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1

An Upper Bound on Expected Clock Skew in Synchronous Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

A statistical model is considered for clock skew in which the propagation delays on every source-to-processor path are sums of independent contributions, and are identically distributed. Upper bounds are derived for expected skew, and its variance, in tree distribution systems with N synchronously clocked processing elements. The results are applied to two special cases of clock distribution. In the first,

Steven D. Kugelmass; Kenneth Steiglitz

1990-01-01

2

Shortest Expected Delay Routing for Erlang Servers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The queueing problem with Poisson arrivals and two identical parallel Erlang servers is analyzed for the case of shortest expected delay routing. This problem may be represented as a random walk on the integer grid in the first quadrant of the plane. An important aspect of the random walk is that it is possible to make large jumps in the

Ivo J. B. F. Adan; Jaap Wessels

1996-01-01

3

Achieving bounded delay on a time-varying satellite uplink  

E-print Network

In this paper, we investigate the packet transmission delay in a time varying satellite uplink. Specifically, we are interested in bounding the packet transmission delay within the terminal router for uplink traffic in a ...

Wysocarski, Jeffrey S.

4

Bounds on expectation values of quantum subsystems and perturbation theory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The numerical investigation of many-body quantum systems usually requires different kinds of physical approximations. The error which is made by these approximations is difficult to estimate and remains unknown in most cases. We examine an upper bound on expectation values of quantum subsystems, which enables the estimation of the maximum error that is made by physical approximations outside the subsystem. This is of special interest for perturbation theory, where the bath is commonly approximated with simplified interactions. A recently realized all-spin-based atomic-scale logic device, consisting of iron atoms and cobalt islands placed on a copper substrate, serves as a specific example for an application of the bound. Strength and weakness of these methods are critically discussed and we provide a quantitative answer to the old question in which cases a small quantum system can be used instead of a large one.

Them, K.; Vedmedenko, E. Y.; Fredenhagen, K.; Wiesendanger, R.

2015-02-01

5

Exact Admission Control for Networks with Bounded Delay Services  

E-print Network

impact the e ciency of a bounded delay service. Key Words: Multiservice Networks, Real-time Networks. NCR-9309224. #12;1 Introduction Recent technology trends have dramatically advanced the state, transmission of continuous media was based on circuit-switching technology. By statistically multiplexing

Liebeherr, Jörg

6

New Quantum Bounds for Inequalities involving Marginal Expectations  

E-print Network

We review, correct, and develop an algorithm which determines arbitrary Quantum Bounds, based on the seminal work of Tsirelson [Lett. Math. Phys. 4, 93 (1980)]. The potential of this algorithm is demonstrated by deriving both new number-valued Quantum Bounds, as well as identifying a new class of function-valued Quantum Bounds. Those results facilitate an 8-dimensional Volume Analysis of Quantum Mechanics which extends the work of Cabello [PRA 72 (2005)]. We contrast the Quantum Volume defined be these new bounds to that of Macroscopic Locality, defined by the inequalities corresponding to the first level of the hierarchy of Navascues et al [NJP 10 (2008)], proving our function-valued Quantum Bounds to be more complete.

Elie Wolfe; S. F. Yelin

2012-02-15

7

Delay Bounds of Peer-to-Peer Video Streaming Electrical & Computer Engineering Department  

E-print Network

Delay Bounds of Peer-to-Peer Video Streaming Yong Liu Electrical & Computer Engineering Department bounds for P2P live streaming systems. We show that the bandwidth heterogeneity among peers can-ball streaming algorithm to approach the minimum delay bound in P2P live video streaming. Our analysis

Liu, Yong

8

Packet Audio Playout Delay Adjustment: Performance Bounds and Algorithms  

Microsoft Academic Search

In packet audio applications, packets are buffered at a receiving site and their playout delayed in order to com- pensate for variable network delays. In this paper, we con- sider the problem of adaptively adjusting the playout delay in order to keep this delay as small as possible, while at the same time avoiding excessive \\

Sue B. Moon; James F. Kurose; Donald F. Towsley

1998-01-01

9

Bounded Linear Stability Analysis - A Time Delay Margin Estimation Approach for Adaptive Control  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper presents a method for estimating time delay margin for model-reference adaptive control of systems with almost linear structured uncertainty. The bounded linear stability analysis method seeks to represent the conventional model-reference adaptive law by a locally bounded linear approximation within a small time window using the comparison lemma. The locally bounded linear approximation of the combined adaptive system is cast in a form of an input-time-delay differential equation over a small time window. The time delay margin of this system represents a local stability measure and is computed analytically by a matrix measure method, which provides a simple analytical technique for estimating an upper bound of time delay margin. Based on simulation results for a scalar model-reference adaptive control system, both the bounded linear stability method and the matrix measure method are seen to provide a reasonably accurate and yet not too conservative time delay margin estimation.

Nguyen, Nhan T.; Ishihara, Abraham K.; Krishnakumar, Kalmanje Srinlvas; Bakhtiari-Nejad, Maryam

2009-01-01

10

A new hierarchy of upper and lower bounds on expectation values  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Upper and lower bounds are constructe for expectation values of functions of a real random variable with derivatives up to order N+1 which are alternately negative and positive over the whole range of interest. The bounds are given by quadrature formulas with weights and abscissas determined by the first N+1 moments of the underlying probability distribution. Application to a simple disordered phonon system yields sharp bounds on the specific heat.

Brandt, U.; Stolze, J.

1981-03-01

11

Cramer-Rao Bounds for Power Delay Profile Fingerprinting based Positioning  

E-print Network

Cramer-Rao Bounds for Power Delay Profile Fingerprinting based Positioning Turgut ¨Oktem and Dirk. In this paper, we derive Cram´er-Rao bounds (CRBs) for location dependent parameters (LDPs) when they are finite identifiability, localiza- tion, Fisher Information Matrix, Cram´er-Rao bound I. INTRODUCTION Conventional

Gesbert, David

12

Upper Bounds for Errors of Expectations in the Few-Body Problem  

Microsoft Academic Search

Exact upper bounds are established for the errors associated with approximate computations of total, kinetic, and potential energies of a few-body system. As a consequence, error bounds are also established for arbitrary coordinate functions. Reduction methods are developed to treat expectations of coordinate functions which are divergent at some spatial point, e.g., the delta function or the inverse square, or

Sanford Aranoff; Jerome K. Percus

1967-01-01

13

An Upper Bound for the Expected Range of a Random Sample  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We consider the expected range of a random sample of points chosen from the interval [0, 1] according to some probability distribution. We then use the notion of convexity to derive an upper bound for this expected range which is valid for all possible choices of this distribution. Finally we show that there is only one distribution for which this

Marengo, James; Lopez, Manuel

2010-01-01

14

1-4244-1513-06/07/$25.00 c 2007 IEEE Time Delay Estimation Bounds in Wideband  

E-print Network

], and a tapped delay line random channel model. The taps are modeled as Gaussian, including non-zero mean realization. II. SIGNAL AND CHANNEL MODELS A. Channel Model The channel is modeled as a tapped delay line1-4244-1513-06/07/$25.00 c 2007 IEEE Time Delay Estimation Bounds in Wideband Random Channels

Xu, Zhengyuan "Daniel"

15

Stochastic resonance in a tumor-immune system subject to bounded noises and time delay  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Immunotherapy is one of the most recent approaches in cancer therapy. A mathematical model of tumor-immune interaction, subject to a periodic immunotherapy treatment (imitated by a periodic signal), correlative and bounded stochastic fluctuations and time delays, is investigated by numerical simulations for its signal power amplification (SPA). Within the tailored parameter regime, the synchronous response of tumor growth to the immunotherapy, stochastic resonance (SR), versus both the noises and delays is obtained. The details are as follows (i) the peak values of SPA versus the noise intensity (A) in the proliferation term of tumor cells decrease as the frequency of periodic signal increases, i.e. an increase of the frequency restrains the SR; (ii) an increase of the amplitude of periodic signal restrains the SR versus A, but boosts up the SR versus the noise intensity B in the immune term; (iii) there is an optimum cross-correlated degree between the two bounded noises, at which the system exhibits the strongest SR versus the delay time ??(the reaction time of tumor cell population to their surrounding environment constraints); (iv) upon increasing the delay time ??, double SR versus the delay time ?? (the time taken by both the tumor antigen identification and tumor-stimulated proliferation of effectors) emerges. These results may be helpful for an immunotherapy treatment for the sufferer.

Guo, Wei; Mei, Dong-Cheng

2014-12-01

16

Delayed birth of distillable entanglement in the evolution of bound entangled states  

E-print Network

The dynamical creation of entanglement between three-level atoms coupled to the common vacuum is investigated. For the class of bound entangled initial states we show that the dynamics of closely separated atoms generates stationary distillable entanglement of asymptotic states. We also find that the effect of delayed sudden birth of distillable entanglement occurs in the case of atoms separated by a distance comparable with the radiation wavelength.

?ukasz Derkacz; Lech Jakobczyk

2010-08-17

17

Delayed birth of distillable entanglement in the evolution of bound entangled states  

SciTech Connect

The dynamical creation of entanglement between three-level atoms coupled to the common vacuum is investigated. For the class of bound entangled initial states, we show that the dynamics of closely separated atoms generates stationary distillable entanglement of asymptotic states. We also find that the effect of delayed sudden birth of distillable entanglement occurs in the case of atoms separated by a distance comparable with the radiation wavelength.

Derkacz, Lukasz; Jakobczyk, Lech [Opera Software International AS, Oddzialw Polsce, ul. Szewska 8, 50-122 Wroclaw (Poland); Institute of Theoretical Physics, University of Wroclaw, Plac Maxa Borna 9, 50-204 Wroclaw (Poland)

2010-08-15

18

The Mobile Browsing Behaviors and Expectations of College-Bound High School Students. An E-Expectations Trend Report  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The last decade marked a dramatic change in the college search experience as students flocked to the Internet as their primary tool for researching colleges. Institutions had to transform their recruitment efforts to keep up with the online demands and expectations of prospective students. The proliferation of smartphones is transforming the

Noel-Levitz, Inc, 2012

2012-01-01

19

Some relationships between outcome expectancies and sample stimuli in pigeons delayed matching  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two sets of experiments examined how differential outcomes affect conditional stimulus control by the samples in delayed matching-to-sample.\\u000a Pigeons were initially trained on symbolic delayed matching with reinforcing outcomes that were either differential or nondiffereatial\\u000a with respect to the samples. In one set of experiments, the outcome manipulation involved different (p = 1.0 vs. 0.2) versus the same (p =

Peter J. Urcuioli

1990-01-01

20

BCDP: Budget Constrained and Delay-Bounded Placement for Hybrid Roadside Units in Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks  

PubMed Central

In vehicular ad hoc networks, roadside units (RSUs) placement has been proposed to improve the the overall network performance in many ITS applications. This paper addresses the budget constrained and delay-bounded placement problem (BCDP) for roadside units in vehicular ad hoc networks. There are two types of RSUs: cable connected RSU (c-RSU) and wireless RSU (w-RSU). c-RSUs are interconnected through wired lines, and they form the backbone of VANETs, while w-RSUs connect to other RSUs through wireless communication and serve as an economical extension of the coverage of c-RSUs. The delay-bounded coverage range and deployment cost of these two cases are totally different. We are given a budget constraint and a delay bound, the problem is how to find the optimal candidate sites with the maximal delay-bounded coverage to place RSUs such that a message from any c-RSU in the region can be disseminated to the more vehicles within the given budget constraint and delay bound. We first prove that the BCDP problem is NP-hard. Then we propose several algorithms to solve the BCDP problem. Simulation results show the heuristic algorithms can significantly improve the coverage range and reduce the total deployment cost, compared with other heuristic methods. PMID:25436656

Li, Peng; Huang, Chuanhe; Liu, Qin

2014-01-01

21

Factors Associated with Delayed Childbearing: From the Voices of Expectant Latina Adults and Teens in California  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There has been limited research on the protective factors that help Latinas delay childbearing until adulthood. In-depth interviews were conducted with 65 pregnant Latina teenage and adult women in California who were about to have their first child. Lack of or inconsistent birth control use as teens was attributed to wanting or ambivalence toward

Biggs, M. Antonia; Ralph, Lauren; Minnis, Alexandra M.; Arons, Abigail; Marchi, Kristen S.; Lehrer, Jocelyn A.; Braveman, Paula A.; Brindis, Claire D.

2010-01-01

22

Expect Delays: An Analysis of Air Travel Trends in the United States  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

There has been talk about an airline passenger "Bill of Rights" for years, and this recent report from the Brookings Institution might renew calls for such a document. Released in October 2009, this report by Robert Puentes and Adie Tomer looks at national and metropolitan levels of commercial air patterns between 1990 and 2009 and finds that half of the country's flights are routes of less than 500 miles and that the 26 largest metropolitan airline hubs continue to have the lion's share of flight delays. The report notes that despite a bit of flight time recovery during the recent economic crisis, "the return of economic growth will resume the boost in travelers, a concomitant decline in on-time performance, and the hyper-concentration of U.S. air travel within major metropolitan areas." The report includes links to recent analyses of air travel trends in the intermountain West and the Great Lakes region, and an appendix of metropolitan hubs.

23

Quadratic stabilization of continuous time systems with state-delay and norm-bounded time-varying uncertainties  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper develops a method for designing a feedback control law to stabilize a class of uncertain linear systems. The class of systems under consideration is described by a continuous-time model with variable-state delay and depends on time-varying unknown-but-bounded uncertain parameters. It is shown that the construction of the stabilizing controller involves solving a certain algebraic Riccati equation. Several previous

Magdi S. Mahmoud; Naser F. Al-Muthairi

1994-01-01

24

On algorithms for estimating computable error bounds for approximate periodic solutions of an autonomous delay differential equation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Machine tool chatter has been characterized as isolated periodic solutions or limit cycles of delay differential equations. Determining the amplitude and frequency of the limit cycle is sometimes crucial to understanding and controlling the stability of machining operations. In Gilsinn [Gilsinn DE. Computable error bounds for approximate periodic solutions of autonomous delay differential equations, Nonlinear Dyn 2007;50:73-92] a result was proven that says that, given an approximate periodic solution and frequency of an autonomous delay differential equation that satisfies a certain non-criticality condition, there is an exact periodic solution and frequency in a computable neighborhood of the approximate solution and frequency. The proof required the estimation of a number of parameters and the verification of three inequalities. In this paper the details of the algorithms will be given for estimating the parameters required to verify the inequalities and to compute the final approximation errors. An application will be given to a Van der Pol oscillator with delay in the non-linear terms.

Gilsinn, David E.

2009-04-01

25

Bounding the time delay between high-energy neutrinos and gravitational-wave transients from gamma-ray bursts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We derive a conservative coincidence time window for joint searches of gravitational-wave (GW) transients and high-energy neutrinos (HENs, with energies ?100 GeV), emitted by gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). The last are among the most interesting astrophysical sources for coincident detections with current and near-future detectors. We take into account a broad range of emission mechanisms. We take the upper limit of GRB durations as the 95% quantile of the T90's of GRBs observed by BATSE, obtaining a GRB duration upper limit of 150 s. Using published results on high-energy (>100 MeV) photon light curves for 8 GRBs detected by Fermi LAT, we verify that most high-energy photons are expected to be observed within the first 150 s of the GRB. Taking into account the breakout-time of the relativistic jet produced by the central engine, we allow GW and HEN emission to begin up to 100 s before the onset of observable gamma photon production. Using published precursor time differences, we calculate a time upper bound for precursor activity, obtaining that 95% of precursors occur within 250 s prior to the onset of the GRB. Taking the above different processes into account, we arrive at a time window of tHEN - tGW ? [-500 s, +500 s]. Considering the above processes, an upper bound can also be determined for the expected time window of GW and/or HEN signals coincident with a detected GRB, tGW - tGRB ? tHEN - tGRB ? [-350 s, +150 s]. These upper bounds can be used to limit the coincidence time window in multimessenger searches, as well as aiding the interpretation of the times of arrival of measured signals.

Baret, Bruny; Bartos, Imre; Bouhou, Boutayeb; Corsi, Alessandra; Palma, Irene Di; Donzaud, Corinne; Elewyck, Vronique Van; Finley, Chad; Jones, Gareth; Kouchner, Antoine; Mrka, Szabolcs; Mrka, Zsuzsa; Moscoso, Luciano; Chassande-Mottin, Eric; Papa, Maria Alessandra; Pradier, Thierry; Raffai, Peter; Rollins, Jameson; Sutton, Patrick

2011-08-01

26

[What causes self-control failure in delayed-cost dilemma: the role of affective expectancy and regulatory resource].  

PubMed

Two studies were conducted to examine the effect of affects on self-control behavior in delayed cost dilemma. Results of Study 1 suggested that long term negative affects such as regret and self-disgust might have facilitating effects on motivation of self-control if they were anticipated before delayed-cost dilemma situations, but inhibiting effects on self-efficacy of control when experienced after dilemma situations. Study 2 examined the effect of affect priming on self-control in eating behavior, as well as an interaction effect of anticipated affect and regulatory resource on it. Results indicated that participants who had enough regulatory resource succeeded in self-control, i.e. they ate less, regardless of the type of affect priming, but those who did not have sufficient resource and were not primed with long-term negative affects failed to control their behavior. It was argued that regulatory resource explanation of self-control should be expanded to the theory including anticipated affects. PMID:16862961

Yamaoka, Hiroshi; Karasawa, Kaori

2006-04-01

27

418 IEEE JOURNAL OF SELECTED TOPICS IN SIGNAL PROCESSING, VOL. 1, NO. 3, OCTOBER 2007 Time Delay Estimation Bounds in  

E-print Network

transmitted signal, a tapped delay line random channel model, and a uniform prior on the delay. The taps with one tap. The channel power delay pro- file is incorporated through the tap covariance matrix418 IEEE JOURNAL OF SELECTED TOPICS IN SIGNAL PROCESSING, VOL. 1, NO. 3, OCTOBER 2007 Time Delay

Xu, Zhengyuan "Daniel"

28

Bounding the Time Delay between High-energy Neutrinos and Gravitational-wave Transients from Gamma-ray Bursts  

E-print Network

We derive a conservative coincidence time window for joint searches of gravita-tional-wave (GW) transients and high-energy neutrinos (HENs, with energies above 100GeV), emitted by gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). The last are among the most interesting astrophysical sources for coincident detections with current and near-future detectors. We take into account a broad range of emission mechanisms. We take the upper limit of GRB durations as the 95% quantile of the T90's of GRBs observed by BATSE, obtaining a GRB duration upper limit of ~150s. Using published results on high-energy (>100MeV) photon light curves for 8 GRBs detected by Fermi LAT, we verify that most high-energy photons are expected to be observed within the first ~150s of the GRB. Taking into account the breakout-time of the relativistic jet produced by the central engine, we allow GW and HEN emission to begin up to 100s before the onset of observable gamma photon production. Using published precursor time differences, we calculate a time upper bound for precursor activity, obtaining that 95% of precursors occur within ~250s prior to the onset of the GRB. Taking the above different processes into account, we arrive at a time window of tHEN - tGW ~ [-500s,+500s]. Considering the above processes, an upper bound can also be determined for the expected time window of GW and/or HEN signals coincident with a detected GRB, tGW - tGRB ~ tHEN - tGRB ~ [-350s,+150s].

Bruny Baret; Imre Bartos; Boutayeb Bouhou; Alessandra Corsi; Irene Di Palma; Corinne Donzaud; Vronique Van Elewyck; Chad Finley; Gareth Jones; Antoine Kouchner; Szabolcs Mrka; Zsuzsa Mrka; Luciano Moscoso; Eric Chassande-Mottin; Maria Alessandra Papa; Thierry Pradier; Peter Raffai; Jameson Rollins; Patrick Sutton

2011-01-24

29

What to Expect from the Virtual Seismologist: Delay Times and Uncertainties of Initial Earthquake Alerts in California  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Virtual Seismologist (VS) method is a Bayesian approach to regional network-based earthquake early warning (EEW) originally formulated by Cua and Heaton (2007). Implementation of VS into real-time EEW codes has been an on-going effort of the Swiss Seismological Service at ETH Zrich since 2006, with support from ETH Zrich, various European projects, and the United States Geological Survey (USGS). VS is one of three EEW algorithms that form the basis of the California Integrated Seismic Network (CISN) ShakeAlert system, a USGS-funded prototype end-to-end EEW system that could potentially be implemented in California. In Europe, VS is currently operating as a real-time test system in Switzerland, western Greece and Istanbul. As part of the on-going EU project REAKT (Strategies and Tools for Real-Time Earthquake Risk Reduction), VS installations in southern Italy, Romania, and Iceland are planned or underway. The possible use cases for an EEW system will be determined by the speed and reliability of earthquake source parameter estimates. A thorough understanding of both is therefore essential to evaluate the usefulness of VS. For California, we present state-wide theoretical alert times for hypothetical earthquakes by analyzing time delays introduced by the different components in the VS EEW system. Taking advantage of the fully probabilistic formulation of the VS algorithm we further present an improved way to describe the uncertainties of every magnitude estimate by evaluating the width and shape of the probability density function that describes the relationship between waveform envelope amplitudes and magnitude. We evaluate these new uncertainty values for past seismicity in California through off-line playbacks and compare them to the previously defined static definitions of uncertainty based on real-time detections. Our results indicate where VS alerts are most useful in California and also suggest where most effective improvements to the VS EEW system can be made.

Behr, Y.; Cua, G. B.; Clinton, J. F.; Racine, R.; Meier, M.; Cauzzi, C.

2013-12-01

30

The true Crame\\/spl acute\\/r-Rao lower bound for data-aided carrier-phase-independent time-delay estimation from linearly Modulated waveforms  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we present the derivation and analysis of the true Cramer-Rao lower bound (CRB) for the variance of unbiased, data-aided (DA) symbol-timing estimates, obtained from a block of K samples of a linearly modulated information signal, transmitted through an additive white Gaussian noise channel with random carrier phase. We consider a carrier-phase-independent time-delay estimation scenario wherein the carrier

Gonalo Nuno Gomes Tavares; Lus Miguel Gomes Tavares

2006-01-01

31

Synchronization of a bounded degree graph of cellular automata with nonuniform delays in time D floor(logm D)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Jiang, 1989 (2, 3), proved a remarkable result: for every k, there exists a cellular automaton synchronizing every degreek connected graph with arbitrary symmetric communication delays. The synchro- nization time obtained by Jiang is O(3) where is the maximum communication delay between two cells. Mazoyer, 1990 (6) proved an O(D2) synchronization time where D is the sum of the

Serge Grigorieff

2006-01-01

32

Salivary Alpha Amylase and Cortisol Levels in Children with Global Developmental Delay and Their Relation with the Expectation of Dental Care and Behavior during the Intervention  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to analyze the alpha-amylase (sAA) and cortisol levels in children with Global developmental delay (GDD) before and after dental treatment and its association with the children's behavior during treatment. The morning salivary cortisol levels and activity of sAA of 33 children with GDD were evaluated before and after

dos Santos, Marcio Jose Possari; Bernabe, Daniel Galera; Nakamune, Ana Claudia de Melo Stevanato; Perri, Silvia Helena Venturoli; de Aguiar, Sandra Maria Herondina Coelho Avila; de Oliveira, Sandra Helena Penha

2012-01-01

33

Analysis of Asynchronous Circuits Under Different Delay Assumptions  

Microsoft Academic Search

AbstractAsynchronous circuits are analyzed from the stand- point of different constraints which may apply to the stray delays (zero-line delays, bounded delays, and the use of delay elements). The relationship between \\

1968-01-01

34

Expected Value  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This online, interactive lesson on expected value provides examples, exercises, and applets in which students will explore relationships between the expected value of real-valued random variables and the center of the distribution. Students will also examine how expected values can be used to measure spread and correlation.

Siegrist, Kyle

35

Signal delay in RC tree networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

In MOS integrated circuits, signals may propagate between stages with fanout. The MOS interconnect may be modeled by an RC tree. Exact calculation of signal delay through such networks is difficult. However, upper and lower bounds for delay that are computationally simple are presented here. The results can be used (1) to bound the delay, given the signal threshold; or

Paul Penfield Jr.; Jorge Rubinstein

1981-01-01

36

Signal delay in RC tree networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

In MOS integrated circuits, signals may propagate between stages with fanout. The HOS interconnect may be modeled by an RC tree, Exact calculation of signal delay through such networks is difficult. However, upper and lower bounds for delay that are computationally simple are presented here. The results can be used (I) to bound the delay, given the signal threshold; or

P. Penfield; J. Jr. Rubinstein

1988-01-01

37

Signal Delay in RC Tree Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

In MOS integrated circuits, signals may propagate between stages with fanout. The MOS interconnect may be modeled by an RC tree. Exact calculation of signal delay through such networks is difficult. However, upper and lower bounds for delay that are computationally simple are presented here. The results can be used (1) to bound the delay, given the signal threshold; or

Jorge Rubinstein; Paul Penfield Jr.; Mark A. Horowitz

1983-01-01

38

Exceeding Expectations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Awareness of expectations is so important in the facilities business. The author's experiences has taught him that it is essential to understand how expectations impact people's lives as well as those for whom they provide services for every day. This article presents examples and ideas that will provide insight and ideas to help educators

Cannon, John

2011-01-01

39

-delayed proton emission branches in 43Cr  

SciTech Connect

The + decay of very neutron-deficient 43Cr was studied by means of an imaging time projection chamber that allowed recording tracks of charged particles. Events of -delayed emission of one, two, and three protons were clearly identified. The absolute branching ratios for these channels were determined to be (81 4)%, (7.1 0.4)%, and (0.08 0.03)%, respectively. 43Cr is thus established as the second case in which the -3p decay occurs. Although the feeding to the proton-bound states in 43V is expected to be negligible, the large branching ratio of (12 4)% for decays without proton emission is found.

Pomorski, M. [University of Warsaw; Miernik, K. [University of Warsaw; Dominik, W. [University of Warsaw; Janas, Z. [University of Warsaw; Pfutzner, M. [University of Warsaw; Bingham, C. R. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Czyrkowski, H. [University of Warsaw; Cwiok, Mikolaj [Warsaw University; Darby, Iain [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Dabrowski, Ryszard [Warsaw University; Ginter, T. N. [Michigan State University, East Lansing; Grzywacz, Robert Kazimierz [ORNL; Karny, M. [University of Warsaw; Korgul, A. [University of Warsaw; Kusmierz, W. [University of Warsaw; Liddick, Sean [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Rajabali, M. M. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Rykaczewski, Krzysztof Piotr [ORNL; Stolz, A. [Michigan State University, East Lansing

2011-01-01

40

Rational Expectations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Rational Expectations was set up by Ralph Lazar, former strategist and economist for Goldman Sachs, Barings & Credit Suisse First Boston, as a "resource for anyone interested in [emerging markets] economics -- students, teachers, lecturers, journalists, professionals, or just the curious." A fully comprehensive guide to the people, places, and events of the economics world, Rational Expectations includes an searchable database of over 1,000 organizations and institutions in OECD countries and emerging markets, a conference calendar, and job listings. The site also links to academic, professional, and government organizations, as well as a huge suggested publication list and macroeconomic and financial market data. Rational Expectations will be a welcome resource for anyone interested in emerging markets economics.

Lazar, Ralph.

41

Efficacy of fleece-bound sealing system (TachoSil) in delayed anterior tracheal lacerations secondary to ischemic tracheal necrosis after total thyroidectomy.  

PubMed

Thyroidectomy is one of the commonest surgical operations performed in endocrine surgery; results are generally excellent and morbidity and mortality usually are negligible. Total thyroidectomy's complication rates are low, with an overall incidence of 4.3% among experienced surgeons: the most frequent complications are vocal cord paresis or paralysis, hypoparathyroidism, hypocalcemia, haematoma and wound infection. Tracheal injury following thyroidectomy is even more rare. As reported from some authors, inadvertent tracheal injury has an incidence of 0-0.6% during thyroidectomy. Tracheal laceration (generally located in the posterolateral surface) is often recognized and repaired immediately, during the same intervention. Rarely, following a total thyroidectomy, a delayed tracheal rupture may occur secondary to an ischemic damage of the trachea. This has been described in few cases reported in literature. In this paper we report of a case in which delayed tracheal lacerations appeared 10 days after the patient underwent total thyroidectomy: a prompt surgical operation was efficient using both direct sutures of tracheal breaches and a patch of fibrinogen-thrombin coated collagen fleece covering the entire surface. PMID:22691831

Rosato, L; Ginardi, A; Mondini, G; Sandri, A; Oliaro, A; Filosso, P L

2012-06-01

42

Great Expectations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Inside one Washington, DC, elementary school, Principal John Pannell has high hopes for his students and an expansive school vision. Malcolm X School compensates for disorder outside by clearly inculcating rules and behavior expectations. Children in school uniforms daily repeat a motto promoting Malcolm X as a school of love allowing no hitting,

Natale, Jo Anna

1993-01-01

43

Expected Value  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students will use the random integer command on their graphing calculators to simulate rolling a die. They will then use operations on lists to analyze the probability of rolling the first 1 on the 1st roll, 2nd roll, and so on and finally find the expected value. Teacher notes explain in detail how to perform these actions on the graphing calculator.

2012-08-30

44

Great Expectations for "Great Expectations."  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Designed to make the study of Dickens'"Great Expectations" an appealing and worthwhile experience, this paper presents a unit of study intended to help students gain (1) an appreciation of Dickens' skill at creating realistic human characters; (2) an insight into the problems of a young man confused by false values and unreal ambitions and ways to

Ridley, Cheryl

45

Delay-dependent robust H ? control for uncertain systems with a state-delay  

Microsoft Academic Search

A robust H? control for uncertain linear systems with a state-delay is described. Systems with norm-bounded parameter uncertainties are considered and linear memoryless state feedback controllers are obtained. Firstly, a delay-dependent bounded real lemma for systems with a state-delay is presented in terms of linear matrix inequalities (LMIs). By taking a new LyapunovKrasovsii functional, neither model transformation nor bounding for

Y. S. Lee; Y. S. Moon; W. H. Kwon; P. G. Park

2004-01-01

46

Delayed Fluorescence  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Delayed fluorescence (DF), also termed delayed luminescence or delayed light emission, is a long-lived light emission by plants,\\u000a algae and cyanobacteria after being illuminated with light and placed in darkness (Strehler and Arnold 1951). It can last\\u000a from milliseconds to several minutes, which is by itself an odd phenomenon in an otherwise nanosecond world of classical fluorescence.\\u000a Although a lot

Maja Berden-Zrimec; Luka Drinovec; Alexis Zrimec

47

Stochastically bounded burstiness for communication networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract - We develop a network calculus for processes whose burstiness is stochastically bounded by general decreasing functions This calculus en - ables us to prove the stability of feedforward networks and obtain statistical upper bounds on interesting performance measures such as delay, at each buffer in the network Our bounding methodology is useful for a large class of input

David Starobinski; Moshe Sidi

2000-01-01

48

Modeling delay in genetic networks: From delay birth-death processes to delay stochastic differential equations  

SciTech Connect

Delay is an important and ubiquitous aspect of many biochemical processes. For example, delay plays a central role in the dynamics of genetic regulatory networks as it stems from the sequential assembly of first mRNA and then protein. Genetic regulatory networks are therefore frequently modeled as stochastic birth-death processes with delay. Here, we examine the relationship between delay birth-death processes and their appropriate approximating delay chemical Langevin equations. We prove a quantitative bound on the error between the pathwise realizations of these two processes. Our results hold for both fixed delay and distributed delay. Simulations demonstrate that the delay chemical Langevin approximation is accurate even at moderate system sizes. It captures dynamical features such as the oscillatory behavior in negative feedback circuits, cross-correlations between nodes in a network, and spatial and temporal information in two commonly studied motifs of metastability in biochemical systems. Overall, these results provide a foundation for using delay stochastic differential equations to approximate the dynamics of birth-death processes with delay.

Gupta, Chinmaya; Lpez, Jos Manuel; Azencott, Robert; Ott, William [Department of Mathematics, University of Houston, Houston, Texas 77004 (United States); Bennett, Matthew R. [Department of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Rice University, Houston, Texas 77204, USA and Institute of Biosciences and Bioengineering, Rice University, Houston, Texas 77005 (United States); Josi?, Kreimir [Department of Mathematics, University of Houston, Houston, Texas 77004 (United States); Department of Biology and Biochemistry, University of Houston, Houston, Texas 77204 (United States)

2014-05-28

49

Delay-dependent robust stability criteria for uncertain neutral systems with mixed delays  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper concerns the problem of the delay-dependent robust stability of neutral systems with mixed delays and time-varying structured uncertainties. A new method based on linear matrix inequalities is presented that makes it easy to calculate both the upper stability bounds on the delays and the free weighting matrices. Since the criteria take the sizes of the neutral- and discrete-delays

Yong He; Min Wu; Jin-Hua She; Guo-Ping Liu

2004-01-01

50

An RFID Distance Bounding Protocol  

Microsoft Academic Search

Radio-frequency identification tokens, such as contactless smartcards, are vulnerable to relay attacks if they are used for proximity authentication. Attackers can circumvent the limited range of the radio channel using transponders that forward exchanged signals over larger distances. Cryptographic distance-bounding protocols that measure accurately the round-trip delay of the radio signal provide a possible countermeasure. They infer an upper bound

Gerhard P. Hancke; Markus G. Kuhn

2005-01-01

51

Corrections of stratified tropospheric delays in SAR interferometry: Validation with global atmospheric models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The main limiting factor on the accuracy of Interferometric SAR measurements (InSAR) comes from phase propagation delays through the troposphere. The delay can be divided into a stratified component, which correlates with the topography and often dominates the tropospheric signal, and a turbulent component. We use Global Atmospheric Models (GAM) to estimate the stratified phase delay and delay-elevation ratio at epochs of SAR acquisitions, and compare them to observed phase delay derived from SAR interferograms. Three test areas are selected with different geographic and climatic environments and with large SAR archive available. The Lake Mead, Nevada, USA is covered by 79 ERS1/2 and ENVISAT acquisitions, the Haiyuan Fault area, Gansu, China, by 24 ERS1/2 acquisitions, and the Afar region, Republic of Djibouti, by 91 Radarsat acquisitions. The hydrostatic and wet stratified delays are computed from GAM as a function of atmospheric pressure P, temperature T, and water vapor partial pressure e vertical profiles. The hydrostatic delay, which depends on ratio P/T, varies significantly at low elevation and cannot be neglected. The wet component of the delay depends mostly on the near surface specific humidity. GAM predicted delay-elevation ratios are in good agreement with the ratios derived from InSAR data away from deforming zones. Both estimations of the delay-elevation ratio can thus be used to perform a first order correction of the observed interferometric phase to retrieve a ground motion signal of low amplitude. We also demonstrate that aliasing of daily and seasonal variations in the stratified delay due to uneven sampling of SAR data significantly bias InSAR data stacks or time series produced after temporal smoothing. In all three test cases, the InSAR data stacks or smoothed time series present a residual stratified delay of the order of the expected deformation signal. In all cases, correcting interferograms from the stratified delay removes all these biases. We quantify the standard error associated with the correction of the stratified atmospheric delay. It varies from one site to another depending on the prevailing atmospheric conditions, but remains bounded by the standard deviation of the daily fluctuations of the stratified delay around the seasonal average. Finally we suggest that the phase delay correction can potentially be improved by introducing a non-linear dependence to the elevation derived from GAM.

