goals is fundamental to the success of any organization. The definitive mission of the Waste Management and Remedial Action Division (WMRAD) of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is {open_quotes}to conduct waste management activities in a compliant, publicly acceptable, technically sound, and cost-efficient manner{close_quotes}. In order to effectively fulfill this mission, must meet or exceed several standards in respect to our customers. These include: (1) identifying current and future customer expectations; (2) managing our relationships with our customers; (3) ensuring our commitment to our customers; and (4) measuring our success m customer satisfaction. Our customers have a great variety of requirements and expectations. Many of these are in the form of local, state, and federal regulations and environmental standards. Others are brought to our attention through inquires made to the Department of Energy (DOE).Consumer surveys have proven to be effective tools which have been used to make improvements, enhance certain program elements, and identify beneficial areas in already existing programs. In addition, national working groups, technology transfer meetings, and manager/contractor`s meeting offer excellent opportunities to assess our activities.

Danner, T.A.

1995-02-01

373

Anticipatory looks reveal expectations about discourse relations.  

PubMed

Previous research provides evidence for expectation-driven processing within sentences at phonological, lexical, and syntactic levels of linguistic structure. Less well-established is whether comprehenders also anticipate pragmatic relationships between sentences. To address this, we evaluate a unit of discourse structure that comprehenders must infer to hold between sentences in order for a discourse to make sense-the intersentential coherence relation. In a novel eyetracking paradigm, we trained participants to associate particular spatial locations with particular coherence relations. Experiment 1 shows that the subset of listeners who successfully acquired the location?relation mappings during training subsequently looked to these locations during testing in response to a coherence-signaling intersentential connective. Experiment 2 finds that listeners' looks during sentences containing coherence-biasing verbs reveal expectations about upcoming sentence types. This work extends existing research on prediction beyond sentence-internal structure and provides a new methodology for examining the cues that comprehenders use to establish relationships at the discourse level. PMID:25247235

Rohde, Hannah; Horton, William S

2014-12-01

374

The expected anisotropy in solid inflation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Solid inflation is an effective field theory of inflation in which isotropy and homogeneity are accomplished via a specific combination of anisotropic sources (three scalar fields that individually break isotropy). This results in specific observational signatures that are not found in standard models of inflation: a non-trivial angular dependence for the squeezed bispectrum, and a possibly long period of anisotropic inflation (to drive inflation, the ``solid'' must be very insensitive to any deformation, and thus background anisotropies are very slowly erased). In this paper we compute the expected level of statistical anisotropy in the power spectrum of the curvature perturbations of this model. To do so, we account for the classical background values of the three scalar fields that are generated on large (superhorizon) scales during inflation via a random walk sum, as the perturbation modes leave the horizon. Such an anisotropy is unavoidably generated, even starting from perfectly isotropic classical initial conditions. The expected level of anisotropy is related to the duration of inflation and to the amplitude of the squeezed bispectrum. If this amplitude is close to its current observational limit (so that one of the most interesting predictions of the model can be observed in the near future), we find that a level of statistical anisotropy F2 gives frozen and scale invariant vector perturbations on superhorizon scales.

Bartolo, Nicola; Peloso, Marco; Ricciardone, Angelo; Unal, Caner

2014-11-01

375

Characterization of dementia and Alzheimer's disease in an older population: updated incidence and life expectancy with and without dementia.  

PubMed

Objectives. We estimated dementia incidence rates, life expectancies with and without dementia, and percentage of total life expectancy without dementia. Methods. We studied 3605 members of Group Health (Seattle, WA) aged 65 years or older who did not have dementia at enrollment to the Adult Changes in Thought study between 1994 and 2008. We estimated incidence rates of Alzheimer's disease and dementia, as well as life expectancies with and without dementia, defined as the average number of years one is expected to live with and without dementia, and percentage of total life expectancy without dementia. Results. Dementia incidence increased through ages 85 to 89 years (74.2 cases per 1000 person-years) and 90 years or older (105 cases per 1000 person-years). Life expectancy without dementia and percentage of total life expectancy without dementia decreased with age. Life expectancy with dementia was longer in women and people with at least a college degree. Percentage of total life expectancy without dementia was greater in younger age groups, men, and those with more education. Conclusions. Efforts to delay onset of dementia, if successful, would likely benefit older adults of all ages. PMID:25033130

Tom, Sarah E; Hubbard, Rebecca A; Crane, Paul K; Haneuse, Sebastien J; Bowen, James; McCormick, Wayne C; McCurry, Susan; Larson, Eric B

2015-02-01

376

DELAYS IN SPECIMEN TRANSPORTATION Delays in transporting specimens from hospital units to the  

E-print Network

DELAYS IN SPECIMEN TRANSPORTATION Delays in transporting specimens from hospital units nurses, phlebotomists, and porters collect and transport specimens. Porters are shared among all units and have responsibilities outside specimen transportation This project seeks to improve the pre

377

Transversely bounded DFB lasers. [bounded distributed-feedback lasers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Bounded distributed-feedback (DFB) lasers are studied in detail. Threshold gain and field distribution for a number of configurations are derived and analyzed. More specifically, the thin-film guide, fiber, diffusion guide, and hollow channel with inhomogeneous-cladding DFB lasers are considered. Optimum points exist and must be used in DFB laser design. Different-modes feedback and the effects of the transverse boundaries are included. A number of applications are also discussed.

Elachi, C.; Evans, G.; Yeh, C.

1975-01-01

378

Dynamics of a neutral delay equation for an insect population with long larval and short adult phases  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a global study on the stability of the equilibria in a nonlinear autonomous neutral delay differential population model formulated by Bocharov and Hadeler. This model may be suitable for describing the intriguing dynamics of an insect population with long larval and short adult phases such as the periodical cicada. We circumvent the usual difficulties associated with the study of the stability of a nonlinear neutral delay differential model by transforming it to an appropriate non-neutral nonautonomous delay differential equation with unbounded delay. In the case that no juveniles give birth, we establish the positivity and boundedness of solutions by ad hoc methods and global stability of the extinction and positive equilibria by the method of iteration. We also show that if the time adjusted instantaneous birth rate at the time of maturation is greater than 1, then the population will grow without bound, regardless of the population death process.

Gourley, Stephen A.; Kuang, Yang

379

Three-body systems with Coulomb interaction. Bound and quasi-bound S-states  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A simple Mathematica (versions 7-9) code for computing S-state energies and wave functions of three-particles systems is presented. The relevant systems include two-electron atoms, molecular electronic ions and mesomolecular exotic species. In addition to the bound S-states the code enables one to compute the positions and widths of the lowest resonance, quasi-bound, states. The elegant technique derived from the classical papers of Pekeris is applied. The basis functions are composed of Laguerre functions. The method is based on the perimetric coordinates and specific properties of the Laguerre polynomials. A direct solution of the generalized eigenvalues and eigenvectors problem is used, distinct from Pekeris' works. The complex scaling method is applied for calculating the resonance states. The resultant wave functions have a simple analytical form, that enables calculation of expectation values of arbitrary physical operators without any difficulties. Only one mathematical parameter characterizing the basis size is required in the input. The other input parameters are of the physical nature.

Liverts, Evgeny Z.; Barnea, Nir

2013-11-01

380

Dynamic Properties of the Solow Model with Bounded Technological Progress and Time-to-Build Technology  

PubMed Central

We introduce a time-to-build technology in a Solow model with bounded technological progress. Our analysis shows that the system may be asymptotically stable, or it can produce stability switches and Hopf bifurcations when time delay varies. The direction and the stability criteria of the bifurcating periodic solutions are obtained by the normal form theory and the center manifold theorem. Numerical simulations confirms the theoretical results. PMID:24782674

Sodini, Mauro

2014-01-01

381

Computation of wall bounded flows with heat transfer in the framework of SRS approaches  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A detailed assessment of Scale Adaptive Simulation (SAS) and Improved Delayed Detached Eddy Simulation (IDDES) is performed for prediction of heat transfer for several wall bounded flow. For that purpose a zero pressure gradient boundary layer, a backward facing step, and a thermal mixing in a T-Junction test cases are considered. The results, obtained with the use of ANSYS-FLUENT, show that both approaches are capable to predict both mean and RMS velocity and temperature with sufficient accuracy.

Gritskevich, M. S.; Garbaruk, A. V.; Menter, F. R.

2014-12-01

382

Teacher Expectancy Related to Student Performance in Vocational Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This experiment explored the effect of teacher expectations on vocational students' cognitive and psychomotor skills and on attitudes. Although teachers' expectations changed student attitudes toward teachers and subjects, neither expectations nor attitude change had an effect on student achievement. (SK)

Curtis, Samuel M.; Pandya, Himanshu S.

1980-01-01

383

Joint estimation of time delay and frequency delay in impulsive noise using fractional lower order statistics  

Microsoft Academic Search

New methods for time delay estimation and joint estimation of time delay and frequency delay in the presence of impulsive noise are introduced. First, degradation of the conventional approaches based on second-order statistics is shown both theoretically and experimentally. Then, a new class of robust algorithms are developed using the theory of alpha-stable distributions, including the fractional lower order covariance

Xinyu Ma; Chrysostomos L. Nikias

1996-01-01

384

Synchronization of delayed systems in the presence of delay time modulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigate synchronization in the presence of delay time modulation for application to communication. We have observed that the robust synchronization is established by a common delay signal and its threshold is presented using Lyapunov exponents analysis. The influence of the delay time modulation in chaotic oscillators is also discussed.

Won-Ho Kye; Muhan Choi; Myung-Woon Kim; Soo-Young Lee; Sunghwan Rim; Chil-Min Kim; Young-Jai Park

2004-01-01

385

Chaos Synchronization of delayed systems in the presence of delay time modulation  

E-print Network

We investigate synchronization in the presence of delay time modulation for application to communication. We have observed that the robust synchronization is established by a common delay signal and its threshold is presented using Lyapunov exponents analysis. The influence of the delay time modulation in chaotic oscillators is also discussed.

Won-Ho Kye; Muhan Choi; Myung-Woon Kim; Soo-Young Lee; Sunghwan Rim; Chil-Min Kim; Young-Jai Park

2005-03-18

386

Delay Banking for Managing Air Traffic  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Delay banking has been invented to enhance air-traffic management in a way that would increase the degree of fairness in assigning arrival, departure, and en-route delays and trajectory deviations to aircraft impacted by congestion in the national airspace system. In delay banking, an aircraft operator (airline, military, general aviation, etc.) would be assigned a numerical credit when any of their flights are delayed because of an air-traffic flow restriction. The operator could subsequently bid against other operators competing for access to congested airspace to utilize part or all of its accumulated credit. Operators utilize credits to obtain higher priority for the same flight, or other flights operating at the same time, or later, in the same airspace, or elsewhere. Operators could also trade delay credits, according to market rules that would be determined by stakeholders in the national airspace system. Delay banking would be administered by an independent third party who would use delay banking automation to continually monitor flights, allocate delay credits, maintain accounts of delay credits for participating airlines, mediate bidding and the consumption of credits of winning bidders, analyze potential transfers of credits within and between operators, implement accepted transfers, and ensure fair treatment of all participating operators. A flow restriction can manifest itself in the form of a delay in assigned takeoff time, a reduction in assigned airspeed, a change in the position for the aircraft in a queue of all aircraft in a common stream of traffic (e.g., similar route), a change in the planned altitude profile for an aircraft, or change in the planned route for the aircraft. Flow restrictions are typically imposed to mitigate traffic congestion at an airport or in a region of airspace, particularly congestion due to inclement weather, or the unavailability of a runway or region of airspace. A delay credit would be allocated to an operator of a flight that has accepted, or upon which was imposed, a flow restriction. The amount of the credit would increase with the amount of delay caused by the flow restriction, the exact amount depending on which of several candidate formulas is eventually chosen. For example, according to one formula, there would be no credit for a delay smaller than some threshold value (e.g., 30 seconds) and the amount of the credit for a longer delay would be set at the amount of the delay minus the threshold value. Optionally, the value of a delay credit could be made to decay with time according to a suitable formula (e.g., an exponential decay). Also, optionally, a transaction charge could be assessed against the value of a delay credit that an operator used on a flight different from the one for which the delay originated or that was traded with a different operator. The delay credits accumulated by a given airline could be utilized in various ways. For example, an operator could enter a bid for priority handling in a new flow restriction that impacts one or more of the operator s flights; if the bid were unsuccessful, all or a portion of the credit would be returned to the bidder. If the bid pertained to a single aircraft that was in a queue, delay credits could be consumed in moving the aircraft to an earlier position within the queue. In the case of a flow restriction involving a choice of alternate routes, planned altitude profile, aircraft spacing, or other non-queue flow restrictions, delay credits could be used to bid for an alternative assignment.

