Sample records for bounded expected delay

  1. TIGHT BOUNDS ON EXPECTED ORDER STATISTICS

    E-print Network

    Bertsimas, Dimitris

    TIGHT BOUNDS ON EXPECTED ORDER STATISTICS DIIIMMMIIITTTRRRIIISSS BEEERRRTTTSSSIIIMMMAAASSS Sloan@nus.edu.sg In this article, we study the problem of finding tight bounds on the expected value of the kth-order statistic E of the highest-order statistic E @Xn:n# can be computed with a bisection search algo- rithm+ An extremal discrete

  2. Time Delay Estimation Bounds in Convolutive Random Channels

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zhengyuan Xu; Brian M. Sadler

    2007-01-01

    We develop bounds on time delay estimation (TDE) in wideband convolutive random channels. The improved Ziv-Zakai bound (ZZB) is adapted to this case, resulting in mean-square error (MSE) bounds that are independent of estimator bias, and avoid regularity conditions. We assume a known transmitted signal, a tapped delay line random channel model, and a uniform prior on the delay. The

  3. Tight Bounds On Expected Order Statistics Dimitris Bertsimas

    E-print Network

    Bertsimas, Dimitris

    Tight Bounds On Expected Order Statistics Dimitris Bertsimas Karthik Natarajan Chung-Piaw Teo of the kth order statistic E[xk:n] under moment information on n real-valued random variables. Given means E of the highest order statistic E[xn:n] can be computed with a bisection search algorithm. An extremal discrete

  4. Minimum Expected Delay-Based Routing Protocol (MEDR) for Delay Tolerant Mobile Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Yong; Liu, Ming; Wang, Xiaomin; Gong, Haigang

    2010-01-01

    It is a challenging work to develop efficient routing protocols for Delay Tolerant Mobile Sensor Networks (DTMSNs), which have several unique characteristics such as sensor mobility, intermittent connectivity, energy limit, and delay tolerability. In this paper, we propose a new routing protocol called Minimum Expected Delay-based Routing (MEDR) tailored for DTMSNs. MEDR achieves a good routing performance by finding and using the connected paths formed dynamically by mobile sensors. In MEDR, each sensor maintains two important parameters: Minimum Expected Delay (MED) and its expiration time. According to MED, messages will be delivered to the sensor that has at least a connected path with their hosting nodes, and has the shortest expected delay to communication directly with the sink node. Because of the changing network topology, the path is fragile and volatile, so we use the expiration time of MED to indicate the valid time of the path, and avoid wrong transmissions. Simulation results show that the proposed MEDR achieves a higher message delivery ratio with lower transmission overhead and data delivery delay than other DTMSN routing approaches. PMID:22163658

  5. Stochastic Delay Bound in Sink-Tree Networks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yiping Deng; Fengyuan Ren; Chuang Lin

    2010-01-01

    Sensor networks are deployed in many fields for its availability and timeliness to capture significant information. It is very important to provide a guaranteed delay for some time-sensitive applications. Unfortunately, many previous work focus on routing strategy or energy management, and these related results bring longer delay to sensor networks. Actually, the theoretical bound is significant for sensor network deployment.

  6. A Feedback Control Interval Shaping Algorithm under Delay Bound Restriction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bin Li; Wen Du; Zhengxin Ma

    2006-01-01

    Traffic shaping is an important technique for QoS guarantees in the network that provides integrated services. All shaping algorithms reduce traffic burstiness by introducing some shaping delay. However, how to achieve a trade-off between burstiness reduction and traffic delay is a challenging problem in current networks. Considering that the end-to- end delay bound is an important parameter in QoS guarantees,

  7. Bounded Delay and Concurrency for Earliest Query Answering

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Bounded Delay and Concurrency for Earliest Query Answering Olivier Gauwin123 , Joachim Niehren13) Abstract. Earliest query answering is needed for streaming XML pro- cessing with optimal memory management. We study the feasibility of earliest query answering for node selection queries. Tractable queries

  8. Stability of Linear Time-Delay Systems: A Delay-Dependent Criterion with a Tight Conservatism Bound

    E-print Network

    Tsiotras, Panagiotis

    Stability of Linear Time-Delay Systems: A Delay-Dependent Criterion with a Tight Conservatism Bound Jianrong Zhang, Carl R. Knospe y and Panagiotis Tsiotras z Abstract The stability of linear time-delay for delay-dependent stability of the orig- inal time-delay system. The novelty of this result

  9. Adaptive Neural Network Control of Nonlinear MIMO Time-delay Systems with Unknown Bounds on Delay Functionals

    E-print Network

    Ge, Shuzhi Sam

    Adaptive Neural Network Control of Nonlinear MIMO Time-delay Systems with Unknown Bounds on Delay trajectories. I. INTRODUCTION Time delay systems constitute an active topic of research, since the systems that they represent have a ubiquitous presence in the real world. Of great concern is the effect of time delay

  10. Bounds on Expected Black Hole Spins in Inspiraling Binaries

    E-print Network

    R. O'Shaughnessy; J. Kaplan; V. Kalogera; K. Belczynski

    2005-06-15

    As a first step towards understanding the angular momentum evolution history of black holes in merging black-hole/neutron-star binaries, we perform population synthesis calculations to track the distribution of accretion histories of compact objects in such binaries. We find that there are three distinct processes which can possibly contribute to the black-hole spin magnitude: a birth spin for the black hole, imparted at either (i) the collapse of a massive progenitor star to a black hole or (ii) the accretion-induced collapse of a neutron star to a black hole; and (iii) an accretion spin-up when the already formed black hole [via (i) or (ii)] goes through an accretion episode (through an accretion disk or a common-envelope phase). Our results show that, with regard to accretion-induced spinup in merging BH-NS binaries [method (iii) above], only {\\em accretion episodes associated with common-envelope phases and hypercritical accretion rates} occur in the formation history of merging black hole/neutron star binaries. Lacking unambiguous experimental information about BH birth spins [i.e., regarding the results of processes (i) and (ii)], we choose two fiducial values for the BH birth angular momentum parameter a=J/M^2, consistent with observations of (i) NS birth spins (a roughly 0) and (ii) X-ray binaries (a=0.5). Using these two fiducial values and a conservative upper bound on the specific angular momentum of accreted matter, we discuss the expected range of black hole spins in the binaries of interest. We conclude with comments on the significance of these results for ground-based gravitational-wave searches of inspiral signals from black hole binaries.

  11. On Using Contact Expectation for Routing in Delay Tolerant Networks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Honglong Chen; Wei Lou

    2011-01-01

    Conventional routing algorithms rely on the ex- istence of persistent end-to-end paths for the delivery of a message to its destination via a predesigned path. However, in a delay tolerant network (DTN), nodes are intermittently connected, and thus the network topology is dynamic in nature, which makes the routing become one of the most challenging problems. A promising solution is

  12. Focusing Your E-Recruitment Efforts to Meet the Expectations of College-Bound Students. E-Expectations 2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noel-Levitz, Inc, 2010

    2010-01-01

    Early in 2010, the E-Expectations research group surveyed more than 1,000 college-bound high school students, polling them on their online behaviors and expectations, as well as other key enrollment-related topics. Highlights of the study include: (1) 1 in 4 students reported removing a school from their prospective list because of a bad…

  13. Parents' Developmental Expectations and Child Characteristics: Longitudinal Study of Children with Developmental Delays and Their Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clare, Lindsay; Garnier, Helen; Gallimore, Ronald

    1998-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between child characteristics and parents' developmental expectations for their children with developmental delays at ages 3, 7, and 11. Overall, parents' developmental expectations were associated with child characteristics, were moderately stable over time, and tended to decline as children matured.…

  14. Constructive Bounds and Exact Expectations for the Random Assignment Problem

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Don Coppersmith; Gregory B. Sorkin

    1998-01-01

    The random assignment problem is to choose a minimum-cost perfect matchingin a complete n \\\\Theta n bipartite graph, whose edge weights are chosen randomly fromsome distribution such as the exponential distribution with mean 1. In this case itis known that the expectation does not grow unboundedly with n, but approachessome limiting value c?between 1.51 and 2. The limit is conjectured

  15. A MAC Protocol for Delay-Bounded Applications in Wireless Sensor Networks

    E-print Network

    Melodia, Tommaso

    A MAC Protocol for Delay-Bounded Applications in Wireless Sensor Networks Guido Di Bacco , Tommaso are defined as aggregates of flows from multiple sources to a single receiver. A new distributed MAC protocol explicitly designed for Delay-Bounded Applications in Wireless Sensor Networks (DB-MAC) is also introduced

  16. The exponential asymptotic stability of singularly perturbed delay differential equations with a bounded lag

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hongjiong Tian

    2002-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the exponential stability of singularly perturbed delay differential equations with a bounded (state-independent) lag. A generalized Halanay inequality is derived in Section 2, and in Section 3 a sufficient condition will be provided to ensure that any solution of the singularly perturbed delay differential equations (DDEs) with a bounded lag is exponentially stable uniformly for sufficiently small

  17. On Computing Bounds on Average Backlogs and Delays with Network Calculus

    E-print Network

    Ciucu, Florin

    ; furthermore, improved bounds on average delays follow imme- diately from Little's Law. The gain factor can conservative estimates for the average backlogs and delays because statistical information about moments higher to conservative bounds because many of the statistical properties of the arrivals are not accounted for. In order

  18. A lower bound on expected communication cost of quantum state merging

    E-print Network

    Anurag Anshu

    2015-06-21

    We show a lower bound on expected communication cost of one-way entanglement assisted quantum state merging and a slightly better lower bound for its special case, quantum state transfer. Our bound implies that the expected communication cost of one-way protocols is not significantly better than worst case communication cost, in terms of scaling of error. Our argument is based on a technical tool of convex split, introduced recently in context of quantum state redistribution in Anshu,Jain,Devabathini[2014].

  19. An Upper Bound for the Expected Range of a Random Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marengo, James; Lopez, Manuel

    2010-01-01

    We consider the expected range of a random sample of points chosen from the interval [0, 1] according to some probability distribution. We then use the notion of convexity to derive an upper bound for this expected range which is valid for all possible choices of this distribution. Finally we show that there is only one distribution for which this…

  20. Bounded Control of Multiple-Delay Systems with Applications to ATM Networks*

    E-print Network

    and implemented. The congestion control problem is solve by regulating* * the input traffic rate. In addition Bounded Control of Multiple-Delay Systems with Applications to ATM. ariola@unina.it. Abstract Congestion control

  1. Control of Markovian jump discrete-time systems with norm bounded uncertainty and unknown delay

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peng Shi; E.-K. Boukas; R. K. Agarwal

    1999-01-01

    This paper studies the problem of control for discrete time delay linear systems with Markovian jump parameters. The system under consideration is subjected to both time-varying norm-bounded parameter uncertainty and unknown time delay in the state, and Markovian jump parameters in all system matrices. We address the problem of robust state feedback control in which both robust stochastic stability and

  2. Stability and Hopf bifurcation for a business cycle model with expectation and delay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xiangdong; Cai, Wenli; Lu, Jiajun; Wang, Yangyang

    2015-08-01

    According to rational expectation hypothesis, the government will take into account the future capital stock in the process of investment decision. By introducing anticipated capital stock into an economic model with investment delay, we construct a mixed functional differential system including delay and advanced variables. The system is converted to the one containing only delay by variable substitution. The equilibrium point of the system is obtained and its dynamical characteristics such as stability, Hopf bifurcation and its stability and direction are investigated by using the related theories of nonlinear dynamics. We carry out some numerical simulations to confirm these theoretical conclusions. The results indicate that both capital stock's anticipation and investment lag are the certain factors leading to the occurrence of cyclical fluctuations in the macroeconomic system. Moreover, the level of economic fluctuation can be dampened to some extent if investment decisions are made by the reasonable short-term forecast on capital stock.

  3. Cramer-Rao lower bounds for the time delay estimation of UWB signals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Zhang; R. A. Kennedy; T. D. Abhayapala

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, we present the Cramer-Rao lower bounds (CKLBs) for the time delay estimation of UWB signals which could be tight lower bounds for the theoretical performance limits of UWB synchronizers. The CRLBs are investigated for both single pulse systems and time hopping systems in AWGN and multipath channels. Insights are given into the relationship between CRLBs for different

  4. Bounds on the delay-constrained capacity of UWB communication with a relay node

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Behnaam Aazhang; Christoph F. Mecklenbräuker; Masoumeh Nasiri-kenari; Zolfa Zeinalpour-yazdi; Joachim Wehinger

    2009-01-01

    We derive bounds on the expected capacity and outage capacity of a three-node relay network for UWB communications. We also provide a simple tight approximation for the derived upper bound on the capacity and then using this bound we obtain the outage probability of the network. Numerical results show that a significant improvement in the system capacity and outage probability

  5. USE OF UPPER BOUND DELAY ESTIMATE IN STABILITY ANALYSIS AND ROBUST CONTROL COMPENSATION IN NETWORKED CONTROL SYSTEMS

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    is presented. In the paper the procedure of obtaining the upper bound delay value in the switched Ethernet: Networked control systems, real time systems, industrial communication, network calculus, delay compensation

  6. Towards End-to-end Delay Bounds on WMNs Based on Statistical Network Calculus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Huamei Qi; Zhigang Chen; Lianming Zhang

    2008-01-01

    The transmission of data is from the mesh routers to gateway by multi-hop and then to Internet. The gateway where the traffic congregates becomes the bottleneck of the network. End-to-end delay with upper bound is one of guaranteed services, and whether the upper bound can obtain the guarantee is a key to present QoS guarantees, implement routing effectively, congestion control

  7. Delay-Bounded MAC with Minimal Idle Listening for Sensor Networks

    E-print Network

    Qiao, Daji

    Delay-Bounded MAC with Minimal Idle Listening for Sensor Networks Yang Peng, Zi Li, Daji Qiao--This paper presents a new receiver-initiated sensor network MAC protocol, called CyMAC, which has to the varying traffic condition. More importantly, CyMAC achieves the above goals without requiring time

  8. Bounded Control of Multiple-Delay Systems with Applications to ATM Networks

    E-print Network

    . Keywords: Congestion control, data networks, magnitude and rate amplitude bounds, multiple delays, tracking. The congestion control problem is solved by regulating the input traffic rate. In addition, because of its after all CBR and VBR traffic has been accommodated. In order to avoid congestion, the ATM Forum adopted

  9. Bounding Switching Delay in Mobile TV Broadcast Networks Cheng-Hsin Hsu and Mohamed Hefeeda

    E-print Network

    Hefeeda, Mohammed

    phones, and mobile media players are getting very popular and computationally powerful, watching TV used in many deployed mobile TV networks, and we show that it is not efficient in terms of controllingBounding Switching Delay in Mobile TV Broadcast Networks Cheng-Hsin Hsu and Mohamed Hefeeda School

  10. Delay Bounded Rate and Power Control in Energy Harvesting Wireless Networks

    E-print Network

    Rajan, Dinesh

    Delay Bounded Rate and Power Control in Energy Harvesting Wireless Networks R.A. Raghuvir. INTRODUCTION Harvesting ambient energy from the environment to power communicating nodes is increasingly [1]. With on board energy harvesters, the wireless node can no longer be reckoned as a device whose

  11. Ferry Route Design with Delay Bounds in Delay-Tolerant Networks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wei Peng; Baokang Zhao; Wanrong Yu; Chunqing Wu; Xiaorong Yan

    2010-01-01

    Delay-Tolerant\\/Disruption-Tolerant Networks (DTNs) have been proposed to cope with the challenges of communication in some extreme or special environments. Due to the uncertainty of node mobility, application traffic demand and other factors, it is difficult to provide performance guarantee for a DTN where all nodes may move arbitrarily. With controlled mobility, message ferries can be utilized to guarantee the network

  12. Market Frictions, Price Delay, and the Cross-Section of Expected Returns

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kewei Hou; Tobias J. Moskowitz

    2003-01-01

    We parsimoniously characterize the severity of market frictions affecting a stock using the delay with which its price responds to information. The most delayed firms command a large return premium not explained by size, liquidity, or micro- structure effects. Moreover, delay captures part of the size effect, idiosyncratic risk is priced only among the most delayed firms, and earnings drift

  13. Stochastic resonance in a tumor-immune system subject to bounded noises and time delay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Wei; Mei, Dong-Cheng

    2014-12-01

    Immunotherapy is one of the most recent approaches in cancer therapy. A mathematical model of tumor-immune interaction, subject to a periodic immunotherapy treatment (imitated by a periodic signal), correlative and bounded stochastic fluctuations and time delays, is investigated by numerical simulations for its signal power amplification (SPA). Within the tailored parameter regime, the synchronous response of tumor growth to the immunotherapy, stochastic resonance (SR), versus both the noises and delays is obtained. The details are as follows (i) the peak values of SPA versus the noise intensity (A) in the proliferation term of tumor cells decrease as the frequency of periodic signal increases, i.e. an increase of the frequency restrains the SR; (ii) an increase of the amplitude of periodic signal restrains the SR versus A, but boosts up the SR versus the noise intensity B in the immune term; (iii) there is an optimum cross-correlated degree between the two bounded noises, at which the system exhibits the strongest SR versus the delay time ??(the reaction time of tumor cell population to their surrounding environment constraints); (iv) upon increasing the delay time ??, double SR versus the delay time ?? (the time taken by both the tumor antigen identification and tumor-stimulated proliferation of effectors) emerges. These results may be helpful for an immunotherapy treatment for the sufferer.

  14. Bounded Mean-Delay Throughput and Non-Starvation Conditions in Aloha Network

    E-print Network

    Liew, Soung Chang; Chen, Da Rui

    2008-01-01

    This paper considers the requirements to ensure bounded mean queuing delay and non-starvation in a slotted Aloha network operating the exponential backoff protocol. It is well-known that the maximum possible throughput of a slotted Aloha system with a large number of nodes is 1/e = 0.3679. Indeed, a saturation throughput of 1/e can be achieved with an exponential backoff factor of r = e/(e-1)=1.5820. The binary backoff factor of r = 2 is assumed in the majority of prior work, and in many practical multiple-access networks such as the Ethernet and WiFi. For slotted Aloha, the saturation throughput 0.3466 for r = 2 is reasonably close to the maximum of 1/e, and one could hardly raise objection to adopting r = 2 in the system. However, this paper shows that if mean queuing delay is to be bounded, then the sustainable throughput when r = 2 is only 0.2158, a drastic 41% drop from 1/e . Fortunately, the optimal setting of r = 1.3757 under the bounded mean-delay requirement allows us to achieve sustainable throughpu...

  15. The Mobile Browsing Behaviors and Expectations of College-Bound High School Students. An E-Expectations Trend Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noel-Levitz, Inc, 2012

    2012-01-01

    The last decade marked a dramatic change in the college search experience as students flocked to the Internet as their primary tool for researching colleges. Institutions had to transform their recruitment efforts to keep up with the online demands and expectations of prospective students. The proliferation of smartphones is transforming the…

  16. Influence of phase on Cramer-Rao lower bounds for joint time delay and Doppler stretch estimation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hewen Wei; Shangfu Ye; Qun Wan

    2007-01-01

    The Cramer-Rao lower bounds for joint time delay and Doppler stretch estimation have been obtained for wideband signals with known phase already. However, the carrier phase is usually unknown in non-coherent receivers in the applications such as radar and sonar. And accuracy of the joint estimation of time delay and Doppler stretch will be affected by this unknown phase. In

  17. Effects of expected delay time on the subjective value of rewards and punishments

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Walter Mischel; Joan Grusec; John C. Masters

    1969-01-01

    4 experiments examined how the length of anticipated temporal delay periods preceding the occurrence of rewards and punishments affects their subjective value for middle class 4th and 5th graders and college students. Ss were confronted with a series of rewards or of punishments which were presented as occurring immediately or after specified delay periods up to several wk. in duration.

  18. BCDP: Budget constrained and delay-bounded placement for hybrid roadside units in vehicular ad hoc networks.

    PubMed

    Li, Peng; Huang, Chuanhe; Liu, Qin

    2014-01-01

    In vehicular ad hoc networks, roadside units (RSUs) placement has been proposed to improve the the overall network performance in many ITS applications. This paper addresses the budget constrained and delay-bounded placement problem (BCDP) for roadside units in vehicular ad hoc networks. There are two types of RSUs: cable connected RSU (c-RSU) and wireless RSU (w-RSU). c-RSUs are interconnected through wired lines, and they form the backbone of VANETs, while w-RSUs connect to other RSUs through wireless communication and serve as an economical extension of the coverage of c-RSUs. The delay-bounded coverage range and deployment cost of these two cases are totally different. We are given a budget constraint and a delay bound, the problem is how to find the optimal candidate sites with the maximal delay-bounded coverage to place RSUs such that a message from any c-RSU in the region can be disseminated to the more vehicles within the given budget constraint and delay bound. We first prove that the BCDP problem is NP-hard. Then we propose several algorithms to solve the BCDP problem. Simulation results show the heuristic algorithms can significantly improve the coverage range and reduce the total deployment cost, compared with other heuristic methods. PMID:25436656

  19. Factors Associated with Delayed Childbearing: From the Voices of Expectant Latina Adults and Teens in California

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biggs, M. Antonia; Ralph, Lauren; Minnis, Alexandra M.; Arons, Abigail; Marchi, Kristen S.; Lehrer, Jocelyn A.; Braveman, Paula A.; Brindis, Claire D.

    2010-01-01

    There has been limited research on the protective factors that help Latinas delay childbearing until adulthood. In-depth interviews were conducted with 65 pregnant Latina teenage and adult women in California who were about to have their first child. Lack of or inconsistent birth control use as teens was attributed to wanting or ambivalence toward…

  20. Hemodynamic Segmentation of Brain Perfusion Images with Delay and Dispersion Effects Using an Expectation-Maximization Algorithm

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Chia-Feng; Guo, Wan-Yuo; Chang, Feng-Chi; Huang, Shang-Ran; Chou, Yen-Chun; Wu, Yu-Te

    2013-01-01

    Automatic identification of various perfusion compartments from dynamic susceptibility contrast magnetic resonance brain images can assist in clinical diagnosis and treatment of cerebrovascular diseases. The principle of segmentation methods was based on the clustering of bolus transit-time profiles to discern areas of different tissues. However, the cerebrovascular diseases may result in a delayed and dispersed local perfusion and therefore alter the hemodynamic signal profiles. Assessing the accuracy of the segmentation technique under delayed/dispersed circumstance is critical to accurately evaluate the severity of the vascular disease. In this study, we improved the segmentation method of expectation-maximization algorithm by using the results of hierarchical clustering on whitened perfusion data as initial parameters for a mixture of multivariate Gaussians model. In addition, Monte Carlo simulations were conducted to evaluate the performance of proposed method under different levels of delay, dispersion, and noise of signal profiles in tissue segmentation. The proposed method was used to classify brain tissue types using perfusion data from five normal participants, a patient with unilateral stenosis of the internal carotid artery, and a patient with moyamoya disease. Our results showed that the normal, delayed or dispersed hemodynamics can be well differentiated for patients, and therefore the local arterial input function for impaired tissues can be recognized to minimize the error when estimating the cerebral blood flow. Furthermore, the tissue in the risk of infarct and the tissue with or without the complementary blood supply from the communicating arteries can be identified. PMID:23894386

  1. Expect Delays: An Analysis of Air Travel Trends in the United States

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    There has been talk about an airline passenger "Bill of Rights" for years, and this recent report from the Brookings Institution might renew calls for such a document. Released in October 2009, this report by Robert Puentes and Adie Tomer looks at national and metropolitan levels of commercial air patterns between 1990 and 2009 and finds that half of the country's flights are routes of less than 500 miles and that the 26 largest metropolitan airline hubs continue to have the lion's share of flight delays. The report notes that despite a bit of flight time recovery during the recent economic crisis, "the return of economic growth will resume the boost in travelers, a concomitant decline in on-time performance, and the hyper-concentration of U.S. air travel within major metropolitan areas." The report includes links to recent analyses of air travel trends in the intermountain West and the Great Lakes region, and an appendix of metropolitan hubs.

  2. On Cramer-Rao bounds for mean-square errors of estimators with linear expectations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lennart Bondesson

    1982-01-01

    Let x1, ..., xn be a random sample from a density ?f((x-?)\\/gs, where f is known but ? ? iR and ?>0 unknown. A familiar multiparameter version of the Cramér-Rao theorem asserts that under regularity conditions on f of standard type the inverse of the Fisher information matrix I is a lower bound for the covariance matrix V of unbiased

  3. The Elmore delay as a bound for RC trees with generalized input signals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rohini Gupta; Bogdan Tutuianu; Lawrence T. Pileggi

    1997-01-01

    ABSTRACT The Elmore delay is an extremely popular delay metric, par- ticularly for RC tree analysis. The widespread usage of this met- ric is mainly attributable to it being the most accurate delay measure that is a simple analytical function of the circuit param- eters. The only drawbacks to this delay metric are the uncertain- ty as to whether it

  4. The Elmore delay as bound for RC trees with generalized input signals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rohini Gupta; Byron Krauter; Bogdan Tutuianu; John Willis; Lawrence T. Pileggi

    1995-01-01

    The Elmore delay is an extremely popular delay metric, par- ticularly for RC tree analysis. The widespread usage of this met- ric is mainly attributable to it being the most accurate delay measure that is a simple analytical function of the circuit param- eters. The only drawbacks to this delay metric are the uncertain- ty as to whether it is

  5. Tight Bounds on Expected Time to Add Correctly and Add Mostly Peter Gemmell Mor Harcholy

    E-print Network

    Harchol-Balter, Mor

    distribution and a bit signaling that the answer is correct has better expected running time. 2 Near Adder of two n-bit numbers into a much faster, but sometimes unreliable adder, which we call a Near Adder October 7, 1993 Abstract We consider the problem of adding two n-bit numbers which are chosen

  6. Reliable bounds for the propagation delay in VLSI nano interconnects based on Multi Wall Carbon Nano Tubes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Biagio De Vivo; Patrizia Lamberti; Giovanni Spinelli; Vincenzo Tucci

    2010-01-01

    The upper and lower bounds of the time-delay due to the variations of some physical and geometrical characteristics of a nano-interconnect based on Multi Wall CNTs, suitable for the 32 and 22 nm technology, are evaluated. Interval Analysis is used to define the ranges of the of the p.u.l. parameters of a Transmission Line modeling the interconnect. The Vertex Analysis

  7. Design of safety distributed control under bounded time-varying communication delay

    E-print Network

    Bresch-Pietri, Delphine

    This paper addresses the design of a distributed safety controller for two agents, subject to communication delay. The control objective is to ensure safety, meaning that the state of the two-agent system does not enter ...

  8. On Average Packet Delay Bounds and Loss Rates of Network-Coded Multicasts over Wireless Downlinks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wai-Leong Yeow; Anh Tuan Hoang; Chen-Khong Tham

    2009-01-01

    Latency is a critical concern in interactive or delay-sensitive services such as interactive IPTV and VoIP. This is especially so when using network coding as a means to conserve bandwidth in these bandwidth-hungry services. In practical network coding, packets are coded in batches and thus suffer a large average delay per packet when packets get decoded after the whole batch

  9. Bounding Cache-Related Preemption Delay for Real-Time Systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chang-gun Lee; Kwangpo Lee; Joosun Hahn; Yang-min Seo; Sang Lyul Min; Rhan Ha; Seongsoo Hong; Chang Yun Park; Minsuk Lee; Chong-sang Kim

    2001-01-01

    Abstract?ache memory is used in almost all computer systems today to bridge the ever increasing speed gap between the processor and main memory. However, its use in multitasking computer systems introduces additional preemption delay due to the reloading of memory blocks that are replaced during preemption. This cache-related preemption delay poses a serious problem in real-time computing systems where predictability

  10. Delay jitter bounds and packet scale rate guarantee for expedited forwarding

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jon C. R. Bennett; Kent Benson; Anna Charny; William F. Courtney; Jean-Yves Le Boudec

    2002-01-01

    We consider the definition of the expedited forwarding per-hop behavior (EF PHB) as given in RFC 2598 and its impact on worst case end-to-end delay jitter. On the one hand, the definition in RFC 2598 can be used to predict extremely low end-to-end delay jitter, independent of the network scale. On the other hand, we find that the worst case

  11. Delay-Bounded Adaptive UFH-based Anti-jamming Wireless Communication

    E-print Network

    Li, Xiang-Yang

    direct-sequence spread spectrum (UDSSS) techniques [7], [8], [9] were proposed suiting for delay mitigating protocols [4], including both frequency hopping spread spectrum (FHSS) and direct-sequence spread spectrum (DSSS), are proposed to cope with jamming attacks. However, the effects of these anti

  12. Delay bounded rate and power control in energy harvesting wireless networks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. A. Raghuvir; Dinesh Rajan

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we show that packet blocking prob- ability at the transmitter can be traded off with average queue delay for fading channels in environmentally powered wireless networks with bursty packet arrivals. Varying the size of the energy storage unit as well as that of the transmit buffer queue aids in the trade off. We cast the problem into

  13. Tight Bounds on Expected Time to Add Correctly and Add Mostly Peter Gemmell \\Lambda Mor Harchol y

    E-print Network

    Harchol-Balter, Mor

    present a circuit, which we call a Near Adder, which adds at least 1 \\Gamma ffl fraction of pairs of n­bit distribution and a bit signaling that the answer is correct has better expected running time. 2 Near Adder adder of two n­bit numbers into a much faster, but sometimes unreliable adder, which we call a Near

  14. An Infinite epsilon-bound Stability Criterion for a Class of Multiparameter Singularly Perturbed Time-delay Systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J.-S. Chiou; C.-J. Wang

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents an adjustable singular perturbed parameter approach, which is based on the Lyapunov stability theorem, in the stability analysis of multi-parameter singularly perturbed time delay systems for all \\

  15. Improving end-to-end delay upper bounds on an AFDX network by integrating offsets in worst-case analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xiaoting Li; Jean-Luc Scharbarg; Christian Fraboul

    2010-01-01

    AFDX (Avionics Full Duplex Switched Ethernet) standardized as ARINC 664 is a major upgrade for avionics systems. The mandatory certification implies a worst-case delay analysis of all the flows transmitted on the AFDX network. Up to now, this analysis is done thanks to a tool based on the Network Calculus approach. This existing approach considers that all the flows transmitted

  16. Expected Value

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Siegrist, Kyle

    This online, interactive lesson on expected value provides examples, exercises, and applets in which students will explore relationships between the expected value of real-valued random variables and the center of the distribution. Students will also examine how expected values can be used to measure spread and correlation.

  17. Signal delay in RC tree networks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul Penfield Jr.; Jorge Rubinstein

    1981-01-01

    In MOS integrated circuits, signals may propagate between stages with fanout. The MOS interconnect may be modeled by an RC tree. Exact calculation of signal delay through such networks is difficult. However, upper and lower bounds for delay that are computationally simple are presented here. The results can be used (1) to bound the delay, given the signal threshold; or

  18. Signal Delay in RC Tree Networks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jorge Rubinstein; Paul Penfield Jr.; Mark A. Horowitz

    1983-01-01

    In MOS integrated circuits, signals may propagate between stages with fanout. The MOS interconnect may be modeled by an RC tree. Exact calculation of signal delay through such networks is difficult. However, upper and lower bounds for delay that are computationally simple are presented here. The results can be used (1) to bound the delay, given the signal threshold; or

  19. Signal delay in RC tree networks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Penfield; J. Jr. Rubinstein

    1988-01-01

    In MOS integrated circuits, signals may propagate between stages with fanout. The HOS interconnect may be modeled by an RC tree, Exact calculation of signal delay through such networks is difficult. However, upper and lower bounds for delay that are computationally simple are presented here. The results can be used (I) to bound the delay, given the signal threshold; or

  20. Modeling life expectancy in Turkey

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ferda Halicioglu

    2011-01-01

    This study is concerned with understanding the factors of life expectancy in Turkey for the period 1965–2005. The determinants of life expectancy in Turkey are related to selected social, economical and environmental factors. Bounds testing approach to cointegration is employed to compute the long-run elasticities of longevity with respect to the selected economic, social and environmental factors. There exists no

  1. Modelling life expectancy in Turkey

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ferda Halicioglu

    2010-01-01

    This study is concerned with understanding the factors of life expectancy in Turkey for the period 1965-2005. The determinants of life expectancy in Turkey are related to selected social, economical and environmental factors. Bounds testing approach to cointegration is employed to compute the long-run elasticities of longevity with respect to the selected economic, social and environmental factors. There exists no

  2. Survey Expectations

    E-print Network

    Pesaran, M Hashem; Weale, Martin

    2006-03-14

    in the Handbook of Economic Forecasting, G. Elliott, C.W.J. Granger, and A. Timmermann (eds.), North-Holland (forthcoming 2006). Helpful comments by two anonymous referees, Kajal Lahiri and Ron Smith are gratefully acknowledged. 1 Contents 1 Introduction 4 2 Part... ) more than exponentially. The error-correction and the general extrapolation model are algebraically equivalent, but the former is particularly convenient when survey data is available on expectations over different horizons. 15 2.3 Testable Implications...

  3. Optimal Delay Scheduling in Networks with Arbitrary Constraints

    E-print Network

    is impractical. Thus, designing and analyzing scheduling schemes to obtain optimal throughput and delay bounds that it is possible to achieve a per-flow end-to-end delay bound of O(# of hops) in a constrained network. Designing the problem of design- ing a scheduling scheme that provides optimal throughput and delay guarantees

  4. Expected Case for Projecting Points

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sergio Cabello; Matt Devos; Bojan Mohar

    2006-01-01

    We consider the expected case of projecting points onto a random graduated line, provided that the closest pair of the point set is at least at distance one. For point sets consisting of n points, there is a lower bound of ( ? nlogn) given by Matouÿsek in (4). We show an upper

  5. Delay-dependent H ? control for uncertain fuzzy systems with time-varying delays

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xingwen Liu

    2008-01-01

    This paper addresses the robust stabilization and robust H? control problems of uncertain fuzzy delayed systems via a parallel distributed compensation (PDC) scheme. The uncertainties are norm bounded, and the delay may be either constant or time varying, and either differentiable or non-differentiable. Presented in this paper are some robust stabilization and robust H? control criteria, which are delay dependent

  6. What Do Gravitational Lens Time Delays Measure?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kochanek, C. S.

    2002-10-01

    Gravitational lens time delays depend on the Hubble constant, the observed image positions, and the surface mass density of the lens in the annulus between the images. Simple time delay lenses like PG 1115+80, SBS 1520+530, B1600+434, PKS 1830-211, and HE 2149-2745 have H0=A(1-)+B(?-1), where the two coefficients A~=90 km s-1 Mpc-1 and B~=10 km s-1 Mpc-1 depend on the measured delays and the observed image positions, is the mean surface density in the annulus between the images, and there is a small correction from the logarithmic slope ?~=2 of the density profile, ?~R1-?, in the annulus. These five systems are very homogeneous since for fixed H0=100 h km s-1 Mpc-1 they must have the same surface density, =1.11-1.22h+/-0.04, with an upper bound of ??<0.07 on any dispersion in beyond those due to the measurement errors. If the lenses have their expected dark halos, ~=0.5 and H0~=51+/-5 km s-1 Mpc-1, while if they have constant mass-to-light ratios, ~=0.1-0.2 and H0~=73+/-8 km s-1 Mpc-1. More complicated lenses with multiple components or strong perturbations from nearby clusters, like RX J0911+0551 and Q0957+561, are easily recognized because they have significantly different coefficients.

  7. Delay-range-dependent chaos synchronization approach under varying time-lags and delayed nonlinear coupling.

    PubMed

    Zaheer, Muhammad Hamad; Rehan, Muhammad; Mustafa, Ghulam; Ashraf, Muhammad

    2014-11-01

    This paper proposes a novel state feedback delay-range-dependent control approach for chaos synchronization in coupled nonlinear time-delay systems. The coupling between two systems is esteemed to be nonlinear subject to time-lags. Time-varying nature of both the intrinsic and the coupling delays is incorporated to broad scope of the present study for a better-quality synchronization controller synthesis. Lyapunov-Krasovskii (LK) functional is employed to derive delay-range-dependent conditions that can be solved by means of the conventional linear matrix inequality (LMI)-tools. The resultant control approach for chaos synchronization of the master-slave time-delay systems considers non-zero lower bound of the intrinsic as well as the coupling time-delays. Further, the delay-dependent synchronization condition has been established as a special case of the proposed LK functional treatment. Furthermore, a delay-range-dependent condition, independent of the delay-rate, has been provided to address the situation when upper bound of the delay-derivative is unknown. A robust state feedback control methodology is formulated for synchronization of the time-delay chaotic networks against the L2 norm bounded perturbations by minimizing the L2 gain from the disturbance to the synchronization error. Numerical simulation results are provided for the time-delay chaotic networks to show effectiveness of the proposed delay-range-dependent chaos synchronization methodologies. PMID:25440951

  8. Modeling delay in genetic networks: From delay birth-death processes to delay stochastic differential equations

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Chinmaya; López, José Manuel; Azencott, Robert; Bennett, Matthew R.; Josi?, Krešimir; Ott, William

    2014-01-01

    Delay is an important and ubiquitous aspect of many biochemical processes. For example, delay plays a central role in the dynamics of genetic regulatory networks as it stems from the sequential assembly of first mRNA and then protein. Genetic regulatory networks are therefore frequently modeled as stochastic birth-death processes with delay. Here, we examine the relationship between delay birth-death processes and their appropriate approximating delay chemical Langevin equations. We prove a quantitative bound on the error between the pathwise realizations of these two processes. Our results hold for both fixed delay and distributed delay. Simulations demonstrate that the delay chemical Langevin approximation is accurate even at moderate system sizes. It captures dynamical features such as the oscillatory behavior in negative feedback circuits, cross-correlations between nodes in a network, and spatial and temporal information in two commonly studied motifs of metastability in biochemical systems. Overall, these results provide a foundation for using delay stochastic differential equations to approximate the dynamics of birth-death processes with delay. PMID:24880267

  9. Modeling delay in genetic networks: From delay birth-death processes to delay stochastic differential equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Chinmaya; López, José Manuel; Azencott, Robert; Bennett, Matthew R.; Josi?, Krešimir; Ott, William

    2014-05-01

    Delay is an important and ubiquitous aspect of many biochemical processes. For example, delay plays a central role in the dynamics of genetic regulatory networks as it stems from the sequential assembly of first mRNA and then protein. Genetic regulatory networks are therefore frequently modeled as stochastic birth-death processes with delay. Here, we examine the relationship between delay birth-death processes and their appropriate approximating delay chemical Langevin equations. We prove a quantitative bound on the error between the pathwise realizations of these two processes. Our results hold for both fixed delay and distributed delay. Simulations demonstrate that the delay chemical Langevin approximation is accurate even at moderate system sizes. It captures dynamical features such as the oscillatory behavior in negative feedback circuits, cross-correlations between nodes in a network, and spatial and temporal information in two commonly studied motifs of metastability in biochemical systems. Overall, these results provide a foundation for using delay stochastic differential equations to approximate the dynamics of birth-death processes with delay.

  10. Exponential stability of delayed Hopfield neural networks with various activation functions and polytopic uncertainties

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vu N. Phat; Phan T. Nam

    2010-01-01

    This Letter deals with the problem of exponential stability for a class of delayed Hopfield neural networks. Based on augmented parameter-dependent Lyapunov-Krasovskii functionals, new delay-dependent conditions for the global exponential stability are obtained for two cases of time-varying delays: the delays are differentiable and have an upper bound of the delay-derivatives, and the delays are bounded but not necessary to

  11. Exponential stability of delayed Hopfield neural networks with various activation functions and polytopic uncertainties

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vu N. Phat; Phan T. Nam

    2010-01-01

    This Letter deals with the problem of exponential stability for a class of delayed Hopfield neural networks. Based on augmented parameter-dependent Lyapunov–Krasovskii functionals, new delay-dependent conditions for the global exponential stability are obtained for two cases of time-varying delays: the delays are differentiable and have an upper bound of the delay-derivatives, and the delays are bounded but not necessary to

  12. Modeling delay in genetic networks: From delay birth-death processes to delay stochastic differential equations

    E-print Network

    Chinmaya Gupta; José Manuel López; Robert Azencott; Matthew R Bennett; Krešimir Josi?; William Ott

    2014-01-12

    Delay is an important and ubiquitous aspect of many biochemical processes. For example, delay plays a central role in the dynamics of genetic regulatory networks as it stems from the sequential assembly of first mRNA and then protein. Genetic regulatory networks are therefore frequently modeled as stochastic birth-death processes with delay. Here we examine the relationship between delay birth-death processes and their appropriate approximating delay chemical Langevin equations. We prove that the distance between these two descriptions, as measured by expectations of functionals of the processes, converges to zero with increasing system size. Further, we prove that the delay birth-death process converges to the thermodynamic limit as system size tends to infinity. Our results hold for both fixed delay and distributed delay. Simulations demonstrate that the delay chemical Langevin approximation is accurate even at moderate system sizes. It captures dynamical features such as the spatial and temporal distributions of transition pathways in metastable systems, oscillatory behavior in negative feedback circuits, and cross-correlations between nodes in a network. Overall, these results provide a foundation for using delay stochastic differential equations to approximate the dynamics of birth-death processes with delay.

