Bounds for the cumulative conditional expectation function
Fernández, M.; González-López, V. A.
2015-03-10
We introduce the concept of cumulative conditional expectation function. This is a quantity that provides statistical support for making decisions in applied problems. The goal of this paper is to find an analytical expression for upper and lower bounds of this function, assuming stochastic dependence types as being the underlying random structure.
The Online Expectations of College-Bound Juniors and Seniors. E-Expectations Report, 2012
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Noel-Levitz, Inc, 2012
2012-01-01
Noel-Levitz, OmniUpdate, CollegeWeekLive, and NRCCUA[R] (National Research Center for College & University Admissions) conducted a survey of 2,000 college-bound juniors and seniors about their expectations for college Web sites, mobile usage, e-mail, and social media. Among the findings: (1) More than 50 percent of students said the Web played a
Bounded rational expectations and the stability of interest rate policy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gomes, Orlando; Mendes, Diana A.; Mendes, Vivaldo M.
2008-06-01
The New Keynesian model has recently been subject to two serious criticisms: the model cannot produce plausible inflation and output dynamics following a monetary shock, and the stability of its dynamics suffers from indeterminacy. The procedures that have been proposed to eliminate these two shortcomings fall into two categories: the introduction of some sort of backward price indexation into the standard model and/or other forms of stickiness (like sticky information); and the adoption of some form of policy rule that completely offsets the effects of forward looking dynamics in the optimization process. In this paper we do not eradicate forward looking behavior from the dynamics of the New Keynesian model, neither do we impose some form of backward price indexation. We assume that private economic agents have forward looking behavior and that they do try to optimize with all available information; the only novelty is that they are allowed to make small mistakes near the rational expectations equilibrium, in a fully deterministic setup. These “near rational” or “bounded rational” expectations show that the dynamics of the model with active interest rate rules is much richer than the simple problem of local indeterminacy as is usually found in the literature.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Noel-Levitz, Inc, 2010
2010-01-01
Early in 2010, the E-Expectations research group surveyed more than 1,000 college-bound high school students, polling them on their online behaviors and expectations, as well as other key enrollment-related topics. Highlights of the study include: (1) 1 in 4 students reported removing a school from their prospective list because of a bad
Bounded Linear Stability Analysis - A Time Delay Margin Estimation Approach for Adaptive Control
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Nguyen, Nhan T.; Ishihara, Abraham K.; Krishnakumar, Kalmanje Srinlvas; Bakhtiari-Nejad, Maryam
2009-01-01
This paper presents a method for estimating time delay margin for model-reference adaptive control of systems with almost linear structured uncertainty. The bounded linear stability analysis method seeks to represent the conventional model-reference adaptive law by a locally bounded linear approximation within a small time window using the comparison lemma. The locally bounded linear approximation of the combined adaptive system is cast in a form of an input-time-delay differential equation over a small time window. The time delay margin of this system represents a local stability measure and is computed analytically by a matrix measure method, which provides a simple analytical technique for estimating an upper bound of time delay margin. Based on simulation results for a scalar model-reference adaptive control system, both the bounded linear stability method and the matrix measure method are seen to provide a reasonably accurate and yet not too conservative time delay margin estimation.
Dey, Rajeeb; Ghosh, Sandip; Ray, Goshaidas; Rakshit, Anjan; Balas, Valentina Emilia
2015-09-01
This paper presents improved robust delay-range-dependent stability analysis of an uncertain linear time-delay system following two different existing approaches - (i) non-delay partitioning (NDP) and (ii) delay partitioning (DP). The derived criterion (for both the approaches) proposes judicious use of integral inequality to approximate the uncertain limits of integration arising out of the time-derivative of Lyapunov-Krasovskii (LK) functionals to obtain less conservative results. Further, the present work compares both the approaches in terms of relative merits as well as highlights tradeoff for achieving higher delay bound and (or) reducing number of decision variables without losing conservatism in delay bound results. The analysis and discussion presented in the paper are validated by considering relevant numerical examples. PMID:26190503
Learning monopolies with delayed feedback on price expectations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Matsumoto, Akio; Szidarovszky, Ferenc
2015-11-01
We call the intercept of the price function with the vertical axis the maximum price and the slope of the price function the marginal price. In this paper it is assumed that a monopolistic firm has full information about the marginal price and its own cost function but is uncertain on the maximum price. However, by repeated interaction with the market, the obtained price observations give a basis for an adaptive learning process of the maximum price. It is also assumed that the price observations have fixed delays, so the learning process can be described by a delayed differential equation. In the cases of one or two delays, the asymptotic behavior of the resulting dynamic process is examined, stability conditions are derived. Three main results are demonstrated in the two delay learning processes. First, it is possible to stabilize the equilibrium which is unstable in the one delay model. Second, complex dynamics involving chaos, which is impossible in the one delay model, can emerge. Third, alternations of stability and instability (i.e., stability switches) occur repeatedly.
A new hierarchy of upper and lower bounds on expectation values
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brandt, U.; Stolze, J.
1981-03-01
Upper and lower bounds are constructe for expectation values of functions of a real random variable with derivatives up to order N+1 which are alternately negative and positive over the whole range of interest. The bounds are given by quadrature formulas with weights and abscissas determined by the first N+1 moments of the underlying probability distribution. Application to a simple disordered phonon system yields sharp bounds on the specific heat.
An Upper Bound for the Expected Range of a Random Sample
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Marengo, James; Lopez, Manuel
2010-01-01
We consider the expected range of a random sample of points chosen from the interval [0, 1] according to some probability distribution. We then use the notion of convexity to derive an upper bound for this expected range which is valid for all possible choices of this distribution. Finally we show that there is only one distribution for which this
Stochastic resonance in a tumor-immune system subject to bounded noises and time delay
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Guo, Wei; Mei, Dong-Cheng
2014-12-01
Immunotherapy is one of the most recent approaches in cancer therapy. A mathematical model of tumor-immune interaction, subject to a periodic immunotherapy treatment (imitated by a periodic signal), correlative and bounded stochastic fluctuations and time delays, is investigated by numerical simulations for its signal power amplification (SPA). Within the tailored parameter regime, the synchronous response of tumor growth to the immunotherapy, stochastic resonance (SR), versus both the noises and delays is obtained. The details are as follows (i) the peak values of SPA versus the noise intensity (A) in the proliferation term of tumor cells decrease as the frequency of periodic signal increases, i.e. an increase of the frequency restrains the SR; (ii) an increase of the amplitude of periodic signal restrains the SR versus A, but boosts up the SR versus the noise intensity B in the immune term; (iii) there is an optimum cross-correlated degree between the two bounded noises, at which the system exhibits the strongest SR versus the delay time τα(the reaction time of tumor cell population to their surrounding environment constraints); (iv) upon increasing the delay time τα, double SR versus the delay time τβ (the time taken by both the tumor antigen identification and tumor-stimulated proliferation of effectors) emerges. These results may be helpful for an immunotherapy treatment for the sufferer.
Delayed birth of distillable entanglement in the evolution of bound entangled states
Derkacz, Lukasz; Jakobczyk, Lech
2010-08-15
The dynamical creation of entanglement between three-level atoms coupled to the common vacuum is investigated. For the class of bound entangled initial states, we show that the dynamics of closely separated atoms generates stationary distillable entanglement of asymptotic states. We also find that the effect of delayed sudden birth of distillable entanglement occurs in the case of atoms separated by a distance comparable with the radiation wavelength.
Khazaee, Mostafa; Markazi, Amir H D; Omidi, Ehsan
2015-11-01
In this paper, a new Adaptive Fuzzy Predictive Sliding Mode Control (AFP-SMC) is presented for nonlinear systems with uncertain dynamics and unknown input delay. The control unit consists of a fuzzy inference system to approximate the ideal linearization control, together with a switching strategy to compensate for the estimation errors. Also, an adaptive fuzzy predictor is used to estimate the future values of the system states to compensate for the time delay. The adaptation laws are used to tune the controller and predictor parameters, which guarantee the stability based on a Lyapunov-Krasovskii functional. To evaluate the method effectiveness, the simulation and experiment on an overhead crane system are presented. According to the obtained results, AFP-SMC can effectively control the uncertain nonlinear systems, subject to input delays of known bound. PMID:26524958
Transitions induced by cross-correlated bounded noises and time delay in a genotype selection model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Pei; Ning, Li Juan
2016-01-01
We present a numerical investigation of occurrence of transitions in a genotype selection model with time delay, where two bounded noises are cross-correlated. Stationary probability distribution (SPD) function is obtained. It is found that: the multiplicative bounded noise can facilitate the gene separation and it plays a constructive role in the genetic selection progress, while the additive bounded noise suppresses the gene separation. The strong correlation between noises gives a big chance to one type haploid out of the group. Besides, what is more interesting is that the correlation time τ can induce a new transitions (i.e., the curve of the SPD changes from unimodal to bimodal, and then to four peaks as the correlation time τ increases).
Stability and Hopf bifurcation for a business cycle model with expectation and delay
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Xiangdong; Cai, Wenli; Lu, Jiajun; Wang, Yangyang
2015-08-01
According to rational expectation hypothesis, the government will take into account the future capital stock in the process of investment decision. By introducing anticipated capital stock into an economic model with investment delay, we construct a mixed functional differential system including delay and advanced variables. The system is converted to the one containing only delay by variable substitution. The equilibrium point of the system is obtained and its dynamical characteristics such as stability, Hopf bifurcation and its stability and direction are investigated by using the related theories of nonlinear dynamics. We carry out some numerical simulations to confirm these theoretical conclusions. The results indicate that both capital stock's anticipation and investment lag are the certain factors leading to the occurrence of cyclical fluctuations in the macroeconomic system. Moreover, the level of economic fluctuation can be dampened to some extent if investment decisions are made by the reasonable short-term forecast on capital stock.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Noel-Levitz, Inc, 2009
2009-01-01
Communicating with prospective students has undergone a profound transformation in the past ten years. Campus marketing--like marketing for any organization--had to adapt first to the Internet and e-mail and now to new social media formats like social networking and blogging. A recent survey of 1,000 college-bound seniors, however, shows that…
Leiberg, Susanne; Goschke, Thomas
2013-01-01
When choosing between immediate and temporally delayed goods, people sometimes decide disadvantageously. Here, we aim to provide process-level insight into differences between individually determined advantageous and disadvantageous choices. Participants played a computer game, deciding between two different rewards of varying size and distance by moving an agent towards the chosen reward. We calculated individual models of advantageous choices and characterized the decision process by analyzing mouse movements. The larger amount of participants’ choices was classified as advantageous and the disadvantageous choices were biased towards choosing sooner/smaller rewards. The deflection of mouse movements indicated more conflict in disadvantageous choices compared with advantageous choices when the utilities of the options differed clearly. Further process oriented analysis revealed that disadvantageous choices were biased by a tendency for choice-repetition and an undervaluation of the value information in favour of the delay information, making rather simple choices harder than could be expected from the properties of the decision situation. PMID:24260192
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Noel-Levitz, Inc, 2012
2012-01-01
The last decade marked a dramatic change in the college search experience as students flocked to the Internet as their primary tool for researching colleges. Institutions had to transform their recruitment efforts to keep up with the online demands and expectations of prospective students. The proliferation of smartphones is transforming the…
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Min-Min; Wang, Can-Jun; Mei, Dong-Cheng
2011-11-01
The effects of the time delay on the upper bound of the time derivative of information entropy are investigated in a time-delayed dynamical system driven by correlated noise. Using the Markov approximation of the stochastic delay differential equations and the Schwartz inequality principle, we obtain an analytical expression for the upper bound UB(t) of the time derivative of the information entropy. The results show that there is a critical value of ? (delay time), and UB(t) presents opposite behaviours on difference sides of the critical value. For the case of the weak additive noise, ? can induce a reentrance transition. Delay time ? also causes a reversal behaviour in UB(t)-? plot, where ? denotes the degree of the correlation between the two noises.
Li, Peng; Huang, Chuanhe; Liu, Qin
2014-01-01
In vehicular ad hoc networks, roadside units (RSUs) placement has been proposed to improve the the overall network performance in many ITS applications. This paper addresses the budget constrained and delay-bounded placement problem (BCDP) for roadside units in vehicular ad hoc networks. There are two types of RSUs: cable connected RSU (c-RSU) and wireless RSU (w-RSU). c-RSUs are interconnected through wired lines, and they form the backbone of VANETs, while w-RSUs connect to other RSUs through wireless communication and serve as an economical extension of the coverage of c-RSUs. The delay-bounded coverage range and deployment cost of these two cases are totally different. We are given a budget constraint and a delay bound, the problem is how to find the optimal candidate sites with the maximal delay-bounded coverage to place RSUs such that a message from any c-RSU in the region can be disseminated to the more vehicles within the given budget constraint and delay bound. We first prove that the BCDP problem is NP-hard. Then we propose several algorithms to solve the BCDP problem. Simulation results show the heuristic algorithms can significantly improve the coverage range and reduce the total deployment cost, compared with other heuristic methods. PMID:25436656
Jeyakumar, Mylvaganam; Butters, Terry D.; Cortina-Borja, Mario; Hunnam, Victoria; Proia, Richard L.; Perry, V. Hugh; Dwek, Raymond A.; Platt, Frances M.
1999-01-01
Sandhoff disease is a neurodegenerative disorder resulting from the autosomal recessive inheritance of mutations in the HEXB gene, which encodes the ?-subunit of ?-hexosaminidase. GM2 ganglioside fails to be degraded and accumulates within lysosomes in cells of the periphery and the central nervous system (CNS). There are currently no therapies for the glycosphingolipid lysosomal storage diseases that involve CNS pathology, including the GM2 gangliosidoses. One strategy for treating this and related diseases is substrate deprivation. This would utilize an inhibitor of glycosphingolipid biosynthesis to balance synthesis with the impaired rate of catabolism, thus preventing storage. One such inhibitor is N-butyldeoxynojirimycin, which currently is in clinical trials for the potential treatment of type 1 Gaucher disease, a related disease that involves glycosphingolipid storage in peripheral tissues, but not in the CNS. In this study, we have evaluated whether this drug also could be applied to the treatment of diseases with CNS storage and pathology. We therefore have treated a mouse model of Sandhoff disease with the inhibitor N-butyldeoxynojirimycin. The treated mice have delayed symptom onset, reduced storage in the brain and peripheral tissues, and increased life expectancy. Substrate deprivation therefore offers a potentially general therapy for this family of lysosomal storage diseases, including those with CNS disease. PMID:10339597
Cosmological bounds to the variation of the Higgs vacuum expectation value: BBN constraints
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Civitarese, O.; Moliné, M. A.; Mosquera, M. E.
2010-11-01
We calculate the dependence of the deuterium binding energy upon the Higgs vacuum expectation value (v), by using different effective nucleon-nucleon potentials, and set constraints on the time variation of the Higgs vacuum expectation value from Big Bang Nucleosynthesis. The analysis is based on the calculation of the abundances of primordial D, 4He and 7Li. Results are consistent with variations of v/Λ in the early universe, within 6σ if all available data on primordial abundances are considered in the analysis.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Biggs, M. Antonia; Ralph, Lauren; Minnis, Alexandra M.; Arons, Abigail; Marchi, Kristen S.; Lehrer, Jocelyn A.; Braveman, Paula A.; Brindis, Claire D.
2010-01-01
There has been limited research on the protective factors that help Latinas delay childbearing until adulthood. In-depth interviews were conducted with 65 pregnant Latina teenage and adult women in California who were about to have their first child. Lack of or inconsistent birth control use as teens was attributed to wanting or ambivalence toward…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Biggs, M. Antonia; Ralph, Lauren; Minnis, Alexandra M.; Arons, Abigail; Marchi, Kristen S.; Lehrer, Jocelyn A.; Braveman, Paula A.; Brindis, Claire D.
2010-01-01
There has been limited research on the protective factors that help Latinas delay childbearing until adulthood. In-depth interviews were conducted with 65 pregnant Latina teenage and adult women in California who were about to have their first child. Lack of or inconsistent birth control use as teens was attributed to wanting or ambivalence toward
Sliding Mode Control for Delayed T-S Fuzzy Neural Network with Norm-Bounded Uncertainties
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Jie; Mo, Wei
In this paper, we consider the sliding mode control of delayed T-S fuzzy neural network with normbounded uncertainties. Based on the Lyapunov-Krasovskii stability theory, we originally research the sliding mode control method for T-S fuzzy neural network with time delay on the basis of the linear matrix inequalities (LMIs). A numerical example is given to validate the effectiveness of our method.
McElderry, Robert M
2016-04-01
Surviving inhospitable periods or seasons may greatly affect fitness. Evidence of this exists in the prevalence of dormant stages in the life cycles of most insects. Here I focused on butterflies with distinct seasonal morphological types (not a genetic polymorphism) in which one morphological type, or form, delays reproduction until favorable conditions return, while the other form develops in an environment that favors direct reproduction. For two butterflies, Anaea aidea and A. andria, I tested the hypothesis that the development of each seasonal form involves a differential allocation of resources to survival at eclosion. I assayed differences in adult longevity among summer and winter forms in either a warm, active environment or a cool, calm environment. Winter form adults lived 40 times longer than summer form but only in calm, cool conditions. The magnitude of this difference provided compelling evidence that the winter form body plan and metabolic strategy (i.e. resource conservatism) favor long term survival. This research suggests that winter form adults maintain lowered metabolic rate, a common feature of diapause, to conserve resources and delay senescence while overwintering. PMID:26868721
Ilangovan, Kumaravel; Nagaraja, Sharath Burugina; Ananthakrishnan, Ramya; Jacob, Anil G.; Tripathy, Jaya Prasad; Tamang, Deepak
2015-01-01
Background In India, the Revised National TB Control Programme (RNTCP) envisages initiation of TB treatment within seven days of diagnosis among smear-positive patients. After nearly two decades of RNTCP implementation, treatment delays are usually not expected. Objectives To determine the proportion of sputum smear-positive TB patients who were initiated on treatment after seven days and their associated risk factors. Methods The study was conducted in Cuttack and Rayagada districts of Odisha. It was a retrospective cohort study that involves review of TB treatment registers and laboratory registers for 2013. Results Among 1,800 pulmonary TB (PTB) patients, 1,074 (60%) had been initiated on treatment within seven days of diagnosis, 721 (40%) had been initiated on treatment more than seven days, and 354 (20%) had delays of more than 15 days. The mean duration between TB diagnosis and treatment initiation was 21 days with a range of 8–207 days (median = 14 days). Odds of treatment delay of more than seven days were 4.9 times (95% confidence interval [CI] 3.3-6.6) among those who had been previously treated, 6.2 times (95% CI 1.3-29.7) among those infected with HIV, and 1.8 times (95% CI 1.1-2.9) among those diagnosed outside district DMC. Conclusion Delay in initiation of TB treatment occurred in majority of the smear-positive patients. The RNTCP should focus on core areas of providing quality TB services with time-tested strategies. To have real-time monitoring mechanisms for diagnosed smear-positive TB patients is expected to be the way forward. PMID:25928294
Yamaoka, Hiroshi; Karasawa, Kaori
2006-04-01
Two studies were conducted to examine the effect of affects on self-control behavior in delayed cost dilemma. Results of Study 1 suggested that long term negative affects such as regret and self-disgust might have facilitating effects on motivation of self-control if they were anticipated before delayed-cost dilemma situations, but inhibiting effects on self-efficacy of control when experienced after dilemma situations. Study 2 examined the effect of affect priming on self-control in eating behavior, as well as an interaction effect of anticipated affect and regulatory resource on it. Results indicated that participants who had enough regulatory resource succeeded in self-control, i.e. they ate less, regardless of the type of affect priming, but those who did not have sufficient resource and were not primed with long-term negative affects failed to control their behavior. It was argued that regulatory resource explanation of self-control should be expanded to the theory including anticipated affects. PMID:16862961
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Behr, Y.; Cua, G. B.; Clinton, J. F.; Racine, R.; Meier, M.; Cauzzi, C.
2013-12-01
The Virtual Seismologist (VS) method is a Bayesian approach to regional network-based earthquake early warning (EEW) originally formulated by Cua and Heaton (2007). Implementation of VS into real-time EEW codes has been an on-going effort of the Swiss Seismological Service at ETH Zürich since 2006, with support from ETH Zürich, various European projects, and the United States Geological Survey (USGS). VS is one of three EEW algorithms that form the basis of the California Integrated Seismic Network (CISN) ShakeAlert system, a USGS-funded prototype end-to-end EEW system that could potentially be implemented in California. In Europe, VS is currently operating as a real-time test system in Switzerland, western Greece and Istanbul. As part of the on-going EU project REAKT (Strategies and Tools for Real-Time Earthquake Risk Reduction), VS installations in southern Italy, Romania, and Iceland are planned or underway. The possible use cases for an EEW system will be determined by the speed and reliability of earthquake source parameter estimates. A thorough understanding of both is therefore essential to evaluate the usefulness of VS. For California, we present state-wide theoretical alert times for hypothetical earthquakes by analyzing time delays introduced by the different components in the VS EEW system. Taking advantage of the fully probabilistic formulation of the VS algorithm we further present an improved way to describe the uncertainties of every magnitude estimate by evaluating the width and shape of the probability density function that describes the relationship between waveform envelope amplitudes and magnitude. We evaluate these new uncertainty values for past seismicity in California through off-line playbacks and compare them to the previously defined static definitions of uncertainty based on real-time detections. Our results indicate where VS alerts are most useful in California and also suggest where most effective improvements to the VS EEW system can be made.
Haftel, M.I.; Mandelzweig, V.B.
1983-10-01
Exact solutions of one-dimensional coupled differential equations are developed by substituting in power series. The properties of these solutions and the possibility of their application the few-body problem in the framework of the hyperspherical method are studied. The necessity of logarithmic terms in the nonrelativistic many-body wavefunctions, as well as their absence in the relativistic case, is stressed. Explicit form of the solution of the one-dimensional hyperspherical matrix equation corresponding to the three-body Coulomb problem is found and used to obtain Schroedinger and Faddeev bound state wavefunctions, correlatin integrals and probabilities of different hyperspherical states. The results of calculations with inclusion of up to 25 hyperspherical harmonics (K/sub m/ = 16) for the ground and excited state of the helium atom, the ground state of the positronium in and the negative hydrogen in are given and compared with those obtained by the multiconfigurational Hartree-Fock and variational methods as well as with other hyperspherical calculations. We find that generally the correlation integrals converge as the energies, that is, as 1/K/sup 4//sub m/. While the method is essentially exact, computer round-off error limits the precision for K/sub m/>12 in the positronium calculations.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
dos Santos, Marcio Jose Possari; Bernabe, Daniel Galera; Nakamune, Ana Claudia de Melo Stevanato; Perri, Silvia Helena Venturoli; de Aguiar, Sandra Maria Herondina Coelho Avila; de Oliveira, Sandra Helena Penha
2012-01-01
The purpose of this study was to analyze the alpha-amylase (sAA) and cortisol levels in children with Global developmental delay (GDD) before and after dental treatment and its association with the children's behavior during treatment. The morning salivary cortisol levels and activity of sAA of 33 children with GDD were evaluated before and after…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
dos Santos, Marcio Jose Possari; Bernabe, Daniel Galera; Nakamune, Ana Claudia de Melo Stevanato; Perri, Silvia Helena Venturoli; de Aguiar, Sandra Maria Herondina Coelho Avila; de Oliveira, Sandra Helena Penha
2012-01-01
The purpose of this study was to analyze the alpha-amylase (sAA) and cortisol levels in children with Global developmental delay (GDD) before and after dental treatment and its association with the children's behavior during treatment. The morning salivary cortisol levels and activity of sAA of 33 children with GDD were evaluated before and after
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Magrakvelidze, Maia; Dixit, Gopal; Madjet, Mohamed; Chakraborty, Himadri
2014-05-01
We calculate the phases of photoionization and radiative recombination dipole matrix elements of valence and subvalent levels of atomic Kr. The group delays along these transition channels are determined in the well-known Wigner-Smith approach, involving the energy derivative of the phases. A framework of time-dependent local density approximation is employed that utilizes the Leeuwen and Baerends exchange-correlation functional to produce accurate asymptotic behavior of ground and continuum wavefunctions. Effects of dynamical correlations are found to significantly influence the phase and delay properties over most part of the spectra, particularly, in the vicinity of various Feshbach and shape resonances, as well as near the Cooper minima. Analysis of the TDLDA-derived complex induced potential reveals important insights. This work was supported by the National Science Foundation.
Terenin, Ilya M; Akulich, Kseniya A; Andreev, Dmitry E; Polyanskaya, Sofya A; Shatsky, Ivan N; Dmitriev, Sergey E
2016-02-29
During eukaryotic translation initiation, 43S ribosomal complex scans mRNA leader unless an AUG codon in an appropriate context is found. Establishing the stable codon-anticodon base-pairing traps the ribosome on the initiator codon and triggers structural rearrangements, which lead to Pi release from the eIF2-bound GTP. It is generally accepted that AUG recognition by the scanning 43S complex sets the final point in the process of start codon selection, while latter stages do not contribute to this process. Here we use translation reconstitution approach and kinetic toe-printing assay to show that after the 48S complex is formed on an AUG codon, in case GTP hydrolysis is impaired, the ribosomal subunit is capable to resume scanning and slides downstream to the next AUG. In contrast to leaky scanning, this sliding is not limited to AUGs in poor nucleotide contexts and occurs after a relatively long pause at the recognized AUG. Thus, recognition of an AUG per se does not inevitably lead to this codon being selected for initiation of protein synthesis. Instead, it is eIF5-induced GTP hydrolysis and Pi release that irreversibly trap the 48S complex, and this complex is further stabilized by eIF5B and 60S joining. PMID:26717981
Terenin, Ilya M.; Akulich, Kseniya A.; Andreev, Dmitry E.; Polyanskaya, Sofya A.; Shatsky, Ivan N.; Dmitriev, Sergey E.
2016-01-01
During eukaryotic translation initiation, 43S ribosomal complex scans mRNA leader unless an AUG codon in an appropriate context is found. Establishing the stable codonanticodon base-pairing traps the ribosome on the initiator codon and triggers structural rearrangements, which lead to Pi release from the eIF2-bound GTP. It is generally accepted that AUG recognition by the scanning 43S complex sets the final point in the process of start codon selection, while latter stages do not contribute to this process. Here we use translation reconstitution approach and kinetic toe-printing assay to show that after the 48S complex is formed on an AUG codon, in case GTP hydrolysis is impaired, the ribosomal subunit is capable to resume scanning and slides downstream to the next AUG. In contrast to leaky scanning, this sliding is not limited to AUGs in poor nucleotide contexts and occurs after a relatively long pause at the recognized AUG. Thus, recognition of an AUG per se does not inevitably lead to this codon being selected for initiation of protein synthesis. Instead, it is eIF5-induced GTP hydrolysis and Pi release that irreversibly trap the 48S complex, and this complex is further stabilized by eIF5B and 60S joining. PMID:26717981
Yang, Jun; Luo, Wen-Pin; Wang, Yong-Hu; Cheng, Jun
2015-11-01
This paper mainly focuses on the robust stability criteria for uncertain T-S fuzzy systems with time-varying delay by (m,N)-delay-partitioning approach. A modified augmented LKF is established by partitioning the delay in all integral terms. Via taking into account of (i) the relationship between each subinterval and time-varying delay and (ii) the independent upper bounds of the delay derivative in the various delay intervals, some new results on tighter bounding inequalities such as Peng-Park׳s integral inequality and Free-Matrix-based integral inequality are introduced to effectively reduce the enlargement in bounding the derivative of LKF as much as possible, therefore, significant less conservative results can be expected in terms of es and LMIs, which can be solved efficiently with the Matlab LMI toolbox. Furthermore, it is worth mentioning that, when the delay-partitioning number m is fixed, the conservatism is gradually reduced with the increase of another delay-partitioning number N, but without increasing any computing burden. Finally, two numerical examples are included to show that the proposed method is less conservative than existing ones. PMID:26365365
-delayed proton emission branches in 43Cr
Pomorski, M.; Miernik, K.; Dominik, W.; Janas, Z.; Pfutzner, M.; Bingham, C. R.; Czyrkowski, H.; Cwiok, Mikolaj; Darby, Iain; Dabrowski, Ryszard; Ginter, T. N.; Grzywacz, Robert Kazimierz; Karny, M.; Korgul, A.; Kusmierz, W.; Liddick, Sean; Rajabali, M. M.; Rykaczewski, Krzysztof Piotr; Stolz, A.
2011-01-01
The + decay of very neutron-deficient 43Cr was studied by means of an imaging time projection chamber that allowed recording tracks of charged particles. Events of -delayed emission of one, two, and three protons were clearly identified. The absolute branching ratios for these channels were determined to be (81 4)%, (7.1 0.4)%, and (0.08 0.03)%, respectively. 43Cr is thus established as the second case in which the -3p decay occurs. Although the feeding to the proton-bound states in 43V is expected to be negligible, the large branching ratio of (12 4)% for decays without proton emission is found.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Outward Bound, Inc., Andover, MA.
The Outward Bound concept was developed in Germany and Great Britain with the saving of human life as the ultimate goal. Courses are designed to help students discover their true physical and mental limits through development of skills including emergency medical aid, firefighting, search and rescue, mountaineering, and sailing. Five Outward Bound
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Cannon, John
2011-01-01
Awareness of expectations is so important in the facilities business. The author's experiences has taught him that it is essential to understand how expectations impact people's lives as well as those for whom they provide services for every day. This article presents examples and ideas that will provide insight and ideas to help educators…
Delay-derivative-dependent stability for delayed neural networks with unbound distributed delay.
Li, Tao; Song, Aiguo; Fei, Shumin; Wang, Ting
2010-08-01
In this brief, based on Lyapunov-Krasovskii functional approach and appropriate integral inequality, a new sufficient condition is derived to guarantee the global stability for delayed neural networks with unbounded distributed delay, in which the improved delay-partitioning technique and general convex combination are employed. The LMI-based criterion heavily depends on both the upper and lower bounds on time delay and its derivative, which is different from the existent ones and has wider application fields than some present results. Finally, three numerical examples can illustrate the efficiency of the new method based on the reduced conservatism which can be achieved by thinning the delay interval. PMID:20667811
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Natale, Jo Anna
1993-01-01
Inside one Washington, DC, elementary school, Principal John Pannell has high hopes for his students and an expansive school vision. Malcolm X School compensates for disorder outside by clearly inculcating rules and behavior expectations. Children in school uniforms daily repeat a motto promoting Malcolm X as a school of love allowing no hitting,…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Journal of Aerospace Education, 1976
1976-01-01
Describes an Upward Bound program at Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University designed to assist disadvantaged high school juniors and seniors in overcoming academic deficiencies in order to enter and succeed in college. The Saturday program centered on various aspects of aviation, including career opportunities. (MLH)
Yang, Jun; Luo, Wenpin; Cheng, Jun; Wang, Yonghu
2015-09-01
This paper focuses on further improved stability criteria for uncertain T-S fuzzy systems with interval time-varying delay by a delay-partitioning approach. A modified augmented Lyapunov-Krasovskii functional (LKF) is established by partitioning the delay in all integral terms. Then some tighter bounding inequalities, i.e., Peng-Park׳s integral inequality (reciprocally convex approach) and the Free-Matrix-Based integral inequality (which yields less conservative stability criteria than the use of Wirtinger-based inequality does) are introduced to reduce the enlargement in bounding the derivative of LKF as much as possible, therefore, less conservative results can be expected in terms of es and LMIs. Finally, a numerical example is included to show that the proposed methods are less conservative than existing ones. PMID:26073644
Ejaculatory incompetence; Sex - delayed ejaculation; Retarded ejaculation; Anejaculation ... include: Religious background that makes the person view sex as sinful Lack of attraction for a partner ...
Gupta, Chinmaya; López, José Manuel; Azencott, Robert; Ott, William; Bennett, Matthew R.; Josić, Krešimir
2014-05-28
Delay is an important and ubiquitous aspect of many biochemical processes. For example, delay plays a central role in the dynamics of genetic regulatory networks as it stems from the sequential assembly of first mRNA and then protein. Genetic regulatory networks are therefore frequently modeled as stochastic birth-death processes with delay. Here, we examine the relationship between delay birth-death processes and their appropriate approximating delay chemical Langevin equations. We prove a quantitative bound on the error between the pathwise realizations of these two processes. Our results hold for both fixed delay and distributed delay. Simulations demonstrate that the delay chemical Langevin approximation is accurate even at moderate system sizes. It captures dynamical features such as the oscillatory behavior in negative feedback circuits, cross-correlations between nodes in a network, and spatial and temporal information in two commonly studied motifs of metastability in biochemical systems. Overall, these results provide a foundation for using delay stochastic differential equations to approximate the dynamics of birth-death processes with delay.
Zaheer, Muhammad Hamad; Rehan, Muhammad; Mustafa, Ghulam; Ashraf, Muhammad
2014-11-01
This paper proposes a novel state feedback delay-range-dependent control approach for chaos synchronization in coupled nonlinear time-delay systems. The coupling between two systems is esteemed to be nonlinear subject to time-lags. Time-varying nature of both the intrinsic and the coupling delays is incorporated to broad scope of the present study for a better-quality synchronization controller synthesis. Lyapunov-Krasovskii (LK) functional is employed to derive delay-range-dependent conditions that can be solved by means of the conventional linear matrix inequality (LMI)-tools. The resultant control approach for chaos synchronization of the master-slave time-delay systems considers non-zero lower bound of the intrinsic as well as the coupling time-delays. Further, the delay-dependent synchronization condition has been established as a special case of the proposed LK functional treatment. Furthermore, a delay-range-dependent condition, independent of the delay-rate, has been provided to address the situation when upper bound of the delay-derivative is unknown. A robust state feedback control methodology is formulated for synchronization of the time-delay chaotic networks against the L2 norm bounded perturbations by minimizing the L2 gain from the disturbance to the synchronization error. Numerical simulation results are provided for the time-delay chaotic networks to show effectiveness of the proposed delay-range-dependent chaos synchronization methodologies. PMID:25440951
Yang, Qiongfen; Ren, Quanhong; Xie, Xuemei
2014-07-01
This paper is concerned with the delay dependent stability criteria for a class of static recurrent neural networks with interval time-varying delay. By choosing an appropriate Lyapunov-Krasovskii functional and employing a delay partitioning method, the less conservative condition is obtained. Furthermore, the LMIs-based condition depend on the lower and upper bounds of time delay. Finally, a numerical example is also designated to verify the reduced conservatism of developed criteria. PMID:24908560
Routing on Delay Tolerant Sensor Networks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Keane, Michael; Kranakis, Evangelos; Krizanc, Danny; Narayanan, Lata
Delay (or disruption) tolerant sensor networks may be modeled as Markovian evolving graphs [1]. We present experimental evidence showing that considering multiple (possibly not shortest) paths instead of one fixed (greedy) path can decrease the expected time to deliver a packet on such a network by as much as 65 per cent depending on the probability that an edge exists in a given time interval. We provide theoretical justification for this result by studying a special case of the Markovian evolving grid graph. We analyze a natural algorithm for routing on such networks and show that it is possible to improve the expected time of delivery by up to a factor of two depending upon the probability of an edge being up during a time step and the relative positions of the source and destination. Furthermore we show that this is optimal, i.e., no other algorithm can achieve a better expected running time. As an aside, our results give high probability bounds for Knuths toilet paper problem [11].
An, Jiyao; Li, Zhiyong; Wang, Xiaomei
2014-03-01
This paper considers the problem of delay-fractional-dependent stability analysis of linear systems with interval time-varying state delay. By developing a delay variable decomposition approach, both the information of the variable dividing subinterval delay, and the information of the lower and upper bound of delay can be taken into full consideration. Then a new delay-fractional-dependent stability criterion is derived without involving any direct approximation in the time-derivative of the Lyapunov-Krasovskii (LK) functional via some suitable Jensen integral inequalities and convex combination technique. The merits of the proposed result lie in less conservatism, which are realized by choosing different Lyapunov matrices in the variable delay subintervals and estimating the upper bound of some cross term in LK functional more exactly. At last, two well-known numerical examples are employed to show the effectiveness and less conservatism of the proposed method. PMID:24388211
Fenichel, Patrick
2012-01-01
Since puberty is a long ongoing developmental process with significant individual and population differences in timing, the definition of delayed puberty for a given individual needs to rest on simple, though arbitrary criteria based on epidemiological data. Although several genes involved in the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal maturation cascade have been characterized recently from familial or sporadic cases of primitive isolated hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, many genes regulating puberty onset remain undetermined. In case of delayed puberty and/or primary amenorrhea, a complete clinical examination including a detailed past history will evaluate the development of secondary sex characteristics, verify the association with a growth delay and look for specific indicative features pertaining to the etiological diagnosis. This clinical check-up completed if necessary with biological, ultrasonographic, radiological and genetic investigations will try to determine which girls will have a permanent sexual infantilism of gonadal, hypophyseal or hypothalamic origin, which girls will undergo spontaneous but delayed puberty and which girls have primary amenorrhea with developed secondary sex characteristics. Therapeutic attitude will have to integrate etiological factors, statural prognosis, bone mass preservation and psychological factors. PMID:22846526
Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)
Nutrition support is essential for the care of the child with developmental delay. After a thorough evaluation, an individualized intervention plan that accounts for the child’s nutrition status, feeding ability, and medical condition may be determined. Nutrition assessments may be performed at leas...
Planning for the Future: An Investigation of Work-Bound Rural Youth
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hutchins, Bryan C.; Meece, Judith L.; Byun, Soo-yong; Farmer, Thomas W.
2012-01-01
The purpose of this study was to explore the postsecondary educational and occupational expectations of work-bound rural youth. Three groups of work-bound youth were identified (work-bound, work-bound with future educational plans, and work-bound but unsure/undecided about postsecondary education), and each group was compared to college-bound
Liu, Pin-Lin
2013-11-01
This paper investigates a class of delayed cellular neural networks (DCNN) with time-varying delay. Based on the Lyapunov-Krasovski functional and integral inequality approach (IIA), a uniformly asymptotic stability criterion in terms of only one simple linear matrix inequality (LMI) is addressed, which guarantees stability for such time-varying delay systems. This LMI can be easily solved by convex optimization techniques. Unlike previous methods, the upper bound of the delay derivative is taken into consideration, even if larger than or equal to 1. It is proven that results obtained are less conservative than existing ones. Four numerical examples illustrate efficacy of the proposed methods. PMID:23870320
Liu, Pin-Lin
2014-11-01
This paper is concerned with the improved delay-range-dependent stability and robust stability criteria for linear systems with time-varying delay and norm-bounded uncertainties. In order to obtain much less conservative criteria, a Lyapunov-Krasovskii functional (LKF), which makes use of the information of both the lower and upper bounds of the interval time-varying delay, is proposed to derive new stability criteria. By using delayed decomposition approach (DDA), a tighter upper bound of the derivative of Lyapunov functional can be obtained, and thus the proposed criteria give results with less conservatism compared with some previous ones. The resulting criteria have advantages over some previous ones in that it involves fewer matrix variables but has less conservatism, which are established theoretically. We show, by four well known examples, that our result overcomes the previous allowable maximum admissible upper bound (MAUB) of the time-delay and it is less conservative than the previous results having a relatively small upper bound in the derivative of time delay. PMID:25294004
Lawlor, Rob
2015-04-01
This paper argues that those who emphasise that designers and engineers need to plan for obsolescence are too conservative. Rather, in addition to planning for obsolescence, designers and engineers should also think carefully about what they could do in order delay obsolescence. They should so this by thinking about the design itself, thinking of ways in which products could be useful and appealing for longer before becoming obsolete, as well thinking about the wider context in terms of the marketing of products, and also the social and legal. The paper also considers objections that these suggestions are unrealistically idealistic, failing to recognise the economic realities. I respond to these objections appealing to research in advertising, psychology, cognitive linguistics, philosophy, history, and economics, as well as drawing on the Statement of Ethical Principles developed by the Royal Academy of Engineering and the Engineering Council. PMID:24792878
Bound states and the Bekenstein bound
Bousso, Raphael
2003-10-16
We explore the validity of the generalized Bekenstein bound, S<= pi M a. We define the entropy S as the logarithm of the number of states which have energy eigenvalue below M and are localized to a flat space region of width alpha. If boundary conditions that localize field modes are imposed by fiat, then the bound encounters well-known difficulties with negative Casimir energy and large species number, as well as novel problems arising only in the generalized form. In realistic systems, however, finite-size effects contribute additional energy. We study two different models for estimating such contributions. Our analysis suggests that the bound is both valid and nontrivial if interactions are properly included, so that the entropy S counts the bound states of interacting fields.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Coster, Adelle C. F.; Alstrm, Preben
2001-02-01
We present a dynamical model that embodies both classical and instrumental conditioning paradigms in the same framework. The model is based on the formation of expectations of stimuli and of rewards. The expectations of stimuli are formed in a recurrent process called expectation learning in which one activity pattern evokes another. The expectation of rewards or punishments (motivation) is modelled using reinforcement learning.
Grcar, Joseph F.
2002-02-04
A matrix lower bound is defined that generalizes ideas apparently due to S. Banach and J. von Neumann. The matrix lower bound has a natural interpretation in functional analysis, and it satisfies many of the properties that von Neumann stated for it in a restricted case. Applications for the matrix lower bound are demonstrated in several areas. In linear algebra, the matrix lower bound of a full rank matrix equals the distance to the set of rank-deficient matrices. In numerical analysis, the ratio of the matrix norm to the matrix lower bound is a condition number for all consistent systems of linear equations. In optimization theory, the matrix lower bound suggests an identity for a class of min-max problems. In real analysis, a recursive construction that depends on the matrix lower bound shows that the level sets of continuously differential functions lie asymptotically near those of their tangents.
Inverse momentum expectation values for hydrogenic systems
Delbourgo, R.; Elliott, D.
2009-06-15
By using the Fourier transforms of the general hydrogenic bound state wave functions (as ultraspherical polynomials), one may find expectation values of arbitrary functions of momentum p. In this manner the effect of a reciprocity perturbation b/p can be evaluated for all hydrogenic states.
Physical Uncertainty Bounds (PUB)
Vaughan, Diane Elizabeth; Preston, Dean L.
2015-03-19
This paper introduces and motivates the need for a new methodology for determining upper bounds on the uncertainties in simulations of engineered systems due to limited fidelity in the composite continuum-level physics models needed to simulate the systems. We show that traditional uncertainty quantification methods provide, at best, a lower bound on this uncertainty. We propose to obtain bounds on the simulation uncertainties by first determining bounds on the physical quantities or processes relevant to system performance. By bounding these physics processes, as opposed to carrying out statistical analyses of the parameter sets of specific physics models or simply switching out the available physics models, one can obtain upper bounds on the uncertainties in simulated quantities of interest.
Buell, W.F. ); Shadwick, B.A. )
1995-03-01
We discuss several quantum mechanical potential problems, focusing on those which highlight commonly held misconceptions about the existence of bound states. We present a proof, based on the variational principle, that certain one dimensional potentials always support at least one bound state, regardless of the potential's strength. We examine arguments concerning the existence of bound states based on the uncertainty principle and demonstrate, by explicit calculations, that such arguments must be viewed with skepticism.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
DiPaula, John
2010-01-01
Educational expectations are psychological constructs that change over time and can be altered or influenced by various factors. The concept of educational expectations refers to how much schooling students realistically believe that they will complete. These expectations are eventually raised or lowered as students see others like themselves…
HiggsBounds: Confronting arbitrary Higgs sectors with exclusion bounds from LEP and the Tevatron
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bechtle, P.; Brein, O.; Heinemeyer, S.; Weiglein, G.; Williams, K. E.
2010-01-01
HiggsBounds is a computer code that tests theoretical predictions of models with arbitrary Higgs sectors against the exclusion bounds obtained from the Higgs searches at LEP and the Tevatron. The included experimental information comprises exclusion bounds at 95% C.L. on topological cross sections. In order to determine which search topology has the highest exclusion power, the program also includes, for each topology, information from the experiments on the expected exclusion bound, which would have been observed in case of a pure background distribution. Using the predictions of the desired model provided by the user as input, HiggsBounds determines the most sensitive channel and tests whether the considered parameter point is excluded at the 95% C.L. HiggsBounds is available as a Fortran 77 and Fortran 90 code. The code can be invoked as a command line version, a subroutine version and an online version. Examples of exclusion bounds obtained with HiggsBounds are discussed for the Standard Model, for a model with a fourth generation of quarks and leptons and for the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model with and without CP-violation. The experimental information on the exclusion bounds currently implemented in HiggsBounds will be updated as new results from the Higgs searches become available.
Causality and Tsirelson's bounds
Buhrman, H.; Massar, S.
2005-11-15
We study the properties of no-signaling correlations that cannot be reproduced by local measurements on entangled quantum states. We say that such correlations violate Tsirelson bounds. We show that if these correlations are obtained by some reversible unitary quantum evolution U, then U cannot be written in the product form U{sub A}xU{sub B}. This implies that U can be used for signaling and for entanglement generation. This result is completely general and in fact can be viewed as a characterization of Tsirelson bounds. We then show how this result can be used as a tool to study Tsirelson bounds and we illustrate this by rederiving the Tsirelson bound of 2{radical}(2) for the Clauser-Horn-Shimony-Holt inequality, and by deriving a new Tsirelson bound for qutrits.
Bounding species distribution models
Stohlgren, T.J.; Jarnevich, C.S.; Esaias, W.E.; Morisette, J.T.
2011-01-01
Species distribution models are increasing in popularity for mapping suitable habitat for species of management concern. Many investigators now recognize that extrapolations of these models with geographic information systems (GIS) might be sensitive to the environmental bounds of the data used in their development, yet there is no recommended best practice for "clamping" model extrapolations. We relied on two commonly used modeling approaches: classification and regression tree (CART) and maximum entropy (Maxent) models, and we tested a simple alteration of the model extrapolations, bounding extrapolations to the maximum and minimum values of primary environmental predictors, to provide a more realistic map of suitable habitat of hybridized Africanized honey bees in the southwestern United States. Findings suggest that multiple models of bounding, and the most conservative bounding of species distribution models, like those presented here, should probably replace the unbounded or loosely bounded techniques currently used. ?? 2011 Current Zoology.
Bounding Species Distribution Models
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Stohlgren, Thomas J.; Jarnevich, Cahterine S.; Morisette, Jeffrey T.; Esaias, Wayne E.
2011-01-01
Species distribution models are increasing in popularity for mapping suitable habitat for species of management concern. Many investigators now recognize that extrapolations of these models with geographic information systems (GIS) might be sensitive to the environmental bounds of the data used in their development, yet there is no recommended best practice for "clamping" model extrapolations. We relied on two commonly used modeling approaches: classification and regression tree (CART) and maximum entropy (Maxent) models, and we tested a simple alteration of the model extrapolations, bounding extrapolations to the maximum and minimum values of primary environmental predictors, to provide a more realistic map of suitable habitat of hybridized Africanized honey bees in the southwestern United States. Findings suggest that multiple models of bounding, and the most conservative bounding of species distribution models, like those presented here, should probably replace the unbounded or loosely bounded techniques currently used [Current Zoology 57 (5): 642-647, 2011].
The economics of time delayed salinity impact management in the River Murray
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Connor, Jeff
2008-03-01
Drainage from irrigation along the River Murray causes rising levels of saline discharge to the river and floodplains with adverse impacts including crop, water infrastructure and floodplain ecological health damage. These salinity impacts of drainage are time delayed by up to several decades. Investment in engineering infrastructure to pump saline water away from the river to evaporation basins has been a significant feature of public policy to address the issue. This article evaluates the costs and benefits of further engineering investments to offset expected future salinity growth. The analysis involves an integer programming optimization model that explicitly accounts for salinity impact time delays in benefit, cost accounting considering a long term, 100 year time horizon. A lower bound salinity growth scenario is evaluated involving increasingly efficient irrigation and further new irrigation development at locations where salinity impacts are comparatively small. This is compared to an upper bound salinity growth scenario with static irrigation efficiency and new irrigation development in high salinity impact areas. It is concluded that if conditions leading to the upper bound salinity growth scenario can not be avoided in the near term, the marginal costs of offsetting future salinity growth with additional engineering investment will exceed the marginal benefits several decades hence.
