Note: This page contains sample records for the topic bounded expected delay from Science.gov.
While these samples are representative of the content of Science.gov,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of Science.gov
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.
Last update: August 15, 2014.
1

Exact admission control for networks with a bounded delay service  

Microsoft Academic Search

To support the requirements for the transmission of continuous media, such as audio andvideo, multiservice packet switching networks must provide service guarantees to connections,including guarantees on throughput, network delays, and network delay variations. For themost demanding applications, the network must offer a service which can provide deterministicguarantees for the maximum delay of packets from all connections, referred to as bounded

Jörg Liebeherr; Dallas E. Wrege; Domenico Ferrari

1996-01-01

2

Analysing Shortest Expected Delay Routing for Erlang Servers.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The queueing problem with a Poisson arrival stream and two identical, Erlang servers is analyzed for the queueing discipline based on shortest expected delay. This queueing problem may be represented as a random walk on the integer grid in the first quadr...

I. J. B. F. Adan J. Wessels

1993-01-01

3

The Online Expectations of College-Bound Juniors and Seniors. E-Expectations Report, 2012  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Noel-Levitz, OmniUpdate, CollegeWeekLive, and NRCCUA[R] (National Research Center for College & University Admissions) conducted a survey of 2,000 college-bound juniors and seniors about their expectations for college Web sites, mobile usage, e-mail, and social media. Among the findings: (1) More than 50 percent of students said the Web played a…

Noel-Levitz, Inc, 2012

2012-01-01

4

Packet Audio Playout Delay Adjustment: Performance Bounds and Algorithms  

Microsoft Academic Search

In packet audio applications, packets are buffered at a receiving site and their playout delayed in order to com- pensate for variable network delays. In this paper, we con- sider the problem of adaptively adjusting the playout delay in order to keep this delay as small as possible, while at the same time avoiding excessive \\

Sue B. Moon; James F. Kurose; Donald F. Towsley

1998-01-01

5

Projection bounds on expectations of generalized order statistics from DD and DDA families  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present sharp upper mean-variance bounds for expectations of generalized order statistics based on distributions coming from restricted families of distributions. Two families are considered: distributions with decreasing density and with density decreasing on the average. The bounds are derived by application of the projection method.

Mariusz Bieniek

2008-01-01

6

Sharp bounds for expectations of spacings from DDA and DFRA families  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present sharp upper bounds for the expectations of spacings from i.i.d. samples coming from restricted families of distributions. Two families are considered: distributions with decreasing density on the average and with decreasing failure rate on the average. We also characterize the distributions attaining the bounds. The results are obtained by projecting functions onto convex cones in Hilbert spaces.

Katarzyna Danielak; Tomasz Rychlik

2003-01-01

7

Bounded Linear Stability Analysis - A Time Delay Margin Estimation Approach for Adaptive Control  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper presents a method for estimating time delay margin for model-reference adaptive control of systems with almost linear structured uncertainty. The bounded linear stability analysis method seeks to represent the conventional model-reference adaptive law by a locally bounded linear approximation within a small time window using the comparison lemma. The locally bounded linear approximation of the combined adaptive system is cast in a form of an input-time-delay differential equation over a small time window. The time delay margin of this system represents a local stability measure and is computed analytically by a matrix measure method, which provides a simple analytical technique for estimating an upper bound of time delay margin. Based on simulation results for a scalar model-reference adaptive control system, both the bounded linear stability method and the matrix measure method are seen to provide a reasonably accurate and yet not too conservative time delay margin estimation.

Nguyen, Nhan T.; Ishihara, Abraham K.; Krishnakumar, Kalmanje Srinlvas; Bakhtiari-Nejad, Maryam

2009-01-01

8

An Upper Bound for the Expected Range of a Random Sample  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We consider the expected range of a random sample of points chosen from the interval [0, 1] according to some probability distribution. We then use the notion of convexity to derive an upper bound for this expected range which is valid for all possible choices of this distribution. Finally we show that there is only one distribution for which this…

Marengo, James; Lopez, Manuel

2010-01-01

9

Bounded Linear Stability Analysis - A Time Delay Margin Estimation Approach for Adaptive Control.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper presents a method for estimating time delay margin for model-reference adaptive control of systems with almost linear structured uncertainty. The bounded linear stability analysis method seeks to represent the conventional model-reference adapt...

A. K. Ishihara K. Krishnakumar M. Bakhtiari-Nejad N. T. Nguyen

2009-01-01

10

Multihop Packet Delay Bound Violation Modeling for Resource Allocation in Video Streaming Over Mesh Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resource allocation plays a critical role in multisession video streaming over mesh networks to maximize the overall video presentation quality under transmission delay and network resource constraints. A critical component in efficient resource allocation is to analyze and model the multihop queuing behavior along the transmission path, estimate the packet loss ratio due to delay bound violation, and predict the

Yunsheng Zhang; Yongfei Zhang; Shixin Sun; Shiyin Qin; Zhihai He

2010-01-01

11

Bounded-mean-delay throughput and nonstarvation conditions in Aloha network  

Microsoft Academic Search

Prior investigations on the Aloha network have primarily focused on its system throughput. Good system throughput, however, does not automatically translate to good delay performance for the end users. Neither is fairness guaranteed: Some users may starve, while others hog the system. This paper establishes the conditions for bounded mean queuing delay and nonstarved operation of the slotted Aloha network.

Soung Chang Liew; Ying Jun Zhang; Da Rui Chen

2009-01-01

12

Bounded Mean-Delay Throughput and Non-Starvation Conditions in Aloha Network  

Microsoft Academic Search

Prior investigations on the Aloha network has primarily focused on its system throughput. Good system throughput, however, does not automatically translate to good delay performance for the end users. Neither is fairness guaranteed: some users may starve while others hog the system. This paper establishes the conditions for bounded mean queuing delay and non-starved operation of the slotted Aloha network.

Soung Chang Liew; Ying Jun Zhang; Da Rui Chen

2008-01-01

13

Early angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition in Alport syndrome delays renal failure and improves life expectancy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alport syndrome inevitably leads to end-stage renal disease and there are no therapies known to improve outcome. Here we determined whether angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors can delay time to dialysis and improve life expectancy in three generations of Alport families. Patients were categorized by renal function at the initiation of therapy and included 33 with hematuria or microalbuminuria, 115 with proteinuria,

Oliver Gross; Christoph Licht; Hans J Anders; Bernd Hoppe; Bodo Beck; Burkhard Tönshoff; Britta Höcker; Simone Wygoda; Jochen H H Ehrich; Lars Pape; Martin Konrad; Wolfgang Rascher; Jörg Dötsch; Dirk E Müller-Wiefel; Peter Hoyer; Bertrand Knebelmann; Yves Pirson; Jean-Pierre Grunfeld; Patrick Niaudet; Pierre Cochat; Laurence Heidet; Said Lebbah; Roser Torra; Tim Friede; Katharina Lange; Gerhard A Müller; Manfred Weber

2012-01-01

14

Expectancy of an open-book test decreases performance on a delayed closed-book test  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two experiments examined the influence of practice with, and the expectancy of, open-book tests (students viewed studied material while taking the test) versus closed-book tests (students completed the test without viewing the studied material) on delayed retention and transfer. Using GRE materials specifically designed for open-book testing, participants studied passages and then took initial open- or closed-book tests. Open-book testing

Pooja K. Agarwal; Henry L. Roediger III

2011-01-01

15

Bounded error parameter estimation for models described by ordinary and delay differential equations  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we focus on the problem of parameter identification for non-linear dynamical systems in the case when the number of data samples are too small for standard statistical analysis. The models are described by ordinary and delay differential equations with bounded errors. When the number of data samples is very small, standard validation methods are not applicable because

John A. Burns; Adam F. Childers

2009-01-01

16

Harder than Expected: Increased Conflict in Clearly Disadvantageous Delayed Choices in a Computer Game  

PubMed Central

When choosing between immediate and temporally delayed goods, people sometimes decide disadvantageously. Here, we aim to provide process-level insight into differences between individually determined advantageous and disadvantageous choices. Participants played a computer game, deciding between two different rewards of varying size and distance by moving an agent towards the chosen reward. We calculated individual models of advantageous choices and characterized the decision process by analyzing mouse movements. The larger amount of participants’ choices was classified as advantageous and the disadvantageous choices were biased towards choosing sooner/smaller rewards. The deflection of mouse movements indicated more conflict in disadvantageous choices compared with advantageous choices when the utilities of the options differed clearly. Further process oriented analysis revealed that disadvantageous choices were biased by a tendency for choice-repetition and an undervaluation of the value information in favour of the delay information, making rather simple choices harder than could be expected from the properties of the decision situation.

Leiberg, Susanne; Goschke, Thomas

2013-01-01

17

Delayed birth of distillable entanglement in the evolution of bound entangled states  

SciTech Connect

The dynamical creation of entanglement between three-level atoms coupled to the common vacuum is investigated. For the class of bound entangled initial states, we show that the dynamics of closely separated atoms generates stationary distillable entanglement of asymptotic states. We also find that the effect of delayed sudden birth of distillable entanglement occurs in the case of atoms separated by a distance comparable with the radiation wavelength.

Derkacz, Lukasz; Jakobczyk, Lech [Opera Software International AS, Oddzialw Polsce, ul. Szewska 8, 50-122 Wroclaw (Poland); Institute of Theoretical Physics, University of Wroclaw, Plac Maxa Borna 9, 50-204 Wroclaw (Poland)

2010-08-15

18

Per-hop based scheduling for delay bounded search in Gnutella-like networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gnutella-like P2P networks typically adopt flooding-based search techniques to locate files. However, due to flooding's poor scalability, research efforts have been made to solve this problem. The search response time, which is another important user-perceivable parameter, has received little attention. In this work, we investigate the performance of a novel search algorithm for the overlay networks with bounded search delay

Haoxiang Zhang; Junxiu Lu; Xiuming Shan; Yong Ren

2005-01-01

19

The Mobile Browsing Behaviors and Expectations of College-Bound High School Students. An E-Expectations Trend Report  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The last decade marked a dramatic change in the college search experience as students flocked to the Internet as their primary tool for researching colleges. Institutions had to transform their recruitment efforts to keep up with the online demands and expectations of prospective students. The proliferation of smartphones is transforming the…

Noel-Levitz, Inc, 2012

2012-01-01

20

Influence of phase on Cramer-Rao lower bounds for joint time delay and Doppler stretch estimation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Cramer-Rao lower bounds for joint time delay and Doppler stretch estimation have been obtained for wideband signals with known phase already. However, the carrier phase is usually unknown in non-coherent receivers in the applications such as radar and sonar. And accuracy of the joint estimation of time delay and Doppler stretch will be affected by this unknown phase. In

Hewen Wei; Shangfu Ye; Qun Wan

2007-01-01

21

Delayed symptom onset and increased life expectancy in Sandhoff disease mice treated with N-butyldeoxynojirimycin.  

PubMed

Sandhoff disease is a neurodegenerative disorder resulting from the autosomal recessive inheritance of mutations in the HEXB gene, which encodes the beta-subunit of beta-hexosaminidase. GM2 ganglioside fails to be degraded and accumulates within lysosomes in cells of the periphery and the central nervous system (CNS). There are currently no therapies for the glycosphingolipid lysosomal storage diseases that involve CNS pathology, including the GM2 gangliosidoses. One strategy for treating this and related diseases is substrate deprivation. This would utilize an inhibitor of glycosphingolipid biosynthesis to balance synthesis with the impaired rate of catabolism, thus preventing storage. One such inhibitor is N-butyldeoxynojirimycin, which currently is in clinical trials for the potential treatment of type 1 Gaucher disease, a related disease that involves glycosphingolipid storage in peripheral tissues, but not in the CNS. In this study, we have evaluated whether this drug also could be applied to the treatment of diseases with CNS storage and pathology. We therefore have treated a mouse model of Sandhoff disease with the inhibitor N-butyldeoxynojirimycin. The treated mice have delayed symptom onset, reduced storage in the brain and peripheral tissues, and increased life expectancy. Substrate deprivation therefore offers a potentially general therapy for this family of lysosomal storage diseases, including those with CNS disease. PMID:10339597

Jeyakumar, M; Butters, T D; Cortina-Borja, M; Hunnam, V; Proia, R L; Perry, V H; Dwek, R A; Platt, F M

1999-05-25

22

Delayed symptom onset and increased life expectancy in Sandhoff disease mice treated with N-butyldeoxynojirimycin  

PubMed Central

Sandhoff disease is a neurodegenerative disorder resulting from the autosomal recessive inheritance of mutations in the HEXB gene, which encodes the ?-subunit of ?-hexosaminidase. GM2 ganglioside fails to be degraded and accumulates within lysosomes in cells of the periphery and the central nervous system (CNS). There are currently no therapies for the glycosphingolipid lysosomal storage diseases that involve CNS pathology, including the GM2 gangliosidoses. One strategy for treating this and related diseases is substrate deprivation. This would utilize an inhibitor of glycosphingolipid biosynthesis to balance synthesis with the impaired rate of catabolism, thus preventing storage. One such inhibitor is N-butyldeoxynojirimycin, which currently is in clinical trials for the potential treatment of type 1 Gaucher disease, a related disease that involves glycosphingolipid storage in peripheral tissues, but not in the CNS. In this study, we have evaluated whether this drug also could be applied to the treatment of diseases with CNS storage and pathology. We therefore have treated a mouse model of Sandhoff disease with the inhibitor N-butyldeoxynojirimycin. The treated mice have delayed symptom onset, reduced storage in the brain and peripheral tissues, and increased life expectancy. Substrate deprivation therefore offers a potentially general therapy for this family of lysosomal storage diseases, including those with CNS disease.

Jeyakumar, Mylvaganam; Butters, Terry D.; Cortina-Borja, Mario; Hunnam, Victoria; Proia, Richard L.; Perry, V. Hugh; Dwek, Raymond A.; Platt, Frances M.

1999-01-01

23

Bounded consensus tracking of second-order multi-agent systems with sampling delay under directed networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The bounded consensus tracking problems of second-order multi-agent systems under directed networks with sampling delay are addressed in this paper. When the sampling delay is more than a sampling period, new protocols based on sampled-data control are proposed so that each agent can track the time-varying reference state of the virtual leader. By using the delay decomposition approach, the augmented matrix method, and the frequency domain analysis, necessary and sufficient conditions are obtained, which guarantee that the bounded consensus tracking is realized. Furthermore, some numerical simulations are presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of the theoretical results.

Li, Li; Fang, Hua-Jing

2013-11-01

24

Effect of time delay on the upper bound of the time derivative of information entropy in a stochastic dynamical system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effects of the time delay on the upper bound of the time derivative of information entropy are investigated in a time-delayed dynamical system driven by correlated noise. Using the Markov approximation of the stochastic delay differential equations and the Schwartz inequality principle, we obtain an analytical expression for the upper bound UB(t) of the time derivative of the information entropy. The results show that there is a critical value of ? (delay time), and UB(t) presents opposite behaviours on difference sides of the critical value. For the case of the weak additive noise, ? can induce a reentrance transition. Delay time ? also causes a reversal behaviour in UB(t)-? plot, where ? denotes the degree of the correlation between the two noises.

Zhang, Min-Min; Wang, Can-Jun; Mei, Dong-Cheng

2011-11-01

25

Kindergarten Teachers' Expectations of Preschoolers Labeled Developmentally Delayed: A Pilot Study.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined 50 kindergarten teachers' perceptions of the success of students who were labeled "developmentally delayed," and of students who had not been so labeled. The term "developmentally delayed" is used to identify young children in need of early intervention. Teachers' perceptions about the teaching skills they used when working…

Zimmerman, Sara Olin; And Others

26

Cosmological bounds to the variation of the Higgs vacuum expectation value: BBN constraints  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We calculate the dependence of the deuterium binding energy upon the Higgs vacuum expectation value (v), by using different effective nucleon-nucleon potentials, and set constraints on the time variation of the Higgs vacuum expectation value from Big Bang Nucleosynthesis. The analysis is based on the calculation of the abundances of primordial D, 4He and 7Li. Results are consistent with variations of v/? in the early universe, within 6? if all available data on primordial abundances are considered in the analysis.

Civitarese, O.; Moliné, M. A.; Mosquera, M. E.

2010-11-01

27

The Elmore delay as bound for RC trees with generalized input signals  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Elmore delay is an extremely popular delay metric, par- ticularly for RC tree analysis. The widespread usage of this met- ric is mainly attributable to it being the most accurate delay measure that is a simple analytical function of the circuit param- eters. The only drawbacks to this delay metric are the uncertain- ty as to whether it is

Rohini Gupta; Byron Krauter; Bogdan Tutuianu; John Willis; Lawrence T. Pileggi

1995-01-01

28

The Elmore delay as a bound for RC trees with generalized input signals  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT The Elmore delay is an extremely popular delay metric, par- ticularly for RC tree analysis. The widespread usage of this met- ric is mainly attributable to it being the most accurate delay measure that is a simple analytical function of the circuit param- eters. The only drawbacks to this delay metric are the uncertain- ty as to whether it

Rohini Gupta; Bogdan Tutuianu; Lawrence T. Pileggi

1997-01-01

29

Reperfusion options in ST-elevation myocardial infarction patients with expected delays.  

PubMed

Primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PPCI) is the optimal reperfusion strategy for ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) patients when performed in a timely manner by experienced providers. Unfortunately, only 25% of US hospitals have percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) capability. Transfer for PPCI has also been shown to improve outcomes if transfer times are short and PCI can be performed within 90 minutes. However, many STEMI patients cannot be transferred in a timely fashion because of long distances, adverse weather, or process-of-care delays. Recent data support strategies that combine fibrinolysis with transfer for PCI under these circumstances. The critical issue that is still debated is the timing of PCI (immediate vs delayed vs rescue). The significance of time to reperfusion to mortality is important but less critical for PCI than for fibrinolysis, but time still matters. To optimize time to reperfusion for STEMI patients, all hospitals need to have predetermined protocols in place based on hospital characteristics and proximity to a catheterization laboratory. PMID:18715539

Larson, David M; Henry, Timothy D

2008-09-01

30

Hemodynamic segmentation of brain perfusion images with delay and dispersion effects using an expectation-maximization algorithm.  

PubMed

Automatic identification of various perfusion compartments from dynamic susceptibility contrast magnetic resonance brain images can assist in clinical diagnosis and treatment of cerebrovascular diseases. The principle of segmentation methods was based on the clustering of bolus transit-time profiles to discern areas of different tissues. However, the cerebrovascular diseases may result in a delayed and dispersed local perfusion and therefore alter the hemodynamic signal profiles. Assessing the accuracy of the segmentation technique under delayed/dispersed circumstance is critical to accurately evaluate the severity of the vascular disease. In this study, we improved the segmentation method of expectation-maximization algorithm by using the results of hierarchical clustering on whitened perfusion data as initial parameters for a mixture of multivariate Gaussians model. In addition, Monte Carlo simulations were conducted to evaluate the performance of proposed method under different levels of delay, dispersion, and noise of signal profiles in tissue segmentation. The proposed method was used to classify brain tissue types using perfusion data from five normal participants, a patient with unilateral stenosis of the internal carotid artery, and a patient with moyamoya disease. Our results showed that the normal, delayed or dispersed hemodynamics can be well differentiated for patients, and therefore the local arterial input function for impaired tissues can be recognized to minimize the error when estimating the cerebral blood flow. Furthermore, the tissue in the risk of infarct and the tissue with or without the complementary blood supply from the communicating arteries can be identified. PMID:23894386

Lu, Chia-Feng; Guo, Wan-Yuo; Chang, Feng-Chi; Huang, Shang-Ran; Chou, Yen-Chun; Wu, Yu-Te

2013-01-01

31

Expect Delays: An Analysis of Air Travel Trends in the United States  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

There has been talk about an airline passenger "Bill of Rights" for years, and this recent report from the Brookings Institution might renew calls for such a document. Released in October 2009, this report by Robert Puentes and Adie Tomer looks at national and metropolitan levels of commercial air patterns between 1990 and 2009 and finds that half of the country's flights are routes of less than 500 miles and that the 26 largest metropolitan airline hubs continue to have the lion's share of flight delays. The report notes that despite a bit of flight time recovery during the recent economic crisis, "the return of economic growth will resume the boost in travelers, a concomitant decline in on-time performance, and the hyper-concentration of U.S. air travel within major metropolitan areas." The report includes links to recent analyses of air travel trends in the intermountain West and the Great Lakes region, and an appendix of metropolitan hubs.

32

A new upper bound for the norm of interval matrices with application to robust stability analysis of delayed neural networks.  

PubMed

The main problem with the analysis of robust stability of neural networks is to find the upper bound norm for the intervalized interconnection matrices of neural networks. In the previous literature, the major three upper bound norms for the intervalized interconnection matrices have been reported and they have been successfully applied to derive new sufficient conditions for robust stability of delayed neural networks. One of the main contributions of this paper will be the derivation of a new upper bound for the norm of the intervalized interconnection matrices of neural networks. Then, by exploiting this new upper bound norm of interval matrices and using stability theory of Lyapunov functionals and the theory of homomorphic mapping, we will obtain new sufficient conditions for the existence, uniqueness and global asymptotic stability of the equilibrium point for the class of neural networks with discrete time delays under parameter uncertainties and with respect to continuous and slope-bounded activation functions. The results obtained in this paper will be shown to be new and they can be considered alternative results to previously published corresponding results. We also give some illustrative and comparative numerical examples to demonstrate the effectiveness and applicability of the proposed robust stability condition. PMID:23571286

Faydasicok, Ozlem; Arik, Sabri

2013-08-01

33

First-order queries on structures of bounded degree are computable with constant delay  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract A bounded,degree structure is either a relational structureall of whose,relations are of bounded,degree,or a functional structure involving,bijective functions only. In this paper, we revisit the complexity of the evaluation problemof not necessarily Boolean first-order queries over structures of bounded,degree. Query evaluation is considered,here as a dynamical,process. We prove,that any query on bounded degree structures is CONSTANT-DELAYlin, i.e., can be

Arnaud Durand; Etienne Grandjean

2005-01-01

34

Quadratic stabilization of continuous time systems with state-delay and norm-bounded time-varying uncertainties  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper develops a method for designing a feedback control law to stabilize a class of uncertain linear systems. The class of systems under consideration is described by a continuous-time model with variable-state delay and depends on time-varying unknown-but-bounded uncertain parameters. It is shown that the construction of the stabilizing controller involves solving a certain algebraic Riccati equation. Several previous

Magdi S. Mahmoud; Naser F. Al-Muthairi

1994-01-01

35

Delay-bounded packet scheduling of bursty traffic over wireless channels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract— In this paper, we study minimal power transmission of bursty sources over wireless channels with constraints on mean queuing delay. The power minimizing schedulers adapt power and rate of transmission based on the queue and channel state. We show that packet scheduling based on queue state can be used to trade queuing delay with transmission power, even on additive

Dinesh Rajan; Ashutosh Sabharwal; Behnaam Aazhang

2004-01-01

36

Delay in the progression of low-risk prostate cancer: Rationale and design of the Reduction by Dutasteride of Clinical Progression Events in Expectant Management (REDEEM) trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

PurposeMen with prostate cancer may live as long as men their age without prostate cancer. Those with low-risk disease may benefit from expectant management, which actively monitors disease progression. Dutasteride, a dual 5?-reductase inhibitor (5ARI), may delay prostate cancer progression or extend the time to initiation of more aggressive therapy.

Neil Fleshner; Leonard G. Gomella; Michael S. Cookson; Antonio Finelli; Andrew Evans; Samir S. Taneja; M. Scott Lucia; Eric Wolford; Matthew C. Somerville; Roger Rittmaster

2007-01-01

37

[What causes self-control failure in delayed-cost dilemma: the role of affective expectancy and regulatory resource].  

PubMed

Two studies were conducted to examine the effect of affects on self-control behavior in delayed cost dilemma. Results of Study 1 suggested that long term negative affects such as regret and self-disgust might have facilitating effects on motivation of self-control if they were anticipated before delayed-cost dilemma situations, but inhibiting effects on self-efficacy of control when experienced after dilemma situations. Study 2 examined the effect of affect priming on self-control in eating behavior, as well as an interaction effect of anticipated affect and regulatory resource on it. Results indicated that participants who had enough regulatory resource succeeded in self-control, i.e. they ate less, regardless of the type of affect priming, but those who did not have sufficient resource and were not primed with long-term negative affects failed to control their behavior. It was argued that regulatory resource explanation of self-control should be expanded to the theory including anticipated affects. PMID:16862961

Yamaoka, Hiroshi; Karasawa, Kaori

2006-04-01

38

Stochastic bounded consensus tracking of leader-follower multi-agent systems with measurement noises based on sampled-data with small sampling delay  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper is concerned with the stochastic bounded consensus tracking problems of leader-follower multi-agent systems, where the control input of an agent can only use the information measured at the sampling instants from its neighborhood agents or a virtual leader with a time-varying reference state, the measurements are corrupted by random noises, and the signal sampling process induces a small sampling delay. The augmented matrix method, probability limit theory and algebra graph theory are employed to derive the necessary and sufficient conditions guaranteeing mean square bounded consensus tracking. It turns out that the convergence of the proposed protocol simultaneously depends on the constant feedback gains, the network topology, the sampling period and the sampling delay, and that the static consensus tracking error depends on not only the above-mentioned factors, but also the noise intensity, the number of agents and the upper bound of the changing rate of the virtual leader’s state. The obtained results cover no sampling delay as a special case. Simulations are provided to demonstrate the effectiveness of the theoretical results.

Wu, Zhihai; Peng, Li; Xie, Linbo; Wen, Jiwei

2013-02-01

39

Bounds on the rate of uniform convergence of learning processes with equality-expect noise samples on quasi-probability space  

Microsoft Academic Search

The bounds on the rate of uniform convergence of learning processes play an important role in the Statistical Learning Theory. They provide theoretical bases for the application of support vector machine and reflect the generalization ability of the learning machines. This paper mainly deals with the bounds on the rate of uniform convergence of learning processes when samples are corrupted

Er-Ling Du; Ying-Xin Wang; Ming-Hu Ha

2009-01-01

40

Salivary Alpha Amylase and Cortisol Levels in Children with Global Developmental Delay and Their Relation with the Expectation of Dental Care and Behavior during the Intervention  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to analyze the alpha-amylase (sAA) and cortisol levels in children with Global developmental delay (GDD) before and after dental treatment and its association with the children's behavior during treatment. The morning salivary cortisol levels and activity of sAA of 33 children with GDD were evaluated before and after…

dos Santos, Marcio Jose Possari; Bernabe, Daniel Galera; Nakamune, Ana Claudia de Melo Stevanato; Perri, Silvia Helena Venturoli; de Aguiar, Sandra Maria Herondina Coelho Avila; de Oliveira, Sandra Helena Penha

2012-01-01

41

Optimal Simultaneous Confidence Bounds.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The notion of a simultaneous confidence bound is redefined by requiring a bound on the expected coverage measure (ECM) instead of the coverage probability. This is analogous to a criterion introduced by Spjoetvoll for defining simultaneous tests of hypoth...

D. Q. Naiman

1984-01-01

42

Rational Expectations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Rational Expectations was set up by Ralph Lazar, former strategist and economist for Goldman Sachs, Barings & Credit Suisse First Boston, as a "resource for anyone interested in [emerging markets] economics -- students, teachers, lecturers, journalists, professionals, or just the curious." A fully comprehensive guide to the people, places, and events of the economics world, Rational Expectations includes an searchable database of over 1,000 organizations and institutions in OECD countries and emerging markets, a conference calendar, and job listings. The site also links to academic, professional, and government organizations, as well as a huge suggested publication list and macroeconomic and financial market data. Rational Expectations will be a welcome resource for anyone interested in emerging markets economics.

Lazar, Ralph.

43

Great Expectations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses how some universities are proactively looking to improve, enhance, and increase student housing on-campus through new and renovated residence halls that meet and exceed the expectations of today's students. Renovation improvements related to maximizing security, enhancing a homelike environment; developing a sense of community, and…

Smith, Jana J.

2000-01-01

44

Expected Value  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students will use the random integer command on their graphing calculators to simulate rolling a die. They will then use operations on lists to analyze the probability of rolling the first 1 on the 1st roll, 2nd roll, and so on and finally find the expected value. Teacher notes explain in detail how to perform these actions on the graphing calculator.

2008-10-17

45

-delayed proton emission branches in 43Cr  

SciTech Connect

The + decay of very neutron-deficient 43Cr was studied by means of an imaging time projection chamber that allowed recording tracks of charged particles. Events of -delayed emission of one, two, and three protons were clearly identified. The absolute branching ratios for these channels were determined to be (81 4)%, (7.1 0.4)%, and (0.08 0.03)%, respectively. 43Cr is thus established as the second case in which the -3p decay occurs. Although the feeding to the proton-bound states in 43V is expected to be negligible, the large branching ratio of (12 4)% for decays without proton emission is found.

Pomorski, M. [University of Warsaw; Miernik, K. [University of Warsaw; Dominik, W. [University of Warsaw; Janas, Z. [University of Warsaw; Pfutzner, M. [University of Warsaw; Bingham, C. R. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Czyrkowski, H. [University of Warsaw; Cwiok, Mikolaj [Warsaw University; Darby, Iain [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Dabrowski, Ryszard [Warsaw University; Ginter, T. N. [Michigan State University, East Lansing; Grzywacz, Robert Kazimierz [ORNL; Karny, M. [University of Warsaw; Korgul, A. [University of Warsaw; Kusmierz, W. [University of Warsaw; Liddick, Sean [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Rajabali, M. M. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Rykaczewski, Krzysztof Piotr [ORNL; Stolz, A. [Michigan State University, East Lansing

2011-01-01

46

Delay-dependent robust H ? control for uncertain systems with a state-delay  

Microsoft Academic Search

A robust H? control for uncertain linear systems with a state-delay is described. Systems with norm-bounded parameter uncertainties are considered and linear memoryless state feedback controllers are obtained. Firstly, a delay-dependent bounded real lemma for systems with a state-delay is presented in terms of linear matrix inequalities (LMIs). By taking a new Lyapunov–Krasovsii functional, neither model transformation nor bounding for

Y. S. Lee; Y. S. Moon; W. H. Kwon; P. G. Park

2004-01-01

47

Outward Bound.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Outward Bound concept was developed in Germany and Great Britain with the saving of human life as the ultimate goal. Courses are designed to help students discover their true physical and mental limits through development of skills including emergency medical aid, firefighting, search and rescue, mountaineering, and sailing. Five Outward Bound

Outward Bound, Inc., Andover, MA.

48

An RFID Distance Bounding Protocol  

Microsoft Academic Search

Radio-frequency identification tokens, such as contactless smartcards, are vulnerable to relay attacks if they are used for proximity authentication. Attackers can circumvent the limited range of the radio channel using transponders that forward exchanged signals over larger distances. Cryptographic distance-bounding protocols that measure accurately the round-trip delay of the radio signal provide a possible countermeasure. They infer an upper bound

Gerhard P. Hancke; Markus G. Kuhn

2005-01-01

49

Delay-Dependent Exponential Stability of Neural Networks With Variable Delay: An LMI Approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

This brief focuses on the problem of delay-dependent stability analysis of neural networks with variable delay. Two types of variable delay are considered: one is differentiable and has bounded derivative; the other one is continuous and may vary very fast. By introducing a new type of Lyapunov-Krasovskii functional, new delay-dependent sufficient conditions for exponential stability of delayed neural networks are

Wu-Hua Chen; Xiaomei Lu; Zhi-Hong Guan; Wed Xing Zheng

2006-01-01

50

Delay-dependent robust  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article deals with the problem of robust stabilisation and ?? control for a class of uncertain stochastic time-delay system. The parametric uncertainties are real time-varying and norm bounded. The aim is to design a memoryless state-feedback control law such that the closed-loop system are robustly stochastically asymptotically stable in the mean square and the effect of the disturbance input

Yuanqing Xia; Jiqing Qiu; Jinhui Zhang; Zhifeng Gao; Jianfei Wang

2008-01-01

51

Improved delay-dependent stability criteria for time-delay systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

This note provides an improved asymptotic stability condition for time-delay systems in terms of a strict linear matrix inequality. Unlike previous methods, the mathematical development avoids bounding certain cross terms which often leads to conservatism. When time-varying norm-bounded uncertainties appear in a delay system, an improved robust delay-dependent stability condition is also given. Examples are provided to demonstrate the reduced

Shengyuan Xu; James Lam

2005-01-01

52

Modeling delay in genetic networks: from delay birth-death processes to delay stochastic differential equations.  

PubMed

Delay is an important and ubiquitous aspect of many biochemical processes. For example, delay plays a central role in the dynamics of genetic regulatory networks as it stems from the sequential assembly of first mRNA and then protein. Genetic regulatory networks are therefore frequently modeled as stochastic birth-death processes with delay. Here, we examine the relationship between delay birth-death processes and their appropriate approximating delay chemical Langevin equations. We prove a quantitative bound on the error between the pathwise realizations of these two processes. Our results hold for both fixed delay and distributed delay. Simulations demonstrate that the delay chemical Langevin approximation is accurate even at moderate system sizes. It captures dynamical features such as the oscillatory behavior in negative feedback circuits, cross-correlations between nodes in a network, and spatial and temporal information in two commonly studied motifs of metastability in biochemical systems. Overall, these results provide a foundation for using delay stochastic differential equations to approximate the dynamics of birth-death processes with delay. PMID:24880267

Gupta, Chinmaya; López, José Manuel; Azencott, Robert; Bennett, Matthew R; Josi?, Krešimir; Ott, William

2014-05-28

53

Modeling delay in genetic networks: From delay birth-death processes to delay stochastic differential equations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Delay is an important and ubiquitous aspect of many biochemical processes. For example, delay plays a central role in the dynamics of genetic regulatory networks as it stems from the sequential assembly of first mRNA and then protein. Genetic regulatory networks are therefore frequently modeled as stochastic birth-death processes with delay. Here, we examine the relationship between delay birth-death processes and their appropriate approximating delay chemical Langevin equations. We prove a quantitative bound on the error between the pathwise realizations of these two processes. Our results hold for both fixed delay and distributed delay. Simulations demonstrate that the delay chemical Langevin approximation is accurate even at moderate system sizes. It captures dynamical features such as the oscillatory behavior in negative feedback circuits, cross-correlations between nodes in a network, and spatial and temporal information in two commonly studied motifs of metastability in biochemical systems. Overall, these results provide a foundation for using delay stochastic differential equations to approximate the dynamics of birth-death processes with delay.

Gupta, Chinmaya; López, José Manuel; Azencott, Robert; Bennett, Matthew R.; Josi?, Krešimir; Ott, William

2014-05-01

54

Delay-dependent robust resilient guaranteed cost control for uncertain singular time-delay systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, the delay-dependent robust resilient guaranteed cost control for singular time-delay systems with norm-bounded parametric uncertainty is investigated. First, based on the delay-dependent stability criterion for the nominal singular time-delay system, a sufficient condition of the existence of the robust resilient guaranteed cost controller is established. Then the problem of robust resilient guaranteed cost control is solved via

Shuqian Zhu; Zhaolin Cheng

2005-01-01

55

Bibliography on Ultrasonic Delay Lines  

Microsoft Academic Search

.. .. .. -. of wave propagation in bounded elastic solids and with the basic elements of ultrasonic delay lines and the equivalent circuit; second, material relating to the means by which ultrasonic waves are generated, the electromechanical transducer; third, material relating to the transmission medium, principally vitreous silica, aluminum, magnesium, iso-elastic metal alloys, and, to some extent, mercury; and

M. D. Fagen

1954-01-01

56

Time Discretisation and Rate of Convergence for the Optimal Control of Continuous-Time Stochastic Systems with Delay  

SciTech Connect

We study a semi-discretisation scheme for stochastic optimal control problems whose dynamics are given by controlled stochastic delay (or functional) differential equations with bounded memory. Performance is measured in terms of expected costs. By discretising time in two steps, we construct a sequence of approximating finite-dimensional Markovian optimal control problems in discrete time. The corresponding value functions converge to the value function of the original problem, and we derive an upper bound on the discretisation error or, equivalently, a worst-case estimate for the rate of convergence.

Fischer, Markus [University of Heidelberg, Institute for Applied Mathematics (Germany)], E-mail: fischer@statlab.uni-heidelberg.de; Nappo, Giovanna [University of Rome 'La Sapienza', Department of Mathematics (Italy)], E-mail: nappo@mat.uniroma1.it

2008-04-15

57

Expecting the Best  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Educational expectations are psychological constructs that change over time and can be altered or influenced by various factors. The concept of educational expectations refers to how much schooling students realistically believe that they will complete. These expectations are eventually raised or lowered as students see others like themselves…

DiPaula, John

2010-01-01

58

Distributed Delay Jitter Control In Packet-Switching Internetworks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Delay jitter is the variation of the delays with which packets traveling on a network connection reachtheir destination. For good quality of reception, continuous-media (video, audio, image) streams requirethat jitter be kept below a sufficiently small upper bound. This paper proposes a distributed mechanism forcontrolling delay jitter in a packet-switching network. The mechanism can be applied to an internetworkthat satisfies

Domenico Ferrari

1993-01-01

59

Inverse momentum expectation values for hydrogenic systems  

SciTech Connect

By using the Fourier transforms of the general hydrogenic bound state wave functions (as ultraspherical polynomials), one may find expectation values of arbitrary functions of momentum p. In this manner the effect of a reciprocity perturbation b/p can be evaluated for all hydrogenic states.

Delbourgo, R.; Elliott, D. [School of Mathematics and Physics, University of Tasmania, Private Bag 37, GPO, Hobart, Tasmania 7001 (Australia)

2009-06-15

60

Resilient adaptive control of uncertain time-delay systems - a delay-dependent approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article, resilient delay-dependent adaptive control algorithms are developed for closed-loop stabilization of a class of uncertain time-delay systems with time-varying state delay, nonlinear dynamical perturbation, and controller gain perturbation. The norm of the nonlinear perturbation is assumed to be bounded by a weighted norm of the state such that the upper value of the weight is unknown, and

Hazem N. Nounou; Mohamed N. Nounou

2008-01-01

61

Delay-Dependent Guaranteed Cost Control for Uncertain Stochastic Fuzzy Systems with Time-Delay  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper studies a guaranteed cost control problem for a class of uncertain stochastic nonlinear systems with time-delay which can be approximated by Takagi-Sugeno (T-S) fuzzy model with time-delay and uncertainties (for short, uncertain stochastic fuzzy system with time-delay). By representing this class of stochastic fuzzy systems in the descriptor form and applying a recent result on bound of cross

Yingchun Wang; Huaguang Zhang; Sanqing Hu; Derong Liu

2006-01-01

62

Delay-dependent guaranteed cost control for uncertain systems with both state and input delays  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper considers the guaranteed cost control problem for a class of uncertain linear systems with both state and input\\u000a delays. By representing the time-delay system in the descriptor system form and using a recent result on bounding of cross\\u000a products of vectors, we obtain new delay-dependent sufficient conditions for the existence of the guaranteed cost controller\\u000a in terms of

Xuanfang Yang; Wuhua Chen; Huajing Fang

2004-01-01

63

Performance bounds for turbo-coded modulation systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

We apply the standard union bound to turbo-coded modulation systems with maximum-likelihood decoding. To illustrate the methodology, we explicitly derive the bounds for the 2-bits\\/s\\/Hz 16 QAM system. Generalization of this bound to other turbo-coded modulation systems is straightforward. As in the case of the standard union bound for turbo codes, we expect these bounds to be useful for rather

Tolga M. Duman; Masoud Salehi

1999-01-01

64

Delayed motherhood  

PubMed Central

Abstract Objective To examine the experiences of women who are delaying motherhood by having abortions. Design Mixed-methods study. Setting An abortion clinic in Vancouver, BC. Participants Women presenting for abortion at an urban, free-standing abortion clinic. Interviews were only with women older than 35 years of age. Methods A chart review was initially performed, followed by a survey of women presenting to the clinic, as well as in-depth interviews that were audiotaped and transcribed. Main findings Of the 1844 charts reviewed, 550 (30%) were for women 33 years of age and older and 117 (21%) of those had no children (6% of the total 1844). Plans for future pregnancies were reported in only 70 of the 117 charts; 37 (53%) of the women said they wanted children in the future and 20 (29%) said they were unsure. There were 1118 questionnaires completed (response rate of 86%). There were 334 (30%) women 33 years of age and older and 87 (26%) of those had no children (8% of the total 1113). Of these women, 47 (54%) planned to have children in the future and 24 (28%) were unsure. The most common reason these older childless women gave for having abortions was that they were “just not ready” (59%). We used logistic regression to examine predictors for delaying motherhood and the stepwise regression retained only 2 factors: high rating of “stable relationship” (P = .003) and a “partner who would be a good parent” (P = .008). The most striking themes in the interviews were women’s uncertainty about childbearing and their focus on the quality of their relationships. Conclusion This study contributes additional insight into the uncertainty older nulliparous women experience about childbearing, and it points to women’s primary focus on relationships with partners rather than with children as a possible explanation for this trend.