Doin, Marie-Pierre; Lasserre, Ccile; Peltzer, Gilles; Cavali, Olivier; Doubre, Ccile

2010-05-01

52

Corrections of stratified tropospheric delays in SAR interferometry: Validation with global atmospheric models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The main limiting factor on the accuracy of Interferometric SAR measurements (InSAR) comes from phase propagation delays through the troposphere. The delay can be divided into a stratified component, which correlates with the topography and often dominates the tropospheric signal, and a turbulent component. We use Global Atmospheric Models (GAM) to estimate the stratified phase delay and delay-elevation ratio at epochs of SAR acquisitions, and compare them to observed phase delay derived from SAR interferograms. Three test areas are selected with different geographic and climatic environments and with large SAR archive available. The Lake Mead, Nevada, USA is covered by 79 ERS1/2 and ENVISAT acquisitions, the Haiyuan Fault area, Gansu, China, by 24 ERS1/2 acquisitions, and the Afar region, Republic of Djibouti, by 91 Radarsat acquisitions. The hydrostatic and wet stratified delays are computed from GAM as a function of atmospheric pressure P, temperature T, and water vapor partial pressure e vertical profiles. The hydrostatic delay, which depends on ratio P/ T, varies significantly at low elevation and cannot be neglected. The wet component of the delay depends mostly on the near surface specific humidity. GAM predicted delay-elevation ratios are in good agreement with the ratios derived from InSAR data away from deforming zones. Both estimations of the delay-elevation ratio can thus be used to perform a first order correction of the observed interferometric phase to retrieve a ground motion signal of low amplitude. We also demonstrate that aliasing of daily and seasonal variations in the stratified delay due to uneven sampling of SAR data significantly bias InSAR data stacks or time series produced after temporal smoothing. In all three test cases, the InSAR data stacks or smoothed time series present a residual stratified delay of the order of the expected deformation signal. In all cases, correcting interferograms from the stratified delay removes all these biases. We quantify the standard error associated with the correction of the stratified atmospheric delay. It varies from one site to another depending on the prevailing atmospheric conditions, but remains bounded by the standard deviation of the daily fluctuations of the stratified delay around the seasonal average. Finally we suggest that the phase delay correction can potentially be improved by introducing a non-linear dependence to the elevation derived from GAM.

Doin, M.-P.; Lasserre, C.; Peltzer, G.; Cavali, O.; Doubre, C.

2009-09-01

53

DELAYED HYPERSENSITIVITY  

PubMed Central

A general method for induction of the delayed hypersensitive state directed against single protein antigens is described. The method consists of intradermal injection of minute amounts of washed immune precipitates containing the antigen in question. Provided the specific precipitates are formed in the region of antibody excess, maximal sensitivity develops at least 2 to 3 weeks before detectable circulating antibody is formed in guinea pigs against the sensitizing antigen. Neither adjuvant nor killed acid-fast bacteria are required for induction of the delayed hypersensitive state although the degree of sensitization is considerably increased when the sensitizing material is incorporated in Freund's complete adjuvant. Characteristics of the "delayed" as opposed to the "immediate" hypersensitive states in the guinea pig are described and implications of the findings are discussed. PMID:13385403

Uhr, Jonathan W.; Salvin, S. B.; Pappenheimer, A. M.

1957-01-01

54

Developmental delay  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Nutrition support is essential for the care of the child with developmental delay. After a thorough evaluation, an individualized intervention plan that accounts for the childs nutrition status, feeding ability, and medical condition may be determined. Nutrition assessments may be performed at leas...

55

Delayed puberty.  

PubMed

Since puberty is a long ongoing developmental process with significant individual and population differences in timing, the definition of delayed puberty for a given individual needs to rest on simple, though arbitrary criteria based on epidemiological data. Although several genes involved in the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal maturation cascade have been characterized recently from familial or sporadic cases of primitive isolated hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, many genes regulating puberty onset remain undetermined. In case of delayed puberty and/or primary amenorrhea, a complete clinical examination including a detailed past history will evaluate the development of secondary sex characteristics, verify the association with a growth delay and look for specific indicative features pertaining to the etiological diagnosis. This clinical check-up completed if necessary with biological, ultrasonographic, radiological and genetic investigations will try to determine which girls will have a permanent sexual infantilism of gonadal, hypophyseal or hypothalamic origin, which girls will undergo spontaneous but delayed puberty and which girls have primary amenorrhea with developed secondary sex characteristics. Therapeutic attitude will have to integrate etiological factors, statural prognosis, bone mass preservation and psychological factors. PMID:22846526

Fenichel, Patrick

2012-01-01

56

Exponential stability of linear distributed parameter systems with time-varying delays  

Microsoft Academic Search

Exponential stability analysis via the LyapunovKrasovskii method is extended to linear time-delay systems in a Hilbert space. The operator acting on the delayed state is supposed to be bounded. The system delay is admitted to be unknown and time-varying with an a priori given upper bound on the delay. Sufficient delay-dependent conditions for exponential stability are derived in the form

Emilia Fridman; Yury Orlov

2009-01-01

57

Fully Achieves Expectations Sometimes Achieves Expectations  

E-print Network

.) Employee Name: Appropriate corrective action has been discussed with employee? Performance Review Summary Expectations Accomplishments - the extent to which the employee meets expectations in performing the job functions of his/her position as defined in the PDQ. Review Period: The University of Tennessee Employee

Tennessee, University of

58

Anycast Routing in Delay Tolerant Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anycast routing is very useful for many applications such as resource discovery in Delay Tolerant Networks (DTNs). In this paper, based on a new DTN model, we first analyze the any- cast semantics for DTNs. Then we present a novel metric named EMDDA (Expected Multi-Destination Delay for Anycast) and a corresponding routing algorithm for anycast routing in DTNs. Extensive simulation

Yili Gong; Yongqiang Xiong; Qian Zhang; Zhensheng Zhang; Wenjie Wang; Zhiwei Xu

2006-01-01

59

Delays in claiming social security benefits  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper focuses on Social Security benefit claiming behavior, a takeup decision that has been ignored in the previous literature. Using financial calculations and simulations based on an expected utility maximization model, we show that delaying benefit claim for a period of time after retirement is optimal in a wide variety of cases and that gains from delay may be

Courtney COILE; Peter DIAMOND; Jonathan GRUBER; Alain JOUSTEN

2000-01-01

60

Client expectation from doctors: Expectation - reality gap  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aims and objectives: To determine client expectation from doctors, a descriptive survey was conducted amongst people above 18 years of age and doctors of Faridpur District. Methodology: For this purpose a total of 400 patients and 30 doctors were involved. Both rural and urban population were included. A sample of 30 doctors was selected from the outdoor department of Faridpur

Rahman MM; Rahman S; Begum N; Asaduzzaman AKM

61

Delaying obsolescence.  

PubMed

This paper argues that those who emphasise that designers and engineers need to plan for obsolescence are too conservative. Rather, in addition to planning for obsolescence, designers and engineers should also think carefully about what they could do in order delay obsolescence. They should so this by thinking about the design itself, thinking of ways in which products could be useful and appealing for longer before becoming obsolete, as well thinking about the wider context in terms of the marketing of products, and also the social and legal. The paper also considers objections that these suggestions are unrealistically idealistic, failing to recognise the economic realities. I respond to these objections appealing to research in advertising, psychology, cognitive linguistics, philosophy, history, and economics, as well as drawing on the Statement of Ethical Principles developed by the Royal Academy of Engineering and the Engineering Council. PMID:24792878

Lawlor, Rob

2015-04-01

62

VALIDITY OF THE EXPECTED EULER CHARACTERISTIC HEURISTIC  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract: We study the accuracy of the expected Euler characteristic approximation to thedistribution of the maximum of a smooth, centered, unit variance Gaussian processf . Using a point process representation of the error, valid for arbitrary smoothprocesses, we show that the error is in general exponentially smaller than any termsin the approximation. We also give a lower bound on this

Jonathan Taylor; Akimichi Takemura; Robert J. Adler

2003-01-01

63

Inverse momentum expectation values for hydrogenic systems  

SciTech Connect

By using the Fourier transforms of the general hydrogenic bound state wave functions (as ultraspherical polynomials), one may find expectation values of arbitrary functions of momentum p. In this manner the effect of a reciprocity perturbation b/p can be evaluated for all hydrogenic states.

Delbourgo, R.; Elliott, D. [School of Mathematics and Physics, University of Tasmania, Private Bag 37, GPO, Hobart, Tasmania 7001 (Australia)

2009-06-15

64

Beta-Delayed Proton Emission Branches in 43Cr  

E-print Network

The beta+ decay of very neutron deficient 43Cr has been studied by means of an imaging time projection chamber which allowed recording tracks of charged particles. Events of beta-delayed emission of one-, two-, and three protons were clearly identified. The absolute branching ratios for these channels were determined to be 81(4)%, 7.1(4)%, and 0.08(3)%, respectively. The 43Cr is thus established as the second case in which the beta-3p decay occurs. Although the feeding to the proton-bound states in 43V is expected to be negligible, the large branching ratio of 12(4)% for decays without proton emission is found.

M. Pomorski; K. Miernik; W. Dominik; Z. Janas; M. Pftzner; C. R. Bingham; H. Czyrkowski; M. Cwiok; I. G. Darby; R. D{\\ka}browski; T. Ginter; R. Grzywacz; M. Karny; A. Korgul; W. Ku?mierz; S. N. Liddick; M. Rajabali; K. Rykaczewski; A. Stolz

2010-12-21

65

Beta-Delayed Proton Emission Branches in 43Cr  

E-print Network

The beta+ decay of very neutron deficient 43Cr has been studied by means of an imaging time projection chamber which allowed recording tracks of charged particles. Events of beta-delayed emission of one-, two-, and three protons were clearly identified. The absolute branching ratios for these channels were determined to be 81(4)%, 7.1(4)%, and 0.08(3)%, respectively. The 43Cr is thus established as the second case in which the beta-3p decay occurs. Although the feeding to the proton-bound states in 43V is expected to be negligible, the large branching ratio of 12(4)% for decays without proton emission is found.

Pomorski, M; Dominik, W; Janas, Z; Pftzner, M; Bingham, C R; Czyrkowski, H; Cwiok, M; Darby, I G; D{\\ka}browski, R; Ginter, T; Grzywacz, R; Karny, M; Korgul, A; Ku?mierz, W; Liddick, S N; Rajabali, M; Rykaczewski, K; Stolz, A

2010-01-01

66

Switching control and time-delay identification  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The unknown time delay makes the control design a difficult task. When the lower and upper bounds of an unknown time delay of dynamical systems are specified, one can design a supervisory control that switches among a set of controls designed for the sampled time delays in the given range so that the closed-loop system is stable and the control performance is maintained at a desirable level. In this paper, we propose to design a supervisory control to stabilize the system first. After the supervisory control converges, we start an algorithm to identify the unknown time delay, either on-line or off-line, with the known control being implemented. Examples are shown to demonstrate the stabilization and identification for linear time invariant and periodic systems with a single control time delay.

Chen, Qi; Li, Xiang; Qin, Zhi-Chang; Zhong, Shun; Sun, J. Q.

2014-12-01

67

Reflections on Expectations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes a teachers reflections on the matter of student expectations. Santini begins with a common understanding of the "Pygmalion effect" from research projects conducted in earlier years that intimated "people's expectations could influence other people in the world around them." In the world of deaf

Santini, Joseph

2014-01-01

68

A Superintendent's High Expectations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article profiles Wanda Bamberg, superintendent of the Aldine (Texas) Independent School District. Bamberg is used to high expectations regardless of the circumstances. She is a firecracker of sorts who talks much and expects much from her staff members, teachers, and students, who are mostly at-risk, Black and Hispanic, and economically

Pascopella, Angela

2009-01-01

69

An Unexpected Expected Value.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the surprising result that the expected number of marbles of one color drawn from a set of marbles of two colors after two draws without replacement is the same as the expected number of that color marble after two draws with replacement. Presents mathematical models to help explain this phenomenon. (MDH)

Schwartzman, Steven

1993-01-01

70

Delayed Macular Hole Closure  

PubMed Central

Purpose The presented case raises questions regarding the favorable scheduling of planned postoperative care and the ideal observation interval to decide for reoperations in macular hole surgery. Furthermore a discussion about the use of short- and long-acting gas tamponades in macular hole surgery is encouraged. Methods We present an interventional case report and a short review of the pertinent literature. Results We report a case of spontaneous delayed macular hole closure after vitreoretinal surgery had been performed initially without the expected success. A 73-year-old male Caucasian patient presented at our clinic with a stage 2 macular hole in his left eye. He underwent 23-gauge pars plana vitrectomy and internal limiting membrane peeling with a 20% C2F6-gas tamponade. Sixteen days after the procedure, an OCT scan revealed a persistent stage 2 macular hole, and the patient was scheduled for reoperation. Surprisingly, at the date of planned surgery, which was another 11 days later, the macular hole had resolved spontaneously without any further intervention. Conclusions So far no common opinion exists regarding the use of short- or long-acting gas in macular hole surgery. Our case of delayed macular hole closure after complete resorption of the gas tamponade raises questions about the need and duration of strict prone positioning after surgery. Furthermore short-acting gas might be as efficient as long-acting gas. We suggest to wait with a second intervention at least 4 weeks after the initial surgery, since a delayed macular hole closure is possible. PMID:24847257

Distelmaier, Peter; Meyer, Linda M.; Fischer, Marie T.; Philipp, Sebastian; Paquet, Patrick; Mammen, Antje; Haller, Katharina; Schnfeld, Carl-Ludwig

2014-01-01

71

FE2707 Expected value/mathematical expectation 1 FE2707 Expected value/mathematical expectation  

E-print Network

expectation of f , E [f(X)], is de#12;ned by E [f(X)] = P ! i 2 p(! i )f(! i ) E [f(X)] = R ! i 2 d! p of the stock. The expected stock price is given E [f(X)] = 1 6 (1 + 2 + 3 + 4 + 5 + 6) = 3:5. (ii) Life-out) is given by f(t). Then, the expected pro#12;t is given by E [f(t)] = R 1 0 dt p(t)f(t), which

Magdon-Ismail, Malik

72

Expected runtimes of a simple multi-objective evolutionary algorithm  

Microsoft Academic Search

The expected runtime of a simple multi-objective evolutionary algorithm for the Boolean decision space is analyzed. The algorithm uses independent bit flips as mutation operator and, therefore, searches globally. It is proved that the expected runtime is O(nn) for all objective functions {0,1}n ? Rm. This worst-case bound is tight and matches the worst-case bounds for fundamental evolutionary algorithms working

Oliver Giel

2003-01-01

73

Information for Expectant Parents  

MedlinePLUS

... Parents Families About Us Information For... Media Policy Makers Information for Expectant Parents Language: English Espaol (Spanish) ... Defects, Blood Disorders & Disabilities Information For... Media Policy Makers Language: English Espaol (Spanish) File Formats Help: How ...

74

Calculating Expectation Shift  

E-print Network

This paper concerns the problem of calculating expectation shift due to variability which tends to occur whenever the function of a random variable is nonlinear and especially tends to occur in the neighborhood of a local ...

Frey, Daniel

2011-01-01

75

Delayed Standard Neural Network Models for Control Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to conveniently analyze the stability of recurrent neural networks (RNNs) and successfully synthesize the controllers for nonlinear systems, similar to the nominal model in linear robust control theory, the novel neural network model, named delayed standard neural network model (DSNNM) is presented, which is the interconnection of a linear dynamic system and a bounded static delayed (or nondelayed)

Meiqin Liu

2007-01-01

76

COMPENSATING THE TRANSMISSION DELAY IN NETWORKED CONTROL SYSTEMS N., Georgesb  

E-print Network

COMPENSATING THE TRANSMISSION DELAY IN NETWORKED CONTROL SYSTEMS Vatanskia N., Georgesb J.-P., Aubrunb C., Rondeaub E. and S.-L. Jms-Jounelaa a) Research Centre for Automatic Control (CRAN UMR 7039 transmission in the switched Ethernet network is presented. The upper bound delay algorithm applies ideas from

Paris-Sud XI, Universit de

77

Delay-range-dependent stability for systems with time-varying delay  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is concerned with the stability analysis for systems with time-varying delay in a range. An appropriate type of Lyapunov functionals is proposed to investigate the delay-range-dependent stability problem. The present results may improve the existing ones due to a method to estimate the upper bound of the derivative of Lyapunov functional without ignoring some useful terms and the

Yong He; Qing-guo Wang; Chong Lin; Min Wu

2007-01-01

78

Performance expectation plan  

SciTech Connect

This document outlines the significant accomplishments of fiscal year 1998 for the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Project Hanford Management Contract (PHMC) team. Opportunities for improvement to better meet some performance expectations have been identified. The PHMC has performed at an excellent level in administration of leadership, planning, and technical direction. The contractor has met and made notable improvement of attaining customer satisfaction in mission execution. This document includes the team`s recommendation that the PHMC TWRS Performance Expectation Plan evaluation rating for fiscal year 1998 be an Excellent.

Ray, P.E.

1998-09-04

79

Time Delay and Accretion Disk Size Measurements in the Lensed Quasar SBS 0909+532 from Multiwavelength Microlensing Analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present three complete seasons and two half-seasons of Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) r-band photometry of the gravitationally lensed quasar SBS 0909+532 from the U.S. Naval Observatory, as well as two seasons each of SDSS g-band and r-band monitoring from the Liverpool Robotic Telescope. Using Monte Carlo simulations to simultaneously measure the system's time delay and model the r-band microlensing variability, we confirm and significantly refine the precision of the system's time delay to \\Delta t_{AB} = 50^{+2}_{-4}\\,{days}, where the stated uncertainties represent the bounds of the formal 1? confidence interval. There may be a conflict between the time delay measurement and a lens consisting of a single galaxy. While models based on the Hubble Space Telescope astrometry and a relatively compact stellar distribution can reproduce the observed delay, the models have somewhat less dark matter than we would typically expect. We also carry out a joint analysis of the microlensing variability in the r and g bands to constrain the size of the quasar's continuum source at these wavelengths, obtaining log {(r s, r /cm)[cos i/0.5]1/2} = 15.3 0.3 and log {(r s, g /cm)[cos i/0.5]1/2} = 14.8 0.9, respectively. Our current results do not formally constrain the temperature profile of the accretion disk but are consistent with the expectations of standard thin disk theory.

Hainline, Laura J.; Morgan, Christopher W.; MacLeod, Chelsea L.; Landaal, Zachary D.; Kochanek, C. S.; Harris, Hugh C.; Tilleman, Trudy; Goicoechea, L. J.; Shalyapin, V. N.; Falco, Emilio E.

2013-09-01

80

Heterogeneity in expected longevities.  

PubMed

We develop a new methodology to compute differences in the expected longevity of individuals of a given cohort who are in different socioeconomic groups at a certain age. We address the two main problems associated with the standard use of life expectancy: (1) that people's socioeconomic characteristics change, and (2) that mortality has decreased over time. Our methodology uncovers substantial heterogeneity in expected longevities, yet much less heterogeneity than what arises from the naive application of life expectancy formulae. We decompose the longevity differences into differences in health at age 50, differences in the evolution of health with age, and differences in mortality conditional on health. Remarkably, education, wealth, and income are health-protecting but have very little impact on two-year mortality rates conditional on health. Married people and nonsmokers, however, benefit directly in their immediate mortality. Finally, we document an increasing time trend of the socioeconomic gradient of longevity in the period 1992-2008, and we predict an increase in the socioeconomic gradient of mortality rates for the coming years. PMID:25391225

Pijoan-Mas, Josep; Ros-Rull, Jos-Vctor

2014-12-01

81

It's To Be Expected  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students use a tree diagram on their graphing calculators to find theoretical probabilities. They then manipulate this information in a spreadsheet to find the expected value. This lesson includes teacher notes, a student worksheet with solutions, and a homework assignment with solutions.

2010-08-27

82

Parenting with High Expectations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In some ways raising deaf or hard of hearing children is no different than raising hearing children; expectations must be established and periodically tweaked. Benna Hull Timperlake, who with husband Roger, raised two hearing children in addition to their deaf daughter, Genelle Timperlake Sanders, and Genelle, now a deaf professional, share their

Timperlake, Benna Hull; Sanders, Genelle Timperlake

2014-01-01

83

Great Expectations. [Lesson Plan].  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Based on Charles Dickens' novel "Great Expectations," this lesson plan presents activities designed to help students understand the differences between totalitarianism and democracy; and a that a writer of a story considers theme, plot, characters, setting, and point of view. The main activity of the lesson involves students working in groups to

Devine, Kelley

84

Maintaining High Expectations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Author and husband, Roger Williams, is hearing and signs fluently, and author and wife, Sherry Williams, is deaf and uses both speech and signs, although she is most comfortable signing. As parents of six children--deaf and hearing--they are determined to encourage their children to do their best, and they always set their expectations high. They

Williams, Roger; Williams, Sherry

2014-01-01

85

Longevity and life expectancy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The increase in life expectancy at all ages during the last two centuries is in need of a quantitative model capable of resuming the whole process under a single concept and simple mathematics. The basic hypothesis was that through improved hygiene, medicine, and life-style, the stumbling blocks to the full expression of longevity were progressively removed. The mathematics of learning

Cesare Marchetti

1997-01-01

86

EXPECTATIONS AND FISCAL STIMULUS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increases in unproductive government spending trigger substitution effectsboth inter- and intra-temporaland a wealth effect. The ultimate impacts on the economy hinge on current and expected monetary and fiscal policy behavior. Studies that impose active monetary policy and passive fiscal policy typically find that government consumption crowds out private consumption: higher future taxes create a strong negative wealth effect, while the

TROY DAVIG; ERIC M. LEEPER

2009-01-01

87

Perception of Delayed Stiffness  

Microsoft Academic Search

Advanced technology has recently provided truly immersive virtual environments with teleoperated robotic devices. In order to control movements from a distance, the human sensorimotor system has to overcome the effects of delay. Currently, little is known about the mechanisms that underlie haptic estimation in delayed environments. The aim of this research is to explore the effect of a delay on

Assaf Pressman; Amir Karniel; Ferdinando A. Mussa-Ivaldi

2006-01-01

88

Delay Discounting and Gambling  

PubMed Central

Delay discounting describes the decline in the value of a reinforcer as the delay to that reinforcer increases. A review of the available studies revealed that steep delay discounting is positively correlated with problem or pathological gambling. One hypothesis regarding this correlation derives from the discounting equation proposed by Mazur (1989). According to the equation, steeper discounting renders the difference between fixed-delayed rewards and gambling-like variable-delayed rewards larger; with the latter being more valuable. The present study was designed to test this prediction by first assessing rats impulsive choices across four delays to a larger-later reinforcer. A second condition quantified strength of preference for mixed- over fixed-delays, with the duration of the latter adjusted between sessions to achieve indifference. Strength of preference for the mixed-delay alternative is given by the fixed delay at indifference (lower fixed-delay values reflect stronger preferences). Percent impulsive choice was not correlated with the value of the fixed delay at indifference and, therefore, the prediction of the hyperbolic model of gambling was not supported. A follow-up assessment revealed a significant decrease in impulsive choice after the second condition. This shift in impulsive choice could underlie the failure to observe the predicted correlation between impulsive choice and degree of preference for mixed- over fixed delays. PMID:21352902

Madden, Gregory J.; Francisco, Monica T.; Brewer, Adam T.; Stein, Jeffrey S.

2011-01-01

89

On Transmission of Two Correlated Gaussian Memoryless Sources over a Gaussian MAC using Delay-Free Mappings  

E-print Network

This paper considers delay-free, low complexity, joint source-channel coding (JSCC) for communication of two correlated Gaussian memoryless sources over a Gaussian Multiple Access Channel (GMAC). Schemes are proposed both for cooperative and distributed encoders. The cooperative case is mainly studied to get an idea about how close one can expect to get to the performance upper bound with a zero delay constraint. The main contribution of the paper are distributed JSCC schemes. Two schemes are proposed: One fully discrete scheme based on nested scalar quantization and a hybrid discrete-analog scheme based on a scalar quantizer and a linear continuous mapping. Both transmit- and received power constraints are considered. The proposed schemes are robust against noise and show promising performance which improve with increasing correlation.

Floor, Paal Anders; Wernersson, Niklas; Ramstad, Tor A; Skoglund, Mikael; Balasingham, Ilangko

2011-01-01

90

Speech and language delay in children.  

PubMed

Speech and language delay in children is associated with increased difficulty with reading, writing, attention, and socialization. Although physicians should be alert to parental concerns and to whether children are meeting expected developmental milestones, there currently is insufficient evidence to recommend for or against routine use of formal screening instruments in primary care to detect speech and language delay. In children not meeting the expected milestones for speech and language, a comprehensive developmental evaluation is essential, because atypical language development can be a secondary characteristic of other physical and developmental problems that may first manifest as language problems. Types of primary speech and language delay include developmental speech and language delay, expressive language disorder, and receptive language disorder. Secondary speech and language delays are attributable to another condition such as hearing loss, intellectual disability, autism spectrum disorder, physical speech problems, or selective mutism. When speech and language delay is suspected, the primary care physician should discuss this concern with the parents and recommend referral to a speech-language pathologist and an audiologist. There is good evidence that speech-language therapy is helpful, particularly for children with expressive language disorder. PMID:21568252

McLaughlin, Maura R

2011-05-15

91

Quantum Metrological Bounds for Vector Parameter  

E-print Network

Precise measurement is crucial to science and technology. However, the rule of nature imposes various restrictions on the precision that can be achieved depending on specific methods of measurement. In particular, quantum mechanics poses the ultimate limit on precision which can only be approached but never be violated. Depending on analytic techniques, these bounds may not be unique. Here, in view of prior information, we investigate systematically the precision bounds of the total mean-square error of vector parameter estimation which contains $d$ independent parameters. From quantum Ziv-Zakai error bounds, we derive two kinds of quantum metrological bounds for vector parameter estimation, both of which should be satisfied. By these bounds, we show that a constant advantage can be expected via simultaneous estimation strategy over the optimal individual estimation strategy, which solves a long-standing problem. A general framework for obtaining the lower bounds in a noisy system is also proposed.

Yu-Ran Zhang; Heng Fan

2014-11-08

92

Quantum metrological bounds for vector parameters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Precise measurement is crucial to science and technology. However, the rule of nature imposes various restrictions on the precision that can be achieved depending on specific methods of measurement. In particular, quantum mechanics poses the ultimate limit on precision which can only be approached but never be violated. Depending on analytic techniques, these bounds may not be unique. Here, in view of prior information, we investigate systematically the precision bounds of the total mean-square error of vector parameter estimation which contains d independent parameters. From quantum Ziv-Zakai error bounds, we derive two kinds of quantum metrological bounds for vector parameter estimation, both of which should be satisfied. By these bounds, we show that a constant advantage can be expected via a simultaneous estimation strategy over the optimal individual estimation strategy, which solves a long-standing problem. A general framework for obtaining the lower bounds in a noisy system is also proposed.

Zhang, Yu-Ran; Fan, Heng

2014-10-01

93

How Good is Tapped Delay Line Simulation?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some calculations are presented for a uniformly spaced time-invariant tapped delay line simulation of a two-path propagation model using white noise and pseudonoise sequences as input signals. The results indicate that, at least for a straightforward approach, signalto-signal-to-interpolation-noise ratios are poorer than generally expected.

W. Hartman

1976-01-01

94

How good is tapped delay line simulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some calculations are presented for a uniformly spaced time-invariant tapped delay line simulation of a two-path propagation model using white noise and pseudonoise sequences as input signals. The results indicate that, at least for a straightforward approach, signal-to-interpolation-noise ratios are poorer than generally expected.

W. J. Hartman; A. Q. Howard Jr.

1976-01-01

95

Duration-Limited Statistical Multiplexing of Delay-Sensitive Traffic in Packet Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel strategy for the transmission and multiplexing of delay-sensitive traffic, e.g., voice and video, in packet networks is described. The strategy provides bounded end-to-end delay to all delay-sensitive traffic guarantees loss-free transmission to any traffic with such a requirement. To achieve statistical multiplexing gain, loss performance is provided to the rest of delay-sensitive traffic on an as-needed basis, with

S. Jamaloddin Golestani

1991-01-01

96

Delay Analysis of Priority Queues with Modulated Traffic  

E-print Network

. The future Internet is expected to offer a certain quality of service (QoS) guarantee to some important-to-end delay are two crucial performance metrics for Internet QoS. Among these two, the end-to-end delay to fulfil this QoS requirement, aims to offer service differentiation for different classes of flows at each

Imperial College, London

97

Delay Sensitive Communications over Cognitive Radio Networks  

E-print Network

Supporting the quality of service of unlicensed users in cognitive radio networks is very challenging, mainly due to dynamic resource availability because of the licensed users' activities. In this paper, we study the optimal admission control and channel allocation decisions in cognitive overlay networks in order to support delay sensitive communications of unlicensed users. We formulate it as a Markov decision process problem, and solve it by transforming the original formulation into a stochastic shortest path problem. We then propose a simple heuristic control policy, which includes a threshold-based admission control scheme and and a largest-delay-first channel allocation scheme, and prove the optimality of the largest-delay-first channel allocation scheme. We further propose an improved policy using the rollout algorithm. By comparing the performance of both proposed policies with the upper-bound of the maximum revenue, we show that our policies achieve close-to-optimal performance with low complexities...

Wang, Feng; Zhao, Yuping

2012-01-01

98

Authentic delay bounded event detection in heterogeneous wireless sensor networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

When using wireless sensor networks for real-time event alarming, it is critical to ensure event notification in a timely manner. Additionally, it is extremely important to ensure the alarms generated by the sensors propagate securely through the network to the sink. Another important factor to consider is energy, as it is a limited resource in wireless sensor networks. Accordingly, maximizing

Chunyu Ai; Hailong Hou; Yingshu Li; Raheem A. Beyah

2009-01-01

99

Packet Audio Playout Delay Adjustment: Performance Bounds and Algorithms \\Lambda  

E-print Network

Kurose, and Don Towsley Department of Computer Science University of Massachusetts at Amherst Amherst, MA 01003 fsbmoon,kurose,towsleyg@cs.umass.edu Abstract In packet audio applications, packets are buffered

Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

100

New standard exceeds expectations  

SciTech Connect

The new ASTM environmental due diligence standard is delivering far more than expected when it was conceived in 1990. Its use goes well beyond the relatively narrow legal liability protection that was the primary goal in its development. The real estate industry, spearheaded by the lending community, was preoccupied with environmental risk and liability. Lenders throughout the concept's evolution have been at the forefront in defining environmental due diligence. The lender liability rule is intended to protect property owners from CERCLA liability for property they own or companies they manage (for example, as a result of foreclosure). The new site assessment standard increasingly is considered a benchmark for prudent environmental due diligence in the interest of risk management, not legal liability. The focus on risk management, including collateral devaluation and corporate credit risk, are becoming dominant areas of policy focus in the lending industry. Lenders now are revising their policies to incorporate transactions beyond issues of real estate, in which a company's economic viability and ability to service debt could be impacted by an environmental problem unrelated to property transfers.

Bennett, M.J. (Environmental Data Resources Inc., Southport, CT (United States))

1993-08-01

101

What Do Expectant Mothers Know about Neonatal Jaundice?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Neonatal jaundice (NNJ) is a common disorder worldwide and many affected babies become brain-damaged due to delay in seeking medical consultation. In order to assess the awareness and knowledge of expectant mothers about NNJ, women who registered for antenatal care at a tertiary health facility in the South-western part of Nigeria were

Ogunfowora, Olusoga B.; Adefuye, Peter O.; Fetuga, Musili B.

2006-01-01

102

Can the $?^- nn$ System be Bound?  

E-print Network

Motivated by the $\\Sigma$-hypernuclear states reported in ($K^-,\\pi^{\\pm}$) experiments, we have explored the possibility that there exists a particle-stable $\\Sigma^- nn$ bound state. For the J\\"ulich \\~A hyperon-nucleon, realistic-force model, our calculations yield little reason to expect a positive-parity bound state in either the $J = \\frac{1}{2}$ or the $J = \\frac{3}{2}$ channels.

A. Stadler; B. F. Gibson

1994-02-02

103

EXPECTATION, CONDITIONAL EXPECTATION AND MARTINGALES IN LOCAL FIELDS  

E-print Network

EXPECTATION, CONDITIONAL EXPECTATION AND MARTINGALES IN LOCAL FIELDS STEVEN N. EVANS AND TYE LIDMAN. EVANS AND TYE LIDMAN a, b, and s integers, where a and b are not divisible by p. Set |r| = p-s . If we

Sekhon, Jasjeet S.

104

Delayed recombination and cosmic parameters  

SciTech Connect

Current cosmological constraints from cosmic microwave background anisotropies are typically derived assuming a standard recombination scheme, however additional resonance and ionizing radiation sources can delay recombination, altering the cosmic ionization history and the cosmological inferences drawn from the cosmic microwave background data. We show that for recent observations of the cosmic microwave background anisotropy, from the Wilkinson microwave anisotropy probe satellite mission (WMAP) 5-year survey and from the arcminute cosmology bolometer array receiver experiment, additional resonance radiation is nearly degenerate with variations in the spectral index, n{sub s}, and has a marked effect on uncertainties in constraints on the Hubble constant, age of the universe, curvature and the upper bound on the neutrino mass. When a modified recombination scheme is considered, the redshift of recombination is constrained to z{sub *}=1078{+-}11, with uncertainties in the measurement weaker by 1 order of magnitude than those obtained under the assumption of standard recombination while constraints on the shift parameter are shifted by 1{sigma} to R=1.734{+-}0.028. From the WMAP5 data we obtain the following constraints on the resonance and ionization sources parameters: {epsilon}{sub {alpha}}<0.39 and {epsilon}{sub i}<0.058 at 95% c.l.. Although delayed recombination limits the precision of parameter estimation from the WMAP satellite, we demonstrate that this should not be the case for future, smaller angular scales measurements, such as those by the Planck satellite mission.