Diabate, S.; Strack, S. )
1993-12-01
Tritium released into the environment may be incorporated into organic matter. Organically bound tritium in that case will show retention times in organisms that are considerably longer than those of tritiated water which has significant consequences on dose estimates. This article reviews the most important processes of organically bound tritium production and transport through food networks. Metabolic reactions in plant and animal organisms with tritiated water as a reaction partner are of great importance in this respect. The most important production process, in quantitative terms, is photosynthesis in green plants. The translocation of organically bound tritium from the leaves to edible parts of crop plants should be considered in models of organically bound tritium behavior. Organically bound tritium enters the human body on several pathways, either from the primary producers (vegetable food) or at a higher tropic level (animal food). Animal experiments have shown that the dose due to ingestion of organically bound tritium can be up to twice as high as a comparable intake of tritiated water in gaseous or liquid form. In the environment, organically bound tritium in plants and animals is often found to have higher specific tritium concentrations than tissue water. This is not due to some tritium enrichment effects but to the fact that no equilibrium conditions are reached under natural conditions. 66 refs.
Colorado Outward Bound School River Rafters' Manual.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Leachman, Mark
Instructional sequences, safety rules, duties of crew members, and procedures for Colorado Outward Bound School river rafting trips are summarized in this manual. Designed to acquaint instructors with the duties expected of them on the trips, the information in the manual is presented in outline form and is intended for those with prior river
The expected perimeter in Eden and related growth processes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bouch, Gabriel
2015-12-01
Following Richardson and using results of Kesten on first-passage percolation, we obtain an upper bound on the expected perimeter in an Eden growth process. Using results of the author from a problem in statistical mechanics, we show that the average perimeter of the lattice animals resulting from a very natural family of "growth histories" does not obey a similar bound.
A Superintendent's High Expectations
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Pascopella, Angela
2009-01-01
This article profiles Wanda Bamberg, superintendent of the Aldine (Texas) Independent School District. Bamberg is used to high expectations regardless of the circumstances. She is a firecracker of sorts who talks much and expects much from her staff members, teachers, and students, who are mostly at-risk, Black and Hispanic, and economically…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Dienstfrey, Harris
1968-01-01
In examining the findings of "Pygmalion in the Classroom," an experimental study of the positive effects of favorable teacher expectations on the intellectual development of disadvantaged elementary school students, this review speculates about why the experimental students, whom the teachers expected to improve, and the control students, who were
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Santini, Joseph
2014-01-01
This article describes a teachers reflections on the matter of student expectations. Santini begins with a common understanding of the "Pygmalion effect" from research projects conducted in earlier years that intimated "people's expectations could influence other people in the world around them." In the world of deaf
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Schwartzman, Steven
1993-01-01
Discusses the surprising result that the expected number of marbles of one color drawn from a set of marbles of two colors after two draws without replacement is the same as the expected number of that color marble after two draws with replacement. Presents mathematical models to help explain this phenomenon. (MDH)
Fourth generation bound states
Ishiwata, Koji; Wise, Mark B.
2011-04-01
We investigate the spectrum and wave functions of q{sup '}q{sup '} bound states for heavy fourth generation quarks (q{sup '}) that have a very small mixing with the three observed generations of standard model quarks. Such bound states come with different color, spin and flavor quantum numbers. Since the fourth generation Yukawa coupling, {lambda}{sub q}{sup '}, is large we include all perturbative corrections to the potential between the heavy quark and antiquark of order {lambda}{sub q}{sup '2}N{sub c}/16{pi}{sup 2} where N{sub c} is the number of colors, as well as relativistic corrections suppressed by (v/c){sup 2}. We find that the lightest fourth generation quark masses for which a bound state exists for color octet states. For the color singlet states, which always have a bound state, we analyze the influence that the Higgs couplings have on the size and binding energy of the bound states.
Expected performance of m-solution backtracking
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Nicol, D. M.
1986-01-01
This paper derives upper bounds on the expected number of search tree nodes visited during an m-solution backtracking search, a search which terminates after some preselected number m problem solutions are found. The search behavior is assumed to have a general probabilistic structure. The results are stated in terms of node expansion and contraction. A visited search tree node is said to be expanding if the mean number of its children visited by the search exceeds 1 and is contracting otherwise. It is shown that if every node expands, or if every node contracts, then the number of search tree nodes visited by a search has an upper bound which is linear in the depth of the tree, in the mean number of children a node has, and in the number of solutions sought. Also derived are bounds linear in the depth of the tree in some situations where an upper portion of the tree contracts (expands), while the lower portion expands (contracts). While previous analyses of 1-solution backtracking have concluded that the expected performance is always linear in the tree depth, the model allows superlinear expected performance.
Warne, L.K.; Merewether, K.O.; Chen, K.C.; Jorgenson, R.E.; Morris, M.E.; Solberg, J.E.; Lewis, J.G.; Derr, W.
1996-07-01
Test data on canonical weapon-like fixtures are used to validate previously developed analytical bounding results. The test fixtures were constructed to simulate (but be slightly worse than) weapon ports of entry but have known geometries (and electrical points of contact). The exterior of the test fixtures exhibited exterior resonant enhancement of the incident fields at the ports of entry with magnitudes equal to those of weapon geometries. The interior consisted of loaded transmission lines adjusted to maximize received energy or voltage but incorporating practical weapon geometrical constraints. New analytical results are also presented for bounding the energies associated with multiple bolt joints and for bounding the exterior resonant enhancement of the exciting fields.
Delayed orgasm and anorgasmia.
Jenkins, Lawrence C; Mulhall, John P
2015-11-01
Delayed orgasm/anorgasmia defined as the persistent or recurrent difficulty, delay in, or absence of attaining orgasm after sufficient sexual stimulation, which causes personal distress. Delayed orgasm and anorgasmia are associated with significant sexual dissatisfaction. A focused medical history can shed light on the potential etiologies, which include medications, penile sensation loss, endocrinopathies, penile hyperstimulation, and psychological etiologies. Unfortunately, there are no excellent pharmacotherapies for delayed orgasm/anorgasmia, and treatment revolves largely around addressing potential causative factors and psychotherapy. PMID:26439762
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hainline, Laura J.; Morgan, Christopher W.; MacLeod, Chelsea L.; Landaal, Zachary D.; Kochanek, C. S.; Harris, Hugh C.; Tilleman, Trudy; Goicoechea, L. J.; Shalyapin, V. N.; Falco, Emilio E.
2013-09-01
We present three complete seasons and two half-seasons of Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) r-band photometry of the gravitationally lensed quasar SBS 0909+532 from the U.S. Naval Observatory, as well as two seasons each of SDSS g-band and r-band monitoring from the Liverpool Robotic Telescope. Using Monte Carlo simulations to simultaneously measure the system's time delay and model the r-band microlensing variability, we confirm and significantly refine the precision of the system's time delay to \\Delta t_{AB} = 50^{+2}_{-4}\\,{days}, where the stated uncertainties represent the bounds of the formal 1? confidence interval. There may be a conflict between the time delay measurement and a lens consisting of a single galaxy. While models based on the Hubble Space Telescope astrometry and a relatively compact stellar distribution can reproduce the observed delay, the models have somewhat less dark matter than we would typically expect. We also carry out a joint analysis of the microlensing variability in the r and g bands to constrain the size of the quasar's continuum source at these wavelengths, obtaining log {(r s, r /cm)[cos i/0.5]1/2} = 15.3 0.3 and log {(r s, g /cm)[cos i/0.5]1/2} = 14.8 0.9, respectively. Our current results do not formally constrain the temperature profile of the accretion disk but are consistent with the expectations of standard thin disk theory.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hosaka, Tadaaki; Ohira, Toru
2004-05-01
We study here a random walk with delayed feedback around an unstable fixed point. It is found that the random walker can be kept longer around the fixed point with larer delay. This is in contrast to the normal role of delay, which is generally thought to be a source of instability. We discuss a possibility of our model to stick balancing experiments.
Ray, P.E.
1998-09-04
This document outlines the significant accomplishments of fiscal year 1998 for the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Project Hanford Management Contract (PHMC) team. Opportunities for improvement to better meet some performance expectations have been identified. The PHMC has performed at an excellent level in administration of leadership, planning, and technical direction. The contractor has met and made notable improvement of attaining customer satisfaction in mission execution. This document includes the team`s recommendation that the PHMC TWRS Performance Expectation Plan evaluation rating for fiscal year 1998 be an Excellent.
Impact of psychotherapist expectations on client outcomes.
Connor, Dana R; Callahan, Jennifer L
2015-09-01
Recent investigations have implicated client expectations of psychotherapy as a strong predictor of premature termination; however, there is reason to believe psychotherapist expectations may also impact client outcomes. This study sought to address this gap in the literature by examining the association of psychotherapists' expectations to clients' psychotherapy outcomes, including termination status. Participants were 54 current and recent trainee psychotherapists at a Southern public university, who completed delay discounting measures to assess their expectations of the effectiveness of psychotherapy. Data were also drawn from 300 adult clients who had received at least 2 sessions of individual psychotherapy from the participating psychotherapists of this study, and had previously completed the Outcome Questionnaire 45.2 prior to each individual therapy session. Psychotherapists were found to hold significantly higher expectations for client improvement than anticipated, based on existing literature, and these high expectations were found to be positively correlated with clinically significant change in clients. Moreover, psychotherapists' expectations were found to explain 7.3% of the explainable variance in whether or not clients experienced clinically significant change during psychotherapy. Implications for improving client retention and treatment outcome are discussed. PMID:25961371
Delay discounting: Trait variable?
Odum, Amy L.
2012-01-01
Delay discounting refers to the tendency for outcomes that are remote in time to have less value than more immediate outcomes. Steep discounting of delayed outcomes is associated with a variety of social maladies. The degree of sensitivity to delayed outcomes may be a stable and pervasive individual characteristic. In analyses of archival data, the present study found positive correlations between the degree of delay discounting for one outcome (as measured by the Area Under the Curve), and the degree of discounting for other outcomes. Along with additional evidence reviewed, these data suggest that delay discounting may be considered a personality trait. Recent research in epigenetics, neuroscience, and behavior suggests delay discounting may prove to be a beneficial target for therapeutic attempts to produce global reductions in impulsivity related to delay discounting. PMID:21385637
Behavior, Expectations and Status
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Webster, Jr, Murray; Rashotte, Lisa Slattery
2010-01-01
We predict effects of behavior patterns and status on performance expectations and group inequality using an integrated theory developed by Fisek, Berger and Norman (1991). We next test those predictions using new experimental techniques we developed to control behavior patterns as independent variables. In a 10-condition experiment, predictions…
Parenting with High Expectations
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Timperlake, Benna Hull; Sanders, Genelle Timperlake
2014-01-01
In some ways raising deaf or hard of hearing children is no different than raising hearing children; expectations must be established and periodically tweaked. Benna Hull Timperlake, who with husband Roger, raised two hearing children in addition to their deaf daughter, Genelle Timperlake Sanders, and Genelle, now a deaf professional, share their…
Great Expectations. [Lesson Plan].
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Devine, Kelley
Based on Charles Dickens' novel "Great Expectations," this lesson plan presents activities designed to help students understand the differences between totalitarianism and democracy; and a that a writer of a story considers theme, plot, characters, setting, and point of view. The main activity of the lesson involves students working in groups to…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Williams, Roger; Williams, Sherry
2014-01-01
Author and husband, Roger Williams, is hearing and signs fluently, and author and wife, Sherry Williams, is deaf and uses both speech and signs, although she is most comfortable signing. As parents of six children--deaf and hearing--they are determined to encourage their children to do their best, and they always set their expectations high. They
Petawatt laser absorption bounded
Levy, Matthew C.; Wilks, Scott C.; Tabak, Max; Libby, Stephen B.; Baring, Matthew G.
2014-01-01
The interaction of petawatt (1015?W) lasers with solid matter forms the basis for advanced scientific applications such as table-top particle accelerators, ultrafast imaging systems and laser fusion. Key metrics for these applications relate to absorption, yet conditions in this regime are so nonlinear that it is often impossible to know the fraction of absorbed light f, and even the range of f is unknown. Here using a relativistic Rankine-Hugoniot-like analysis, we show for the first time that f exhibits a theoretical maximum and minimum. These bounds constrain nonlinear absorption mechanisms across the petawatt regime, forbidding high absorption values at low laser power and low absorption values at high laser power. For applications needing to circumvent the absorption bounds, these results will accelerate a shift from solid targets, towards structured and multilayer targets, and lead the development of new materials. PMID:24938656
Petawatt laser absorption bounded.
Levy, Matthew C; Wilks, Scott C; Tabak, Max; Libby, Stephen B; Baring, Matthew G
2014-01-01
The interaction of petawatt (10(15)?W) lasers with solid matter forms the basis for advanced scientific applications such as table-top particle accelerators, ultrafast imaging systems and laser fusion. Key metrics for these applications relate to absorption, yet conditions in this regime are so nonlinear that it is often impossible to know the fraction of absorbed light f, and even the range of f is unknown. Here using a relativistic Rankine-Hugoniot-like analysis, we show for the first time that f exhibits a theoretical maximum and minimum. These bounds constrain nonlinear absorption mechanisms across the petawatt regime, forbidding high absorption values at low laser power and low absorption values at high laser power. For applications needing to circumvent the absorption bounds, these results will accelerate a shift from solid targets, towards structured and multilayer targets, and lead the development of new materials. PMID:24938656
Bounding gauged Skyrmion masses
Brihaye, Yves; Hill, Christopher T.; Zachos, Cosmas K.
2004-12-01
Normally, standard (ungauged) skyrmion masses are proportional to the coupling of the Skyrme term needed for stability, and so can grow to infinite magnitude with increasing coupling. In striking contrast, when skyrmions are gauged, their masses are bounded above for any Skyrme coupling, and, instead, are of the order of monopole masses, O(v/g), so that the coupling of the Skyrme term is not very important. This boundedness phenomenon and its implications are investigated.
Speech and language delay in children.
McLaughlin, Maura R
2011-05-15
Speech and language delay in children is associated with increased difficulty with reading, writing, attention, and socialization. Although physicians should be alert to parental concerns and to whether children are meeting expected developmental milestones, there currently is insufficient evidence to recommend for or against routine use of formal screening instruments in primary care to detect speech and language delay. In children not meeting the expected milestones for speech and language, a comprehensive developmental evaluation is essential, because atypical language development can be a secondary characteristic of other physical and developmental problems that may first manifest as language problems. Types of primary speech and language delay include developmental speech and language delay, expressive language disorder, and receptive language disorder. Secondary speech and language delays are attributable to another condition such as hearing loss, intellectual disability, autism spectrum disorder, physical speech problems, or selective mutism. When speech and language delay is suspected, the primary care physician should discuss this concern with the parents and recommend referral to a speech-language pathologist and an audiologist. There is good evidence that speech-language therapy is helpful, particularly for children with expressive language disorder. PMID:21568252
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mcfarland, Richard E.
1986-01-01
Computer-generated graphics in real-time helicopter simulation produces objectionable scene-presentation time delays. In the flight simulation laboratory at Ames Research Center, it has been determined that these delays have an adverse influence on pilot performance during aggressive tasks such as nap-of-the-earth (NOE) maneuvers. Using contemporary equipment, computer-generated image (CGI) time delays are an unavoidable consequence of the operations required for scene generation. However, providing that magnitide distortions at higher frequencies are tolerable, delay compensation is possible over a restricted frequency range. This range, assumed to have an upper limit of perhaps 10 or 15 rad/sec, conforms approximately to the bandwidth associated with helicopter handling qualities research. A compensation algorithm is introduced here and evaluated in terms of tradeoffs in frequency responses. The algorithm has a discrete basis and accommodates both a large, constant transport delay interval and a periodic delay interval, as associated with asynchronous operations.
Clemensen, R.E.
1959-11-01
An electrically variable time delay line is described which may be readily controlled simuitaneously with variable impedance matching means coupied thereto such that reflections are prevented. Broadly, the delay line includes a signal winding about a magnetic core whose permeability is electrically variable. Inasmuch as the inductance of the line varies directly with the permeability, the time delay and characteristic impedance of the line both vary as the square root of the permeability. Consequently, impedance matching means may be varied similariy and simultaneously w:th the electrically variable permeability to match the line impedance over the entire range of time delay whereby reflections are prevented.
78 FR 43270 - List of Applications Delayed
Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014
2013-07-19
...In accordance with the requirements of 49 U.S.C. 5117(c), PHMSA is publishing the following list of special permit applications that have been in process for 180 days or more. The reason(s) for delay and the expected completion date for action on each application is provided in association with each identified...
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Glance, Natalie Sandrine
The study of dynamics with expectations is relevant whenever the entities or "agents" comprising a complex system take into account possible future states when making decisions in the present. Goal-seeking agents form plans to achieve their ends based on their knowledge of causes, their memory of the past, their predictions for the future, as well as on their biases and their beliefs. A dynamical formulation of agent interactions requires a different approach when the behavior of the entities depends on their beliefs and knowledge as well as on the rules governing the evolution of the system. The agents' predictions for the future must enter explicitly into the dynamical rules governing the evolution of the system. This thesis examines the behavior of two dynamical systems in particular. The first, referred to as a computational ecosystem, is composed of a collection of processes, or agents, that compete among themselves for limited resources. The analytical tools of nonlinear dynamics and the modern-day aid of numerical integration via computer are employed to map out the behavioral regimes of the system first when the external environment changes over time, and second when the individual agents incorporate expectations about the future into their decisions. In the second part, a system composed of interacting agents whose individual goals conflict with the overall good of the group is studied both analytically and through computer simulations. It is shown how spontaneous cooperation can be achieved if the agents take into account their expectations about the future when making their choices in the present. Further, the system can remain trapped in a metastable state for long periods of time; eventually, rare large fluctuations occur due to uncertain information that can cause a transition to the global equilibrium. The effects of ultrametric group structure and diversity on the dynamics of cooperation are also elucidated. Specifically, it is seen how the interplay between evolving group structure and the number of agents cooperating introduces new dynamical pathways to cooperation.
Delayed recombination and cosmic parameters
Galli, Silvia; Melchiorri, Alessandro; Bean, Rachel; Silk, Joseph
2008-09-15
Current cosmological constraints from cosmic microwave background anisotropies are typically derived assuming a standard recombination scheme, however additional resonance and ionizing radiation sources can delay recombination, altering the cosmic ionization history and the cosmological inferences drawn from the cosmic microwave background data. We show that for recent observations of the cosmic microwave background anisotropy, from the Wilkinson microwave anisotropy probe satellite mission (WMAP) 5-year survey and from the arcminute cosmology bolometer array receiver experiment, additional resonance radiation is nearly degenerate with variations in the spectral index, n{sub s}, and has a marked effect on uncertainties in constraints on the Hubble constant, age of the universe, curvature and the upper bound on the neutrino mass. When a modified recombination scheme is considered, the redshift of recombination is constrained to z{sub *}=1078{+-}11, with uncertainties in the measurement weaker by 1 order of magnitude than those obtained under the assumption of standard recombination while constraints on the shift parameter are shifted by 1{sigma} to R=1.734{+-}0.028. From the WMAP5 data we obtain the following constraints on the resonance and ionization sources parameters: {epsilon}{sub {alpha}}<0.39 and {epsilon}{sub i}<0.058 at 95% c.l.. Although delayed recombination limits the precision of parameter estimation from the WMAP satellite, we demonstrate that this should not be the case for future, smaller angular scales measurements, such as those by the Planck satellite mission.
Further results on delay-range-dependent stability with additive time-varying delay systems.
Liu, Pin-Lin
2014-03-01
In this paper, new conditions for the delay-range-dependent stability analysis of time-varying delay systems are proposed in a Lyapunov-Krasovskii framework. Time delay is considered to be time-varying and has lower and upper bounds. A new method is first presented for a system with two time delays, integral inequality approach (IIA) used to express relationships among terms of Leibniz-Newton formula. Constructing a novel Lyapunov-Krasovskii functional includes information belonging to a given range; new delay-range-dependent criterion is established in term of linear matrix inequality (LMI). The advantage of that criterion lies in its simplicity and less conservative. This paper also presents a new result of stability analysis for continuous systems with two additive time-variant components representing a general class of delay with strong application background in network-based control systems. Resulting criteria are then expressed in terms of convex optimization with LMI constraints, allowing for use of efficient solvers. Finally, three numerical examples show these methods reducing conservatism and improving maximal allowable delay. PMID:24210689
Stability of uncertain impulsive complex-variable chaotic systems with time-varying delays.
Zheng, Song
2015-09-01
In this paper, the robust exponential stabilization of uncertain impulsive complex-variable chaotic delayed systems is considered with parameters perturbation and delayed impulses. It is assumed that the considered complex-variable chaotic systems have bounded parametric uncertainties together with the state variables on the impulses related to the time-varying delays. Based on the theories of adaptive control and impulsive control, some less conservative and easily verified stability criteria are established for a class of complex-variable chaotic delayed systems with delayed impulses. Some numerical simulations are given to validate the effectiveness of the proposed criteria of impulsive stabilization for uncertain complex-variable chaotic delayed systems. PMID:26096956
Stochastic dynamics of a delayed bistable system with multiplicative noise
Dung, Nguyen Tien E-mail: dungnt@fpt.edu.vn
2014-05-15
In this paper we investigate the properties of a delayed bistable system under the effect of multiplicative noise. We first prove the existence and uniqueness of the positive solution and show that its moments are uniformly bounded. Then, we study stochastic dynamics of the solution in long time, the lower and upper bounds for the paths and an estimate for the average value are provided.
Martin, A.D.
1986-05-09
Method and apparatus are provided for generating an output pulse following a trigger pulse at a time delay interval preset with a resolution which is high relative to a low resolution available from supplied clock pulses. A first lumped constant delay provides a first output signal at predetermined interpolation intervals corresponding to the desired high resolution time interval. Latching circuits latch the high resolution data to form a first synchronizing data set. A selected time interval has been preset to internal counters and corrected for circuit propagation delay times having the same order of magnitude as the desired high resolution. Internal system clock pulses count down the counters to generate an internal pulse delayed by an internal which is functionally related to the preset time interval. A second LCD corrects the internal signal with the high resolution time delay. A second internal pulse is then applied to a third LCD to generate a second set of synchronizing data which is complementary with the first set of synchronizing data for presentation to logic circuits. The logic circuits further delay the internal output signal with the internal pulses. The final delayed output signal thereafter enables the output pulse generator to produce the desired output pulse at the preset time delay interval following input of the trigger pulse.
Beyond my wildest expectations.
Nester, Eugene
2014-01-01
With support from my parents, I fulfilled their and my expectations of graduating from college and becoming a scientist. My scientific career has focused on two organisms, Bacillus subtilis and Agrobacterium tumefaciens, and two experimental systems, aromatic amino acid synthesis and DNA transfer in bacteria and plants. Studies on B. subtilis emphasized the genetics and biochemistry of aromatic amino acid synthesis and the characterization of competence in DNA transformation. I carried out both as a postdoc at Stanford with Josh Lederberg. At the University of Washington, I continued these studies and then investigated how Agrobacterium transforms plant cells. In collaboration, Milt Gordon, Mary-Dell Chilton, and I found that this bacterium could transfer a piece of its plasmid into plant cells and thereby modify their properties. This discovery opened up a host of intriguing questions that we have tried to answer over the last 35 years. PMID:25208299
Liu, Pin-Lin
2013-11-01
This paper provides an improved delay-range-dependent stability criterion for linear systems with interval time-varying delays. No model transformation and no slack matrix variable are introduced. Furthermore, overly bounding for some cross term is avoided. The resulting criterion has advantages over some previous ones in that it involves fewer matrix variables but has less conservatism, which is established theoretically. Finally, two numerical examples are given to show the effectiveness of the proposed results. PMID:23906738
Wang, Leimin; Shen, Yi; Sheng, Yin
2016-04-01
This paper is concerned with the finite-time robust stabilization of delayed neural networks (DNNs) in the presence of discontinuous activations and parameter uncertainties. By using the nonsmooth analysis and control theory, a delayed controller is designed to realize the finite-time robust stabilization of DNNs with discontinuous activations and parameter uncertainties, and the upper bound of the settling time functional for stabilization is estimated. Finally, two examples are provided to demonstrate the effectiveness of the theoretical results. PMID:26878721
Probability density of quantum expectation values
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Campos Venuti, L.; Zanardi, P.
2013-10-01
We consider the quantum expectation value A= of an observable A over the state |?>. We derive the exact probability distribution of A seen as a random variable when |?> varies over the set of all pure states equipped with the Haar-induced measure. To illustrate our results we compare the exact predictions for few concrete examples with the concentration bounds obtained using Levy's lemma. We also comment on the relevance of the central limit theorem and finally draw some results on an alternative statistical mechanics based on the uniform measure on the energy shell.
The use of delay in multitrack production
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Case, Alexander U.
2003-04-01
Delay, inevitable whenever sound propagates through space, is too often the bane of the acoustician's practice. An audible echo generally relegates a music performance hall-no matter how beautiful it otherwise might sound-to the lowest status. Multitrack music production on the other hand, with its aggressive use of overdubbing, editing, and signal processing, is not bound by those rules of time and space which determine the sound of a hall. In the recording studio, where music is synthesized for playback over loudspeakers, the delay is employed as a powerful, multipurpose tool. It is not avoided. It is in fact embraced. Echoes are used on purpose, strategically, to enhance the loudspeaker listening experience. Moreover, the humble delay is the basis for many nonecho effects. Flanging, chorus, and pitch shifting are delay-based effects regularly used in audio engineering practice. This paper discusses some of the more common delay-based effects, reviewing their technical structure, the psychoacoustic motivation behind them, and the musical value they create.
A new delay-independent condition for global robust stability of neural networks with time delays.
Samli, Ruya
2015-06-01
This paper studies the problem of robust stability of dynamical neural networks with discrete time delays under the assumptions that the network parameters of the neural system are uncertain and norm-bounded, and the activation functions are slope-bounded. By employing the results of Lyapunov stability theory and matrix theory, new sufficient conditions for the existence, uniqueness and global asymptotic stability of the equilibrium point for delayed neural networks are presented. The results reported in this paper can be easily tested by checking some special properties of symmetric matrices associated with the parameter uncertainties of neural networks. We also present a numerical example to show the effectiveness of the proposed theoretical results. PMID:25839168
Wind effects on bounding flight.
Sachs, Gottfried
2013-01-01
The effects of the wind on the energy expenditure of bounding flight and on the travelling speed are dealt with. For this purpose, a mathematical model of bounding flight in moving air is developed. Introducing an appropriate non-dimensionalization, results and findings of generally valid nature are derived. It is shown that bounding flight yields a flight mechanical advantage in headwinds when compared with continuous flapping flight. This is because the minimum energy expenditure is lower and the associated travelling speed is higher. The body lift in the bound phase has an advantageous influence. The effects of tailwinds yield less differences between bounding flight and continuous flapping flight. PMID:22981923
Glioblastoma: changing expectations?
Arribas Alpuente, Leoncio; Menndez Lpez, Antonio; Yay Tur, Ricardo
2011-04-01
Glioblastoma (GB) represents the most aggressive glioma in the adult population. Despite recent research efforts, the prognosis of patients with GB has remained dismal. Lately, the knowledge of genetic information about gliomagenesis has increased; we even have a classification of the genetic expression of the tumour. The main problem is that at the moment we do not have any therapeutical resources to help us better treat these tumours, as we can do, with others tumours like breast, lung and colorectal cancer. We have also improved on diagnostic imaging, especially with the new MRI sequences; we can now better define the characteristics of the tumour area and the surrounding brain structures, allowing us to adjust resections. Thanks to the most advanced surgery techniques, such as neuronavigation, intraoperative control of the nervous function and the tumour volume, the neurosurgeon is able to complete tumour exeresis with less morbidity. These imaging techniques allow the radiation oncologist to better contour the irradiation target volume, the structures and the organs at risk, to diminish the irradiation of apparently healthy tissue. Nowadays, knowledge of brain stem cells provides new expectations for future treatments. Novel targeted agents such as bevacizumab, imatinib, erlotinib, temsirolimus, immunotherapy, cilengitide, talampanel, etc. are helping classical chemotherapeutic agents, like temozolomide, to achieve an increase in overall survival. The main objective is to improve median overall survival, which is currently between 9 and 12 months, with a good quality of life, measured by the ability to carry out daily life activities. PMID:21493184
New standard exceeds expectations
Bennett, M.J. )
1993-08-01
The new ASTM environmental due diligence standard is delivering far more than expected when it was conceived in 1990. Its use goes well beyond the relatively narrow legal liability protection that was the primary goal in its development. The real estate industry, spearheaded by the lending community, was preoccupied with environmental risk and liability. Lenders throughout the concept's evolution have been at the forefront in defining environmental due diligence. The lender liability rule is intended to protect property owners from CERCLA liability for property they own or companies they manage (for example, as a result of foreclosure). The new site assessment standard increasingly is considered a benchmark for prudent environmental due diligence in the interest of risk management, not legal liability. The focus on risk management, including collateral devaluation and corporate credit risk, are becoming dominant areas of policy focus in the lending industry. Lenders now are revising their policies to incorporate transactions beyond issues of real estate, in which a company's economic viability and ability to service debt could be impacted by an environmental problem unrelated to property transfers.
Samuel, Gabrielle; Williams, Clare
2015-01-01
Social scientists have drawn attention to the role of hype and optimistic visions of the future in providing momentum to biomedical innovation projects by encouraging innovation alliances. In this article, we show how less optimistic, uncertain, and modest visions of the future can also provide innovation projects with momentum. Scholars have highlighted the need for clinicians to carefully manage the expectations of their prospective patients. Using the example of a pioneering clinical team providing deep brain stimulation to children and young people with movement disorders, we show how clinicians confront this requirement by drawing on their professional knowledge and clinical expertise to construct visions of the future with their prospective patients; visions which are personalized, modest, and tainted with uncertainty. We refer to this vision-constructing work as recalibration, and we argue that recalibration enables clinicians to manage the tension between the highly optimistic and hyped visions of the future that surround novel biomedical interventions, and the exigencies of delivering those interventions in a clinical setting. Drawing on work from science and technology studies, we suggest that recalibration enrolls patients in an innovation alliance by creating a shared understanding of how the “effectiveness” of an innovation shall be judged. PMID:26527846
Expectations and speech intelligibility.
Babel, Molly; Russell, Jamie
2015-05-01
Socio-indexical cues and paralinguistic information are often beneficial to speech processing as this information assists listeners in parsing the speech stream. Associations that particular populations speak in a certain speech style can, however, make it such that socio-indexical cues have a cost. In this study, native speakers of Canadian English who identify as Chinese Canadian and White Canadian read sentences that were presented to listeners in noise. Half of the sentences were presented with a visual-prime in the form of a photo of the speaker and half were presented in control trials with fixation crosses. Sentences produced by Chinese Canadians showed an intelligibility cost in the face-prime condition, whereas sentences produced by White Canadians did not. In an accentedness rating task, listeners rated White Canadians as less accented in the face-prime trials, but Chinese Canadians showed no such change in perceived accentedness. These results suggest a misalignment between an expected and an observed speech signal for the face-prime trials, which indicates that social information about a speaker can trigger linguistic associations that come with processing benefits and costs. PMID:25994710
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cao, Jiuwen; Zhong, Shouming; Hu, Yuanyuan
2008-02-01
The absolute stability of Lurie system with multiple time delays and nonlinearities is considered in this paper. Based on the Lyapunov stability theory, using the descriptor system approach and the method of decomposing matrices, a novel delay-dependent sufficient condition for the absolute stability of Lurie system is derived and expressed in the form of the linear matrix inequality (LMI). The maximum upper bound of the allowable delay is obtained by solving a convex optimization problem. A numerical example shows that the result obtained in this paper improved the estimate of the stability limit over some existing results.
Is Fusion Inhibited for Weakly Bound Nuclei?
Takahashi, J.; Munhoz, M.; Szanto, E.M.; Carlin, N.; Added, N.; Suaide, A.A.; de Moura, M.M.; Liguori Neto, R.; Szanto de Toledo, A.; Canto, L.F.
1997-01-01
Complete fusion of light radioactive nuclei is predicted to be hindered at near-barrier energies. This feature is investigated in the case of the least bound stable nuclei. Evaporation residues resulting from the {sup 6,7}Li+{sup 9}Be and {sup 6,7}Li+{sup 12}C fusion reactions have been measured in order to study common features in reactions involving light weakly bound nuclei. The experimental excitation functions revealed that the fusion cross section is significantly smaller than the total reaction cross section and also smaller than the fusion cross section expected from the available systematics. A clear correlation between the fusion probability and nucleon (cluster) separation energy has been established.The results suggest that the breakup process has a strong influence on the hindrance of the fusion cross section. {copyright} {ital 1996} {ital The American Physical Society}
Delay in Atomic Photoionization
Kheifets, A. S.; Ivanov, I. A.
2010-12-03
We analyze the time delay between emission of photoelectrons from the outer valence ns and np subshells in noble gas atoms following absorption of an attosecond extreme ultraviolet pulse. Various processes such as elastic scattering of the photoelectron on the parent ion and many-electron correlation affect the apparent 'time zero' when the photoelectron leaves the atom. This qualitatively explains the time delay between photoemission from the 2s and 2p subshells of Ne as determined experimentally by attosecond streaking [Science 328, 1658 (2010)]. However, with our extensive numerical modeling, we were only able to account for less than half of the measured time delay of 21{+-}5 as. We argue that the extreme ultraviolet pulse alone cannot produce such a large time delay and it is the streaking IR field that is most likely responsible for this effect.
Delayed emergence after anesthesia.
Tzabazis, Alexander; Miller, Christopher; Dobrow, Marc F; Zheng, Karl; Brock-Utne, John G
2015-06-01
In most instances, delayed emergence from anesthesia is attributed to residual anesthetic or analgesic medications. However, delayed emergence can be secondary to unusual causes and present diagnostic dilemmas. Data from clinical studies is scarce and most available published material is comprised of case reports. In this review, we summarize and discuss less common and difficult to diagnose reasons for delayed emergence and present cases from our own experience or reference published case reports/case series. The goal is to draw attention to less common reasons for delayed emergence, identify patient populations that are potentially at risk and to help anesthesiologists identifying a possible cause why their patient is slow to wake up. PMID:25912729
Delayed "Choice" quantum eraser
Kim; Yu; Kulik; Shih; Scully
2000-01-01
We report a delayed "choice" quantum eraser experiment of the type proposed by Scully and Druhl (where the "choice" is made randomly by a photon at a beam splitter). The experimental results demonstrate the possibility of delayed determination of particlelike or wavelike behavior via quantum entanglement. The which-path or both-path information of a quantum can be marked or erased by its entangled twin even after the registration of the quantum. PMID:11015820
Time delay spectrum conditioner
Greiner, Norman R. (Los Alamos, NM)
1980-01-01
A device for delaying specified frequencies of a multiple frequency laser beam. The device separates the multiple frequency beam into a series of spatially separated single frequency beams. The propagation distance of the single frequency beam is subsequently altered to provide the desired delay for each specific frequency. Focusing reflectors can be utilized to provide a simple but nonadjustable system or, flat reflectors with collimating and focusing optics can be utilized to provide an adjustable system.
Bound anionic states of adenine
Haranczyk, Maciej; Gutowski, Maciej S; Li, Xiang; Bowen, Kit H
2007-03-20
Anionic states of nucleic acid bases are involved in DNA damage by low-energy electrons and in charge transfer through DNA. Previous gas phase studies of free, unsolvated nucleic acid base parent anions probed only dipole-bound states, which are not present in condensed phase environments, but did not observe valence anionic states, which for purine bases, are thought to be adiabatically unbound. Contrary to this expectation, we have demonstrated that some thus far ignored tautomers of adenine, which result from enamine-imine transformations, support valence anionic states with electron vertical detachment energies as large as 2.2 eV, and at least one of these anionic tautomers is adiabatically bound. Moreover, we predict that the new anionic tautomers should also dominate in solutions and should be characterized by larger values of electron vertical detachment energy than the canonical valence anion. All of the new-found anionic tautomers might be formed in the course of dissociative electron attachment followed by a hydrogen atom attachment to a carbon atom, and they might affect the structure and properties of DNA and RNA exposed to low-energy electrons. The discovery of these valence anionic states of adenine was facilitated by the development of: (i) a new experimental method for preparing parent anions of nucleic acid bases for photoelectron experiments, and (ii) a new combinatorial/ quantum chemical approach for identification of the most stable tautomers of organic molecules. The computational portion of this work was supported by the: (i) Polish State Committee for Scientific Research (KBN) Grants: DS/8000-4-0140-7 (M.G.) and N204 127 31/2963 (M.H.), (ii) European Social Funds (EFS) ZPORR/2.22/II/2.6/ARP/U/2/05 (M.H.), and (iii) US DOE Office of Biological and Environmental Research, Low Dose Radiation Research Program (M.G.). M.H. holds the Foundation for Polish Science (FNP) award for young scientists. The calculations were performed at the Academic Computer Center in Gdansk (TASK) and at the Molecular Science Computing Facility (MSCF) in the William R. Wiley Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory, a national scientific user facility sponsored by the U.S. DOE OBER and located at PNNL, which is operated by Battelle for the US DOE. The MSCF resources were available through a Computational Grand Challenge Application grant. The experimental material in this paper (K.H.B.) is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. CHE-0517337.
Past, Present, and Future of Healthy Life Expectancy.
Beltrn-Snchez, Hiram; Soneji, Samir; Crimmins, Eileen M
2015-01-01
The success of the current biomedical paradigm based on a "disease model" may be limited in the future because of large number of comorbidities inflicting older people. In recent years, there has been growing empirical evidence, based on animal models, suggesting that the aging process could be delayed and that this process may lead to increases in life expectancy accompanied by improvements in health at older ages. In this review, we explore past, present, and future prospects of healthy life expectancy and examine whether increases in average length of life associated with delayed aging link with additional years lived disability-free at older ages. Trends in healthy life expectancy suggest improvements among older people in the United States, although younger cohorts appear to be reaching old age with increasing levels of frailty and disability. Trends in health risk factors, such as obesity and smoking, show worrisome signs of negative impacts on adult health and mortality in the near future. However, results based on a simulation model of delayed aging in humans indicate that it has the potential to increase not only the length of life but also the fraction and number of years spent disability-free at older ages. Delayed aging would likely come with additional aggregate costs. These costs could be offset if delayed aging is widely applied and people are willing to convert their greater healthiness into more years of work. PMID:26525456
How prior expectations shape multisensory perception.
Gau, Remi; Noppeney, Uta
2016-01-01
The brain generates a representation of our environment by integrating signals from a common source, but segregating signals from different sources. This fMRI study investigated how the brain arbitrates between perceptual integration and segregation based on top-down congruency expectations and bottom-up stimulus-bound congruency cues. Participants were presented audiovisual movies of phonologically congruent, incongruent or McGurk syllables that can be integrated into an illusory percept (e.g. "ti" percept for visual ki with auditory /pi/). They reported the syllable they perceived. Critically, we manipulated participants' top-down congruency expectations by presenting McGurk stimuli embedded in blocks of congruent or incongruent syllables. Behaviorally, participants were more likely to fuse audiovisual signals into an illusory McGurk percept in congruent than incongruent contexts. At the neural level, the left inferior frontal sulcus (lIFS) showed increased activations for bottom-up incongruent relative to congruent inputs. Moreover, lIFS activations were increased for physically identical McGurk stimuli, when participants segregated the audiovisual signals and reported their auditory percept. Critically, this activation increase for perceptual segregation was amplified when participants expected audiovisually incongruent signals based on prior sensory experience. Collectively, our results demonstrate that the lIFS combines top-down prior (in)congruency expectations with bottom-up (in)congruency cues to arbitrate between multisensory integration and segregation. PMID:26419391
What Do Expectant Mothers Know about Neonatal Jaundice?
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ogunfowora, Olusoga B.; Adefuye, Peter O.; Fetuga, Musili B.
2006-01-01
Neonatal jaundice (NNJ) is a common disorder worldwide and many affected babies become brain-damaged due to delay in seeking medical consultation. In order to assess the awareness and knowledge of expectant mothers about NNJ, women who registered for antenatal care at a tertiary health facility in the South-western part of Nigeria were
Great Expectations: Temporal Expectation Modulates Perceptual Processing Speed
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Vangkilde, Signe; Coull, Jennifer T.; Bundesen, Claus
2012-01-01
In a crowded dynamic world, temporal expectations guide our attention in time. Prior investigations have consistently demonstrated that temporal expectations speed motor behavior. We explore effects of temporal expectation on "perceptual" speed in three nonspeeded, cued recognition paradigms. Different hazard rate functions for the cue-stimulus
Expecting ourselves to expect: the Bayesian brain as a projector.
Dennett, Daniel C
2013-06-01
Clark's essay lays the foundation for a Bayesian account of the "projection" of consciously perceived properties: The expectations that our brains test against inputs concern the particular affordances that evolution has designed us to care about, including especially expectations of our own expectations. PMID:23663550
Positive mood effects on delay discounting.
Hirsh, Jacob B; Guindon, Alex; Morisano, Dominique; Peterson, Jordan B
2010-10-01
Delay discounting is the process by which the value of an expected reward decreases as the delay to obtaining that reward increases. Individuals with higher discounting rates tend to prefer smaller immediate rewards over larger delayed rewards. Previous research has indicated that personality can influence an individual's discounting rates, with higher levels of Extraversion predicting a preference for immediate gratification. The current study examined how this relationship would be influenced by situational mood inductions. While main effects were observed for both Extraversion and cognitive ability in the prediction of discounting rates, a significant interaction was also observed between Extraversion and positive affect. Extraverted individuals were more likely to prefer an immediate reward when first put in a positive mood. Extraverts thus appear particularly sensitive to impulsive, incentive-reward-driven behavior by temperament and by situational factors heightening positive affect. PMID:21038955
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tankam, Israel; Tchinda Mouofo, Plaire; Mendy, Abdoulaye; Lam, Mountaga; Tewa, Jean Jules; Bowong, Samuel
2015-06-01
We investigate the effects of time delay and piecewise-linear threshold policy harvesting for a delayed predator-prey model. It is the first time that Holling response function of type III and the present threshold policy harvesting are associated with time delay. The trajectories of our delayed system are bounded; the stability of each equilibrium is analyzed with and without delay; there are local bifurcations as saddle-node bifurcation and Hopf bifurcation; optimal harvesting is also investigated. Numerical simulations are provided in order to illustrate each result.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hosaka, Tadaaki; Ohira, Toru; Lucian, Christian; Milton, John
2005-03-01
Time-delayed feedback control becomes problematic in situations in which the time constant of the system is fast compared to the feedback reaction time. In particular, when perturbations are unpredictable, traditional feedback or feed-forward control schemes can be insufficient. Nonethless a human can balance a stick at their fingertip in the presence of fluctuations that occur on time scales shorter than their neural reaction times. Here we study a simple model of a repulsive delayed random walk and demonstrate that the interplay between noise and delay can transiently stabilize an unstable fixed-point. This observation leads to the concept of ``delayed stochastic control,'' i.e. stabilization of tasks, such as stick balancing at the fingertip, by optimally tuning the noise level with respect to the feedback delay time. References:(1)J.L.Cabrera and J.G.Milton, PRL 89 158702 (2002);(2) T. Ohira and J.G.Milton, PRE 52 3277 (1995);(3)T.Hosaka, T.Ohira, C.Lucian, J.L.Cabrera, and J.G.Milton, Prog. Theor. Phys. (to appear).
Dialysis centers - what to expect
Artificial kidneys - dialysis centers - what to expect; Dialysis - what to expect; Renal replacement therapy - dialysis centers - what ... excess fluid. The filter is sometimes called an artificial kidney. Once you arrive at the center, trained ...
Downhole delay assembly for blasting with series delay
Ricketts, Thomas E. (Grand Junction, CO)
1982-01-01
A downhole delay assembly is provided which can be placed into a blasthole for initiation of explosive in the blasthole. The downhole delay assembly includes at least two detonating time delay devices in series in order to effect a time delay of longer than about 200 milliseconds in a round of explosions. The downhole delay assembly provides a protective housing to prevent detonation of explosive in the blasthole in response to the detonation of the first detonating time delay device. There is further provided a connection between the first and second time delay devices. The connection is responsive to the detonation of the first detonating time delay device and initiates the second detonating time delay device. A plurality of such downhole delay assemblies are placed downhole in unfragmented formation and are initiated simultaneously for providing a round of explosive expansions. The explosive expansions can be used to form an in situ oil shale retort containing a fragmented permeable mass of formation particles.
On Time Delay Margin Estimation for Adaptive Control and Optimal Control Modification
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Nguyen, Nhan T.
2011-01-01
This paper presents methods for estimating time delay margin for adaptive control of input delay systems with almost linear structured uncertainty. The bounded linear stability analysis method seeks to represent an adaptive law by a locally bounded linear approximation within a small time window. The time delay margin of this input delay system represents a local stability measure and is computed analytically by three methods: Pade approximation, Lyapunov-Krasovskii method, and the matrix measure method. These methods are applied to the standard model-reference adaptive control, s-modification adaptive law, and optimal control modification adaptive law. The windowing analysis results in non-unique estimates of the time delay margin since it is dependent on the length of a time window and parameters which vary from one time window to the next. The optimal control modification adaptive law overcomes this limitation in that, as the adaptive gain tends to infinity and if the matched uncertainty is linear, then the closed-loop input delay system tends to a LTI system. A lower bound of the time delay margin of this system can then be estimated uniquely without the need for the windowing analysis. Simulation results demonstrates the feasibility of the bounded linear stability method for time delay margin estimation.
77 FR 42363 - Notice of Delays in Processing of Special Permits Applications
Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014
2012-07-18
... Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration Notice of Delays in Processing of Special Permits... applications that have been in process for 180 days or more. The reason(s) for delay and the expected...-4535. Key to ``Reason for Delay'' 1. Awaiting additional information from applicant. 2....
Measuring Alcohol Expectancies in Youth
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Randolph, Karen A.; Gerend, Mary A.; Miller, Brenda A.
2006-01-01
Beliefs about the consequences of using alcohol, alcohol expectancies, are powerful predictors of underage drinking. The Alcohol Expectancies Questionnaire-Adolescent form (AEQ-A) has been widely used to measure expectancies in youth. Despite its broad use, the factor structure of the AEQ-A has not been firmly established. It is also not known…
Lightweight scheduling for delay and bandwidth assurance in differentiated services
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shin, Jitae; Lee, Daniel C.; Kuo, C.-C. Jay
1999-11-01
To overcome the inherent limitation of the single best- effort service currently provided the Internet, providing differentiated services for different classes of applications is being discussed in IETF. In this paper, we propose a lightweight packet scheduling algorithm that allocates forwarding resources to different classes, which we name controlled priority (CP) gateway algorithm. The proposed CP algorithm consists of two mechanisms denoted by CP-CQD (controllable queuing delay) and CP-STI (service time interval), respectively. CP-CQD controls the queuing delay for a class of delay/jitter-sensitive traffic. CP-STI is to service classes that require bandwidth assurance. The proposed algorithm can provide guaranteed bounds of delay, jitter, rate, and packet loss to certain aggregate flows. The CP-CQD can accommodate variable bit rate as well as constant bit rate flow without bandwidth reservation for end-to-end delay bound and minimum delay jitter. The CP-STI enables tagged classes to get guaranteed throughput. These two modules can control resources allocated to the traffic classes by adjusting parameters in response to local congestion level. The simulation results show that CP gateway algorithm can provide required quality of service to certain classes while easing the negative effects on best- effort classes.