  13. DELAYED HYPERSENSITIVITY

    PubMed Central

    Uhr, Jonathan W.; Scharff, Matthew

    1960-01-01

    The capacity to develop the delayed type of hypersensitivity to diphtheria toxoid and ovalbumin may persist in guinea pigs and rabbits that have received doses of x-ray sufficient to eliminate a detectable antibody response. Larger doses of x-irradiation can prevent development of delayed-type hypersensitivity in rabbits. PMID:13779030

  14. Bound Propagation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Martijn A. R. Leisink; Hilbert J. Kappen

    2003-01-01

    Abstract: In this article we present an algorithm to compute bounds on the marginals of a graphical model. For several small clusters of nodes upper and lower bounds on the marginal values are computed independently of the rest of the network. The range of allowed probability distributions over the surrounding nodes is restricted using earlier computed bounds. As we will

  15. Minimum Delay Scheduling for Performance Guaranteed Switches With Optical Fabrics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bin Wu; Kwan L. Yeung; Pin-Han Ho; Xiaohong Jiang

    2009-01-01

    We consider traffic scheduling in performance guaranteed switches with optical fabrics to ensure 100% throughput and bounded packet delay. Each switch reconfiguration consumes a constant period of time called reconfiguration overhead, during which no packet can be transmitted across the switch. To minimize the packet delay bound for an arbitrary traffic matrix, the number of switch configurations in the schedule

  16. Multicast Routing with End-to-End Delay and Delay Variation Constraints

    Microsoft Academic Search

    George N. Rouskas; Ilia Baldine

    1996-01-01

    We study the problem of constructing multicast trees to meet the quality of service requirements of real-time interactive applications operating in high-speed packet-switched environments. In particular, we assume that multicast commu- nication depends on: 1) bounded delay along the paths from the source to each destination and 2) bounded variation among the delays along these paths. We first establish that

  17. Expectations, Life Expectancy, and Economic Behavior

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniel S. Hamermesh

    1985-01-01

    Unlike price expectations, which are central to macroeconomic theory and have been examined extensively using survey data, formation of individuals' horizons, which are central to the theory of life-cycle behavior, have been completely neglected. This is especially surprising since life expectancy of adults has increased especially rapidly in Western countries in the past ten years. This study presents the results

  18. Multi-Commodity Network Flows over Multipaths with Bounded Buffers

    E-print Network

    Anjali, Tricha

    engineering, lower delay, increased fault tolerance, and higher security are other compelling reasons buffers at the destination. Our model assumes a network with capacitated edges and a delay function at the network intermediate nodes and a bound on the maximum delay that the paths are allowed to have. We

  19. Delay-range-dependent robust H INFINITY control for uncertain systems with interval time-varying delays

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Huaicheng Yan; Hao Zhang; Max Q.-H. Meng

    2010-01-01

    This paper deals with the problem of delay-range-dependent robust H? control for uncertain systems with time-varying delays and norm-bounded parameter uncertainties. The time delay is assumed to be a time-varying continuous function belonging to a given range. Firstly, some new delay-range-dependent stability and stabilization criteria are proposed by exploiting a new Lyapunov–Krasovskii functional and by making use of novel techniques

  20. Inverse momentum expectation values for hydrogenic systems

    SciTech Connect

    Delbourgo, R.; Elliott, D. [School of Mathematics and Physics, University of Tasmania, Private Bag 37, GPO, Hobart, Tasmania 7001 (Australia)

    2009-06-15

    By using the Fourier transforms of the general hydrogenic bound state wave functions (as ultraspherical polynomials), one may find expectation values of arbitrary functions of momentum p. In this manner the effect of a reciprocity perturbation b/p can be evaluated for all hydrogenic states.

  1. Stability criteria for linear discrete-time systems with interval-like time-varying delay

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xiefu Jiang; Qing-Long Han; Xinghuo Yu

    2005-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the stability problem for a class of uncertain linear discrete-time systems with time-varying delay. The delay is of an interval-like type, which means that both lower and upper bounds for the time-varying delay are available. The uncertainty under consideration is norm-bounded uncertainty. Based on Lyapunov-Krasovskii functional approach, delay-dependent stability criteria are obtained using a sum

  2. Stability Analysis for Neural Networks With Time-Varying Interval Delay

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yong He; Guo-ping Liu; David Rees; Min Wu

    2007-01-01

    This letter is concerned with the stability analysis of neural networks (NNs) with time-varying interval delay. The relationship between the time-varying delay and its lower and upper bounds is taken into account when estimating the upper bound of the derivative of Lyapunov functional. As a result, some improved delay\\/interval-dependent stability criteria for NNs with time-varying interval delay are proposed. Numerical

  3. Delaying obsolescence.

    PubMed

    Lawlor, Rob

    2015-04-01

    This paper argues that those who emphasise that designers and engineers need to plan for obsolescence are too conservative. Rather, in addition to planning for obsolescence, designers and engineers should also think carefully about what they could do in order delay obsolescence. They should so this by thinking about the design itself, thinking of ways in which products could be useful and appealing for longer before becoming obsolete, as well thinking about the wider context in terms of the marketing of products, and also the social and legal. The paper also considers objections that these suggestions are unrealistically idealistic, failing to recognise the economic realities. I respond to these objections appealing to research in advertising, psychology, cognitive linguistics, philosophy, history, and economics, as well as drawing on the Statement of Ethical Principles developed by the Royal Academy of Engineering and the Engineering Council. PMID:24792878

  4. Outside the Expected.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dienstfrey, Harris

    1968-01-01

    In examining the findings of "Pygmalion in the Classroom," an experimental study of the positive effects of favorable teacher expectations on the intellectual development of disadvantaged elementary school students, this review speculates about why the experimental students, whom the teachers expected to improve, and the control students, who were…

  5. Upward Bound

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Aerospace Education, 1976

    1976-01-01

    Describes an Upward Bound program at Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University designed to assist disadvantaged high school juniors and seniors in overcoming academic deficiencies in order to enter and succeed in college. The Saturday program centered on various aspects of aviation, including career opportunities. (MLH)

  6. The Communication Expectations of College-Bound High School Students. An E-Expectations Trend Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noel-Levitz, Inc, 2012

    2012-01-01

    How do prospective college students want to communicate with campuses? When do they want to interact with their target colleges? Which communication methods make them feel most comfortable? Noel-Levitz, OmniUpdate, CollegeWeekLive, and NRCCUA[R] (National Research Center for College & University Admissions) conducted a survey of more than 1,300…

  7. Health expectancy indicators.

    PubMed Central

    Robine, J. M.; Romieu, I.; Cambois, E.

    1999-01-01

    An outline is presented of progress in the development of health expectancy indicators, which are growing in importance as a means of assessing the health status of populations and determining public health priorities. PMID:10083720

  8. The expectations trap hypothesis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lawrence J. Christiano; Christopher J. Gust

    2000-01-01

    The authors examine the inflation take-off of the early 1970s in terms of the expectations trap hypothesis, according to which fear of violating the public’s inflation expectations pushed the Fed into producing high inflation. This interpretation is compared with the Phillips curve hypothesis, according to which the Fed produced high inflation as the unfortunate byproduct of a conscious decision to

  9. Robust stability of singularly perturbed discrete-delay systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Trinh; I. Aldeen

    1995-01-01

    This paper presents new sufficient conditions for the robust stability of singularly perturbed discrete systems subjected to multiple delayed perturbations. For a given ε? [0, ε0], where ε0<ε*, a new criterion for finding the range of allowable bounds on the delayed perturbations is provided. A numerical example is given to illustrate the results

  10. Delay-dependent guaranteed cost control for uncertain discrete-time systems with both state and input delays

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wu-Hua Chen; Zhi-Hong Guan; Xiaomei Lu

    2004-01-01

    This paper considers the guaranteed cost control problem for a class of uncertain linear discrete-time systems with both state and input delays. By representing the time-delay system in the descriptor system form and using a recent result on bounding of cross products of vectors, we obtain new delay-dependent sufficient conditions for the existence of the guaranteed cost controller in terms

  11. Delay and its time-derivative dependent robust stability of time-delayed linear systems with uncertainty

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jin-Hoon Kim

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, we consider the robust stability of time-delayed linear systems with uncertainties. The uncertainties are time-varying and unknown but are norm-bounded, and the time-delay is time-varying. A sufficient condition is presented in the linear matrix inequality form which is dependent on the size of time-delay and on the size of time-derivative. Finally, we give two examples to compare

  12. Performance expectation plan

    SciTech Connect

    Ray, P.E.

    1998-09-04

    This document outlines the significant accomplishments of fiscal year 1998 for the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Project Hanford Management Contract (PHMC) team. Opportunities for improvement to better meet some performance expectations have been identified. The PHMC has performed at an excellent level in administration of leadership, planning, and technical direction. The contractor has met and made notable improvement of attaining customer satisfaction in mission execution. This document includes the team`s recommendation that the PHMC TWRS Performance Expectation Plan evaluation rating for fiscal year 1998 be an Excellent.

  13. Great Expectations. [Lesson Plan].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Devine, Kelley

    Based on Charles Dickens' novel "Great Expectations," this lesson plan presents activities designed to help students understand the differences between totalitarianism and democracy; and a that a writer of a story considers theme, plot, characters, setting, and point of view. The main activity of the lesson involves students working in groups to…

  14. Expectations of the System

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Terry Clarence L Sr

    2009-01-01

    Expectations of the System is a student-created film which details the findings of a participatory action research (PAR) project conducted in South Los Angeles. In the summer of 2008, a critical research team composed of seven high school-aged Black males and a mathematics education researcher (also a Black male) conducted qualitative and quantitative research to explore the incarceration and university

  15. Research on Teacher Expectations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Good, Thomas L.

    This paper reviews significant research findings from the past 10 years which demonstrate that teachers' attitudes, expectations, and behavior have significant practical effects on student achievement. Although causes of differential interaction are not definitely established, it is clear that many teachers vary sharply in their interaction…

  16. Heterogeneity in expected longevities.

    PubMed

    Pijoan-Mas, Josep; Ríos-Rull, José-Víctor

    2014-12-01

    We develop a new methodology to compute differences in the expected longevity of individuals of a given cohort who are in different socioeconomic groups at a certain age. We address the two main problems associated with the standard use of life expectancy: (1) that people's socioeconomic characteristics change, and (2) that mortality has decreased over time. Our methodology uncovers substantial heterogeneity in expected longevities, yet much less heterogeneity than what arises from the naive application of life expectancy formulae. We decompose the longevity differences into differences in health at age 50, differences in the evolution of health with age, and differences in mortality conditional on health. Remarkably, education, wealth, and income are health-protecting but have very little impact on two-year mortality rates conditional on health. Married people and nonsmokers, however, benefit directly in their immediate mortality. Finally, we document an increasing time trend of the socioeconomic gradient of longevity in the period 1992-2008, and we predict an increase in the socioeconomic gradient of mortality rates for the coming years. PMID:25391225

  17. Bounding Energy Consumption in Large-Scale MPI Programs

    E-print Network

    Funk, Shelby Hyatt

    measured by the product of energy-delay or energy-delay-squared [7]. However, all of these systems suffer, with an energy bound in hand, we now have a tool with which to evaluate practical run-time algorithms for HPC

  18. Y. SUN AND T. KAMEDA, 2006 1 Minimizing Average Startup Delay of Periodic

    E-print Network

    Kameda, Tsunehiko "Tiko"

    Y. SUN AND T. KAMEDA, 2006 1 Minimizing Average Startup Delay of Periodic VOD Broadcasting, starting at the mth slot boundary after tuning in. As m is increased, the maximum startup delay for Shifted Harmonic Windows schedules approaches the well-known general lower bound on the maximum startup delay, 1

  19. Queueing delay - error probability tradeoff for point-to-point channels with fixed length block codes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vineeth Bala Sukumaran; Utpal Mukherji

    2011-01-01

    We study the tradeoff between the average error probability and the average queueing delay of messages which randomly arrive to the transmitter of a point-to-point discrete memoryless channel that uses variable rate fixed codeword length random coding. Bounds to the exponential decay rate of the average error probability with average queueing delay in the regime of large average delay are

  20. Time-bounds for production networks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Glenn A. Gibson; John Y. Alawneh

    2006-01-01

    Lower and upper time bounds are established for completing a task using a system that can be structurally represented by a digraph in which the nodes are production components. Each component is assumed to execute a known number of operations and each operation is assumed to require a known delay. The algorithms presented provide a rapid means for computing an

  1. Worst case delay analysis for a wireless point-to-point transmission Katia Jaffr`es-Runser

    E-print Network

    Jaffrès-Runser, Katia

    -critical applications is still an open problem mainly because of the intrinsic non-deterministic na- ture a safe bound on the worst case transmission delay. This safe bound can be accounted for to check

  2. EXPECTED LEARNING OUTCOMESEXPECTED LEARNING OUTCOMES Expected Learning Outcome (definition)

    E-print Network

    Rock, Chris

    44 EXPECTED LEARNING OUTCOMESEXPECTED LEARNING OUTCOMES Expected Learning Outcome (definition) An expected learning outcome is a formal statement of what students are expected to learn in a course. Expected learning outcome statements refer to specific knowledge, practical skills, areas of professional

  3. Speech and Language Delay

    MedlinePLUS

    MENU Return to Web version Speech and Language Delay Overview How do I know if my child has speech delay? Every child develops at his or her ... of the same age, the problem may be speech delay. Your doctor may think your child has ...

  4. Delay Discounting and Gambling

    PubMed Central

    Madden, Gregory J.; Francisco, Monica T.; Brewer, Adam T.; Stein, Jeffrey S.

    2011-01-01

    Delay discounting describes the decline in the value of a reinforcer as the delay to that reinforcer increases. A review of the available studies revealed that steep delay discounting is positively correlated with problem or pathological gambling. One hypothesis regarding this correlation derives from the discounting equation proposed by Mazur (1989). According to the equation, steeper discounting renders the difference between fixed-delayed rewards and gambling-like variable-delayed rewards larger; with the latter being more valuable. The present study was designed to test this prediction by first assessing rats’ impulsive choices across four delays to a larger-later reinforcer. A second condition quantified strength of preference for mixed- over fixed-delays, with the duration of the latter adjusted between sessions to achieve indifference. Strength of preference for the mixed-delay alternative is given by the fixed delay at indifference (lower fixed-delay values reflect stronger preferences). Percent impulsive choice was not correlated with the value of the fixed delay at indifference and, therefore, the prediction of the hyperbolic model of gambling was not supported. A follow-up assessment revealed a significant decrease in impulsive choice after the second condition. This shift in impulsive choice could underlie the failure to observe the predicted correlation between impulsive choice and degree of preference for mixed- over fixed delays. PMID:21352902

  5. H ? filtering for discrete-time systems with time-varying delay

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wei Wang; Huanshui Zhang; Chunyan Han

    2010-01-01

    The problem of H\\u000a ? filtering for discrete-time systems with time-varying delay in measurement is investigated in this paper. First, under the\\u000a assumption that the time-varying delay is of a known upper bound, the delayed measurement is re-described as the one with\\u000a multiple state delays. Then the proposed H\\u000a ? filtering problem is transformed into one for systems with multiple

  6. Quantum Adversary (Upper) Bound

    E-print Network

    Kimmel, Shelby

    2011-01-01

    We propose a method for upper bounding the general adversary bound for certain boolean functions. Due to the the tightness of query complexity and the general adversary bound \\cite{Lee2010}, this gives an upper bound on the quantum query complexity of those functions. We give an example where this upper bound is smaller than the query complexity of any known quantum algorithm.

  7. Delayed ettringite formation — Processes and problems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Diamond

    1996-01-01

    The scope of the delayed ettringite formation (DEF) problem is reviewed. Based on the experience of the writer and others, DEF is to be expected in both steam cured and non-steam cured concrete. The microstructural details appear identical. The common association with alkalisilica reactions is explored, and explained in terms of both prior cracking providing space for ettringite and in

  8. A game theoretic approach for delay minimization in slotted aloha

    E-print Network

    A game theoretic approach for delay minimization in slotted aloha Eitan Altman1, Dhiman Barman2 probabilities in slotted ALOHA. Both the cooperative team problem as well as the noncooperative game problem probabilities and expected delays. analysis. I. INTRODUCTION Aloha [2] and slotted Aloha [7] have long been used

  9. On Time Delay Estimation using an FIR Filter

    E-print Network

    So, Hing-Cheung

    : hcso@ee.cityu.edu.hk June 3, 2012 Keywords : Least Squares Filtering, Time Delay Estimation, Bias] that this interpolator is biased for finite and the delay bias decreases as the filter length increases. In this paper(-). With the use of (4), squaring both sides of (3) and taking expectation yields {2 ()} = + 2 =- 2

  10. Medical Scholars (BS/MD) Program Expectations and Requirements

    E-print Network

    Fernandez, Eduardo

    Medical Scholars (BS/MD) Program Expectations and Requirements Undergraduate portion semester GPAs lower than 3.5 will trigger an automatic review by the Medical Scholars Committee of the Medical Scholars Committee, to delay their entry to medical school by one year to broaden their education

  11. What Do Expectant Mothers Know about Neonatal Jaundice?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ogunfowora, Olusoga B.; Adefuye, Peter O.; Fetuga, Musili B.

    2006-01-01

    Neonatal jaundice (NNJ) is a common disorder worldwide and many affected babies become brain-damaged due to delay in seeking medical consultation. In order to assess the awareness and knowledge of expectant mothers about NNJ, women who registered for antenatal care at a tertiary health facility in the South-western part of Nigeria were…

  12. Delay Sensitive Communications over Cognitive Radio Networks

    E-print Network

    Wang, Feng; Zhao, Yuping

    2012-01-01

    Supporting the quality of service of unlicensed users in cognitive radio networks is very challenging, mainly due to dynamic resource availability because of the licensed users' activities. In this paper, we study the optimal admission control and channel allocation decisions in cognitive overlay networks in order to support delay sensitive communications of unlicensed users. We formulate it as a Markov decision process problem, and solve it by transforming the original formulation into a stochastic shortest path problem. We then propose a simple heuristic control policy, which includes a threshold-based admission control scheme and and a largest-delay-first channel allocation scheme, and prove the optimality of the largest-delay-first channel allocation scheme. We further propose an improved policy using the rollout algorithm. By comparing the performance of both proposed policies with the upper-bound of the maximum revenue, we show that our policies achieve close-to-optimal performance with low complexities...

  13. New standard exceeds expectations

    SciTech Connect

    Bennett, M.J. (Environmental Data Resources Inc., Southport, CT (United States))

    1993-08-01

    The new ASTM environmental due diligence standard is delivering far more than expected when it was conceived in 1990. Its use goes well beyond the relatively narrow legal liability protection that was the primary goal in its development. The real estate industry, spearheaded by the lending community, was preoccupied with environmental risk and liability. Lenders throughout the concept's evolution have been at the forefront in defining environmental due diligence. The lender liability rule is intended to protect property owners from CERCLA liability for property they own or companies they manage (for example, as a result of foreclosure). The new site assessment standard increasingly is considered a benchmark for prudent environmental due diligence in the interest of risk management, not legal liability. The focus on risk management, including collateral devaluation and corporate credit risk, are becoming dominant areas of policy focus in the lending industry. Lenders now are revising their policies to incorporate transactions beyond issues of real estate, in which a company's economic viability and ability to service debt could be impacted by an environmental problem unrelated to property transfers.

  14. Understanding bandwidth-delay product in mobile ad hoc networks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kai Chen; Yuan Xue; Samarth H. Shah; Klara Nahrstedt

    2004-01-01

    Bandwidth-delay product (BDP) and its upper bound (BDP-UB) have been well-understood in wireline networks such as the Internet. However, they have not been carefully studied in the multi-hop wireless ad hoc network (MANET) domain. In this paper, we show that the most significant difference of computing BDP and BDP-UB in MANET is the coupling of bandwidth and delay over a

  15. Expecting the Best for Students: Teacher Expectations and Academic Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubie-Davies, Christine; Hattie, John; Hamilton, Richard

    2006-01-01

    Background: Research into teacher expectations has shown that these have an effect on student achievement. Some researchers have explored the impact of various student characteristics on teachers' expectations. One attribute of interest is ethnicity. Aims: This study aimed to explore differences in teachers' expectations and judgments of student…

  16. Adaptive robust control schemes of uncertain time-delay systems and its applications to water pollution control systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hansheng Wu

    2011-01-01

    The problem of adaptive robust stabilization is considered for a class of uncertain nonlinear time-delay dynamical systems. It is assumed that the upper bound of the nonlinear delayed state perturbations is a linear function of some parameters which are assumed to be unknown. It is also assumed that the time delays are time-varying, and can be any nonnegative continuous and

  17. Dynamical Discrete-Time Load Balancing in Distributed Systems in the Presence of Time Delays

    E-print Network

    Hayat, Majeed M.

    Dynamical Discrete-Time Load Balancing in Distributed Systems in the Presence of Time Delays S distant CEs inherently involve time delays. Consequently, the information that a particular node has about. Such time-delay factors can seriously alter the expected performance of load balancing policies designed

  18. The use of delay in multitrack production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Case, Alexander U.

    2003-04-01

    Delay, inevitable whenever sound propagates through space, is too often the bane of the acoustician's practice. An audible echo generally relegates a music performance hall-no matter how beautiful it otherwise might sound-to the lowest status. Multitrack music production on the other hand, with its aggressive use of overdubbing, editing, and signal processing, is not bound by those rules of time and space which determine the sound of a hall. In the recording studio, where music is synthesized for playback over loudspeakers, the delay is employed as a powerful, multipurpose tool. It is not avoided. It is in fact embraced. Echoes are used on purpose, strategically, to enhance the loudspeaker listening experience. Moreover, the humble delay is the basis for many nonecho effects. Flanging, chorus, and pitch shifting are delay-based effects regularly used in audio engineering practice. This paper discusses some of the more common delay-based effects, reviewing their technical structure, the psychoacoustic motivation behind them, and the musical value they create.

  19. Delay-Dependent Robust H? Filtering for Uncertain Discrete-Time Systems With Time-Varying Delay Based on a Finite Sum Inequality

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xian-Ming Zhang; Qing-Long Han

    2006-01-01

    This brief is concerned with delay-dependent robust Hinfin filtering for uncertain discrete-time systems with time-varying delay. The uncertainty is of convex polytopic type. By establishing a finite sum inequality based on quadratic terms, a new delay-dependent bounded real lemma (BRL) is derived. In combination with a parameter-dependent Lyapunov-Krasovskii functional, which allows the Lyapunov-Krasovskii matrices to be vertex dependent, the obtained

  20. Design of robust controllers for time-delay systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Magdi S. Mahmoud; Naser F. AI-Muthairi

    1994-01-01

    The problem of stabilizing linear dynamical time-delay systems subject to bounded uncertainties is investigated. Two memoryless feedback controllers are considered. It is established that when the matching conditions are met and certain bounding relations are satisfied, then the linear controller renders the zero-response of the system asymptotically stable. Saturation-type controllers are shown to guarantee that all system responses are uniformly

  1. Strong expectations cancel locality effects: evidence from Hindi.

    PubMed

    Husain, Samar; Vasishth, Shravan; Srinivasan, Narayanan

    2014-01-01

    Expectation-driven facilitation (Hale, 2001; Levy, 2008) and locality-driven retrieval difficulty (Gibson, 1998, 2000; Lewis & Vasishth, 2005) are widely recognized to be two critical factors in incremental sentence processing; there is accumulating evidence that both can influence processing difficulty. However, it is unclear whether and how expectations and memory interact. We first confirm a key prediction of the expectation account: a Hindi self-paced reading study shows that when an expectation for an upcoming part of speech is dashed, building a rarer structure consumes more processing time than building a less rare structure. This is a strong validation of the expectation-based account. In a second study, we show that when expectation is strong, i.e., when a particular verb is predicted, strong facilitation effects are seen when the appearance of the verb is delayed; however, when expectation is weak, i.e., when only the part of speech "verb" is predicted but a particular verb is not predicted, the facilitation disappears and a tendency towards a locality effect is seen. The interaction seen between expectation strength and distance shows that strong expectations cancel locality effects, and that weak expectations allow locality effects to emerge. PMID:25010700

  2. Bounded-Latency Alerts in Vehicular Networks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Mangharam; R. Rajkumar; P. Mudalige; F. Bai

    2007-01-01

    Vehicle-to-vehicle communication protocols may be broadly classified into in three categories; bounded-delay safety alerts, persistent traffic warnings and streaming media for telematics applications. We focus on the first category of time-critical messaging as is it of greatest value to the driver and passengers. Safety alerts are transmitted from a vehicle during events such as loss of traction, sudden braking and

  3. Digital time delay

    DOEpatents

    Martin, A.D.

    1986-05-09

    Method and apparatus are provided for generating an output pulse following a trigger pulse at a time delay interval preset with a resolution which is high relative to a low resolution available from supplied clock pulses. A first lumped constant delay provides a first output signal at predetermined interpolation intervals corresponding to the desired high resolution time interval. Latching circuits latch the high resolution data to form a first synchronizing data set. A selected time interval has been preset to internal counters and corrected for circuit propagation delay times having the same order of magnitude as the desired high resolution. Internal system clock pulses count down the counters to generate an internal pulse delayed by an internal which is functionally related to the preset time interval. A second LCD corrects the internal signal with the high resolution time delay. A second internal pulse is then applied to a third LCD to generate a second set of synchronizing data which is complementary with the first set of synchronizing data for presentation to logic circuits. The logic circuits further delay the internal output signal with the internal pulses. The final delayed output signal thereafter enables the output pulse generator to produce the desired output pulse at the preset time delay interval following input of the trigger pulse.

  4. Expected heights in heaps Jeannette M. de Graaf and Walter A. Kosters

    E-print Network

    Kosters, Walter

    Expected heights in heaps Jeannette M. de Graaf and Walter A. Kosters Department of Mathematics logarithmic, for the expected height of a node in a heap. These bounds are of interest for algorithms that select the kth smallest element in a heap. CR categories: E.1, F.2.2, G.2.1. Keywords: expected height

  5. Delay Management in Delay Tolerant Network

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Qunwei Zheng; Xiaoyan Hong; Pu Wang; Lei Tang; Jun Liu

    SUMMARY In delay tolerant networks (DTN), nodes explore various opportunities to connect and communicate with each other. A series of encounters of different nodes will create such opportunities and spread a message among many nodes and eventually deliver to the designated destination. We study one common DTN scenario where the message exchanges happen when nodes meet others at certain locations.

  6. Memoryless H ? Controllers for Discrete-Time Systems with Time Delay

    Microsoft Academic Search

    VIKRAM KAPILA; WASSIM M. HADDAD

    1998-01-01

    This paper considers the problem of H? stabilization of discrete-time systems with state delays and exogenous bounded-energy l2 disturbances. Specifically, an H? state feedback control design problem for discrete-time systems with time delay is addressed. The principal result involves sufficient conditions in terms of a modified Riccati equation for characterizing state feedback controllers that enforce a bound on H? performance

  7. ROBUST CONTROL FOR A CLASS OF UNCERTAIN STATE-DELAYED SINGULARLY PERTURBED SYSTEMS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. R. Karimi; M. J. Yazdanpanah

    2005-01-01

    This paper considers the problem of robust control for a class of uncer- tain state-delayed singularly perturbed systems with norm-bounded nonlin- ear uncertainties. The system under consideration involves state time-delay and norm-bounded nonlinear uncertainties in the slow state variable. It is shown that the state feedback gain matrices can be determined to guarantee the stability of the closed-loop system for

  8. DAU StatRefresher: Expectations

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This interactive tutorial on expectations helps students understand the concept of expectations, recognize and use variance and standard deviation, understand the method of moments, recognize and use co-variance, and solve exercise problems using expectations. Each component has its own explanation, demonstration and quiz questions. At the end, there is a series of questions to test the students full understanding of the concepts covered.

  9. TIME DELAY AND ACCRETION DISK SIZE MEASUREMENTS IN THE LENSED QUASAR SBS 0909+532 FROM MULTIWAVELENGTH MICROLENSING ANALYSIS

    SciTech Connect

    Hainline, Laura J.; Morgan, Christopher W.; MacLeod, Chelsea L.; Landaal, Zachary D. [Department of Physics, United States Naval Academy, 572C Holloway Rd, Annapolis, MD 21402 (United States); Kochanek, C. S. [Department of Astronomy, The Ohio State University, 140 West 18th Ave, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Harris, Hugh C.; Tilleman, Trudy [United States Naval Observatory, Flagstaff Station, 10391 West Naval Observatory Road, Flagstaff, AZ 86001-8521 (United States); Goicoechea, L. J.; Shalyapin, V. N. [Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Cantabria, Avda. de Los Castros s/n, E-39005 Santander (Spain); Falco, Emilio E., E-mail: hainline@usna.edu, E-mail: cmorgan@usna.edu, E-mail: macleod@usna.edu, E-mail: m123894@usna.edu, E-mail: ckochanek@astronomy.ohio-state.edu, E-mail: hch@nofs.navy.mil, E-mail: trudy@nofs.navy.mil, E-mail: goicol@unican.es, E-mail: vshal@ukr.net, E-mail: falco@cfa.harvard.edu [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden St, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2013-09-01

    We present three complete seasons and two half-seasons of Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) r-band photometry of the gravitationally lensed quasar SBS 0909+532 from the U.S. Naval Observatory, as well as two seasons each of SDSS g-band and r-band monitoring from the Liverpool Robotic Telescope. Using Monte Carlo simulations to simultaneously measure the system's time delay and model the r-band microlensing variability, we confirm and significantly refine the precision of the system's time delay to {Delta}t{sub AB} = 50{sub -4}{sup +2} days, where the stated uncertainties represent the bounds of the formal 1{sigma} confidence interval. There may be a conflict between the time delay measurement and a lens consisting of a single galaxy. While models based on the Hubble Space Telescope astrometry and a relatively compact stellar distribution can reproduce the observed delay, the models have somewhat less dark matter than we would typically expect. We also carry out a joint analysis of the microlensing variability in the r and g bands to constrain the size of the quasar's continuum source at these wavelengths, obtaining log {l_brace}(r{sub s,r}/cm)[cos i/0.5]{sup 1/2}{r_brace} = 15.3 {+-} 0.3 and log {l_brace}(r{sub s,g}/cm)[cos i/0.5]{sup 1/2}{r_brace} = 14.8 {+-} 0.9, respectively. Our current results do not formally constrain the temperature profile of the accretion disk but are consistent with the expectations of standard thin disk theory.

  10. Expectancy bias in anxious samples

    PubMed Central

    Cabeleira, Cindy M.; Steinman, Shari A.; Burgess, Melissa M.; Bucks, Romola S.; MacLeod, Colin; Melo, Wilson; Teachman, Bethany A.

    2014-01-01

    While it is well documented that anxious individuals have negative expectations about the future, it is unclear what cognitive processes give rise to this expectancy bias. Two studies are reported that use the Expectancy Task, which is designed to assess expectancy bias and illuminate its basis. This task presents individuals with valenced scenarios (Positive Valence, Negative Valence, or Conflicting Valence), and then evaluates their tendency to expect subsequent future positive relative to negative events. The Expectancy Task was used with low and high trait anxious (Study 1: N = 32) and anxiety sensitive (Study 2: N = 138) individuals. Results suggest that in the context of physical concerns, both high anxious samples display a less positive expectancy bias. In the context of social concerns, high trait anxious individuals display a negative expectancy bias only when negatively valenced information was previously presented. Overall, this suggests that anxious individuals display a less positive expectancy bias, and that the processes that give rise to this bias may vary by type of situation (e.g., social or physical) or anxiety difficulty. PMID:24798678

  11. Robust Stability of Singularly Perturbed Systems with State Delays

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Li-Li Liu; Ji-Gen Peng; Bao-Wei Wu

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, robust stability of uncertain singularly perturbed systems with state delays is studied. Based on Lyapunov-Krasovskii stability theorem and linear matrix inequality (LMI) technique, sufficient conditions are given to guarantee that systems are asymptotically stable, and explicit stability bounds are attained by solving convex optimization problem. Numerical example is presented to show the application of the proposed techniques.

  12. Time-delay simulation analysis of local controller networks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nikolay Kakanakov; Mitko Shopov; Grisha Spasov

    2008-01-01

    In this paper simulation and analytical results for delay bounding and buffer size in switched Ethernet network are presented. Most of the calculations are made for the environment of Distributed Automation Systems where timing constraints are important. The traffic for the tests is from combined type -- periodic constant bit rate and stochastic with Poisson distribution. The traffic mixture is

  13. Energy-Delay Trade-off of Wireless Data Collection in the Plane

    E-print Network

    Boucherie, Richard J.

    Energy-Delay Trade-off of Wireless Data Collection in the Plane Mihaela Mitici , Jasper Goseling and the energy needed by the devices to transmit their observations. Fundamental bounds on the energy-delay trade and ii) the transmission energy used by the wireless devices to transmit their observations, which

  14. Design and Analysis of a High-Performance Packet Multiplexer for Multiservice Networks with Delay

    E-print Network

    Liebeherr, Jörg

    Design and Analysis of a High-Performance Packet Multiplexer for Multiservice Networks with Delay of a bounded delay service is the packet multiplexing technique employed at network switches that must keep of network resources, the multiplexing technique must be su ciently sophisticated to support a variable set

  15. Novel Classes of Minimal Delay and Low PAPR Rate 1øver 2 Complex Orthogonal Designs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sarah Spence Adams; James A. Davis; Nathaniel Karst; Mathav Kishore Murugan; Bryce Lee; Matthew Crawford; Caitlin Greeley

    2011-01-01

    Complex orthogonal designs (CODs) of rate 1\\/2 have been considered recently for use in analog transmissions and as an alternative to maximum rate CODs due to the savings in decoding delay as the number of antennas increases. While algorithms have been developed to show that an upper bound on the minimum de- coding delay for rate 1\\/2 CODs with or

  16. Global Synchronization Control of General Delayed Discrete-Time Networks With Stochastic Coupling and Disturbances

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jinling Liang; Zidong Wang; Yurong Liu; Xiaohui Liu

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, the synchronization control problem is considered for two coupled discrete-time complex networks with time delays. The network under investigation is quite general to reflect the reality, where the state delays are allowed to be time varying with given lower and upper bounds, and the stochastic disturbances are assumed to be Brownian motions that affect not only the

  17. Delay in Atomic Photoionization

    SciTech Connect

    Kheifets, A. S. [Research School of Physical Sciences, Australian National University, Canberra ACT 0200 (Australia); Kavli Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106-4030 (United States); Ivanov, I. A. [Research School of Physical Sciences, Australian National University, Canberra ACT 0200 (Australia)

    2010-12-03

    We analyze the time delay between emission of photoelectrons from the outer valence ns and np subshells in noble gas atoms following absorption of an attosecond extreme ultraviolet pulse. Various processes such as elastic scattering of the photoelectron on the parent ion and many-electron correlation affect the apparent 'time zero' when the photoelectron leaves the atom. This qualitatively explains the time delay between photoemission from the 2s and 2p subshells of Ne as determined experimentally by attosecond streaking [Science 328, 1658 (2010)]. However, with our extensive numerical modeling, we were only able to account for less than half of the measured time delay of 21{+-}5 as. We argue that the extreme ultraviolet pulse alone cannot produce such a large time delay and it is the streaking IR field that is most likely responsible for this effect.

  18. Stability of adaptive cruise control systems taking account of vehicle response time and delay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, L. C.

    2012-08-01

    The region of string stability of a platoon of adaptive cruise control vehicles, taking into account the delay and response of the vehicle powertrain, is found. An upper bound on the explicit delay time as a function the first-order powertrain response time constant is determined. The system is characterized by a headway time constant, a sensitivity parameter, relative (to the vehicle immediately in front) velocity control, and delayed-velocity feedback or acceleration feedback.

  19. Time delay for the Dirac equation

    E-print Network

    Ivan Naumkin; Ricardo Weder

    2015-06-26

    We consider time delay for the Dirac equation. A new method to calculate the asymptotics of the expectation values of the operator $\\int\\limits_{0} ^{\\infty}e^{iH_{0}t}\\zeta\\left( \\frac{\\left\\vert x\\right\\vert }{R}\\right) e^{-iH_{0}t}dt,$ as $R\\rightarrow\\infty,$ is presented. Here $H_{0}$ is the free Dirac operator and $\\zeta\\left( t\\right) $ is such that $\\zeta\\left( t\\right) =1$ for $0\\leq t\\leq1$ and $\\zeta\\left( t\\right) =0$ for $t>1.$ This approach allows us to obtain the time delay operator $\\delta \\mathcal{T}\\left( f\\right) $ for initial states $f$ in $\\mathcal{H} _{2}^{3/2+\\varepsilon}\\left( \\mathbb{R}^{3};\\mathbb{C}^{4}\\right) ,$ $\\varepsilon>0,$ the Sobolev space of order $3/2+\\varepsilon$ and weight $2.$ The relation between the time delay operator $\\delta\\mathcal{T}\\left( f\\right) $ and the Eisenbud-Wigner time delay operator is given. Also, the relation between the averaged time delay and the spectral shift function is presented.

  20. Time delay spectrum conditioner

    DOEpatents

    Greiner, Norman R. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1980-01-01

    A device for delaying specified frequencies of a multiple frequency laser beam. The device separates the multiple frequency beam into a series of spatially separated single frequency beams. The propagation distance of the single frequency beam is subsequently altered to provide the desired delay for each specific frequency. Focusing reflectors can be utilized to provide a simple but nonadjustable system or, flat reflectors with collimating and focusing optics can be utilized to provide an adjustable system.

  1. Microsecond Parametric Optical Delays

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nikola Alic; E. Myslivets; S. Moro; B. P.-P. Kuo; Robert M. Jopson; Colin J. McKinstrie; Stojan Radic

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we present the first wavelength-preserving, tunable all-optical delay lines surpassing the microsecond range. Experimental demonstrations with 10-Gb\\/s data streams, tunable over 1.83 ??s, as well as 40-Gb\\/s data tunable over 1.56 ??s, characterized by a record delay-bandwidth product of 78 000, are presented and analyzed in detail.

  2. Well, What Do You Expect?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schleper, David R.

    1995-01-01

    Setting low standards and expectations for the language achievement of students with deafness or hearing impairments results in a self-fulfilling prophecy. A whole-language approach is based on a philosophy of high expectations and recognizes differences among students as factors that add richness to the exploration of language. (JDD)

  3. Delayed voice communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Love, Stanley G.; Reagan, Marcum L.

    2013-10-01

    We present results from simulated deep-space exploration missions that investigated voice communication with significant time delays. The simulations identified many challenges: confusion of sequence, blocked calls, wasted crew time, impaired ability to provide relevant information to the other party, losing track of which messages have reached the other party, weakened rapport between crew and ground, slow response to rapidly changing situations, and reduced situational awareness. These challenges were met in part with additional training; greater attention and foresight; longer, less frequent transmissions; meticulous recordkeeping and timekeeping; and specific alerting and acknowledging calls. Several simulations used both delayed voice and text messaging. Text messaging provided a valuable record of transmissions and allowed messages to be targeted to subsets of the flight and ground crew, but it was a poor choice for high-workload operators such as vehicle drivers and spacewalkers. Even with the foregoing countermeasures, delayed voice communication is difficult. Additional aids such as automatic delay timers and voice-to-text transcription would help. Tests comparing delays of 50 and 300 s unexpectedly revealed that communicating with the shorter delay was just as challenging as with the longer one.

  4. Fitted Elmore delay: a simple and accurate interconnect delay model

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Arif Ishaq Abou-seido; Brian Nowak; Chris Chong-nuen Chu

    2004-01-01

    In this brief, we present a new interconnect delay model called fitted Elmore delay (FED). FED is generated by approximating HSPICE delay data using a curve fitting technique. The functional form used in curve fitting is derived based on the Elmore delay (ED) model. Thus, our model has all the advantages of the ED model. It has a closed-form expression

  5. Delay Range Stability of distributed time delay Frederic Gouaisbaut

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Delay Range Stability of distributed time delay systems Fr´ed´eric Gouaisbaut and Yassine Ariba method. 1 Introduction Since several decades, the problem of time delay stability have received a lot distributed delay systems. We focus to the case where the kernel can be modelled as a polynomial function

  6. DELAY-DEPENDENT ROBUST STABILITY OF TIME DELAY SYSTEMS

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    DELAY-DEPENDENT ROBUST STABILITY OF TIME DELAY SYSTEMS Fr´ed´eric Gouaisbaut Dimitri Peaucelle for a linear time delay system. This technique is based on the reformulation of the original system are provided which show the effectiveness of the proposed conditions. Keywords: Linear time delay systems

  7. Downhole delay assembly for blasting with series delay

    DOEpatents

    Ricketts, Thomas E. (Grand Junction, CO)

    1982-01-01

    A downhole delay assembly is provided which can be placed into a blasthole for initiation of explosive in the blasthole. The downhole delay assembly includes at least two detonating time delay devices in series in order to effect a time delay of longer than about 200 milliseconds in a round of explosions. The downhole delay assembly provides a protective housing to prevent detonation of explosive in the blasthole in response to the detonation of the first detonating time delay device. There is further provided a connection between the first and second time delay devices. The connection is responsive to the detonation of the first detonating time delay device and initiates the second detonating time delay device. A plurality of such downhole delay assemblies are placed downhole in unfragmented formation and are initiated simultaneously for providing a round of explosive expansions. The explosive expansions can be used to form an in situ oil shale retort containing a fragmented permeable mass of formation particles.