Green, Steve

2008-01-01

387

Delayed response protocols for high-delay wireless networks  

E-print Network

on receiving 3 duplicate acknowledgements assumes congestion and retransmits the same packet again. Moreover, it reduces the congestion window to half (=5) of the original window (=10). CW=10 1RTT ~ begins CW= 11 +terr ~ 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 10... mechanism of TCP for detecnng lost packets. Anival of acknowledgements or duplicate acknowledgements resets the timeout timers. Timer for Pkt 0 begins CW=10 CW = 10 CW = 5+ 1 IRTT ri Prsrr~ rRTT~ Expected Seq No on Acks 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0...

Sadry, Nauzad Erach

2002-01-01

388

What To Expect Your First Year Teaching  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Teachers First website has been offering up high-quality lessons, teaching units, and web resources for teachers for almost ten years. Along with these resources, they have also created a number of papers and presentations that are designed to support the careers of teachers who are just entering the profession. One such resource is the helpful 48-page manual by Amy DePaul titled "What To Expect Your First Year of Teaching". The document was prepared under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Education's Office of Educational Research and Improvement and it contains a cornucopia of insights and observations from both veteran and first-year teachers. Visitors can skip around the report at their leisure and they may also wish to forward it along to other fellow educators.

Depaul, Amy

1998-01-01

389

Optimal power flow with expected security costs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This research introduces the expected security-cost optimal power flow (ESCOPF) model. The ESCOPF problem is the standard optimal power flow (OPF) problem, but also includes the costs of the system operating within operational limits in post-contingency states as part of the total cost to minimize. Redispatch of the power system in the post-contingency state, given that the system has been operating at a given pre-contingency state prior to the contingency, yields a new total cost of system operation, which is considered the security cost of the particular contingency as a function of the pre-contingency state. The security cost is then included in the objective function. In other words, the ESCOPF problem is the OPF problem that handles system security as an economic cost instead of as a constraint, which is what has been done in previous studies of security-constrained optimal power flow (SCOPF). In addition, after the contingency, we allow post-contingency rescheduling of generators and the ability to interrupt customer loads if necessary. However, the cost of post-contingency rescheduling, such as the interruption cost the utility must pay to the interrupted customers, must be included in the post-contingency security cost. The proposed ESCOPF problem can be solved using either a decomposition method or an integrated solution method. The proposed model has been successfully tested on 3-bus, 5-bus and IEEE 14-bus cases. The numerical results of the proposed model are used to study the values of spinning reserve and interruptible load in power systems considering system security. The marginal value of spinning reserve and the marginal value of interruptible load tell us how much the expected security cost will be reduced by the availability of another MW of spinning reserve or interruptible load.

Damrongkulkamjorn, Parnjit

390

Bound orbits and gravitational theory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It can be easily shown that bound orbits around a static source can only exist in four dimensions for any force driven by the Laplace equation. This is true not only for Maxwell’s electromagnetism and Newton’s gravity, but for Einstein’s theory of gravitation as well. In contrast to Maxwell’s electrodynamics and Newton’s gravity, general relativity has a natural and remarkable generalization in higher dimensions in Lovelock gravity. However, it is not Laplace driven and hence admits bound orbits around a static black hole in all even D=2N+2 dimensions, where N is the degree of the Lovelock polynomial action. This is as general a result as Bertrand’s theorem of classical mechanics, in which the existence of closed orbits uniquely singles out the inverse square law for a long-range central force.

Dadhich, Naresh; Ghosh, Sushant G.; Jhingan, Sanjay

2013-12-01

391

Signal Delay in General RC Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based upon the delay of Elmore, a single value of delay is derived for any node in a general RC network. The effects of parallel connections and stored charge are properly taken into consideration. A technique called tree decomposition and load redistribution is introduced that is capable of dealing with general RC networks without sacrificing a number of desirable properties

Tzu-mu Lin; Carver Mead

1984-01-01

392

RC delay metrics for performance optimization  

Microsoft Academic Search

For performance optimization tasks such as floorplanning, placement, buffer insertion, wire sizing, and global routing, the Elmore resistance-capacitance (RC) delay metric remains popular due to its simple closed form expression, fast computation speed, and fidelity with respect to simulation. More accurate delay computation methods are typically central processing unit intensive and\\/or difficult to implement. To bridge this gap between accuracy

Charles J. Alpert; Anirudh Devgan; Chandramouli V. Kashyap

2001-01-01

393

Temperature Dependent Wire Delay Estimation in Floorplanning  

E-print Network

Temperature Dependent Wire Delay Estimation in Floorplanning Andreas Thor Winther, Wei Liu, Alberto, Arizona State University, Tempe, USA Abstract--Due to large variations in temperature in VLSI cir- cuits and the linear relationship between metal resistance and temperature, the delay through wires of the same length

Nannarelli, Alberto

394

Delaying Developmental Mathematics: The Characteristics and Costs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper investigates which students delay taking a required developmental mathematics course and the impact of delay on student performance in introductory microeconomics. Analysis of a sample of 1462 students at a large Midwestern university revealed that, although developmental-level mathematics students did not reach the same level of…

Johnson, Marianne; Kuennen, Eric

2004-01-01

395

Analyzing delay causes in Egyptian construction projects  

PubMed Central

Construction delays are common problems in civil engineering projects in Egypt. These problems occur frequently during project life-time leading to disputes and litigation. Therefore, it is essential to study and analyze causes of construction delays. This research presents a list of construction delay causes retrieved from literature. The feedback of construction experts was obtained through interviews. Subsequently, a questionnaire survey was prepared. The questionnaire survey was distributed to thirty-three construction experts who represent owners, consultants, and contractor’s organizations. Frequency Index, Severity Index, and Importance Index are calculated and according to the highest values of them the top ten delay causes of construction projects in Egypt are determined. A case study is analyzed and compared to the most important delay causes in the research. Statistical analysis is carried out using analysis of variance ANOVA method to test delay causes, obtained from the survey. The test results reveal good correlation between groups while there is significant difference between them for some delay causes and finally roadmap for prioritizing delay causes groups is presented.

Marzouk, Mohamed M.; El-Rasas, Tarek I.

2013-01-01

396

On Delay and Security in Network Coding  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this thesis, delay and security issues in network coding are considered. First, we study the delay incurred in the transmission of a fixed number of packets through acyclic networks comprised of erasure links. The two transmission schemes studied are routing with hop-by-hop retransmissions, where every node in the network simply stores and…

Dikaliotis, Theodoros K.

2013-01-01

397

Delayed postanoxic encephalopathy after carbon monoxide poisoning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Delayed postanoxic encephalopathy causes deterioration and relapse of cognitive ability and behavioural movement a few weeks after complete recovery from initial hypoxic injury. A case is reported of delayed postanoxic encephalopathy after carbon monoxide poisoning, which was diagnosed with diffusion weighted magnetic resonance imaging. The literature is also reviewed.

O Y Kwon; S P Chung; Y R Ha; I S Yoo; S W Kim

2004-01-01

398

Delaying gratification depends on social trust  

PubMed Central

Delaying gratification is hard, yet predictive of important life outcomes, such as academic achievement and physical health. Prominent theories focus on the role of self-control, hypersensitivity to immediate rewards, and the cost of time spent waiting. However, delaying gratification may also require trust in people delivering future rewards as promised. To test the role of social trust, participants were presented with character vignettes and faces that varied in trustworthiness, and then choose between hypothetical smaller immediate or larger delayed rewards from those characters. Across two experiments, participants were less willing to wait for delayed rewards from less trustworthy characters, and perceived trustworthiness predicted willingness to delay gratification. These findings provide the first demonstration of a causal role for social trust in willingness to delay gratification, independent of other relevant factors, such as self-control or reward history. Thus, delaying gratification requires choosing not only a later reward, but a reward that is potentially less likely to be delivered, when there is doubt about the person promising it. Implications of this work include the need to revise prominent theories of delay of gratification, and new directions for interventions with populations characterized by impulsivity. PMID:23801977

Michaelson, Laura; de la Vega, Alejandro; Chatham, Christopher H.; Munakata, Yuko

2013-01-01

399

Preferences for fixed and variable food sources: variability in amount and delay.  

PubMed Central

Much research has focused on the effects of environmental variability on foraging decisions. However, the general pattern of preference for variability in delay to reward and aversion to variability in amount of reward remains unexplained a either a mechanistic or a functional level. Starlings' preferences between a fixed and a variable option were studied in two treatments, A and D. The fixed option was the same in both treatments (20-s fixed-interval delay, five units food). In Treatment A the variable option gave two equiprobable amounts of food (20-s delay, three or seven units) and in D it gave two equiprobable delays to food (2.5-s or 60.5-s delays, five units). In both treatments the programmed ratio [amount/(intertrial interval+latency+delay)] in the fixed option equaled the arithmetic mean of the two possible ratios in the variable option (ITI = 40 s, latency = 1 s). The variable option was strongly preferred in Treatment D and was weakly avoided in Treatment A. These results are discussed in the light of two theoretical models, a form of constrained rate maximization and a version of scalar expectancy theory. The latter accommodates more of the data and is based on independently verifiable assumptions, including Weber's law. PMID:7751835

Bateson, M; Kacelnik, A

1995-01-01

400

Entropy bounds and dark energy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Entropy bounds render quantum corrections to the cosmological constant ? finite. Under certain assumptions, the natural value of ? is of order the observed dark energy density ?10?10 eV4, thereby resolving the cosmological constant problem. We note that the dark energy equation of state in these scenarios is w?p\\/?=0 over cosmological distances, and is strongly disfavored by observational data. Alternatively, ?

Stephen D. H. Hsu

2004-01-01

401

Holographic bound and protein linguistics  

E-print Network

The holographic bound in physics constrains the complexity of life. The finite storage capability of information in the observable universe requires the protein linguistics in the evolution of life. We find that the evolution of genetic code determines the variance of amino acid frequencies and genomic GC content among species. The elegant linguistic mechanism is confirmed by the experimental observations based on all known entire proteomes.

Dirson Jian Li; Shengli Zhang

2007-04-10

402

Semiclassical bounds in magnetic bottles  

E-print Network

The aim of the paper is to derive spectral estimates into several classes of magnetic systems. They include three-dimensional regions with Dirichlet boundary as well as a particle in $\\mathbb{R}^3$ confined by a local change of the magnetic field. We establish two-dimensional Berezin-Li-Yau and Lieb-Thirring-type bounds in the presence of magnetic fields and, using them, get three-dimensional estimates for the eigenvalue moments of the corresponding magnetic Laplacians.

Diana Barseghyan; Pavel Exner; Hynek Kovarik; Timo Weidl

2015-01-13

403

Gyromagnetic Ratios of Bound Particles  

E-print Network

A new approach to calculation of the binding corrections to the magnetic moments of the constituents in a loosely bound system, based on the Bargmann-Michel-Telegdi equation, is suggested. Binding corrections are calculated in this framework, and the results confirm earlier calculations performed by other methods. Our method clearly demonstrates independence of the binding corrections on the magnitude of the spin of the constituents.

Michael I. Eides; Howard Grotch

1997-03-24

404

Lower bounds for randomized Exclusive Write PRAMs  

SciTech Connect

In this paper we study the question: How useful is randomization in speeding up Exclusive Write PRAM computations? Our results give further evidence that randomization is of limited use in these types of computations. First we examine a compaction problem on both the CREW and EREW PRAM models, and we present randomized lower bounds which match the best deterministic lower bounds known. (For the CREW PRAM model, the lower bound is asymptotically optimal.) These are the first non-trivial randomized lower bounds known for the compaction problem on these models. We show that our lower bounds also apply to the problem of approximate compaction. Next we examine the problem of computing boolean functions on the CREW PRAM model, and we present a randomized lower bound, which improves on the previous best randomized lower bound for many boolean functions, including the OR function. (The previous lower bounds for these functions were asymptotically optimal, but we improve the constant multiplicative factor.) We also give an alternate proof for the randomized lower bound on PARITY, which was already optimal to within a constant additive factor. Lastly, we give a randomized lower bound for integer merging on an EREW PRAM which matches the best deterministic lower bound known. In all our proofs, we use the Random Adversary method, which has previously only been used for proving lower bounds on models with Concurrent Write capabilities. Thus this paper also serves to illustrate the power and generality of this method for proving parallel randomized lower bounds.

MacKenzie, P.D.