Northwest Outward Bound Instructor's Manual.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Northwest Outward Bound School, Portland, OR.
Instructor responsibilities, procedures for completing activities safely, and instructional methods and techniques are outlined to assist instructors in the Northwest Outward Bound School (Portland, Oregon) as they strive for teaching excellence. Information is organized into six chapters addressing: history and philosophy of Outward Bound; course…
Northwest Outward Bound Instructor's Manual.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Northwest Outward Bound School, Portland, OR.
Instructor responsibilities, procedures for completing activities safely, and instructional methods and techniques are outlined to assist instructors in the Northwest Outward Bound School (Portland, Oregon) as they strive for teaching excellence. Information is organized into six chapters addressing: history and philosophy of Outward Bound; course
Fractional diffusion on bounded domains
Defterli, Ozlem; D'Elia, Marta; Du, Qiang; Gunzburger, Max Donald; Lehoucq, Richard B.; Meerschaert, Mark M.
2015-03-13
We found that the mathematically correct specification of a fractional differential equation on a bounded domain requires specification of appropriate boundary conditions, or their fractional analogue. In this paper we discuss the application of nonlocal diffusion theory to specify well-posed fractional diffusion equations on bounded domains.
A numerical study of bench blast row delay timing and its influence on percent-cast
Preece, D.S.
1993-11-01
The computer program, DMC (Distinct Motion Code), which was developed for simulating the rock motion associated with blasting, has been used to study the influence of row delay timing on rock motion. The numerical simulations correspond with field observations in that very short delays (< 50ms) and very long delays (> 300ms) produce a lower percent-cast than a medium delay (100 to 200 ms). The DMC predicted relationship between row delay timing and percent-cast is more complex than expected with a dip in the curve where the optimum timing might be expected. More study is required to gain a full understanding of this phenomenon.
Metabolism of organically bound tritium
Travis, C.C.
1984-01-01
The classic methodology for estimating dose to man from environmental tritium ignores the fact that organically bound tritium in foodstuffs may be directly assimilated in the bound compartment of tissues without previous oxidation. We propose a four-compartment model consisting of a free body water compartment, two organic compartments, and a small, rapidly metabolizing compartment. The utility of this model lies in the ability to input organically bound tritium in foodstuffs directly into the organic compartments of the model. We found that organically bound tritium in foodstuffs can increase cumulative total body dose by a factor of 1.7 to 4.5 times the free body water dose alone, depending on the bound-to-loose ratio of tritium in the diet. Model predictions are compared with empirical measurements of tritium in human urine and tissue samples, and appear to be in close agreement. 10 references, 4 figures, 3 tables.
Variational bounds on Darcy's constant
Berryman, J.G.
1984-12-01
Prager's varitional method of obtaining upper bounds on the fluid permeability (Darcy's constant) for slow flow through porous media is reexamined. By exploiting the freedom one has in choosing the trial stress distributions, several new results are derived. One result is a phase interchange relation for permeability; when the fluid-phase and particle-phase are interchanged for a fixed geometry, we find an upper bound on a linear combination of the complementary permeabilities. Another result is a significantly improved set of upper bounds on Darcy's constant when Prager's constant trial function is replaced by a Gaussian trial function. Nearly an order of magnitude improvement in the bounds is obtained for bounds using either two-point or three-point spatial correlation functions to describe the statistics of the random geometry of the pore space.
Hainline, Laura J.; Morgan, Christopher W.; MacLeod, Chelsea L.; Landaal, Zachary D.; Kochanek, C. S.; Harris, Hugh C.; Tilleman, Trudy; Goicoechea, L. J.; Shalyapin, V. N.
2013-09-01
We present three complete seasons and two half-seasons of Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) r-band photometry of the gravitationally lensed quasar SBS 0909+532 from the U.S. Naval Observatory, as well as two seasons each of SDSS g-band and r-band monitoring from the Liverpool Robotic Telescope. Using Monte Carlo simulations to simultaneously measure the system's time delay and model the r-band microlensing variability, we confirm and significantly refine the precision of the system's time delay to {Delta}t{sub AB} = 50{sub -4}{sup +2} days, where the stated uncertainties represent the bounds of the formal 1{sigma} confidence interval. There may be a conflict between the time delay measurement and a lens consisting of a single galaxy. While models based on the Hubble Space Telescope astrometry and a relatively compact stellar distribution can reproduce the observed delay, the models have somewhat less dark matter than we would typically expect. We also carry out a joint analysis of the microlensing variability in the r and g bands to constrain the size of the quasar's continuum source at these wavelengths, obtaining log {l_brace}(r{sub s,r}/cm)[cos i/0.5]{sup 1/2}{r_brace} = 15.3 {+-} 0.3 and log {l_brace}(r{sub s,g}/cm)[cos i/0.5]{sup 1/2}{r_brace} = 14.8 {+-} 0.9, respectively. Our current results do not formally constrain the temperature profile of the accretion disk but are consistent with the expectations of standard thin disk theory.
Stability of Nonlinear Systems with Unknown Time-varying Feedback Delay
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chunodkar, Apurva A.; Akella, Maruthi R.
2015-08-01
This paper considers the problem of stabilizing a class of nonlinear systems with unknown bounded delayed feedback wherein the time-varying delay is 1) piecewise constant 2) continuous with a bounded rate. We also consider application of these results to the stabilization of rigid-body attitude dynamics. In the first case, the time-delay in feedback is modeled specifically as a switch among an arbitrarily large set of unknown constant values with a known strict upper bound. The feedback is a linear function of the delayed states. In the case of linear systems with switched delay feedback, a new sufficiency condition for average dwell time result is presented using a complete type Lyapunov-Krasovskii (L-K) functional approach. Further, the corresponding switched system with nonlinear perturbations is proven to be exponentially stable inside a well characterized region of attraction for an appropriately chosen average dwell time. In the second case, the concept of the complete type L-K functional is extended to a class of nonlinear time-delay systems with unknown time-varying time-delay. This extension ensures stability robustness to time-delay in the control design for all values of time-delay less than the known upper bound. Model-transformation is used in order to partition the nonlinear system into a nominal linear part that is exponentially stable with a bounded perturbation. We obtain sufficient conditions which ensure exponential stability inside a region of attraction estimate. A constructive method to evaluate the sufficient conditions is presented together with comparison with the corresponding constant and piecewise constant delay. Numerical simulations are performed to illustrate the theoretical results of this paper.
Interferometric Propagation Delay
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Goldstein, Richard
1999-01-01
Radar interferometry based on (near) exact repeat passes has lately been used by many groups of scientists, worldwide, to achieve state of the art measurements of topography, glacier and ice stream motion, earthquake displacements, oil field subsidence, lava flows, crop-induced surface decorrelation, and other effects. Variations of tropospheric and ionospheric propagation delays limit the accuracy of all such measurements. We are investigating the extent of this limitation, using data from the Shuttle radar flight, SIR-C, which is sensitive to the troposphere, and the Earth Resources Satellites, ERS-1/2, which are sensitive to both the troposphere and the ionosphere. We are presently gathering statistics of the delay variations over selected, diverse areas to determine the best accuracy possible for repeat track interferometry. The phases of an interferogram depend on both the topography of the scene and variations in propagation delay. The delay variations can be caused by movement of elements in the scene, by changes in tropospheric water vapor and by changes of the charge concentrations in the ionosphere. We plan to separate these causes by using the data from a third satellite visit (three-pass interferometry). The figure gives the geometry of the three-pass observations. The page of the figure is taken to be perpendicular to the spacecraft orbits. The three observational locations are marked on the figure, giving baselines B-12 and B-13, separated by the angle alpha. These parameters are almost constant over the whole scene. However, each pixel has an individual look angle, theta, which is related to the topography, rho is the slant range. A possible spurious time delay is shown. Additional information is contained in the original.
A general approach to dynamic packet routing with bounded buffers
Broder, A.Z.; Frieze, A.M.; Upfal, E.
1996-12-31
We prove a sufficient condition for the stability of dynamic packet routing algorithms. Our approach reduces the problem of steady state analysis to the easier and better understood question of static routing. We show that certain high probability and worst case bounds on the quasistatic (finite past) performance of a routing algorithm imply bounds on the performance of the dynamic version of that algorithm. Our technique is particularly useful in analyzing routing on networks with bounded buffers where complicated dependencies make standard queuing techniques inapplicable. We present several applications of our approach. In all cases we start from a known static algorithm, and modify it to fit our framework. In particular we give the first dynamic algorithm for routing on a butterfly with bounded buffers. Both the injection rate for which the algorithm is stable, and the expected time a packet spends in the system are optimal up to constant factors. Our approach is also applicable to the recently introduced adversarial input model.
Strong Expectations Cancel Locality Effects: Evidence from Hindi
Husain, Samar; Vasishth, Shravan; Srinivasan, Narayanan
2014-01-01
Expectation-driven facilitation (Hale, 2001; Levy, 2008) and locality-driven retrieval difficulty (Gibson, 1998, 2000; Lewis & Vasishth, 2005) are widely recognized to be two critical factors in incremental sentence processing; there is accumulating evidence that both can influence processing difficulty. However, it is unclear whether and how expectations and memory interact. We first confirm a key prediction of the expectation account: a Hindi self-paced reading study shows that when an expectation for an upcoming part of speech is dashed, building a rarer structure consumes more processing time than building a less rare structure. This is a strong validation of the expectation-based account. In a second study, we show that when expectation is strong, i.e., when a particular verb is predicted, strong facilitation effects are seen when the appearance of the verb is delayed; however, when expectation is weak, i.e., when only the part of speech “verb” is predicted but a particular verb is not predicted, the facilitation disappears and a tendency towards a locality effect is seen. The interaction seen between expectation strength and distance shows that strong expectations cancel locality effects, and that weak expectations allow locality effects to emerge. PMID:25010700
Rakkiyappan, Rajan; Chandrasekar, Arunachalam; Cao, Jinde
2015-09-01
This paper presents a new design scheme for the passivity and passification of a class of memristor-based recurrent neural networks (MRNNs) with additive time-varying delays. The predictable assumptions on the boundedness and Lipschitz continuity of activation functions are formulated. The systems considered here are based on a different time-delay model suggested recently, which includes additive time-varying delay components in the state. The connection between the time-varying delay and its upper bound is considered when estimating the upper bound of the derivative of Lyapunov functional. It is recognized that the passivity condition can be expressed in a linear matrix inequality (LMI) format and by using characteristic function method. For state feedback passification, it is verified that it is apathetic to use immediate or delayed state feedback. By constructing a Lyapunov-Krasovskii functional and employing Jensen's inequality and reciprocal convex combination technique together with a tighter estimation of the upper bound of the cross-product terms derived from the derivatives of the Lyapunov functional, less conventional delay-dependent passivity criteria are established in terms of LMIs. Moreover, second-order reciprocally convex approach is employed for deriving the upper bound for terms with inverses of squared convex parameters. The model based on the memristor with additive time-varying delays widens the application scope for the design of neural networks. Finally, pertinent examples are given to show the advantages of the derived passivity criteria and the significant improvement of the theoretical approaches. PMID:25415991
Delay analysis of networked control systems based on 100 M switched Ethernet.
Li, Ming
2014-01-01
For the delay may degrade the performance of networked control systems, networked control systems based on 100 M switched Ethernet are proposed in this paper. According to the working principle of Ethernet switch, the formulas of the upper bound delay of the single-level switched Ethernet and the multiple-level switched Ethernet are deduced by the timing diagram method, and the values of the upper bound delay are also given. The key factors that influence the upper bound delay of switched Ethernet are analyzed; then, the characteristics of the upper bound delay are presented, which show that the delay induced by the single-level 100 M switched Ethernet has little effect on the performance of control systems, while the delay induced by the multiple-level 100 M switched Ethernet may meet the time requirements of all classes of control systems if the numbers of levels and the numbers of nodes connecting to switches are set properly. Finally, the performance of networked control systems is simulated by TrueTime, and the results further show the feasibility and superiority of 100 M switched Ethernet based networked control systems without modification of the network protocols. PMID:25003152
Delay Analysis of Networked Control Systems Based on 100?M Switched Ethernet
2014-01-01
For the delay may degrade the performance of networked control systems, networked control systems based on 100?M switched Ethernet are proposed in this paper. According to the working principle of Ethernet switch, the formulas of the upper bound delay of the single-level switched Ethernet and the multiple-level switched Ethernet are deduced by the timing diagram method, and the values of the upper bound delay are also given. The key factors that influence the upper bound delay of switched Ethernet are analyzed; then, the characteristics of the upper bound delay are presented, which show that the delay induced by the single-level 100?M switched Ethernet has little effect on the performance of control systems, while the delay induced by the multiple-level 100?M switched Ethernet may meet the time requirements of all classes of control systems if the numbers of levels and the numbers of nodes connecting to switches are set properly. Finally, the performance of networked control systems is simulated by TrueTime, and the results further show the feasibility and superiority of 100?M switched Ethernet based networked control systems without modification of the network protocols. PMID:25003152
Delay tracking of spread-spectrum signals for indoor optical ranging.
Salido-Monz, David; Martn-Gorostiza, Ernesto; Lzaro-Galilea, Jos Luis; Martos-Naya, Eduardo; Wieser, Andreas
2014-01-01
Delay tracking of spread-spectrum signals is widely used for ranging in radio frequency based navigation. Its use in non-coherent optical ranging, however, has not been extensively studied since optical channels are less subject to narrowband interference situations where these techniques become more useful. In this work, an early-late delay-locked loop adapted to indoor optical ranging is presented and analyzed. The specific constraints of free-space infrared channels in this context substantially differ from those typically considered in radio frequency applications. The tracking stage is part of an infrared differential range measuring system with application to mobile target indoor localization. Spread-spectrum signals are used in this context to provide accurate ranging while reducing the effect of multipath interferences. The performance of the stage regarding noise and dynamic errors is analyzed and validated, providing expressions that allow an adequate selection of the design parameters depending on the expected input signal characteristics. The behavior of the stage in a general multipath scenario is also addressed to estimate the multipath error bounds. The results, evaluated under realistic conditions corresponding to an 870 nm link with 25 MHz chip-rate, built with low-cost up-to-date devices, show that an overall error below 6% of a chip time can be achieved. PMID:25490585
Delay Tracking of Spread-Spectrum Signals for Indoor Optical Ranging
Salido-Monzú, David; Martín-Gorostiza, Ernesto; Lázaro-Galilea, José Luis; Martos-Naya, Eduardo; Wieser, Andreas
2014-01-01
Delay tracking of spread-spectrum signals is widely used for ranging in radio frequency based navigation. Its use in non-coherent optical ranging, however, has not been extensively studied since optical channels are less subject to narrowband interference situations where these techniques become more useful. In this work, an early-late delay-locked loop adapted to indoor optical ranging is presented and analyzed. The specific constraints of free-space infrared channels in this context substantially differ from those typically considered in radio frequency applications. The tracking stage is part of an infrared differential range measuring system with application to mobile target indoor localization. Spread-spectrum signals are used in this context to provide accurate ranging while reducing the effect of multipath interferences. The performance of the stage regarding noise and dynamic errors is analyzed and validated, providing expressions that allow an adequate selection of the design parameters depending on the expected input signal characteristics. The behavior of the stage in a general multipath scenario is also addressed to estimate the multipath error bounds. The results, evaluated under realistic conditions corresponding to an 870 nm link with 25 MHz chip-rate, built with low-cost up-to-date devices, show that an overall error below 6% of a chip time can be achieved. PMID:25490585
Delayed enrollment and College Plans: is There a Postponement Penalty?
Niu, Sunny; Tienda, Marta
2012-01-01
Using a representative longitudinal survey of Texas high school seniors who graduated in 2002, we investigate how college postponement is associated with four-year college expectations and attendancefocusing both on the length of delay and the pathway to the postsecondary system. Like prior studies, we show that family background and student academic achievement explains the negative association between delay and college expectations and that these factors, along with two-year college entry pathway, largely accounted for the negative association between postponement and enrollment at a four-year institution in 2006. Although delays of one year or longer are associated with significantly lower odds of attending a baccalaureate-granting institution four years after high school, the longest delays do not incur the most severe enrollment penalties. PMID:23606758
Resignation Syndrome: Catatonia? Culture-Bound?
Sallin, Karl; Lagercrantz, Hugo; Evers, Kathinka; Engström, Ingemar; Hjern, Anders; Petrovic, Predrag
2016-01-01
Resignation syndrome (RS) designates a long-standing disorder predominately affecting psychologically traumatized children and adolescents in the midst of a strenuous and lengthy migration process. Typically a depressive onset is followed by gradual withdrawal progressing via stupor into a state that prompts tube feeding and is characterized by failure to respond even to painful stimuli. The patient is seemingly unconscious. Recovery ensues within months to years and is claimed to be dependent on the restoration of hope to the family. Descriptions of disorders resembling RS can be found in the literature and the condition is unlikely novel. Nevertheless, the magnitude and geographical distribution stand out. Several hundred cases have been reported exclusively in Sweden in the past decade prompting the Swedish National Board of Health and Welfare to recognize RS as a separate diagnostic entity. The currently prevailing stress hypothesis fails to account for the regional distribution and contributes little to treatment. Consequently, a re-evaluation of diagnostics and treatment is required. Psychogenic catatonia is proposed to supply the best fit with the clinical presentation. Treatment response, altered brain metabolism or preserved awareness would support this hypothesis. Epidemiological data suggests culture-bound beliefs and expectations to generate and direct symptom expression and we argue that culture-bound psychogenesis can accommodate the endemic distribution. Last, we review recent models of predictive coding indicating how expectation processes are crucially involved in the placebo and nocebo effect, delusions and conversion disorders. Building on this theoretical framework we propose a neurobiological model of RS in which the impact of overwhelming negative expectations are directly causative of the down-regulation of higher order and lower order behavioral systems in particularly vulnerable individuals. PMID:26858615
[Diagnosis of delayed puberty].
Busiah, K; Belien, V; Dallot, N; Fila, M; Guilbert, J; Harroche, A; Leger, J
2007-09-01
Puberty is the phenomenon that conducts once to reproductive maturation. Delayed puberty (DP) is defined by the absence of testicular development in boys beyond 14 years old (or a testicular volume lower than 4 ml) and by the absence of breast development in girls beyond 13 years old. DP occurs in approximatively 3% of cases. Most cases are functional DP, with a large amount of constitutional delay of puberty. Others etiologies are hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism like Kallmann syndrome, or hypergonadotrophic hypogonadism. Turner syndrome is a diagnostic one should not forget by its frequency. Treatment is hormonal replacement therapy and of the etiology. During the last decade, many genes have been identified and elucidated the etiological diagnosis of some hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism syndrome. Further studies are required in collaboration with molecular biologists to better understand the mechanism of hypothalamic pituitary gonadal axis abnormalities and of the neuroendocrine physiology of the onset of puberty. PMID:17658248
Expectancy in Rapid Decision Making.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hinrichs, James V.
This paper briefly reviews how subjects enhance performance by favoring some stimuli over others. The author calls the mechanism by which this is achieved "expectancy", a generic term including preparatory set, behavioral hypotheses, orienting reflex, and anticipatory goal responses. Temporal and event expectancy are contrasted. Verbal prediction
Sibling Status Effects: Adult Expectations.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Baskett, Linda Musun
1985-01-01
This study attempted to determine what expectations or beliefs adults might hold about a child based on his or her sibling status alone. Ratings on 50 adjective pairs for each of three sibling status types, only, oldest, and youngest child, were assessed in relation to adult expectations, birth order, and parental status of rater. (Author/DST)
Institutional Differences: Expectations and Perceptions.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Silver, Harold
1982-01-01
The history of higher education has paid scant attention to the attitudes and expectations of its customers, students, and employers of graduates. Recent research on student and employer attitudes toward higher education sectors has not taken into account these expectations in the context of recent higher education history. (Author/MSE)
Delay-Throughput Performance of the Deep-Space Ka-band Link
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Shambayati, Shervin
2008-01-01
In this paper, performance of a first-in, first-out (FIFO), selective retransmission scheme for the deep-space Ka-band link is presented and compared to the performance of a comparable X-band link. In this analysis, 16 months of water vapor radiometer (WVR) and advanced water vapor radiometer (AWVR) data from the three Deep Space Network (DSN) Communication Complexes (DSCC) were used to emulate weather effects on X-band and Ka-band links from Mars. Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) X-band and Ka-band telecommunications parameters were used for spacecraft telecommunications capabilities. One pass per week per complex was selected from MRO's Deep Space Network (DSN) schedule from April 1, 2006 to August 31, 2007 for a total of 207 passes (69 passes per complex) for this analysis. For each pass both X-band and Ka-band links were designed using at most two data rates so that the expected pass capacity would be maximized subject to a minimum availability requirement (MAR). In conjunction with the WVR/AWVR data, elevation profiles of the selected passes and models for the performance of the antennas in the DSN were used to emulate the performance of both links. It was assumed that the retransmission of the data takes place not on the same pass as the original transmission but during subsequent passes. The data collected before a pass was assumed to be a fraction of the expected capacity of the pass as calculated through the link design process. Infinite spacecraft storage was assumed to obtain an upper bound on the spacecraft storage requirement. The independent parameters of this analysis were MAR and the ratio of data collected before a pass to the expected pass capacity. Since the selected passes did not occur at regular intervals, the delay in this analysis was measured in terms of number of passes. The throughput was measured in terms of number of bits received successfully on the ground. The results indicate that reasonable delay performance could be achieved with very high throughput for relatively low MAR values for data collection to expected pass capacity ratio of around 97% for Ka-band. The results indicate that, except for very low average delay requirements, the Ka-band link provides more than twice the throughput of the X-band link for the same amount of power consumed by the spacecraft. In addition, the results indicate that the required storage onboard the spacecraft is not prohibitive and good performance could be achieved by using a buffer size less than three times the maximum amount of data collected before a pass.
Delay-Throughput Performance the Deep-Space Ka-Band Link
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Shambayati, Shervin
2008-01-01
In this paper, performance of a first-in, first-out (FIFO), selective retransmission scheme for the deep-space Ka-band link is presented and compared to the performance of a comparable X-band link. In this analysis, 16 months of water vapor radiometer (WVR) and advanced water vapor radiometer (AWVR) data from the three Deep Space Network (DSN) Communication Complexes (DSCC) were used to emulate weather effects on X-band and Ka-band links from Mars. Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) X-band and Ka-band telecommunications parameters were used for spacecraft telecommunications capabilities. One pass per week per complex was selected from MRO's Deep Space Network (DSN) schedule from April 1, 2006 to August 31, 2007 for a total of 207 passes (69 passes per complex) for this analysis. For each pass both X-band and Ka-band links were designed using at most two data rates so that the expected pass capacity would be maximized subject to a minimum availability requirement (MAR). In conjunction with the WVR/AWVR data, elevation profiles of the selected passes and models for the performance of the antennas in the DSN were used to emulate the performance of both links. It was assumed that the retransmission of the data takes place not on the same pass as the original transmission but during subsequent passes. The data collected before a pass was assumed to be a fraction of the expected capacity of the pass as calculated through the link design process. Infinite spacecraft storage was assumed to obtain an upper bound on the spacecraft storage requirement. The independent parameters of this analysis were MAR and the ratio of data collected before a pass to the expected pass capacity. Since the selected passes did not occur at regular intervals, the delay in this analysis was measured in terms of number of passes. The throughput was measured in terms of number of bits received successfully on the ground. The results indicate that reasonable delay performance could be achieved with very high throughput for relatively low MAR values for data collection to expected pass capacity ratio of around 97% for Ka-band. The results indicate that, except for very low average delay requirements, the Ka-band link provides more than twice the throughput of the X-band link for the same amount of power consumed by the spacecraft. In addition, the results indicate that the required storage onboard the spacecraft is not prohibitive and good performance could be achieved by using a buffer size less than three times the maximum amount of data collected before a pass.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tinto, Massimo; Dhurandhar, Sanjeev V.
2014-08-01
Equal-arm detectors of gravitational radiation allow phase measurements many orders of magnitude below the intrinsic phase stability of the laser injecting light into their arms. This is because the noise in the laser light is common to both arms, experiencing exactly the same delay, and thus cancels when it is differenced at the photo detector. In this situation, much lower level secondary noises then set the overall performance. If, however, the two arms have different lengths (as will necessarily be the case with space-borne interferometers), the laser noise experiences different delays in the two arms and will hence not directly cancel at the detector. In order to solve this problem, a technique involving heterodyne interferometry with unequal arm lengths and independent phase-difference readouts has been proposed. It relies on properly time-shifting and linearly combining independent Doppler measurements, and for this reason it has been called time-delay interferometry (TDI). This article provides an overview of the theory, mathematical foundations, and experimental aspects associated with the implementation of TDI. Although emphasis on the application of TDI to the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) mission appears throughout this article, TDI can be incorporated into the design of any future space-based mission aiming to search for gravitational waves via interferometric measurements. We have purposely left out all theoretical aspects that data analysts will need to account for when analyzing the TDI data combinations.
Time-delay quasars: Scales and orders of magnitudes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Saha, P.
2004-02-01
We can think of a lensed quasar as taking the Hubble time, shrinking it by 10-11, and then presenting the result to us as a time delay; the shrinking factor is of the order of fractional sky-area that the lens occupies. This cute fact is a straightforward consequence of lensing theory, and enables a simple rescaling of time delays. Observed time delays have a 40-fold range, but after rescaling the range reduces to 5-fold. The latter range depends on details of the lens and lensing configuration - for example, quads have systematically shorter rescaled time delays than doubles - and is as expected from a simple model. The hypothesis that observed time-delay lenses all come from a generalized-isothermal family can be ruled out. But there is no indication of drastically different populations either.
Precise estimation of tropospheric path delays with GPS techniques
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lichten, S. M.
1990-01-01
Tropospheric path delays are a major source of error in deep space tracking. However, the tropospheric-induced delay at tracking sites can be calibrated using measurements of Global Positioning System (GPS) satellites. A series of experiments has demonstrated the high sensitivity of GPS to tropospheric delays. A variety of tests and comparisons indicates that current accuracy of the GPS zenith tropospheric delay estimates is better than 1-cm root-mean-square over many hours, sampled continuously at intervals of six minutes. These results are consistent with expectations from covariance analyses. The covariance analyses also indicate that by the mid-1990s, when the GPS constellation is complete and the Deep Space Network is equipped with advanced GPS receivers, zenith tropospheric delay accuracy with GPS will improve further to 0.5 cm or better.
Muralisankar, S; Manivannan, A; Balasubramaniam, P
2015-09-01
The aim of this manuscript is to investigate the mean square delay dependent-probability-distribution stability analysis of neutral type stochastic neural networks with time-delays. The time-delays are assumed to be interval time-varying and randomly occurring. Based on the new Lyapunov-Krasovskii functional and stochastic analysis approach, a novel sufficient condition is obtained in the form of linear matrix inequality such that the delayed stochastic neural networks are globally robustly asymptotically stable in the mean-square sense for all admissible uncertainties. Finally, the derived theoretical results are validated through numerical examples in which maximum allowable upper bounds are calculated for different lower bounds of time-delay. PMID:25862099
Tooth formation - delayed or absent
Delayed or absent tooth formation; Teeth - delayed or absent formation ... The age at which the tooth comes in varies. Most infants get their first tooth between 6 and 9 months, but it may be earlier or later. ...
Assessing delay discounting in mice
Mitchell, Suzanne H.
2014-01-01
Delay discounting (also intertemporal choice or impulsive choice) is the process by which delayed outcomes, such as delayed food delivery, are valued less than the same outcomes delivered immediately or with a shorter delay. This process is of interest because many psychopathologies, including substance dependence, pathological gambling, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and conduct disorder, are characterized by heightened levels of delay discounting. Some of these disorders are heritable, and data indicate that delay discounting also has a genetic component. To identify the genes underlying the delay discounting decision-making process and genetic correlates of heightened discounting, researchers have used mouse models. This unit describes a protocol for generating delay discounting behavior in mice and discusses analysis techniques for such behavior. PMID:24510779
Ramsey spectroscopy of bound atomic states with extreme-ultraviolet laser harmonics.
Liontos, I; Cavalieri, S; Corsi, C; Eramo, R; Kaziannis, S; Pirri, A; Sali, E; Bellini, M
2010-03-15
We report the experimental measurement of Ramsey interference fringes in the single-photon excitation to a high-lying bound state of atomic argon by pairs of phase-locked, time-delayed, extreme UV high-order-harmonic pulses at 87 nm. High-visibility Ramsey fringes are observed for delays larger than 100 ps, thus demonstrating a potential resolving power >10(5) at this wavelength. PMID:20237614
ATTRITION IN DISTRIBUTED DELAY MODELS
Distributed time delay models are extended to deal with loss of entities from within the process being modeled. Analysis of a time-invariant distributed delay shows that the statistics of individual transit times through a delay process can be very sensitive to attrition incurred...
Clow, K E; Fischer, A K; O'Bryan, D
1995-01-01
The authors construct a theoretical model of the antecedents of expectations for dental services by analyzing survey responses from 240 dental patients. The patients' image of the dentist, tangible cues, situational factors, and patient satisfaction with prior service encounters have the greatest influence on expectations of service, whereas marketing variables, such as price and advertising, appear to have no effect. PMID:10152791
Externalities, expectations, and Pigouvian taxes
Cornes, R.; Sandler, T.
1985-03-01
This article derives Pigouvian-type corrective measures for reciprocal externalities when non-Nash behavior characterizes the participants. These reciprocal externalities may involve various kinds of environmental pollutants, such as acid rain. A comparison between corrective measures for Nash and non-Nash behavior demonstrates that positive conjectures, regarding the other agent's externality-generating activity, have an expectation-internalizing influence that usually reduces the required corrective measures. Negative conjectures (e.g., free-riding expectations), however, have an expectation-externalizing effect that increases the required corrective measures. The article analyzes both two-person and n-person externalities. 13 references, 3 figures, 1 table.
Programmable Differential Delay Circuit With Fine Delay Adjustment
DeRyckere, John F. (Eau Claire, WI); Jenkins, Philip Nord (Eau Claire, WI); Cornett, Frank Nolan (Chippewa Falls, WI)
2002-07-09
Circuitry that provides additional delay to early arriving signals such that all data signals arrive at a receiving latch with same path delay. The delay of a forwarded clock reference is also controlled such that the capturing clock edge will be optimally positioned near quadrature (depending on latch setup/hold requirements). The circuitry continuously adapts to data and clock path delay changes and digital filtering of phase measurements reduce errors brought on by jittering data edges. The circuitry utilizes only the minimum amount of delay necessary to achieve objective thereby limiting any unintended jitter. Particularly, this programmable differential delay circuit with fine delay adjustment is designed to allow the skew between ASICS to be minimized. This includes skew between data bits, between data bits and clocks as well as minimizing the overall skew in a channel between ASICS.
Addessi, Elsa; Paglieri, Fabio; Beran, Michael J.; Evans, Theodore A.; Macchitella, Luigi; De Petrillo, Francesca; Focaroli, Valentina
2013-01-01
Delaying gratification involves two components: (i) delay choice (selecting a delayed reward over an immediate one), and (ii) delay maintenance (sustaining the decision to delay gratification even if the immediate reward is available during the delay). In primates, two tasks most commonly have explored these components, the Intertemporal choice task and the Accumulation task. It is unclear whether these tasks provide equivalent measures of delay of gratification. Here, we compared the performance of the same capuchin monkeys, belonging to two study populations, between these tasks. We found only limited evidence of a significant correlation in performance. Consequently, in contrast to what is often assumed, our data provide only partial support to the hypothesis that these tasks provide equivalent measures of delay of gratification. PMID:23544770
Liu, Pin-Lin
2015-09-01
This paper investigates improved delay-range-dependent robust absolute stability criteria for a class of Lur'e uncertain systems with interval time-varying delays. By using delayed decomposition approach (DDA), a tighter upper bound of the derivative of Lyapunov functional can be obtained, and thus the proposed criteria give results with less conservatism compared with some previous ones. An integral inequality approach (IIA) is proposed to reduce the conservativeness in computing the allowable maximum admissible upper bound (MAUB) of the time-delay. The developed stability condition is expressed in terms of linear matrix inequality (LMI) that manipulates fewer decision variables and requires reduced computational load. Finally, three numerical examples are given to show the effectiveness of the proposed stability criteria. PMID:26234802
Physical activity extends life expectancy
Leisure-time physical activity is associated with longer life expectancy, even at relatively low levels of activity and regardless of body weight, according to a study by a team of researchers led by the NCI.
Adaptive Phase Delay Generator
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Greer, Lawrence
2013-01-01
There are several experimental setups involving rotating machinery that require some form of synchronization. The adaptive phase delay generator (APDG) the Bencic-1000 is a flexible instrument that allows the user to generate pulses synchronized to the rising edge of a tachometer signal from any piece of rotating machinery. These synchronized pulses can vary by the delay angle, pulse width, number of pulses per period, number of skipped pulses, and total number of pulses. Due to the design of the pulse generator, any and all of these parameters can be changed independently, yielding an unparalleled level of versatility. There are two user interfaces to the APDG. The first is a LabVIEW program that has the advantage of displaying all of the pulse parameters and input signal data within one neatly organized window on the PC monitor. Furthermore, the LabVIEW interface plots the rpm of the two input signal channels in real time. The second user interface is a handheld portable device that goes anywhere a computer is not accessible. It consists of a liquid-crystal display and keypad, which enable the user to control the unit by scrolling through a host of command menus and parameter listings. The APDG combines all of the desired synchronization control into one unit. The experimenter can adjust the delay, pulse width, pulse count, number of skipped pulses, and produce a specified number of pulses per revolution. Each of these parameters can be changed independently, providing an unparalleled level of versatility when synchronizing hardware to a host of rotating machinery. The APDG allows experimenters to set up quickly and generate a host of synchronizing configurations using a simple user interface, which hopefully leads to faster results.
[Delayed endolymphatic hydrops].
Giannoni, B; Pagnini, P; Vannucchi, P
1998-08-01
Delayed Endolymphatic Hydrops (DEH) is a disease entity that must be distinguished from idiopathic endolymphatic hydrops (Mnire's disease). Idiopathic hydrops is characterized by the following symptoms: 1) vertigo often accompanied by nausea and vomiting; 2) tinnitus; 3) hearing loss, usually fluctuating; and 4) sensation of pressure or fullness in the affected ear. Idiopathic hydrops most commonly occurs in middle-aged patients, usually between 30 and 50 years. It may involve one or both ears and usually exibits fluctuating hearing loss and episodic vertigo, although one symptom may precede the other by months or years. It is rare for Mnire's disease to present with a severe sensorineural hearing loss. Delayed Endolymphatic Hydrops was first described, under the name of "unilateral deafness with subsequent vertigo", by Wolfson and Lieberman and Nadol et al.; this was later confirmed by other authors. The disease is characterized by a profound sensorineural hearing loss in one ear, found to have been present in most cases from early childhood, due to an unknown cause, trauma or viral infections. After a prolonged period (usually many years) patients with DEH experience the onset of episodic vertigo from the deaf ear (Ipsilateral Delayed Endolymphatic Hydrops) or develop a fluctuating hearing loss and/or episodic vertigo in the opposite ear, previously with normal hearing (Controlateral Delayed Endolymphatic Hydrops). Vestibular symptoms are identical to those of Mnire's disease: in fact there is evidence that endolymphatic hydrops in the previously damaged ear or in the previously normal ear represents at least part of the labyrinthine pathology. Histopathology studies recently conducted on temporal bones of subjects affected with controlateral DEH show pathologic changes in the deaf ears similar to those found in viral labyrinthitis, whereas pathologic changes in the hearing ears resemble those known to occur in Mnire's disease. Medical treatment has not been found to be effective in patients with DEH, but it must be the first choice of treatment especially in controlateral forms of the disease. So far, surgical intervention has been demonstrated to give the best results; either conservative or more radical, depending on the type of DEH. Pharmacological labyrinthectomy with ototoxic drugs could be the therapy of choice in the future. In this paper we review the literature in order to summarize the clinical features and criteria for diagnosing DEH, we also report histopathologic findings and pathogenetic hypotheses formulated for this syndrome. Moreover, we discuss the best therapeutic approach for the ipsilateral and controlateral variants of DEH. PMID:10205936
Delayed-type hypersensitivity.
Luo, Y; Dorf, M E
2001-05-01
Delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) is an in vivo assay of cell-mediated immune function. DTH reactions are often divided into two phases: the sensitization phase, referring to the initial immunization with specific antigen, and the efferent or challenge phase of the DTH response, which usually follows 6 to 14 days after sensitization. This unit details the protocol for stimulating DTH responses in mice to the O-succinimide ester of the hapten 4-hydroxy-3-nitrophenyl acetyl (abbreviated NP-O-Su). PMID:18432796
Vehicle barrier with access delay
Swahlan, David J; Wilke, Jason
2013-09-03
An access delay vehicle barrier for stopping unauthorized entry into secure areas by a vehicle ramming attack includes access delay features for preventing and/or delaying an adversary from defeating or compromising the barrier. A horizontally deployed barrier member can include an exterior steel casing, an interior steel reinforcing member and access delay members disposed within the casing and between the casing and the interior reinforcing member. Access delay members can include wooden structural lumber, concrete and/or polymeric members that in combination with the exterior casing and interior reinforcing member act cooperatively to impair an adversarial attach by thermal, mechanical and/or explosive tools.
Search for quasi bound ? mesons
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Machner, H.
2015-04-01
The search for a quasi bound ? meson in atomic nuclei is reviewed. This tentative state is studied theoretically as well as experimentally. The theory starts from elastic ? nucleon scattering which is derived from production data within some models. From this interaction the ? nucleus interaction is derived. Model calculations predict binding energies and widths of the quasi bound state. Another method is to derive the ? nucleus interaction from excitation functions of ? production experiments. The s wave interaction is extracted from such data via final state interaction (FSI) theorem. We give the derivation of s wave amplitudes in partial wave expansion and in helicity amplitudes and their relation to observables. Different experiments extracting the FSI are discussed as are production experiments. So far only three experiments give evidence for the existence of the quasi bound state: a pion double charge exchange experiment, an effective mass measurement, and a transfer reaction at recoil free kinematics with observation of the decay of the state.
Viscosity bound and causality violation.
Brigante, Mauro; Liu, Hong; Myers, Robert C; Shenker, Stephen; Yaida, Sho
2008-05-16
In recent work we showed that, for a class of conformal field theories (CFT) with Gauss-Bonnet gravity dual, the shear viscosity to entropy density ratio, eta/s, could violate the conjectured Kovtun-Starinets-Son viscosity bound, eta/s > or = 1/4 pi. In this Letter we argue, in the context of the same model, that tuning eta/s below (16/25)(1/4 pi) induces microcausality violation in the CFT, rendering the theory inconsistent. This is a concrete example in which inconsistency of a theory and a lower bound on viscosity are correlated, supporting the idea of a possible universal lower bound on eta/s for all consistent theories. PMID:18518436
A holographic bound on cosmic magnetic fields
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
McInnes, Brett
2015-03-01
Magnetic fields large enough to be observable are ubiquitous in astrophysics, even at extremely large length scales. This has led to the suggestion that such fields are seeded at very early (inflationary) times, and subsequently amplified by various processes involving, for example, dynamo effects. Many such mechanisms give rise to extremely large magnetic fields at the end of inflationary reheating, and therefore also during the quark-gluon plasma epoch of the early universe. Such plasmas have a well-known holographic description in terms of a thermal asymptotically AdS black hole. We show that holography imposes an upper bound on the intensity of magnetic fields (? 3.6 1018gauss at the hadronization temperature) in these circumstances; this is above, but not far above, the values expected in some models of cosmic magnetogenesis.
DELAYED REINFORCEMENT OF OPERANT BEHAVIOR
Lattal, Kennon A
2010-01-01
The experimental analysis of delay of reinforcement is considered from the perspective of three questions that seem basic not only to understanding delay of reinforcement, but, also, by implication, the contributions of temporal relations between events to operant behavior. The first question is whether effects of the temporal relation between responses and reinforcers can be isolated from other features of the environment that often accompany delays, such as stimuli or changes in the temporal distribution or rate of reinforcement. The second question is that of the effects of delays on operant behavior. Beyond the common denominator of a temporal separation between reinforcers and the responses that produce them, delay of reinforcement procedures differ from one another along several dimensions, making delay effects circumstance dependent. The final question is one of interpreting delay of reinforcement effects. It centers on the role of the responsereinforcer temporal relation in the context of other, concurrently operating behavioral processes. PMID:20676272
Expectation and the tilt aftereffect.
Pinchuk-Yacobi, Noga; Dekel, Ron; Sagi, Dov
2015-09-01
Exposure to oriented stimuli leads to a bias in the perceived orientation of subsequently viewed stimuli (tilt aftereffect, TAE). This is traditionally attributed to sensory adaptation, and viewed as a stimulus-driven process, independent of stimulus predictability. Here, we tested whether the magnitude of the TAE is modulated by expectations, and specifically, whether TAE depends on the congruency of adapted and expected orientations. Observers were presented at fixation with successive pairs of oriented Gabor patches (s=0.6, l=0.3). Each Gabor was presented for 50ms with 600ms interval between pair members (pairs were separated by 1-1.5secs). Gabor pairs were arranged in blocks, forming two experimental conditions with orientation either expected or not expected. For all blocks, the orientation of the first Gabor in each pair was randomized (20 relative to vertical). In the 'expected' condition, the orientation of the second Gabor correlated, either positively or negatively, in different sessions, with that of the first Gabor. In the 'not-expected' condition, the orientation of the second Gabor was independent of the first Gabor (randomized 20). Intermixed test trials (33%) were used to measure the shift in subjects' perceived vertical, with the second pair member serving as a target, oriented around the vertical, permitting a measurement of the TAE produced by the presentation of the first Gabor member. Presentation of the oriented Gabors led to a tilt aftereffect, which was modulated by the expected orientation. The aftereffect was significantly higher (N=5; p< 0.01, pairwise t-test) in the positively correlated blocks (1.60.2SE) than in the corresponding 'not expected' blocks (1.00.3SE). In the negatively correlated blocks (N=2), the aftereffect was lower (0.61.1SE) than in the corresponding 'not expected' blocks (1.00.7SE). These findings indicate a role of expectation in generating the perceptual tilt aftereffect and are in line with predictive coding models of perception. Acknowledgement: BRF/ISF. Meeting abstract presented at VSS 2015. PMID:26325727
Holographic bounds and finite inflation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Phillips, Daniel; Scacco, Andrew; Albrecht, Andreas
2015-02-01
We compare two holographic arguments that impose especially strong bounds on the amount of inflation. One comes from the de Sitter equilibrium cosmology and the other from the work of Banks and Fischler. We find that simple versions of these two approaches yield the same bound on the number of e-foldings. A careful examination reveals that while these pictures are similar in spirit, they are not necessarily identical prescriptions. We apply the two pictures to specific cosmologies which expose potentially important differences and which also demonstrate ways these seemingly simple proposals can be tricky to implement in practice.
Bounds for nonlocality distillation protocols
Forster, Manuel
2011-06-15
Nonlocality can be quantified by the violation of a Bell inequality. Since this violation may be amplified by local operations, an alternative measure has been proposed--distillable nonlocality. The alternative measure is difficult to calculate exactly due to the double exponential growth of the parameter space. In this paper, we give a way to bound the distillable nonlocality of a resource by the solutions to a related optimization problem. Our upper bounds are exponentially easier to compute than the exact value and are shown to be meaningful in general and tight in some cases.
Bounds on negativity of superpositions
Ou Yongcheng; Fan Heng
2007-08-15
For pure bipartite superposed states, the entanglement quantified by negativity is studied. If the entanglement is quantified by concurrence, we show that two pure states with high fidelity to one another have nearly the same entanglement. We deduce an inequality in which the concurrence is known to be a continuous function in infinite dimensions. The main result of this paper is to give the bounds on the negativity of a bipartite state in terms of the entanglement of the states being superposed. These bounds may be used in estimating the entanglement of a given state.
Complex network synchronization of chaotic systems with delay coupling
Theesar, S. Jeeva Sathya Ratnavelu, K.
2014-03-05
The study of complex networks enables us to understand the collective behavior of the interconnected elements and provides vast real time applications from biology to laser dynamics. In this paper, synchronization of complex network of chaotic systems has been studied. Every identical node in the complex network is assumed to be in Lur’e system form. In particular, delayed coupling has been assumed along with identical sector bounded nonlinear systems which are interconnected over network topology.
Performance Bounds on Two Concatenated, Interleaved Codes
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Moision, Bruce; Dolinar, Samuel
2010-01-01
A method has been developed of computing bounds on the performance of a code comprised of two linear binary codes generated by two encoders serially concatenated through an interleaver. Originally intended for use in evaluating the performances of some codes proposed for deep-space communication links, the method can also be used in evaluating the performances of short-block-length codes in other applications. The method applies, more specifically, to a communication system in which following processes take place: At the transmitter, the original binary information that one seeks to transmit is first processed by an encoder into an outer code (Co) characterized by, among other things, a pair of numbers (n,k), where n (n > k)is the total number of code bits associated with k information bits and n k bits are used for correcting or at least detecting errors. Next, the outer code is processed through either a block or a convolutional interleaver. In the block interleaver, the words of the outer code are processed in blocks of I words. In the convolutional interleaver, the interleaving operation is performed bit-wise in N rows with delays that are multiples of B bits. The output of the interleaver is processed through a second encoder to obtain an inner code (Ci) characterized by (ni,ki). The output of the inner code is transmitted over an additive-white-Gaussian- noise channel characterized by a symbol signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) Es/No and a bit SNR Eb/No. At the receiver, an inner decoder generates estimates of bits. Depending on whether a block or a convolutional interleaver is used at the transmitter, the sequence of estimated bits is processed through a block or a convolutional de-interleaver, respectively, to obtain estimates of code words. Then the estimates of the code words are processed through an outer decoder, which generates estimates of the original information along with flags indicating which estimates are presumed to be correct and which are found to be erroneous. From the perspective of the present method, the topic of major interest is the performance of the communication system as quantified in the word-error rate and the undetected-error rate as functions of the SNRs and the total latency of the interleaver and inner code. The method is embodied in equations that describe bounds on these functions. Throughout the derivation of the equations that embody the method, it is assumed that the decoder for the outer code corrects any error pattern of t or fewer errors, detects any error pattern of s or fewer errors, may detect some error patterns of more than s errors, and does not correct any patterns of more than t errors. Because a mathematically complete description of the equations that embody the method and of the derivation of the equations would greatly exceed the space available for this article, it must suffice to summarize by reporting that the derivation includes consideration of several complex issues, including relationships between latency and memory requirements for block and convolutional codes, burst error statistics, enumeration of error-event intersections, and effects of different interleaving depths. In a demonstration, the method was used to calculate bounds on the performances of several communication systems, each based on serial concatenation of a (63,56) expurgated Hamming code with a convolutional inner code through a convolutional interleaver. The bounds calculated by use of the method were compared with results of numerical simulations of performances of the systems to show the regions where the bounds are tight (see figure).
Loosely-Bound Diatomic Molecules.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Balfour, W. J.
1979-01-01
Discusses concept of covalent bonding as related to homonuclear diatomic molecules. Article draws attention to the existence of bound rare gas and alkaline earth diatomic molecules. Summarizes their molecular parameters and offers spectroscopic data. Strength and variation with distance of interatomic attractive forces is given. (Author/SA)
Wronskian Method for Bound States
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Fernandez, Francisco M.
2011-01-01
We propose a simple and straightforward method based on Wronskians for the calculation of bound-state energies and wavefunctions of one-dimensional quantum-mechanical problems. We explicitly discuss the asymptotic behaviour of the wavefunction and show that the allowed energies make the divergent part vanish. As illustrative examples we consider…
Wronskian Method for Bound States
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Fernandez, Francisco M.