  8. Rate processes in a delayed, stochastically driven, and overdamped system

    PubMed

    Guillouzic; L'Heureux; Longtin

    2000-05-01

    A Fokker-Planck formulation of systems described by stochastic delay differential equations has been recently proposed. A separation of time scales approximation allowing this Fokker-Planck equation to be simplified in the case of multistable systems is hereby introduced, and applied to a system consisting of a particle coupled to a delayed quartic potential. In that approximation, population numbers in each well obey a phenomenological rate law. The corresponding transition rate is expressed in terms of the noise variance and the steady-state probability density. The same type of expression is also obtained for the mean first passage time from a given point to another one. The steady-state probability density appearing in these formulas is determined both from simulations and from a small delay expansion. The results support the validity of the separation of time scales approximation. However, the results obtained using a numerically determined steady-state probability are more accurate than those obtained using the small delay expansion, thereby stressing the high sensitivity of the transition rate and mean first passage time to the shape of the steady-state probability density. Simulation results also indicate that the transition rate and the mean first passage time both follow Arrhenius' law when the noise variance is small, even if the delay is large. Finally, deterministic unbounded solutions are found to coexist with the bounded ones. In the presence of noise, the transition rate from bounded to unbounded solutions increases with the delay. PMID:11031533

  9. Lightweight scheduling for delay and bandwidth assurance in differentiated services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Jitae; Lee, Daniel C.; Kuo, C.-C. Jay

    1999-11-01

    To overcome the inherent limitation of the single best- effort service currently provided the Internet, providing differentiated services for different classes of applications is being discussed in IETF. In this paper, we propose a lightweight packet scheduling algorithm that allocates forwarding resources to different classes, which we name controlled priority (CP) gateway algorithm. The proposed CP algorithm consists of two mechanisms denoted by CP-CQD (controllable queuing delay) and CP-STI (service time interval), respectively. CP-CQD controls the queuing delay for a class of delay/jitter-sensitive traffic. CP-STI is to service classes that require bandwidth assurance. The proposed algorithm can provide guaranteed bounds of delay, jitter, rate, and packet loss to certain aggregate flows. The CP-CQD can accommodate variable bit rate as well as constant bit rate flow without bandwidth reservation for end-to-end delay bound and minimum delay jitter. The CP-STI enables tagged classes to get guaranteed throughput. These two modules can control resources allocated to the traffic classes by adjusting parameters in response to local congestion level. The simulation results show that CP gateway algorithm can provide required quality of service to certain classes while easing the negative effects on best- effort classes.

  10. Interaction of memories and expectancies as mediators of choice behavior.

    PubMed

    Linwick, D; Overmier, J B; Peterson, G B; Mertens, M

    1988-01-01

    The interaction of food-based memories and food-event outcome expectancies in pigeons was assessed using a simultaneous, delayed-symbolic-matching-to-sample procedure. The components of the compound sample were presented in sequence, and consisted of a food-based event (food or no-food) followed by a color cue (red or green). Choice of a pattern of horizontal lines was "correct" following presentation of the red cue, while choice of a vertical line pattern was "correct" after green. In all but a control condition, the food-based event with which a trial began, or the food-event outcome with which a trial concluded, or both, were also correlated with the correct pattern. Of particular interest was the relative accuracy of two groups for whom both memories and expectancies were correlated with the correct choice-pattern. For one group, the memories and expectancies corresponding to the pre- and postchoice food-related events were similar, whereas for the other they were dissimilar. Outcome expectancies supported a higher level of performance than food-based memories, and subjects with both outcome expectancies and food-based memories chose more accurately than those with memories or expectancies only. In addition, subjects with dissimilar food-based memories and outcome expectancies chose more accurately than those with similar memories and expectancies. The implications of the above findings for the nature of event representation in pigeons are discussed. PMID:3177698

  11. Delayed enrollment and College Plans: is There a Postponement Penalty?

    PubMed Central

    Niu, Sunny; Tienda, Marta

    2012-01-01

    Using a representative longitudinal survey of Texas high school seniors who graduated in 2002, we investigate how college postponement is associated with four-year college expectations and attendance—focusing both on the length of delay and the pathway to the postsecondary system. Like prior studies, we show that family background and student academic achievement explains the negative association between delay and college expectations and that these factors, along with two-year college entry pathway, largely accounted for the negative association between postponement and enrollment at a four-year institution in 2006. Although delays of one year or longer are associated with significantly lower odds of attending a baccalaureate-granting institution four years after high school, the longest delays do not incur the most severe enrollment penalties. PMID:23606758

  12. Thermalization time bounds for Pauli stabilizer Hamiltonians

    E-print Network

    Kristan Temme

    2014-12-09

    We prove a general lower bound to the spectral gap of the Davies generator for Pauli stabilizer Hamiltonians. These Hamiltonians, defined on the Hilbert space of $N$-qubits, serve as one of the most frequently considered candidates for a self-correcting quantum memory. A spectral gap bound on the Davies generator establishes an upper limit on the life time of such a quantum memory and can be used to estimate the time until the system relaxes to thermal equilibrium when brought into contact with a thermal heat bath. The bound can be shown to behave as $\\lambda \\geq {\\cal O}(N^{-1}\\exp(-2\\beta \\, \\overline{\\epsilon}))$, where $\\overline{\\epsilon}$ is a generalization of the well known energy barrier for logical operators. Particularly in the low temperature regime we expect this bound to provide the correct asymptotic scaling of the gap with the system size up to a factor of $N^{-1}$.

  13. Programmable fiber optic delay line

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gary A. Ball; W. H. Glenn; W. W. Morey

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes a novel programmable delay line that generates up to 50 ns of true time-delay in discrete 10 ns intervals. The delay line consists of an externally modulated wavelength tunable fiber laser and a six-element wavelength multiplexed fiber Bragg grating array, with the grating spacing set to yield the desired delay

  14. Attrition in Distributed Delay Models

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John Vansickle

    1977-01-01

    Distributed time delay models are extended to deal with loss of entities from within the process being modeled. Analysis of a time-invariant distributed delay shows that the statistics of individual transit times through a delay process can be very sensitive to attrition incurred during the delay.

  15. A secure incentive scheme for delay tolerant networks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Haojin Zhu; Xiaodong Lin; Rongxing Lu; Xuemin Shen

    2008-01-01

    Delay tolerant networks (DTNs) provide a promising solution to support delay tolerant applications in areas where end-to-end network connectivity is not available. In DTNs, the intermediate nodes on a communication path are expected to store, carry and forward the in-transit messages (bundles) in an opportunistic way, which is also named as opportunistic data forwarding. Opportunistic data forwarding depends on the

  16. Externalities, expectations, and Pigouvian taxes

    SciTech Connect

    Cornes, R.; Sandler, T.

    1985-03-01

    This article derives Pigouvian-type corrective measures for reciprocal externalities when non-Nash behavior characterizes the participants. These reciprocal externalities may involve various kinds of environmental pollutants, such as acid rain. A comparison between corrective measures for Nash and non-Nash behavior demonstrates that positive conjectures, regarding the other agent's externality-generating activity, have an expectation-internalizing influence that usually reduces the required corrective measures. Negative conjectures (e.g., free-riding expectations), however, have an expectation-externalizing effect that increases the required corrective measures. The article analyzes both two-person and n-person externalities. 13 references, 3 figures, 1 table.

  17. Precise estimation of tropospheric path delays with GPS techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lichten, S. M.

    1990-01-01

    Tropospheric path delays are a major source of error in deep space tracking. However, the tropospheric-induced delay at tracking sites can be calibrated using measurements of Global Positioning System (GPS) satellites. A series of experiments has demonstrated the high sensitivity of GPS to tropospheric delays. A variety of tests and comparisons indicates that current accuracy of the GPS zenith tropospheric delay estimates is better than 1-cm root-mean-square over many hours, sampled continuously at intervals of six minutes. These results are consistent with expectations from covariance analyses. The covariance analyses also indicate that by the mid-1990s, when the GPS constellation is complete and the Deep Space Network is equipped with advanced GPS receivers, zenith tropospheric delay accuracy with GPS will improve further to 0.5 cm or better.

  18. Delay Tracking of Spread-Spectrum Signals for Indoor Optical Ranging

    PubMed Central

    Salido-Monzú, David; Martín-Gorostiza, Ernesto; Lázaro-Galilea, José Luis; Martos-Naya, Eduardo; Wieser, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Delay tracking of spread-spectrum signals is widely used for ranging in radio frequency based navigation. Its use in non-coherent optical ranging, however, has not been extensively studied since optical channels are less subject to narrowband interference situations where these techniques become more useful. In this work, an early-late delay-locked loop adapted to indoor optical ranging is presented and analyzed. The specific constraints of free-space infrared channels in this context substantially differ from those typically considered in radio frequency applications. The tracking stage is part of an infrared differential range measuring system with application to mobile target indoor localization. Spread-spectrum signals are used in this context to provide accurate ranging while reducing the effect of multipath interferences. The performance of the stage regarding noise and dynamic errors is analyzed and validated, providing expressions that allow an adequate selection of the design parameters depending on the expected input signal characteristics. The behavior of the stage in a general multipath scenario is also addressed to estimate the multipath error bounds. The results, evaluated under realistic conditions corresponding to an 870 nm link with 25 MHz chip-rate, built with low-cost up-to-date devices, show that an overall error below 6% of a chip time can be achieved. PMID:25490585

  19. Delay tracking of spread-spectrum signals for indoor optical ranging.

    PubMed

    Salido-Monzú, David; Martín-Gorostiza, Ernesto; Lázaro-Galilea, José Luis; Martos-Naya, Eduardo; Wieser, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Delay tracking of spread-spectrum signals is widely used for ranging in radio frequency based navigation. Its use in non-coherent optical ranging, however, has not been extensively studied since optical channels are less subject to narrowband interference situations where these techniques become more useful. In this work, an early-late delay-locked loop adapted to indoor optical ranging is presented and analyzed. The specific constraints of free-space infrared channels in this context substantially differ from those typically considered in radio frequency applications. The tracking stage is part of an infrared differential range measuring system with application to mobile target indoor localization. Spread-spectrum signals are used in this context to provide accurate ranging while reducing the effect of multipath interferences. The performance of the stage regarding noise and dynamic errors is analyzed and validated, providing expressions that allow an adequate selection of the design parameters depending on the expected input signal characteristics. The behavior of the stage in a general multipath scenario is also addressed to estimate the multipath error bounds. The results, evaluated under realistic conditions corresponding to an 870 nm link with 25 MHz chip-rate, built with low-cost up-to-date devices, show that an overall error below 6% of a chip time can be achieved. PMID:25490585

  20. EXPECTATIONS: POINTESTIMATES, PROBABILITY DISTRIBUTIONS, CONFIDENCE,

    E-print Network

    Chen, Yiling

    EXPECTATIONS: POINTESTIMATES, PROBABILITY DISTRIBUTIONS, CONFIDENCE, AND FORECASTS* David and probability distributions from nonexperts. As in the previous literature, respondents are overconfident. My captures "bestestimate" pointestimates and then probability distributions from nonexperts on upcoming

  1. Optically controlled true time delays for phased array antenna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dolfi, D.; Huignard, J.-P.; Baril, M.

    1989-09-01

    An architecture for optically controlled phased-array antennas is presented; it provides the possibility of true-time delay beamforming by employing reflective spatial light modulators (SLMs). An acoustooptic Bragg cell is used as a frequency shifter for the heterodyne generation of the microwave signal. The inherent properties of this technique are analyzed and experimentally characterized. A two-by-two-channel architecture involving three time delays, independently controlled through electrically addressed liquid crystal SLMs, is also presented. It is expected that the same architecture with 15 delays could be implemented with a 1-W CW laser.

  2. On the performance of data receivers with a restricted detection delay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerpen, S. M.; Willems, M. J.; Bergmans, Jan W. M.

    1994-06-01

    It is well known that the performance of a data receiver for an intersymbol interference (ISI) channel can depend strongly on the detection delay delta. For a discrete-time communication system, this paper derives a lower bound on the bit-error probability as a function of delta. This 'restricted delay bound' is governed by a 'restricted-delay distance' (d delta). In many instances, it improves upon Forney's bound, which is governed by the minimum distance d(sub min). The effect of transforming a continuous-time channel into a discrete-time channel is discussed. Transformation via a matched filter, as in the ISI canceller and a Viterbi detector due to Ungerboeck and MacKechnie, is shown to result in poor restricted-delay properties. Implications of these results are illustrated by means of examples.

  3. Passivity and Passification of Memristor-Based Recurrent Neural Networks With Additive Time-Varying Delays.

    PubMed

    Rakkiyappan, Rajan; Chandrasekar, Arunachalam; Cao, Jinde

    2014-11-13

    This paper presents a new design scheme for the passivity and passification of a class of memristor-based recurrent neural networks (MRNNs) with additive time-varying delays. The predictable assumptions on the boundedness and Lipschitz continuity of activation functions are formulated. The systems considered here are based on a different time-delay model suggested recently, which includes additive time-varying delay components in the state. The connection between the time-varying delay and its upper bound is considered when estimating the upper bound of the derivative of Lyapunov functional. It is recognized that the passivity condition can be expressed in a linear matrix inequality (LMI) format and by using characteristic function method. For state feedback passification, it is verified that it is apathetic to use immediate or delayed state feedback. By constructing a Lyapunov-Krasovskii functional and employing Jensen's inequality and reciprocal convex combination technique together with a tighter estimation of the upper bound of the cross-product terms derived from the derivatives of the Lyapunov functional, less conventional delay-dependent passivity criteria are established in terms of LMIs. Moreover, second-order reciprocally convex approach is employed for deriving the upper bound for terms with inverses of squared convex parameters. The model based on the memristor with additive time-varying delays widens the application scope for the design of neural networks. Finally, pertinent examples are given to show the advantages of the derived passivity criteria and the significant improvement of the theoretical approaches. PMID:25415991

  4. Uncovering the expectancy effect: the validation of Acupuncture Expectancy Scale

    PubMed Central

    Mao, Jun J.; Xie, Sharon X.; Bowman, Marjorie A.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Research suggests that expectancy may modulate the response to medical interventions, including acupuncture. However, the paucity of validated tools to measure expectancy limits rigorous evaluation. We sought to validate a previously developed Acupuncture Expectancy Scale (AES) as an instrument to measure patients’ expected responses to acupuncture. Methods Participants were patients with stage I to III cancers seen in outpatient medical and radiation oncology clinics. They were drawn from three study cohorts that included 404 participants. We examined the reliability, validity and responsiveness of AES. Results The scores of AES had internal consistency (Cronbach’s ? coefficient) of 0.95 and test-retest reliability of 0.62 over four weeks without acupuncture treatment. Those who had previously used acupuncture had higher AES compared to those who were acupuncture naïve (12.4 vs. 9.5, p=0.002). AES was higher in those who reported willingness to participate in an acupuncture trial compared to those who did not want to participate in an acupuncture trial (11.5 vs. 8.1, p<0.001). Those patients who enrolled in a pilot trial of acupuncture had higher AES score than the general outpatient population (13.0 vs. 9.8, p=0.02), and expectancy increased during the course of acupuncture treatment (13.0 to 16.5, p<0.017). Conclusion The AES is reliable and valid, and scores appear to increase during or after prior therapy. Incorporation of AES in clinical trials and outcome studies can evaluate the role of expectancy on acupuncture outcomes. PMID:21280459

  5. Minimum Buffered Routing with Bounded Capacitive Load for Slew Rate and Reliability Control

    E-print Network

    Zelikovsky, Alexander

    1 Minimum Buffered Routing with Bounded Capacitive Load for Slew Rate and Reliability Control-known methodology to improve coupling noise immunity, reduce degradation of signal transition edges, and reduce delay uncertainty due to coupling noise. Bounding load capacitance also improves reliability

  6. Minimum Buffered Routing with Bounded Capacitive Load for Slew Rate and Reliability Control

    E-print Network

    Mandoiu, Ion

    1 Minimum Buffered Routing with Bounded Capacitive Load for Slew Rate and Reliability Control coupling noise immunity, reduce degradation of signal transition edges, and reduce delay uncertainty due to coupling noise. Bounding load capacitance also improves reliability with respect to hot-carrier oxide

  7. Minimum Buffered Routing with Bounded Capacitive Load for Slew Rate and Reliability Control

    E-print Network

    Zelikovsky, Alexander

    1 Minimum Buffered Routing with Bounded Capacitive Load for Slew Rate and Reliability Control outputs is a well­known methodology to improve coupling noise immunity, reduce degradation of signal transition edges, and reduce delay uncertainty due to coupling noise. Bounding load capacitance also improves

  8. TRENDS IN SENESCENT LIFE EXPECTANCY

    PubMed Central

    Bongaarts, John

    2009-01-01

    The distinction between senescent and non-senescent mortality proves to be very valuable for describing and analyzing age patterns of death rates. Unfortunately, standard methods for estimating these mortality components are lacking. The first part of this study discusses alternative methods for estimating background and senescent mortality among adults and proposes a simple approach based on death rates by causes of death. The second part examines trends in senescent life expectancy (i.e. the life expectancy implied by senescent mortality) and compares them with trends in conventional longevity indicators between 1960 and 2000 in a group of 17 developed countries with low mortality. Senescent life expectancy for females rises at an average rate of 1.54 years per decade between 1960 and 2000 in these countries. The shape of the distribution of senescent deaths by age remains relatively invariant while the entire distribution shifts over time to higher ages as longevity rose. PMID:19851933

  9. Delayed Postoperative Extradural Hematoma

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Ramnarayan; N. R. Sreehari; G. K. Ninan; K. M. John

    2007-01-01

    Postcraniotomy complications include various types of intracranial hematomas and systemic complications like cardiac and renal failure. This is a report of a patient who underwent a reexploration of a previous craniotomy and then went into status epilepticus, which was controlled, but the patient developed acute renal failure and then a delayed extradural hematoma.

  10. Delayed ettringite formation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. F. W Taylor; C Famy; K. L Scrivener

    2001-01-01

    Delayed ettringite formation (DEF) can damage concrete that has experienced a temperature above about 70°C. Claims that slow release of sulfate from the clinker can have a similar effect in concrete not thus heated are unsupported. Chemical and microstructural aspects of DEF are reviewed. Expansion results from formation of ettringite crystals of submicrometre size in the paste, the larger crystals

  11. Delayed congestion response protocols

    E-print Network

    Bhandarkar, Sumitha

    2001-01-01

    developed analytical models and derived the conditions under which they are TCP-friendly. With these conditions we have run simulations on the ns-2 platform to show that they are indeed TCP-friendly. By showing that delayed congestion response is possible...

  12. Estimating Delays In ASIC's

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burke, Gary; Nesheiwat, Jeffrey; Su, Ling

    1994-01-01

    Verification is important aspect of process of designing application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC). Design must not only be functionally accurate, but must also maintain correct timing. IFA, Intelligent Front Annotation program, assists in verifying timing of ASIC early in design process. This program speeds design-and-verification cycle by estimating delays before layouts completed. Written in C language.

  13. MECL delay and wiring tests for MECL 10000

    SciTech Connect

    Milman, M.

    1980-10-01

    The delay and wiring tests for two delay circuits for MECL 10000 are discussed. Circuit A is designed such that the delay between the input and the output signals can be determined by the value of the capacitor. Circuit B contains two capacitors with C/sub 1/ controlling the delay of the positive edge and C/sub 2/ controlling the delay of the negative edge. The test results showed that both delay circuits, A and B, performed satisfactorily, but circuit A demonstrated better tracking between delay of positive and negative edges. Wiring tests demonstrated that the MECL 10000 can be used quite successfully with limited length wire-wrap, due primarily to the measured 3 nsec edge speeds. As expected, the shapes are considerably better with receiving end termination rather than sending end termination, even at a length of 5''. One can estimate from the photographs the signal delay resulting from the length of the wire. Concerning twisted pair, there is very little evidence from the experiments that this wiring technique is a significant improvement over conventional wiring, although some improvement in edge speed is noticeable.

  14. Effects of Stimulus Context, Study Time, and Delay on Visual Recognition Memory in Six-Month-Old Infants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faber, Melissa M.

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether context facilitated memory and whether this facilitation was still evident after a delay. Infants were expected to recognize pictures significantly longer when they were tested with the same context cues. This context effect was expected to be even after a 5-minute delay. The subjects were 64…

  15. Organically bound tritium

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Silvia Diabate; Siegfried Strack

    1993-01-01

    Tritium released into the environment may be incorporated into organic matter. Organically bound tritium in that case will show retention times in organisms that are considerably longer than those of tritiated water which has significant consequences on dose estimates. This article reviews the most important processes of organically bound tritium production and transport through food networks. Metabolic reactions in plant

  16. Causality and Tsirelson's bounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buhrman, H.; Massar, S.

    2005-11-01

    We study the properties of no-signaling correlations that cannot be reproduced by local measurements on entangled quantum states. We say that such correlations violate Tsirelson bounds. We show that if these correlations are obtained by some reversible unitary quantum evolution U , then U cannot be written in the product form UA?UB . This implies that U can be used for signaling and for entanglement generation. This result is completely general and in fact can be viewed as a characterization of Tsirelson bounds. We then show how this result can be used as a tool to study Tsirelson bounds and we illustrate this by rederiving the Tsirelson bound of 22 for the Clauser-Horn-Shimony-Holt inequality, and by deriving a new Tsirelson bound for qutrits.

  17. Fourth Generation Bound States

    E-print Network

    Koji Ishiwata; Mark B. Wise

    2011-05-25

    We investigate the spectrum and wave functions of {\\bar q}'q' bound states for heavy fourth generation quarks (q') that have a very small mixing with the three observed generations of standard model quarks. Such bound states come with different color, spin and flavor quantum numbers. Since the fourth generation Yukawa coupling, \\lambda_{q'}, is large we include all perturbative corrections to the potential between the heavy quark and antiquark of order \\lambda_{q'}^2N_c/16\\pi^2 where N_c is the number of colors, as well as relativistic corrections suppressed by (v/c)^2. We find that the lightest fourth generation quark masses for which a bound state exists for color octet states. For the the color singlet states, which always have a bound state, we analyze the influence that the Higgs couplings have on the size and binding energy of the bound states.

  18. Bounding Species Distribution Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stohlgren, Thomas J.; Jarnevich, Cahterine S.; Morisette, Jeffrey T.; Esaias, Wayne E.

    2011-01-01

    Species distribution models are increasing in popularity for mapping suitable habitat for species of management concern. Many investigators now recognize that extrapolations of these models with geographic information systems (GIS) might be sensitive to the environmental bounds of the data used in their development, yet there is no recommended best practice for "clamping" model extrapolations. We relied on two commonly used modeling approaches: classification and regression tree (CART) and maximum entropy (Maxent) models, and we tested a simple alteration of the model extrapolations, bounding extrapolations to the maximum and minimum values of primary environmental predictors, to provide a more realistic map of suitable habitat of hybridized Africanized honey bees in the southwestern United States. Findings suggest that multiple models of bounding, and the most conservative bounding of species distribution models, like those presented here, should probably replace the unbounded or loosely bounded techniques currently used [Current Zoology 57 (5): 642-647, 2011].

  19. Bounding species distribution models

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stohlgren, T.J.; Jarnevich, C.S.; Esaias, W.E.; Morisette, J.T.

    2011-01-01

    Species distribution models are increasing in popularity for mapping suitable habitat for species of management concern. Many investigators now recognize that extrapolations of these models with geographic information systems (GIS) might be sensitive to the environmental bounds of the data used in their development, yet there is no recommended best practice for "clamping" model extrapolations. We relied on two commonly used modeling approaches: classification and regression tree (CART) and maximum entropy (Maxent) models, and we tested a simple alteration of the model extrapolations, bounding extrapolations to the maximum and minimum values of primary environmental predictors, to provide a more realistic map of suitable habitat of hybridized Africanized honey bees in the southwestern United States. Findings suggest that multiple models of bounding, and the most conservative bounding of species distribution models, like those presented here, should probably replace the unbounded or loosely bounded techniques currently used. ?? 2011 Current Zoology.

  20. Expectations for computational fluid dynamics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John C. Vassberg

    2005-01-01

    This article presents a sampling of the author's expectations for the field of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) in the areas of research, development and application. The primary focus of the discussion herein is related to the non-linear transonic flow regime, and more specifically, for calculations about commercial transport aircraft. However, many of these topics are pertinent to all flow field

  1. Reflexive Expectation Formation Timo Ehrig

    E-print Network

    Jost, Jürgen

    , and macroeconomic quantities, agents need not only take into account their belief regarding fundamental values there is a fundamental uncertainty about the market process, like after financial crises? How does the formation entertain higher order beliefs regarding the expectations of other economic agents, which are the basis

  2. Expectancy Bias in Trait Anxiety

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Calais K. Y. Chan; Peter F. Lovibond

    1996-01-01

    The ability of anxious and control participants to learn about signals for danger and safety was tested within an autonomic conditioned inhibition (A+\\/AB?) procedure. Only participants who could verbalize the differential contingencies between the stimuli and shock (aware participants) showed discrimination on electrodermal and shock expectancy measures. In Experiment 1, aware high-anxious participants showed similar responding to control participants. However

  3. Does expectancy affect alcohol absorption?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shirley Cole-Harding; Vicki J. Michels

    2007-01-01

    Many factors influence alcohol absorption, yet few studies have addressed the issue of whether or not experimental manipulations themselves may affect alcohol absorption. The current balanced placebo design study comparing the expectancy effects of root beer and non-alcoholic beer vehicles resulted in significantly lower blood alcohol levels in the root beer condition than in the beer condition even though alcohol

  4. Ambiguity and rational expectations equilibria

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jayant V Ganguli; Scott Condie

    2008-01-01

    This paper proves the existence and robustness of partially-revealing rational expectations equilibria (REE) when this equilibrium concept is expanded to allow for some agents to have preferences that display ambiguity aversion. Furthermore, the generic existence of fully- revealing REE is proven for a commonly-used subset of the class of ambiguity averse preferences. This finding illustrates that models with ambiguity aversion

  5. Career Expectations of Accounting Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elam, Dennis; Mendez, Francis

    2010-01-01

    The demographic make-up of accounting students is dramatically changing. This study sets out to measure how well the profession is ready to accommodate what may be very different needs and expectations of this new generation of students. Non-traditional students are becoming more and more of a tradition in the current college classroom.…

  6. PARENTING WORKSHOP SERIES Expecting Parents

    E-print Network

    Loudon, Catherine

    PARENTING WORKSHOP SERIES Expecting Parents Learn how to navigate the UCI Disability leave process 200 Infant and Child First Aid and CPR Be Prepared. Learn and practice the proper techniques Lam. 12-1PM ARC Kitchen/Classroom. 680 California Ave. Adult First Aid and CPR Learn and practice

  7. Double-Entry Expectancy Tables.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wesman, Alexander G.

    1966-01-01

    Double-entry expectancy tables are used to make admissions, guidance, or employment decisions based on two predictors. Examples of their use in showing relationships between high school and college performance are explained. The advantages of double-entry expectacy tables given are: (1) relative simplicity of preparation requiring no formal…

  8. Acquiring Procedural Knowledge in EXPECT

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yolanda Gil; Jim Blythe; Jihie Kim; Surya Ramachandran

    2000-01-01

    The EXPECT project has focused on acquiring problem- solving knowledge for users for the last decade, using an expressive language that is open to inspection. Our aim has been to alleviate the bottleneck in creating knowledge-based systems by providing support for both knowledge engineers and end users to specify problem-solving knowledge. In this paper we summarize selected areas of current

  9. Tourism motivation and expectation formation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Juergen Gnoth

    1997-01-01

    This theoretical study introduces a model of tourism motivation and expectation formation. It is based on a discussion and operationalization of both the behaviorist notion of drive reduction and the cognitivist constructs of attitudes and values. While the satisfaction of inner-directed values and motivations depends on classes of objects, outer-directed values target specific objects. In the case of trying to

  10. Robust Delay Estimation of an Adaptive Scheduling Algorithm

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Johanna Antila; Marko Luoma

    2005-01-01

    \\u000a In this paper we propose three new packet delay estimators for an adaptive, delay-bounded HPD (DBHPD) scheduling algorithm\\u000a in the DiffServ context: simple Exponential Weighted Moving Average (EWMA) estimator, EWMA estimator with restart (EWMA-r)\\u000a and EWMA based on proportional error of the estimate (EWMA-pe). We compare these estimators with the original, simple sum\\u000a estimator with ns2-simulations using several traffic mixes.

  11. Delayed pulsar kicks from the emission of sterile neutrinos

    E-print Network

    Alexander Kusenko; Bhabani Prasad Mandal; Alok Mukherjee

    2008-05-22

    The observed velocities of pulsars suggest the possibility that sterile neutrinos with mass of several keV are emitted from a cooling neutron star. The same sterile neutrinos could constitute all or part of cosmological dark matter. The neutrino-driven kicks can exhibit delays depending on the mass and the mixing angle, which can be compared with the pulsar data. We discuss the allowed ranges of sterile neutrino parameters, consistent with the latest cosmological and X-ray bounds, which can explain the pulsar kicks for different delay times.

  12. Lower bound of the number of the Rayleigh resonances for arbitrary body

    E-print Network

    Stefanov, Plamen

    , reflecting off the boundary according to the laws of geometric optics, one might expect a lower bound c0r3Lower bound of the number of the Rayleigh resonances for arbitrary body Plamen Stefanov Department prove an optimal lower bound for the asymptotic distribution of the resonances near the real axis due

  13. Conditional Posterior Cramér-Rao lower bounds for nonlinear recursive filtering

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Long Zuo; Ruixin Niu; Pramod K. Varshney

    2009-01-01

    Posterior Cramer Rao lower bounds (PCRLBs) for sequential Bayesian estimators provide performance bounds for general nonlinear filtering problems and have been used widely for sensor management in tracking and fusion systems. However, the unconditional PCRLB is an off-line bound that is obtained by taking the expectation of the Fisher information matrix (FIM) with respect to the measurement and the state

  14. Delay discounting by pathological gamblers.

    PubMed Central

    Dixon, Mark R; Marley, Janice; Jacobs, Eric A

    2003-01-01

    Discounting of delayed rewards by pathological gamblers was compared to discounting of delayed rewards by matched control nongambling participants. All participants completed a hypothetical choice task in which they made repeated choices between dollars 1,000 available after a delay and an equal or lesser amount of money available immediately. The delay to the large amount of money was varied from 1 week to 10 years across conditions. Indifference points between immediate money and delayed money were identified at each delay condition by varying the amount of immediate money across choice trials. For the majority of participants, indifference points decreased monotonically across delays. Overall, gamblers discounted the delayed rewards more steeply than did control participants. PMID:14768665

  15. Congestion delays at hub airports

    E-print Network

    St. George, Martin J.

    1986-01-01

    A deterministic model was developed to study the effects of inefficient scheduling on flight delays at hub airports. The model bases the delay calculation on published schedule data and on user-defined airport capacities. ...

  16. ATTRITION IN DISTRIBUTED DELAY MODELS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Distributed time delay models are extended to deal with loss of entities from within the process being modeled. Analysis of a time-invariant distributed delay shows that the statistics of individual transit times through a delay process can be very sensitive to attrition incurred...

  17. Programmable Differential Delay Circuit With Fine Delay Adjustment

    DOEpatents

    DeRyckere, John F. (Eau Claire, WI); Jenkins, Philip Nord (Eau Claire, WI); Cornett, Frank Nolan (Chippewa Falls, WI)

    2002-07-09

    Circuitry that provides additional delay to early arriving signals such that all data signals arrive at a receiving latch with same path delay. The delay of a forwarded clock reference is also controlled such that the capturing clock edge will be optimally positioned near quadrature (depending on latch setup/hold requirements). The circuitry continuously adapts to data and clock path delay changes and digital filtering of phase measurements reduce errors brought on by jittering data edges. The circuitry utilizes only the minimum amount of delay necessary to achieve objective thereby limiting any unintended jitter. Particularly, this programmable differential delay circuit with fine delay adjustment is designed to allow the skew between ASICS to be minimized. This includes skew between data bits, between data bits and clocks as well as minimizing the overall skew in a channel between ASICS.

  18. Computing Partial Expectations from Tables

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jörg Grüner; Klaus Zoller

    1997-01-01

    Many applications in inventory control, reliability engineering and preventive maintenance involve frequent calculations of\\u000a probabilities and partial expectations. In the design of high-volume computer-based applications recourse to internal tables\\u000a may therefore be preferable to an import of statistical packages. While interpolation in tabulated cdf’s will often prove\\u000a sufficiently accurate from the point of view of statistical representation of the underlying

  19. Televisions, Physicians, and Life Expectancy

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Rossman, Allan

    This article, created by Allan Rossman of Dickinson College, describes a dataset on life expectancies, densities of people per television set, and densities of people per physician in various countries of the world. The example addresses correlation versus causation and data transformations. The author states that "the example has proven very useful for helping students to discover the fundamental principle that correlation does not imply causation."

  20. 77 FR 15455 - Notice of Delays in Processing of Special Permits Applications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-15

    ...following list of special permit applications that have been in process for 180 days or more. The reason(s) for delay and the expected...15283-N............... KwikBond 4 03-31-2012 Polymers, LLC Benicia, CA....

  1. IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON SIGNAL PROCESSING, VOL. 46, NO. 2, FEBRUARY 1998 449 Time Delay and Spatial Signature Estimation

    E-print Network

    Swindlehurst, A. Lee

    IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON SIGNAL PROCESSING, VOL. 46, NO. 2, FEBRUARY 1998 449 Time Delay and Spatial to the Cram´er­Rao bound. Index Terms--Acoustic signal processing, array signal process- ing, delay estimation, mobile communications, multipath chan- nels, radar signal processing. I. INTRODUCTION THERE ARE A number

  2. Robust H INFINITY control for a class of nonlinear discrete time-delay stochastic systems with missing measurements

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zidong Wang; Daniel W. C. Ho; Yurong Liu; Xiaohui Liu

    2009-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the problem of robust H? output feedback control for a class of uncertain discrete-time delayed nonlinear stochastic systems with missing measurements. The parameter uncertainties enter into all the system matrices, the time-varying delay is unknown with given low and upper bounds, the nonlinearities satisfy the sector conditions, and the missing measurements are described by a

  3. Vehicle barrier with access delay

    DOEpatents

    Swahlan, David J; Wilke, Jason

    2013-09-03

    An access delay vehicle barrier for stopping unauthorized entry into secure areas by a vehicle ramming attack includes access delay features for preventing and/or delaying an adversary from defeating or compromising the barrier. A horizontally deployed barrier member can include an exterior steel casing, an interior steel reinforcing member and access delay members disposed within the casing and between the casing and the interior reinforcing member. Access delay members can include wooden structural lumber, concrete and/or polymeric members that in combination with the exterior casing and interior reinforcing member act cooperatively to impair an adversarial attach by thermal, mechanical and/or explosive tools.

  4. Inoculation against Forgetting: Advantages of Immediate versus Delayed Initial Testing Due to Superior Verbatim Accessibility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pansky, Ainat

    2012-01-01

    In this study, potential benefits of early memory testing were examined in terms of "inoculating" eyewitness memory against forgetting. As predicted by fuzzy trace theory (e.g., Reyna & Titcomb, 1997), a larger testing advantage in the delayed recall of event details was expected after immediate testing than after delayed testing because of the…

  5. Effect of handoff delay on the system performance of TDMA cellular systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mustafa Tiirkboylari; Vijay K. Madisetti

    2002-01-01

    Handoff delay is one of the major criteria to evaluate a handoff algorithm. A good handoff algorithm is expected to minimize both the handoff delay and the mean number of handoffs. But it is generally very difficult to minimize both, if not impossible. We would like to find out the amount of increase in the outage probability when we try

  6. Hard disk drive bandwidth limitations due to sampling frequency and computational delay

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Matthew T. White; Wei-Min Lu

    1999-01-01

    The improvements in track density and performance expected of future disk drives require increased servo bandwidths. The mechanics are often cited as a bandwidth limiter, but sampling frequency and computational delay also play a part in reducing the achievable bandwidth. To isolate the effects of the sampling frequency and the computational delay, the higher frequency resonances often found in disk

  7. Ziv-Zakai bound on time-of-arrival estimation with statistical channel knowledge at the receiver

    E-print Network

    Dardari, Davide

    Time-of-arrival (TOA) based localization plays an important role due to the possibility to exploit the fine delay resolution property when wideband signals are adopted. This paper investigates lower bounds on TOA estimation ...

  8. Delay-Scheduled State-Feedback Design for Time-Delay Systems with Time-Varying Delays -A LPV Approach

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Delay-Scheduled State-Feedback Design for Time-Delay Systems with Time-Varying Delays - A LPV stabilize linear systems with time- varying delays. In this framework, it is assumed that the delay transformation turning a time-delay system into an uncertain LPV system is introduced. Using this transformation

  9. Adaptive delay concealment for Internet voice applications with packet-based time-scale modification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Fang; Kim, JongWon; Kuo, C.-C. Jay

    2001-03-01

    For Internet audio applications, much effort has been involved in packet-level error control and delay jitter concealment. In this paper, a packet-based time-scale modification scheme for speech signal is applied to provide adaptive delay concealment at the receiver of an Internet voice session. The adaptive playout algorithm strives to minimize receiver packet droppings for late-arrival packets and premature packets while keeping the end-to-end delay constrained. By stretching the voice segment up/down and incorporating the silence interval, the proposed algorithm could adapt quickly to accommodate fluctuating delays including delay spikes. The evaluation verifies the performance of the proposed adaptive playout, which improves the received speech intelligence under a tightly bounded average playout delay.

  10. Razumikhin method and exponential stability of hybrid stochastic delay interval systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mao, Xuerong; Lam, James; Xu, Shengyuan; Gao, Huijun

    2006-02-01

    This paper deals with the exponential stability of hybrid stochastic delay interval systems (also known as stochastic delay interval systems with Markovian switching). The known results in this area (see, e.g., [X., Mao, Exponential stability of stochastic delay interval systems with Markovian switching, IEEE Trans. Automat. Control 47 (10) (2002) 1604-1612]) require the time delay to be a constant or a differentiable function and the main reason for such a restriction is due to the analysis of mathematics. The main aim of this paper is to remove this restriction to allow the time delay to be a bounded variable only. The Razumikhin method is developed to cope with the difficulty arisen from the nondifferentiability of the time delay.

  11. Fundamentals of Delayed Coking Joint Industry Project

    SciTech Connect

    Michael Volk; Keith Wisecarver

    2004-09-26

    Delayed coking evolved steadily over the early to mid 1900s to enable refiners to convert high boiling, residual petroleum fractions to light products such as gasoline. Pound for pound, coking is the most energy intensive of any operation in a modern refinery. Large amounts of energy are required to heat the thick, poor-quality petroleum residuum to the 900 to 950 degrees F required to crack the heavy hydrocarbon molecules into lighter, more valuable products. One common misconception of delayed coking is that the product coke is a disadvantage. Although coke is a low valued (near zero economic value) byproduct, compared to transportation fuels, there is a significant worldwide trade and demand for coke as it is an economical fuel. Coke production has increased steadily over the last ten years, with further increases forecast for the foreseeable future. Current domestic production is near 111,000 tons per day. A major driving force behind this increase is the steady decline in crude quality available to refiners. Crude slates are expected to grow heavier with higher sulfur contents while environmental restrictions are expected to significantly reduce the demand for high-sulfur residual fuel oil. Light sweet crudes will continue to be available and in even greater demand than they are today. Refiners will be faced with the choice of purchasing light sweet crudes at a premium price, or adding bottom of the barrel upgrading capability, through additional new investments, to reduce the production of high-sulfur residual fuel oil and increase the production of low-sulfur distillate fuels. A second disadvantage is that liquid products from cokers frequently are unstable, i.e., they rapidly form gum and sediments. Because of intermediate investment and operating costs, delayed coking has increased in popularity among refiners worldwide. Based on the 2000 Worldwide Refining Survey published in the Oil and Gas, the delayed coking capacity for 101 refineries around the world is 2,937,439 barrels/calendar day. These cokers produce 154,607 tons of coke per day and delayed coking accounts for 88% of the world capacity. The delayed coking charge capacity in the United States is 1,787,860 b/cd. Despite its wide commercial use, only relatively few contractors and refiners are truly knowledgeable in delayed-coking design, so that this process carries with it a ''black art'' connotation. Until recently, the expected yield from cokers was determined by a simple laboratory test on the feedstock. As a result of Tulsa University's prior related research, a process model was developed that with additional work could be used to optimize existing delayed cokers over a wide range of potential feedstocks and operating conditions. The objectives of this research program are to: utilize the current micro, batch and pilot unit facilities at The University of Tulsa to enhance the understanding of the coking process; conduct additional micro and pilot unit tests with new and in-house resids and recycles to make current optimization models more robust; conduct focused kinetic experiments to enhance the furnace tube model and to enhance liquid production while minimizing sulfur in the products; conduct detailed foaming studies to optimize the process and minimize process upsets; quantify the parameters that affect coke morphology; and to utilize the knowledge gained from the experimental and modeling studies to enhance the computer programs developed in the previous JIP for optimization of the coking process. These refined computer models will then be tested against refinery data provided by the member companies. Novel concepts will also be explored for hydrogen sulfide removal of furnace gases as well as gas injection studies to reduce over-cracking.