1995-05-02

405

Information bounds for Gaussian copulas  

PubMed Central

Often of primary interest in the analysis of multivariate data are the copula parameters describing the dependence among the variables, rather than the univariate marginal distributions. Since the ranks of a multivariate dataset are invariant to changes in the univariate marginal distributions, rank-based estimators are natural candidates for semiparametric copula estimation. Asymptotic information bounds for such estimators can be obtained from an asymptotic analysis of the rank likelihood, i.e. the probability of the multivariate ranks. In this article, we obtain limiting normal distributions of the rank likelihood for Gaussian copula models. Our results cover models with structured correlation matrices, such as exchangeable or circular correlation models, as well as unstructured correlation matrices. For all Gaussian copula models, the limiting distribution of the rank likelihood ratio is shown to be equal to that of a parametric likelihood ratio for an appropriately chosen multivariate normal model. This implies that the semiparametric information bounds for rank-based estimators are the same as the information bounds for estimators based on the full data, and that the multivariate normal distributions are least favorable. PMID:25313292

Hoff, Peter D.; Niu, Xiaoyue; Wellner, Jon A.

2013-01-01

406

Time Delays in Two-Photon Ionization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present results of ab initio numerical simulations of time delays in two-photon ionization of the helium atom using the attosecond streaking technique. The temporal shifts in the streaking traces consist of two contributions, namely, a time delay acquired during the absorption of the two photons from the extreme-ultraviolet field and a time delay accumulated by the photoelectron after photoabsorption. In the case of a nonresonant transition, the absorption of the two photons is found to occur without time delay. In contrast, for a resonant transition a substantial absorption time delay is found, which scales linearly with the duration of the ionizing pulse. The latter can be related to the phase acquired during the transition of the electron from the initial ground state to the continuum and the influence of the streaking field on the resonant structure of the atom.

Su, Jing; Ni, Hongcheng; Jaro?-Becker, Agnieszka; Becker, Andreas

2014-12-01

407

Effects of elongation delay in transcription dynamics.  

PubMed

In the transcription process, elongation delay is induced by the movement of RNA polymerases (RNAP) along the DNA sequence, and can result in changes in the transcription dynamics. This paper studies the transcription dynamics that involved the elongation delay and effects of cell division and DNA replication. The stochastic process of gene expression is modeled with delay chemical master equation with periodic coefficients, and is studied numerically through the stochastic simulation algorithm with delay. We show that the average transcription level approaches to a periodic dynamics over cell cycles at homeostasis, and the elongation delay can reduce the transcription level and increase the transcription noise. Moreover, the transcription elongation can induce bimodal distribution of mRNA levels that can be measured by the techniques of flow cytometry. PMID:25365608

Zhang, Xuan; Jin, Huiqin; Yang, Zhuoqin; Lei, Jinzhi

2014-12-01

408

Time delays in two-photon ionization.  

PubMed

We present results of ab initio numerical simulations of time delays in two-photon ionization of the helium atom using the attosecond streaking technique. The temporal shifts in the streaking traces consist of two contributions, namely, a time delay acquired during the absorption of the two photons from the extreme-ultraviolet field and a time delay accumulated by the photoelectron after photoabsorption. In the case of a nonresonant transition, the absorption of the two photons is found to occur without time delay. In contrast, for a resonant transition a substantial absorption time delay is found, which scales linearly with the duration of the ionizing pulse. The latter can be related to the phase acquired during the transition of the electron from the initial ground state to the continuum and the influence of the streaking field on the resonant structure of the atom. PMID:25615320

Su, Jing; Ni, Hongcheng; Jaro?-Becker, Agnieszka; Becker, Andreas

2014-12-31

409

Population dynamics with nonlinear delayed carrying capacity  

E-print Network

We consider a class of evolution equations describing population dynamics in the presence of a carrying capacity depending on the population with delay. In an earlier work, we presented an exhaustive classification of the logistic equation where the carrying capacity is linearly dependent on the population with a time delay, which we refer to as the "linear delayed carrying capacity" model. Here, we generalize it to the case of a nonlinear delayed carrying capacity. The nonlinear functional form of the carrying capacity characterizes the delayed feedback of the evolving population on the capacity of their surrounding by either creating additional means for survival or destroying the available resources. The previously studied linear approximation for the capacity assumed weak feedback, while the nonlinear form is applicable to arbitrarily strong feedback. The nonlinearity essentially changes the behavior of solutions to the evolution equation, as compared to the linear case. All admissible dynamical regimes a...

Yukalov, V I; Sornette, D

2014-01-01

410

BOUNDS ON EIGENVALUES OF MATRICES ARISING FROM ...  

E-print Network

energy estimates to obtain bounds on the eigenvalues of the matrices, and conclude that ... has more favorable eigenvalue bounds than the alternative reduced versions. ...... The interior-point revolution in optimization: history, recent develop-.

2012-11-17

411

Revisiting cosmological bounds on sterile neutrinos  

E-print Network

We employ state-of-the art cosmological observables including supernova surveys and BAO information to provide constraints on the mass and mixing angle of a non-resonantly produced sterile neutrino species, showing that cosmology can effectively rule out sterile neutrinos which decay between BBN and the present day. The decoupling of an additional heavy neutrino species can modify the time dependence of the Universe's expansion between BBN and recombination and, in extreme cases, lead to an additional matter-dominated period; while this could naively lead to overclosure, seen as a younger Universe with a larger Hubble parameter, it could later be compensated by the extra radiation expected in the form of neutrinos from sterile decay. However, recombination-era observables including the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB), the shift parameter $R_{CMB}$ and the sound horizon $r_s$ from Baryon Acoustic Oscillations (BAO) severely constrain this scenario. We self-consistently include the full time-evolution of the coupled sterile neutrino and standard model sectors in an MCMC, showing that if decay occurs after BBN, the sterile neutrino is essentially bounded by the constraint $\\sin^2\\theta \\lesssim 0.026 (m_s/\\mathrm{eV})^{-2}$.

Aaron C. Vincent; Enrique Fernandez Martinez; Pilar Hernandez; Massimiliano Lattanzi; Olga Mena

2014-08-08

412

Expectations Increase as VLT First Light Approaches  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two weeks before the moment of "First Light" of Unit Telescope no. 1 of the Very Large Telescope (VLT) , the ESO Team at the Paranal Observatory reports good progress of the preparatory work. The crucial optimization of the world's first, thin 8.2-metre mirror proceeds according to the established plan. It is thus expected that this important event will take place as foreseen, i.e. during the night of May 25-26, 1998 . If no unforeseen obstacles are encountered, the first scientific images will then be presented during a series of near-simultaneous Press Conferences in the ESO member countries on May 27 . The photos will be published on the WWW the same day, together with explanatory texts. In preliminary optical tests at the first VLT Unit Telescope (UT1), the initial adjustment of the active optics system that controls the telescope optics has demonstrated excellent results. In particular, the first tests have verified the fine optical performance of the 8.2-m primary mirror and of the complex control system that maintains the shape of this thin and flexible Zerodur mirror. In short test exposures with the guide probe (the technical device that is used to steer the telescope) - i.e., not yet with the scientific CCD-camera that will be used for the First Light images - the telescope has been following the external seeing provided by the Paranal site. Image quality of better than 0.5 arcsec has been achieved routinely. "We are pleased with the progress and confident that the telescope will live up to the expectations", says Riccardo Giacconi , Director General of ESO. "The team at Paranal is doing a great job." For more details about the various media activities surrounding the VLT First Light event, please consult the First Light homepage. A list of locations, times and contact addresses for the Press Conferences is available on the web. How to obtain ESO Press Information ESO Press Information is made available on the World-Wide Web (URL: http://www.eso.org ). ESO Press Photos may be reproduced, if credit is given to the European Southern Observatory.

1998-05-01

413

Telepresence, time delay, and adaptation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Displays are now being used extensively throughout the society. More and more time is spent watching television, movies, computer screens, etc. Furthermore, in an increasing number of cases, the observer interacts with the display and plays the role of operator as well as observer. To a large extent, the normal behavior in the normal environment can also be thought of in these same terms. Taking liberties with Shakespeare, it might be said, all the world's a display and all the individuals in it are operators in and on the display. Within this general context of interactive display systems, a discussion is began with a conceptual overview of a particular class of such systems, namely, teleoperator systems. The notion is considered of telepresence and the factors that limit telepresence, including decorrelation between the: (1) motor output of the teleoperator as sensed directly via the kinesthetic/tactual system, and (2) the motor output of the teleoperator as sensed indirectly via feedback from the slave robot, i.e., via a visual display of the motor actions of the slave robot. Finally, the deleterious effect of time delay (a particular decorrelation) on sensory-motor adaptation (an important phenomenon related to telepresence) is examined.

Held, Richard; Durlach, Nathaniel

1989-01-01

414

Novel micromachined silicon acoustic delay line systems for real-time photoacoustic tomography applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In current photoacoustic tomography (PAT) systems, ultrasound transducer arrays and multi-channel data acquisition (DAQ) electronics are used to receive the PA signals. To achieve real-time PA imaging, massive 1D or even 2D transducer arrays and large number of DAQ channels are necessary. As a result, the ultrasound receiver becomes very complex, bulky and also costly. In this paper, we report the development of novel micromachined silicon acoustic delay line systems, which are expected to provide a new approach to address the above issue. First, fundamental building block structures of the acoustic delay line systems were designed and fabricated. Their acoustic properties were characterized with ultrasound and photoacoustic measurements. Second, two different acoustic delay line systems (parallel and serial) were designed and fabricated using advanced micromachining processes to ensure compact size, high accuracy, and good repeatability. The transmission of multiple acoustic signals in the acoustic delay line systems were studied with ultrasound experiment. Experimental results show that the silicon acoustic delay line systems can guide multiple channels of acoustic signals with low loss and distortion. With the addition of a set of suitable time delays, the time-delay acoustic signals arrived at a single-element transducer at different times and were unambiguously received and processed by the following DAQ electronics. Therefore, the micromachined silicon acoustic delay line systems could be used to combine multiple signal channels into a single one (without the involvement of electronic multiplexing), thereby reducing the complexity and cost of the ultrasound receiver for real-time PAT application.

Chang, C.-C.; Cho, Y.; Wang, L. V.; Zou, J.

2013-03-01

415

Cramer-Rao Bounds for Nonparametric Surface  

E-print Network

Cramer-Rao Bounds for Nonparametric Surface Reconstruction from Range Data Tolga Tasdizen Ross City, UT 84112 USA April 18, 2003 #12;Abstract The Cramer-Rao error bound provides a fundamental limit of the system, but not on the specific properties of the estimator or the solution. The Cramer-Rao error bound

Tasdizen, Tolga

416

Storage Schemes for Boundedly Extendible Arrays  

Microsoft Academic Search

The high costs of extendibility in array realizations can be reduced dramatically by placing a bound on how big the arrays of interest will grow. Whereas extendible array realizations require order of p · log p storage locations to store two-dimensional arrays having p or fewer positions, boundedly extendible array realizations (with a bound of p) can store these same

Arnold L. Rosenberg; Larry J. Stockmeyer

1977-01-01

417

Landsat Data Continuity Mission Expected Instrument Performance  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Landsat Data Continuity Mission (LDCM) is scheduled for a December 2012 launch date. LDCM is being managed by an interagency partnership between NASA and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). In order to provide the necessary spectral coverage of the visible through shortwave-infrared (SWIR) and the thermal-infrared (TIR), the satellite will carry two sensors. The Operational Land Imager (OLI) will collect data for nine visible to shortwave spectral bands with a spatial resolution of 30 m (with a 15 m panchromatic band). The Thermal Infrared Sensor (TIRS) will collect coincident image data for two TIR bands with a spatial resolution of 100 m. The OLI is fully assembled and tested and has been shipped by it's manufacturer, Ball Aerospace and Technology Corporation, to the Orbital Sciences Corporation (Orbital) facility where it is being integrated onto the LDCM spacecraft. Pre-launch testing indicates that OLI will meet all performance specification with margin. TIRS is in development at the NASA Goddard Space F!ight Center (GSFC) and is in final testing before shipping to the Orbital facility in January, 2012. The presentation will describe the LDCM satellite instrument systems, present pre-launch performance data for OLI and TIRS, and present simulated images to highlight notable features and expected imaging performance.

Dabney, Philip W.; Irons, James R.; Markham, Brian L.; Reuter, Dennis C.; Storey, James C.

2012-01-01

418

Expectancy Learning from Probabilistic Input by Infants  

PubMed Central

Across the first few years of life, infants readily extract many kinds of regularities from their environment, and this ability is thought to be central to development in a number of domains. Numerous studies have documented infants’ ability to recognize deterministic sequential patterns. However, little is known about the processes infants use to build and update representations of structure in time, and how infants represent patterns that are not completely predictable. The present study investigated how infants’ expectations fora simple structure develope over time, and how infants update their representations with new information. We measured 12-month-old infants’ anticipatory eye movements to targets that appeared in one of two possible locations. During the initial phase of the experiment, infants either saw targets that appeared consistently in the same location (Deterministic condition) or probabilistically in either location, with one side more frequent than the other (Probabilistic condition). After this initial divergent experience, both groups saw the same sequence of trials for the rest of the experiment. The results show that infants readily learn from both deterministic and probabilistic input, with infants in both conditions reliably predicting the most likely target location by the end of the experiment. Local context had a large influence on behavior: infants adjusted their predictions to reflect changes in the target location on the previous trial. This flexibility was particularly evident in infants with more variable prior experience (the Probabilistic condition). The results provide some of the first data showing how infants learn in real time. PMID:23439947

Romberg, Alexa R.; Saffran, Jenny R.