Galli, Silvia; Melchiorri, Alessandro [Universita di Roma 'La Sapienza', Ple Aldo Moro 2, 00185, Rome (Italy); Bean, Rachel [Department of Astronomy, Space Sciences Building, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853 (United States); Silk, Joseph [Astrophysics, Denys Wilkinson Building, University of Oxford, Keble Road, OX1 3RH, Oxford (United Kingdom)

2008-09-15

105

Delayed Recombination and Cosmic Parameters  

E-print Network

Current cosmological constraints from Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) anisotropies are typically derived assuming a standard recombination scheme, however additional resonance and ionizing radiation sources can delay recombination, altering the cosmic ionization history and the cosmological inferences drawn from CMB data. We show that for recent observations of CMB anisotropy, from the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe satellite mission 5-year survey (WMAP5) and from the ACBAR experiment, additional resonance radiation is nearly degenerate with variations in the spectral index, n_s, and has a marked effect on uncertainties in constraints on the Hubble constant, age of the universe, curvature and the upper bound on the neutrino mass. When a modified recombination scheme is considered, the redshift of recombination is constrained to z_*=1078\\pm11, with uncertainties in the measurement weaker by one order of magnitude than those obtained under the assumption of standard recombination while constraints on the shift parameter are shifted by 1-sigma to R=1.734\\pm0.028. Although delayed recombination limits the precision of parameter estimation from the WMAP satellite, we demonstrate that this should not be the case for future, smaller angular scales measurements, such as those by the Planck satellite mission.

Silvia Galli; Rachel Bean; Alessandro Melchiorri; Joseph Silk

2008-07-09

106

Great Expectations: Temporal Expectation Modulates Perceptual Processing Speed  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In a crowded dynamic world, temporal expectations guide our attention in time. Prior investigations have consistently demonstrated that temporal expectations speed motor behavior. We explore effects of temporal expectation on "perceptual" speed in three nonspeeded, cued recognition paradigms. Different hazard rate functions for the cue-stimulus

Vangkilde, Signe; Coull, Jennifer T.; Bundesen, Claus

2012-01-01

107

Perception of Delayed Stiffness  

Microsoft Academic Search

Advanced technology has recently provided truly immersive virtual environments with teleoperated robotic devices. In order to control movements from a distance, the human sensorimotor system has to overcome the e fects of delay. Currently, little is known about the mechanisms that underlie haptic estimation in delayed environments. The aim of this research is to explore the e fect of a

Assaf Pressman; Leah J. Welty; Amir Karniel; Ferdinando A. Mussa-Ivaldi

2007-01-01

108

Quasicontinuous control using time-delay coordinates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate quasicontinuous versions of the Ott-Grebogi-Yorke (OGY) control method in a bronze ribbon experiment using time-delay coordinates for the reconstruction of the attractor. We apply as quasicontinuous control methods the local control method and the minimal expected deviation method. As is known for the original OGY-method with time-delay coordinates, values of the control parameter at previous times appear in the linearized dynamics. We discuss two possible ways to derive from this linearization feedback control formulas. The robustness of the control methods with respect to noise is experimentally demonstrated.

zu Schweinsberg, A. Schenck; Dressler, U.

1997-05-01

109

Expected runtimes of a simple multi-objective evolutionary algorithm  

Microsoft Academic Search

AbstractThe expected runtime of a simple multiobjective evolutionary algorithm,for the Boolean decision space is analyzed. The algorithm uses independent bit ips as mutation operator and, therefore, searches globally. It is proved that the expected runtime is O.n,\\/ that serves as a test function in the continuous decision space is adapted to the Boolean decision space, and bounds on the runtime

O. Giel

2003-01-01

110

Kidney Failure: What to Expect  

MedlinePLUS

... Topics and Titles : Kidney Failure: What to Expect Kidney Failure: What to Expect On this page: How ... through Research For More Information Acknowledgments How does kidney failure affect a persons health? Kidney failure can ...

111

FastStats: Life Expectancy  

MedlinePLUS

... data Deaths and mortality How Did Cause of Death Contribute to Racial Differences in Life Expectancy in the United States in 2010? Life expectancy at age 25, by sex and education level, Health, United States, 2011, figure ...

112

Design of robust controllers for time-delay systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The problem of stabilizing linear dynamical time-delay systems subject to bounded uncertainties is investigated. Two memoryless feedback controllers are considered. It is established that when the matching conditions are met and certain bounding relations are satisfied, then the linear controller renders the zero-response of the system asymptotically stable. Saturation-type controllers are shown to guarantee that all system responses are uniformly

Magdi S. Mahmoud; Naser F. AI-Muthairi

1994-01-01

113

Adaptive robust control schemes of uncertain time-delay systems and its applications to water pollution control systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The problem of adaptive robust stabilization is considered for a class of uncertain nonlinear time-delay dynamical systems. It is assumed that the upper bound of the nonlinear delayed state perturbations is a linear function of some parameters which are assumed to be unknown. It is also assumed that the time delays are time-varying, and can be any nonnegative continuous and

Hansheng Wu

2011-01-01

114

Measuring Alcohol Expectancies in Youth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Beliefs about the consequences of using alcohol, alcohol expectancies, are powerful predictors of underage drinking. The Alcohol Expectancies Questionnaire-Adolescent form (AEQ-A) has been widely used to measure expectancies in youth. Despite its broad use, the factor structure of the AEQ-A has not been firmly established. It is also not known

Randolph, Karen A.; Gerend, Mary A.; Miller, Brenda A.

2006-01-01

115

CONSUMERS' EXPECTATIONS AND CONSUMPTION EXPENDITURE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some studies have examined the impact of consumers' expectations on consumption expenditure. However, none of these studies concludes a clear positive relationship between these variables. It has been argued that consumers' expectations about the economy's future should have an impact on consumers' decisions about how much to consume and how much to save. While consumers' expectations seem to be a

Shokoofeh Fazel

2005-01-01

116

Effects of differential reinforcement expectancies on successful matching-to-sample performance in pigeons  

Microsoft Academic Search

Employed a symbolic variant of J. A. Konorski's (1959) delayed successive matching-to-sample task to determine whether differential reinforcement expectancies affect discriminative responding. One of 2 sample stimuli was followed, after a delay (0, 5, or 10 sec), by 1 of 2 test stimuli. Ss' keypecking during test periods could produce food only on positive trials; nonreinforcement invariably occurred on negative

Robert E. DeLong; Edward A. Wasserman

1981-01-01

117

Stability and Flipping Dynamics of Delayed Genetic Toggle Switch  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A detailed analysis of the stability and flipping dynamics of a delayed exclusive toggle switch is performed. We use forward flux sampling method combined with delayed stochastic simulation algorithm to get the stationary distribution function, the switching rate, and pathways, as well as the transition state ensemble. Interestingly, under the influence of time delay, the stationary distribution corresponding to the stable states become narrower and the population in the transition region is significantly enhanced. In addition, the flipping rate increases monotonically with delay. Such findings demonstrate that time delay could reduce the stability of the bistable genetic switch dramatically. Furthermore, the transition pathways, characterized by the difference in the protein numbers and the state of operator, show larger discrepancy between the forward and backward switching process with increasing delay, indicating that transcriptional and translational delay can remarkably affect the flipping dynamics. Specifically, for the transition state, the difference in the probability of finding the operator site bound by the two different protein dimers is enlarged by delay, which further illustrates the crucial role of time delay on the stability and switching dynamics of genetic toggle switches.

Zhang, Rui-ting; Chen, Han-shuang; Hou, Zhong-huai

2012-02-01

118

On Minimizing Average End-to-End Delay in P2P Live Streaming Systems  

E-print Network

streaming applications have exhibited grow- ing popularity, such as IPTV, VOIP, and video conferencing.g., video conferencing, or cloud computing), for which assured bounds on end-to-end delays are more de

Ravindran, Binoy

119

Bound states and the Bekenstein bound  

SciTech Connect

We explore the validity of the generalized Bekenstein bound, S<= pi M a. We define the entropy S as the logarithm of the number of states which have energy eigenvalue below M and are localized to a flat space region of width alpha. If boundary conditions that localize field modes are imposed by fiat, then the bound encounters well-known difficulties with negative Casimir energy and large species number, as well as novel problems arising only in the generalized form. In realistic systems, however, finite-size effects contribute additional energy. We study two different models for estimating such contributions. Our analysis suggests that the bound is both valid and nontrivial if interactions are properly included, so that the entropy S counts the bound states of interacting fields.

Bousso, Raphael

2003-10-16

120

Delayed voice communication  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present results from simulated deep-space exploration missions that investigated voice communication with significant time delays. The simulations identified many challenges: confusion of sequence, blocked calls, wasted crew time, impaired ability to provide relevant information to the other party, losing track of which messages have reached the other party, weakened rapport between crew and ground, slow response to rapidly changing situations, and reduced situational awareness. These challenges were met in part with additional training; greater attention and foresight; longer, less frequent transmissions; meticulous recordkeeping and timekeeping; and specific alerting and acknowledging calls. Several simulations used both delayed voice and text messaging. Text messaging provided a valuable record of transmissions and allowed messages to be targeted to subsets of the flight and ground crew, but it was a poor choice for high-workload operators such as vehicle drivers and spacewalkers. Even with the foregoing countermeasures, delayed voice communication is difficult. Additional aids such as automatic delay timers and voice-to-text transcription would help. Tests comparing delays of 50 and 300 s unexpectedly revealed that communicating with the shorter delay was just as challenging as with the longer one.

Love, Stanley G.; Reagan, Marcum L.

2013-10-01

121

Robust Convergence in Pulse-Coupled Oscillators with Delays  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We show that for pulse-coupled oscillators a class of phase response curves with both excitation and inhibition exhibit robust convergence to synchrony on arbitrary aperiodic connected graphs with delays. We describe the basins of convergence and give explicit bounds on the convergence times. These results provide new and more robust methods for synchronization of sensor nets and also have biological implications.

Nishimura, Joel; Friedman, Eric J.

2011-05-01

122

Permanence of a discrete SIRS epidemic model with time delays  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we consider the permanence of a discrete SIRS epidemic model with time delays. This model is constructed from the discretization by the Euler method. Applying the technique to prove the existence of an eventual lower bound in a continuous epidemic model, a sufficient condition for the permanence of the above discrete SIRS epidemic model is obtained.

Masaki Sekiguchi

2010-01-01

123

Downhole delay assembly for blasting with series delay  

DOEpatents

A downhole delay assembly is provided which can be placed into a blasthole for initiation of explosive in the blasthole. The downhole delay assembly includes at least two detonating time delay devices in series in order to effect a time delay of longer than about 200 milliseconds in a round of explosions. The downhole delay assembly provides a protective housing to prevent detonation of explosive in the blasthole in response to the detonation of the first detonating time delay device. There is further provided a connection between the first and second time delay devices. The connection is responsive to the detonation of the first detonating time delay device and initiates the second detonating time delay device. A plurality of such downhole delay assemblies are placed downhole in unfragmented formation and are initiated simultaneously for providing a round of explosive expansions. The explosive expansions can be used to form an in situ oil shale retort containing a fragmented permeable mass of formation particles.

Ricketts, Thomas E. (Grand Junction, CO)

1982-01-01

124

TIME DELAY AND ACCRETION DISK SIZE MEASUREMENTS IN THE LENSED QUASAR SBS 0909+532 FROM MULTIWAVELENGTH MICROLENSING ANALYSIS  

SciTech Connect

We present three complete seasons and two half-seasons of Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) r-band photometry of the gravitationally lensed quasar SBS 0909+532 from the U.S. Naval Observatory, as well as two seasons each of SDSS g-band and r-band monitoring from the Liverpool Robotic Telescope. Using Monte Carlo simulations to simultaneously measure the system's time delay and model the r-band microlensing variability, we confirm and significantly refine the precision of the system's time delay to {Delta}t{sub AB} = 50{sub -4}{sup +2} days, where the stated uncertainties represent the bounds of the formal 1{sigma} confidence interval. There may be a conflict between the time delay measurement and a lens consisting of a single galaxy. While models based on the Hubble Space Telescope astrometry and a relatively compact stellar distribution can reproduce the observed delay, the models have somewhat less dark matter than we would typically expect. We also carry out a joint analysis of the microlensing variability in the r and g bands to constrain the size of the quasar's continuum source at these wavelengths, obtaining log {l_brace}(r{sub s,r}/cm)[cos i/0.5]{sup 1/2}{r_brace} = 15.3 {+-} 0.3 and log {l_brace}(r{sub s,g}/cm)[cos i/0.5]{sup 1/2}{r_brace} = 14.8 {+-} 0.9, respectively. Our current results do not formally constrain the temperature profile of the accretion disk but are consistent with the expectations of standard thin disk theory.

Hainline, Laura J.; Morgan, Christopher W.; MacLeod, Chelsea L.; Landaal, Zachary D. [Department of Physics, United States Naval Academy, 572C Holloway Rd, Annapolis, MD 21402 (United States); Kochanek, C. S. [Department of Astronomy, The Ohio State University, 140 West 18th Ave, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Harris, Hugh C.; Tilleman, Trudy [United States Naval Observatory, Flagstaff Station, 10391 West Naval Observatory Road, Flagstaff, AZ 86001-8521 (United States); Goicoechea, L. J.; Shalyapin, V. N. [Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Cantabria, Avda. de Los Castros s/n, E-39005 Santander (Spain); Falco, Emilio E., E-mail: hainline@usna.edu, E-mail: cmorgan@usna.edu, E-mail: macleod@usna.edu, E-mail: m123894@usna.edu, E-mail: ckochanek@astronomy.ohio-state.edu, E-mail: hch@nofs.navy.mil, E-mail: trudy@nofs.navy.mil, E-mail: goicol@unican.es, E-mail: vshal@ukr.net, E-mail: falco@cfa.harvard.edu [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden St, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

2013-09-01

125

Energy-Delay Trade-off of Wireless Data Collection in the Plane  

E-print Network

Energy-Delay Trade-off of Wireless Data Collection in the Plane Mihaela Mitici , Jasper Goseling and the energy needed by the devices to transmit their observations. Fundamental bounds on the energy-delay trade and ii) the transmission energy used by the wireless devices to transmit their observations, which

Boucherie, Richard J.

126

Optimal exponential synchronization of general chaotic delayed neural networks: An LMI approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper investigates the optimal exponential synchronization problem of general chaotic neural networks with or without time delays by virtue of LyapunovKrasovskii stability theory and the linear matrix inequality (LMI) technique. This general model, which is the interconnection of a linear delayed dynamic system and a bounded static nonlinear operator, covers several well-known neural networks, such as Hopfield neural networks,

Meiqin Liu

2009-01-01

127

BodyT2: Throughput and time delay performance assurance for heterogeneous BSNs  

Microsoft Academic Search

applications, includin g smart health care, assisted living , emergency response, athletic per formance evaluation, and interactive controls. Many of these applications require strin gent performance assurance in terms of communication throu ghput and bounded time delay. While solutions exist in literature for providin g joint throu ghput and time delay assurance by proposin g specific MAC protocols or extensions,

Zhen Ren; Gang Zhou; Andrew Pyles; Matthew Keally; Weizhen Mao; Haining Wang

2011-01-01

128

A closed-form expression for queuing delay in Rayleigh fading channels using stochastic network calculus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stochastic Network Calculus is a modern theory for studying the delay performance of a queuing system. So far, this theory proved very effective in studying QoS in the wireline transmission media. In fact, it provides an upper bound to the probability tail of the queuing delay and requires only the expression of an arrival curve, which models the traffic source,

Giacomo Verticale

2009-01-01

129

On Time Delay Margin Estimation for Adaptive Control and Optimal Control Modification  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper presents methods for estimating time delay margin for adaptive control of input delay systems with almost linear structured uncertainty. The bounded linear stability analysis method seeks to represent an adaptive law by a locally bounded linear approximation within a small time window. The time delay margin of this input delay system represents a local stability measure and is computed analytically by three methods: Pade approximation, Lyapunov-Krasovskii method, and the matrix measure method. These methods are applied to the standard model-reference adaptive control, s-modification adaptive law, and optimal control modification adaptive law. The windowing analysis results in non-unique estimates of the time delay margin since it is dependent on the length of a time window and parameters which vary from one time window to the next. The optimal control modification adaptive law overcomes this limitation in that, as the adaptive gain tends to infinity and if the matched uncertainty is linear, then the closed-loop input delay system tends to a LTI system. A lower bound of the time delay margin of this system can then be estimated uniquely without the need for the windowing analysis. Simulation results demonstrates the feasibility of the bounded linear stability method for time delay margin estimation.

Nguyen, Nhan T.

2011-01-01

130

Student Expectations of Grade Inflation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

College students completed evaluation-of-teaching surveys in five different courses to develop an evaluation instrument that would provide results concerning faculty performance. Two questions examined students' expectations regarding grades. Results indicated a significant degree of expected grade inflation. Large proportions of students doing

Landrum, R. Eric

1999-01-01

131

Nobody expects the Spanish Inquistion  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Is any one really ready for the Spanish Inquisition? Assign studnets to participate in reading the play, The Spanish Inquisition by Monty Python. While readiang the play, display the following pictures at appropiate times. Nobody expects the Spanish Inquistion Confess!!! Get the Cushions!!!! Get the comfy Chair! Now you'll confess! Confess women, CONFESS!!! Nobody expects the Spanish Inquisition!!! ...

Mrs. Hirschi

2005-04-08

132

Thermalization time bounds for Pauli stabilizer Hamiltonians  

E-print Network

We prove a general lower bound to the spectral gap of the Davies generator for Pauli stabilizer Hamiltonians. These Hamiltonians, defined on the Hilbert space of $N$-qubits, serve as one of the most frequently considered candidates for a self-correcting quantum memory. A spectral gap bound on the Davies generator establishes an upper limit on the life time of such a quantum memory and can be used to estimate the time until the system relaxes to thermal equilibrium when brought into contact with a thermal heat bath. The bound can be shown to behave as $\\lambda \\geq {\\cal O}(N^{-1}\\exp(-2\\beta \\, \\overline{\\epsilon}))$, where $\\overline{\\epsilon}$ is a generalization of the well known energy barrier for logical operators. Particularly in the low temperature regime we expect this bound to provide the correct asymptotic scaling of the gap with the system size up to a factor of $N^{-1}$.

Kristan Temme

2014-12-09

133

Research Module: Weekly Report Expectations. 82 Weekly Report Expectations  

E-print Network

. There is extensive solvent visible, as well as benzyl alcohol...".) 7. Include your GC-MS-3, and print and attach at and what kind of formatting expections apply. 9. Note: Keep copies of your reports and NMR's and GC

Jasperse, Craig P.

134

Delayed enrollment and College Plans: is There a Postponement Penalty?  

PubMed

Using a representative longitudinal survey of Texas high school seniors who graduated in 2002, we investigate how college postponement is associated with four-year college expectations and attendance-focusing both on the length of delay and the pathway to the postsecondary system. Like prior studies, we show that family background and student academic achievement explains the negative association between delay and college expectations and that these factors, along with two-year college entry pathway, largely accounted for the negative association between postponement and enrollment at a four-year institution in 2006. Although delays of one year or longer are associated with significantly lower odds of attending a baccalaureate-granting institution four years after high school, the longest delays do not incur the most severe enrollment penalties. PMID:23606758

Niu, Sunny; Tienda, Marta

2013-01-01

135

Children's knowledge, expectation, and long-term retention  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY To examine the influence of prior knowledge on children's immediate and delayed recall of the details of a physical examination, 4- and 6-year-olds received a specially constructed check-up that included some typical, expected medical features (e.g. listening to the heart), while omitting others, and incorporated several atypical, unexpected procedures (e.g. measuring head circumference). Using a combination of open-ended and

Peter A. Ornstein; Kathy Ann Merritt; Lynne Baker-Ward; Elizabeth Furtado; Betty N. Gordon; Gabrielle Principe

1998-01-01

136

Time-delayed upper atmospheric responses to solar EUV irradiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is well recognized that solar EUV irradiations at various wavelengths are the dominant driver of the quiet-time upper atmospheric variations, including thermospheric temperature and densities, as well as ionospheric density and temperatures. However, responses of the upper atmosphere have been found not as straightforward as expected, but rather complicated with time-delays for approximately 2 days relative to solar flux proxy F10.7. Using measurements of TIMED/SEE solar UV flux at various wavelengths and incoherent scatter radar-based ionospheric and thermospheric parameters, this paper addresses characteristic upper atmospheric variability on the time scales from hours to days, and the associated solar UV variations. It is found that exospheric temperature Tex is most sensitive to solar EUV flux with an approximately 2-day delay at wavelengths of 27--34 nm (including 30.4 nm). In fact, a 20--60-hour time delay occurs in Tex response to EUV flux at the 27-34 nm band, with shorter delays in the morning and longer delays in the afternoon and at night. Ionospheric electron delays are altitude dependent: in the E-region, there is no time delay, and in the F2 region, there exist delays for 2-3 days in both electron density and ion temperature. These delays are perhaps representatives of the upper atmospheric memory and will be discussed in the paper.

Zhang, Shunrong; Erickson, Philip; Goncharenko, Larisa

2015-04-01

137

Externalities, expectations, and Pigouvian taxes  

SciTech Connect

This article derives Pigouvian-type corrective measures for reciprocal externalities when non-Nash behavior characterizes the participants. These reciprocal externalities may involve various kinds of environmental pollutants, such as acid rain. A comparison between corrective measures for Nash and non-Nash behavior demonstrates that positive conjectures, regarding the other agent's externality-generating activity, have an expectation-internalizing influence that usually reduces the required corrective measures. Negative conjectures (e.g., free-riding expectations), however, have an expectation-externalizing effect that increases the required corrective measures. The article analyzes both two-person and n-person externalities. 13 references, 3 figures, 1 table.

Cornes, R.; Sandler, T.

1985-03-01

138

Inter-sensor propagation delay estimation using sources of opportunity  

E-print Network

Propagation delays are intensively used for Structural Health Monitoring or Sensor Network Localization. In this paper, we study the performances of acoustic propagation delay estimation between two sensors, using sources of opportunity only. Such sources are defined as being uncontrolled by the user (activation time, location, spectral content in time and space), thus preventing the direct estimation with classical active approaches, such as TDOA, RSSI and AOA. Observation models are extended from the literature to account for the spectral characteristics of the sources in this passive context and we show how time-filtered sources of opportunity impact the retrieval of the propagation delay between two sensors. A geometrical analogy is then proposed that leads to a lower bound on the variance of the propagation delay estimation that accounts for both the temporal and the spatial properties of the sources field.

Vincent, Rmy; Michel, Olivier; Lacoume, Jean-Louis

2015-01-01

139

Delay tracking of spread-spectrum signals for indoor optical ranging.  

PubMed

Delay tracking of spread-spectrum signals is widely used for ranging in radio frequency based navigation. Its use in non-coherent optical ranging, however, has not been extensively studied since optical channels are less subject to narrowband interference situations where these techniques become more useful. In this work, an early-late delay-locked loop adapted to indoor optical ranging is presented and analyzed. The specific constraints of free-space infrared channels in this context substantially differ from those typically considered in radio frequency applications. The tracking stage is part of an infrared differential range measuring system with application to mobile target indoor localization. Spread-spectrum signals are used in this context to provide accurate ranging while reducing the effect of multipath interferences. The performance of the stage regarding noise and dynamic errors is analyzed and validated, providing expressions that allow an adequate selection of the design parameters depending on the expected input signal characteristics. The behavior of the stage in a general multipath scenario is also addressed to estimate the multipath error bounds. The results, evaluated under realistic conditions corresponding to an 870 nm link with 25 MHz chip-rate, built with low-cost up-to-date devices, show that an overall error below 6% of a chip time can be achieved. PMID:25490585

Salido-Monz, David; Martn-Gorostiza, Ernesto; Lzaro-Galilea, Jos Luis; Martos-Naya, Eduardo; Wieser, Andreas

2014-01-01

140

Delay Tracking of Spread-Spectrum Signals for Indoor Optical Ranging  

PubMed Central

Delay tracking of spread-spectrum signals is widely used for ranging in radio frequency based navigation. Its use in non-coherent optical ranging, however, has not been extensively studied since optical channels are less subject to narrowband interference situations where these techniques become more useful. In this work, an early-late delay-locked loop adapted to indoor optical ranging is presented and analyzed. The specific constraints of free-space infrared channels in this context substantially differ from those typically considered in radio frequency applications. The tracking stage is part of an infrared differential range measuring system with application to mobile target indoor localization. Spread-spectrum signals are used in this context to provide accurate ranging while reducing the effect of multipath interferences. The performance of the stage regarding noise and dynamic errors is analyzed and validated, providing expressions that allow an adequate selection of the design parameters depending on the expected input signal characteristics. The behavior of the stage in a general multipath scenario is also addressed to estimate the multipath error bounds. The results, evaluated under realistic conditions corresponding to an 870 nm link with 25 MHz chip-rate, built with low-cost up-to-date devices, show that an overall error below 6% of a chip time can be achieved. PMID:25490585

Salido-Monz, David; Martn-Gorostiza, Ernesto; Lzaro-Galilea, Jos Luis; Martos-Naya, Eduardo; Wieser, Andreas

2014-01-01

141

Delayed choice without choice  

E-print Network

A critical note on some of the existing proposals for performing the "delayed choice" experiment is placed. By abandoning the original idea and intention, some modern theoretical proposals and experimental evidence are simply incorrectly understood/interpreted. In effect, the Complementarity principle remains practically intact.

M. Dugic

2012-11-07

142

Delayed neuronal death.  

PubMed

A brief, transient episode of cerebral ischemia causes selective loss of CA1 pyramidal cells in the hippocampus. Interestingly, it takes 2-3 days for the neuronal damage of CA1 to become morphologically obvious; hence, the term 'delayed neuronal death' was coined to describe this phenomenon. Approximately two decades after it was first recognized, the precise mechanism of delayed neuronal death is not yet fully understood. The most widely supported explanation is the glutamate-Ca2+ theory, in which vulnerability of CA1 neurons is ascribed to their property of neurotransmitters and their receptors. Although this theory explains the early phase of neuronal response to ischemia fairly well, it does not offer a satisfactory explanation for the delayed phase of the process. Excessive accumulation of Ca2+ is observed in CA1 following transient ischemia, but accumulating evidence suggests that additional changes at the molecular level have to follow to completing the dying process, including expression of various apoptosis-related genes. Further studies are, therefore, necessary to elucidate the mechanism of delayed neuronal death which, in turn, may open a new window for the treatment of stroke. PMID:11037198

Kirino, T

2000-09-01

143

Uncovering the expectancy effect: the validation of Acupuncture Expectancy Scale  

PubMed Central

Purpose Research suggests that expectancy may modulate the response to medical interventions, including acupuncture. However, the paucity of validated tools to measure expectancy limits rigorous evaluation. We sought to validate a previously developed Acupuncture Expectancy Scale (AES) as an instrument to measure patients expected responses to acupuncture. Methods Participants were patients with stage I to III cancers seen in outpatient medical and radiation oncology clinics. They were drawn from three study cohorts that included 404 participants. We examined the reliability, validity and responsiveness of AES. Results The scores of AES had internal consistency (Cronbachs ? coefficient) of 0.95 and test-retest reliability of 0.62 over four weeks without acupuncture treatment. Those who had previously used acupuncture had higher AES compared to those who were acupuncture nave (12.4 vs. 9.5, p=0.002). AES was higher in those who reported willingness to participate in an acupuncture trial compared to those who did not want to participate in an acupuncture trial (11.5 vs. 8.1, p<0.001). Those patients who enrolled in a pilot trial of acupuncture had higher AES score than the general outpatient population (13.0 vs. 9.8, p=0.02), and expectancy increased during the course of acupuncture treatment (13.0 to 16.5, p<0.017). Conclusion The AES is reliable and valid, and scores appear to increase during or after prior therapy. Incorporation of AES in clinical trials and outcome studies can evaluate the role of expectancy on acupuncture outcomes. PMID:21280459

Mao, Jun J.; Xie, Sharon X.; Bowman, Marjorie A.

2013-01-01

144

Passivity and Passification of Memristor-Based Recurrent Neural Networks With Additive Time-Varying Delays.  

PubMed

This paper presents a new design scheme for the passivity and passification of a class of memristor-based recurrent neural networks (MRNNs) with additive time-varying delays. The predictable assumptions on the boundedness and Lipschitz continuity of activation functions are formulated. The systems considered here are based on a different time-delay model suggested recently, which includes additive time-varying delay components in the state. The connection between the time-varying delay and its upper bound is considered when estimating the upper bound of the derivative of Lyapunov functional. It is recognized that the passivity condition can be expressed in a linear matrix inequality (LMI) format and by using characteristic function method. For state feedback passification, it is verified that it is apathetic to use immediate or delayed state feedback. By constructing a Lyapunov-Krasovskii functional and employing Jensen's inequality and reciprocal convex combination technique together with a tighter estimation of the upper bound of the cross-product terms derived from the derivatives of the Lyapunov functional, less conventional delay-dependent passivity criteria are established in terms of LMIs. Moreover, second-order reciprocally convex approach is employed for deriving the upper bound for terms with inverses of squared convex parameters. The model based on the memristor with additive time-varying delays widens the application scope for the design of neural networks. Finally, pertinent examples are given to show the advantages of the derived passivity criteria and the significant improvement of the theoretical approaches. PMID:25415991

Rakkiyappan, Rajan; Chandrasekar, Arunachalam; Cao, Jinde

2014-11-13

145

Delay Analysis of Networked Control Systems Based on 100?M Switched Ethernet  

PubMed Central

For the delay may degrade the performance of networked control systems, networked control systems based on 100?M switched Ethernet are proposed in this paper. According to the working principle of Ethernet switch, the formulas of the upper bound delay of the single-level switched Ethernet and the multiple-level switched Ethernet are deduced by the timing diagram method, and the values of the upper bound delay are also given. The key factors that influence the upper bound delay of switched Ethernet are analyzed; then, the characteristics of the upper bound delay are presented, which show that the delay induced by the single-level 100?M switched Ethernet has little effect on the performance of control systems, while the delay induced by the multiple-level 100?M switched Ethernet may meet the time requirements of all classes of control systems if the numbers of levels and the numbers of nodes connecting to switches are set properly. Finally, the performance of networked control systems is simulated by TrueTime, and the results further show the feasibility and superiority of 100?M switched Ethernet based networked control systems without modification of the network protocols. PMID:25003152

2014-01-01

146

Bounding Species Distribution Models  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Species distribution models are increasing in popularity for mapping suitable habitat for species of management concern. Many investigators now recognize that extrapolations of these models with geographic information systems (GIS) might be sensitive to the environmental bounds of the data used in their development, yet there is no recommended best practice for "clamping" model extrapolations. We relied on two commonly used modeling approaches: classification and regression tree (CART) and maximum entropy (Maxent) models, and we tested a simple alteration of the model extrapolations, bounding extrapolations to the maximum and minimum values of primary environmental predictors, to provide a more realistic map of suitable habitat of hybridized Africanized honey bees in the southwestern United States. Findings suggest that multiple models of bounding, and the most conservative bounding of species distribution models, like those presented here, should probably replace the unbounded or loosely bounded techniques currently used [Current Zoology 57 (5): 642-647, 2011].

Stohlgren, Thomas J.; Jarnevich, Cahterine S.; Morisette, Jeffrey T.; Esaias, Wayne E.

2011-01-01

147

Bounding species distribution models  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Species distribution models are increasing in popularity for mapping suitable habitat for species of management concern. Many investigators now recognize that extrapolations of these models with geographic information systems (GIS) might be sensitive to the environmental bounds of the data used in their development, yet there is no recommended best practice for "clamping" model extrapolations. We relied on two commonly used modeling approaches: classification and regression tree (CART) and maximum entropy (Maxent) models, and we tested a simple alteration of the model extrapolations, bounding extrapolations to the maximum and minimum values of primary environmental predictors, to provide a more realistic map of suitable habitat of hybridized Africanized honey bees in the southwestern United States. Findings suggest that multiple models of bounding, and the most conservative bounding of species distribution models, like those presented here, should probably replace the unbounded or loosely bounded techniques currently used. ?? 2011 Current Zoology.

Stohlgren, T.J.; Jarnevich, C.S.; Esaias, W.E.; Morisette, J.T.

2011-01-01

148

Older adults' beliefs about physician-estimated life expectancy: a cross-sectional survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Estimates of life expectancy assist physicians and patients in medical decision-making. The time-delayed benefits for many medical treatments make an older adult's life expectancy estimate particularly important for physicians. The purpose of this study is to assess older adults' beliefs about physician-estimated life expectancy. METHODS: We performed a mixed qualitative-quantitative cross-sectional study in which 116 healthy adults aged 70+

Christine E Kistler; Carmen L Lewis; Halle R Amick; Debra L Bynum; Louise C Walter; Lea C Watson

2006-01-01

149

Research Module: Weekly Report Expectations. 85 Weekly Report Expectations  

E-print Network

. There is extensive solvent visible, as well as benzyl alcohol...".) 7. Include your GC-MS-3, and print and attach of formatting expections apply. 9. Note: Keep three extra copies of your NMR and your GC-MS's. Pyrazolidinone 3

Jasperse, Craig P.

150

Broken Expectations: Violation of Expectancies, Not Novelty, Captures Auditory Attention  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The role of memory in behavioral distraction by auditory attentional capture was investigated: We examined whether capture is a product of the novelty of the capturing event (i.e., the absence of a recent memory for the event) or its violation of learned expectancies on the basis of a memory for an event structure. Attentional capture--indicated

Vachon, Francois; Hughes, Robert W.; Jones, Dylan M.

2012-01-01

151

Do juries meet our expectations?  

PubMed

Surveys of public opinion indicate that people have high expectations for juries. When it comes to serious crimes, most people want errors of convicting the innocent (false positives) or acquitting the guilty (false negatives) to fall well below 10%. Using expected utility theory, Bayes' Theorem, signal detection theory, and empirical evidence from detection studies of medical decision making, eyewitness testimony, and weather forecasting, we argue that the frequency of mistakes probably far exceeds these "tolerable" levels. We are not arguing against the use of juries. Rather, we point out that a closer look at jury decisions reveals a serious gap between what we expect from juries and what probably occurs. When deciding issues of guilt and/or punishing convicted criminals, we as a society should recognize and acknowledge the abundance of error. PMID:12508698

Arkes, Hal R; Mellers, Barbara A

2002-12-01

152

Congestion delays at hub airports  

E-print Network

A deterministic model was developed to study the effects of inefficient scheduling on flight delays at hub airports. The model bases the delay calculation on published schedule data and on user-defined airport capacities. ...