  12. Fundamentals of Delayed Coking Joint Industry Project

    SciTech Connect

    Michael Volk; Keith Wisecarver

    2003-09-26

    Delayed coking evolved steadily over the early to mid 1900s to enable refiners to convert high boiling, residual petroleum fractions to light products such as gasoline. Pound for pound, coking is the most energy intensive of any operation in a modern refinery. Large amounts of energy are required to heat the thick, poor-quality petroleum residuum to the 900 to 950 degrees F required to crack the heavy hydrocarbon molecules into lighter, more valuable products. One common misconception of delayed coking is that the product coke is a disadvantage. Although coke is a low valued (near zero economic value) byproduct, compared to transportation fuels, there is a significant worldwide trade and demand for coke as it is an economical fuel. Coke production has increased steadily over the last ten years, with further increases forecast for the foreseeable future. Current domestic production is near 111,000 tons per day. A major driving force behind this increase is the steady decline in crude quality available to refiners. Crude slates are expected to grow heavier with higher sulfur contents while environmental restrictions are expected to significantly reduce the demand for high-sulfur residual fuel oil. Light sweet crudes will continue to be available and in even greater demand than they are today. Refiners will be faced with the choice of purchasing light sweet crudes at a premium price, or adding bottom of the barrel upgrading capability, through additional new investments, to reduce the production of high-sulfur residual fuel oil and increase the production of low-sulfur distillate fuels. A second disadvantage is that liquid products from cokers frequently are unstable, i.e., they rapidly form gum and sediments. Because of intermediate investment and operating costs, delayed coking has increased in popularity among refiners worldwide. Based on the 2000 Worldwide Refining Survey published in the Oil and Gas, the delayed coking capacity for 101 refineries around the world is 2,937,439 barrels/calendar day. These cokers produce 154,607 tons of coke per day and delayed coking accounts for 88% of the world capacity. The delayed coking charge capacity in the United States is 1,787,860 b/cd. Despite its wide commercial use, only relatively few contractors and refiners are truly knowledgeable in delayed-coking design, so that this process carries with it a ''black art'' connotation. Until recently, the expected yield from cokers was determined by a simple laboratory test on the feedstock. As a result of Tulsa University's prior related research, a process model was developed that with additional work could be used to optimize existing delayed cokers over a wide range of potential feedstocks and operating conditions. The objectives of this research program are to: utilize the current micro, batch and pilot unit facilities at The University of Tulsa to enhance the understanding of the coking process; conduct additional micro and pilot unit tests with new and in-house resids and recycles to make current optimization models more robust; conduct focused kinetic experiments to enhance the furnace tube model and to enhance liquid production while minimizing sulfur in the products; conduct detailed foaming studies to optimize the process and minimize process upsets; quantify the parameters that affect coke morphology; and to utilize the knowledge gained from the experimental and modeling studies to enhance the computer programs developed in the previous JIP for optimization of the coking process. These refined computer models will then be tested against refinery data provided by the member companies. Novel concepts will also be explored for hydrogen sulfide removal of furnace gases as well as gas injection studies to reduce over-cracking.

  13. DELAYED REINFORCEMENT OF OPERANT BEHAVIOR

    PubMed Central

    Lattal, Kennon A

    2010-01-01

    The experimental analysis of delay of reinforcement is considered from the perspective of three questions that seem basic not only to understanding delay of reinforcement, but, also, by implication, the contributions of temporal relations between events to operant behavior. The first question is whether effects of the temporal relation between responses and reinforcers can be isolated from other features of the environment that often accompany delays, such as stimuli or changes in the temporal distribution or rate of reinforcement. The second question is that of the effects of delays on operant behavior. Beyond the common denominator of a temporal separation between reinforcers and the responses that produce them, delay of reinforcement procedures differ from one another along several dimensions, making delay effects circumstance dependent. The final question is one of interpreting delay of reinforcement effects. It centers on the role of the response–reinforcer temporal relation in the context of other, concurrently operating behavioral processes. PMID:20676272

  14. On Discretization of Delays in Timed Automata and Digital Circuits

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eugene Asarin; Oded Maler; Amir Pnueli

    1998-01-01

    In this paper we solve the following problem: "given a digital circuit composed of gates whose real-valued delays are in an integer-bounded interval, is there a way to discretize time while preserving the qualitative behavior of the circuit?" This problem is described as open in [BS94]. When "preservation of qualitative behavior" is interpreted in a strict sense, as having all

  15. Complex network synchronization of chaotic systems with delay coupling

    SciTech Connect

    Theesar, S. Jeeva Sathya, E-mail: sjstheesar@gmail.com; Ratnavelu, K., E-mail: sjstheesar@gmail.com [Network Science Research Group, Institute of Mathematical Sciences, University of Malaya, 50603, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    2014-03-05

    The study of complex networks enables us to understand the collective behavior of the interconnected elements and provides vast real time applications from biology to laser dynamics. In this paper, synchronization of complex network of chaotic systems has been studied. Every identical node in the complex network is assumed to be in Lur’e system form. In particular, delayed coupling has been assumed along with identical sector bounded nonlinear systems which are interconnected over network topology.

  16. Flight parameter estimation using time delay and intersensor multipath delay measurements from a small aperture acoustic array.

    PubMed

    Lo, Kam W

    2013-07-01

    A ground-based acoustic sensor array can be used to estimate the complete set of flight parameters of a jet aircraft or other airborne source of broadband sound in transit by measuring the differential time of arrival (DTOA), or the time delay, of the direct path signal at each sensor pair of the array over a sufficiently long period of time. This paper studies the possibility of using intersensor multipath delay measurements to improve the precision of the flight parameter estimates for a small aperture array, without increasing the array's intersensor spacing or the observation time for more time delay measurements. Intersensor multipath delay is defined as the DTOA of the direct path signal at one sensor and the ground-reflected path signal at another sensor. The flight parameter estimation algorithm is formulated and a simplified Cramer-Rao lower bound error analysis is presented, which shows that the standard deviations in the flight parameter estimates are greatly reduced when intersensor multipath delay measurements are used together with time delay measurements. The effectiveness of the proposed flight parameter estimation method for small aperture arrays is verified using both simulated and real data. PMID:23862781

  17. Primary Care Clinician Expectations Regarding Aging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Melinda M.; Bond, Lynne A.; Howard, Alan; Sarkisian, Catherine A.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Expectations regarding aging (ERA) in community-dwelling older adults are associated with personal health behaviors and health resource usage. Clinicians' age expectations likely influence patients' expectations and care delivery patterns; yet, limited research has explored clinicians' age expectations. The Expectations Regarding Aging…

  18. [Marital status and life expectancy].

    PubMed

    Chen, M C; Lee, M L

    1997-06-01

    "[Many] researchers [have] used RMR (Relative Mortality Rate) to study marital status and mortality trying to reveal the selection and protection effects of marriage on death. This study instead employs life table technique to analyze their effects on life expectancy. Although this study does not intend to differentiate the relative importance between selection and protection effects,...modeling various hypothetical cohort's marital experiences in [the] life course allows us to control all [factors other] than the sole effect of marital status." (EXCERPT) PMID:12222460

  19. Estimating magnitude and duration of incident delays

    SciTech Connect

    Garib, A. [Zagazig Univ. (Egypt). Construction Engineering Dept.; Radwan, A.E.; Al-Deek, H. [Univ. of Central Florida, Orlando, FL (United States). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering

    1997-11-01

    Traffic congestion is a major operational problem on urban freeways. In the case of recurring congestion, travelers can plan their trips according to the expected occurrence and severity of recurring congestion. However, nonrecurring congestion cannot be managed without real-time prediction. Evaluating the efficiency of intelligent transportation systems (ITS) technologies in reducing incident effects requires developing models that can accurately predict incident duration along with the magnitude of nonrecurring congestion. This paper provides two statistical models for estimating incident delay and a model for predicting incident duration. The incident delay models showed that up to 85% of variation in incident delay can be explained by incident duration, number of lanes affected, number of vehicles involved, and traffic demand before the incident. The incident duration prediction model showed that 81% of variation in incident duration can be predicted by number of lanes affected, number of vehicles involved, truck involvement, time of day, police response time, and weather condition. These findings have implications for on-line applications within the context of advanced traveler information systems (ATIS).

  20. Paradoxical Effects of Alcohol Information on Alcohol Outcome Expectancies

    PubMed Central

    Krank, Marvin D.; Ames, Susan L.; Grenard, Jerry L.; Schoenfeld, Tara; Stacy, Alan W.

    2014-01-01

    Background Cognitive associations with alcohol predict both current and future use in youth and young adults. Much cognitive and social cognitive research suggests that exposure to information may have unconscious influences on thinking and behavior. The present study assessed the impact of information statements on the accessibility of alcohol outcome expectancies. Methods The 2 studies reported here investigated the effects of exposure to alcohol statements typical of informational approaches to prevention on the accessibility of alcohol outcome expectancies. High school and university students were presented with information statements about the effects of alcohol and other commercial products. The alcohol statements were taken from expectancy questionnaires. Some of these statements were presented as facts and others as myths. The retention of detailed information about these statements was manipulated by (i) divided attention versus focused attention or (ii) immediate versus delayed testing. Accessibility of personal alcohol outcome expectancies was subsequently measured using an open-ended question about the expected effects of alcohol. Results Participants reported more alcohol outcomes seen during the information task as personal expectations about the effects of alcohol use than similar unseen items. Paradoxically, myth statements were also more likely to be reported as expectancies than unseen items in all conditions. Additionally, myth statements were generated less often than fact statements only under the condition of immediate testing with strong content processing instructions. Conclusions These observations are consistent with findings from cognitive research where familiarity in the absence of explicit memory can have an unconscious influence on performance. In particular, the exposure to these items in an informational format increases accessibility of the seen items even when the participants were told that they were myths. The findings have implications for the development of effective prevention materials. PMID:20477773

  1. Fourth generation bound states

    SciTech Connect

    Ishiwata, Koji; Wise, Mark B. [California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California, 91125 (United States)

    2011-04-01

    We investigate the spectrum and wave functions of q{sup '}q{sup '} bound states for heavy fourth generation quarks (q{sup '}) that have a very small mixing with the three observed generations of standard model quarks. Such bound states come with different color, spin and flavor quantum numbers. Since the fourth generation Yukawa coupling, {lambda}{sub q}{sup '}, is large we include all perturbative corrections to the potential between the heavy quark and antiquark of order {lambda}{sub q}{sup '2}N{sub c}/16{pi}{sup 2} where N{sub c} is the number of colors, as well as relativistic corrections suppressed by (v/c){sup 2}. We find that the lightest fourth generation quark masses for which a bound state exists for color octet states. For the color singlet states, which always have a bound state, we analyze the influence that the Higgs couplings have on the size and binding energy of the bound states.

  2. Motor activity improves temporal expectancy.

    PubMed

    Fautrelle, Lilian; Mareschal, Denis; French, Robert; Addyman, Caspar; Thomas, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Certain brain areas involved in interval timing are also important in motor activity. This raises the possibility that motor activity might influence interval timing. To test this hypothesis, we assessed interval timing in healthy adults following different types of training. The pre- and post-training tasks consisted of a button press in response to the presentation of a rhythmic visual stimulus. Alterations in temporal expectancy were evaluated by measuring response times. Training consisted of responding to the visual presentation of regularly appearing stimuli by either: (1) pointing with a whole-body movement, (2) pointing only with the arm, (3) imagining pointing with a whole-body movement, (4) simply watching the stimulus presentation, (5) pointing with a whole-body movement in response to a target that appeared at irregular intervals (6) reading a newspaper. Participants performing a motor activity in response to the regular target showed significant improvements in judgment times compared to individuals with no associated motor activity. Individuals who only imagined pointing with a whole-body movement also showed significant improvements. No improvements were observed in the group that trained with a motor response to an irregular stimulus, hence eliminating the explanation that the improved temporal expectations of the other motor training groups was purely due to an improved motor capacity to press the response button. All groups performed a secondary task equally well, hence indicating that our results could not simply be attributed to differences in attention between the groups. Our results show that motor activity, even when it does not play a causal or corrective role, can lead to improved interval timing judgments. PMID:25806813

  3. Output Feedback Stabilization for a Discrete-Time System With a Time-Varying Delay

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yong He; Min Wu; Guo-Ping Liu; Jin-Hua She

    2008-01-01

    This study employs the free-weighting matrix approach to investigate the output feedback control of a linear discrete-time system with an interval time-varying delay. First, the delay-dependent stability is analyzed using a new method of estimating the upper bound on the difference of a Lyapunov function without ignoring any terms; and based on the results, a design criterion for a static

  4. Quadratic stability and stabilization of uncertain linear discrete-time systems with state delay

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shengyuan Xu; James Lam; Chengwu Yang

    2001-01-01

    This paper deals with the problem of quadratic stability analysis and quadratic stabilization for uncertain linear discrete-time systems with state delay. The system under consideration involves state time delay and time-varying norm-bounded parameter uncertainties appearing in all the matrices of the state-space model. Necessary and sufficient conditions for quadratic stability and quadratic stabilization are presented in terms of certain matrix

  5. Switching design for robust exponential stability and stabilization of uncertain linear hybrid time-delay systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. V. HIEN; Q. P. HA; V. N. PHAT

    In this paper, a class of uncertain linear hybrid time-delay systems is considered. The system parameter uncertainties are time-varying and unknown but norm-bounded. The delay in the system states is also time-varying. By using an improved Lyapunov-Krasovskii functional, a switching rule for the robust exponential stability and stabilization are designed in terms of the solution of Riccati-type equations. The approach

  6. A note on deterministic end-to-end delay analysis in connection oriented networks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hongbiao Zhang

    1999-01-01

    This paper continues the research on deterministic end-to-end delay analysis of packet flows in connection-oriented networks. It extends the results presented by Chlamtac, Farago, Zhang, and Fumagalli (see IEEE\\/ACM Trans. Networking, vol.6, no.4, 1998) by obtaining a smaller upper bound of end-to-end delay in connection-oriented networks under the same source rate condition. It further investigates the tightness of this upper

  7. On the Gravitomagnetic Time Delay

    E-print Network

    I. Ciufolini; S. Kopeikin; B. Mashhoon; F. Ricci

    2002-12-18

    We study the gravitational time delay in ray propagation due to rotating masses in the linear approximation of general relativity. Simple expressions are given for the gravitomagnetic time delay that occurs when rays of radiation cross a slowly rotating shell and propagate in the field of a distant rotating source. Moreover, we calculate the local gravitational time delay in the Goedel universe. The observational consequences of these results in the case of weak gravitational lensing are discussed.

  8. National Airspace System Delay Estimation Using Weather Weighted Traffic Counts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chatterji, Gano B.; Sridhar, Banavar

    2004-01-01

    Assessment of National Airspace System performance, which is usually measured in terms of delays resulting from the application of traffic flow management initiatives in response to weather conditions, volume, equipment outages and runway conditions, is needed both for guiding flow control decisions during the day of operations and for post operations analysis. Comparison of the actual delay, resulting from the traffic flow management initiatives, with the expected delay, based on traffic demand and other conditions, provides the assessment of the National Airspace System performance. This paper provides a method for estimating delay using the expected traffic demand and weather. In order to identify the cause of delays, 517 days of National Airspace System delay data reported by the Federal Aviation Administration s Operations Network were analyzed. This analysis shows that weather is the most important causal factor for delays followed by equipment and runway delays. Guided by these results, the concept of weather weighted traffic counts as a measure of system delay is described. Examples are given to show the variation of these counts as a function of time of the day. The various datasets, consisting of aircraft position data, enroute severe weather data, surface wind speed and visibility data, reported delay data and number of aircraft handled by the Centers data, and their sources are described. The procedure for selecting reference days on which traffic was minimally impacted by weather is described. Different traffic demand on each reference day of the week, determined by analysis of 42 days of traffic and delay data, was used as the expected traffic demand for each day of the week. Next, the method for computing the weather weighted traffic counts using the expected traffic demand, derived from reference days, and the expanded regions around severe weather cells is discussed. It is shown via a numerical example that this approach improves the dynamic range of the weather weighted traffic counts considerably. Time histories of these new weather weighted traffic counts are used for synthesizing two statistical features, six histogram features and six time domain features. In addition to these enroute weather features, two surface weather features of number of major airports in the United States with high mean winds and low mean visibility are also described. A least squares procedure for establishing a functional relation between the features, using combinations of these features, and system delays is explored using 36 days of data. Best correlations between the estimated delays using the functional relation and the actual delays provided by the Operations Network are obtained with two different combinations of features: 1) six time domain features of weather weighted traffic counts plus two surface weather features, and 2) six histogram features and mean of weather weighted traffic counts along with the two surface weather features. Correlation coefficient values of 0.73 and 0.83 were found in these two instances.

  9. Earth's extensive entropy bound

    E-print Network

    A. M. Lisewski

    2012-12-20

    The possibility of planetary mass black hole production by crossing entropy limits is addressed. Such a possibility is given by pointing out that two geophysical quantities have comparable values: first, Earth's total negative entropy flux integrated over geological time and, second, its extensive entropy bound, which follows as a tighter bound to the Bekenstein limit when entropy is an extensive function. The similarity between both numbers suggests that the formation of black holes from planets may be possible through a strong fluctuation toward thermodynamic equilibrium which results in gravothermal instability and final collapse. Briefly discussed are implications for the astronomical observation of low mass black holes and for Fermi's paradox.

  10. Robust synchronization of an array of coupled stochastic discrete-time delayed neural networks.

    PubMed

    Liang, Jinling; Wang, Zidong; Liu, Yurong; Liu, Xiaohui

    2008-11-01

    This paper is concerned with the robust synchronization problem for an array of coupled stochastic discrete-time neural networks with time-varying delay. The individual neural network is subject to parameter uncertainty, stochastic disturbance, and time-varying delay, where the norm-bounded parameter uncertainties exist in both the state and weight matrices, the stochastic disturbance is in the form of a scalar Wiener process, and the time delay enters into the activation function. For the array of coupled neural networks, the constant coupling and delayed coupling are simultaneously considered. We aim to establish easy-to-verify conditions under which the addressed neural networks are synchronized. By using the Kronecker product as an effective tool, a linear matrix inequality (LMI) approach is developed to derive several sufficient criteria ensuring the coupled delayed neural networks to be globally, robustly, exponentially synchronized in the mean square. The LMI-based conditions obtained are dependent not only on the lower bound but also on the upper bound of the time-varying delay, and can be solved efficiently via the Matlab LMI Toolbox. Two numerical examples are given to demonstrate the usefulness of the proposed synchronization scheme. PMID:19000962

  11. The Delay Phenomenon: A Compilation of Knowledge across Specialties

    PubMed Central

    Hamilton, Kristy; Wolfswinkel, Erik M.; Weathers, William M.; Xue, Amy S.; Hatef, Daniel A.; Izaddoost, Shayan; Hollier, Larry H.

    2014-01-01

    Objective?The purpose of this article is to review and integrate the available literature in different fields to gain a better understanding of the basic physiology and optimize vascular delay as a reconstructive surgery technique. Methods?A broad search of the literature was performed using the Medline database. Two queries were performed using “vascular delay,” a search expected to yield perspectives from the field of plastic and reconstructive surgery, and “ischemic preconditioning,” (IPC) which was expected to yield research on the same topic in other fields. Results?The combined searches yielded a total of 1824 abstracts. The “vascular delay” query yielded 76 articles from 1984 to 2011. The “ischemic preconditioning” query yielded 6534 articles, ranging from 1980 to 2012. The abstracts were screened for those from other specialties in addition to reconstructive surgery, analyzed potential or current uses of vascular delay in practice, or provided developments in understanding the pathophysiology of vascular delay. 70 articles were identified that met inclusion criteria and were applicable to vascular delay or ischemic preconditioning. Conclusion?An understanding of IPC's implementation and mechanisms in other fields has beneficial implications for the field of reconstructive surgery in the context of the delay phenomenon. Despite an incomplete model of IPC's pathways, the anti-oxidative, anti-apoptotic and anti-inflammatory benefits of IPC are well recognized. The activation of angiogenic genes through IPC could allow for complex flap design, even in poorly vascularized regions. IPC's promotion of angiogenesis and reduction of endothelial dysfunction remain most applicable to reconstructive surgery in reducing graft-related complications and flap failure. PMID:25071876

  12. Delay Estimation Using Adjustable Fractional Delay All-Pass Filters

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mattias Olsson; Håkan Johansson; Per Lowenborg

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a novel time-delay estimator utilizing an fractional-delay all-pass filter and Newton's method. Solutions using a direct correlator and an average squared difference function are compared. Furthermore, an analysis of the effects of the batch length dependence is presented

  13. Compositional Analysis of Expected Delays in Networks of Probabilistic I/O Automata

    E-print Network

    Smolka, Scott

    systems that in- corporates a notion of probabilistic choice. The ba- Effort sponsored by the Air Force Office of Scientific Re- search Air Force Materiel Command, USAF, under grant num- ber F49620, either expressed or implied, of the Air Force Office of Scientific Research or the U.S. Government. E

  14. Smoking Outcome Expectancies among College Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brandon, Thomas H.; Baker, Timothy B.

    Alcohol expectancies have been found to predict later onset of drinking among adolescents. This study examined whether the relationship between level of alcohol use and expectancies is paralleled with cigarette smoking, and attempted to identify the content of smoking expectancies. An instrument to measure the subjective expected utility of…

  15. Gender wage gap in expectations and realizations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Antonio Filippin; Andrea Ichino

    2005-01-01

    Realized wages are affected by investments and signals concerning productivity, which workers undertake on the basis of expectations on future job prospects. Thus, the gender wage gap is also likely to depend on workers' expectations. Using data on wage expectations of students and wage realizations of graduates from the same University (Bocconi, Italy), we show that the expected gender gap

  16. NMR implementation of Quantum Delayed-Choice Experiment

    E-print Network

    Soumya Singha Roy; Abhishek Shukla; T. S. Mahesh

    2011-12-23

    We report the first experimental demonstration of quantum delayed-choice experiment via nuclear magnetic resonance techniques. An ensemble of molecules each with two spin-1/2 nuclei are used as target and the ancilla qubits to perform the quantum circuit corresponding the delayed-choice setup. As expected in theory, our experiments clearly demonstrate the continuous morphing of the target qubit between particle-like and wave-like behaviors. The experimental visibility of the interference patterns shows good agreement with the theory.

  17. NMR implementation of a quantum delayed-choice experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, Soumya Singha; Shukla, Abhishek; Mahesh, T. S.

    2012-02-01

    We report an experimental demonstration of a quantum delayed-choice experiment via nuclear magnetic resonance techniques. Two spin-1/2 nuclei from each molecule of a liquid ensemble are used as target and ancilla qubits. The circuit corresponding to the recently proposed quantum delayed-choice setup has been implemented with different states of an ancilla qubit. As expected theoretically, our experiments clearly demonstrate continuous morphing of the target qubit between particle-like and wave-like behaviors. The experimental visibility of the interference patterns shows good agreement with theory.

  18. Listeners' expectations about echoes can raise or lower echo threshold.

    PubMed

    Clifton, R K; Freyman, R L; Litovsky, R Y; McCall, D

    1994-03-01

    Echo threshold increases with exposure to redundant trains of stimuli. Three experiments were conducted to test the hypothesis that a change in the ongoing train would affect listeners' perception of the echo, but only if it signified an unusual change in room acoustics. The stimulus train was composed of 4-ms narrow-band noise bursts, with the leading sound from a loudspeaker placed 45 degrees left of midline and the lagging sound or simulated echo from 45 degrees right, delivered in an anechoic chamber. The lagging sound in the test noise, which followed the train after a 750-ms pause, came randomly from loudspeakers at 35 degrees or 55 degrees right, and the listener's task was to choose which position the echo came from on each trial. In experiment 1 the delay between onsets of the leading and lagging bursts was varied between train and test bursts, which simulated a sudden movement of the reflecting surface either toward the listener (if the delay of the test burst was shorter than the train) or away (if the delay was longer). In both cases listeners detected the echo's direction more easily, compared to trials when there was no change between train and test burst delays. In order to check whether any change between train and test bursts would increase echo discriminability, experiment 2 varied frequency and experiment 3 varied intensity. These variations were not expected to affect the echo's detectability because such changes signify that the original sound changed in these characteristics and the echo reflected these changes.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8176056

  19. Conical-Domain Model for Estimating GPS Ionospheric Delays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sparks, Lawrence; Komjathy, Attila; Mannucci, Anthony

    2009-01-01

    The conical-domain model is a computational model, now undergoing development, for estimating ionospheric delays of Global Positioning System (GPS) signals. Relative to the standard ionospheric delay model described below, the conical-domain model offers improved accuracy. In the absence of selective availability, the ionosphere is the largest source of error for single-frequency users of GPS. Because ionospheric signal delays contribute to errors in GPS position and time measurements, satellite-based augmentation systems (SBASs) have been designed to estimate these delays and broadcast corrections. Several national and international SBASs are currently in various stages of development to enhance the integrity and accuracy of GPS measurements for airline navigation. In the Wide Area Augmentation System (WAAS) of the United States, slant ionospheric delay errors and confidence bounds are derived from estimates of vertical ionospheric delay modeled on a grid at regularly spaced intervals of latitude and longitude. The estimate of vertical delay at each ionospheric grid point (IGP) is calculated from a planar fit of neighboring slant delay measurements, projected to vertical using a standard, thin-shell model of the ionosphere. Interpolation on the WAAS grid enables estimation of the vertical delay at the ionospheric pierce point (IPP) corresponding to any arbitrary measurement of a user. (The IPP of a given user s measurement is the point where the GPS signal ray path intersects a reference ionospheric height.) The product of the interpolated value and the user s thin-shell obliquity factor provides an estimate of the user s ionospheric slant delay. Two types of error that restrict the accuracy of the thin-shell model are absent in the conical domain model: (1) error due to the implicit assumption that the electron density is independent of the azimuthal angle at the IPP and (2) error arising from the slant-to-vertical conversion. At low latitudes or at mid-latitudes under disturbed conditions, the accuracy of SBAS systems based upon the thin-shell model suffers due to the presence of complex ionospheric structure, high delay values, and large electron density gradients. Interpolation on the vertical delay grid serves as an additional source of delay error. The conical-domain model permits direct computation of the user s slant delay estimate without the intervening use of a vertical delay grid. The key is to restrict each fit of GPS measurements to a spatial domain encompassing signals from only one satellite. The conical domain model is so named because each fit involves a group of GPS receivers that all receive signals from the same GPS satellite (see figure); the receiver and satellite positions define a cone, the satellite position being the vertex. A user within a given cone evaluates the delay to the satellite directly, using (1) the IPP coordinates of the line of sight to the satellite and (2) broadcast fit parameters associated with the cone. The conical-domain model partly resembles the thin-shell model in that both models reduce an inherently four-dimensional problem to two dimensions. However, unlike the thin-shell model, the conical domain model does not involve any potentially erroneous simplifying assumptions about the structure of the ionosphere. In the conical domain model, the initially four-dimensional problem becomes truly two-dimensional in the sense that once a satellite location has been specified, any signal path emanating from a satellite can be identified by only two coordinates; for example, the IPP coordinates. As a consequence, a user s slant-delay estimate converges to the correct value in the limit that the receivers converge to the user s location (or, equivalently, in the limit that the measurement IPPs converge to the user s IPP).

  20. Delayed cure bismaleimide resins

    DOEpatents

    Adams, Johnnie E. (Grandview, MO); Jamieson, Donald R. (Merriam, KS)

    1984-08-07

    Polybismaleimides prepared by delayed curing of bis-imides having the formula ##STR1## wherein R.sub.1 and R.sub.2 each independently is H, C.sub.1-4 -alkyl, C.sub.1-4 -alkoxy, Cl or Br, or R.sub.1 and R.sub.2 together form a fused 6-membered hydrocarbon aromatic ring, with the proviso that R.sub.1 and R.sub.2 are not t-butyl or t-butoxy; X is O, S or Se; n is 1-3; and the --(CH.sub.2).sub.n -- group, optionally, is substituted by 1-3 methyl groups or by fluorine.

  1. Amplitude death in networks of delay-coupled delay oscillators

    E-print Network

    Johannes M. Höfener; Gautam C. Sethia; Thilo Gross

    2012-10-06

    Amplitude death is a dynamical phenomenon in which a network of oscillators settles to a stable state as a result of coupling. Here, we study amplitude death in a generalized model of delay-coupled delay oscillators. We derive analytical results for degree homogeneous networks that show that amplitude death is governed by certain eigenvalues of the network's adjacency matrix. In particular these results demonstrate that in delay-coupled delay oscillators amplitude death can occur for arbitrarily large coupling strength k. In this limit we find a region of amplitude death, which occurs already at small coupling delays that scale with 1/k. We show numerically that these results remain valid in random networks with heterogeneous degree distribution.

  2. Dealing with delays does not transfer across sensorimotor tasks.

    PubMed

    de la Malla, Cristina; López-Moliner, Joan; Brenner, Eli

    2014-01-01

    It is known that people can learn to deal with delays between their actions and the consequences of such actions. We wondered whether they do so by adjusting their anticipations about the sensory consequences of their actions or whether they simply learn to move in certain ways when performing specific tasks. To find out, we examined details of how people learn to intercept a moving target with a cursor that follows the hand with a delay and examined the transfer of learning between this task and various other tasks that require temporal precision. Subjects readily learned to intercept the moving target with the delayed cursor. The compensation for the delay generalized across modifications of the task, so subjects did not simply learn to move in a certain way in specific circumstances. The compensation did not generalize to completely different timing tasks, so subjects did not generally expect the consequences of their motor commands to be delayed. We conclude that people specifically learn to control the delayed visual consequences of their actions to perform certain tasks. PMID:25301016

  3. Quasar optical variability: searching for interband time delays

    E-print Network

    Rumen S. Bachev

    2008-12-05

    Aims. The main purpose of this paper is to study time delays between the light variations in different wavebands for a sample of quasars. Measuring a reliable time delay for a large number of quasars may help constraint the models of their central engines. The standard accretion disk irradiation model predicts a delay of the longer wavelengths behind the shorter ones, a delay that depends on the fundamental quasar parameters. Since the black hole masses and the accretion rates are approximately known for the sample we use, one can compare the observed time delays with the expected ones. Methods. We applied the interpolation cross-correlation function (ICCF) method to the Giveon et al. sample of 42 quasars, monitored in two (B and R) colors, to find the time lags represented by the ICCF peaks. Different tests were performed to assess the influence of photometric errors, sampling, etc., on the final result. Results. We found that most of the objects show a delay in the red light curve behind the blue one (a positive lag), which on average for the sample is about +4 days (+3 for the median), although the scatter is significant. These results are broadly consistent with the reprocessing model, especially for the well-sampled objects. The normalized time-lag deviations do not seem to correlate significantly with other quasar properties, including optical, radio, or X-ray measurables. On the other hand, many objects show a clear negative lag, which, if real, may have important consequences for the variability models.

  4. Bounded Model Checking and Induction: From Refutation to Verification

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Leonardo de Moura; Harald Rueß; Maria Sorea

    \\u000a We explore the combination of bounded model checking and induction for proving safety properties of infinite-state systems.\\u000a In particular, we define a general k-induction scheme and prove completeness thereof. A main characteristic of our methodology is that strengthened invariants\\u000a are generated from failed k-induction proofs. This strengthening step requires quantifier-elimination, and we propose a lazy quantifier-elimination procedure, which delays expensive

  5. Throughput-Optimal Random Access with Order-Optimal Delay

    E-print Network

    Lotfinezhad, Mahdi

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we consider CSMA policies for scheduling of multihop wireless networks with one-hop traffic. The main contribution of this paper is to propose Unlocking CSMA (U-CSMA) policy that enables to obtain high throughput with low (average) packet delay for large wireless networks. In particular, the delay under U-CSMA policy becomes order-optimal. For one-hop traffic, delay is defined to be order-optimal if it is O(1), i.e., it stays bounded, as the network-size increases to infinity. Using mean field theory techniques, we analytically show that for torus (grid-like) interference topologies with one-hop traffic, to achieve a network load of $\\rho$, the delay under U-CSMA policy becomes $O(1/(1-\\rho)^{3})$ as the network-size increases, and hence, delay becomes order optimal. We conduct simulations for general random geometric interference topologies under U-CSMA policy combined with congestion control to maximize a network-wide utility. These simulations confirm that order optimality holds, and that we...

  6. Bound states of quarks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wolfgang Lucha; Franz F. Schöberl; Dieter Gromes

    1991-01-01

    This review consists of two parts, the phenomenology of non-relativistic potential models and the theoretical understanding of the forces between quarks. The first part reports on the description of hadrons as bound states of quarks by non-relativistic potential models. It starts with a brief sketch of the way in which information on the interquark potential may be gained from quantum

  7. An Expectancy Model of Laboratory Preparedness Effects

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Graham C. L. Davey

    1992-01-01

    Experiments investigating differential unconditioned stimulus (UCS) expectancy during fear-relevant (prepared) and fear-irrelevant (unprepared) stimuli revealed that (a) a UCS expectancy bias is apparent before conditioning, (b) initial differential UCS expectancy appears in spite of instructions informing the Ss of no UCS presentations, (c) differential UCS expectancies to fear-relevant and fear-irrelevant stimuli dissipate with continued nonreinforcement, (d) differential UCS expectancies may

  8. A time delay controller for magnetic bearings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Youcef-Toumi, K.; Reddy, S.

    1991-01-01

    The control of systems with unknown dynamics and unpredictable disturbances has raised some challenging problems. This is particularly important when high system performance needs to be guaranteed at all times. Recently, the Time Delay Control has been suggested as an alternative control scheme. The proposed control system does not require an explicit plant model nor does it depend on the estimation of specific plant parameters. Rather, it combines adaptation with past observations to directly estimate the effect of the plant dynamics. A control law is formulated for a class of dynamic systems and a sufficient condition is presented for control systems stability. The derivation is based on the bounded input-bounded output stability approach using L sub infinity function norms. The control scheme is implemented on a five degrees of freedom high speed and high precision magnetic bearing. The control performance is evaluated using step responses, frequency responses, and disturbance rejection properties. The experimental data show an excellent control performance despite the system complexity.

  9. Delayed Auditory Feedback and Movement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pfordresher, Peter Q.; Dalla Bella, Simone

    2011-01-01

    It is well known that timing of rhythm production is disrupted by delayed auditory feedback (DAF), and that disruption varies with delay length. We tested the hypothesis that disruption depends on the state of the movement trajectory at the onset of DAF. Participants tapped isochronous rhythms at a rate specified by a metronome while hearing DAF…

  10. Delayed Reinforcement of Operant Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lattal, Kennon A.

    2010-01-01

    The experimental analysis of delay of reinforcement is considered from the perspective of three questions that seem basic not only to understanding delay of reinforcement but also, by implication, the contributions of temporal relations between events to operant behavior. The first question is whether effects of the temporal relation between…

  11. High resolution digital delay timer

    DOEpatents

    Martin, Albert D. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1988-01-01

    Method and apparatus are provided for generating an output pulse following a trigger pulse at a time delay interval preset with a resolution which is high relative to a low resolution available from supplied clock pulses. A first lumped constant delay (20) provides a first output signal (24) at predetermined interpolation intervals corresponding to the desired high resolution time interval. Latching circuits (26, 28) latch the high resolution data (24) to form a first synchronizing data set (60). A selected time interval has been preset to internal counters (142, 146, 154) and corrected for circuit propagation delay times having the same order of magnitude as the desired high resolution. Internal system clock pulses (32, 34) count down the counters to generate an internal pulse delayed by an interval which is functionally related to the preset time interval. A second LCD (184) corrects the internal signal with the high resolution time delay. A second internal pulse is then applied to a third LCD (74) to generate a second set of synchronizing data (76) which is complementary with the first set of synchronizing data (60) for presentation to logic circuits (64). The logic circuits (64) further delay the internal output signal (72) to obtain a proper phase relationship of an output signal (80) with the internal pulses (32, 34). The final delayed output signal (80) thereafter enables the output pulse generator (82) to produce the desired output pulse (84) at the preset time delay interval following input of the trigger pulse (10, 12).

  12. Demystifying the Delayed Choice Experiments

    E-print Network

    Bram Gaasbeek

    2010-07-22

    The delayed choice experiments are a collection of experiments where the counterintuitive laws of quantum mechanics are manifested in a very striking way. Although the delayed choice experiments can be very accurately described with the standard framework of quantum optics, a more didactical and intuitive explanation seems not to have been given so far. In this note, we fill that gap.

  13. Expected geoneutrino signal at JUNO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strati, Virginia; Baldoncini, Marica; Callegari, Ivan; Mantovani, Fabio; McDonough, William F.; Ricci, Barbara; Xhixha, Gerti

    2015-12-01

    Constraints on the Earth's composition and on its radiogenic energy budget come from the detection of geoneutrinos. The Kamioka Liquid scintillator Antineutrino Detector (KamLAND) and Borexino experiments recently reported the geoneutrino flux, which reflects the amount and distribution of U and Th inside the Earth. The Jiangmen Underground Neutrino Observatory (JUNO) neutrino experiment, designed as a 20 kton liquid scintillator detector, will be built in an underground laboratory in South China about 53 km from the Yangjiang and Taishan nuclear power plants, each one having a planned thermal power of approximately 18 GW. Given the large detector mass and the intense reactor antineutrino flux, JUNO aims not only to collect high statistics antineutrino signals from reactors but also to address the challenge of discriminating the geoneutrino signal from the reactor background. The predicted geoneutrino signal at JUNO is terrestrial neutrino unit (TNU), based on the existing reference Earth model, with the dominant source of uncertainty coming from the modeling of the compositional variability in the local upper crust that surrounds (out to approximately 500 km) the detector. A special focus is dedicated to the 6° × 4° local crust surrounding the detector which is estimated to contribute for the 44% of the signal. On the basis of a worldwide reference model for reactor antineutrinos, the ratio between reactor antineutrino and geoneutrino signals in the geoneutrino energy window is estimated to be 0.7 considering reactors operating in year 2013 and reaches a value of 8.9 by adding the contribution of the future nuclear power plants. In order to extract useful information about the mantle's composition, a refinement of the abundance and distribution of U and Th in the local crust is required, with particular attention to the geochemical characterization of the accessible upper crust where 47% of the expected geoneutrino signal originates and this region contributes the major source of uncertainty.

  14. Ascertainment and Treatment of Delayed Puberty

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jesús Pozo; Jesús Argente

    2003-01-01

    The majority of patients with pubertal delay, can be classified as having primary pubertal delay (constitutional delay of growth and puberty, CDGP), although any child with a chronic disease could present with delayed puberty. In contrast, children with hypogonadism, either hyper- or hypogonadotropic, exhibit a total absence of pubertal development. Hence, early evaluation of these patients should be performed. Delay

  15. Dynamics of genetic regulatory networks with delays

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hai Ling; Zhangqing Zhu; Chunlin Chen

    2012-01-01

    Time delays are an important aspect in the modeling of genetic regulation due to slow biochemical reactions such as gene transcription and translation. Based on recent developments of the delays stochastic simulation algorithm, the delays chemical master equation and the delays differential equation are developed for describing biological reactions with time delays. Three typical genetic regulatory networks (i.e., positive network,

  16. Precise delay generation using coupled oscillators

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. G. Maneatis; M. A. Horowitz

    1993-01-01

    A new delay generator based on a series of coupled ring oscillators has been developed; it produces precise delays with subgate delay resolution for chip testing applications. It achieves a delay resolution equal to a buffer delay divided by the number of rings. The coupling employed forces the outputs of a linear array of ring oscillators oscillating at the same

  17. Memoryless Linear Adaptive Robust Controllers of Uncertain Systems with Nonlinear Time-Varying Delayed State Perturbations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Hansheng

    The problem of adaptive robust stabilization is considered for a class of uncertain nonlinear time-delay dynamical systems. It is assumed that the upper bound of the nonlinear delayed state perturbations is a linear function of some parameters which are assumed to be unknown. It is also assumed that the time delays are time-varying, and can be any nonnegative continuous and bounded functions. In this paper, it is not required that the derivatives of the time-varying delays have to be less than one. For such a class of uncertain nonlinear time-delay systems, a new method is presented whereby a class of memoryless continuous adaptive robust state feedback controllers with a rather simpler structure is proposed. That is, being completely different from the related works reported in the control literature, the nonlinear perturbations are not included in the proposed control schemes. By employing a quasi-Lyapunov function, it is shown that the solutions of uncertain nonlinear time-delay systems can be guaranteed to be uniformly exponentially convergent towards a ball which can be as small as desired. Finally, as an application of the results, the problem of water pollution control is considered for uncertain river time-delay systems due to industrial waste treatment facility, and the corresponding simulations are given.

  18. 78 FR 18326 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Comment Request; Upward Bound and Upward Bound Math...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-26

    ...Request; Upward Bound and Upward Bound Math Science Annual Performance Report AGENCY...Collection: Upward Bound and Upward Bound Math Science Annual Performance Report. OMB...regular Upward Bound (UB) and Upward Bound Math and Science (UBMS) Programs. The...