2013-01-01

419

Alcohol Expectancy Multiaxial Assessment: A Memory Network-Based Approach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Despite several decades of activity, alcohol expectancy research has yet to merge measurement approaches with developing memory theory. This article offers an expectancy assessment approach built on a conceptualization of expectancy as an information processing network. The authors began with multidimensional scaling models of expectancy space,…

Goldman, Mark S.; Darkes, Jack

2004-01-01

420

"His" and "Her" Marriage Expectations: Determinants and Consequences  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article uses couple-level data from the Fragile Families and Child Well-being Study (N= 2,263) to investigate factors associated with unmarried parents expectations about marriage and the association between their expectations and subsequent union transitions. In most couples, both partners expect to marry, and their shared expectations are…

Waller, Maureen R.; McLanahan, Sara S.

2005-01-01

421

Expectations of Achievement: Student, Teacher and Parent Perceptions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Teachers' expectations of students have been extensively studied for forty years. However, students' self-expectations and the expectations of parents are less well understood. The aim of the study was to investigate the role of student, teacher and parent expectations in relation to student achievement from the perspective of each group. Focus…

Rubie-Davies, Christine M.; Peterson, Elizabeth; Irving, Earl; Widdowson, Deborah; Dixon, Robyn

2010-01-01

422

Research on the self-fulfilling prophecy and teacher expectations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reviews the literature on self-fulfilling prophecy and teacher expectations and concludes that a minority of teachers have major expectation effects on their students' achievement. However, such effects are minimal for most teachers because their expectations are generally accurate and open to corrective feedback. It is difficult to predict the effects of teachers' expectations, even with knowledge of their accuracy and

Jere E. Brophy

1983-01-01

423

A review of expectancy theory and alcohol consumption  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research is reviewed on the association between alcohol outcome expectancies and consumption which has led many to argue that manipulating expectancies might be a route to manipulating consumption for problem prevention and treatment. Studies indirectly and directly evaluating this latter position are reviewed. Expectancies predicting treatment outcome: two studies have shown that the more positive expectancies held at treatment, the

Barry T. Jones; Will Corbin; Kim Fromme

2001-01-01

424

Drug use expectancies among nonabstinent community cocaine users  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous research has shown that one's expectations about the effects of using a particular substance (i.e., substance use expectancies) are associated with the quantity and frequency of actual use. An extensive literature supports the importance of expectancies in predicting alcohol use, but less is known about the association between expectancies and use of other substances. The purpose of the present

Jumi Hayaki; Bradley J. Anderson; Michael D. Stein

2008-01-01

425

Expectations Lead to Performance: The Transformative Power of High Expectations in Preschool  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes the preschool program at Missouri State University where deaf and hard of hearing children with all communication modalities and all styles of personal assistive listening devices are served. The job of the early intervention providers is to model for parents what high expectations look like and how to translate those…

Wang, Ye; Engler, Karen S.; Oetting, Tara L.

2014-01-01

426

It Is Not What You Expect: Dissociating Conflict Adaptation from Expectancies in a Stroop Task  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In conflict tasks, congruency effects are modulated by the sequence of preceding trials. This modulation effect has been interpreted as an influence of a proactive mechanism of adaptation to conflict (Botvinick, Nystrom, Fissell, Carter, & Cohen, 1999), but the possible contribution of explicit expectancies to this adaptation effect remains…

Jimenez, Luis; Mendez, Amavia

2013-01-01

427

ToolUse Expectations 1 Running Head: EXPECTATIONS OF TOOLUSE EVENTS  

E-print Network

activity (e.g., Langer, 1985; Piaget, 1954; Willats, 1984). It has also been sought in infants' causal) activity (Langer, 1980, 1986; Piaget, 1952; Werner, 1948). This proposal leads to the hypothesis action expectations (e.g., Butterworth, 1990; Langer, 1990; Piaget, 1969). This hypothesis is the subject

Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

428

Teacher Expectations of Students' Classroom Behavior: Do Expectations Vary as a Function of School Risk?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Understanding the social behaviors teachers believe is critical for school success and can contribute to the development of effective behavioral supports and assist teachers in better preparing students for successful school transitions across the K-12 grade span. We explored 1303 elementary, middle, and high school teachers' expectations of…

Lane, Kathleen Lynne; Pierson, Melinda R.; Stang, Kristin K.; Carter, Erik W.

2010-01-01

429

What To Expect When You're Expected To Teach: The Anxious Craft of Teaching Composition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This collection of essays addresses the anxieties and problems of beginning writing teachers and provides a reality check for those who expect success from "day one." Following an Introduction: "Silences in Our Teaching Stories; What Do We Leave Out and Why?" (Thomas Newkirk), essays in the collection are: (1) "Forty-Eight Eyeballs" (Carrie…

Bramblett, Anne, Ed.; Knoblauch, Alison, Ed.

430

Parent Perceptions of the Anticipated Needs and Expectations for Support for Their College-Bound Students with Asperger's Syndrome  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many students with Asperger's Syndrome have the cognitive ability and specific interests to be successful academically at the college level. However, these students often have difficulties navigating social systems, and higher education presents great challenges. The purpose of this study was to explore parent perceptions regarding the: (a)…

Morrison, Julie Q.; Sansosti, Frank J.; Hadley, Wanda M.

2009-01-01

431

Challenges, expectations and limits for nanoparticles-based therapeutics in cancer: a focus on nano-albumin-bound drugs.  

PubMed

Improving the efficacy-toxicity balance of anticancer agents remains an ongoing challenge in oncology. Beside the ever-growing development of innovative drugs addressing newly discovered molecular targets, nanotechnologies provide today a promising and exciting strategy to achieve this goal. The idea of carrying active compounds to their respective targets so as to improve their efficacy while sparing healthy tissue and reducing side-effects is not new. However, this area of research is in constant rise, and benefits from the latest advances in the field of biopharmaceutics, medicinal chemistry and nanomedicine. In addition to anthracyclines already widely present as liposomal drugs on the shelves, a variety of anticancer drugs can be now encapsulated into different chemical of structures so as to enhance their specificity toward malignant cells, mainly through improved pharmacokinetics profiles. Indeed, the recent advances in chemistry allow now a wide variety of scaffolds to be used as drug-carriers, so as optimize the delivery of cytotoxics. Even more recently, conjugated-drugs such as nanoalbumin (Nab) conjugates have emerged as a new promising alternative to improve both anticancer drugs distribution in the body and efficacy/toxicity balance eventually. This review covers the achievements and current limits of nanoparticles in oncology, with a special focus on nab-paclitaxel as a paradigmatic drug for this new generation of conjugated entities. PMID:23871532

Fanciullino, Raphaelle; Ciccolini, Joseph; Milano, Gérard

2013-12-01

432

Methodology for Analysis, Modeling and Simulation of Airport Gate-waiting Delays  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This dissertation presents methodologies to estimate gate-waiting delays from historical data, to identify gate-waiting-delay functional causes in major U.S. airports, and to evaluate the impact of gate operation disruptions and mitigation strategies on gate-waiting delay. Airport gates are a resource of congestion in the air transportation system. When an arriving flight cannot pull into its gate, the delay it experiences is called gate-waiting delay. Some possible reasons for gate-waiting delay are: the gate is occupied, gate staff or equipment is unavailable, the weather prevents the use of the gate (e.g. lightning), or the airline has a preferred gate assignment. Gate-waiting delays potentially stay with the aircraft throughout the day (unless they are absorbed), adding costs to passengers and the airlines. As the volume of flights increases, ensuring that airport gates do not become a choke point of the system is critical. The first part of the dissertation presents a methodology for estimating gate-waiting delays based on historical, publicly available sources. Analysis of gate-waiting delays at major U.S. airports in the summer of 2007 identifies the following. (i) Gate-waiting delay is not a significant problem on majority of days; however, the worst delay days (e.g. 4% of the days at LGA) are extreme outliers. (ii) The Atlanta International Airport (ATL), the John F. Kennedy International Airport (JFK), the Dallas/Fort Worth International Airport (DFW) and the Philadelphia International Airport (PHL) experience the highest gate-waiting delays among major U.S. airports. (iii) There is a significant gate-waiting-delay difference between airlines due to a disproportional gate allocation. (iv) Gate-waiting delay is sensitive to time of a day and schedule peaks. According to basic principles of queueing theory, gate-waiting delay can be attributed to over-scheduling, higher-than-scheduled arrival rate, longer-than-scheduled gate-occupancy time, and reduced gate availability. Analysis of the worst days at six major airports in the summer of 2007 indicates that major gate-waiting delays are primarily due to operational disruptions---specifically, extended gate occupancy time, reduced gate availability and higher-than-scheduled arrival rate (usually due to arrival delay). Major gate-waiting delays are not a result of over-scheduling. The second part of this dissertation presents a simulation model to evaluate the impact of gate operational disruptions and gate-waiting-delay mitigation strategies, including building new gates, implementing common gates, using overnight off-gate parking and adopting self-docking gates. Simulation results show the following effects of disruptions: (i) The impact of arrival delay in a time window (e.g. 7 pm to 9 pm) on gate-waiting delay is bounded. (ii) The impact of longer-than-scheduled gate-occupancy times in a time window on gate-waiting delay can be unbounded and gate-waiting delay can increase linearly as the disruption level increases. (iii) Small reductions in gate availability have a small impact on gate-waiting delay due to slack gate capacity, while larger reductions have a non-linear impact as slack gate capacity is used up. Simulation results show the following effects of mitigation strategies: (i) Implementing common gates is an effective mitigation strategy, especially for airports with a flight schedule not dominated by one carrier, such as LGA. (ii) The overnight off-gate rule is effective in mitigating gate-waiting delay for flights stranded overnight following departure cancellations. This is especially true at airports where the gate utilization is at maximum overnight, such as LGA and DFW. The overnight off-gate rule can also be very effective to mitigate gate-waiting delay due to operational disruptions in evenings. (iii) Self-docking gates are effective in mitigating gate-waiting delay due to reduced gate availability.

Wang, Jianfeng

433

Delayed Vaccination and Related Predictors among Infants  

PubMed Central

Background: Vaccination status is more often evaluated by up-to-date vaccination coverage rather than timeliness of immunization. This study was conducted to evaluate delayed vaccination during infancy period and to determine the predictors effecting on vaccination delay. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted from June to September 2011 in Hamadan Province, the west of Iran, recruiting 2460 children from 12 to 24 months of age via stratified cluster random sampling with 123 clusters of 20 persons. Data on vaccination were extracted from children’s vaccination card. Additional data were collected through interview. Results: Vaccination coverage of infants was >99.4% for all vaccines. However, 42% to 67.6% of infants received vaccine with delay. The delay time was longer in urban areas (P<0.001), among children with high educated mothers (P<0.001), and for the vaccines delivered at the end of infancy period. Delay time had a direct correlation with vaccinators’ education level (P<0.001) and an inverse correlation with the number of periodical visits of health centers (P<0.001). No correlation was detected between delay time and gender (P=0.507) and distance from health centers (P=0.627). Conclusions: Considerable number of the infants received delayed vaccine, although, vaccination coverage was nearly completes. This issue indicates that delay time is very problematic to be resolved in any given situation even in areas with nearly full vaccination coverage and may require a major effort to be corrected. Furthermore, this study assessed the effect of some factors on delayed vaccination which may help policy makers who plan immunization programs. PMID:23304664

Poorolajal, J; Khazaei, S; Kousehlou, Z; Bathaei, SJ; Zahiri, A

2012-01-01

434

Reasons for discharge delays in teaching hospitals  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE To analyze the causes of delay in hospital discharge of patients admitted to internal medicine wards. METHODS We reviewed 395 medical records of consecutive patients admitted to internal medicine wards of two public teaching hospitals: Hospital das Clínicas of the Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais and Hospital Odilon Behrens. The Appropriateness Evaluation Protocol was used to define the moment at which notes in the medical records indicated hospital stay was no longer appropriate and patients could be discharged. The interval between this estimated time and actual discharge was defined as the total number of days of delay in hospital discharge. An instrument was used to systematically categorize reasons for delay in hospital discharge and frequencies were analyzed. RESULTS Delays in discharge occurred in 60.0% of 207 hospital admissions in the Hospital das Clínicas and in 58.0% of 188 hospital admissions in the Hospital Odilon Behrens. Mean delay per patient was 4.5 days in the former and 4.1 days in the latter, corresponding to 23.0% and 28.0% of occupancy rates in each hospital, respectively. The main reasons for delay in the two hospitals were, respectively, waiting for complementary tests (30.6% versus 34.7%) or for results of performed tests to be released (22.4% versus 11.9%) and medical-related accountability (36.2% versus 26.1%) which comprised delays in discussing the clinical case and in clinical decision making and difficulties in providing specialized consultation (20.4% versus 9.1%). CONCLUSIONS Both hospitals showed a high percentage of delay in hospital discharge. The delays were mainly related to processes that could be improved by interventions by care teams and managers. The impact on mean length of stay and hospital occupancy rates was significant and troubling in a scenario of relative shortage of beds and long waiting lists for hospital admission. PMID:24897053

da Silva, Soraia Aparecida; Valácio, Reginaldo Aparecido; Botelho, Flávia Carvalho; Amaral, Carlos Faria Santos

2014-01-01

435

Biorthogonal quantum mechanics: super-quantum correlations and expectation values without definite probabilities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose mutant versions of quantum mechanics constructed on vector spaces over the finite Galois fields GF(3) and GF(9). The mutation we consider here is distinct from what we proposed in previous papers on Galois field quantum mechanics. In this new mutation, the canonical expression for expectation values is retained instead of that for probabilities. In fact, probabilities are indeterminate. Furthermore, it is shown that the mutant quantum mechanics over the finite field GF(9) exhibits super-quantum correlations (i.e. the Bell-Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt bound is 4). We comment on the fundamental physical importance of these results in the context of quantum gravity.