St. George, Martin J.

1986-01-01

153

Definability with Bounded Number of Bound Variables  

Microsoft Academic Search

A theory satisfies the k-variable property if every first-order formula is equivalentto a formula with at most k bound variables (possibly reused). Gabbay has shownthat a model of temporal logic satisfies the k-variable property for some k if and onlyif there exists a finite basis for the temporal connectives over that model. We give amodel-theoretic method for establishing the k-variable

Neil Immerman; Dexter Kozen

1989-01-01

154

Improved conditions for passivity of neural networks with a time-varying delay.  

PubMed

The passivity of neural networks with a time-varying delay and norm-bounded parameter uncertainties is investigated in this paper. A complete delay-decomposing approach is employed to construct a Lyapunov-Krasovskii functional. Then, by utilizing a segmentation technique to consider the time-varying delay and its derivative and introducing some free-weighting matrices to express the relationship between the time-varying delay and its varying interval, some improved passivity criteria are derived. Finally, two numerical examples are given to show the effectiveness and the merits of the proposed method. PMID:24839061

Zeng, Hong-Bing; He, Yong; Wu, Min; Xiao, Hui-Qin

2014-06-01

155

Gaussian multipartite bound information  

E-print Network

We demonstrate the existence of Gaussian multipartite bound information which is a classical analog of Gaussian multipartite bound entanglement. We construct a tripartite Gaussian distribution from which no secret key can be distilled, but which cannot be created by local operations and public communication. Further, we show that the presence of bound information is conditional on the presence of a part of the adversary's information creatable only by private communication. Existence of this part of the adversary's information is found to be a more generic feature of classical analogs of quantum phenomena obtained by mapping of non-classically correlated separable quantum states.

Ladislav Mita, Jr.; Natalia Korolkova

2013-02-07

156

Delayed pulsar kicks from the emission of sterile neutrinos  

E-print Network

The observed velocities of pulsars suggest the possibility that sterile neutrinos with mass of several keV are emitted from a cooling neutron star. The same sterile neutrinos could constitute all or part of cosmological dark matter. The neutrino-driven kicks can exhibit delays depending on the mass and the mixing angle, which can be compared with the pulsar data. We discuss the allowed ranges of sterile neutrino parameters, consistent with the latest cosmological and X-ray bounds, which can explain the pulsar kicks for different delay times.

Alexander Kusenko; Bhabani Prasad Mandal; Alok Mukherjee

2008-05-22

157

Delayed crosslinker composition  

SciTech Connect

A crosslinker composition is described that can produce delayed crosslinking of an aqueous solution of a crosslinkable organic polymer. It consists of about 1% to about 10% by weight of an organic zirconium complex and about 2% to about 37% by weight organic hydroxycarboxylic acid selected from the group consisting of lactic, mandelic and hydroxyacetic acids the pH of the composition being no greater than 4.8.

Hodge, R.M.

1989-01-10

158

Asynchronous Unit Delays  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper considers the problem of designing an n-input, n-output, asynchronous unit delay (AUD) [2], [7], [13]. In the general case, all input changes are allowed in an AUD. However, the restricted case where only single input changes are allowed has been investigated in detail. Starting with linear single error-correcting codes, an unusual method of obtaining a uniquely reduced flow

SHANKER SINGH; S. G. S. Shiva

1971-01-01

159

ATTRITION IN DISTRIBUTED DELAY MODELS  

EPA Science Inventory

Distributed time delay models are extended to deal with loss of entities from within the process being modeled. Analysis of a time-invariant distributed delay shows that the statistics of individual transit times through a delay process can be very sensitive to attrition incurred...

160

Children's Judgments of Expected Value.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Expected value judgments of 5- through 10-year-olds were studied by having children view roulette-type games and make judgments of how happy a puppet playing the game would be. Even the youngest children showed some understanding of probability dependence, with children under eight using an additive integration rule and children eight and older

Schlottmann, Anne; Anderson, Norman H.

1994-01-01

161

Great Expectations and New Beginnings  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Great Expectation and New Beginnings is a prenatal family support program run by the Family, Infant, and Preschool Program (FIPP) in North Carolina. FIPP has developed an evidence-based integrated framework of early childhood intervention and family support that includes three primary components: providing intervention in everyday family

Davis, Frances A.

2009-01-01

162

Argumentative Men: Expectations of Success  

Microsoft Academic Search

Argumentativeness, an assertive style of communication, has been conceptualized as both constructive and desirable; it is linked with several managerial qualities, such as group leadership, better decision-making, and enhanced credibility. A rea sonable expectation is that supervisors would exhibit a higher level of argumenta tiveness. However, most efforts to show a direct link between argumentativeness and workplace success have led

Nancy M. Schullery

1999-01-01

163

Generalized expectancies for interpersonal trust  

Microsoft Academic Search

Describes results of a program of research on interpersonal trust, defined as belief in social communications. Construction of a scale for measuring individual differences, construct validity studies, and investigations of antecedents of trust, correlates of trust, and changes of college student trust are included. The evidence supports the hypothesis of (a) stable individual differences in a generalized expectancy for interpersonal

Julian B. Rotter

1971-01-01

164

Life expectancy under random censorship  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper deals with estimation of life expectancy used in survival analysis and competing risk study under the condition that the data are randomly censored by K independent censoring variables. The estimator constructed is based on a theorem due to Berman [2], and it involves an empirical distribution function which is related to the Kaplan-Meier estimate used in biometry. It

Grace Yang

1977-01-01

165

Life Expectancy following Psychogeriatric Reactivation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: To estimate life expectancy of psychogeriatric patients having participated in a reactivation program. To identify prognostic characteristics on admission for survival after discharge. Design: A prospective, clinical-empirical observational study. Setting: A Dutch psychiatric-skilled nursing home. Participants: Psychogeriatric patients (n = 75) suffering from very mild to moderate cognitive function disorders in conjunction with psychiatric function disorders. Intervention:

T. J. E. M. Bakker; H. J. Duivenvoorden; J. van der Lee; W. J. Schudel

2004-01-01

166

Expectancy theory analysis of migration  

Microsoft Academic Search

An Expectancy Theory analysis was used to explain patterns of migration in Iran. Fifty-four Iranian males and females were interviewed about their perception of the probability of attaining certain life outcomes in an urban or rural environment, and the importance of each outcome. The subjects were divided into three samples: migrants to the capital city, villagers, and migrants who had

Martin M. Chemers; Roya Ayman; Carol Werner

1978-01-01

167

Time-Delay Interferometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Equal-arm detectors of gravitational radiation allow phase measurements many orders of magnitude below the intrinsic phase stability of the laser injecting light into their arms. This is because the noise in the laser light is common to both arms, experiencing exactly the same delay, and thus cancels when it is differenced at the photo detector. In this situation, much lower level secondary noises then set the overall performance. If, however, the two arms have different lengths (as will necessarily be the case with space-borne interferometers), the laser noise experiences different delays in the two arms and will hence not directly cancel at the detector. In order to solve this problem, a technique involving heterodyne interferometry with unequal arm lengths and independent phase-difference readouts has been proposed. It relies on properly time-shifting and linearly combining independent Doppler measurements, and for this reason it has been called time-delay interferometry (TDI). This article provides an overview of the theory, mathematical foundations, and experimental aspects associated with the implementation of TDI. Although emphasis on the application of TDI to the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) mission appears throughout this article, TDI can be incorporated into the design of any future space-based mission aiming to search for gravitational waves via interferometric measurements. We have purposely left out all theoretical aspects that data analysts will need to account for when analyzing the TDI data combinations.

Tinto, Massimo; Dhurandhar, Sanjeev V.

2014-08-01

168

Delayed coking process  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes improvement in a delayed premium coking process in which an aromatic mineral oil feedstock is heated to elevated temperature and introduced continuously to a coking drum under delayed coking conditions wherein the heated feedstock soaks in its contained heat to convert the feedstock to cracked vapors and premium coke at lower than normal coking temperatures in the range of about 780{degrees} F. to about 895{degrees} F. and in which the introduction of feedstock to the coking drum is discontinued after the coking drum is filled to a desired level. The improvement comprises: introducing additional aromatic mineral oil capable of forming coke admixed with a non-coking material to the coking drum under delayed coking conditions for a sufficient period of time to convert unconverted liquid material to coke wherein the concentration of aromatic mineral oil in the admixture is from 5 to 90 percent, and thereafter subjecting the contents of the coke drum to a heat soak at a temperature greater than the initial coking temperature whereby a premium coke having improved CTE and reduced fluff is obtained.

Shigley, J.K.; Roussel, K.M.; Harris, S.D.

1991-07-02

169

Cramer-Rao Bounds for Nonparametric Surface Reconstruction from Range Tolga Tasdizen  

E-print Network

Cramer-Rao Bounds for Nonparametric Surface Reconstruction from Range Data Tolga Tasdizen School whitaker@cs.utah.edu Abstract The Cramer-Rao error bound provides a fundamental limit on the expected, but not on the specific properties of the estimator or the solution. The Cramer-Rao error bound has been applied to scalar

Utah, University of

170

Expectation Grammars: Leveraging High-Level Expectations for Activity Recognition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Video-based recognition and prediction of a temporally ex- tended activity can benefit from a detailed description of high-level expectations about the activity. Stochastic gr am- mars allow for an efficient representation of such expecta- tions and are well-suited for the specification of temporall y well-ordered activities. In this paper, we extend stochast ic grammars by adding event parameters, state checks,

David Minnen; Irfan A. Essa; Thad Starner

2003-01-01

171

Programmable Differential Delay Circuit With Fine Delay Adjustment  

DOEpatents

Circuitry that provides additional delay to early arriving signals such that all data signals arrive at a receiving latch with same path delay. The delay of a forwarded clock reference is also controlled such that the capturing clock edge will be optimally positioned near quadrature (depending on latch setup/hold requirements). The circuitry continuously adapts to data and clock path delay changes and digital filtering of phase measurements reduce errors brought on by jittering data edges. The circuitry utilizes only the minimum amount of delay necessary to achieve objective thereby limiting any unintended jitter. Particularly, this programmable differential delay circuit with fine delay adjustment is designed to allow the skew between ASICS to be minimized. This includes skew between data bits, between data bits and clocks as well as minimizing the overall skew in a channel between ASICS.

DeRyckere, John F. (Eau Claire, WI); Jenkins, Philip Nord (Eau Claire, WI); Cornett, Frank Nolan (Chippewa Falls, WI)

2002-07-09

172

Bounds on inference  

E-print Network

Lower bounds for the average probability of error of estimating a hidden variable X given an observation of a correlated random variable Y, and Fano's inequality in particular, play a central role in information theory. ...

Medard, Muriel

173

Boolean delay equations. II. Periodic and aperiodic solutions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Boolean delay equations (BDEs) are evolution equations for a vector of discrete variables x (t). The value of each component X i ( t), 0 or 1. depends on previous values of all components x j (t- t ij ), x i (t)=f i (x1( t- t i1),..., x n ( t - t in )). BDEs model the evolution of biological and physical systems with threshold behavior and nonlinear feedbacks. The delays model distinct interaction times between pairs of variables. In this paper, BDEs are studied by algebraic, analytic, and numerical methods. It is shown that solutions depend continuously on the initial data and on the delays. BDEs are classified into conservative and dissipative. All BDEs with rational delays only have periodic solutions only. But conservative BDEs with rationally unrelated delays have aperiodic solutions of increasing complexity. These solutions can be approximated arbitrarily well by periodic solutions of increasing period. Self-similarity and intermittency of aperiodic solutions is studied as a function of delay values, and certain number-theoretic questions related to resonances and diophantine approximation are raised. Period length is shown to be a lower semicontinuous function of the delays for a given BDE, and can be evaluated explicitly for linear equations. We prove that a BDE is structurable stable if and only if it has eventually periodic solutions of bounded period, and if the length of initial transients is bounded. It is shown that, for dissipative BDEs, asymptotic solution behavior is typically governed by a reduced BDE. Applications to climate dynamics and other problems are outlined.

Ghil, M.; Mullhaupt, A.

1985-10-01

174

Delayed plumage maturation and delayed reproductive investment in birds.  

PubMed

Delayed plumage maturation is the delayed acquisition of a definitive colour and pattern of plumage until after the first potential breeding period in birds. Here we provide a comprehensive overview of the numerous studies of delayed plumage maturation and a revised theoretical framework for understanding the function of delayed plumage maturation in all birds. We first distinguish between hypotheses that delayed plumage maturation is attributable to a moult constraint with no adaptive function and hypotheses that propose that delayed plumage maturation is a component of an adaptive life-history strategy associated with delayed reproductive investment. We then recognize three potential benefits of delayed plumage maturation: crypsis, mimicry and status signaling. Evidence suggests that delayed plumage maturation is not a consequence of developmental constraints and instead represents a strategy to maximize reproductive success in circumstances where young adults cannot effectively compete with older adults for limited resources, particularly breeding opportunities. A multi-factorial explanation that takes into account lifespan and the degree of competition for limited breeding resources and that combines the benefits of an inconspicuous appearance with the benefits of honest signaling of reduced competitiveness provides a general explanation for the function of delayed plumage maturation in most bird species. Delayed plumage maturation should be viewed as a component of alternative reproductive strategies that can include delay in both plumage and sexual development. Such strategies are frequently facultative, with individuals breeding prior to the acquisition of definitive plumages when conditions are favourable. Presumably, the benefits of delayed plumage maturation ultimately enhance lifetime reproductive success, and studying delayed plumage maturation within the context of lifetime reproductive success should be a goal of future studies. PMID:21790949

Hawkins, Gerard L; Hill, Geoffrey E; Mercadante, Austin

2012-05-01

175

Bounding homogeneous models  

Microsoft Academic Search

A Turing degree d is homogeneous bounding if every complete decidable (CD) theory has a d-decidable homogeneous model A, i.e., the elementary diagram D e (A) has degree d. It follows from results of Macintyre and Marker that ev- ery PA degree (i.e., every degree of a complete extension of Peano Arithmetic) is homogeneous bounding. We prove that in fact

Barbara F. Csima; Valentina S. Harizanov; Denis R. Hirschfeldt; Robert I. Soare

2007-01-01

176

Vehicle barrier with access delay  

DOEpatents

An access delay vehicle barrier for stopping unauthorized entry into secure areas by a vehicle ramming attack includes access delay features for preventing and/or delaying an adversary from defeating or compromising the barrier. A horizontally deployed barrier member can include an exterior steel casing, an interior steel reinforcing member and access delay members disposed within the casing and between the casing and the interior reinforcing member. Access delay members can include wooden structural lumber, concrete and/or polymeric members that in combination with the exterior casing and interior reinforcing member act cooperatively to impair an adversarial attach by thermal, mechanical and/or explosive tools.

Swahlan, David J; Wilke, Jason

2013-09-03

177

[Delayed posthypoxic leukoencephalopathy: case reports].  

PubMed

Delayed posthypoxic leukoencephalopathy (DPL) is a rare and less well known complication of hypoxic brain injury. Although it is well known that anoxic or hypoxic injury produces acute neurologic deficits, DPL typically manifests days to weeks after apparent recovery from an obtunded state, and patients with DPL demonstrate cognitive impairment, high brain dysfunction, parkinsonism, or psychosis. MRI findings of the brain demonstrate deep white matter abnormalities. We report 2 cases of DPL after hypoxia due to benzodiazepine overdose. Both of our patients had normal arylsulfatase A activity. Although DPL is seen in carbon monoxide poisoning, pseudodeficiency of arylsulfatase A activity, or drug overdose with heroin or morphine, there are only some previous studies of DPL caused by an overdose with benzodiazepine. It is unclear whether neurotoxicity from the drug in addition to hypoxia alone is involved, however, it is important to note that overdose of common drugs as sleeping medicine can cause DPL. Since DPL may often be misdiagnosed and be subjected to unnecessary treatments, it is also important to understand its unique clinical course and MRI findings. With prompt recognition of DPL, we expect that more cases of DPL caused by overdose with benzodiazepine will be diagnosed, because benzodiazepine overdoses are common. PMID:22989903

Okuda, Shiho; Ueno, Masao; Hayakawa, Michiko; Araki, Manabu; Kanda, Fumio; Takano, Shin

2012-01-01

178

Effects of the gaseous and liquid water content of the atmosphere on range delay and Doppler frequency  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

When high precision is required for range measurement on Earth space paths, it is necessary to correct as accurately as possible for excess range delays due to the dry air, water vapor, and liquid water content of the atmosphere. Calculations based on representative values of atmospheric parameters are useful for illustrating the order of magnitude of the expected delays. Range delay, time delay, and phase delay are simply and directly related. Doppler frequency variations or noise are proportional to the time rate of change of excess range delay. Tropospheric effects were examined as part of an overall consideration of the capability of precision two way ranging and Doppler systems.

Flock, W. L.

1981-01-01

179

DELAYED REINFORCEMENT OF OPERANT BEHAVIOR  

PubMed Central

The experimental analysis of delay of reinforcement is considered from the perspective of three questions that seem basic not only to understanding delay of reinforcement, but, also, by implication, the contributions of temporal relations between events to operant behavior. The first question is whether effects of the temporal relation between responses and reinforcers can be isolated from other features of the environment that often accompany delays, such as stimuli or changes in the temporal distribution or rate of reinforcement. The second question is that of the effects of delays on operant behavior. Beyond the common denominator of a temporal separation between reinforcers and the responses that produce them, delay of reinforcement procedures differ from one another along several dimensions, making delay effects circumstance dependent. The final question is one of interpreting delay of reinforcement effects. It centers on the role of the responsereinforcer temporal relation in the context of other, concurrently operating behavioral processes. PMID:20676272

Lattal, Kennon A

2010-01-01

180

Gravity, massive particles, photons and Shapiro delay  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An impact model of gravity designed to emulate Newton's law of gravitation is applied to particles with relative motions at slow and relativistic speeds. Based on this model, a gravitational interaction mode is then conceived between photons and massive particles. This implies a deflection perpendicular to the propagation direction of a photon twice as large as expected from the mass-energy relation of photonsin accordance with observations and the General Theory of Relativity. The longitudinal interaction is compatible with the energy and momentum conservation principles applied to massless entities, and the results are consistent with the observed Shapiro delay.

Wilhelm, Klaus; Dwivedi, Bhola N.

2013-01-01

181

Expectation to hydrologists on groundwater  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Water demands are increasing globally since the latter half of 20th century. Especially, underground water demands have been increasing rapidly everywhere in the world. As a result, various kinds of environmental destruction were also occurred world-widely. Climate change is accelerating to increase the severe disasters and water crisis including the underground water critical situation. Thus, underground hydrologist's duty is very important, and it is expected to research and solve the above-mentioned matters for them.

Takahasi, Yutaka

182

Televisions, Physicians, and Life Expectancy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article, created by Allan Rossman of Dickinson College, describes a dataset on life expectancies, densities of people per television set, and densities of people per physician in various countries of the world. The example addresses correlation versus causation and data transformations. The author states that "the example has proven very useful for helping students to discover the fundamental principle that correlation does not imply causation."

Rossman, Allan

183

Fundamentals of Delayed Coking Joint Industry Project  

SciTech Connect

Delayed coking evolved steadily over the early to mid 1900s to enable refiners to convert high boiling, residual petroleum fractions to light products such as gasoline. Pound for pound, coking is the most energy intensive of any operation in a modern refinery. Large amounts of energy are required to heat the thick, poor-quality petroleum residuum to the 900 to 950 degrees F required to crack the heavy hydrocarbon molecules into lighter, more valuable products. One common misconception of delayed coking is that the product coke is a disadvantage. Although coke is a low valued (near zero economic value) byproduct, compared to transportation fuels, there is a significant worldwide trade and demand for coke as it is an economical fuel. Coke production has increased steadily over the last ten years, with further increases forecast for the foreseeable future. Current domestic production is near 111,000 tons per day. A major driving force behind this increase is the steady decline in crude quality available to refiners. Crude slates are expected to grow heavier with higher sulfur contents while environmental restrictions are expected to significantly reduce the demand for high-sulfur residual fuel oil. Light sweet crudes will continue to be available and in even greater demand than they are today. Refiners will be faced with the choice of purchasing light sweet crudes at a premium price, or adding bottom of the barrel upgrading capability, through additional new investments, to reduce the production of high-sulfur residual fuel oil and increase the production of low-sulfur distillate fuels. A second disadvantage is that liquid products from cokers frequently are unstable, i.e., they rapidly form gum and sediments. Because of intermediate investment and operating costs, delayed coking has increased in popularity among refiners worldwide. Based on the 2000 Worldwide Refining Survey published in the Oil and Gas, the delayed coking capacity for 101 refineries around the world is 2,937,439 barrels/calendar day. These cokers produce 154,607 tons of coke per day and delayed coking accounts for 88% of the world capacity. The delayed coking charge capacity in the United States is 1,787,860 b/cd. Despite its wide commercial use, only relatively few contractors and refiners are truly knowledgeable in delayed-coking design, so that this process carries with it a ''black art'' connotation. Until recently, the expected yield from cokers was determined by a simple laboratory test on the feedstock. As a result of Tulsa University's prior related research, a process model was developed that with additional work could be used to optimize existing delayed cokers over a wide range of potential feedstocks and operating conditions. The objectives of this research program are to: utilize the current micro, batch and pilot unit facilities at The University of Tulsa to enhance the understanding of the coking process; conduct additional micro and pilot unit tests with new and in-house resids and recycles to make current optimization models more robust; conduct focused kinetic experiments to enhance the furnace tube model and to enhance liquid production while minimizing sulfur in the products; conduct detailed foaming studies to optimize the process and minimize process upsets; quantify the parameters that affect coke morphology; and to utilize the knowledge gained from the experimental and modeling studies to enhance the computer programs developed in the previous JIP for optimization of the coking process. These refined computer models will then be tested against refinery data provided by the member companies. Novel concepts will also be explored for hydrogen sulfide removal of furnace gases as well as gas injection studies to reduce over-cracking.

Michael Volk; Keith Wisecarver

2003-09-26

184

Delayed Enrollment and College Plans: Is There a Postponement Penalty?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using a representative longitudinal survey of Texas high school seniors who graduated in 2002, we investigate how college postponement is associated with four-year college expectations and attendance--focusing both on the length of delay and the pathway to the postsecondary system. Like prior studies, we show that family background and student

Niu, Sunny; Tienda, Marta

2013-01-01

185

Adaptive Phase Delay Generator  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

There are several experimental setups involving rotating machinery that require some form of synchronization. The adaptive phase delay generator (APDG) the Bencic-1000 is a flexible instrument that allows the user to generate pulses synchronized to the rising edge of a tachometer signal from any piece of rotating machinery. These synchronized pulses can vary by the delay angle, pulse width, number of pulses per period, number of skipped pulses, and total number of pulses. Due to the design of the pulse generator, any and all of these parameters can be changed independently, yielding an unparalleled level of versatility. There are two user interfaces to the APDG. The first is a LabVIEW program that has the advantage of displaying all of the pulse parameters and input signal data within one neatly organized window on the PC monitor. Furthermore, the LabVIEW interface plots the rpm of the two input signal channels in real time. The second user interface is a handheld portable device that goes anywhere a computer is not accessible. It consists of a liquid-crystal display and keypad, which enable the user to control the unit by scrolling through a host of command menus and parameter listings. The APDG combines all of the desired synchronization control into one unit. The experimenter can adjust the delay, pulse width, pulse count, number of skipped pulses, and produce a specified number of pulses per revolution. Each of these parameters can be changed independently, providing an unparalleled level of versatility when synchronizing hardware to a host of rotating machinery. The APDG allows experimenters to set up quickly and generate a host of synchronizing configurations using a simple user interface, which hopefully leads to faster results.

Greer, Lawrence

2013-01-01

186

Statistical Delay Control and QoS-Driven Power Allocation Over Two-Hop Wireless Relay Links  

E-print Network

The time-varying feature of wireless channels usually makes the hard delay bound for data transmissions unrealistic to guarantee. In contrast, the statistically-bounded delay with a small violation probability has been widely used for delay quality-of-service (QoS) characterization and evaluation. While existing research mainly focused on the statistical-delay control in single-hop links, in this paper we propose the QoS-driven power-allocation scheme over two-hop wireless relay links to statistically upper-bound the end-to-end delay under the decodeand- forward (DF) relay transmissions. Specifically, by applying the effective capacity and effective bandwidth theories, we first analyze the delay-bound violation probability over two tops each with independent service processes. Then, we show that an efficient approach for statistical-delay guarantees is to make the delay distributions of both hops identical, which, however, needs to be obtained through asymmetric resource allocations over the two hops. Motivat...

Du, Qinghe; Ren, Pinyi; Zhang, Chao

2011-01-01

187

Ziv-Zakai bound on time-of-arrival estimation with statistical channel knowledge at the receiver  

E-print Network

Time-of-arrival (TOA) based localization plays an important role due to the possibility to exploit the fine delay resolution property when wideband signals are adopted. This paper investigates lower bounds on TOA estimation ...

Dardari, Davide

188

Complex network synchronization of chaotic systems with delay coupling  

SciTech Connect

The study of complex networks enables us to understand the collective behavior of the interconnected elements and provides vast real time applications from biology to laser dynamics. In this paper, synchronization of complex network of chaotic systems has been studied. Every identical node in the complex network is assumed to be in Lure system form. In particular, delayed coupling has been assumed along with identical sector bounded nonlinear systems which are interconnected over network topology.

Theesar, S. Jeeva Sathya, E-mail: sjstheesar@gmail.com; Ratnavelu, K., E-mail: sjstheesar@gmail.com [Network Science Research Group, Institute of Mathematical Sciences, University of Malaya, 50603, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

2014-03-05

189

Bounding the Bogoliubov coefficients  

SciTech Connect

While over the last century or more considerable effort has been put into the problem of finding approximate solutions for wave equations in general, and quantum mechanical problems in particular, it appears that as yet relatively little work seems to have been put into the complementary problem of establishing rigourous bounds on the exact solutions. We have in mind either bounds on parametric amplification and the related quantum phenomenon of particle production (as encoded in the Bogoliubov coefficients), or bounds on transmission and reflection coefficients. Modifying and streamlining an approach developed by one of the present authors [M. Visser, Phys. Rev. A 59 (1999) 427-438, (arXiv:quant-ph/9901030)], we investigate this question by developing a formal but exact solution for the appropriate second-order linear ODE in terms of a time-ordered exponential of 2x2 matrices, then relating the Bogoliubov coefficients to certain invariants of this matrix. By bounding the matrix in an appropriate manner, we can thereby bound the Bogoliubov coefficients.

Boonserm, Petarpa [School of Mathematics, Statistics, and Computer Science, Victoria University of Wellington, P.O. Box 600, Wellington (New Zealand); Visser, Matt [School of Mathematics, Statistics, and Computer Science, Victoria University of Wellington, P.O. Box 600, Wellington (New Zealand)], E-mail: matt.visser@mcs.vuw.ac.nz

2008-11-15

190

Primary Care Clinician Expectations Regarding Aging  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: Expectations regarding aging (ERA) in community-dwelling older adults are associated with personal health behaviors and health resource usage. Clinicians' age expectations likely influence patients' expectations and care delivery patterns; yet, limited research has explored clinicians' age expectations. The Expectations Regarding Aging

Davis, Melinda M.; Bond, Lynne A.; Howard, Alan; Sarkisian, Catherine A.

2011-01-01

191

Validation of EMP bounds  

SciTech Connect

Test data on canonical weapon-like fixtures are used to validate previously developed analytical bounding results. The test fixtures were constructed to simulate (but be slightly worse than) weapon ports of entry but have known geometries (and electrical points of contact). The exterior of the test fixtures exhibited exterior resonant enhancement of the incident fields at the ports of entry with magnitudes equal to those of weapon geometries. The interior consisted of loaded transmission lines adjusted to maximize received energy or voltage but incorporating practical weapon geometrical constraints. New analytical results are also presented for bounding the energies associated with multiple bolt joints and for bounding the exterior resonant enhancement of the exciting fields.

Warne, L.K.; Merewether, K.O.; Chen, K.C.; Jorgenson, R.E.; Morris, M.E.; Solberg, J.E.; Lewis, J.G. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Derr, W. [Derr Enterprises, Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1996-07-01

192

Delay-dependent robust stability and stabilization of uncertain linear delay systems: a linear matrix inequality approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper considers the problems of robust stability analysis and robust control design for a class of uncertain linear systems with a constant time-delay. The uncertainty is assumed to be norm-bounded and appears in all the matrices of the state-space model. We develop methods for robust stability analysis and robust stabilization. The proposed methods are dependent on the size of

Xi Li; Carlos E. de Souza

1997-01-01

193

Earth's extensive entropy bound  

E-print Network

The possibility of planetary mass black hole production by crossing entropy limits is addressed. Such a possibility is given by pointing out that two geophysical quantities have comparable values: first, Earth's total negative entropy flux integrated over geological time and, second, its extensive entropy bound, which follows as a tighter bound to the Bekenstein limit when entropy is an extensive function. The similarity between both numbers suggests that the formation of black holes from planets may be possible through a strong fluctuation toward thermodynamic equilibrium which results in gravothermal instability and final collapse. Briefly discussed are implications for the astronomical observation of low mass black holes and for Fermi's paradox.

A. M. Lisewski

2012-12-20

194

Stability analysis of some delay differential inequalities with small time delays and its applications.  

PubMed

In this paper, we discuss the asymptotic stability of the trajectories governed by the scalar delay differential inequalities: D?x(t)?-a(t)x(t)+b(t)sup(0?s??)x(t-s). Here, the requirements on a(t) and b(t) are more relaxed than those in previous works. For example, a(t), b(t), and a(t)-b(t) are not necessarily nonnegative. We prove that when ? is small, the asymptotic stability of x(t) can be obtained if the time average of a(t)-b(t) on some fixed length T is lower bounded by some positive ?. And we explicitly give the upper bound of ?. We also give two applications of the theoretical results. First, we consider self synchronization in Hopfield networks with time varying connections. Then we investigate consensus in networks with time varying topologies and arbitrary coupling weights. In both applications, we extend some of our previous works where time delays are not considered. At last, two numerical examples with simulations are provided to illustrate the effectiveness of the theoretical results. PMID:22543080

Liu, Bo; Lu, Wenlian; Chen, Tianping

2012-09-01

195

Demographic determinants of delayed divorce.  

PubMed

This study identifies factors that predict delayed divorce in the US. The findings show that factors which influence marital stability in general also correlate with delayed divorce in the same direction. Wife's age at marriage, age of the youngest child, wife's religion, region of residence, and metropolitan residence have substantial effects of delayed divorce, but the effects of race, parental divorce, premarital pregnancy, and socioeconomic status are small. PMID:12316281

Chan, L Y; Heaton, T B

1989-01-01

196

Delayed cure bismaleimide resins  

DOEpatents

Polybismaleimides prepared by delayed curing of bis-imides having the formula ##STR1## wherein R.sub.1 and R.sub.2 each independently is H, C.sub.1-4 -alkyl, C.sub.1-4 -alkoxy, Cl or Br, or R.sub.1 and R.sub.2 together form a fused 6-membered hydrocarbon aromatic ring, with the proviso that R.sub.1 and R.sub.2 are not t-butyl or t-butoxy; X is O, S or Se; n is 1-3; and the --(CH.sub.2).sub.n -- group, optionally, is substituted by 1-3 methyl groups or by fluorine.

Adams, Johnnie E. (Grandview, MO); Jamieson, Donald R. (Merriam, KS)

1984-08-07

197

Soviet delays raise prices  

SciTech Connect

The breakup of the Soviet Union is causing massive disruptions to methanol exports. The changeover to a Commonwealth of independent States has created logistical problems which have led some shipments of Russian methanol to be cancelled and delayed other deliveries by up to two weeks. In recent years the Soviet Union has exported 700,000 m.t./year-900,000 m.t./year of methanol, mainly to Western Europe. The product is made at 750,000-m.t./year plants at Tomsk and Gubakha in Russia and transported by rail for shipment from the ports of Ventspils, Latvia, on the Baltic Sea and Yuzhnyy in Ukraine, on the Black Sea. The exports were handled by state export agency Soyuzagrochim, mainly under contract to West European traders and consumers in areas like Scandinavia and France.

Young, I.

1992-01-15

198

Spatial based Expectation Maximizing (EM)  

PubMed Central

Background Expectation maximizing (EM) is one of the common approaches for image segmentation. Methods an improvement of the EM algorithm is proposed and its effectiveness for MRI brain image segmentation is investigated. In order to improve EM performance, the proposed algorithms incorporates neighbourhood information into the clustering process. At first, average image is obtained as neighbourhood information and then it is incorporated in clustering process. Also, as an option, user-interaction is used to improve segmentation results. Simulated and real MR volumes are used to compare the efficiency of the proposed improvement with the existing neighbourhood based extension for EM and FCM. Results the findings show that the proposed algorithm produces higher similarity index. Conclusions experiments demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm in compare to other existing algorithms on various noise levels. PMID:22029864

2011-01-01

199

Bounded Fraction Pointer  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Determine the value of two fractions you have chosen (which are represented as points on a number line). Then find a fraction whose value is between your two fractions (using an arrow on the number line as a guide) and determine its value. Bounded Fraction Pointer is one of the Interactivate assessment explorers.

200

The Delayed Stress Syndrome: A Pathological Delayed Grief Reaction?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Social and psychological problems displayed by Vietnam veterans have been classified as "Delayed Stress Syndrome." Grief theory provides model that helps explain reactions. Failure to resolve grief can result in delayed reactions. Vietnam experience was replete with significant traumatic losses; many were not resolved. Some Vietnam veterans later

Widdison, Harold A.; Salisbury, Howard G.

1990-01-01

201

Life expectancy following orbital exenteration.  