  19. Obesity and Trends in Life Expectancy

    PubMed Central

    Walls, Helen L.; Backholer, Kathryn; Proietto, Joseph; McNeil, John J.

    2012-01-01

    Background. Increasing levels of obesity over recent decades have been expected to lead to an epidemic of diabetes and a subsequent reduction in life expectancy, but instead all-cause and cardiovascular-specific mortality rates have decreased steadily in most developed countries and life expectancy has increased. Methods. This paper suggests several factors that may be masking the effects of obesity on life expectancy. Results. It is possible that health and life expectancy gains could be even greater if it was not for the increasing prevalence of extreme obesity. It is also possible that the principal impact of obesity is on disability-free life expectancy rather than on life expectancy itself. Conclusion. If the principal impact of obesity were through disability-free life expectancy rather than on life expectancy itself, this would have substantial implications for the health of individuals and the future burden on the health care system. PMID:22655173

  20. Is Fusion Inhibited for Weakly Bound Nuclei?

    SciTech Connect

    Takahashi, J.; Munhoz, M.; Szanto, E.M.; Carlin, N.; Added, N.; Suaide, A.A.; de Moura, M.M.; Liguori Neto, R.; Szanto de Toledo, A. [Universidade de Sao Paulo, Institute de Fisica, Departamento de Fisica Nuclear, Caixa Postal 66318, 05389-970 Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, (Brasil)] [Universidade de Sao Paulo, Institute de Fisica, Departamento de Fisica Nuclear, Caixa Postal 66318, 05389-970 Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, (Brasil); Canto, L.F. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Caixa Postal 68528, 21945-970 Rio de Janeiro, RJ, (Brasil)] [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Caixa Postal 68528, 21945-970 Rio de Janeiro, RJ, (Brasil)

    1997-01-01

    Complete fusion of light radioactive nuclei is predicted to be hindered at near-barrier energies. This feature is investigated in the case of the least bound stable nuclei. Evaporation residues resulting from the {sup 6,7}Li+{sup 9}Be and {sup 6,7}Li+{sup 12}C fusion reactions have been measured in order to study common features in reactions involving light weakly bound nuclei. The experimental excitation functions revealed that the fusion cross section is significantly smaller than the total reaction cross section and also smaller than the fusion cross section expected from the available systematics. A clear correlation between the fusion probability and nucleon (cluster) separation energy has been established.The results suggest that the breakup process has a strong influence on the hindrance of the fusion cross section. {copyright} {ital 1996} {ital The American Physical Society}

  1. A Discounting Framework for Choice With Delayed and Probabilistic Rewards

    PubMed Central

    Green, Leonard; Myerson, Joel

    2005-01-01

    When choosing between delayed or uncertain outcomes, individuals discount the value of such outcomes on the basis of the expected time to or the likelihood of their occurrence. In an integrative review of the expanding experimental literature on discounting, the authors show that although the same form of hyperbola-like function describes discounting of both delayed and probabilistic outcomes, a variety of recent findings are inconsistent with a single-process account. The authors also review studies that compare discounting in different populations and discuss the theoretical and practical implications of the findings. The present effort illustrates the value of studying choice involving both delayed and probabilistic outcomes within a general discounting framework that uses similar experimental procedures and a common analytical approach. PMID:15367080

  2. Delayed carotid wallstent shortening

    PubMed Central

    Garriboli, L.; Jannello, A.M.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Carotid angioplasty and stenting (CAS) has been demonstrated to be safe and an acceptable alternative to surgery. Stent malpositioning can occur during the maneuvers of delivering; technical errors can lead to proximal or distal slipping of the stent that needs the placement of additional pieces. Presentation of Case We describe the case of a postoperative dislocation of a carotid stent that happened 1 year after placement. After the first ultrasound control confirmed the correct position of the Stent the following one, executed 9 months later, showed a severe restenosis due to a proximal dislocation of the stent. The problem was solved with the positioning of a further one more distally. Discussion We observe the possibility of Carotid Wallstent shortening during the implant due to an incorrect placement or sizing, but a delayed displacement is a rare complication that, we highlight, can occur after CAS and that needs to be considered at the moment of the preoperative planning. Conclusion After CAS a closed ultrasound follow up is advisable for a long time in order to detect unexpected complications. PMID:25635600

  3. Delayed encephalopathy after strangling.

    PubMed

    Dooling, E C; Richardson, E P

    1976-03-01

    An 11-year-old boy who had been the victim of a strangling attempt was asymptomatic for one week whereupon involuntary movements involving the trunk and limbs developed, along with repetitive episodes of opisthotonos and autonomic dysfunction. Meanwhile, he remained alert and appeared to be mentally intact. An electroencephalogram was normal. He died 13 weeks after the onset of the neurological disorder. The neuropathological examination showed cavitating lesions in the caudate nucleus, putamen, and globus pallidus bilaterally, with sparing of the white matter. The delayed onset of a progressively evolving neurological disorder has been noted in various forms of hypoxicischemic insult, including previously reported cases of strangling, but its occurrence cannot be predicted from the preceding clinical state or course. In the cases in which abnormal movements have been predominant, the pathological findings have been similar despite diversity in the preceding circumstances. We suggest the underlying metabolic disorder common to these cases may be lactic acidosis, and that they should be studied for evidence of a biochemical defect. PMID:1252163

  4. Bound States in Graphene

    E-print Network

    Kumar S. Gupta; Siddhartha Sen

    2008-06-03

    We present a quantum analysis of the massless excitations in graphene with a charge impurity. When the effective charge exceeds a certain critical value, the spectrum is quantized and is unbounded from below. The corresponding eigenstates are square-integrable at infinity and have a rapidly oscillatory behaviour in the short distance, which can be interpreted as a fall to the centre. Using a cutoff regularization, we show that the effective Coulomb interaction strength is driven to its critical value under the renormalization group flow. In the subcritical region, we find bound states with imaginary values of the energy for certain range of the system parameters. The physical significance of these bound states with imaginary eigenvalues is discussed.

  5. Model for Delay Faults Based upon Paths

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gordon L. Smith

    1985-01-01

    Delay testing of combinational logic in a clocked environment is analyzed. A model based upon paths is introduced for delay faults. Any path with a total delay exceeding the clock interval is called a \\

  6. 49 CFR 236.563 - Delay time.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Delay time. 236.563 Section 236.563 Transportation...Rules and Instructions; Locomotives § 236.563 Delay time. Delay time of automatic train stop or train control...

  7. 40 CFR 1500.5 - Reducing delay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 false Reducing delay. 1500.5 Section 1500...MANDATE § 1500.5 Reducing delay. Agencies shall reduce delay by: (a) Integrating the...e) Establishing appropriate time limits for the environmental...

  8. 49 CFR 236.563 - Delay time.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Delay time. 236.563 Section 236.563 Transportation...Rules and Instructions; Locomotives § 236.563 Delay time. Delay time of automatic train stop or train control...

  9. 49 CFR 236.563 - Delay time.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Delay time. 236.563 Section 236.563 Transportation...Rules and Instructions; Locomotives § 236.563 Delay time. Delay time of automatic train stop or train control...

  10. 49 CFR 236.563 - Delay time.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Delay time. 236.563 Section 236.563 Transportation...Rules and Instructions; Locomotives § 236.563 Delay time. Delay time of automatic train stop or train control...

  11. 49 CFR 236.563 - Delay time.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Delay time. 236.563 Section 236.563 Transportation...Rules and Instructions; Locomotives § 236.563 Delay time. Delay time of automatic train stop or train control...

  12. 40 CFR 1500.5 - Reducing delay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 false Reducing delay. 1500.5 Section 1500...MANDATE § 1500.5 Reducing delay. Agencies shall reduce delay by: (a) Integrating the...e) Establishing appropriate time limits for the environmental...

  13. Cross-Language High Similarity Search: Why No Sublinear Time Bound Can Be Expected

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maik Anderka; Benno Stein; Martin Potthast

    2010-01-01

    This paper contributes to an important variant of cross-language in- formation retrieval, called cross-language high similari ty search. Given a collec- tion D of documents and a query q in a language different from the language of D, the task is to retrieve highly similar documents with respe ct to q. Use cases for this task include cross-language plagiarism detection

  14. Local Effects of Delayed Food

    PubMed Central

    Davison, Michael; Baum, William M

    2007-01-01

    Five pigeons were trained on a procedure in which seven concurrent variable-interval schedules arranged seven different food–rate ratios in random sequence in each session. Each of these components lasted for 10 response-produced food deliveries, and components were separated by 10-s blackouts. We varied delays to food (signaled by blackout) between the two response alternatives in an experiment with three phases: In Phase 1, the delay on one alternative was 0?s, and the other was varied between 0 and 8?s; in Phase 2, both delays were equal and were varied from 0 to 4?s; in Phase 3, the two delays summed to 8?s, and each was varied from 1 to 7?s. The results showed that increasing delay affected local choice, measured by a pulse in preference, in the same way as decreasing magnitude, but we found also that increasing the delay at the other alternative increased local preference. This result casts doubt on the traditional view that a reinforcer strengthens a response depending only on the reinforcer's value discounted by any response–reinforcer delay. The results suggest that food guides, rather than strengthens, behavior. PMID:17465314

  15. Intersection Bounds: Estimation and Inference

    E-print Network

    Chernozhukov, Victor V.

    We develop a practical and novel method for inference on intersection bounds, namely bounds defined by either the infimum or supremum of a parametric or nonparametric function, or, equivalently, the value of a linear ...

  16. Reflecting Magnon Bound States

    E-print Network

    Changrim Ahn; Dongsu Bak; Soo-Jong Rey

    2008-02-16

    In N=4 super Yang-Mills spin chain, we compute reflection amplitudes of magnon bound-state off giant graviton. We first compute the reflection amplitude off Y=0 brane boundary and compare it with the scattering amplitude between two magnon bound-states in the bulk. We find that analytic structure of the two amplitudes are intimately related each other: the boundary reflection amplitude is a square-root of the bulk scattering amplitude. Using such relation as a guide and taking known results at weak and strong coupling limits as inputs, we find the reflection amplitude of an elementary magnon off Z=0 giant graviton boundary. The reflection phase factor is shown to solve crossing and unitarity relations. We then compute the reflection amplitude of magnon bound-state off the Z=0 brane boundary and observe that its analytic structures are again intimately related to the bulk scattering and the Y=0 boundary reflection amplitudes. We also take dyonic giant magnon limit of these reflection amplitudes and confirm that their phase-shifts agree completely with string worldsheet computations based on complex sine-Gordon soliton scattering.

  17. Alpha Oscillatory Dynamics Index Temporal Expectation Benefits in Working Memory.

    PubMed

    Wilsch, Anna; Henry, Molly J; Herrmann, Björn; Maess, Burkhard; Obleser, Jonas

    2015-07-01

    Enhanced alpha power compared with a baseline can reflect states of increased cognitive load, for example, when listening to speech in noise. Can knowledge about "when" to listen (temporal expectations) potentially counteract cognitive load and concomitantly reduce alpha? The current magnetoencephalography (MEG) experiment induced cognitive load using an auditory delayed-matching-to-sample task with 2 syllables S1 and S2 presented in speech-shaped noise. Temporal expectation about the occurrence of S1 was manipulated in 3 different cue conditions: "Neutral" (uninformative about foreperiod), "early-cued" (short foreperiod), and "late-cued" (long foreperiod). Alpha power throughout the trial was highest when the cue was uninformative about the onset time of S1 (neutral) and lowest for the late-cued condition. This alpha-reducing effect of late compared with neutral cues was most evident during memory retention in noise and originated primarily in the right insula. Moreover, individual alpha effects during retention accounted best for observed individual performance differences between late-cued and neutral conditions, indicating a tradeoff between allocation of neural resources and the benefits drawn from temporal cues. Overall, the results indicate that temporal expectations can facilitate the encoding of speech in noise, and concomitantly reduce neural markers of cognitive load. PMID:24488943

  18. Upper bound multigraphs for posets

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Terry A. McKee

    1989-01-01

    The study of upper bound graphs of posets can be extended naturally to multigraphs. This paper characterizes such upper bound multigraphs, shows they determine the associated posets up to isomorphism, and extends results of D. Scott to characterize posets having chordal or interval upper bound multigraphs.

  19. Community Expectations of College Completion and Attendance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Derden, Michael Wade

    2011-01-01

    Communities relay expectations of behavior that influence residents' decision making processes. The study's purpose was to define and identify social, cultural, and human capital variables relevant to understanding community expectations of postsecondary attainment. The study sought an operational model of community expectancy that would allow…

  20. Learning, Adaptive Expectations and Technology Shocks &ast

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kevin X. D. Huang; Zheng Liu; Tao Zha

    2009-01-01

    This study explores the macroeconomic implications of adaptive expectations in a standard growth model. We show that the self-confirming equilibrium under adaptive expectations is the same as the steady state rational expectations equilibrium for all admissible parameter values, but that dynamics around the steady state are substantially different between the two equilibria. The differences are driven mainly by the dampened

  1. Do expectations matter? The Great Moderation revisited

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fabio Canova; Luca Gambetti

    2008-01-01

    We examine the role of expectations in the Great Moderation episode. We derive theoretical restrictions in a New-Keynesian model and test them using measures of ex- pectations obtained from survey data, the Greenbook and bond markets. Expectations explain the dynamics of inflation and of interest rates but their importance is roughly unchanged over time. Systems with and without expectations display

  2. Atomic physics searches for bound state beta decay

    SciTech Connect

    Murnick, D.E.; Kwon, N. (Department of Physics, Rutgers University Newark, New Jersey 07102 (United States))

    1991-08-05

    Proposed experiments to detect bound state {beta} decay are discussed. This process, although theoretically expected to occur, has not yet been observed. One experiment involves the resonance fluroescence detection of neutral {sup 3}He after the decay of tritium. A second experiment involves storage of {sup 163}Dy{sup 66+} which sould decay to {sup 163}Ho{sup 66+}.

  3. General Strategies to Design Nanometer Flip-Flops in the Energy-Delay Space

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Massimo Alioto; Elio Consoli; Gaetano Palumbo

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, a general and complete design flow for nanometer flip-flops (FFs) is presented. The proposed design methodology permits to optimize FFs under constraints within the energy-delay space through extensive adoption of the Logical Effort method, which also allows for defining the bounds in the design space search. Transistors sizing is rigorously discussed by referring to cases that occur

  4. H ? control of singular time-delay systems via discretized Lyapunov functional

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Li-Li Liu; Ji-Gen Peng; Bao-Wei Wu

    2011-01-01

    This paper addresses the problem of robust H? control for uncertain continuous time singular systems with state delays. A new singular-type complete quadratic Lyapunov–Krasovskii functional (LKF) is introduced, which combines with the discretization LKF method to synthesis problems. An improved bounded real lemma (BRL) is presented to ensure the system to be regular, impulse free and stable with H? performance

  5. Accommodation of delays for networked control systems using classification of service

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    works [7], a method has been proposed to calculate upper-bounded end-to-end delays for switched Ethernet in guarantying that the control constraints are respected. In this paper, we focus on switched Ethernet network be determinism (traditional fielbuses like CAN, Profibus) or non- determinism (for instance, Ethernet

  6. Robust stabilizability of uncertain linear time delay systems with Markovian jumping parameters

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Benjelloun; E. K. Boukas; H. Yang

    1995-01-01

    In this paper, we deal with the robust stabilizability of the class of uncertain linear time-delay systems with Markovian jumping parameters and unknown but bounded uncertainties. Under the assumption of the complete access to the continuous state, the stochastic controllability of the system and the boundedness of the system's uncertainties, sufficient conditions which guarantee the robustness of the stability of

  7. Generalizations of weighted trapezoidal inequality for mappings of bounded variation and their applications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kuei-Lin Tseng; Gou-Sheng Yang; Sever Silvestru Dragomir

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, we establish some generalizations of weighted trapezoid inequality for mappings of bounded variation, and give several applications for r-moment, the expectation of a continuous random variable and the Beta mapping.

  8. A neural network model with dopamine-like reinforcement signal that learns a spatial delayed response task

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. E. Suri; W. Schultz

    1999-01-01

    This study investigated how the simulated response of dopamine neurons to reward-related stimuli could be used as reinforcement signal for learning a spatial delayed response task. Spatial delayed response tasks assess the functions of frontal cortex and basal ganglia in short-term memory, movement preparation and expectation of environmental events. In these tasks, a stimulus appears for a short period at

  9. Electromechanical Delay of the Knee Flexor Muscles Is Impaired After Harvesting Hamstring Tendons for Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stavros Ristanis; Elias Tsepis; Dimitrios Giotis; Nicholas Stergiou; Guiliano Cerulli; Anastasios D. Georgoulis

    2009-01-01

    Background: Changes in electromechanical delay during muscle activation are expected when there are substantial alterations in the structural properties of the musculotendinous tissue. In anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction, specific tendons are being harvested for grafts. Thus, there is an associated scar tissue development at the tendon that may affect the corresponding electromechanical delay.Purpose: This study was conducted to investigate whether

  10. The bound ?-decay of the free neutron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schön, J.; Paul, S.; Emmerich, R.; Engels, R.; Faestermann, T.; Fierlinger, P.; Gabriel, M.; Gutsmied, E.; Hartmann, F. J.; Hertenberger, R.; McAndrew, J.; Röhrmoser, A.; Ruschel, S.; Schott, W.; Schubert, U.; Trautner, A.; Udem, T.; Ulrich, A.

    2012-09-01

    An experiment to measure the bound ?-decay of the neutron into a hydrogen atom and an electron anti-neutrino is described. Observation of such a decay would open an alternative pathway to physics beyond the Standard Model, in particular right-handed current admixtures in the weak interaction as well as the handedness of the neutrino. The experiment is planned at the through-going beam tube SR6 at the FRM2 high-flux reactor in Garching. Although the branching ratio of this decay is expected to be only 4 . 10-6 of the normal neutron ?-decay [1], a sufficient decay rate due to the high flux of neutrons available for the experiment is expected. Simulations have shown that the measurement is feasible, with proper shielding being the critical factor. The experimental setup is currently being studied, testing different detection techniques for H(2s) at the TUM.

  11. Fundamentals of Delayed Coking Joint Industry Project

    SciTech Connect

    Michael Volk Jr; Keith Wisecarver

    2005-10-01

    Delayed coking evolved steadily over the early to mid 1900s to enable refiners to convert high boiling, residual petroleum fractions to light products such as gasoline. Pound for pound, coking is the most energy intensive of any operation in a modern refinery. Large amounts of energy are required to heat the thick, poor-quality petroleum residuum to the 900 to 950 degrees F required to crack the heavy hydrocarbon molecules into lighter, more valuable products. One common misconception of delayed coking is that the product coke is a disadvantage. Although coke is a low valued (near zero economic value) byproduct, compared to transportation fuels, there is a significant worldwide trade and demand for coke as it is an economical fuel. Coke production has increased steadily over the last ten years, with further increases forecast for the foreseeable future. Current domestic production is near 111,000 tons per day. A major driving force behind this increase is the steady decline in crude quality available to refiners. Crude slates are expected to grow heavier with higher sulfur contents while environmental restrictions are expected to significantly reduce the demand for high-sulfur residual fuel oil. Light sweet crudes will continue to be available and in even greater demand than they are today. Refiners will be faced with the choice of purchasing light sweet crudes at a premium price, or adding bottom of the barrel upgrading capability, through additional new investments, to reduce the production of high-sulfur residual fuel oil and increase the production of low-sulfur distillate fuels. A second disadvantage is that liquid products from cokers frequently are unstable, i.e., they rapidly form gum and sediments. Because of intermediate investment and operating costs, delayed coking has increased in popularity among refiners worldwide. Based on the 2000 Worldwide Refining Survey published in the Oil and Gas, the delayed coking capacity for 101 refineries around the world is 2,937,439 barrels/calendar day. These cokers produce 154,607 tons of coke per day and delayed coking accounts for 88% of the world capacity. The delayed coking charge capacity in the United States is 1,787,860 b/cd. Despite its wide commercial use, only relatively few contractors and refiners are truly knowledgeable in delayed-coking design, so that this process carries with it a ''black art'' connotation. Until recently, the expected yield from cokers was determined by a simple laboratory test on the feedstock. As a result of Tulsa University's prior related research, a process model was developed that with additional work could be used to optimize existing delayed cokers over a wide range of potential feedstocks and operating conditions. The objectives of this research program are to: utilize the current micro, batch and pilot unit facilities at The University of Tulsa to enhance the understanding of the coking process; conduct additional micro and pilot unit tests with new and in-house resids and recycles to make current optimization models more robust; conduct focused kinetic experiments to enhance the furnace tube model and to enhance liquid production while minimizing sulfur in the products; conduct detailed foaming studies to optimize the process and minimize process upsets; quantify the parameters that affect coke morphology; and to utilize the knowledge gained from the experimental and modeling studies to enhance the computer programs developed in the previous JIP for optimization of the coking process. These refined computer models will then be tested against refinery data provided by the member companies. Novel concepts will also be explored for hydrogen sulfide removal of furnace gases as well as gas injection studies to reduce over-cracking. The following deliverables are scheduled from the two projects of the three-year JIP: (1) A novel method for enhancing liquid yields from delayed cokers and data that provide insight as to the optimum temperature to remove hydrogen sulfide from furnace gases. (2) An understanding of what causes foaming in c

  12. Capturing router congestion and delay

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nicolas Hohn; Konstantina Papagiannaki; Darryl Veitch

    2009-01-01

    Abstract—Using a unique monitoring experiment, we capture all packets crossing a (lightly utilized) operational,access router from a Tier-1 provider, and use them to provide a detailed ex- amination,of router congestion and,packet delays. The complete capture enables not just statistics as seen from outside the router, but also an accurate,physical router model,to be identified. This enables,a comprehensive,examination,of congestion,and,delay from three points

  13. Tunable silicon CROW delay lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morichetti, Francesco; Canciamilla, Antonio; Torregiani, Matteo; Ferrari, Carlo; Melloni, Andrea; Martinelli, Mario

    2010-05-01

    Tunable coupled resonator optical waveguides (CROWs) are powerful and versatile devices that can be used to dynamically control the delay of optical data streams on chip. In this contribution we show that CROW delay lines fabricated on a silicon on insulator (SOI) platform are suitable for applications in the emerging scenario of optical systems at 100 Gbit/s. Issues concerning technology, design, limits and applications of SOI CROWs are discussed. The performances of silicon CROW delay lines activated by thermal tuning are compared to those of glass CROW in terms of power consumption, thermal crosstalk and reconfiguration speed. The continuous delay of 10-ps long optical pulses by 8 bit length is demonstrated by using a silicon CROW with a bandwidth of 87 GHz and made of 12 RRs. At 100 Gbit/s this structure provides comparable figures of merit (fractional delay of 0.75 bit/RR and fractional loss of 0.7 dB per bit-delay) of state-of-the art glass CROW operating at 10 Gbit/s, yet the area of the latter being three order of magnitude larger. The compatibility of silicon CROW with the emerging 100 Gbit/s systems is demonstrated by showing error-free phase-preserving propagation of a 100 Gbit/s return-to-zero (RZ) polarization-division-multiplexing (PolDM) differential quaternary phase shit keying (DQPSK) signal dynamically delayed by the CROW. It is also demonstrated that a silicon CROW can be used in a PolDM system to introduce a polarization selective delay in order to optimize the time interleaving of the two orthogonally polarized data streams.

  14. Delayed childbearing in the U.S.: facts and fictions.

    PubMed

    Baldwin, W H; Nord, C W

    1984-11-01

    Between 1970-82, the proportion of 1st births in the US to women 25 and older rose from 19-36% and the proportion of women still childless at ages 25-34 increased by 56% at about the same time. Although a sharp contrast with the baby boom era of the 1950s and 1960s, todays's epidemic of delayed childbearing is similar to patterns earlier in the 20th century. As then, much is due to delayed age at marriage, but baby boomers now in the their late 20s and early 30s are also delaying childbirth after marriage. The trend stems in part from their economic difficulties as they compete in a tight job market caused both by their large numbers and a turbulent economy. But it is also related to women's increasing education and, in turn, increasing opportunities in and commitment to the labor force, which can be expected to encourage a delayed childbearing even after prospects brighten for young people. Although a diverse group, most of today's delayed childbearers are white, highly educated, 2-career couples. Adequate daytime care for preschool children is a prime concern. Although more employers now offer childcare assistance and flexible work schedules to working parents, the juggle between jobs and childraising can be a strain. On the plus side are delayed childbearers' greater maturity and generally higher incomes, which can ease potential problems created by parent-child age differences as their children grow up. Businesses have been quick to respond to the new market of older, affluent, 1st-time mothers. New methods of treating of circumventing infertility and prenatal detection of chromosomal birth defects can now help overcome potential biological problems that may concern women who choose to delay childbearing past age 30. PMID:12313332

  15. Prior expectations facilitate metacognition for perceptual decision.

    PubMed

    Sherman, M T; Seth, A K; Barrett, A B; Kanai, R

    2015-09-01

    The influential framework of 'predictive processing' suggests that prior probabilistic expectations influence, or even constitute, perceptual contents. This notion is evidenced by the facilitation of low-level perceptual processing by expectations. However, whether expectations can facilitate high-level components of perception remains unclear. We addressed this question by considering the influence of expectations on perceptual metacognition. To isolate the effects of expectation from those of attention we used a novel factorial design: expectation was manipulated by changing the probability that a Gabor target would be presented; attention was manipulated by instructing participants to perform or ignore a concurrent visual search task. We found that, independently of attention, metacognition improved when yes/no responses were congruent with expectations of target presence/absence. Results were modeled under a novel Bayesian signal detection theoretic framework which integrates bottom-up signal propagation with top-down influences, to provide a unified description of the mechanisms underlying perceptual decision and metacognition. PMID:25973773

  16. A general approach to dynamic packet routing with bounded buffers

    SciTech Connect

    Broder, A.Z. [Digital Systems Research Center, Palo Alto, CA (United States); Frieze, A.M. [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Upfal, E. [IBM Almaden Research Center, San Jose, CA (United States); [Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot (Israel)

    1996-12-31

    We prove a sufficient condition for the stability of dynamic packet routing algorithms. Our approach reduces the problem of steady state analysis to the easier and better understood question of static routing. We show that certain high probability and worst case bounds on the quasistatic (finite past) performance of a routing algorithm imply bounds on the performance of the dynamic version of that algorithm. Our technique is particularly useful in analyzing routing on networks with bounded buffers where complicated dependencies make standard queuing techniques inapplicable. We present several applications of our approach. In all cases we start from a known static algorithm, and modify it to fit our framework. In particular we give the first dynamic algorithm for routing on a butterfly with bounded buffers. Both the injection rate for which the algorithm is stable, and the expected time a packet spends in the system are optimal up to constant factors. Our approach is also applicable to the recently introduced adversarial input model.

  17. [Structural features of perinatal risk factors and their complications contributing to the development of psychomotor delay].

    PubMed

    Laliani, N E; Tatishvili, N A

    2008-05-01

    The incidence of perinatal problems in infants might be the one of the main reasons in delayed psychomotor development. The most predictive for future delay in psychomotor development are the pathology of pregnancy and delivery, an intra-uterine infection, incomplete pregnancy and the hypoxic--ischemic injury of the brain. Adequate conduct of the perinatal period, definition of existing or expected problems and preventive measures allows avoiding or reducing pathological conditions and possible future consequences. The goal of the investigation was to determine the structural features of perinatal risk factors contributing to the future delay in psychomotor development. 348 newborns during 24 months have been examined. It was concluded that perinatal risk factors contribute in the structure of future delay of psychomotor development significantly. Early revealing and adequate conducting of the perinatal period, definition of existing or expected problems and adequate measures allows to avoid or reduce possible pathological conditions, their complications and their consequences. PMID:18560036

  18. Rapid Expectation Adaptation during Syntactic Comprehension.

    PubMed

    Fine, Alex B; Jaeger, T Florian; Farmer, Thomas A; Qian, Ting

    2013-01-01

    When we read or listen to language, we are faced with the challenge of inferring intended messages from noisy input. This challenge is exacerbated by considerable variability between and within speakers. Focusing on syntactic processing (parsing), we test the hypothesis that language comprehenders rapidly adapt to the syntactic statistics of novel linguistic environments (e.g., speakers or genres). Two self-paced reading experiments investigate changes in readers' syntactic expectations based on repeated exposure to sentences with temporary syntactic ambiguities (so-called "garden path sentences"). These sentences typically lead to a clear expectation violation signature when the temporary ambiguity is resolved to an a priori less expected structure (e.g., based on the statistics of the lexical context). We find that comprehenders rapidly adapt their syntactic expectations to converge towards the local statistics of novel environments. Specifically, repeated exposure to a priori unexpected structures can reduce, and even completely undo, their processing disadvantage (Experiment 1). The opposite is also observed: a priori expected structures become less expected (even eliciting garden paths) in environments where they are hardly ever observed (Experiment 2). Our findings suggest that, when changes in syntactic statistics are to be expected (e.g., when entering a novel environment), comprehenders can rapidly adapt their expectations, thereby overcoming the processing disadvantage that mistaken expectations would otherwise cause. Our findings take a step towards unifying insights from research in expectation-based models of language processing, syntactic priming, and statistical learning. PMID:24204909

  19. THE DELAYED NEUTRON PRECURSORS IN FISSION

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1959-01-01

    A survey of the experimental data on delayed neutron half lives and ; yields gives indication for the existence of a greater number of delayed neutron ; precursors than the six commonly accepted. This finds further support in the ; fact that the ratio of delayed neutron yield to cumulative fission yield of a ; delayed neutron precursor depends on

  20. Linear rotary optical delay lines Maksim Skorobogatiy*

    E-print Network

    Skorobogatiy, Maksim

    Linear rotary optical delay lines Maksim Skorobogatiy* Department of Engineering Physics, École of analytical and semi-analytical solutions for the design of high-speed rotary optical delay lines that use of optical delay. Finally, two prototypes of rotary delay lines were fabricated using CNC machining

  1. Adaptive subsample delay estimation using windowed correlation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Douglas L. Maskell; Graham S. Woods

    2004-01-01

    An on-line delay estimation algorithm based upon the windowed average magnitude difference function (AMDF) that is suitable for determining the subsample delay between two noisy signals is introduced. The new estimator uses the AMDF to directly update the delay estimate, which is in turn used to adapt the coefficients of a fractional delay filter (FDF). The new estimator consists predominately

  2. Two-Pump Parametric Optical Delays

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nikola Alic; Joshua Ray Windmiller; James B. Coles; Stojan Radic

    2008-01-01

    Continuously tunable optical delay lines based on parametric process in optical fibers are described theoretically and demonstrated experimentally. Performance limits are outlined and compared to alternative approaches capable of continually adjustable delay management. The current record of 105 ns tunable optical delay at 10 Gb\\/s is presented, with a delay-bandwidth product of 1055.

  3. Delayed Treatment for Rectal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ristvedt, Stephen L.; Birnbaum, Elisa H.; Dietz, David W.; Fleshman, James W.; Kodner, Ira J.; Read, Thomas E.

    2012-01-01

    PURPOSE Reports of the relationship between length of delay before diagnosis of rectal cancer and stage of the disease have been mixed. The present study documented the magnitude and medical ramifications of delay in diagnosing rectal cancer. METHODS One hundred twenty patients who had been recently diagnosed with rectal cancer provided information regarding history of symptoms and initial perceptions of those symptoms. Patients also estimated the time elapsed from onset of symptoms until their first consultation with a physician, as well as time elapsed from consultation until the diagnosis of rectal cancer was made. Stage information was gathered from patient charts. RESULTS For 106 of the patients, the first sign of rectal cancer was in the form of symptoms, and the most common first symptom was rectal bleeding. For the remaining 14 patients, their cancer was first discovered through routine examination. Over 75 percent of patients with symptoms did not initially believe that they were caused by cancer or any other serious problem, and over 50 percent attributed their symptoms to hemorrhoids. There was a clear trend, albeit statistically nonsignificant, toward worsening disease with longer delays. Median delay times in weeks were Stage I (10.0 weeks), Stage II (14.0 weeks), Stage III (18.5 weeks), and Stage IV (26.0 weeks). CONCLUSIONS Delayed diagnosis for rectal cancer remains a significant problem, with instances of delay attributable to both patient and physician. Delayed diagnosis can result in more serious disease and, when attributable to the physician, can result in damaged trust and sometimes legal action. PMID:15981064

  4. Effects of Sexual Expectancies on Early Sexualized Behavior Among Urban Minority Youth

    PubMed Central

    Holloway, Ian W.; Traube, Dorian E.; Schrager, Sheree M.; Levine, Brooklyn; Alicea, Stacey; Watson, Janet L.; Miranda, Ana; McKay, Mary M.

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the effects of different types of sexual expectancies on early sexual behavior among racial/ethnic minority young adolescents. African American and Latino participants between 11 and 13 years old were recruited through schools and community-based agencies in the South Bronx, New York (N = 223). Multiple logistic regression analyses were used to predict early sexual behavior outcomes, which include engagement in sexual possibility situations, kissing, and sexual touching. The moderating effect of gender was examined using multiplicative interaction terms. Higher expectations categorized as personal/parental and romantic/peer expectancies related to the negative consequences of sexual intercourse decreased the odds of engagement in early sexual behavior; whereas higher academic/career and sexual health expectancies did not. Gender moderated the relationships between personal/parental expectancies and engagement in sexual possibility situations and romantic/peer expectancies and kissing. Social workers formulating sexual health promotion and HIV prevention programs for racial/ethnic minority young adolescents should focus on personal/parental and romantic/peer expectancies in favor of negative expectancies regarding academic/career achievement, pregnancy, and HIV. Social work interventions to delay sexual debut should include a family-based component and should be sensitive to gender differences in sexual expectancies. PMID:22461958

  5. The signal delay in interconnection lines considering the effects of small-geometry CMOS inverters

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ming-Chuen Shiau; Chung-Yu Wu

    1990-01-01

    Physical timing models for small-geometry CMOS inverters with interconnection lines have been developed. Large-signal equivalent circuits of CMOS inverters and 10-section RC ladder networks for interconnection lines are considered assuming nonstep input waveforms and initial delay times. Due to more realistic and complete considerations, the model accuracy is expected to be higher than that of the conventional delay models. Extensive

  6. Low SNR Capacity of Fading Channels -- MIMO and Delay Spread

    E-print Network

    Sethuraman, Vignesh; Hajek, Bruce; Lapidoth, Amos

    2007-01-01

    Discrete-time Rayleigh fading multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) channels are considered, with no channel state information at the transmitter and receiver. The fading is assumed to be correlated in time and independent from antenna to antenna. Peak and average transmit power constraints are imposed, either on the sum over antennas, or on each individual antenna. In both cases, an upper bound and an asymptotic lower bound, as the signal-to-noise ratio approaches zero, on the channel capacity are presented. The limit of normalized capacity is identified under the sum power constraints, and, for a subclass of channels, for individual power constraints. These results carry over to a SISO channel with delay spread (i.e. frequency selective fading).

  7. Quantum Square Well Bound States Described by Equations with Non-locality

    E-print Network

    Toru Ohira

    2012-11-12

    We present here a simple equation explicitly incorporating non-locality, which reproduces quantized energy levels of the bound states for the square well potentials. Introduction of this equation is motivated by studies of differential equation with time delayed feedback, which can be viewed as describing temporal non-locality.

  8. On the Skew-Bounded Minimum-Bu er Routing Tree Problem Christoph Albrecht,y

    E-print Network

    Zelikovsky, Alexander

    - rectness methodologies for high-speed digital VLSI de- sign. Bounds on load caps improve coupling noise im- munity, reduce degradation of signal transition edges, and reduce delay uncertainty due to coupling noise programming algorithm has practi- cal running time and inserts up to 5 10 fewer bu ers compared

  9. Expectancy–Value Constructs and Expectancy Violation as Predictors of Exercise Adherence in Previously Sedentary Women

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sharon R. Sears; Annette L. Stanton

    2001-01-01

    This prospective study examined effects of expectancy of exercise benefits, value of benefits, expectancy violation, and self-efficacy (SE) on exercise behavior and study dropout in sedentary women (n = 86). SE predicted exercise for study completers but did not predict study dropout. After 6 and 12 weeks, participants evidenced expectancy violations, particularly for fitness and weight. Initial value, expectancy, and

  10. Separate valuation subsystems for delay and effort decision costs.

    PubMed

    Prévost, Charlotte; Pessiglione, Mathias; Météreau, Elise; Cléry-Melin, Marie-Laure; Dreher, Jean-Claude

    2010-10-20

    Decision making consists of choosing among available options on the basis of a valuation of their potential costs and benefits. Most theoretical models of decision making in behavioral economics, psychology, and computer science propose that the desirability of outcomes expected from alternative options can be quantified by utility functions. These utility functions allow a decision maker to assign subjective values to each option under consideration by weighting the likely benefits and costs resulting from an action and to select the one with the highest subjective value. Here, we used model-based neuroimaging to test whether the human brain uses separate valuation systems for rewards (erotic stimuli) associated with different types of costs, namely, delay and effort. We show that humans devalue rewards associated with physical effort in a strikingly similar fashion to those they devalue that are associated with delays, and that a single computational model derived from economics theory can account for the behavior observed in both delay discounting and effort discounting. However, our neuroimaging data reveal that the human brain uses distinct valuation subsystems for different types of costs, reflecting in opposite fashion delayed reward and future energetic expenses. The ventral striatum and the ventromedial prefrontal cortex represent the increasing subjective value of delayed rewards, whereas a distinct network, composed of the anterior cingulate cortex and the anterior insula, represent the decreasing value of the effortful option, coding the expected expense of energy. Together, these data demonstrate that the valuation processes underlying different types of costs can be fractionated at the cerebral level. PMID:20962229

  11. Delay-Independent Sliding Mode Control of Nonlinear Time-Delay Systems

    E-print Network

    Ge, Shuzhi Sam

    Delay-Independent Sliding Mode Control of Nonlinear Time-Delay Systems F. Hong, S. S. Ge, and T. H-strict-feedback nonlin- ear systems with unknown time delays. Using appropriate Lyapunov-Krasovskii functionals, the uncertainties from un- known time delays are compensated for so that the proposed control scheme is delay

  12. Delay Identification in Time-Delay Systems using Variable Structure Observers

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Delay Identification in Time-Delay Systems using Variable Structure Observers S. V. Drakunov , W. Perruquetti, J.-P. Richard , L. Belkoura Abstract In this paper we discuss delay estimation in time-delay based on variable structure observers. 1 Introduction Numerous researches involve time-delay systems

  13. Delay estimation algorithm for nonlinear time-delay systems with unknown inputs

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Delay estimation algorithm for nonlinear time-delay systems with unknown inputs J.-P. Barbot G the robustness (with respect to measurement noise) of the proposed algorithm. Keywords: Nonlinear Time delay system, Time delay estimation, Algebraic approach 1. INTRODUCTION Time-delay systems are widely used

  14. Prescription stimulant expectancies in recreational and medical users: results from a preliminary expectancy questionnaire.

    PubMed

    Looby, Alison; Earleywine, Mitch

    2009-01-01

    Given the rise of prescription stimulant misuse, examination of effect expectancies could prove helpful. The Prescription Stimulant Expectancy Questionnaire (PSEQ) was designed to explore positive and negative prescription stimulant-related expectancies. In 2006, 157 participants nationwide completed an Internet survey of prescription stimulant use, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms, and expectancies. Multiple regressions demonstrate that positive, but not negative expectancies, predicted frequency of use. Recreational and medical users were classified by hierarchical cluster analysis. Recreational users reported fewer positive and negative expectancies than medical users. Implications and limitations are discussed. Future research is warranted on prescription stimulant expectancies and the utility of the PSEQ. PMID:19938932

  15. Stability Analysis of Network-Based Control Systems Subject to Jitter of Sampling Rates and Time Delays

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Seng Qing; Gui Weihua; Yang Chunhua; Xiong Ying

    2007-01-01

    In the network-based control systems, the insertion of the communication network introduces time varying delays in the control loop, the application of dynamic bandwidth allocation\\/scheduling techniques may introduce varying sampling rates for each control loop, varying sampling rates and time delays may degrade the stability of control loops. This paper represents these bounded time uncertainty as a discrete-time closed-loop interval

  16. Lyth bound revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Qing-Guo

    2015-06-01

    Imposing that the excursion distance of the inflaton in field space during inflation be less than the Planck scale, we derive an upper bound on the tensor-to-scalar ratio at the cosmic microwave background scales, i.e., r*,max , in the general canonical single-field slow-roll inflation model, in particular, the model with non-negligible running of the spectral index ?s and/or the running of running ?s. We find that r*,max?7 ×10-4 for ns=0.9645 without running and running of running, and r*,max is significantly relaxed to the order of O (10-2˜10-1) in the inflation model with ?s and/or ?s˜+O (10-2) which are marginally preferred by the Planck 2015 data.