Chang, Lay Nam; Lewis, Zachary; Minic, Djordje; Takeuchi, Tatsu

2013-12-01

436

Maximum and minimum sensitizable timing analysis using data dependent delays  

E-print Network

of some inherent inaccuracies in the modeling of the timing behavior of logic gates. Although some techniques use accurate gate delay models, they have only been used to calculate the longest sensitizable delay or the shortest topological path delay...

Singh, Karandeep

2007-09-17

437

Upper and Lower Ramsey Bounds in Bounded (appears in Annals of Pure and Applied  

E-print Network

out in bounded arithmetic. We use the conventional arrow notation n (k)r to mean that if eachUpper and Lower Ramsey Bounds in Bounded Arithmetic (appears in Annals of Pure and Applied Logic, Sept 2005) Kerry Ojakian Abstract Pudl´ak shows that bounded arithmetic (Buss' S2) proves an upper

Lisboa, Universidade Técnica de

438

Emulators Notation Data bounds CAM1 Lower Bounds CAM2 Extensions Conclusions Uncertainty Quantification for Emulators  

E-print Network

Emulators Notation Data bounds CAM1 Lower Bounds CAM2 Extensions Conclusions Uncertainty Quantification for Emulators http://arxiv.org/abs/1303.3079 Philip B. Stark and Jeffrey C. Regier Department;Emulators Notation Data bounds CAM1 Lower Bounds CAM2 Extensions Conclusions Emulators, Surrogate functions

Stark, Philip B.

439

HYBRID LOWER BOUND ON THE MSE BASED ON THE BARANKIN AND WEISS-WEINSTEIN BOUNDS  

E-print Network

HYBRID LOWER BOUND ON THE MSE BASED ON THE BARANKIN AND WEISS-WEINSTEIN BOUNDS Chengfang Ren (1.chaumette@onera.fr (4) Ecole Normale de Cachan/SATIE 61 av. du President Wilson, 94235 Cachan cedex, France. Email is derived. This form combines the Barankin and the Weiss-Weinstein bounds. This bound is applied

Boyer, Edmond

440

Gravitational lens time delays and gravitational waves  

SciTech Connect

Using Fermat's principle, we analyze the effects of very long wavelength gravitational waves upon the images of a gravitationally lensed quasar. We show that the lens equation in the presence of gravity waves is equivalent to that of a lens with a different alignment between source, deflector, and observer in the absence of gravity waves. Contrary to a recent claim, we conclude that measurements of time delays in gravitational lenses cannot serve as a method to detect or constrain a stochastic background of gravitational waves of cosmological wavelengths, because the wave-induced time delay is observationally indistinguishable from an intrinsic time delay due to the lens geometry.

Frieman, J.A. (NASA/Fermilab Astrophysics Center, Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, P.O. Box 500, Batavia, Illinois 60510 (United States) Department of Astronomy Astrophysics, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637 (United States)); Harari, D.D.; Surpi, G.C. (Departmento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Ciudad Universitaria - Pab. 1, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina))

1994-10-15

441

Extinction, refraction, and delay in the atmosphere  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper establishes that absolute optical air mass and hydrostatic atmospheric delay of electromagnetic waves are proportional magnitudes, and, consequently, their respective obliquity ratios are identical dimensionless quantities. This means that a potential source for developing new models for relative optical air mass can be found in the formulae for the atmospheric delay in electromagnetic signals (and vice versa). In this respect, for estimating relative optical air mass, we demonstrate that Herring's (1992) family of mapping functions for modeling atmospheric delay is more accurate than functional forms devised expressly for the purpose, such as that of Kasten (1965).

Rapp-ArraráS, Ígor; Domingo-Santos, Juan M.

2008-10-01

442

Delayed Self-Synchronization in Homoclinic Chaos  

E-print Network

The chaotic spike train of a homoclinic dynamical system is self-synchronized by re-inserting a small fraction of the delayed output. Due to the sensitive nature of the homoclinic chaos to external perturbations, stabilization of very long periodic orbits is possible. On these orbits, the dynamics appears chaotic over a finite time, but then it repeats with a recurrence time that is slightly longer than the delay time. The effect, called delayed self-synchronization (DSS), displays analogies with neurodynamic events which occur in the build-up of long term memories.

F. T. Arecchi; R. Meucci; E. Allaria; A. Di Garbo; L. S. Tsimring

2001-09-18

443

Additive noise quenches delay-induced oscillations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Noise has significant impact on nonlinear phenomena. Here we demonstrate that, in opposition to previous assumptions, additive noise interferes with the linear stability of scalar nonlinear systems when these are subject to time delay. We show this by performing a recently designed time-dependent delayed center manifold (DCM) reduction around a Hopf bifurcation in a model of nonlinear negative feedback. Using this, we show that noise intensity must be considered as a bifurcation parameter and thus shifts the threshold at which delay-induced rhythmic solutions emerge.

Lefebvre, Jérémie; Hutt, Axel

2013-06-01

444

SMAP Radar Processing and Expected Performance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This presentation will describe the processing algorithms being developed for the Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) radar data and the expected characteristics of the measured backscattering cross sections. The SMAP radar combines some unique features such as a conically scanned antenna with SAR processing of the data. The rapidly varying squint angle gives the measurements variable resolution and noise characteristics and poses a challenge to the processor to maintain accuracy around the wide (1000 km) swath. Rapid variation of Doppler around the scan leads to a time domain azimuth correlation algorithm, and variation of the Doppler geometry will likely require varying the processing bandwidth to manage ambiguity contamination errors. The basic accuracy requirement is 1-dB (one-sigma) in the backscatter measurements at a resolution of 3 km. The main error contributions come from speckle noise, calibration uncertainty, and radio frequency interference (RFI). Speckle noise is determined by system design parameters and details of the processing algorithms. The calibration of the backscatter measurements will be based on pre-launch characterization of the radar components which allow corrections for short term (~1 month) variations in performance. Longer term variations and biases will be removed using measurements of stable reference targets such as parts of the Amazon rain forest, and possibly the oceans and ice sheets. RFI survey measurements will be included to measure the extent of RFI around the world. The SMAP radar is designed to be able to hop the operating frequency within the 80 MHz allocated band to avoid the worst RFI emitters. Data processing will detect and discard further RFI contaminated measurements. This work is supported by the SMAP project at JPL - CalTech. The SMAP mission has not been formally approved by NASA. The decision to proceed with the mission will not occur until the completion of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) process. Material in this document related to SMAP is for information purposes only.

West, R. D.; Jaruwatanadilok, S.

2011-12-01

445

Error bounds in cascading regressions  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Cascading regressions is a technique for predicting a value of a dependent variable when no paired measurements exist to perform a standard regression analysis. Biases in coefficients of a cascaded-regression line as well as error variance of points about the line are functions of the correlation coefficient between dependent and independent variables. Although this correlation cannot be computed because of the lack of paired data, bounds can be placed on errors through the required properties of the correlation coefficient. The potential meansquared error of a cascaded-regression prediction can be large, as illustrated through an example using geomorphologic data. ?? 1985 Plenum Publishing Corporation.

Karlinger, M.R.; Troutman, B.M.

1985-01-01

446

Entropy bounds and dark energy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Entropy bounds render quantum corrections to the cosmological constant ? finite. Under certain assumptions, the natural value of ? is of order the observed dark energy density ~10-10 eV4, thereby resolving the cosmological constant problem. We note that the dark energy equation of state in these scenarios is w?p/?=0 over cosmological distances, and is strongly disfavored by observational data. Alternatively, ? in these scenarios might account for the diffuse dark matter component of the cosmological energy density. Permanent address: Institute of Theoretical Science and Department of Physics, University of Oregon, Eugene, OR 97403.

Hsu, Stephen D. H.

2004-07-01

447

Delayed system response times affect immediate physiology and the dynamics of subsequent button press behavior.  

PubMed

System response time research is an important issue in human-computer interactions. Experience with technical devices and general rules of human-human interactions determine the user's expectation, and any delay in system response time may lead to immediate physiological, emotional, and behavioral consequences. We investigated such effects on a trial-by-trial basis during a human-computer interaction by measuring changes in skin conductance (SC), heart rate (HR), and the dynamics of button press responses. We found an increase in SC and a deceleration of HR for all three delayed system response times (0.5, 1, 2?s). Moreover, the data on button press dynamics was highly informative since subjects repeated a button press with more force in response to delayed system response times. Furthermore, the button press dynamics could distinguish between correct and incorrect decisions and may thus even be used to infer the uncertainty of a user's decision. PMID:24980983

Kohrs, Christin; Hrabal, David; Angenstein, Nicole; Brechmann, André

2014-11-01

448

Search for {\\eta}'(958)-nucleus bound states by (p,d) reaction at GSI and FAIR  

E-print Network

The mass of the {\\eta}' meson is theoretically expected to be reduced at finite density, which indicates the existence of {\\eta}'-nucleus bound states. To investigate these states, we perform missing-mass spectroscopy for the (p, d) reaction near the {\\eta}' production threshold. The overview of the experimental situation is given and the current status is discussed.

Fujioka, H; Benlliure, J; Brinkmann, K -T; Friedrich, S; Geissel, H; Gellanki, J; Guo, C; Gutz, E; Haettner, E; Harakeh, M N; Hayano, R S; Higashi, Y; Hirenzaki, S; Hornung, C; Igarashi, Y; Ikeno, N; Itahashi, K; Iwasaki, M; Jido, D; Kalantar-Nayestanaki, N; Kanungo, R; Knoebel, R; Kurz, N; Metag, V; Mukha, I; Nagae, T; Nagahiro, H; Nanova, M; Nishi, T; Ong, H J; Pietri, S; Prochazka, A; Rappold, C; Reiter, M P; Rodríguez-Sánchez, J L; Scheidenberger, C; Simon, H; Sitar, B; Strmen, P; Sun, B; Suzuki, K; Szarka, I; Takechi, M; Tanaka, Y K; Tanihata, I; Terashima, S; Watanabe, Y N; Weick, H; Widmann, E; Winfield, J S; Xu, X; Yamakami, H

2015-01-01

449

Microscopic concavity and fluctuation bounds in a class of deposition processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

We prove fluctuation bounds for the particle current in totally asymmetric zero range processes in one dimension with nondecreasing, concave jump rates whose slope decays exponentially. Fluctuations in the characteristic directions have order of magnitude $t^{1\\/3}$. This is in agreement with the expectation that these systems lie in the same KPZ universality class as the asymmetric simple exclusion process. The

M. Balázs; J. Komjáthy; T. Seppäläinen

2008-01-01

450

On Multiple UAV Routing with Stochastic Targets: Performance Bounds and Algorithms  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we consider the following problem. A number of Uninhabited Aerial Vehicles (UAVs), modeled as vehicles moving at constant speed along paths of bounded curvature, must visit stochastically-generated targets in a convex, compact region of the plane. Targets are generated according to a spatio-temporal Poisson process, uniformly in the region. It is desired to minimize the expected waiting

J. J. Enright; E. Frazzoli

2005-01-01

451

An Upper Bound on the Average Size of Silhouettes January 23, 2007  

E-print Network

An Upper Bound on the Average Size of Silhouettes M. Glisse S. Lazard January 23, 2007 Abstract It is a widely observed phenomenon in computer graphics that the size of the silhouette of a polyhedron is much. We prove that such polyhedra have silhouettes of expected size O( n) where the average is taken over

Lévy, Bruno

452

Efficient agnostic learning of neural networks with bounded fan-in  

Microsoft Academic Search

We show that the class of two layer neural networks with bounded fan-in is efficiently learnablein a realistic extension to the Probably Approximately Correct (PAC) learning model. Inthis model, a joint probability distribution is assumed to exist on the observations and thelearner is required to approximate the neural network which minimizes the expected quadraticerror. As special cases, the model allows

Wee Sun Lee; Peter L. Bartlett; Robert C. Williamson

1996-01-01

453

Bounds on Invisible Higgs Boson Decays Extracted from LHC tt¯H Production Data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present an upper bound on the branching fraction of the Higgs boson to invisible particles by recasting a CMS Collaboration search for stop quarks decaying to tt¯+ETmiss. The observed (expected) bound, BF(H?inv.)<0.40(0.65) at 95% C.L., is the strongest direct limit to date, benefiting from a downward fluctuation in the CMS data in that channel. In addition, we combine this new constraint with existing published constraints to give an observed (expected) bound of BF(H?inv.)<0.40(0.40) at 95% C.L., and we show some of the implications for theories of dark matter which communicate through the Higgs portal.