PubMed

Orbital exenteration is a physically debilitating procedure that may be a necessity in the management of orbital malignancy. It requires a sensitive multidisciplinary approach, both preoperatively and postoperatively. Providing life expectancy information for patients during preoperative counselling is pertinent to informed consent and in addressing patients' expectations. A retrospective review from one tertiary care centre was undertaken for a cohort of patients who were exenterated for orbital malignancy between 1998 and 2010. The cases were identified using an International Classification of Diseases 10th Revision (ICD-10)-derived database and were analysed using Prism statistical software (V.5.04). Cause of death was ascertained by liaising with the general practitioner and the National Registrar Office for Births, Deaths, and Marriages, Southport, UK. In total, 41 men and 32 women were identified. Mean age was 72?years with 47 cases living and 26 deceased at the time of review. The overall 5-year survival rate in this study was 64%. Kaplan-Meier analysis for basal cell carcinoma (BCC) against non-BCC returned a p value of 0.0199, with an HR of 0.3927 (CI 0.1788 to 0.8626). Kaplan-Meier analysis for cleared against non-cleared margins returned a p value of 0.2890, with an HR of 0.6571(CI 0.3024 to 1.428). Our results represent the highest 5-year survival data to date. However, the overall prognosis for patients who undergo orbital exenteration for malignancy remains poor. We hypothesise that the causes are multi-factorial. We recommend a multidisciplinary approach to the care of these patients, involving head and neck teams, oncology and other appropriate specialties, to optimise outcomes for this vulnerable patient group. PMID:24879806

Wong, James Chiun Lon; Thampy, Reshma; Cook, Anne

2015-01-01

202

Motor Activity Improves Temporal Expectancy  

PubMed Central

Certain brain areas involved in interval timing are also important in motor activity. This raises the possibility that motor activity might influence interval timing. To test this hypothesis, we assessed interval timing in healthy adults following different types of training. The pre- and post-training tasks consisted of a button press in response to the presentation of a rhythmic visual stimulus. Alterations in temporal expectancy were evaluated by measuring response times. Training consisted of responding to the visual presentation of regularly appearing stimuli by either: (1) pointing with a whole-body movement, (2) pointing only with the arm, (3) imagining pointing with a whole-body movement, (4) simply watching the stimulus presentation, (5) pointing with a whole-body movement in response to a target that appeared at irregular intervals (6) reading a newspaper. Participants performing a motor activity in response to the regular target showed significant improvements in judgment times compared to individuals with no associated motor activity. Individuals who only imagined pointing with a whole-body movement also showed significant improvements. No improvements were observed in the group that trained with a motor response to an irregular stimulus, hence eliminating the explanation that the improved temporal expectations of the other motor training groups was purely due to an improved motor capacity to press the response button. All groups performed a secondary task equally well, hence indicating that our results could not simply be attributed to differences in attention between the groups. Our results show that motor activity, even when it does not play a causal or corrective role, can lead to improved interval timing judgments. PMID:25806813

Fautrelle, Lilian; Mareschal, Denis; French, Robert; Addyman, Caspar; Thomas, Elizabeth

2015-01-01

203

Paradoxical Effects of Alcohol Information on Alcohol Outcome Expectancies  

PubMed Central

Background Cognitive associations with alcohol predict both current and future use in youth and young adults. Much cognitive and social cognitive research suggests that exposure to information may have unconscious influences on thinking and behavior. The present study assessed the impact of information statements on the accessibility of alcohol outcome expectancies. Methods The 2 studies reported here investigated the effects of exposure to alcohol statements typical of informational approaches to prevention on the accessibility of alcohol outcome expectancies. High school and university students were presented with information statements about the effects of alcohol and other commercial products. The alcohol statements were taken from expectancy questionnaires. Some of these statements were presented as facts and others as myths. The retention of detailed information about these statements was manipulated by (i) divided attention versus focused attention or (ii) immediate versus delayed testing. Accessibility of personal alcohol outcome expectancies was subsequently measured using an open-ended question about the expected effects of alcohol. Results Participants reported more alcohol outcomes seen during the information task as personal expectations about the effects of alcohol use than similar unseen items. Paradoxically, myth statements were also more likely to be reported as expectancies than unseen items in all conditions. Additionally, myth statements were generated less often than fact statements only under the condition of immediate testing with strong content processing instructions. Conclusions These observations are consistent with findings from cognitive research where familiarity in the absence of explicit memory can have an unconscious influence on performance. In particular, the exposure to these items in an informational format increases accessibility of the seen items even when the participants were told that they were myths. The findings have implications for the development of effective prevention materials. PMID:20477773

Krank, Marvin D.; Ames, Susan L.; Grenard, Jerry L.; Schoenfeld, Tara; Stacy, Alan W.

2014-01-01

204

Compositional Analysis of Expected Delays in Networks of Probabilistic I\\/O Automata  

Microsoft Academic Search

Probabilistic I\\/O automata (PIOA) constitute a model for distributed or concurrent systems that in- corporates a notion of probabilistic choice. The PIOA model provides a notion of composition, for construct- ing a PIOA for a composite system from a collection of PIOAs representing the components. We present a method for computing completion probability and ex- pected completion time for PIOAs.

Eugene W. Stark; Scott A. Smolka

1998-01-01

205

Amplitude death in networks of delay-coupled delay oscillators  

E-print Network

Amplitude death is a dynamical phenomenon in which a network of oscillators settles to a stable state as a result of coupling. Here, we study amplitude death in a generalized model of delay-coupled delay oscillators. We derive analytical results for degree homogeneous networks that show that amplitude death is governed by certain eigenvalues of the network's adjacency matrix. In particular these results demonstrate that in delay-coupled delay oscillators amplitude death can occur for arbitrarily large coupling strength k. In this limit we find a region of amplitude death, which occurs already at small coupling delays that scale with 1/k. We show numerically that these results remain valid in random networks with heterogeneous degree distribution.

Johannes M. Hfener; Gautam C. Sethia; Thilo Gross

2012-10-06

206

Optimum processing for delay-vector estimation in passive signal arrays  

Microsoft Academic Search

For the purpose of localizing a distant noisy target, or, conversely, calibrating a receiving array, the time delays defined by the propagation across the array of the target-generated signal wavefronts are estimated in the presence of sensor-to-sensor-independent array self-noise. The Cramr-Rao matrix bound for the vector delay estimate is derived, and used to show that either properly filtered beamformers or

WILLIAM R. HAHN; STEVEN A. TRETTER

1973-01-01

207

Exponential synchronization of general chaotic delayed neural networks via hybrid feedback  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper investigates the exponential synchronization problem of some chaotic delayed neural networks based on the proposed\\u000a general neural network model, which is the interconnection of a linear delayed dynamic system and a bounded static nonlinear\\u000a operator, and covers several well-known neural networks, such as Hopfield neural networks, cellular neural networks (CNNs),\\u000a bidirectional associative memory (BAM) networks, recurrent multilayer perceptrons

Mei-qin Liu; Jian-hai Zhang

2008-01-01

208

Delayed recovery from anaesthesia in a patient with optimised hypothyroidism and incidental hypokalemia.  

PubMed

Delayed recovery/awakening/ emergence can occur under anaesthesia and is multifactorial, could be drug or non drug related. Similarly, we report a case of delayed recovery in a 68-year-old patient, for laparoscopic cholecystectomy, a known case of hypertension, bronchial asthma and hypothyroidism. Preoperatively, she was optimised for her medical disorders; however, she had delayed recovery from general anaesthesia. The delayed recovery, often, would be expected in a case of hypothyroidism, however in our patient it was found to be associated with inadvertent hypokalemia. PMID:25738065

More, Preeti; Laheri, Vandana V; Waigankar, Tejasi; Wagh, Charchill

2015-01-01

209

Delayed Recovery from Anaesthesia in a Patient with Optimised Hypothyroidism and Incidental Hypokalemia  

PubMed Central

Delayed recovery/awakening/ emergence can occur under anaesthesia and is multifactorial, could be drug or non drug related. Similarly, we report a case of delayed recovery in a 68-year-old patient, for laparoscopic cholecystectomy, a known case of hypertension, bronchial asthma and hypothyroidism. Preoperatively, she was optimised for her medical disorders; however, she had delayed recovery from general anaesthesia. The delayed recovery, often, would be expected in a case of hypothyroidism, however in our patient it was found to be associated with inadvertent hypokalemia PMID:25738065

Laheri, Vandana V; Waigankar, Tejasi; Wagh, Charchill

2015-01-01

210

HDR Forward Link Scheduler Supporting Service Differentiation with Fairness Bound  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a We propose ahigh data rate (HDR) forward link scheduling algorithm maintaining the prescribed throughput ratios among users\\u000a with fairness bound. The main idea is to increase the overall system throughput by delaying transmission chances of users\\u000a whose feasible transmission rates are low until their transmission rates are high enough, within aspecified time limit. By\\u000a doing so, the short-term fairness in

Jaesung Choi; Myungwhan Choi; C. M. Krishna

2004-01-01

211

Deconstructing delayed posttraumatic stress disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

According to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, delayed posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) must be diagnosed in individuals fulfilling criteria for PTSD if the onset of symptoms is at least six months after the trauma. The purpose of this thesis was to establish the prevalence of delayed PTSD and to examine factors that may explain its occurrence. We

G. E. Smid

2011-01-01

212

Delayed Auditory Feedback and Movement  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

It is well known that timing of rhythm production is disrupted by delayed auditory feedback (DAF), and that disruption varies with delay length. We tested the hypothesis that disruption depends on the state of the movement trajectory at the onset of DAF. Participants tapped isochronous rhythms at a rate specified by a metronome while hearing DAF

Pfordresher, Peter Q.; Dalla Bella, Simone

2011-01-01

213

Conical-Domain Model for Estimating GPS Ionospheric Delays  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The conical-domain model is a computational model, now undergoing development, for estimating ionospheric delays of Global Positioning System (GPS) signals. Relative to the standard ionospheric delay model described below, the conical-domain model offers improved accuracy. In the absence of selective availability, the ionosphere is the largest source of error for single-frequency users of GPS. Because ionospheric signal delays contribute to errors in GPS position and time measurements, satellite-based augmentation systems (SBASs) have been designed to estimate these delays and broadcast corrections. Several national and international SBASs are currently in various stages of development to enhance the integrity and accuracy of GPS measurements for airline navigation. In the Wide Area Augmentation System (WAAS) of the United States, slant ionospheric delay errors and confidence bounds are derived from estimates of vertical ionospheric delay modeled on a grid at regularly spaced intervals of latitude and longitude. The estimate of vertical delay at each ionospheric grid point (IGP) is calculated from a planar fit of neighboring slant delay measurements, projected to vertical using a standard, thin-shell model of the ionosphere. Interpolation on the WAAS grid enables estimation of the vertical delay at the ionospheric pierce point (IPP) corresponding to any arbitrary measurement of a user. (The IPP of a given user s measurement is the point where the GPS signal ray path intersects a reference ionospheric height.) The product of the interpolated value and the user s thin-shell obliquity factor provides an estimate of the user s ionospheric slant delay. Two types of error that restrict the accuracy of the thin-shell model are absent in the conical domain model: (1) error due to the implicit assumption that the electron density is independent of the azimuthal angle at the IPP and (2) error arising from the slant-to-vertical conversion. At low latitudes or at mid-latitudes under disturbed conditions, the accuracy of SBAS systems based upon the thin-shell model suffers due to the presence of complex ionospheric structure, high delay values, and large electron density gradients. Interpolation on the vertical delay grid serves as an additional source of delay error. The conical-domain model permits direct computation of the user s slant delay estimate without the intervening use of a vertical delay grid. The key is to restrict each fit of GPS measurements to a spatial domain encompassing signals from only one satellite. The conical domain model is so named because each fit involves a group of GPS receivers that all receive signals from the same GPS satellite (see figure); the receiver and satellite positions define a cone, the satellite position being the vertex. A user within a given cone evaluates the delay to the satellite directly, using (1) the IPP coordinates of the line of sight to the satellite and (2) broadcast fit parameters associated with the cone. The conical-domain model partly resembles the thin-shell model in that both models reduce an inherently four-dimensional problem to two dimensions. However, unlike the thin-shell model, the conical domain model does not involve any potentially erroneous simplifying assumptions about the structure of the ionosphere. In the conical domain model, the initially four-dimensional problem becomes truly two-dimensional in the sense that once a satellite location has been specified, any signal path emanating from a satellite can be identified by only two coordinates; for example, the IPP coordinates. As a consequence, a user s slant-delay estimate converges to the correct value in the limit that the receivers converge to the user s location (or, equivalently, in the limit that the measurement IPPs converge to the user s IPP).

Sparks, Lawrence; Komjathy, Attila; Mannucci, Anthony

2009-01-01

214

NMR implementation of Quantum Delayed-Choice Experiment  

E-print Network

We report the first experimental demonstration of quantum delayed-choice experiment via nuclear magnetic resonance techniques. An ensemble of molecules each with two spin-1/2 nuclei are used as target and the ancilla qubits to perform the quantum circuit corresponding the delayed-choice setup. As expected in theory, our experiments clearly demonstrate the continuous morphing of the target qubit between particle-like and wave-like behaviors. The experimental visibility of the interference patterns shows good agreement with the theory.

Soumya Singha Roy; Abhishek Shukla; T. S. Mahesh

2011-12-23

215

A time delay controller for magnetic bearings  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The control of systems with unknown dynamics and unpredictable disturbances has raised some challenging problems. This is particularly important when high system performance needs to be guaranteed at all times. Recently, the Time Delay Control has been suggested as an alternative control scheme. The proposed control system does not require an explicit plant model nor does it depend on the estimation of specific plant parameters. Rather, it combines adaptation with past observations to directly estimate the effect of the plant dynamics. A control law is formulated for a class of dynamic systems and a sufficient condition is presented for control systems stability. The derivation is based on the bounded input-bounded output stability approach using L sub infinity function norms. The control scheme is implemented on a five degrees of freedom high speed and high precision magnetic bearing. The control performance is evaluated using step responses, frequency responses, and disturbance rejection properties. The experimental data show an excellent control performance despite the system complexity.

Youcef-Toumi, K.; Reddy, S.

1991-01-01

216

A theoretical account of cognitive effects in delay discounting  

PubMed Central

Although delay discounting, the attenuation of the value of future rewards, is a robust finding, the mechanism of discounting is not known. We propose a potential mechanism for delay discounting such that discounting emerges from a search process trying to determine what rewards will be available in the future. In this theory, the delay dependence of the discounting of future expected rewards arises from three assumptions. First, that evaluation of outcomes involves a search process. Second, that value is assigned to an outcome proportionally to how easy it is to find. Third, that outcomes that are less delayed are typically easier for the search process to find. By relaxing this third assumption (for example, by assuming that episodically cued outcomes are easier to find), our model suggests that it is possible to dissociate discounting from delay. Our theory thereby explains the empirical result that discounting is slower to episodically-imagined outcomes, because these outcomes are easier for the search process to find. Additionally, the theory explains why improving cognitive resources such as working memory slows discounting, by improving searches and thereby making rewards easier to find. The three assumptions outlined here are likely to be instantiated during deliberative decision-making, but unlikely in habitual decision-making. We model two simple implementations of this theory and show that they unify empirical results about the role of cognitive function in delay discounting, and make new neural, behavioral, and pharmacological predictions. PMID:22487035

Kurth-Nelson, Zeb; Bickel, Warren; Redish, A. David

2012-01-01

217

Delay discounting of different commodities.  

PubMed

When outcomes are delayed, their value is decreased. Delay discounting is a much-studied topic because it is correlated with certain disorders (e.g., pathological gambling). The present study attempts to determine how people would delay discount a number of different commodities, ranging from money to dating partners to federal education legislation. Participants completed delay discounting tasks pertaining to 5 different commodities, with a different set of 5 commodities for 2 groups. Results showed that different commodities were often discounted differently. Both data sets were also subjected to factor analysis. A 2-factor solution was found for both, suggesting that there are multiple "domains" of commodities. This finding is of interest because it suggests that measuring delay discounting for one commodity within a particular domain of commodities will be predictive of how people discount other commodities within that domain but will not be predictive of how they discount commodities within another domain. PMID:20718227

Weatherly, Jeffrey N; Terrell, Heather K; Derenne, Adam

2010-01-01

218

Attempting to Constrain Upper Bounds to Preseismic Velocity Changes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate the existence of preseismic velocity changes before the 24 September 2004 Parkfield and 20 January 2007 Odaesan, Korea, earthquakes using two different techniques. For Parkfield we test the limits of ambient noise monitoring. For Korea we use a sequence of nine repeating events and the doublet method. Brenguier et al. (2008) measured a 0.1% coseismic decrease in velocity for the 2004 Parkfield event using the borehole array and ambient noise monitoring with 30 day stacks. For temporal monitoring it is desirable to have finer time resolution. We perform a similar analysis using the same array with 30 day stacks down to 1 day stacks. All three components are considered to improve the signal-to-noise ratio giving up to nine pair combinations as compared to the vertical alone. We find that the coseismic change is still measureable down to 1 day and remains at -0.1%. It does not increase in magnitude like expected if averaging over longer time would have damped out the signal. These results are in agreement with a paper that just came out by Hadziioznnou et al. (2011). For constraining an upper bound on a preseismic signal we use the median absolute value of the days before the mainshock assuming there is no change in the three months prior. This estimate includes any effects due to changes in noise source distribution. So far 72 pairs have been considered. There is a tradeoff with upper bound constrained and days in the stack as expected. To measure a preseismic change that is greater than 0.05% (half the coseismic) it takes at least three days in the stack. We find that adding additional components doesn't reduce the scatter in the velocity change measurement as much as additional stations presumably due to correlated errors. For the Odaesan earthquake we analyze a very unique foreshock sequence in that it was nine repeating events that occurred within three days and 1 km of the hypocenter of the mainshock offering a rare opportunity to measure any possible velocity changes near the source at depth. The repeating event hypocenters were within 100 m of each other. Measured velocity changes ranged from -0.2% to -1% depending on station and component and phase analyzed. A correlation of the fluctuations of velocity changes with depth and along strike distance was observed implying that biases were introduced by the slight position differences of the events, albeit small. An attempt was made to correct the delay measurements for these position differences. After correction the measured velocity changes have maximum range (upper bound of scatter) from 0.006% to 0.1%. This is over a factor of ten improvement in measurement precision using the doublet method and is able to extend its usefulness to less than perfect repeats.

Schaff, D. P.; Kim, W.

2011-12-01

219

78 FR 18326 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Comment Request; Upward Bound and Upward Bound Math...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Request; Upward Bound and Upward Bound Math Science Annual Performance Report AGENCY...Collection: Upward Bound and Upward Bound Math Science Annual Performance Report. OMB...regular Upward Bound (UB) and Upward Bound Math and Science (UBMS) Programs. The...

2013-03-26

220

Bound States in Graphene  

E-print Network

We present a quantum analysis of the massless excitations in graphene with a charge impurity. When the effective charge exceeds a certain critical value, the spectrum is quantized and is unbounded from below. The corresponding eigenstates are square-integrable at infinity and have a rapidly oscillatory behaviour in the short distance, which can be interpreted as a fall to the centre. Using a cutoff regularization, we show that the effective Coulomb interaction strength is driven to its critical value under the renormalization group flow. In the subcritical region, we find bound states with imaginary values of the energy for certain range of the system parameters. The physical significance of these bound states with imaginary eigenvalues is discussed.

Kumar S. Gupta; Siddhartha Sen

2008-06-03

221

Bounded Satisfiability for PCTL  

E-print Network

While model checking PCTL for Markov chains is decidable in polynomial-time, the decidability of PCTL satisfiability, as well as its finite model property, are long standing open problems. While general satisfiability is an intriguing challenge from a purely theoretical point of view, we argue that general solutions would not be of interest to practitioners: such solutions could be too big to be implementable or even infinite. Inspired by bounded synthesis techniques, we turn to the more applied problem of seeking models of a bounded size: we restrict our search to implementable -- and therefore reasonably simple -- models. We propose a procedure to decide whether or not a given PCTL formula has an implementable model by reducing it to an SMT problem. We have implemented our techniques and found that they can be applied to the practical problem of sanity checking -- a procedure that allows a system designer to check whether their formula has an unexpectedly small model.

Bertrand, Nathalie; Schewe, Sven

2012-01-01

222

Petawatt laser absorption bounded  

PubMed Central

The interaction of petawatt (1015?W) lasers with solid matter forms the basis for advanced scientific applications such as table-top particle accelerators, ultrafast imaging systems and laser fusion. Key metrics for these applications relate to absorption, yet conditions in this regime are so nonlinear that it is often impossible to know the fraction of absorbed light f, and even the range of f is unknown. Here using a relativistic Rankine-Hugoniot-like analysis, we show for the first time that f exhibits a theoretical maximum and minimum. These bounds constrain nonlinear absorption mechanisms across the petawatt regime, forbidding high absorption values at low laser power and low absorption values at high laser power. For applications needing to circumvent the absorption bounds, these results will accelerate a shift from solid targets, towards structured and multilayer targets, and lead the development of new materials. PMID:24938656

Levy, Matthew C.; Wilks, Scott C.; Tabak, Max; Libby, Stephen B.; Baring, Matthew G.

2014-01-01

223

Delayed carotid wallstent shortening  

PubMed Central

Introduction Carotid angioplasty and stenting (CAS) has been demonstrated to be safe and an acceptable alternative to surgery. Stent malpositioning can occur during the maneuvers of delivering; technical errors can lead to proximal or distal slipping of the stent that needs the placement of additional pieces. Presentation of Case We describe the case of a postoperative dislocation of a carotid stent that happened 1 year after placement. After the first ultrasound control confirmed the correct position of the Stent the following one, executed 9 months later, showed a severe restenosis due to a proximal dislocation of the stent. The problem was solved with the positioning of a further one more distally. Discussion We observe the possibility of Carotid Wallstent shortening during the implant due to an incorrect placement or sizing, but a delayed displacement is a rare complication that, we highlight, can occur after CAS and that needs to be considered at the moment of the preoperative planning. Conclusion After CAS a closed ultrasound follow up is advisable for a long time in order to detect unexpected complications. PMID:25635600

Garriboli, L.; Jannello, A.M.

2015-01-01

224

Reflecting Magnon Bound States  

E-print Network

In N=4 super Yang-Mills spin chain, we compute reflection amplitudes of magnon bound-state off giant graviton. We first compute the reflection amplitude off Y=0 brane boundary and compare it with the scattering amplitude between two magnon bound-states in the bulk. We find that analytic structure of the two amplitudes are intimately related each other: the boundary reflection amplitude is a square-root of the bulk scattering amplitude. Using such relation as a guide and taking known results at weak and strong coupling limits as inputs, we find the reflection amplitude of an elementary magnon off Z=0 giant graviton boundary. The reflection phase factor is shown to solve crossing and unitarity relations. We then compute the reflection amplitude of magnon bound-state off the Z=0 brane boundary and observe that its analytic structures are again intimately related to the bulk scattering and the Y=0 boundary reflection amplitudes. We also take dyonic giant magnon limit of these reflection amplitudes and confirm that their phase-shifts agree completely with string worldsheet computations based on complex sine-Gordon soliton scattering.

Changrim Ahn; Dongsu Bak; Soo-Jong Rey

2008-02-16

225

Probabilistically Bounded Staleness for Practical Partial Quorums  

E-print Network

Data store replication results in a fundamental trade-off between operation latency and data consistency. In this paper, we examine this trade-off in the context of quorum-replicated data stores. Under partial, or non-strict quorum replication, a data store waits for responses from a subset of replicas before answering a query, without guaranteeing that read and write replica sets intersect. As deployed in practice, these configurations provide only basic eventual consistency guarantees, with no limit to the recency of data returned. However, anecdotally, partial quorums are often "good enough" for practitioners given their latency benefits. In this work, we explain why partial quorums are regularly acceptable in practice, analyzing both the staleness of data they return and the latency benefits they offer. We introduce Probabilistically Bounded Staleness (PBS) consistency, which provides expected bounds on staleness with respect to both versions and wall clock time. We derive a closed-form solution for versi...

Bailis, Peter; Franklin, Michael J; Hellerstein, Joseph M; Stoica, Ion

2012-01-01

226

New results on stability analysis for time-varying delay systems with non-linear perturbations.  

PubMed

The problem of stability for linear time-varying delay systems under nonlinear perturbation is discussed, with delay assumed as time-varying. Delay decomposition approach allows information of the delayed plant states to be fully considered. A less conservative delay-dependent robust stability condition is derived, using integral inequality approach to express the relationship of Leibniz-Newton formula terms in the within the framework of linear matrix inequalities (LMIs). Merits of the proposed results lie in lesser conservatism, which are realized by choosing different Lyapunov matrices in the decomposed integral intervals and estimating the upper bound of some cross term more exactly. Numerical examples are given to illustrate the effectiveness and lesser conservatism of the proposed method. PMID:23294851

Liu, Pin-Lin

2013-05-01

227

Preliminary bounds on the expected postclosure performance of the Yucca Mountain Repository Site, southern Nevada  

Microsoft Academic Search

On the basis of current data and understanding of site characteristics at Yucca Mountain, the likely performance range of a mined repository for spent nuclear fuel can be calculated. Low flux through the unsaturated zone results in groundwater travel times to the water table that probably exceed 10,000 years and may exceed 100,000 years, far longer than required by the

S. Sinnock; Y. T. Lin; J. P. Brannen

1987-01-01

228

Upper bound of the expected training error of neural network regression for a Gaussian noise sequence  

Microsoft Academic Search

In neural network regression problems, often referred to as additive noise models, NIC (Network Information Criterion) has been proposed as a general model selection criterion to determine the optimal network size with high generalization performance. Although NIC has been derived using asymptotic expansion, it has been pointed out that this technique cannot be applied under the assumption that a target

Katsuyuki Hagiwara; Taichi Hayasaka; Naohiro Toda; Shiro Usui; Kazuhiro Kuno

2001-01-01

229

Memoryless Linear Adaptive Robust Controllers of Uncertain Systems with Nonlinear Time-Varying Delayed State Perturbations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The problem of adaptive robust stabilization is considered for a class of uncertain nonlinear time-delay dynamical systems. It is assumed that the upper bound of the nonlinear delayed state perturbations is a linear function of some parameters which are assumed to be unknown. It is also assumed that the time delays are time-varying, and can be any nonnegative continuous and bounded functions. In this paper, it is not required that the derivatives of the time-varying delays have to be less than one. For such a class of uncertain nonlinear time-delay systems, a new method is presented whereby a class of memoryless continuous adaptive robust state feedback controllers with a rather simpler structure is proposed. That is, being completely different from the related works reported in the control literature, the nonlinear perturbations are not included in the proposed control schemes. By employing a quasi-Lyapunov function, it is shown that the solutions of uncertain nonlinear time-delay systems can be guaranteed to be uniformly exponentially convergent towards a ball which can be as small as desired. Finally, as an application of the results, the problem of water pollution control is considered for uncertain river time-delay systems due to industrial waste treatment facility, and the corresponding simulations are given.

Wu, Hansheng

230

On bound entanglement assisted distillation  

E-print Network

We investigate asymptotic distillation of entanglement in the presence of an unlimited amount of bound entanglement for bi-partite systems. We show that the distillability is still bounded by the relative entropy of entanglement. This offers a strong support to the fact that bound entanglement does not improve distillation of entanglement.

V. Vedral

1999-11-17

231

Model for Delay Faults Based upon Paths  

Microsoft Academic Search

Delay testing of combinational logic in a clocked environment is analyzed. A model based upon paths is introduced for delay faults. Any path with a total delay exceeding the clock interval is called a \\

Gordon L. Smith

1985-01-01

232

An Active Analog Delay and the Delay Reference Loop James Buckwalter and Ali Hajimiri  

E-print Network

locked loop, true time delay, analog delay, equalization, tapped-delay lines I. INTRODUCTION Optical filter, shown in Fig. 1, is constructed from the weighted sum of a tapped-delay line. The transversal a sixteenth of the area of a comparable LC delay line. A delay reference loop is also presented to tune

Hajimiri, Ali

233

Tooth formation - delayed or absent  

MedlinePLUS

Specific diseases can affect tooth shape, tooth color, time of appearance, or tooth absence. Delayed or absent tooth formation can result from many different conditions, including: Apert syndrome Cleidocranial ...

234

Temporal memory averaging and post-encoding alterations in temporal expectation  

PubMed Central

Recent work in our lab has demonstrated that rats trained to associate two different reinforcement delays with two different cues will generate a scalar temporal expectation at a time between these delays when presented with the cue compound. This work demonstrates that rats will integrate distinct temporal memories at retrieval, revealing that temporal expectation need not be a veridical representation of experience. Following from this recognition that processes occurring at or after memory retrieval may transform or bias temporal expectations, we suggest that previous pharmacological work that had been interpreted as resulting from sensorial, or clock-speed, changes, may be alternatively interpreted as resulting from mnemonic alterations. We end with a brief review of the impact of post-encoding alterations of memory on behavior other than timing. PMID:23454594

Matell, Matthew S.; Henning, Alexandra M.

2013-01-01

235

Two distinct classes of bound entanglement: PPT-bound and `multi-particle'-bound  

Microsoft Academic Search

We introduce systematically with the help of Weyl operators novel classes of multipartite and multidimensional states which are all bound entangled for arbitrary dimension. We find that the entanglement is bound due to different reasons: unlockable due to the multi--particle nature and some states are in addition bound due the fact being positive under partial transposition (PPT). By a general

B. C. Hiesmayr; Marcus Huber

2009-01-01

236

Conditioning with delayed vitamin injections.  

PubMed

Rats deficient in thiamine were allowed to drink saccharin-fla vored water. They were then given an injection of thiamine which caused their intake of the nonnutritive fluid to increase. Delay of the intramuscular injection up to 30 minutes had no effect upon the acquisition of this condi tioning. Presumably, this delay reflects specialization in the central integrative mechanisms which serve these afferent modalities. PMID:6016955

Garcia, J; Ervin, F R; Yorke, C H; Koelling, R A

1967-02-10

237

Delayed Stall Modeling of the Rotating Blades  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Most aerodynamic design tools for horizontal-axial wind turbines are based on the blade-element momentum theory (BEM). Due to the nature of this theory, the design tools need 2-D steady sectional lift and drag curves as an input. In practice, flow over a wind turbine rotor blade is neither two-dimensional nor steady, and is affected by rotation. Pioneering experiments have identified a consequence: at inboard rotor blade sections stall is delayed. This so-called Himmelskamp effect [1] gives a larger lift than predicted and, as a result, a higher power and loading than expected. Consequently, an aerodynamic model is needed to explain and predict sectional lift and drag under rotating conditions.

Dumitrache, Alexandru; Cardos, Vladimir; Dumitrescu, Horia

2010-09-01

238

Fundamentals of Delayed Coking Joint Industry Project  

SciTech Connect

Delayed coking evolved steadily over the early to mid 1900s to enable refiners to convert high boiling, residual petroleum fractions to light products such as gasoline. Pound for pound, coking is the most energy intensive of any operation in a modern refinery. Large amounts of energy are required to heat the thick, poor-quality petroleum residuum to the 900 to 950 degrees F required to crack the heavy hydrocarbon molecules into lighter, more valuable products. One common misconception of delayed coking is that the product coke is a disadvantage. Although coke is a low valued (near zero economic value) byproduct, compared to transportation fuels, there is a significant worldwide trade and demand for coke as it is an economical fuel. Coke production has increased steadily over the last ten years, with further increases forecast for the foreseeable future. Current domestic production is near 111,000 tons per day. A major driving force behind this increase is the steady decline in crude quality available to refiners. Crude slates are expected to grow heavier with higher sulfur contents while environmental restrictions are expected to significantly reduce the demand for high-sulfur residual fuel oil. Light sweet crudes will continue to be available and in even greater demand than they are today. Refiners will be faced with the choice of purchasing light sweet crudes at a premium price, or adding bottom of the barrel upgrading capability, through additional new investments, to reduce the production of high-sulfur residual fuel oil and increase the production of low-sulfur distillate fuels. A second disadvantage is that liquid products from cokers frequently are unstable, i.e., they rapidly form gum and sediments. Because of intermediate investment and operating costs, delayed coking has increased in popularity among refiners worldwide. Based on the 2000 Worldwide Refining Survey published in the Oil and Gas, the delayed coking capacity for 101 refineries around the world is 2,937,439 barrels/calendar day. These cokers produce 154,607 tons of coke per day and delayed coking accounts for 88% of the world capacity. The delayed coking charge capacity in the United States is 1,787,860 b/cd. Despite its wide commercial use, only relatively few contractors and refiners are truly knowledgeable in delayed-coking design, so that this process carries with it a ''black art'' connotation. Until recently, the expected yield from cokers was determined by a simple laboratory test on the feedstock. As a result of Tulsa University's prior related research, a process model was developed that with additional work could be used to optimize existing delayed cokers over a wide range of potential feedstocks and operating conditions. The objectives of this research program are to: utilize the current micro, batch and pilot unit facilities at The University of Tulsa to enhance the understanding of the coking process; conduct additional micro and pilot unit tests with new and in-house resids and recycles to make current optimization models more robust; conduct focused kinetic experiments to enhance the furnace tube model and to enhance liquid production while minimizing sulfur in the products; conduct detailed foaming studies to optimize the process and minimize process upsets; quantify the parameters that affect coke morphology; and to utilize the knowledge gained from the experimental and modeling studies to enhance the computer programs developed in the previous JIP for optimization of the coking process. These refined computer models will then be tested against refinery data provided by the member companies. Novel concepts will also be explored for hydrogen sulfide removal of furnace gases as well as gas injection studies to reduce over-cracking. The following deliverables are scheduled from the two projects of the three-year JIP: (1) A novel method for enhancing liquid yields from delayed cokers and data that provide insight as to the optimum temperature to remove hydrogen sulfide from furnace gases. (2) An understanding of what causes foaming in c

Michael Volk Jr; Keith Wisecarver

2005-10-01

239

Interpersonal Expectancy Effects: A Forty Year Perspective.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Interpersonal expectancy effects--the unintentional expectations that experimenters, teachers, and authority figures bring to experiments, classrooms, and other situations--can wield significant influence on individuals. Some of the issues surrounding expectancy effects are detailed in this paper. The effect itself has been recreated in

Rosenthal, Robert

240

Expectancy Induces Dynamic Modulation of Corticospinal Excitability  

Microsoft Academic Search

Behavioral studies using motor preparation paradigms have revealed that increased expectancy of a response signal shortens reaction times (RTs). Neurophysiological data suggest that in such paradigms, not only RT but also neuronal activity in the motor structures involved is modulated by expectancy of behaviorally relevant events. Here, we directly tested whether expectancy of a response signal modulates excitability of the

Gijs Van Elswijk; Bert U. Kleine; Sebastiaan Overeem; Dick F. Stegeman

2007-01-01

241

EXPECTATIONS AND DROPOUTS IN SCHOOLS OF NURSING  

Microsoft Academic Search

EXPECTATIONS AND EXPERIENCES OF STRESS AND SATISFACTION OF 1852 1ST-YR STUDENTS IN 43 NURSING SCHOOLS WERE ASSESSED BY QUESTIONNAIRE. LOW BUT SIGNIFICANT NEGATIVE CORRELATIONS WERE OBTAINED BETWEEN WITHDRAWAL AND (1) EXPERIENCED SATISFACTIONS, AND (2) CONFIRMATION OF EXPECTATIONS, ESPECIALLY WITH RESPECT TO SATISFACTIONS. WITHDRAWAL WAS UNRELATED TO EXPERIENCED STRESS, WHETHER EXPECTED OR UNEXPECTED.