Wiebe, Ellen; Chalmers, Amanda; Yager, Holly

2012-01-01

65

77 FR 49484 - Notice of Delays in Processing of Special Permits Applications  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...more. The reason(s) for delay and the expected completion...366-4535. Key to ``Reason for Delay'' 1. Awaiting additional...Application No. Applicant delay of completion...Alaska 3 10-31-2012 Pyrotechnics, Anchorage, AK....

2012-08-16

66

Expectancy Theory Modeling.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An objective of this effort was to reformulate expectancy theory in organizational behavior in objective terms and measurable concepts, employing sound multivariate models. Although a vast amount of literature in organizational behavior has been generated...

P. Horst

1982-01-01

67

Reward expectations in honeybees  

PubMed Central

The study of expectations of reward helps to understand rules controlling goal-directed behavior as well as decision making and planning. I shall review a series of recent studies focusing on how the food gathering behavior of honeybees depends upon reward expectations. These studies document that free-flying honeybees develop long-term expectations of reward and use them to regulate their investment of energy/time during foraging. Also, they present a laboratory procedure suitable for analysis of neural substrates of reward expectations in the honeybee brain. I discuss these findings in the context of individual and collective foraging, on the one hand, and neurobiology of learning and memory of reward.

2010-01-01

68

Asserting Performance Expectations.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Traditional techniques for performance analysis provide a means for extracting and analyzing raw performance information from applications. Users then reason about and compare this raw performance data to their performance expectations for important appli...

J. S. Vetter P. Worley

2002-01-01

69

Performance expectation plan  

SciTech Connect

This document outlines the significant accomplishments of fiscal year 1998 for the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Project Hanford Management Contract (PHMC) team. Opportunities for improvement to better meet some performance expectations have been identified. The PHMC has performed at an excellent level in administration of leadership, planning, and technical direction. The contractor has met and made notable improvement of attaining customer satisfaction in mission execution. This document includes the team`s recommendation that the PHMC TWRS Performance Expectation Plan evaluation rating for fiscal year 1998 be an Excellent.

Ray, P.E.

1998-09-04

70

Switching control and time-delay identification  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The unknown time delay makes the control design a difficult task. When the lower and upper bounds of an unknown time delay of dynamical systems are specified, one can design a supervisory control that switches among a set of controls designed for the sampled time delays in the given range so that the closed-loop system is stable and the control performance is maintained at a desirable level. In this paper, we propose to design a supervisory control to stabilize the system first. After the supervisory control converges, we start an algorithm to identify the unknown time delay, either on-line or off-line, with the known control being implemented. Examples are shown to demonstrate the stabilization and identification for linear time invariant and periodic systems with a single control time delay.

Chen, Qi; Li, Xiang; Qin, Zhi-Chang; Zhong, Shun; Sun, J. Q.

2014-12-01

71

Measuring Information-Transfer Delays  

PubMed Central

In complex networks such as gene networks, traffic systems or brain circuits it is important to understand how long it takes for the different parts of the network to effectively influence one another. In the brain, for example, axonal delays between brain areas can amount to several tens of milliseconds, adding an intrinsic component to any timing-based processing of information. Inferring neural interaction delays is thus needed to interpret the information transfer revealed by any analysis of directed interactions across brain structures. However, a robust estimation of interaction delays from neural activity faces several challenges if modeling assumptions on interaction mechanisms are wrong or cannot be made. Here, we propose a robust estimator for neuronal interaction delays rooted in an information-theoretic framework, which allows a model-free exploration of interactions. In particular, we extend transfer entropy to account for delayed source-target interactions, while crucially retaining the conditioning on the embedded target state at the immediately previous time step. We prove that this particular extension is indeed guaranteed to identify interaction delays between two coupled systems and is the only relevant option in keeping with Wiener’s principle of causality. We demonstrate the performance of our approach in detecting interaction delays on finite data by numerical simulations of stochastic and deterministic processes, as well as on local field potential recordings. We also show the ability of the extended transfer entropy to detect the presence of multiple delays, as well as feedback loops. While evaluated on neuroscience data, we expect the estimator to be useful in other fields dealing with network dynamics.

Wibral, Michael; Pampu, Nicolae; Priesemann, Viola; Siebenhuhner, Felix; Seiwert, Hannes; Lindner, Michael; Lizier, Joseph T.; Vicente, Raul

2013-01-01

72

Measuring information-transfer delays.  

PubMed

In complex networks such as gene networks, traffic systems or brain circuits it is important to understand how long it takes for the different parts of the network to effectively influence one another. In the brain, for example, axonal delays between brain areas can amount to several tens of milliseconds, adding an intrinsic component to any timing-based processing of information. Inferring neural interaction delays is thus needed to interpret the information transfer revealed by any analysis of directed interactions across brain structures. However, a robust estimation of interaction delays from neural activity faces several challenges if modeling assumptions on interaction mechanisms are wrong or cannot be made. Here, we propose a robust estimator for neuronal interaction delays rooted in an information-theoretic framework, which allows a model-free exploration of interactions. In particular, we extend transfer entropy to account for delayed source-target interactions, while crucially retaining the conditioning on the embedded target state at the immediately previous time step. We prove that this particular extension is indeed guaranteed to identify interaction delays between two coupled systems and is the only relevant option in keeping with Wiener's principle of causality. We demonstrate the performance of our approach in detecting interaction delays on finite data by numerical simulations of stochastic and deterministic processes, as well as on local field potential recordings. We also show the ability of the extended transfer entropy to detect the presence of multiple delays, as well as feedback loops. While evaluated on neuroscience data, we expect the estimator to be useful in other fields dealing with network dynamics. PMID:23468850

Wibral, Michael; Pampu, Nicolae; Priesemann, Viola; Siebenhühner, Felix; Seiwert, Hannes; Lindner, Michael; Lizier, Joseph T; Vicente, Raul

2013-01-01

73

A lower bound for the QRQW PRAM  

SciTech Connect

The queue-read, queue-write (QRQW) parallel random access machine (PRAM) model is a shared memory model which allows concurrent reading and writing with a time cost proportional to the contention. This is designed to model currently available parallel machines more accurately than either the CRCW PRAM or EREW PRAM models. Many algorithmic results have been developed for the QRQW PRAM. However, the only lower bound results have been fairly simple reductions from lower bounds for other models, such as the EREW PRAM or the ``few-write`` CREW PRAM. Here we present a lower bound specific to the QRQW PRAM. This lower bound is on the problem of Linear Approximate Compaction (LAC), whose input consists of at most m marked items in an array of size n, and whose output consists of the rn marked items in an array of size 0(m). There is an O({radical}log n), expected time randomized algorithm for LAC on the QRQW PRAM. We prove a lower bound of {Omega}(log log log n) expected time for any randomized algorithm for LAC. This bound applies regardless of the number of processors and memory cells of the QRQW PRAM. The previous best lower bound was {Omega}(log* n) time, taken from the known lower bound for LAC on the CRCW PRAM.

MacKenzie, P.D.

1995-05-02

74

An inflation expectations horserace  

Microsoft Academic Search

For decades, the academic literature has focused on three survey measures of expected inflation: the Livingston Survey, the Survey of Professional Forecasters, and the Michigan Survey. While these measures have been useful in developing models of forecasting inflation, the data are low frequency measures which appear anachronistic in the modern era of high frequency and real-time data. I present a

Giselle C. Guzman

2009-01-01

75

It's To Be Expected  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students use a tree diagram on their graphing calculators to find theoretical probabilities. They then manipulate this information in a spreadsheet to find the expected value. This lesson includes teacher notes, a student worksheet with solutions, and a homework assignment with solutions.

2010-08-27

76

Fractional calculus, delay dynamics and networked control systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

In networked control systems (NCS), the spiky nature of the random delays makes us wonder about the benefits we can expect if the spikiness, or what we call delay dynamics can be considered in the NCS controller design. It turns out that the spikiness of the network induced random delays can be better characterized by the so-called ?-stable processes, or

YangQuan Chen

2010-01-01

77

Delayed Macular Hole Closure  

PubMed Central

Purpose The presented case raises questions regarding the favorable scheduling of planned postoperative care and the ideal observation interval to decide for reoperations in macular hole surgery. Furthermore a discussion about the use of short- and long-acting gas tamponades in macular hole surgery is encouraged. Methods We present an interventional case report and a short review of the pertinent literature. Results We report a case of spontaneous delayed macular hole closure after vitreoretinal surgery had been performed initially without the expected success. A 73-year-old male Caucasian patient presented at our clinic with a stage 2 macular hole in his left eye. He underwent 23-gauge pars plana vitrectomy and internal limiting membrane peeling with a 20% C2F6-gas tamponade. Sixteen days after the procedure, an OCT scan revealed a persistent stage 2 macular hole, and the patient was scheduled for reoperation. Surprisingly, at the date of planned surgery, which was another 11 days later, the macular hole had resolved spontaneously without any further intervention. Conclusions So far no common opinion exists regarding the use of short- or long-acting gas in macular hole surgery. Our case of delayed macular hole closure after complete resorption of the gas tamponade raises questions about the need and duration of strict prone positioning after surgery. Furthermore short-acting gas might be as efficient as long-acting gas. We suggest to wait with a second intervention at least 4 weeks after the initial surgery, since a delayed macular hole closure is possible.

Distelmaier, Peter; Meyer, Linda M.; Fischer, Marie T.; Philipp, Sebastian; Paquet, Patrick; Mammen, Antje; Haller, Katharina; Schonfeld, Carl-Ludwig

2014-01-01

78

Bounded Fraction Finder  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The same as "Bounded Fraction Pointer" but there is no arrow to help the user determine the value of a fraction between the two endpoints. Bounded Fraction Finder is one of the Interactivate assessment explorers.

79

Genetic enhancements and expectations.  

PubMed

Some argue that genetic enhancements and environmental enhancements are not importantly different: environmental enhancements such as private schools and chess lessons are simply the old-school way to have a designer baby. I argue that there is an important distinction between the two practices--a distinction that makes state restrictions on genetic enhancements more justifiable than state restrictions on environmental enhancements. The difference is that parents have no settled expectations about genetic enhancements. PMID:19567693

Sorensen, K

2009-07-01

80

Relating Sampling Period and Control Delay in Distributed Control Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The control delay in distributed control systems may be compensated on-line or off-line depending on the required quality of the output, available computational power of the controller node, time stamping and clock synchronizing facilities etc. Irrespective of the compensation technique, there is an upper bound to the constant or variable control delay, which is decided by the plant, controller and

Lilantha Samaranayake; Mats Leksell; Sanath Alahakoon

2005-01-01

81

A matrix lower bound  

SciTech Connect

A matrix lower bound is defined that generalizes ideas apparently due to S. Banach and J. von Neumann. The matrix lower bound has a natural interpretation in functional analysis, and it satisfies many of the properties that von Neumann stated for it in a restricted case. Applications for the matrix lower bound are demonstrated in several areas. In linear algebra, the matrix lower bound of a full rank matrix equals the distance to the set of rank-deficient matrices. In numerical analysis, the ratio of the matrix norm to the matrix lower bound is a condition number for all consistent systems of linear equations. In optimization theory, the matrix lower bound suggests an identity for a class of min-max problems. In real analysis, a recursive construction that depends on the matrix lower bound shows that the level sets of continuously differential functions lie asymptotically near those of their tangents.

Grcar, Joseph F.

2002-02-04

82

Delay-dependent guaranteed cost control for uncertain discrete-time systems with both state and input delays  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper considers the guaranteed cost control problem for a class of uncertain linear discrete-time systems with both state and input delays. By representing the time-delay system in the descriptor system form and using a recent result on bounding of cross products of vectors, we obtain new delay-dependent sufficient conditions for the existence of the guaranteed cost controller in terms

Wu-Hua Chen; Zhi-Hong Guan; Xiaomei Lu

2004-01-01

83

An iterative algorithm for delay-constrained minimum-cost multicasting  

Microsoft Academic Search

The bounded shortest multicast algorithm (BSMA) is presented for constructing minimum-cost multicast trees with delay constraints. BSMA can handle asymmetric link character- istics and variable delay bounds on destinations, specified as real values, and minimizes the total cost of a multicast routing tree. Instead of the single-pass tree construction approach used in most previous heuristics, the new algorithm is based

Mehrdad Parsa; Qing Zhu; J. J. Garcia-Luna-Aceves

1998-01-01

84

Cerebral palsy life expectancy.  

PubMed

The life expectancy of people who have perinatally acquired cerebral palsy can be similar to that of the general population, or it can be reduced substantially. The most important factors that are associated with reduced survival are disabilities of motor, cognitive, or visual functions. Prematurity and low birth weight are associated with lower rates of disability, and better survival. A 2-year-old who has severe cerebral palsy has about a 40% chance of living to age 20, in contrast to a child who has mild cerebral palsy, for whom the chance is 99%. Cerebral palsy, respiratory diseases, epilepsy, and congenital malformation are the most commonly recorded causes of early death. PMID:16765736

Hutton, Jane L

2006-06-01

85

Virial Expansion Bounds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the 1960s, the technique of using cluster expansion bounds in order to achieve bounds on the virial expansion was developed by Lebowitz and Penrose (J. Math. Phys. 5:841, 1964) and Ruelle (Statistical Mechanics: Rigorous Results. Benjamin, Elmsford, 1969). This technique is generalised to more recent cluster expansion bounds by Poghosyan and Ueltschi (J. Math. Phys. 50:053509, 2009), which are related to the work of Procacci (J. Stat. Phys. 129:171, 2007) and the tree-graph identity, detailed by Brydges (Phénomènes Critiques, Systèmes Aléatoires, Théories de Jauge. Les Houches 1984, pp. 129-183, 1986). The bounds achieved by Lebowitz and Penrose can also be sharpened by doing the actual optimisation and achieving expressions in terms of the Lambert W-function. The different bound from the cluster expansion shows some improvements for bounds on the convergence of the virial expansion in the case of positive potentials, which are allowed to have a hard core.

Tate, Stephen James

2013-10-01

86

A comparative study of expectant parents ' childbirth expectations.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to understand childbirth expectations and differences in childbirth expectations among expectant parents. For convenience sampling, 200 couples willing to participate in this study were chosen from two hospitals in central Taiwan. Inclusion criteria were at least 36 weeks of gestation, aged 18 and above, no prenatal complications, and willing to consent to participate in this study. Instruments used to collect data included basic demographic data and the Childbirth Expectations Questionnaire. Findings of the study revealed that (1) five factors were identified by expectant parents regarding childbirth expectations including the caregiving environment, expectation of labor pain, spousal support, control and participation, and medical and nursing support; (2) no general differences were identified in the childbirth expectations between expectant fathers and expectant mothers; and (3) expectant fathers with a higher socioeconomic status and who had received prenatal (childbirth) education had higher childbirth expectations, whereas mothers displayed no differences in demographic characteristics. The study results may help clinical healthcare providers better understand differences in expectations during labor and birth and childbirth expectations by expectant parents in order to improve the medical and nursing system and promote positive childbirth experiences and satisfaction for expectant parents. PMID:15362011

Kao, Bi-Chin; Gau, Meei-Ling; Wu, Shian-Feng; Kuo, Bih-Jaw; Lee, Tsorng-Yeh

2004-09-01

87

New standard exceeds expectations  

SciTech Connect

The new ASTM environmental due diligence standard is delivering far more than expected when it was conceived in 1990. Its use goes well beyond the relatively narrow legal liability protection that was the primary goal in its development. The real estate industry, spearheaded by the lending community, was preoccupied with environmental risk and liability. Lenders throughout the concept's evolution have been at the forefront in defining environmental due diligence. The lender liability rule is intended to protect property owners from CERCLA liability for property they own or companies they manage (for example, as a result of foreclosure). The new site assessment standard increasingly is considered a benchmark for prudent environmental due diligence in the interest of risk management, not legal liability. The focus on risk management, including collateral devaluation and corporate credit risk, are becoming dominant areas of policy focus in the lending industry. Lenders now are revising their policies to incorporate transactions beyond issues of real estate, in which a company's economic viability and ability to service debt could be impacted by an environmental problem unrelated to property transfers.

Bennett, M.J. (Environmental Data Resources Inc., Southport, CT (United States))

1993-08-01

88

Delay-dependent exponential stability analysis of delayed neural networks: an LMI approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

For neural networks with constant or time-varying delays, the problems of determining the exponential stability and estimating the exponential convergence rate are studied in this paper. An approach combining the Lyapunov–Krasovskii functionals with the linear matrix inequality is taken to investigate the problems, which provide bounds on the interconnection matrix and the activation functions, so as to guarantee the systems'

Xiaofeng Liao; Guanrong Chen; Edgar N. Sanchez

2002-01-01

89

Colorado Outward Bound School River Rafters' Manual.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Instructional sequences, safety rules, duties of crew members, and procedures for Colorado Outward Bound School river rafting trips are summarized in this manual. Designed to acquaint instructors with the duties expected of them on the trips, the information in the manual is presented in outline form and is intended for those with prior river…

Leachman, Mark

90

Worst-case end-to-end delay analysis of an avionics AFDX network  

Microsoft Academic Search

AFDX (Avionics Full Duplex Switched Ethernet) standardized as ARINC 664 is a major upgrade for avionics systems. But network delay analysis is required to evaluate end-to-end delay's upper bounds. The Network Calculus approach, that has been used to evaluate such end-to-end delay upper bounds for certification purposes, is shortly described. The Trajectory approach is an alternative method that can be

Henri Bauer; Jean-Luc Scharbarg; Christian Fraboul

2010-01-01

91

Single Column Pyrotechnic Delay.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In the past, rocket assisted artillery projectiles used dual column pyrotechnic delays as a mechanism for igniting the rocket motor. The development of a single column pyrotechnic delay is discussed. Design methodology and results of testing are also disc...

W. W. Smith

1996-01-01

92

Stochastic delay Lotka–Volterra model  

Microsoft Academic Search

We reveal in this paper that the environmental noise will not only suppress a potential population explosion in the stochastic delay Lotka–Volterra model but will also make the solutions to be stochastically ultimately bounded. To reveal these interesting facts, we stochastically perturb the delay Lotka–Volterra model x?(t)=diag(x1(t),…,xn(t))[b+Ax(t??)] into the Itô form dx(t)=diag(x1(t),…,xn(t))[(b+Ax(t??))dt+?x(t)dw(t)], and show that although the solution to the

Arifah Bahar; Xuerong Mao

2004-01-01

93

? bound states in nuclei  

Microsoft Academic Search

The energies and widths of bound states of the ? meson in different nuclei are obtained using the results for its selfenergy in a nuclear medium, which is evaluated in a selfconsistent manner using techniques of unitarized chiral perturbation theory. We find bound states in all studied nuclei (from 12C on) and the half widths obtained are larger than the

C Garc??a-Recio; T. Inoue; J. Nieves; E. Oset

2002-01-01

94

Continuum bound states  

Microsoft Academic Search

We compare three procedures for constructing bound states whose energies are embedded in the continuous part of the energy spectrum. We use methods based on the Gel'fand-Levitan and Marchenko equations to generate new potentials which look superficially similar to potentials supporting continuum bound states, but which instead produce isolated energies embedded in the continuum for which no physically acceptable wave

T. A. Weber; D. L. Pursey

1994-01-01

95

Matrix Lower Bound.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A matrix lower bound is defined that generalizes ideas apparently due to S. Banach and J. von Neumann. The matrix lower bound has a natural interpretation in functional analysis, and it satisfies many of the properties that von Neumann stated for it in a ...

J. F. Grear

2005-01-01

96

Delay Discounting and Gambling  

PubMed Central

Delay discounting describes the decline in the value of a reinforcer as the delay to that reinforcer increases. A review of the available studies revealed that steep delay discounting is positively correlated with problem or pathological gambling. One hypothesis regarding this correlation derives from the discounting equation proposed by Mazur (1989). According to the equation, steeper discounting renders the difference between fixed-delayed rewards and gambling-like variable-delayed rewards larger; with the latter being more valuable. The present study was designed to test this prediction by first assessing rats’ impulsive choices across four delays to a larger-later reinforcer. A second condition quantified strength of preference for mixed- over fixed-delays, with the duration of the latter adjusted between sessions to achieve indifference. Strength of preference for the mixed-delay alternative is given by the fixed delay at indifference (lower fixed-delay values reflect stronger preferences). Percent impulsive choice was not correlated with the value of the fixed delay at indifference and, therefore, the prediction of the hyperbolic model of gambling was not supported. A follow-up assessment revealed a significant decrease in impulsive choice after the second condition. This shift in impulsive choice could underlie the failure to observe the predicted correlation between impulsive choice and degree of preference for mixed- over fixed delays.

Madden, Gregory J.; Francisco, Monica T.; Brewer, Adam T.; Stein, Jeffrey S.

2011-01-01

97

Environmentally Benign Pyrotechnic Delays.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Pyrotechnic delays are used in commercial and military items requiring a time delay between two energetic events. For example, US Army hand- held signals (HHS) use a delay element to properly sequence the expulsion of illuminating rounds at the rockets' a...

A. P. Shaw G. Chen J. C. Poret K. D. Oyler L. J. Groven

2012-01-01

98

Organophosphate induced delayed polyneuropathy.  

PubMed

This review discusses the current understanding of organophosphate induced delayed polyneuropathy (OPIDP) with emphasis on molecular mechanisms, pathogenesis and possibilities for prevention/therapy. OPIDP is a rare toxicity caused by certain organophosphorus compounds (OP) characterized by degeneration of some long axons in the central and peripheral nervous system that appear about 2-3 weeks after exposure. The molecular target for OPIDP is considered to be an enzyme in the nervous system known as neuropathy target esterase (NTE). NTE can be inhibited by two types of inhibitors: a) phosphates, phosphonates, and phosphoramidates, which cause OPIDP when >70% of the enzyme is inhibited, and b) phosphinates, carbamates, and sulfonyl halides which inhibit NTE and cause either protection from, or promotion, of OPIDP when given before or after a neuropathic OP, respectively. The ability of a NTE inhibitor to cause OPIDP, besides its affinity for the enzyme, is related to its chemical structure and the residue left attached to the NTE. If such residues undergo the aging reaction i.e. the loss of an alkyl group bound to the enzyme, those OPs usually have a high likelihood of causing OPIDP. Protection from neuropathic doses of OP inhibitors is obtained when NTE is inhibited with nonageable inhibitors. Promotion of OPIDP involves another site besides NTE because it can occur when all NTE is affected. It is now known that this other site is similar to NTE in that it is also sensitive to mipafox but at much higher concentrations. Promotion affects either the progression or expression of OPIDP after the initial biochemical effect on NTE. Some recent observations suggest that development of OPIDP in hens can be influenced by atropine, oximes and methylprednisolone when they are given before or soon after neuropathic OPs. PMID:12769600

Jokanovic, Milan; Stukalov, Petar V; Kosanovic, Melita

2002-12-01

99

Expectancy and Expected Value: Decision Models for Organizations.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The development of Expectancy Theory and Expected Value models is reviewed. The research supporting these models in the areas of decision making, leadership attitudes, motivation and social power is discussed. The final section provides insights into the ...

T. R. Mitchell

1976-01-01

100

Delay discounting: Trait variable?  

PubMed Central

Delay discounting refers to the tendency for outcomes that are remote in time to have less value than more immediate outcomes. Steep discounting of delayed outcomes is associated with a variety of social maladies. The degree of sensitivity to delayed outcomes may be a stable and pervasive individual characteristic. In analyses of archival data, the present study found positive correlations between the degree of delay discounting for one outcome (as measured by the Area Under the Curve), and the degree of discounting for other outcomes. Along with additional evidence reviewed, these data suggest that delay discounting may be considered a personality trait. Recent research in epigenetics, neuroscience, and behavior suggests delay discounting may prove to be a beneficial target for therapeutic attempts to produce global reductions in impulsivity related to delay discounting.

Odum, Amy L.

2012-01-01

101

Organically bound tritium.  

PubMed

Tritium released into the environment may be incorporated into organic matter. Organically bound tritium in that case will show retention times in organisms that are considerably longer than those of tritiated water which has significant consequences on dose estimates. This article reviews the most important processes of organically bound tritium production and transport through food networks. Metabolic reactions in plant and animal organisms with tritiated water as a reaction partner are of great importance in this respect. The most important production process, in quantitative terms, is photosynthesis in green plants. The translocation of organically bound tritium from the leaves to edible parts of crop plants should be considered in models of organically bound tritium behavior. Organically bound tritium enters the human body on several pathways, either from the primary producers (vegetable food) or at a higher tropic level (animal food). Animal experiments have shown that the dose due to ingestion of organically bound tritium can be up to twice as high as a comparable intake of tritiated water in gaseous or liquid form. In the environment, organically bound tritium in plants and animals is often found to have higher specific tritium concentrations than tissue water. This is not due to some tritium enrichment effects but to the fact that no equilibrium conditions are reached under natural conditions. PMID:8244715

Diabaté, S; Strack, S

1993-12-01

102

Expecting ourselves to expect: the Bayesian brain as a projector.  

PubMed

Clark's essay lays the foundation for a Bayesian account of the "projection" of consciously perceived properties: The expectations that our brains test against inputs concern the particular affordances that evolution has designed us to care about, including especially expectations of our own expectations. PMID:23663550

Dennett, Daniel C

2013-06-01

103

Great Expectations: Temporal Expectation Modulates Perceptual Processing Speed  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In a crowded dynamic world, temporal expectations guide our attention in time. Prior investigations have consistently demonstrated that temporal expectations speed motor behavior. We explore effects of temporal expectation on "perceptual" speed in three nonspeeded, cued recognition paradigms. Different hazard rate functions for the cue-stimulus…

Vangkilde, Signe; Coull, Jennifer T.; Bundesen, Claus

2012-01-01

104

Speech and language delay in children.  

PubMed

Speech and language delay in children is associated with increased difficulty with reading, writing, attention, and socialization. Although physicians should be alert to parental concerns and to whether children are meeting expected developmental milestones, there currently is insufficient evidence to recommend for or against routine use of formal screening instruments in primary care to detect speech and language delay. In children not meeting the expected milestones for speech and language, a comprehensive developmental evaluation is essential, because atypical language development can be a secondary characteristic of other physical and developmental problems that may first manifest as language problems. Types of primary speech and language delay include developmental speech and language delay, expressive language disorder, and receptive language disorder. Secondary speech and language delays are attributable to another condition such as hearing loss, intellectual disability, autism spectrum disorder, physical speech problems, or selective mutism. When speech and language delay is suspected, the primary care physician should discuss this concern with the parents and recommend referral to a speech-language pathologist and an audiologist. There is good evidence that speech-language therapy is helpful, particularly for children with expressive language disorder. PMID:21568252

McLaughlin, Maura R

2011-05-15

105

Delayed ettringite formation — Processes and problems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The scope of the delayed ettringite formation (DEF) problem is reviewed. Based on the experience of the writer and others, DEF is to be expected in both steam cured and non-steam cured concrete. The microstructural details appear identical. The common association with alkalisilica reactions is explored, and explained in terms of both prior cracking providing space for ettringite and in

S. Diamond

1996-01-01

106

Measuring Alcohol Expectancies in Youth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Beliefs about the consequences of using alcohol, alcohol expectancies, are powerful predictors of underage drinking. The Alcohol Expectancies Questionnaire-Adolescent form (AEQ-A) has been widely used to measure expectancies in youth. Despite its broad use, the factor structure of the AEQ-A has not been firmly established. It is also not known…

Randolph, Karen A.; Gerend, Mary A.; Miller, Brenda A.

2006-01-01

107

A new global robust stability criteria for uncertain neural networks with fast time-varying delays  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper deals with the problem of robust stability for uncertain neural networks with time-varying delays. The system possesses time-varying and norm-bounded uncertainties. The time-varying delay function in this paper is not required to be either continuously differentiable, or its derivative less than one. Based on Lyapunov–Krasovskii functional approach, new delay-dependent and delay-derivative-dependent stability criteria are presented, which are given

Jiqing Qiu; Jinhui Zhang; Jianfei Wang; Yuanqing Xia; Peng Shi

2008-01-01

108

A Discounting Framework for Choice With Delayed and Probabilistic Rewards  

Microsoft Academic Search

When choosing between delayed or uncertain outcomes, individuals discount the value of such outcomes on the basis of the expected time to or the likelihood of their occurrence. In an integrative review of the expanding experimental literature on discounting, the authors show that although the same form of hyperbola-like function describes discounting of both delayed and probabilistic outcomes, a variety

Leonard Green; Joel Myerson

2004-01-01

109

Bound anionic states of adenine.  

PubMed

Anionic states of nucleic acid bases are involved in DNA damage by low-energy electrons and in charge transfer through DNA. Previous gas phase studies of free, unsolvated nucleic acid base parent anions probed only dipole-bound states, which are not present in condensed phase environments, but did not observe valence anionic states, which for purine bases are thought to be adiabatically unbound. Contrary to this expectation, we have demonstrated that some thus far ignored tautomers of adenine, which result from enamine-imine transformations, support valence anionic states with electron vertical detachment energies as large as 2.2 eV, and at least one of these anionic tautomers is adiabatically bound. Moreover, we predict that the new anionic tautomers should also dominate in solutions and should be characterized by larger values of electron vertical detachment energy than the canonical valence anion. All of the newfound anionic tautomers might be formed in the course of dissociative electron attachment followed by a hydrogen atom attachment to a carbon atom, and they might affect the structure and properties of DNA and RNA exposed to low-energy electrons. The new valence states observed here, unlike the dipole-bound state, could exist in condensed phases and might be relevant to radiobiological damage. The discovery of these valence anionic states of adenine was facilitated by the development of (i) an experimental method for preparing parent anions of nucleic acid bases for photoelectron experiments, and (ii) a combinatorial/quantum chemical approach for identification of the most stable tautomers of organic molecules. PMID:17360375

Hara?czyk, Maciej; Gutowski, Maciej; Li, Xiang; Bowen, Kit H

2007-03-20

110

Bound anionic states of adenine  

PubMed Central

Anionic states of nucleic acid bases are involved in DNA damage by low-energy electrons and in charge transfer through DNA. Previous gas phase studies of free, unsolvated nucleic acid base parent anions probed only dipole-bound states, which are not present in condensed phase environments, but did not observe valence anionic states, which for purine bases are thought to be adiabatically unbound. Contrary to this expectation, we have demonstrated that some thus far ignored tautomers of adenine, which result from enamine-imine transformations, support valence anionic states with electron vertical detachment energies as large as 2.2 eV, and at least one of these anionic tautomers is adiabatically bound. Moreover, we predict that the new anionic tautomers should also dominate in solutions and should be characterized by larger values of electron vertical detachment energy than the canonical valence anion. All of the newfound anionic tautomers might be formed in the course of dissociative electron attachment followed by a hydrogen atom attachment to a carbon atom, and they might affect the structure and properties of DNA and RNA exposed to low-energy electrons. The new valence states observed here, unlike the dipole-bound state, could exist in condensed phases and might be relevant to radiobiological damage. The discovery of these valence anionic states of adenine was facilitated by the development of (i) an experimental method for preparing parent anions of nucleic acid bases for photoelectron experiments, and (ii) a combinatorial/quantum chemical approach for identification of the most stable tautomers of organic molecules.

Haranczyk, Maciej; Gutowski, Maciej; Li, Xiang; Bowen, Kit H.

2007-01-01

111

Bound Anionic States of Aadenine  

SciTech Connect

The research described in this product was performed in part in the Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory, a national scientific user facility sponsored by the Department of Energy's Office of Biological and Environmental Research and located at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. Anionic states of nucleic acid bases are involved in DNA damage by low-energy electrons and in charge transfer through DNA. Previous gas phase studies of free, unsolvated nucleic acid base parent anions probed only dipole-bound states, which are not present in condensed phase environments, but did not observe valence anionic states, which for purine bases are thought to be adiabatically unbound. Contrary to this expectation,wehave demonstrated that some thus far ignored tautomers of adenine, which result from enamine-imine transformations, support valence anionic states with electron vertical detachment energies as large as 2.2 eV, and at least one of these anionic tautomers is adiabatically bound. Moreover, we predict that the new anionic tautomers should also dominate in solutions and should be characterized by larger values of electron vertical detachment energy than the canonical valence anion. All of the newfound anionic tautomers might be formed in the course of dissociative electron attachment followed by a hydrogen atom attachment to a carbon atom, and they might affect the structure and properties of DNA and RNA exposed to low-energy electrons. The new valence states observed here, unlike the dipole-bound state, could exist in condensed phases and might be relevant to radiobiological damage. The discovery of these valence anionic states of adenine was facilitated by the development of (i) an experimental method for preparing parent anions of nucleic acid bases for photoelectron experiments, and (ii) a combinatorial/quantum chemical approach for identification of the most stable tautomers of organic molecules.

Haranczyk, Maciej; Gutowski, Maciej S.; Li, Xiang; Bowen, Kit H.

2007-03-20

112

Bound Anionic States of Adenine  

SciTech Connect

The research described in this product was performed in part in the Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory, a national scientific user facility sponsored by the Department of Energy's Office of Biological and Environmental Research and located at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. Anionic states of nucleic acid bases are involved in DNA damage by low-energy electrons and in charge transfer through DNA. Previous gas phase studies of free, unsolvated nucleic acid base parent anions probed only dipole-bound states, which are not present in condensed phase environments, but did not observe valence anionic states, which for purine bases are thought to be adiabatically unbound. Contrary to this expectation, we have demonstrated that some thus far ignored tautomers of adenine, which result from enamine-imine transformations, support valence anionic states with electron vertical detachment energies as large as 2.2 eV, and at least one of these anionic tautomers is adiabatically bound. Moreover, we predict that the new anionic tautomers should also dominate in solutions and should be characterized by larger values of electron vertical detachment energy than the canonical valence anion. All of the newfound anionic tautomers might be formed in the course of dissociative electron attachment followed by a hydrogen atom attachment to a carbon atom, and they might affect the structure and properties of DNA and RNA exposed to low-energy electrons. The new valence states observed here, unlike the dipole-bound state, could exist in condensed phases and might be relevant to radiobiological damage. The discovery of these valence anionic states of adenine was facilitated by the development of (i) an experimental method for preparing parent anions of nucleic acid bases for photoelectron experiments, and (it) a combinatorial/quantum chemical approach for identification of the most stable tautomers of organic molecules.

Haranczyk, Maciej; Gutowski, Maciej S.; Li, Xiang; Bowen, Kit H.

2007-03-20

113

Measuring expectations: forecast vs. ideal expectations. Does it really matter?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Consumer's participation in service delivery is so central to cognition that it affects consumer's quality evaluations. The study presented in this paper investigates the ways that visitor expectations change as a result of first hand experience with a service in the context of a major art exhibition. The research design allowed for two operational definitions of expectations, namely forecast and

Bronwyn Higgs; Michael Jay Polonsky; Mary Hollick

2005-01-01

114

Delay Train for Fuze.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A delay train of short functioning time is provided. It permits a missile to penetrate a target, such as an airplane, before the main explosive charge carried by the missile is detonated. A delay train is provided incorporating a wall separating brisance ...

B. A. Breslow R. K. Blanche

1964-01-01

115

Digital time delay  

DOEpatents

Method and apparatus are provided for generating an output pulse following a trigger pulse at a time delay interval preset with a resolution which is high relative to a low resolution available from supplied clock pulses. A first lumped constant delay provides a first output signal at predetermined interpolation intervals corresponding to the desired high resolution time interval. Latching circuits latch the high resolution data to form a first synchronizing data set. A selected time interval has been preset to internal counters and corrected for circuit propagation delay times having the same order of magnitude as the desired high resolution. Internal system clock pulses count down the counters to generate an internal pulse delayed by an internal which is functionally related to the preset time interval. A second LCD corrects the internal signal with the high resolution time delay. A second internal pulse is then applied to a third LCD to generate a second set of synchronizing data which is complementary with the first set of synchronizing data for presentation to logic circuits. The logic circuits further delay the internal output signal with the internal pulses. The final delayed output signal thereafter enables the output pulse generator to produce the desired output pulse at the preset time delay interval following input of the trigger pulse.

Martin, A.D.

1986-05-09

116

Computing bounds on greenhouse energy requirements using bounded error approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper presents an approach, based on a linear, time-varying model to compute bounds on future energy requirements for greenhouse heating. Modelling errors and model parameter variations are bounded while no assumptions are necessary about their distributions. Bounds on model parameters are computed using an ellipsoidal parameter bounding approach. Wind speed is considered as the main external disturbance. Results forecasting

D. Maksarov; Z. S. Chalabi

1998-01-01

117

Expectancy bias in anxious samples.  

PubMed

Although it is well documented that anxious individuals have negative expectations about the future, it is unclear what cognitive processes give rise to this expectancy bias. Two studies are reported that use the Expectancy Task, which is designed to assess expectancy bias and illuminate its basis. This task presents individuals with valenced scenarios (Positive Valence, Negative Valence, or Conflicting Valence), and then evaluates their tendency to expect subsequent future positive relative to negative events. The Expectancy Task was used with low and high trait anxious (Study 1: n = 32) and anxiety sensitive (Study 2: n = 138) individuals. Results suggest that in the context of physical concerns, both high anxious samples display a less positive expectancy bias. In the context of social concerns, high trait anxious individuals display a negative expectancy bias only when negatively valenced information was previously presented. Overall, this suggests that anxious individuals display a less positive expectancy bias, and that the processes that give rise to this bias may vary by type of situation (e.g., social or physical) or anxiety difficulty. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:24798678

Cabeleira, Cindy M; Steinman, Shari A; Burgess, Melissa M; Bucks, Romola S; MacLeod, Colin; Melo, Wilson; Teachman, Bethany A

2014-06-01

118

Nuclear-bound quarkonium  

SciTech Connect

We show that the QCD van der Waals interaction due to multiple gluon exchange provides a new kind of attractive nuclear force capable of binding heavy quarkonia to nuclei. The parameters of the potential are estimated by identifying multigluon exchange with the Pomeron contributions to elastic meson-nucleon scattering. The gluonic potential is then used to study the properties of {ital c{bar c}} nuclear-bound states. In particular, we predict bound states of the {eta}{sub {ital c}} with {sup 3}He and heavier nuclei. Production modes and rates are also discussed.

Brodsky, S.J.; Schmidt, I. (Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94309 (USA)); de Teramond, G.F. (Escuela de Fisica, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Jose, Costa Rica (CR))

1990-02-26

119

Stochastic dynamics of a delayed bistable system with multiplicative noise  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we investigate the properties of a delayed bistable system under the effect of multiplicative noise. We first prove the existence and uniqueness of the positive solution and show that its moments are uniformly bounded. Then, we study stochastic dynamics of the solution in long time, the lower and upper bounds for the paths and an estimate for the average value are provided.

Dung, Nguyen Tien

2014-05-01

120

Strong Expectations Cancel Locality Effects: Evidence from Hindi  

PubMed Central

Expectation-driven facilitation (Hale, 2001; Levy, 2008) and locality-driven retrieval difficulty (Gibson, 1998, 2000; Lewis & Vasishth, 2005) are widely recognized to be two critical factors in incremental sentence processing; there is accumulating evidence that both can influence processing difficulty. However, it is unclear whether and how expectations and memory interact. We first confirm a key prediction of the expectation account: a Hindi self-paced reading study shows that when an expectation for an upcoming part of speech is dashed, building a rarer structure consumes more processing time than building a less rare structure. This is a strong validation of the expectation-based account. In a second study, we show that when expectation is strong, i.e., when a particular verb is predicted, strong facilitation effects are seen when the appearance of the verb is delayed; however, when expectation is weak, i.e., when only the part of speech “verb” is predicted but a particular verb is not predicted, the facilitation disappears and a tendency towards a locality effect is seen. The interaction seen between expectation strength and distance shows that strong expectations cancel locality effects, and that weak expectations allow locality effects to emerge.

Husain, Samar; Vasishth, Shravan; Srinivasan, Narayanan

2014-01-01

121

Sibling Status Effects: Adult Expectations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study attempted to determine what expectations or beliefs adults might hold about a child based on his or her sibling status alone. Ratings on 50 adjective pairs for each of three sibling status types, only, oldest, and youngest child, were assessed in relation to adult expectations, birth order, and parental status of rater. (Author/DST)

Baskett, Linda Musun

1985-01-01

122

Nobody expects the Spanish Inquistion  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Is any one really ready for the Spanish Inquisition? Assign studnets to participate in reading the play, The Spanish Inquisition by Monty Python. While readiang the play, display the following pictures at appropiate times. Nobody expects the Spanish Inquistion Confess!!! Get the Cushions!!!! Get the comfy Chair! Now you'll confess! Confess women, CONFESS!!! Nobody expects the Spanish Inquisition!!! ...

Hirschi, Mrs.

2005-04-08

123

Bounded quantification is undecidable  

Microsoft Academic Search

F? is a typed ?-calculus with subtyping and bounded second-order polymorphism. First proposed by Cardelli and Wegner, it has been widely studied as a core calculus for type systems with subtyping.Curien and Ghelli proved the partial correctness of a recursive procedure for computing minimal types of F? terms and showed that the termination of this procedure is equivalent to the

Benjamin C. Pierce

1992-01-01

124

Bounds on Turbulent Transport.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The subject of 'Bounds on Turbulent Transport' was introduced in a series of ten lectures. The six lecturers constitute almost all of the contributors to this subject. The subject was introduced and foundations were laid by five lectures by F. H. Busse. I...