Zhou, Ning; Khechadoorian, Zepyoor; Whiteson, Daniel; Tait, Tim M. P.

2014-10-01

454

Bounds on invisible Higgs boson decays extracted from LHC ttH production data.  

PubMed

We present an upper bound on the branching fraction of the Higgs boson to invisible particles by recasting a CMS Collaboration search for stop quarks decaying to tt + E(T)(miss). The observed (expected) bound, BF(H ? inv.) < 0.40(0.65) at 95% C.L., is the strongest direct limit to date, benefiting from a downward fluctuation in the CMS data in that channel. In addition, we combine this new constraint with existing published constraints to give an observed (expected) bound of BF(H ? inv.) < 0.40(0.40) at 95% C.L., and we show some of the implications for theories of dark matter which communicate through the Higgs portal. PMID:25375702

Zhou, Ning; Khechadoorian, Zepyoor; Whiteson, Daniel; Tait, Tim M P

2014-10-10

455

Attosecond photoionization for reconstruction of bound-electron wave packets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a method for the characterization of bound-electron wave packets generated by a broadband excitation pulse. The technique is based on the photoionization of the electron wave packet by a delayed isolated attosecond pulse and on the measurement of the ionization asymmetry parameter in the direction of the probe pulse polarization, which depends on the pump-probe delay and on the photoelectron energy. By numerically solving the fully three-dimensional time-dependent Schrödinger equation we show that Fourier analysis of the two-dimensional ionization asymmetry parameter, displaying a complex interference pattern, enables a clear observation of quantum beats between pairs of stationary states involved in the generation of the wave packet. An analytical model confirms that the quantum beats' signal encodes the weight of each stationary state, thus suggesting a feasible approach for the complete characterization of the relative population ratio of the excited-state components of the wave packet. Moreover, an approach based on the further analysis of quantum beats is proposed to retrieve the lifetime added to each excited state.

Liu, Candong; Zeng, Zhinan; Li, Ruxin; Xu, Zhizhan; Nisoli, Mauro

2014-07-01

456

Bound state spectrum in the finite volume  

E-print Network

The signature of bound state formation on the lattice is of particular interest in this talk. In the finite volume, where all states have discrete energies, it is rather hard to distinguish between a bound state and a scattering state if the bound state were close to threshold, i.e., like a "loosely bound state". To study bound states in the finite volume, we calculate the positronium spectroscopy in the Higgs phase of U(1) gauge dynamics, where the photon is massive and then massive photons give rise to the short-ranged interparticle force. We try to identify bound state formation on the basis of the Luscher's finite size method, which suggests specific volume dependences of the energy gap/shift from the threshold energy for either bound states or scattering states.

Shoichi Sasaki; Takeshi Yamazaki

2005-10-05

457

Gamma ray burst delay times probe the geometry of momentum space  

E-print Network

We study the application of the recently proposed framework of relative locality to the problem of energy dependent delays of arrival times of photons that are produced simultaneously in distant events such as gamma ray bursts. Within this framework, possible modifications of special relativity are coded in the geometry of momentum space. The metric of momentum space codes modifications in the energy momentum relation, while the connection on momentum space describes possible non-linear modifications in the laws of conservation of energy and momentum. In this paper, we study effects of first order in the inverse Planck scale, which are coded in the torsion and non-metricity of momentum space. We find that time delays of order Distance * Energies/m_p are coded in the non-metricity of momentum space. Current experimental bounds on such time delays hence bound the components of this tensor of order 1/m_p. We also find a new effect, whereby photons from distant sources can appear to arrive from angles slightly off the direction to the sources, which we call gravitational lensing. This is found to be coded into the torsion of momentum space.

Laurent Freidel; Lee Smolin

2011-03-29

458

Expectation values of the e{sup +}PsH system  

SciTech Connect

Close to converged energies and expectation values for e{sup +}PsH are computed using a ground-state wave function consisting of 1500 explicitly correlated Gaussians. The best estimate of the e{sup +}PsH{sup {infinity}} energy was -0.810 254 hartrees, which has a binding energy of 0.021 057 hartrees against dissociation into e{sup +}+PsH. The 2{gamma} annihilation rate was 2.7508x10{sup 9} s{sup -1}. Binding energies and annihilation rates are also given for the different finite-mass variants of e{sup +}PsH. Comparisons between expectation values for e{sup +}PsH and PsH provide compelling evidence that the e{sup +}PsH ground state can be regarded as consisting of a weakly bound positron orbiting the PsH ground state.

Zhang, J.-Y.; Mitroy, J. [Faculty of Technology, Charles Darwin University, Darwin, Northern Territory 0909 (Australia); ARC Center for Anti-Matter Studies, Faculty of Technology, Charles Darwin University, Darwin, Northern Territory 0909 (Australia)

2007-07-15

459

Apparatus and Method for Compensating for Process, Voltage, and Temperature Variation of the Time Delay of a Digital Delay Line  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A process, voltage, and temperature (PVT) compensation circuit and a method of continuously generating a delay measure are provided. The compensation circuit includes two delay lines, each delay line providing a delay output. The two delay lines may each include a number of delay elements, which in turn may include one or more current-starved inverters. The number of delay lines may differ between the two delay lines. The delay outputs are provided to a combining circuit that determines an offset pulse based on the two delay outputs and then averages the voltage of the offset pulse to determine a delay measure. The delay measure may be one or more currents or voltages indicating an amount of PVT compensation to apply to input or output signals of an application circuit, such as a memory-bus driver, dynamic random access memory (DRAM), a synchronous DRAM, a processor or other clocked circuit.

Seefeldt, James (Inventor); Feng, Xiaoxin (Inventor); Roper, Weston (Inventor)

2013-01-01

460

Stability and Boundedness of Impulsive Systems with Time Delay.  

E-print Network

??The stability and boundedness theories are developed for impulsive differential equations with time delay. Definitions, notations and fundamental theory are presented for delay differential systems… (more)

Wang, Qing

2007-01-01

461

Boosting equal time bound states  

E-print Network

We present an explicit and exact boost of a relativistic bound state defined at equal time of the constituents in the Born approximation (lowest order in hbar). To this end, we construct the Poincar\\'e generators of QED and QCD in D=1+1 dimensions, using Gauss' law to express A^0 in terms of the fermion fields in A^1=0 gauge. We determine the fermion-antifermion bound states in the Born approximation as eigenstates of the time and space translation generators P^0 and P^1. The boost operator is combined with a gauge transformation so as to maintain the gauge condition A^1=0 in the new frame. We verify that the boosted state remains an eigenstate of P^0 and P^1 with appropriately transformed eigenvalues and determine the transformation law of the equal-time, relativistic wave function. The shape of the wave function is independent of the CM momentum when expressed in terms of a variable, which is quadratically related to the distance x between the fermions. As a consequence, the Lorentz contraction of the wave function is proportional to 1/(E-V(x)) and thus depends on x via the linear potential V(x).

Dennis D. Dietrich; Paul Hoyer; Matti Jarvinen

2012-02-03

462

Boosting equal time bound states  

E-print Network

We present an explicit and exact boost of a relativistic bound state defined at equal time of the constituents in the Born approximation (lowest order in hbar). To this end, we construct the Poincar\\'e generators of QED and QCD in D=1+1 dimensions, using Gauss' law to express A^0 in terms of the fermion fields in A^1=0 gauge. We determine the fermion-antifermion bound states in the Born approximation as eigenstates of the time and space translation generators P^0 and P^1. The boost operator is combined with a gauge transformation so as to maintain the gauge condition A^1=0 in the new frame. We verify that the boosted state remains an eigenstate of P^0 and P^1 with appropriately transformed eigenvalues and determine the transformation law of the equal-time, relativistic wave function. The shape of the wave function is independent of the CM momentum when expressed in terms of a variable, which is quadratically related to the distance x between the fermions. As a consequence, the Lorentz contraction of the wave ...

Dietrich, Dennis D; Jarvinen, Matti

2012-01-01

463

Boosting equal time bound states  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present an explicit and exact boost of a relativistic bound state defined at equal time of the constituents in the Born approximation (lowest order in ?). To this end, we construct the Poincaré generators of QED and QCD in D=1+1 dimensions, using Gauss’ law to express A0 in terms of the fermion fields in A1=0 gauge. We determine the fermion-antifermion bound states in the Born approximation as eigenstates of the time and space translation generators P0 and P1. The boost operator is combined with a gauge transformation so as to maintain the gauge condition A1=0 in the new frame. We verify that the boosted state remains an eigenstate of P0 and P1 with appropriately transformed eigenvalues and determine the transformation law of the equal-time, relativistic wave function. The shape of the wave function is independent of the center-of-mass momentum when expressed in terms of a variable which is quadratically related to the distance x between the fermions. As a consequence, the Lorentz contraction of the wave function is ?1/(E-V(x)) and thus depends on x via the linear potential V(x).

Dietrich, Dennis D.; Hoyer, Paul; Järvinen, Matti

2012-05-01

464

Strong Lens Time Delay Challenge. II. Results of TDC1  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the results of the first strong lens time delay challenge. The motivation, experimental design, and entry level challenge are described in a companion paper. This paper presents the main challenge, TDC1, which consisted of analyzing thousands of simulated light curves blindly. The observational properties of the light curves cover the range in quality obtained for current targeted efforts (e.g., COSMOGRAIL) and expected from future synoptic surveys (e.g., LSST), and include simulated systematic errors. Seven teams participated in TDC1, submitting results from 78 different method variants. After describing each method, we compute and analyze basic statistics measuring accuracy (or bias) A, goodness of fit ?2, precision P, and success rate f. For some methods we identify outliers as an important issue. Other methods show that outliers can be controlled via visual inspection or conservative quality control. Several methods are competitive, i.e., give |A| < 0.03, P < 0.03, and ?2 < 1.5, with some of the methods already reaching sub-percent accuracy. The fraction of light curves yielding a time delay measurement is typically in the range f = 20%-40%. It depends strongly on the quality of the data: COSMOGRAIL-quality cadence and light curve lengths yield significantly higher f than does sparser sampling. Taking the results of TDC1 at face value, we estimate that LSST should provide around 400 robust time-delay measurements, each with P < 0.03 and |A| < 0.01, comparable to current lens modeling uncertainties. In terms of observing strategies, we find that A and f depend mostly on season length, while P depends mostly on cadence and campaign duration.

Liao, Kai; Treu, Tommaso; Marshall, Phil; Fassnacht, Christopher D.; Rumbaugh, Nick; Dobler, Gregory; Aghamousa, Amir; Bonvin, Vivien; Courbin, Frederic; Hojjati, Alireza; Jackson, Neal; Kashyap, Vinay; Rathna Kumar, S.; Linder, Eric; Mandel, Kaisey; Meng, Xiao-Li; Meylan, Georges; Moustakas, Leonidas A.; Prabhu, Tushar P.; Romero-Wolf, Andrew; Shafieloo, Arman; Siemiginowska, Aneta; Stalin, Chelliah S.; Tak, Hyungsuk; Tewes, Malte; van Dyk, David

2015-02-01

465

Time to implement delayed cord clamping.  