  17. Upper bounds for Ramsey numbers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lingsheng Shi

    2003-01-01

    The Ramsey number R(G1,G2,…,Gk) is the least integer p so that for any k-edge coloring of the complete graph Kp, there is a monochromatic copy of Gi of color i. In this paper, we derive upper bounds of R(G1,G2,…,Gk) for certain graphs Gi. In particular, these bounds show that R(9,9)?6588 and R(10,10)?23556 improving the previous best bounds of 6625 and

  18. Delayed marriages in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Sathar, Z A; Kiani, M F

    1986-01-01

    Data from the Migration Module of the Population, Labor Force, and Migration (PLM) Survey of 1979 and from the population censuses of 1961, 1972, and 1981 were examined to explore the impact of modernization, particularly of expansion of education and modern sector employment, urbanization, and migration on proportions never married in various age groups in Pakistan. Table 1 shows a noticeable and substantial increase in proportions never married between 1961 and 1975 and subsequently until 1981. The increase in proportions never married was more pronounced for young females aged 15-29 years than for males in the same age group. The figures for 1972 and 1981 were similar, indicating that increases in the proportions never married occurred more in the 1960s. The singulate mean age at marriage for females was computed to be 18.1 years in 1961, 19.8 years in 1972, and 20.7 years in 1981. Over the 1961-81 period, marital postponement for males was considerably less pronounced. In the age groups above age 30, the proportions never married were lower in 1981 than in 1961 for both males and females. Overall increases in the proportions never married were not as marked in the case of Pakistani males, which may be attributed to the fact that beginning in 1961 male marriage age was already considerably higher than female marriage age -- 23.6 years. Patterns of marriage behavior were expected to vary in the 4 provinces -- Punjab, Sind, NWFP, and Baluchistan -- because of differences in cultural patterns, levels of development, and urbanization. Punjab, the most developed province, contained the bulk of the proportion never married in the 15-19 age group, both in urban and in rural areas. The provincial differential in proportions never married was much greater for females than for males. Punjab had the highest proportions of never married females, followed by the NWFP and Sind, in both urban and rural areas. Urban Punjab had the least differences in average ages at marriage between men and women (4.6 years); in other provinces this difference was more than 5 years. As Table 4 demonstrates, there was a clear pattern of higher proportions never married by each level of education for both males and females in urban and rural areas. The extent of postponement in marriage was more pronounced among younger educated females in urban areas the among rural females. Although the number of persons sampled with 9 or more years of education were on the low side in rural areas, there was a distinct relationship between acquisition of education and marriage postponement there also. Male nuptiality behavior also varied by educational levels. PMID:12341741

  19. Teacher Expectations and Underachieving Gifted Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kolb, Kathryn J.; Jussim, Lee

    1994-01-01

    Three ways in which teacher expectations relate to scholastic performance are documented: self-fulfilling prophecy, perceptual bias, and accuracy. The role that teacher expectations may play in gifted underachievement is explored, and recommendations are offered for enhancing the school experiences of gifted underachievers. (JDD)

  20. Expectancy and Phobic Level: Effects on Desensitization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Bernard J.; Denney, Douglas R.

    1977-01-01

    Expectancy instructions were introduced six times during the four-week treatment, and effectiveness of these instructions was demonstrated with independent nonreactive measures of subjects' expectancies. An analysis of self-report, behavioral, and unobtrusive measures of snake anxiety revealed significant main effects for instructions, with…

  1. Gender and Grade Expectation in University Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schnorr, Janet K.; And Others

    Since World War II, women have become a permanent part of the American work force but are under-represented in most scientific professions. Researchers are now aware of gender influences on expectations and achievement in academic settings, with research indicating that females have lower expectations of competence in science-related professions.…

  2. 47 CFR 90.743 - Renewal expectancy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Renewal expectancy. 90.743 Section 90.743...Frequencies in the 220-222 MHz Band § 90.743 Renewal expectancy. (a) All licensees seeking renewal of their authorizations at the end of...

  3. Adaptive Expectations, Confirmatory Bias, and Informational Efficiency

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gani Aldashev; Timoteo Carletti; Simone Righi

    2010-01-01

    We study the informational efficiency of a market with a single traded asset. The price initially differs from the fundamental value, about which the agents have noisy private information (which is, on average, correct). A fraction of traders revise their price expectations in each period. The price at which the asset is traded is public information. The agents' expectations have

  4. Trends in Life Expectancy in Wellbeing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perenboom, R. J. M.; Van Herten, L. M.; Boshuizen, H. C.; Van Den Bos, G. A. M.

    2004-01-01

    Objectives: This paper describes and discusses trends in life expectancy in wellbeing between 1989 and 1998. Methods: Data on wellbeing by the Bradburn Affect Balance Scale is obtained from the Netherlands Continuous Health Interview Surveys for the calendar years from 1989 to 1998. Using Sullivan's method, life expectancy in wellbeing is…

  5. Course Expectations and Career Management Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Marnie L.; Haines, Ben

    2008-01-01

    Course completion and student satisfaction is likely to be influenced by how realistic the expectations of students are when they enroll. This report explores the idea that students' expectations would be more realistic if students have well developed career management competencies. Recent research argues that lack of information is not the…

  6. Raising Expectations is Aim of New Effort

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sparks, Sarah D.

    2010-01-01

    Researchers and policymakers agree that teachers' expectations of what their students can do can become self-fulfilling prophecies for children's academic performance. Yet while the "soft bigotry of low expectations" has become an education catchphrase, scholars and advocates are just beginning to explore whether it is possible to prevent such…

  7. Tipping behaviour: a disconfirmation of expectation perspective

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alan C. Tse

    2003-01-01

    This study examines the effect of expectancy–disconfirmation on tipping behaviour. Findings of our study show that restaurant patrons determine how much tips to give based on the discrepancy between the actual and expected level of food and service quality, rather than the absolute level of food and service quality. That is, given a positive disconfirmation, customers would give more tips.

  8. Rising Tides: Faculty Expectations of Library Websites

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nicol, Erica Carlson; O'English, Mark

    2012-01-01

    Looking at 2003-2009 LibQUAL+ responses at research-oriented universities in the United States, faculty library users report a significant and consistent rise in desires and expectations for library-provided online tools and websites, even as student user groups show declining or leveling expectations. While faculty, like students, also report…

  9. K-12 Technology Coordinators: Expectations and Realities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reinhart, Julie; Slowinski, Joseph

    2004-01-01

    This paper reports the findings of an exploratory study that investigates what Technology Coordinators (TC) are expected to do and what they actually do. Schools have invested large sums of money on technology and they have high expectations for the educational outcomes associated with the use of such technology. A question then arises regarding…

  10. Bounds on a Bug 5 Bounds on a Bug

    E-print Network

    Benjamin, Arthur T.

    #12;Bounds on a Bug 5 Bounds on a Bug Arthur T. Benjamin Matthew T. Fluet Dept. of Mathematics of Cootie1,players race to construct a "cootie bug" by rolling a die to collect component parts. Each acquire the body of the bug by rolling a 1. Next, they must roll a 2 to add the head to the body. Once

  11. Variable Delay Testing Using ONE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ishac, Joseph

    2002-01-01

    This paper investigates the effect of long and changing propagation delays on the performance of TCP file transfers. Tests are performed with machines that emulate communication from a low/medium-earth satellite to Earth by way of a geosynchronous satellite. As a result of these tests, we find that TCP is fairly robust to varying delays given a high enough TCP timer granularity. However, performance degrades noticeably for larger file transfers when a finer timer granularity is used. Such results have also been observed in previous simulations by other researchers, and thus, this work serves as an extension of those results.

  12. Bounding the mass of the graviton using binary pulsar observations

    E-print Network

    Lee Samuel Finn; Patrick J. Sutton

    2002-05-14

    The close agreement between the predictions of dynamical general relativity for the radiated power of a compact binary system and the observed orbital decay of the binary pulsars PSR B1913+16 and PSR B1534+12 allows us to bound the graviton mass to be less than 7.6 x 10^{-20} eV with 90% confidence. This bound is the first to be obtained from dynamic, as opposed to static-field, relativity. The resulting limit on the graviton mass is within two orders of magnitude of that from solar system measurements, and can be expected to improve with further observations.

  13. Formation of "bound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nowak, K.; Kästner, M.; Miltner, A.

    2009-04-01

    During degradation of organic pollutants in soil, metabolites, microbial biomass, CO2and "bound" residues ("non-extractable" residues in soil organic matter) are formed. Enhanced transformation of these contaminants into "bound" residues has been proposed as an alternative remediation method for polluted soils. However, this kind of residues may pose a potential risk for the environment due to their chemical structure and possible remobilization under different conditions. Therefore particular attention is given actually to "bound" residues. Part of these non-extractable residues may be "biogenic," because microorganisms use the carbon from the pollutant to form their biomass components (fatty acids, amino acids, amino sugars), which subsequently may be incorporated into soil organic matter. Furthermore, the CO2 originating from mineralization of xenobiotics, can be re-assimilated by microorganisms and also incorporated into "biogenic residue". The hazard posed by "bound" residues may be overestimated because they are "biogenic" (contain microbial fatty acids and amino acids). The knowledge about the pathways of "biogenic residue" formation is necessary for a proper assessment of the fate of tested pollutants and their turnover in the soil environment. Moreover, these data are needed to establish the realistic degradation rates of the contaminants in soil. The main objectives of this study are: to quantify the extent of "biogenic residue" (fatty acids, amino acids, amino sugars) formation during the degradation of a model pollutant (2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid = 2,4-D) and during CO2 assimilation by microorganisms and to evaluate which components are mainly incorporated into "bound" residues. To investigate the extent of "biogenic residue" formation in soil during the degradation of 2,4-D, experiments with either 14C-U-ring and 13C6-2,4-D or carboxyl-14C 2,4-D were performed. The incubation experiments were performed according to OECD test guideline 307, in the dark, at constant temp 20Ë? C (+/-2Ë? C) and with intermittent aeration. During incubation, the mineralization was quantified and soil samples were analyzed for the presence of both "biogenic residues" and remaining 2,4-D. Mineralization of 2,4-D in both experiments was very high. However, the 14CO2 evolution was higher from carboxyl-14C 2,4-D than from 14C-ring 2,4-D. After 7 days of incubation, 30% of initial amount of 14C in soil contaminated with 14C-ring 2,4-D was mineralized, whereas 40% of total radioactivity was evolved as CO2after 4 days from soil incubated with 14C-carboxyl 2,4-D. The amount of extractable 2,4-D residues was very low in both experiments (14C-ring 2,4-D: 2% and 14C-carboxyl 2,4-D: 1%). The soil incubated with 14C-ring 2,4-D contained 60% of "non-extractable" residues of 2,4-D after 7 days, while the amount of these residues in soil contaminated with 14C-carboxyl 2,4-D reached 50% of the initial radioactivity in the tested system 4 days after application. More "biogenic residues" were formed in soil spiked with 14C-U-ring 2,4-D (10%) than in soil with carboxyl 14C 2,4-D (7%). Both 2,4-D and CO2-derived C were incorporated mainly into microbial amino acids (9.5% at day 7 and 7.0% at day 4, respectively). After 7 days of incubation, 0.5% of initial applied radioactivity in system was found in microbial lipids in the soil contaminated with 14C-ring 2,4-D. Only 0.1% of the total radioactivity was incorporated into lipids in soil treated with 14C-carboxyl 2,4-D on day 4 after application. Thin Layer Chromatography identified the microbial lipids containing the radioactivity as phosphatidylethanolamine, a phospholipid typical for microorganisms. The amount of microbial lipids (which corresponds to phospholipids) in both cases decreased with time; this can be explained by the death of the microbial biomass. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on the formation of &qu

  14. Mean-variance bounds for order statistics from dependent DFR, IFR, DFRA and IFRA samples

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tomasz Rychlik

    2001-01-01

    For arbitrarily dependent identically distributed samples with DFR, IFR, DFRA and IFRA distributions, we determine the best attainable upper bounds for the expectation of arbitrary order statistics in terms of the expectation and variance of the parent distribution. Analogous results are concluded for spacings and some other L-estimates.

  15. Bounds on potential risks and causal risk differences under assumptions about confounding parameters.

    PubMed

    Chiba, Yasutaka; Sato, Tosiya; Greenland, Sander

    2007-12-10

    Nonparametric bounds on causal effects in observational studies are available under deterministic potential-outcome models. We derive narrower bounds by adding assumptions regarding bias due to confounding. This bias is defined as the difference between the expectation of potential outcomes for the exposed group and that for the unexposed group. We show that crude effect measures bound causal effects under the given assumptions. We then derive bounds for randomized studies with noncompliance, which are given by the per protocol effect. With perfect compliance in one treatment group, the direction of effect becomes identifiable under our assumptions. Although the assumptions are not themselves identifiable, they are nonetheless reasonable in some situations. PMID:17525935

  16. Definitions of curvature bounded above

    E-print Network

    Alexander, Stephanie

    definition of CAT spaces, is proved in Section ??. Section ?? discusses angles, including the first we shall investigate CAT spaces, turning only in Section ?? to spaces with curvature bounded aboveChapter 1 Definitions of curvature bounded above We begin by defining CAT spaces and spaces

  17. A bound on EMP coupling

    Microsoft Academic Search

    LARRY K. WARNE; KENNETH C. CHEN

    1990-01-01

    A bound on the energy coupled to a load by means of an antenna or aperture subjected to a step function electromagnetic pulse (EMP) is given by the polarizabilities of the antenna or aperture. Examples of coupling bounds for a slender electric dipole antenna, a circular aperture, and a narrow slot aperture with depth are given. It is demonstrated, by

  18. Delayed School Entry in Uganda

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moyi, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Since 1997 Uganda has seen a large increase in school enrolment. Despite this increased enrolment, universal education has remained elusive. Many children enrol in school, but not at the recommended age, and they drop out before completing school. This article focuses on one of these problems--delayed school entry. What household factors are…

  19. Capturing router congestion and delay

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nicolas Hohn; Konstantina Papagiannaki; Darryl Veitch

    2009-01-01

    Using a unique monitoring experiment, we capture all packets crossing a (lightly utilized) operational access router from a Tier-1 provider, and use them to provide a detailed examination of router congestion and packet delays. The complete capture enables not just statistics as seen from outside the router, but also an accurate physical router model to be identified. This enables a

  20. The Tunnel Vision Massively Delaying

    E-print Network

    Hartenstein, Reiner

    The Tunnel Vision Syndrome: Massively Delaying Progress 1 Reiner Hartenstein VIPSI-2012 MONTENEGRO.): Von Neumann Syndrome; ßetascript publishing 2011 The Beauty and the Joy of Computing ??? #12;© 2012@hartenstein.de http://hartenstein.de TU Kaiserslautern Outline (1) ·Preface ·History of Computing ·The Systolic Array

  1. Delay Tolerant Networking - A Tutorial

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vinod Venkataraman; Harsh Shah

    Delay Tolerant Networking has been a hot topic of interest in networking since the start of the century, and has sparked a significant amount of research in the area, particularly in an age where the ultimate goal is to provide ubiquitous con- nectivity, even in regions previously considered inaccessible. Protocols and applications in popular use on the Internet are not

  2. Petawatt laser absorption bounded

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levy, Matthew; Wilks, Scott; Tabak, Max; Libby, Stephen; Baring, Matthew

    2014-10-01

    The interaction of petawatt (1015 W) lasers with solid matter forms the basis for advanced scientific applications such as table-top relativistic particle accelerators, ultrafast charged particle imaging systems and fast ignition inertial confinement fusion. Key metrics for these applications relate to absorption, yet conditions in this regime are so nonlinear that it is often impossible to know the fraction of absorbed light f, and even the range of f is unknown. In this presentation, using a relativistic Rankine-Hugoniot-like analysis, we show how to derive the theoretical maximum and minimum of f. These boundaries constrain nonlinear absorption mechanisms across the petawatt regime, forbidding high absorption values at low laser power and low absorption values at high laser power. Close agreement is shown with several dozens of published experimental data points and simulation results, helping to confirm the theory. For applications needing to circumvent the absorption bounds, these results will accelerate a shift from solid targets, towards structured and multilayer targets, and lead the development of new materials.

  3. Relativistic Bound States

    SciTech Connect

    Ritchie, A B

    2005-12-12

    The Hamiltonian for Dirac's second-order equation depends nonlinearly on the potential V and the energy E. For this reason the magnetic contribution to the Hamiltonian for s-waves, which has a short range, is attractive for a repulsive Coulomb potential (V > 0) and repulsive for an attractive Coulomb potential (V < 0). Previous studies are confined to the latter case, where strong net attraction near a high-Z nucleus accelerates electrons to velocities close to the speed of light. The Hamiltonian is linear in the product EV/mc{sup 2}. Usually solutions are found in the regime E = mc{sup 2} + {var_epsilon}, where except for high Z, |{var_epsilon}| << mc{sup 2}. Here they show that for V > 0 the attractive magnetic term and the repulsive linear term combine to support a bound state at E = 0.5 mc{sup 2} corresponding to a binding energy E{sub b} = -{var_epsilon} = 0.5 mc{sup 2}.

  4. Apparent enrichment of organically bound tritium in rivers explained by the heritage of our past.

    PubMed

    Eyrolle-Boyer, Frédérique; Boyer, Patrick; Claval, David; Charmasson, Sabine; Cossonnet, Catherine

    2014-10-01

    The global inventory of naturally produced tritium (3H) is estimated at 2.65 kg, whereas more than 600 kg have been released during atmospheric nuclear tests (NCRP, 1979; UNSCEAR, 2000) constituting the main source of artificial tritium throughout the Anthropocene. The behaviour of this radioactive isotope in the environment has been widely studied since the 1950s, both through laboratory experiments and, more recently, through field observations (e.g., Cline, 1953; Kirchmann et al., 1979; Daillant et al., 2004; McCubbin et al., 2001; Kim et al., 2012). In its "free" forms, [i.e. 3H gas or 3H hydride (HT); methyl 3H gas (CH3T); tritiated H2O or 3H-oxide (HTO); and Tissue Free Water 3H (TFWT)], tritium closely follows the water cycle. However, 3H bound with organic compounds, mainly during the basic stages of photosynthesis or through weak hydrogen links, is less exchangeable with water, which explains its persistence in the carbon cycle as re underlined recently by Baglan et al. (2013), Jean-Batiste and Fourré (2013), Kim et al. (2013a,b). In this paper, we demonstrate that terrestrial biomass pools, historically contaminated by global atmospheric fallout from nuclear testing, have constituted a significant delayed source of organically bound tritium (OBT) for aquatic systems, resulting in an apparent enrichment of OBT as compared to HTO. This finding helps to explain concentration factors (tritium concentration in biota/concentration in water) greater than 1 observed in areas that are not directly affected by industrial radioactive wastes, and thus sheds light on the controversies regarding tritium 'bioaccumulation'. Such apparent enrichment of OBT is expected to be more pronounced in the Northern Hemisphere where fallout was most significant, depending on the nature and biodegradability of terrestrial biomass at the regional scale. We further believe that OBT transfers from the continent to oceans have been sufficient to affect tritium concentrations in coastal marine biota (i.e., near river inputs). Our findings demonstrate that the persistence of terrestrial organic (3)H explains imbalances between organically bound tritium and free (3)H in most river systems in particular those not impacted by releases from nuclear facilities. PMID:24956583

  5. What to Expect After Carotid Endarterectomy

    MedlinePLUS

    ... the NHLBI on Twitter. What To Expect After Carotid Endarterectomy After carotid endarterectomy (CEA), you may stay in the hospital for ... stroke. Rate This Content: NEXT >> December 1, 2010 Carotid Endarterectomy Clinical Trials Clinical trials are research studies that ...

  6. Classics in the Classroom: Great Expectations Fulfilled.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearl, Shela

    1986-01-01

    Describes how an English teacher in a Queens, New York, ghetto school introduced her grade nine students to Charles Dickens's "Great Expectations." Focuses on students' responses, which eventually became enthusiastic, and discusses the use of classics within the curriculum. (KH)

  7. Anesthesia: What to Expect (For Parents)

    MedlinePLUS

    KidsHealth > Parents > Doctors & Hospitals > Resources for Parents > Anesthesia - What to Expect Print A A A Text Size What's in this article? Before Surgery Questions to Ask In the Operating Room After ...

  8. Expected Utility Distributions for Flexible, Contingent Execution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bresina, John L.; Washington, Richard

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents a method for using expected utility distributions in the execution of flexible, contingent plans. A utility distribution maps the possible start times of an action to the expected utility of the plan suffix starting with that action. The contingent plan encodes a tree of possible courses of action and includes flexible temporal constraints and resource constraints. When execution reaches a branch point, the eligible option with the highest expected utility at that point in time is selected. The utility distributions make this selection sensitive to the runtime context, yet still efficient. Our approach uses predictions of action duration uncertainty as well as expectations of resource usage and availability to determine when an action can execute and with what probability. Execution windows and probabilities inevitably change as execution proceeds, but such changes do not invalidate the cached utility distributions, thus, dynamic updating of utility information is minimized.

  9. What to Expect during Cardiac Rehabilitation

    MedlinePLUS

    ... NHLBI on Twitter. What To Expect During Cardiac Rehabilitation During cardiac rehabilitation (rehab), you'll learn how to: Increase your ... Rate This Content: NEXT >> December 24, 2013 Cardiac Rehabilitation Clinical Trials Clinical trials are research studies that ...

  10. What to Expect After Pulmonary Rehabilitation

    MedlinePLUS

    ... NHLBI on Twitter. What To Expect After Pulmonary Rehabilitation Most pulmonary rehabilitation (PR) programs last a few months. At the ... Rate This Content: NEXT >> August 1, 2010 Pulmonary Rehabilitation Clinical Trials Clinical trials are research studies that ...

  11. Effects of handicap on life expectancy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    DJ Lai; LM Lee; ES Lee

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to quantify and partition the expected years of life with and without handicap for the Chinese population according to various types of handicaps, age–sex groups and regions.A large-scale sample survey on handicapped persons conducted in 1987, and the 1990 population census constitute the basis for computing the expected years of life free of handicapped

  12. Sliding mode control experiments of uncertain dynamical systems with time delay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Zhi-Chang; Zhong, Shun; Sun, Jian-Qiao

    2013-12-01

    This article presents the simulation and experimental studies for the nonlinear time-delayed dynamical systems with uncertainties. A rotary flexible joint made by Quanser is chosen as the model system to investigate the method for sliding mode control design. We considered the geometric nonlinearity of the flexible joint consisting of two linear springs. The system is assumed to have constant delay time and uncertain parameters with known upper and lower bounds. We also design an optimal sliding surface for the sliding mode control. Simulations and experiments are carried out to demonstrate the utility of the control method. Finally, the results from the simulations and experiments are in excellent agreement.

  13. Manipulation of Expectancies About Counseling and Psychotherapy: Review and Analysis of Expectancy Manipulation Strategies and Results

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Howard E. A. Tinsley; Sharon L. Bowman; Stephen B. Ray

    1988-01-01

    A comprehensive review was undertaken of investigations in which an attempt was made to manipulate clients' expectations for counseling or psychotherapy. Six strategies that have been used in attempting expectancy manipulation were described, and their effectiveness evaluated. Three sets of conclusions seem to be supported by the present data. First, the use of a complicated experimental intervention to manipulate expectancies

  14. Equilibrium and Disequilibrium Dynamics in Cobweb Models with Time Delays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gori, Luca; Guerrini, Luca; Sodini, Mauro

    2015-06-01

    This paper aims to study price dynamics in two different continuous time cobweb models with delays close to [Hommes, 1994]. In both cases, the stationary equilibrium may be not representative of the long-term dynamics of the model, since it is possible to observe endogenous and persistent fluctuations (supercritical Hopf bifurcations) even if a deterministic context without external shocks is considered. In the model in which markets are in equilibrium every time, we show that the existence of time delays in the expectations formation mechanism may cause chaotic dynamics similar to those obtained in [Hommes, 1994] in a discrete time context. From a mathematical point of view, we apply the Poincaré-Lindstedt perturbation method to study the local dynamic properties of the models. In addition, several numerical experiments are used to investigate global properties of the systems.

  15. A Stochastic Delay Differential Model of Cerebral Autoregulation

    PubMed Central

    Panunzi, Simona; D’Orsi, Laura; Iacoviello, Daniela; De Gaetano, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Mathematical models of the cardiovascular system and of cerebral autoregulation (CAR) have been employed for several years in order to describe the time course of pressures and flows changes subsequent to postural changes. The assessment of the degree of efficiency of cerebral auto regulation has indeed importance in the prognosis of such conditions as cerebro-vascular accidents or Alzheimer. In the quest for a simple but realistic mathematical description of cardiovascular control, which may be fitted onto non-invasive experimental observations after postural changes, the present work proposes a first version of an empirical Stochastic Delay Differential Equations (SDDEs) model. The model consists of a total of four SDDEs and two ancillary algebraic equations, incorporates four distinct delayed controls from the brain onto different components of the circulation, and is able to accurately capture the time course of mean arterial pressure and cerebral blood flow velocity signals, reproducing observed auto-correlated error around the expected drift. PMID:25830915

  16. Understanding Housing Delays and Relocations Within the Housing First Model.

    PubMed

    Zerger, Suzanne; Pridham, Katherine Francombe; Jeyaratnam, Jeyagobi; Hwang, Stephen W; O'Campo, Patricia; Kohli, Jaipreet; Stergiopoulos, Vicky

    2014-05-01

    This study explores factors contributing to delays and relocations during the implementation of the Housing First model in Toronto, Ontario. While interruptions in housing tenure are expected en route to recovery and housing stability, consumer and service provider views on finding and keeping housing remain largely unknown. In-person interviews and focus groups were conducted with 48 study participants, including 23 case managers or housing workers and 25 consumers. The following three factors contributed to housing delays and transfers: (1) the effectiveness of communication and collaboration among consumers and service providers, (2) consumer-driven preferences and ambivalence, and (3) provider prioritization of consumer choice over immediate housing access. Two strategies-targeted communications and consumer engagement in housing searches-supported the housing process. Several factors affect the timing and stability of housing. Communication between and among providers and consumers, and a shared understanding of consumer choice, can further support choice and recovery. PMID:24807648

  17. A multistate analysis of active life expectancy.

    PubMed Central

    Rogers, A; Rogers, R G; Branch, L G

    1989-01-01

    With today's lower mortality rates, longer expectations of life, and new medical technologies, the nation's health policy focus has shifted from emphasis on individual survival to emphasis on personal health and independent living. Using longitudinal data sets and new methodological techniques, researchers have begun to assess active life expectancies, estimating not only how long a subpopulation can expect to live beyond each age, but what fractions of the expected remaining lifetime will be lived as independent, dependent, or institutionalized. New ideas are addressed, applying recently developed multistate life table methods to Waves One and Two of the Massachusetts Health Care Panel Study. Expectations of active life are presented for those 65 and older who initially are in one of two functional states of well-being. Included are expectations of life, for those, for example, who were independent and remained so, or those who were dependent and became independent. Although public health officials are concerned about the number of elderly who cease being independent, preliminary analysis shows that a significant number of the dependent elderly regain their independence, a situation which needs to be addressed in health care planning. PMID:2498971

  18. High Quality Compact Delay Test Generation 

    E-print Network

    Wang, Zheng

    2011-08-08

    Delay testing is used to detect timing defects and ensure that a circuit meets its timing specifications. The growing need for delay testing is a result of the advances in deep submicron (DSM) semiconductor technology and the increase in clock...

  19. Uncertainty evaluation of delayed neutron decay parameters 

    E-print Network

    Wang, Jinkai

    2009-05-15

    In a nuclear reactor, delayed neutrons play a critical role in sustaining a controllable chain reaction. Delayed neutron’s relative yields and decay constants are very important for modeling reactivity control and have been studied for decades...

  20. Maximum likelihood delay estimation in a navigation receiver for aeronautical applications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Antreich; J. A. Nossek; W. Utschick

    2008-01-01

    The potential of the SAGE (Space Alternating Generalized Expectation Maximization) algorithm for navigation systems in order to distinguish the line-of-sight signal (LOSS) is to be considered. The SAGE algorithm is a low-complexity generalization of the EM (Expectation-Maximization) algorithm, which iteratively approximates the maximum likelihood estimator (MLE) and has been successfully applied for parameter estimation (relative delay, incident azimuth, incident elevation,

  1. SBS-based radar true time delay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bashkansky, Mark; Walker, David; Gulian, Armen; Steiner, Michael

    2011-03-01

    Stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) based slow light is considered for application to squint-free (true time delay) steering of phased array radar antennae. Results are presented on true time delay radar requirements, including delay precision and bandwidth. We experimentally investigated the level of delay precision that exists in actual slow-light systems (based on Brillouin scattering). The practical use of SBS to meet the necessary requirements for radar use is discussed.

  2. A Holographic Bound on Cosmic Magnetic Fields

    E-print Network

    Brett McInnes

    2015-01-01

    Magnetic fields large enough to be observable are ubiquitous in astrophysics, even at extremely large length scales. This has led to the suggestion that such fields are seeded at very early (inflationary) times, and subsequently amplified by various processes involving, for example, dynamo effects. Many such mechanisms give rise to extremely large magnetic fields at the end of inflationary reheating, and therefore also during the quark-gluon plasma epoch of the early universe. Such plasmas have a well-known holographic description in terms of a thermal asymptotically AdS black hole. We show that holography imposes an upper bound on the intensity of magnetic fields ($\\approx \\; 3.6 \\times 10^{18}\\;\\; \\text{gauss}$ at the hadronization temperature) in these circumstances; this is above, but not far above, the values expected in some models of cosmic magnetogenesis.

  3. Bound states in a strong magnetic field

    SciTech Connect

    Machado, C. S.; Navarra, F. S.; Noronha, J.; Oliveira, E. G. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade de Sao Paulo Rua do Matao, Travessa R, 187, 05508-090 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Ferreira Filho, L. G. [Departamento de Matematica e Computacao, Faculdade de Tecnologia, Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro Rodovia Presidente Dutra, km 298, Polo Industrial, CEP 27537-000, Resende, RJ (Brazil)

    2013-03-25

    We expect a strong magnetic field to be produced in the perpendicular direction to the reaction plane, in a noncentral heavy-ion collision . The strength of the magnetic field is estimated to be eB{approx}m{sup 2}{sub {pi}}{approx} 0.02 GeV{sup 2} at the RHIC and eB{approx} 15m{sup 2}{sub {pi}}{approx} 0.3 GeV{sup 2} at the LHC. We investigate the effects of the magnetic field on B{sup 0} and D{sup 0} mesons, focusing on the changes of the energy levels and of the mass of the bound states.

  4. Bounds on quantum communication via Newtonian gravity

    E-print Network

    D. Kafri; G. J. Milburn; J. M. Taylor

    2014-10-08

    Newtonian gravity yields specific observable consequences, the most striking of which is the emergence of a $1/r^2$ force. In so far as communication can arise via such interactions between distant particles, we can ask what would be expected for a theory of gravity that only allows classical communication. Many heuristic suggestions for gravity-induced decoherence have this restriction implicitly or explicitly in their construction. Here we show that communication via a $1/r^2$ force has a minimum noise induced in the system when the communication cannot convey quantum information, in a continuous time analogue to Bell's inequalities. Our derived noise bounds provide tight constraints from current experimental results on any theory of gravity that does not allow quantum communication.

  5. Bounds on quantum communication via Newtonian gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kafri, D.; Milburn, G. J.; Taylor, J. M.

    2015-01-01

    Newtonian gravity yields specific observable consequences, the most striking of which is the emergence of a 1/{{r}2} force. In so far as communication can arise via such interactions between distant particles, we can ask what would be expected for a theory of gravity that only allows classical communication. Many heuristic suggestions for gravity-induced decoherence have this restriction implicitly or explicitly in their construction. Here we show that communication via a 1/{{r}2} force has a minimum noise induced in the system when the communication cannot convey quantum information, in a continuous time analogue to Bell?s inequalities. Our derived noise bounds provide tight constraints from current experimental results on any theory of gravity that does not allow quantum communication.

  6. 14 CFR 1214.106 - Minor delays.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 true Minor delays. 1214.106 ...ADMINISTRATION SPACE FLIGHT General Provisions...Regarding Space Shuttle Flights of Payloads for...1214.106 Minor delays. NASA will attempt...customers on a particular flight. The basis of proration...launch agreement. Delays beyond 72 hours...

  7. 14 CFR 1214.106 - Minor delays.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 false Minor delays. 1214.106 ...ADMINISTRATION SPACE FLIGHT General Provisions...Regarding Space Shuttle Flights of Payloads for...1214.106 Minor delays. NASA will attempt...customers on a particular flight. The basis of proration...launch agreement. Delays beyond 72 hours...

  8. Children's Delay of Gratification and Preschool Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scoville, Satsuki; Chambliss, Catherine

    This study investigated the relationship between delay of gratification and preschool performance in 20 students aged 4 and 5 years old, and enrolled in a Head Start program. Gratification delay was measured through an experiment that allowed the students to choose between a smaller immediate reward or a larger delayed reward. Preschool…

  9. A comprehensive delay model for CMOS inverters

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Santanu Dutta; Shivaling S. Mahant Shetti; Stephen L. Lusky

    1995-01-01

    A method to accurately calculate the delay and the output transition-time of a CMOS inverter for any input ramp and output loading is considered. This paper is an extension of Sakurai's work (1990) on delay modeling of inverters for fast input ramps. We observed that two different mechanisms, that can be adequately modeled analytically, govern the delay and the output

  10. Delayed Auditory Feedback for speech disorders

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Arghavan Bahadorinejad; Farshad Almasganj

    2012-01-01

    Stuttering is fluid impairment in verbal speech which will be determined based on the involuntary repetitions and prolongations, either vowel or voiceless. A variety of methods is available to aid patients who suffer from stuttering. One of the treatment methods is using the DAF (Delayed Auditory Feedback) device, the patient hear his\\/her voice after few delays. DAF (Delayed Auditory Feedback)

  11. Temporal Adaptation to delayed vestibular feedback

    E-print Network

    Temporal Adaptation to delayed vestibular feedback Douglas W. Cunningham, Björn Kreher, Markus von well demonstrated that delaying visual feedback impairs performance on a range of tasks. We have recently shown that a few minutes of exposure to delayed feedback induces sensorimotor temporal adaptation

  12. Direct-reading group-delay measurement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trowbridge, D. L.

    1978-01-01

    Technique for measuring modulation signal retardation in microwave components gives direct plot of dependence of delay time on carrier frequency. Recorder sensitivity can be adjusted to give convenient scale factor for group delay. From family of such recordings, it is possible to observe changes in group delay due to temperature, mechanical stress, and other factors.

  13. Behavioral Malware Detection in Delay Tolerant Networks

    E-print Network

    Wu, Jie

    Behavioral Malware Detection in Delay Tolerant Networks Wei Peng, Student Member, IEEE, Feng Li, Member, IEEE, Xukai Zou, Member, IEEE, and Jie Wu, Fellow, IEEE Abstract--The delay-tolerant-network (DTN the effectiveness of the proposed methods. Index Terms--Delay-tolerant networks, proximity malware, behavioral

  14. Anonymity and Security in Delay Tolerant Networks

    E-print Network

    Hengartner, Urs

    Anonymity and Security in Delay Tolerant Networks Aniket Kate, Gregory M. Zaverucha, and Urs Email: {akate,gzaveruc,uhengart}@cs.uwaterloo.ca Abstract--A delay tolerant network (DTN) is a store due to problems like erratic power supply and high infrastructure costs. Delay tolerant networks (DTNs

  15. Contingency Tracking during Unsignaled Delayed Reinforcement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keely, Josue; Feola, Tyler; Lattal, Kennon A.

    2007-01-01

    Three experiments were conducted with rats in which responses on one lever (labeled the functional lever) produced reinforcers after an unsignaled delay period that reset with each response during the delay. Responses on a second, nonfunctional, lever did not initiate delays, but, in the first and third experiments, such responses during the last…

  16. Delayed reinforcement and fixed-ratio performance.

    PubMed

    Jarmolowicz, David P; Lattal, Kennon A

    2013-11-01

    Effects of delayed reinforcement on fixed-ratio (FR) maintained responding of pigeons were investigated. In Experiments 1-3, the delay of reinforcement was increased across successive sessions until pigeons paused for 300?s. Both signaled and unsignaled delays were studied across different conditions. Overall response rates and run rates (timed from the first to last response of a ratio) decreased and postreinforcement pauses increased as delays increased in each experiment. As delays increased, the likelihood of pausing during a ratio run also increased. When these measures were plotted as a function of obtained delays, signaled delays had less of an effect on the above measures than did unsignaled ones. In Experiment 2, delays had a greater effect on the above measures than did a control condition arranging equivalent interreinforcer intervals to those accompanying the delays. Experiments 3 and 4 examined the generality of the effects obtained in the first two experiments. In Experiment 3, delays imposed on FR or yoked-interval schedules had similar behavioral effects. In Experiment 4, effects similar to those found in Experiments 1-3 for 1, 10, and 20-s delays imposed on FR 50 schedules were found when the FR requirement increased across sessions. Despite the different contingencies relating response rate and reinforcement rates on interval and ratio schedules, delays of reinforcement generally affect performance on these schedules similarly. PMID:24037852

  17. Using Time Delay with Task Analyses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schuster, John W.; Griffen, Ann K.

    1990-01-01

    The article describes the benefits of time delay in teaching disabled students both discrete and chained tasks, constant and progressive time-delay procedures, types of student responses, steps involved in implementing time-delay procedures in the classroom, and troubleshooting tips. A sample lesson plan on making a fruit-flavored drink is…

  18. 77 FR 3751 - Extension of Deadlines; Upward Bound Program (Regular Upward Bound (UB))

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-25

    ...DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION Extension of Deadlines; Upward Bound Program (Regular Upward Bound (UB)) AGENCY: Office of Postsecondary Education...published in the Applications for New Awards; Upward Bound Program (Regular Upward Bound (UB)) notice...

  19. Response acquisition with delayed reinforcement.

    PubMed

    Lattal, K A; Gleeson, S

    1990-01-01

    Discrete responses of experimentally naive, food-deprived White Carneaux pigeons (key pecks) or Sprague-Dawley rats (bar or omnidirectional lever presses) initiated unsignaled delay periods that terminated with food delivery. Each subject first was trained to eat from the food source, but no attempt was made to shape or to otherwise train the response. In both species, the response developed and was maintained. Control procedures excluded the simple passage of time, response elicitation or induction by food presentation, type of operandum, food delivery device location, and adventitious immediate reinforcement of responding as the basis for the effects. Results revealed that neither training nor immediate reinforcement is necessary to establish new behavior. The conditions that give rise to both the first and second response are discussed, and the results are related to other studies of the delay of reinforcement and to explanations of behavior based on contingency or correlation and contiguity. PMID:2303791

  20. [Delayed splenic rupture (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Alawneh, I

    1979-12-01

    Splenic rupture is a common injury associated with blunt abdominal trauma. In contrast, delayed splenic rupture is less frequent and comprises about 8--28% of cases of splenic rupture. The symptom free period can last for days or weeks. The mechanism is explained as follows. A rupture of the parenchyma occurs but the spleen capsula remains intact. A hematoma forms below the capsule and causes a strong overdistension of the capsule so that a bursting and release of blood into the abdominal cavity results. The mortality rate with splenic ruptures in 6--55% and with delayed splenic ruptures 14.6%. Our experiences are reviewed. After commencement of the hemorrhage therapy must consist of treatment for shock and immediate laparotomy and splenectomy. PMID:44648

  1. Delay locked loop integrated circuit.

    SciTech Connect

    Brocato, Robert Wesley

    2007-10-01

    This report gives a description of the development of a Delay Locked Loop (DLL) integrated circuit (IC). The DLL was developed and tested as a stand-alone IC test chip to be integrated into a larger application specific integrated circuit (ASIC), the Quadrature Digital Waveform Synthesizer (QDWS). The purpose of the DLL is to provide a digitally programmable delay to enable synchronization between an internal system clock and external peripherals with unknown clock skew. The DLL was designed and fabricated in the IBM 8RF process, a 0.13 {micro}m CMOS process. It was designed to operate with a 300MHz clock and has been tested up to 500MHz.

  2. Tank 41H bounding uranium enrichment

    SciTech Connect

    Cavin, W.S.

    1994-07-12

    The intent of this document is to combine data from salt samples and historical process information to bound the uranium (U-235) enrichment which could be expected in the upper portion of the salt in Tank 41H. This bounding enrichment will be used in another document to establish a nuclear safety basis for initial salt removal operations. During the processing period of interest (4/82-4/87), waste was fed to the 2H Evaporator from Tank 43H, and the evaporator bottoms were sent to Tank 41H where the bottoms were allowed to cool (resulting in the formation of salt deposits in the tank). As Tank 41H was filled with concentrate, the supernate left after salt formation was recycled back to Tank 43H and reprocessed through the evaporator along with any additional waste which had been added to Tank 43H. As Tank 41 H filled with salt, this recycle took place with increasing frequency because it took less time to fill the decreased volume with evaporator concentrate. By determining which of the sampled waste tanks were receiving fresh waste from the canyons at the time the tanks were sampled (from published transfer records), it was possible to deduce which samples were likely representative of fresh canyon waste. The processing that was being carried out in the Separation canyons when these tanks were sampled, should be comparable to the processing while Tank 41H was being filled.