C. Doering F. Busse J. A. Whitehead L. Howard P. Constantin

2003-01-01

125

Computing Graphical Confidence Bounds  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Approximation for graphical confidence bounds is simple enough to run on programmable calculator. Approximation is used in lieu of numerical tables not always available, and exact calculations, which often require rather sizable computer resources. Approximation verified for collection of up to 50 data points. Method used to analyze tile-strength data on Space Shuttle thermal-protection system.

Mezzacappa, M. A.

1983-01-01

126

Uniformly bounded duplication languages  

Microsoft Academic Search

We consider a new type of language defined by a word through iterative factor duplications, inspired by the process of tandem repeats production in the evolution of DNA. We investigate the effect of restricting the factor length to a constant. We prove that all these languages are regular, any word has a unique uniformly bounded duplication root, and show how

Peter Leupold; Carlos Martín-vide; Victor Mitrana

2005-01-01

127

Bound states of quarks  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review consists of two parts, the phenomenology of non-relativistic potential models and the theoretical understanding of the forces between quarks. The first part reports on the description of hadrons as bound states of quarks by non-relativistic potential models. It starts with a brief sketch of the way in which information on the interquark potential may be gained from quantum

Wolfgang Lucha; Franz F. Schöberl; Dieter Gromes

1991-01-01

128

Gravitationally bound monopoles.  

PubMed

We construct monopole solutions in SU(2) Einstein-Yang-Mills-Higgs theory carrying magnetic charge n. For vanishing and small Higgs self-coupling, these multimonopole solutions are gravitationally bound. Their mass per unit charge is lower than the mass of the n = 1 monopole. For large Higgs self-coupling only a repulsive phase exists. PMID:11290158

Hartmann, B; Kleihaus, B; Kunz, J

2001-02-19

129

Stochastic description of delayed systems.  

PubMed

We study general stochastic birth and death processes including delay. We develop several approaches for the analytical treatment of these non-Markovian systems, valid, not only for constant delays, but also for stochastic delays with arbitrary probability distributions. The interplay between stochasticity and delay and, in particular, the effects of delay in the fluctuations and time correlations are discussed. PMID:23960216

Lafuerza, L F; Toral, R

2013-09-28

130

Adaptive robust control schemes of uncertain time-delay systems and its applications to water pollution control systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The problem of adaptive robust stabilization is considered for a class of uncertain nonlinear time-delay dynamical systems. It is assumed that the upper bound of the nonlinear delayed state perturbations is a linear function of some parameters which are assumed to be unknown. It is also assumed that the time delays are time-varying, and can be any nonnegative continuous and

Hansheng Wu

2011-01-01

131

On the compensation between the bound state and continuum contribution to the partition function  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is shown that extensive cancellation between the bound state and continuum contributions to the partition function is to be expected as long as the binding energy is comparable to the temperature. In particular the partition function is continuous when the strength of the potential changes to introduce a new bound state although the bound state contribution changes discontinuously.

A. G. Petschek

1971-01-01

132

Optimal monetary policy under discretion with a zero bound on nominal interest rates  

Microsoft Academic Search

We determine optimal discretionary monetary policy in a New-Keynesian model when nominal interest rates are bounded below by zero. Nominal interest rates should be lowered faster in response to adverse shocks than in the case without bound. Such ‘preemptive easing’ is optimal because expectations of a possibly binding bound in the future amplify the effects of adverse shocks. Calibrating the

Klaus Adam; Roberto M. Billi

2004-01-01

133

Optimal Monetary Policy Under Discretion with a Zero Bound on Nominal Interest Rates  

Microsoft Academic Search

We determine optimal discretionary monetary policy in a New Keynesian model when nominal interest rates are bounded below by zero. Nominal interest rates should be lowered faster in response to adverse shocks than in the case without bound. Such ‘pre-emptive easing’ is optimal because expectations of a possibly binding bound in the future amplify the effects of adverse shocks. Calibrating

Klaus Adam; Roberto M Billi

2004-01-01

134

Robust Adaptive Control for a Class of Uncertain Switched Delay Systems with Actuator Failures  

Microsoft Academic Search

The problem of the reliable control for a class of uncertain switched delay systems containing actuator failures is addressed in this paper. The upper bounds of uncertainties are assumed to be unknown. When actuators suffer \\

Rui Wang; Man Liu; Jun Zhao; Wei Wang

2008-01-01

135

78 FR 59422 - Delayed Applications  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Hazardous Materials Safety Administration Delayed Applications AGENCY: Office of Hazardous...DOT. ACTION: List of applications delayed more than 180 days...requires extensive analysis 4. Staff review delayed by other priority issues or volume...

2013-09-26

136

Quad nanosecond delay module  

SciTech Connect

Four nanosecond (ns) delay units have been designed to fit in a single-width NIM module. This module is particularly suited for use in conjunction with quad constant fraction timing discriminators (CFTDs) since it has four delay units that can be placed adjacent to the four units of the CFTD. A series of different length cables connected via DIP toggle switches provide delays of 0.60 ns in 4 ns increments. Thus, the CFTD delay can be optimized for pulses of different rise times from approx.10-100 ns. Design work for the PC board and silkscreening of the front panel were done with the MacDraw program on the Apple Mackintosh computer and printed with the Lasewriter printer. 6 refs.

McDonald, R.J.; Hunter, J.B.; Wozniak, G.J.

1986-04-01

137

Time delay spectrum conditioner  

DOEpatents

A device for delaying specified frequencies of a multiple frequency laser beam. The device separates the multiple frequency beam into a series of spatially separated single frequency beams. The propagation distance of the single frequency beam is subsequently altered to provide the desired delay for each specific frequency. Focusing reflectors can be utilized to provide a simple but nonadjustable system or, flat reflectors with collimating and focusing optics can be utilized to provide an adjustable system.

Greiner, Norman R. (Los Alamos, NM)

1980-01-01

138

QM Position Expectation Value Program  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The QM Position Expectation Value program displays the time evolution of the position-space wave function and the associated position expectation value. The default wave function is a two-state superposition of infinite square well states. Additional states and other potential energy functions can be specified using the Display | Switch GUI menu item. QM Position Expectation Value is one of 18 Open Source Physics programs that model time-dependent quantum mechanics using an energy eigenstate expansion. It is distributed as a ready-to-run (compiled) Java archive. Double clicking the qm_expectation_x.jar file will run the program if Java is installed. Other programs provide additional visualizations. They can be found by searching ComPADRE for Open Source Physics, OSP, or Superposition.

Christian, Wolfgang

2008-04-17

139

QM Momentum Expectation Value Program  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The QM Momentum Expectation Value program displays the time evolution of the position-space wave function and the associated momentum expectation value. It is distributed as a ready-to-run (compiled) Java archive. Double clicking the qm_expectation_p.jar file will run the program if Java is installed. The default wave function is a Gaussian wave packet in a harmonic oscillator. Additional states and other potential energy functions can be specified using the Display | Switch GUI menu item. QM Momentum Expectation Value is one of 18 Open Source Physics programs that model time-dependent quantum mechanics using an energy eigenstate expansion. Other programs provide additional visualizations. They can be found by searching ComPADRE for Open Source Physics, OSP, or Superposition.

Christian, Wolfgang

2008-04-17

140

Petawatt laser absorption bounded  

PubMed Central

The interaction of petawatt (1015?W) lasers with solid matter forms the basis for advanced scientific applications such as table-top particle accelerators, ultrafast imaging systems and laser fusion. Key metrics for these applications relate to absorption, yet conditions in this regime are so nonlinear that it is often impossible to know the fraction of absorbed light f, and even the range of f is unknown. Here using a relativistic Rankine-Hugoniot-like analysis, we show for the first time that f exhibits a theoretical maximum and minimum. These bounds constrain nonlinear absorption mechanisms across the petawatt regime, forbidding high absorption values at low laser power and low absorption values at high laser power. For applications needing to circumvent the absorption bounds, these results will accelerate a shift from solid targets, towards structured and multilayer targets, and lead the development of new materials.

Levy, Matthew C.; Wilks, Scott C.; Tabak, Max; Libby, Stephen B.; Baring, Matthew G.

2014-01-01

141

Petawatt laser absorption bounded.  

PubMed

The interaction of petawatt (10(15)?W) lasers with solid matter forms the basis for advanced scientific applications such as table-top particle accelerators, ultrafast imaging systems and laser fusion. Key metrics for these applications relate to absorption, yet conditions in this regime are so nonlinear that it is often impossible to know the fraction of absorbed light f, and even the range of f is unknown. Here using a relativistic Rankine-Hugoniot-like analysis, we show for the first time that f exhibits a theoretical maximum and minimum. These bounds constrain nonlinear absorption mechanisms across the petawatt regime, forbidding high absorption values at low laser power and low absorption values at high laser power. For applications needing to circumvent the absorption bounds, these results will accelerate a shift from solid targets, towards structured and multilayer targets, and lead the development of new materials. PMID:24938656

Levy, Matthew C; Wilks, Scott C; Tabak, Max; Libby, Stephen B; Baring, Matthew G

2014-01-01

142

Bounding the Unbounded  

Microsoft Academic Search

Baruch AwerbuchLab. for Computer ScienceMITBoaz Patt-ShamiryLab. for Computer ScienceMITGeorge VarghesezDept. of Computer ScienceWashington UniversityAbstractMany important protocols in distributed computing havesimple and elegant solutions if we allow the assumptionof unbounded size registers. This assumption can be simulatedin practice using sufficiently large but bounded registers;however the resulting protocols are extremely vulnerableto transient faults. In...

Baruch Awerbuch; Boaz Patt-shamir; George Varghese

1994-01-01

143

Experimental and theoretical study on smooth blasting with electronic delay detonators  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of high delay time accuracy of electronic delay detonators (EDDs) on overbreak, remaining rock damage, and surface smoothness which are expected on smooth blasting was investigated by experimental and theoretical approach in comparison with that of pyrotechnically delayed detonators (PDDs).As an experimental approach, test-blasts were conducted in a deep iron mine. The test site region, those composed of

M. Yamamoto; T. Ichijo; T. Inaba; K. Morooka; K. Kaneko

1999-01-01

144

Resilient control of non-linear discrete-time state-delay systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

A class of non-linear discrete-time systems with state-delay is considered. We develop an LMI-based analysis and design procedures to check primarily into the robust stability of discrete-time systems with state-delay and bounded non-linearities. Then we address the robust stabilization using nominal and resilient feedback designs. In both cases the trade-off between the size of the controller gains and the bounding

Magdi S. Mahmoud; Abdulla Ismail

2008-01-01

145

ROBUST CONTROL FOR A CLASS OF UNCERTAIN STATE-DELAYED SINGULARLY PERTURBED SYSTEMS  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper considers the problem of robust control for a class of uncer- tain state-delayed singularly perturbed systems with norm-bounded nonlin- ear uncertainties. The system under consideration involves state time-delay and norm-bounded nonlinear uncertainties in the slow state variable. It is shown that the state feedback gain matrices can be determined to guarantee the stability of the closed-loop system for

H. R. Karimi; M. J. Yazdanpanah

2005-01-01

146

Bound Exciton Complexes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the preceding chapter, we concentrated on the properties of free excitons. These free excitons may move through the sample and hit a trap, a nonradiative or a radiative recombination center. At low temperatures, the latter case gives rise to either deep center luminescence, mentioned in Sect. 7.1 and discussed in detail in Chap. 9, or to the luminescence of bound exciton complexes (BE or BEC). The chapter continues with the most prominent of these BECs, namely A-excitons bound to neutral donors. The next aspects are the more weakly BEs at ionized donors. The Sect. 7.4 treats the binding or localization energies of BEC from a theoretical point of view, while Sect. 7.5 is dedicated to excited states of BECs, which contain either holes from deeper valence bands or an envelope function with higher quantum numbers. The last section is devoted to donor-acceptor pair transitions. There is no section devoted specifically to excitons bound to neutral acceptors, because this topic is still partly controversially discussed. Instead, information on these A0X complexes is scattered over the whole chapter, however, with some special emphasis seen in Sects. 7.1, 7.4, and 7.5.

Meyer, B. K.

147

Delayed flowering and global warming  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Within general trends toward earlier spring, observed cases of species and ecosystems that have not advanced their phenology, or have even delayed it, appear paradoxical, especially when made in temperate regions experiencing significant warming. The typical interpretation of this pattern has been that non-responders are insensitive to relatively small levels of warming over the past 40 years, while species showing delays are often viewed as statistical noise or evidence for unknown confounding factors at play. However, plant physiology studies suggest that when winter chilling (vernalization) is required to initiate spring development, winter warming may retard spring events, masking expected advances caused by spring warming. Here, we analyzed long-term data on phenology and seasonal temperatures from 490 species on two continents and demonstrate that 1) apparent non-responders are indeed responding to warming, but their responses to winter and spring warming are opposite in sign, 2) observed trends in first flowering date depend strongly on the magnitude of a given species' response to autumn/winter versus spring warming, and 3) inclusion of these effects strongly improves hindcast predictions of long-term flowering trends. With a few notable exceptions, climate change research has focused on the overall mean trend towards phenological advance, minimizing discussion of apparently non-responding species. Our results illuminate an under-studied source of complexity in wild species responses and support the need for models incorporating diverse environmental cues in order to improve predictability of species responses to anthropogenic climate change.

Cook, B. I.; Wolkovich, E. M.; Parmesan, C.

2011-12-01

148

Model reduction of delay systems using Pade approximants  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the rational approximation of a certain class of delay systems in the frequency domain using Pad£ approximants of exp(?sT). Three classes of approximants characterized by their relative degrees are considered. Easily computable a priori L? and L L2error bounds are provided.

JAMES LAM

1993-01-01

149

Criteria for passivity of uncertain neural networks with time-varying delay  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper deals with the delay-dependent passivity problem for neural networks with norm-bounded parameter uncertainties and time-varying delay. Some new delay-dependent criteria ensuring delayed neural networks to be passive are derived with the aid of the Leibniz-Newton formula. By exploiting free-weighting matrix (relaxation matrix) approach and an inequality technique, we essentially remove the requirement of Lipschitz condition on neuron activation functions and rigorous assumption on the derivative of the time-varying delay to be less than one.

Lou, Xuyang; Zhu, Huibin; Cui, Baotong

2013-03-01

150

Computing output prediction bounds using ellipsoidal parameter bounding  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper presents an algorithm for output prediction in linear ARX models by computing bounds on future output values. Ellipsoidal bounding is used to compute a set of future outputs consistent with the model structure, noise bounds and observed data. Simulation results are presented

D. Maksarov; Z. S. Chalabi

1998-01-01

151

Entropy bounds in terms of the w parameter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In a pair of recent articles [PRL 105 (2010) 041302; JHEP 1103 (2011) 056] two of the current authors have developed an entropy bound for equilibrium uncollapsed matter using only classical general relativity, basic thermodynamics, and the Unruh effect. An odd feature of that bound, [InlineMediaObject not available: see fulltext.], was that the proportionality constant, 1/2 , was weaker than that expected from black hole thermodynamics, 1/4 . In the current article we strengthen the previous results by obtaining a bound involving the (suitably averaged) w parameter. Simple causality arguments restrict this averaged < w> parameter to be ? 1. When equality holds, the entropy bound saturates at the value expected based on black hole thermodynamics. We also add some clarifying comments regarding the (net) positivity of the chemical potential. Overall, we find that even in the absence of any black hole region, we can nevertheless get arbitrarily close to the Bekenstein entropy.

Abreu, Gabriel; Barceló, Carlos; Visser, Matt

2011-12-01

152

Downhole delay assembly for blasting with series delay  

DOEpatents

A downhole delay assembly is provided which can be placed into a blasthole for initiation of explosive in the blasthole. The downhole delay assembly includes at least two detonating time delay devices in series in order to effect a time delay of longer than about 200 milliseconds in a round of explosions. The downhole delay assembly provides a protective housing to prevent detonation of explosive in the blasthole in response to the detonation of the first detonating time delay device. There is further provided a connection between the first and second time delay devices. The connection is responsive to the detonation of the first detonating time delay device and initiates the second detonating time delay device. A plurality of such downhole delay assemblies are placed downhole in unfragmented formation and are initiated simultaneously for providing a round of explosive expansions. The explosive expansions can be used to form an in situ oil shale retort containing a fragmented permeable mass of formation particles.

Ricketts, Thomas E. (Grand Junction, CO)

1982-01-01

153

Lower bounds for spherical designs  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new lower bound is obtained for the cardinality of spherical designs. In its dependence on dimension it improves the well-known bound of Delsarte by an exponential factor as the degree of the design tends to infinity.

V. A. Yudin

1997-01-01

154

Do juries meet our expectations?  

PubMed

Surveys of public opinion indicate that people have high expectations for juries. When it comes to serious crimes, most people want errors of convicting the innocent (false positives) or acquitting the guilty (false negatives) to fall well below 10%. Using expected utility theory, Bayes' Theorem, signal detection theory, and empirical evidence from detection studies of medical decision making, eyewitness testimony, and weather forecasting, we argue that the frequency of mistakes probably far exceeds these "tolerable" levels. We are not arguing against the use of juries. Rather, we point out that a closer look at jury decisions reveals a serious gap between what we expect from juries and what probably occurs. When deciding issues of guilt and/or punishing convicted criminals, we as a society should recognize and acknowledge the abundance of error. PMID:12508698

Arkes, Hal R; Mellers, Barbara A

2002-12-01

155

High-Gain Observer-Based Estimation of Parameter Variations With Delay Alignment  

Microsoft Academic Search

This technical note analyzes the estimation delay in a high gain observer, where the state estimates may lag behind the actual states due to the observer's non-zero phase response. The technical note proves that, for a slowly time-varying system subject to bounded noises, the estimation delay depends on the observer gain, but is independent of the variations of system parameters.

Xuewu Dai; Zhiwei Gao; Timofei Breikin; Hong Wang

2012-01-01

156

A Study on Reducing Chunk Scheduling Delay for Mesh-Based P2P Live Streaming  

Microsoft Academic Search

P2P streaming services have been gaining much success in recent years. In this paper, we address the design of chunk scheduling algorithm which achieves low delay for chunk distribution. We propose a distributed priority-based chunk scheduling algorithm (DPC algorithm). The proposed scheme can approach the minimum delay bound in homogeneous environment. We also extend our DPC algorithm to a general

Zhengjun Chen; Kaiping Xue; Peilin Hong

2008-01-01

157

On Time Delay Margin Estimation for Adaptive Control and Optimal Control Modification  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper presents methods for estimating time delay margin for adaptive control of input delay systems with almost linear structured uncertainty. The bounded linear stability analysis method seeks to represent an adaptive law by a locally bounded linear approximation within a small time window. The time delay margin of this input delay system represents a local stability measure and is computed analytically by three methods: Pade approximation, Lyapunov-Krasovskii method, and the matrix measure method. These methods are applied to the standard model-reference adaptive control, s-modification adaptive law, and optimal control modification adaptive law. The windowing analysis results in non-unique estimates of the time delay margin since it is dependent on the length of a time window and parameters which vary from one time window to the next. The optimal control modification adaptive law overcomes this limitation in that, as the adaptive gain tends to infinity and if the matched uncertainty is linear, then the closed-loop input delay system tends to a LTI system. A lower bound of the time delay margin of this system can then be estimated uniquely without the need for the windowing analysis. Simulation results demonstrates the feasibility of the bounded linear stability method for time delay margin estimation.

Nguyen, Nhan T.

2011-01-01

158

Verification and Implementation of Delay-Insensitive Processes in Restrictive Environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

A delay-insensitive module communicates with its environment through wires of un- bounded delay. To avoid transmission interference, the absorption of a signal transition must be acknowledged before another one is propagated along the same wire. The environment may guaran- tee, however, to interact with the module in an even more restrictive way. It is worthwhile taking this into account when

Hemangee K. Kapoor; Mark B. Josephs; Dennis P. Furey

2006-01-01

159

Bound entangled Gaussian states.  

PubMed

We discuss the entanglement properties of bipartite states with Gaussian Wigner functions. For the separability, and the positivity of the partial transpose, we establish explicit necessary and sufficient criteria in terms of the covariance matrix of the state. It is shown that, for systems composed of a single oscillator for Alice and an arbitrary number for Bob, positivity of the partial transpose implies separability. However, this implication fails with two oscillators on each side, as we show by constructing a five parameter family of bound entangled Gaussian states. PMID:11328047

Werner, R F; Wolf, M M

2001-04-16

160

Programmable fiber optic delay line  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a novel programmable delay line that generates up to 50 ns of true time-delay in discrete 10 ns intervals. The delay line consists of an externally modulated wavelength tunable fiber laser and a six-element wavelength multiplexed fiber Bragg grating array, with the grating spacing set to yield the desired delay

Gary A. Ball; W. H. Glenn; W. W. Morey

1994-01-01

161

Internet telephony and modem delay  

Microsoft Academic Search

The vast majority of consumer Internet access is via dialup modems. These modems are a primary source of the delay experienced on voice over IP cells. The author focuses on understanding the causes of delay within analog modems, with the objective of developing recommendations to minimize delay for VoIP applications. First, the relative importance of modem delay is assessed versus

B. Goodman

1999-01-01

162

Neutrino mass bounds from cosmology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cosmology is at present one of the most powerful probes of neutrino properties. The advent of precision data from the cosmic microwave background and large scale structure has allowed for a very strong bound on the neutrino mass. Here, I review the status of cosmological bounds on neutrino properties with emphasis on mass bounds on light neutrinos.

Hannestad, Steen

2005-08-01

163

Lightweight scheduling for delay and bandwidth assurance in differentiated services  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To overcome the inherent limitation of the single best- effort service currently provided the Internet, providing differentiated services for different classes of applications is being discussed in IETF. In this paper, we propose a lightweight packet scheduling algorithm that allocates forwarding resources to different classes, which we name controlled priority (CP) gateway algorithm. The proposed CP algorithm consists of two mechanisms denoted by CP-CQD (controllable queuing delay) and CP-STI (service time interval), respectively. CP-CQD controls the queuing delay for a class of delay/jitter-sensitive traffic. CP-STI is to service classes that require bandwidth assurance. The proposed algorithm can provide guaranteed bounds of delay, jitter, rate, and packet loss to certain aggregate flows. The CP-CQD can accommodate variable bit rate as well as constant bit rate flow without bandwidth reservation for end-to-end delay bound and minimum delay jitter. The CP-STI enables tagged classes to get guaranteed throughput. These two modules can control resources allocated to the traffic classes by adjusting parameters in response to local congestion level. The simulation results show that CP gateway algorithm can provide required quality of service to certain classes while easing the negative effects on best- effort classes.

Shin, Jitae; Lee, Daniel C.; Kuo, C.-C. J.

1999-11-01

164

Stability, queue length, and delay of deterministic and stochastic queueing networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present two types of stability problems: 1) conditions for queueing networks that render bounded queue lengths and bounded delay for customers, and 2) conditions for queueing networks in which the queue length distribution of a queue has an exponential tail with rate ?. To answer these two types of stability problems, we introduce two new notions of traffic characterization:

Cheng-Shang Chang

1994-01-01

165

A measurement of propagation delay  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A measurement method and associated uncertainty analysis have been developed for the measurement of propagation or group delay in electrical transmission lines and optical fibres. The measurement method and uncertainty analysis were applied to measurements of optical fibre delay lines that introduce tens of microseconds of delay (1 km, 2 km and 4 km fibre lengths) and trombone lines that introduce sub-nanosecond delays. For the measurement method described here, uncertainties in the measured delay are as low as 90 fs (95% confidence interval) for a propagation delay of 660 ps and less than 200 ps (95% confidence interval) for a propagation delay of 20 µs.

Larson, Donald R.; Paulter, Nicholas G., Jr.

2007-02-01

166

Near field three dimensional time delay and Doppler target motion analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The problem of delay-differences and delay-rate-differences target motion analysis (DDRD TMA) is considered in the near-field and three-dimensional context. An accurate delay-differences model is derived and compared with the conventional range-differences model. The performances of DD TMA and DDRD TMA are studied and compared with respect to the Cramer-Rao lower bound. The maximum-likelihood estimator for location and velocity is obtained

Y. Chocheyras

1989-01-01

167

State consensus for multi-agent systems with switching topologies and time-varying delays  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we investigate state consensus problems for discrete-time multi-agent systems with changing communications topologies and bounded time-varying communication delays. The analysis in this paper is based on the properties of non-negative matrices. We first extend the model of networks of dynamic agents to the case with multiple time-delays and prove that if the communication topology, time-delays, and weighting

F. Xiao; L. Wang

2006-01-01

168

Stability of adaptive cruise control systems taking account of vehicle response time and delay  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The region of string stability of a platoon of adaptive cruise control vehicles, taking into account the delay and response of the vehicle powertrain, is found. An upper bound on the explicit delay time as a function the first-order powertrain response time constant is determined. The system is characterized by a headway time constant, a sensitivity parameter, relative (to the vehicle immediately in front) velocity control, and delayed-velocity feedback or acceleration feedback.

Davis, L. C.

2012-08-01

169

Expected utility with lower probabilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

An uncertain and not just risky situation may be modeled using so-called belief functions assigning lower probabilities to subsets of outcomes. In this article we extend the von Neumann-Morgenstern expected utility theory from probability measures to belief functions. We use this theory to characterize uncertainty neutrality and different degrees of uncertainty aversion.

Hans JØrgen Jacobsen; Birgitte Sloth; TORBEN TRANAES

1994-01-01

170

Expectations in Incremental Discourse Processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

The way in which discourse features express connections back to the previous discourse has been described in the literature in terms of on a suitably defined right frontier, can be used to both process expectations and constrain discouse processing in general.

Dan Cristea; Bonnie Lynn Webber

1997-01-01

171

Is Fusion Inhibited for Weakly Bound Nuclei?  

SciTech Connect

Complete fusion of light radioactive nuclei is predicted to be hindered at near-barrier energies. This feature is investigated in the case of the least bound stable nuclei. Evaporation residues resulting from the {sup 6,7}Li+{sup 9}Be and {sup 6,7}Li+{sup 12}C fusion reactions have been measured in order to study common features in reactions involving light weakly bound nuclei. The experimental excitation functions revealed that the fusion cross section is significantly smaller than the total reaction cross section and also smaller than the fusion cross section expected from the available systematics. A clear correlation between the fusion probability and nucleon (cluster) separation energy has been established.The results suggest that the breakup process has a strong influence on the hindrance of the fusion cross section. {copyright} {ital 1996} {ital The American Physical Society}

Takahashi, J.; Munhoz, M.; Szanto, E.M.; Carlin, N.; Added, N.; Suaide, A.A.; de Moura, M.M.; Liguori Neto, R.; Szanto de Toledo, A. [Universidade de Sao Paulo, Institute de Fisica, Departamento de Fisica Nuclear, Caixa Postal 66318, 05389-970 Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, (Brasil)] [Universidade de Sao Paulo, Institute de Fisica, Departamento de Fisica Nuclear, Caixa Postal 66318, 05389-970 Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, (Brasil); Canto, L.F. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Caixa Postal 68528, 21945-970 Rio de Janeiro, RJ, (Brasil)] [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Caixa Postal 68528, 21945-970 Rio de Janeiro, RJ, (Brasil)

1997-01-01

172

Upper bound on thermohaline convection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An upper bound on the heat Nusselt number is calculated for thermohaline convection using the Constantin-Doering background method. A naive approach yields that the bound on heat transfer in Rayleigh-Benard convection still serves as a bound for thermohaline convection. The stabilizing effect of salt does not come into picture in this approach. A more sophisticated approach, inspired by the ``generalized energy analysis'' of Shir & Joseph, is used to incorporate the effect of salt on the bound. The bound is seen to behave asymptotically as R_T^1/2, where RT is the thermal Rayleigh number, in the limit RT arrow ?.

Mandre, Shreyas; Balmforth, Neil; Ghadge, Shilpa; Kettapun, Atichart

2004-11-01

173

Wind effects on bounding flight.  

PubMed

The effects of the wind on the energy expenditure of bounding flight and on the travelling speed are dealt with. For this purpose, a mathematical model of bounding flight in moving air is developed. Introducing an appropriate non-dimensionalization, results and findings of generally valid nature are derived. It is shown that bounding flight yields a flight mechanical advantage in headwinds when compared with continuous flapping flight. This is because the minimum energy expenditure is lower and the associated travelling speed is higher. The body lift in the bound phase has an advantageous influence. The effects of tailwinds yield less differences between bounding flight and continuous flapping flight. PMID:22981923

Sachs, Gottfried

2013-01-01

174

Estimating Delays In ASIC's  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Verification is important aspect of process of designing application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC). Design must not only be functionally accurate, but must also maintain correct timing. IFA, Intelligent Front Annotation program, assists in verifying timing of ASIC early in design process. This program speeds design-and-verification cycle by estimating delays before layouts completed. Written in C language.

Burke, Gary; Nesheiwat, Jeffrey; Su, Ling

1994-01-01

175

Flow through Pyrotechnic Delay.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A pyrotechnic delay device includes a sleeve mounted on a base plate. The sleeve and base plate encloses a pyrotechnic mix which is ignitable by a gas generator spaced from the device. Passages are provided in the base plate and communicate with passage b...

R. E. Betts N. P. Williams A. T. Stokes

1981-01-01

176

Delayed ettringite formation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Delayed ettringite formation (DEF) can damage concrete that has experienced a temperature above about 70°C. Claims that slow release of sulfate from the clinker can have a similar effect in concrete not thus heated are unsupported. Chemical and microstructural aspects of DEF are reviewed. Expansion results from formation of ettringite crystals of submicrometre size in the paste, the larger crystals

H. F. W Taylor; C Famy; K. L Scrivener

2001-01-01

177

Expected value of information and decision making in HTA.  

PubMed

Decision makers within a jurisdiction facing evidence of positive but uncertain incremental net benefit of a new health care intervention have viable options where no further evidence is anticipated to:(1)adopt the new intervention without further evidence;(2)adopt the new intervention and undertake a trial; or(3)delay the decision and undertake a trial.Value of information methods have been shown previously to allow optimal design of clinical trials in comparing option (2) against option (1), by trading off the expected value and cost of sample information. However, this previous research has not considered the effect of cost of reversal on expected value of information in comparing these options. This paper demonstrates that, where a new intervention is adopted, the expected value of information is reduced under optimal decision making with costs of reversing decisions. Further, the paper shows that comparing expected net gain of optimally designed trials for option (2) vs (1) conditional on cost of reversal, and (3) vs (1) conditional on opportunity cost of delay allow systematic identification of an optimal decision strategy and trial design. PMID:16981193

Eckermann, Simon; Willan, Andrew R

2007-02-01

178

Raising Expectations for Mathematics Instruction in California: Algebra and beyond. Policy and Practice Brief  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As expectations for students to meet high academic standards have risen over the past two decades, so have the expectations for students to complete, and excel in, more rigorous mathematics courses. Once a course reserved only for the college-bound, algebra is now a graduation requirement for all California students as well as an early "gateway"…

Bitter, Catherine; O'Day, Jennifer

2010-01-01

179

Delayed fluorescence in photosynthesis.  

PubMed

Photosynthesis is a very efficient photochemical process. Nevertheless, plants emit some of the absorbed energy as light quanta. This luminescence is emitted, predominantly, by excited chlorophyll a molecules in the light-harvesting antenna, associated with Photosystem II (PS II) reaction centers. The emission that occurs before the utilization of the excitation energy in the primary photochemical reaction is called prompt fluorescence. Light emission can also be observed from repopulated excited chlorophylls as a result of recombination of the charge pairs. In this case, some time-dependent redox reactions occur before the excitation of the chlorophyll. This delays the light emission and provides the name for this phenomenon-delayed fluorescence (DF), or delayed light emission (DLE). The DF intensity is a decreasing polyphasic function of the time after illumination, which reflects the kinetics of electron transport reactions both on the (electron) donor and the (electron) acceptor sides of PS II. Two main experimental approaches are used for DF measurements: (a) recording of the DF decay in the dark after a single turnover flash or after continuous light excitation and (b) recording of the DF intensity during light adaptation of the photosynthesizing samples (induction curves), following a period of darkness. In this paper we review historical data on DF research and recent advances in the understanding of the relation between the delayed fluorescence and specific reactions in PS II. An experimental method for simultaneous recording of the induction transients of prompt and delayed chlorophyll fluorescence and decay curves of DF in the millisecond time domain is discussed. PMID:19548111

Goltsev, Vasilij; Zaharieva, Ivelina; Chernev, Petko; Strasser, Reto J

2009-01-01

180

Support expectations of cancer patients.  

PubMed

Patients' satisfaction is a paramount in the delivery of health care provisions, particularly in patients with poor prognosis. Effective communication with such patients helps in achieving a better satisfaction score. A survey was conducted on upper gastrointestinal cancer patients to assess their perceived satisfaction regarding the healthcare received. A frank but supportive communication helps in meeting the expectations of these patients in their cancer journey. PMID:23374529

Jafferbhoy, Sadaf; Tappenden, Janine; Allen, Tracey; Shiwani, Muhammad Hanif

2013-02-01

181

Televisions, Physicians, and Life Expectancy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article, created by Allan Rossman of Dickinson College, describes a dataset on life expectancies, densities of people per television set, and densities of people per physician in various countries of the world. The example addresses correlation versus causation and data transformations. The author states that "the example has proven very useful for helping students to discover the fundamental principle that correlation does not imply causation."

Rossman, Allan

2009-06-22

182

Early developmental delays: neuropsychological sequelae and subsequent diagnoses.  

PubMed

Developmental delay is a frequent diagnosis given to young children when developmental milestones are not met in an age-expected time frame. Research on early delays in speech and motor milestones is unclear regarding possible long-term cognitive functioning. The purpose of this study was to investigate the neuropsychological profile of children who suffered early developmental delays in speech or motor function. Participants (N = 60) completed the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Fourth Edition, Wechsler Individual Achievement Test-Second Edition, Wisconsin Card-Sorting Test, Children's Memory Test (CMT), the Delis-Kaplan Executive Function System, and the Child Behavior Checklist/Youth Self-Report. The Delay group had a significantly lower Full-Scale IQ (FSIQ), and when controlling for IQ (analysis of covariance), the Delay group had significantly lower scores on measures of immediate and delayed visual memory skills (CMT). Group scores were not significantly different for any other tests. Neither group had any test scores significantly below FSIQ, a finding suggesting developmental delays may subsequently lead to weaknesses but not impairments. Results appear to support the resiliency of the young brain. Chi-square analysis showed the Delay group was more likely to subsequently be diagnosed with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) but not learning disorders. Data appear to suggest that early developmental delays may place children as risk for ADHD and perhaps visual memory weaknesses, though not clear impairments. PMID:23428279

Perna, Robert; Loughan, Ashlee

2012-01-01

183

Precise estimation of tropospheric path delays with GPS techniques  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Tropospheric path delays are a major source of error in deep space tracking. However, the tropospheric-induced delay at tracking sites can be calibrated using measurements of Global Positioning System (GPS) satellites. A series of experiments has demonstrated the high sensitivity of GPS to tropospheric delays. A variety of tests and comparisons indicates that current accuracy of the GPS zenith tropospheric delay estimates is better than 1-cm root-mean-square over many hours, sampled continuously at intervals of six minutes. These results are consistent with expectations from covariance analyses. The covariance analyses also indicate that by the mid-1990s, when the GPS constellation is complete and the Deep Space Network is equipped with advanced GPS receivers, zenith tropospheric delay accuracy with GPS will improve further to 0.5 cm or better.

Lichten, S. M.

1990-01-01

184

Time-delay quasars: Scales and orders of magnitudes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We can think of a lensed quasar as taking the Hubble time, shrinking it by ˜10-11, and then presenting the result to us as a time delay; the shrinking factor is of the order of fractional sky-area that the lens occupies. This cute fact is a straightforward consequence of lensing theory, and enables a simple rescaling of time delays. Observed time delays have a 40-fold range, but after rescaling the range reduces to 5-fold. The latter range depends on details of the lens and lensing configuration - for example, quads have systematically shorter rescaled time delays than doubles - and is as expected from a simple model. The hypothesis that observed time-delay lenses all come from a generalized-isothermal family can be ruled out. But there is no indication of drastically different populations either.

Saha, P.

2004-02-01

185

Delay Analysis of Networked Control Systems Based on 100 M Switched Ethernet  

PubMed Central

For the delay may degrade the performance of networked control systems, networked control systems based on 100?M switched Ethernet are proposed in this paper. According to the working principle of Ethernet switch, the formulas of the upper bound delay of the single-level switched Ethernet and the multiple-level switched Ethernet are deduced by the timing diagram method, and the values of the upper bound delay are also given. The key factors that influence the upper bound delay of switched Ethernet are analyzed; then, the characteristics of the upper bound delay are presented, which show that the delay induced by the single-level 100?M switched Ethernet has little effect on the performance of control systems, while the delay induced by the multiple-level 100?M switched Ethernet may meet the time requirements of all classes of control systems if the numbers of levels and the numbers of nodes connecting to switches are set properly. Finally, the performance of networked control systems is simulated by TrueTime, and the results further show the feasibility and superiority of 100?M switched Ethernet based networked control systems without modification of the network protocols.

2014-01-01

186

Preliminary bounds on the expected postclosure performance of the Yucca Mountain Repository Site, southern Nevada  

Microsoft Academic Search

On the basis of current data and understanding of site characteristics at Yucca Mountain, the likely performance range of a mined repository for spent nuclear fuel can be calculated. Low flux through the unsaturated zone results in groundwater travel times to the water table that probably exceed 10,000 years and may exceed 100,000 years, far longer than required by the

S. Sinnock; Y. T. Lin; J. P. Brannen

1987-01-01

187

Preliminary bounds on the expected postclosure performance of the Yucca Mountain Repository Site, southern Nevada  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current data and understanding about the site conditions at Yucca Mountain provide a basis for calculating the likely range of performance of a mined repository for spent nuclear fuel. Low flux through the unsaturated zone results in groundwater travel times to the water table that probably exceed 10,000 years and may exceed 100,000 years, far longer than required by the

S. Sinnock; Y. T. Lin; J. P. Brannen

1984-01-01

188

Formation of "bound  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During degradation of organic pollutants in soil, metabolites, microbial biomass, CO2and "bound" residues ("non-extractable" residues in soil organic matter) are formed. Enhanced transformation of these contaminants into "bound" residues has been proposed as an alternative remediation method for polluted soils. However, this kind of residues may pose a potential risk for the environment due to their chemical structure and possible remobilization under different conditions. Therefore particular attention is given actually to "bound" residues. Part of these non-extractable residues may be "biogenic," because microorganisms use the carbon from the pollutant to form their biomass components (fatty acids, amino acids, amino sugars), which subsequently may be incorporated into soil organic matter. Furthermore, the CO2 originating from mineralization of xenobiotics, can be re-assimilated by microorganisms and also incorporated into "biogenic residue". The hazard posed by "bound" residues may be overestimated because they are "biogenic" (contain microbial fatty acids and amino acids). The knowledge about the pathways of "biogenic residue" formation is necessary for a proper assessment of the fate of tested pollutants and their turnover in the soil environment. Moreover, these data are needed to establish the realistic degradation rates of the contaminants in soil. The main objectives of this study are: to quantify the extent of "biogenic residue" (fatty acids, amino acids, amino sugars) formation during the degradation of a model pollutant (2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid = 2,4-D) and during CO2 assimilation by microorganisms and to evaluate which components are mainly incorporated into "bound" residues. To investigate the extent of "biogenic residue" formation in soil during the degradation of 2,4-D, experiments with either 14C-U-ring and 13C6-2,4-D or carboxyl-14C 2,4-D were performed. The incubation experiments were performed according to OECD test guideline 307, in the dark, at constant temp 20Ë? C (+/-2Ë? C) and with intermittent aeration. During incubation, the mineralization was quantified and soil samples were analyzed for the presence of both "biogenic residues" and remaining 2,4-D. Mineralization of 2,4-D in both experiments was very high. However, the 14CO2 evolution was higher from carboxyl-14C 2,4-D than from 14C-ring 2,4-D. After 7 days of incubation, 30% of initial amount of 14C in soil contaminated with 14C-ring 2,4-D was mineralized, whereas 40% of total radioactivity was evolved as CO2after 4 days from soil incubated with 14C-carboxyl 2,4-D. The amount of extractable 2,4-D residues was very low in both experiments (14C-ring 2,4-D: 2% and 14C-carboxyl 2,4-D: 1%). The soil incubated with 14C-ring 2,4-D contained 60% of "non-extractable" residues of 2,4-D after 7 days, while the amount of these residues in soil contaminated with 14C-carboxyl 2,4-D reached 50% of the initial radioactivity in the tested system 4 days after application. More "biogenic residues" were formed in soil spiked with 14C-U-ring 2,4-D (10%) than in soil with carboxyl 14C 2,4-D (7%). Both 2,4-D and CO2-derived C were incorporated mainly into microbial amino acids (9.5% at day 7 and 7.0% at day 4, respectively). After 7 days of incubation, 0.5% of initial applied radioactivity in system was found in microbial lipids in the soil contaminated with 14C-ring 2,4-D. Only 0.1% of the total radioactivity was incorporated into lipids in soil treated with 14C-carboxyl 2,4-D on day 4 after application. Thin Layer Chromatography identified the microbial lipids containing the radioactivity as phosphatidylethanolamine, a phospholipid typical for microorganisms. The amount of microbial lipids (which corresponds to phospholipids) in both cases decreased with time; this can be explained by the death of the microbial biomass. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on the formation of &qu

Nowak, K.; Kästner, M.; Miltner, A.