MILDRED E. KATZELL

1968-01-01

242

Robust Power Control of Single Sink Optical Networks with Time-Delays  

E-print Network

to solve the optical signal-to-noise ratio (OSNR) optimization problem. This minimizes the bit error rate of the signal chan- nels. We apply the game-theoretic framework to a perturbed OSNR model in the presence of time-delays. Uncertainties in the OSNR model appear as norm-bounded uncertainties in the noise powers

Pavel, Lacra

243

Optimization of tap spacings for the tapped delay line decision feedback equalizer  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this letter, we optimize tap spacings in a tapped delay line equalizer. We derive a set of nonlinear equations for the optimum tap spacings and tap weights for the decision feedback equalizer. A recursive numerical technique is used to obtain the optimum settings. With optimized tap spacings, the proposed solutions provide a performance upper bound for the decision feedback

Inkyu Lee

2001-01-01

244

Global behavior and permanence of SIRS epidemic model with time delay  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper an autonomous SIRS epidemic model with time delay is studied. The basic reproductive number R0 is obtained which determines whether the disease is extinct or not. When the basic reproductive number is greater than 1, it is proved that the disease is permanent in the population, and explicit formula are obtained by which the eventual lower bound

Tailei Zhang; Zhidong Teng

2008-01-01

245

Least expected time paths in stochastic, time-varying transportation networks  

SciTech Connect

The authors consider stochastic, time-varying transportation networks, where the arc weights (arc travel times) are random variables with probability distribution functions that vary with time. Efficient procedures are widely available for determining least time paths in deterministic networks. In stochastic but time-invariant networks, least expected time paths can be determined by setting each random arc weight to its expected value and solving an equivalent deterministic problem. This paper addresses the problem of determining least expected time paths in stochastic, time-varying networks. Two procedures are presented. The first procedure determines the a priori least expected time paths from all origins to a single destination for each departure time in the peak period. The second procedure determines lower bounds on the expected times of these a priori least expected time paths. This procedure determines an exact solution for the problem where the driver is permitted to react to revealed travel times on traveled links en route, i.e. in a time-adaptive route choice framework. Modifications to each of these procedures for determining least expected cost (where cost is not necessarily travel time) paths and lower bounds on the expected costs of these paths are given. Extensive numerical tests are conducted to illustrate the algorithms` computational performance as well as the properties of the solution.

Miller-Hooks, E.D. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering; Mahmassani, H.S. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States)

1999-06-01

246

A general approach to dynamic packet routing with bounded buffers  

SciTech Connect

We prove a sufficient condition for the stability of dynamic packet routing algorithms. Our approach reduces the problem of steady state analysis to the easier and better understood question of static routing. We show that certain high probability and worst case bounds on the quasistatic (finite past) performance of a routing algorithm imply bounds on the performance of the dynamic version of that algorithm. Our technique is particularly useful in analyzing routing on networks with bounded buffers where complicated dependencies make standard queuing techniques inapplicable. We present several applications of our approach. In all cases we start from a known static algorithm, and modify it to fit our framework. In particular we give the first dynamic algorithm for routing on a butterfly with bounded buffers. Both the injection rate for which the algorithm is stable, and the expected time a packet spends in the system are optimal up to constant factors. Our approach is also applicable to the recently introduced adversarial input model.

Broder, A.Z. [Digital Systems Research Center, Palo Alto, CA (United States); Frieze, A.M. [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Upfal, E. [IBM Almaden Research Center, San Jose, CA (United States); [Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot (Israel)

1996-12-31

247

Delayed standard neural network models for control systems.  

PubMed

In order to conveniently analyze the stability of recurrent neural networks (RNNs) and successfully synthesize the controllers for nonlinear systems, similar to the nominal model in linear robust control theory, the novel neural network model, named delayed standard neural network model (DSNNM) is presented, which is the interconnection of a linear dynamic system and a bounded static delayed (or nondelayed) nonlinear operator. By combining a number of different Lyapunov functionals with S-procedure, some useful criteria of global asymptotic stability and global exponential stability for the continuous-time DSNNMs (CDSNNMs) and discrete-time DSNNMs (DDSNNMs) are derived, whose conditions are formulated as linear matrix inequalities (LMIs). Based on the stability analysis, some state-feedback control laws for the DSNNM with input and output are designed to stabilize the closed-loop systems. Most RNNs and neurocontrol nonlinear systems with (or without) time delays can be transformed into the DSNNMs to be stability-analyzed or stabilization-synthesized in a unified way. In this paper, the DSNNMs are applied to analyzing the stability of the continuous-time and discrete-time RNNs with or without time delays, and synthesizing the state-feedback controllers for the chaotic neural-network-system and discrete-time nonlinear system. It turns out that the DSNNM makes the stability conditions of the RNNs easily verified, and provides a new idea for the synthesis of the controllers for the nonlinear systems. PMID:18220187

Liu, Meiqin

2007-09-01

248

On exponential stability analysis for neural networks with time-varying delays and general activation functions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper is concerned with the exponential stability analysis for a class of cellular neural networks with both interval time-varying delays and general activation functions. The boundedness assumption of the activation function is not required. The limitation on the derivative of time delay being less than one is relaxed and the lower bound of time-varying delay is not restricted to be zero. A new Lyapunov-Krasovskii functional involving more information on the state variables is established to derive a novel exponential stability criterion. The obtained condition shows potential advantages over the existing ones since no useful item is ignored throughout the estimate of upper bound of the derivative of Lyapunov functional. Finally, three numerical examples are included to illustrate the proposed design procedures and applications.

Wang, Yijing; Yang, Cuili; Zuo, Zhiqiang

2012-03-01

249

Analytical Properties of Credibilistic Expectation Functions  

PubMed Central

The expectation function of fuzzy variable is an important and widely used criterion in fuzzy optimization, and sound properties on the expectation function may help in model analysis and solution algorithm design for the fuzzy optimization problems. The present paper deals with some analytical properties of credibilistic expectation functions of fuzzy variables that lie in three aspects. First, some continuity theorems on the continuity and semicontinuity conditions are proved for the expectation functions. Second, a differentiation formula of the expectation function is derived which tells that, under certain conditions, the derivative of the fuzzy expectation function with respect to the parameter equals the expectation of the derivative of the fuzzy function with respect to the parameter. Finally, a law of large numbers for fuzzy variable sequences is obtained leveraging on the Chebyshev Inequality of fuzzy variables. Some examples are provided to verify the results obtained. PMID:24723800

Wang, Bo; Watada, Junzo

2014-01-01

250

Optimistic Expectancies and Cell-Mediated Immunity: The Role of Positive Affect  

PubMed Central

Optimistic expectancies affect many psychosocial outcomes and may also predict immune system changes and health, but the nature and mechanisms of any such physiological effects have not been identified. The present study related law-school expectancies to cell-mediated immunity (CMI), examining the within- and between-person components of this relationship and affective mediators. First-year law students (N = 124) completed questionnaire measures of expectancies and affect and received delayed-type hypersensitivity skin tests at five time points. A positive relationship between optimistic expectancies and CMI occurred, in which that changes in optimism correlated with changes in CMI. Likewise, changes in optimism predicted changes in positive and, to a lesser degree, negative affect, but the relationship between optimism and immunity was partially accounted for only by positive affect. This dynamic relationship between expectancies and immunity has positive implications for psychological interventions to improve health, particularly those that increase positive affect. PMID:20424083

Segerstrom, Suzanne C.; Sephton, Sandra E.

2014-01-01

251

Membrane-bound diiron carboxylate proteins.  

PubMed

Four proteins have been identified recently as diiron carboxylate proteins on the basis of conservation of six amino acids (four carboxylate residues and two histidines) constituting an iron-binding motif. Unlike previously identified proteins with this motif, biochemical studies indicate that each of these proteins is membrane bound, although homology modeling rules out a transmembrane mode of binding. Therefore, the predicted structure of each protein [the alternative oxidase (AOX), the plastid terminal oxidase (PTOX), the diiron 5-demethoxyquinone hydroxylase (DMQ hydroxylase), and the aerobic Mg-protoporphyrin IX monomethylester hydroxylase (MME hydroxylase)] is that of a protein bound monotopically to one leaflet of the membrane bilayer. Three of these enzymes utilize a quinol substrate, with two oxidizing the quinol (AOX and PTOX) and one hydroxylating it (DMQ hydroxylase). MME hydroxylase is involved in synthesis of the isocyclic ring of chlorophyll. Two enzymes are involved in respiration (AOX and, indirectly, the diiron DMQ hydroxylase through ubiquinone biosynthesis) and two in photosynthesis, through their roles in carotenoid and chlorophyll biosynthesis (PTOX and MME hydroxylase, respectively). We discuss what is known about each enzyme as well as our expectations based on their identification as interfacially bound proteins with a diiron carboxylate active site. PMID:14503001

Berthold, Deborah A; Stenmark, Pl

2003-01-01

252

Delay Independent Criterion for Multiple Time-delay Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Based on the fuzzy Lyapunov method, this work addresses the stability conditions for nonlinear systems with multiple time delays to ensure the stability of building structure control systems. The delay independent conditions are derived via the traditional Lyapunov and fuzzy Lyapunov methods for multiple time-delay systems as approximated by the Tagagi-Sugeno (T-S) fuzzy model. The fuzzy Lyapunov function is defined as a fuzzy blending of quadratic Lyapunov functions. A parallel distributed compensation (PDC) scheme is utilized to construct a global fuzzy logic control (FLC) by blending all linear local state feedback controllers in the controller design procedure. Furthermore, the H infinity performance and robustness of the design for modeling errors also need to be considered in the stability conditions.

Chang, C. J.; Liu, K. F. R.; Yeh, K.; Chen, C. W.; Chung, P. Y.

253

Sliding mode time-delay systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sliding mode control of time-delay systems is considered. Time-delay sliding system stability is studied for the cases of some information about the delay and also lack of information. The sliding surface is delay-independent as for the traditional sliding surface and the reaching condition is achieved by applying a conventional discontinuous control

A. Jafari Koshkouei; A. S. I. Zinober

1996-01-01

254

An Adaptive Loss-Aware Flow Control Scheme for Delay-Sensitive Applications in OBS Networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Optical Burst Switching (OBS) is one of the most promising switching technologies for next generation optical networks. As delay-sensitive applications such as Voice-over-IP (VoIP) have recently become popular, OBS networks should guarantee stringent Quality of Service (QoS) requirements for such applications. Thus, this paper proposes an Adaptive Loss-aware Flow Control (ALFC) scheme, which adaptively decides on the burst offset time based on loss-rate information delivered from core nodes for assigning a high priority to delay-sensitive application traffic. The proposed ALFC scheme also controls the upper-bounds of the factors inducing delay and jitter for guaranteeing the delay and jitter requirements of delay-sensitive application traffic. Moreover, a piggybacking method used in the proposed scheme accelerates the guarantee of the loss, delay, and jitter requirements because the response time for flow control can be extremely reduced up to a quarter of the Round Trip Time (RTT) on average while minimizing the signaling overhead. Simulation results show that our mechanism can guarantee a 10-3 loss-rate under any traffic load while offering satisfactory levels of delay and jitter for delay-sensitive applications.

Jeong, Hongkyu; Choi, Jungyul; Mo, Jeonghoon; Kang, Minho

255

Dynamic Scheduling of Pigeons for Delay Constrained Applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Information collection in the disaster area is an important application of pigeon networks - a special type of delay tolerant networks (DTN). The aim of this paper is to explore highly efficient dynamic scheduling strategies of pigeons for such applications. The upper bound of traffic that can be supported under the deadline constraints for the basic on-demand strategy is given through the analysis. Based on the analysis, a waiting based packing strategy is introduced. Although the latter strategy could not change the maximum traffic rate that a pigeon can support, it improves the efficiency of the pigeon largely. The analytical results are verified by the simulations.

Zhou, Jiazhen; Li, Jiang; Burge, Legand

256

Rapid Expectation Adaptation during Syntactic Comprehension  

PubMed Central

When we read or listen to language, we are faced with the challenge of inferring intended messages from noisy input. This challenge is exacerbated by considerable variability between and within speakers. Focusing on syntactic processing (parsing), we test the hypothesis that language comprehenders rapidly adapt to the syntactic statistics of novel linguistic environments (e.g., speakers or genres). Two self-paced reading experiments investigate changes in readers syntactic expectations based on repeated exposure to sentences with temporary syntactic ambiguities (so-called garden path sentences). These sentences typically lead to a clear expectation violation signature when the temporary ambiguity is resolved to an a priori less expected structure (e.g., based on the statistics of the lexical context). We find that comprehenders rapidly adapt their syntactic expectations to converge towards the local statistics of novel environments. Specifically, repeated exposure to a priori unexpected structures can reduce, and even completely undo, their processing disadvantage (Experiment 1). The opposite is also observed: a priori expected structures become less expected (even eliciting garden paths) in environments where they are hardly ever observed (Experiment 2). Our findings suggest that, when changes in syntactic statistics are to be expected (e.g., when entering a novel environment), comprehenders can rapidly adapt their expectations, thereby overcoming the processing disadvantage that mistaken expectations would otherwise cause. Our findings take a step towards unifying insights from research in expectation-based models of language processing, syntactic priming, and statistical learning. PMID:24204909

Fine, Alex B.; Jaeger, T. Florian; Farmer, Thomas A.; Qian, Ting

2013-01-01

257

On the Expected Complexity of Random Convex Hulls  

E-print Network

In this paper we present several results on the expected complexity of a convex hull of $n$ points chosen uniformly and independently from a convex shape. (i) We show that the expected number of vertices of the convex hull of $n$ points, chosen uniformly and independently from a disk is $O(n^{1/3})$, and $O(k \\log{n})$ for the case a convex polygon with $k$ sides. Those results are well known (see \\cite{rs-udkhv-63,r-slcdn-70,ps-cgi-85}), but we believe that the elementary proof given here are simpler and more intuitive. (ii) Let $\\D$ be a set of directions in the plane, we define a generalized notion of convexity induced by $\\D$, which extends both rectilinear convexity and standard convexity. We prove that the expected complexity of the $\\D$-convex hull of a set of $n$ points, chosen uniformly and independently from a disk, is $O(n^{1/3} + \\sqrt{n\\alpha(\\D)})$, where $\\alpha(\\D)$ is the largest angle between two consecutive vectors in $\\D$. This result extends the known bounds for the cases of rectilinear a...

Har-Peled, Sariel

2011-01-01

258

An analytical delay model for RLC interconnects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Elmore delay has been widely used to estimate interconnect delays in the performance-driven synthesis and layout of very-large-scale-integration (VLSI) routing topologies. For typical RLC interconnections, however, Elmore delay can deviate significantly from SPICE-computed delay, since it is independent of inductance of the interconnect and rise time of the input signal. Here, we develop an analytical delay model based on first

Andrew B. Kahng; Sudhakar Muddu

1997-01-01

259

Formation of "bound  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During degradation of organic pollutants in soil, metabolites, microbial biomass, CO2and "bound" residues ("non-extractable" residues in soil organic matter) are formed. Enhanced transformation of these contaminants into "bound" residues has been proposed as an alternative remediation method for polluted soils. However, this kind of residues may pose a potential risk for the environment due to their chemical structure and possible remobilization under different conditions. Therefore particular attention is given actually to "bound" residues. Part of these non-extractable residues may be "biogenic," because microorganisms use the carbon from the pollutant to form their biomass components (fatty acids, amino acids, amino sugars), which subsequently may be incorporated into soil organic matter. Furthermore, the CO2 originating from mineralization of xenobiotics, can be re-assimilated by microorganisms and also incorporated into "biogenic residue". The hazard posed by "bound" residues may be overestimated because they are "biogenic" (contain microbial fatty acids and amino acids). The knowledge about the pathways of "biogenic residue" formation is necessary for a proper assessment of the fate of tested pollutants and their turnover in the soil environment. Moreover, these data are needed to establish the realistic degradation rates of the contaminants in soil. The main objectives of this study are: to quantify the extent of "biogenic residue" (fatty acids, amino acids, amino sugars) formation during the degradation of a model pollutant (2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid = 2,4-D) and during CO2 assimilation by microorganisms and to evaluate which components are mainly incorporated into "bound" residues. To investigate the extent of "biogenic residue" formation in soil during the degradation of 2,4-D, experiments with either 14C-U-ring and 13C6-2,4-D or carboxyl-14C 2,4-D were performed. The incubation experiments were performed according to OECD test guideline 307, in the dark, at constant temp 20? C (+/-2? C) and with intermittent aeration. During incubation, the mineralization was quantified and soil samples were analyzed for the presence of both "biogenic residues" and remaining 2,4-D. Mineralization of 2,4-D in both experiments was very high. However, the 14CO2 evolution was higher from carboxyl-14C 2,4-D than from 14C-ring 2,4-D. After 7 days of incubation, 30% of initial amount of 14C in soil contaminated with 14C-ring 2,4-D was mineralized, whereas 40% of total radioactivity was evolved as CO2after 4 days from soil incubated with 14C-carboxyl 2,4-D. The amount of extractable 2,4-D residues was very low in both experiments (14C-ring 2,4-D: 2% and 14C-carboxyl 2,4-D: 1%). The soil incubated with 14C-ring 2,4-D contained 60% of "non-extractable" residues of 2,4-D after 7 days, while the amount of these residues in soil contaminated with 14C-carboxyl 2,4-D reached 50% of the initial radioactivity in the tested system 4 days after application. More "biogenic residues" were formed in soil spiked with 14C-U-ring 2,4-D (10%) than in soil with carboxyl 14C 2,4-D (7%). Both 2,4-D and CO2-derived C were incorporated mainly into microbial amino acids (9.5% at day 7 and 7.0% at day 4, respectively). After 7 days of incubation, 0.5% of initial applied radioactivity in system was found in microbial lipids in the soil contaminated with 14C-ring 2,4-D. Only 0.1% of the total radioactivity was incorporated into lipids in soil treated with 14C-carboxyl 2,4-D on day 4 after application. Thin Layer Chromatography identified the microbial lipids containing the radioactivity as phosphatidylethanolamine, a phospholipid typical for microorganisms. The amount of microbial lipids (which corresponds to phospholipids) in both cases decreased with time; this can be explained by the death of the microbial biomass. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on the formation of &qu

Nowak, K.; Kstner, M.; Miltner, A.

2009-04-01

260

Adaptation to delayed auditory feedback  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Delayed auditory feedback disrupts the production of speech, causing an increase in speech duration as well as many articulatory errors. To determine whether prolonged exposure to delayed auditory feedback (DAF) leads to adaptive compensations in speech production, 10 subjects were exposed in separate experimental sessions to both incremental and constant-delay exposure conditions. Significant adaptation occurred for syntactically structured stimuli in the form of increased speaking rates. After DAF was removed, aftereffects were apparent for all stimulus types in terms of increased speech rates. A carry-over effect from the first to the second experimental session was evident as long as 29 days after the first session. The use of strategies to overcome DAF and the differences between adaptation to DAF and adaptation to visual rearrangement are discussed.

Katz, D. I.; Lackner, J. R.

1977-01-01

261

UWB delay and multiply receiver  

DOEpatents

An ultra-wideband (UWB) delay and multiply receiver is formed of a receive antenna; a variable gain attenuator connected to the receive antenna; a signal splitter connected to the variable gain attenuator; a multiplier having one input connected to an undelayed signal from the signal splitter and another input connected to a delayed signal from the signal splitter, the delay between the splitter signals being equal to the spacing between pulses from a transmitter whose pulses are being received by the receive antenna; a peak detection circuit connected to the output of the multiplier and connected to the variable gain attenuator to control the variable gain attenuator to maintain a constant amplitude output from the multiplier; and a digital output circuit connected to the output of the multiplier.

Dallum, Gregory E.; Pratt, Garth C.; Haugen, Peter C.; Romero, Carlos E.

2013-09-10

262

Stock Market Expectations of Dutch Households  

PubMed Central

Despite its importance for the analysis of life-cycle behavior and, in particular, retirement planning, stock ownership by private households is poorly understood. Among other approaches to investigate this puzzle, recent research has started to elicit private households expectations of stock market returns. This paper reports findings from a study that collected data over a two-year period both on households stock market expectations (subjective probabilities of gains or losses) and on whether they own stocks. We document substantial heterogeneity in financial market expectations. Expectations are correlated with stock ownership. Over the two years of our data, stock market prices increased, and expectations of future stock market price changes also increased, lending support to the view that expectations are influenced by recent stock gains or losses. PMID:23997423

Hurd, Michael; van Rooij, Maarten; Winter, Joachim

2013-01-01

263

ExpectancyValue Theory of Achievement Motivation  

Microsoft Academic Search

We discuss the expectancyvalue theory of motivation, focusing on an expectancyvalue model developed and researched by Eccles, Wigfield, and their colleagues. Definitions of crucial constructs in the model, including ability beliefs, expectancies for success, and the components of subjective task values, are provided. These definitions are compared to those of related constructs, including self-efficacy, intrinsic and extrinsic motivation, and interest.

Allan Wigfield; Jacquelynne S. Eccles

2000-01-01

264

expect: Curing Those Uncontrollable Fits of Interaction  

Microsoft Academic Search

UNIX programs used to be designed so that they could be connected with pipes createdby a shell. This paradigm is insufficient when dealing with many modern programsthat demand to be used interactively.expect is a program designed to control interactive programs. expect reads a scriptthat resembles the dialogue itself but which may include multiple paths through it.Scripts include:. send\\/expect sequences -

Don Libes

1990-01-01

265

Expectancy and Repetition in Task Preparation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We studied the mechanisms of task preparation using a design that pitted task expectancy against task repetition. In one experiment, two simple cognitive tasks were presented in a predictable sequence containing both repetitions and non-repetitions. The typical task sequence was AABBAABB. Occasional violations of this sequence allowed us to measure the effects of valid versus invalid expectancy. With this design, we were able to study the effects of task expectancy, task repetition, and interaction.

Ruthruff, E.; Remington, R. W.; Johnston, James C.; Null, Cynthia H. (Technical Monitor)

1996-01-01

266

Quantum Square Well Bound States Described by Equations with Non-locality  

E-print Network

We present here a simple equation explicitly incorporating non-locality, which reproduces quantized energy levels of the bound states for the square well potentials. Introduction of this equation is motivated by studies of differential equation with time delayed feedback, which can be viewed as describing temporal non-locality.

Toru Ohira

2012-11-12

267

Delayed-choice quantum cryptography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Quantum cryptography is a method of communicating securely, the secrecy of which is guaranteed by the laws of physics and information theory. Current implementations suffer from relatively short ranges and low data rates. We are developing a system that modifies the usual protocol by incorporating elements of special relativity. The result is that in principle, every detected photon can be used in the final key, thus doubling or tripling the possible data rate. Our delayed-choice quantum cryptography (DCQC) system works by storing the photon sent to Bob in a low-loss optical delay line until a classical signal from Alice informs him which measurement basis to use.

Jeffrey, Evan R.; Brenner, Matthew W.; Kwiat, Paul G.

2004-02-01

268

Assessing Patients Expectations in Ambulatory Medical Practice  

PubMed Central

To compare three different approaches to the measurement of patients expectations for care, we conducted a randomized controlled trial. Medical outpatients (n= 318) of a small (six-physician), single-specialty (internal medicine), academically affiliated private practice in Sacramento, California, were contacted by telephone the night before a scheduled office visit and enrolled over a 5-month period in early 1994. Patients were randomly assigned to receive: (1) a self-administered, structured, previsit questionnaire combined with a postvisit questionnaire; (2) an interviewer-administered, semistructured, previsit interview combined with a postvisit questionnaire; or (3) a postvisit questionnaire only. We assessed the number and content of patients expectations by previsit questionnaire versus interview; the interaction between sociodemographic characteristics and survey method in predicting number of reported expectations; the effect of unfulfilled expectations elicited by questionnaire and interview on visit satisfaction; and the effect of unfulfilled expectations elicited directly and indirectly on visit satisfaction. Patients reported more expectations by structured questionnaire than semistructured interview (median 12 vs 3, p= .0001). Although there was no main effect of sociodemographic characteristics on expectations, nonwhite patients reported more expectations than white patients by questionnaire and fewer by interview. The number of interventions desired before the visit but not received (indirectly reported unfulfilled expectations) was associated with lower visit satisfaction regardless of whether a questionnaire or interview was used to elicit previsit expectations (p value for the interaction between number of expectations and survey method, > .20). Having more indirectly reported unfulfilled expectations was significantly associated with lower visit satisfaction even after controlling for the number of directly reported unfulfilled expectations (p= .021), but the incremental change in classification accuracy was small (increase in receiver-operating characteristic curve area, 3%). In conclusion, studies of patients expectations for care must contend with a substantial method effect. In this study from a single group practice, patients checked off more expectations using a structured questionnaire than they disclosed in a semistructured interview, but both formats predicted visit satisfaction. Asking patients about interventions received in relation to their previsit expectations added little to simply asking them directly about omitted care. The interaction of survey method with ethnicity and other sociodemographic characteristics requires further study. PMID:9034949

Kravitz, Richard L; Callahan, Edward J; Azari, Rahman; Antonius, Deirdre; Lewis, Charles E

1997-01-01

269

Predicting Problem Behaviors with Multiple Expectancies: Expanding Expectancy-Value Theory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Expectancy-value theory emphasizes the importance of outcome expectancies for behavioral decisions, but most tests of the theory focus on a single behavior and a single expectancy. However, the matching law suggests that individuals consider expected outcomes for both the target behavior and alternative behaviors when making decisions. In this

Borders, Ashley; Earleywine, Mitchell; Huey, Stanley J.

2004-01-01

270

Change in Disability-Free Life Expectancy for Americans 70 Years Old and Older  

PubMed Central

In this article, we examine changes in life expectancy free of disability using longitudinal data collected from 1984 through 2000 from two cohorts who composed the Longitudinal Studies of Aging I and II. Life expectancies with and without ADL and/or IADL disability are calculated using a Markov-based multistate life table approach. At age 70, disability-free life expectancy increased over a 10-year period by 0.6 of a year in the later cohort, which was the same as the increase in total life expectancy, both increases marginally statistically significant. The average length of expected life with IADL and ADL disability did not change. Changes in disability-free life expectancy resulted from decreases in disability incidence and increases in the incidence of recovery from disability across the two survey cohorts. Age-specific mortality among the ADL disabled declined significantly in the later cohort after age 80. Mortality for the IADL disabled and the nondisabled did not change significantly. Those with ADL disability at age 70 experienced substantial increases in both total life expectancy and disability-free life expectancy. These results indicate the importance of efforts both to prevent and delay disability and to promote recovery from disability for increasing life expectancy without disability. Results also indicate that while reductions in incidence and increases in recovery work to decrease population prevalence of disability, declining mortality among the disabled has been a force toward increasing disability prevalence. PMID:19771948

CRIMMINS, EILEEN M.; HAYWARD, MARK D.; HAGEDORN, AARON; SAITO, YASUHIKO; BROUARD, NICOLAS

2009-01-01

271

Home Visitation Assessing Progress, Managing Expectations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Early intervention efforts to promote healthy child development have long been a central feature of social service and public health reforms. Today, prenatal care, well-baby visits, and assessments to detect possible developmental delays are commonplace in most communities. Recently, child abuse prevention advocates have applied a developmental

Daro, Deborah

2006-01-01

272

Prescription stimulant expectancies in recreational and medical users: results from a preliminary expectancy questionnaire.  

PubMed

Given the rise of prescription stimulant misuse, examination of effect expectancies could prove helpful. The Prescription Stimulant Expectancy Questionnaire (PSEQ) was designed to explore positive and negative prescription stimulant-related expectancies. In 2006, 157 participants nationwide completed an Internet survey of prescription stimulant use, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms, and expectancies. Multiple regressions demonstrate that positive, but not negative expectancies, predicted frequency of use. Recreational and medical users were classified by hierarchical cluster analysis. Recreational users reported fewer positive and negative expectancies than medical users. Implications and limitations are discussed. Future research is warranted on prescription stimulant expectancies and the utility of the PSEQ. PMID:19938932

Looby, Alison; Earleywine, Mitch

2009-01-01

273

Containment consensus with measurement noises and time-varying communication delays  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we consider the containment consensus control problem for multi-agent systems with measurement noises and time-varying communication delays under directed networks. By using stochastic analysis tools and algebraic graph theory, we prove that the followers can converge to the convex hull spanned by the leaders in the sense of mean square if the allowed upper bound of the time-varying delays satisfies a certain sufficient condition. Moreover, the time-varying delays are asymmetric for each follower agent, and the time-delay-dependent consensus condition is derived. Finally, numerical simulations are provided to illustrate the effectiveness of the obtained theoretical results. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No.11102019), the Aeronautical Science Foundation of China (Grant No.2013ZC72006), and the Research Foundation of Beijing Institute of Technology, China.

Zhou, Feng; Wang, Zheng-Jie; Fan, Ning-Jun

2015-02-01

274

Northwest Outward Bound Instructor's Manual.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Instructor responsibilities, procedures for completing activities safely, and instructional methods and techniques are outlined to assist instructors in the Northwest Outward Bound School (Portland, Oregon) as they strive for teaching excellence. Information is organized into six chapters addressing: history and philosophy of Outward Bound; course

Northwest Outward Bound School, Portland, OR.

275

Bounded Fairness Nachum Dershowitz1,  

E-print Network

Bounded Fairness Nachum Dershowitz1, , D. N. Jayasimha2, , and Seungjoon Park2 1 School of Computer in honor of his 26 -th birthday. Abstract. Bounded fairness is a stronger notion than ordinary eventu- ality-based fairness, one that guarantees occurrence of an event within a fixed number of occurrences

Dershowitz, Nachum

276

An investigation of the effect of online consumer trust on expectation, satisfaction, and post-expectation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study proposes a framework regarding the relationship between consumer trust, satisfaction, expectation, and post-expectation\\u000a in the context of electronic commerce. In particular, the framework draws together from three theories: social exchange theory,\\u000a expectation-confirmation theory, and post-acceptance model of IS continuance. Following the longitudinal pre-purchase and\\u000a post-purchase stages, this study provides a theoretical framework combining trust, expectation, satisfaction, and post-expectation

Dan J. Kim

277

Combined Squark and Gluino Mass Bounds from LEP Data  

E-print Network

Under the assumption of gaugino mass unification at a high scale, chargino and neutralino masses depend on the value of the gluino mass, which itself becomes a function of squark masses through self-energy corrections. We demonstrate that this leads to combined bounds on squark and gluino masses from the limits on chargino, neutralino and Higgs boson masses obtained in the CERN LEP-1 and LEP-1.5 runs. These bounds turn out to be comparable to those obtained from direct searches at the Fermilab Tevatron and may be expected to improve as LEP energies go higher.

Mike Bisset; Dilip Kumar Ghosh; Sreerup Raychaudhuri

1996-08-30

278

Neurometabolic Testing in Developmental Delay  

Microsoft Academic Search

The goal of this study was to examine the usefulness of neurometabolic testing in patients with unexplained developmental delay. We included 118 patients from ages 3 months to 13 years. The evaluation was conducted according to a protocol that called for stepwise investigations with the intention to minimize unnecessary tests. Clinical and neuroradiologic abnormalities were used as guidelines for the

Antigone S. Papavasiliou; Helen Bazigou; Evagelos Paraskevoulakos; Charalambos Kotsalis

2000-01-01

279

Delayed School Entry in Uganda  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Since 1997 Uganda has seen a large increase in school enrolment. Despite this increased enrolment, universal education has remained elusive. Many children enrol in school, but not at the recommended age, and they drop out before completing school. This article focuses on one of these problems--delayed school entry. What household factors are

Moyi, Peter

2011-01-01

280

Teacher Expectations and the Able Child.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two middle school teachers and two students in each of the teacher's classes were assessed for field dependence-independence (FDI). The teachers were interviewed about their students. Found that one teacher had higher expectations and one had lower expectations for the student who had the same FDI orientation as the teacher than for the student

Lee-Corbin, Hilary

1994-01-01

281

Do Students Expect Compensation for Wage Risk?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We use a unique data set about the wage distribution that Swiss students expect for themselves ex ante, deriving parametric and non-parametric measures to capture expected wage risk. These wage risk measures are unfettered by heterogeneity which handicapped the use of actual market wage dispersion as risk measure in earlier studies. Students in

Schweri, Juerg; Hartog, Joop; Wolter, Stefan C.

2011-01-01

282

Expected utility theory without the completeness axiom  

Microsoft Academic Search

We study the problem of obtaining an expected utility representation for a potentially incomplete preference relation over lotteries by means of a set of von NeumannMorgenstern utility functions. It is shown that, when the prize space is a compact metric space, a preference relation admits such a multi-utility representation provided that it satisfies the standard axioms of expected utility theory.

Juan Dubra; Fabio Maccheroni; Efe A. Ok

2004-01-01

283

Grief Experiences and Expectance of Suicide  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Suicide is generally viewed as an unexpected cause of death. However, some suicides might be expected to a certain extent, which needs to be further studied. The relationships between expecting suicide, feeling understanding for the suicide, and later grief experiences were explored. In total, 142 bereaved participants completed the Grief

Wojtkowiak, Joanna; Wild, Verena; Egger, Jos

2012-01-01

284

Adjusted expectations, satisfaction and loyalty development  

Microsoft Academic Search

The primary contribution of this article is an analysis of the influence of the use of individual's expectations about a service consumption on the behavior models, that examine the process according to which loyalty and satisfaction are generated. More specifically, the research examines the implications of considering adjusted expectations, namely those that tourists have after having visited a destination, rather

Ramn Rufn; Cayetano Medina; Manuel Rey

2012-01-01

285

Trends in Life Expectancy in Wellbeing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objectives: This paper describes and discusses trends in life expectancy in wellbeing between 1989 and 1998. Methods: Data on wellbeing by the Bradburn Affect Balance Scale is obtained from the Netherlands Continuous Health Interview Surveys for the calendar years from 1989 to 1998. Using Sullivan's method, life expectancy in wellbeing is

Perenboom, R. J. M.; Van Herten, L. M.; Boshuizen, H. C.; Van Den Bos, G. A. M.