2011-01-01
We propose a simple and straightforward method based on Wronskians for the calculation of bound-state energies and wavefunctions of one-dimensional quantum-mechanical problems. We explicitly discuss the asymptotic behaviour of the wavefunction and show that the allowed energies make the divergent part vanish. As illustrative examples we consider
Correlation effects and bound states
Zinovjev, G. M.; Molodtsov, S. V.
2012-11-15
Bound states in a simple quark model that are due to correlation effects are analyzed. The confining properties of this model in meson (quark-antiquark and diquark) channels manifest themselves at any quark momenta, and an extra potential field may only enhance the confining effect.
Status of transition delay using compliant walls
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Carpenter, Peter W.
An account is given of the current understanding of drag-reduction phenomena associated with compliant walls for turbulence-transition delay in hydrodynamic boundary layer flows, first noted in connection with the achievement of anomalously high speeds by dolphins in virtue of the compliant character of their epidermis. Compliant walls may take the form of a slime layer-modified rigid wall, a passively compliant flexible wall, an active flexible wall, and a sensor-actuated flow-control active flexible wall. An order-of-magnitude increase in transitional Reynolds number, relative to rigid walls, is ultimately expected to be achieved.
TRENDS IN SENESCENT LIFE EXPECTANCY
Bongaarts, John
2009-01-01
The distinction between senescent and non-senescent mortality proves to be very valuable for describing and analyzing age patterns of death rates. Unfortunately, standard methods for estimating these mortality components are lacking. The first part of this study discusses alternative methods for estimating background and senescent mortality among adults and proposes a simple approach based on death rates by causes of death. The second part examines trends in senescent life expectancy (i.e. the life expectancy implied by senescent mortality) and compares them with trends in conventional longevity indicators between 1960 and 2000 in a group of 17 developed countries with low mortality. Senescent life expectancy for females rises at an average rate of 1.54 years per decade between 1960 and 2000 in these countries. The shape of the distribution of senescent deaths by age remains relatively invariant while the entire distribution shifts over time to higher ages as longevity rose. PMID:19851933
Titania bound sodium titanate ion exchanger
DeFilippi, Irene C. G.; Yates, Stephen Frederic; Shen, Jian-Kun; Gaita, Romulus; Sedath, Robert Henry; Seminara, Gary Joseph; Straszewski, Michael Peter; Anderson, David Joseph
1999-03-23
This invention is method for preparing a titania bound ion exchange composition comprising admixing crystalline sodium titanate and a hydrolyzable titanium compound and, thereafter drying the titania bound crystalline sodium titanate and subjecting the dried titania bound ion exchange composition to optional compaction and calcination steps to improve the physical strength of the titania bound composition.
Fundamentals of Delayed Coking Joint Industry Project
Michael Volk; Keith Wisecarver
2003-09-26
Delayed coking evolved steadily over the early to mid 1900s to enable refiners to convert high boiling, residual petroleum fractions to light products such as gasoline. Pound for pound, coking is the most energy intensive of any operation in a modern refinery. Large amounts of energy are required to heat the thick, poor-quality petroleum residuum to the 900 to 950 degrees F required to crack the heavy hydrocarbon molecules into lighter, more valuable products. One common misconception of delayed coking is that the product coke is a disadvantage. Although coke is a low valued (near zero economic value) byproduct, compared to transportation fuels, there is a significant worldwide trade and demand for coke as it is an economical fuel. Coke production has increased steadily over the last ten years, with further increases forecast for the foreseeable future. Current domestic production is near 111,000 tons per day. A major driving force behind this increase is the steady decline in crude quality available to refiners. Crude slates are expected to grow heavier with higher sulfur contents while environmental restrictions are expected to significantly reduce the demand for high-sulfur residual fuel oil. Light sweet crudes will continue to be available and in even greater demand than they are today. Refiners will be faced with the choice of purchasing light sweet crudes at a premium price, or adding bottom of the barrel upgrading capability, through additional new investments, to reduce the production of high-sulfur residual fuel oil and increase the production of low-sulfur distillate fuels. A second disadvantage is that liquid products from cokers frequently are unstable, i.e., they rapidly form gum and sediments. Because of intermediate investment and operating costs, delayed coking has increased in popularity among refiners worldwide. Based on the 2000 Worldwide Refining Survey published in the Oil and Gas, the delayed coking capacity for 101 refineries around the world is 2,937,439 barrels/calendar day. These cokers produce 154,607 tons of coke per day and delayed coking accounts for 88% of the world capacity. The delayed coking charge capacity in the United States is 1,787,860 b/cd. Despite its wide commercial use, only relatively few contractors and refiners are truly knowledgeable in delayed-coking design, so that this process carries with it a ''black art'' connotation. Until recently, the expected yield from cokers was determined by a simple laboratory test on the feedstock. As a result of Tulsa University's prior related research, a process model was developed that with additional work could be used to optimize existing delayed cokers over a wide range of potential feedstocks and operating conditions. The objectives of this research program are to: utilize the current micro, batch and pilot unit facilities at The University of Tulsa to enhance the understanding of the coking process; conduct additional micro and pilot unit tests with new and in-house resids and recycles to make current optimization models more robust; conduct focused kinetic experiments to enhance the furnace tube model and to enhance liquid production while minimizing sulfur in the products; conduct detailed foaming studies to optimize the process and minimize process upsets; quantify the parameters that affect coke morphology; and to utilize the knowledge gained from the experimental and modeling studies to enhance the computer programs developed in the previous JIP for optimization of the coking process. These refined computer models will then be tested against refinery data provided by the member companies. Novel concepts will also be explored for hydrogen sulfide removal of furnace gases as well as gas injection studies to reduce over-cracking.
Fundamentals of Delayed Coking Joint Industry Project
Michael Volk; Keith Wisecarver
2004-09-26
Delayed coking evolved steadily over the early to mid 1900s to enable refiners to convert high boiling, residual petroleum fractions to light products such as gasoline. Pound for pound, coking is the most energy intensive of any operation in a modern refinery. Large amounts of energy are required to heat the thick, poor-quality petroleum residuum to the 900 to 950 degrees F required to crack the heavy hydrocarbon molecules into lighter, more valuable products. One common misconception of delayed coking is that the product coke is a disadvantage. Although coke is a low valued (near zero economic value) byproduct, compared to transportation fuels, there is a significant worldwide trade and demand for coke as it is an economical fuel. Coke production has increased steadily over the last ten years, with further increases forecast for the foreseeable future. Current domestic production is near 111,000 tons per day. A major driving force behind this increase is the steady decline in crude quality available to refiners. Crude slates are expected to grow heavier with higher sulfur contents while environmental restrictions are expected to significantly reduce the demand for high-sulfur residual fuel oil. Light sweet crudes will continue to be available and in even greater demand than they are today. Refiners will be faced with the choice of purchasing light sweet crudes at a premium price, or adding bottom of the barrel upgrading capability, through additional new investments, to reduce the production of high-sulfur residual fuel oil and increase the production of low-sulfur distillate fuels. A second disadvantage is that liquid products from cokers frequently are unstable, i.e., they rapidly form gum and sediments. Because of intermediate investment and operating costs, delayed coking has increased in popularity among refiners worldwide. Based on the 2000 Worldwide Refining Survey published in the Oil and Gas, the delayed coking capacity for 101 refineries around the world is 2,937,439 barrels/calendar day. These cokers produce 154,607 tons of coke per day and delayed coking accounts for 88% of the world capacity. The delayed coking charge capacity in the United States is 1,787,860 b/cd. Despite its wide commercial use, only relatively few contractors and refiners are truly knowledgeable in delayed-coking design, so that this process carries with it a ''black art'' connotation. Until recently, the expected yield from cokers was determined by a simple laboratory test on the feedstock. As a result of Tulsa University's prior related research, a process model was developed that with additional work could be used to optimize existing delayed cokers over a wide range of potential feedstocks and operating conditions. The objectives of this research program are to: utilize the current micro, batch and pilot unit facilities at The University of Tulsa to enhance the understanding of the coking process; conduct additional micro and pilot unit tests with new and in-house resids and recycles to make current optimization models more robust; conduct focused kinetic experiments to enhance the furnace tube model and to enhance liquid production while minimizing sulfur in the products; conduct detailed foaming studies to optimize the process and minimize process upsets; quantify the parameters that affect coke morphology; and to utilize the knowledge gained from the experimental and modeling studies to enhance the computer programs developed in the previous JIP for optimization of the coking process. These refined computer models will then be tested against refinery data provided by the member companies. Novel concepts will also be explored for hydrogen sulfide removal of furnace gases as well as gas injection studies to reduce over-cracking.
Delayed cure bismaleimide resins
Adams, Johnnie E. (Grandview, MO); Jamieson, Donald R. (Merriam, KS)
1984-08-07
Polybismaleimides prepared by delayed curing of bis-imides having the formula ##STR1## wherein R.sub.1 and R.sub.2 each independently is H, C.sub.1-4 -alkyl, C.sub.1-4 -alkoxy, Cl or Br, or R.sub.1 and R.sub.2 together form a fused 6-membered hydrocarbon aromatic ring, with the proviso that R.sub.1 and R.sub.2 are not t-butyl or t-butoxy; X is O, S or Se; n is 1-3; and the --(CH.sub.2).sub.n -- group, optionally, is substituted by 1-3 methyl groups or by fluorine.
Young, I.
1992-01-15
The breakup of the Soviet Union is causing massive disruptions to methanol exports. The changeover to a Commonwealth of independent States has created logistical problems which have led some shipments of Russian methanol to be cancelled and delayed other deliveries by up to two weeks. In recent years the Soviet Union has exported 700,000 m.t./year-900,000 m.t./year of methanol, mainly to Western Europe. The product is made at 750,000-m.t./year plants at Tomsk and Gubakha in Russia and transported by rail for shipment from the ports of Ventspils, Latvia, on the Baltic Sea and Yuzhnyy in Ukraine, on the Black Sea. The exports were handled by state export agency Soyuzagrochim, mainly under contract to West European traders and consumers in areas like Scandinavia and France.
Modelling population growth with delayed nonlocal reaction in 2-dimensions.
Liang, Dong; Wu, Jianhong; Zhang, Fan
2005-01-01
In this paper, we consider the population growth of a single species living in a two-dimensional spatial domain. New reaction-difusion equation models with delayed nonlocal reaction are developed in two-dimensional bounded domains combining diferent boundary conditions. The important feature of the models is the reflection of the joint efect of the difusion dynamics and the nonlocal maturation delayed efect. We consider and ana- lyze numerical solutions of the mature population dynamics with some wellknown birth functions. In particular, we observe and study the occurrences of asymptotically stable steady state solutions and periodic waves for the two-dimensional problems with nonlocal delayed reaction. We also investigate numerically the efects of various parameters on the period, the peak and the shape of the periodic wave as well as the shape of the asymptotically stable steady state solution. PMID:20369915
Lo, Kam W
2013-07-01
A ground-based acoustic sensor array can be used to estimate the complete set of flight parameters of a jet aircraft or other airborne source of broadband sound in transit by measuring the differential time of arrival (DTOA), or the time delay, of the direct path signal at each sensor pair of the array over a sufficiently long period of time. This paper studies the possibility of using intersensor multipath delay measurements to improve the precision of the flight parameter estimates for a small aperture array, without increasing the array's intersensor spacing or the observation time for more time delay measurements. Intersensor multipath delay is defined as the DTOA of the direct path signal at one sensor and the ground-reflected path signal at another sensor. The flight parameter estimation algorithm is formulated and a simplified Cramer-Rao lower bound error analysis is presented, which shows that the standard deviations in the flight parameter estimates are greatly reduced when intersensor multipath delay measurements are used together with time delay measurements. The effectiveness of the proposed flight parameter estimation method for small aperture arrays is verified using both simulated and real data. PMID:23862781
Transversely bounded DFB lasers. [bounded distributed-feedback lasers
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Elachi, C.; Evans, G.; Yeh, C.
1975-01-01
Bounded distributed-feedback (DFB) lasers are studied in detail. Threshold gain and field distribution for a number of configurations are derived and analyzed. More specifically, the thin-film guide, fiber, diffusion guide, and hollow channel with inhomogeneous-cladding DFB lasers are considered. Optimum points exist and must be used in DFB laser design. Different-modes feedback and the effects of the transverse boundaries are included. A number of applications are also discussed.
[Delayed deltoid-pectoral flap].
Zapater, E; Ferrandis, E; Vendrell, J B
2002-01-01
Delayed flaps include surgical techniques performed in order to diminish the blood supply of a flap before placing it at the definitive location. The purpose is to improve the irrigation of the distal region of the flap. Three cases of head and neck reconstructions with delayed deltopectoral flaps are reported. Literature about anatomic and physiologic phenomenon occurred during the delay period is reviewed, as well as the different surgical techniques described to delay a flap. We think that the deltopectoral flap remains an adequate technique, being indicated when the reconstruction is impossible with local flaps. That is the case of defects or irradiated regions. In our opinion, if the deltoid region of the flap is necessary to the reconstruction it is recommended to delay the flap, to increase the probability of complete survival at the distal region. In our cases the delay period has been one week, obtaining a complete survival of the flap in all of them. PMID:12462920
Viewing Majorana Bound States by Rabi Oscillations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Zhi; Liang, Qi-Feng; Yao, Dao-Xin; Hu, Xiao
2015-07-01
We propose to use Rabi oscillation as a probe to view the fractional Josepshon relation (FJR) associated with Majorana bound states (MBSs) expected in one-dimensional topological superconductors. The system consists of a quantum dot (QD) and an rf-SQUID with MBSs at the Josephson junction. Rabi oscillations between energy levels formed by MBSs are induced by ac gate voltage controlling the coupling between QD and MBS when the photon energy proportional to the ac frequency matches gap between quantum levels formed by MBSs and QD. As a manifestation of the Rabi oscillation in the whole system involving MBSs, the electron occupation on QD oscillates with time, which can be measured by charge sensing techniques. With Floquet theorem and numerical analysis we reveal that from the resonant driving frequency for coherent Rabi oscillation one can directly map out the FJR cos(??/?0) as a signature of MBSs, with ? the magnetic flux through SQUID and ?0?=?hc/2e the flux quantum. The present scheme is expected to provide a clear evidence for MBSs under intensive searching.
Viewing Majorana Bound States by Rabi Oscillations
Wang, Zhi; Liang, Qi-Feng; Yao, Dao-Xin; Hu, Xiao
2015-01-01
We propose to use Rabi oscillation as a probe to view the fractional Josepshon relation (FJR) associated with Majorana bound states (MBSs) expected in one-dimensional topological superconductors. The system consists of a quantum dot (QD) and an rf-SQUID with MBSs at the Josephson junction. Rabi oscillations between energy levels formed by MBSs are induced by ac gate voltage controlling the coupling between QD and MBS when the photon energy proportional to the ac frequency matches gap between quantum levels formed by MBSs and QD. As a manifestation of the Rabi oscillation in the whole system involving MBSs, the electron occupation on QD oscillates with time, which can be measured by charge sensing techniques. With Floquet theorem and numerical analysis we reveal that from the resonant driving frequency for coherent Rabi oscillation one can directly map out the FJR cos(πΦ/Φ0) as a signature of MBSs, with Φ the magnetic flux through SQUID and Φ0 = hc/2e the flux quantum. The present scheme is expected to provide a clear evidence for MBSs under intensive searching. PMID:26153250
Viewing Majorana Bound States by Rabi Oscillations.
Wang, Zhi; Liang, Qi-Feng; Yao, Dao-Xin; Hu, Xiao
2015-01-01
We propose to use Rabi oscillation as a probe to view the fractional Josepshon relation (FJR) associated with Majorana bound states (MBSs) expected in one-dimensional topological superconductors. The system consists of a quantum dot (QD) and an rf-SQUID with MBSs at the Josephson junction. Rabi oscillations between energy levels formed by MBSs are induced by ac gate voltage controlling the coupling between QD and MBS when the photon energy proportional to the ac frequency matches gap between quantum levels formed by MBSs and QD. As a manifestation of the Rabi oscillation in the whole system involving MBSs, the electron occupation on QD oscillates with time, which can be measured by charge sensing techniques. With Floquet theorem and numerical analysis we reveal that from the resonant driving frequency for coherent Rabi oscillation one can directly map out the FJR cos(πΦ/Φ0) as a signature of MBSs, with Φ the magnetic flux through SQUID and Φ0 = hc/2e the flux quantum. The present scheme is expected to provide a clear evidence for MBSs under intensive searching. PMID:26153250
Great Expectations and New Beginnings
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Davis, Frances A.
2009-01-01
Great Expectation and New Beginnings is a prenatal family support program run by the Family, Infant, and Preschool Program (FIPP) in North Carolina. FIPP has developed an evidence-based integrated framework of early childhood intervention and family support that includes three primary components: providing intervention in everyday family
Metaphors As Storehouses of Expectation.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Beavis, Allan K.; Thomas, A. Ross
1996-01-01
Explores how metaphors are used to identify and store some expectations that structure schools' interactions and communications. Outlines a systems-theoretical view of schools derived from Niklas Luhmann's social theories. Illustrates how the metaphors identified in an earlier study provide material contexts for identifying and storing structures…
Undergraduates' Perceptions of Employer Expectations
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
DuPre, Carrie; Williams, Kate
2011-01-01
Research conducted by the National Association of Colleges and Employers (NACE) indicates that employers across industries seek similar skills in job applicants; yet employers often report finding these desired skills lacking in new hires. This study closes the gap in understanding between employer expectations and student perceptions regarding
Primary expectations of secondary metabolites
Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)
Plant secondary metabolites (e.g., phenolics) are important for human health, in addition to the organoleptic properties they impart to fresh and processed foods. Consumer expectations such as appearance, taste, or texture influence their purchasing decisions. Thorough identification of phenolic com...
Kidney Failure: What to Expect
... Fund National Kidney Foundation Renal Support Network MedlinePlus Kidney and Urologic Disease Organizations Many organizations provide support ... Organizations . (PDF, 345 KB) Alternate Language URL Español Kidney Failure: What to Expect Page Content On this ...
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Mason, Philip R.
1990-01-01
Boards should clearly establish what is expected of the university president, including the six elements of good leadership: tolerance of freedom, tolerance of uncertainty, the ability to integrate motives and efforts into a meaningful aggregate, the ability to persuade, the ability to represent the institution, and influence with superiors. (MSE)
Evaluation of Behavioral Expectation Scales.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Zedeck, Sheldon; Baker, Henry T.
Behavioral Expectation Scales developed by Smith and Kendall were evaluated. Results indicated slight interrater reliability between Head Nurses and Supervisors, moderate dependence among five performance dimensions, and correlation between two scales and tenure. Results are discussed in terms of procedural problems, critical incident problems,
Privacy Expectations in Online Contexts
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Pure, Rebekah Abigail
2013-01-01
Advances in digital networked communication technology over the last two decades have brought the issue of personal privacy into sharper focus within contemporary public discourse. In this dissertation, I explain the Fourth Amendment and the role that privacy expectations play in the constitutional protection of personal privacy generally, and…
Career Expectations of Accounting Students
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Elam, Dennis; Mendez, Francis
2010-01-01
The demographic make-up of accounting students is dramatically changing. This study sets out to measure how well the profession is ready to accommodate what may be very different needs and expectations of this new generation of students. Non-traditional students are becoming more and more of a tradition in the current college classroom.…
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Maraaba (Abdeljawad), Thabet; Baleanu, Dumitru; Jarad, Fahd
2008-08-01
The existence and uniqueness theorems for functional right-left delay and left-right advanced fractional functional differential equations with bounded delay and advance, respectively, are proved. The continuity with respect to the initial function for these equations is also proved under some Lipschitz kind conditions. The Q-operator is used to transform the delay-type equation to an advanced one and vice versa. An example is given to clarify the results.
Creveling, R.
1959-03-17
A tine-delay circuit which produces a delay time in d. The circuit a capacitor, an te back resistance, connected serially with the anode of the diode going to ground. At the start of the time delay a negative stepfunction is applied to the series circuit and initiates a half-cycle transient oscillatory voltage terminated by a transient oscillatory voltage of substantially higher frequency. The output of the delay circuit is taken at the junction of the inductor and diode where a sudden voltage rise appears after the initiation of the higher frequency transient oscillations.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lemos, Jos P. S.; Zanchin, Vilson T.
2015-07-01
Buchdahl, by imposing a few reasonable physical assumptions on matter, i.e., its density is a nonincreasing function of the radius and the fluid is a perfect fluid, and on the configuration, such as the exterior is the Schwarzschild solution, found that the radius r0 to mass m ratio of a star would obey the bound {{r}0}/m?slant 9/4, the Buchdahl bound. He also noted that the bound was saturated by the Schwarzschild interior solution, i.e., the solution with {{? }m}(r)=constant, where {{? }m}(r) is the energy density of the matter at r, when the central central pressure blows to infinity. Generalizations of this bound in various forms have been studied. An important generalization was given by Andrasson, by including electrically charged matter and imposing a different set of conditions, namely, p+2{{p}T}?slant {{? }m}, where p is the radial pressure and pT the tangential pressure. His bound is sharp and given by {{r}0}/m?slant 9/{{(1+\\sqrt{1+3 {{q}2}/r02})}2}, the Buchdahl-Andrasson bound, with q being the total electric charge of the star. For q = 0 one recovers the Buchdahl bound. However, following Andrasson's proof, the configuration that saturates the Buchdahl bound is an uncharged shell, rather than the Schwarzschild interior solution. By extension, the configurations that saturate the electrically charged Buchdahl-Andrasson bound are charged shells. One could expect then, in turn, that there should exist an electrically charged equivalent to the interior Schwarzschild limit. We find here that this equivalent is provided by the equation {{? }m}(r)+{{Q}2}(r)/(8? {{r}4})=constant, where Q(r) is the electric charge at r. This equation was put forward by Cooperstock and de la Cruz, and Florides, and realized in Guilfoyle's stars. When the central pressure goes to infinity, Guilfoyle's stars are configurations that also saturate the Buchdahl-Andrasson bound. A proof in Buchdahl's manner, such that these configurations are the limiting configurations of the bound, remains to be found.
Current switch has built-in time delay: A concept
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Jesch, C. D.
1972-01-01
Switch concept provides simple means of achieving electromechanical time delay function. Unit consists of reed-type circuit breaker enclosed by copper tubing with electromagnetic coil wound around tubing and entire assembly mounted on insulating platform. Characteristics are affected only by geometry of system so device is expected to be very stable.
A time delay controller for magnetic bearings
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Youcef-Toumi, K.; Reddy, S.
1991-01-01
The control of systems with unknown dynamics and unpredictable disturbances has raised some challenging problems. This is particularly important when high system performance needs to be guaranteed at all times. Recently, the Time Delay Control has been suggested as an alternative control scheme. The proposed control system does not require an explicit plant model nor does it depend on the estimation of specific plant parameters. Rather, it combines adaptation with past observations to directly estimate the effect of the plant dynamics. A control law is formulated for a class of dynamic systems and a sufficient condition is presented for control systems stability. The derivation is based on the bounded input-bounded output stability approach using L sub infinity function norms. The control scheme is implemented on a five degrees of freedom high speed and high precision magnetic bearing. The control performance is evaluated using step responses, frequency responses, and disturbance rejection properties. The experimental data show an excellent control performance despite the system complexity.
Estimating magnitude and duration of incident delays
Garib, A.; Radwan, A.E.; Al-Deek, H.
1997-11-01
Traffic congestion is a major operational problem on urban freeways. In the case of recurring congestion, travelers can plan their trips according to the expected occurrence and severity of recurring congestion. However, nonrecurring congestion cannot be managed without real-time prediction. Evaluating the efficiency of intelligent transportation systems (ITS) technologies in reducing incident effects requires developing models that can accurately predict incident duration along with the magnitude of nonrecurring congestion. This paper provides two statistical models for estimating incident delay and a model for predicting incident duration. The incident delay models showed that up to 85% of variation in incident delay can be explained by incident duration, number of lanes affected, number of vehicles involved, and traffic demand before the incident. The incident duration prediction model showed that 81% of variation in incident duration can be predicted by number of lanes affected, number of vehicles involved, truck involvement, time of day, police response time, and weather condition. These findings have implications for on-line applications within the context of advanced traveler information systems (ATIS).
Bounding the heat trace of a Calabi-Yau manifold
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fiset, Marc-Antoine; Walcher, Johannes
2015-09-01
The SCHOK bound states that the number of marginal deformations of certain two-dimensional conformal field theories is bounded linearly from above by the number of relevant operators. In conformal field theories defined via sigma models into Calabi-Yau manifolds, relevant operators can be estimated, in the point-particle approximation, by the low-lying spectrum of the scalar Laplacian on the manifold. In the strict large volume limit, the standard asymptotic expansion of Weyl and Minakshisundaram-Pleijel diverges with the higher-order curvature invariants. We propose that it would be sufficient to find an a priori uniform bound on the trace of the heat kernel for large but finite volume. As a first step in this direction, we then study the heat trace asymptotics, as well as the actual spectrum of the scalar Laplacian, in the vicinity of a conifold singularity. The eigenfunctions can be written in terms of confluent Heun functions, the analysis of which gives evidence that regions of large curvature will not prevent the existence of a bound of this type. This is also in line with general mathematical expectations about spectral continuity for manifolds with conical singularities. A sharper version of our results could, in combination with the SCHOK bound, provide a basis for a global restriction on the dimension of the moduli space of Calabi-Yau manifolds.
Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014
2013-03-26
... Agency Information Collection Activities; Comment Request; Upward Bound and Upward Bound Math Science... Upward Bound Math Science Annual Performance Report. OMB Control Number: 1840-NEW. Type of Review: New... under the regular Upward Bound (UB) and Upward Bound Math and Science (UBMS) Programs. The Department...
Daly, Ruth A.
2009-05-01
Beam powers and black hole masses of 48 extended radio sources are combined to obtain lower bounds on the spins and magnetic field strengths of supermassive black holes. This is done in the context of the models of Blandford and Znajek (the 'BZ' model) and Meier; a parameterization for bounds in the context of other models is suggested. The bounds obtained for very powerful classical double radio sources in the BZ model are consistent with black hole spins of order unity for sources at high redshift. The black hole spins are largest for the highest redshift sources and decrease for sources at lower redshift; the sources studied have redshifts between zero and two. Lower-power radio sources associated with central dominant galaxies may have black hole spins that are significantly less than one. Combining this analysis with other results suggests that the maximum values of black hole spin associated with powerful radio galaxies decline from values of order unity at a redshift of 2 to values of order 0.7 at a redshift of zero, falling roughly as {radical}(()1+z), while lower power radio sources have spin values that range from about 0.1 to 0.8. These black hole spin values decrease if the data are considered in the context of the Meier model rather than the BZ model.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Flock, W. L.
1981-01-01
When high precision is required for range measurement on Earth space paths, it is necessary to correct as accurately as possible for excess range delays due to the dry air, water vapor, and liquid water content of the atmosphere. Calculations based on representative values of atmospheric parameters are useful for illustrating the order of magnitude of the expected delays. Range delay, time delay, and phase delay are simply and directly related. Doppler frequency variations or noise are proportional to the time rate of change of excess range delay. Tropospheric effects were examined as part of an overall consideration of the capability of precision two way ranging and Doppler systems.
Delayed traumatic intracerebral haemorrhage
Baratham, Gopal; Dennyson, William G.
1972-01-01
Twenty-one out of 7,866 head injuries were complicated by the development of delayed intracerebral haematomata. The age distribution of patients with this condition closely resembled that of patients with subdural haematomata and differed sharply from patients with extradural haemorrhage. This finding, combined with the fact that the two conditions often coexisted, suggests the possibility of similar aetiological factors operating in their production. The injury producing the lesion was often minor and the larger haematomata appeared to be associated with longer `asymptomatic' intervals. The neurological deterioration was in most instances clearly the result of an increase in intracranial pressure. When possible, angiography followed by definitive craniotomy was the most satisfactory method of management and multiple burr holes even when combined with needling of the hemisphere yielded unsatisfactory results. The distribution of lesions tended to confirm their traumatic origin. On no occasion was there a vascular abnormality to account for the haemorrhage and, despite the fact that the ages of most patients were in the seventh and eighth decades, the incidence of degenerative vascular disease was small. Contusional injury causes a local failure of the mechanisms that regulate cerebral blood flow. Hypoxia, hypercapnia, and venous congestion produce cerebral hyperaemia which encourages gradual haematoma formation particularly at the sites of injury. This explains not only the situation of the lesions but also the latency between the trauma and their development. PMID:5084138
Bzorgi, Fariborz M.
2015-05-19
In various embodiments an apparatus is presented for securing a structure such as a door, window, hatch, or gate that moves between an open and a closed position relative to a fixed structure to provide or deny access to a compartment, a room, an outdoor area, or a facility. Various embodiments provide a delay in opening the closure of sufficient duration to frustrate a rapid activation that might be desired by a person who is attempting to pass through the closure for some illicit purpose. Typically, hydraulics are used to activate the apparatus and no electrical energy or electronic signals are employed. In one embodiment, a plurality of actuations of a hand lever operates a hydraulic pump that moves a locking bolt from a first position in which a locking bolt is engaged with a recess in the fixed structure (preventing opening of a gate) to a second position in which the locking bolt is disengaged from the recess to permit opening of the gate.
Delayed carotid wallstent shortening
Garriboli, L.; Jannello, A.M.
2015-01-01
Introduction Carotid angioplasty and stenting (CAS) has been demonstrated to be safe and an acceptable alternative to surgery. Stent malpositioning can occur during the maneuvers of delivering; technical errors can lead to proximal or distal slipping of the stent that needs the placement of additional pieces. Presentation of Case We describe the case of a postoperative dislocation of a carotid stent that happened 1 year after placement. After the first ultrasound control confirmed the correct position of the Stent the following one, executed 9 months later, showed a severe restenosis due to a proximal dislocation of the stent. The problem was solved with the positioning of a further one more distally. Discussion We observe the possibility of Carotid Wallstent shortening during the implant due to an incorrect placement or sizing, but a delayed displacement is a rare complication that, we highlight, can occur after CAS and that needs to be considered at the moment of the preoperative planning. Conclusion After CAS a closed ultrasound follow up is advisable for a long time in order to detect unexpected complications. PMID:25635600
Delay Adjusted Incidence Infographic
This Infographic shows the National Cancer Institute SEER Incidence Trends. The graphs show the Average Annual Percent Change (AAPC) 2002-2011. For Men, Thyroid: 5.3*,Liver & IBD: 3.6*, Melanoma: 2.3*, Kidney: 2.0*, Myeloma: 1.9*, Pancreas: 1.2*, Leukemia: 0.9*, Oral Cavity: 0.5, Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma: 0.3*, Esophagus: -0.1, Brain & ONS: -0.2*, Bladder: -0.6*, All Sites: -1.1*, Stomach: -1.7*, Larynx: -1.9*, Prostate: -2.1*, Lung & Bronchus: -2.4*, and Colon & Rectum: -3/0*. For Women, Thyroid: 5.8*, Liver & IBD: 2.9*, Myeloma: 1.8*, Kidney: 1.6*, Melanoma: 1.5, Corpus & Uterus: 1.3*, Pancreas: 1.1*, Leukemia: 0.6*, Brain & ONS: 0, Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma: -0.1, All Sites: -0.1, Breast: -0.3, Stomach: -0.7*, Oral Cavity: -0.7*, Bladder: -0.9*, Ovary: -0.9*, Lung & Bronchus: -1.0*, Cervix: -2.4*, and Colon & Rectum: -2.7*. * AAPC is significantly different from zero (p<.05). Rates were adjusted for reporting delay in the registry. www.cancer.gov Source: Special section of the Annual Report to the Nation on the Status of Cancer, 1975-2011.
Stability Analysis of Uncertain Switched Delay Systems: A Time-Varying Lyapunov Function Approach
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Huang, Ganji; Luo, Shixian; Chen, Wu-Hua
Exponential stability for switched systems with uncertain parameters and time-varying delay is considered in this paper. The parametric uncertainties are assumed to be time-varying and norm-bounded. By introducing a novel piecewise time-varying Lyapunov function and using Razumikhin techniques, some linear matrix inequalities (LMIs) stability criteria are derived to guarantee the exponential stability of the switched delay systems. A numerical example is presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.
Calibrating for Ionospheric Phase Delays
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Macdoran, P. F.
1985-01-01
Technique determines ionospheric phase delay on real-time universally applicable basis in terms of electrons per meter squared by coherently modulating two L-band carrier frequencies received from two Global Positioning System satelites. Two pseudorandom number sequences cross-correlated to derive delay time.
Delayed Reinforcement of Operant Behavior
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lattal, Kennon A.
2010-01-01
The experimental analysis of delay of reinforcement is considered from the perspective of three questions that seem basic not only to understanding delay of reinforcement but also, by implication, the contributions of temporal relations between events to operant behavior. The first question is whether effects of the temporal relation between
Delayed Auditory Feedback and Movement
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Pfordresher, Peter Q.; Dalla Bella, Simone
2011-01-01
It is well known that timing of rhythm production is disrupted by delayed auditory feedback (DAF), and that disruption varies with delay length. We tested the hypothesis that disruption depends on the state of the movement trajectory at the onset of DAF. Participants tapped isochronous rhythms at a rate specified by a metronome while hearing DAF…
High resolution digital delay timer
Martin, Albert D. (Los Alamos, NM)
1988-01-01
Method and apparatus are provided for generating an output pulse following a trigger pulse at a time delay interval preset with a resolution which is high relative to a low resolution available from supplied clock pulses. A first lumped constant delay (20) provides a first output signal (24) at predetermined interpolation intervals corresponding to the desired high resolution time interval. Latching circuits (26, 28) latch the high resolution data (24) to form a first synchronizing data set (60). A selected time interval has been preset to internal counters (142, 146, 154) and corrected for circuit propagation delay times having the same order of magnitude as the desired high resolution. Internal system clock pulses (32, 34) count down the counters to generate an internal pulse delayed by an interval which is functionally related to the preset time interval. A second LCD (184) corrects the internal signal with the high resolution time delay. A second internal pulse is then applied to a third LCD (74) to generate a second set of synchronizing data (76) which is complementary with the first set of synchronizing data (60) for presentation to logic circuits (64). The logic circuits (64) further delay the internal output signal (72) to obtain a proper phase relationship of an output signal (80) with the internal pulses (32, 34). The final delayed output signal (80) thereafter enables the output pulse generator (82) to produce the desired output pulse (84) at the preset time delay interval following input of the trigger pulse (10, 12).
Lower bound for quantum phase estimation
Bessen, Arvid J.
2005-04-01
We obtain a query lower bound for quantum algorithms solving the phase estimation problem. Our analysis generalizes existing lower-bound approaches to the case where the oracle Q is given by controlled powers Q{sup p} of Q, as it is, for example, in Shor's order-finding algorithm. In this setting we will prove a {omega}(log 1/{epsilon}) lower bound for the number of applications of Q{sup p{sub 1}}, Q{sup p{sub 2}},.... This bound is tight due to a matching upper bound. We obtain the lower bound using a technique based on frequency analysis.
Delay discounting of different commodities.
Weatherly, Jeffrey N; Terrell, Heather K; Derenne, Adam
2010-01-01
When outcomes are delayed, their value is decreased. Delay discounting is a much-studied topic because it is correlated with certain disorders (e.g., pathological gambling). The present study attempts to determine how people would delay discount a number of different commodities, ranging from money to dating partners to federal education legislation. Participants completed delay discounting tasks pertaining to 5 different commodities, with a different set of 5 commodities for 2 groups. Results showed that different commodities were often discounted differently. Both data sets were also subjected to factor analysis. A 2-factor solution was found for both, suggesting that there are multiple "domains" of commodities. This finding is of interest because it suggests that measuring delay discounting for one commodity within a particular domain of commodities will be predictive of how people discount other commodities within that domain but will not be predictive of how they discount commodities within another domain. PMID:20718227
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Pansky, Ainat
2012-01-01
In this study, potential benefits of early memory testing were examined in terms of "inoculating" eyewitness memory against forgetting. As predicted by fuzzy trace theory (e.g., Reyna & Titcomb, 1997), a larger testing advantage in the delayed recall of event details was expected after immediate testing than after delayed testing because of the
75 FR 45628 - Delayed Update of the HHS Poverty Guidelines for the Remainder of 2010
Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014
2010-08-03
... HUMAN SERVICES Office of the Secretary Delayed Update of the HHS Poverty Guidelines for the Remainder of... delayed update of the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) poverty guidelines for the remainder of 2010, and until the 2011 poverty guidelines are published, which is expected to occur in...
Apparent enrichment of organically bound tritium in rivers explained by the heritage of our past.
Eyrolle-Boyer, Frédérique; Boyer, Patrick; Claval, David; Charmasson, Sabine; Cossonnet, Catherine
2014-10-01
The global inventory of naturally produced tritium (3H) is estimated at 2.65 kg, whereas more than 600 kg have been released during atmospheric nuclear tests (NCRP, 1979; UNSCEAR, 2000) constituting the main source of artificial tritium throughout the Anthropocene. The behaviour of this radioactive isotope in the environment has been widely studied since the 1950s, both through laboratory experiments and, more recently, through field observations (e.g., Cline, 1953; Kirchmann et al., 1979; Daillant et al., 2004; McCubbin et al., 2001; Kim et al., 2012). In its "free" forms, [i.e. 3H gas or 3H hydride (HT); methyl 3H gas (CH3T); tritiated H2O or 3H-oxide (HTO); and Tissue Free Water 3H (TFWT)], tritium closely follows the water cycle. However, 3H bound with organic compounds, mainly during the basic stages of photosynthesis or through weak hydrogen links, is less exchangeable with water, which explains its persistence in the carbon cycle as re underlined recently by Baglan et al. (2013), Jean-Batiste and Fourré (2013), Kim et al. (2013a,b). In this paper, we demonstrate that terrestrial biomass pools, historically contaminated by global atmospheric fallout from nuclear testing, have constituted a significant delayed source of organically bound tritium (OBT) for aquatic systems, resulting in an apparent enrichment of OBT as compared to HTO. This finding helps to explain concentration factors (tritium concentration in biota/concentration in water) greater than 1 observed in areas that are not directly affected by industrial radioactive wastes, and thus sheds light on the controversies regarding tritium 'bioaccumulation'. Such apparent enrichment of OBT is expected to be more pronounced in the Northern Hemisphere where fallout was most significant, depending on the nature and biodegradability of terrestrial biomass at the regional scale. We further believe that OBT transfers from the continent to oceans have been sufficient to affect tritium concentrations in coastal marine biota (i.e., near river inputs). Our findings demonstrate that the persistence of terrestrial organic (3)H explains imbalances between organically bound tritium and free (3)H in most river systems in particular those not impacted by releases from nuclear facilities. PMID:24956583
Time-Delay Estimation in Dispersed Spectrum Cognitive Radio Systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kocak, Fatih; Celebi, Hasari; Gezici, Sinan; Qaraqe, Khalid A.; Arslan, Huseyin; Poor, H. Vincent
2010-12-01
Time-delay estimation is studied for cognitive radio systems, which facilitate opportunistic use of spectral resources. A two-step approach is proposed to obtain accurate time-delay estimates of signals that occupy multiple dispersed bands simultaneously, with significantly lower computational complexity than the optimal maximum likelihood (ML) estimator. In the first step of the proposed approach, an ML estimator is used for each band of the signal in order to estimate the unknown parameters of the signal occupying that band. Then, in the second step, the estimates from the first step are combined in various ways in order to obtain the final time-delay estimate. The combining techniques that are used in the second step are called optimal combining, signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) combining, selection combining, and equal combining. It is shown that the performance of the optimal combining technique gets very close to the Cramer-Rao lower bound at high SNRs. These combining techniques provide various mechanisms for diversity combining for time-delay estimation and extend the concept of diversity in communications systems to the time-delay estimation problem in cognitive radio systems. Simulation results are presented to evaluate the performance of the proposed estimators and to verify the theoretical analysis.
Lower bounds for randomized Exclusive Write PRAMs
MacKenzie, P.D.
1995-05-02
In this paper we study the question: How useful is randomization in speeding up Exclusive Write PRAM computations? Our results give further evidence that randomization is of limited use in these types of computations. First we examine a compaction problem on both the CREW and EREW PRAM models, and we present randomized lower bounds which match the best deterministic lower bounds known. (For the CREW PRAM model, the lower bound is asymptotically optimal.) These are the first non-trivial randomized lower bounds known for the compaction problem on these models. We show that our lower bounds also apply to the problem of approximate compaction. Next we examine the problem of computing boolean functions on the CREW PRAM model, and we present a randomized lower bound, which improves on the previous best randomized lower bound for many boolean functions, including the OR function. (The previous lower bounds for these functions were asymptotically optimal, but we improve the constant multiplicative factor.) We also give an alternate proof for the randomized lower bound on PARITY, which was already optimal to within a constant additive factor. Lastly, we give a randomized lower bound for integer merging on an EREW PRAM which matches the best deterministic lower bound known. In all our proofs, we use the Random Adversary method, which has previously only been used for proving lower bounds on models with Concurrent Write capabilities. Thus this paper also serves to illustrate the power and generality of this method for proving parallel randomized lower bounds.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Arkani-Hamed, J.
2014-12-01
Paleointensity measurements of Archean rocks reveal a strong geodynamo at ~3.45 Ga, while excess nitrogen content of lunar soil samples implies no geodynamo at ~3.9 Ga. Here I propose that initiation of a strong geodynamo is delayed due to accretion style of Earth, involving collision and merging of a few dozen Moon to Mars size planetary embryos. Two accretion scenarios consisting of 25 and 50 embryos are investigated. The collision of an embryo heats the proto-Earth's core differentially and the rotating low-viscosity core stably stratifies, creating a spherically symmetric and radially increasing temperature distribution. Convection starts in the outer core after each impact but is destroyed by the next impact. The iron core of an impacting embryo descends in the mantle and merges to the proto-Earth's core. Both adiabatic and non-adiabatic merging cases are studied. A major part of the gravitational energy released due to core merging is used to lift up the upper portion of the core to emplace the impactor core material at the neutrally buoyant level in the proto-Earth's core. The remaining energy is converted to heat. In the adiabatic case the merging embryo's core retains all of the remaining energy, while in the non-adiabatic merging 50% of the remaining energy is shared with the outer part of the proto-Earth's core where the embryo's core descends. The two merging models result in significantly different temperature distributions in the core at the end of accretion. After the accretion, the convecting shell in the outer core grows monotonically and generates geodynamo gradually. It takes about 50-100 Myr for the convecting shell to generate a strong dipole field at the surface, 50,000 to 100,000 nT, in the presence of a large stably stratified liquid inner core when the convecting outer core thickness exceeds about one half the radius of the Earth's core.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Reynolds, Brady; Schiffbauer, Ryan
2005-01-01
Delay of Gratification (DG) and Delay Discounting (DD) represent two indices of impulsive behavior often treated as though they represent equivalent or the same underlying processes. However, there are key differences between DG and DD procedures, and between certain research findings with each procedure, that suggest they are not equivalent. In
Conical-Domain Model for Estimating GPS Ionospheric Delays
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sparks, Lawrence; Komjathy, Attila; Mannucci, Anthony
2009-01-01
The conical-domain model is a computational model, now undergoing development, for estimating ionospheric delays of Global Positioning System (GPS) signals. Relative to the standard ionospheric delay model described below, the conical-domain model offers improved accuracy. In the absence of selective availability, the ionosphere is the largest source of error for single-frequency users of GPS. Because ionospheric signal delays contribute to errors in GPS position and time measurements, satellite-based augmentation systems (SBASs) have been designed to estimate these delays and broadcast corrections. Several national and international SBASs are currently in various stages of development to enhance the integrity and accuracy of GPS measurements for airline navigation. In the Wide Area Augmentation System (WAAS) of the United States, slant ionospheric delay errors and confidence bounds are derived from estimates of vertical ionospheric delay modeled on a grid at regularly spaced intervals of latitude and longitude. The estimate of vertical delay at each ionospheric grid point (IGP) is calculated from a planar fit of neighboring slant delay measurements, projected to vertical using a standard, thin-shell model of the ionosphere. Interpolation on the WAAS grid enables estimation of the vertical delay at the ionospheric pierce point (IPP) corresponding to any arbitrary measurement of a user. (The IPP of a given user s measurement is the point where the GPS signal ray path intersects a reference ionospheric height.) The product of the interpolated value and the user s thin-shell obliquity factor provides an estimate of the user s ionospheric slant delay. Two types of error that restrict the accuracy of the thin-shell model are absent in the conical domain model: (1) error due to the implicit assumption that the electron density is independent of the azimuthal angle at the IPP and (2) error arising from the slant-to-vertical conversion. At low latitudes or at mid-latitudes under disturbed conditions, the accuracy of SBAS systems based upon the thin-shell model suffers due to the presence of complex ionospheric structure, high delay values, and large electron density gradients. Interpolation on the vertical delay grid serves as an additional source of delay error. The conical-domain model permits direct computation of the user s slant delay estimate without the intervening use of a vertical delay grid. The key is to restrict each fit of GPS measurements to a spatial domain encompassing signals from only one satellite. The conical domain model is so named because each fit involves a group of GPS receivers that all receive signals from the same GPS satellite (see figure); the receiver and satellite positions define a cone, the satellite position being the vertex. A user within a given cone evaluates the delay to the satellite directly, using (1) the IPP coordinates of the line of sight to the satellite and (2) broadcast fit parameters associated with the cone. The conical-domain model partly resembles the thin-shell model in that both models reduce an inherently four-dimensional problem to two dimensions. However, unlike the thin-shell model, the conical domain model does not involve any potentially erroneous simplifying assumptions about the structure of the ionosphere. In the conical domain model, the initially four-dimensional problem becomes truly two-dimensional in the sense that once a satellite location has been specified, any signal path emanating from a satellite can be identified by only two coordinates; for example, the IPP coordinates. As a consequence, a user s slant-delay estimate converges to the correct value in the limit that the receivers converge to the user s location (or, equivalently, in the limit that the measurement IPPs converge to the user s IPP).
Error bounds in cascading regressions
Karlinger, M.R.; Troutman, B.M.
1985-01-01
Cascading regressions is a technique for predicting a value of a dependent variable when no paired measurements exist to perform a standard regression analysis. Biases in coefficients of a cascaded-regression line as well as error variance of points about the line are functions of the correlation coefficient between dependent and independent variables. Although this correlation cannot be computed because of the lack of paired data, bounds can be placed on errors through the required properties of the correlation coefficient. The potential meansquared error of a cascaded-regression prediction can be large, as illustrated through an example using geomorphologic data. ?? 1985 Plenum Publishing Corporation.
Entropy bounds and dark energy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hsu, Stephen D. H.
2004-07-01
Entropy bounds render quantum corrections to the cosmological constant Λ finite. Under certain assumptions, the natural value of Λ is of order the observed dark energy density ~10-10 eV4, thereby resolving the cosmological constant problem. We note that the dark energy equation of state in these scenarios is w≡p/ρ=0 over cosmological distances, and is strongly disfavored by observational data. Alternatively, Λ in these scenarios might account for the diffuse dark matter component of the cosmological energy density. Permanent address: Institute of Theoretical Science and Department of Physics, University of Oregon, Eugene, OR 97403.
Voronoi Diagrams Without Bounding Boxes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sang, E. T. K.
2015-10-01
We present a technique for presenting geographic data in Voronoi diagrams without having to specify a bounding box. The method restricts Voronoi cells to points within a user-defined distance of the data points. The mathematical foundation of the approach is presented as well. The cell clipping method is particularly useful for presenting geographic data that is spread in an irregular way over a map, as for example the Dutch dialect data displayed in Figure 2. The automatic generation of reasonable cell boundaries also makes redundant a frequently used solution to this problem that requires data owners to specify region boundaries, as in Goebl (2010) and Nerbonne et al (2011).