PubMed

Immediate umbilical cord clamping after delivery is routine in the United States despite little evidence to support this practice. Numerous trials in both term and preterm neonates have demonstrated the safety and benefit of delayed cord clamping. In premature neonates, delayed cord clamping has been shown to stabilize transitional circulation, lessening needs for inotropic medications and reducing blood transfusions, necrotizing enterocolitis, and intraventricular hemorrhage. In term neonates, delayed cord clamping has been associated with decreased iron-deficient anemia and increased iron stores with potential valuable effects that extend beyond the newborn period, including improvements in long-term neurodevelopment. The failure to more broadly implement delayed cord clamping in neonates ignores published benefits of increased placental blood transfusion at birth and may represent an unnecessary harm for vulnerable neonates. PMID:24499758

McAdams, Ryan M

2014-03-01

466

Impact of heterogeneous delays on cluster synchronization  

E-print Network

We investigate cluster synchronization in coupled map networks in the presence of heterogeneous delays. We find that while parity of heterogeneous delays plays a crucial role in determining the phenomenon of cluster formation, the synchronizability of network predominantly gets affected by the amount of heterogeneity. The heterogeneity in delays induces a rich cluster patterns as compared to the homogeneous delays. The complete bipartite networks stands as an extreme example of this richness, where instead of robust ideal driven clusters, versatile cluster patterns are observed for which we provide arguments using the Lyapunov function analysis. Furthermore, interplay between the number of connections in the network and the amount of heterogeneity has important role in deciding cluster formation.

Sarika Jalan; Aradhana Singh

2014-03-10

467

49 CFR 236.563 - Delay time.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Automatic Train Stop, Train Control and Cab Signal Systems Rules and Instructions... Delay time of automatic train stop or train control system shall not...

2011-10-01

468

49 CFR 236.563 - Delay time.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Automatic Train Stop, Train Control and Cab Signal Systems Rules and Instructions... Delay time of automatic train stop or train control system shall not...

2013-10-01

469

49 CFR 236.563 - Delay time.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Automatic Train Stop, Train Control and Cab Signal Systems Rules and Instructions... Delay time of automatic train stop or train control system shall not...

2012-10-01

470

Constitutional Growth Delay and Learning Problems.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Records of children admitted to a growth clinic and follow-up questionnaires were examined to determine the incidence of learning problems in children with constitutional growth delay and those with familial short stature. (Author/PHR)

Gold, Ruth F.

1978-01-01

471

Sorafenib Delays Progression of Metastatic Kidney Cancer  

Cancer.gov

The targeted drug sorafenib (Nevaxar®), which delays disease progression in patients with metastatic kidney cancer, may also improve survival of such patients, according to the May 18, 2009, Journal of Clinical Oncology.

472

Optically controlled delays for broadband pulses  

E-print Network

We propose a scheme that provides large controllable delays for broadband optical pulses. The system is based on the steep dispersion of a coherently driven medium, in which the narrow electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) band is overcome...

Sun, Q. Q.; Rostovtsev, Y. V.; Dowling, J. P.; Scully, Marlan O.; Zubairy, M. Suhail

2005-01-01

473

How Growth Abnormalities Delay "Puberty" in Drosophila  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In various organisms, including flies, amphibians, and mammals, major developmental transitions such as metamorphosis and puberty are triggered by specific hormones. The requirement for a hormone to proceed to the next stage allows the organism to reestablish the temporal coordination of development between multiple organs that might develop at slightly different rates. Additionally, organisms appear to have evolved mechanisms for delaying these transitions in situations where growth in an organ is abnormal or delayed. New evidence in the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster indicates that DILP8, a protein of the insulin and relaxin family, delays the onset of metamorphosis under several conditions that alter growth in imaginal discs. Similar mechanisms might operate in disease states in humans where alterations in growth or tissue inflammation can delay puberty.

Iswar K. Hariharan (University of California Berkeley;Department of Molecular and Cell Biology REV)

2012-06-19

474

SBASI: Actuated pyrotechnic time delay initiator  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A precision pyrotechnic time delay initiator for missile staging was developed and tested. Incorporated in the assembly is a single bridgewire Apollo standard initiator (SBASI) for initiation, a through-bulkhead-initiator to provide isolation of the SBASI output from the delay, the pyrotechnic delay, and an output charge. An attempt was made to control both primary and secondary variables affecting functional performance of the delay initiator. Design and functional limit exploration was performed to establish tolerance levels on manufacturing and assembling operations. The test results demonstrate a 2% coefficient of variation at any one temperature and an overall 2.7% coefficient of variation throughout the temperature range of 30 to 120 F. Tests were conducted at simulated operational altitude from sea level to 200,000 feet.

Salter, S. J.; Lundberg, R. E.; Mcdougal, G. L.

1975-01-01

475

What to Expect When You're Expecting: Femtoscopy at the LHC  

E-print Network

A huge systematics of femtoscopic measurements have been used over the past 20 years to characterize the system created in heavy ion collisions. These measurements cover two orders of magnitude in energy, and with LHC beams imminent, this range will be extended by more than another order of magnitude. Here, I discuss theoretical expectations of femtoscopy of $A+A$ and $p+p$ collisions at the LHC, based on Boltzmann and hydrodynamic calculations, as well as on naive extrapolation of existing systematics.

Mike Lisa

2007-01-20

476

Diagnostic delays in head and neck cancers.  

PubMed

Head and neck cancers are a significant and worsening health problem in the UK. In the absence of screening, minimising diagnostic delay after the onset of symptoms improves prognosis. Delay, from the patient's initial experience of symptoms to the ultimate diagnosis, consists of two elements--the delay prior to presenting to a clinician plus that due to the health professional consulted. This study aimed to establish the period of delay between recognition of the initial tumour symptoms and the formal diagnosis among a sample of patients recently diagnosed with head and neck cancer. Using a semistructured questionnaire, 133 men and 55 women were interviewed by a research nurse, and the results were related to the clinical findings. Tumour size at diagnosis was classified according to T1 (22%), T2 (29%), T3 (27%) and T4 (22%). Of the 186 patients with complete hospital records, 48 (26%) were diagnosed with cancer of the lip and oral cavity (CLOC). From the onset of symptoms to the patients' initial decision to seek professional advice, the median period was 4 weeks among those with CLOC and 3 weeks for those with other head and neck cancers (OHNC). The distribution was highly skewed with delays beyond 6 months occurring among 9% of the OHNC group, compared with 3% of CLOC. From the onset of symptoms to a consultant appointment, the median delay was 8 weeks for OHNC, but 12 weeks for CLOC, with delays beyond 6 months of 13% in each group, respectively. First symptoms included 'change in voice' (26%), 'pain' (27%), 'lump' or 'growth' (12%) as well as dysphagia, 'infection', 'sore throat', 'ulcers' or 'abscess'. No significant association was found between the nature of the first symptoms and the urgency with which patients interpreted their symptoms, nor was this related to diagnostic delay, sex, age or social class. It is concluded that there is substantial variation in time to clinical presentation, particularly for OHNC, although professional delay for the majority of these cases was minimal. For patients with CLOC there was less variation in patient delay, but clinician delay was relatively longer. PMID:10889616

Amir, Z; Kwan, S Y; Landes, D; Feber, T; Williams, S A

1999-12-01

477

Blocking VEGF signaling delays development of replacement teeth in zebrafish.  

PubMed

The dentition in zebrafish is extremely and richly vascularized, but the function of the vasculature, in view of the continuous replacement of the teeth, remains elusive. Through application of SU5416, a vascular endothelial growth factor receptor inhibitor, we studied the role of the blood vessels in the dentition of the zebrafish. We were unable to show an effect on the development of first-generation teeth as well as first tooth replacement. However, in juvenile fish, a delay was observed in the developmental state of the replacement tooth compared with what was expected based on the maturation state of the functional tooth. Furthermore, we observed a difference between treated and nontreated fish in the distance between blood vessels and developing replacement teeth. In conclusion, our results provide support for a nutritive, rather than an inductive, function of the vasculature in the process of tooth development and replacement. PMID:25391620

Crucke, J; Huysseune, A

2015-01-01

478

Oblique-incidence sounder measurements with absolute propagation delay timing  

SciTech Connect

Timing from the Global Position Satellite (GPS) system has been applied to HF oblique incidence sounder measurements to produce ionograms whose propagation delay time scale is absolutely calibrated. Such a calibration is useful for interpreting ionograms in terms of the electron density true-height profile for the ionosphere responsible for the propagation. Use of the time variations in the shape of the electron density profile, in conjunction with an HF propagation model, is expected to provide better near-term (1-24 hour) HF propagation forecasts than are available from current updating systems, which use only the MUF. Such a capability may provide the basis for HF frequency management techniques which are more efficient than current methods. Absolute timing and other techniques applicable to automatic extraction of the electron-density profile from an ionogram will be discussed.

Daehler, M.

1990-05-03

479

High Quality Compact Delay Test Generation  

E-print Network

............................................................ 39 Table 8 TF vs. KLPG-1 .................................................................................. 43 Table 9 Final justification failure rate ............................................................ 46 Table 10 Improved dynamic... The transition fault (TF) model [5] is the most commonly used delay fault model. It assumes that the delay fault affects only one place in the circuit. In this model, each gate is assumed to have two transition faults: a slow-to-rise (STR) and a slow...

Wang, Zheng

2011-08-08

480

Construction project delay-analysis techniques  

E-print Network

CONSTRUCTION PROJECT DELAY-ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES A Thesis by HANOUF M. AL-HUMAIDI Submitted to thc Office of Graduate Studies of Texas ARM University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 2002... Major Subject: Civil Enginccring CONSTRUCTION PROJECT DELAY-ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES A Thesis by HANOUF M. Al-HUMAIDI Submitted to Texas A%M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE Approved...

Al-Humaidi, Hanouf M

2012-06-07

481

A continuously variable digital delay element  

Microsoft Academic Search

The author describes an FIR (finite-impulse-response) filter which synthesizes a controllable delay. By changing the delay the filter has the ability to interpolate between samples in the data stream of a band-limited signal. Because high sampling rates are not required, the filter is especially suited for implementation in a digital signal processor (DSP), and has been implemented in a real-time

C. W. Farrow

1988-01-01

482

Delayed Movement Disorders after Carbon Monoxide Poisoning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Of 242 patients with carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning examined between 1986 and 1996, delayed movement disorders were diagnosed in 32 (13.2%). There were 15 men and 17 women. Ages at insult ranged from 9 to 69 years (mean 45.3 years). Of the 32 patients with delayed movement disorders, 23 (71.9%) had parkinsonism, 5 dystonia, 3 chorea and 1 myoclonus. All

Il Saing Choi; Hwa Young Cheon

1999-01-01

483

Delay discounting of saccharin in rhesus monkeys  

Microsoft Academic Search

The value of a reinforcer decreases as the time until its receipt increases, a phenomenon referred to as delay discounting. Although delay discounting of non-drug reinforcers has been studied extensively in a number of species, our knowledge of discounting in non-human primates is limited. In the present study, rhesus monkeys were allowed to choose in discrete trials between 0.05% saccharin

Kevin B. Freeman; Leonard Green; Joel Myerson; William L. Woolverton

2009-01-01

484

Improved Estimation Of Delays In Radio Interferometry  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Report describes status of mathematical model of delays in propagation of radio signals that originate at extra-galactic or other distant sources and received at widely separated terrestrial antennas engaged in very-long-baseline interferometry. Implemented in multiparameter estimation computer program MODEST. Needed, in applications as geodynamics and astronomy, to extract significant parameters from observed signal delays. Program and present report are updated versions of MASTERFIT program and accompanying report.

Sovers, Ojars J.

1993-01-01

485

Immediate and delayed transfer of training effects in statistical reasoning.  

PubMed

Ss were trained on the law of large numbers in a given domain through the use of example problems. They were then tested either on that domain or on another domain either immediately or after a 2-week delay. Strong domain independence was found when testing was immediate. This transfer of training was not due simply to Ss' ability to draw direct analogies between problems in the trained domain and in the untrained domain. After the 2-week delay, it was found that (a) there was no decline in performance in the trained domain and (b) although there was a significant decline in performance in the untrained domain, performance was still better than for control Ss. Memory measures suggest that the retention of training effects is due to memory for the rule system rather than to memory for the specific details of the example problems, contrary to what would be expected if Ss were using direct analogies to solve the test problems. PMID:1827144

Fong, G T; Nisbett, R E

1991-03-01

486

The last recession was good for life expectancy.  

PubMed

Most people think that economic growth and a good economy are prerequisites for good health and high life expectancy. As such, a recession should decrease life expectancy or stop it from rising. In fact, recessions can boost life expectancy. This was the case during the Great Depression in the United States from 1929 to 1932 and during the recession in the European Union in 2009. In 2009, life expectancy increased most rapidly in European countries where the decrease in gross domestic product was greatest-Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania. Studies of life expectancy increasing during recessions can yield valuable information regarding extending average life expectancy without essential costs. PMID:22533416

Kristjuhan, Ulo; Taidre, Erika

2012-04-01

487

Expectation in perceptual decision making: neural and computational mechanisms.  