2009-04-01

189

Controlling plants with delay  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper studies a generalized form of the MIMO Smith regulator (GS) and one of its variants—the Gray-Hunt-Horowitz (GHH) regulator. The necessary and sufficient conditions for the exponential stability of both systems are determined. The two schemes are analysed and the limitations imposed on system performance by uncertainty in delay, plant saturation, etc., are exhibited. The GHH and GS regulators

A. BHAYA; C. A. DESOER

1985-01-01

190

Controlling plants with delay  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper studies a generalized form of the MIMO Smith regulator (GS) and one of its variants--the Gray-Hunt-Horowitz (GHH) regulator. The two schemes are analysed and the limitations imposed on system performance by uncertainty in delay, plant saturation etc. are exhibited. The GHH and GS regulators are compared with reference to a fairly general example. Finally, two theorems establish a

A. Bhaya; C. A. Desoer

1984-01-01

191

?-delayed neutron emission studies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The study of ?-delayed neutron emission plays a major role in different fields such as nuclear technology, nuclear astrophysics and nuclear structure. However the quality of the existing experimental data nowadays is not sufficient for the various technical and scientific applications and new high precision measurements are necessary to improve the data bases. One key aspect to the success of these high precission measurements is the use of a very pure ion beam that ensures that only the ion of interest is produced. The combination of the IGISOL mass separator with the JYFLTRAP Penning trap is an excellent tool for this type of measurement because of the ability to deliver isobarically and even isomerically clean beams. Another key feature of the installation is the non-chemical selectivity of the IGISOL ion source which allows measurements in the important region of refractory elements. This paper summarises the ?-delayed neutron emission studies that have been carried out at the IGISOL facility with two different neutron detectors based on 3He counters in a polyethylene moderator: the Mainz neutron detector and the BEta deLayEd Neutron detector.

Gómez-Hornillos, M. B.; Rissanen, J.; Taín, J. L.; Algora, A.; Kratz, K. L.; Lhersonneau, G.; Pfeiffer, B.; Agramunt, J.; Cano-Ott, D.; Gorlychev, V.; Caballero-Folch, R.; Martínez, T.; Achouri, L.; Calvino, F.; Cortés, G.; Eronen, T.; García, A.; Parlog, M.; Podolyak, Z.; Pretel, C.; Valencia, E.

2014-01-01

192

Primary Care Clinician Expectations Regarding Aging  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: Expectations regarding aging (ERA) in community-dwelling older adults are associated with personal health behaviors and health resource usage. Clinicians' age expectations likely influence patients' expectations and care delivery patterns; yet, limited research has explored clinicians' age expectations. The Expectations Regarding Aging…

Davis, Melinda M.; Bond, Lynne A.; Howard, Alan; Sarkisian, Catherine A.

2011-01-01

193

Design of delay-dependent state estimator for discrete-time recurrent neural networks with interval discrete and infinite-distributed time-varying delays.  

PubMed

The state estimation problem for discrete-time recurrent neural networks with both interval discrete and infinite-distributed time-varying delays is studied in this paper, where interval discrete time-varying delay is in a given range. The activation functions are assumed to be globally Lipschitz continuous. A delay-dependent condition for the existence of state estimators is proposed based on new bounding techniques. Via solutions to certain linear matrix inequalities, general full-order state estimators are designed that ensure globally asymptotic stability. The significant feature is that no inequality is needed for seeking upper bounds for the inner product between two vectors, which can reduce the conservatism of the criterion by employing the new bounding techniques. Two illustrative examples are given to demonstrate the effectiveness and applicability of the proposed approach. PMID:22654986

Liao, Chin-Wen; Lu, Chien-Yu

2011-06-01

194

ATTRITION IN DISTRIBUTED DELAY MODELS  

EPA Science Inventory

Distributed time delay models are extended to deal with loss of entities from within the process being modeled. Analysis of a time-invariant distributed delay shows that the statistics of individual transit times through a delay process can be very sensitive to attrition incurred...

195

Improved conditions for passivity of neural networks with a time-varying delay.  

PubMed

The passivity of neural networks with a time-varying delay and norm-bounded parameter uncertainties is investigated in this paper. A complete delay-decomposing approach is employed to construct a Lyapunov-Krasovskii functional. Then, by utilizing a segmentation technique to consider the time-varying delay and its derivative and introducing some free-weighting matrices to express the relationship between the time-varying delay and its varying interval, some improved passivity criteria are derived. Finally, two numerical examples are given to show the effectiveness and the merits of the proposed method. PMID:24839061

Zeng, Hong-Bing; He, Yong; Wu, Min; Xiao, Hui-Qin

2014-06-01

196

Delayed plumage maturation and delayed reproductive investment in birds.  

PubMed

Delayed plumage maturation is the delayed acquisition of a definitive colour and pattern of plumage until after the first potential breeding period in birds. Here we provide a comprehensive overview of the numerous studies of delayed plumage maturation and a revised theoretical framework for understanding the function of delayed plumage maturation in all birds. We first distinguish between hypotheses that delayed plumage maturation is attributable to a moult constraint with no adaptive function and hypotheses that propose that delayed plumage maturation is a component of an adaptive life-history strategy associated with delayed reproductive investment. We then recognize three potential benefits of delayed plumage maturation: crypsis, mimicry and status signaling. Evidence suggests that delayed plumage maturation is not a consequence of developmental constraints and instead represents a strategy to maximize reproductive success in circumstances where young adults cannot effectively compete with older adults for limited resources, particularly breeding opportunities. A multi-factorial explanation that takes into account lifespan and the degree of competition for limited breeding resources and that combines the benefits of an inconspicuous appearance with the benefits of honest signaling of reduced competitiveness provides a general explanation for the function of delayed plumage maturation in most bird species. Delayed plumage maturation should be viewed as a component of alternative reproductive strategies that can include delay in both plumage and sexual development. Such strategies are frequently facultative, with individuals breeding prior to the acquisition of definitive plumages when conditions are favourable. Presumably, the benefits of delayed plumage maturation ultimately enhance lifetime reproductive success, and studying delayed plumage maturation within the context of lifetime reproductive success should be a goal of future studies. PMID:21790949

Hawkins, Gerard L; Hill, Geoffrey E; Mercadante, Austin

2012-05-01

197

Bound states in the continuum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Quantum-mechanical examples have been constructed of local potentials with bound eigenstates embedded in the dense continuum of scattering states. The method employed corrects and extends a procedure invented by von Neumann and Wigner. Cases are cited whereby deformation of the local potential causes the continuum bound state to move downward through the bottom of the continuum, and to connect analytically

Frank H. Stillinger; David R. Herrick

1975-01-01

198

Bound states of ? + in nuclei  

Microsoft Academic Search

The energies and widths of bound states of themeson in different nuclei are obtained using the results for its selfenergy in a nuclear medium, which is evaluated in a selfconsistent manner using techniques of unitarized chiral perturbation theory. We find bound states in all studied nuclei (from 12C on) and the half widths obtained are larger than the separation of

E. Oset; D. Cabrera; Q. B. Li; V. K. Magas; M. J. Vicente Vacas

2005-01-01

199

Simple Bounded LTL Model Checking  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a new and very simple translation of the bounded model checking problem which is linear both in the size of the formula and the length of the bound. The resulting CNF-formula has a linear number of variables and clauses.

Timo Latvala; Armin Biere; Keijo Heljanko; Tommi A. Junttila

2004-01-01

200

Error Bounds for Interpolative Approximations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Elementary error estimation in the approximation of functions by polynomials as a computational assignment, error-bounding functions and error bounds, and the choice of interpolation points are discussed. Precalculus and computer instruction are used on some of the calculations. (KR)

Gal-Ezer, J.; Zwas, G.

1990-01-01

201

Resource Bounded Measure and Learnability  

Microsoft Academic Search

We consider the resource bounded measure of polynomial-time learnable subclasses of polynomial-size circuits. We show that if , then every PAC- learnable subclass of poly has -measure zero. We introduce a nonuniformly computable variant of resource bounded measure and show that, for every fixed polyno- mial , any polynomial-time learnable subclass of circuits of size has measure zero with respect

Wolfgang Lindner; Rainer Schuler; Osamu Watanabe

1998-01-01

202

A Tight Bound for EMAC  

Microsoft Academic Search

We prove a new upper bound on the advantage of any ad- versary for distinguishing the encrypted CBC-MAC (EMAC) based on random permutations from a random function. Our proof uses techniques recently introduced in (BPR05), which again were inspired by (DGH+04). The bound we prove is tight | in the sense that it matches the advantage of known attacks up

Krzysztof Pietrzak

2006-01-01

203

Visual Search Performance and Observer Expectations.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A field experiment is reported in which subject's expectations regarding cues to detection of selected target types, and the effect such expectations might have on time to detection, were investigated. A scenario procedure for measurement of expectations ...

C. J. Woodruff

1986-01-01

204

Vehicle barrier with access delay  

DOEpatents

An access delay vehicle barrier for stopping unauthorized entry into secure areas by a vehicle ramming attack includes access delay features for preventing and/or delaying an adversary from defeating or compromising the barrier. A horizontally deployed barrier member can include an exterior steel casing, an interior steel reinforcing member and access delay members disposed within the casing and between the casing and the interior reinforcing member. Access delay members can include wooden structural lumber, concrete and/or polymeric members that in combination with the exterior casing and interior reinforcing member act cooperatively to impair an adversarial attach by thermal, mechanical and/or explosive tools.

Swahlan, David J; Wilke, Jason

2013-09-03

205

Metabolism of organically bound tritium  

SciTech Connect

The classic methodology for estimating dose to man from environmental tritium ignores the fact that organically bound tritium in foodstuffs may be directly assimilated in the bound compartment of tissues without previous oxidation. We propose a four-compartment model consisting of a free body water compartment, two organic compartments, and a small, rapidly metabolizing compartment. The utility of this model lies in the ability to input organically bound tritium in foodstuffs directly into the organic compartments of the model. We found that organically bound tritium in foodstuffs can increase cumulative total body dose by a factor of 1.7 to 4.5 times the free body water dose alone, depending on the bound-to-loose ratio of tritium in the diet. Model predictions are compared with empirical measurements of tritium in human urine and tissue samples, and appear to be in close agreement. 10 references, 4 figures, 3 tables.

Travis, C.C.

1984-01-01

206

Spectroscopy of Traceroute Delays  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a We analyze delays of traceroute probes, i.e. packets that elicit ICMP TimeExceeded messages, for a full range of probe sizes\\u000a up to 9000 bytes as observed on unloaded high-end routers. Our ultimate motivation is to use traceroute RTTs for Internet\\u000a mapping of router and PoP (ISP point-of-presence) level nodes, including potentially gleaning information on equipment models,\\u000a link technologies, capacities, latencies,

Andre Broido; Young Hyun; Kimberly C. Claffy

2005-01-01

207

DELAYED REINFORCEMENT OF OPERANT BEHAVIOR  

PubMed Central

The experimental analysis of delay of reinforcement is considered from the perspective of three questions that seem basic not only to understanding delay of reinforcement, but, also, by implication, the contributions of temporal relations between events to operant behavior. The first question is whether effects of the temporal relation between responses and reinforcers can be isolated from other features of the environment that often accompany delays, such as stimuli or changes in the temporal distribution or rate of reinforcement. The second question is that of the effects of delays on operant behavior. Beyond the common denominator of a temporal separation between reinforcers and the responses that produce them, delay of reinforcement procedures differ from one another along several dimensions, making delay effects circumstance dependent. The final question is one of interpreting delay of reinforcement effects. It centers on the role of the response–reinforcer temporal relation in the context of other, concurrently operating behavioral processes.

Lattal, Kennon A

2010-01-01

208

Integrals, Expectation-Values and Entropy.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The maximum entropy principle, one of the cornerstones of equilibrium statistical mechanics, has been introduced into probability theory by E. T. JAYNES as part of a rational strategy for making plausible inferences from incomplete information. The conventional maximum entropy formalism, involving the familiar machinery of partition functions, is practically the same in both classical and quantum mechanical formulations of statistical mechanics. The present work undertakes to extend the maximum entropy principle to a generalized abstract formulation of probability theory, encompassing the familiar classical and quantal models as well as certain more exotic models uncovered by G. W. MACKEY in his axiomatization of quantum mechanics--the so-called quantum logics. In this more general approach, the conventional machinery of partition functions is not available. Instead, one makes use of a family of conditional entropy functions. In its dependence on the constraint conditions, the conditional entropy enjoys concavity and monotonicity properties analogous to those of the phenomenological entropy in equilibrium thermodynamics. The new formalism is able to take in stride the possibility that the constraints, although consistent, may fail to determine a unique maximum entropy state (probability distribution). Examples which demonstrate this possibility are readily constructed in both classical and quantal models of probability theory. One observes that, in the convex set of states compatible with the constraints, there is none of greatest entropy; typically this happens at or beyond a "barrier" where the conventional partition function becomes singular. Such examples should not simply be dismissed as "pathological"; they may perhaps have interesting physical interpretations (e.g., turbulence, disorder, chaos). In carrying out the above program it is essential to recognize that the expectation-values of an unbounded observable (real random variable) need not be finite: they may be infinite or indeterminate. A generalized convexity theory which allows, roughly speaking, for the inclusion of such "points at infinity" is developed in a mathematical appendix. As an interesting sidelight, a novel expression is obtained for the quantum mechanical expectation-value, related to the theory of quadratic forms; the conventional trace formula is generally valid only for bounded observables.

Barron, Arthur Randall

1982-03-01

209

Reperfusion options in ST-elevation myocardial infarction patients with expected delays  

Microsoft Academic Search

Primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PPCI) is the optimal reperfusion strategy for ST-elevation myocardial infarction\\u000a (STEMI) patients when performed in a timely manner by experienced providers. Unfortunately, only 25% of US hospitals have\\u000a percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) capability. Transfer for PPCI has also been shown to improve outcomes if transfer\\u000a times are short and PCI can be performed within 90 minutes.

David M. Larson; Timothy D. Henry

2008-01-01

210

Effects of Stimulus Context, Study Time, and Delay on Visual Recognition Memory in Six-Month-Old Infants.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to determine whether context facilitated memory and whether this facilitation was still evident after a delay. Infants were expected to recognize pictures significantly longer when they were tested with the same context cues. This context effect was expected to be even after a 5-minute delay. The subjects were 64…

Faber, Melissa M.

211

Fundamentals of Delayed Coking Joint Industry Project  

SciTech Connect

Delayed coking evolved steadily over the early to mid 1900s to enable refiners to convert high boiling, residual petroleum fractions to light products such as gasoline. Pound for pound, coking is the most energy intensive of any operation in a modern refinery. Large amounts of energy are required to heat the thick, poor-quality petroleum residuum to the 900 to 950 degrees F required to crack the heavy hydrocarbon molecules into lighter, more valuable products. One common misconception of delayed coking is that the product coke is a disadvantage. Although coke is a low valued (near zero economic value) byproduct, compared to transportation fuels, there is a significant worldwide trade and demand for coke as it is an economical fuel. Coke production has increased steadily over the last ten years, with further increases forecast for the foreseeable future. Current domestic production is near 111,000 tons per day. A major driving force behind this increase is the steady decline in crude quality available to refiners. Crude slates are expected to grow heavier with higher sulfur contents while environmental restrictions are expected to significantly reduce the demand for high-sulfur residual fuel oil. Light sweet crudes will continue to be available and in even greater demand than they are today. Refiners will be faced with the choice of purchasing light sweet crudes at a premium price, or adding bottom of the barrel upgrading capability, through additional new investments, to reduce the production of high-sulfur residual fuel oil and increase the production of low-sulfur distillate fuels. A second disadvantage is that liquid products from cokers frequently are unstable, i.e., they rapidly form gum and sediments. Because of intermediate investment and operating costs, delayed coking has increased in popularity among refiners worldwide. Based on the 2000 Worldwide Refining Survey published in the Oil and Gas, the delayed coking capacity for 101 refineries around the world is 2,937,439 barrels/calendar day. These cokers produce 154,607 tons of coke per day and delayed coking accounts for 88% of the world capacity. The delayed coking charge capacity in the United States is 1,787,860 b/cd. Despite its wide commercial use, only relatively few contractors and refiners are truly knowledgeable in delayed-coking design, so that this process carries with it a ''black art'' connotation. Until recently, the expected yield from cokers was determined by a simple laboratory test on the feedstock. As a result of Tulsa University's prior related research, a process model was developed that with additional work could be used to optimize existing delayed cokers over a wide range of potential feedstocks and operating conditions. The objectives of this research program are to: utilize the current micro, batch and pilot unit facilities at The University of Tulsa to enhance the understanding of the coking process; conduct additional micro and pilot unit tests with new and in-house resids and recycles to make current optimization models more robust; conduct focused kinetic experiments to enhance the furnace tube model and to enhance liquid production while minimizing sulfur in the products; conduct detailed foaming studies to optimize the process and minimize process upsets; quantify the parameters that affect coke morphology; and to utilize the knowledge gained from the experimental and modeling studies to enhance the computer programs developed in the previous JIP for optimization of the coking process. These refined computer models will then be tested against refinery data provided by the member companies. Novel concepts will also be explored for hydrogen sulfide removal of furnace gases as well as gas injection studies to reduce over-cracking.

Michael Volk; Keith Wisecarver

2003-09-26

212

Fundamentals of Delayed Coking Joint Industry Project  

SciTech Connect

Delayed coking evolved steadily over the early to mid 1900s to enable refiners to convert high boiling, residual petroleum fractions to light products such as gasoline. Pound for pound, coking is the most energy intensive of any operation in a modern refinery. Large amounts of energy are required to heat the thick, poor-quality petroleum residuum to the 900 to 950 degrees F required to crack the heavy hydrocarbon molecules into lighter, more valuable products. One common misconception of delayed coking is that the product coke is a disadvantage. Although coke is a low valued (near zero economic value) byproduct, compared to transportation fuels, there is a significant worldwide trade and demand for coke as it is an economical fuel. Coke production has increased steadily over the last ten years, with further increases forecast for the foreseeable future. Current domestic production is near 111,000 tons per day. A major driving force behind this increase is the steady decline in crude quality available to refiners. Crude slates are expected to grow heavier with higher sulfur contents while environmental restrictions are expected to significantly reduce the demand for high-sulfur residual fuel oil. Light sweet crudes will continue to be available and in even greater demand than they are today. Refiners will be faced with the choice of purchasing light sweet crudes at a premium price, or adding bottom of the barrel upgrading capability, through additional new investments, to reduce the production of high-sulfur residual fuel oil and increase the production of low-sulfur distillate fuels. A second disadvantage is that liquid products from cokers frequently are unstable, i.e., they rapidly form gum and sediments. Because of intermediate investment and operating costs, delayed coking has increased in popularity among refiners worldwide. Based on the 2000 Worldwide Refining Survey published in the Oil and Gas, the delayed coking capacity for 101 refineries around the world is 2,937,439 barrels/calendar day. These cokers produce 154,607 tons of coke per day and delayed coking accounts for 88% of the world capacity. The delayed coking charge capacity in the United States is 1,787,860 b/cd. Despite its wide commercial use, only relatively few contractors and refiners are truly knowledgeable in delayed-coking design, so that this process carries with it a ''black art'' connotation. Until recently, the expected yield from cokers was determined by a simple laboratory test on the feedstock. As a result of Tulsa University's prior related research, a process model was developed that with additional work could be used to optimize existing delayed cokers over a wide range of potential feedstocks and operating conditions. The objectives of this research program are to: utilize the current micro, batch and pilot unit facilities at The University of Tulsa to enhance the understanding of the coking process; conduct additional micro and pilot unit tests with new and in-house resids and recycles to make current optimization models more robust; conduct focused kinetic experiments to enhance the furnace tube model and to enhance liquid production while minimizing sulfur in the products; conduct detailed foaming studies to optimize the process and minimize process upsets; quantify the parameters that affect coke morphology; and to utilize the knowledge gained from the experimental and modeling studies to enhance the computer programs developed in the previous JIP for optimization of the coking process. These refined computer models will then be tested against refinery data provided by the member companies. Novel concepts will also be explored for hydrogen sulfide removal of furnace gases as well as gas injection studies to reduce over-cracking.

Michael Volk; Keith Wisecarver

2004-09-26

213

Overlapping Resilient HG Control for Uncertain Time-Delayed Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper presents the expansion-contraction relations within the Inclusion Principle for a class of continuoustime state-delayed uncertain systems when considering HP state memoryless control with additive controller uncertainty. All uncertainties are supposed to be time-varying norm bounded. The main contribution is the derivation of conditions under which a resilient HP control law designed in the expanded space is contracted into

L. Bakule; J. Rodellar; J. M. Rossell

2005-01-01

214

Robust model predictive control of time-delay systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

A robust model predictive control (MPC) is proposed for the discrete-time linear time-delay systems with constrained control input, where the uncertainties also known as polytope exist in state matrices and input matrices. The sufficient conditions of stability and a new upper bound on the robust performance index are presented based on Lyapunov-Krasovskii function. At each sampling time optimal control action

Liu Zhilin; Zhang Jun; Pei Run

2003-01-01

215

Optimal Evasion from a Pursuer with Delayed Information  

Microsoft Academic Search

A class of prescribed duration pursuit–evasion problems with first-order acceleration dynamics and bounded controls is considered. In this class, the pursuer has delayed information on the lateral acceleration of the evader, but knows perfectly the other state variables. Moreover, the pursuer applies a strategy derived from the perfect information pursuit–evasion game solution. Assuming that the evader has perfect information on

V. Y. Glizer; J. Shinar

2001-01-01

216

Price Stability and Monetary Policy Effectiveness When Nominal Interest Rates are Bounded at Zero.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper employs stochastic simulations of a small structural rational expectations model to investigate the consequences of the zero bound on nominal interest rates. We find that if the economy is subject to stochastic shocks similar in magnitude to th...

A. Orphanides V. Wieland

1998-01-01

217

Saturating the holographic entropy bound  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The covariant entropy bound states that the entropy, S, of matter on a light sheet cannot exceed a quarter of its initial area, A, in Planck units. The gravitational entropy of black holes saturates this inequality. The entropy of matter systems, however, falls short of saturating the bound in known examples. This puzzling gap has led to speculation that a much stronger bound, S?A3/4, may hold true. In this note, we exhibit light sheets whose entropy exceeds A3/4 by arbitrarily large factors. In open Friedmann-Robertson-Walker universes, such light sheets contain the entropy visible in the sky; in the limit of early curvature domination, the covariant bound can be saturated but not violated. As a corollary, we find that the maximum observable matter and radiation entropy in universes with positive (negative) cosmological constant is of order ?-1 (?-2), and not |?|-3/4 as had hitherto been believed. Our results strengthen the evidence for the covariant entropy bound, while showing that the stronger bound S?A3/4 is not universally valid. We conjecture that the stronger bound does hold for static, weakly gravitating systems.

Bousso, Raphael; Freivogel, Ben; Leichenauer, Stefan

2010-10-01

218

Nonverbal Expectancy Effects in the Political Media.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Expectancy effects--the unconscious shaping of receiver behavior by signalling sender expectations--while recognized in science, have not been documented extensively from a communication perspective, nor are nonverbal aspects of expectancy effects fully known. Expectancy is a function of three elements, the sender's predisposition (including…

Corder, Lloyd E.

219

Changing Role Expectations of Psychiatric Occupational Therapists  

Microsoft Academic Search

Psychiatric occupational therapists have experienced multiple changes in role expectations with the move from long term care to short term care. These expectations have caused frustration, low self-esteem, and job dissatisfaction. These feelings may be better understood in terms of expectation generated stressors as identified by organization theorists. Having reviewed these stressors, this article will review role expectation changes of

Janet E. Short

1984-01-01

220

Minimizing the average cost of paging under delay constraints  

Microsoft Academic Search

Efficient paging procedures help minimize the amount of bandwidth expended in locating amobile unit. Given a probability distribution on user location, it is shown that the optimalpaging strategy which minimizes the expected number of locations polled E[L] is to query eachlocation sequentially in order of decreasing probability. However, since sequential search overmany locations may impose unacceptable polling delay, D, optimal

Christopher Rose; Roy D. Yates

1995-01-01

221

Delayed Enrollment and College Plans: Is There a Postponement Penalty?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using a representative longitudinal survey of Texas high school seniors who graduated in 2002, we investigate how college postponement is associated with four-year college expectations and attendance--focusing both on the length of delay and the pathway to the postsecondary system. Like prior studies, we show that family background and student…

Niu, Sunny; Tienda, Marta

2013-01-01

222

Modelling population growth with delayed nonlocal reaction in 2-dimensions.  

PubMed

In this paper, we consider the population growth of a single species living in a two-dimensional spatial domain. New reaction-difusion equation models with delayed nonlocal reaction are developed in two-dimensional bounded domains combining diferent boundary conditions. The important feature of the models is the reflection of the joint efect of the difusion dynamics and the nonlocal maturation delayed efect. We consider and ana- lyze numerical solutions of the mature population dynamics with some wellknown birth functions. In particular, we observe and study the occurrences of asymptotically stable steady state solutions and periodic waves for the two-dimensional problems with nonlocal delayed reaction. We also investigate numerically the efects of various parameters on the period, the peak and the shape of the periodic wave as well as the shape of the asymptotically stable steady state solution. PMID:20369915

Liang, Dong; Wu, Jianhong; Zhang, Fan

2005-01-01

223

Delay in Photoemission  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Photoemission from atoms is assumed to occur instantly in response to incident radiation and provides the basis for setting the zero of time in clocking atomic-scale electron motion. We used attosecond metrology to reveal a delay of 21±5 attoseconds in the emission of electrons liberated from the 2p orbitals of neon atoms with respect to those released from the 2s orbital by the same 100-electron volt light pulse. Small differences in the timing of photoemission from different quantum states provide a probe for modeling many-electron dynamics. Theoretical models refined with the help of attosecond timing metrology may provide insight into electron correlations and allow the setting of the zero of time in atomic-scale chronoscopy with a precision of a few attoseconds.

Schultze, M.; Fieß, M.; Karpowicz, N.; Gagnon, J.; Korbman, M.; Hofstetter, M.; Neppl, S.; Cavalieri, A. L.; Komninos, Y.; Mercouris, Th.; Nicolaides, C. A.; Pazourek, R.; Nagele, S.; Feist, J.; Burgdörfer, J.; Azzeer, A. M.; Ernstorfer, R.; Kienberger, R.; Kleineberg, U.; Goulielmakis, E.; Krausz, F.; Yakovlev, V. S.

2010-06-01

224

Soviet delays raise prices  

SciTech Connect

The breakup of the Soviet Union is causing massive disruptions to methanol exports. The changeover to a Commonwealth of independent States has created logistical problems which have led some shipments of Russian methanol to be cancelled and delayed other deliveries by up to two weeks. In recent years the Soviet Union has exported 700,000 m.t./year-900,000 m.t./year of methanol, mainly to Western Europe. The product is made at 750,000-m.t./year plants at Tomsk and Gubakha in Russia and transported by rail for shipment from the ports of Ventspils, Latvia, on the Baltic Sea and Yuzhnyy in Ukraine, on the Black Sea. The exports were handled by state export agency Soyuzagrochim, mainly under contract to West European traders and consumers in areas like Scandinavia and France.

Young, I.

1992-01-15

225

Razumikhin method and exponential stability of hybrid stochastic delay interval systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper deals with the exponential stability of hybrid stochastic delay interval systems (also known as stochastic delay interval systems with Markovian switching). The known results in this area (see, e.g., [X., Mao, Exponential stability of stochastic delay interval systems with Markovian switching, IEEE Trans. Automat. Control 47 (10) (2002) 1604-1612]) require the time delay to be a constant or a differentiable function and the main reason for such a restriction is due to the analysis of mathematics. The main aim of this paper is to remove this restriction to allow the time delay to be a bounded variable only. The Razumikhin method is developed to cope with the difficulty arisen from the nondifferentiability of the time delay.

Mao, Xuerong; Lam, James; Xu, Shengyuan; Gao, Huijun

2006-02-01

226

Stochastic exponential synchronization of jumping chaotic neural networks with mixed delays  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper deals with the exponential synchronization problem for a class of stochastic jumping chaotic neural networks with mixed delays and sector bounded nonlinearities. The mixed time delays under consideration comprise both discrete time-varying delays and distributed time delays. By applying the Finsler's Lemma and constructing appropriate Lyapunov-Krasovskii functional based on delay partitioning, several improved delay-dependent feedback controllers with sector nonlinearities are developed to achieve the synchronization in mean square in terms of linear matrix inequalities. It is established theoretically that two special cases of the obtained criteria are less conservative than some existing results but including fewer slack variables. As the present conditions involve no free weighting matrices, the computational burden is largely reduced. One numerical example is provided to demonstrate the effectiveness of the theoretical results.

Zheng, Cheng-De; Zhou, Fujie; Wang, Zhanshan

2012-03-01

227

Output tracking for nonlinear non-minimum phase systems with output delay and application to an F-16 jet fighter  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article, output tracking for a class of nonlinear non-minimum phase systems with output delay is considered. By applying the first-order Padé approximation technique to deal with the time-delay function, the original control problem is reduced to the output-tracking problem of a new non-minimum phase system without delay. The bounded tracking profiles of the unstable internal dynamics in the

Bo Zhu; Xinhua Wang; Kai-Yuan Cai

2011-01-01

228

Resilient Delay-Dependent Control  

Microsoft Academic Search

It becomes increasingly apparent that delays occur in physical and man-made systems due to various reasons including finite capabilities of information processing among different parts of the system, inherent phenomena like mass transport flow and recycling and\\/or by product of computational delays [81]. Considerable discussions on delays and their stabilization\\/destabilization effects in control systems have commanded the interests of numerous

Magdi S. Mahmoud

229

Microwave Delay Techniques Using YIG  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent developments in microwave delay techniques employing single-crystal yttrium iron gamet (YIG) are described. In particular, the operation of a two-port, electronically variable-delay device utilizing long-wavelength spin-wave propagation in single-crystal YIG is presented in detail. Specific advantages of this device are transmission-type operation, delay continuously variable from zero to several microseconds by means of magnetic field, and lack of critical

F. A. Olson; J. R. Yaeger

1965-01-01

230

Nanosecond delay with subpicosecond uncertainty.  

PubMed

We have combined a commercially available, variable-length coaxial delay line (trombone line) with a high-resolution linear translation system. The result is better resolution and lower uncertainty in the achievable delays than previously available. The range of delay is 0 ps to approximately 1250 ps, the bidirectional resolution is 2.0 ps, the unidirectional resolution is 0.2 ps, and the uncertainty (95% confidence interval) in the measured delay is +/-0.09 ps. Drift, temperature dependence, repeatability, linearity, and hysteresis were also examined. PMID:17764341

Larson, Donald R; Paulter, Nicholas G

2007-08-01

231

Nanosecond delay with subpicosecond uncertainty  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have combined a commercially available, variable-length coaxial delay line (trombone line) with a high-resolution linear translation system. The result is better resolution and lower uncertainty in the achievable delays than previously available. The range of delay is 0 ps to approximately 1250 ps, the bidirectional resolution is 2.0 ps, the unidirectional resolution is 0.2 ps, and the uncertainty (95% confidence interval) in the measured delay is +/-0.09 ps. Drift, temperature dependence, repeatability, linearity, and hysteresis were also examined.

Larson, Donald R.; Paulter, Nicholas G.

2007-08-01

232

Assesssing Cohort Birth Expectations Data from the Current Population Survey, 1971–1981  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data from the fertility supplements to the Current Population Survey from 1971 to 1981 indicate that in the aggregate, the\\u000a lifetime birth expectations of married women 18 to 39 years old in 1971 will closely approximate their completed cohort fertility.\\u000a During this period, the youngest group of women, 18 to 24 years old, delayed their childbearing; their short-term expectations\\u000a (1971–76)

Martin O’Connell; Carolyn C. Rogers

1983-01-01

233

A time delay controller for magnetic bearings  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The control of systems with unknown dynamics and unpredictable disturbances has raised some challenging problems. This is particularly important when high system performance needs to be guaranteed at all times. Recently, the Time Delay Control has been suggested as an alternative control scheme. The proposed control system does not require an explicit plant model nor does it depend on the estimation of specific plant parameters. Rather, it combines adaptation with past observations to directly estimate the effect of the plant dynamics. A control law is formulated for a class of dynamic systems and a sufficient condition is presented for control systems stability. The derivation is based on the bounded input-bounded output stability approach using L sub infinity function norms. The control scheme is implemented on a five degrees of freedom high speed and high precision magnetic bearing. The control performance is evaluated using step responses, frequency responses, and disturbance rejection properties. The experimental data show an excellent control performance despite the system complexity.

Youcef-Toumi, K.; Reddy, S.

1991-01-01

234

Bound states in a strong magnetic field  

SciTech Connect

We expect a strong magnetic field to be produced in the perpendicular direction to the reaction plane, in a noncentral heavy-ion collision . The strength of the magnetic field is estimated to be eB{approx}m{sup 2}{sub {pi}}{approx} 0.02 GeV{sup 2} at the RHIC and eB{approx} 15m{sup 2}{sub {pi}}{approx} 0.3 GeV{sup 2} at the LHC. We investigate the effects of the magnetic field on B{sup 0} and D{sup 0} mesons, focusing on the changes of the energy levels and of the mass of the bound states.

Machado, C. S.; Navarra, F. S.; Noronha, J.; Oliveira, E. G. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade de Sao Paulo Rua do Matao, Travessa R, 187, 05508-090 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Ferreira Filho, L. G. [Departamento de Matematica e Computacao, Faculdade de Tecnologia, Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro Rodovia Presidente Dutra, km 298, Polo Industrial, CEP 27537-000, Resende, RJ (Brazil)

2013-03-25

235

Harmony search based algorithms for bandwidth-delay-constrained least-cost multicast routing  

Microsoft Academic Search

The advent of various real-time multimedia applications in high-speed networks creates a need for quality of service (QoS) based multicast routing. Two important QoS constraints are the bandwidth constraint and the end-to-end delay constraint. The QoS based multicast routing problem is a known NP-complete problem that depends on (1) bounded end-to-end delay and link bandwidth along the paths from the

R. Forsati; A. T. Haghighat; M. Mahdavi

2008-01-01

236

An efficient algorithm for bandwidth-delay constrained least cost multicast routing  

Microsoft Academic Search

The advent of various real-time multimedia applications in high-speed networks creates a need for quality of service (QoS) based multicast routing. Two important QoS constraints are the bandwidth constraint and the end-to-end delay constraint. The QoS based multicast routing problem is a known NP-complete problem that depends on (1) bounded end-to-end delay and link bandwidth along the paths from the

Rana Forsati; Mehrdad Mahdavi; Abolfazl Torghy Haghighat; Azadeh Ghariniyat

2008-01-01

237

Design on H?-filtering for discrete-time switched delay systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article is concerned with the delay-dependent H?-filtering problem for discrete-time switched systems with a state delay. By using the switched Lyapunov functional method and choosing a new Lyapunov–Krasovskii functional, and, furthermore, utilising the linearisation technique, sufficient conditions on the existence of a desired filter are formulated as strict linear matrix inequalities. Neither model transformation nor the bounding technique for

Dong Wang; Wei Wang; Peng Shi

2011-01-01

238

Design on H?-filtering for discrete-time switched delay systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article is concerned with the delay-dependent H?-filtering problem for discrete-time switched systems with a state delay. By using the switched Lyapunov functional method and choosing a new Lyapunov–Krasovskii functional, and, furthermore, utilising the linearisation technique, sufficient conditions on the existence of a desired filter are formulated as strict linear matrix inequalities. Neither model transformation nor the bounding technique for

Dong Wang; Wei Wang; Peng Shi

2010-01-01

239

Optimum processing for delay-vector estimation in passive signal arrays  

Microsoft Academic Search

For the purpose of localizing a distant noisy target, or, conversely, calibrating a receiving array, the time delays defined by the propagation across the array of the target-generated signal wavefronts are estimated in the presence of sensor-to-sensor-independent array self-noise. The Cramér-Rao matrix bound for the vector delay estimate is derived, and used to show that either properly filtered beamformers or

WILLIAM R. HAHN; STEVEN A. TRETTER

1973-01-01

240

High resolution digital delay timer  

DOEpatents

Method and apparatus are provided for generating an output pulse following a trigger pulse at a time delay interval preset with a resolution which is high relative to a low resolution available from supplied clock pulses. A first lumped constant delay (20) provides a first output signal (24) at predetermined interpolation intervals corresponding to the desired high resolution time interval. Latching circuits (26, 28) latch the high resolution data (24) to form a first synchronizing data set (60). A selected time interval has been preset to internal counters (142, 146, 154) and corrected for circuit propagation delay times having the same order of magnitude as the desired high resolution. Internal system clock pulses (32, 34) count down the counters to generate an internal pulse delayed by an interval which is functionally related to the preset time interval. A second LCD (184) corrects the internal signal with the high resolution time delay. A second internal pulse is then applied to a third LCD (74) to generate a second set of synchronizing data (76) which is complementary with the first set of synchronizing data (60) for presentation to logic circuits (64). The logic circuits (64) further delay the internal output signal (72) to obtain a proper phase relationship of an output signal (80) with the internal pulses (32, 34). The final delayed output signal (80) thereafter enables the output pulse generator (82) to produce the desired output pulse (84) at the preset time delay interval following input of the trigger pulse (10, 12).

Martin, Albert D. (Los Alamos, NM) [Los Alamos, NM

1988-01-01

241

Airline Delay Trends 1972 - 1977.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This document is an updated edition (data for the years 1976-1977 are included) of the Annual Airline Delay Trends Report published since 1974. These reports provide estimates of block, airborne, and ground delays for approximately 325 route segments conn...

S. Morin S. M. Horowitz

1978-01-01

242

Tooth formation - delayed or absent  

MedlinePLUS

Delayed or absent tooth formation; Teeth - delayed or absent formation ... The timing of the first appearance of teeth varies. Most infants get their first tooth between 6 and 9 months, although earlier or later eruption may be normal. In some cases, ...

243

Explaining packet delays under virtualization  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper performs controlled experiments with two popular virtualization techniques, Linux-VServer and Xen, to examine the effects of virtualization on packet sending and receiving delays. Using a controlled setting allows us to independently investigate the influence on delay measurements when competing virtual machines (VMs) perform tasks that consume CPU, memory, I\\/O, hard disk, and network bandwidth. Our results indicate that

Jon Whiteaker; Fabian Schneider; Renata Teixeira

2011-01-01

244

Stochastic Control Problems with Delay  

Microsoft Academic Search

We consider optimal control problems for systems described by stochas- tic dieren tial equations with delay. We state conditions for certain classes of such systems under which the stochastic control problems become nite-dimensional . These conditions are illustrated with three applications. First, we solve some linear quadratic problems with delay. Then we nd the optimal consumption rate in a -

Harald Bauer; Ulrich Rieder

2005-01-01

245

Magnetic bearing optical delay line  

Microsoft Academic Search

TNO TPD, in close cooperation with Micromega-Dynamics and Dutch Space, has developed an advanced Optical Delay Line (ODL) for use in PRIMA, GENIE and other ground based interferometers. The delay line design is modular and flexible, which makes scaling for other applications a relatively easy task. The developed technology can also be applied in future cryogenic space interferometers, such as

Teun C. van den Dool; Fred Kamphues; B. Fouss; K. Henrioulle; Harm Hogenhuis

2004-01-01

246

Advanced optical delay line demonstrator  

Microsoft Academic Search

TNO TPD, in cooperation with Micromega-Dynamics and Dutch Space, has designed an advanced Optical Delay Line (ODL) for use in future ground based and space interferometry missions. The work is performed under NIVR contract in preparation for GENIE and DARWIN. Using the ESO PRIMA DDL requirements as a baseline, the delay line can be used for PRIMA and GENIE without

Teun van den Dool; Fred Kamphues; B. Fouss; K. Henrioulle; Harm Hogenhuis

2004-01-01

247

The Army's Delayed Entry Program  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Delayed Entry Program, which allows individuals to delay reporting for active duty up to 12 months after signing enlistment contracts, is a valuable management tool used by the U.S. Army Recruiting Command and other U.S. military recruiting organizations. Attrition from this program increases recruiting costs and reduces training efficiency. DEP attrition is analyzed here using microdata for individuals who

Cyril E. Kearl; Abraham Nelson

1992-01-01

248

Leader Behavior: An Expectancy Theory Approach.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Expectancy theory has found increasing use in the study of such variables as worker efforts, performance and satisfaction. The paper suggests some mathematical modifications of expectancy theory which extend its use to the prediction of leader behavior. D...

D. M. Nebeker T. R. Mitchell

1973-01-01

249

Nursing students' expectations of the college experience.  