Hummel, Z
1980-01-01
Experiments were performed to decide between the alternatives a) the ionized K+ is in a dissolved state in the muscle water, or b) a part of the muscle potassium is in a "bound' state. Sartorius muscles of Rana esculenta were put into glicerol for about one hour at 0-2 degrees C. Most of muscle water came out, but most of muscle potassium remained in the muscles. In contrast to this: from muscle in heat rigor more potassium was released due to glicerol treating than from the intact ones. 1. Supposition a) is experimentally refuted. 2. Supposition b) corresponds to the experimental results. PMID:6969511
Vijande, J.; Weissman, E.; Barnea, N.; Valcarce, A.
2007-11-01
The four-quark system ccnn is studied in the framework of the constituent quark model. Using different types of quark-quark potentials, we solve the four-body Schroedinger equation by means of the hyperspherical harmonic formalism. Exploring the low laying J{sup PC} states for different isospin configurations no four-quark bound states have been found. Of particular interest is the possible four-quark structure of the X(3872). We rule out the possibility that this particle is a compact tetraquark system, unless additional correlations, either in the form of diquarks or at the level of the interacting potential, not considered in simple quark models do contribute.
Space expectations: Latest survey results
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Raitt, David; Swan, Cathy; Swan, Peter; Woods, Arthur
2010-11-01
At the 59th IAC in Glasgow, a paper was presented describing two studies being carried out by Commission VI of the International Academy of Astronautics on the impact of space activities upon society. One of these studies sought to discover the hopes, aspirations and expectations of those outside the space field - the person in the street - regarding space activities. The paper reviewed the thought processes and decisions leading up to the commencement of the survey, documented the reasoning behind the questions which the public were; described the efforts to translate the questionnaire into the six Unesco languages to achieve wider participation, and provided an overview of results to date. This present paper provides an update on this Space Expectations survey as the study comes to a close. The paper briefly discusses the addition of new languages for the questionnaire and the drive to make the survey better known and encourage participation worldwide, before going on to provide a detailed analysis of the latest results of opinions. Insights include respondent's thoughts regarding the visions and costs of space activities, how much people feel part of them and whether and how they would like to be more involved.
National Airspace System Delay Estimation Using Weather Weighted Traffic Counts
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chatterji, Gano B.; Sridhar, Banavar
2004-01-01
Assessment of National Airspace System performance, which is usually measured in terms of delays resulting from the application of traffic flow management initiatives in response to weather conditions, volume, equipment outages and runway conditions, is needed both for guiding flow control decisions during the day of operations and for post operations analysis. Comparison of the actual delay, resulting from the traffic flow management initiatives, with the expected delay, based on traffic demand and other conditions, provides the assessment of the National Airspace System performance. This paper provides a method for estimating delay using the expected traffic demand and weather. In order to identify the cause of delays, 517 days of National Airspace System delay data reported by the Federal Aviation Administration s Operations Network were analyzed. This analysis shows that weather is the most important causal factor for delays followed by equipment and runway delays. Guided by these results, the concept of weather weighted traffic counts as a measure of system delay is described. Examples are given to show the variation of these counts as a function of time of the day. The various datasets, consisting of aircraft position data, enroute severe weather data, surface wind speed and visibility data, reported delay data and number of aircraft handled by the Centers data, and their sources are described. The procedure for selecting reference days on which traffic was minimally impacted by weather is described. Different traffic demand on each reference day of the week, determined by analysis of 42 days of traffic and delay data, was used as the expected traffic demand for each day of the week. Next, the method for computing the weather weighted traffic counts using the expected traffic demand, derived from reference days, and the expanded regions around severe weather cells is discussed. It is shown via a numerical example that this approach improves the dynamic range of the weather weighted traffic counts considerably. Time histories of these new weather weighted traffic counts are used for synthesizing two statistical features, six histogram features and six time domain features. In addition to these enroute weather features, two surface weather features of number of major airports in the United States with high mean winds and low mean visibility are also described. A least squares procedure for establishing a functional relation between the features, using combinations of these features, and system delays is explored using 36 days of data. Best correlations between the estimated delays using the functional relation and the actual delays provided by the Operations Network are obtained with two different combinations of features: 1) six time domain features of weather weighted traffic counts plus two surface weather features, and 2) six histogram features and mean of weather weighted traffic counts along with the two surface weather features. Correlation coefficient values of 0.73 and 0.83 were found in these two instances.
Three-body systems with Coulomb interaction. Bound and quasi-bound S-states
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liverts, Evgeny Z.; Barnea, Nir
2013-11-01
A simple Mathematica (versions 7-9) code for computing S-state energies and wave functions of three-particles systems is presented. The relevant systems include two-electron atoms, molecular electronic ions and mesomolecular exotic species. In addition to the bound S-states the code enables one to compute the positions and widths of the lowest resonance, quasi-bound, states. The elegant technique derived from the classical papers of Pekeris is applied. The basis functions are composed of Laguerre functions. The method is based on the perimetric coordinates and specific properties of the Laguerre polynomials. A direct solution of the generalized eigenvalues and eigenvectors problem is used, distinct from Pekeris' works. The complex scaling method is applied for calculating the resonance states. The resultant wave functions have a simple analytical form, that enables calculation of expectation values of arbitrary physical operators without any difficulties. Only one mathematical parameter characterizing the basis size is required in the input. The other input parameters are of the physical nature.
Primary Care Clinician Expectations Regarding Aging
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Davis, Melinda M.; Bond, Lynne A.; Howard, Alan; Sarkisian, Catherine A.
2011-01-01
Purpose: Expectations regarding aging (ERA) in community-dwelling older adults are associated with personal health behaviors and health resource usage. Clinicians' age expectations likely influence patients' expectations and care delivery patterns; yet, limited research has explored clinicians' age expectations. The Expectations Regarding Aging
Stable bound orbits around black rings
Igata, Takahisa; Ishihara, Hideki; Takamori, Yohsuke
2010-11-15
We examine bound orbits of particles around singly rotating black rings. We show that there exist stable bound orbits in toroidal spiral shape near the 'axis' of the ring, and also stable circular orbits on the axis as special cases. The stable bound orbits can have arbitrary large size if the thickness of the ring is less than a critical value.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Skurski, Piotr; Simons, Jack
2000-04-01
The possibility of binding two electrons by the dipole potential of a molecule was examined earlier by us using model potentials. That study suggested that large dipole moments ?=qR and large charge separation distances R (or equivalently large charges q) would be required to achieve binding two electrons. For example, even with a charge q=1.5 a.u. which might be achieved using di- or tri-valent cations, a dipole moment exceeding 15.922 D is needed. The presence of inner-shell electrons even further increases the value of ? that is required because the dipole-bound electrons' orbital must be orthogonal to and excluded from such inner shells. In the present work, we discuss our efforts to find a real molecule that can actually bind two electrons to a single dipole site. Numerical results are presented for the mono- and dianions of a double 5-member carbon ring system substituted with a Ca atom and three superhalogen -PF5 groups. The dianion of this molecule is found to be geometrically stable and to have a vertical electron detachment energy of ca. 0.8 eV. Its two excess electrons occupy the same fully symmetric a1 molecular orbital localized at the electropositive Ca end of the neutral system as is routinely observed in dipole-bound monoanions. Although our final candidate is chemically unusual, it is hoped that our predictions about it will encourage others to search for more synthetically tractable alternatives.
Endurance bounds of aerial systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Harrington, Aaron M.; Kroninger, Christopher M.
2014-06-01
Within the past few years micro aerial vehicles (MAVs) have received much more attention and are starting to proliferate into military as well as civilian roles. However, one of the major drawbacks for this technology currently, has been their poor endurance, usually below 10 minutes. This is a direct result of the inefficiencies inherent in their design. Often times, designers do not consider the various components in the vehicle design and match their performance to the desired mission for the vehicle. These vehicles lack a prescribed set of design guidelines or empirically derived design equations which often limits their design to selection of commercial off-the-shelf components without proper consideration of their affect on vehicle performance. In the current study, the design space for different vehicle configurations has been examined including insect flapping, avian flapping, rotary wing, and fixed wing, and their performance bounds are established. The propulsion system typical of a rotary wing vehicle is analyzed to establish current baselines for efficiency of vehicles at this scale. The power draw from communications is analyzed to determine its impact on vehicle performance. Finally, a representative fixed wing MAV is examined and the effects of adaptive structures as a means for increasing vehicle endurance and range are examined. This paper seeks to establish the performance bounds for micro air vehicles and establish a path forward for future designs so that efficiency may be maximized.
Boosting equal time bound states
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dietrich, Dennis D.; Hoyer, Paul; Järvinen, Matti
2012-05-01
We present an explicit and exact boost of a relativistic bound state defined at equal time of the constituents in the Born approximation (lowest order in ℏ). To this end, we construct the Poincaré generators of QED and QCD in D=1+1 dimensions, using Gauss’ law to express A0 in terms of the fermion fields in A1=0 gauge. We determine the fermion-antifermion bound states in the Born approximation as eigenstates of the time and space translation generators P0 and P1. The boost operator is combined with a gauge transformation so as to maintain the gauge condition A1=0 in the new frame. We verify that the boosted state remains an eigenstate of P0 and P1 with appropriately transformed eigenvalues and determine the transformation law of the equal-time, relativistic wave function. The shape of the wave function is independent of the center-of-mass momentum when expressed in terms of a variable which is quadratically related to the distance x between the fermions. As a consequence, the Lorentz contraction of the wave function is ∝1/(E-V(x)) and thus depends on x via the linear potential V(x).
Observational Bounds on Cosmic Doomsday
Shmakova, Marina
2003-07-11
Recently it was found, in a broad class of models, that the dark energy density may change its sign during the evolution of the universe. This may lead to a global collapse of the universe within the time t{sub c} {approx} 10{sup 10}-10{sup 11} years. Our goal is to find what bounds on the future lifetime of the universe can be placed by the next generation of cosmological observations. As an example, we investigate the simplest model of dark energy with a linear potential V({phi}) = V{sub 0}(1 + {alpha}{phi}). This model can describe the present stage of acceleration of the universe if {alpha} is small enough. However, eventually the field {phi} rolls down, V({phi}) becomes negative, and the universe collapses. The existing observational data indicate that the universe described by this model will collapse not earlier than t{sub c} {approx_equal} 10 billion years from the present moment. We show that the data from SNAP and Planck satellites may extend the bound on the ''doomsday'' time to tc 40 billion years at the 95% confidence level.
Observational bounds on cosmic doomsday
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kallosh, Renata; Kratochvil, Jan; Linde, Andrei; Linder, Eric V.; Shmakova, Marina
2003-10-01
Recently it was found, in a broad class of models, that the dark energy density may change its sign during the evolution of the universe. This may lead to a global collapse of the universe within the time tc ~ 1010 1011 years. Our goal is to find what bounds on the future lifetime of the universe can be placed by the next generation of cosmological observations. As an example, we investigate the simplest model of dark energy with a linear potential V(phi) = V0(1 + alphaphi). This model can describe the present stage of acceleration of the universe if alpha is small enough. However, eventually the field phi rolls down, V(phi) becomes negative, and the universe collapses. The existing observational data indicate that the universe described by this model will collapse not earlier than tc gtrsim 10 billion years from the present moment. We show that the data from SNAP and Planck satellites may extend the bound on the `doomsday' time to tc gtrsim 40 billion years at the 95% confidence level.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, L. C.; Haider, Quamrul
2001-04-01
The possible existence of ?-nucleus bound states was first predicted theoretically by us[1] in 1986. Based on the eta- nucleon model of [2], we found that eta can be captured by nuclei having a mass number greater than 11. In the years that followed, models for stronger and stronger eta-nucleon interaction were proposed[3,4], which led to predictions that eta could be bound onto very light nuclei such as helium. We argue that only experiments involving triple coincidence measurements can provide convincing evidence for a formation of ?-mesic nuclei. We present our calculated results as a function of the eta-nucleon interaction strength given by the vaious models. References: [1] Q. Haider and L.C. Liu, Phys. Lett. 172B, 257 (1986); 174B, 465(E) (1986). [2] R.S. Bhalerao and L.C. Liu, Phys. Rev. Lett. 54, 865 (1985). [3] M.Batinic, J.Slaus, and A. Savrc, Phys. Rev. C52, 2188 (1995). [4] V.Abaev and B.M.K. Nefkens, Phys. Rev. C53, 285 (1996).
Urinary ascites secondary to delayed diagnosis of laparoscopic bladder injury
Al-Mandeel, Hazem; Qassem, Abeer
2010-01-01
We present a case of urinary ascites in a young woman secondary to unrecognized bladder injury during gynaecologic laparoscopic surgery. Delayed diagnosis occurred due to the absence of expected changes in serum biochemistry, which made the diagnosis of urinoma less likely. High suspicion of bladder injury following laparoscopic surgery should be present in patients with ill-defined symptoms even if no biochemical changes are seen. The case demonstrates important points in relation to the consequences of delayed diagnosis as well as overview on detection and prevention of such injury. PMID:20814512
A theoretical account of cognitive effects in delay discounting
Kurth-Nelson, Zeb; Bickel, Warren; Redish, A. David
2012-01-01
Although delay discounting, the attenuation of the value of future rewards, is a robust finding, the mechanism of discounting is not known. We propose a potential mechanism for delay discounting such that discounting emerges from a search process trying to determine what rewards will be available in the future. In this theory, the delay dependence of the discounting of future expected rewards arises from three assumptions. First, that evaluation of outcomes involves a search process. Second, that value is assigned to an outcome proportionally to how easy it is to find. Third, that outcomes that are less delayed are typically easier for the search process to find. By relaxing this third assumption (for example, by assuming that episodically cued outcomes are easier to find), our model suggests that it is possible to dissociate discounting from delay. Our theory thereby explains the empirical result that discounting is slower to episodically-imagined outcomes, because these outcomes are easier for the search process to find. Additionally, the theory explains why improving cognitive resources such as working memory slows discounting, by improving searches and thereby making rewards easier to find. The three assumptions outlined here are likely to be instantiated during deliberative decision-making, but unlikely in habitual decision-making. We model two simple implementations of this theory and show that they unify empirical results about the role of cognitive function in delay discounting, and make new neural, behavioral, and pharmacological predictions. PMID:22487035
Great expectations: teaching ethics to medical students in South Africa.
Behrens, Kevin Gary; Fellingham, Robyn
2014-12-01
Many academic philosophers and ethicists are appointed to teach ethics to medical students. We explore exactly what this task entails. In South Africa the Health Professions Council's curriculum for training medical practitioners requires not only that students be taught to apply ethical theory to issues and be made aware of the legal and regulatory requirements of their profession, it also expects moral formation and the inculcation of professional virtue in students. We explore whether such expectations are reasonable. We defend the claim that physicians ought to be persons of virtuous character, on the grounds of the social contract between society and the profession. We further argue that since the expectations of virtue of health care professionals are reasonable, it is also sound reasoning to expect ethics teachers to try to inculcate such virtues in their students, so far as this is possible. Furthermore, this requires of such teachers that they be suitable role models of ethical practice and virtue, themselves. We claim that this applies to ethics teachers who are themselves not members of the medical profession, too, even though they are not bound by the same social contract as doctors. We conclude that those who accept employment as teachers of ethics to medical students, where as part of their contractual obligation they are expected to inculcate moral values in their students, ought to be prepared to accept their responsibility to be professionally ethical, themselves. PMID:23409954
Compression efficiency and delay tradeoffs for hierarchical B-pictures and pulsed-quality frames.
Leontaris, Athanasios; Cosman, Pamela C
2007-07-01
Real-time video applications require tight bounds on end-to-end delay. Hierarchical bidirectional prediction requires buffering frames in the encoder input buffer, thereby contributing to encoder input delay. Long-term frame prediction with pulsed quality requires buffering at the encoder output, increasing the output buffer delay. Both hierarchical B-pictures and pulsed-quality coders involve uneven bit-rate allocation. Both the encoder and decoder buffering requirements depend on the rate allocation. We derive an efficient rate allocation for hierarchical B-pictures using the power spectral density of a wide-sense stationary process. In addition, we discuss important aspects of hierarchical predictive coding, such as the effect of the temporal prediction distance and delay tradeoffs for prediction branch truncation. Finally, we investigate experimentally the tradeoff between delay and compression efficiency. PMID:17605372
Balasubramaniam, P; Jarina Banu, L
2014-06-01
This paper is pertained with the synchronization problem for an array of coupled discrete-time complex networks with the presence of both time-varying delays and parameter uncertainties. The time-varying delays are considered both in the network couplings and dynamical nodes. By constructing suitable Lyapunov-Krasovskii functional and utilizing convex reciprocal lemma, new synchronization criteria for the complex networks are established in terms of linear matrix inequalities. Delay-partitioning technique is employed to incur less conservative results. All the results presented here not only depend upon lower and upper bounds of the time-delay, but also the number of delay partitions. Numerical simulations are rendered to exemplify the effectiveness and applicability of the proposed results. PMID:24808929
New results on stability analysis for time-varying delay systems with non-linear perturbations.
Liu, Pin-Lin
2013-05-01
The problem of stability for linear time-varying delay systems under nonlinear perturbation is discussed, with delay assumed as time-varying. Delay decomposition approach allows information of the delayed plant states to be fully considered. A less conservative delay-dependent robust stability condition is derived, using integral inequality approach to express the relationship of Leibniz-Newton formula terms in the within the framework of linear matrix inequalities (LMIs). Merits of the proposed results lie in lesser conservatism, which are realized by choosing different Lyapunov matrices in the decomposed integral intervals and estimating the upper bound of some cross term more exactly. Numerical examples are given to illustrate the effectiveness and lesser conservatism of the proposed method. PMID:23294851
Area penalty for sublinear signal propagation delay on chip (preliminary version)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vitanyi, P. M. B.
1985-08-01
It is shown that sublinear signal propagation delay in VLSI circuits carries a far greater penalty in wire area than is commonly realized. Therefore, the global complexity of VLSI circuits is more layout dependent than thought. This effect is pronounced in wafer scale integration technology. Lower bounds on the trade-off between sublinear signaling speed and layout area for the implementation of a complete binary tree in VLSI are established. Sublinear delay can only be realized at the cost of superlinear area. Designs with equal length wires can either not be laid out at all (for logarithmic delay) or require such long wires in the case of radical delay that the aimed for gain in speed is cancelled. For wire length distributions commonly occurring on chip, the requirements for sublinear signal propagation delay tend to cancel the gain.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Beck, R. D.; Weis, P.; Rockenberger, J.; Kappes, M. M.
Delayed electron emission has been observed upon laser desorption for several fullerenes, endohedral metallofullerenes, and large carbon clusters formed by coalescence reactions. Odd-numbered carbon clusters and fullerene derivatives with exohedral functional groups do not show delayed ionization under similar conditions, presumably due to lower dissociation energies. Thus, delayed electron emission is suggested to be a characteristic indicator for strongly bound fullerene structures. Measurements of the rate of delayed electron emission are used together with structural information from other sources to calculate ionization potentials for these species. Selective observation of delayed electron emission from scattered {C}60* after surface impact and neutralization of {C}+{60 on graphite confirms an earlier report of this process by Whetten et al.6
Short baseline phase delay interferometry
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Edwards, C. D.
1987-01-01
The high precision of the phase delay data type allows angular navigation accuracy on relatively short baselines to compete with the angular accuracy achieved with long baseline group delay measurements. Differential phase delay observations of close quasar pairs on both a 5.9-km baseline (DSS 12-DSS 13) and a 253-km baseline (DSS 13-Owens Valley Radio Observatory) have been performed to study the potential navigational precision and accuracy of the short baseline interferometry. As a first step toward demonstration of a connected element system at Goldstone, the DSS 12-DSS 13 baseline was operated coherently, distributing a common frequency reference via a recently installed fiber optic cable. The observed phase delay residuals of about 10 psec or less on both baselines appear to be dominated by short term troposphere fluctuations, and correspond to navigational accuracies of well below 50 nrad for the 253-km baseline. Additional experiments will be required to probe the full range of systematic errors.
78 FR 59422 - Delayed Applications
Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014
2013-09-26
... Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration Delayed Applications AGENCY: Office of Hazardous Materials Safety, Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (PHMSA), DOT. ACTION: List of... Paquet, Director, Office of Hazardous Materials Special Permits and Approvals, Pipeline and...
Tunable silicon CROW delay lines
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Morichetti, Francesco; Canciamilla, Antonio; Torregiani, Matteo; Ferrari, Carlo; Melloni, Andrea; Martinelli, Mario
2010-05-01
Tunable coupled resonator optical waveguides (CROWs) are powerful and versatile devices that can be used to dynamically control the delay of optical data streams on chip. In this contribution we show that CROW delay lines fabricated on a silicon on insulator (SOI) platform are suitable for applications in the emerging scenario of optical systems at 100 Gbit/s. Issues concerning technology, design, limits and applications of SOI CROWs are discussed. The performances of silicon CROW delay lines activated by thermal tuning are compared to those of glass CROW in terms of power consumption, thermal crosstalk and reconfiguration speed. The continuous delay of 10-ps long optical pulses by 8 bit length is demonstrated by using a silicon CROW with a bandwidth of 87 GHz and made of 12 RRs. At 100 Gbit/s this structure provides comparable figures of merit (fractional delay of 0.75 bit/RR and fractional loss of 0.7 dB per bit-delay) of state-of-the art glass CROW operating at 10 Gbit/s, yet the area of the latter being three order of magnitude larger. The compatibility of silicon CROW with the emerging 100 Gbit/s systems is demonstrated by showing error-free phase-preserving propagation of a 100 Gbit/s return-to-zero (RZ) polarization-division-multiplexing (PolDM) differential quaternary phase shit keying (DQPSK) signal dynamically delayed by the CROW. It is also demonstrated that a silicon CROW can be used in a PolDM system to introduce a polarization selective delay in order to optimize the time interleaving of the two orthogonally polarized data streams.
Delayed presentation of anorectal malformations
Sinha, Shandip Kumar; Kanojia, Ravi P.; Wakhlu, Ashish; Rawat, J. D.; Kureel, S. N.; Tandon, R. K.
2008-01-01
Aims and Objectives: Delayed management of anorectal malformation (ARM) increases the surgical and functional complications for the patient. We defined “delayed presentation of ARM” and reviewed our patients with ARM to find out the incidence and causes of delayed presentation. Materials and Methods: Patients satisfying the criteria of “delayed presentation of ARM” were involved. Detailed information of each patient including the mode of presentation, associated anomalies, plan of management and follow-up was obtained from the hospital records. Results: Between 2003 and 2006, 43 patients satisfied our criteria of “delayed presentation of ARM”. There were 21 males and 22 females. Seventeen of these males presented with low-type ARM. Eleven of them were managed by a single-stage procedure. These “delayed presenters” had to live with constipation, inadequate weight gain and parental anxiety for a greater time. Analysis of the outcomes showed more functional complications in patients who had undergone failed perineal surgery previously. In females with low ARM, the procedure of choice was anterior sagittal anorectoplasty (ASARP). Single stage surgery provides good outcomes for most of low type of ARMs. High-type ARMs in males and females were managed by a staged procedure. Conclusion: “Delayed presentation of ARM” is a major group of ARM in our setup. The management and results of their treatment are not different from those of the early presenters. The most common cause of delayed ARM is wrong advice given by the health care providers followed by inadequate treatment elsewhere. Corrective surgeries taking second attempt in perineum always produces poor outcomes. PMID:20011470
Fundamentals of Delayed Coking Joint Industry Project
Michael Volk Jr; Keith Wisecarver
2005-10-01
Delayed coking evolved steadily over the early to mid 1900s to enable refiners to convert high boiling, residual petroleum fractions to light products such as gasoline. Pound for pound, coking is the most energy intensive of any operation in a modern refinery. Large amounts of energy are required to heat the thick, poor-quality petroleum residuum to the 900 to 950 degrees F required to crack the heavy hydrocarbon molecules into lighter, more valuable products. One common misconception of delayed coking is that the product coke is a disadvantage. Although coke is a low valued (near zero economic value) byproduct, compared to transportation fuels, there is a significant worldwide trade and demand for coke as it is an economical fuel. Coke production has increased steadily over the last ten years, with further increases forecast for the foreseeable future. Current domestic production is near 111,000 tons per day. A major driving force behind this increase is the steady decline in crude quality available to refiners. Crude slates are expected to grow heavier with higher sulfur contents while environmental restrictions are expected to significantly reduce the demand for high-sulfur residual fuel oil. Light sweet crudes will continue to be available and in even greater demand than they are today. Refiners will be faced with the choice of purchasing light sweet crudes at a premium price, or adding bottom of the barrel upgrading capability, through additional new investments, to reduce the production of high-sulfur residual fuel oil and increase the production of low-sulfur distillate fuels. A second disadvantage is that liquid products from cokers frequently are unstable, i.e., they rapidly form gum and sediments. Because of intermediate investment and operating costs, delayed coking has increased in popularity among refiners worldwide. Based on the 2000 Worldwide Refining Survey published in the Oil and Gas, the delayed coking capacity for 101 refineries around the world is 2,937,439 barrels/calendar day. These cokers produce 154,607 tons of coke per day and delayed coking accounts for 88% of the world capacity. The delayed coking charge capacity in the United States is 1,787,860 b/cd. Despite its wide commercial use, only relatively few contractors and refiners are truly knowledgeable in delayed-coking design, so that this process carries with it a ''black art'' connotation. Until recently, the expected yield from cokers was determined by a simple laboratory test on the feedstock. As a result of Tulsa University's prior related research, a process model was developed that with additional work could be used to optimize existing delayed cokers over a wide range of potential feedstocks and operating conditions. The objectives of this research program are to: utilize the current micro, batch and pilot unit facilities at The University of Tulsa to enhance the understanding of the coking process; conduct additional micro and pilot unit tests with new and in-house resids and recycles to make current optimization models more robust; conduct focused kinetic experiments to enhance the furnace tube model and to enhance liquid production while minimizing sulfur in the products; conduct detailed foaming studies to optimize the process and minimize process upsets; quantify the parameters that affect coke morphology; and to utilize the knowledge gained from the experimental and modeling studies to enhance the computer programs developed in the previous JIP for optimization of the coking process. These refined computer models will then be tested against refinery data provided by the member companies. Novel concepts will also be explored for hydrogen sulfide removal of furnace gases as well as gas injection studies to reduce over-cracking. The following deliverables are scheduled from the two projects of the three-year JIP: (1) A novel method for enhancing liquid yields from delayed cokers and data that provide insight as to the optimum temperature to remove hydrogen sulfide from furnace gases. (2) An understanding of what causes foaming in coker drums and ways to minimize sulfur in the produced liquids. (3) An understanding of the HES impacts resulting from hot spots, poor drainage, and settling. (4) A screening model to quantify how other feedstocks and/or a combination of feedstocks will behave in a refinery, and kinetic/optimization models that can represent virtually any delayed coking unit across a wide range of process conditions and feedstocks. Primarily graduate students, post-Doctoral Research Associates and faculty members, will conduct the research in this project.
Barankin bound: instability in certain estimation problems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Abbey, Craig K.; Denny, John L.
1996-04-01
Variance bounds are attractive for use in assessing quantitative system performance because they tell us how well a system can perform an estimation task without specifying a particular estimator. The most familiar of the variance bounds is the Cramer-Rao Bound also known as the Fisher-Information Bound. While suitable for many estimation problems, the Cramer-Rao Bound is often unachievable when applied to the very noisy data from imaging systems in nuclear medicine. This leads to overly optimistic estimates of system performance. As a result, some researchers have turned to the Barankin Bound as an alterative to the Cramer-Rao Bound. Our main result is that if no unbiased estimator exists, the Barankin Bound is infinite and computational methods for finding the Barankin Bound are unstable. This result is most conveniently seen in a simple 1D test problem we have developed here for demonstration purposes. The implications of this work are that caution must be used in applying the Barankin Bound to a given problem. In the absence of an unbiased estimator, this bound is misleading and other measures must be used.
Analytical applications for delayed neutrons
Eccleston, G.W.
1983-01-01
Analytical formulations that describe the time dependence of neutron populations in nuclear materials contain delayed-neutron dependent terms. These terms are important because the delayed neutrons, even though their yields in fission are small, permit control of the fission chain reaction process. Analytical applications that use delayed neutrons range from simple problems that can be solved with the point reactor kinetics equations to complex problems that can only be solved with large codes that couple fluid calculations with the neutron dynamics. Reactor safety codes, such as SIMMER, model transients of the entire reactor core using coupled space-time neutronics and comprehensive thermal-fluid dynamics. Nondestructive delayed-neutron assay instruments are designed and modeled using a three-dimensional continuous-energy Monte Carlo code. Calculations on high-burnup spent fuels and other materials that contain a mix of uranium and plutonium isotopes require accurate and complete information on the delayed-neutron periods, yields, and energy spectra. A continuing need exists for delayed-neutron parameters for all the fissioning isotopes.
Basin stability in delayed dynamics.
Leng, Siyang; Lin, Wei; Kurths, Jrgen
2016-01-01
Basin stability (BS) is a universal concept for complex systems studies, which focuses on the volume of the basin of attraction instead of the traditional linearization-based approach. It has a lot of applications in real-world systems especially in dynamical systems with a phenomenon of multi-stability, which is even more ubiquitous in delayed dynamics such as the firing neurons, the climatological processes, and the power grids. Due to the infinite dimensional property of the space for the initial values, how to properly define the basin's volume for delayed dynamics remains a fundamental problem. We propose here a technique which projects the infinite dimensional initial state space to a finite-dimensional Euclidean space by expanding the initial function along with different orthogonal or nonorthogonal basis. A generalized concept of basin's volume in delayed dynamics and a highly practicable calculating algorithm with a cross-validation procedure are provided to numerically estimate the basin of attraction in delayed dynamics. We show potential applicabilities of this approach by applying it to study several representative systems of biological or/and physical significance, including the delayed Hopfield neuronal model with multistability and delayed complex networks with synchronization dynamics. PMID:26907568
Basin stability in delayed dynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Leng, Siyang; Lin, Wei; Kurths, Jürgen
2016-02-01
Basin stability (BS) is a universal concept for complex systems studies, which focuses on the volume of the basin of attraction instead of the traditional linearization-based approach. It has a lot of applications in real-world systems especially in dynamical systems with a phenomenon of multi-stability, which is even more ubiquitous in delayed dynamics such as the firing neurons, the climatological processes, and the power grids. Due to the infinite dimensional property of the space for the initial values, how to properly define the basin’s volume for delayed dynamics remains a fundamental problem. We propose here a technique which projects the infinite dimensional initial state space to a finite-dimensional Euclidean space by expanding the initial function along with different orthogonal or nonorthogonal basis. A generalized concept of basin’s volume in delayed dynamics and a highly practicable calculating algorithm with a cross-validation procedure are provided to numerically estimate the basin of attraction in delayed dynamics. We show potential applicabilities of this approach by applying it to study several representative systems of biological or/and physical significance, including the delayed Hopfield neuronal model with multistability and delayed complex networks with synchronization dynamics.
Basin stability in delayed dynamics
Leng, Siyang; Lin, Wei; Kurths, Jürgen
2016-01-01
Basin stability (BS) is a universal concept for complex systems studies, which focuses on the volume of the basin of attraction instead of the traditional linearization-based approach. It has a lot of applications in real-world systems especially in dynamical systems with a phenomenon of multi-stability, which is even more ubiquitous in delayed dynamics such as the firing neurons, the climatological processes, and the power grids. Due to the infinite dimensional property of the space for the initial values, how to properly define the basin’s volume for delayed dynamics remains a fundamental problem. We propose here a technique which projects the infinite dimensional initial state space to a finite-dimensional Euclidean space by expanding the initial function along with different orthogonal or nonorthogonal basis. A generalized concept of basin’s volume in delayed dynamics and a highly practicable calculating algorithm with a cross-validation procedure are provided to numerically estimate the basin of attraction in delayed dynamics. We show potential applicabilities of this approach by applying it to study several representative systems of biological or/and physical significance, including the delayed Hopfield neuronal model with multistability and delayed complex networks with synchronization dynamics. PMID:26907568
Laheri, Vandana V; Waigankar, Tejasi; Wagh, Charchill
2015-01-01
Delayed recovery/awakening/ emergence can occur under anaesthesia and is multifactorial, could be drug or non drug related. Similarly, we report a case of delayed recovery in a 68-year-old patient, for laparoscopic cholecystectomy, a known case of hypertension, bronchial asthma and hypothyroidism. Preoperatively, she was optimised for her medical disorders; however, she had delayed recovery from general anaesthesia. The delayed recovery, often, would be expected in a case of hypothyroidism, however in our patient it was found to be associated with inadvertent hypokalemia PMID:25738065
More, Preeti; Laheri, Vandana V; Waigankar, Tejasi; Wagh, Charchill
2015-01-01
Delayed recovery/awakening/ emergence can occur under anaesthesia and is multifactorial, could be drug or non drug related. Similarly, we report a case of delayed recovery in a 68-year-old patient, for laparoscopic cholecystectomy, a known case of hypertension, bronchial asthma and hypothyroidism. Preoperatively, she was optimised for her medical disorders; however, she had delayed recovery from general anaesthesia. The delayed recovery, often, would be expected in a case of hypothyroidism, however in our patient it was found to be associated with inadvertent hypokalemia. PMID:25738065
77 FR 3751 - Extension of Deadlines; Upward Bound Program (Regular Upward Bound (UB))
Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014
2012-01-25
... Bound Program (Regular Upward Bound (UB)) notice on December 19, 2011 (76 FR 78621). DATES: Deadline for... notice in the Federal Register (76 FR 78621) inviting applications for new awards for fiscal year (FY... Extension of Deadlines; Upward Bound Program (Regular Upward Bound (UB)) AGENCY: Office of...
Performance Bounds of Quaternion Estimators.
Xia, Yili; Jahanchahi, Cyrus; Nitta, Tohru; Mandic, Danilo P
2015-12-01
The quaternion widely linear (WL) estimator has been recently introduced for optimal second-order modeling of the generality of quaternion data, both second-order circular (proper) and second-order noncircular (improper). Experimental evidence exists of its performance advantage over the conventional strictly linear (SL) as well as the semi-WL (SWL) estimators for improper data. However, rigorous theoretical and practical performance bounds are still missing in the literature, yet this is crucial for the development of quaternion valued learning systems for 3-D and 4-D data. To this end, based on the orthogonality principle, we introduce a rigorous closed-form solution to quantify the degree of performance benefits, in terms of the mean square error, obtained when using the WL models. The cases when the optimal WL estimation can simplify into the SWL or the SL estimation are also discussed. PMID:25643416
On mild and strong solutions of fractional differential equations with delay
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Qasem, Sayyedah A.; Ibrahim, Rabha W.; Siri, Zailan
2015-10-01
In this note, we shall introduce the generalized concept of resolvent of fractional order, in the sense of Caputo derivative. This study deals with the existence and uniqueness of bounded m- solutions (type mild) for fractional integro-differential equations with fractional resolvent and unbounded delay. We show that under some conditions, the mild solution is strongly solution.
A lower bound for routing on a completely connected optical communication parallel computer
Goldberg, L.A.; Jerrum, M.; MacKenzie, P.D.
1993-08-03
The task of routing a 2-relation on an n-processor completely connected optical communication parallel computer (OCPC) is considered. A lower bound is presented that applies to any randomized distributed algorithm for this task: specifically, it is shown that the expected number of steps required to route a 2-relation is {Omega}({radical} log log n) in the worst case. For comparison, the best upper bound known is O(log log n).
North Dome decision expected soon
Not Available
1981-08-01
Decisions soon will be made which will set in motion the development of Qatar's huge North Dome gas field. The government and state company, Qatar General Petroleum Corp. (QGPC) is studying the results of 2 feasibility studies on the economics of LNG export, although initially North Dome exploitation will be aimed at the domestic market. Decisions on the nature and timing of the North Dome development are the most important that have had to be faced in the short 10-yr history of the small Gulf state. The country's oil production is currently running at approximately 500,000 bpd, with 270,000 bpd originating from 3 offshore fields. Output is expected to decline through 1990, and it generally is accepted that there is little likelihood of further major crude discoveries. Therefore, Qatar has to begin an adjustment from an economy based on oil to one based on gas, while adhering to the underlying tenets of long-term conservation and industrial diversification.
Paradoxical Effects of Alcohol Information on Alcohol Outcome Expectancies
Krank, Marvin D.; Ames, Susan L.; Grenard, Jerry L.; Schoenfeld, Tara; Stacy, Alan W.
2014-01-01
Background Cognitive associations with alcohol predict both current and future use in youth and young adults. Much cognitive and social cognitive research suggests that exposure to information may have unconscious influences on thinking and behavior. The present study assessed the impact of information statements on the accessibility of alcohol outcome expectancies. Methods The 2 studies reported here investigated the effects of exposure to alcohol statements typical of informational approaches to prevention on the accessibility of alcohol outcome expectancies. High school and university students were presented with information statements about the effects of alcohol and other commercial products. The alcohol statements were taken from expectancy questionnaires. Some of these statements were presented as facts and others as myths. The retention of detailed information about these statements was manipulated by (i) divided attention versus focused attention or (ii) immediate versus delayed testing. Accessibility of personal alcohol outcome expectancies was subsequently measured using an open-ended question about the expected effects of alcohol. Results Participants reported more alcohol outcomes seen during the information task as personal expectations about the effects of alcohol use than similar unseen items. Paradoxically, myth statements were also more likely to be reported as expectancies than unseen items in all conditions. Additionally, myth statements were generated less often than fact statements only under the condition of immediate testing with strong content processing instructions. Conclusions These observations are consistent with findings from cognitive research where familiarity in the absence of explicit memory can have an unconscious influence on performance. In particular, the exposure to these items in an informational format increases accessibility of the seen items even when the participants were told that they were myths. The findings have implications for the development of effective prevention materials. PMID:20477773
Liu, Pin-Lin
2016-01-01
In this paper, we consider the problem of delay-interval-dependent robust stability and stabilization of a class of linear uncertain neutral-type systems with time-varying delay. By constructing a candidate Lyapunov-Krasovskii functional (LKF), that takes into account the delay-range information appropriately, less conservative robust stability criteria are proposed in terms of linear matrix inequalities (LMIs) to compute the maximum allowable upper bounds (MAUB) for the delay-interval within which the uncertain neutral-type system under consideration remains asymptotically stable. The verifiable stabilizability conditions and memoryless state feedback control design are stated. Finally, numerical examples are also designated to demonstrate the effectiveness and reduced conservatism of the developed results. PMID:26724971
Bounds on halo-particle interactions from interstellar calorimetry
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chivukula, Sekhar R.; Cohen, Andrew G.; Dimopoulos, Savas; Walker, Terry P.
1990-01-01
It is shown that the existence of neutral interstellar clouds constrains the interaction of any particulate dark-matter candidate with atomic hydrogen to be quite small. Even for a halo particle of mass 1 PeV (10 to the 6 GeV), it is shown that the cross section with hydrogen must be smaller than the typical atomic cross section that is expected for a positively charged particle bound to an electron. The argument presented is that if the clouds are in equilibrium, then the rate at which energy is deposited by collisions with dark-matter particles must be smaller than the rate at which the cloud can cool. This argument is used to constrain the interaction cross section of dark matter with hydrogen. Remarks are made on the general viability of charged dark matter. Comments are also made on a bound which derives from the dynamical stability of the halo.
Behavioral reactions reflecting differential reward expectations in monkeys.
Watanabe, M; Cromwell, H C; Tremblay, L; Hollerman, J R; Hikosaka, K; Schultz, W
2001-10-01
Learning theory emphasizes the importance of expectations in the control of instrumental action. This study investigated the variation of behavioral reactions toward different rewards as an expression of differential expectations of outcomes in primates. We employed several versions of two basic behavioral paradigms, the spatial delayed response task and the delayed reaction task. These tasks are commonly used in neurobiological studies of working memory, movement preparation, and event expectation involving the frontal cortex and basal ganglia. An initial visual instruction stimulus indicated to the animal which one of several food or liquid rewards would be delivered after each correct behavioral response, or whether or not a reward could be obtained. We measured the reaction times of the operantly conditioned arm movement necessary for obtaining the reward, and the durations of anticipatory licking prior to liquid reward delivery as a Pavlovian conditioned response. The results showed that both measures varied depending on the reward predicted by the initial instruction. Arm movements were performed with significantly shorter reaction times for foods or liquids that were more preferred by the animal than for less preferred ones. Still larger differences were observed between rewarded and unrewarded trials. An interesting effect was found in unrewarded trials, in which reaction times were significantly shorter when a highly preferred reward was delivered in the alternative rewarded trials of the same trial block as compared to a less preferred reward. Anticipatory licks preceding the reward were significantly longer when highly preferred rather than less preferred rewards, or no rewards, were predicted. These results demonstrate that behavioral reactions preceding rewards may vary depending on the predicted future reward and suggest that monkeys differentially expect particular outcomes in the presently investigated tasks. PMID:11685405
Using tolerance bounds in scientific investigations
Wendelberger, J.R.
1996-07-01
Assessment of the variability in population values plays an important role in the analysis of scientific data. Analysis of scientific data often involves developing a bound on a proportion of a population. Sometimes simple probability bounds are obtained using formulas involving known mean and variance parameters and replacing the parameters by sample estimates. The resulting bounds are only approximate and fail to account for the variability in the estimated parameters. Tolerance bounds provide bounds on population proportions which account for the variation resulting from the estimated mean and variance parameters. A beta content, gamma confidence tolerance interval is constructed so that a proportion beta of the population lies within the region bounded by the interval with confidence gamma. An application involving corrosion measurements is used to illustrate the use of tolerance bounds for different situations. Extensions of standard tolerance intervals are applied to generate regression tolerance bounds, tolerance bounds for more general models of measurements collected over time, and tolerance intervals for varying precision data. Tolerance bounds also provide useful information for designing the collection of future data.
Nonverbal Expectancy Effects in the Political Media.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Corder, Lloyd E.
Expectancy effects--the unconscious shaping of receiver behavior by signalling sender expectations--while recognized in science, have not been documented extensively from a communication perspective, nor are nonverbal aspects of expectancy effects fully known. Expectancy is a function of three elements, the sender's predisposition (including
Changing expectancies: cognitive mechanisms and context effects.
Wiers, Reinout W; Wood, Mark D; Darkes, Jack; Corbin, William R; Jones, Barry T; Sher, Kenneth J
2003-02-01
This article presents the proceedings of a symposium at the 2002 RSA Meeting in San Francisco, organized by Reinout W. Wiers and Mark D. Wood. The symposium combined two topics of recent interest in studies of alcohol expectancies: cognitive mechanisms in expectancy challenge studies, and context-related changes of expectancies. With increasing recognition of the substantial role played by alcohol expectancies in drinking, investigators have begun to develop and evaluate expectancy challenge procedures as a potentially promising new prevention strategy. The two major issues addressed in the symposium were whether expectancy challenges result in changes in expectancies that mediate intervention (outcome relations), and the influence of simulated bar environments ("bar labs," in which challenges are usually done) on expectancies. The presentations were (1) An introduction, by Jack Darkes; (2) Investigating the utility of alcohol expectancy challenge with heavy drinking college students, by Mark D. Wood; (3) Effects of an expectancy challenge on implicit and explicit expectancies and drinking, by Reinout W. Wiers; (4) Effects of graphic feedback and simulated bar assessments on alcohol expectancies and consumption, by William R. Corbin; (5) Implicit alcohol associations and context, by Barry T Jones; and (6) A discussion by Kenneth J. Sher, who pointed out that it is important not only to study changes of expectancies in the paradigm of an expectancy challenge but also to consider the role of changing expectancies in natural development and in treatments not explicitly aimed at changing expectancies. PMID:12605068
Smoking Outcome Expectancies among College Students.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Brandon, Thomas H.; Baker, Timothy B.
Alcohol expectancies have been found to predict later onset of drinking among adolescents. This study examined whether the relationship between level of alcohol use and expectancies is paralleled with cigarette smoking, and attempted to identify the content of smoking expectancies. An instrument to measure the subjective expected utility of
Expected geoneutrino signal at JUNO
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Strati, Virginia; Baldoncini, Marica; Callegari, Ivan; Mantovani, Fabio; McDonough, William F.; Ricci, Barbara; Xhixha, Gerti
2015-12-01
Constraints on the Earth's composition and on its radiogenic energy budget come from the detection of geoneutrinos. The Kamioka Liquid scintillator Antineutrino Detector (KamLAND) and Borexino experiments recently reported the geoneutrino flux, which reflects the amount and distribution of U and Th inside the Earth. The Jiangmen Underground Neutrino Observatory (JUNO) neutrino experiment, designed as a 20 kton liquid scintillator detector, will be built in an underground laboratory in South China about 53 km from the Yangjiang and Taishan nuclear power plants, each one having a planned thermal power of approximately 18 GW. Given the large detector mass and the intense reactor antineutrino flux, JUNO aims not only to collect high statistics antineutrino signals from reactors but also to address the challenge of discriminating the geoneutrino signal from the reactor background. The predicted geoneutrino signal at JUNO is terrestrial neutrino unit (TNU), based on the existing reference Earth model, with the dominant source of uncertainty coming from the modeling of the compositional variability in the local upper crust that surrounds (out to approximately 500 km) the detector. A special focus is dedicated to the 6° × 4° local crust surrounding the detector which is estimated to contribute for the 44% of the signal. On the basis of a worldwide reference model for reactor antineutrinos, the ratio between reactor antineutrino and geoneutrino signals in the geoneutrino energy window is estimated to be 0.7 considering reactors operating in year 2013 and reaches a value of 8.9 by adding the contribution of the future nuclear power plants. In order to extract useful information about the mantle's composition, a refinement of the abundance and distribution of U and Th in the local crust is required, with particular attention to the geochemical characterization of the accessible upper crust where 47% of the expected geoneutrino signal originates and this region contributes the major source of uncertainty.
Dynamic Scheduling of Pigeons for Delay Constrained Applications
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhou, Jiazhen; Li, Jiang; Burge, Legand
Information collection in the disaster area is an important application of pigeon networks - a special type of delay tolerant networks (DTN). The aim of this paper is to explore highly efficient dynamic scheduling strategies of pigeons for such applications. The upper bound of traffic that can be supported under the deadline constraints for the basic on-demand strategy is given through the analysis. Based on the analysis, a waiting based packing strategy is introduced. Although the latter strategy could not change the maximum traffic rate that a pigeon can support, it improves the efficiency of the pigeon largely. The analytical results are verified by the simulations.
Delays in Human-Computer Interaction and Their Effects on Brain Activity
Kohrs, Christin; Angenstein, Nicole; Brechmann, Andr
2016-01-01
The temporal contingency of feedback is an essential requirement of successful human-computer interactions. The timing of feedback not only affects the behavior of a user but is also accompanied by changes in psychophysiology and neural activity. In three fMRI experiments we systematically studied the impact of delayed feedback on brain activity while subjects performed an auditory categorization task. In the first fMRI experiment, we analyzed the effects of rare and thus unexpected delays of different delay duration on brain activity. In the second experiment, we investigated if users can adapt to frequent delays. Therefore, delays were presented as often as immediate feedback. In a third experiment, the influence of interaction outage was analyzed by measuring the effect of infrequent omissions of feedback on brain activity. The results show that unexpected delays in feedback presentation compared to immediate feedback stronger activate inter alia bilateral the anterior insular cortex, the posterior medial frontal cortex, the left inferior parietal lobule and the right inferior frontal junction. The strength of this activation increases with the duration of the delay. Thus, delays interrupt the course of an interaction and trigger an orienting response that in turn activates brain regions of action control. If delays occur frequently, users can adapt, delays become expectable, and the brain activity in the observed network diminishes over the course of the interaction. However, introducing rare omissions of expected feedback reduces the systems trustworthiness which leads to an increase in brain activity not only in response to such omissions but also following frequently occurring and thus expected delays. PMID:26745874
Delays in Human-Computer Interaction and Their Effects on Brain Activity.