2004-01-01

286

Course Expectations and Career Management Skills  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Course completion and student satisfaction is likely to be influenced by how realistic the expectations of students are when they enroll. This report explores the idea that students' expectations would be more realistic if students have well developed career management competencies. Recent research argues that lack of information is not the

Kennedy, Marnie L.; Haines, Ben

2008-01-01

287

Parents' Role in Adolescents' Educational Expectations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study examined the extent to which mothers' and fathers' expectations for their offspring's future education, their level of education, and adolescents' academic achievement predict adolescents' educational expectations. To investigate this, 230 adolescents were examined twice while they were in comprehensive school (in the 7th and 9th

Rimkute, Laura; Hirvonen, Riikka; Tolvanen, Asko; Aunola, Kaisa; Nurmi, Jari-Erik

2012-01-01

288

Rising Tides: Faculty Expectations of Library Websites  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Looking at 2003-2009 LibQUAL+ responses at research-oriented universities in the United States, faculty library users report a significant and consistent rise in desires and expectations for library-provided online tools and websites, even as student user groups show declining or leveling expectations. While faculty, like students, also report

Nicol, Erica Carlson; O'English, Mark

2012-01-01

289

EpidemiologyQJE.tex Macroeconomic Expectations of  

E-print Network

. Remarkably, however, there has been almost no work testing alternative models of expectations usin eponymous conference volume. That companion paper examines a variety of alternative epidemiological models in `animal spirits,' but the basis for most of today's macro models was laid in the rational expectations

Niebur, Ernst

290

College students' dining expectations in Cyprus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose The primary purpose of the study is to investigate college students' dining expectations and define the factors that shape their dining choices. In addition, the study investigates whether gender, ethnic origin, prior food and beverage working experience, spending habits and dining frequency influence students' dining expectations. Design\\/methodology\\/approach A quantitative questionnaire was developed and randomly administered to college

Anastasios Zopiatis; Jovana Pribic

2007-01-01

291

Real roots of random polynomials: expectation and repulsion  

E-print Network

Let $P_{n}(x)= \\sum_{i=0}^n \\xi_i x^i$ be a Kac random polynomial where the coefficients $\\xi_i$ are iid copies of a given random variable $\\xi$. Our main result is an optimal quantitative bound concerning real roots repulsion. This leads to an optimal bound on the probability that there is a double root. As an application, we consider the problem of estimating the number of real roots of $P_n$, which has a long history and in particular was the main subject of a celebrated series of papers by Littlewood and Offord from the 1940s. We show, for a large and natural family of atom variables $\\xi$, that the expected number of real roots of $P_n(x)$ is exactly $\\frac{2}{\\pi} \\log n +C +o(1)$, where $C$ is an absolute constant depending on the atom variable $\\xi$. Prior to this paper, such a result was known only for the case when $\\xi$ is Gaussian.

Yen Do; Hoi Nguyen; Van Vu

2014-09-15

292

Delaying corn rootworm resistance to Bt corn.  

PubMed

Transgenic crops producing Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxins for insect control have been successful, but their efficacy is reduced when pests evolve resistance. To delay pest resistance to Bt crops, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has required refuges of host plants that do not produce Bt toxins to promote survival of susceptible pests. Such refuges are expected to be most effective if the Bt plants deliver a dose of toxin high enough to kill nearly all hybrid progeny produced by matings between resistant and susceptible pests. In 2003, the EPA first registered corn, Zea mays L., producing a Bt toxin (Cry3Bb1) that kills western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte, one of the most economically important crop pests in the United States. The EPA requires minimum refuges of 20% for Cry3Bb1 corn and 5% for corn producing two Bt toxins active against corn rootworms. We conclude that the current refuge requirements are not adequate, because Bt corn hybrids active against corn rootworms do not meet the high-dose standard, and western corn rootworm has rapidly evolved resistance to Cry3Bb1 corn in the laboratory, greenhouse, and field. Accordingly, we recommend increasing the minimum refuge for Bt corn targeting corn rootworms to 50% for plants producing one toxin active against these pests and to 20% for plants producing two toxins active against these pests. Increasing the minimum refuge percentage can help to delay pest resistance, encourage integrated pest management, and promote more sustainable crop protection. PMID:22812111

Tabashnik, Bruce E; Gould, Fred

2012-06-01

293

Delayed Neutron and Delayed Photon Characteristics from Photofission of Actinides  

SciTech Connect

Delayed neutron (DN) and delayed photon (DP) emissions from photofission reactions play an important role for applications involving nuclear material detection and characterization. To provide new, accurate, basic nuclear data for evaluations and data libraries, an experimental programme of DN and DP measurements has been undertaken for actinides with bremsstrahlung endpoint energy in the giant resonance region ({approx}15 MeV). In this paper, the experimental setup and the data analysis method will be described. Experimental results for DN and DP characteristics will be presented for {sup 232}Th, {sup 235,238}U, {sup 237}Np, and {sup 239}Pu. Finally, an example of an application to study the contents of nuclear waste packages will be briefly discussed.

Dore, D.; Berthoumieux, E.; Leprince, A.; Ridikas, D. [DSM/IRFUS/PhN, CEA/Saclay, Gif-sur-Yvette, F-91191 (France); Ledoux, X. [CEA/DAM/DIF, Arpajon, F-91297 (France); Agelou, M.; Carrel, F.; Gmar, M. [CEA, LIST, Gif-sur-Yvette, F-91191 (France)

2011-12-13

294

Neurobiology of placebo effects: expectations or learning?  

PubMed

Contemporary learning theories suggest that conditioning is heavily dependent on the processing of prediction errors, which signal a discrepancy between expected and observed outcomes. This line of research provides a framework through which classical theories of placebo effects, expectations and conditioning, can be reconciled. Brain regions related to prediction error processing [anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), orbitofrontal cortex or the nucleus accumbens] overlap with those involved in placebo effects. Here we examined the possibility that the magnitude of objective neurochemical responses to placebo administration would depend on individual expectation-effectiveness comparisons. We show that such comparisons and not expectations per se predict behavioral placebo responses and placebo-induced activation of -opioid receptor-mediated neurotransmission in regions relevant to error detection (e.g. ACC). Expectations on the other hand were associated with greater -opioid system activation in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex but not with greater behavioral placebo responses. The results presented aid the elucidation of molecular and neural mechanisms underlying the relationship between expectation-effectiveness associations and the formation of placebo responses, shedding light on the individual differences in learning and decision making. Expectation and outcome comparisons emerge as a cognitive mechanism that beyond reward associations appears to facilitate the formation and sustainability of placebo responses. PMID:23887819

Pecia, Marta; Stohler, Christian S; Zubieta, Jon-Kar

2014-07-01

295

Memory for Expectation-Violating Concepts: The Effects of Agents and Cultural Familiarity  

PubMed Central

Previous research has shown that ideas which violate our expectations, such as schema-inconsistent concepts, enjoy privileged status in terms of memorability. In our study, memory for concepts that violate cultural (cultural schema-level) expectations (e.g., illiterate teacher, wooden bottle, or thorny grass) versus domain-level (ontological) expectations (e.g., speaking cat, jumping maple, or melting teacher) was examined. Concepts that violate cultural expectations, or counter-schematic, were remembered to a greater extent compared with concepts that violate ontological expectations and with intuitive concepts (e.g., galloping pony, drying orchid, or convertible car), in both immediate recall, and delayed recognition tests. Importantly, concepts related to agents showed a memory advantage over concepts not pertaining to agents, but this was true only for expectation-violating concepts. Our results imply that intuitive, everyday concepts are equally attractive and memorable regardless of the presence or absence of agents. However, concepts that violate our expectations (cultural-schema or domain-level) are more memorable when pertaining to agents (humans and animals) than to non-agents (plants or objects/artifacts). We conclude that due to their evolutionary salience, cultural ideas which combine expectancy violations and the involvement of an agent are especially memorable and thus have an enhanced probability of being successfully propagated. PMID:24714568

Porubanova, Michaela; Shaw, Daniel Joel; McKay, Ryan; Xygalatas, Dimitris

2014-01-01

296

Experimental Activation of Bound Entanglement  

E-print Network

Entanglement is one of the essential resources in quantum information and communication technology (QICT). The entanglement thus far explored and applied to QICT has been pure and distillable entanglement. Yet there is another type of entanglement, called 'bound entanglement', which is not distillable by local operations and classical communication (LOCC). We demonstrate the experimental 'activation' of the bound entanglement held in the four-qubit Smolin state, unleashing its immanent entanglement in distillable form, with the help of auxiliary two-qubit entanglement and LOCC. We anticipate that it opens the way to a new class of QICT applications that utilize more general classes of entanglement than ever, including bound entanglement.

Kaneda, Fumihiro; Ishizaka, Satoshi; Mitsumori, Yasuyoshi; Kosaka, Hideo; Edamatsu, Keiichi

2011-01-01

297

Minimum Expected *Cast Time in DTNs  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Delay Tolerant Networks (DTNs) are wireless networks in which end-to-end connectivity is sporadic. Routing in DTNs uses past\\u000a connectivity information to predict future node meeting opportunities. Recent research efforts consider the use of social\\u000a network analysis (i.e., node communities, centralities etc.) for this forecast. However, most of these works focus on unicast.\\u000a We believe that group communication is the natural

Andreea Picu; Thrasyvoulos Spyropoulos

298

Computing variational bounds for flow through random aggregates of Spheres  

SciTech Connect

Known formulas for variational bounds on Darcy's constant for slow flow through porous media depend on two-point and three-poiint spatial correlation functions. Certain bounds due to Prager and Doi depending only a two-point correlation functions have been calculated for the first time for random aggregates of spheres with packing fractions (eta) up to eta = 0.64. Three radial distribution functions for hard spheres were tested for eta up to 0.49: (1) the uniform distribution or ''well-stirred approximation,'' (2) the Percus Yevick approximation, and (3) the semi-empirical distribution of Verlet and Weis. The empirical radial distribution functions of Benett andd Finney were used for packing fractions near the random-close-packing limit (eta/sub RCP/dapprox.0.64). An accurate multidimensional Monte Carlo integration method (VEGAS) developed by Lepage was used to compute the required two-point correlation functions. The results show that Doi's bounds are preferred for eta>0.10 while Prager's bounds are preferred for eta>0.10. The ''upper bounds'' computed using the well-stirred approximation actually become negative (which is physically impossible) as eta increases, indicating the very limited value of this approximation. The other two choices of radial distribution function give reasonable results for eta up to 0.49. However, these bounds do not decrease with eta as fast as expected for large eta. It is concluded that variational bounds dependent on three-point correlation functions are required to obtain more accurate bounds on Darcy's constant for large eta.

Berryman, J.G.

1983-10-01

299

Apparent enrichment of organically bound tritium in rivers explained by the heritage of our past.  

PubMed

The global inventory of naturally produced tritium (3H) is estimated at 2.65kg, whereas more than 600kg have been released during atmospheric nuclear tests (NCRP, 1979; UNSCEAR, 2000) constituting the main source of artificial tritium throughout the Anthropocene. The behaviour of this radioactive isotope in the environment has been widely studied since the 1950s, both through laboratory experiments and, more recently, through field observations (e.g., Cline, 1953; Kirchmann etal., 1979; Daillant etal., 2004; McCubbin etal., 2001; Kim etal., 2012). In its "free" forms, [i.e. 3H gas or 3H hydride (HT); methyl 3H gas (CH3T); tritiated H2O or 3H-oxide (HTO); and Tissue Free Water 3H (TFWT)], tritium closely follows the water cycle. However, 3H bound with organic compounds, mainly during the basic stages of photosynthesis or through weak hydrogen links, is less exchangeable with water, which explains its persistence in the carbon cycle as re underlined recently by Baglan etal. (2013), Jean-Batiste and Fourr (2013), Kim etal. (2013a,b). In this paper, we demonstrate that terrestrial biomass pools, historically contaminated by global atmospheric fallout from nuclear testing, have constituted a significant delayed source of organically bound tritium (OBT) for aquatic systems, resulting in an apparent enrichment of OBT as compared to HTO. This finding helps to explain concentration factors (tritium concentration in biota/concentration in water) greater than 1 observed in areas that are not directly affected by industrial radioactive wastes, and thus sheds light on the controversies regarding tritium 'bioaccumulation'. Such apparent enrichment of OBT is expected to be more pronounced in the Northern Hemisphere where fallout was most significant, depending on the nature and biodegradability of terrestrial biomass at the regional scale. We further believe that OBT transfers from the continent to oceans have been sufficient to affect tritium concentrations in coastal marine biota (i.e., near river inputs). Our findings demonstrate that the persistence of terrestrial organic (3)H explains imbalances between organically bound tritium and free (3)H in most river systems in particular those not impacted by releases from nuclear facilities. PMID:24956583

Eyrolle-Boyer, Frdrique; Boyer, Patrick; Claval, David; Charmasson, Sabine; Cossonnet, Catherine

2014-10-01

300

Abstract--Previous results for Cramer-Rao lower bound (CRLB) of the frequency of a coherent pulse-train make severely  

E-print Network

1 Abstract-- Previous results for Cramer-Rao lower bound (CRLB) of the frequency of a coherent provides very little advantage in any expected real-world scenarios. Index Terms-- Cramer-Rao Lower Bound estimation; here the focus is on deriving the Cramer-Rao lower bound (CRLB) for the estimation of the Doppler

Fowler, Mark

301

Bounds on quantum communication via Newtonian gravity  

E-print Network

Newtonian gravity yields specific observable consequences, the most striking of which is the emergence of a $1/r^2$ force. In so far as communication can arise via such interactions between distant particles, we can ask what would be expected for a theory of gravity that only allows classical communication. Many heuristic suggestions for gravity-induced decoherence have this restriction implicitly or explicitly in their construction. Here we show that communication via a $1/r^2$ force has a minimum noise induced in the system when the communication cannot convey quantum information, in a continuous time analogue to Bell's inequalities. Our derived noise bounds provide tight constraints from current experimental results on any theory of gravity that does not allow quantum communication.

D. Kafri; G. J. Milburn; J. M. Taylor

2014-10-08

302

Bounds on quantum communication via Newtonian gravity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Newtonian gravity yields specific observable consequences, the most striking of which is the emergence of a 1/{{r}2} force. In so far as communication can arise via such interactions between distant particles, we can ask what would be expected for a theory of gravity that only allows classical communication. Many heuristic suggestions for gravity-induced decoherence have this restriction implicitly or explicitly in their construction. Here we show that communication via a 1/{{r}2} force has a minimum noise induced in the system when the communication cannot convey quantum information, in a continuous time analogue to Bell's inequalities. Our derived noise bounds provide tight constraints from current experimental results on any theory of gravity that does not allow quantum communication.

Kafri, D.; Milburn, G. J.; Taylor, J. M.

2015-01-01

303

Bound states in a strong magnetic field  

SciTech Connect

We expect a strong magnetic field to be produced in the perpendicular direction to the reaction plane, in a noncentral heavy-ion collision . The strength of the magnetic field is estimated to be eB{approx}m{sup 2}{sub {pi}}{approx} 0.02 GeV{sup 2} at the RHIC and eB{approx} 15m{sup 2}{sub {pi}}{approx} 0.3 GeV{sup 2} at the LHC. We investigate the effects of the magnetic field on B{sup 0} and D{sup 0} mesons, focusing on the changes of the energy levels and of the mass of the bound states.

Machado, C. S.; Navarra, F. S.; Noronha, J.; Oliveira, E. G. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade de Sao Paulo Rua do Matao, Travessa R, 187, 05508-090 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Ferreira Filho, L. G. [Departamento de Matematica e Computacao, Faculdade de Tecnologia, Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro Rodovia Presidente Dutra, km 298, Polo Industrial, CEP 27537-000, Resende, RJ (Brazil)

2013-03-25

304

Preferences as expectation-driven inferences: effects of affective expectations on affective experience.  

PubMed

Presents a model arguing that affect and emotion are often formed in an expectation-driven fashion. A pilot study and 2 experiments manipulated undergraduate Ss' affective expectations (e.g., how funny they expected a set of cartoons to be) and whether Ss' expectations were confirmed (e.g., whether the cartoons really were funny). When the value of a stimulus was consistent with an affective expectation, people formed evaluations relatively quickly. Even when the value of a stimulus was discrepant from an affective expectation, people sometimes assimilated the value of the stimulus to their expectations. Other times, such as when making a more fine-grained evaluation of the cartoons, people noticed that they were discrepant from their affective expectations. Under these conditions, people appeared to have more difficulty forming preferences. They took longer to evaluate and spent more time thinking about the cartoons. PMID:2709307

Wilson, T D; Lisle, D J; Kraft, D; Wetzel, C G

1989-04-01

305

A stochastic delay differential model of cerebral autoregulation.  

PubMed

Mathematical models of the cardiovascular system and of cerebral autoregulation (CAR) have been employed for several years in order to describe the time course of pressures and flows changes subsequent to postural changes. The assessment of the degree of efficiency of cerebral auto regulation has indeed importance in the prognosis of such conditions as cerebro-vascular accidents or Alzheimer. In the quest for a simple but realistic mathematical description of cardiovascular control, which may be fitted onto non-invasive experimental observations after postural changes, the present work proposes a first version of an empirical Stochastic Delay Differential Equations (SDDEs) model. The model consists of a total of four SDDEs and two ancillary algebraic equations, incorporates four distinct delayed controls from the brain onto different components of the circulation, and is able to accurately capture the time course of mean arterial pressure and cerebral blood flow velocity signals, reproducing observed auto-correlated error around the expected drift. PMID:25830915

Panunzi, Simona; D'Orsi, Laura; Iacoviello, Daniela; De Gaetano, Andrea

2015-01-01

306

A Stochastic Delay Differential Model of Cerebral Autoregulation  

PubMed Central

Mathematical models of the cardiovascular system and of cerebral autoregulation (CAR) have been employed for several years in order to describe the time course of pressures and flows changes subsequent to postural changes. The assessment of the degree of efficiency of cerebral auto regulation has indeed importance in the prognosis of such conditions as cerebro-vascular accidents or Alzheimer. In the quest for a simple but realistic mathematical description of cardiovascular control, which may be fitted onto non-invasive experimental observations after postural changes, the present work proposes a first version of an empirical Stochastic Delay Differential Equations (SDDEs) model. The model consists of a total of four SDDEs and two ancillary algebraic equations, incorporates four distinct delayed controls from the brain onto different components of the circulation, and is able to accurately capture the time course of mean arterial pressure and cerebral blood flow velocity signals, reproducing observed auto-correlated error around the expected drift. PMID:25830915

Panunzi, Simona; DOrsi, Laura; Iacoviello, Daniela; De Gaetano, Andrea

2015-01-01

307

Price regulation and relative delays in generic drug adoption.  

PubMed

Increasing the adoption of generic drugs has the potential to improve static efficiency in a health system without harming pharmaceutical innovation. However, very little is known about the timing of generic adoption and diffusion. No prior study has empirically examined the differential launch times of generics across a comprehensive set of markets, or more specifically the delays in country specific adoption of generics relative to the first country of (generic) adoption. Drawing on data containing significant country and product variation across a lengthy time period (1999-2008), we use duration analysis to examine relative delays, across countries, in the adoption of generic drugs. Our results suggest that price regulation has a significant effect on reducing the time to launch of generics, with faster adoption in higher priced markets. The latter result is dependent on the degree of competition and the expected market size. PMID:25200940

Costa-Font, Joan; McGuire, Alistair; Varol, Nebibe

2014-12-01

308

Microelectromechanical delay lines with slow signal propagation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A slow-wave microelectromechanical delay line, composed of a chain of coupled resonators, is introduced. The delay line has a bandpass response and, depending on structural details, signal group velocity can be as low as ~10 m s-1, that is over 100 times smaller than for acoustical SAW or BAW delay lines. Properties of the delay line are analyzed theoretically and the theory is verified in measurements.

Alastalo, Ari T.; Kiihamki, Jyrki; Sepp, Heikki

2006-09-01

309

Perspective Great Expectations: Using Whole-Brain  

E-print Network

Neuron Perspective Great Expectations: Using Whole-Brain Computational Connectomics is on the disruption in neuropsychiatric disorders (patho- connectomics) and how whole-brain computational models can modeling and computational connectomics may provide an entry point for understanding brain disorders

Deco, Gustavo

310

Anesthesia: What to Expect (For Parents)  

MedlinePLUS

KidsHealth > Parents > Doctors & Hospitals > Resources for Parents > Anesthesia - What to Expect Print A A A Text Size What's in this article? Before Surgery Questions to Ask In the Operating Room After ...

311

What to Expect During a Lung Transplant  

MedlinePLUS

... NHLBI on Twitter. What To Expect During a Lung Transplant Just before lung transplant surgery, you will ... airway and its blood vessels to your heart. Lung Transplant The illustration shows the process of a ...

312

What To Expect Before a Lung Transplant  

MedlinePLUS

... NHLBI on Twitter. What To Expect Before a Lung Transplant If you get into a medical center's ... friends also can offer support. When a Donor Lung Becomes Available OPTN matches donor lungs to recipients ...

313

Brain MRI Classification using the Expectation Maximization  

E-print Network

Brain MRI Classification using the Expectation Maximization made a brain magnetic resonance image (MRI) classification algorithm that uses a twostage applied to a set of normal brain MR images for further testing. We accomplished a working

Chen, Tsuhan

314

What to Expect during Heart Surgery  

MedlinePLUS

... the NHLBI on Twitter. What To Expect During Heart Surgery Heart surgery is done in a hospital, ... surgery, takes about 36 hours. Traditional Open-Heart Surgery For this type of surgery, you'll ...

315

An expectation model of referring expressions  

E-print Network

This thesis introduces EMRE, an expectation-based model of referring expressions. EMRE is proposed as a model of non-syntactic dependencies - in particular, discourse-level semantic dependencies that bridge sentence gaps. ...

Krmer, John, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2010-01-01

316

Classics in the Classroom: Great Expectations Fulfilled.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes how an English teacher in a Queens, New York, ghetto school introduced her grade nine students to Charles Dickens's "Great Expectations." Focuses on students' responses, which eventually became enthusiastic, and discusses the use of classics within the curriculum. (KH)

Pearl, Shela

1986-01-01

317

Teacher Expectations: Determinants of Pupils' Reading Achievement.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Results of a study of teacher rankings of reading readiness suggested that teacher rankings are as reliable as reankings using the Metropolitan Readiness Tests; the results did not indicate that teacher expectations of student achievement can be altered. (FL)

Elijah, David

1980-01-01

318

What to Expect After Pulmonary Rehabilitation  

MedlinePLUS

... NHLBI on Twitter. What To Expect After Pulmonary Rehabilitation Most pulmonary rehabilitation (PR) programs last a few months. At the ... Rate This Content: Next >> August 1, 2010 Pulmonary Rehabilitation Clinical Trials Clinical trials are research studies that ...

319

What to Expect during Cardiac Rehabilitation  

MedlinePLUS

... NHLBI on Twitter. What To Expect During Cardiac Rehabilitation During cardiac rehabilitation (rehab), you'll learn how to: Increase your ... Rate This Content: Next >> December 24, 2013 Cardiac Rehabilitation Clinical Trials Clinical trials are research studies that ...

320

What to Expect During your Admission to  

E-print Network

What to Expect During your Admission to Packard Hospital Please leave all your medications at home at first, it ensures your safety. If you have CFRD and use insulin pens, bring these with you and ask

Kay, Mark A.

321

What to Expect during a Heart Transplant  

MedlinePLUS

... on Twitter. What To Expect During a Heart Transplant Just before heart transplant surgery, the patient will ... not replaced as part of the surgery. Heart Transplant Figure A shows where the diseased heart is ...

322

?-delayed fission of 180Tl  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The detailed analysis of the ?-delayed fission data of 180Tl is presented. The experiment was performed by producing a pure beam of 180Tl by means of highly selective resonance laser ionization followed by mass separation with the ISOLDE (CERN, Geneva) isotope separator. A surprising asymmetric mass distribution of fission fragments from 180Hg, the daughter of 180Tl ? decays, was observed. Here, the energy calibration of the silicon detectors, which is crucial for a proper determination of the fission fragments energy and mass split, is presented and the total kinetic energy and its dependence on the mass split ratio is discussed. A more precise ?-delayed fission probability P?DF(180Tl)=3.2(2)10-3% was deduced.

Elseviers, J.; Andreyev, A. N.; Huyse, M.; Van Duppen, P.; Antalic, S.; Barzakh, A.; Bree, N.; Cocolios, T. E.; Comas, V. F.; Diriken, J.; Fedorov, D.; Fedosseev, V. N.; Franchoo, S.; Ghys, L.; Heredia, J. A.; Ivanov, O.; Kster, U.; Marsh, B. A.; Nishio, K.; Page, R. D.; Patronis, N.; Seliverstov, M. D.; Tsekhanovich, I.; Van den Bergh, P.; Van De Walle, J.; Venhart, M.; Vermote, S.; Veselsk, M.; Wagemans, C.

2013-10-01

323

Synchronization by small time delays  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Synchronization is a phenomenon observed in all of the living and in much of the non-living world, for example in the heart beat, Huygens' clocks, the flashing of fireflies and the clapping of audiences. Depending on the number of degrees of freedom involved, different mathematical approaches have been used to describe it, most prominently integrate-and-fire oscillators and the Kuramoto model of coupled oscillators. In the present work, we study a very simple and general system of smoothly evolving oscillators, which continue to interact even in the synchronized state. We find that under very general circumstances, synchronization generically occurs in the presence of a (small) time delay. Strikingly, the synchronization time is inversely proportional to the time delay.

Pruessner, G.; Cheang, S.; Jensen, H. J.

2015-02-01

324

Delays for shale oil development  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Synthetic fuels, including oil from shales, are experiencing a set of delays in their development, marked by the shutdown recently of the Colony Oil Shale Project in western Colorado. In these instances, the reasons given for the deferral of the projects are related to the economy. In past delays, the reasons given were related to environmental concerns; the recovery of organic matter from oil shales produces immense volumes of wastes while releasing noxious fumes and contaminated water.For many generations, statements have been made about oil shales' vast reserves awaiting the right economic conditions, which do not exist in the present day, for exploitation. Everyone believes synthetic fuels are inevitable; but now the timetable has been slowed, observes Michael Kalida, president of the National Council on Synthetic Fuels Production (Chem. Eng. News, May 10, 1982).

Bell, Peter M.

325

Time delay and distance measurement  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A method for measuring time delay and distance may include providing an electromagnetic radiation carrier frequency and modulating one or more of amplitude, phase, frequency, polarization, and pointing angle of the carrier frequency with a return to zero (RZ) pseudo random noise (PN) code. The RZ PN code may have a constant bit period and a pulse duration that is less than the bit period. A receiver may detect the electromagnetic radiation and calculate the scattering profile versus time (or range) by computing a cross correlation function between the recorded received signal and a three-state RZ PN code kernel in the receiver. The method also may be used for pulse delay time (i.e., PPM) communications.

Abshire, James B. (Inventor); Sun, Xiaoli (Inventor)

2011-01-01

326

Using binary stars to bound the mass of the graviton  

E-print Network

Interacting white dwarf binary star systems, including helium cataclysmic variable (HeCV) systems, are expected to be strong sources of gravitational radiation, and should be detectable by proposed space-based laser interferometer gravitational wave observatories such as LISA. Several HeCV star systems are presently known and can be studied optically, which will allow electromagnetic and gravitational wave observations to be correlated. Comparisons of the phases of a gravitational wave signal and the orbital light curve from an interacting binary white dwarf star system can be used to bound the mass of the graviton. Observations of typical HeCV systems by LISA could potentially yield an upper bound on the inverse mass of the graviton as strong as $h/m_{g} = \\lambda_{g} > 1 \\times 10^{15}$ km ($m_{g} < 1 \\times 10^{-24}$ eV), more than two orders of magnitude better than present solar system derived bounds.

Shane L. Larson; William A. Hiscock

1999-12-23

327

Human cost of regulatory delays  

Microsoft Academic Search

The pursuit of perfection, inherent in the nuclear regulatory process and escalating licensing requirements, is extremely costly-not only in terms of dollars, but also in terms of public health and safety. One month's delay of a single 1000-MW(e) (1-GW(e)) nuclear station can lead to 38,000 equivalent person-days of illness if the replacement electricity is generated equally by oil and coal-fired

Burnett; T. W. T

1977-01-01

328

Time-delayed control device  

Microsoft Academic Search

A time-delayed detonating device has a hollow fluid- impervious pressure-resistant housing consisting of at least 2 detachable units. One unit consists of a cup-shaped housing having a spring-action arming mechanism mounted in it. The second unit consists of a cylindrical shaped housing having an inner support member constructed of an electric-insulating material. Mounted on the inner support member in appropriate

W. M. Zingg; P. P. Swift

1969-01-01

329

Expectation and Attention in Hierarchical Auditory Prediction  

PubMed Central

Hierarchical predictive coding suggests that attention in humans emerges from increased precision in probabilistic inference, whereas expectation biases attention in favor of contextually anticipated stimuli. We test these notions within auditory perception by independently manipulating top-down expectation and attentional precision alongside bottom-up stimulus predictability. Our findings support an integrative interpretation of commonly observed electrophysiological signatures of neurodynamics, namely mismatch negativity (MMN), P300, and contingent negative variation (CNV), as manifestations along successive levels of predictive complexity. Early first-level processing indexed by the MMN was sensitive to stimulus predictability: here, attentional precision enhanced early responses, but explicit top-down expectation diminished it. This pattern was in contrast to later, second-level processing indexed by the P300: although sensitive to the degree of predictability, responses at this level were contingent on attentional engagement and in fact sharpened by top-down expectation. At the highest level, the drift of the CNV was a fine-grained marker of top-down expectation itself. Source reconstruction of high-density EEG, supported by intracranial recordings, implicated temporal and frontal regions differentially active at early and late levels. The cortical generators of the CNV suggested that it might be involved in facilitating the consolidation of context-salient stimuli into conscious perception. These results provide convergent empirical support to promising recent accounts of attention and expectation in predictive coding. PMID:23825422

Noreika, Valdas; Gueorguiev, David; Blenkmann, Alejandro; Kochen, Silvia; Ibez, Agustn; Owen, Adrian M.; Bekinschtein, Tristan A.

2013-01-01

330

Academic Delay of Gratification and Academic Achievement  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The ability to delay gratification is the cornerstone of all academic achievement and education. It is by delaying gratification that learners can pursue long-term academic and career goals. In general, "delay of gratification" refers to an individual's ability to forgo immediate rewards for the sake of more valuable ones later (Mischel, 1996).

Bembenutty, Hefer

2011-01-01

331

Contingency Tracking during Unsignaled Delayed Reinforcement  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Three experiments were conducted with rats in which responses on one lever (labeled the functional lever) produced reinforcers after an unsignaled delay period that reset with each response during the delay. Responses on a second, nonfunctional, lever did not initiate delays, but, in the first and third experiments, such responses during the last

Keely, Josue; Feola, Tyler; Lattal, Kennon A.

2007-01-01

332

Tensor rank : some lower and upper bounds  

E-print Network

The results of Strassen [25] and Raz [19] show that good enough tensor rank lower bounds have implications for algebraic circuit/formula lower bounds. We explore tensor rank lower and upper bounds, focusing on explicit ...

Forbes, Michael Andrew

2011-01-01

333

Lower bound techniques for data structures  

E-print Network

We describe new techniques for proving lower bounds on data-structure problems, with the following broad consequences: * the first [omega](lg n) lower bound for any dynamic problem, improving on a bound that had been ...

P?tra?cu, Mihai

2008-01-01

334

Delayed recombination and standard rulers  

SciTech Connect

Measurements of baryonic acoustic oscillations (BAOs) in galaxy surveys have been recognized as a powerful tool for constraining dark energy. However, this method relies on the knowledge of the size of the acoustic horizon at recombination derived from cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropy measurements. This estimate is typically derived assuming a standard recombination scheme; additional radiation sources can delay recombination altering the cosmic ionization history and the cosmological inferences drawn from CMB and BAO data. In this paper we quantify the effect of delayed recombination on the determination of dark energy parameters from future BAO surveys such as the Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey and the Wide-Field Multi-Object Spectrograph. We find the impact to be small but still not negligible. In particular, if recombination is nonstandard (to a level still allowed by CMB data), but this is ignored, future surveys may incorrectly suggest the presence of a redshift-dependent dark energy component. On the other hand, in the case of delayed recombination, adding to the analysis one extra parameter describing deviations from standard recombination does not significantly degrade the error bars on dark energy parameters and yields unbiased estimates. This is due to the CMB-BAO complementarity.

De Bernardis, Francesco; Melchiorri, Alessandro [Universita' di Roma 'La Sapienza', Ple Aldo Moro 2, 00185, Rome (Italy); Bean, Rachel [Department of Astronomy, Space Sciences Building, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853 (United States); Galli, Silvia [Universita di Roma 'La Sapienza', Ple Aldo Moro 2, 00185, Rome (Italy); Laboratoire Astroparticule et Cosmologie (APC), Universite Paris Diderot, 75205 Paris cedex 13 (France); Silk, Joseph I. [Astrophysics, Denys Wilkinson Building, University of Oxford, Keble Road, OX1 3RH, Oxford (United Kingdom); Verde, Licia [Institute of Space Sciences (IEEC-CSIC), Facultat Ciencies, Campus UAB, Bellaterra (Spain)

2009-02-15

335

Delayed Recombination and Standard Rulers  

E-print Network

Measurements of Baryonic Acoustic Oscillations in galaxy surveys have been recognized as a powerful tool for constraining dark energy. However, this method relies on the knowledge of the size of the acoustic horizon at recombination derived from Cosmic Microwave Background Anisotropy measurements. This estimate is typically derived assuming a standard recombination scheme; additional radiation sources can delay recombination altering the cosmic ionization history and the cosmological inferences drawn from CMB and BAO data. In this paper we quantify the effect of delayed recombination on the determination of dark energy parameters from future BAO surveys such as BOSS and WFMOS. We find the impact to be small but still not negligible. In particular, if recombination is non-standard (to a level still allowed by CMB data), but this is ignored, future surveys may incorrectly suggest the presence of a redshift dependent dark energy component. On the other hand, in the case of delayed recombination, adding to the analysis one extra parameter describing deviations from standard recombination, does not significantly degrade the error-bars on dark energy parameters and yields unbiased estimates.