  3. Delayed feedback control of time-delayed chaotic systems: Analytical approach at Hopf bifurcation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nastaran Vasegh; Ali Khaki Sedigh

    2008-01-01

    This Letter is concerned with bifurcation and chaos control in scalar delayed differential equations with delay parameter ?. By linear stability analysis, the conditions under which a sequence of Hopf bifurcation occurs at the equilibrium points are obtained. The delayed feedback controller is used to stabilize unstable periodic orbits. To find the controller delay, it is chosen such that the

  4. Delay-dependent stability analysis of linear systems with time-varying delay

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Delay-dependent stability analysis of linear systems with time-varying delay Yassine Ariba and Fr´ed´eric Gouaisbaut December 2007 Abstract Stability analysis of linear systems with time-varying delay is inves of linear time delay systems have attracted a lot of attention [5], [13], [14], [17], [9] and references

  5. CONTROL AND STABILITY ANALYZING OF THE TIME-DELAY SYSTEMS WITH TIME-VARYING DELAYS

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    CONTROL AND STABILITY ANALYZING OF THE TIME-DELAY SYSTEMS WITH TIME-VARYING DELAYS Daniel GONTKOVI to solve the problem of stability and control design of continuous time systems with time-varying delays using a system model example. Keywords: Lyapunov-Krasovskii functional, LMI, Lyapunov function, Time-delay

  6. Recovering cyclic schedules from delay

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ricki Wegner; Informatik LS

    1999-01-01

    A closed single-server system is considered in which n items are scheduled to circulateat a fixed period. Each service is recognizable and is scheduled for its individual point of time;it is non-preemptive and its length depends only on which item is being served.Aberratingfrom this desired schedule, some of the items start out with delays. While an item isdelayed,the time between

  7. Local Effects of Delayed Food

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael Davison; WILLIAM M. BAUM

    2007-01-01

    Five pigeons were trained on a procedure in which seven concurrent variable-interval schedules arranged seven different food-rate ratios in random sequence in each session. Each of these components lasted for 10 response-produced food deliveries, and components were separated by 10-s blackouts. We varied delays to food (signaled by blackout) between the two response alternatives in an experiment with three phases:

  8. Lower bound techniques for data structures

    E-print Network

    P?tra?cu, Mihai

    2008-01-01

    We describe new techniques for proving lower bounds on data-structure problems, with the following broad consequences: * the first [omega](lg n) lower bound for any dynamic problem, improving on a bound that had been ...

  9. Components of attention modulated by temporal expectation.

    PubMed

    Sørensen, Thomas Alrik; Vangkilde, Signe; Bundesen, Claus

    2015-01-01

    By varying the probabilities that a stimulus would appear at particular times after the presentation of a cue and modeling the data by the theory of visual attention (Bundesen, 1990), Vangkilde, Coull, and Bundesen (2012) provided evidence that the speed of encoding a singly presented stimulus letter into visual short-term memory (VSTM) is modulated by the observer's temporal expectations. We extended the investigation from single-stimulus recognition to whole report (Experiment 1) and partial report (Experiment 2). Cue-stimulus foreperiods were distributed geometrically using time steps of 500 ms. In high expectancy conditions, the probability that the stimulus would appear on the next time step, given that it had not yet appeared, was high, whereas in low expectancy conditions, the probability was low. The speed of encoding the stimuli into VSTM was higher in the high expectancy conditions. In line with the Easterbrook (1959) hypothesis, under high temporal expectancy, the processing was also more focused (selective). First, the storage capacity of VSTM was lower, so that fewer stimuli were encoded into VSTM. Second, the distribution of attentional weights across stimuli was less even: The efficiency of selecting targets rather than distractors for encoding into VSTM was higher, as was the spread of the attentional weights of the target letters. PMID:25068851

  10. The subjective marijuana experience: great expectations.

    PubMed

    Stark-Adamec, C; Adamec, R E; Pihl, R O

    1981-10-01

    Participants' expectations of marijuana effects are frequently cited as unmeasured post hoc explanations of variability in response to the drug, or of the data which fail to conform to the experimenters' expectations of the drug's effects. Twenty-four male volunteers, experienced in the use of marijuana, participated in research involving the administration of coltsfoot, placebo, and marijauna to investigate whether expectancy of marijuana effects could be measured and related to observed effects. Data for the Expectancy Questionnaire were derived from the Marihuana Effects Questions filled out when potential participants volunteered for the study and were compared to the High Questionnaire filled out after drug administration sessions. Expectancy was shown to have a quantifiable effect on the drug experience (both placebo and marijuana), even in an experimental situation. Prior frequency of occurrence of specific effects was positively related to both the intensity and duration of the effects in the laboratory. The data are discussed in terms of the learned components in getting stoned, and in terms of the social nature of cannabis intoxication. PMID:6976947

  11. A quantum delayed choice experiment

    E-print Network

    Peruzzo, Alberto; Brunner, Nicolas; Popescu, Sandu; O'Brien, Jeremy L

    2012-01-01

    Quantum systems exhibit particle-like or wave-like behaviour depending on the experimental apparatus they are confronted by. This wave-particle duality is at the heart of quantum mechanics, and is fully captured in Wheeler's famous delayed choice gedanken experiment. In this variant of the double slit experiment, the observer chooses to test either the particle or wave nature of a photon after it has passed through the slits. Here we report on a quantum delayed choice experiment, based on a quantum controlled beam-splitter, in which both particle and wave behaviours can be investigated simultaneously. The genuinely quantum nature of the photon's behaviour is tested via a Bell inequality, which here replaces the delayed choice of the observer. We observe strong Bell inequality violations, thus showing that no model in which the photon knows in advance what type of experiment it will be confronted by, hence behaving either as a particle or as wave, can account for the experimental data.

  12. A quantum delayed choice experiment

    E-print Network

    Alberto Peruzzo; Peter J. Shadbolt; Nicolas Brunner; Sandu Popescu; Jeremy L. O'Brien

    2012-06-28

    Quantum systems exhibit particle-like or wave-like behaviour depending on the experimental apparatus they are confronted by. This wave-particle duality is at the heart of quantum mechanics, and is fully captured in Wheeler's famous delayed choice gedanken experiment. In this variant of the double slit experiment, the observer chooses to test either the particle or wave nature of a photon after it has passed through the slits. Here we report on a quantum delayed choice experiment, based on a quantum controlled beam-splitter, in which both particle and wave behaviours can be investigated simultaneously. The genuinely quantum nature of the photon's behaviour is tested via a Bell inequality, which here replaces the delayed choice of the observer. We observe strong Bell inequality violations, thus showing that no model in which the photon knows in advance what type of experiment it will be confronted by, hence behaving either as a particle or as wave, can account for the experimental data.

  13. Upper bounds in quantum dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Damanik, David; Tcheremchantsev, Serguei

    2007-07-01

    We develop a general method to bound the spreading of an entire wavepacket under Schroedinger dynamics from above. This method derives upper bounds on time-averaged moments of the position operator from lower bounds on norms of transfer matrices at complex energies. This general result is applied to the Fibonacci operator. We find that at sufficiently large coupling, all transport exponents take values strictly between zero and one. This is the first rigorous result on anomalous transport. For quasi-periodic potentials associated with trigonometric polynomials, we prove that all lower transport exponents and, under a weak assumption on the frequency, all upper transport exponents vanish for all phases if the Lyapunov exponent is uniformly bounded away from zero. By a well-known result of Herman, this assumption always holds at sufficiently large coupling. For the particular case of the almost Mathieu operator, our result applies for coupling greater than two.

  14. Computing Constrained Cramer Rao Bounds

    E-print Network

    Tune, Paul

    2012-01-01

    We revisit the problem of computing submatrices of the Cram\\'er-Rao bound (CRB), which lower bounds the variance of any unbiased estimator of a vector parameter $\\vth$. We explore iterative methods that avoid direct inversion of the Fisher information matrix, which can be computationally expensive when the dimension of $\\vth$ is large. The computation of the bound is related to the quadratic matrix program, where there are highly efficient methods for solving it. We present several methods, and show that algorithms in prior work are special instances of existing optimization algorithms. Some of these methods converge to the bound monotonically, but in particular, algorithms converging non-monotonically are much faster. We then extend the work to encompass the computation of the CRB when the Fisher information matrix is singular and when the parameter $\\vth$ is subject to constraints. As an application, we consider the design of a data streaming algorithm for network measurement.

  15. Bounded rationality in multiobjective games

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chao Yu; Jian Yu

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we will establish the connections between bounded rationality and multiobjective games. We obtain some new results for robustness to ?-equilibria and structural stability of multiobjective games and generalized multiobjective games.

  16. PHYSICAL REVIEW B 84, 075202 (2011) Delay and distortion of slow light pulses by excitons in ZnO

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    2011-01-01

    PHYSICAL REVIEW B 84, 075202 (2011) Delay and distortion of slow light pulses by excitons in ZnO T (Received 15 June 2011; published 1 August 2011) Distortion of light pulses in ZnO caused by both bound-resolved data yields the excitonic parameters inherent for bulk ZnO. A discrepancy is found between these bulk

  17. SAMPLE EXPECTED LEARNING OUTCOMES STATEMENTSSAMPLE EXPECTED LEARNING OUTCOMES STATEMENTS The following pages depict some sample expected learning outcome statements from

    E-print Network

    Rock, Chris

    The following pages depict some sample expected learning outcome statements from selected courses. United States and individuals associated with the history of the United States. Introduction to Business At the end democratic principles · Outline the structure of the Constitution of the U.S. · Identity and define

  18. A Highway Travel Information System: Forecasting and Publicizing Delays in the Indiana State Highway Network

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shu-Ling Yu; Jon D. Fricker

    2004-01-01

    The Highway Travel Information System (HTIS) is a long-term pre-trip information system providing information about expected events, such as road construction. The HTIS can be beneficial to both highway travelers and roadway project schedulers. Project schedulers can use the HTIS to check the forecasted traffic impacts of a proposed construction project schedule. If the schedule would cause unacceptable delays, a

  19. On coding for delay - New approaches based on network coding in networks with large latency

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniel E. Lucani; Muriel Medard; Milica Stojanovic

    2009-01-01

    In networks with large latency, feedback about received packets may lag considerably the transmission of the original packets, limiting the feedback's usefulness. Moreover, time duplex constraints may entail that receiving feedback may be costly. In this work, we consider tailoring feedback and coding jointly in such settings to reduce the expected delay for successful in order reception of packets. We

  20. 77 FR 23540 - Notice of Delays in Processing of Special Permits Applications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-19

    ...following list of special permit applications that have been in process for 180 days or more. The reason(s) for delay and the expected...New Providence, NJ. 15283-N.......... KwikBond Polymers, 3 07-30-2012 LLC, Benicia, CA....

  1. Information structure expectations in sentence comprehension

    PubMed Central

    Carlson, Katy; Dickey, Michael Walsh; Frazier, Lyn; Clifton, Charles

    2009-01-01

    In English, new information typically appears late in the sentence, as does primary accent. Because of this tendency, perceivers might expect the final constituent or constituents of a sentence to contain informational focus. This expectation should in turn affect how they comprehend focus-sensitive constructions such as ellipsis sentences. Results from four experiments on sluicing sentences (e.g., The mobster implicated the thug, but we can’t find out who else) suggest that perceivers do prefer to place focus late in the sentence, though that preference can be mitigated by prosodic information (pitch accents, Experiment 2) or syntactic information (clefted sentences, Experiment 3) indicating that focus is located elsewhere. Furthermore, it is not necessarily the direct object, but the informationally-focused constituent that is the preferred antecedent (Experiment 4). Expectations regarding the information structure of a sentence, which are only partly cancelable by means of overt focus markers, may explain persistent biases in ellipsis resolution. PMID:18609404

  2. Delaying Orthostatic Syncope With Mental Challenge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goswami, Nandu; Roessler, Andreas; Hinghofer-Szalkay, Helmut; Montani, Jean-Pierre; Steptoe, Andrew

    2012-07-01

    At orthostatic vasovagal syncope there appears to be a sudden withdrawl of sympathetic activity. As mental challenge activates the sympathetic system, we hypothesized that doing mental arithmetic in volunteers driven to the end point of their cardiovascular stability may delay the onset of orthostatic syncope. We investigated this in healthy male subjects. Each subject underwent a head up tilt (HUT) + graded lower body negative pressure (LBNP) up to presyncope session (control) to determine the orthostatic tolerance time, OTT (Time from HUT commencement to development of presyncopal symptoms/signs). Once the tolerance time was known, a randomized crossover protocol was used: either 1) Repeat HUT + LBNP to ensure reproducibility of repeated run or 2) HUT + LBNP run but with added mental challenge (two min before the expected presyncope time). Test protocols were separated by two weeks. Our studies on five male test subjects indicate that mental challenge improves orthostatic tolerance significantly. Additional mental loading could be a useful countermeasure to alleviate the orthostatic responses of persons, particularly in those with histories of dizziness on standing up, or to alleviate hypotension that frequently occurs during hemodialysis or on return to earth from the spaceflight environment of microgravity.

  3. COSMOLOGICAL CONSTRAINTS FROM GRAVITATIONAL LENS TIME DELAYS

    SciTech Connect

    Coe, Dan; Moustakas, Leonidas A. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Dr., MS 169-327, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States)

    2009-11-20

    Future large ensembles of time delay (TD) lenses have the potential to provide interesting cosmological constraints complementary to those of other methods. In a flat universe with constant w including a Planck prior, The Large Synoptic Survey Telescope TD measurements for approx4000 lenses should constrain the local Hubble constant h to approx0.007 (approx1%), OMEGA{sub de} to approx0.005, and w to approx0.026 (all 1sigma precisions). Similar constraints could be obtained by a dedicated gravitational lens observatory (OMEGA) which would obtain precise TD and mass model measurements for approx100 well-studied lenses. We compare these constraints (as well as those for a more general cosmology) to the 'optimistic Stage IV' constraints expected from weak lensing, supernovae, baryon acoustic oscillations, and cluster counts, as calculated by the Dark Energy Task Force. TDs yield a modest constraint on a time-varying w(z), with the best constraint on w(z) at the 'pivot redshift' of z approx 0.31. Our Fisher matrix calculation is provided to allow TD constraints to be easily compared to and combined with constraints from other experiments. We also show how cosmological constraining power varies as a function of numbers of lenses, lens model uncertainty, TD precision, redshift precision, and the ratio of four-image to two-image lenses.

  4. Gravitational lensing time delays as a tool for testing Lorentz Invariance Violation

    E-print Network

    Marek Biesiada; Aleksandra Piórkowska

    2008-09-11

    Despite the fact that quantum gravity theory still remains elusive, it is generally expected that it will bring the picture of a space-time foam at short distances leading to Lorenz Invariance Violation (LIV) manifested e.g. by energy dependent modification of standard relativistic dispersion relation. One direction of research, pursued intensively is to measure energy dependent time of arrival delays in photons emitted by astrophysical sources located at cosmological distances. This is tempered however by our ignorance of either intrinsic delay (at source frame) in different energy channels or as recently shown, the correct model of the background cosmology. In this paper we propose a new test based on gravitational lensing. Monitoring time delays between images performed in different energy channels (e.g. optical - low energy and TeV photons) may reveal extra delays due to distorted dispersion relation typical in LIV theories - a test which is free from the systematics inherent in other settings.

  5. Homoclinic bifurcations in a neutral delay model of a transmission line oscillator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barton, David A. W.; Krauskopf, Bernd; Wilson, R. Eddie

    2007-04-01

    In a transmission line oscillator (TLO) a linear wave travels along a piece of cable, the transmission line, and interacts with terminating electrical components. A fixed time delay arises due to the transmission time through the transmission line. Recent experiments on a TLO driven by a negative resistor demonstrated rich delay-induced dynamics and high-frequency chaotic behaviour. Furthermore, good agreement was found with a neutral delay differential equation (NDDE) model. In this paper we perform a numerical bifurcation analysis of the NDDE model of the TLO. Our main focus is on homoclinic orbits, which give rise to complicated dynamics and bifurcations. For small time delay there is a homoclinic orbit to a steady-state. However, past a codimension-two Shil'nikov-Hopf bifurcation the homoclinic orbit connects to a saddle-type periodic solution, which exists in a region bounded by homoclinic tangencies. Both types of homoclinic bifurcations are associated with accumulating branches of periodic solutions. We summarize our results in a two-parameter bifurcation diagram in the plane of resistance against time delay. Our study demonstrates that the theory of homoclinic bifurcations in ordinary differential equations largely carries over to NDDEs. However, we find that the neutral delay nature of the problem influences some bifurcations, especially convergence rates of folds associated with the homoclinic tangencies.

  6. Fault simulation and test generation for small delay faults 

    E-print Network

    Qiu, Wangqi

    2007-04-25

    Delay faults are an increasingly important test challenge. Traditional delay fault models are incomplete in that they model only a subset of delay defect behaviors. To solve this problem, a more realistic delay fault model has been developed which...

  7. 14 CFR 417.221 - Time delay analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...Analysis § 417.221 Time delay analysis. (a) General. A flight safety analysis must include a time delay analysis that establishes...response time; and (3) Flight termination hardware and software delays including all delays...

  8. 14 CFR 417.221 - Time delay analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...Analysis § 417.221 Time delay analysis. (a) General. A flight safety analysis must include a time delay analysis that establishes...response time; and (3) Flight termination hardware and software delays including all delays...

  9. Identifiability and algebraic identification of time delay systems

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    Identifiability and algebraic identification of time delay systems Lotfi Belkoura LAGIS(FRE 3303 and algebraic identification of time delay systems are investigated in this paper. Identifiability results: Time delay system, Identifiability, Identification. 1. INTRODUCTION The real time delay identification

  10. Fault simulation and test generation for small delay faults

    E-print Network

    Qiu, Wangqi

    2007-04-25

    Delay faults are an increasingly important test challenge. Traditional delay fault models are incomplete in that they model only a subset of delay defect behaviors. To solve this problem, a more realistic delay fault model has been developed which...

  11. Sharp bounds on the radius of relativistic charged spheres: Guilfoyle's stars saturate the Buchdahl–Andréasson bound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemos, José P. S.; Zanchin, Vilson T.

    2015-07-01

    Buchdahl, by imposing a few reasonable physical assumptions on matter, i.e., its density is a nonincreasing function of the radius and the fluid is a perfect fluid, and on the configuration, such as the exterior is the Schwarzschild solution, found that the radius r0 to mass m ratio of a star would obey the bound {{r}0}/m?slant 9/4, the Buchdahl bound. He also noted that the bound was saturated by the Schwarzschild interior solution, i.e., the solution with {{? }m}(r)=constant, where {{? }m}(r) is the energy density of the matter at r, when the central central pressure blows to infinity. Generalizations of this bound in various forms have been studied. An important generalization was given by Andréasson, by including electrically charged matter and imposing a different set of conditions, namely, p+2{{p}T}?slant {{? }m}, where p is the radial pressure and pT the tangential pressure. His bound is sharp and given by {{r}0}/m?slant 9/{{(1+\\sqrt{1+3 {{q}2}/r02})}2}, the Buchdahl–Andréasson bound, with q being the total electric charge of the star. For q = 0 one recovers the Buchdahl bound. However, following Andréasson's proof, the configuration that saturates the Buchdahl bound is an uncharged shell, rather than the Schwarzschild interior solution. By extension, the configurations that saturate the electrically charged Buchdahl–Andréasson bound are charged shells. One could expect then, in turn, that there should exist an electrically charged equivalent to the interior Schwarzschild limit. We find here that this equivalent is provided by the equation {{? }m}(r)+{{Q}2}(r)/(8? {{r}4})=constant, where Q(r) is the electric charge at r. This equation was put forward by Cooperstock and de la Cruz, and Florides, and realized in Guilfoyle's stars. When the central pressure goes to infinity, Guilfoyle's stars are configurations that also saturate the Buchdahl–Andréasson bound. A proof in Buchdahl's manner, such that these configurations are the limiting configurations of the bound, remains to be found.

  12. Precise delay measurement through combinatorial logic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burke, Gary R. (Inventor); Chen, Yuan (Inventor); Sheldon, Douglas J. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A high resolution circuit and method for facilitating precise measurement of on-chip delays for FPGAs for reliability studies. The circuit embeds a pulse generator on an FPGA chip having one or more groups of LUTS (the "LUT delay chain"), also on-chip. The circuit also embeds a pulse width measurement circuit on-chip, and measures the duration of the generated pulse through the delay chain. The pulse width of the output pulse represents the delay through the delay chain without any I/O delay. The pulse width measurement circuit uses an additional asynchronous clock autonomous from the main clock and the FPGA propagation delay can be displayed on a hex display continuously for testing purposes.

  13. The association between diagnosis, treatment delay and outcome among patients with Bipolar disorders.

    PubMed

    Oyffe, Igor; Shwizer, Rachel; Stolovy, Tali

    2015-03-01

    Prevalence rates for Bipolar (BP) disorder are difficult for exact evaluation since the high rates of misdiagnosis and the delay from the initial symptoms until the treatment with mood stabilizers. This study aimed to find whether there was such a delay in a sample of Israeli outpatients diagnosed with BP. The study also aimed to assess outcomes associated with a delay in treatment. The sample included 56 ambulatory patients. Data were evaluated by a demographical questionnaire, according the medical records and by the Outcome dysfunctions scale, addressing four areas: work, symptoms, social contacts and duration of hospitalizations. The results revealed a time lapse of 2.2 years from the onset of BP to the initiation of treatment and a time lapse of 6.7 years between the onset and initiation of mood stabilizers. The delay in treatment was not correlated with any functional outcome, or suicidal behavior. In addition, the younger the subject was at the onset, the longer it took to initiate treatment with mood stabilizers. This research found a significant delay in treatment of patients with BP disorder. This delay was not associated with the expected functional impairment. We assume that personal resources had moderated this effect. This research may suggest that in Israel the referral of children to psychiatric services is especially delayed, possibly because of the potential damage to the military service enrollment. This research highlights the need to improve clinicians' recognition of BP in general, and among patients with early onset in particular. PMID:25190429

  14. Delays in inactivation development and activation kinetics in myxicola giant axons

    PubMed Central

    1982-01-01

    Na inactivation was studied in Myxicola (two-pulse procedure, 6-ms gap between conditioning and test pulses). Inactivation developed with an initial delay (range 130-817 microseconds) followed by a simple exponential decline (time constant tau c). Delays (deviations from a simple exponential) are seen only for brief conditioning pulses were gNa is slightly activated. Hodgkin-Huxley kinetics with series resistance, Rs, predict deviations from a simple exponential only for conditioning pulses that substantially activate gNa. Reducing INa fivefold (Tris substitution) had no effect on either tau c or delay. Delay in not generated by Rs or by contamination from activation development. The slowest time constant in Na tails is approximately 1 ms (Goldman and Hahin, 1978) and the gap was 6 ms. Shortening the gap to 2 ms had no effect on either tau c or delay. Delay is a true property of the channel. Delay decreased with more positive conditioning potentials, and also decreased approximately proportionally with time to peak gNa during the conditioning pulse, as expected for sequentially coupled activation and inactivation. In a few cases the difference between Na current values for brief conditioning pulses and the tau c exponential could be measured. Difference values decayed exponentially with time constant tau m. The inactivation time course is described by a model that assumes a process with the kinetics of gNa activation as a precursor to inactivation. PMID:6288838

  15. Impact of Size and Delay on Neural Activity in the Rat Limbic Corticostriatal System

    PubMed Central

    Roesch, Matthew R.; Bryden, Daniel W.

    2011-01-01

    A number of factors influence an animal’s economic decisions. Two most commonly studied are the magnitude of and delay to reward. To investigate how these factors are represented in the firing rates of single neurons, we devised a behavioral task that independently manipulated the expected delay to and size of reward. Rats perceived the differently delayed and sized rewards as having different values and were more motivated under short delay and big-reward conditions than under long delay and small reward conditions as measured by percent choice, accuracy, and reaction time. Since the creation of this task, we have recorded from several different brain areas including, orbitofrontal cortex, striatum, amygdala, substantia nigra pars reticulata, and midbrain dopamine neurons. Here, we review and compare those data with a substantial focus on those areas that have been shown to be critical for performance on classic time discounting procedures and provide a potential mechanism by which they might interact when animals are deciding between differently delayed rewards. We found that most brain areas in the cortico-limbic circuit encode both the magnitude and delay to reward delivery in one form or another, but only a few encode them together at the single neuron level. PMID:22363252

  16. Performance Bounds on Two Concatenated, Interleaved Codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moision, Bruce; Dolinar, Samuel

    2010-01-01

    A method has been developed of computing bounds on the performance of a code comprised of two linear binary codes generated by two encoders serially concatenated through an interleaver. Originally intended for use in evaluating the performances of some codes proposed for deep-space communication links, the method can also be used in evaluating the performances of short-block-length codes in other applications. The method applies, more specifically, to a communication system in which following processes take place: At the transmitter, the original binary information that one seeks to transmit is first processed by an encoder into an outer code (Co) characterized by, among other things, a pair of numbers (n,k), where n (n > k)is the total number of code bits associated with k information bits and n k bits are used for correcting or at least detecting errors. Next, the outer code is processed through either a block or a convolutional interleaver. In the block interleaver, the words of the outer code are processed in blocks of I words. In the convolutional interleaver, the interleaving operation is performed bit-wise in N rows with delays that are multiples of B bits. The output of the interleaver is processed through a second encoder to obtain an inner code (Ci) characterized by (ni,ki). The output of the inner code is transmitted over an additive-white-Gaussian- noise channel characterized by a symbol signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) Es/No and a bit SNR Eb/No. At the receiver, an inner decoder generates estimates of bits. Depending on whether a block or a convolutional interleaver is used at the transmitter, the sequence of estimated bits is processed through a block or a convolutional de-interleaver, respectively, to obtain estimates of code words. Then the estimates of the code words are processed through an outer decoder, which generates estimates of the original information along with flags indicating which estimates are presumed to be correct and which are found to be erroneous. From the perspective of the present method, the topic of major interest is the performance of the communication system as quantified in the word-error rate and the undetected-error rate as functions of the SNRs and the total latency of the interleaver and inner code. The method is embodied in equations that describe bounds on these functions. Throughout the derivation of the equations that embody the method, it is assumed that the decoder for the outer code corrects any error pattern of t or fewer errors, detects any error pattern of s or fewer errors, may detect some error patterns of more than s errors, and does not correct any patterns of more than t errors. Because a mathematically complete description of the equations that embody the method and of the derivation of the equations would greatly exceed the space available for this article, it must suffice to summarize by reporting that the derivation includes consideration of several complex issues, including relationships between latency and memory requirements for block and convolutional codes, burst error statistics, enumeration of error-event intersections, and effects of different interleaving depths. In a demonstration, the method was used to calculate bounds on the performances of several communication systems, each based on serial concatenation of a (63,56) expurgated Hamming code with a convolutional inner code through a convolutional interleaver. The bounds calculated by use of the method were compared with results of numerical simulations of performances of the systems to show the regions where the bounds are tight (see figure).

  17. Viewing Majorana Bound States by Rabi Oscillations

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhi; Liang, Qi-Feng; Yao, Dao-Xin; Hu, Xiao

    2015-01-01

    We propose to use Rabi oscillation as a probe to view the fractional Josepshon relation (FJR) associated with Majorana bound states (MBSs) expected in one-dimensional topological superconductors. The system consists of a quantum dot (QD) and an rf-SQUID with MBSs at the Josephson junction. Rabi oscillations between energy levels formed by MBSs are induced by ac gate voltage controlling the coupling between QD and MBS when the photon energy proportional to the ac frequency matches gap between quantum levels formed by MBSs and QD. As a manifestation of the Rabi oscillation in the whole system involving MBSs, the electron occupation on QD oscillates with time, which can be measured by charge sensing techniques. With Floquet theorem and numerical analysis we reveal that from the resonant driving frequency for coherent Rabi oscillation one can directly map out the FJR cos(??/?0) as a signature of MBSs, with ? the magnetic flux through SQUID and ?0?=?hc/2e the flux quantum. The present scheme is expected to provide a clear evidence for MBSs under intensive searching. PMID:26153250

  18. Viewing Majorana Bound States by Rabi Oscillations.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhi; Liang, Qi-Feng; Yao, Dao-Xin; Hu, Xiao

    2015-01-01

    We propose to use Rabi oscillation as a probe to view the fractional Josepshon relation (FJR) associated with Majorana bound states (MBSs) expected in one-dimensional topological superconductors. The system consists of a quantum dot (QD) and an rf-SQUID with MBSs at the Josephson junction. Rabi oscillations between energy levels formed by MBSs are induced by ac gate voltage controlling the coupling between QD and MBS when the photon energy proportional to the ac frequency matches gap between quantum levels formed by MBSs and QD. As a manifestation of the Rabi oscillation in the whole system involving MBSs, the electron occupation on QD oscillates with time, which can be measured by charge sensing techniques. With Floquet theorem and numerical analysis we reveal that from the resonant driving frequency for coherent Rabi oscillation one can directly map out the FJR cos(??/?0) as a signature of MBSs, with ? the magnetic flux through SQUID and ?0?=?hc/2e the flux quantum. The present scheme is expected to provide a clear evidence for MBSs under intensive searching. PMID:26153250

  19. Unrealistic Expectations Businesses Have about Translators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriguez, Cecilia M.

    Increased international business and technological advances that speed business communication are affecting the expectations that business has for translators. More companies are asking translation agencies to translate such items as English business letters, advertising campaigns, flyers, brochures, and technical manuals into other languages,…

  20. Probability gains expected for renewal process models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imoto, M.

    2004-06-01

    We usually use the Brownian distribution, lognormal distribution, Gamma distribution, Weibull distribution, and exponential distribution to calculate long-term probability for the distribution of time intervals between successive events. The values of two parameters of these distributions are determined by the maximum likelihood method. The difference in log likelihood between the proposed model and the stationary Poisson process model, which scores both the period of no events and instances of each event, is considered as the index for evaluating the effectiveness of the earthquake probability model. First, we show that the expected value of the log-likelihood difference becomes the expected value of the logarithm of the probability gain. Next, by converting the time unit into the expected value of the interval, the hazard is made to represent a probability gain. This conversion reduces the degrees of freedom of model parameters to 1. We then demonstrate that the expected value of the probability gain in observed parameter values ranges between 2 and 5. Therefore, we can conclude that the long-term probability calculated before an earthquake may become several times larger than that of the Poisson process model.

  1. Characteristics Orientation, Needs and Expectations. Symposium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2002

    This document contains three papers from a symposium on characteristics orientation, needs, and expectations. "Characteristics Orientation of Emerging Professions: Implications for Research, Policy, and Practice of Continuing Professional Education" (William H. Young, Margot B. Weinstein) reports on a qualitative study that examined emerging…

  2. Demystify Learning Expectations to Address Grade Inflation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodges, Linda C.

    2014-01-01

    This article describes the subject of "grade inflation," a reference to educators giving higher grades to student work than their expectations for student achievement warrant. Of the many reasons why this practice happens, Hodges specifically discusses inflating grades as "a natural consequence" when the faculty really…

  3. Expectations and received knowledge by surgical patients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    SIRKKU RANKINEN; SANNA SALANTERA; KATJA HEIKKINEN; KIRSI JOHANSSON; ANNE KALJONEN; HELI VIRTANEN; HELENA LEINO-KILPI

    2007-01-01

    Objective. Here, the aim is to compare surgical patients' knowledge expectations at admission with the knowledge they received during their hospital stay. Design. The study used a descriptive and comparative design. Setting. The study was conducted on surgical wards at one randomly selected university hospital in Finland. Participants. The sample (n ¼ 237) consisted of surgical patients (traumatological, gastroenterological, urological

  4. Developing expectations regarding the boundaries of expertise.

    PubMed

    Landrum, Asheley R; Mills, Candice M

    2015-01-01

    Three experiments examined elementary school-aged children's and adults' expectations regarding what specialists (i.e., those with narrow domains of expertise) and generalists (i.e., those with broad domains of expertise) are likely to know. Experiment 1 demonstrated developmental differences in the ability to differentiate between generalists and specialists, with younger children believing generalists have more specific trivia knowledge than older children and adults believed. Experiment 2 demonstrated that children and adults expected generalists to have more underlying principles knowledge than specific trivia knowledge about unfamiliar animals. However, they believed that generalists would have more of both types of knowledge than themselves. Finally, Experiment 3 demonstrated that children and adults recognized that underlying principles knowledge can be generalized between topics closely related to the specialists' domains of expertise. However, they did not recognize when this knowledge was generalizable to topics slightly less related, expecting generalists to know only as much as they would. Importantly, this work contributes to the literature by showing how much of and what kinds of knowledge different types of experts are expected to have. In sum, this work provides insight into some of the ways children's notions of expertise change over development. The current research demonstrates that between the ages of 5 and 10, children are developing the ability to recognize how experts' knowledge is likely to be limited. That said, even older children at times struggle to determine the breadth of an experts' knowledge. PMID:25460394

  5. Men's Alcohol Expectancies at Selected Community Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Derby, Dustin C.

    2011-01-01

    Men's alcohol expectancies are an important cognitive-behavioral component of their consumption; yet, sparse research details such behaviors for men in two-year colleges. Selected for inclusion with the current study were 563 men from seven Illinois community colleges. Logistic regression analysis indicated four significant, positive relationships…

  6. Teacher Expectation and West Indian Underachievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Short, Geoffrey

    1985-01-01

    Examines the claim that unintentional racism is widespread within the teaching profession and contributes, via the self-fulfilling prophecy, to the relative academic failure of West Indian children. This article deals with the latter in terms of the model of teacher expectations advanced by Brophy and Good (1970). (Author/CT)

  7. Teacher Expectancy or My Fair Lady.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fleming, Elyse S.; Anttonen, Ralph C.

    This study examined the effects of teacher expectancy on changes in intelligence, known as the phenomenon of the self-fulfilling prophecy. Differences in sex, socioeconomic status, and teacher opinion about standardized tests were control factors. The teachers completed a questionnaire that provided the basis for classifying teachers into high,…

  8. Risk Acceptance and Expectations of Laryngeal Allotransplantation

    PubMed Central

    Jo, Hyun Kyo; Park, Jang Wan; Hwang, Jae Ha; Lee, Sam Yong; Shin, Jun Ho

    2014-01-01

    Background Laryngeal allotransplantation (LA) is a technique involving transplantation of a deceased donor's larynx into a recipient, and it may be substituted for conventional laryngeal reconstruction. There are widely different views on LA, as the recipient is administered continuous, potentially life-threatening, immunosuppressive therapy for a functional or aesthetic result, which is not directly related to life extension. The purpose of this study was to analyze the difference in risk acceptance and expectations of LA between four population groups. Methods A survey was performed to examine patients' risk acceptance and expectations of LA. The survey included 287 subjects in total (general public, n=100; kidney transplant recipients, n=53; post-laryngectomy patients, n=34; doctors, n=100), using a Korean translated version of the louisville instrument for transplantation (LIFT) questionnaire. Results All four groups responded differently at various levels of their perception in risk acceptance and expectations. The kidney transplant recipients reported the highest risk acceptance and expectations, and the doctor group the lowest. Conclusions This study examined the disparate perception between specific population groups of the risks and benefits of using LA for the promotion of the quality of life. By addressing the information gaps about LA in the different populations that have been highlighted from this survey, we suggest that LA can become a more viable alternative to classical surgery with resultant improved quality of life for patients. PMID:25276642

  9. Expectant Parent Classes: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beebe, E. Rick

    1978-01-01

    Mental health problems among children resulting from poor parenting, a high neonatal death rate, and a low level of medical education in the county provided impetus for developing a primary prevention program--Expectant Parent Program. This article summarizes the development, content, staff, funding, and results of the program. (Author)

  10. Sociocultural expectations of attractiveness for males

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Trent A. Petrie; Laura J. Austin; Barbara J. Crowley; Annette Helmcamp; Courtney E. Johnson; Regan Lester; Rebecca Rogers; Jeff Turner; Kevin Walbrick

    1996-01-01

    Sociocultural expectations of attractiveness for women have been studied extensively, but little research has focused on this topic with males. Using the two most popular men's fashion magazines (GQand Esquire), this study examined article and advertisement content as well as male models' body sizes to determine the extent to which men have received messages from the media on how to

  11. Solving Rational Expectations Models Using Excel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strulik, Holger

    2004-01-01

    Simple problems of discrete-time optimal control can be solved using a standard spreadsheet software. The employed-solution method of backward iteration is intuitively understandable, does not require any programming skills, and is easy to implement so that it is suitable for classroom exercises with rational-expectations models. The author…

  12. Expectancy determinants of intrinsically motivated behavior

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zur Shapira

    1976-01-01

    Conducted an experiment to contrast and reconcile 2 cognitive theories of motivation and to investigate the expectancy determinants of intrinsically motivated behavior. 60 undergraduates were presented with 7 challenging tasks which varied in their level of difficulty. Ss were asked to select their most preferred task to work on and then to rank order the remaining tasks on their preferences

  13. Expecting Too Much of Performance Pay?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Susan Moore; Papay, John P.

    2010-01-01

    Pay for performance is not a new idea, and reformers should not ignore the dismal record of merit pay over the past century. Initially adopted with a flourish of expectations during several waves of popularity in the past, every plan eventually fell into disuse. These plans proved to be unexpectedly costly and cumbersome to run. They often…

  14. Expectations, validity, and reality in pharmacogenetics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nita A. Limdi; David L. Veenstra

    2010-01-01

    In this review, we discuss the potential expectations, validity, predictive ability, and reality of pharmacogenetics in (1) titration of medication dose, (2) prediction of intended (efficacy) drug response, and (3) dose prediction of unintended (adverse) drug response. We expound on what these potential genetic predictors tell us and, more importantly, what they cannot tell us.Although pharmacogenetic markers have been hailed

  15. STUDENT EXPECTATIONS FOR RESIDENCE PROGRAMS January 2013

    E-print Network

    Ellis, Randy

    be summarized as follows: a. The Code of Conduct is based on the principle of RESPECT; b. There is zero tolerance for drugs or alcohol - no exceptions. You will be sent home. c. Fighting, racist or sexist clothes for this educational program. Students are expected to dress appropriately and they will be told

  16. Expected benefits of information security investments

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Julie J. C. H. Ryan; Daniel J. Ryan

    2006-01-01

    Ideally, decisions concerning investments of scarce resources in new or additional procedures and technologies that are expected to enhance information security will be informed by quantitative analyses. But security is notoriously hard to quantify, since absence of activity challenges us to establish whether lack of successful attacks is the result of good security or merely due to good luck. However,

  17. An Expectation Maximization Approach for Integrated

    E-print Network

    Fisher III, John

    , anatomical labelmap, and a mapping from the atlas to the image space. An example of the approach is given the regis- tration of an atlas with the segmentation of MR images. We use an Expectation Maximization for a brain structure-dependent affine mapping approach. The algorithm produces high qual- ity segmentations

  18. Monitoring social expectations in Second Life

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stephen Cranefield; Guannan Li

    2009-01-01

    Online virtual worlds such as Second Life provide a rich medium for unstructured human interaction in a shared simulated 3D environment. However, many human interactions take place in a structured social context where partic- ipants play particular roles and are subject to expectations governing their be- haviour, and current virtual worlds do not provide any support for this type of

  19. Macroeconomics after Two Decades of Rational Expectations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCallum, Bennett T.

    1994-01-01

    Discusses real business cycle analysis, growth theory, and other economic concepts in the context of the rational expectations revolution in macroeconomics. Focuses on post-1982 research. Concludes that the rejuvenation of growth analysis is an encouraging development because it could lead to changes in welfare policy. (CFR)

  20. Culture and Caregiving: Goals, Expectations, & Conflict.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fenichel, Emily, Ed.

    2003-01-01

    "Zero to Three" is a single-focus bulletin of the National Center for Infants, Toddlers, and Families providing insight from multiple disciplines on the development of infants, toddlers, and their families. This issue focuses on the goals, expectations, and conflict in the relationship between culture and child caregiving and other care services.…

  1. Can subjective survival expectations explain retirement behaviour?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Owen ODonnell; Federica Teppa; Eddy van Doorslaer

    2008-01-01

    Theory predicts a number of mechanisms through which survival expectations influence retirement decisions: a wealth effect of a longer lifespan; an uncertainty effect through the return on savings; a longevity risk effect; and, an adverse selection effect from pooling within pensions. We use data from the first three waves of the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing to test whether the

  2. Smoking, Physical Activity, and Active Life Expectancy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Luigi Ferrucci; Grant Izmirlian; Suzanne Leveille; Caroline L. Phillips; Maria-Chiara Corti; Dwight B. Brock; Jack M. Guralnik

    The effect of smoking and physical activity on active and disabled life expectancy was estimated using data from the Established Populations for Epidemiologic Studies of the Elderly (EPESE). Population-based samples of persons aged >65 years from the East Boston, Massachusetts, New Haven, Connecticut, and Iowa sites of the EPESE were assessed at baseline between 1981 and 1983 and followed for

  3. Life expectancy of children with cerebral palsy

    E-print Network

    Hutton, Jane

    Life expectancy of children with cerebral palsy J L Hutton, K Hemming and UKCP collaboration What is UKCP? Information about the physical effects of cerebral palsy on the everyday lives of children with cerebral palsy which collect information about children within specific local areas. They are the Mersey

  4. VCG AUCTION MECHANISM COST EXPECTATIONS AND VARIANCES

    E-print Network

    Janson, Svante

    demanded. The problem with this and many other mechanisms is that the owners have an incentive to lie aboutVCG AUCTION MECHANISM COST EXPECTATIONS AND VARIANCES SVANTE JANSON AND GREGORY B. SORKIN Abstract, known only to the owner. One obvious "mechanism" for choosing a spanning tree to buy is to ask each

  5. Occupational Aspirations and Expectations of Australian Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patton, Wendy; Creed, Peter

    2007-01-01

    Adolescents across the five years of high school (169 females and 164 males) completed a survey that identified occupational status aspirations and expectations coded into six types-- realistic, investigative, artistic, social, enterprising, or conventional--according to the RIASEC model (Holland, 1997). As the focus of the study was to explore…

  6. Statistical Translation, Heat Kernels and Expected Distances

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joshua Dillon; Yi Mao; Jian Zhang

    High dimensional structured data such as text and images is often poorly understood and misrepresented in statistical modeling. The standard histogram representation suf- fers from high variance and performs poorly in general. We explore novel connections between statistical translation, heat kernels on manifolds and graphs, and expected dis- tances. These connections provide a new framework for unsupervised metric learning for

  7. CT of multiple sclerosis: reassessment of delayed scanning with high doses of contrast material

    SciTech Connect

    Spiegel, S.M.; Vinuela, F.; Fox, A.J.; Pelz, D.M.