Kohrs, Christin; Angenstein, Nicole; Brechmann, Andr
2016-01-01
The temporal contingency of feedback is an essential requirement of successful human-computer interactions. The timing of feedback not only affects the behavior of a user but is also accompanied by changes in psychophysiology and neural activity. In three fMRI experiments we systematically studied the impact of delayed feedback on brain activity while subjects performed an auditory categorization task. In the first fMRI experiment, we analyzed the effects of rare and thus unexpected delays of different delay duration on brain activity. In the second experiment, we investigated if users can adapt to frequent delays. Therefore, delays were presented as often as immediate feedback. In a third experiment, the influence of interaction outage was analyzed by measuring the effect of infrequent omissions of feedback on brain activity. The results show that unexpected delays in feedback presentation compared to immediate feedback stronger activate inter alia bilateral the anterior insular cortex, the posterior medial frontal cortex, the left inferior parietal lobule and the right inferior frontal junction. The strength of this activation increases with the duration of the delay. Thus, delays interrupt the course of an interaction and trigger an orienting response that in turn activates brain regions of action control. If delays occur frequently, users can adapt, delays become expectable, and the brain activity in the observed network diminishes over the course of the interaction. However, introducing rare omissions of expected feedback reduces the system's trustworthiness which leads to an increase in brain activity not only in response to such omissions but also following frequently occurring and thus expected delays. PMID:26745874
Delayed fission of heavy nuclei
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Skobelev, N. K.
2005-09-01
Delayed fission is one of the fission modes of low-lying excited states of nuclei along with spontaneous fission and spontaneously fission shape isomer. The first observation of this phenomena was made in 1966 at JINR. Fission products with half-life on the order of minutes were observed. The nuclei responsible for fission products were identified and it was concluded that they are the precursors of fissioning nuclides: their daughter nuclei are likely to undergo fission from an excited state after electron capture of the parent nucleus. Detailed interpretation of the decay of the nuclear predecessors 228Np, 232Am and 234Am entering into the delayed-fission process was synthesizes the neutron-deficient nuclei as emitters of delayed fission in reaction with beam of heavy ions in the region from neptunium to mendelevium isotopes. The full set experiments showed that delayed fission is common decay channel of heavy nuclei with sufficiently large Q. Now we have possibilities to make a few new delayed fissioning isotopes of berkelium, einsteinium and other daughter products can undergo fission from excited state.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Niu, Ben; Guo, Yuxiao; Jiang, Weihua
2015-09-01
Heterogeneous delays with positive lower bound (gap) are taken into consideration in Kuramoto model. On the Ott-Antonsen's manifold, the dynamical transitional behavior from incoherence to coherence is mediated by Hopf bifurcation. We establish a perturbation technique on complex domain, by which universal normal forms, stability and criticality of the Hopf bifurcation are obtained. Theoretically, a hysteresis loop is found near the subcritically bifurcated coherent state. With respect to Gamma distributed delay with fixed mean and variance, we find that the large gap decreases Hopf bifurcation value, induces supercritical bifurcations, avoids the hysteresis loop and significantly increases in the number of coexisting coherent states. The effect of gap is finally interpreted from the viewpoint of excess kurtosis of Gamma distribution.
A Search for Gravitationally Bound Cloud Cores within the CMZ
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gehret, Elizabeth; Battersby, Cara
2016-01-01
In general, current star formation theories successfully model the rate at which stars are forming throughout our Galaxy as well as others, with the star formation rate (SFR) in a given region being proportional to the amount of gas above a threshold density. The Central Molecular Zone (CMZ) of our Galaxy is an excellent place to test these models. It is home to the highest amount of dense, molecular gas within our Galaxy-and yet, the SFR within this region is an order of magnitude lower than would be expected using current star formation models. This project utilizes data taken from the SMA Legacy Survey of the CMZ, in a search for gravitationally bound structures within three small gas clouds near the Galactic Center, as well as the 1.6 degree cloud. Dense gas structures are detected using H2CO-a dense gas tracer, and 1.3mm cold, dust continuum. These regions are catalogued using dendrograms to identify which structures have continuous and significant H2CO emission. Gravitationally bound candidates were identified by deriving each structure's virial ratio. Within the three clouds near the GC, 40 structures were catalogued, with one structure that was found to be gravitationally bound. Very large virial ratios are the result of large H2CO line widths, possibly due to a high degree of tidal compression. This analysis is also performed on the 1.6 degree cloud, in a region with two suspected bound cores. One of these two cores is close to virial equilibrium and likely gravitationally bound, thus providing support for the use of this method on other clouds within the CMZ. This work supported in part by the NSF REU and DoD ASSURE programs under grant no. 1262851 and by the Smithsonian Institution.
Time-delay interferometry for LISA
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tinto, Massimo; Estabrook, F. B.; Armstrong, J. W.
2002-04-01
LISA (Laser Interferometer Space Antenna) is a mission to detect and study low-frequency cosmic gravitational radiation through its influence on the phases or frequencies of laser beams exchanged between three remote spacecraft. We previously showed how, with lasers of identical frequencies on stationary spacecraft, the measurement of twelve time series of Doppler shifts could be combined to cancel exactly the phase noise of the lasers and the Doppler fluctuations due to noninertial motions of the six optical benches, while preserving gravitational wave signals. Here we generalize those results on gravitational wave detection with time-delay interferometry to the expected LISA instrument. The six lasers have different center frequencies (in the nominal LISA configuration these center frequencies may well differ by several hundred megahertz) and the distances between spacecraft pairs will change with time (these slowly varying orbital Doppler shifts are expected to be up to tens of megahertz). We develop time-delay data combinations which, as previously, preserve gravitational waves and exactly cancel the leading noise source (phase fluctuations of the six lasers); these data combinations then imply transfer functions for the remaining system noises. Using these, we plot frequency and phase power spectra for modeled system noises in the unequal Michelson combination X and the symmetric Sagnac combination ?. Although optical bench noise can no longer be cancelled exactly, with the current LISA specifications it is suppressed to negligible levels. It is known that the presently anticipated laser center frequency differences and the orbital Doppler drifts introduce another source of phase noise, arising from the onboard oscillators required to track the photodetector fringes. For the presently planned mission, our analysis indeed demonstrates that noise from current-generation ultrastable oscillators would, if uncorrected, dominate the LISA noise budget. To meet the LISA sensitivity goals either achievable improvements in oscillator stability must be combined with much stricter requirements on the allowed laser center frequency differences and on the allowed Doppler shifts from orbital drifts or, as has been previously suggested, additional calibrating interspacecraft data must be taken, by modulating the laser beams and considerably increasing system complexity. We generalize prior schemes for obtaining the required oscillator instability calibration data to the case of six proof masses, six lasers, and three onboard oscillators. For this realistic configuration we derive appropriate time-delayed combinations of the calibrating data to correct each of the laser-noise-free data combinations.
UWB delay and multiply receiver
Dallum, Gregory E.; Pratt, Garth C.; Haugen, Peter C.; Romero, Carlos E.
2013-09-10
An ultra-wideband (UWB) delay and multiply receiver is formed of a receive antenna; a variable gain attenuator connected to the receive antenna; a signal splitter connected to the variable gain attenuator; a multiplier having one input connected to an undelayed signal from the signal splitter and another input connected to a delayed signal from the signal splitter, the delay between the splitter signals being equal to the spacing between pulses from a transmitter whose pulses are being received by the receive antenna; a peak detection circuit connected to the output of the multiplier and connected to the variable gain attenuator to control the variable gain attenuator to maintain a constant amplitude output from the multiplier; and a digital output circuit connected to the output of the multiplier.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-10-01
... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Delay time. 236.563 Section 236.563 Transportation... Cab Signal Systems Rules and Instructions; Locomotives 236.563 Delay time. Delay time of automatic... requirements of 236.24 shall take into consideration the delay time....
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-10-01
... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Delay time. 236.563 Section 236.563 Transportation... Cab Signal Systems Rules and Instructions; Locomotives 236.563 Delay time. Delay time of automatic... requirements of 236.24 shall take into consideration the delay time....
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-10-01
... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Delay time. 236.563 Section 236.563 Transportation... Cab Signal Systems Rules and Instructions; Locomotives § 236.563 Delay time. Delay time of automatic... requirements of § 236.24 shall take into consideration the delay time....
Ignition Delay Associated with a Strained Strip
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gerk, T. J.; Karagozian, A. R.
1996-01-01
Ignition processes associated with two adjacent fuel-oxidizer interferences bounding a strained fuel strip are explored here using single-step activation energy asymptotics. Calculations are made for constant as well as temporally decaying strain fields. There possible models of ignition are determined: one in which the two interfaces ignite independently as diffusion flames; one in which the two interfaces ignite dependently and in which ignition occurs to form a single , premixed flame at very high strain rates before ignition is completely prevented. In contrast to a single, isolated interface in which ignition can be prevented by overmatching heat production with heat convection due to strain, ignition of a strained fuel strip can also be prevented if the finite extend of fuel is diluted by oxidizer more quickly than heat production can cause a positive feedback thermal runaway. These behaviors are dependent on the relative sizes of timescales associated with species and heat diffusion, with convection due to strain, and with the chemical reaction. The result here indicate that adjacent, strained species interfaces may ignite quite differently in nature from ignition of a single, strained intrface and that their interdependence should be considered as the interfaces are brought closer together in complex strain fields. Critical strain rates leading to complete ignition delay are found to be considerably smaller for the fuel strip than those for single interfaces as the fuel strip is made thin in comparison to diffusion and chemical length scales.
Delayed Random Walks and Control
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hosaka, Tadaaki; Ohira, Toru
2006-05-01
Issues of resonance that appear in non-standard random walk models are discussed. The first walk is called repulsive delayed random walk, which is described in the context of a stick balancing experiment. It will be shown that a type of "resonant" effect takes place to keep the stability of the fixed point better with tuned bias and delay. We also briefly discuss the second model called sticky random walk, which is introduced to model string entanglement. Peculiar resonant effects with respect to these random walks are presented.
Variable Delay Testing Using ONE
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ishac, Joseph
2002-01-01
This paper investigates the effect of long and changing propagation delays on the performance of TCP file transfers. Tests are performed with machines that emulate communication from a low/medium-earth satellite to Earth by way of a geosynchronous satellite. As a result of these tests, we find that TCP is fairly robust to varying delays given a high enough TCP timer granularity. However, performance degrades noticeably for larger file transfers when a finer timer granularity is used. Such results have also been observed in previous simulations by other researchers, and thus, this work serves as an extension of those results.
What to Expect during Cardiac Rehabilitation
... transportation also might be available. Counseling for Sexual Dysfunction People who have heart problems sometimes have sexual problems. The most common problem is less interest or no interest in sex. Impotence or premature or delayed ejaculation might occur ...
The Effects of Instructor Expectation and Performance on Child Comprehension and Performance.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Toner, Ignatius J.; Hagan, Margaret S.
To investigate the influence of instructional behaviors and adult expectations on children's task performance, 48 boys either 5 to 6 or 8 to 9 years of age individually viewed instructional videotapes and participated in a delay of gratification task. In the first phase of the study, videotapes were produced in which instructors were told to
Delayed School Entry in Uganda
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Moyi, Peter
2011-01-01
Since 1997 Uganda has seen a large increase in school enrolment. Despite this increased enrolment, universal education has remained elusive. Many children enrol in school, but not at the recommended age, and they drop out before completing school. This article focuses on one of these problems--delayed school entry. What household factors are
Delayed School Entry in Uganda
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Moyi, Peter
2011-01-01
Since 1997 Uganda has seen a large increase in school enrolment. Despite this increased enrolment, universal education has remained elusive. Many children enrol in school, but not at the recommended age, and they drop out before completing school. This article focuses on one of these problems--delayed school entry. What household factors are…
Highly stable microwave delay line
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Higa, W. H.
1967-01-01
TWM /Traveling Wave Master/ comb structure serves as a highly stable microwave delay line for determining the short-term stability of the hydrogen maser frequency standards used in the deep space network. Cryogenic cooling is used to minimize signal attenuation and thermal noise.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Davison, Michael; Baum, William M.
2007-01-01
Five pigeons were trained on a procedure in which seven concurrent variable-interval schedules arranged seven different food-rate ratios in random sequence in each session. Each of these components lasted for 10 response-produced food deliveries, and components were separated by 10-s blackouts. We varied delays to food (signaled by blackout)
Takahashi, Keitaro; Mori, Masaki; Ichiki, Kiyotomo; Inoue, Susumu; Takami, Hajime
2013-07-10
Lower bounds are derived on the amplitude B of intergalactic magnetic fields (IGMFs) in the region between Galaxy and the blazar Mrk 421, from constraints on the delayed GeV pair-echo flux that are emitted by secondary e {sup -} e {sup +} produced in {gamma}{gamma} interactions between primary TeV gamma rays and the cosmic infrared background. The distribution of galaxies mapped by the Sloan Digital Sky Survey shows that this region is dominated by a large intergalactic void. We utilize data from long-term, simultaneous GeV-TeV observations by the Fermi Large Area Telescope and the ARGO-YBJ experiment extending over 850 days. For an assumed value of B, we evaluate the daily GeV pair-echo flux expected from the TeV data, select the dates where this exceeds the Fermi 2{sigma} sensitivity, compute the probability that this flux is excluded by the Fermi data for each date, and then combine the probabilities using the inverse normal method. Consequently, we exclude B < 10{sup -20.5} G for a field coherence length of 1 kpc at {approx}4{sigma} level, as long as plasma instabilities are unimportant for cooling of the pair beam. This is much more significant than the 2{sigma} bounds we obtained previously from observations of Mrk 501, by virtue of more extensive data from the ARGO-YBJ, as well as improved statistical analysis. Compared with most other studies of IGMF bounds, the evidence we present here for a non-zero IGMF is more robust as it does not rely on unproven assumptions on the primary TeV emission during unobserved periods.
Office Employment Expectations of Business Students
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Brower, Edward B.
1971-01-01
This study was designed to determine (1) the office employment expectations of white and nonwhite business education students and (2) the effect of various factors on office employment expectations. (Author)
Expeditionary Learning Outward Bound. Summary Report.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Weinbaum, Alexandra; Gregory, Lynn; Wilkie, Alex; Hirsch, Lesley; Fancsali, Cheri
This report describes the Expeditionary Learning Outward Bound Project (ELOB), a 3-year project launched by Outward Bound USA in 1992 with a grant from the New American Schools Development Corporation. The major goal of the ELOB was to develop new schools or transform existing ones into centers of expeditionary learning, in which learning would
Outward Bound: An Innovative Patient Education Program.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Stich, Thomas F.; Gaylor, Michael S.
A 1975 Dartmouth Outward Bound Mental Health Project, begun with a pilot project for disturbed adolescents, has evolved into an ongoing treatment option in three separate clinical settings for psychiatric patients and recovering alcoholics. Outward Bound consists of a series of prescribed physical and social tasks where the presence of stress,
THE HOPF BIFURCATION WITH BOUNDED NOISE
Botts, Ryan T.; Homburg, Ale Jan; Young, Todd R.
2012-01-01
We study Hopf-Andronov bifurcations in a class of random differential equations (RDEs) with bounded noise. We observe that when an ordinary differential equation that undergoes a Hopf bifurcation is subjected to bounded noise then the bifurcation that occurs involves a discontinuous change in the Minimal Forward Invariant set. PMID:24748762
THE HOPF BIFURCATION WITH BOUNDED NOISE.
Botts, Ryan T; Homburg, Ale Jan; Young, Todd R
2012-08-01
We study Hopf-Andronov bifurcations in a class of random differential equations (RDEs) with bounded noise. We observe that when an ordinary differential equation that undergoes a Hopf bifurcation is subjected to bounded noise then the bifurcation that occurs involves a discontinuous change in the Minimal Forward Invariant set. PMID:24748762
Are the Right Students "Upward Bound?"
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Field, Kelly
2007-01-01
Congress created Upward Bound in 1964 with the goal of preparing more low-income students for college. A few months later, it created a second college-preparation program, Talent Search. The pair of programs formed the foundation of TRIO, which now includes six outreach and support programs for disadvantaged students and veterans. Upward Bound's…
Fluctuation bounds on charge and heat diffusion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kovtun, Pavel
2015-07-01
We study thermal fluctuation corrections to charge and heat conductivity in systems with locally conserved energy and charge, but without locally conserved momentum. Thermal fluctuations may naturally lead to a lower bound on diffusion constants for thermoelectric transport, and need to be taken into account when discussing potential bounds on transport coefficients.
A cosmological upper bound on superpartner masses
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hall, Lawrence J.; Ruderman, Joshua T.; Volansky, Tomer
2015-02-01
If some superpartners were in thermal equilibrium in the early universe, and if the lightest superpartner is a cosmologically stable gravitino, then there is a powerful upper bound on the scale of the superpartner masses. Typically the bound is below tens of TeV, often much lower, and has similar parametrics to the WIMP miracle.
Resetting Bounding Nodes in Acquiring Spanish.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Cebreiros, Ramiro
1996-01-01
This paper addresses the issue of whether second language (L2) learners can reset parameters, by testing English speakers learning Spanish on their ability to reset the subjacency and bounding node parameters. The bounding nodes are IP and NP in English and CP and NP in Spanish. Eight American graduate students, highly proficient in the Spanish
Constrained bounds on measures of entanglement
Datta, Animesh; Flammia, Steven T.; Shaji, Anil; Caves, Carlton M.
2007-06-15
Entanglement measures constructed from two positive, but not completely positive, maps on density operators are used as constraints in placing bounds on the entanglement of formation, the tangle, and the concurrence of 4N mixed states. The maps are the partial transpose map and the phi map introduced by Breuer [H.-P. Breuer, Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 080501 (2006)]. The norm-based entanglement measures constructed from these two maps, called negativity and phi negativity, respectively, lead to two sets of bounds on the entanglement of formation, the tangle, and the concurrence. We compare these bounds and identify the sets of 4N density operators for which the bounds from one constraint are better than the bounds from the other. In the process, we present a derivation of the already known bound on the concurrence based on the negativity. We compute bounds on the three measures of entanglement using both the constraints simultaneously. We demonstrate how such doubly constrained bounds can be constructed. We discuss extensions of our results to bipartite states of higher dimensions and with more than two constraints.
10 CFR 63.304 - Reasonable expectation.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-01-01
... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Reasonable expectation. 63.304 Section 63.304 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DISPOSAL OF HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTES IN A GEOLOGIC REPOSITORY AT YUCCA MOUNTAIN, NEVADA Postclosure Public Health and Environmental Standards § 63.304 Reasonable expectation. Reasonable expectation means...
Interpersonal Expectancy Effects: A Forty Year Perspective.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Rosenthal, Robert
Interpersonal expectancy effects--the unintentional expectations that experimenters, teachers, and authority figures bring to experiments, classrooms, and other situations--can wield significant influence on individuals. Some of the issues surrounding expectancy effects are detailed in this paper. The effect itself has been recreated in
7 CFR 760.636 - Expected revenue.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-01-01
... 7 Agriculture 7 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Expected revenue. 760.636 Section 760.636 Agriculture... SPECIAL PROGRAMS INDEMNITY PAYMENT PROGRAMS Supplemental Revenue Assistance Payments Program § 760.636 Expected revenue. The expected revenue for each crop on a farm is: (a) For each insurable crop,...
7 CFR 760.636 - Expected revenue.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-01-01
... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Expected revenue. 760.636 Section 760.636 Agriculture... SPECIAL PROGRAMS INDEMNITY PAYMENT PROGRAMS Supplemental Revenue Assistance Payments Program § 760.636 Expected revenue. The expected revenue for each crop on a farm is: (a) For each insurable crop,...
SHARP ENTRYWISE PERTURBATION BOUNDS FOR MARKOV CHAINS
THIEDE, ERIK; VAN KOTEN, BRIAN; WEARE, JONATHAN
2015-01-01
For many Markov chains of practical interest, the invariant distribution is extremely sensitive to perturbations of some entries of the transition matrix, but insensitive to others; we give an example of such a chain, motivated by a problem in computational statistical physics. We have derived perturbation bounds on the relative error of the invariant distribution that reveal these variations in sensitivity. Our bounds are sharp, we do not impose any structural assumptions on the transition matrix or on the perturbation, and computing the bounds has the same complexity as computing the invariant distribution or computing other bounds in the literature. Moreover, our bounds have a simple interpretation in terms of hitting times, which can be used to draw intuitive but rigorous conclusions about the sensitivity of a chain to various types of perturbations. PMID:26491218
Entropy Bounds for Hierarchical Molecular Networks
Dehmer, Matthias; Borgert, Stephan; Emmert-Streib, Frank
2008-01-01
In this paper we derive entropy bounds for hierarchical networks. More precisely, starting from a recently introduced measure to determine the topological entropy of non-hierarchical networks, we provide bounds for estimating the entropy of hierarchical graphs. Apart from bounds to estimate the entropy of a single hierarchical graph, we see that the derived bounds can also be used for characterizing graph classes. Our contribution is an important extension to previous results about the entropy of non-hierarchical networks because for practical applications hierarchical networks are playing an important role in chemistry and biology. In addition to the derivation of the entropy bounds, we provide a numerical analysis for two special graph classes, rooted trees and generalized trees, and demonstrate hereby not only the computational feasibility of our method but also learn about its characteristics and interpretability with respect to data analysis. PMID:18769487
Covariant entropy bound and loop quantum cosmology
Ashtekar, Abhay; Wilson-Ewing, Edward
2008-09-15
We examine Bousso's covariant entropy bound conjecture in the context of radiation filled, spatially flat, Friedmann-Robertson-Walker models. The bound is violated near the big bang. However, the hope has been that quantum gravity effects would intervene and protect it. Loop quantum cosmology provides a near ideal setting for investigating this issue. For, on the one hand, quantum geometry effects resolve the singularity and, on the other hand, the wave function is sharply peaked at a quantum corrected but smooth geometry, which can supply the structure needed to test the bound. We find that the bound is respected. We suggest that the bound need not be an essential ingredient for a quantum gravity theory but may emerge from it under suitable circumstances.
Entropy bounds for hierarchical molecular networks.
Dehmer, Matthias; Borgert, Stephan; Emmert-Streib, Frank
2008-01-01
In this paper we derive entropy bounds for hierarchical networks. More precisely, starting from a recently introduced measure to determine the topological entropy of non-hierarchical networks, we provide bounds for estimating the entropy of hierarchical graphs. Apart from bounds to estimate the entropy of a single hierarchical graph, we see that the derived bounds can also be used for characterizing graph classes. Our contribution is an important extension to previous results about the entropy of non-hierarchical networks because for practical applications hierarchical networks are playing an important role in chemistry and biology. In addition to the derivation of the entropy bounds, we provide a numerical analysis for two special graph classes, rooted trees and generalized trees, and demonstrate hereby not only the computational feasibility of our method but also learn about its characteristics and interpretability with respect to data analysis. PMID:18769487
New bounds on isotropic Lorentz violation
Chris Carone; Marc Sher; Marc Vanderhaeghen
2006-09-19
Violations of Lorentz invariance that appear via operators of dimension four or less are completely parameterized in the Standard Model Extension (SME). In the pure photonic sector of the SME, there are nineteen dimensionless, Lorentz-violating parameters. Eighteen of these have experimental upper bounds ranging between 10{sup -11} and 10{sup -32}; the remaining parameter, ktr, is isotropic and has a much weaker bound of order 10{sup -4}. In this Brief Report, we point out that ktr gives a significant contribution to the anomalous magnetic moment of the electron and find a new upper bound of order 10{sup -8}. With reasonable assumptions, we further show that this bound may be improved to 10{sup -14} by considering the renormalization of other Lorentz-violating parameters that are more tightly constrained. Using similar renormalization arguments, we also estimate bounds on Lorentz violating parameters in the pure gluonic sector of QCD.
Global synchronization in arrays of coupled Lurie systems with both time-delay and hybrid coupling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Tao; Song, Aiguo; Fei, Shumin; Wang, Ting
2011-01-01
In this paper, we propose and study an array of coupled delayed Lurie systems with hybrid coupling, which is composed of constant coupling, state delay coupling, and distributed delay coupling. Together with Lyapunov-Krasovskii functional method and Kronecker product properties, two novel synchronization criteria are presented within linear matrix inequalities based on generalized convex combination, in which these conditions are heavily dependent on the upper and lower bounds of state delay and distributed one. Through adjusting inner coupling matrix parameters in the derived results, we can realize the designing and applications of the addressed systems by referring to Matlab LMI Toolbox. The efficiency and applicability of the proposed criteria can be demonstrated by three numerical examples with simulations.
Containment consensus with measurement noises and time-varying communication delays
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhou, Feng; Wang, Zheng-Jie; Fan, Ning-Jun
2015-02-01
In this paper, we consider the containment consensus control problem for multi-agent systems with measurement noises and time-varying communication delays under directed networks. By using stochastic analysis tools and algebraic graph theory, we prove that the followers can converge to the convex hull spanned by the leaders in the sense of mean square if the allowed upper bound of the time-varying delays satisfies a certain sufficient condition. Moreover, the time-varying delays are asymmetric for each follower agent, and the time-delay-dependent consensus condition is derived. Finally, numerical simulations are provided to illustrate the effectiveness of the obtained theoretical results. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 11102019), the Aeronautical Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 2013ZC72006), and the Research Foundation of Beijing Institute of Technology, China.
Bound-free Spectra for Diatomic Molecules
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Schwenke, David W.
2012-01-01
It is now recognized that prediction of radiative heating of entering space craft requires explicit treatment of the radiation field from the infrared (IR) to the vacuum ultra violet (VUV). While at low temperatures and longer wavelengths, molecular radiation is well described by bound-bound transitions, in the short wavelength, high temperature regime, bound-free transitions can play an important role. In this work we describe first principles calculations we have carried out for bound-bound and bound-free transitions in N2, O2, C2, CO, CN, NO, and N2+. Compared to bound ]bound transitions, bound-free transitions have several particularities that make them different to deal with. These include more complicated line shapes and a dependence of emission intensity on both bound state diatomic and atomic concentrations. These will be discussed in detail below. The general procedure we used was the same for all species. The first step is to generate potential energy curves, transition moments, and coupling matrix elements by carrying out ab initio electronic structure calculations. These calculations are expensive, and thus approximations need to be made in order to make the calculations tractable. The only practical method we have to carry out these calculations is the internally contracted multi-reference configuration interaction (icMRCI) method as implemented in the program suite Molpro. This is a widely used method for these kinds of calculations, and is capable of generating very accurate results. With this method, we must first of choose which electrons to correlate, the one-electron basis to use, and then how to generate the molecular orbitals.
Delayed Neutron and Delayed Photon Characteristics from Photofission of Actinides
Dore, D.; Berthoumieux, E.; Leprince, A.; Ridikas, D.
2011-12-13
Delayed neutron (DN) and delayed photon (DP) emissions from photofission reactions play an important role for applications involving nuclear material detection and characterization. To provide new, accurate, basic nuclear data for evaluations and data libraries, an experimental programme of DN and DP measurements has been undertaken for actinides with bremsstrahlung endpoint energy in the giant resonance region ({approx}15 MeV). In this paper, the experimental setup and the data analysis method will be described. Experimental results for DN and DP characteristics will be presented for {sup 232}Th, {sup 235,238}U, {sup 237}Np, and {sup 239}Pu. Finally, an example of an application to study the contents of nuclear waste packages will be briefly discussed.
Temporal memory averaging and post-encoding alterations in temporal expectation
Matell, Matthew S.; Henning, Alexandra M.
2013-01-01
Recent work in our lab has demonstrated that rats trained to associate two different reinforcement delays with two different cues will generate a scalar temporal expectation at a time between these delays when presented with the cue compound. This work demonstrates that rats will integrate distinct temporal memories at retrieval, revealing that temporal expectation need not be a veridical representation of experience. Following from this recognition that processes occurring at or after memory retrieval may transform or bias temporal expectations, we suggest that previous pharmacological work that had been interpreted as resulting from sensorial, or clock-speed, changes, may be alternatively interpreted as resulting from mnemonic alterations. We end with a brief review of the impact of post-encoding alterations of memory on behavior other than timing. PMID:23454594
Does Explicit Expectation Really Affect Preparation?
Umbach, Valentin J.; Schwager, Sabine; Frensch, Peter A.; Gaschler, Robert
2012-01-01
Expectation enables preparation for an upcoming event and supports performance if the anticipated situation occurs, as manifested in behavioral effects (e.g., decreased RT). However, demonstrating coincidence between expectation and preparation is not sufficient for attributing a causal role to the former. The content of explicit expectation may simply reflect the present preparation state. We targeted this issue by experimentally teasing apart demands for preparation and explicit expectations. Expectations often originate from our experience: we expect that events occurring with a high frequency in the past are more likely to occur again. In addition to expectation, other task demands can feed into action preparation. In four experiments, frequency-based expectation was pitted against a selective response deadline. In a three-choice reaction time task, participants responded to stimuli that appeared with varying frequency (60, 30, 10%). Trial-by-trial stimulus expectations were either captured via verbal predictions or induced by visual cues. Predictions as well as response times quickly conformed to the variation in stimulus frequency. After two (of five) experimental blocks we forced participants by selective time pressure to respond faster to a less frequent stimulus. Therefore, participants had to prepare for one stimulus (medium frequency) while often explicitly expecting a different one (high frequency). Response times for the less frequent stimulus decreased immediately, while explicit expectations continued to indicate the (unchanged) presentation frequencies. Explicit expectations were thus not just reflecting preparation. In fact, participants responded faster when the stimulus matched the trial-wise expectations, even when task demands discouraged their use. In conclusion, we argue that explicit expectation feeds into preparatory processes instead of being a mere by-product. PMID:23248606
Bounds on invisible Higgs boson decays extracted from LHC ttH production data.
Zhou, Ning; Khechadoorian, Zepyoor; Whiteson, Daniel; Tait, Tim M P
2014-10-10
We present an upper bound on the branching fraction of the Higgs boson to invisible particles by recasting a CMS Collaboration search for stop quarks decaying to tt + E(T)(miss). The observed (expected) bound, BF(H ? inv.) < 0.40(0.65) at 95% C.L., is the strongest direct limit to date, benefiting from a downward fluctuation in the CMS data in that channel. In addition, we combine this new constraint with existing published constraints to give an observed (expected) bound of BF(H ? inv.) < 0.40(0.40) at 95% C.L., and we show some of the implications for theories of dark matter which communicate through the Higgs portal. PMID:25375702
Semilocal density functional obeying a strongly tightened bound for exchange
Sun, Jianwei; Perdew, John P.; Ruzsinszky, Adrienn
2015-01-01
Because of its useful accuracy and efficiency, density functional theory (DFT) is one of the most widely used electronic structure theories in physics, materials science, and chemistry. Only the exchange-correlation energy is unknown, and needs to be approximated in practice. Exact constraints provide useful information about this functional. The local spin-density approximation (LSDA) was the first constraint-based density functional. The LiebOxford lower bound on the exchange-correlation energy for any density is another constraint that plays an important role in the development of generalized gradient approximations (GGAs) and meta-GGAs. Recently, a strongly and optimally tightened lower bound on the exchange energy was proved for one- and two-electron densities, and conjectured for all densities. In this article, we present a realistic meta-GGA made very simple (MGGA-MVS) for exchange that respects this optimal bound, which no previous beyond-LSDA approximation satisfies. This constraint might have been expected to worsen predicted thermochemical properties, but in fact they are improved over those of the PerdewBurkeErnzerhof GGA, which has nearly the same correlation part. MVS exchange is however radically different from that of other GGAs and meta-GGAs. Its exchange enhancement factor has a very strong dependence upon the orbital kinetic energy density, which permits accurate energies even with the drastically tightened bound. When this nonempirical MVS meta-GGA is hybridized with 25% of exact exchange, the resulting global hybrid gives excellent predictions for atomization energies, reaction barriers, and weak interactions of molecules. PMID:25561554
Match-bounded String Rewriting Systems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Geser, Alfons; Hofbauer, Dieter; Waldmann, Johannes
2003-01-01
We introduce a new class of automated proof methods for the termination of rewriting systems on strings. The basis of all these methods is to show that rewriting preserves regular languages. To this end, letters are annotated with natural numbers, called match heights. If the minimal height of all positions in a redex is h+1 then every position in the reduct will get height h+1. In a match-bounded system, match heights are globally bounded. Using recent results on deleting systems, we prove that rewriting by a match-bounded system preserves regular languages. Hence it is decidable whether a given rewriting system has a given match bound. We also provide a sufficient criterion for the abence of a match-bound. The problem of existence of a match-bound is still open. Match-boundedness for all strings can be used as an automated criterion for termination, for match-bounded systems are terminating. This criterion can be strengthened by requiring match-boundedness only for a restricted set of strings, for instance the set of right hand sides of forward closures.
Delay locked loop integrated circuit.
Brocato, Robert Wesley
2007-10-01
This report gives a description of the development of a Delay Locked Loop (DLL) integrated circuit (IC). The DLL was developed and tested as a stand-alone IC test chip to be integrated into a larger application specific integrated circuit (ASIC), the Quadrature Digital Waveform Synthesizer (QDWS). The purpose of the DLL is to provide a digitally programmable delay to enable synchronization between an internal system clock and external peripherals with unknown clock skew. The DLL was designed and fabricated in the IBM 8RF process, a 0.13 {micro}m CMOS process. It was designed to operate with a 300MHz clock and has been tested up to 500MHz.
Synchronization by small time delays
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pruessner, G.; Cheang, S.; Jensen, H. J.
2015-02-01
Synchronization is a phenomenon observed in all of the living and in much of the non-living world, for example in the heart beat, Huygens' clocks, the flashing of fireflies and the clapping of audiences. Depending on the number of degrees of freedom involved, different mathematical approaches have been used to describe it, most prominently integrate-and-fire oscillators and the Kuramoto model of coupled oscillators. In the present work, we study a very simple and general system of smoothly evolving oscillators, which continue to interact even in the synchronized state. We find that under very general circumstances, synchronization generically occurs in the presence of a (small) time delay. Strikingly, the synchronization time is inversely proportional to the time delay.
Time delay and distance measurement
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Abshire, James B. (Inventor); Sun, Xiaoli (Inventor)
2011-01-01
A method for measuring time delay and distance may include providing an electromagnetic radiation carrier frequency and modulating one or more of amplitude, phase, frequency, polarization, and pointing angle of the carrier frequency with a return to zero (RZ) pseudo random noise (PN) code. The RZ PN code may have a constant bit period and a pulse duration that is less than the bit period. A receiver may detect the electromagnetic radiation and calculate the scattering profile versus time (or range) by computing a cross correlation function between the recorded received signal and a three-state RZ PN code kernel in the receiver. The method also may be used for pulse delay time (i.e., PPM) communications.
Method for calcining delayed coke
Smith, J.H.
1981-02-17
Delayed petroleum coke is calcined in an internally-fired vertical shaft kiln. A downwardly-moving bed of green coke is preheated in the top of the kiln by rising combustion gases, then heat soaked at calcining temperatures in the intermediate section of the kiln, and finally cooled by recycle gas moving upwardly from the lower part of the kiln. Partially cooled calcined coke is recovered from the bottom of the kiln.
Munoz, F. D.; Hobbs, B. F.; Watson, J. -P.
2016-02-01
A novel two-phase bounding and decomposition approach to compute optimal and near-optimal solutions to large-scale mixed-integer investment planning problems is proposed and it considers a large number of operating subproblems, each of which is a convex optimization. Our motivating application is the planning of power transmission and generation in which policy constraints are designed to incentivize high amounts of intermittent generation in electric power systems. The bounding phase exploits Jensen’s inequality to define a lower bound, which we extend to stochastic programs that use expected-value constraints to enforce policy objectives. The decomposition phase, in which the bounds are tightened, improvesmore » upon the standard Benders’ algorithm by accelerating the convergence of the bounds. The lower bound is tightened by using a Jensen’s inequality-based approach to introduce an auxiliary lower bound into the Benders master problem. Upper bounds for both phases are computed using a sub-sampling approach executed on a parallel computer system. Numerical results show that only the bounding phase is necessary if loose optimality gaps are acceptable. But, the decomposition phase is required to attain optimality gaps. Moreover, use of both phases performs better, in terms of convergence speed, than attempting to solve the problem using just the bounding phase or regular Benders decomposition separately.« less
Lightweight Distance Bounding Protocol against Relay Attacks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kim, Jin Seok; Cho, Kookrae; Yum, Dae Hyun; Hong, Sung Je; Lee, Pil Joong
Traditional authentication protocols are based on cryptographic techniques to achieve identity verification. Distance bounding protocols are an enhanced type of authentication protocol built upon both signal traversal time measurement and cryptographic techniques to accomplish distance verification as well as identity verification. A distance bounding protocol is usually designed to defend against the relay attack and the distance fraud attack. As there are applications to which the distance fraud attack is not a serious threat, we propose a streamlined distance bounding protocol that focuses on the relay attack. The proposed protocol is more efficient than previous protocols and has a low false acceptance rate under the relay attack.
Bounds on dark matter in solar orbit
Anderson, J.D.; Lau, E.L.; Taylor, A.H.; Dicus, D.A.; Teplitz, D.C.; Texas Univ., Austin; Maryland Univ., College Park )
1989-07-01
The possibility is considered that a spherical distribution of dark matter (DM), matter not visible with current instruments, is trapped in the sun's gravitational field. Bounds are placed from the motion of Uranus and Neptune, on the amount of DM that could be so trapped within the radius of those planets' orbits, as follows: from the Voyager 2, Uranus-flyby data new, more accurate ephemeris values are generated. Trapped DM mass is bounded by noting that such a distribution would increase the effective mass of the sun as seen by the outer planets and by using the new ephemeris values to bound such an increase. 34 refs.
Premenstrual symptoms and smoking-related expectancies.
Pang, Raina D; Bello, Mariel S; Stone, Matthew D; Kirkpatrick, Matthew G; Huh, Jimi; Monterosso, John; Haselton, Martie G; Fales, Melissa R; Leventhal, Adam M
2016-06-01
Given that prior research implicates smoking abstinence in increased premenstrual symptoms, tobacco withdrawal, and smoking behaviors, it is possible that women with more severe premenstrual symptoms have stronger expectancies about the effects of smoking and abstaining from smoking on mood and withdrawal. However, such relations have not been previously explored. This study examined relations between premenstrual symptoms experienced in the last month and expectancies that abstaining from smoking results in withdrawal (i.e., smoking abstinence withdrawal expectancies), that smoking is pleasurable (i.e., positive reinforcement smoking expectancies), and smoking relieves negative mood (i.e., negative reinforcement smoking expectancies). In a cross-sectional design, 97 non-treatment seeking women daily smokers completed self-report measures of smoking reinforcement expectancies, smoking abstinence withdrawal expectancies, premenstrual symptoms, mood symptoms, and nicotine dependence. Affect premenstrual symptoms were associated with increased negative reinforcement smoking expectancies, but not over and above covariates. Affect and pain premenstrual symptoms were associated with increased positive reinforcement smoking expectancies, but only affect premenstrual symptoms remained significant in adjusted models. Affect, pain, and water retention premenstrual symptoms were associated with increased smoking abstinence withdrawal expectancies, but only affect premenstrual symptoms remained significant in adjusted models. Findings from this study suggest that addressing concerns about withdrawal and alternatives to smoking may be particularly important in women who experience more severe premenstrual symptoms, especially affect-related changes. PMID:26869196
Women's Retirement Expectations: How Stable Are They?
Hardy, Melissa A.
2009-01-01
Objective Using the National Longitudinal Survey of Mature Women, we examine between- and within-person differences in expected retirement age as a key element of the retirement planning process. The expectation typologies of 1,626 women born between 1923 and 1937 were classified jointly on the basis of specificity and consistency. Methods Latent class analysis was used to determine retirement expectation patterns over a 7-year span. Multinomial logistic regression analyses were employed to estimate the effects of demographic and status characteristics on the likelihood of reporting 4 distinct longitudinal patterns of retirement expectations. Results Substantial heterogeneity in reports of expected retirement age between and within individuals over the 7-year span was found. Demographic and status characteristics, specifically age, race, marital status, job tenure, and recent job change, sorted respondents into different retirement expectation patterns. Conclusions The frequent within-person fluctuations and substantial between-person heterogeneity in retirement expectations indicate uncertainty and variability in both expectations and process of expectation formation. Variability in respondents' reports suggests that studying retirement expectations at multiple time points better captures the dynamics of preretirement planning. PMID:19176483
Delayed recombination and standard rulers
De Bernardis, Francesco; Melchiorri, Alessandro; Bean, Rachel; Galli, Silvia; Silk, Joseph I.; Verde, Licia
2009-02-15
Measurements of baryonic acoustic oscillations (BAOs) in galaxy surveys have been recognized as a powerful tool for constraining dark energy. However, this method relies on the knowledge of the size of the acoustic horizon at recombination derived from cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropy measurements. This estimate is typically derived assuming a standard recombination scheme; additional radiation sources can delay recombination altering the cosmic ionization history and the cosmological inferences drawn from CMB and BAO data. In this paper we quantify the effect of delayed recombination on the determination of dark energy parameters from future BAO surveys such as the Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey and the Wide-Field Multi-Object Spectrograph. We find the impact to be small but still not negligible. In particular, if recombination is nonstandard (to a level still allowed by CMB data), but this is ignored, future surveys may incorrectly suggest the presence of a redshift-dependent dark energy component. On the other hand, in the case of delayed recombination, adding to the analysis one extra parameter describing deviations from standard recombination does not significantly degrade the error bars on dark energy parameters and yields unbiased estimates. This is due to the CMB-BAO complementarity.
Yoon, Sangwoon; McCamant, David W.; Kukura, Philipp; Mathies, Richard A.; Zhang, Donghui; Lee, Soo-Y.
2005-01-01
The effect of the time delay between the picosecond Raman pump and the femtosecond Stokes probe pulse on the Raman gain line shape in femtosecond broadband stimulated Raman spectroscopy (FSRS) is presented. Experimental data are obtained for cyclohexane to investigate the dependence of the FSRS line shape on this time delay. Theoretical simulations of the line shapes as a function of the time delay using the coupled wave theory agree well with experimental data, recovering broad line shapes at positive time delays and narrower bands with small Raman loss side wings at negative time delays. The analysis yields the lower bounds of the vibrational dephasing times of 2.0 ps and 0.65 ps for the 802 and 1027 cm?1 modes for cyclohexane, respectively. The theoretical description and simulation using the coupled wave theory are also consistent with the observed Raman gain intensity profile over time delay, reaching the maximum at a slightly negative time delay (??21 ps), and show that the coupled wave theory is a good model for describing FSRS. PMID:15638596
Expected and unexpected imaging features after oesophageal cancer treatment.
Sonavane, S; Watts, J; Terry, N; Singh, S P
2014-08-01
Oesophageal cancer is a leading cause of cancer-related mortality worldwide. Various surgical procedures are performed for oesophageal malignancies. The advancement in surgical technique as well as post-surgical care has significantly reduced the complication rate. However, various complications may still occur either immediately (infection, aspiration, anastomotic leak, ischaemic necrosis, fistulae, chylothorax) or late after surgery (strictures, tumour recurrence, fistulae, delayed emptying). The palliative treatment options of radiotherapy and stent placement may also be accompanied by complications, such as radiation necrosis, stricture, and stent ingrowth by the tumour. This review presents the expected post-surgical appearance as well as various complications after surgical and non-surgical treatments of oesophageal cancer. PMID:24857676
Unexploded Ordnance in an Expectant Patient: A Case Report.
Howell, Christopher M; Sontgerath, Joseph S; Simonet, Luke B
2016-03-01
Retained unexploded ordnance is only one of the numerous potential threats to coalition forces while deployed in the theater of operations. Though rare, these are also very real dangers for personnel involved with patient care and movement. Principles of management include determination of device type with plain film radiography, minimizing rotational and vibratory movement, and strategic isolation of the patient from the hospital facility, hospital personnel, and other patients. Early identification of this threat, as well as early involvement of the Explosive Ordnance Disposal team is paramount to safe and successful management. We present a case of a deceased patient in the expectant triage category with a delayed identification of retained unexploded ordnance during postmortem preparation. PMID:26926759
Optimistic expectancies and cell-mediated immunity: the role of positive affect.
Segerstrom, Suzanne C; Sephton, Sandra E
2010-03-01
Optimistic expectancies affect many psychosocial outcomes and may also predict immune system changes and health, but the nature and mechanisms of any such physiological effects have not been identified. The present study related law-school expectancies to cell-mediated immunity (CMI), examining the within- and between-person components of this relationship and affective mediators. First-year law students (N = 124) completed questionnaire measures of expectancies and affect and received delayed-type hypersensitivity skin tests at five time points. A positive relationship between optimistic expectancies and CMI occurred: Changes in optimism correlated with changes in CMI. Likewise, changes in optimism predicted changes in positive and, to a lesser degree, negative affect, but the relationship between optimism and immunity was partially accounted for only by positive affect. This dynamic relationship between expectancies and immunity has positive implications for psychological interventions to improve health, particularly those that increase positive affect. PMID:20424083
Stock Market Expectations of Dutch Households
Hurd, Michael; van Rooij, Maarten; Winter, Joachim
2013-01-01
Despite its importance for the analysis of life-cycle behavior and, in particular, retirement planning, stock ownership by private households is poorly understood. Among other approaches to investigate this puzzle, recent research has started to elicit private households expectations of stock market returns. This paper reports findings from a study that collected data over a two-year period both on households stock market expectations (subjective probabilities of gains or losses) and on whether they own stocks. We document substantial heterogeneity in financial market expectations. Expectations are correlated with stock ownership. Over the two years of our data, stock market prices increased, and expectations of future stock market price changes also increased, lending support to the view that expectations are influenced by recent stock gains or losses. PMID:23997423
Can Large Time Delays Observed in Light Curves of Coronal Loops Be Explained in Impulsive Heating?
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lionello, Roberto; Alexander, Caroline E.; Winebarger, Amy R.; Linker, Jon A.; Mikić, Zoran
2016-02-01
The light curves of solar coronal loops often peak first in channels associated with higher temperatures and then in those associated with lower temperatures. The delay times between the different narrowband EUV channels have been measured for many individual loops and recently for every pixel of an active region observation. The time delays between channels for an active region exhibit a wide range of values. The maximum time delay in each channel pair can be quite large, i.e., >5000 s. These large time delays make-up 3%–26% (depending on the channel pair) of the pixels where a trustworthy, positive time delay is measured. It has been suggested that these time delays can be explained by simple impulsive heating, i.e., a short burst of energy that heats the plasma to a high temperature, after which the plasma is allowed to cool through radiation and conduction back to its original state. In this paper, we investigate whether the largest observed time delays can be explained by this hypothesis by simulating a series of coronal loops with different heating rates, loop lengths, abundances, and geometries to determine the range of expected time delays between a set of four EUV channels. We find that impulsive heating cannot address the largest time delays observed in two of the channel pairs and that the majority of the large time delays can only be explained by long, expanding loops with photospheric abundances. Additional observations may rule out these simulations as an explanation for the long time delays. We suggest that either the time delays found in this manner may not be representative of real loop evolution, or that the impulsive heating and cooling scenario may be too simple to explain the observations, and other potential heating scenarios must be explored.
Stochastic sampled-data control for state estimation of time-varying delayed neural networks.