PubMed

Nursing students' expectations of college have not received much attention in the empirical literature. These expectations may be important in better understanding nurses' motivations, role acquisition, and academic and professional success. The first study discussed in this article examined the reliability and construct validity of an instrument designed to assess students' (N = 95) expectations of their college experience. The results indicate good reliability and validity. The second study discussed in this article examined differences in expectations, comparing nursing and non-nursing students (N = 160) in an urban college setting. The results suggest expectations emphasizing practical and professional aspects (i.e., acquiring a profession, earning more money), followed by self-betterment and social life expectations. Nursing students differed from non-nursing students by reporting higher self-betterment and professional expectations but lower academic expectations. Implications for application and further research are discussed. PMID:18792705

Zysberg, Leehu; Zisberg, Anna

2008-09-01

250

Robust adaptive sliding mode control for uncertain discrete-time systems with time delay  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper focuses on robust adaptive sliding mode control for discrete-time state-delay systems with mismatched uncertainties and external disturbances. The uncertainties and disturbances are assumed to be norm-bounded but the bound is not necessarily known. Sufficient conditions for the existence of linear sliding surfaces are derived within the linear matrix inequalities (LMIs) framework by employing the free weighting matrices proposed

Yuanqing Xia; Zheng Zhu; Chunming Li; Hongjiu Yang; Quanmin Zhu

2010-01-01

251

National Airspace System Delay Estimation Using Weather Weighted Traffic Counts  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Assessment of National Airspace System performance, which is usually measured in terms of delays resulting from the application of traffic flow management initiatives in response to weather conditions, volume, equipment outages and runway conditions, is needed both for guiding flow control decisions during the day of operations and for post operations analysis. Comparison of the actual delay, resulting from the traffic flow management initiatives, with the expected delay, based on traffic demand and other conditions, provides the assessment of the National Airspace System performance. This paper provides a method for estimating delay using the expected traffic demand and weather. In order to identify the cause of delays, 517 days of National Airspace System delay data reported by the Federal Aviation Administration s Operations Network were analyzed. This analysis shows that weather is the most important causal factor for delays followed by equipment and runway delays. Guided by these results, the concept of weather weighted traffic counts as a measure of system delay is described. Examples are given to show the variation of these counts as a function of time of the day. The various datasets, consisting of aircraft position data, enroute severe weather data, surface wind speed and visibility data, reported delay data and number of aircraft handled by the Centers data, and their sources are described. The procedure for selecting reference days on which traffic was minimally impacted by weather is described. Different traffic demand on each reference day of the week, determined by analysis of 42 days of traffic and delay data, was used as the expected traffic demand for each day of the week. Next, the method for computing the weather weighted traffic counts using the expected traffic demand, derived from reference days, and the expanded regions around severe weather cells is discussed. It is shown via a numerical example that this approach improves the dynamic range of the weather weighted traffic counts considerably. Time histories of these new weather weighted traffic counts are used for synthesizing two statistical features, six histogram features and six time domain features. In addition to these enroute weather features, two surface weather features of number of major airports in the United States with high mean winds and low mean visibility are also described. A least squares procedure for establishing a functional relation between the features, using combinations of these features, and system delays is explored using 36 days of data. Best correlations between the estimated delays using the functional relation and the actual delays provided by the Operations Network are obtained with two different combinations of features: 1) six time domain features of weather weighted traffic counts plus two surface weather features, and 2) six histogram features and mean of weather weighted traffic counts along with the two surface weather features. Correlation coefficient values of 0.73 and 0.83 were found in these two instances.

Chatterji, Gano B.; Sridhar, Banavar

2004-01-01

252

Higher Order Expectations in Asset Pricing  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examine formally Keynes' idea that higher order beliefs can drive a wedge between an asset price and its fundamental value based on expected future payoffs. Higher order expectations add an additional term to a standard asset pricing equation. We call this the higher order wedge, which depends on the difference between higher and first order expectations of future payoffs.

Philippe Bacchetta; Eric van Wincoop

2008-01-01

253

Explanatory style, expectations, and depressive symptoms  

Microsoft Academic Search

One hundred and fifty-five college students completed questionnaires measuring explanatory style, general expectations for future good and bad events, specific expectations for future good and bad events, and depressive symptoms. Structural equation modeling confirmed the prediction of the attributional reformulation of learned helplessness theory that the link between stability and globality of explanatory style and depression is mediated by expectations.

Christopher Peterson; Robert S. Vaidya

2001-01-01

254

Student Expectations of Course and Instructor.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Investigates student expectations of themselves and their instructors by administering a precourse questionnaire to 393 introductory psychology students at Emporia State University (Kansas). Uses a postcourse questionnaire to determine how these expectations were met. Shows women and men had similar expectations. Contends results are useful to…

Becker, Angela H.; And Others

1990-01-01

255

Multidimensional Scaling for Measuring Alcohol Expectancies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although expectancies for alcohol have been shown to influence drinking behavior, current expectancy questionnaires do not lend themselves to the study of how expectancies are represented in memory. Two studies were conducted which utilized multidimensional scaling techniques designed to produce hypothesized representations of cognitive…

Rather, Bruce; And Others

256

Bounds for nonlocality distillation protocols  

SciTech Connect

Nonlocality can be quantified by the violation of a Bell inequality. Since this violation may be amplified by local operations, an alternative measure has been proposed--distillable nonlocality. The alternative measure is difficult to calculate exactly due to the double exponential growth of the parameter space. In this paper, we give a way to bound the distillable nonlocality of a resource by the solutions to a related optimization problem. Our upper bounds are exponentially easier to compute than the exact value and are shown to be meaningful in general and tight in some cases.

Forster, Manuel [Computer Science Department, ETH Zuerich, CH-8092 Zuerich (Switzerland)

2011-06-15

257

On lower bounds for polarisability  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The response of molecular systems to external fields was one of the first areas studied after development of the new quantum mechanics. Early work by Kirkwood and Buckingham developed polarisability lower bounds that are still used today. This work uses an inequality proposed by Linderberg to develop a treatment of polarisability lower bounds that unifies the work of Kirkwood and Buckingham with Hylleraas' variational perturbation theory. In particular, the prehistory of the works of Kirkwood and Buckingham is described. Numerical examples are presented to demonstrate the convergence of approximate wavefunctions in the confined atom problem. The applicability of dimensional scaling and its utility in the analysis of confined systems are also discussed.

Montgomery, H. E.; Pupyshev, V. I.

2013-09-01

258

Fuzzy Upper Bounds in Groupoids  

PubMed Central

The notion of a fuzzy upper bound over a groupoid is introduced and some properties of it are investigated. We also define the notions of an either-or subset of a groupoid and a strong either-or subset of a groupoid and study some of their related properties. In particular, we consider fuzzy upper bounds in Bin(X), where Bin(X) is the collection of all groupoids. Finally, we define a fuzzy-d-subset of a groupoid and investigate some of its properties.

Ahn, Sun Shin; Kim, Young Hee; Neggers, J.

2014-01-01

259

Mechanism of delayed double ionization in a strong laser field.  

PubMed

When intense laser pulses release electrons nonsequentially, the time delay between the last recollision and the subsequent ionization may last longer than what is expected from a direct impact scenario [recollision excitation with subsequent ionization (RESI)]. We show that the resulting delayed ionization stems from the inner electron being promoted to a sticky region. We identify the mechanism that traps and releases the electron from this region. As a signature of this mechanism, we predict oscillations in the ratio of RESI to double ionization yields versus laser intensity. PMID:22401062

Mauger, F; Kamor, A; Chandre, C; Uzer, T

2012-02-10

260

Mechanism of Delayed Double Ionization in a Strong Laser Field  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

When intense laser pulses release electrons nonsequentially, the time delay between the last recollision and the subsequent ionization may last longer than what is expected from a direct impact scenario [recollision excitation with subsequent ionization (RESI)]. We show that the resulting delayed ionization stems from the inner electron being promoted to a sticky region. We identify the mechanism that traps and releases the electron from this region. As a signature of this mechanism, we predict oscillations in the ratio of RESI to double ionization yields versus laser intensity.

Mauger, F.; Kamor, A.; Chandre, C.; Uzer, T.

2012-02-01

261

Performance Bounds on Two Concatenated, Interleaved Codes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A method has been developed of computing bounds on the performance of a code comprised of two linear binary codes generated by two encoders serially concatenated through an interleaver. Originally intended for use in evaluating the performances of some codes proposed for deep-space communication links, the method can also be used in evaluating the performances of short-block-length codes in other applications. The method applies, more specifically, to a communication system in which following processes take place: At the transmitter, the original binary information that one seeks to transmit is first processed by an encoder into an outer code (Co) characterized by, among other things, a pair of numbers (n,k), where n (n > k)is the total number of code bits associated with k information bits and n k bits are used for correcting or at least detecting errors. Next, the outer code is processed through either a block or a convolutional interleaver. In the block interleaver, the words of the outer code are processed in blocks of I words. In the convolutional interleaver, the interleaving operation is performed bit-wise in N rows with delays that are multiples of B bits. The output of the interleaver is processed through a second encoder to obtain an inner code (Ci) characterized by (ni,ki). The output of the inner code is transmitted over an additive-white-Gaussian- noise channel characterized by a symbol signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) Es/No and a bit SNR Eb/No. At the receiver, an inner decoder generates estimates of bits. Depending on whether a block or a convolutional interleaver is used at the transmitter, the sequence of estimated bits is processed through a block or a convolutional de-interleaver, respectively, to obtain estimates of code words. Then the estimates of the code words are processed through an outer decoder, which generates estimates of the original information along with flags indicating which estimates are presumed to be correct and which are found to be erroneous. From the perspective of the present method, the topic of major interest is the performance of the communication system as quantified in the word-error rate and the undetected-error rate as functions of the SNRs and the total latency of the interleaver and inner code. The method is embodied in equations that describe bounds on these functions. Throughout the derivation of the equations that embody the method, it is assumed that the decoder for the outer code corrects any error pattern of t or fewer errors, detects any error pattern of s or fewer errors, may detect some error patterns of more than s errors, and does not correct any patterns of more than t errors. Because a mathematically complete description of the equations that embody the method and of the derivation of the equations would greatly exceed the space available for this article, it must suffice to summarize by reporting that the derivation includes consideration of several complex issues, including relationships between latency and memory requirements for block and convolutional codes, burst error statistics, enumeration of error-event intersections, and effects of different interleaving depths. In a demonstration, the method was used to calculate bounds on the performances of several communication systems, each based on serial concatenation of a (63,56) expurgated Hamming code with a convolutional inner code through a convolutional interleaver. The bounds calculated by use of the method were compared with results of numerical simulations of performances of the systems to show the regions where the bounds are tight (see figure).

Moision, Bruce; Dolinar, Samuel

2010-01-01

262

Least expected time paths in stochastic, time-varying transportation networks  

SciTech Connect

The authors consider stochastic, time-varying transportation networks, where the arc weights (arc travel times) are random variables with probability distribution functions that vary with time. Efficient procedures are widely available for determining least time paths in deterministic networks. In stochastic but time-invariant networks, least expected time paths can be determined by setting each random arc weight to its expected value and solving an equivalent deterministic problem. This paper addresses the problem of determining least expected time paths in stochastic, time-varying networks. Two procedures are presented. The first procedure determines the a priori least expected time paths from all origins to a single destination for each departure time in the peak period. The second procedure determines lower bounds on the expected times of these a priori least expected time paths. This procedure determines an exact solution for the problem where the driver is permitted to react to revealed travel times on traveled links en route, i.e. in a time-adaptive route choice framework. Modifications to each of these procedures for determining least expected cost (where cost is not necessarily travel time) paths and lower bounds on the expected costs of these paths are given. Extensive numerical tests are conducted to illustrate the algorithms` computational performance as well as the properties of the solution.

Miller-Hooks, E.D. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering; Mahmassani, H.S. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States)

1999-06-01

263

A theoretical account of cognitive effects in delay discounting  

PubMed Central

Although delay discounting, the attenuation of the value of future rewards, is a robust finding, the mechanism of discounting is not known. We propose a potential mechanism for delay discounting such that discounting emerges from a search process trying to determine what rewards will be available in the future. In this theory, the delay dependence of the discounting of future expected rewards arises from three assumptions. First, that evaluation of outcomes involves a search process. Second, that value is assigned to an outcome proportionally to how easy it is to find. Third, that outcomes that are less delayed are typically easier for the search process to find. By relaxing this third assumption (for example, by assuming that episodically cued outcomes are easier to find), our model suggests that it is possible to dissociate discounting from delay. Our theory thereby explains the empirical result that discounting is slower to episodically-imagined outcomes, because these outcomes are easier for the search process to find. Additionally, the theory explains why improving cognitive resources such as working memory slows discounting, by improving searches and thereby making rewards easier to find. The three assumptions outlined here are likely to be instantiated during deliberative decision-making, but unlikely in habitual decision-making. We model two simple implementations of this theory and show that they unify empirical results about the role of cognitive function in delay discounting, and make new neural, behavioral, and pharmacological predictions.

Kurth-Nelson, Zeb; Bickel, Warren; Redish, A. David

2012-01-01

264

Dynamics of periodic delayed neural networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper formulates and studies a model of periodic delayed neural networks. This model can well describe many practical architectures of delayed neural networks, which is generalization of some additive delayed neural networks such as delayed Hopfied neural networks and delayed cellular neural networks, under a time-varying environment, particularly when the network parameters and input stimuli are varied periodically with

Jin Zhou; Zengrong Liu; Guanrong Chen

2004-01-01

265

Precise delay generation using coupled oscillators  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new delay generator based on a series of coupled ring oscillators has been developed; it produces precise delays with subgate delay resolution for chip testing applications. It achieves a delay resolution equal to a buffer delay divided by the number of rings. The coupling employed forces the outputs of a linear array of ring oscillators oscillating at the same

J. G. Maneatis; M. A. Horowitz

1993-01-01

266

Coalitions Among Computationally Bounded Agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper analyzes coalitions among self-interested agents that need to solve combinatorial optimization problems to operate efficiently in the world. By colluding (coordinating their actions by solving a joint optimization problem) the agents can sometimes save costs compared to operating individually. A model of bounded rationality is adopted where computation resources are costly. It is not worthwhile solving the problems

Tuomas W. Sandhlom; Victor R. T Lesser

1997-01-01

267

Counting strings, wound and bound  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We analyze zero mode counting problems for Dirac operators that find their origin in string theory backgrounds. A first class of quantum mechanical models for which we compute the number of ground states arises from a string winding an isometric direction in a geometry, taking into account its energy due to tension. Alternatively, the models arise from deforming marginal bound states of a string winding a circle, and moving in an orthogonal geometry. After deformation, the number of bound states is again counted by the zero modes of a Dirac operator. We count these bound states in even dimensional asymptotically linear dilaton backgrounds as well as in Euclidean Taub-NUT. We show multiple pole behavior in the fugacities keeping track of a U(1) charge. We also discuss a second class of counting problems that arises when these backgrounds are deformed via the application of a heterotic duality transformation. We discuss applications of our results to Appell-Lerch sums and the counting of domain wall bound states.

Ashok, Sujay K.; Nampuri, Suresh; Troost, Jan

2013-04-01

268

The Composition Class: Outward Bound.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A college English teacher, dissatisfied with the approach used in her composition classes and with its results, turned to the Outward Bound concepts of the German physician and schoolmaster, Kurt Hahn. These concepts include a belief in the value of creating adversity in order to overcome it, a belief that important things happen to people who are…

Weiner, Linda

269

Correlation effects and bound states  

SciTech Connect

Bound states in a simple quark model that are due to correlation effects are analyzed. The confining properties of this model in meson (quark-antiquark and diquark) channels manifest themselves at any quark momenta, and an extra potential field may only enhance the confining effect.

Zinovjev, G. M. [National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Bogolyubov Institute for Theoretical Physics (Ukraine); Molodtsov, S. V., E-mail: molodtsov@itep.ru [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (Russian Federation)

2012-11-15

270

Rapid Expectation Adaptation during Syntactic Comprehension  

PubMed Central

When we read or listen to language, we are faced with the challenge of inferring intended messages from noisy input. This challenge is exacerbated by considerable variability between and within speakers. Focusing on syntactic processing (parsing), we test the hypothesis that language comprehenders rapidly adapt to the syntactic statistics of novel linguistic environments (e.g., speakers or genres). Two self-paced reading experiments investigate changes in readers’ syntactic expectations based on repeated exposure to sentences with temporary syntactic ambiguities (so-called “garden path sentences”). These sentences typically lead to a clear expectation violation signature when the temporary ambiguity is resolved to an a priori less expected structure (e.g., based on the statistics of the lexical context). We find that comprehenders rapidly adapt their syntactic expectations to converge towards the local statistics of novel environments. Specifically, repeated exposure to a priori unexpected structures can reduce, and even completely undo, their processing disadvantage (Experiment 1). The opposite is also observed: a priori expected structures become less expected (even eliciting garden paths) in environments where they are hardly ever observed (Experiment 2). Our findings suggest that, when changes in syntactic statistics are to be expected (e.g., when entering a novel environment), comprehenders can rapidly adapt their expectations, thereby overcoming the processing disadvantage that mistaken expectations would otherwise cause. Our findings take a step towards unifying insights from research in expectation-based models of language processing, syntactic priming, and statistical learning.

Fine, Alex B.; Jaeger, T. Florian; Farmer, Thomas A.; Qian, Ting

2013-01-01

271

Memoryless Linear Adaptive Robust Controllers of Uncertain Systems with Nonlinear Time-Varying Delayed State Perturbations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The problem of adaptive robust stabilization is considered for a class of uncertain nonlinear time-delay dynamical systems. It is assumed that the upper bound of the nonlinear delayed state perturbations is a linear function of some parameters which are assumed to be unknown. It is also assumed that the time delays are time-varying, and can be any nonnegative continuous and bounded functions. In this paper, it is not required that the derivatives of the time-varying delays have to be less than one. For such a class of uncertain nonlinear time-delay systems, a new method is presented whereby a class of memoryless continuous adaptive robust state feedback controllers with a rather simpler structure is proposed. That is, being completely different from the related works reported in the control literature, the nonlinear perturbations are not included in the proposed control schemes. By employing a quasi-Lyapunov function, it is shown that the solutions of uncertain nonlinear time-delay systems can be guaranteed to be uniformly exponentially convergent towards a ball which can be as small as desired. Finally, as an application of the results, the problem of water pollution control is considered for uncertain river time-delay systems due to industrial waste treatment facility, and the corresponding simulations are given.

Wu, Hansheng

272

Synchronization criteria of discrete-time complex networks with time-varying delays and parameter uncertainties.  

PubMed

This paper is pertained with the synchronization problem for an array of coupled discrete-time complex networks with the presence of both time-varying delays and parameter uncertainties. The time-varying delays are considered both in the network couplings and dynamical nodes. By constructing suitable Lyapunov-Krasovskii functional and utilizing convex reciprocal lemma, new synchronization criteria for the complex networks are established in terms of linear matrix inequalities. Delay-partitioning technique is employed to incur less conservative results. All the results presented here not only depend upon lower and upper bounds of the time-delay, but also the number of delay partitions. Numerical simulations are rendered to exemplify the effectiveness and applicability of the proposed results. PMID:24808929

Balasubramaniam, P; Jarina Banu, L

2014-06-01

273

Model for Delay Faults Based upon Paths  

Microsoft Academic Search

Delay testing of combinational logic in a clocked environment is analyzed. A model based upon paths is introduced for delay faults. Any path with a total delay exceeding the clock interval is called a \\

Gordon L. Smith

1985-01-01

274

78 FR 51819 - List of Applications Delayed  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Safety Administration List of Applications Delayed AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials...DOT. ACTION: List of applications delayed more than 180 days...requires extensive analysis 4. Staff review delayed by other priority issues or volume...

2013-08-21

275

78 FR 36820 - List of Applications Delayed  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Safety Administration List of Applications Delayed AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials...DOT. ACTION: List of applications delayed more than 180 days...requires extensive analysis 4. Staff review delayed by other priority issues or volume...

2013-06-19

276

78 FR 43270 - List of Applications Delayed  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Safety Administration List of Applications Delayed AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials...DOT. ACTION: List of applications delayed more than 180 days...requires extensive analysis 4. Staff review delayed by other priority issues or volume...

2013-07-19

277

Ikeda Delay Differential Equation Model  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Ikeda Delay Differential Equation model shows the dynamics of a delay differential equation that depends on the value of the dynamical variable x(t) at a previous time x(t-τ). Sprott shows that these systems provide elegant examples of chaos in systems that are too simple to exhibit chaos without the time delay. This model demonstrates how EJS provides a natural syntax for implementing these models. The Ikeda Delay Differential Equation Model was developed using the Easy Java Simulations (EJS) modeling tool version 4.3.3. It is distributed as a ready-to-run (compiled) Java archive. Double clicking the ejs_chaos_IkedaDDE.jar file will run the program if Java is installed.

Christian, Wolfgang; Franciscouembre

2011-03-28

278

Leibniz Dynamics with Time Delay  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we show that several dynamical systems with time delay can be described as vector fields associated to smooth functions via a bracket of Leibniz structure. Some examples illustrate the theoretical considerations.

I. D. Albu; Dumitru Opris

2005-01-01

279

Apparent enrichment of organically bound tritium in rivers explained by the heritage of our past.  

PubMed

The global inventory of naturally produced tritium (3H) is estimated at 2.65 kg, whereas more than 600 kg have been released during atmospheric nuclear tests (NCRP, 1979; UNSCEAR, 2000) constituting the main source of artificial tritium throughout the Anthropocene. The behaviour of this radioactive isotope in the environment has been widely studied since the 1950s, both through laboratory experiments and, more recently, through field observations (e.g., Cline, 1953; Kirchmann et al., 1979; Daillant et al., 2004; McCubbin et al., 2001; Kim et al., 2012). In its "free" forms, [i.e. 3H gas or 3H hydride (HT); methyl 3H gas (CH3T); tritiated H2O or 3H-oxide (HTO); and Tissue Free Water 3H (TFWT)], tritium closely follows the water cycle. However, 3H bound with organic compounds, mainly during the basic stages of photosynthesis or through weak hydrogen links, is less exchangeable with water, which explains its persistence in the carbon cycle as re underlined recently by Baglan et al. (2013), Jean-Batiste and Fourré (2013), Kim et al. (2013a,b). In this paper, we demonstrate that terrestrial biomass pools, historically contaminated by global atmospheric fallout from nuclear testing, have constituted a significant delayed source of organically bound tritium (OBT) for aquatic systems, resulting in an apparent enrichment of OBT as compared to HTO. This finding helps to explain concentration factors (tritium concentration in biota/concentration in water) greater than 1 observed in areas that are not directly affected by industrial radioactive wastes, and thus sheds light on the controversies regarding tritium 'bioaccumulation'. Such apparent enrichment of OBT is expected to be more pronounced in the Northern Hemisphere where fallout was most significant, depending on the nature and biodegradability of terrestrial biomass at the regional scale. We further believe that OBT transfers from the continent to oceans have been sufficient to affect tritium concentrations in coastal marine biota (i.e., near river inputs). Our findings demonstrate that the persistence of terrestrial organic (3)H explains imbalances between organically bound tritium and free (3)H in most river systems in particular those not impacted by releases from nuclear facilities. PMID:24956583

Eyrolle-Boyer, Frédérique; Boyer, Patrick; Claval, David; Charmasson, Sabine; Cossonnet, Catherine

2014-10-01

280

Transversely bounded DFB lasers. [bounded distributed-feedback lasers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Bounded distributed-feedback (DFB) lasers are studied in detail. Threshold gain and field distribution for a number of configurations are derived and analyzed. More specifically, the thin-film guide, fiber, diffusion guide, and hollow channel with inhomogeneous-cladding DFB lasers are considered. Optimum points exist and must be used in DFB laser design. Different-modes feedback and the effects of the transverse boundaries are included. A number of applications are also discussed.

Elachi, C.; Evans, G.; Yeh, C.

1975-01-01

281

Predicting Problem Behaviors with Multiple Expectancies: Expanding Expectancy-Value Theory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Expectancy-value theory emphasizes the importance of outcome expectancies for behavioral decisions, but most tests of the theory focus on a single behavior and a single expectancy. However, the matching law suggests that individuals consider expected outcomes for both the target behavior and alternative behaviors when making decisions. In this…

Borders, Ashley; Earleywine, Mitchell; Huey, Stanley J.

2004-01-01

282

Fundamentals of Delayed Coking Joint Industry Project  

SciTech Connect

Delayed coking evolved steadily over the early to mid 1900s to enable refiners to convert high boiling, residual petroleum fractions to light products such as gasoline. Pound for pound, coking is the most energy intensive of any operation in a modern refinery. Large amounts of energy are required to heat the thick, poor-quality petroleum residuum to the 900 to 950 degrees F required to crack the heavy hydrocarbon molecules into lighter, more valuable products. One common misconception of delayed coking is that the product coke is a disadvantage. Although coke is a low valued (near zero economic value) byproduct, compared to transportation fuels, there is a significant worldwide trade and demand for coke as it is an economical fuel. Coke production has increased steadily over the last ten years, with further increases forecast for the foreseeable future. Current domestic production is near 111,000 tons per day. A major driving force behind this increase is the steady decline in crude quality available to refiners. Crude slates are expected to grow heavier with higher sulfur contents while environmental restrictions are expected to significantly reduce the demand for high-sulfur residual fuel oil. Light sweet crudes will continue to be available and in even greater demand than they are today. Refiners will be faced with the choice of purchasing light sweet crudes at a premium price, or adding bottom of the barrel upgrading capability, through additional new investments, to reduce the production of high-sulfur residual fuel oil and increase the production of low-sulfur distillate fuels. A second disadvantage is that liquid products from cokers frequently are unstable, i.e., they rapidly form gum and sediments. Because of intermediate investment and operating costs, delayed coking has increased in popularity among refiners worldwide. Based on the 2000 Worldwide Refining Survey published in the Oil and Gas, the delayed coking capacity for 101 refineries around the world is 2,937,439 barrels/calendar day. These cokers produce 154,607 tons of coke per day and delayed coking accounts for 88% of the world capacity. The delayed coking charge capacity in the United States is 1,787,860 b/cd. Despite its wide commercial use, only relatively few contractors and refiners are truly knowledgeable in delayed-coking design, so that this process carries with it a ''black art'' connotation. Until recently, the expected yield from cokers was determined by a simple laboratory test on the feedstock. As a result of Tulsa University's prior related research, a process model was developed that with additional work could be used to optimize existing delayed cokers over a wide range of potential feedstocks and operating conditions. The objectives of this research program are to: utilize the current micro, batch and pilot unit facilities at The University of Tulsa to enhance the understanding of the coking process; conduct additional micro and pilot unit tests with new and in-house resids and recycles to make current optimization models more robust; conduct focused kinetic experiments to enhance the furnace tube model and to enhance liquid production while minimizing sulfur in the products; conduct detailed foaming studies to optimize the process and minimize process upsets; quantify the parameters that affect coke morphology; and to utilize the knowledge gained from the experimental and modeling studies to enhance the computer programs developed in the previous JIP for optimization of the coking process. These refined computer models will then be tested against refinery data provided by the member companies. Novel concepts will also be explored for hydrogen sulfide removal of furnace gases as well as gas injection studies to reduce over-cracking. The following deliverables are scheduled from the two projects of the three-year JIP: (1) A novel method for enhancing liquid yields from delayed cokers and data that provide insight as to the optimum temperature to remove hydrogen sulfide from furnace gases. (2) An understanding of what causes foaming in c

Michael Volk Jr; Keith Wisecarver

2005-10-01

283

A posteriori analysis of finite element discretizations of stochastic partial differential delay equations  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we study a posteriori error estimates for finite element approximation of stochastic partial differential delay equations containing a noise. We derive an energy norm a posteriori bounds for an Euler time-stepping method combined with a standard Galerkin schemes for the problems. For accessibility, we first address the spatially semidiscrete case and then move to the fully discrete

Xiaoyuan Yang; Ruisheng Qi; Yuanyuan Duan

2011-01-01

284

Robust stability and stabilization for singular systems with state delay and parameter uncertainty  

Microsoft Academic Search

Considers the problems of robust stability and stabilization for uncertain continuous singular systems with state delay. The parametric uncertainty is assumed to be norm bounded. The purpose of the robust stability problem is to give conditions such that the uncertain singular system is regular, impulse free, and stable for all admissible uncertainties, while the purpose of the robust stabilization is

Shengyuan Xu; Paul Van Dooren; R. Stefan; J. Lam

2002-01-01

285

Order Reduction of Nonlinear Delay-Differential Equations with Periodic Coefficients  

Microsoft Academic Search

A technique for order reduction of nonlinear delay differential equations with time- periodic coefficients is presented. The DDEs considered here have at most cubic nonlinearities multiplied by a perturbation parameter. The periodic terms and matrices are not assumed to have predetermined norm bounds, thus making the method applicable to systems with strong parametric excitation. Perturbation expansion converts the nonlinear response

Eric A. Butcher

286

Robust Reliable Guaranteed Cost Control of Linear Descriptor Time-Delay Systems with Actuator Failures  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper deals with the problem of robust reliable guaranteed cost control for a class of uncertain linear descriptor time-delay systems with actuator failures. The parameter uncertainty in the state matrix is assumed in fractional form, which contains the popular norm-bounded uncertainty. And the actuator mold adopted in this paper is in complete form to describe variation of the actuator.

Hong-Liang Liu; Guang-Ren Duan; Ying Zhang

2006-01-01

287

Communication Channel Estimation and Waveform Design: Time Delay Estimation on Parallel, Flat Fading Channels.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A review of performance bounds for time-delay estimation (TDE) is presented, including a discussion of current trends. Then the problem of waveform design for TDE using frequency-hopping (FH) waveforms is analyzed to study the effects of fading and divers...

B. M. Sadler R. J. Kozick

2010-01-01

288

Prescription stimulant expectancies in recreational and medical users: results from a preliminary expectancy questionnaire.  

PubMed

Given the rise of prescription stimulant misuse, examination of effect expectancies could prove helpful. The Prescription Stimulant Expectancy Questionnaire (PSEQ) was designed to explore positive and negative prescription stimulant-related expectancies. In 2006, 157 participants nationwide completed an Internet survey of prescription stimulant use, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms, and expectancies. Multiple regressions demonstrate that positive, but not negative expectancies, predicted frequency of use. Recreational and medical users were classified by hierarchical cluster analysis. Recreational users reported fewer positive and negative expectancies than medical users. Implications and limitations are discussed. Future research is warranted on prescription stimulant expectancies and the utility of the PSEQ. PMID:19938932

Looby, Alison; Earleywine, Mitch

2009-01-01

289

Home Visitation Assessing Progress, Managing Expectations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Early intervention efforts to promote healthy child development have long been a central feature of social service and public health reforms. Today, prenatal care, well-baby visits, and assessments to detect possible developmental delays are commonplace in most communities. Recently, child abuse prevention advocates have applied a developmental…

Daro, Deborah

2006-01-01

290

Entropy bounds and dark energy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Entropy bounds render quantum corrections to the cosmological constant ? finite. Under certain assumptions, the natural value of ? is of order the observed dark energy density ?10?10 eV4, thereby resolving the cosmological constant problem. We note that the dark energy equation of state in these scenarios is w?p\\/?=0 over cosmological distances, and is strongly disfavored by observational data. Alternatively, ?

Stephen D. H. Hsu

2004-01-01

291

Novice Faculty: Encountering Expectations in Academia.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Six novice nursing faculty described their expectations of the teaching role and how they perceived expectations that other faculty and students had of them. Their stories revealed inadequacies in the way new faculty are prepared and mentored. (Contains 21 references.) (SK)

Siler, Bobbie B.; Kleiner, Catherine

2001-01-01

292

Rising Tides: Faculty Expectations of Library Websites  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Looking at 2003-2009 LibQUAL+ responses at research-oriented universities in the United States, faculty library users report a significant and consistent rise in desires and expectations for library-provided online tools and websites, even as student user groups show declining or leveling expectations. While faculty, like students, also report…

Nicol, Erica Carlson; O'English, Mark

2012-01-01

293

Icelandic and American Students' Expectations about Counseling.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Expectations about Counseling-Brief Form was administered to 261 Icelandic and 225 American undergraduates. Results of a multivariate analysis of covariance reveal that Icelanders had higher expectations about counselor expertise than did Americans. Results are discussed in terms of counselor roles and functions and the role of help seeking in…

Aegisdottir, Stefania; Gerstein, Lawrence H.

2000-01-01

294

Student Acceptance and Expectation of Sexual Assault  

Microsoft Academic Search

Male and female students’ attitudes regarding the acceptance and expectation of sexual assault were examined. Participants also completed Burt’s (1980) Rape Myth Acceptance ( RMA) Scale. Acceptance of sexual aggression can lead to the exoneration of the perpetrator, whereas expectations of sexual aggression can lead to victim blaming. A feminist perspective of rape, with a focus on sexual socialization, indicates

Marian M. Morry; Erica Winkler

2001-01-01

295

The College President: Expectations, Realities, and Myths.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two speeches are presented: Expectations and Realities for the College President, by Joseph Kauffman, and Myths of the College Presidency, by Donald E. Walker. The first discusses the discrepancies between the expectations and realities in three areas: the relationship with boards of trustees, relations with central administration in the state…

Kauffman, Joseph F.; Walker, Donald E.

296

What Respondents Really Expect from Researchers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article addresses the issue of falling response rates in telephone surveys. To better understand and maintain respondent goodwill, concepts of psychological contract and respondent expectations are introduced and explored. Results of the qualitative study show that respondent expectations are not only socially contingent but also…

Kolar, Tomaz; Kolar, Iztok

2008-01-01

297

Grief Experiences and Expectance of Suicide  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Suicide is generally viewed as an unexpected cause of death. However, some suicides might be expected to a certain extent, which needs to be further studied. The relationships between expecting suicide, feeling understanding for the suicide, and later grief experiences were explored. In total, 142 bereaved participants completed the Grief…

Wojtkowiak, Joanna; Wild, Verena; Egger, Jos

2012-01-01

298

What to Expect Your First Year Teaching  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This online book from the U.S. Department of Education covers topics vital to new teachers. Topics include getting support from administrators, what to expect from students and parents, and what should be expected in a new job. The book takes the form of narrative and interviews with new teachers.

Depaul, Amy

2005-03-06

299

Raising Expectations is Aim of New Effort  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Researchers and policymakers agree that teachers' expectations of what their students can do can become self-fulfilling prophecies for children's academic performance. Yet while the "soft bigotry of low expectations" has become an education catchphrase, scholars and advocates are just beginning to explore whether it is possible to prevent such…

Sparks, Sarah D.

2010-01-01

300

Expectations of Vocational Teachers for Handicapped Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study examined three components of the initial expectations of 66 secondary vocational teachers toward mainstreamed educable mentally retarded and learning disabled children. Among findings was that presence of the labels lowered the initial academic and behavioral expectations of teachers in the sample. (SB)

Minner, Sam

1982-01-01

301

Expected utility theory without the completeness axiom  

Microsoft Academic Search

We study the problem of obtaining an expected utility representation for a potentially incomplete preference relation over lotteries by means of a set of von Neumann–Morgenstern utility functions. It is shown that, when the prize space is a compact metric space, a preference relation admits such a multi-utility representation provided that it satisfies the standard axioms of expected utility theory.

Juan Dubra; Fabio Maccheroni; Efe A. Ok

2004-01-01

302

Expectancy Theory in Media and Message Selection.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Argues for reversing emphasis on uses and gratifications research in favor of an expectancy model which holds that selection of a particular medium depends on (1) the expectation that the choice will be followed by a message of interest and (2) the importance of that message in satisfying user's values. (PD)

Van Leuven, Jim

1981-01-01

303

Parents' Role in Adolescents' Educational Expectations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study examined the extent to which mothers' and fathers' expectations for their offspring's future education, their level of education, and adolescents' academic achievement predict adolescents' educational expectations. To investigate this, 230 adolescents were examined twice while they were in comprehensive school (in the 7th and 9th…

Rimkute, Laura; Hirvonen, Riikka; Tolvanen, Asko; Aunola, Kaisa; Nurmi, Jari-Erik

2012-01-01

304

Course Expectations and Career Management Skills  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Course completion and student satisfaction is likely to be influenced by how realistic the expectations of students are when they enroll. This report explores the idea that students' expectations would be more realistic if students have well developed career management competencies. Recent research argues that lack of information is not the…

Kennedy, Marnie L.; Haines, Ben

2008-01-01

305

Expectancy-Value Theory of Achievement Motivation.  

PubMed

We discuss the expectancy-value theory of motivation, focusing on an expectancy-value model developed and researched by Eccles, Wigfield, and their colleagues. Definitions of crucial constructs in the model, including ability beliefs, expectancies for success, and the components of subjective task values, are provided. These definitions are compared to those of related constructs, including self-efficacy, intrinsic and extrinsic motivation, and interest. Research is reviewed dealing with two issues: (1) change in children's and adolescents' ability beliefs, expectancies for success, and subjective values, and (2) relations of children's and adolescents' ability-expectancy beliefs and subjective task values to their performance and choice of activities. Copyright 2000 Academic Press. PMID:10620382

Wigfield; Eccles

2000-01-01

306

The study of prompt and delayed muon induced fission  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The mean life times of negative muons bound to actinide nuclei have been measured by detecting the time difference between a stopped muon and the arrival of fragments from delayed fission after muon capture. The deduced capture rates ? c are 1.392(4)·107/s for237Np, 1.290(7)·107/s for242Pu and 1.240(7)·107/s for244Pu. The results are compared with published data for the fission and the neutron decay channels and for the electron decay of the bound muon. Including a former measurement of ? c for239Pu, an isotopic dependence of the muon capture rates in the Pu isotopes is clearly observed.

David, P.; Hänscheid, H.; Hartfiel, J.; Janszen, H.; Mayer-Kuckuk, T.; von Mutius, R.; Risse, F.; Rösel, Ch. F. G.; Schrieder, W.; Petitjean, C.; Reist, H. W.; Polikanov, S. M.; Konijn, J.; de Laat, C. T. A. M.; Taal, A.; Krogulski, T.; Johansson, T.; Tibell, G.; D'Achard van Enschut, J. F. M.; Theobald, J. P.; Trautmann, N.; Gugler, C.; Schaller, L. A.; Schellenberg, L.

1988-12-01

307

Lower bounds for randomized Exclusive Write PRAMs  

SciTech Connect

In this paper we study the question: How useful is randomization in speeding up Exclusive Write PRAM computations? Our results give further evidence that randomization is of limited use in these types of computations. First we examine a compaction problem on both the CREW and EREW PRAM models, and we present randomized lower bounds which match the best deterministic lower bounds known. (For the CREW PRAM model, the lower bound is asymptotically optimal.) These are the first non-trivial randomized lower bounds known for the compaction problem on these models. We show that our lower bounds also apply to the problem of approximate compaction. Next we examine the problem of computing boolean functions on the CREW PRAM model, and we present a randomized lower bound, which improves on the previous best randomized lower bound for many boolean functions, including the OR function. (The previous lower bounds for these functions were asymptotically optimal, but we improve the constant multiplicative factor.) We also give an alternate proof for the randomized lower bound on PARITY, which was already optimal to within a constant additive factor. Lastly, we give a randomized lower bound for integer merging on an EREW PRAM which matches the best deterministic lower bound known. In all our proofs, we use the Random Adversary method, which has previously only been used for proving lower bounds on models with Concurrent Write capabilities. Thus this paper also serves to illustrate the power and generality of this method for proving parallel randomized lower bounds.

MacKenzie, P.D.

1995-05-02

308

Career development and personal functioning differences between work-bound and non-work bound students  

Microsoft Academic Search

We surveyed 506 Australian high school students on career development (exploration, planning, job-knowledge, decision-making, indecision), personal functioning (well-being, self-esteem, life satisfaction, school satisfaction) and control variables (parent education, school achievement), and tested differences among work-bound, college-bound and university-bound students. The work-bound students had the poorest career development and personal functioning, the university-bound students the highest, with the college-bound students falling

Peter A. Creed; Wendy Patton; Michelle Hood

2010-01-01

309

Neurobiology of placebo effects: expectations or learning?  

PubMed

Contemporary learning theories suggest that conditioning is heavily dependent on the processing of prediction errors, which signal a discrepancy between expected and observed outcomes. This line of research provides a framework through which classical theories of placebo effects, expectations and conditioning, can be reconciled. Brain regions related to prediction error processing [anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), orbitofrontal cortex or the nucleus accumbens] overlap with those involved in placebo effects. Here we examined the possibility that the magnitude of objective neurochemical responses to placebo administration would depend on individual expectation-effectiveness comparisons. We show that such comparisons and not expectations per se predict behavioral placebo responses and placebo-induced activation of µ-opioid receptor-mediated neurotransmission in regions relevant to error detection (e.g. ACC). Expectations on the other hand were associated with greater µ-opioid system activation in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex but not with greater behavioral placebo responses. The results presented aid the elucidation of molecular and neural mechanisms underlying the relationship between expectation-effectiveness associations and the formation of placebo responses, shedding light on the individual differences in learning and decision making. Expectation and outcome comparisons emerge as a cognitive mechanism that beyond reward associations appears to facilitate the formation and sustainability of placebo responses. PMID:23887819

Peciña, Marta; Stohler, Christian S; Zubieta, Jon-Kar

2014-07-01

310

Delay-dependent passivity criteria for uncertain switched neural networks of neutral type with interval time-varying delay  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper is concerned with the robust passivity analysis of uncertain switched neural networks of neutral type with interval time-varying delay. We first discuss the passivity conditions for the addressed model with norm bounded uncertainties and then extend this result to the case of interval uncertainties. For the neural networks under study, a generalized activation function is considered, where the traditional assumptions on the boundedness, monotonicity and differentiability of the activation functions are removed. Constructing a new Lyapunov-Krasovskii functional with triple integral terms and using a minimal number of free-weighting matrices, some passivity criteria are proposed in terms of linear matrix inequalities, which are dependent on the size of the time delay. Finally, some numerical examples are given to illustrate the effectiveness and merits of the developed techniques.