    1985-09-01

    A prospective study involving 87 patients was carried out to evaluate the necessity for a high dose of contrast material in addition to delayed computed tomographic (CT) scanning for optimal detection of the lesions of multiple sclerosis in the brain. In patients with either clinically definite multiple sclerosis or laboratory-supported definite multiple sclerosis, CT scans were obtained with a uniform protocol. Lesions consistent with multiple sclerosis were demonstrated on the second scan in 54 patients. In 36 of these 54 patients, the high-dose delayed scan added information. These results are quite similar to those of a previous study from this institution using different patients, in whom the second scan was obtained immediately after the bolus injection of contrast material containing 40 g of organically bound iodine. The lack of real difference in the results of the two studies indicate that the increased dose, not just the delay in scanning, is necessary for a proper study.

  8. Delayed feedback control of unstable steady states with high-frequency modulation of the delay

    E-print Network

    Aleksandar Gjurchinovski; Thomas Jüngling; Viktor Urumov; Eckehard Schöll

    2013-08-21

    We analyze the stabilization of unstable steady states by delayed feedback control with a periodic time-varying delay in the regime of a high-frequency modulation of the delay. The average effect of the delayed feedback term in the control force is equivalent to a distributed delay in the interval of the modulation, and the obtained distribution depends on the type of the modulation. In our analysis we use a simple generic normal form of an unstable focus, and investigate the effects of phase-dependent coupling and the influence of the control loop latency on the controllability. In addition, we have explored the influence of the modulation of the delays in multiple delay feedback schemes consisting of two independent delay lines of Pyragas type. A main advantage of the variable delay is the considerably larger domain of stabilization in parameter space.

  9. Variable-delay feedback control of unstable steady states in retarded time-delayed systems

    E-print Network

    Aleksandar Gjurchinovski; Viktor Urumov

    2010-07-06

    We study the stability of unstable steady states in scalar retarded time-delayed systems subjected to a variable-delay feedback control. The important aspect of such a control problem is that time-delayed systems are already infinite-dimensional before the delayed feedback control is turned on. When the frequency of the modulation is large compared to the system's dynamics, the analytic approach consists of relating the stability properties of the resulting variable-delay system with those of an analogous distributed delay system. Otherwise, the stability domains are obtained by a numerical integration of the linearized variable-delay system. The analysis shows that the control domains are significantly larger than those in the usual time-delayed feedback control, and that the complexity of the domain structure depends on the form and the frequency of the delay modulation.

  10. Modeling of SAW Delay Lines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, William C.; Atkinson, Gary M.

    2007-01-01

    Integrated Vehicle Health Monitoring (IVHM) of aerospace vehicles requires rugged sensors having reduced volume, mass, and power that can be used to measure a variety of phenomena. Wireless systems are preferred when retro-fitting sensors onto existing vehicles. Surface Acoustic Wave (SAW) devices are capable of sensing: temperature, pressure, strain, chemical species, mass loading, acceleration, and shear stress. SAW technology is low cost, rugged, lightweight, and extremely low power. To aid in the development of SAW sensors for IVHM applications, a first order model of a SAW Delay line has been created.

  11. Delay modeling in logic simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Acken, J. M.; Goldstein, L. H.

    1980-01-01

    As digital integrated circuit size and complexity increases, the need for accurate and efficient computer simulation increases. Logic simulators such as SALOGS (SAndia LOGic Simulator), which utilize transition states in addition to the normal stable states, provide more accurate analysis than is possible with traditional logic simulators. Furthermore, the computational complexity of this analysis is far lower than that of circuit simulation such as SPICE. An eight-value logic simulation environment allows the use of accurate delay models that incorporate both element response and transition times. Thus, timing simulation with an accuracy approaching that of circuit simulation can be accomplished with an efficiency comparable to that of logic simulation. 4 figures.

  12. Expected Performance of the GLAST Burst Monitor

    SciTech Connect

    Meegan, Charles; Fishman, Gerald; Kouveliotou, Chryssa; Wilson-Hodge, Colleen [NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, AL (United States); Bhat, Narayana; Briggs, Michael; Connaughton, Valerie; Paciesas, William; Preece, Robert [University of Alabama Huntsville, Huntsville, AL (United States); Bissaldi, Elisabetta; Diehl, Roland; Greiner, Jochen; Kienlin, Andreas von; Lichti, Giselher; Steinle, Helmut [Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics, Garching (Germany); Kippen, R. Marc [Los Alamos National Laboratory Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2008-05-22

    The GLAST Burst Monitor (GBM) will enhance LAT observations of GRBs by extending the spectral coverage from the LAT threshold down to {approx}8 keV, and will provide a trigger for re-orienting the spacecraft to observe delayed emission from selected bursts outside the LAT field of view. GBM consists of twelve NaI scintillation detectors operating in the 8 keV to 1 MeV energy range and two BGO scintillation detectors operating in the 150 keV to 30 MeV energy range. Detector resolution, effective area, and angular response have been determined by calibrations. Analyses indicate that the on-board burst threshold will be {approx}0.7 photons cm{sup -2}s{sup -1} and the on-board burst localization accuracy will typically be better than 8 deg.

  13. The neural basis of cultural differences in delay discounting.

    PubMed

    Kim, Bokyung; Sung, Young Shin; McClure, Samuel M

    2012-03-01

    People generally prefer to receive rewarding outcomes sooner rather than later. Such preferences result from delay discounting, or the process by which outcomes are devalued for the expected delay until their receipt. We investigated cultural differences in delay discounting by contrasting behaviour and brain activity in separate cohorts of Western (American) and Eastern (Korean) subjects. Consistent with previous reports, we find a dramatic difference in discounting behaviour, with Americans displaying much greater present bias and elevated discount rates. Recent neuroimaging findings suggest that differences in discounting may arise from differential involvement of either brain reward areas or regions in the prefrontal and parietal cortices associated with cognitive control. We find that the ventral striatum is more greatly recruited in Americans relative to Koreans when discounting future rewards, but there is no difference in prefrontal or parietal activity. This suggests that a cultural difference in emotional responsivity underlies the observed behavioural effect. We discuss the implications of this research for strategic interrelations between Easterners and Westerners. PMID:22271781

  14. A lower bound for routing on a completely connected optical communication parallel computer

    SciTech Connect

    Goldberg, L.A. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Jerrum, M. [Edinburgh Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Computer Science; MacKenzie, P.D. [Texas Univ., Austin, TX (United States). Dept. of Computer Sciences

    1993-08-03

    The task of routing a 2-relation on an n-processor completely connected optical communication parallel computer (OCPC) is considered. A lower bound is presented that applies to any randomized distributed algorithm for this task: specifically, it is shown that the expected number of steps required to route a 2-relation is {Omega}({radical} log log n) in the worst case. For comparison, the best upper bound known is O(log log n).

  15. Verification of automotive networks -what to expect (and not expect) from each

    E-print Network

    Navet, Nicolas

    Verification of automotive networks - what to expect (and not expect) from each technique Nicolas NAVET ­ nicolas.navet@uni.lu "Automotive Bus systems + Ethernet" Stuttgart, Germany, December 9-11, 2013. December 09, 2013 #12;1 Outline - 212/11/2013Automotive Bus systems + Ethernet Early-stage timing

  16. Differences in Life Expectancy and Disability Free Life Expectancy in Italy. A Challenge to Health Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burgio, A.; Murianni, L.; Folino-Gallo, P.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Measures of health expectancy such as Disability Free Life Expectancy are used to evaluate and compare regional/national health statuses. These indicators are useful for understanding changes in the health status and defining health policies and decisions on the provision of services because provide useful information on possible areas…

  17. Long-Term Trends in Life Expectancy and Active Life Expectancy in the United States

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kenneth G. Manton; XiLiang Gu; Vicki L. Lamb

    2006-01-01

    Changes in life expectancy and in active life expectancy may have effects on the fiscal integrity of both the Social Security and Medicare programs. Analysis of the fiscal stability of these programs shows that the most serious problem may be the growth of Medicare expenditures projected to surpass, in about 2024, Social Security costs. This is aggravated by the associated

  18. Teachers' Expectations about Students' Motivation 1 Running Head: Teachers' Expectations about Students' Motivation

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    Students' Motivation The Effects of Teachers' Expectations about Students' Motivation On Teachers Autonomy-Supportive' motivation on the frequency of controlling and autonomy-supportive behaviors. Following the assessment, autonomy-support, control, teaching behaviors. hal-00389007,version1-27May2009 #12;Teachers' Expectations

  19. CRAM ´ ER-RAO LOWER BOUND AS A PERFORMANCE MEASURE FOR HIGH RESOLUTION MULTIDIMENSIONAL CHANNEL PARAMETER ESTIMATION SCHEMES

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Martin Tschudin; Ralf Heddergott

    The Cramer-Rao lower bound (CRLB) is derived as a perfor- mance measure for multidimensional channel parameter estima- tion schemes. A compact formulation of the CRLB is given, revealing its dependence on the given wave parameters. More- over, the SAGE algorithm is presented to yield a high resolution of the impinging electromagnetic field with respect to delay, az- imuth and elevation.

  20. A Characterization of Semi Bound Graphs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    HIROSHI ERA; KENJIRO OGAWA; MORIMASA TSUCHIYA

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we deal with semi bound graphs. For a poset P, a graph G is a semi bound graph of P if ) ( ) ( P V G V = and ) (G E uv ? if and only if there exists a common upper bound of u and v or a common lower bound of u

  1. Constructive Proofs of Concentration Bounds Russell Impagliazzo

    E-print Network

    Kabanets, Valentine

    . Keywords: Concentration bounds, Chernoff-Hoeffding bound, Azuma's inequality, expander walks, DirectConstructive Proofs of Concentration Bounds Russell Impagliazzo Institute for Advanced Study of the Chernoff-Hoeffding concentration bound [Che52, Hoe63], which says that the sum of independent {0, 1}-valued

  2. Titania bound sodium titanate ion exchanger

    DOEpatents

    DeFilippi, Irene C. G. (Palatine, IL); Yates, Stephen Frederic (Rolling Meadows, IL); Shen, Jian-Kun (Lake Zurich, IL); Gaita, Romulus (Morton Grove, IL); Sedath, Robert Henry (Bensenville, IL); Seminara, Gary Joseph (Chicago, IL); Straszewski, Michael Peter (Novi, MI); Anderson, David Joseph (Oak Lawn, IL)

    1999-03-23

    This invention is method for preparing a titania bound ion exchange composition comprising admixing crystalline sodium titanate and a hydrolyzable titanium compound and, thereafter drying the titania bound crystalline sodium titanate and subjecting the dried titania bound ion exchange composition to optional compaction and calcination steps to improve the physical strength of the titania bound composition.

  3. A Tighter Bound for Graphical Models

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Martijn A. R. Leisink; Hilbert J. Kappen

    2001-01-01

    We present a method to bound the partition function of a Boltzmannmachine neural network with any odd order polynomial. Thisis a direct extension of the mean field bound, which is first order.We show that the third order bound is strictly better than meanfield. Additionally we derive a third order bound for the likelihoodof sigmoid belief networks. Numerical experiments indicate that

  4. Exponential stability of stochastic differential delay systems with delayed impulse effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Xiaotai; Yan, Litan; Zhang, Wenbing; Tang, Yang

    2011-09-01

    In this paper, we investigate the stability of stochastic delay differential systems with delayed impulses by Razumikhin methods. Some criteria on the pth moment exponential stability are obtained. It is shown that if a stochastic delay differential system is exponentially stable, then under some conditions, its stability is robust or weaken with respect to delayed impulses. Moreover, it is also shown that an unstable stochastic delay system can be successfully stabilized by delayed impulses. The effectiveness of the proposed results is illustrated by three examples.

  5. Measurement delay associated with the Guardian® RT continuous glucose monitoring system

    PubMed Central

    Wei, C; Lunn, D J; Acerini, C L; Allen, J M; Larsen, A M; Wilinska, M E; Dunger, D B; Hovorka, R

    2010-01-01

    Aims Using compartment modelling, we assessed the time delay between blood glucose and sensor glucose measured by the Guardian® RT continuous glucose monitoring system in young subjects with Type 1 diabetes (T1D). Methods Twelve children and adolescents with T1D treated by continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (male/female 7/5; age 13.1 ± 4.2 years; body mass index 21.9 ± 4.3 kg/m2; mean ± sd) were studied over 19 h in a Clinical Research Facility. Guardian® RT was calibrated every 6 h and sensor glucose measured every 5 min. Reference blood glucose was measured every 15 min using a YSI 2300 STAT Plus Analyser. A population compartment model of sensor glucose–blood glucose kinetics was adopted to estimate the time delay, the calibration scale and the calibration shift. Results The population median of the time delay was 15.8 (interquartile range 15.2, 16.5) min, which was corroborated by correlation analysis between blood glucose and 15-min delayed sensor glucose. The delay has a relatively low intersubject variability, with 95% of individuals predicted to have delays between 10.4 and 24.3 min. Population medians (interquartile range) for the scale and shift are 0.800 (0.777, 0.823) (unitless) and 1.66 (1.47, 1.84) mmol/l, respectively. Conclusions In young subjects with T1D, the total time delay associated with the Guardian® RT system was approximately 15 min. This is twice that expected on physiological grounds, suggesting a 5- to 10-min delay because of data processing. Delays above 25 min are rarely to be observed. PMID:20121899

  6. Young infants have biological expectations about animals.

    PubMed

    Setoh, Peipei; Wu, Di; Baillargeon, Renée; Gelman, Rochel

    2013-10-01

    What are the developmental origins of our concept of animal? There has long been controversy concerning this question. At issue is whether biological reasoning develops from earlier forms of reasoning, such as physical and psychological reasoning, or whether from a young age children endow animals with biological properties. Here we demonstrate that 8-mo-old infants already expect novel objects they identify as animals to have insides. Infants detected a violation when an object that was self-propelled and agentive (but not an object that lacked one or both of these properties) was revealed to be hollow. Infants also detected a violation when an object that was self-propelled and furry (but not an object that lacked one or both of these properties) either was shown to be hollow or rattled (when shaken) as although mostly hollow. Young infants' expectations about animals' insides may serve as a foundation for the development of more advanced biological knowledge. PMID:24003134

  7. What did we really expect from deinstitutionalization?

    PubMed

    Lamb, H R

    1981-02-01

    Long-term, severely disabled psychiatric patients are almost by definition a marginal population. Yet the expectations of deinstitutionalization are often expressed in such terms as "helping them become a part of the mainstream of our society" and "normalization." Although only a minority of long-term patients can realize these expectations, the programs that receive the most attention are those geared to the higher-functioning minority. When scrutinized, proposed "solutions" to the problem of deinstitutionalization are found to be simplistic and unrealistic. Deinstitutionalization will have accomplished a tremendous amount if the mentally ill can live lives of dignity and a reasonable amount of comfort in the community, a good that will require increased investment of both effort and funds in their living arrangements. The private sector, given sufficient financial incentives and proper supervision and support, can provide quality services to chronic patients on a large scale. PMID:7275024

  8. Candidate preferences and expectations of election outcomes.

    PubMed

    Delavande, Adeline; Manski, Charles F

    2012-03-01

    Analysis of data from the American Life Panel shows that in the presidential election of 2008 and in multiple statewide elections in 2010, citizens exhibited large differences in their expectations of election outcomes. Expectations were strongly positively associated with candidate preferences, persons tending to believe that their preferred candidate is more likely to win the election. Committed supporters of opposing candidates regularly differed by 20-30% in their assessments of the likelihood that each candidate would win. These findings contribute evidence on the false consensus effect, the empirical regularity that own preferences tend to be positively associated with perceptions of social preferences. We used unique measures of preferences and perceptions that enabled respondents to express uncertainty flexibly. We studied a setting that would a priori seem inhospitable to false consensus--one where persons have little private information on social preferences but substantial common knowledge provided by media reports of election polls. PMID:22355121

  9. Faculty Expectations and Development: The Tenure Case

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nielsen, S. Suzanne

    Professionals seeking careers in academia should understand the tenure process, and how to prepare successfully for the evaluations linked to the tenure decision. This chapter offers suggestions for persons pursuing tenure-track faculty positions in the discipline of food science. The first promotion process in academia (i.e., from assistant professor to associate professor) is typically linked to tenure consideration. The focus of this chapter is explaining tenure, tenure expectations, resources for guidance, how to manage the process, and how to prepare the tenure and promotion document. While most people are fearful of the promotion and tenure process, this fear and apprehension can be minimized by understanding the process and its expectations, and having good advice to follow to help ensure success.

  10. Search for quasi bound ? mesons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Machner, H.

    2015-04-01

    The search for a quasi bound ? meson in atomic nuclei is reviewed. This tentative state is studied theoretically as well as experimentally. The theory starts from elastic ? nucleon scattering which is derived from production data within some models. From this interaction the ? nucleus interaction is derived. Model calculations predict binding energies and widths of the quasi bound state. Another method is to derive the ? nucleus interaction from excitation functions of ? production experiments. The s wave interaction is extracted from such data via final state interaction (FSI) theorem. We give the derivation of s wave amplitudes in partial wave expansion and in helicity amplitudes and their relation to observables. Different experiments extracting the FSI are discussed as are production experiments. So far only three experiments give evidence for the existence of the quasi bound state: a pion double charge exchange experiment, an effective mass measurement, and a transfer reaction at recoil free kinematics with observation of the decay of the state.

  11. Optically modulated superconducting delay lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Track, E. K.; Drake, R. E.; Hohenwarter, G. K. G.

    1993-03-01

    Optical modulation is investigated for superconducting microstrip delay lines on 2-in-diameter, 10-mil-thick LaAlO3 substrates. The linewidth of 80 microns yields a characteristic impedance of 50 ohms. The linepitch of 100 mil is chosen to minimize the coupling between adjacent lines. The total meander line length is 64 cm. The measured delay is 8 ns with operation from DC to 20 GHz. The design was implemented using niobium, niobium nitride, and YBCO. The measurements were performed in a dewar and in a closed-cycle refrigerator, with both RF and optical access. Optical illumination of the lines resulted in a phase shift of the transmitted signal. Using a 10-mW He-Ne laser, phase shifts of up to 360 deg at 20 GHz were measured with NbN and YBCO. The phase shifts increased linearly with frequency and with optically intensity. The effect can be attributed to a small, bolometric modulation of the line inductance.

  12. Cross delay line sensor characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Owens, Israel J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Remelius, Dennis K [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Tiee, Joe J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Buck, Steven E [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Whittemore, Stephen R [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Thompson, David C [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Shirey, Robert [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-01-01

    There exists a wealth of information in the scientific literature on the physical properties and device characterization procedures for complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS), charge coupled device (CCD) and avalanche photodiode (APD) format detectors. Numerous papers and books have also treated photocathode operation in the context of photomultiplier tube (PMT) operation for either non imaging applications or limited night vision capability. However, much less information has been reported in the literature about the characterization procedures and properties of photocathode detectors with novel cross delay line (XDL) anode structures. These allow one to detect single photons and create images by recording space and time coordinate (X, Y & T) information. In this paper, we report on the physical characteristics and performance of a cross delay line anode sensor with an enhanced near infrared wavelength response photocathode and high dynamic range micro channel plate (MCP) gain (> 10{sup 6}) multiplier stage. Measurement procedures and results including the device dark event rate (DER), pulse height distribution, quantum and electronic device efficiency (QE & DQE) and spatial resolution per effective pixel region in a 25 mm sensor array are presented. The overall knowledge and information obtained from XDL sensor characterization allow us to optimize device performance and assess capability. These device performance properties and capabilities make XDL detectors ideal for remote sensing field applications that require single photon detection, imaging, sub nano-second timing response, high spatial resolution (10's of microns) and large effective image format.

  13. PLATO Simulator: Realistic simulations of expected observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marcos-Arenal, P.; Zima, W.; De Ridder, J.; Aerts, C.; Huygen, R.; Samadi, R.; Green, J.; Piotto, G.; Salmon, S.; Catala, C.; Rauer, H.

    2015-06-01

    PLATO Simulator is an end-to-end simulation software tool designed for the performance of realistic simulations of the expected observations of the PLATO mission but easily adaptable to similar types of missions. It models and simulates photometric time-series of CCD images by including models of the CCD and its electronics, the telescope optics, the stellar field, the jitter movements of the spacecraft, and all important natural noise sources.

  14. Induced Seismicity: What is the Size of the Largest Expected Earthquake?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zoeller, G.; Holschneider, M.

    2014-12-01

    The injections of fluids is a well-known origin for the triggering of earthquake sequences. The growing number of projects related to enhanced geothermal systems, fracking and others has led to the question, which maximum earthquake magnitude can be expected as a consequence of fluid injection. This question is addressed from the perspective of statistical analysis. Using basic empirical laws of earthquake statistics, we estimate the magnitude MT of the maximum expected earthquake in a pre-defined future time window T. A case study of the fluid injection site at Paradox Valley, Colorado, USA, demonstrates that the magnitude m=4.3 of the largest observed earthquake on 27 May 2000 is lying very well within the expectation from past seismicity without adjusting any parameters. Vice versa, for a given maximum tolerable earthquake at an injection site, we can constrain the corresponding amount of injected fluids that must not be exceeded within pre-defined confidence bounds.

  15. Learning what to expect (in visual perception)

    PubMed Central

    Seriès, Peggy; Seitz, Aaron R.

    2013-01-01

    Expectations are known to greatly affect our experience of the world. A growing theory in computational neuroscience is that perception can be successfully described using Bayesian inference models and that the brain is “Bayes-optimal” under some constraints. In this context, expectations are particularly interesting, because they can be viewed as prior beliefs in the statistical inference process. A number of questions remain unsolved, however, for example: How fast do priors change over time? Are there limits in the complexity of the priors that can be learned? How do an individual’s priors compare to the true scene statistics? Can we unlearn priors that are thought to correspond to natural scene statistics? Where and what are the neural substrate of priors? Focusing on the perception of visual motion, we here review recent studies from our laboratories and others addressing these issues. We discuss how these data on motion perception fit within the broader literature on perceptual Bayesian priors, perceptual expectations, and statistical and perceptual learning and review the possible neural basis of priors. PMID:24187536

  16. Conditional expectations associated with quantum states

    E-print Network

    Gerd Niestegge

    2010-01-21

    An extension of the conditional expectations (those under a given subalgebra of events and not the simple ones under a single event) from the classical to the quantum case is presented. In the classical case, the conditional expectations always exist; in the quantum case, however, they exist only if a certain weak compatibility criterion is satisfied. This compatibility criterion was introduced among others in a recent paper by the author. Then, state-independent conditional expectations and quantum Markov processes are studied. A classical Markov process is a probability measure, together with a system of random variables, satisfying the Markov property and can equivalently be described by a system of Markovian kernels (often forming a semigroup). This equivalence is partly extended to quantum probabilities. It is shown that a dynamical (semi)group can be derived from a given system of quantum observables satisfying the Markov property, and the group generators are studied. The results are presented in the framework of Jordan operator algebras, and a very general type of observables (including the usual real-valued observables or self-adjoint operators) is considered.

  17. Delay banking for air traffic management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, Steven M. (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    A method and associated system for time delay banking for aircraft arrival time, aircraft departure time and/or en route flight position. The delay credit value for a given flight may decrease with passage of time and may be transferred to or traded with other flights having the same or a different user (airline owner or operator). The delay credit value for a given aircraft flight depends upon an initial delay credit value, which is determined by a central system and depends upon one or more other flight characteristics. Optionally, the delay credit value decreases with passage of time. Optionally, a transaction cost is assessed against a delay credit value that is used on behalf of another flight with the same user or is traded with a different user.

  18. Stochastic switching in delay-coupled oscillators.

    PubMed

    D'Huys, Otti; Jüngling, Thomas; Kinzel, Wolfgang

    2014-09-01

    A delay is known to induce multistability in periodic systems. Under influence of noise, coupled oscillators can switch between coexistent orbits with different frequencies and different oscillation patterns. For coupled phase oscillators we reduce the delay system to a nondelayed Langevin equation, which allows us to analytically compute the distribution of frequencies and their corresponding residence times. The number of stable periodic orbits scales with the roundtrip delay time and coupling strength, but the noisy system visits only a fraction of the orbits, which scales with the square root of the delay time and is independent of the coupling strength. In contrast, the residence time in the different orbits is mainly determined by the coupling strength and the number of oscillators, and only weakly dependent on the coupling delay. Finally we investigate the effect of a detuning between the oscillators. We demonstrate the generality of our results with delay-coupled FitzHugh-Nagumo oscillators. PMID:25314515

  19. HOBRP: A hardware optimized packet scheduler that provides tunable end-to-end delay bound

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ruisheng Wang; Youjian Zhao; Hongtao Guan; Guanghui Yang

    2007-01-01

    A packet scheduler is a primary component of the improved Quality of Service (QoS) model for today's Internet. Although many fair packet schedulers have been proposed through theoretical consideration, practical high-speed packet schedulers remain elementary. The disparity arises because exis- tent schedulers either lack of necessary QoS guarantee or have an unacceptable cost of computation and storage. In this paper,

  20. HOBRP: A hardware optimized packet scheduler that provides tunable end-to-end delay bound

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ruisheng Wang; Youjian Zhao; Hongtao Guan; Guanghui Yang

    2009-01-01

    A packet scheduler is a primary component of the improved quality of service (QoS) model for today's Internet. Although many fair packet schedulers have been proposed through theoretical consideration, practical high-speed packet schedulers remain elementary. The disparity arises because existent schedulers either lack of necessary QoS guarantee or have an unacceptable cost of computation and storage. In this paper, we

  1. A Delay-Bounded Dynamic Interactive Power Control Algorithm for VANETs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chunxiao Chigan; Jialiang Li

    2007-01-01

    To enable real-time and robust message delivery, the highly mobile vehicular ad hoc networks (VANETs) call for comprehensive investigation on the dynamic power control effects on the real-time and robust communications. Ideally, by adjusting transmission power adaptively, VANET nodes may agilely cope with the segmentation problem at light vehicular traffic and with the limited system capacity problem at high traffic

  2. A Graph Theoretic Approach to Bounding Delay in Proxy-Assisted, End-System Multicast

    E-print Network

    . Malouch Zhen Liu¡ Dan Rubenstein ¢ Sambit Sahu¡£ Projet Mistral ¤ IBM T.J. Watson Research Center ¥ Dept. of Electrical Engineering INRIA Hawthorne, NY Columbia University Sophia Antipolis, France New York, NY Naceur.Malouch of the National Science Foundation. N. Malouch performed this work as a visitor at IBM Labs, Hawthorne, NY, Summer

  3. Bounded delay timing analysis of a class of CSP programs with choice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Henrik Hulgaard; Steven M. Burns

    1994-01-01

    We extend our technique for determining exact time separation of events in systems with just concurrency to a restricted but still useful class of systems with both choice and concurrency. Such a system is described using a CSP program (including Martin's probe operator) with the restrictions that the communication behavior is data-independent, that there is no OR-causality, and that guard

  4. DEBUT: Delay Bounded Service Discovery in Urban Vehicular Ad-hoc Networks

    E-print Network

    and the prohibitive constant communication cost (e.g., via 2G/3G networks) for updating and querying the information.g., sensor data and multimedia content) or resources (e.g., storage, access to the Internet) to other on the distributed resources. A better solution might store the index information on vehicles, leveraging free

  5. Bounded delay routing for real-time communication in tactical radio networks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Imrich Chlamtac

    1989-01-01

    To deal with the need for availability and real time response, military communication has employed protocols with deterministic service such as that found in SS\\/TDMA (spread-spectrum\\/time-division multiple-access) control of satellite links, or T1, T2, or T3 ground relay optic fibers. The author addresses the problem of providing network layer communication with deterministic service in multihop radio networks. First, he investigates

  6. Astrophysical bounds on superlight gravitinos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grifols, J. A.; Mohapatra, R. N.; Riotto, A.

    1997-02-01

    We derive the allowed mass range for the superlight gravitino present in a large class of supersymmetric models from the observed neutrino luminosity from Supernova 1987A. We find that for photino masses of order of 100 GeV, the mass range 2.6 × 10-8 eV <= mg~ <= 2.2 × 10-6 eV for the gravitino g~ is excluded by SN1987A observations. Unlike the bounds on mg~ from nucleosynthesis, the bounds in the present paper do not depend critically upon the uncertainties of the observational input.

  7. Holographic bounds and finite inflation

    E-print Network

    Daniel Phillips; Andrew Scacco; Andreas Albrecht

    2014-10-13

    We compare two holographic arguments that impose especially strong bounds on the amount of inflation. One comes from the de Sitter Equilibrium cosmology and the other from the work of Banks and Fischler. We find that simple versions of these two approaches yield the same bound on the number of e-foldings. A careful examination reveals that while these pictures are similar in spirit, they are not necessarily identical prescriptions. We apply the two pictures to specific cosmologies which expose potentially important differences and which also demonstrate ways these seemingly simple proposals can be tricky to implement in practice.

  8. Motion synchronization in unmanned aircrafts formation control with communication delays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rezaee, Hamed; Abdollahi, Farzaneh

    2013-03-01

    This paper proposes a formation control strategy for unmanned aircrafts using a virtual structure. Cross coupled sliding mode controllers are introduced to cope with uncertainties in the attitude measurement systems of the unmanned aircrafts and unmeasurable bounded external disturbances such as wind effects, and also to provide motion synchronization in the multi-agent system. This motion synchronization strategy improves the agents convergence to their desired positions, and this is useful for a multi-agent system with faulty agents. Moreover, the proposed motion synchronization strategy is not restricted to specific communication topologies, and sufficient conditions are provided to guarantee the multi-agent system stability in the presence of communication delays. Numerical simulations are presented for a team of five unmanned aircrafts to make a pentagon formation and confirm the accepted performance of the proposed control strategy.

  9. Statistical Inference of DNA Translocation using Parallel Expectation Maximization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emmett, Kevin; Rosenstein, Jacob; Pfau, David; Bamberger, Akiva; Shepard, Ken; Wiggins, Chris

    2013-03-01

    DNA translocation through a nanopore is an attractive candidate for a next-generation DNA sequencing platform, however the stochastic motion of the molecules within the pore, allowing both forward and backward movement, prevents easy inference of the true sequence from observed data. We model diffusion of an input DNA sequence through a nanopore as a biased random walk with noise, and describe an algorithm for efficient statistical reconstruction of the input sequence, given data consisting of a set of time series traces. The data is modeled as a Hidden Markov Model, and parallel expectation maximization is used to learn the most probable input sequence generating the observed traces. Bounds on inference accuracy are analyzed as a function of model parameters, including forward bias, error rate, and the number of traces. The number of traces is shown to have the strongest influence on algorithm performance, allowing for high inference accuracy even in extremely noisy environments. Incorrectly identified state transitions account for the majority of inference errors, and we introduce entropy-based metaheuristics for identifying and eliminating these errors. Inference is robust, fast, and scales to input sequences on the order of several kilobases.

  10. Inexact Matching of Ontology Graphs Using Expectation-Maximization

    PubMed Central

    Doshi, Prashant; Kolli, Ravikanth; Thomas, Christopher

    2009-01-01

    We present a new method for mapping ontology schemas that address similar domains. The problem of ontology matching is crucial since we are witnessing a decentralized development and publication of ontological data. We formulate the problem of inferring a match between two ontologies as a maximum likelihood problem, and solve it using the technique of expectation-maximization (EM). Specifically, we adopt directed graphs as our model for ontology schemas and use a generalized version of EM to arrive at a map between the nodes of the graphs. We exploit the structural, lexical and instance similarity between the graphs, and differ from the previous approaches in the way we utilize them to arrive at, a possibly inexact, match. Inexact matching is the process of finding a best possible match between the two graphs when exact matching is not possible or is computationally difficult. In order to scale the method to large ontologies, we identify the computational bottlenecks and adapt the generalized EM by using a memory bounded partitioning scheme. We provide comparative experimental results in support of our method on two well-known ontology alignment benchmarks and discuss their implications. PMID:20160892

  11. Delay distributions of slotted ALOHA and CSMA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yang Yang; Tak-Shing Peter Yum

    2003-01-01

    We derive the closed-form delay distributions of slotted ALOHA and nonpersistent carrier sense multiple access (CSMA) protocols under steady state. Three retransmission policies are analyzed. We find that under a binary exponential backoff retransmission policy, finite average delay and finite delay variance can be guaranteed for G<2S and G<4S\\/3, respectively, where G is the channel traffic and S is the

  12. Compact programmable photonic variable delay devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yao, X. Steve (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    Optical variable delay devices for providing variable true time delay to multiple optical beams simultaneously. A ladder-structured variable delay device comprises multiple basic building blocks stacked on top of each other resembling a ladder. Each basic building block has two polarization beamsplitters and a polarization rotator array arranged to form a trihedron; Controlling an array element of the polarization rotator array causes a beam passing through the array element either going up to a basic building block above it or reflect back towards a block below it. The beams going higher on the ladder experience longer optical path delay. An index-switched optical variable delay device comprises of many birefringent crystal segments connected with one another, with a polarization rotator array sandwiched between any two adjacent crystal segments. An array element in the polarization rotator array controls the polarization state of a beam passing through the element, causing the beam experience different refractive indices or path delays in the following crystal segment. By independently control each element in each polarization rotator array, variable optical path delays of each beam can be achieved. Finally, an index-switched variable delay device and a ladder-structured variable device are cascaded to form a new device which combines the advantages of the two individual devices. This programmable optic device has the properties of high packing density, low loss, easy fabrication, and virtually infinite bandwidth. The device is inherently two dimensional and has a packing density exceeding 25 lines/cm.sup.2. The delay resolution of the device is on the order of a femtosecond (one micron in space) and the total delay exceeds 10 nanosecond. In addition, the delay is reversible so that the same delay device can be used for both antenna transmitting and receiving.

  13. Nearest neighbor embedding with different time delays

    E-print Network

    Sara P. Garcia; Jonas S. Almeida

    2006-09-12

    A nearest neighbor based selection of time delays for phase space reconstruction is proposed and compared to the standard use of time delayed mutual information. The possibility of using different time delays for consecutive dimensions is considered. A case study of numerically generated solutions of the Lorenz system is used for illustration. The effect of contamination with various levels of additive Gaussian white noise is discussed.

  14. Modeling radiation-induced cell cycle delays

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anna Ochab-Marcinek; Ewa Gudowska-Nowak; Elena Nasonova; Sylvia Ritter

    2009-01-01

    Ionizing radiation is known to delay the cell cycle progression. In particular after particle exposure significant delays\\u000a have been observed and it has been shown that the extent of delay affects the expression of damage, such as chromosome aberrations.\\u000a Thus, to predict how cells respond to ionizing radiation and to derive reliable estimates of radiation risks, information\\u000a about radiation-induced cell

  15. Terrestrial Planet Finder cryogenic delay line development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smythe, Robert F.; Swain, Mark R.; Alvarez-Salazar, Oscar; Moore, James D.

    2004-01-01

    Delay lines provide the path-length compensation that makes the measurement of interference fringes possible. When used for nulling interferometry, the delay line must control path-lengths so that the null is stable and controlled throughout the measurement. We report on a low noise, low disturbance, and high bandwidth optical delay line capable of meeting the TPF interferometer optical path length control requirements at cryogenic temperatures.

  16. Delays in the human heartbeat dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alvarez-Ramirez, Jose; Rodriguez, Eduardo; Echeverría, Juan Carlos

    2009-06-01

    This paper explores the possibility of applying statistical nonlinear physics methods to elucidate the underlying mechanisms controlling the heart rate. In particular, the presence of delays in RR interval dynamics is studied by using a lagged detrended fluctuation analysis. The results indicate that patients with congestive heart failure (CHF) have a prolonged time delay in the baroreflex response. Some implications of large delays for the functioning of autonomic control in subjects with CHF are discussed.

  17. Conciliation of Bayes and Pointwise Quantum State Estimation: Asymptotic information bounds in quantum statistics

    E-print Network

    Richard D. Gill

    2009-01-31

    We derive an asymptotic lower bound on the Bayes risk when $N$ identical quantum systems whose state depends on a vector of unknown parameters are jointly measured in an arbitrary way and the parameters of interest estimated on the basis of the resulting data. The bound is an integrated version of a quantum Cram\\'er-Rao bound due to Holevo (1982), and it thereby links the fixed $N$ exact Bayesian optimality usually pursued in the physics literature with the pointwise asymptotic optimality favoured in classical mathematical statistics. By heuristic arguments the bound can be expected to be sharp. This does turn out to be the case in various important examples, where it can be used to prove asymptotic optimality of interesting and useful measurement-and-estimation schemes. On the way we obtain a new family of "dual Holevo bounds" of independent interest.

  18. Reduction of chemical reaction networks through delay distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrio, Manuel; Leier, André; Marquez-Lago, Tatiana T.

    2013-03-01

    Accurate modelling and simulation of dynamic cellular events require two main ingredients: an adequate description of key chemical reactions and simulation of such chemical events in reasonable time spans. Quite logically, posing the right model is a crucial step for any endeavour in Computational Biology. However, more often than not, it is the associated computational costs which actually limit our capabilities of representing complex cellular behaviour. In this paper, we propose a methodology aimed at representing chains of chemical reactions by much simpler, reduced models. The abridgement is achieved by generation of model-specific delay distribution functions, consecutively fed to a delay stochastic simulation algorithm. We show how such delay distributions can be analytically described whenever the system is solely composed of consecutive first-order reactions, with or without additional "backward" bypass reactions, yielding an exact reduction. For models including other types of monomolecular reactions (constitutive synthesis, degradation, or "forward" bypass reactions), we discuss why one must adopt a numerical approach for its accurate stochastic representation, and propose two alternatives for this. In these cases, the accuracy depends on the respective numerical sample size. Our model reduction methodology yields significantly lower computational costs while retaining accuracy. Quite naturally, computational costs increase alongside network size and separation of time scales. Thus, we expect our model reduction methodologies to significantly decrease computational costs in these instances. We anticipate the use of delays in model reduction will greatly alleviate some of the current restrictions in simulating large sets of chemical reactions, largely applicable in pharmaceutical and biological research.

  19. Ionospheric delay estimation strategies for airborne gravity surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herring, T.; Centinello, F. J., III; Martins, J. L.

    2011-12-01

    Noise in GPS determined aircraft trajectories is a major source of error in airborne gravity surveys. Frequency dependent noise, such as the ionospheric delay and signal multipath, can have a large impact when aircraft to base station separations are more than a few kilometers. For large separations (more than ten kilometers) between base stations and aircraft, GPS phase data is processed with the linear combination of measurements at the L1 (1.5 GHz) and L2 (1.24 GHz) frequencies that eliminates the first order effects of the ionosphere. However due the closeness of the GPS frequencies, the random noise and often the noise from multipath is 2 to 3 times larger than in the individual L1 and L2 phase measurements. In this talk, we explore methods for processing kinematic GPS trajectories using L1 and L2 phase data separately with an ionospheric delay model used that is based on coarse resolution global ionospheric delay models combined with high time resolution estimates from the kinematic GPS phase data passed through a smoothing Kalman filter. We test this approach with a comparison of repeat pass airborne gravity surveys where the base station for the survey was 200 km from the flight path. Initial results are encouraging with root-mean-square (RMS) differences between filtered gravity anomalies along the repeated flights decreasing from 0.9 mgal to 0.6 mgal when the L1/L2 calibrated solution is compared to the standard ionospheric free analysis. Further improvements are expected as ambiguity resolution is improved in the calibrated solutions and the filters used both for the ionospheric delays and gravity anomalies are optimized.

  20. Upper Higgs boson mass bounds from a chirally invariant lattice Higgs-Yukawa model

    E-print Network

    P. Gerhold; K. Jansen

    2010-02-23

    We establish the cutoff-dependent upper Higgs boson mass bound by means of direct lattice computations in the framework of a chirally invariant lattice Higgs-Yukawa model emulating the same chiral Yukawa coupling structure as in the Higgs-fermion sector of the Standard Model. As expected from the triviality picture of the Higgs sector, we observe the upper mass bound to decrease with rising cutoff parameter $\\Lambda$. Moreover, the strength of the fermionic contribution to the upper mass bound is explored by comparing to the corresponding analysis in the pure $\\Phi^4$-theory.