Lee, Tae H; Park, Ju H; Kwon, O M; Lee, S M
2013-10-01
This study examines the state estimation problem for neural networks with a time-varying delay. Unlike other studies, the sampled-data with stochastic sampling is used to design the state estimator using a novel approach that divides the bounding of the activation function into two subintervals. To fully use the sawtooth structure characteristics of the sampling input delay, a discontinuous Lyapunov functional is proposed based on the extended Wirtinger inequality. The desired estimator gain can be characterized in terms of the solution to linear matrix inequalities (LMIs). Finally, the proposed method is applied to two numerical examples to show the effectiveness of our result. PMID:23727440
Gravitation, Thermodynamics, and the Bound on Viscosity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hod, Shahar
The anti-de Sitter/conformal field theory (AdS/CFT) correspondence implies that small perturbations of a black hole correspond to small deviations from thermodynamic equilibrium in a dual field theory. For gauge theories with an Einstein gravity dual, the AdS/CFT correspondence predicts a universal value for the ratio of the shear viscosity to the entropy density, ?/s = 1/4?. It was conjectured recently that all fluids conform to the lower bound: ?/s ? 1/4?. This conjectured bound has been the focus of much recent attention. However, despite the flurry of research in this field we still lack a proof for the general validity of the bound. In this essay we show that this mysterious bound is actually a direct outcome of the interplay between gravity, quantum theory, and thermodynamics.
Gravitation, thermodynamics, and the bound on viscosity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hod, Shahar
2009-10-01
The anti-de Sitter/conformal field theory (AdS/CFT) correspondence implies that small perturbations of a black hole correspond to small deviations from thermodynamic equilibrium in a dual field theory. For gauge theories with an Einstein gravity dual, the AdS/CFT correspondence predicts a universal value for the ratio of the shear viscosity to the entropy density, ?/s = 1/4 ?. It was conjectured recently that all fluids conform to the lower bound ?/s ? 1/4 ?. This conjectured bound has been the focus of much recent attention. However, despite the flurry of research in this field we still lack a proof for the general validity of the bound. In this essay we show that this mysterious bound is actually a direct outcome of the interplay between gravity, quantum theory, and thermodynamics.
Coulomb Bound States of Strongly Interacting Photons
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Maghrebi, M. F.; Gullans, M. J.; Bienias, P.; Choi, S.; Martin, I.; Firstenberg, O.; Lukin, M. D.; Bchler, H. P.; Gorshkov, A. V.
2015-09-01
We show that two photons coupled to Rydberg states via electromagnetically induced transparency can interact via an effective Coulomb potential. This interaction gives rise to a continuum of two-body bound states. Within the continuum, metastable bound states are distinguished in analogy with quasibound states tunneling through a potential barrier. We find multiple branches of metastable bound states whose energy spectrum is governed by the Coulomb potential, thus obtaining a photonic analogue of the hydrogen atom. Under certain conditions, the wave function resembles that of a diatomic molecule in which the two polaritons are separated by a finite "bond length." These states propagate with a negative group velocity in the medium, allowing for a simple preparation and detection scheme, before they slowly decay to pairs of bound Rydberg atoms.
Estimation of bounds for the geopotential coefficients
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Payne, M. H.
1973-01-01
A numerical analysis of zonal geopotential coefficients and the bounds on the tesseral coefficients is presented. Modifications designed to incorporate data on the earth's density distribution are developed. The nature of the modifications and the application are discussed.
Bound phenolics in foods, a review.
Acosta-Estrada, Beatriz A; Gutirrez-Uribe, Janet A; Serna-Saldvar, Sergio O
2014-01-01
Among phytochemicals, phenolic compounds have been extensively researched due to their diverse health benefits. Phenolic compounds occur mostly as soluble conjugates and insoluble forms, covalently bound to sugar moieties or cell wall structural components. Absorption mechanisms for bound phenolic compounds in the gastrointestinal tract greatly depend on the liberation of sugar moieties. Food processes such as fermentation, malting, thermoplastic extrusion or enzymatic, alkaline and acid hydrolyses occasionally assisted with microwave or ultrasound have potential to release phenolics associated to cell walls. Different kinds of wet chemistry methodologies to release and detect bound phenolic have been developed. These include harsh heat treatments, chemical modifications or biocatalysis. New protocols for processing and determining phenolics in food matrices must be devised in order to release bound phenolics and for quality control in the growing functional food industry. PMID:24444905
Delayed q-deformed logistic map
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shrimali, Manish Dev; Banerjee, Subhashish
2013-11-01
The delay logistic map with two types of q-deformations: Tsallis and Quantum-group type are studied. The stability of the logistic map and its bifurcation scheme is analyzed as a function of the deformation and delay parameters. Chaos is suppressed in a certain region of deformation and delay parameter space. By introducing delay, the steady state in one type of deformation is maintained while chaotic behavior is recovered in another type.
Encryption with synchronized time-delayed systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kye, Won-Ho; Choi, Muhan; Kim, Chil-Min; Park, Young-Jai
2005-04-01
We propose a new communication scheme that uses time-delayed chaotic systems with delay time modulation. In this method, the transmitter encodes a message as an additional modulation of the delay time and then the receiver decodes the message by tracking the delay time. We demonstrate our communication scheme in a system of coupled logistic maps. Also we discuss the error of the transferred message due to an external noise and present its correction method.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Fisher, James L.
1980-01-01
A college president has a right to expect competence, loyalty, knowledge of the president, sensitivity, new ideas, contingency plans, a knowledge of higher education, effective management, partisanship, and hard work from his/her public relations officer. In return, that officer should expect respect, support, reward, and status in decision…
Experimental generation of pseudo-bound-entanglement
Kampermann, Hermann; Bruss, Dagmar; Peng Xinhua; Suter, Dieter
2010-04-15
We use nuclear magnetic resonance to experimentally generate a bound-entangled (more precisely: pseudo-bound-entangled) state, i.e., a quantum state which is nondistillable but nevertheless entangled. Our quantum system consists of three qubits. We characterize the produced state via state tomography to show that the created state has a positive partial transposition with respect to any bipartite splitting, and we use a witness operator to prove its pseudoentanglement.
Hamiltonian anomalies of bound states in QED
Shilin, V. I.; Pervushin, V. N.
2013-10-15
The Bound State in QED is described in systematic way by means of nonlocal irreducible representations of the nonhomogeneous Poincare group and Dirac's method of quantization. As an example of application of this method we calculate triangle diagram Para-Positronium {yields} {gamma}{gamma}. We show that the Hamiltonian approach to Bound State in QED leads to anomaly-type contribution to creation of pair of parapositronium by two photon.
Quantum union bounds for sequential projective measurements
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gao, Jingliang
2015-11-01
We present two quantum union bounds for sequential projective measurements. These bounds estimate the disturbance accumulation and probability of outcomes when the measurements are performed sequentially. These results are based on a trigonometric representation of quantum states and should have wide application in quantum information theory for information-processing tasks such as communication and state discrimination, and perhaps even in the analysis of quantum algorithms.
Elastic scattering with weakly bound projectiles
Figueira, J. M.; Abriola, D.; Arazi, A.; Capurro, O. A.; Marti, G. V.; Martinez Heinmann, D.; Pacheco, A. J.; Testoni, J. E.; Barbara, E. de; Fernandez Niello, J. O.; Padron, I.; Gomes, P. R. S.; Lubian, J.
2007-02-12
Possible effects of the break-up channel on the elastic scattering threshold anomaly has been investigated. We used the weakly bound 6,7Li nuclei, which is known to undergo break-up, as projectiles in order to study the elastic scattering on a 27Al target. In this contribution we present preliminary results of these experiments, which were analyzed in terms of the Optical Model and compared with other elastic scattering data using weakly bound nuclei as projectile.
Articulatory Preparation in the Delayed Naming Task
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kawamoto, Alan H.; Liu, Qiang; Mura, Keith; Sanchez, Adrianna
2008-01-01
The assumptions that acoustic onset must follow articulatory onset by a fixed delay and that response execution level processes are always effectively isolated in the delayed naming task were investigated with respect to the issue of articulatory preparation in three experiments. The results of these experiments showed that for the delayed naming
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-10-01
... SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses 1252.217-79 Delays. As prescribed at (TAR) 48 CFR 1217.7001(b) and (c), insert the following clause: Delays (OCT 1994) When during the... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Delays....
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-10-01
... SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses 1352.271-77 Delays. As prescribed in 48 CFR 1371.108, insert the following clause: Delays (APR 2010) When, during the performance of... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Delays....
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-10-01
... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Delays. 1371.108 Section... REGULATIONS ACQUISITIONS INVOLVING SHIP CONSTRUCTION AND SHIP REPAIR Provisions and Clauses 1371.108 Delays. Insert clause 1352.271-77, Delays, in all solicitations and contracts for ship repair....
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-10-01
... SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses 1352.271-77 Delays. As prescribed in 48 CFR 1371.108, insert the following clause: Delays (APR 2010) When, during the performance of... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Delays....
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-10-01
... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Delays. 1371.108 Section... REGULATIONS ACQUISITIONS INVOLVING SHIP CONSTRUCTION AND SHIP REPAIR Provisions and Clauses 1371.108 Delays. Insert clause 1352.271-77, Delays, in all solicitations and contracts for ship repair....
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-10-01
... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Delays. 1371.108 Section... REGULATIONS ACQUISITIONS INVOLVING SHIP CONSTRUCTION AND SHIP REPAIR Provisions and Clauses 1371.108 Delays. Insert clause 1352.271-77, Delays, in all solicitations and contracts for ship repair....
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-10-01
... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Delays. 3442.7002 Section... CONTRACT MANAGEMENT CONTRACT ADMINISTRATION AND AUDIT SERVICES Contract Monitoring 3442.7002 Delays. The contracting officer must insert the clause at 3452.242-71 (Notice to the Government of delays) in...
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-10-01
... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Delays. 1371.108 Section... REGULATIONS ACQUISITIONS INVOLVING SHIP CONSTRUCTION AND SHIP REPAIR Provisions and Clauses 1371.108 Delays. Insert clause 1352.271-77, Delays, in all solicitations and contracts for ship repair....
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-10-01
... SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses 1352.271-77 Delays. As prescribed in 48 CFR 1371.108, insert the following clause: Delays (APR 2010) When, during the performance of... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Delays....
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-10-01
... SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses 1252.217-79 Delays. As prescribed at (TAR) 48 CFR 1217.7001(b) and (c), insert the following clause: Delays (OCT 1994) When during the... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Delays....
48 CFR 3442.7003 - Delays clause.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-10-01
... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Delays clause. 3442.7003... CONTRACT MANAGEMENT CONTRACT ADMINISTRATION Contract Monitoring 3442.7003 Delays clause. The contracting officer shall insert the clause in 3452.242-71, Notice to the Government of Delays, in all...
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-10-01
... SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses 1352.271-77 Delays. As prescribed in 48 CFR 1371.108, insert the following clause: Delays (APR 2010) When, during the performance of... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Delays....
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-10-01
... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Delays. 3442.7002 Section... CONTRACT MANAGEMENT CONTRACT ADMINISTRATION AND AUDIT SERVICES Contract Monitoring 3442.7002 Delays. The contracting officer must insert the clause at 3452.242-71 (Notice to the Government of delays) in...
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-10-01
... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Delays. 3442.7002 Section... CONTRACT MANAGEMENT CONTRACT ADMINISTRATION AND AUDIT SERVICES Contract Monitoring 3442.7002 Delays. The contracting officer must insert the clause at 3452.242-71 (Notice to the Government of delays) in...
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-10-01
... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2013-10-01 2012-10-01 true Delays. 3442.7002 Section... CONTRACT MANAGEMENT CONTRACT ADMINISTRATION AND AUDIT SERVICES Contract Monitoring 3442.7002 Delays. The contracting officer must insert the clause at 3452.242-71 (Notice to the Government of delays) in...
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-10-01
... SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses 1252.217-79 Delays. As prescribed at (TAR) 48 CFR 1217.7001(b) and (c), insert the following clause: Delays (OCT 1994) When during the... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Delays....
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-10-01
... SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses 1252.217-79 Delays. As prescribed at (TAR) 48 CFR 1217.7001(b) and (c), insert the following clause: Delays (OCT 1994) When during the... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Delays....
Academic Delay of Gratification and Academic Achievement
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Bembenutty, Hefer
2011-01-01
The ability to delay gratification is the cornerstone of all academic achievement and education. It is by delaying gratification that learners can pursue long-term academic and career goals. In general, "delay of gratification" refers to an individual's ability to forgo immediate rewards for the sake of more valuable ones later (Mischel, 1996).
Children's Delay of Gratification and Preschool Performance.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Scoville, Satsuki; Chambliss, Catherine
This study investigated the relationship between delay of gratification and preschool performance in 20 students aged 4 and 5 years old, and enrolled in a Head Start program. Gratification delay was measured through an experiment that allowed the students to choose between a smaller immediate reward or a larger delayed reward. Preschool
Contingency Tracking during Unsignaled Delayed Reinforcement
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Keely, Josue; Feola, Tyler; Lattal, Kennon A.
2007-01-01
Three experiments were conducted with rats in which responses on one lever (labeled the functional lever) produced reinforcers after an unsignaled delay period that reset with each response during the delay. Responses on a second, nonfunctional, lever did not initiate delays, but, in the first and third experiments, such responses during the last
Direct-reading group-delay measurement
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Trowbridge, D. L.
1978-01-01
Technique for measuring modulation signal retardation in microwave components gives direct plot of dependence of delay time on carrier frequency. Recorder sensitivity can be adjusted to give convenient scale factor for group delay. From family of such recordings, it is possible to observe changes in group delay due to temperature, mechanical stress, and other factors.
Home Visitation Assessing Progress, Managing Expectations
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Daro, Deborah
2006-01-01
Early intervention efforts to promote healthy child development have long been a central feature of social service and public health reforms. Today, prenatal care, well-baby visits, and assessments to detect possible developmental delays are commonplace in most communities. Recently, child abuse prevention advocates have applied a developmental…
Predicting Problem Behaviors with Multiple Expectancies: Expanding Expectancy-Value Theory
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Borders, Ashley; Earleywine, Mitchell; Huey, Stanley J.
2004-01-01
Expectancy-value theory emphasizes the importance of outcome expectancies for behavioral decisions, but most tests of the theory focus on a single behavior and a single expectancy. However, the matching law suggests that individuals consider expected outcomes for both the target behavior and alternative behaviors when making decisions. In this
Looby, Alison; Earleywine, Mitch
2009-01-01
Given the rise of prescription stimulant misuse, examination of effect expectancies could prove helpful. The Prescription Stimulant Expectancy Questionnaire (PSEQ) was designed to explore positive and negative prescription stimulant-related expectancies. In 2006, 157 participants nationwide completed an Internet survey of prescription stimulant use, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms, and expectancies. Multiple regressions demonstrate that positive, but not negative expectancies, predicted frequency of use. Recreational and medical users were classified by hierarchical cluster analysis. Recreational users reported fewer positive and negative expectancies than medical users. Implications and limitations are discussed. Future research is warranted on prescription stimulant expectancies and the utility of the PSEQ. PMID:19938932
2014-01-01
Introduction Taxanes have demonstrated effectiveness in the treatment of breast cancer, the most common type of cancer in women. The toxicity profile of taxanes (including skin toxicities) induces dose adjustment, delay, or discontinuation, which prevents a sufficient dose intensity to achieve a response. Nanoparticle albumin-bound paclitaxel, a solvent-free form of paclitaxel, prevents toxicities and reduces the pharmacokinetic interferences between paclitaxel and other drugs. Case presentation We describe the case of a 55-year-old Caucasian woman with locally advanced breast cancer treated with neoadjuvant therapy who developed secondary skin toxicity due to delayed hypersensitivity to taxanes. She received Adriamycin (doxorubicin), cyclophosphamide and docetaxel and developed toxicity that promoted treatment delay and a switch to weekly paclitaxel. After the third and fourth weeks of treatment, paclitaxel toxicities also induced treatment delay and paclitaxel was switched to nanoparticle albumin-bound paclitaxel. She completed the five planned nanoparticle albumin-bound paclitaxel cycles with acceptable tolerability (including persistent grade 2 neuropathy) and without dose delay or adjustments. Clinical response was achieved although pathological response was not good. Conclusions Nanoparticle albumin-bound paclitaxel treatment is a good option for patients with breast cancer with taxanes-related skin toxicity. This drug allows the treatment to be completed with acceptable tolerance in our case. PMID:24386978
Do Students Expect Compensation for Wage Risk?
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Schweri, Juerg; Hartog, Joop; Wolter, Stefan C.
2011-01-01
We use a unique data set about the wage distribution that Swiss students expect for themselves ex ante, deriving parametric and non-parametric measures to capture expected wage risk. These wage risk measures are unfettered by heterogeneity which handicapped the use of actual market wage dispersion as risk measure in earlier studies. Students in
Cognitive Processing and Expectancy Behavior in Hypnosis
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Dolby, Robyn M.; Sheehan, Peter W.
1977-01-01
Two independent studies were conducted to examine the expectancy behavior of unselected hypnotic, task-motivated, and control-imagination subjects on a slide task requiring response to ambiguous visual information. Results showed that hypnotic subjects consistently demonstrated expectancy behavior, whereas nonhypnotic subjects did not. (Editor/RK)
Trends in Life Expectancy in Wellbeing
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Perenboom, R. J. M.; Van Herten, L. M.; Boshuizen, H. C.; Van Den Bos, G. A. M.
2004-01-01
Objectives: This paper describes and discusses trends in life expectancy in wellbeing between 1989 and 1998. Methods: Data on wellbeing by the Bradburn Affect Balance Scale is obtained from the Netherlands Continuous Health Interview Surveys for the calendar years from 1989 to 1998. Using Sullivan's method, life expectancy in wellbeing is…
Using Daily Horoscopes To Demonstrate Expectancy Confirmation.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Munro, Geoffrey D.; Munro, James E.
2000-01-01
Describes a classroom demonstration that uses daily horoscopes to show the effect that expectation can have on judgment. Addresses the preparation, procedure, and results of the demonstration, and student evaluations. States that the demonstration appears to be effective for teaching students about expectancy confirmation. (CMK)
Teacher and Parent Expectations for Kindergarten Readiness.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Welch, Michael D.; White, Barzanna
Based upon the view that children learn better if their parents' and teachers' expectations are closely aligned, this study compared expectations of teachers and parents for school readiness skills and preparation required for entry into public school. A Likert rating scale was completed by 25 kindergarten/early childhood teachers and 104 parents…
Teaching Rational Expectations at 'A' Level.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Beachill, Bob
1987-01-01
Explains the economic concept of Rational Expectations (RE) and demonstrates how it can be introduced to British 'A' level students. Illustrates the implications of RE for the Cobweb and Augmented Phillips Curve market models. Outlines some attractions and limitations of rational expectations. (Author/DH)
Dissonant Feedback about Achievement and Teachers' Expectations.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Bognar, Carl J.
1982-01-01
Investigates impact of achievement test results (N=285) on 13 sixth-grade teachers' expectations using hypotheses from cognitive dissonance theory. Shows teacher expectations changed very little as a result of feedback, and test results for both under- and overestimated students were rejected. (AH)
What Respondents Really Expect from Researchers
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kolar, Tomaz; Kolar, Iztok
2008-01-01
This article addresses the issue of falling response rates in telephone surveys. To better understand and maintain respondent goodwill, concepts of psychological contract and respondent expectations are introduced and explored. Results of the qualitative study show that respondent expectations are not only socially contingent but also
Rising Tides: Faculty Expectations of Library Websites
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Nicol, Erica Carlson; O'English, Mark
2012-01-01
Looking at 2003-2009 LibQUAL+ responses at research-oriented universities in the United States, faculty library users report a significant and consistent rise in desires and expectations for library-provided online tools and websites, even as student user groups show declining or leveling expectations. While faculty, like students, also report…
The Expectant Reader in Theory and Practice.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Fowler, Lois Josephs; McCormick, Kathleen
1986-01-01
Offers a method of using reader response theory that emphasizes the expectations about a text and how those expectations are fulfilled or deflated. Specifically, students read traditional fables, fairy tales, and parables, and compare them to contemporary works such as Kafka's "Metamorphosis" and Marquez's "The Very Old Man With Enormous Wings."
International Variations in Measuring Customer Expectations.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Calvert, Philip J.
2001-01-01
Discussion of customer expectations of library service quality and SERVQUAL as a measurement tool focuses on two studies: one that compared a survey of Chinese university students' expectations of service quality to New Zealand students; and one that investigated national culture as a source of attitudes to customer service. (Author/LRW)
Teacher Expectations and the Able Child.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lee-Corbin, Hilary
1994-01-01
Two middle school teachers and two students in each of the teacher's classes were assessed for field dependence-independence (FDI). The teachers were interviewed about their students. Found that one teacher had higher expectations and one had lower expectations for the student who had the same FDI orientation as the teacher than for the student
Grief Experiences and Expectance of Suicide
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Wojtkowiak, Joanna; Wild, Verena; Egger, Jos
2012-01-01
Suicide is generally viewed as an unexpected cause of death. However, some suicides might be expected to a certain extent, which needs to be further studied. The relationships between expecting suicide, feeling understanding for the suicide, and later grief experiences were explored. In total, 142 bereaved participants completed the Grief
47 CFR 90.743 - Renewal expectancy.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-10-01
... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Renewal expectancy. 90.743 Section 90.743 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES PRIVATE LAND MOBILE RADIO SERVICES Regulations Governing Licensing and Use of Frequencies in the 220-222 MHz Band 90.743 Renewal expectancy. (a)...
47 CFR 90.743 - Renewal expectancy.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-10-01
... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Renewal expectancy. 90.743 Section 90.743 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES PRIVATE LAND MOBILE RADIO SERVICES Regulations Governing Licensing and Use of Frequencies in the 220-222 MHz Band 90.743 Renewal expectancy. (a)...
Raising Expectations is Aim of New Effort
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Sparks, Sarah D.
2010-01-01
Researchers and policymakers agree that teachers' expectations of what their students can do can become self-fulfilling prophecies for children's academic performance. Yet while the "soft bigotry of low expectations" has become an education catchphrase, scholars and advocates are just beginning to explore whether it is possible to prevent such
Rising Tides: Faculty Expectations of Library Websites
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Nicol, Erica Carlson; O'English, Mark
2012-01-01
Looking at 2003-2009 LibQUAL+ responses at research-oriented universities in the United States, faculty library users report a significant and consistent rise in desires and expectations for library-provided online tools and websites, even as student user groups show declining or leveling expectations. While faculty, like students, also report
Parents' Role in Adolescents' Educational Expectations
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Rimkute, Laura; Hirvonen, Riikka; Tolvanen, Asko; Aunola, Kaisa; Nurmi, Jari-Erik
2012-01-01
The present study examined the extent to which mothers' and fathers' expectations for their offspring's future education, their level of education, and adolescents' academic achievement predict adolescents' educational expectations. To investigate this, 230 adolescents were examined twice while they were in comprehensive school (in the 7th and 9th…
High-temperature superconductive delay lines and filters
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lyons, W. G.; Withers, R. S.; Hamm, J. M.; Anderson, Alfredo C.; Oates, D. E.; Mankiewich, P. M.; O'Malley, M. L.; Bonetti, R. R.; Williams, A. E.; Newman, N.
1992-04-01
Passive microwave devices are expected to be among the first devices made from high-temperature superconductors to be inserted into system applications outside of a laboratory environment. The deposition and patterning of YBa2Cu3O7-x (YBCO) thin films has progressed sufficiently that a variety of high-quality passive microwave devices can now be fabricated on LaAlO3 substrates. Demonstrated microwave devices include tapped-delay-line transversal filters with multigigahertz bandwidths, untapped delay lines, and narrowband (2% or less) microstrip filters. Potential system applications at operating temperatures of 77 K and below are discussed. The YBCO microwave devices described here demonstrate the potential performance advantages that superconducting thin-film devices offer for high-frequency, wide-bandwidth, high-performance analog signal processing systems.
Understanding Housing Delays and Relocations Within the Housing First Model.
Zerger, Suzanne; Pridham, Katherine Francombe; Jeyaratnam, Jeyagobi; Hwang, Stephen W; O'Campo, Patricia; Kohli, Jaipreet; Stergiopoulos, Vicky
2016-01-01
This study explores factors contributing to delays and relocations during the implementation of the Housing First model in Toronto, Ontario. While interruptions in housing tenure are expected en route to recovery and housing stability, consumer and service provider views on finding and keeping housing remain largely unknown. In-person interviews and focus groups were conducted with 48 study participants, including 23 case managers or housing workers and 25 consumers. The following three factors contributed to housing delays and transfers: (1) the effectiveness of communication and collaboration among consumers and service providers, (2) consumer-driven preferences and ambivalence, and (3) provider prioritization of consumer choice over immediate housing access. Two strategies-targeted communications and consumer engagement in housing searches-supported the housing process. Several factors affect the timing and stability of housing. Communication between and among providers and consumers, and a shared understanding of consumer choice, can further support choice and recovery. PMID:24807648
Equilibrium and Disequilibrium Dynamics in Cobweb Models with Time Delays
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gori, Luca; Guerrini, Luca; Sodini, Mauro
2015-06-01
This paper aims to study price dynamics in two different continuous time cobweb models with delays close to [Hommes, 1994]. In both cases, the stationary equilibrium may be not representative of the long-term dynamics of the model, since it is possible to observe endogenous and persistent fluctuations (supercritical Hopf bifurcations) even if a deterministic context without external shocks is considered. In the model in which markets are in equilibrium every time, we show that the existence of time delays in the expectations formation mechanism may cause chaotic dynamics similar to those obtained in [Hommes, 1994] in a discrete time context. From a mathematical point of view, we apply the Poincaré-Lindstedt perturbation method to study the local dynamic properties of the models. In addition, several numerical experiments are used to investigate global properties of the systems.
A Stochastic Delay Differential Model of Cerebral Autoregulation
Panunzi, Simona; DOrsi, Laura; Iacoviello, Daniela; De Gaetano, Andrea
2015-01-01
Mathematical models of the cardiovascular system and of cerebral autoregulation (CAR) have been employed for several years in order to describe the time course of pressures and flows changes subsequent to postural changes. The assessment of the degree of efficiency of cerebral auto regulation has indeed importance in the prognosis of such conditions as cerebro-vascular accidents or Alzheimer. In the quest for a simple but realistic mathematical description of cardiovascular control, which may be fitted onto non-invasive experimental observations after postural changes, the present work proposes a first version of an empirical Stochastic Delay Differential Equations (SDDEs) model. The model consists of a total of four SDDEs and two ancillary algebraic equations, incorporates four distinct delayed controls from the brain onto different components of the circulation, and is able to accurately capture the time course of mean arterial pressure and cerebral blood flow velocity signals, reproducing observed auto-correlated error around the expected drift. PMID:25830915
ADHD and Delay Aversion: The Influence of Non-Temporal Stimulation on Choice for Delayed Rewards
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Antrop, Inge; Stock, Pieter; Verte, Sylvie; Wiersema, Jan Roelt; Baeyens, Dieter; Roeyers, Herbert
2006-01-01
Background: Delay aversion, the motivation to escape or avoid delay, results in preference for small immediate over large delayed rewards. Delay aversion has been proposed as one distinctive psychological process that may underlie the behavioural symptoms and cognitive deficits of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Furthermore, the
Delayed onset arterial gas embolism.
Moloff, A L
1993-11-01
Numerous civilian and military personnel are involved in SCUBA diving activities. In this day of rapid air travel it is important that all physicians, not just those living near the coast or dive centers, be familiar with the basics of diagnosing and treating diving-related injuries. One of the more serious complications of dysbarism is Arterial Gas Embolism (AGE). This case history involves an atypical presentation of delayed onset AGE in a military diver trainee, and its treatment. This article then reviews the incidence, etiology, pathophysiology, "classic" presentation and current treatment of this disease. Systemic pathophysiology secondary to the effects of intravascular air of AGE is also discussed. PMID:8280037
Photothermally induced delayed tissue death.
Gordon, Jeffrey M; Shaco-Levy, Ruthy; Feuermann, Daniel; Huleihil, Mahmoud; Mizrahi, Solly
2006-01-01
We report pronounced delayed tissue death in photothermal surgery performed on the livers of live healthy rats with highly concentrated sunlight (ultrabright noncoherent light). Exposure times and power levels were selected to produce immediate necroses of the order of hundreds of cubic millimeters. Pathology reveals that lesion volumes increase by up to a factor of 5 within approximately 24 h after surgery, and then stabilize. Islands of viable cells can persist within damaged tissue, in the immediate vicinity of blood vessels, but also necrose within about 48 h. PMID:16822049
Delay modeling in logic simulation
Acken, J. M.; Goldstein, L. H.
1980-01-01
As digital integrated circuit size and complexity increases, the need for accurate and efficient computer simulation increases. Logic simulators such as SALOGS (SAndia LOGic Simulator), which utilize transition states in addition to the normal stable states, provide more accurate analysis than is possible with traditional logic simulators. Furthermore, the computational complexity of this analysis is far lower than that of circuit simulation such as SPICE. An eight-value logic simulation environment allows the use of accurate delay models that incorporate both element response and transition times. Thus, timing simulation with an accuracy approaching that of circuit simulation can be accomplished with an efficiency comparable to that of logic simulation. 4 figures.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wilson, William C.; Atkinson, Gary M.
2007-01-01
Integrated Vehicle Health Monitoring (IVHM) of aerospace vehicles requires rugged sensors having reduced volume, mass, and power that can be used to measure a variety of phenomena. Wireless systems are preferred when retro-fitting sensors onto existing vehicles. Surface Acoustic Wave (SAW) devices are capable of sensing: temperature, pressure, strain, chemical species, mass loading, acceleration, and shear stress. SAW technology is low cost, rugged, lightweight, and extremely low power. To aid in the development of SAW sensors for IVHM applications, a first order model of a SAW Delay line has been created.
George, W H; Dermen, K H; Nochajski, T H
1989-11-01
To investigate the role of alcohol expectancies in predicting postdrinking behavior, two studies were conducted. In Study 1, an instrument assessing alcohol expectancies was devised for later use in prediction. Factor analyses with split-sample validation confirmed 3 factors (11 total items): disinhibition, aggression and sexuality. In Study 2, expectancies, Buss-Durkee hostility and Mosher sex-guilt were assessed in a preexperimental questionnaire session. In a subsequent drink administration session, an expectancy set manipulation led subjects to expect alcohol or to expect tonic. To assess postdrinking behavior, interest in violent, erotic and violent-erotic materials was measured unobtrusively using an ad lib slide-viewing task. Consistent with the hypotheses, expectancies in conjunction with trait hostility significantly predicted violence viewing and violent-erotica viewing for expect alcohol, but not expect tonic controls. Moreover, after variance due to hostility was accounted for, expectancies predicted violence viewing significantly and violent-erotica viewing marginally. These findings provide modest support for the proposition that preexisting alcohol expectancies mediate between the effects of expectancy set and postdrinking behaviors. Once activated by perceived alcohol ingestion, these expectancies can shape postdrinking behaviors. The findings also underscore the need for further experimentation aimed at clarifying the interrelationships between alcohol expectancies and expectancy set. PMID:2586107
Delaying Orthostatic Syncope With Mental Challenge
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Goswami, Nandu; Roessler, Andreas; Hinghofer-Szalkay, Helmut; Montani, Jean-Pierre; Steptoe, Andrew
2012-07-01
At orthostatic vasovagal syncope there appears to be a sudden withdrawl of sympathetic activity. As mental challenge activates the sympathetic system, we hypothesized that doing mental arithmetic in volunteers driven to the end point of their cardiovascular stability may delay the onset of orthostatic syncope. We investigated this in healthy male subjects. Each subject underwent a head up tilt (HUT) + graded lower body negative pressure (LBNP) up to presyncope session (control) to determine the orthostatic tolerance time, OTT (Time from HUT commencement to development of presyncopal symptoms/signs). Once the tolerance time was known, a randomized crossover protocol was used: either 1) Repeat HUT + LBNP to ensure reproducibility of repeated run or 2) HUT + LBNP run but with added mental challenge (two min before the expected presyncope time). Test protocols were separated by two weeks. Our studies on five male test subjects indicate that mental challenge improves orthostatic tolerance significantly. Additional mental loading could be a useful countermeasure to alleviate the orthostatic responses of persons, particularly in those with histories of dizziness on standing up, or to alleviate hypotension that frequently occurs during hemodialysis or on return to earth from the spaceflight environment of microgravity.
Xiong, Wei; Jiang, He
2015-01-01
This paper studies the global behaviors of a nonlinear autonomous neutral delay differential population model with impulsive perturbation. This model may be suitable for describing the dynamics of population with long larval and short adult phases. It is shown that the system may have global stability of the extinction and positive equilibria, or grow without being bounded under some conditions. PMID:26858570
Error bounds from extra precise iterative refinement
Demmel, James; Hida, Yozo; Kahan, William; Li, Xiaoye S.; Mukherjee, Soni; Riedy, E. Jason
2005-02-07
We present the design and testing of an algorithm for iterative refinement of the solution of linear equations, where the residual is computed with extra precision. This algorithm was originally proposed in the 1960s [6, 22] as a means to compute very accurate solutions to all but the most ill-conditioned linear systems of equations. However two obstacles have until now prevented its adoption in standard subroutine libraries like LAPACK: (1) There was no standard way to access the higher precision arithmetic needed to compute residuals, and (2) it was unclear how to compute a reliable error bound for the computed solution. The completion of the new BLAS Technical Forum Standard [5] has recently removed the first obstacle. To overcome the second obstacle, we show how a single application of iterative refinement can be used to compute an error bound in any norm at small cost, and use this to compute both an error bound in the usual infinity norm, and a componentwise relative error bound. We report extensive test results on over 6.2 million matrices of dimension 5, 10, 100, and 1000. As long as a normwise (resp. componentwise) condition number computed by the algorithm is less than 1/max{l_brace}10,{radical}n{r_brace} {var_epsilon}{sub w}, the computed normwise (resp. componentwise) error bound is at most 2 max{l_brace}10,{radical}n{r_brace} {center_dot} {var_epsilon}{sub w}, and indeed bounds the true error. Here, n is the matrix dimension and w is single precision roundoff error. For worse conditioned problems, we get similarly small correct error bounds in over 89.4% of cases.
Dynamic pricing of network goods with boundedly rational consumers
Radner, Roy; Radunskaya, Ami; Sundararajan, Arun
2014-01-01
We present a model of dynamic monopoly pricing for a good that displays network effects. In contrast with the standard notion of a rational-expectations equilibrium, we model consumers as boundedly rational and unable either to pay immediate attention to each price change or to make accurate forecasts of the adoption of the network good. Our analysis shows that the seller’s optimal price trajectory has the following structure: The price is low when the user base is below a target level, is high when the user base is above the target, and is set to keep the user base stationary once the target level has been attained. We show that this pricing policy is robust to a number of extensions, which include the product’s user base evolving over time and consumers basing their choices on a mixture of a myopic and a “stubborn” expectation of adoption. Our results differ significantly from those that would be predicted by a model based on rational-expectations equilibrium and are more consistent with the pricing of network goods observed in practice. PMID:24367101
Precise delay measurement through combinatorial logic
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Burke, Gary R. (Inventor); Chen, Yuan (Inventor); Sheldon, Douglas J. (Inventor)
2010-01-01
A high resolution circuit and method for facilitating precise measurement of on-chip delays for FPGAs for reliability studies. The circuit embeds a pulse generator on an FPGA chip having one or more groups of LUTS (the "LUT delay chain"), also on-chip. The circuit also embeds a pulse width measurement circuit on-chip, and measures the duration of the generated pulse through the delay chain. The pulse width of the output pulse represents the delay through the delay chain without any I/O delay. The pulse width measurement circuit uses an additional asynchronous clock autonomous from the main clock and the FPGA propagation delay can be displayed on a hex display continuously for testing purposes.
Time-domain nature of group delay
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Jian-Wu; Feng, Zheng-He
2015-10-01
The characteristic of group delay is analyzed based on an electronic circuit, and its time-domain nature is studied with time-domain simulation and experiment. The time-domain simulations and experimental results show that group delay is the delay of the energy center of the amplitude-modulated pulse, rather than the propagation delay of the electromagnetic field. As group velocity originates from the definition of group delay and group delay is different from the propagation delay, the superluminality or negativity of group velocity does not mean the superluminal or negative propagation of the electromagnetic field. Project supported by the National Basic Research Program of China (Grant No. 2013CB329002) and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 61371012).
Upper bounds on superpartner masses from upper bounds on the Higgs boson mass.
Cabrera, M E; Casas, J A; Delgado, A
2012-01-13
The LHC is putting bounds on the Higgs boson mass. In this Letter we use those bounds to constrain the minimal supersymmetric standard model (MSSM) parameter space using the fact that, in supersymmetry, the Higgs mass is a function of the masses of sparticles, and therefore an upper bound on the Higgs mass translates into an upper bound for the masses for superpartners. We show that, although current bounds do not constrain the MSSM parameter space from above, once the Higgs mass bound improves big regions of this parameter space will be excluded, putting upper bounds on supersymmetry (SUSY) masses. On the other hand, for the case of split-SUSY we show that, for moderate or large tanβ, the present bounds on the Higgs mass imply that the common mass for scalars cannot be greater than 10(11) GeV. We show how these bounds will evolve as LHC continues to improve the limits on the Higgs mass. PMID:22324671
Effects of Sexual Expectancies on Early Sexualized Behavior Among Urban Minority Youth
Holloway, Ian W.; Traube, Dorian E.; Schrager, Sheree M.; Levine, Brooklyn; Alicea, Stacey; Watson, Janet L.; Miranda, Ana; McKay, Mary M.
2012-01-01
This study examines the effects of different types of sexual expectancies on early sexual behavior among racial/ethnic minority young adolescents. African American and Latino participants between 11 and 13 years old were recruited through schools and community-based agencies in the South Bronx, New York (N = 223). Multiple logistic regression analyses were used to predict early sexual behavior outcomes, which include engagement in sexual possibility situations, kissing, and sexual touching. The moderating effect of gender was examined using multiplicative interaction terms. Higher expectations categorized as personal/parental and romantic/peer expectancies related to the negative consequences of sexual intercourse decreased the odds of engagement in early sexual behavior; whereas higher academic/career and sexual health expectancies did not. Gender moderated the relationships between personal/parental expectancies and engagement in sexual possibility situations and romantic/peer expectancies and kissing. Social workers formulating sexual health promotion and HIV prevention programs for racial/ethnic minority young adolescents should focus on personal/parental and romantic/peer expectancies in favor of negative expectancies regarding academic/career achievement, pregnancy, and HIV. Social work interventions to delay sexual debut should include a family-based component and should be sensitive to gender differences in sexual expectancies. PMID:22461958
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Morrison, Julie Q.; Sansosti, Frank J.; Hadley, Wanda M.
2009-01-01
Many students with Asperger's Syndrome have the cognitive ability and specific interests to be successful academically at the college level. However, these students often have difficulties navigating social systems, and higher education presents great challenges. The purpose of this study was to explore parent perceptions regarding the: (a)
Cross delay line sensor characterization
Owens, Israel J; Remelius, Dennis K; Tiee, Joe J; Buck, Steven E; Whittemore, Stephen R; Thompson, David C; Shirey, Robert
2010-01-01
There exists a wealth of information in the scientific literature on the physical properties and device characterization procedures for complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS), charge coupled device (CCD) and avalanche photodiode (APD) format detectors. Numerous papers and books have also treated photocathode operation in the context of photomultiplier tube (PMT) operation for either non imaging applications or limited night vision capability. However, much less information has been reported in the literature about the characterization procedures and properties of photocathode detectors with novel cross delay line (XDL) anode structures. These allow one to detect single photons and create images by recording space and time coordinate (X, Y & T) information. In this paper, we report on the physical characteristics and performance of a cross delay line anode sensor with an enhanced near infrared wavelength response photocathode and high dynamic range micro channel plate (MCP) gain (> 10{sup 6}) multiplier stage. Measurement procedures and results including the device dark event rate (DER), pulse height distribution, quantum and electronic device efficiency (QE & DQE) and spatial resolution per effective pixel region in a 25 mm sensor array are presented. The overall knowledge and information obtained from XDL sensor characterization allow us to optimize device performance and assess capability. These device performance properties and capabilities make XDL detectors ideal for remote sensing field applications that require single photon detection, imaging, sub nano-second timing response, high spatial resolution (10's of microns) and large effective image format.
Delayed coker fractionator advanced control
Jaisinghani, R.; Minter, B. ); Tica, A.; Puglesi, A.; Ojeda, R. )
1993-08-01
In a delayed coking process, as coke drum switches are made, rapid changes occur in both the fractionator feed rate and composition. With conventional control, it is not unusual to see long transient behavior of large swings in both quality and flowrates of coker gas oils. This can extract a heavy economic toll, not only in coker operation, but in the operation of downstream units as the upset is propagated. An advanced process control application (APC) was recently implemented on the coker fractionator at the Yacimentos Petroliferos Fiscales (YPF), Lujan de Cuyo Refinery, in Mendoza, Argentina. This coker fractionator control design was unique as it handled two different operating objectives: control of product qualities via tower temperature profile during normal operation and control of gas oil product flow ratio during drum switch. This combination of control objectives in one multivariable predictive control program was achieved by including special logic to decouple the individual tuning requirements. Also, additional logic was included to unambiguously detect and identify drum switch and drum steam out as discrete events within 30 seconds of their actual occurrence. These discrete events were then used as disturbance variables to minimize fractionator transient behavior. As a performance measure, the overhead temperature was controlled within 2 C to 2.5 C of its target, gas oil flows were stabilized during drum switches and steam generation via pump around was maximized. Overall, implementing advanced control for the delayed coker fractionator resulted in substantial benefits from product quality control, product flow control and minimized energy consumption.
Chaos in coherence modulation: bifurcations of an oscillator generating optical delay fluctuations
Larger, Laurent; Lee, Min Won; Goedgebuer, Jean-Pierre; Elflein, Wilhelm; Erneux, Thomas
2001-08-01
A new chaos generator is described that produces chaotic fluctuations of the optical-path difference in a coherence modulator driven electrically by a nonlinear delayed-feedback loop. Numerical simulations and experimental results are reported. A closed branch of periodic solutions bounded by a forward and a reverse Hopf bifurcation is observed for the first time, to our knowledge, for this type of nonlinear dynamical system. {copyright} 2001 Optical Society of America
Pancreaticoduodenectomy: expected post-operative anatomy and complications
Lavelle, L P; Hoare, S M; O'Neill, A C; Awan, F N; Malone, D E; Ryan, E R; McCann, J W; Heffernan, E J
2014-01-01
Pancreaticoduodenectomy is a complex, high-risk surgical procedure performed for tumours of the pancreatic head and other periampullary structures. The rate of perioperative mortality has decreased in the past number of years but perioperative morbidity remains high. This pictorial review illustrates expected findings in early and late post-operative periods, including mimickers of pathology. It aims to familiarize radiologists with the imaging appearances of common and unusual post-operative complications. These are classified into early non-vascular complications such as delayed gastric emptying, post-operative collections, pancreatic fistulae and bilomas; late non-vascular complications, for example, biliary strictures and hepatic abscesses; and vascular complications including haemorrhage and ischaemia. Options for minimally invasive image-guided management of vascular and non-vascular complications are discussed. Familiarity with normal anatomic findings is essential in order to distinguish expected post-operative change from surgical complications or recurrent disease. This review summarizes the normal and abnormal radiological findings following pancreaticoduodenectomy. PMID:25026968
Expected degree for RNA secondary structure networks.
Clote, Peter
2015-01-15
Consider the network of all secondary structures of a given RNA sequence, where nodes are connected when the corresponding structures have base pair distance one. The expected degree of the network is the average number of neighbors, where average may be computed with respect to the either the uniform or Boltzmann probability. Here, we describe the first algorithm, RNAexpNumNbors, that can compute the expected number of neighbors, or expected network degree, of an input sequence. For RNA sequences from the Rfam database, the expected degree is significantly less than the constrained minimum free energy structure, defined to have minimum free energy (MFE) over all structures consistent with the Rfam consensus structure. The expected degree of structural RNAs, such as purine riboswitches, paradoxically appears to be smaller than that of random RNA, yet the difference between the degree of the MFE structure and the expected degree is larger than that of random RNA. Expected degree does not seem to correlate with standard structural diversity measures of RNA, such as positional entropy and ensemble defect. The program RNAexpNumNbors is written in C, runs in cubic time and quadratic space, and is publicly available at http://bioinformatics.bc.edu/clotelab/RNAexpNumNbors. PMID:25382310
Neurobiology of placebo effects: expectations or learning?
Pecia, Marta; Stohler, Christian S; Zubieta, Jon-Kar
2014-07-01
Contemporary learning theories suggest that conditioning is heavily dependent on the processing of prediction errors, which signal a discrepancy between expected and observed outcomes. This line of research provides a framework through which classical theories of placebo effects, expectations and conditioning, can be reconciled. Brain regions related to prediction error processing [anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), orbitofrontal cortex or the nucleus accumbens] overlap with those involved in placebo effects. Here we examined the possibility that the magnitude of objective neurochemical responses to placebo administration would depend on individual expectation-effectiveness comparisons. We show that such comparisons and not expectations per se predict behavioral placebo responses and placebo-induced activation of -opioid receptor-mediated neurotransmission in regions relevant to error detection (e.g. ACC). Expectations on the other hand were associated with greater -opioid system activation in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex but not with greater behavioral placebo responses. The results presented aid the elucidation of molecular and neural mechanisms underlying the relationship between expectation-effectiveness associations and the formation of placebo responses, shedding light on the individual differences in learning and decision making. Expectation and outcome comparisons emerge as a cognitive mechanism that beyond reward associations appears to facilitate the formation and sustainability of placebo responses. PMID:23887819
Expectations predict chronic pain treatment outcomes.
Cormier, Stphanie; Lavigne, Genevive L; Choinire, Manon; Rainville, Pierre
2016-02-01
Accumulating evidence suggests an association between patient pretreatment expectations and numerous health outcomes. However, it remains unclear if and how expectations relate to outcomes after treatments in multidisciplinary pain programs. The present study aims at investigating the predictive association between expectations and clinical outcomes in a large database of chronic pain patients. In this observational cohort study, participants were 2272 patients treated in one of 3 university-affiliated multidisciplinary pain treatment centers. All patients received personalized care, including medical, psychological, and/or physical interventions. Patient expectations regarding pain relief and improvements in quality of life and functioning were measured before the first visit to the pain centers and served as predictor variables. Changes in pain intensity, depressive symptoms, pain interference, and tendency to catastrophize, as well as satisfaction with pain treatment and global impressions of change at 6-month follow-up, were considered as treatment outcomes. Structural equation modeling analyses showed significant positive relationships between expectations and most clinical outcomes, and this association was largely mediated by patients' global impressions of change. Similar patterns of relationships between variables were also observed in various subgroups of patients based on sex, age, pain duration, and pain classification. Such results emphasize the relevance of patient expectations as a determinant of outcomes in multimodal pain treatment programs. Furthermore, the results suggest that superior clinical outcomes are observed in individuals who expect high positive outcomes as a result of treatment. PMID:26447703
Computations of entropy bounds: Multidimensional geometric methods
Makaruk, H.E.
1998-02-01
The entropy bounds for constructive upper bound on the needed number-of-bits for solving a dichotomy is represented by the quotient of two multidimensional solid volumes. For minimization of this upper bound exact calculation of the volume of this quotient is needed. Three methods for exact computing of the volume of a given nD volume are presented: (1) general method for calculation any nD volume by slicing it into volumes of decreasing dimension is presented; (2) a method applying appropriate curvilinear coordinate system is described for volume bounded by symmetrical curvilinear hypersurfaces (spheres, cones, hyperboloids, ellipsoids, cylinders, etc.); and (3) an algorithm for dividing any nD complex into simplices and computing of the volume of the simplices is presented, supplemented by a general formula for calculation of volume of an nD simplex. These mathematical methods enable exact calculation of volume of any complicated multidimensional solids. The methods allow for the calculation of the minimal volume and lead to tighter bounds on the needed number-of-bits.