Nagamani, G.; Balasubramaniam, P.

2012-04-01

311

Three-body systems with Coulomb interaction. Bound and quasi-bound S-states  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A simple Mathematica (versions 7-9) code for computing S-state energies and wave functions of three-particles systems is presented. The relevant systems include two-electron atoms, molecular electronic ions and mesomolecular exotic species. In addition to the bound S-states the code enables one to compute the positions and widths of the lowest resonance, quasi-bound, states. The elegant technique derived from the classical papers of Pekeris is applied. The basis functions are composed of Laguerre functions. The method is based on the perimetric coordinates and specific properties of the Laguerre polynomials. A direct solution of the generalized eigenvalues and eigenvectors problem is used, distinct from Pekeris' works. The complex scaling method is applied for calculating the resonance states. The resultant wave functions have a simple analytical form, that enables calculation of expectation values of arbitrary physical operators without any difficulties. Only one mathematical parameter characterizing the basis size is required in the input. The other input parameters are of the physical nature.

Liverts, Evgeny Z.; Barnea, Nir

2013-11-01

312

Sustainable Throughput of Wireless LANs with Multipacket Reception Capability under Bounded Delay-Moment Requirements  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the rapid proliferation of broadband wireless services, it is of paramount importance to understand how fast data can be sent through a wireless local area network (WLAN). Thanks to a large body of research following the seminal work of Bianchi, WLAN throughput under saturated traffic condition has been well understood. By contrast, prior investigations on throughput performance under unsaturated

Ying Jun Zhang; Soung Chang Liew; Da Rui Chen

2010-01-01

313

Low-Delay Distributed Source Coding: Bounds and Performance of Practical Codes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The performance of distributed source coding methods based on scalar quanti- zation followed by scalar entropy coding is investigated. For a fixed quantizer, the problem is converted to that of zero-error entropy coding for bipartite graphs with a special structure. It is then experimentally shown that for bipartite graphs corre- sponding to jointly Gaussian sources and high-resolution uniform quantization, (i)

Ozgun Bursalioglu; Ertem Tuncel

314

Expectations and Outcomes of Prolonged Mechanical Ventilation  

PubMed Central

Objective: Prolonged mechanical ventilation (PMV) provision is increasing markedly despite poor patient outcomes. Misunderstanding prognosis in the PMV decision making process could provide an explanation to this phenomenon. Therefore, we aimed to compare PMV decision makers' expectations for long-term patient outcomes with prospectively observed outcomes. Design, Setting, and Patients: 126 patients undergoing PMV, their surrogates, and their intensive care unit physicians were enrolled consecutively (total n=378) at an academic medical center between April 2006 and April 2007 and followed prospectively for one year. Measurements: Participants were interviewed at the time of tracheostomy placement about their expectations for one-year patient survival, functional status, and quality of life. These expectations were then compared to observed one-year outcomes measured with validated questionnaires. Results: One-year follow up was 100%, with the exception of patient death or cognitive inability to complete interviews. At one year, only 11 (9%) patients were alive and independent of major functional status limitations. Most surrogates reported high baseline expectations for one-year patient survival (117 [93%]), functional status (90 [71%]), and quality of life (105 [83%]). In contrast, fewer physicians described high expectations for survival (54 [43%]), functional status (7 [6%]), and quality of life (5 [4%]). Surrogate-physician pair concordance in expectations was poor (all ?<0.08), as was their accuracy in outcome prediction (range 23-44%). Just 33 (26%) surrogates reported that physicians discussed what to expect for patients' likely future survival, general health, and caregiving needs. Conclusions: One-year patient outcomes for PMV patients were significantly worse than expected by patients' surrogates and physicians. Lack of prognostication about outcomes, discordance between surrogates and physicians about potential outcomes, and surrogates' unreasonably optimistic expectations appear to be potentially modifiable deficiencies in surrogate-physician interactions.

Cox, Christopher E.; Martinu, Tereza; Sathy, Shailaja J.; Clay, Alison S.; Chia, Jessica; Gray, Alice L.; Olsen, Maren K.; Govert, Joseph A.; Carson, Shannon S.; Tulsky, James A.

2009-01-01

315

Two-Pump Parametric Optical Delays  

Microsoft Academic Search

Continuously tunable optical delay lines based on parametric process in optical fibers are described theoretically and demonstrated experimentally. Performance limits are outlined and compared to alternative approaches capable of continually adjustable delay management. The current record of 105 ns tunable optical delay at 10 Gb\\/s is presented, with a delay-bandwidth product of 1055.

Nikola Alic; Joshua Ray Windmiller; James B. Coles; Stojan Radic

2008-01-01

316

Effects of Sexual Expectancies on Early Sexualized Behavior Among Urban Minority Youth.  

PubMed

This study examines the effects of different types of sexual expectancies on early sexual behavior among racial/ethnic minority young adolescents. African American and Latino participants between 11 and 13 years old were recruited through schools and community-based agencies in the South Bronx, New York (N = 223). Multiple logistic regression analyses were used to predict early sexual behavior outcomes, which include engagement in sexual possibility situations, kissing, and sexual touching. The moderating effect of gender was examined using multiplicative interaction terms. Higher expectations categorized as personal/parental and romantic/peer expectancies related to the negative consequences of sexual intercourse decreased the odds of engagement in early sexual behavior; whereas higher academic/career and sexual health expectancies did not. Gender moderated the relationships between personal/parental expectancies and engagement in sexual possibility situations and romantic/peer expectancies and kissing. Social workers formulating sexual health promotion and HIV prevention programs for racial/ethnic minority young adolescents should focus on personal/parental and romantic/peer expectancies in favor of negative expectancies regarding academic/career achievement, pregnancy, and HIV. Social work interventions to delay sexual debut should include a family-based component and should be sensitive to gender differences in sexual expectancies. PMID:22461958

Holloway, Ian W; Traube, Dorian E; Schrager, Sheree M; Levine, Brooklyn; Alicea, Stacey; Watson, Janet L; Miranda, Ana; McKay, Mary M

2012-01-01

317

UWB delay and multiply receiver  

DOEpatents

An ultra-wideband (UWB) delay and multiply receiver is formed of a receive antenna; a variable gain attenuator connected to the receive antenna; a signal splitter connected to the variable gain attenuator; a multiplier having one input connected to an undelayed signal from the signal splitter and another input connected to a delayed signal from the signal splitter, the delay between the splitter signals being equal to the spacing between pulses from a transmitter whose pulses are being received by the receive antenna; a peak detection circuit connected to the output of the multiplier and connected to the variable gain attenuator to control the variable gain attenuator to maintain a constant amplitude output from the multiplier; and a digital output circuit connected to the output of the multiplier.

Dallum, Gregory E.; Pratt, Garth C.; Haugen, Peter C.; Romero, Carlos E.

2013-09-10

318

Omission of expected reward agitates Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar).  

PubMed

The evolutionary background for cognition and awareness is currently under ardent scrutiny. Poikilothermic vertebrates such as teleost fishes are capable of classical conditioning and have long-term memories, but it remains unknown to what degree such capabilities are associated with affective states. Here, we investigate whether the concept of frustration may apply to Atlantic salmon. In mammals, this paradigm comprises the omission of an expected reward (OER), which elicits behavioural and physiological coping responses (e.g. aggression and stress reactions). Six groups with 200 fish in each were conditioned to associate a flashing light (CS) with feeding. Conditioning over 22 days led to a change from aversion to attraction to the CS. Subsequently, 3 groups served as control, and 3 groups were subjected to an OER paradigm for 9 days, in which the expected food reward was delayed for 30 min during two out of three daily meals. Compared to controls, OER groups displayed higher levels of aggression and more heterogeneous growth rates, indicating a more pronounced social hierarchy. Cortisol levels did, however, not differ between treatments and both groups responded similarly to acute stress. These results indicate that teleost fishes, like mammals, respond aggressively to OER. The capacity to respond behaviourally to frustrating conditions thus likely reflects an adaptive response to environmental unpredictability, which has been conserved throughout vertebrate evolution. PMID:22622814

Vindas, Marco A; Folkedal, Ole; Kristiansen, Tore S; Stien, Lars H; Braastad, Bjarne O; Mayer, Ian; Øverli, Øyvind

2012-09-01

319

New Bounds for Multi-Dimensional Packing.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

New upper and lower bounds are presented for a multi-dimensional generalization of bin packing called box packing. Several variants of this problem, including bounded space box packing, square packing, variable sized box packing and resource augmented box...

R. Van Stee S. Seiden

2001-01-01

320

Variable Delay Testing Using ONE  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper investigates the effect of long and changing propagation delays on the performance of TCP file transfers. Tests are performed with machines that emulate communication from a low/medium-earth satellite to Earth by way of a geosynchronous satellite. As a result of these tests, we find that TCP is fairly robust to varying delays given a high enough TCP timer granularity. However, performance degrades noticeably for larger file transfers when a finer timer granularity is used. Such results have also been observed in previous simulations by other researchers, and thus, this work serves as an extension of those results.

Ishac, Joseph

2002-01-01

321

Attosecond-streaking time delays: Finite-range property and comparison of classical and quantum approaches  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We theoretically study time delays obtained using the attosecond-streaking technique. To this end, we compute time delays by numerically solving the corresponding time-dependent Schrödinger equation and analyze the delays using two classical methods, namely, a perturbative approach and a full numerical solution of Newton's equation describing the motion of the photoelectron in the continuum. A good agreement between the quantum streaking results and those from the full classical solution is found. This indicates that the streaking time delay arises from the continuum dynamics of the electron in the coupled potential of the Coulomb and streaking fields, while the transition of the photoelectron from the bound state to the continuum occurs instantaneously upon absorption of the photon. We further analyze the variation of the time delay with respect to the delay between the ionizing XUV pulse and a long streaking pulse, its dependence on the polarization direction of the streaking pulse, and the influence of the shape of the streaking pulse and/or additional static electric fields on the numerically obtained time delays. The results are interpreted based on the previously revealed property that the attosecond-streaking time delay depends on the finite region in space over which the electron propagates between its instant of transition into the continuum and the end of the streaking pulse.

Su, Jing; Ni, Hongcheng; Becker, Andreas; Jaro?-Becker, Agnieszka

2014-01-01

322

Interference bounds for DS-CDMA systems based on chaotic piecewise-affine Markov maps  

Microsoft Academic Search

The performance of chaos-based asynchronous direct sequence-code division multiple access (DS-CDMA) systems are analyzed in the additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN) channel case. Previous upper bounds on the expected cochannel interference are improved and complemented with lower bounds accounting for maximum achievable performance. The bases for this investigation are mathematical tools from the statistical theory of dynamical systems and in

Riccardo Rovatti; Gianluca Mazzini; Gianluca Setti

2000-01-01

323

Finite Element Output Bounds for Hyperbolic Problems  

SciTech Connect

We propose a Neumann-subproblem a posteriori finite element error bound technique for linear stationary scalar advection problems. The method is similar in many respects to the previous output bound technique developed for elliptic problems. In the new approach, however, the primal residual is enhanced with a streamline diffusion term. We first formulate the bound algorithm, with particular emphasis on the proof of the bounding properties; then, we provide numerical results for an illustrative example.

Machiels, L.

2000-03-27

324

What to Expect After a Heart Transplant  

MedlinePLUS

... on Twitter. What To Expect After a Heart Transplant Staying in the Hospital The amount of time ... if you have too many side effects. Managing Transplant Medicines and Their Side Effects You'll have ...

325

What to Expect during a Heart Transplant  

MedlinePLUS

... NHLBI on Twitter. What To Expect During a Heart Transplant Just before heart transplant surgery, the patient will ... are not replaced as part of the surgery. Heart Transplant Figure A shows where the diseased heart is ...

326

What to Expect during Heart Surgery  

MedlinePLUS

... the NHLBI on Twitter. What To Expect During Heart Surgery Heart surgery is done in a hospital, ... surgery, takes about 3–6 hours. Traditional Open-Heart Surgery For this type of surgery, you'll ...

327

Expected Supernovae Rates and Gravitational Waves Detection.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Data available in the Kraan-Korteweg catalog of 2810 nearby galaxies is used to evaluate the expected rate of supernovae (SN) events according to distance. Three different statistics and two virgocentric flow models for determinating distance of galaxies ...

P. Rapagnani

1989-01-01

328

What To Expect Before a Lung Transplant  

MedlinePLUS

... NHLBI on Twitter. What To Expect Before a Lung Transplant If you get into a medical center's ... friends also can offer support. When a Donor Lung Becomes Available OPTN matches donor lungs to recipients ...

329

What to Expect During a Lung Transplant  

MedlinePLUS

... NHLBI on Twitter. What To Expect During a Lung Transplant Just before lung transplant surgery, you will ... airway and its blood vessels to your heart. Lung Transplant The illustration shows the process of a ...

330

Rational Expectations Model of Financial Contagion.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

We develop a multiple asset rational expectations model of securities prices to explain the determinants of nancial market contagion. Our primary focus is on con- tagion through the cross-market hedging (rebalancing) of shared macroeconomic risks. Through...

L. E. Kodres M. Pritsker

1999-01-01

331

Expected Utility Distributions for Flexible, Contingent Execution  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper presents a method for using expected utility distributions in the execution of flexible, contingent plans. A utility distribution maps the possible start times of an action to the expected utility of the plan suffix starting with that action. The contingent plan encodes a tree of possible courses of action and includes flexible temporal constraints and resource constraints. When execution reaches a branch point, the eligible option with the highest expected utility at that point in time is selected. The utility distributions make this selection sensitive to the runtime context, yet still efficient. Our approach uses predictions of action duration uncertainty as well as expectations of resource usage and availability to determine when an action can execute and with what probability. Execution windows and probabilities inevitably change as execution proceeds, but such changes do not invalidate the cached utility distributions, thus, dynamic updating of utility information is minimized.

Bresina, John L.; Washington, Richard

2000-01-01

332

Error bounds in cascading regressions  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Cascading regressions is a technique for predicting a value of a dependent variable when no paired measurements exist to perform a standard regression analysis. Biases in coefficients of a cascaded-regression line as well as error variance of points about the line are functions of the correlation coefficient between dependent and independent variables. Although this correlation cannot be computed because of the lack of paired data, bounds can be placed on errors through the required properties of the correlation coefficient. The potential meansquared error of a cascaded-regression prediction can be large, as illustrated through an example using geomorphologic data. ?? 1985 Plenum Publishing Corporation.

Karlinger, M. R.; Troutman, B. M.

1985-01-01

333

Expected errors computed from effective bits  

SciTech Connect

This memorandum has two purposes. The first is to review how we can calculate error bars for a given data set from the effective-bits measurements. The second is to outline how we can use the error bars to quantify expected errors in linear fits to data, integrated data, and power spectral densities computed from data. The expected errors for these quantities are calculated using standard statistics and probability techniques.

Tunnell, T.

1990-10-22

334

Finite Element Output Bounds for Hyperbolic Problems  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose a Neumann-subproblem a posteriori finite element error bound technique for linear stationary scalar advection problems. The method is similar in many respects to the previous output bound technique developed for elliptic problems. In the new approach, however, the primal residual is enhanced with a streamline diffusion term. We first formulate the bound algorithm, with particular emphasis on the

Machiels

2000-01-01

335

Bounded Model Checking of Concurrent Programs  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose a SAT-based bounded verification technique, called TCBMC, for threaded C programs. Our work is based on CBMC, which models sequential C programs in which the number of executions for each loop and the depth of recursion are bounded. The novelty of our approach is in bounding the number of context switches allowed among threads. Thus, we obtain an

Ishai Rabinovitz; Orna Grumberg

2005-01-01

336

Lower Bound and Estimates for Resonances.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Using Schwinger's variational formula for the phase shifts, we deduce a lower bound for the potential strength lambdasub(l)(K) at which deltasub(l)(K)= pi /2. The derivation is used to show that the lower bound is a worse estimate than a known upper bound...

B. G. Sidharth

1983-01-01

337

Continuum Bound States as surface states  

Microsoft Academic Search

We discuss the relation between continuum bound states (CBS) localized on a defect, and surface states of a finite periodic system. We use the transfer matrix method to model an experiment of Capasso, and find all continuum bound and anti-bound states. We compute the rate for intra-subband transitions from the ground state to the CBS and derive a sum rule.

D. W. L. Sprung; P. Jagiello; J. D. Sigetich; J. Martorell

2001-01-01

338

PATTERN SEARCH ALGORITHMS FOR BOUND CONSTRAINED MINIMIZATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a convergence theory for pattern search methods for solving bound constrained nonlinear programs. The analysis relies on the abstract structure of pattern search methods and an understanding of how the pattern interacts with the bound constraints. This analysis makes it possible to develop pattern search methods for bound constrained problems while only slightly restricting the flexibility present in

ROBERT MICHAEL LEWIS; VIRGINIA TORCZON

339

Comparison of Some Bounds in Estimation Theory.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Conditions are given for the attainment of the Hammersley-Chapman-Robbins bound for the variance of an unbiased estimator, in both regular and nonregular cases. Comparisons are made between this bound and the Bhattacharyya system of bounds for a wide clas...

P. K. Sen B. K. Ghosh

1975-01-01

340

Exponential lower bounds for the pigeonhole principle  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we prove an exponential lower bound on the size of bounded-depth Frege proofs for the pigeon- hole principle (PHP). We also obtain an ~(log log rz)- depth lower bound for any polynomial-sized Frege proof of the pigeonhole principle. Our theorem nearly com- pletes the search for the exact complexity of the PHP, as Sam Buss has constructed

Paul Beame; Russell Impagliazzo; Jan Krají?ek; Toniann Pitassi; Pavel Pudlák; Alan R. Woods

1992-01-01

341

Deformation invariant bounding spheres for dynamic active constraints in surgery.  

PubMed

Active constraints are collaborative robot control strategies, which can be used to guide a surgeon or protect delicate tissue structures during robot-assisted surgery. Tissue structures of interest often move and deform throughout a surgical intervention, and therefore, dynamic active constraints, which adapt and conform to these changes, are required. A fundamental element of an active constraint controller is the computation of the geometric relationship between the constraint geometry and the surgical instrument. For a static active constraint, there are a variety of computationally efficient methods for computing this relative configuration; however, for a dynamic active constraint, it becomes significantly more challenging. Deformation invariant bounding spheres are a novel bounding volume formulation, which can be used within a hierarchy to allow efficient proximity queries within dynamic active constraints. These bounding spheres are constructed in such a way that as the surface deforms, they do not require time-consuming rebuilds or updates, rather they are implicitly updated and continue to represent the underlying geometry as it changes. Experimental results show that performing proximity queries with deformation invariant bounding sphere hierarchies is faster than common methods from the literature when the deformation rate is within the range expected from conventional imaging systems. PMID:24622983

Bowyer, Stuart A; Rodriguez Y Baena, Ferdinando

2014-04-01

342

Taxation and life expectancy in Western Europe.  

PubMed

With the exception of Denmark, life expectancy in Western Europe has shown a significant increase over the last decades. During that period of time overall taxation has increased in most of the countries, especially in Denmark. We, therefore, examined whether taxation could influence life expectancy in Western Europe. We used information on the sum of income tax and employees' social contribution in percentage of gross wage earnings from the OECD database and data on disability adjusted life expectancy at birth from the World Health Organization database. We arbitrarily only included countries with populations in excess of 4 millions and thereby excluded smaller countries where tax exemption is part of the national monetary policy. We found that disability adjusted life expectancy at birth was inversely correlated to the total tax burden in Western Europe. We speculate whether a threshold exists where high taxes exert a negative influence on life expectancy despite increased welfare spending. The study suggests that tax burden should be considered among the multiple factors influencing life expectancy. PMID:15242031

Bagger, P J

2004-06-01

343

Proving The Correctness Of Processors With Delayed Branch Using Delayed Pc  

Microsoft Academic Search

We show that the programming model of delayed branch is equivalent to what we call delayed PC: all instruction fetches are delayed by one instruction, not just taken branches. This leads to a very simple new implementation of the delayed branch mechanism. We then prove the correctness of a pipelined machine with delayed PC.

Silvia M. Müller; Wolfgang J. Paul; Daniel Kroening

1999-01-01

344

Strongly pulsating lasers with delay  

Microsoft Academic Search

A simple model of a class-B laser subject to a delayed feedback is investigated. The response of the laser exhibits strongly pulsating intensity oscillations which we analyze using asymptotic methods. We concentrate on a single branch of periodic solutions and progressively increase the amplitude of the feedback. We show that the response of the laser (amplitude of the oscillations and

Didier Pieroux; Thomas Erneux

1996-01-01

345

Delayed coker fractionator advanced control  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a delayed coking process, as coke drum switches are made, rapid changes occur in both the fractionator feed rate and composition. With conventional control, it is not unusual to see long transient behavior of large swings in both quality and flowrates of coker gas oils. This can extract a heavy economic toll, not only in coker operation, but in

R. Jaisinghani; B. Minter; A. Tica; A. Puglesi; R. Ojeda

1993-01-01

346

Delay Analysis of Aloha Network  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper provides a queueing analysis for the slotted Aloha network. We assume the use of an exponential backoff protocol. Most prior work on slotted Aloha focuses on the analysis of its saturation throughput. Good saturation throughput, however, does not automatically translate to good delay performance for the end users. For example, it is well-known that the maximum possible throughput

Soung Chang Liew; Ying Jun Zhang; Da Rui Chen

2008-01-01

347

Bounds on halo-particle interactions from interstellar calorimetry  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

It is shown that the existence of neutral interstellar clouds constrains the interaction of any particulate dark-matter candidate with atomic hydrogen to be quite small. Even for a halo particle of mass 1 PeV (10 to the 6 GeV), it is shown that the cross section with hydrogen must be smaller than the typical atomic cross section that is expected for a positively charged particle bound to an electron. The argument presented is that if the clouds are in equilibrium, then the rate at which energy is deposited by collisions with dark-matter particles must be smaller than the rate at which the cloud can cool. This argument is used to constrain the interaction cross section of dark matter with hydrogen. Remarks are made on the general viability of charged dark matter. Comments are also made on a bound which derives from the dynamical stability of the halo.

Chivukula, Sekhar R.; Cohen, Andrew G.; Dimopoulos, Savas; Walker, Terry P.

1990-01-01

348

Memory for expectation-violating concepts: the effects of agents and cultural familiarity.  

PubMed

Previous research has shown that ideas which violate our expectations, such as schema-inconsistent concepts, enjoy privileged status in terms of memorability. In our study, memory for concepts that violate cultural (cultural schema-level) expectations (e.g., "illiterate teacher", "wooden bottle", or "thorny grass") versus domain-level (ontological) expectations (e.g., "speaking cat", "jumping maple", or "melting teacher") was examined. Concepts that violate cultural expectations, or counter-schematic, were remembered to a greater extent compared with concepts that violate ontological expectations and with intuitive concepts (e.g., "galloping pony", "drying orchid", or "convertible car"), in both immediate recall, and delayed recognition tests. Importantly, concepts related to agents showed a memory advantage over concepts not pertaining to agents, but this was true only for expectation-violating concepts. Our results imply that intuitive, everyday concepts are equally attractive and memorable regardless of the presence or absence of agents. However, concepts that violate our expectations (cultural-schema or domain-level) are more memorable when pertaining to agents (humans and animals) than to non-agents (plants or objects/artifacts). We conclude that due to their evolutionary salience, cultural ideas which combine expectancy violations and the involvement of an agent are especially memorable and thus have an enhanced probability of being successfully propagated. PMID:24714568

Porubanova, Michaela; Shaw, Daniel Joel; McKay, Ryan; Xygalatas, Dimitris

2014-01-01

349

Memory for Expectation-Violating Concepts: The Effects of Agents and Cultural Familiarity  

PubMed Central

Previous research has shown that ideas which violate our expectations, such as schema-inconsistent concepts, enjoy privileged status in terms of memorability. In our study, memory for concepts that violate cultural (cultural schema-level) expectations (e.g., “illiterate teacher”, “wooden bottle”, or “thorny grass”) versus domain-level (ontological) expectations (e.g., “speaking cat”, “jumping maple”, or “melting teacher”) was examined. Concepts that violate cultural expectations, or counter-schematic, were remembered to a greater extent compared with concepts that violate ontological expectations and with intuitive concepts (e.g., “galloping pony”, “drying orchid”, or “convertible car”), in both immediate recall, and delayed recognition tests. Importantly, concepts related to agents showed a memory advantage over concepts not pertaining to agents, but this was true only for expectation-violating concepts. Our results imply that intuitive, everyday concepts are equally attractive and memorable regardless of the presence or absence of agents. However, concepts that violate our expectations (cultural-schema or domain-level) are more memorable when pertaining to agents (humans and animals) than to non-agents (plants or objects/artifacts). We conclude that due to their evolutionary salience, cultural ideas which combine expectancy violations and the involvement of an agent are especially memorable and thus have an enhanced probability of being successfully propagated.

Porubanova, Michaela; Shaw, Daniel Joel; McKay, Ryan; Xygalatas, Dimitris

2014-01-01

350

Predictability is necessary for closed-loop visual feedback delay adaptation.  

PubMed

In case of delayed visual feedback during visuomotor tasks, like in some sluggish computer games, humans can modulate their behavior to compensate for the delay. However, opinions on the nature of this compensation diverge. Some studies suggest that humans adapt to feedback delays with lasting changes in motor behavior (aftereffects) and a recalibration of time perception. Other studies have shown little or no evidence for such semipermanent recalibration in the temporal domain. We hypothesize that predictability of the reference signal (target to be tracked) is necessary for semipermanent delay adaptation. To test this hypothesis, we trained participants with a 200 ms visual feedback delay in a visually guided manual tracking task, varying the predictability of the reference signal between conditions, but keeping reference motion and feedback delay constant. In Experiment 1, we focused on motor behavior. Only training in the predictable condition brings about all of the adaptive changes and aftereffects expected from delay adaptation. In Experiment 2, we used a synchronization task to investigate perceived simultaneity (perceptuomotor learning). Supporting the hypothesis, participants recalibrated subjective visuomotor simultaneity only when trained in the predictable condition. Such a shift in perceived simultaneity was also observed in Experiment 3, using an interval estimation task. These results show that delay adaptation in motor control can modulate the perceived temporal alignment of vision and kinesthetically sensed movement. The coadaptation of motor prediction and target prediction (reference extrapolation) seems necessary for such genuine delay adaptation. This offers an explanation for divergent results in the literature. PMID:24599942

Rohde, Marieke; van Dam, Loes C J; Ernst, Marc O

2014-01-01

351

Delaying corn rootworm resistance to Bt corn.  

PubMed

Transgenic crops producing Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxins for insect control have been successful, but their efficacy is reduced when pests evolve resistance. To delay pest resistance to Bt crops, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has required refuges of host plants that do not produce Bt toxins to promote survival of susceptible pests. Such refuges are expected to be most effective if the Bt plants deliver a dose of toxin high enough to kill nearly all hybrid progeny produced by matings between resistant and susceptible pests. In 2003, the EPA first registered corn, Zea mays L., producing a Bt toxin (Cry3Bb1) that kills western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte, one of the most economically important crop pests in the United States. The EPA requires minimum refuges of 20% for Cry3Bb1 corn and 5% for corn producing two Bt toxins active against corn rootworms. We conclude that the current refuge requirements are not adequate, because Bt corn hybrids active against corn rootworms do not meet the high-dose standard, and western corn rootworm has rapidly evolved resistance to Cry3Bb1 corn in the laboratory, greenhouse, and field. Accordingly, we recommend increasing the minimum refuge for Bt corn targeting corn rootworms to 50% for plants producing one toxin active against these pests and to 20% for plants producing two toxins active against these pests. Increasing the minimum refuge percentage can help to delay pest resistance, encourage integrated pest management, and promote more sustainable crop protection. PMID:22812111

Tabashnik, Bruce E; Gould, Fred

2012-06-01

352

EXPECT: Explicit Representations for Flexible Acquisition  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

To create more powerful knowledge acquisition systems, we not only need better acquisition tools, but we need to change the architecture of the knowledge based systems we create so that their structure will provide better support for acquisition. Current acquisition tools permit users to modify factual knowledge but they provide limited support for modifying problem solving knowledge. In this paper, the authors argue that this limitation (and others) stem from the use of incomplete models of problem-solving knowledge and inflexible specification of the interdependencies between problem-solving and factual knowledge. We describe the EXPECT architecture which addresses these problems by providing an explicit representation for problem-solving knowledge and intent. Using this more explicit representation, EXPECT can automatically derive the interdependencies between problem-solving and factual knowledge. By deriving these interdependencies from the structure of the knowledge-based system itself EXPECT supports more flexible and powerful knowledge acquisition.

Swartout, BIll; Gil, Yolanda

1995-01-01

353

Experience and Choice Shape Expected Aversive Outcomes  

PubMed Central

The value assigned to aversive events is susceptible to contextual influences. Here, we asked whether a change in the valuation of negative events is reflected in an altered neuronal representation of their expected aversive outcome. We show that experiencing an aversive event in the past, and choosing to experience it in the future, reduces its aversive value. This psychological change is mirrored in an altered neural representation of aversive value in the caudate nucleus, and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). Our findings indicate that subcortical regions known to track expected value such as the caudate nucleus, together with anterior cingulate cortical regions implicated in emotional modulation, mediate a re-valuation in expectancies of aversive states. The results provide a striking example of a contextual sensitivity in how the brain ascribes value to events, in a manner that may foster resilience in the face of adversity.

Sharot, Tali; Shiner, Tamara; Dolan, Raymond J

2010-01-01

354

Major League Baseball Players' Life Expectancies*  

PubMed Central

Objective We examine the importance of anthropometric and performance measures, and age, period, and cohort effects in explaining life expectancies among major league baseball (MLB) players over the past century. Methods We use discrete time hazard models to calculate life tables with covariates with data from Total Baseball, a rich source of information on all players who played in the major league. Results Compared to 20-year-old U.S. males, MLB players can expect almost five additional years of life. Height, weight, handedness, and player ratings are unassociated with the risk of death in this population of highly active and successful adults. Career length is inversely associated with the risk of death, likely because those who play longer gain additional incomes, physical fitness, and training. Conclusions Our results indicate improvements in life expectancies with time for all age groups and indicate possible improvements in longevity in the general U.S. population.

Saint Onge, Jarron M.; Rogers, Richard G.; Krueger, Patrick M.

2009-01-01

355

Inoculation against forgetting: advantages of immediate versus delayed initial testing due to superior verbatim accessibility.  

PubMed

In this study, potential benefits of early memory testing were examined in terms of "inoculating" eyewitness memory against forgetting. As predicted by fuzzy trace theory (e.g., Reyna & Titcomb, 1997), a larger testing advantage in the delayed recall of event details was expected after immediate testing than after delayed testing because of the decline in accessibility of verbatim traces over time. However, memory for only the gist of these details was expected to be relatively stable over time, resulting in a smaller (if any) effect of the timing of interpolated testing. After viewing a target event, participants were questioned about event items immediately, after a 24-hr delay, or after a 48-hr delay and were free to respond at either the gist or the verbatim level. Verbatim memory for event details was tested 72 hr after the event. As expected, immediate interpolated testing improved verbatim memory performance on the final test more than delayed testing did, yielding a larger testing effect. Furthermore, the effect of the timing of interpolated testing on the magnitude of the testing effect was mediated by verbatim accessibility at interpolated testing. In contrast, memory for only the gist of event details was unaffected by the timing of interpolated testing, both on the interpolated test and on the final test. The findings highlight the role of declining verbatim memory over time in accounting for the advantage of immediate over delayed interpolated testing in inoculating eyewitness memory against forgetting of detailed information. PMID:22582965

Pansky, Ainat

2012-11-01

356

Global asymptotic stability analysis for delayed neural networks using a matrix-based quadratic convex approach.  

PubMed

This paper is concerned with global asymptotic stability for a class of generalized neural networks with interval time-varying delays by constructing a new Lyapunov-Krasovskii functional which includes some integral terms in the form of ?(t-h)(t)(h-t-s)(j)x?(T)(s)Rjx?(s)ds(j=1,2,3). Some useful integral inequalities are established for the derivatives of those integral terms introduced in the Lyapunov-Krasovskii functional. A matrix-based quadratic convex approach is introduced to prove not only the negative definiteness of the derivative of the Lyapunov-Krasovskii functional, but also the positive definiteness of the Lyapunov-Krasovskii functional. Some novel stability criteria are formulated in two cases, respectively, where the time-varying delay is continuous uniformly bounded and where the time-varying delay is differentiable uniformly bounded with its time-derivative bounded by constant lower and upper bounds. These criteria are applicable to both static neural networks and local field neural networks. The effectiveness of the proposed method is demonstrated by two numerical examples. PMID:24650958

Zhang, Xian-Ming; Han, Qing-Long

2014-06-01

357

What respondents really expect from researchers.  

PubMed

This article addresses the issue of falling response rates in telephone surveys. To better understand and maintain respondent goodwill, concepts of psychological contract and respondent expectations are introduced and explored. Results of the qualitative study show that respondent expectations are not only socially contingent but also ego-expressive, utilitarian, pleasurable, and epistemic by nature. Although results are reassuring in terms of commercialization of the psychological contract, they indicate some radical changes that are needed for the respondents to accept its continuation. The article discusses several practical and theoretical implications of such changes and suggests a series of corresponding propositions aimed at facilitating and inspiring future developments in this field. PMID:18591708

Kolar, Tomaz; Kolar, Iztok

2008-08-01

358

LOWER BOUNDS ON MAGNETIC FIELDS IN INTERGALACTIC VOIDS FROM LONG-TERM GeV-TeV LIGHT CURVES OF THE BLAZAR MRK 421  

SciTech Connect

Lower bounds are derived on the amplitude B of intergalactic magnetic fields (IGMFs) in the region between Galaxy and the blazar Mrk 421, from constraints on the delayed GeV pair-echo flux that are emitted by secondary e {sup -} e {sup +} produced in {gamma}{gamma} interactions between primary TeV gamma rays and the cosmic infrared background. The distribution of galaxies mapped by the Sloan Digital Sky Survey shows that this region is dominated by a large intergalactic void. We utilize data from long-term, simultaneous GeV-TeV observations by the Fermi Large Area Telescope and the ARGO-YBJ experiment extending over 850 days. For an assumed value of B, we evaluate the daily GeV pair-echo flux expected from the TeV data, select the dates where this exceeds the Fermi 2{sigma} sensitivity, compute the probability that this flux is excluded by the Fermi data for each date, and then combine the probabilities using the inverse normal method. Consequently, we exclude B < 10{sup -20.5} G for a field coherence length of 1 kpc at {approx}4{sigma} level, as long as plasma instabilities are unimportant for cooling of the pair beam. This is much more significant than the 2{sigma} bounds we obtained previously from observations of Mrk 501, by virtue of more extensive data from the ARGO-YBJ, as well as improved statistical analysis. Compared with most other studies of IGMF bounds, the evidence we present here for a non-zero IGMF is more robust as it does not rely on unproven assumptions on the primary TeV emission during unobserved periods.

Takahashi, Keitaro [Department of Physics, Kumamoto University, 2-39-1, Kurokami, Kumamoto 860-8555 (Japan); Mori, Masaki [Department of Physical Sciences, Ritsumeikan University, 1-1-1 Noji Higashi, Kusatsu, Shiga 525-8577 (Japan); Ichiki, Kiyotomo [Kobayashi-Maskawa Institute for the Origin of Particles and the Universe, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan); Inoue, Susumu [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Saupfercheckweg 1, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Takami, Hajime, E-mail: keitaro@sci.kumamoto-u.ac.jp [Theory Center, Institute of Particle and Nuclear Studies, KEK, 1-1, Oho, Tsukuba 305-0801 (Japan)

2013-07-10

359

Great expectations. Eating expectancies as mediators of reinforcement sensitivity and eating.  

PubMed

Eating expectancies are proposed as cognitive pathways linking reinforcement (reward and punishment) sensitivities and the tendency to over-eat in response to appetitive and emotional cues. In Study One (N=243 university women) explicit eating expectancies were tested as potential mediators of reinforcement sensitivities and eating styles. Broadly, expectancies that eating alleviates negative affect/boredom mediated both reward and punishment sensitivity and emotional eating. The expectancy that eating is pleasurable and rewarding mediated reward sensitivity and external eating. In Study Two (N=109), using an implicit eating expectancy task, reward sensitivity and external eating was mediated via positive expectancy statements, notably, that eating is pleasurable and rewarding. Reward sensitivity and emotional eating was mediated specifically by expectancies that eating manages boredom. Punishment sensitivity was not associated with any implicit expectancies. Findings support the role of expectancies as cognitive mediators in the relationship between reinforcement sensitivities and emotionally-driven versus externally-driven eating styles. However, the largely appetitive implicit expectancies task only supported an association with reward sensitivity. PMID:23932947

Hennegan, Julie M; Loxton, Natalie J; Mattar, Ameerah

2013-12-01

360

Delay locked loop integrated circuit.  

SciTech Connect

This report gives a description of the development of a Delay Locked Loop (DLL) integrated circuit (IC). The DLL was developed and tested as a stand-alone IC test chip to be integrated into a larger application specific integrated circuit (ASIC), the Quadrature Digital Waveform Synthesizer (QDWS). The purpose of the DLL is to provide a digitally programmable delay to enable synchronization between an internal system clock and external peripherals with unknown clock skew. The DLL was designed and fabricated in the IBM 8RF process, a 0.13 {micro}m CMOS process. It was designed to operate with a 300MHz clock and has been tested up to 500MHz.

Brocato, Robert Wesley

2007-10-01

361

An Activity for Exploring Marital Expectations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The learning activity, designed for the use of high school students in a family life education course, is designed to explore attitudes towards mate qualities in order to increase the students' awareness of marital expectations. The activity utilizes the format of an auction game and a group discussion. (EC)

Saur, William G.

1976-01-01

362

Macroeconomics after Two Decades of Rational Expectations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses real business cycle analysis, growth theory, and other economic concepts in the context of the rational expectations revolution in macroeconomics. Focuses on post-1982 research. Concludes that the rejuvenation of growth analysis is an encouraging development because it could lead to changes in welfare policy. (CFR)

McCallum, Bennett T.

1994-01-01

363

Analytic Derivatives for Linear Rational Expectations Models  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper sets out the analytic solution for the calculation of exact derivatives in linear rational expectations models with reference to the optimal simple rule problem. We argue that there are substantial computational advantages of using analytic derivatives and compare the likely computational costs of using approximate and exact derivatives when calculating optimal coefficients for simple feedback rules. A specific

Andrew P. Blake

2004-01-01

364

How Students Verify Conjectures: Teachers' Expectations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Eight teachers were interviewed concerning how students verify conjectures. The study is a sequel to a previous study, "How Students Verify Conjectures" [Bergqvist, T. (2000). "How students verify conjectures." "Research reports in Mathematics Education" 3]. Teachers' expectations of students' reasoning and performance are examined, and also how…

Bergqvist, Tomas

2005-01-01

365

Outcome Expectancies and Risk-Taking Behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

One explanation for risk-taking behavior despite warnings about the dangers is that anticipated positive consequences outweigh possible negative outcomes. In a five-part investigation, a new questionnaire was developed to assess outcome expectancies for the potential consequences of involvement in a variety of risky activities. Conceptual and methodological limitations of previously available questionnaires were addressed and content, construct, and criterion validity

Kim Fromme; Elizabeth C. Katz; Kathy Rivet

1997-01-01

366

What to Expect After a Lung Transplant  

MedlinePLUS

... NHLBI on Twitter. What To Expect After a Lung Transplant Recovery in the Hospital After lung transplant surgery, you'll go to the hospital's ... take slow, deep breaths. You also may have lung function tests that use a regular spirometer. This ...