PubMed

Sensory signals are highly structured in both space and time. These structural regularities in visual information allow expectations to form about future stimulation, thereby facilitating decisions about visual features and objects. Here, we discuss how expectation modulates neural signals and behaviour in humans and other primates. We consider how expectations bias visual activity before a stimulus occurs, and how neural signals elicited by expected and unexpected stimuli differ. We discuss how expectations may influence decision signals at the computational level. Finally, we consider the relationship between visual expectation and related concepts, such as attention and adaptation. PMID:25315388

Summerfield, Christopher; de Lange, Floris P

2014-11-01

488

Contingency Tracking During Unsignaled Delayed Reinforcement  

PubMed Central

Three experiments were conducted with rats in which responses on one lever (labeled the functional lever) produced reinforcers after an unsignaled delay period that reset with each response during the delay. Responses on a second, nonfunctional, lever did not initiate delays, but, in the first and third experiments, such responses during the last 10 s of a delay did postpone food delivery another 10?s. In the first experiment, the location of the two levers was reversed several times. Responding generally was higher on the functional lever, though the magnitude of the difference diminished with successive reversals. In the second experiment, once a delay was initiated by a response on the functional lever, in different conditions responses on the nonfunctional lever either had no effect or postponed food delivery by 30?s. The latter contingency typically lowered response rates on the nonfunctional lever. In the first two experiments, both the functional and nonfunctional levers were identical except for their location; in the third experiment, initially, a vertically mounted, pole-push lever defined the functional response and a horizontally mounted lever defined the nonfunctional response. Higher response rates occurred on the functional lever. These results taken together suggest that responding generally tracked the response–reinforcer contingency. The results further show how nonfunctional-operanda responses are controlled by a prior history of direct reinforcement of such responses, by the temporal delay between such responses and food delivery, and as simple generalization between the two operanda. PMID:17970417

Keely, Josue; Feola, Tyler; Lattal, Kennon A

2007-01-01

489

Efficient semiclassical approach for time delays  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Wigner time delay, defined by the energy derivative of the total scattering phase shift, is an important spectral measure of an open quantum system characterizing the duration of the scattering event. It is proportional to the trace of the Wigner–Smith matrix Q that also encodes other time-delay characteristics. For chaotic cavities, these quantities exhibit universal fluctuations that are commonly described within random matrix theory. Here, we develop a new semiclassical approach to the time-delay matrix which is formulated in terms of the classical trajectories that connect the exterior and interior regions of the system. This approach is superior to previous treatments because it avoids the energy derivative. We demonstrate the method?s efficiency by going beyond previous work in establishing the universality of time-delay statistics for chaotic cavities with perfectly connected leads. In particular, the moment generating function of the proper time-delays (eigenvalues of Q) is found semiclassically for the first five orders in the inverse number of scattering channels for systems with and without time-reversal symmetry. We also show the equivalence of random matrix and semiclassical results for the second moments and for the variance of the Wigner time delay at any channel number.

Kuipers, Jack; Savin, Dmitry V.; Sieber, Martin

2014-12-01

490

A Comparison of Motor Delays in Young Children: Autism Spectrum Disorder, Developmental Delay, and Developmental Concerns  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study assessed motor delay in young children 21–41 months of age with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), and compared motor\\u000a scores in children with ASD to those of children without ASD. Fifty-six children (42 boys, 14 girls) were in three groups:\\u000a children with ASD, children with developmental delay (DD), and children with developmental concerns without motor delay. Descriptive\\u000a analysis showed all

Beth Provost; Brian R. Lopez; Sandra Heimerl

2007-01-01

491

Derivation and computation of discrete-delay and continuous-delay SDEs in mathematical biology.  

PubMed

Stochastic versions of several discrete-delay and continuous-delay differential equations, useful in mathematical biology, are derived from basic principles carefully taking into account the demographic, environmental, or physiological randomness in the dynamic processes. In particular, stochastic delay differential equation (SDDE) models are derived and studied for Nicholson's blowflies equation, Hutchinson's equation, an SIS epidemic model with delay, bacteria/phage dynamics, and glucose/insulin levels. Computational methods for approximating the SDDE models are described. Comparisons between computational solutions of the SDDEs and independently formulated Monte Carlo calculations support the accuracy of the derivations and of the computational methods. PMID:24506546

Allen, Edward J

2014-06-01

492

The time-delayed inverted pendulum: Implications for human balance control  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The inverted pendulum is frequently used as a starting point for discussions of how human balance is maintained during standing and locomotion. Here we examine three experimental paradigms of time-delayed balance control: (1) mechanical inverted time-delayed pendulum, (2) stick balancing at the fingertip, and (3) human postural sway during quiet standing. Measurements of the transfer function (mechanical stick balancing) and the two-point correlation function (Hurst exponent) for the movements of the fingertip (real stick balancing) and the fluctuations in the center of pressure (postural sway) demonstrate that the upright fixed point is unstable in all three paradigms. These observations imply that the balanced state represents a more complex and bounded time-dependent state than a fixed-point attractor. Although mathematical models indicate that a sufficient condition for instability is for the time delay to make a corrective movement, ?n, be greater than a critical delay ?c that is proportional to the length of the pendulum, this condition is satisfied only in the case of human stick balancing at the fingertip. Thus it is suggested that a common cause of instability in all three paradigms stems from the difficulty of controlling both the angle of the inverted pendulum and the position of the controller simultaneously using time-delayed feedback. Considerations of the problematic nature of control in the presence of delay and random perturbations ("noise") suggest that neural control for the upright position likely resembles an adaptive-type controller in which the displacement angle is allowed to drift for small displacements with active corrections made only when ? exceeds a threshold. This mechanism draws attention to an overlooked type of passive control that arises from the interplay between retarded variables and noise.

Milton, John; Cabrera, Juan Luis; Ohira, Toru; Tajima, Shigeru; Tonosaki, Yukinori; Eurich, Christian W.; Campbell, Sue Ann

2009-06-01

493

Patient expectations of podiatric surgery in the United Kingdom  

PubMed Central

Background Patient expectations can be difficult to conceptualise and are liable to change with time, health and environmental factors. Patient expectation is known to influence satisfaction, however little is known about the expectations of patients attending for podiatric surgery. This paper will explore the expectations of a large cohort of patients undergoing elective foot surgery. Methods The UK based podiatric audit of surgery and clinical outcome measurement (PASCOM) audit system was applied to a consecutive cohort of patients undergoing elective podiatric surgery in Doncaster, South Yorkshire between 2004 and 2010. Data was collected relating to the surgical episode and patient expectations. A patient questionnaire was administered at 6 months post intervention. Results A total of 2910 unique surgical admissions were completed and satisfaction questionnaires were returned by 1869 patients. A total of 1430 patients answered question 1 which relates to patient expectations. Pain relief was the most frequent expectation with 1191 counts (52.3%), while footwear and mobility accounted for 16.6% and 16.4% respectively. Cosmesis counts occurred less commonly; 12.2%. 709 patients (49.6%) stated only a single expectation, 599 patients (41.9%) stated two expectations, 114 patients (8%) stated three expectations and 7 patients (0.5%) stated 4 expectations. Pain relief was the dominant expectation accounting for 515 counts (72.6%) of patients who provided only one response. Conclusions This paper demonstrates the expectations of a large cohort of podiatric surgery patients. For the most part patients expect pain relief, improved mobility and improved shoe fitting, while a small number of patients also expect a cosmetic improvement. Further research is required to determine the relationship between patient expectation and health related quality of life, and to determine whether podiatric surgery is successful in addressing the expectations of patients. PMID:22145971

2011-01-01

494

Tank 41H bounding uranium enrichment. Revision 1  

SciTech Connect

The intent of this document is to combine data from salt samples and historical process information to bound the uranium (U-235) enrichment which could be expected in the upper portion of the salt in Tank 41H. This bounding enrichment will be used in another document to establish a nuclear safety basis for initial salt removal operations. Any number of mixing scenarios could have been examined for the components which fed the evaporator during the formation of the last five feet of salt. The scenario presented was designed to be conservative, while still incorporating process knowledge and available data where possible. In the scenario, the lowest enrichment seen in any feed material was for the L4 feed which was evaporated to form the top part of the salt in Tank 41H. The lowest enrichment of 17% is still higher than the 16% (95% confidence) maximum enrichment actually found at the salt surface (from sample results). This leads to the conclusion that the uranium enrichment of the material (L1) which was being fed to the evaporate when the last five feet began to form, was lower than 22%. The conservatism used in this analysis, combined with the available sample data are believed to provide a defensible basis for establishing an upper bounding enrichment of 22% for the top five feet of salt.

Cavin, W.S.

1994-09-30

495

Estimating characteristic phase and delay from broadband interaural time difference tuning curves.  

PubMed

Characteristic delay and characteristic phase are shape parameters of interaural time difference tuning curves. The standard procedure for the estimation of these parameters is based on the measurement of delay curves measured for tonal stimuli with varying frequencies. Common to all procedures is the detection of a linear behavior of the phase spectrum. Hence a reliable estimate can only be expected if sufficiently many relevant frequencies are tested. Thus, the estimation precision depends on the given bandwidth. Based on a linear model, we develop and implement methods for the estimation of characteristic phase and delay from a single broadband tuning curve. We present two different estimation algorithms, one based on a Fourier-analytic interpretation of characteristic delay and phase, and the other based on mean square error minimization. Estimation precision and robustness of the algorithms are tested on artificially generated data with predetermined characteristic delay and phase values, and on sample data from electrophysiological measurements in birds and in mammals. Increasing the signal-to-noise ratio or the bandwidth increases the estimation accuracy of the algorithms. Frequency band location and strong rectification also affect the estimation accuracy. For realistic bandwidths and signal-to-noise ratios, the minimization algorithm reliably and robustly estimates characteristic delay and phase and is superior to the Fourier-analytic method. Bandwidth-dependent significance thresholds allow to assess whether the estimated characteristic delay and phase values are meaningful shape parameters of a measured tuning curve. These thresholds also indicate the sampling rates needed to obtain reliable estimates from interaural time difference tuning curves. PMID:25278284

Lehmann, Jessica; Tellers, Philipp; Wagner, Hermann; Führ, Hartmut

2015-02-01

496

Tradeoff Analysis of Delay-Power-CSIT Quality of Dynamic BackPressure Algorithm for Energy Efficient OFDM Systems  

E-print Network

In this paper, we analyze the fundamental power-delay tradeoff in point-to-point OFDM systems under imperfect channel state information quality and non-ideal circuit power. We consider the dynamic back- pressure (DBP) algorithm, where the transmitter determines the rate and power control actions based on the instantaneous channel state information (CSIT) and the queue state information (QSI). We exploit a general fluid queue dynamics using a continuous time dynamic equation. Using the sample-path approach and renewal theory, we decompose the average delay in terms of multiple unfinished works along a sample path, and derive an upper bound on the average delay under the DBP power control, which is asymptotically accurate at small delay regime. We show that despite imperfect CSIT quality and non-ideal circuit power, the average power (P) of the DBP policy scales with delay (D) as P = O(Dexp(1/D)) at small delay regime. While the impacts of CSIT quality and circuit power appears as the coefficients of the scalin...

Lau, Vincent K N

2012-01-01

497

Upper bounds on superpartner masses from upper bounds on the Higgs boson mass.  

PubMed

The LHC is putting bounds on the Higgs boson mass. In this Letter we use those bounds to constrain the minimal supersymmetric standard model (MSSM) parameter space using the fact that, in supersymmetry, the Higgs mass is a function of the masses of sparticles, and therefore an upper bound on the Higgs mass translates into an upper bound for the masses for superpartners. We show that, although current bounds do not constrain the MSSM parameter space from above, once the Higgs mass bound improves big regions of this parameter space will be excluded, putting upper bounds on supersymmetry (SUSY) masses. On the other hand, for the case of split-SUSY we show that, for moderate or large tan?, the present bounds on the Higgs mass imply that the common mass for scalars cannot be greater than 10(11)??GeV. We show how these bounds will evolve as LHC continues to improve the limits on the Higgs mass. PMID:22324671

Cabrera, M E; Casas, J A; Delgado, A

2012-01-13

498

What Happens in Therapy? Adolescents' Expectations and Perceptions of Psychotherapy  

E-print Network

An empirically based measure of adolescent pre-treatment expectations and perceptions of psychotherapy is provided with supporting literature from service-use models, common factors research, evidence-based practice principles, and expectancies...

Stewart, Peter Kristian

2008-01-01

499

5 CFR 9701.406 - Setting and communicating performance expectations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...managers must communicate performance expectations, including those that may affect an employee's retention in the job. Performance expectations need not be in writing, but must be communicated to the employee prior to holding the employee...

2010-01-01

500

A selected history of expectation bias in physics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The beliefs of physicists can bias their results toward their expectations in a number of ways. We survey a variety of historical cases of expectation bias in observations, experiments, and calculations.

Monwhea Jeng; Sherlock Holmes

2006-01-01