Bounding polynomial entanglement measures for mixed states
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rodriques, Samuel; Datta, Nilanjana; Love, Peter
2014-07-01
We generalize the notion of the best separable approximation (BSA) and best W-class approximation (BWA) to arbitrary pure-state entanglement measures, defining the best zero-E approximation (BEA). We show that for any polynomial entanglement measure E, any mixed state ρ admits at least one "S decomposition," i.e., a decomposition in terms of a mixed state on which E is equal to zero, and a single additional pure state with (possibly) nonzero E. We show that the BEA is not, in general, the optimal S decomposition from the point of view of bounding the entanglement of ρ and describe an algorithm to construct the entanglement-minimizing S decomposition for ρ and place an upper bound on E (ρ). When applied to the three-tangle, the cost of the algorithm is linear in the rank d of the density matrix and has an accuracy comparable to a steepest-descent algorithm whose cost scales as d8logd. We compare the upper bound to a lower-bound algorithm given by C. Eltschka and J. Siewert [Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 020502 (2012), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.108.020502] for the three-tangle and find that on random rank-2 three-qubit density matrices, the difference between the upper and lower bounds is 0.14 on average. We also find that the three-tangle of random full-rank three-qubit density matrices is less than 0.023 on average.
Bound residues: environmental solution or future problem?
Barraclough, Declan; Kearney, Theresa; Croxford, Andy
2005-01-01
The paper examines the issue of bound residues from the viewpoint of the risk assessment procedures employed for environmental protection. It considers, on one hand, the evidence that such residues are so tightly bound to soil organic matter as to be essentially unavailable; and on the other, the perspective that we should not be loading up the environment with compounds whose future behaviour and release we cannot predict. Existing knowledge of the mechanisms by which residues bind to soil organic matter suggests that release will be closely dependent on soil organic matter breakdown. Simple models of organic matter turnover suggest that the release following single applications of individual compounds will be very slow; but the significance of releases following repeated application over many years of a number of compounds needs to be investigated further. Applying environmental risk assessment techniques is complicated by the difficulty in identifying parent molecules and potential metabolites in the bound residue fraction. The paper concludes that for single additions of individual compounds, bound residues probably do represent an environmental solution. But the long-term significance of bound residues formed from multiple additions of a number of compounds is less clear. The paper recommends that future work should emphasise the biological significance of such residues and their release. PMID:15327859
Topological energy bounds in generalized Skyrme models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Adam, C.; Wereszczynski, A.
2014-03-01
The Skyrme model has a natural generalization amenable to a standard Hamiltonian treatment, consisting of the standard sigma model and the Skyrme terms, a potential, and a certain term sextic in first derivatives. Here we demonstrate that, in this theory, each pair of terms in the static energy functional which may support topological solitons according to the Derrick criterion (i.e., each pair of terms with opposite Derrick scaling) separately possesses a topological energy bound. As a consequence, there exists a four-parameter family of topological bounds for the full generalized Skyrme model. The optimal bounds, i.e., the optimal values of the parameters, depend both on the form of the potential and on the relative strength of the different terms. It also follows that various submodels of the generalized Skyrme model have one-parameter families of topological energy bounds. We also consider the case of topological bounds for the generalized Skyrme model on a compact base space as well as generalizations to higher dimensions.
Universal bounds in even-spin CFTs
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Qualls, Joshua D.
2015-12-01
We prove using invariance under the modular S- and ST -transformations that every unitary two-dimensional conformal field theory (CFT) having only even-spin primary operators (with no extended chiral algebra and with right- and left-central charges c, tilde{c}>1 ) contains a primary operator with dimension ?1 satisfying 0<{\\varDelta}_1
Conformational phases of membrane bound cytoskeletal filaments
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Quint, David A.; Grason, Gregory; Gopinathan, Ajay
2013-03-01
Membrane bound cytoskeletal filaments found in living cells are employed to carry out many types of activities including cellular division, rigidity and transport. When these biopolymers are bound to a membrane surface they may take on highly non-trivial conformations as compared to when they are not bound. This leads to the natural question; What are the important interactions which drive these polymers to particular conformations when they are bound to a surface? Assuming that there are binding domains along the polymer which follow a periodic helical structure set by the natural monomeric handedness, these bound conformations must arise from the interplay of the intrinsic monomeric helicity and membrane binding. To probe this question, we study a continuous model of an elastic filament with intrinsic helicity and map out the conformational phases of this filament for various mechanical and structural parameters in our model, such as elastic stiffness and intrinsic twist of the filament. Our model allows us to gain insight into the possible mechanisms which drive real biopolymers such as actin and tubulin in eukaryotes and their prokaryotic cousins MreB and FtsZ to take on their functional conformations within living cells.
Revisiting cosmological bounds on radiative neutrino lifetime
Mirizzi, Alessandro; Montanino, Daniele; Serpico, Pasquale D.
2007-09-01
Neutrino oscillation experiments and direct bounds on absolute masses constrain neutrino mass differences to fall into the microwave energy range, for most of the allowed parameter space. As a consequence of these recent phenomenological advances, older constraints on radiative neutrino decays based on diffuse background radiations and assuming strongly hierarchical masses in the eV range are now outdated. We thus derive new bounds on the radiative neutrino lifetime using the high precision cosmic microwave background spectral data collected by the Far Infrared Absolute Spectrophotometer instrument on board the Cosmic Background Explorer. The lower bound on the lifetime is between a fewx10{sup 19} s and {approx}5x10{sup 20} s, depending on the neutrino mass ordering and on the absolute mass scale. However, due to phase space limitations, the upper bound in terms of the effective magnetic moment mediating the decay is not better than {approx}10{sup -8} Bohr magnetons. We also comment about possible improvements of these limits, by means of recent diffuse infrared photon background data. We compare these bounds with preexisting limits coming from laboratory or astrophysical arguments. We emphasize the complementarity of our results with others available in the literature.
A search for unexpected bound states in 15B
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hoffman, Calem R.
2014-09-01
Bound states in 15B are to be populated through the one proton removal reaction from a 16C beam produced at the RCNP EN Course through 18O fragmentation. ?-decays from these states will be identified by an array of Compton-suppressed HPGe Clover detectors (CAGRA). The goals consist of i) identifying any previously unobserved and unexpected bound states in 15B and ii) to assign total angular momenta to known excited states for the first time. At present only two bound states have been observed in 15B, neither with firm spin or parity assignments. The present work to be discussed is aimed at determining whether an excited 3 /2- state, a state with identical spin-parity as the ground state, resides below the neutron separation energy in 15B. Such an excited 3 /2- state is not predicted to appear below the 15B Sn by shell-model calculations using various p- sd interactions. However, a robust systematic, probably related to the s-wave trends found in the single-neutron states in this region, has been observed for neutron-rich N=10 nuclei and it suggests that the state may appear lower in excitation energy than expected. Providing some measure of validation for the N=10 prediction is a similar trend noticed in the energy differences between ground (p)2 neutron states and excited (sd)2 neutron states in the N=8 neutron-rich isotones. In addition to a search for this unexpected state, additional spectroscopic information on 15B will better aid in the understanding of the N=10 isotones when transitioning from 16C into sparsely probed 14Be. Details of the experimental procedures and motivation will be presented and discussed. Bound states in 15B are to be populated through the one proton removal reaction from a 16C beam produced at the RCNP EN Course through 18O fragmentation. ?-decays from these states will be identified by an array of Compton-suppressed HPGe Clover detectors (CAGRA). The goals consist of i) identifying any previously unobserved and unexpected bound states in 15B and ii) to assign total angular momenta to known excited states for the first time. At present only two bound states have been observed in 15B, neither with firm spin or parity assignments. The present work to be discussed is aimed at determining whether an excited 3 /2- state, a state with identical spin-parity as the ground state, resides below the neutron separation energy in 15B. Such an excited 3 /2- state is not predicted to appear below the 15B Sn by shell-model calculations using various p- sd interactions. However, a robust systematic, probably related to the s-wave trends found in the single-neutron states in this region, has been observed for neutron-rich N=10 nuclei and it suggests that the state may appear lower in excitation energy than expected. Providing some measure of validation for the N=10 prediction is a similar trend noticed in the energy differences between ground (p)2 neutron states and excited (sd)2 neutron states in the N=8 neutron-rich isotones. In addition to a search for this unexpected state, additional spectroscopic information on 15B will better aid in the understanding of the N=10 isotones when transitioning from 16C into sparsely probed 14Be. Details of the experimental procedures and motivation will be presented and discussed. Supported by the U.S. DOE, under Contract No. DE-AC02-06CH11357.
Preliminary Results on the Experimental Investigation of the Structure Functions of Bound Nucleons
Bodek, Arie
2015-09-01
We present preliminary results on an experimental study of the nuclear modification of the longitudinal (sL) and transverse (sT ) structure functions of nucleons bound in nuclear targets. The origin of these modifications (commonly referred as as the EMC effect) is not fully understood. Our measurements of R= sL=sT for nuclei (RA) and for deuterium (RD) indicate that nuclear modifications of the structure functions of bound nucleons are different for the longitudinal and transverse structure functions, and that contrary to expectation from several theoretical models, RA < RD.
Early LHC phenomenology of Yukawa-bound heavy QQ mesons
Enkhbat, Tsedenbaljir; Hou, Wei-Shu; Yokoya, Hiroshi
2011-11-01
Current limits from the LHC on fourth generation quarks are already at the unitarity bound of 500 GeV or so. If they exist, the strong Yukawa couplings are turning nonperturbative, and may form bound states. We study the domain of m{sub b'} and m{sub t'} in the range of 500 to 700 GeV, where we expect binding energies are mainly of Yukawa origin, with QCD subdominant. To be consistent with electroweak precision tests, the t' and b' quarks have to be nearly degenerate, exhibiting a new 'isospin'. Comparing relativistic expansion with a relativistic bound state approach, we find the most interesting is the production of a color octet, isosinglet vector meson (a 'gluon-prime') via qq-bar{yields}{omega}{sub 8}. Leading decay modes are {pi}{sub 8}{sup {+-}}W{sup {+-}}, {pi}{sub 8}{sup 0}Z{sup 0}, and constituent quark decay, with qq and tt-bar' and bb' subdominant. The color octet, isovector pseudoscalar {pi}{sub 8} meson decays via constituent quark decay, or to Wg. These decay rates are parameterized by the decay constant, the binding energy and mass differences, and V{sub tb'}. For small V{sub t'b}, one could have a spectacular signal of WWg, where a soft W accompanies a very massive Wg pair. In general, however, one has high multiplicity signals with b, W, and t jet substructures that are not so different from the t't-bar' and b'b-bar' search.
Bounded mean oscillation and the distribution of primes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kaczorowski, Jerzy
1999-01-01
As usual, let [pi](x) denote the number of prime numbers [less-than-or-eq, slant]x and [psi](x) the well known Chebyshev's function. Let E(x) denote either ([psi](x)[minus sign]x)/[surd radical]x or ([pi](x)[minus sign]li x)/([surd radical]x/log x), x[gt-or-equal, slanted]2. The study of E occupies a central place in the theory of primes. A classical result of Littlewood [7] states that E(x)=[Omega](log log log x) as x tends to infinity, showing in particular that E is unbounded. We expect rather erratic behaviour of E, but still one can wonder if it belongs to one of the classic function spaces [script X], necessarily containing some unbounded functions. Let us extend definition of E(x) for x<2 by putting E(x)=0. A natural question is if it belongs to BMO, the space of functions with bounded mean oscillation, see, e.g. [2]. A locally integrable function f on the real line belongs to BMO if there exists a constant C such that for every bounded interval I[subset or is implied by]R we haveformula herewith a suitable constant [alpha]I[set membership]R. [mid R:]I[mid R:] denotes here the length of I. Without any loss in generality one can takeformula herethe average of f over I (cf. [2], chapter VI). BMO is important and intensely studied in the complex analysis. It is obvious that BMO is larger than the space of bounded (measurable) functions and thus it seems a natural candidate for [script X]. E[set membership]BMO would mean that E behaves in a certain predictable way. Otherwise, we obtain another confirmation of the big irregularity in the distribution of primes.
A normalized PID controller in networked control systems with varying time delays.
Tran, Hoang-Dung; Guan, Zhi-Hong; Dang, Xuan-Kien; Cheng, Xin-Ming; Yuan, Fu-Shun
2013-09-01
It requires not only simplicity and flexibility but also high specified stability and robustness of system to design a PI/PID controller in such complicated networked control systems (NCSs) with delays. By gain and phase margins approach, this paper proposes a novel normalized PI/PID controller for NCSs based on analyzing the stability and robustness of system under the effect of network-induced delays. Specifically, We take into account the total measured network delays to formulate the gain and phase margins of the closed-loop system in the form of a set of equations. With pre-specified values of gain and phase margins, this set of equations is then solved for calculating the closed forms of control parameters which enable us to propose the normalized PI/PID controller simultaneously satisfying the following two requirements: (1) simplicity without re-solving the optimization problem for a new process, (2) high flexibility to cope with large scale of random delays and deal with many different processes in different conditions of network. Furthermore, in our method, the upper bound of random delay can be estimated to indicate the operating domain of proposed PI/PID controller. Finally, simulation results are shown to demonstrate the advantages of our proposed controller in many situations of network-induced delays. PMID:23810432
Bounds on tensor wave and twisted inflation
Panda, Sudhakar; Sami, M.; Ward, John
2010-11-15
We study the bounds on tensor wave in a class of twisted inflation models, where D(4+2k)-branes are wrapped on cycles in the compact manifold and wrap the Kaluza-Klein direction in the corresponding effective field theory. While the lower bound is found to be analogous to that in type IIB models of brane inflation, the upper bound turns out to be significantly different. This is argued for a range of values for the parameter g{sub s}M satisfying the self-consistency relation and the WMAP data. Further, we observe that the wrapped D8-brane appears to be the most attractive from a cosmological perspective.
Equivalence principle and bound kinetic energy.
Hohensee, Michael A; Mller, Holger; Wiringa, R B
2013-10-11
We consider the role of the internal kinetic energy of bound systems of matter in tests of the Einstein equivalence principle. Using the gravitational sector of the standard model extension, we show that stringent limits on equivalence principle violations in antimatter can be indirectly obtained from tests using bound systems of normal matter. We estimate the bound kinetic energy of nucleons in a range of light atomic species using Green's function Monte Carlo calculations, and for heavier species using a Woods-Saxon model. We survey the sensitivities of existing and planned experimental tests of the equivalence principle, and report new constraints at the level of between a few parts in 10(6) and parts in 10(8) on violations of the equivalence principle for matter and antimatter. PMID:24160587
Bound water in Kevlar 49 fibers
Garza, R.G.; Pruneda, C.O.; Morgan, R.J.
1981-04-01
From elemental analyses, thermogravimetric-mass spectroscopy studies and re-evaluation of previous water diffusion studies in Kevlar 49 fibers it is concluded that these fibers can contain two types of sorbed moisture. The fibers can absorb up to approx. 6 wt % loosely bound water with an activation energy for outgassing by desorption of 6 kcal/mole. This loosely bound water is a direct result of the presence of Na/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ impurities and the perturbations they induce on the packing of the rod-like poly (p-phenylene terephthalamide) macromolecules. Kevlar 49 fibers also inherently contain up to 30 wt % additional water which is tightly bound within the crystal lattice. This water exhibits an activation energy for outgassing by diffusion of approx. 40 kcal/mole and is only evolved from the fiber in significant quantities at t > 350/sup 0/C over a period of hours.
Dynamics of the bounds of squared concurrence
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Zhao; Fan, Heng
2009-03-01
The dynamics of the quantum entanglement is a fundamental characteristic for various quantum systems. Since the computable entanglement measure for higher dimensional quantum states itself is absent, the dynamics of the entanglement expressed in an operational method will be of interest. We study the dynamics of ? , an analytical lower bound of squared concurrence, of a bipartite d?d quantum state when one party goes through an arbitrary noisy channel. For a pure input state, the range of ? is obtained explicitly. For a mixed input state, an upper bound of ? is found. Interestingly, the tangle ?' , as an upper bound of squared concurrence, also has a similar dynamical property. Our results are similar to that of Konrad and can help the estimation of high-dimension bipartite entanglement in experiments.
Bounds on Neutrino Non-Standard Interactions
Fernandez-Martinez, Enrique
2010-03-30
We review the present model independent bounds on neutrino non-standard interactions both at neutrino production and detection and in its interactions with matter. For matter non-standard interactions the direct bounds are rather weak. However, matter non-standard interactions are related by gauge invariance to the production and detection ones as well as to flavour changing processes involving charged leptons. Taking into account these relations much stronger bounds of at least O(10{sup -2}) can be derived unless significant fine tunings are implemented. Testing non-standard interactions at this level at future neutrino oscillation facilities is challenging but still feasible at very ambitious proposals such as the Neutrino Factory.
Hybrid ADC based on flash and delay-line structures
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Qin, Lin; Zhao, Menglian; Wu, Xiaobo; Shen, Xuzhen
2013-03-01
A pseudo 9-bit 10 MSample/s hybrid Analog to Digital Converter (ADC) is proposed for applying to digital power controller. It features its structure that consists of three 3-bit ADCs: a flash ADC and two delay-line based window ADCs. The first one works in the entire voltage range. And the other two only work in the desired voltage window to improve the resolution. The ADC is designed and simulated in TSMC 0.35-?m mixed signal process. Simulation results show that the expected funtions are achieved.
An alternative derivation of the neutral atmospheric delay formula.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yan, Haojian
The integration methods along the chord pointed from source to receiver, which was proposed by Moritz (1967), are developed for various observation scenario. According to different accuracy requirements the mapping function is represented as a main term plus correction terms. An asymmetric atmospheric distribution is taken into account by means of a horizontal gradient compensation. The suggested procedures are expected to offer a high accuracy for the elevation angle down to below 10 degrees, and might be conveniently used both in modeling and in calculating the neutral atmospheric delays for different atmospheric profiles.
Explicit Finite Difference Methods for the Delay Pseudoparabolic Equations
Amirali, I.; Amiraliyev, G. M.; Cakir, M.; Cimen, E.
2014-01-01
Finite difference technique is applied to numerical solution of the initial-boundary value problem for the semilinear delay Sobolev or pseudoparabolic equation. By the method of integral identities two-level difference scheme is constructed. For the time integration the implicit rule is being used. Based on the method of energy estimates the fully discrete scheme is shown to be absolutely stable and convergent of order two in space and of order one in time. The error estimates are obtained in the discrete norm. Some numerical results confirming the expected behavior of the method are shown. PMID:24688392
Bounding burnout risk power limits for the K-14 cycle
Shadday, M.A. Jr.
1990-10-01
This document discusses burnout risk (BOR) power limits which are designed to protect the reactor from a significant release of fission products, due to critical heat flux (CHF) burnout of fuel and target assemblies. At expected operating power levels for the reactor restart, approximately 50% of historical full power, the risk of CHF and attendant burnout is negligible. Flow instability power limits will restrict reactor operation, and flow instability will always occur before CHF. BOR power limits must nevertheless be calculated because they are required by the reactor control computer, (2) Bounding BOR limits have been calculated for the K-14 cycle, to fulfill this requirement, and they are presented in this document. Two sets of BOR limits have been calculated: one applicable for the first subcycle, zero to 30% fuel burnup, and the other for the second subcycle, 30% to 55% fuel burnup.
General upper bounds on the runtime of parallel evolutionary algorithms.
Lssig, Jrg; Sudholt, Dirk
2014-01-01
We present a general method for analyzing the runtime of parallel evolutionary algorithms with spatially structured populations. Based on the fitness-level method, it yields upper bounds on the expected parallel runtime. This allows for a rigorous estimate of the speedup gained by parallelization. Tailored results are given for common migration topologies: ring graphs, torus graphs, hypercubes, and the complete graph. Example applications for pseudo-Boolean optimization show that our method is easy to apply and that it gives powerful results. In our examples the performance guarantees improve with the density of the topology. Surprisingly, even sparse topologies such as ring graphs lead to a significant speedup for many functions while not increasing the total number of function evaluations by more than a constant factor. We also identify which number of processors lead to the best guaranteed speedups, thus giving hints on how to parameterize parallel evolutionary algorithms. PMID:24195490
Health expectancy and the problem of substitute morbidity.
Van de Water, H P
1997-12-29
During the past century, the developed world has not only witnessed a dramatic increase in life expectancy (ageing), but also a concomitant rise in chronic disease and disability. Consequently, the tension between 'living longer' on the one hand and health-related 'quality of life' on the other has become an increasingly important health policy problem. The paper deals with two consequences of this so-called epidemiological transition in population health. The first one concerns the question of how--given the impressive changes--population health can be measured in an adequate and policy relevant present-day fashion. The second one is the so-called phenomenon of 'substitute morbidity and mortality': more and more acute fatal diseases are replaced by non-fatal delayed degenerative diseases like dementia and arthritis. How the phenomenon of substitute morbidity and mortality affects the development of population health is illustrated with the epidemiological transitions, worldwide shifts in the main causes of death, assumptions used in models, adverse consequences of medical technologies and some results from intervention trials. Substitute morbidity and mortality may thwart our disease-specific expectations of interventions and asks for a shift to a 'total population health' perspective when judging potential health gains of interventions. Better understanding of the dynamics that underly the changes in population health is necessary. Implications for data collections are more emphasis on morbidity data and their relation with mortality, more longitudinal studies, stricter requirements for intervention trials and more use of modelling as a tool. A final recommendation is the promotion of integrative measures of population health. For the latter several results are presented suggesting that, although the amount of morbidity and disability is growing with an increasing life expectancy, this is mild unhealthiness in particular. This finding supports the 'dynamic equilibrium' theory. In absolute numbers, however, the burden of disease will continue to increase with further ageing of the population. PMID:9460066
What To Expect Before a Lung Transplant
... NHLBI on Twitter. What To Expect Before a Lung Transplant If you get into a medical center's ... friends also can offer support. When a Donor Lung Becomes Available OPTN matches donor lungs to recipients ...
What to Expect During a Lung Transplant
... NHLBI on Twitter. What To Expect During a Lung Transplant Just before lung transplant surgery, you will ... airway and its blood vessels to your heart. Lung Transplant The illustration shows the process of a ...
Classics in the Classroom: Great Expectations Fulfilled.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Pearl, Shela
1986-01-01
Describes how an English teacher in a Queens, New York, ghetto school introduced her grade nine students to Charles Dickens's "Great Expectations." Focuses on students' responses, which eventually became enthusiastic, and discusses the use of classics within the curriculum. (KH)
Parental outcome expectations on children's TV viewing
Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)
Children's TV viewing has been associated with increased sedentary behavior and poor eating habits. Positive intervention effects have been observed when addressing outcome expectations as a mediator in interventions targeting children's dietary behavior. Little is known about parental outcome expec...
What to Expect during a Heart Transplant
... on Twitter. What To Expect During a Heart Transplant Just before heart transplant surgery, the patient will ... not replaced as part of the surgery. Heart Transplant Figure A shows where the diseased heart is ...
What to Expect during Heart Surgery
... the NHLBI on Twitter. What To Expect During Heart Surgery Heart surgery is done in a hospital, ... surgery, takes about 3–6 hours. Traditional Open-Heart Surgery For this type of surgery, you'll ...
DELIMING OF BOUND AND UN-BOUND LIME FROM WHITE HIDE
Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)
White hide deliming requires the removal of un-bound lime as well as bound lime. This can be accomplished sequentially by washing the hides in pure water followed by an appropriate deliming solution. The objective of this paper is to determine the optimal wash parameters for each using a mathemati...
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Creed, Peter A.; Patton, Wendy; Hood, Michelle
2010-01-01
We surveyed 506 Australian high school students on career development (exploration, planning, job-knowledge, decision-making, indecision), personal functioning (well-being, self-esteem, life satisfaction, school satisfaction) and control variables (parent education, school achievement), and tested differences among work-bound, college-bound and
Surface-Bound Soft Matter Gradients
Genzer,J.; Bhat, R.
2008-01-01
This feature article describes the progress realized over the past half century in the field of surface-bound gradient structures created on or from soft materials (oligomers and/or polymers), or those enabling the study of the behavior of soft materials. By highlighting our work in the field and accounting for the contribution of other groups, we emphasize the exceptional versatility of gradient assemblies in facilitating fast screening of physicochemical phenomena, acting as 'recording media' for monitoring a process, and playing a key role in the design and fabrication of surface-bound molecular and macromolecular motors capable of directing a transport phenomenon.
A note on BPS vortex bound states
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Alonso-Izquierdo, A.; Garcia Fuertes, W.; Mateos Guilarte, J.
2016-02-01
In this note we investigate bound states, where scalar and vector bosons are trapped by BPS vortices in the Abelian Higgs model with a critical ratio of the couplings. A class of internal modes of fluctuation around cylindrically symmetric BPS vortices is characterized mathematically, analyzing the spectrum of the second-order fluctuation operator when the Higgs and vector boson masses are equal. A few of these bound states with low values of quantized magnetic flux are described fully, and their main properties are discussed.
Determining relative error bounds for the CVBEM
Hromadka, T.V., II
1985-01-01
The Complex Variable Boundary Element Methods provides a measure of relative error which can be utilized to subsequently reduce the error or provide information for further modeling analysis. By maximizing the relative error norm on each boundary element, a bound on the total relative error for each boundary element can be evaluated. This bound can be utilized to test CVBEM convergence, to analyze the effects of additional boundary nodal points in reducing the modeling error, and to evaluate the sensitivity of resulting modeling error within a boundary element from the error produced in another boundary element as a function of geometric distance. ?? 1985.
Quantum Kolmogorov complexity and bounded quantum memory
Miyadera, Takayuki
2011-04-15
The effect of bounded quantum memory in a primitive information protocol has been examined using the quantum Kolmogorov complexity as a measure of information. We employed a toy two-party protocol in which Bob, by using a bounded quantum memory and an unbounded classical memory, estimates a message that was encoded in qubits by Alice in one of the bases X or Z. Our theorem gave a nontrivial effect of the memory boundedness. In addition, a generalization of the uncertainty principle in the presence of quantum memory has been obtained.
Zhao Lu; Zou Bingsong; Shen Pengnian; Zhang Yingjie
2011-10-21
Inspired by a recent observation of a narrow resonance-like structure around 2360 MeV in the pn {yields} d{pi}{sup 0}{pi}{sup 0} cross section, we investigate the possibility of forming NN*(1440) quasi-bound state by meson exchange potential. With parameters of the t-channel {pi}, {sigma}, {rho} and {omega} exchanges determined by relevant NN scattering and N*(1440) decay processes, it is found that a NN*(1440) quasi-bound state with the same quantum numbers as the deuteron can be formed with binding energy about 20 MeV.
Quantum Kolmogorov complexity and bounded quantum memory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Miyadera, Takayuki
2011-04-01
The effect of bounded quantum memory in a primitive information protocol has been examined using the quantum Kolmogorov complexity as a measure of information. We employed a toy two-party protocol in which Bob, by using a bounded quantum memory and an unbounded classical memory, estimates a message that was encoded in qubits by Alice in one of the bases X or Z. Our theorem gave a nontrivial effect of the memory boundedness. In addition, a generalization of the uncertainty principle in the presence of quantum memory has been obtained.
Upper bounds on the photon mass
Accioly, Antonio; Helayeel-Neto, Jose; Scatena, Eslley
2010-09-15
The effects of a nonzero photon rest mass can be incorporated into electromagnetism in a simple way using the Proca equations. In this vein, two interesting implications regarding the possible existence of a massive photon in nature, i.e., tiny alterations in the known values of both the anomalous magnetic moment of the electron and the gravitational deflection of electromagnetic radiation, are utilized to set upper limits on its mass. The bounds obtained are not as stringent as those recently found; nonetheless, they are comparable to other existing bounds and bring new elements to the issue of restricting the photon mass.
Breckenridge, J.C.; Michaud, G.; Myers, R.C.
1997-05-01
The low-energy background field solutions corresponding to D-brane bound states which possess a difference in dimension of two are presented. These solutions are constructed using the T-duality map between the type IIA and IIB superstring theories. Since supersymmetry is preserved by T duality, the bound state solutions retain the supersymmetric properties of the initial (single) D-brane states from which they are produced; i.e., they preserve one-half of the supersymmetries. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}
Proof of a quantum Bousso bound
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bousso, Raphael; Casini, Horacio; Fisher, Zachary; Maldacena, Juan
2014-08-01
We prove the generalized covariant entropy bound, ?S?(A-A')/4G?, for light-sheets with initial area A and final area A'. The entropy ?S is defined as a difference of von Neumann entropies of an arbitrary state and the vacuum, with both states restricted to the light-sheet under consideration. The proof applies to free fields, in the limit where gravitational backreaction is small. We do not assume the null energy condition. In regions where it is violated, we find that the bound is protected by the defining property of light-sheets: that their null generators are nowhere expanding.
Irreversibility for All Bound Entangled States
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yang, Dong; Horodecki, Micha?; Horodecki, Ryszard; Synak-Radtke, Barbara
2005-11-01
We derive a new inequality for entanglement for a mixed four-partite state. Employing this inequality, we present a one-shot lower bound for entanglement cost and prove that entanglement cost is strictly larger than zero for any entangled state. We demonstrate that irreversibility occurs in the process of formation for all nondistillable entangled states. In this way we solve a long standing problem of how real is entanglement of bound entangled states. Using the new inequality we also prove the impossibility of local cloning of a known entangled state.
Learning within bounds and dream sleep
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Geszti, T.; Pazmandi, F.
1987-12-01
In a bounded-synapses version of Hopfield's model (1984) for neural networks the quasienergy of a given memory, which is approximately equal to the depth of the corresponding energy well is calculated exactly by treating the change of a synaptic strength on learning as a random walk within bounds. Attractors corresponding to stored memories are found to be considerably flattened before serious retrieval errors arise. This allows dream sleep to be interpreted as random recall and relearning of fresh strong memories, in order to stack them on top of weak incidental memory imprints of a day.
Generalized mutual information and Tsirelson's bound
Wakakuwa, Eyuri; Murao, Mio
2014-12-04
We introduce a generalization of the quantum mutual information between a classical system and a quantum system into the mutual information between a classical system and a system described by general probabilistic theories. We apply this generalized mutual information (GMI) to a derivation of Tsirelson's bound from information causality, and prove that Tsirelson's bound can be derived from the chain rule of the GMI. By using the GMI, we formulate the 'no-supersignalling condition' (NSS), that the assistance of correlations does not enhance the capability of classical communication. We prove that NSS is never violated in any no-signalling theory.
Measurement of Gravitational Lens Time Delays with LSST (SULI Paper)
Kirkby, Lowry Anna; /Oxford U. /SLAC
2006-01-04
The proposed Large Synoptic Survey Telescope will be the first to explore multiple dark energy probes simultaneously, including baryon acoustic oscillations, weak lensing, and strong gravitational lensing. The large data sample, covering the entire visible sky every few nights, will allow an unprecedented survey of deep supernova sources and their lensed images. The latter have not yet been observed. Notably, LSST will measure the time delays between different strong-lensed images of the same supernova. This will provide a unique probe of dark matter, dark energy, and the expansion rate of the Universe. By simulating LSST observations under realistic conditions, we determined the time delay precision of multiple images from a representative strong-lensed Type Ia supernova. The output of the simulation was a set of light curves according to field and filter, which were subsequently analyzed to determine the experimental time delays. We find that a time delay precision of better then 10% can be achieved under suitable conditions. Firstly, a minimum observed peak-magnitude of 22 is required for the lensed image, corresponding to an intrinsic source magnitude of about 24. The number of such supernova sources expected for LSST is under investigation, but it could amount to several thousand. Secondly, a minimum of about 50 visits per field is required, and, moreover, these visits must be evenly distributed over the duration of the event. The visit frequency should be approximately once per week, or better. Thirdly, the sky brightness should be below 21 magnitude arcsec{sup -2} to allow sufficient sensitivity to distance sources. Under the nominal LSST visiting schedule and field conditions, 15% of all fields satisfy these criteria, and allow time delay measurements of better than 10% precision. This performance can be further improved by fitting the predicted supernova light curves to the observations, rather than using the simple weighted mean as in the present study. Of the well-measured fields, 85% involve observations taken with the r filter, which has a wavelength acceptance that is well-matched to supernova spectra. This filter therefore represents the best choice for strong gravitational lens observations with LSST. Our primary conclusion is that the visiting schedule is the single most important parameter to optimize for time delay measurements, and, once a lensed supernova has been detected, that frequent, regular observations should be scheduled to search with the highest sensitivity for multiple, delayed lensed images.
Delayed Choice with Correlated Photons
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rssler, O. E.
1988-02-01
A new experiment in the foundations of quantum mechanics is proposed. The existence of correlated photons -first seen by Wheeler -can be taken as a hint to devise a ``double-wing'' delayed choice experiment in Wheeler's sense. A path choice (polarization choice) measurement made on the one side should then block an interference type measurement made on the other side (``distant choice''). A precondition for the combined measurement to work in theory is that the correlated photons used are of the ``prepolarized'' (Selleri) rather than the ``unpolarized'' (Bhm) type. A first EPR experiment involving prepolarized photons was recently performed by Alley and Shih. It may be used as a partial experiment within the proposed experiment.
Posttraumatic delayed subdural tension pneumocephalus
Solomiichuk, Volodymyr O.; Lebed, Vitaliy O.; Drizhdov, Konstantin I.
2013-01-01
Background: Pneumocephalus is a complication of head injury in 3.9-9.7% of the cases, it also appears after supratentorial craniotomy in 100% of cases. The accumulation of intracranial air can be acute (<72 hours) or delayed (?72 hours). When intracranial air causes intracranial hypertension and has a mass-effect with neurological deterioration, it is called tension pneumocephalus. Case description: We represent a clinical case of a 75-year-old male patient with open penetrating head injury, complicated by tension pneumocephalus on the fifth day after trauma and underwent urgent surgical correction. Operation performed: Burr-hole placement in the right frontal region, evacuation of tension pneumocephalus. Conclusion: Tension pneumocephalus is a life-threatening neurosurgical emergency case, which needs to undergo immediate surgical or conservative treatment. PMID:23607059
Cell probing by delayed luminescence
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Musumeci, Francesco; Ballerini, Monica; Baroni, Giuliana; Costato, Michele; Ferraro, Lorenzo; Milani, Marziale; Scordino, Agata; Triglia, Antonio
1999-05-01
Delayed luminescence (D.L.) is a measure that provides important information on biological systems fields, structures and activities, by counting impinging and emitted photons. Many recent experimental works have shown the existence of a close connection, sometimes analytically expressed between the biological state of the system and D.L. parameters. Our investigations aim to show that D.L. is a workable analytical technique covering a large number of disciplinary fields, from agriculture to pollution control and from medical diagnostics to food quality control. The authors have conducted systematic research about D.L. from unicellular alga Acetabularia acetabulum to Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast cultures and about more complex systems such as Soya seed (Glycine max, L.) and its dependence on sample preparation, history, intracellular signaling, metabolism and pollutant presence. We will discuss the most relevant results together with theoretical considerations on the basic interaction at work between biological systems and electromagnetic fields.
Robust H∞ control of uncertain systems with two additive time-varying delays
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Syed, Ali M.; Saravanakumar, R.
2015-09-01
This paper is concerned with the problem of delay-dependent robust H∞ control for a class of uncertain systems with two additive time-varying delays. A new suitable Lyapunov-Krasovskii functional (LKF) with triple integral terms is constructed and a tighter upper bound of the derivative of the LKF is derived. By applying a convex optimization technique, new delay-dependent robust H∞ stability criteria are derived in terms of linear matrix inequalities (LMI). Based on the stability criteria, a state feedback controller is designed such that the closed-loop system is asymptotically stable. Finally, numerical examples are given to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed method. Comparison results show that our results are less conservative than the existing methods. Project supported by the Fund from the Department of Science and Technology of India (Grant No. SR/FTP/MS-039/2011).
Delay equation models for populations that experience competition at immature life stages
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gourley, Stephen A.; Liu, Rongsong
2015-09-01
We consider stage-structured population models of intra- and inter-specific competition at immature life stages. A prototype delay model is derived for a single species that experiences larval competition. Its solutions are bounded for any birth function. Other ways of modelling the birth rate can lead to nonlinear integral equations. In some situations the technique of reducing an age-structured model to a system of delay equations applies. In the case of immature competition the delay equations cannot always be written down explicitly because their right hand sides depend on the solutions of the nonlinear ordinary differential equations that arise when one solves the nonlinear age-structured equations that determine the maturation rates in terms of the birth rates. This situation arises in the case of competition between two strains or species. However, in our two-strain competition model, vital properties of those right hand sides can be indirectly inferred using monotone systems theory.
CT of multiple sclerosis: reassessment of delayed scanning with high doses of contrast material
Spiegel, S.M.; Vinuela, F.; Fox, A.J.; Pelz, D.M.
1985-09-01
A prospective study involving 87 patients was carried out to evaluate the necessity for a high dose of contrast material in addition to delayed computed tomographic (CT) scanning for optimal detection of the lesions of multiple sclerosis in the brain. In patients with either clinically definite multiple sclerosis or laboratory-supported definite multiple sclerosis, CT scans were obtained with a uniform protocol. Lesions consistent with multiple sclerosis were demonstrated on the second scan in 54 patients. In 36 of these 54 patients, the high-dose delayed scan added information. These results are quite similar to those of a previous study from this institution using different patients, in whom the second scan was obtained immediately after the bolus injection of contrast material containing 40 g of organically bound iodine. The lack of real difference in the results of the two studies indicate that the increased dose, not just the delay in scanning, is necessary for a proper study.
Large-scale structure effects on the gravitational lens image positions and time delay
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Seljak, Uros
1994-01-01
We compute the fluctuations in gravitational lens image positions and time delay caused by large-scale structure correlations. We show that these fluctuations can be expressed as a simple integral over the density power spectrum. Using the Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) normalization we find that positions of objects at cosmological distances are expected to deviate from their true positions by few arcminutes. These deflections are not directly observable. The positions of the images relative to one another fluctuate by a few percent of the relative separation, implying that one does not expect multiple images to be produced by large-scale structure. Nevertheless, the fluctuations are larger than the observational errors on the positions and affect reconstructions of the lens potential. The time delay fluctuations have a geometrical and a gravitational contribution. Both are much larger than the expected time delay from the primary lens, but partially cancel each other. We find that large-scale structure weakly affects the time delay and time delay measurements can be used as a probe of the distance scale in the universe.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Appleton-Knapp, Sara L.; Krentler, Kathleen A.
2006-01-01
Two studies investigate the relationship between student expectations and student satisfaction. Can students' satisfaction with a course be accurately predicted by comparing their perceptions to their expectations (as suggested by the expectancy/disconfirmation paradigm)? The results of these studies suggest that the answer to this question is…
Memory for Expectation-Violating Concepts: The Effects of Agents and Cultural Familiarity
Porubanova, Michaela; Shaw, Daniel Joel; McKay, Ryan; Xygalatas, Dimitris
2014-01-01
Previous research has shown that ideas which violate our expectations, such as schema-inconsistent concepts, enjoy privileged status in terms of memorability. In our study, memory for concepts that violate cultural (cultural schema-level) expectations (e.g., illiterate teacher, wooden bottle, or thorny grass) versus domain-level (ontological) expectations (e.g., speaking cat, jumping maple, or melting teacher) was examined. Concepts that violate cultural expectations, or counter-schematic, were remembered to a greater extent compared with concepts that violate ontological expectations and with intuitive concepts (e.g., galloping pony, drying orchid, or convertible car), in both immediate recall, and delayed recognition tests. Importantly, concepts related to agents showed a memory advantage over concepts not pertaining to agents, but this was true only for expectation-violating concepts. Our results imply that intuitive, everyday concepts are equally attractive and memorable regardless of the presence or absence of agents. However, concepts that violate our expectations (cultural-schema or domain-level) are more memorable when pertaining to agents (humans and animals) than to non-agents (plants or objects/artifacts). We conclude that due to their evolutionary salience, cultural ideas which combine expectancy violations and the involvement of an agent are especially memorable and thus have an enhanced probability of being successfully propagated. PMID:24714568
Memory for expectation-violating concepts: the effects of agents and cultural familiarity.
Porubanova, Michaela; Shaw, Daniel Joel; McKay, Ryan; Xygalatas, Dimitris
2014-01-01
Previous research has shown that ideas which violate our expectations, such as schema-inconsistent concepts, enjoy privileged status in terms of memorability. In our study, memory for concepts that violate cultural (cultural schema-level) expectations (e.g., "illiterate teacher", "wooden bottle", or "thorny grass") versus domain-level (ontological) expectations (e.g., "speaking cat", "jumping maple", or "melting teacher") was examined. Concepts that violate cultural expectations, or counter-schematic, were remembered to a greater extent compared with concepts that violate ontological expectations and with intuitive concepts (e.g., "galloping pony", "drying orchid", or "convertible car"), in both immediate recall, and delayed recognition tests. Importantly, concepts related to agents showed a memory advantage over concepts not pertaining to agents, but this was true only for expectation-violating concepts. Our results imply that intuitive, everyday concepts are equally attractive and memorable regardless of the presence or absence of agents. However, concepts that violate our expectations (cultural-schema or domain-level) are more memorable when pertaining to agents (humans and animals) than to non-agents (plants or objects/artifacts). We conclude that due to their evolutionary salience, cultural ideas which combine expectancy violations and the involvement of an agent are especially memorable and thus have an enhanced probability of being successfully propagated. PMID:24714568
RESPONSE ACQUISITION BY HUMANS WITH DELAYED REINFORCEMENT
Okouchi, Hiroto
2009-01-01
The present experiment examined whether a response class was acquired by humans with delayed reinforcement. Eight white circles were presented on a computer touch screen. If the undergraduates touched two of the eight circles in a specified sequence (i.e., touching first the upper-left circle then the bottom-left circle), then the touches initiated an unsignaled resetting delay culminating in point delivery. Participants experienced one of three different delays (0 s, 10 s, or 30 s). Rates of the target two-response sequence were higher with delayed reinforcement than with no reinforcement. Terminal rates of the target sequence decreased and postreinforcement pauses increased as a function of delay duration. Other undergraduates exposed to yoked schedules of response-independent point deliveries failed to acquire the sequence. The results demonstrate that a response class was acquired with delayed reinforcement, extending the generality of this phenomenon found with nonhuman animals to humans. PMID:19949494
Delay banking for air traffic management
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Green, Steven M. (Inventor)
2007-01-01
A method and associated system for time delay banking for aircraft arrival time, aircraft departure time and/or en route flight position. The delay credit value for a given flight may decrease with passage of time and may be transferred to or traded with other flights having the same or a different user (airline owner or operator). The delay credit value for a given aircraft flight depends upon an initial delay credit value, which is determined by a central system and depends upon one or more other flight characteristics. Optionally, the delay credit value decreases with passage of time. Optionally, a transaction cost is assessed against a delay credit value that is used on behalf of another flight with the same user or is traded with a different user.
Exponential stability of stochastic differential delay systems with delayed impulse effects
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wu, Xiaotai; Yan, Litan; Zhang, Wenbing; Tang, Yang
2011-09-01
In this paper, we investigate the stability of stochastic delay differential systems with delayed impulses by Razumikhin methods. Some criteria on the pth moment exponential stability are obtained. It is shown that if a stochastic delay differential system is exponentially stable, then under some conditions, its stability is robust or weaken with respect to delayed impulses. Moreover, it is also shown that an unstable stochastic delay system can be successfully stabilized by delayed impulses. The effectiveness of the proposed results is illustrated by three examples.
Terrestrial Planet Finder cryogenic delay line development
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Smythe, Robert F.; Swain, Mark R.; Alvarez-Salazar, Oscar; Moore, James D.
2004-01-01
Delay lines provide the path-length compensation that makes the measurement of interference fringes possible. When used for nulling interferometry, the delay line must control path-lengths so that the null is stable and controlled throughout the measurement. We report on a low noise, low disturbance, and high bandwidth optical delay line capable of meeting the TPF interferometer optical path length control requirements at cryogenic temperatures.
Compact programmable photonic variable delay devices
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Yao, X. Steve (Inventor)
1999-01-01
Optical variable delay devices for providing variable true time delay to multiple optical beams simultaneously. A ladder-structured variable delay device comprises multiple basic building blocks stacked on top of each other resembling a ladder. Each basic building block has two polarization beamsplitters and a polarization rotator array arranged to form a trihedron; Controlling an array element of the polarization rotator array causes a beam passing through the array element either going up to a basic building block above it or reflect back towards a block below it. The beams going higher on the ladder experience longer optical path delay. An index-switched optical variable delay device comprises of many birefringent crystal segments connected with one another, with a polarization rotator array sandwiched between any two adjacent crystal segments. An array element in the polarization rotator array controls the polarization state of a beam passing through the element, causing the beam experience different refractive indices or path delays in the following crystal segment. By independently control each element in each polarization rotator array, variable optical path delays of each beam can be achieved. Finally, an index-switched variable delay device and a ladder-structured variable device are cascaded to form a new device which combines the advantages of the two individual devices. This programmable optic device has the properties of high packing density, low loss, easy fabrication, and virtually infinite bandwidth. The device is inherently two dimensional and has a packing density exceeding 25 lines/cm.sup.2. The delay resolution of the device is on the order of a femtosecond (one micron in space) and the total delay exceeds 10 nanosecond. In addition, the delay is reversible so that the same delay device can be used for both antenna transmitting and receiving.
College Bound? Make the Right Choices
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Robinson, Jenna Ashley
2009-01-01
"College Bound? Make the Right Choices" is the Pope Center's latest tool for improving colleges and universities "from the bottom up" through better choices. Its purpose is to help high school students and their parents become smarter purchasers of higher education. This booklet by Jenna Ashley Robinson helps young people think through what they
Opinion formation with upper and lower bounds
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yano, Ryosuke; Martin, Arnaud
2015-12-01
We investigate the opinion formation with upper and lower bounds. We formulate the binary exchange of opinions between two peoples under the second (or political) party using the relativistic inelastic-Boltzmann-Vlasov equation with randomly perturbed motion. In this paper, we discuss the relativistic effects on the opinion formation of peoples from the standpoint of the relativistic kinetic theory.
Lifetime of a Chemically Bound Helium Compound
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chaban, Galina M.; Lundell, Jan; Gerber, R. Benny; Kwak, Dochan (Technical Monitor)
2001-01-01
The rare-gas atoms are chemically inert, to an extent unique among all elements. This is due to the stable electronic structure of the atoms. Stable molecules with chemically bound rare-gas atoms are, however, known. A first such compound, XePtF6, W2S prepared in 1962 and since then a range of molecules containing radon, xenon and krypton have been obtained. Most recently, a first stable chemically bound compound of argon was prepared, leaving neon and helium as the only elements for which stable chemically bound molecules are not yet known. Electronic structure calculations predict that a metastable species HHeF exists, but significance of the result depends on the unknown lifetime. Here we report quantum dynamics calculations of the lifetime of HHeF, using accurate interactions computed from electronic structure theory. HHeF is shown to disintegrate by tunneling through energy barriers into He + HF and H + He + F the first channel greatly dominating. The lifetime of HHeF is more than 120 picoseconds, that of DHeF is 14 nanoseconds. The relatively long lifetimes are encouraging for the preparation prospects of this first chemically bound helium compound.
Outward Bound as an Adjunct to Therapy.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Chase, Nelson K.
The Colorado Outward Bound School (COBS) provides successful adjunct programs for special populations undergoing therapy at the Adventure Home (Boulder, CO), the Juvenile Justice Program and the St. Luke's Hospital Alcoholism Recovery Unit (Denver, CO), and the Dartmouth-Hitchcock Medical Center Department of Psychiatry (Hanover, NH). The goals of