367

Young Infants' Expectations about Hidden Objects  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Infants aged 3-5 months (mean of approximately 4 months) were given a novel anticipatory looking task to test object permanence understanding. They were trained to expect an experimenter to retrieve an object from behind a transparent screen upon hearing a cue (''Doors up, here comes the hand''). The experimenter then hid the object behind one of…

Ruffman, Ted; Slade, Lance; Redman, Jessica

2005-01-01

368

Accessing alcohol expectancy networks through semantic priming  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cognitive theories of alcohol use have suggested that information pertinent to an individuals' experience with alcohol is acquired and stored in a semantic network of expectancies regarding the effects of alcohol. Semantic priming using a lexical decision task has been used to access memory processes within a semantic network. The present study involved screening 40 individuals with heavy current drinking

Luke W Galen

1996-01-01

369

Measuring Bubble Expectations and Investor Confidence  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents evidence on attitude changes among investors in the US stock market. Two basic attitudes are explored: bubble expectations and investor confidence. Semiannual time-series indicators of these attitudes are presented for US stock market institutional investors based on questionnaire survey results 1989 1998, from surveys that I have derived in collaboration with Fumiko Kon-Ya and Yoshiro Tsutsui. Five

Robert J. Shiller

1999-01-01

370

Ownership, Investor Protection and Earnings Expectations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract:?This study examines the interactive influence of corporate ownership, corporate governance and investor protection on the incorporation of current value shocks in the accounting earnings of European companies. This influence is investigated not only by means of the association between current news and current earnings but also with respect to the association of the same news with expected future earnings,

Christina Dargenidou; Stuart McLeay; Ivana Raonic

2007-01-01

371

Expected Linear 3-Dimensional Voronoi Diagram Algorithm.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Let S be a set of n sites chosen independently from a uniform distribution in a cube in 3-dimensional Euclidean space. In the paper, an expected O(n) algorithm for constructing the Voronoi diagram for S together with numerical results obtained from an imp...

J. Bernal

1990-01-01

372

Remote Library Users: Needs and Expectations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses remote library users in an academic environment. Highlights include user needs and expectations; user satisfaction; service to remote customers in nonlibrary environments, such as industry; the distance-learning context; student demographics; distance learning and library services; course design; and a case study at De Paul University.…

Cooper, Rosemarie; Dempsey, Paula R.; Menon, Vanaja; Millson-Martula, Christopher

1998-01-01

373

Expecting Too Much of Performance Pay?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Pay for performance is not a new idea, and reformers should not ignore the dismal record of merit pay over the past century. Initially adopted with a flourish of expectations during several waves of popularity in the past, every plan eventually fell into disuse. These plans proved to be unexpectedly costly and cumbersome to run. They often…

Johnson, Susan Moore; Papay, John P.

2010-01-01

374

Enhanced Expectancies Improve Performance Under Pressure  

PubMed Central

Beyond skill, beliefs in requisite abilities and expectations can affect performance. This experiment examined effects of induced perceptions of ability to perform well under generic situations of challenge. Participants (N?=?31) first completed one block of 20 trials on a throwing accuracy task. They then completed questionnaires ostensibly measuring individual differences in the ability to perform under pressure. Enhanced-expectancy group participants were told that they were well-suited to perform under pressure, while the control group received neutral information. Subsequently, all participants completed another block of 20 trials on the throwing task, with their performance videotaped and under the assumption that they could secure a prize for themselves and a paired participant with successful performance. Both groups had similar accuracy scores on the first trial block. The enhanced-expectancy group significantly increased their throwing accuracy in the higher-pressure situation (second block), whereas the control group showed no change in performance. Furthermore, beliefs regarding performance under challenge predicted throwing accuracy on the second block. The present findings provide evidence that enhancing individuals’ generic expectancies regarding performance under pressure can affect their motor performance.

McKay, Brad; Lewthwaite, Rebecca; Wulf, Gabriele

2012-01-01

375

An Accountability Approach Using Expectancy Criteria.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

If American schools are to be held accountable for pupil achievement, a reliable means of determining the difference between a child's actual achievement and his learning potential must be found. This study examines the utilization of composite measures of a pupil's base level of performance as effective predictors of learning expectancy. In…

Metos, Thomas H.; Luty, Elanny T.

376

Training Therapists about Client Expectations of Psychotherapy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research has indicated that premature termination of therapy is sometimes due to a conflict in goal and outcome expectations between therapists and family members of clients. The present study requested both therapists and parents of child clients to complete questionnaires to determine if there is congruence between therapist and parental…

Soley, Georgia; Marshall, Renee; Chambliss, Catherine

377

What to Expect in the Emergency Room  

MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

English - What to Expect in the Emergency Room 2 min 20 sec To Listen to the Audio or Read/Print/Save the Handout, Click on a Picture Below To Download These Files, Right Click the Mouse and Choose "Save link as...." Audio Mobile ...

378

Using expect to Automate System Administration Tasks  

Microsoft Academic Search

UNIX system administration often involves programs designed only for interactive use. Many such programs (passwd, su, etc.) cannot be placed into shell scripts. Some programs (fsck, dump, etc.) are not specifically interactive, but have poor support for automated use. expect is a program which can \\

Don Libes

1990-01-01

379

Helpful and Harmful Expectations of Premarital Interventions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite the demonstrated effectiveness of premarital programs, estimates indicate that only 30% of couples use these services. This study examined the helpful and harmful aspects of premarital programs that may encourage or discourage participation. As expected, participants identified improved communication and problem solving skills as most beneficial. Disclosing secrets or past relationship issues that threaten the stability of the relationship

Carlos E. Valiente; Catherine J. Belanger; Ana U. Estrada

2002-01-01

380

Athletes' expectations with regard to officiating competence  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study aimed to identify the cues upon which athletes rely when developing their expectations with regard to the competence of sports officials and to examine the sources of information, which are given priority in different kinds of sport (i.e. team, racquet and fighting sports). A questionnaire – the Athlete Perception of Sports Officials Questionnaire (APSO-Q) – was developed in

Fabrice Dosseville; Sylvain Laborde; Marjorie Bernier

2012-01-01

381

Reproductive longevity and increased life expectancy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: female life expectancy in developed countries has increased by 30 years in the twentieth century. Aim: to determine if there has been an increase in reproductive longevity. Methods: we analysed age-specific fertility data from birth statistics for the USA, Canada, Japan, France, Sweden, the UK and Australia. Results: since 1940, birth rates for women aged 35 and over have

JACOB A. BRODY; M ARK D. GRANT; L AWRENCE J. FRATESCHI; SUSAN C. MILLER

382

Expectations and Experiences of Substitute Teachers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article explores the expectations of support for and the experiences of substitute teachers in an urban school division in Saskatchewan. Data were collected in semistructured interviews with seven substitute teachers. The purpose of the study was to explore how substitute teachers frame their professional experiences and construct their roles…

Duggleby, Patricia; Badali, Sal

2007-01-01

383

Children's Physical Appearance and Adult Expectations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Caregivers' expectancies and behaviors in relationship to young handicapped children were investigated in this paper. Two studies were conducted in an attempt to answer three questions: (1) How will caregivers respond to the young handicapped child? (2) Do the child's stimulus characteristics, such as physical appearance, create biases in…

Feeg, Veronica DeCarolis; Peters, Donald L.

384

Expected utility expressed in terms of moments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Following a review of the problem of establishing a preference ordering over a set of distributions, the principles of Pascal, Bernoulli and Tetens are discussed. The second section of the paper outlines ways of expressing expected utility in terms of moments, thus combining the Bernoulli and Tetens principles. The paper concludes by suggesting that the Tetens principle contains some very

Karl Borch

1973-01-01

385

Demystify Learning Expectations to Address Grade Inflation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes the subject of "grade inflation," a reference to educators giving higher grades to student work than their expectations for student achievement warrant. Of the many reasons why this practice happens, Hodges specifically discusses inflating grades as "a natural consequence" when the faculty really…

Hodges, Linda C.

2014-01-01

386

Expected Time of Arrival Model for School Bus Transit Using Real-Time Global Positioning System-Based Automatic Vehicle Location Data  

Microsoft Academic Search

The school bus is a major transportation mode for students in Canada. Unexpected delay of a school bus may be a major source of inconvenience for students and their parents. Accordingly, the provision of timely and reliable information on the expected arrivals of school buses would be of great benefit to them. This study develops an expected time of arrival

Eui-Hwan Chung; Amer Shalaby

2007-01-01

387

Delay of Gratification in Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

To function effectively, individuals must voluntarily postpone immediate gratification and persist in goal-directed behavior for the sake of later outcomes. The present research program analyzed the nature of this type of future-oriented self-control and the psychological processes that underlie it. Enduring individual differences in self-control were found as early as the preschool years. Those 4-year-old children who delayed gratification longer

Walter Mischel; Yuichi Shoda; Monica L. Rodriguez

1989-01-01

388

Routing in Delay Tolerant Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT We formulate the delay-tolerant networking routing problem, where messages are to be moved end-to-end across a connec- tivity graph that is time-varying but whose dynamics may be known in advance. The problem has the added constraints of nite buers,at each node and the general property that no con- temporaneous end-to-end path may ever exist. This situation limits the applicability

S. Jain; K. Fall; R. Patra

2003-01-01

389

Time Delay Estimation Involving Received Signals.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The estimation of time delay between two received signals is reexamined for the three basic approaches to this problem: 1) phase data, 2) generalized cross correlation, and 3) parameter estimation. For a simple delay problem with short data lengths, argum...

C. Y. Wuu, A. E. Pearson

1984-01-01

390

42 CFR 136a.32 - Delayed implementation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Transition Provisions § 136a.32 Delayed implementation. (a) The eligibility requirements in subparts A and B of this part become effective March 16, 1988. (b) During the six month delayed implementation period the former eligibility regulations...

2012-10-01

391

Delay Cartridge with Temperature Programmed Flash Chamber.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An improved pyrotechnic delay system is given wherein temperature compensation means are utilized to minimize or eliminate ambient temperature affects upon the burning rate and variability of the delay. Apparatus and method are provided to increase the ac...

M. L. Greene F. J. Valenta

1981-01-01

392

The influence of temporal factors on automatic priming and conscious expectancy in a simple reaction time task  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a previous study, we reported a dissociation between subjective expectancy and motor behaviour in a simple associative learning task (Perruchet, Cleeremans, & Destrebecqz, 2006). According to previous conditioning studies (Clark, Manns, & Squire, 2001), this dissociation is observed when the to-be-associated events coterminate and thus overlap in time (a training regimen called delay conditioning), but not when they are

Arnaud Destrebecqz; Pierre Perruchet; Axel Cleeremans; Steven Laureys; Pierre Maquet; Philippe Peigneux

2010-01-01

393

Dynamical Bounds for Sturmian SCHRÖDINGER Operators  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Fibonacci Hamiltonian, that is a Schrödinger operator associated to a quasiperiodical Sturmian potential with respect to the golden mean has been investigated intensively in recent years. Damanik and Tcheremchantsev developed a method in [10] and used it to exhibit a non trivial dynamical upper bound for this model. In this paper, we use this method to generalize to a large family of Sturmian operators dynamical upper bounds and show at sufficently large coupling anomalous transport for operators associated to irrational number with a generic diophantine condition. As a counterexample, we exhibit a pathological irrational number which does not verify this condition and show its associated dynamic exponent only has ballistic bound. Moreover, we establish a global lower bound for the lower box counting dimension of the spectrum that is used to obtain a dynamical lower bound for bounded density irrational numbers.

Marin, L.

394

Delayed q-deformed logistic map  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The delay logistic map with two types of q-deformations: Tsallis and Quantum-group type are studied. The stability of the logistic map and its bifurcation scheme is analyzed as a function of the deformation and delay parameters. Chaos is suppressed in a certain region of deformation and delay parameter space. By introducing delay, the steady state in one type of deformation is maintained while chaotic behavior is recovered in another type.

Shrimali, Manish Dev; Banerjee, Subhashish

2013-11-01

395

Stabilizability of linear quadratic state feedback for uncertain fuzzy time-delay systems.  

PubMed

This paper investigates the problem of designing a fuzzy state feedback controller to stabilize an uncertain fuzzy system with time-varying delay. Based on Lyapunov criterion and Razumikhin theorem, some sufficient conditions are derived under which the parallel-distributed fuzzy control can stabilize the whole uncertain fuzzy time-delay system asymptotically. By Schur complement, these sufficient conditions can be easily transformed into the problem of LMIs. Furthermore, the tolerable bound of the perturbation is also obtained. A practical example based on the continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) model is given to illustrate the control design and its effectiveness. PMID:15376873

Wang, Rong-Jyue; Lin, Wei-Wei; Wang, Wen-June

2004-04-01

396

5 CFR 9701.406 - Setting and communicating performance expectations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...performance plans, and other measures of performance. Such expectations include those...and respect for others. (c) Performance expectations may take the form...assignment, including expectations regarding the...timeliness, and/or other expected...

2010-01-01

397

Aerodynamics of intermittent bounds in flying birds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Flap-bounding is a common flight style in small birds in which flapping phases alternate with flexed-wing bounds. Body lift\\u000a is predicted to be essential to making this flight style an aerodynamically attractive flight strategy. To elucidate the contributions\\u000a of the body and tail to lift and drag during the flexed-wing bound phase, we used particle image velocimetry (PIV) and measured

Bret W. Tobalske; Jason W. D. Hearn; Douglas R. Warrick

2009-01-01

398

Antioxidant Activity of Albumin-Bound Bilirubin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bilirubin, when bound to human albumin and at concentrations present in normal human plasma, protects albumin-bound linoleic acid from peroxyl radical-induced oxidation in vitro. Initially, albumin-bound bilirubin (Alb-BR) is oxidized at the same rate as peroxyl radicals are formed and biliverdin is produced stoichiometrically as the oxidation product. On an equimolar basis, Alb-BR successfully competes with uric acid for peroxyl

Roland Stocker; Alexander N. Glazer; Bruce N. Ames

1987-01-01

399

Bounds on codes with few distances  

Microsoft Academic Search

We prove a new bound on the size of codes with few distances in the Hamming space, improving an earlier result of P. Delsarte. We also improve the Ray-Chaudhuri-Wilson bound of the size of uniform intersecting families of subsets (constant-weight codes) and the bound of Delsarte-Goethals-Seidel on the maximum size of spherical codes with few distances. Finally, we find the

Alexander Barg; Oleg R. Musin

2010-01-01

400

Quasi-bound states in continuum  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report the prediction of quasi-bound states (resonant states with very\\u000along lifetimes) that occur in the eigenvalue continuum of propagating states\\u000afor a wide region of parameter space. These quasi-bound states are generated in\\u000aa quantum wire with two channels and an adatom, when the energy bands of the\\u000atwo channels overlap. A would-be bound state that lays just

Hiroaki Nakamura; Naomichi Hatano; Sterling Garmon; Tomio Petrosky

2007-01-01

401

Locating bound structure in an accelerating universe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Given the overwhelming evidence that the Universe is currently undergoing an accelerated expansion, the question of what are the largest gravitationally bound structures remains. A couple of groups, Busha et al. (B03) and Dünner et al. (D06), have attempted to analytically define these limits, arriving at substantially different estimates due to differences in their assumptions about the velocities at the present epoch. In an effort to locate the largest bound structures in the Universe, we selected the Aquarius (ASC), Microscopium (MSC), Corona Borealis (CBSC) and Shapley (SSC) superclusters for study, due to their high number density of rich Abell clusters. Simple N-body simulations, which assumed negligible intercluster mass, were used to assess the likelihood of these structures being gravitationally bound, and the predictions of the models of B03 and D06 were compared with those results. We find that ASC, and MSC contain pairs of clusters which are gravitationally bound, A2541/A2546 and A3695/A3696, respectively, with no other structures having a significant chance of being bound. For SSC, we find a group of five clusters, A3554, A3556, A3558, A3560 and A3562 that are bound, with an additional pair, A1736/A3559, having a slight chance of being bound. We find that CBSC has no extended bound structure, contrary to the findings of Small et al., who claim that the entire supercluster is bound. In regards to the analytical models, we find that B03 will identify structure that is definitely bound, but tends to underestimate the true extent of the structure, while D06 will identify all structure that is bound while overestimating its extent. Combined, the two models can provide lower and upper limits to the extent of bound structures so long as there are no other significant structures nearby or no significant dark matter exterior to the clusters.

Pearson, David W.; Batuski, David J.

2013-11-01

402

Upper bound on neutrino cross sections  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Asymptotic bounds on the total cross sections of neutrino (weak) scattering processes are obtained. It is shown that the elastic neutrino-neutrino cross section obeys the following bound in the high energy region: sigma sub T (S) equals ImF(S,0)/S is less than or equal to const. (LogS) squared. Assumptions of analyticity, crossing, unitarity, polynomial boundaries, and a zero-condition on the absorptive part of the scattering amplitude, are used to obtain this bound.

Mickens, R. E.

1975-01-01

403

Strongly 1Bounded Von Neumann Algebras  

Microsoft Academic Search

.  Suppose F is a finite tuple of selfadjoint elements in a tracial von Neumann algebra M. For ? > 0, F is ?-bounded if $${\\\\mathbb{P}}^\\\\alpha (F) $${\\\\mathbb{P}}^\\\\alpha$$ is the free packing ?-entropy of F introduced in [J3]. M is said to be strongly 1-bounded if M has a 1-bounded finite tuple of selfadjoint generators F such that there exists an

Kenley Jung

2007-01-01

404

Pulse Wave Delay for +Gz Tolerance Assessment.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

We have found that pulse wave delay increases linearly with +Gz experienced by conscious subjects and that G-tolerance limits as measured using conventional light bars occur repeatedly at the same pulse wave delays or delta delay. When protective modaliti...

L. Hrebien

1986-01-01

405

SCTP Performance Issue on Path Delay Differential  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper studies the effect of path delay on SCTP performance. It focuses on the SCTP fast retransmit algorithm and demonstrates that the performance in the current retransmission strategy will degrade acutely when the secondary path delay is less than the primary path delay at a certain level. The performance degradation is due to the disordered SACKs and constant congestion

Yuansong Qiao; Enda Fallon; Liam Murphy; John Murphy; Austin Hanley; Xiaosong Zhu; Adrian Matthews; Eoghan Conway; Gregory Hayes

2007-01-01

406

Nonautonomous Lotka–Volterra Systems with Delays  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper studies the general nonautonomous Lotka–Volterra multispecies systems with finite delays. The ultimate boundedness, permanence, global attractivity, and existence and uniqueness of strictly positive solutions, positive periodic solutions, and almost periodic solutions are obtained. These results are basically an extension of the known results for nonautonomous Lotka–Volterra multispecies systems without delay to systems with delay.

Zhidong Teng

2002-01-01

407

Evaluation of the statistical delay quality model  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we introduce a quality model that reflects fabrication process quality, design delay margin, and test timing accuracy. The model provides a measure that can predict the level of chip defects that cause delay failure, including marginal delay. We can therefore use the model to make test vectors that are effective in terms of both testing cost and

Yasuo Sato; Shuji Hamada; Toshiyuki Maeda; Atsuo Takatori; Seiji Kajihara

2005-01-01

408

SDRAM Delay Fault Modeling and Performance Testing  

Microsoft Academic Search

DRAM timing parameter testing has always been considered a time-consuming process. This paper presents a systematic approach to analysis and classification of the synchronous DRAM (SDRAM) delay failure modes. Four delay fault models with March expression are proposed to cover important DRAM timing parameters. By at-speed March testing of these four types of delay faults, the authors can verify the

Yu-tsao Hsing; Chun-chieh Huang; Jen-chieh Yeh; Cheng-wen Wu

2007-01-01

409

Discretization of frequencies in delay coupled oscillators.  

PubMed

We study the dynamics of two mutually coupled chaotic oscillators with a time delayed coupling. Due to the delay, the allowed frequencies of the oscillators are shown to be discretized. The phenomenon is observed in the case when the delay is much larger than the characteristic period of the solitary uncoupled oscillator. PMID:16241546

Yanchuk, Serhiy

2005-09-01

410

Small Light Delay for Investigating Fast Processes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The working principle and design of a small light delay line based on spherical mirrors is described. This principle makes it possible to delay a light signal longer than 3 x 10 exp -6 seconds. The delay was used for multiframe shadow photography in a rub...

R. N. Arkhiopov B. L. Vasin I. A. Dubovik M. I. Fedyanina A. S. Shikanov

1975-01-01

411

Memoryless H? controllers for state delayed systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this note, a memoryless H? controller for the state delayed system is presented. The controller is a delay independent stabilizer for the state delayed system, which also reduces the H? norm of the closed loop transfer function, from the disturbance to the controlled output, to a prescribed level. The controller can be obtained by solving a modified Riccati equation

Joon Hwa Lee; Sang Woo Kim; Wook Hyun Kwon

1994-01-01

412

Clinical Management of Delayed Sleep Phase Disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Delayed Sleep Phase Disorder is a circadian rhythm disorder that results in a late timed sleep pattern. Individuals have difficulty falling asleep at a conventional hour and difficulty waking in the morning. We discuss the contributing factors and consequences of a delayed sleep phase and describe treatment approaches. These include therapies to phase change the delayed sleep circadian rhythm such

Leon C. Lack; Helen R. Wright

2007-01-01

413

Sharpening Bounds on Principal Effects with Covariates  

PubMed Central

Summary Estimation of treatment effects in randomized studies is often hampered by possible selection bias induced by conditioning on or adjusting for a variable measured post-randomization. One approach to obviate such selection bias is to consider inference about treatment effects within principal strata, i.e., principal effects. A challenge with this approach is that without strong assumptions principal effects are not identifiable from the observable data. In settings where such assumptions are dubious, identifiable large sample bounds may be the preferred target of inference. In practice these bounds may be wide and not particularly informative. In this work we consider whether bounds on principal effects can be improved by adjusting for a categorical baseline covariate. Adjusted bounds are considered which are shown to never be wider than the unadjusted bounds. Necessary and sufficient conditions are given for which the adjusted bounds will be sharper (i.e., narrower) than the unadjusted bounds. The methods are illustrated using data from a recent, large study of interventions to prevent mother-to-child transmission of HIV through breastfeeding. Using a baseline covariate indicating low birth weight, the estimated adjusted bounds for the principal effect of interest are 63% narrower than the estimated unadjusted bounds.

Long, Dustin M.; Hudgens, Michael G.

2014-01-01

414

Isocurvature bounds on axions revisited  

SciTech Connect

The axion is one of the best motivated candidates for particle dark matter. We study and update the constraints imposed by the recent CMB and LSS experiments on the mass of axions produced by the misalignment mechanism, as a function of both the inflationary scale and the reheating temperature. Under some particular although not unconventional assumptions, the axion induces isocurvature perturbations with an amplitude too large to be compatible with observations. Specifically, for inflation taking place at intermediate energy scales, we derive some restrictive limits which can only be evaded by assuming an efficient reheating mechanism, with T{sub rh}>10{sup 11} GeV. Chaotic inflation with a quadratic potential is still compatible with the axion scenario, provided that the Peccei-Quinn scale f{sub a} is close to 10{sup 10} or 10{sup 11} GeV. Isocurvature bounds eliminate the possibility of a larger f{sub a} and a small misalignment angle. We find that isocurvature constraints on the axion scenario must be taken into account whenever the scale of inflation is above 10{sup 12} GeV; below this scale, axionic isocurvature modes are too small to be probed by current observations.

Beltran, Maria; Garcia-Bellido, Juan [Departamento de Fisica Teorica C-XI, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Lesgourgues, Julien [Laboratoire d'Annecy-le-vieux de Physique Theorique, BP110, F-74941 Annecy-le-Vieux Cedex (France)

2007-05-15

415

Passivity analysis for neural networks of neutral type with Markovian jumping parameters and time delay in the leakage term  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, the problem of passivity analysis is investigated for neutral type neural networks with Markovian jumping parameters and time delay in the leakage term. The delay is assumed to be time-varying and belong to a given interval, which means that the lower and upper bounds of interval time-varying delays are available. By constructing proper Lyapunov-Krasovskii functional, new delay-dependent passivity conditions are derived in terms of linear matrix inequalities (LMIs). Moreover, it is well known that the passivity behavior of neural networks is very sensitive to the time delay in the leakage term. Finally, three numerical examples are given to show the effectiveness and less conservatism of the proposed method.

Balasubramaniam, P.; Nagamani, G.; Rakkiyappan, R.

2011-11-01

416

Parent Perceptions of the Anticipated Needs and Expectations for Support for Their College-Bound Students with Asperger's Syndrome  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many students with Asperger's Syndrome have the cognitive ability and specific interests to be successful academically at the college level. However, these students often have difficulties navigating social systems, and higher education presents great challenges. The purpose of this study was to explore parent perceptions regarding the: (a)…

Morrison, Julie Q.; Sansosti, Frank J.; Hadley, Wanda M.

2009-01-01

417

Young infants have biological expectations about animals  

PubMed Central

What are the developmental origins of our concept of animal? There has long been controversy concerning this question. At issue is whether biological reasoning develops from earlier forms of reasoning, such as physical and psychological reasoning, or whether from a young age children endow animals with biological properties. Here we demonstrate that 8-mo-old infants already expect novel objects they identify as animals to have insides. Infants detected a violation when an object that was self-propelled and agentive (but not an object that lacked one or both of these properties) was revealed to be hollow. Infants also detected a violation when an object that was self-propelled and furry (but not an object that lacked one or both of these properties) either was shown to be hollow or rattled (when shaken) as although mostly hollow. Young infants’ expectations about animals’ insides may serve as a foundation for the development of more advanced biological knowledge.

Setoh, Peipei; Wu, Di; Baillargeon, Renee; Gelman, Rochel

2013-01-01

418

Faculty Expectations and Development: The Tenure Case  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Professionals seeking careers in academia should understand the tenure process, and how to prepare successfully for the evaluations linked to the tenure decision. This chapter offers suggestions for persons pursuing tenure-track faculty positions in the discipline of food science. The first promotion process in academia (i.e., from assistant professor to associate professor) is typically linked to tenure consideration. The focus of this chapter is explaining tenure, tenure expectations, resources for guidance, how to manage the process, and how to prepare the tenure and promotion document. While most people are fearful of the promotion and tenure process, this fear and apprehension can be minimized by understanding the process and its expectations, and having good advice to follow to help ensure success.

Nielsen, S. Suzanne

419

Institutional Research: What Should We Expect? Defining and Exceeding Campus Expectations. AIR 1995 Annual Forum Paper.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Expectations and roles of institutional researchers in higher education institutions are considered, as well as the question of what a research office should expect from its institution. A performance monitoring system for the assessment and continuous improvement of institutional research is also proposed. Ways that institutional research can be…

Clagett, Craig A.; Kerr, Helen S.

420

Teachers' Expectations of Teacher-Student Interaction: Complementary and Distinctive Expectancy Patterns  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this study it is investigated what student responses teachers expect in particular teacher behaviour vignettes, and whether experience and gender produce differences in expectations. Teacher behaviour vignettes were presented to teachers (N = 46), who described the student responses they anticipated. Anticipated student responses were then…

de Jong, R. J.; van Tartwijk, J.; Verloop, N.; Veldman, I.; Wubbels, T.

2012-01-01

421

Downside Consumption Risk and Expected Returns  

Microsoft Academic Search

I derive and test empirically the implications of a consumption asset pricing model based on a first-order risk averse utility which allows for distinct aversion to downturns in consumption. The model nests the standard expected-utility-based CCAPM as a special case and is estimated using Fama-French portfolios. In the empirical speci- fication the model is stated in a two factor form

Valery Polkovnichenko

422

What Do Patients Expect from Their Physicians?  

PubMed Central

Background: To identify the most important expectations that patients have from their physicians. Methods: We collected data from 199 hospitalized and 201 ambulatory patients (response rates 88% and 93% respectively). We used random sampling for selection of hospitalized patients and systematic sampling for the ambulatory ones. The questionnaire consisted of 18 different expectation items categorized in 5 domains. The participants scored each item from 1 to 9 using a VAS scale and ranked domains based on their importance. We analyzed the data using univariate and regression analyses. Results: Among the ambulatory patients, the mean±standard error of the most important expectations was as follows: competency (8.9±0.01), courteousness (8.8±0.04), consultation in case of need (8.8±0.4), clear explanation of the disease (8.8±0.05) and attentiveness (8.8±0.04). In hospitalized patients, the following items were the most important: competency (8.4±0.08), courteousness (8.4±0.09), availability of physician (8.4±0.09), consultation in case of need (8.2±0.11), setting following appointments (8.2±0.1), and disease follow-up (8.2±0.09). In both groups, the most important domain of expectations was “competency and quality of care” followed by “availability” in hospitalized and “giving information and patient autonomy” among ambulatory patients. Conclusions: Our findings are similar to what reported in the literature from other countries and cultures. In addition to physician expertise and knowledge, patients value giving information and efficient doctor-patient relationship.

Dormohammadi, T; Asghari, F; Rashidian, A

2010-01-01

423

First Contact: Expectations of Beginning Astronomy Students  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Three hundred seven undergraduate students enrolled in Introductory Astronomy were surveyed at the beginning of class to determine their expectations for course content. The course serves as a survey of astronomy for non-science majors and is a distribution course for general education core requirements. The course has no prerequisites, meets three times each week for 50 minutes, and represents three semester credit hours. The university catalog describes the course with the title "PHYSICS 101 - Mysteries of the Sky" and the official course description is: a survey of the struggle to understand the Universe and our place therein. The structure, growth, methods, and limitations of science will be illustrated using the development of astronomy as a vehicle. Present day views of the Universe are presented. Two questions were asked as open response items: What made you decide to take this course? and What do you expect to learn in this course? The reasons that students cited to take the course, in order of frequency, were: interested in astronomy, interesting or fun sounding course, required general education fulfillment, recommendation by peer. Secondary reasons cited were required for major or minor, general interest in science, and was available in the schedule. Tertiary reasons listed were recommendation by advisor or orientation leader, inflate grade point average, and heard good things about the teacher. The students' expectations about what they would learn in the course were numerous. The most common objects listed, in order of frequency, were: stars, constellations, planets, galaxies, black holes, solar system, comets, galaxies, asteroids, moon, and Sun. More interesting were the aspects not specifically related to astronomy. These were weather, atmosphere, UFOs and the unexplained, generally things in the sky. A mid-course survey suggests that students expected to learn more constellations and that the topics would be less in-depth.

Lacey, T. L.; Slater, T. F.

1999-05-01

424

expect: Scripts for Controlling Interactive Processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

: Contemporary shells provide minimal control (starting, stopping,etc) over programs, leaving interaction up to users. This means that you cannot runsome programs non-interactively, such as passwd. Some programs can be run noninteractivelybut only with a loss of flexibility, such as fsck. This is where the toolbuildingphilosophy of UNIX begins to break down. expect crosses this line, solvinga number of long-standing

Don Libes

1991-01-01

425

Implicit Temporal Expectation Attenuates Auditory Attentional Blink  

Microsoft Academic Search

Attentional blink (AB) describes a phenomenon whereby correct identification of a first target impairs the processing of a second target (i.e., probe) nearby in time. Evidence suggests that explicit attention orienting in the time domain can attenuate the AB. Here, we used scalp-recorded, event-related potentials to examine whether auditory AB is also sensitive to implicit temporal attention orienting. Expectations were

Dawei Shen; Claude Alain

2012-01-01

426

COSMOLOGICAL CONSTRAINTS FROM GRAVITATIONAL LENS TIME DELAYS  

SciTech Connect

Future large ensembles of time delay (TD) lenses have the potential to provide interesting cosmological constraints complementary to those of other methods. In a flat universe with constant w including a Planck prior, The Large Synoptic Survey Telescope TD measurements for approx4000 lenses should constrain the local Hubble constant h to approx0.007 (approx1%), OMEGA{sub de} to approx0.005, and w to approx0.026 (all 1sigma precisions). Similar constraints could be obtained by a dedicated gravitational lens observatory (OMEGA) which would obtain precise TD and mass model measurements for approx100 well-studied lenses. We compare these constraints (as well as those for a more general cosmology) to the 'optimistic Stage IV' constraints expected from weak lensing, supernovae, baryon acoustic oscillations, and cluster counts, as calculated by the Dark Energy Task Force. TDs yield a modest constraint on a time-varying w(z), with the best constraint on w(z) at the 'pivot redshift' of z approx 0.31. Our Fisher matrix calculation is provided to allow TD constraints to be easily compared to and combined with constraints from other experiments. We also show how cosmological constraining power varies as a function of numbers of lenses, lens model uncertainty, TD precision, redshift precision, and the ratio of four-image to two-image lenses.

Coe, Dan; Moustakas, Leonidas A. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Dr., MS 169-327, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States)

2009-11-20

427

Delaying Orthostatic Syncope With Mental Challenge  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

At orthostatic vasovagal syncope there appears to be a sudden withdrawl of sympathetic activity. As mental challenge activates the sympathetic system, we hypothesized that doing mental arithmetic in volunteers driven to the end point of their cardiovascular stability may delay the onset of orthostatic syncope. We investigated this in healthy male subjects. Each subject underwent a head up tilt (HUT) + graded lower body negative pressure (LBNP) up to presyncope session (control) to determine the orthostatic tolerance time, OTT (Time from HUT commencement to development of presyncopal symptoms/signs). Once the tolerance time was known, a randomized crossover protocol was used: either 1) Repeat HUT + LBNP to ensure reproducibility of repeated run or 2) HUT + LBNP run but with added mental challenge (two min before the expected presyncope time). Test protocols were separated by two weeks. Our studies on five male test subjects indicate that mental challenge improves orthostatic tolerance significantly. Additional mental loading could be a useful countermeasure to alleviate the orthostatic responses of persons, particularly in those with histories of dizziness on standing up, or to alleviate hypotension that frequently occurs during hemodialysis or on return to earth from the spaceflight environment of microgravity.

Goswami, Nandu; Roessler, Andreas; Hinghofer-Szalkay, Helmut; Montani, Jean-Pierre; Steptoe, Andrew

2012-07-01

428

Learning what to expect (in visual perception)  

PubMed Central

Expectations are known to greatly affect our experience of the world. A growing theory in computational neuroscience is that perception can be successfully described using Bayesian inference models and that the brain is “Bayes-optimal” under some constraints. In this context, expectations are particularly interesting, because they can be viewed as prior beliefs in the statistical inference process. A number of questions remain unsolved, however, for example: How fast do priors change over time? Are there limits in the complexity of the priors that can be learned? How do an individual’s priors compare to the true scene statistics? Can we unlearn priors that are thought to correspond to natural scene statistics? Where and what are the neural substrate of priors? Focusing on the perception of visual motion, we here review recent studies from our laboratories and others addressing these issues. We discuss how these data on motion perception fit within the broader literature on perceptual Bayesian priors, perceptual expectations, and statistical and perceptual learning and review the possible neural basis of priors.

Series, Peggy; Seitz, Aaron R.

2013-01-01

429

The climate is not what you expect  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Prevailing definitions of climate are not much different from "the climate is what you expect, the weather is what you get". Using a variety of sources including reanalyses and paleo data, and aided by notions and analysis techniques from Nonlinear Geophysics, we argue that this dictum is fundamentally wrong. In addition to the weather and climate, there is a qualitatively distinct intermediate regime extending over a factor of ? 1000 in scale. For example, mean temperature fluctuations increase up to about 5 K at 10 days (the lifetime of planetary structures), then decrease to about 0.2 K at 30 years, and then increase again to about 5 K at glacial-interglacial scales. Both deterministic GCM's with fixed forcings ("control runs") and stochastic turbulence-based models reproduce the first two regimes, but not the third. The middle regime is thus a kind of "macroweather" not "high frequency climate". Averaging macroweather over periods increasing to ? 30 yrs yields apparently converging values: macroweather is "what you expect". Macroweather averages over ?30 years have the lowest variability, they yield well defined "climate states" and justify the otherwise ad hoc "climate normal" period. However, moving to longer periods, these states increasingly fluctuate: just as with the weather, the climate changes in an apparently unstable manner; the climate is not what you expect. Similarly, we may categorize climate forcings according to whether their fluctuations decrease or increase with scale and this has important implications for GCM's and for climate change and climate predictions.

Lovejoy, Shaun; Schertzer, Daniel

2013-04-01

430

Compound Channels, Transition Expectations, and Liftings  

SciTech Connect

In Section 1 we introduce the notion of lifting as a generalization of the notion of compound state introduced in [21] and [22] and we show that this notion allows a unified approach to the problems of quantum measurement and of signal transmission through quantum channels. The dual of a linear lifting is a transition expectation in the sense of [3] and we characterize those transition expectations which arise from compound states in the sense of [22]. In Section 2 we characterize those liftings whose range is contained in the closed convex hull of product states and we prove that the corresponding quantum Markov chains [2] are uniquely determined by a classical generalization of both the quantum random walks of [4] and the locally diagonalizable states considered in [3]. In Section 4, as a first application of the above results, we prove that the attenuation (beam splitting) process for optical communication treated in [21] can be described in a simpler and more general way in terms of liftings and of transition expectations. The error probabilty of information transmission in the attenuation process is rederived from our new description. We also obtain some new results concerning the explicit computation of error probabilities in the squeezing case.

Accardi, L. [Dipartimento di Matematica, Centro Matematico V. Volterra, Universita di Roma II, Rome (Italy); Ohya, M. [Department of Information Sciences, Science University of Tokyo, Noda City, Chiba 278 (Japan)

1999-01-15

431

Couvade Syndrome among Polish expectant fathers  

PubMed Central

Background The aim of the conducted study was to analyze the phenomenon of Couvade Syndrome amongst fathers expecting their children in Poland. The authors examined the frequency of couvade symptoms in male subjects as well as their associations with male empathy. Material/Methods The research involved 143 expectant fathers. All subjects attended antenatal classes, and their female partners were in their third trimester. Before the start of classes, participants were asked to fill in the following questionnaires: a survey for measurement of Couvade Syndrome (which includes a set of 16 symptoms identified by Lipkin and Lamb (19) and translated into Polish), and the Empathic Sensitiveness Scale (SWE). Although participants, on average, did not experience Couvade Syndrome, they did experience symptoms that are commonly linked with the syndrome, namely those related to weight (weight gain, changes in appetite and flatulence). Results The results indicate that expectant fathers experience couvade symptoms related to weight (weight gain, changes in appetite and flatulence). The only empathic component that positively correlates with Couvade Syndrome is personal distress, i.e. the tendency to take on the negative emotions of others. Demographic characteristics are not associated with Couvade Syndrome. Conclusions The frequency of couvade symptoms in male subjects is associated with male empathy. In other words, men who are emotionally sensitive or prone to distress may physiologically experience the pregnancy of their female partners, which can be interpreted as compathy.

Kazmierczak, Maria; Kielbratowska, Bogumila; Pastwa-Wojciechowska, Beata; Preis, Krzysztof

2013-01-01

432

Setting clear expectations for safety basis development  

SciTech Connect

DOE-RL has set clear expectations for a cost-effective approach for achieving compliance with the Nuclear Safety Management requirements (10 CFR 830, Nuclear Safety Rule) which will ensure long-term benefit to Hanford. To facilitate implementation of these expectations, tools were developed to streamline and standardize safety analysis and safety document development resulting in a shorter and more predictable DOE approval cycle. A Hanford Safety Analysis and Risk Assessment Handbook (SARAH) was issued to standardized methodologies for development of safety analyses. A Microsoft Excel spreadsheet (RADIDOSE) was issued for the evaluation of radiological consequences for accident scenarios often postulated for Hanford. A standard Site Documented Safety Analysis (DSA) detailing the safety management programs was issued for use as a means of compliance with a majority of 3009 Standard chapters. An in-process review was developed between DOE and the Contractor to facilitate DOE approval and provide early course correction. As a result of setting expectations and providing safety analysis tools, the four Hanford Site waste management nuclear facilities were able to integrate into one Master Waste Management Documented Safety Analysis (WM-DSA).

MORENO, M.R.

2003-05-03

433

Stress-induced oviposition delays in laying hens: duration and consequences for eggshell quality.  

PubMed

1. This study investigated relationships between the timing of stress, duration of oviposition delays and consequences for eggshell quality, in 2 experiments with ISA Brown hens. 2. Periods of up to 6 h of environmental stress (relocation from an individual cage to a larger one containing 3 unfamiliar hens), commencing up to 4.5 h before predicted oviposition time, reliably induced oviposition delays. Many hens still retained their egg when stress ended. 3. Ovipositions that occurred during stress were never delayed for more than 3.0 h beyond the expected time. Ovipositions that occurred after the period of stress ended usually did so after <1 h if the delay at the end of stress was less than about 2.4 h. Delays that ended either during stress or <2 h after stress ended were classified as short-term. 4. If an oviposition delay was more than about 2.4 h when stress ended, the egg concerned was usually laid much later, after a delay of 7 to 15 h. Delays that ended >5 h after stress ended were classified as long-term. 5. Eggs delayed long-term were white-banded and the subsequent egg was slab-sided, or occasionally soft-shelled. Short-term delays often caused eggshell dusting with varying amounts of superficial calcification. Hence, duration of oviposition delay affects both the number of abnormal eggshells and the degree of abnormality. 6. The present findings are of potential importance to both the egg industry and breeders, because abnormal eggshells cause downgrading and can impair embryonic development. Also, numbers of abnormal eggshells and degree of abnormality can be used as indicators of environmental stress. PMID:10670668

Reynard, M; Savory, C J

1999-12-01

434

Time-delay feedback control in a delayed dynamical chaos system and its applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

The feedback control of a delayed dynamical system, which also includes various chaotic systems with time delays, is investigated. On the basis of stability analysis of a nonautonomous system with delays, some simple yet less conservative criteria are obtained for feedback control in a delayed dynamical system. Finally, the theoretical result is applied to a typical class of chaotic Lorenz

Zhi-Yong Ye; Guang Yang; Cun-Bing Deng

2011-01-01

435

ADHD and Delay Aversion: The Influence of Non-Temporal Stimulation on Choice for Delayed Rewards  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Delay aversion, the motivation to escape or avoid delay, results in preference for small immediate over large delayed rewards. Delay aversion has been proposed as one distinctive psychological process that may underlie the behavioural symptoms and cognitive deficits of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Furthermore, the…

Antrop, Inge; Stock, Pieter; Verte, Sylvie; Wiersema, Jan Roelt; Baeyens, Dieter; Roeyers, Herbert

2006-01-01

436

Generic bounds on dipolar gravitational radiation from inspiralling compact binaries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Various alternative theories of gravity predict dipolar gravitational radiation in addition to quadrupolar radiation. We show that gravitational wave (GW) observations of inspiralling compact binaries can put interesting constraints on the strengths of the dipole modes of GW polarizations. We put forward a physically motivated gravitational waveform for dipole modes, in the Fourier domain, in terms of two parameters: one which captures the relative amplitude of the dipole mode with respect to the quadrupole mode (?) and the other a dipole term in the phase (?). We then use this two-parameter representation to discuss typical bounds on their values using GW measurements. We obtain the expected bounds on the amplitude parameter ? and the phase parameter ? for advanced LIGO (AdvLIGO) and Einstein telescope (ET) noise power spectral densities using Fisher information matrix. AdvLIGO and ET may at best bound ? to an accuracy of ˜10-2 and ˜10-3 and ? to an accuracy of ˜10-5 and ˜10-6.

Arun, K. G.

2012-04-01

437

Polystyrene nanofiber materials modified with an externally bound porphyrin photosensitizer.  

PubMed

Polystyrene ion-exchange nanofiber materials with large surface areas and adsorption capacities were prepared by electrospinning followed by the sulfonation and adsorption of a cationic 5,10,15,20-tetrakis(1-methylpyridinium-4-yl)porphyrin (TMPyP) photosensitizer on the nanofiber surfaces. The morphology, structure, and photophysical properties of these nanofiber materials were characterized by microscopic methods and steady-state and time-resolved fluorescence and absorption spectroscopies. The externally bound TMPyP can be excited by visible light to form triplet states and singlet oxygen O2((1)?g) and singlet oxygen-sensitized delayed fluorescence (SODF). The photophysical properties of the nanofibers were strongly dependent on the amount of bound TMPyP molecules and their organization on the nanofiber surfaces. The nanofibers demonstrated photooxidative activity toward inorganic and organic molecules and antibacterial activity against E. coli due to the sensitized formation of O2((1)?g) that is an effective oxidation/cytotoxic agent. The nanofiber materials also adsorbed heavy metal cations (Pb(2+)) and removed them from the water environment. PMID:23566280

Henke, Petr; Lang, Kamil; Kubát, Pavel; Sýkora, Jan; Slouf, Miroslav; Mosinger, Ji?í

2013-05-01

438

An Omega(D log (N\\/D)) Lower Bound for Broadcast in Radio Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

. We show that for any randomized broadcast protocol for radio networks, there exists a network in which the expected time to broadcast a message is ## D log(N\\/D)), where D is the diameter of the network and N is the number of nodes. This implies a tight lower bound of ## D log N) for any D # N

Eyal Kushilevitz; Yishay Mansour

1998-01-01

439

On Multiple UAV Routing with Stochastic Targets: Performance Bounds and Algorithms  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we consider the following problem. A number of Uninhabited Aerial Vehicles (UAVs), modeled as vehicles moving at constant speed along paths of bounded curvature, must visit stochastically-generated targets in a convex, compact region of the plane. Targets are generated according to a spatio-temporal Poisson process, uniformly in the region. It is desired to minimize the expected waiting

J. J. Enright; E. Frazzoli

2005-01-01

440

The least-squares method for bound states: a re-examination  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The performance of the least-squares method is compared with that of the usual (Rayleigh-Ritz) variation method (UVM) in a specific bound-state calculation. Their relative merits and demerits are carefully analysed with respect to the approximate calculation of expectation values of particular types of observables.

Bhattacharyya, Kamal; Bhattacharyya, Sankar Prasad

1986-12-01

441

Simultaneous propagation of both bound and leaky dominant modes on conductor-backed coplanar strips  

Microsoft Academic Search

Contrary to expectations, the authors recently found that a new leaky, dominant mode may be present on conductor-backed coplanar strips at the same time as the conventional bound dominant mode. The frequency range over which both of these modes can propagate simultaneously increases as the strips become wider, and can be quite large even for fairly narrow strips. These new

M. Tsuji; H. Shigesawa; A. A. Oliner

1993-01-01

442

[Diagnostic delay in patients with pulmonary tuberculosis].  

PubMed

Delay in pulmonary tuberculosis diagnosis prolongs the period of time in which a patient is infectious, promoting tuberculosis transmission. We quantified diagnostic delay and examined delay associated factors in a regional wide case-control study set in Emilia-Romagna. A total 55 days median delay, with no significant difference between native and foreign-born patients, was observed in this study. Longer delay was observed when a general practitioner was consulted as first provider and when clinical picture was not fully manifest. This study points out the need of improving physicians' awareness of tuberculosis disease especially when they care for elderly people and foreign-born patients. PMID:12677785

Moro, Maria Luisa; Resi, Davide; Mezzetti, Francesca; Borrini, Bianca Maria

2003-04-01

443

Eckhaus instability in systems with large delay.  

PubMed

The dynamical behavior of various physical and biological systems under the influence of delayed feedback or coupling can be modeled by including terms with delayed arguments in the equations of motion. In particular, the case of long delay may lead to complicated and high-dimensional dynamics. We investigate the effects of delay in systems that display an oscillatory instability (Hopf bifurcation) in the absence of delay. We show by analytical and numerical methods that the dynamical scenario includes the coexistence of multiple stable periodic solutions and can be described in terms of the Eckhaus instability, which is well known in the context of spatially extended systems. PMID:16803289

Wolfrum, Matthias; Yanchuk, Serhiy

2006-06-01

444

Neural precursors of delayed insight.  

PubMed

The solution of a problem left unresolved in the evening can sometimes pop into mind as a sudden insight after a night of sleep in the following morning. Although favorable effects of sleep on insightful behavior have been experimentally confirmed, the neural mechanisms determining this delayed insight remain unknown. Here, using fMRI, we characterize the neural precursors of delayed insight in the number reduction task (NRT), in which a hidden task structure can be learned implicitly, but can also be recognized explicitly in an insightful process, allowing immediate qualitative improvement in task performance. Normal volunteers practiced the NRT during two fMRI sessions (training and retest), taking place 12 hours apart after a night of sleep. After this delay, half of the subjects gained insight into the hidden task structure ("solvers," S), whereas the other half did not ("nonsolvers," NS). Already at training, solvers and nonsolvers differed in their cerebral responses associated with implicit learning. In future solvers, responses were observed in the superior frontal sulcus, posterior parietal cortex, and the insula, three areas mediating controlled processes and supporting early learning and novice performance. In contrast, implicit learning was related to significant responses in the hippocampus in nonsolvers. Moreover, the hippocampus was functionally coupled with the basal ganglia in nonsolvers and with the superior frontal sulcus in solvers, thus potentially biasing participants' strategy towards implicit or controlled processes of memory encoding, respectively. Furthermore, in solvers but not in nonsolvers, response patterns were further transformed overnight, with enhanced responses in ventral medial prefrontal cortex, an area previously implicated in the consolidation of declarative memory. During retest in solvers, before they gain insight into the hidden rule, significant responses were observed in the same medial prefrontal area. After insight, a distributed set of parietal and frontal areas is recruited among which information concerning the hidden rule can be shared in a so-called global workspace. PMID:20666600

Darsaud, Annabelle; Wagner, Ullrich; Balteau, Evelyne; Desseilles, Martin; Sterpenich, Virginie; Vandewalle, Gilles; Albouy, Geneviève; Dang-Vu, Thanh; Collette, Fabienne; Boly, Melanie; Schabus, Manuel; Degueldre, Christian; Luxen, Andre; Maquet, Pierre

2011-08-01

445

Delayed tracheal rupture following thyroidectomy.  

PubMed

Thyroidectomy is a commonly performed, low-risk procedure. Tracheal perforation during thyroidectomy is rare, and delayed rupture of the trachea rarer still. We present the case of a patient who underwent total thyroidectomy secondary to Grave's disease who, on postoperative day 7, developed massive subcutaneous emphysema and respiratory distress. Surgical exploration revealed a rupture of the anterolateral tracheal wall at the level of the first tracheal ring. The defect was repaired primarily and the patient recovered uneventfully. The risk factors for and the management of this rare complication are discussed. PMID:18487029

Damrose, Edward J; Damrose, John F

2009-02-01

446

Photothermally induced delayed tissue death.  

PubMed

We report pronounced delayed tissue death in photothermal surgery performed on the livers of live healthy rats with highly concentrated sunlight (ultrabright noncoherent light). Exposure times and power levels were selected to produce immediate necroses of the order of hundreds of cubic millimeters. Pathology reveals that lesion volumes increase by up to a factor of 5 within approximately 24 h after surgery, and then stabilize. Islands of viable cells can persist within damaged tissue, in the immediate vicinity of blood vessels, but also necrose within about 48 h. PMID:16822049

Gordon, Jeffrey M; Shaco-Levy, Ruthy; Feuermann, Daniel; Huleihil, Mahmoud; Mizrahi, Solly

2006-01-01

447

Delay test generation for synchronous sequential circuits  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We address the problem of generating tests for delay faults in non-scan synchronous sequential circuits. Delay test generation for sequential circuits is a considerably more difficult problem than delay testing of combinational circuits and has received much less attention. In this paper, we present a method for generating test sequences to detect delay faults in sequential circuits using the stuck-at fault sequential test generator STALLION. The method is complete in that it will generate a delay test sequence for a targeted fault given sufficient CPU time, if such a sequence exists. We term faults for which no delay test sequence exists, under out test methodology, sequentially delay redundant. We describe means of eliminating sequential delay redundancies in logic circuits. We present a partial-scan methodology for enhancing the testability of difficult-to-test of untestable sequential circuits, wherein a small number of flip-flops are selected and made controllable/observable. The selection process guarantees the elimination of all sequential delay redundancies. We show that an intimate relationship exists between state assignment and delay testability of a sequential machine. We describe a state assignment algorithm for the synthesis of sequential machines with maximal delay fault testability. Preliminary experimental results using the test generation, partial-scan and synthesis algorithm are presented.

Devadas, Srinivas

1989-05-01

448

Synthesis of tobermorite: A cement phase expected under repository conditions  

SciTech Connect

In this study I have synthesized tobermorite, Ca{sub 5}Si{sub 6}O{sub l6}(OH){sub 2.}4H{sub 2}0, a principal crystalline phase expected to form in cementitious materials subjected to elevated temperatures in a potential nuclear waste repository. Fluids interacting with these materials may have a profound effect on the integrity of the waste package and on transport of radionuclides. At ambient temperature, Portland cement reacts with water to form an amorphous calcium-silicate-hydrate (C-S-H) gel. At elevated temperatures, crystalline phases of various hydration states form. The C-S-H system has not been well characterized at elevated temperatures up to 250{degrees}C, which has been considered a bounding temperature for the potential Yucca Mountain repository. Physical, chemical, and thermodynamic data for these cement minerals that are predicted to be stable at these temperatures must be obtained from synthetic or natural samples to help predict fluid chemistry. For some of these minerals natural samples are difficult to obtain in sufficient quantity and purity. Therefore, monomineralic phases must be synthesized in order to unambiguously define their behavior. The synthetic or natural phases will be characterized as part of a comprehensive study to define the behavior of cementitious materials in a repository environment.

Martin, S.I.

1994-11-01

449

Positions of zeros in the bound-bound multipole matrix elements of the point Coulomb field  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Minima in cross sections (Cooper minima) are known to occur for all types of transitions in atoms. These minima are caused by zeros in the transition matrix elements which are the result of a zero value for the radial integral of a particular energy. These minima can occur in both the bound-bound and bound-free transition matrix elements. In this paper the approximate position (energy) of the zeros in the bound-bound quadrupole and octupole matrix elements of the point Coulomb field are presented. The positions are found to change in the same manner as those found in the continuum, even to the extent that a zero first occurring in a bound-bound matrix element will move into the corresponding bound-free matrix element.

Bronson, P. Fazio

1987-06-01

450

New bounds for parallel prefix circuits  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, new upper and lower bounds are obtained for the number of gates in parallel prefix circuits with minimum depth when the number of inputs is a power of two. In addition, structural information concerning these circuits is described. Parallel prefix circuits with bounds imposed on the fan-out of the gates are also considered. In both cases, the

Faith E. Fich

1983-01-01

451

Optimal bounds for the predecessor problem  

Microsoft Academic Search

We obtain matching upper and lower bounds for the amount of time to find the predecessor of a given element among the elements of a fixed efficiently stored set. Our algorithms are for the unit-cost word-level RAM with multiplication and ex- tend to give optimal dynamic algorithms. The lower bounds are proved in a much stronger communication game model, but

Paul Beame; Faith E. Ficht

1999-01-01

452

Perturbation theory for continuum bound polaron state  

Microsoft Academic Search

Perturbation of a continuum state of a Coulomb bound polaron is considered for the first time and it is shown that the Fröhlich limit is obtainable only from this state and not from the ground state of the bound polaron as is commonly believed.

Sukla Mukhopadhyay; T. K. Mitra

1983-01-01

453

Outward Bound: An Innovative Patient Education Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A 1975 Dartmouth Outward Bound Mental Health Project, begun with a pilot project for disturbed adolescents, has evolved into an ongoing treatment option in three separate clinical settings for psychiatric patients and recovering alcoholics. Outward Bound consists of a series of prescribed physical and social tasks where the presence of stress,…

Stich, Thomas F.; Gaylor, Michael S.

454

Prediction bounds for the burr model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Given a type 2 censored sample from the Burr life time distribution, Bayesian prediction bounds are derived for future observations. An approximate Bayesian method has been used to simplify the computation of the prediction bounds. Numerical examples are used to illustrate the procedures.

A. M. Nigm

1988-01-01

455

Linear Encodings of Bounded LTL Model Checking  

Microsoft Academic Search

We consider the problem of bounded model checking (BMC) for linear tempo- ral logic (LTL). We present several efficient encodings that have size linear in the bound. Furthermore, we show how the encodings can be extended to LTL with past operators (PLTL). The generalised encoding is still of linear size, but cannot detect minimal length counterexamples. By using the virtual

Armin Biere; Keijo Heljanko; Tommi A. Junttila; Timo Latvala; Kousha Etessami

2006-01-01

456

Dynamical Calculation of Extinct Bound States.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Aspects of the possible dynamical extinction of a bound state (coincident zero in N and D) are discussed within the single and multichannel 1/ND framework. A surprising result is that, within any one-channel calculation, the 'mass' of the extinct bound st...

D. Atkinson M. B. Halpern

1966-01-01

457

Stability bounds of singularity perturbed systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

A necessary and sufficient condition is developed for computing the upper bound ?0 of the parasitic parameter ? in a singularly perturbed system, which ensures stability of such a system if 0bound obtained by the proposed method is much higher than what can be attained by the methods available in the literature

S. Sen; K. B. Datta

1993-01-01

458

Binary search trees of bounded balance  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new class of binary search trees, called trees of bounded balance, is introduced. These trees are easy to maintain in their form despite insertions and deletions of nodes, and the search time is only moderately longer than in completely balanced trees. Trees of bounded balance differ from other classes of binary search trees in that they contain a parameter

Jürg Nievergelt; Edward M. Reingold

1972-01-01

459

Preferences Lower Bound in the Queueing Model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We show the existence of a first best incentive compatible mechanism for the queueing model that satisfies identical preferences lower bound. We call this mechanism the FB' mechanism. We also show that for the queueing model, either with three agents or with four agents, the FB' mechanism is the only first best incentive compatible mechanism that satisfies identical preferences lower bound.

Mitra, Manipushpak

460

Some lower bounds on signal parameter estimation  

Microsoft Academic Search

New bounds are presented for the maximum accuracy with which parameters of signals imbedded in white noise can be estimated. The bounds are derived by comparing the estimation problem with related optimal detection problems. They are, with few exceptions, independent of the bias and include explicitly the dependence on the a priori interval. The new results are compared with previously

JACOB ZIV; M. Zakai

1969-01-01

461

ABCD: eliminating array bounds checks on demand  

Microsoft Academic Search

To guarantee typesafe execution, Java and other strongly typed lan- guages require bounds checking of array accesses. Because array- bounds checks may raise exceptions, they block code motion of instructions with side effects, thus preventing many usefu l code optimizations, such as partial redundancy elimination or i nstruc- tion scheduling of memory operations. Furthermore, because it is not expressible at

Rastislav Bodík; Rajiv Gupta; Vivek Sarkar

2000-01-01

462

Explicit finite difference methods for the delay pseudoparabolic equations.  

PubMed

Finite difference technique is applied to numerical solution of the initial-boundary value problem for the semilinear delay Sobolev or pseudoparabolic equation. By the method of integral identities two-level difference scheme is constructed. For the time integration the implicit rule is being used. Based on the method of energy estimates the fully discrete scheme is shown to be absolutely stable and convergent of order two in space and of order one in time. The error estimates are obtained in the discrete norm. Some numerical results confirming the expected behavior of the method are shown. PMID:24688392

Amirali, I; Amiraliyev, G M; Cakir, M; Cimen, E

2014-01-01

463

New bounds on isotropic Lorentz violation  

SciTech Connect

Violations of Lorentz invariance that appear via operators of dimension four or less are completely parameterized in the Standard Model Extension (SME). In the pure photonic sector of the SME, there are nineteen dimensionless, Lorentz-violating parameters. Eighteen of these have experimental upper bounds ranging between 10{sup -11} and 10{sup -32}; the remaining parameter, ktr, is isotropic and has a much weaker bound of order 10{sup -4}. In this Brief Report, we point out that ktr gives a significant contribution to the anomalous magnetic moment of the electron and find a new upper bound of order 10{sup -8}. With reasonable assumptions, we further show that this bound may be improved to 10{sup -14} by considering the renormalization of other Lorentz-violating parameters that are more tightly constrained. Using similar renormalization arguments, we also estimate bounds on Lorentz violating parameters in the pure gluonic sector of QCD.

Chris Carone; Marc Sher; Marc Vanderhaeghen

2006-09-19

464

Covariant entropy bound and loop quantum cosmology  

SciTech Connect

We examine Bousso's covariant entropy bound conjecture in the context of radiation filled, spatially flat, Friedmann-Robertson-Walker models. The bound is violated near the big bang. However, the hope has been that quantum gravity effects would intervene and protect it. Loop quantum cosmology provides a near ideal setting for investigating this issue. For, on the one hand, quantum geometry effects resolve the singularity and, on the other hand, the wave function is sharply peaked at a quantum corrected but smooth geometry, which can supply the structure needed to test the bound. We find that the bound is respected. We suggest that the bound need not be an essential ingredient for a quantum gravity theory but may emerge from it under suitable circumstances.

Ashtekar, Abhay; Wilson-Ewing, Edward [Institute for Gravitation and the Cosmos and Physics Department, Penn State, University Park, Pennsylvania 16802 (United States)

2008-09-15

465

Mutually unbiased bases and bound entanglement  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this contribution we relate two different key concepts: mutually unbiased bases (MUBs) and entanglement. We provide a general toolbox for analyzing and comparing entanglement of quantum states for different dimensions and numbers of particles. In particular we focus on bound entanglement, i.e. highly mixed states which cannot be distilled by local operations and classical communications. For a certain class of states—for which the state-space forms a ‘magic’ simplex—we analyze the set of bound entangled states detected by the MUB criterion for different dimensions d and number of particles n. We find that the geometry is similar for different d and n, consequently the MUB criterion opens possibilities to investigate the typicality of positivity under partial transposition (PPT)-bound and multipartite bound entanglement more deeply and provides a simple experimentally feasible tool to detect bound entanglement.

Hiesmayr, Beatrix C.; Löffler, Wolfgang

2014-04-01

466

Effects of Temporal Context and Temporal Expectancy on Neural Activity in Inferior Temporal Cortex  

PubMed Central

Timing is critical. The same event can mean different things at different times and some events are more likely to occur at one time than another. We used a cued visual classification task to evaluate how changes in temporal context affect neural responses in inferior temporal cortex, an extrastriate visual area known to be involved in object processing. On each trial a first image cued a temporal delay before a second target image appeared. The animal’s task was to classify the second image by pressing one of two buttons previously associated with that target. All images were used as both cues and targets. Whether an image cued a delay time or signaled a button press depended entirely upon whether it was the first or second picture in a trial. This paradigm allowed us to compare inferior temporal cortex neural activity to the same image subdivided by temporal context and expectation. Neuronal spiking was more robust and visually evoked local field potentials (LFP’s) larger for target presentations than for cue presentations. On invalidly cued trials, when targets appeared unexpectedly early, the magnitude of the evoked LFP was reduced and delayed and neuronal spiking was attenuated. Spike field coherence increased in the beta-gamma frequency range for expected targets. In conclusion, different neural responses in higher order ventral visual cortex may occur for the same visual image based on manipulations of temporal attention.

Anderson, Britt; Sheinberg, David L.

2008-01-01

467

Large-scale structure effects on the gravitational lens image positions and time delay  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We compute the fluctuations in gravitational lens image positions and time delay caused by large-scale structure correlations. We show that these fluctuations can be expressed as a simple integral over the density power spectrum. Using the Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) normalization we find that positions of objects at cosmological distances are expected to deviate from their true positions by few arcminutes. These deflections are not directly observable. The positions of the images relative to one another fluctuate by a few percent of the relative separation, implying that one does not expect multiple images to be produced by large-scale structure. Nevertheless, the fluctuations are larger than the observational errors on the positions and affect reconstructions of the lens potential. The time delay fluctuations have a geometrical and a gravitational contribution. Both are much larger than the expected time delay from the primary lens, but partially cancel each other. We find that large-scale structure weakly affects the time delay and time delay measurements can be used as a probe of the distance scale in the universe.

Seljak, Uros

1994-01-01

468

Laser-Induced Bound and Metastable States in Bound-Continuum Systems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A monochromatic laser is shown to be capable of inducing a bound state and multiple metastable states not originally present in the field free spectrum of a bound continuum system. For the bound state to exist, the field intensity must be larger than a ce...

K. S. Lam T. F. George

1986-01-01

469

The climate is not what you expect  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Prevailing definitions of climate are not much different from "the climate is what you expect, the weather is what you get". Using a variety of sources including reanalyses and paleo data, and aided by notions and analysis techniques from Nonlinear Geophysics, we argue that this dictum is fundamentally wrong. In addition to the weather and climate, there is a qualitatively distinct intermediate regime extending over a factor of ? 1000 in scale. For example, mean temperature fluctuations increase up to about 5 K at 10 days (the lifetime of planetary structures), then decrease to about 0.2 K at 30 years, and then increase again to about 5 K at glacial-interglacial scales. Both deterministic GCM's with fixed forcings ("control runs") and stochastic turbulence-based models reproduce the first two regimes, but not the third. The middle regime is thus a kind of low frequency "macroweather" not "high frequency climate". Regimes whose fluctuations increase with scale appear unstable whereas regimes where they decrease appear stable. If we average macroweather states over periods ? 30 years, the results thus have low variability. In this sense, macroweather is what you expect. We can use the critical duration of ? 30 years to define (fluctuating) "climate states". As we move to even lower frequencies, these states increasingly fluctuate - appearing unstable so that the climate is not what you expect. The same methodology allows us to categorize climate forcings according to whether their fluctuations decrease or increase with scale and this has important implications for GCM's and for climate change and climate predictions.

Varon, D.; Lovejoy, S.; Schertzer, D. J.

2012-12-01

470

Cross delay line sensor characterization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There exists a wealth of information in the scientific literature on the physical properties and device characterization procedures for complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS), charge coupled device (CCD) and avalanche photodiode (APD) format detectors. Numerous papers and books have also treated photocathode operation in the context of photomultiplier tube (PMT) operation for either non imaging applications or limited night vision capability. However, much less information has been reported in the literature about the characterization procedures and properties of photocathode detectors with novel cross delay line (XDL) anode structures. These allow one to detect single photons and create images by recording space and time coordinate (X, Y & T) information. In this paper, we report on the physical characteristics and performance of a cross delay line anode sensor with an enhanced near infrared wavelength response photocathode and high dynamic range micro channel plate (MCP) gain (> 106 ) multiplier stage. Measurement procedures and results including the device dark event rate (DER), pulse height distribution, quantum and electronic device efficiency (QE & DQE) and spatial resolution per effective pixel region in a 25 mm sensor array are presented. The overall knowledge and information obtained from XDL sensor characterization allow us to optimize device performance and assess capability. These device performance properties and capabilities make XDL detectors ideal for remote sensing field applications that require single photon detection, imaging, sub nano-second timing response, high spatial resolution (10's of microns) and large effective image format.

Owens, Israel J.; Remelius, Dennis K.; Tiee, Joe J.; Buck, Steven E.; Whittemore, Stephen R.; Thompson, David C.; Shirey, Robert

2010-04-01

471

Delayed coker fractionator advanced control  

SciTech Connect

In a delayed coking process, as coke drum switches are made, rapid changes occur in both the fractionator feed rate and composition. With conventional control, it is not unusual to see long transient behavior of large swings in both quality and flowrates of coker gas oils. This can extract a heavy economic toll, not only in coker operation, but in the operation of downstream units as the upset is propagated. An advanced process control application (APC) was recently implemented on the coker fractionator at the Yacimentos Petroliferos Fiscales (YPF), Lujan de Cuyo Refinery, in Mendoza, Argentina. This coker fractionator control design was unique as it handled two different operating objectives: control of product qualities via tower temperature profile during normal operation and control of gas oil product flow ratio during drum switch. This combination of control objectives in one multivariable predictive control program was achieved by including special logic to decouple the individual tuning requirements. Also, additional logic was included to unambiguously detect and identify drum switch and drum steam out as discrete events within 30 seconds of their actual occurrence. These discrete events were then used as disturbance variables to minimize fractionator transient behavior. As a performance measure, the overhead temperature was controlled within 2 C to 2.5 C of its target, gas oil flows were stabilized during drum switches and steam generation via pump around was maximized. Overall, implementing advanced control for the delayed coker fractionator resulted in substantial benefits from product quality control, product flow control and minimized energy consumption.

Jaisinghani, R.; Minter, B. (ABB SIMCON Inc., Houston, TX (United States)); Tica, A.; Puglesi, A.; Ojeda, R. (Yacimentos Petroliferos Fiscales, Mendoza (Argentina))

1993-08-01

472

Design labs: Students' expectations and reality  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In a study reported in PERC 2004 the authors described how introductory physics labs in which students design their own experiments help them develop scientific abilities. These include the ability to design an experiment to solve a problem, to collect and analyze data and to communicate the details of the experimental procedure. The goal of the present study is to investigate the social aspect of student learning in these labs: whether students' expectations are consistent with the goals of the labs, whether student assessment of their learning in the labs matches the goals, and whether students perceive the labs as helpful in learning useful skills.

Etkina, Eugenia; Murthy, Sahana

2006-02-01

473

Design labs: Students' expectations and reality  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In a study reported in PERC 2004 the authors described how introductory physics labs in which students design their own experiments help them develop scientific abilities. These include the ability to design an experiment to solve a problem, to collect and analyze data and to communicate the details of the experimental procedure. The goal of the present study is to investigate the social aspect of student learning in these labs: whether students' expectations are consistent with the goals of the labs, whether student assessment of their learning in the labs matches the goals, and whether students perceive the labs as helpful in learning useful skills.

Etkina, Eugenia; Murthy, Sahana

2009-07-13

474

Flood frequency; expected and unexpected probabilities  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Flood-frequency curves may be defined either with or without an ' expeced probability ' adustment; and the two curves differ in the way that they attempt to average the time-sampling uncertainties. A curve with no adustment is shown to estimate a median value of both discharge and frequency of occurrence, while an expected probability curve is shown to estimate a mean frequency of flood years. The attributes and constraints of the two types of curves for various uses are discussed. (Woodard-USGS)

Thomas, D. M.

1976-01-01

475

Distributed computing environment monitoring and user expectations  

SciTech Connect

This paper discusses the growing needs for distributed system monitoring and compares it to current practices. It then goes on to identify the components of distributed system monitoring and shows how they are implemented and successfully used at one site today to address the Local Area Network (LAN), network services and applications, the Wide Area Network (WAN), and host monitoring. It shows how this monitoring can be used to develop realistic service level expectations and also identifies the costs. Finally, the paper briefly discusses the future challenges in network monitoring.

Cottrell, R.L.A.; Logg, C.A.

1995-11-01

476

The Overseas Doctors Training Scheme: failing expectations.  

PubMed Central

The Overseas Doctors Training Scheme needs appraisal. Set up 10 years ago to improve the quality of postgraduate training that overseas (non-European) doctors receive in Britain, the scheme has been popular, but it is questionable how far it has achieved its aims. If Britain is to continue to employ large numbers of overseas doctors in training grades, both through the scheme and through independent arrangements, the apparent mismatch between their expectations and the reality of what Britain offers must be tackled. Images p1629-a

Richards, T.

1994-01-01

477

Bound-free Spectra for Diatomic Molecules  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

It is now recognized that prediction of radiative heating of entering space craft requires explicit treatment of the radiation field from the infrared (IR) to the vacuum ultra violet (VUV). While at low temperatures and longer wavelengths, molecular radiation is well described by bound-bound transitions, in the short wavelength, high temperature regime, bound-free transitions can play an important role. In this work we describe first principles calculations we have carried out for bound-bound and bound-free transitions in N2, O2, C2, CO, CN, NO, and N2+. Compared to bound ]bound transitions, bound-free transitions have several particularities that make them different to deal with. These include more complicated line shapes and a dependence of emission intensity on both bound state diatomic and atomic concentrations. These will be discussed in detail below. The general procedure we used was the same for all species. The first step is to generate potential energy curves, transition moments, and coupling matrix elements by carrying out ab initio electronic structure calculations. These calculations are expensive, and thus approximations need to be made in order to make the calculations tractable. The only practical method we have to carry out these calculations is the internally contracted multi-reference configuration interaction (icMRCI) method as implemented in the program suite Molpro. This is a widely used method for these kinds of calculations, and is capable of generating very accurate results. With this method, we must first of choose which electrons to correlate, the one-electron basis to use, and then how to generate the molecular orbitals.

Schwenke, David W.

2012-01-01

478

Locating Bound Structures in the Accelerating Universe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Given the overwhelming evidence of the universe’s accelerating expansion, the question of what structures are gravitationally bound becomes one of utmost interest. Dunner et al. 2006 (D06) and Busha et al. 2003 (B03) set out to answer this question analytically, and they arrived at fairly different answers owing to the differences in their assumptions of velocities at the present epoch. Applying their criteria to different superclusters, it’s possible to make predictions about what structures may be bound. We apply the criteria of D06 and B03 to the Aquarius, Microscopium, Corona Borealis, and Shapley superclusters to make predictions about what structures might be bound and compare with the results of simple N-body simulations to determine which method is a better predictor and to determine the likelihood that parts or all of the superclusters listed above are bound. We find that D06 tend to predict more structure to be bound than B03, and the results of the N-body simulations usually lie somewhere in between the two sets of predictions. Observational evidence, and simulation data suggests that pairs of clusters in Aquarius and Microscopium are gravitationally bound, and that Shapley contains a large complex of clusters that are bound, along with some additional bound pairs. The likelihood that any of the clusters in Corona Borealis are bound to one another is very small, contrary to the claims of Small et al. 1998, who claimed that the entire supercluster is likely gravitationally bound. Busha M. T., Adams F. C., Wechsler R. H., Evrard A. E., 2003, ApJ, 596, 713 Dunner R., Araya P. A., Meza A., Reisenegger A., 2006, MNRAS, 306, 803 Small T. A., Ma C., Sargent W. L. W., Hamilton D., 1998, ApJ, 492, 45

Pearson, David; Batuski, D. J.

2013-01-01

479

RESILIENT OBSERVER-BASED CONTROL OF UNCERTAIN TIME-DELAY SYSTEMS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The problem of designing a resilient observer-based dynamic feedback con- troller for a class of uncertain systems with time-varying delays against controller per- turbations is investigated. The uncertainties are parametric and norm-bounded. The objective is to derive tractable synthesis conditions for the resilient dynamic feedback de- sign. All the developed results are cast in the format of linear matrix inequalities

Magdi S. Mahmoud; Yan Shi; Hazem N. Nounou

2007-01-01

480

Delay jitter control for real-time communication in a packet switching network  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study is made of the feasibility of bounding the delay jitter for real-time channels in a packet-switched store-and-forward wide-area network with general topology, extending the scheme proposed in previous papers. The authors prove the correctness of the solution, and study its effectiveness by means of simulations. The results show that the scheme is capable of providing a significant reduction

Dinesh C. Verma; Hui Zhang; Domenico Ferrari

1991-01-01

481

Robust exponential stability of uncertain delayed neural networks with stochastic perturbation and impulse effects.  

PubMed

This paper focuses on the hybrid effects of parameter uncertainty, stochastic perturbation, and impulses on global stability of delayed neural networks. By using the Ito formula, Lyapunov function, and Halanay inequality, we established several mean-square stability criteria from which we can estimate the feasible bounds of impulses, provided that parameter uncertainty and stochastic perturbations are well-constrained. Moreover, the present method can also be applied to general differential systems with stochastic perturbation and impulses. PMID:24806759

Huang, Tingwen; Li, Chuandong; Duan, Shukai; Starzyk, Janusz A

2012-06-01

482

Robust controller design for uncertain systems with time delays: LMI approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a robust output feedback controller design method for linear systems with norm-bounded time-varying parameter uncertainties and time-varying delays in both states and controls. And sufficient conditions for the existence of the robust output feedback controller of any order are given in terms of three linear matrix inequalities (LMIs). Furthermore, we provide a parameterization of all robust controllers from

Eun Tae Jeung; Do Chang Oh; Jong Hae Kim; Hong Bae Park

1996-01-01

483

Robust stabilization and H INFINITY control for uncertain fuzzy neutral systems with mixed time delays  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper investigates the problems of robust stabilization and robust H? control for uncertain Takagi–Sugeno (T–S) fuzzy neutral systems with both discrete and distributed time delays. The uncertainties are time-varying but norm-bounded. The purpose is to design state feedback fuzzy controllers such that the resulting closed-loop system is robustly stable (for the stabilization problem) and robustly stable with an H?

Yongmin Li; Shengyuan Xu; Baoyong Zhang; Yuming Chu

2008-01-01

484

Measurement of Gravitational Lens Time Delays with LSST (SULI Paper)  

SciTech Connect

The proposed Large Synoptic Survey Telescope will be the first to explore multiple dark energy probes simultaneously, including baryon acoustic oscillations, weak lensing, and strong gravitational lensing. The large data sample, covering the entire visible sky every few nights, will allow an unprecedented survey of deep supernova sources and their lensed images. The latter have not yet been observed. Notably, LSST will measure the time delays between different strong-lensed images of the same supernova. This will provide a unique probe of dark matter, dark energy, and the expansion rate of the Universe. By simulating LSST observations under realistic conditions, we determined the time delay precision of multiple images from a representative strong-lensed Type Ia supernova. The output of the simulation was a set of light curves according to field and filter, which were subsequently analyzed to determine the experimental time delays. We find that a time delay precision of better then 10% can be achieved under suitable conditions. Firstly, a minimum observed peak-magnitude of 22 is required for the lensed image, corresponding to an intrinsic source magnitude of about 24. The number of such supernova sources expected for LSST is under investigation, but it could amount to several thousand. Secondly, a minimum of about 50 visits per field is required, and, moreover, these visits must be evenly distributed over the duration of the event. The visit frequency should be approximately once per week, or better. Thirdly, the sky brightness should be below 21 magnitude arcsec{sup -2} to allow sufficient sensitivity to distance sources. Under the nominal LSST visiting schedule and field conditions, 15% of all fields satisfy these criteria, and allow time delay measurements of better than 10% precision. This performance can be further improved by fitting the predicted supernova light curves to the observations, rather than using the simple weighted mean as in the present study. Of the well-measured fields, 85% involve observations taken with the r filter, which has a wavelength acceptance that is well-matched to supernova spectra. This filter therefore represents the best choice for strong gravitational lens observations with LSST. Our primary conclusion is that the visiting schedule is the single most important parameter to optimize for time delay measurements, and, once a lensed supernova has been detected, that frequent, regular observations should be scheduled to search with the highest sensitivity for multiple, delayed lensed images.

Kirkby, Lowry Anna; /Oxford U. /SLAC

2006-01-04

485

A normalized PID controller in networked control systems with varying time delays.  

PubMed

It requires not only simplicity and flexibility but also high specified stability and robustness of system to design a PI/PID controller in such complicated networked control systems (NCSs) with delays. By gain and phase margins approach, this paper proposes a novel normalized PI/PID controller for NCSs based on analyzing the stability and robustness of system under the effect of network-induced delays. Specifically, We take into account the total measured network delays to formulate the gain and phase margins of the closed-loop system in the form of a set of equations. With pre-specified values of gain and phase margins, this set of equations is then solved for calculating the closed forms of control parameters which enable us to propose the normalized PI/PID controller simultaneously satisfying the following two requirements: (1) simplicity without re-solving the optimization problem for a new process, (2) high flexibility to cope with large scale of random delays and deal with many different processes in different conditions of network. Furthermore, in our method, the upper bound of random delay can be estimated to indicate the operating domain of proposed PI/PID controller. Finally, simulation results are shown to demonstrate the advantages of our proposed controller in many situations of network-induced delays. PMID:23810432

Tran, Hoang-Dung; Guan, Zhi-Hong; Dang, Xuan-Kien; Cheng, Xin-Ming; Yuan, Fu-Shun

2013-09-01

486

When feeling bad is expected to be good: emotion regulation and outcome expectancies in social conflicts.  

PubMed

According to the instrumental approach to emotion regulation, people may want to experience even unpleasant emotions to attain instrumental benefits. Building on value-expectancy models of self-regulation, we tested whether people want to feel bad in certain contexts specifically because they expect such feelings to be useful to them. In two studies, participants were more likely to try to increase their anger before a negotiation when motivated to confront (vs. collaborate with) a negotiation partner. Participants motivated to confront (vs. collaborate with) their partner expected anger to be more useful to them, and this expectation in turn, led them to try to increase their anger before negotiating. The subsequent experience of anger, following random assignment to emotion inductions (Study 1) or engagement in self-selected emotion regulation activities (Study 2), led participants to be more successful at getting others to concede to their demands, demonstrating that emotional preferences have important pragmatic implications. PMID:21728413

Tamir, Maya; Ford, Brett Q

2012-08-01

487

[Life expectancy as an indicator of outcome].  

PubMed

Usually survival studies evaluate the percentage of subjects alive or disease-free at a given point in time (cumulative survival percentage). These studies require a lengthy period both for follow up and for the collection of an exhaustive number of cases. In addition, for cancer types with a sharp gradient of cumulative mortality, the estimate may be unstable. On the database of children with Acute Lymphoblastic Leukaemia (ALL) collected by the Childhood Cancer Registry of Piedmont (CCRP) in 1979-1991, we have estimated an alternative time-dimensional index to estimate both patients' life expectancy of patient and number of years gained to death. These estimates have been compared in subsets of the database corresponding to different periods of diagnosis and efficacy of treatment. Life expectancy has been evaluated as the area under the survival curve, on the assumption that after a number of years since diagnosis, survivors have the same mortality rates of the general population. Clinicians are invited to take into consideration the approach described in the present note. PMID:15532875

Viscomi, Silvia; Pastore, Guido; Dama, Elisa; Merletti, Franco; Magnani, Corrado

2004-01-01

488

Expectations and Interpretations During Causal Learning  

PubMed Central

In existing models of causal induction, 4 types of covariation information (i.e., presence/absence of an event followed by presence/absence of another event) always exert identical influences on causal strength judgments (e.g., joint presence of events always suggests a generative causal relationship). In contrast, we suggest that, due to expectations developed during causal learning, learners give varied interpretations to covariation information as it is encountered and that these interpretations influence the resulting causal beliefs. In Experiments 1A–1C, participants’ interpretations of observations during a causal learning task were dynamic, expectation based, and, furthermore, strongly tied to subsequent causal judgments. Experiment 2 demonstrated that adding trials of joint absence or joint presence of events, whose roles have been traditionally interpreted as increasing causal strengths, could result in decreased overall causal judgments and that adding trials where one event occurs in the absence of another, whose roles have been traditionally interpreted as decreasing causal strengths, could result in increased overall causal judgments. We discuss implications for traditional models of causal learning and how a more top-down approach (e.g., Bayesian) would be more compatible with the current findings.

Luhmann, Christian C.; Ahn, Woo-kyoung

2012-01-01

489

Matlab Code for Solving Linear Rational Expectation Models with Lagged Expectations Quickly and Easily  

Microsoft Academic Search

This program contains a solution and an estimation method for linear rational expectations models with lagged expectations (e.g., sticky information). The solution method is a synthetic approach, combining state-space and infinite-MA representations with a simple system of linear equations. The advantage of the approach lies in its particular combination of methods familiar elsewhere in the literature to provide faster execution,

Alexander Meyer-Gohde

2007-01-01