Francesco De Bernardis; Rachel Bean; Silvia Galli; Alessandro Melchiorri; Joseph Silk; Licia Verde

2008-12-18

336

Measurement errors in survey forecasts of expected inflation and the rationality of inflation expectations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies that use survey data to test the rationality of inflationary expectations usually test for unbiasedness by regressing actual inflation on expected inflation and testing the joint hypothesis that the intercept is zero and the slope coefficient is one. Such studies are fatally flawed because they incorrectly assume that expected inflation is measured without error. A procedure that allows for

David J. Smyth

1992-01-01

337

Optimal Bounds on Texture Coefficients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Let w be the orientation distribution function of a polycrystalline aggregate of crystallites with symmetry G\\u000a cr and with group of texture symmetry G\\u000a tex. In this paper we obtain a recipe on how to derive optimal bounds on the texture coefficients W\\u000a \\u000a lmn\\u000a associated with w. In particular, we find explicit bounds in the case in which G\\u000a tex

Roberto Paroni

2000-01-01

338

Optimal rate: delay tradeoffs and delay mitigating codes for multipath routed and network coded networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Via multiterminal information theory, a framework is presented for deriving fundamental rate delay tradeoffs that delay mitigating codes must have when utilized over multipath routed and random linear network coded networks. The rate delay tradeoff is formulated as a calculus problem on a capacity region of a related abstracted broadcast channel. Given this general framework for studying such rate delay

John MacLaren Walsh; Steven Weber; Ciira Wa Maina

2009-01-01

339

An Active Analog Delay and the Delay Reference Loop James Buckwalterand Ali Hajimiri  

E-print Network

. 1, is constructed from the weighted sum of a tapped-delay line. The transversal filter becomes stage is proposedthat requiresa sixteenth ofthe area ofa comparable LC delay line. A delay reference lines a reference frequency 1. INTRODUCTION 11. ACTIVE ANALOG DELAY Optical fiber and copper backplane

Buckwalter, James

340

Underestimation of the RMS Delay Spread When using Uniform Tapped Delay Lines In Wireless Communications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tapped delay lines are widely used to model impulse responses of radio channels. This letter analytically proves that uniform tapped delay lines under-estimate the RMS delay spread (RMS-DS) corresponding to the channel being modeled by the line. However, the mean delay is exactly the same. Data from other publications is used in order to assess this result. Microcells measurements are

J.-M. Molina-Garca-Pardo; J.-V. Rodrguez; L. Juan-Llcer

2008-01-01

341

Prospection and emotional memory: how expectation affects emotional memory formation following sleep and wake  

PubMed Central

Successful prospective memory is necessarily driven by an expectation that encoded information will be relevant in the future, leading to its preferential placement in memory storage. Like expectation, emotional salience is another type of cue that benefits human memory formation. Although separate lines of research suggest that both emotional information and information explicitly expected to be important in the future benefit memory consolidation, it is unknown how expectation affects the processing of emotional information and whether sleep, which is known to maximize memory consolidation, plays a critical role. The purpose of this study was to investigate how expectation would impact the consolidation of emotionally salient content, and whether this impact would differ across delays of sleep and wake. Participants encoded scenes containing an emotionally charged negative or neutral foreground object placed on a plausible neutral background. After encoding, half of the participants were informed they would later be tested on the scenes (expected condition), while the other half received no information about the test (unexpected condition). At recognition, following a 12-h delay of sleep or wakefulness, the scene components (objects and backgrounds) were presented separately and one at a time, and participants were asked to determine if each component was old or new. Results revealed a greater disparity for memory of negative objects over their paired neutral backgrounds for both the sleep and wake groups when the memory test was expected compared to when it was unexpected, while neutral memory remained unchanged. Analyzing each group separately, the wake group showed a threefold increase in the magnitude of this object/background trade-off for emotional scenes when the memory test was expected compared to when it was unexpected, while those who slept performed similarly across conditions. These results suggest that emotional salience and expectation cues interact to benefit emotional memory consolidation during a delay of wakefulness. The sleeping brain, however, may automatically tag emotionally salient information as important, such that explicit instruction of an upcoming memory test does not further improve memory performance. PMID:25136328

Cunningham, Tony J.; Chambers, Alexis M.; Payne, Jessica D.

2014-01-01

342

Maximum likelihood delay estimation in a navigation receiver for aeronautical applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

The potential of the SAGE (Space Alternating Generalized Expectation Maximization) algorithm for navigation systems in order to distinguish the line-of-sight signal (LOSS) is to be considered. The SAGE algorithm is a low-complexity generalization of the EM (Expectation-Maximization) algorithm, which iteratively approximates the maximum likelihood estimator (MLE) and has been successfully applied for parameter estimation (relative delay, incident azimuth, incident elevation,

F. Antreich; J. A. Nossek; W. Utschick

2008-01-01

343

Delayed marriage and the asexual revolution.  

PubMed

China has experienced a moral revolution along with its social and economic revolution. The moral revolution was backed by China's communist ideology and propaganda machine, which stresses discipline, devotion, and self-denial. Young people are expected to delay sexual activity and marriage until their late 20's and to focus their energies on building the state. Little in Chinese society is provocative which reinforces the propaganda. Privacy is practically nonexistent, another reinforcement of the code of conduct. A major share of the decline in the birth rate is attributed to later age at marriage. It is not clear whether the pattern of restraint can be maintained as liberalization policies seep into other aspects of Chinese society. New sex programs in the schools indicate a shift away from puritanical morals. The government will be faced with 2 choices if liberalization continues: to allow earlier marriages but not childbirth, or to make contraceptive services available to sexually active, unmarried individuals. Economic reforms loosening the restrictions on individual initiative, interest in modern technology, and other moves away from doctrinaire policies of the early 70's represent tests to the social and economic revolution. One of the most difficult tests will be to the family planning program if there is a major change in sexual mores. PMID:12261797

Guttmacher, L; Chen, P C; Epstein, S G; Viel, B; Camp, S L; Ridley, J H; Oakley, D

1980-03-01

344

Delaying Orthostatic Syncope With Mental Challenge  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

At orthostatic vasovagal syncope there appears to be a sudden withdrawl of sympathetic activity. As mental challenge activates the sympathetic system, we hypothesized that doing mental arithmetic in volunteers driven to the end point of their cardiovascular stability may delay the onset of orthostatic syncope. We investigated this in healthy male subjects. Each subject underwent a head up tilt (HUT) + graded lower body negative pressure (LBNP) up to presyncope session (control) to determine the orthostatic tolerance time, OTT (Time from HUT commencement to development of presyncopal symptoms/signs). Once the tolerance time was known, a randomized crossover protocol was used: either 1) Repeat HUT + LBNP to ensure reproducibility of repeated run or 2) HUT + LBNP run but with added mental challenge (two min before the expected presyncope time). Test protocols were separated by two weeks. Our studies on five male test subjects indicate that mental challenge improves orthostatic tolerance significantly. Additional mental loading could be a useful countermeasure to alleviate the orthostatic responses of persons, particularly in those with histories of dizziness on standing up, or to alleviate hypotension that frequently occurs during hemodialysis or on return to earth from the spaceflight environment of microgravity.

Goswami, Nandu; Roessler, Andreas; Hinghofer-Szalkay, Helmut; Montani, Jean-Pierre; Steptoe, Andrew

2012-07-01

345

Performance Bounds on Two Concatenated, Interleaved Codes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A method has been developed of computing bounds on the performance of a code comprised of two linear binary codes generated by two encoders serially concatenated through an interleaver. Originally intended for use in evaluating the performances of some codes proposed for deep-space communication links, the method can also be used in evaluating the performances of short-block-length codes in other applications. The method applies, more specifically, to a communication system in which following processes take place: At the transmitter, the original binary information that one seeks to transmit is first processed by an encoder into an outer code (Co) characterized by, among other things, a pair of numbers (n,k), where n (n > k)is the total number of code bits associated with k information bits and n k bits are used for correcting or at least detecting errors. Next, the outer code is processed through either a block or a convolutional interleaver. In the block interleaver, the words of the outer code are processed in blocks of I words. In the convolutional interleaver, the interleaving operation is performed bit-wise in N rows with delays that are multiples of B bits. The output of the interleaver is processed through a second encoder to obtain an inner code (Ci) characterized by (ni,ki). The output of the inner code is transmitted over an additive-white-Gaussian- noise channel characterized by a symbol signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) Es/No and a bit SNR Eb/No. At the receiver, an inner decoder generates estimates of bits. Depending on whether a block or a convolutional interleaver is used at the transmitter, the sequence of estimated bits is processed through a block or a convolutional de-interleaver, respectively, to obtain estimates of code words. Then the estimates of the code words are processed through an outer decoder, which generates estimates of the original information along with flags indicating which estimates are presumed to be correct and which are found to be erroneous. From the perspective of the present method, the topic of major interest is the performance of the communication system as quantified in the word-error rate and the undetected-error rate as functions of the SNRs and the total latency of the interleaver and inner code. The method is embodied in equations that describe bounds on these functions. Throughout the derivation of the equations that embody the method, it is assumed that the decoder for the outer code corrects any error pattern of t or fewer errors, detects any error pattern of s or fewer errors, may detect some error patterns of more than s errors, and does not correct any patterns of more than t errors. Because a mathematically complete description of the equations that embody the method and of the derivation of the equations would greatly exceed the space available for this article, it must suffice to summarize by reporting that the derivation includes consideration of several complex issues, including relationships between latency and memory requirements for block and convolutional codes, burst error statistics, enumeration of error-event intersections, and effects of different interleaving depths. In a demonstration, the method was used to calculate bounds on the performances of several communication systems, each based on serial concatenation of a (63,56) expurgated Hamming code with a convolutional inner code through a convolutional interleaver. The bounds calculated by use of the method were compared with results of numerical simulations of performances of the systems to show the regions where the bounds are tight (see figure).

Moision, Bruce; Dolinar, Samuel

2010-01-01

346

Components of attention modulated by temporal expectation.  

PubMed

By varying the probabilities that a stimulus would appear at particular times after the presentation of a cue and modeling the data by the theory of visual attention (Bundesen, 1990), Vangkilde, Coull, and Bundesen (2012) provided evidence that the speed of encoding a singly presented stimulus letter into visual short-term memory (VSTM) is modulated by the observer's temporal expectations. We extended the investigation from single-stimulus recognition to whole report (Experiment 1) and partial report (Experiment 2). Cue-stimulus foreperiods were distributed geometrically using time steps of 500 ms. In high expectancy conditions, the probability that the stimulus would appear on the next time step, given that it had not yet appeared, was high, whereas in low expectancy conditions, the probability was low. The speed of encoding the stimuli into VSTM was higher in the high expectancy conditions. In line with the Easterbrook (1959) hypothesis, under high temporal expectancy, the processing was also more focused (selective). First, the storage capacity of VSTM was lower, so that fewer stimuli were encoded into VSTM. Second, the distribution of attentional weights across stimuli was less even: The efficiency of selecting targets rather than distractors for encoding into VSTM was higher, as was the spread of the attentional weights of the target letters. PMID:25068851

Srensen, Thomas Alrik; Vangkilde, Signe; Bundesen, Claus

2015-01-01

347

Expectations for melodic contours transcend pitch.  

PubMed

The question of what makes a good melody has interested composers, music theorists, and psychologists alike. Many of the observed principles of good "melodic continuation" involve melodic contour-the pattern of rising and falling pitch within a sequence. Previous work has shown that contour perception can extend beyond pitch to other auditory dimensions, such as brightness and loudness. Here, we show that the generalization of contour perception to nontraditional dimensions also extends to melodic expectations. In the first experiment, subjective ratings for 3-tone sequences that vary in brightness or loudness conformed to the same general contour-based expectations as pitch sequences. In the second experiment, we modified the sequence of melody presentation such that melodies with the same beginning were blocked together. This change produced substantively different results, but the patterns of ratings remained similar across the 3 auditory dimensions. Taken together, these results suggest that (a) certain well-known principles of melodic expectation (such as the expectation for a reversal following a skip) are dependent on long-term context, and (b) these expectations are not unique to the dimension of pitch and may instead reflect more general principles of perceptual organization. PMID:25365571

Graves, Jackson E; Micheyl, Christophe; Oxenham, Andrew J

2014-12-01

348

Precise delay measurement through combinatorial logic  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A high resolution circuit and method for facilitating precise measurement of on-chip delays for FPGAs for reliability studies. The circuit embeds a pulse generator on an FPGA chip having one or more groups of LUTS (the "LUT delay chain"), also on-chip. The circuit also embeds a pulse width measurement circuit on-chip, and measures the duration of the generated pulse through the delay chain. The pulse width of the output pulse represents the delay through the delay chain without any I/O delay. The pulse width measurement circuit uses an additional asynchronous clock autonomous from the main clock and the FPGA propagation delay can be displayed on a hex display continuously for testing purposes.

Burke, Gary R. (Inventor); Chen, Yuan (Inventor); Sheldon, Douglas J. (Inventor)

2010-01-01

349

SAMPLE EXPECTED LEARNING OUTCOMES STATEMENTSSAMPLE EXPECTED LEARNING OUTCOMES STATEMENTS The following pages depict some sample expected learning outcome statements from  

E-print Network

The following pages depict some sample expected learning outcome statements from selected courses. United States and individuals associated with the history of the United States. Introduction to Business At the end democratic principles · Outline the structure of the Constitution of the U.S. · Identity and define

Rock, Chris

350

Fault simulation and test generation for small delay faults  

E-print Network

Delay faults are an increasingly important test challenge. Traditional delay fault models are incomplete in that they model only a subset of delay defect behaviors. To solve this problem, a more realistic delay fault model has been developed which...

Qiu, Wangqi

2007-04-25

351

Measurement of Gravitational Lens Time Delays with LSST (SULI Paper)  

SciTech Connect

The proposed Large Synoptic Survey Telescope will be the first to explore multiple dark energy probes simultaneously, including baryon acoustic oscillations, weak lensing, and strong gravitational lensing. The large data sample, covering the entire visible sky every few nights, will allow an unprecedented survey of deep supernova sources and their lensed images. The latter have not yet been observed. Notably, LSST will measure the time delays between different strong-lensed images of the same supernova. This will provide a unique probe of dark matter, dark energy, and the expansion rate of the Universe. By simulating LSST observations under realistic conditions, we determined the time delay precision of multiple images from a representative strong-lensed Type Ia supernova. The output of the simulation was a set of light curves according to field and filter, which were subsequently analyzed to determine the experimental time delays. We find that a time delay precision of better then 10% can be achieved under suitable conditions. Firstly, a minimum observed peak-magnitude of 22 is required for the lensed image, corresponding to an intrinsic source magnitude of about 24. The number of such supernova sources expected for LSST is under investigation, but it could amount to several thousand. Secondly, a minimum of about 50 visits per field is required, and, moreover, these visits must be evenly distributed over the duration of the event. The visit frequency should be approximately once per week, or better. Thirdly, the sky brightness should be below 21 magnitude arcsec{sup -2} to allow sufficient sensitivity to distance sources. Under the nominal LSST visiting schedule and field conditions, 15% of all fields satisfy these criteria, and allow time delay measurements of better than 10% precision. This performance can be further improved by fitting the predicted supernova light curves to the observations, rather than using the simple weighted mean as in the present study. Of the well-measured fields, 85% involve observations taken with the r filter, which has a wavelength acceptance that is well-matched to supernova spectra. This filter therefore represents the best choice for strong gravitational lens observations with LSST. Our primary conclusion is that the visiting schedule is the single most important parameter to optimize for time delay measurements, and, once a lensed supernova has been detected, that frequent, regular observations should be scheduled to search with the highest sensitivity for multiple, delayed lensed images.

Kirkby, Lowry Anna; /Oxford U. /SLAC

2006-01-04

352

Anorexia nervosa: treatment expectations a qualitative study  

PubMed Central

Background Anorexia nervosa is a serious illness with a high mortality rate, a poor outcome, and no empirically supported treatment of choice for adults. Patients with anorexia nervosa strive for thinness in order to obtain self-control and are ambivalent toward change and toward treatment. In order to achieve a greater understanding of patients own understanding of their situation, the aim of this study was to examine the expectations of potential anorexic patients seeking treatment at a specialized eating-disorder unit. Methods A qualitative study design was used. It comprised 15 women between 18 and 25 years of age waiting to be assessed before treatment. The initial question was, What do you expect, now that you are on the waiting list for a specialized eating-disorder unit? A content analysis was used, and the text was coded, categorized according to its content, and further interpreted into a theme. Results From the results emerged three main categories of what participants expected: treatment content, treatment professionals, and treatment focus. The overall theme, receiving adequate therapy in a collaborative therapeutic relationship and recovering, described how the participants perceived that their expectations could be fulfilled. Discussion Patients expectations concerning distorted thoughts, eating behaviors, a normal, healthy life, and meeting with a professional with knowledge and experience of eating disorders should be discussed before treatment starts. In the process of the therapeutic relationship, it is essential to continually address patients motivations, in order to understand their personal motives behind what drives their expectations and their desire to recover. PMID:22888259

Paulson-Karlsson, Gunilla; Nevonen, Lauri

2012-01-01

353

NATURE | Q&A Five-year delay would spell end of ITER  

E-print Network

on Earth has long been a dream for physicists. In 2006, a team from the European Union, China, India, Japan's failures. Finding that the project was "in a malaise and could drift out of control", it recommended 11 project Fusion dreams delayed More related stories The expected date of the first experiments confining

354

A Highway Travel Information System: Forecasting and Publicizing Delays in the Indiana State Highway Network  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Highway Travel Information System (HTIS) is a long-term pre-trip information system providing information about expected events, such as road construction. The HTIS can be beneficial to both highway travelers and roadway project schedulers. Project schedulers can use the HTIS to check the forecasted traffic impacts of a proposed construction project schedule. If the schedule would cause unacceptable delays, a

Shu-Ling Yu; Jon D. Fricker

2004-01-01

355

Wave-Pipelining the Global Interconnect to Reduce the Associated Delays  

E-print Network

methodology. With clock distribution networks dissipating ever more power and the wire delays expected of the distributed FIFO communication channel in a modest 180 nm technology show locally generated clocks running are increasingly becoming a limiting performance factor in highly integrated systems such as system-on-chip (So

Delgado-Frias, José G.

356

Great expectations. Eating expectancies as mediators of reinforcement sensitivity and eating.  

PubMed

Eating expectancies are proposed as cognitive pathways linking reinforcement (reward and punishment) sensitivities and the tendency to over-eat in response to appetitive and emotional cues. In Study One (N=243 university women) explicit eating expectancies were tested as potential mediators of reinforcement sensitivities and eating styles. Broadly, expectancies that eating alleviates negative affect/boredom mediated both reward and punishment sensitivity and emotional eating. The expectancy that eating is pleasurable and rewarding mediated reward sensitivity and external eating. In Study Two (N=109), using an implicit eating expectancy task, reward sensitivity and external eating was mediated via positive expectancy statements, notably, that eating is pleasurable and rewarding. Reward sensitivity and emotional eating was mediated specifically by expectancies that eating manages boredom. Punishment sensitivity was not associated with any implicit expectancies. Findings support the role of expectancies as cognitive mediators in the relationship between reinforcement sensitivities and emotionally-driven versus externally-driven eating styles. However, the largely appetitive implicit expectancies task only supported an association with reward sensitivity. PMID:23932947

Hennegan, Julie M; Loxton, Natalie J; Mattar, Ameerah

2013-12-01

357

A normalized PID controller in networked control systems with varying time delays.  

PubMed

It requires not only simplicity and flexibility but also high specified stability and robustness of system to design a PI/PID controller in such complicated networked control systems (NCSs) with delays. By gain and phase margins approach, this paper proposes a novel normalized PI/PID controller for NCSs based on analyzing the stability and robustness of system under the effect of network-induced delays. Specifically, We take into account the total measured network delays to formulate the gain and phase margins of the closed-loop system in the form of a set of equations. With pre-specified values of gain and phase margins, this set of equations is then solved for calculating the closed forms of control parameters which enable us to propose the normalized PI/PID controller simultaneously satisfying the following two requirements: (1) simplicity without re-solving the optimization problem for a new process, (2) high flexibility to cope with large scale of random delays and deal with many different processes in different conditions of network. Furthermore, in our method, the upper bound of random delay can be estimated to indicate the operating domain of proposed PI/PID controller. Finally, simulation results are shown to demonstrate the advantages of our proposed controller in many situations of network-induced delays. PMID:23810432

Tran, Hoang-Dung; Guan, Zhi-Hong; Dang, Xuan-Kien; Cheng, Xin-Ming; Yuan, Fu-Shun

2013-09-01

358

Neural precursors of delayed insight.  

PubMed

The solution of a problem left unresolved in the evening can sometimes pop into mind as a sudden insight after a night of sleep in the following morning. Although favorable effects of sleep on insightful behavior have been experimentally confirmed, the neural mechanisms determining this delayed insight remain unknown. Here, using fMRI, we characterize the neural precursors of delayed insight in the number reduction task (NRT), in which a hidden task structure can be learned implicitly, but can also be recognized explicitly in an insightful process, allowing immediate qualitative improvement in task performance. Normal volunteers practiced the NRT during two fMRI sessions (training and retest), taking place 12 hours apart after a night of sleep. After this delay, half of the subjects gained insight into the hidden task structure ("solvers," S), whereas the other half did not ("nonsolvers," NS). Already at training, solvers and nonsolvers differed in their cerebral responses associated with implicit learning. In future solvers, responses were observed in the superior frontal sulcus, posterior parietal cortex, and the insula, three areas mediating controlled processes and supporting early learning and novice performance. In contrast, implicit learning was related to significant responses in the hippocampus in nonsolvers. Moreover, the hippocampus was functionally coupled with the basal ganglia in nonsolvers and with the superior frontal sulcus in solvers, thus potentially biasing participants' strategy towards implicit or controlled processes of memory encoding, respectively. Furthermore, in solvers but not in nonsolvers, response patterns were further transformed overnight, with enhanced responses in ventral medial prefrontal cortex, an area previously implicated in the consolidation of declarative memory. During retest in solvers, before they gain insight into the hidden rule, significant responses were observed in the same medial prefrontal area. After insight, a distributed set of parietal and frontal areas is recruited among which information concerning the hidden rule can be shared in a so-called global workspace. PMID:20666600

Darsaud, Annabelle; Wagner, Ullrich; Balteau, Evelyne; Desseilles, Martin; Sterpenich, Virginie; Vandewalle, Gilles; Albouy, Genevive; Dang-Vu, Thanh; Collette, Fabienne; Boly, Melanie; Schabus, Manuel; Degueldre, Christian; Luxen, Andre; Maquet, Pierre

2011-08-01

359

Mutual information challenges entropy bounds  

E-print Network

We consider some formulations of the entropy bounds at the semiclassical level. The entropy S(V) localized in a region V is divergent in quantum field theory (QFT). Instead of it we focus on the mutual information I(V,W)=S(V)+S(W)-S(V\\cup W) between two different non-intersecting sets V and W. This is a low energy quantity, independent of the regularization scheme. In addition, the mutual information is bounded above by twice the entropy corresponding to the sets involved. Calculations of I(V,W) in QFT show that the entropy in empty space cannot be renormalized to zero, and must be actually very large. We find that this entropy due to the vacuum fluctuations violates the FMW bound in Minkowski space. The mutual information also gives a precise, cutoff independent meaning to the statement that the number of degrees of freedom increases with the volume in QFT. If the holographic bound holds, this points to the essential non locality of the physical cutoff. Violations of the Bousso bound would require conformal theories and large distances. We speculate that the presence of a small cosmological constant might prevent such a violation.

H. Casini

2007-03-14

360

Delayed gastric emptying after pancreatoduodenectomy.  

PubMed

With pylorus-preserving pancreatoduodenectomy (PPPD) the goal is to reduce long-term morbidities such as gastric dumping, marginal ulceration or bile-reflux gastritis. Compared with te classical Whipple procedure, PPPD is affected by an equal postoperative morbidity but is known to induce delayed gastric emptying (DGE). It is difficult to evaluate the true incidence of DGE after PPPD (from 5 to 50% according to the literature). Early and low doses of erythromycin in the postoperative period could prevent the onset of DGE and the administration of cisapride 15 mg/day improves gastric emptying up to 6 months after PPPD. PMID:12914377

Closset, J; Gelin, M

2003-06-01

361

Impact of Size and Delay on Neural Activity in the Rat Limbic Corticostriatal System  

PubMed Central

A number of factors influence an animals economic decisions. Two most commonly studied are the magnitude of and delay to reward. To investigate how these factors are represented in the firing rates of single neurons, we devised a behavioral task that independently manipulated the expected delay to and size of reward. Rats perceived the differently delayed and sized rewards as having different values and were more motivated under short delay and big-reward conditions than under long delay and small reward conditions as measured by percent choice, accuracy, and reaction time. Since the creation of this task, we have recorded from several different brain areas including, orbitofrontal cortex, striatum, amygdala, substantia nigra pars reticulata, and midbrain dopamine neurons. Here, we review and compare those data with a substantial focus on those areas that have been shown to be critical for performance on classic time discounting procedures and provide a potential mechanism by which they might interact when animals are deciding between differently delayed rewards. We found that most brain areas in the cortico-limbic circuit encode both the magnitude and delay to reward delivery in one form or another, but only a few encode them together at the single neuron level. PMID:22363252

Roesch, Matthew R.; Bryden, Daniel W.

2011-01-01

362

On the LTI properties of adaptive feedforward systems with tap delay-line regressors  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is shown that an adaptive system whose regressor is formed by tap delay-line (TDL) filtering of a multitone sinusoidal signal is representable as a parallel connection of a linear time-invariant (LTI) block and a linear time-varying (LTV) block. A norm-bound (induced 2-norm) is computed explicitly on the LTV block and is shown to decrease as N-1, where N is

David S. Bayard

1999-01-01

363

Search for quasi bound ? mesons  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The search for a quasi bound ? meson in atomic nuclei is reviewed. This tentative state is studied theoretically as well as experimentally. The theory starts from elastic ? nucleon scattering which is derived from production data within some models. From this interaction the ? nucleus interaction is derived. Model calculations predict binding energies and widths of the quasi bound state. Another method is to derive the ? nucleus interaction from excitation functions of ? production experiments. The s wave interaction is extracted from such data via final state interaction (FSI) theorem. We give the derivation of s wave amplitudes in partial wave expansion and in helicity amplitudes and their relation to observables. Different experiments extracting the FSI are discussed as are production experiments. So far only three experiments give evidence for the existence of the quasi bound state: a pion double charge exchange experiment, an effective mass measurement, and a transfer reaction at recoil free kinematics with observation of the decay of the state.

Machner, H.

2015-04-01

364

Experimental activation of bound entanglement.  

PubMed

Entanglement is one of the essential resources in quantum information and communication technology (QICT). The entanglement thus far explored and applied to QICT has been pure and distillable entanglement. Yet, there is another type of entanglement, called "bound entanglement," which is not distillable by local operations and classical communication. We demonstrate the experimental "activation" of the bound entanglement held in the four-qubit Smolin state, unleashing its immanent entanglement in distillable form, with the help of auxiliary two-qubit entanglement and local operations and classical communication. We anticipate that it opens the way to a new class of QICT applications that utilize more general classes of entanglement than ever, including bound entanglement. PMID:23006069

Kaneda, Fumihiro; Shimizu, Ryosuke; Ishizaka, Satoshi; Mitsumori, Yasuyoshi; Kosaka, Hideo; Edamatsu, Keiichi

2012-07-27

365

Delay-Bounded MAC with Minimal Idle Listening for Sensor Networks  

E-print Network

on, it operates at a similar power consumption level regardless whether it is transmitting, receiving. Representative synchronous protocols such as S-MAC [1], T-MAC [4], RMAC [5] and DW-MAC [6] require neighbor nodes-MAC, WiseMAC and X-MAC are sender- initiated preamble-based protocols which employ the low power listening

Qiao, Daji

366

APSM: bounding the downlink delay for 802.11 power save mode  

Microsoft Academic Search

The popularity of wireless LANs, due to their low cost provision of high speed wireless Internet access, has resulted in a strong trend toward the integration of this technology in the upcoming all-in-one mobile devices that could include, for instance, cellular, wireless LAN and personal digital assistant (PDA) capabilities. Such devices, though, require power saving mechanisms in order to guarantee

X. Perez-Costa; D. Camps-Mur

2005-01-01

367

Delay Bounded Rate and Power Control in Energy Harvesting Wireless Networks  

E-print Network

such as solar energy, mechanical energy and thermal energy have started finding use in wireless sensor networks. In [3] solar energy was modeled as a Markov process after analysis of years of observed data different low complexity schedulers that achieve near optimal performance in different system settings. I

Rajan, Dinesh

368

Bounded Control of Multiple-Delay Systems with Applications to ATM Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The transmission of multimedia traffic on the broadband integrated service digital networks (B-ISDN) has created the need\\u000a for new transport technologies such as Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM). Briefly, because or the variability of the multimedia\\u000a traffic, ATM networks seek to guarantee an end-to-end quality of service (QoS) by dividing the varying types of traffic (voice,\\u000a data, etc.) into short, fixed-size

Sophie Tarbouriech; Chaouki T. Abdallah; Marco Ariola

369

A Delay-Bounded Dynamic Interactive Power Control Algorithm for VANETs  

Microsoft Academic Search

To enable real-time and robust message delivery, the highly mobile vehicular ad hoc networks (VANETs) call for comprehensive investigation on the dynamic power control effects on the real-time and robust communications. Ideally, by adjusting transmission power adaptively, VANET nodes may agilely cope with the segmentation problem at light vehicular traffic and with the limited system capacity problem at high traffic

Chunxiao Chigan; Jialiang Li

2007-01-01

370

Expected Outcomes of INTEGER These include  

E-print Network

Expected Outcomes of INTEGER These include: Increased awareness and cultural change: all key staff of the INTEGER institutions in the academic stakeholder community as role models for peer European institutions For more information about INTEGER Project Coordinator: Anne Ppin Director of the Mission for the Place

van Tiggelen, Bart

371

What to Expect After a Lung Transplant  

MedlinePLUS

... NHLBI on Twitter. What To Expect After a Lung Transplant Recovery in the Hospital After lung transplant surgery, you'll go to the hospital's ... take slow, deep breaths. You also may have lung function tests that use a regular spirometer. This ...

372

Expectations and voluntary attrition in nursing students  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a series of findings generated during a larger study which aimed to develop a theoretical understanding of the reasons why nursing students voluntarily leave pre-registration nursing programmes. In this study, significant incongruence was found to exist between student expectations of pre-registration nursing programmes and the reality of these programmes following entry. The resulting dissonance was identified as

Hugh ODonnell

2011-01-01

373

Culture and Caregiving: Goals, Expectations, & Conflict.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Zero to Three" is a single-focus bulletin of the National Center for Infants, Toddlers, and Families providing insight from multiple disciplines on the development of infants, toddlers, and their families. This issue focuses on the goals, expectations, and conflict in the relationship between culture and child caregiving and other care services.

Fenichel, Emily, Ed.

2003-01-01

374

Sociocultural expectations of attractiveness for males  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sociocultural expectations of attractiveness for women have been studied extensively, but little research has focused on this topic with males. Using the two most popular men's fashion magazines (GQand Esquire), this study examined article and advertisement content as well as male models' body sizes to determine the extent to which men have received messages from the media on how to

Trent A. Petrie; Laura J. Austin; Barbara J. Crowley; Annette Helmcamp; Courtney E. Johnson; Regan Lester; Rebecca Rogers; Jeff Turner; Kevin Walbrick

1996-01-01

375

Online Learners' Expectations and Learning Outcomes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

With the increase of educational programs and classes offered online, any people have taken advantage of the convenience of these offerings. Along with the rapid growth of distance learning, there has been a reported high attrition rate among online learners. Some research suggests that part of the attrition involved student expectations not being

Hawkins, Gary W.

2010-01-01

376

Young infants have biological expectations about animals  

E-print Network

Young infants have biological expectations about animals Peipei Setoha,1 , Di Wub , Renée, or whether from a young age children endow animals with biological proper- ties. Here we demonstrate that 8 animals' insides may serve as a foundation for the development of more advanced biological knowledge

377

Expanding Expectations for Students through Accelerated Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The national Accelerated Schools Project has proven accelerated learning is not just for the gifted. Data show teachers have gotten sustained results in student achievement through the project, which helps them change their expectations, focus on data, and commit to a process of professional learning.

Byrd, Sandra P.; Finnan, Christine

2003-01-01

378

47 CFR 90.743 - Renewal expectancy.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...RADIO SERVICES Regulations Governing Licensing and Use of Frequencies in the 220-222 MHz Band 90.743 Renewal expectancy...Substantial service is defined in this rule as service that is sound, favorable, and substantially above a level of...

2010-10-01

379

Bootstrap Confidence Intervals for Ratios of Expectations  

E-print Network

Bootstrap Confidence Intervals for Ratios of Expectations DENIS CHOQUET, PIERRE L'ECUYER, and CHRISTIAN L ' EGER Universit'e de Montr'eal We are concerned with computing a confidence interval for instance in regenerative simulation. As an alternative to confidence intervals based on asymptotic

L'Ecuyer, Pierre

380

Life expectancy of children with cerebral palsy  

E-print Network

Life expectancy of children with cerebral palsy J L Hutton, K Hemming and UKCP collaboration What is UKCP? Information about the physical effects of cerebral palsy on the everyday lives of children with cerebral palsy which collect information about children within specific local areas. They are the Mersey

Hutton, Jane

381

Demystify Learning Expectations to Address Grade Inflation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes the subject of "grade inflation," a reference to educators giving higher grades to student work than their expectations for student achievement warrant. Of the many reasons why this practice happens, Hodges specifically discusses inflating grades as "a natural consequence" when the faculty really

Hodges, Linda C.

2014-01-01

382

PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT PROCESS SETTING EXPECTATIONS, FEEDBACK & APPRAISAL  

E-print Network

PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT PROCESS SETTING EXPECTATIONS, FEEDBACK & APPRAISAL PMP EMPLOYEE FORM Name (PLEASE TYPE OR PRINT): Reviewer's Signature: Please check one: The employee and supervisor improvement plan should be in effect, or will be as a result of this review. Unsatisfactory Performance falls

Adali, Tulay

383

Probability gains expected for renewal process models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We usually use the Brownian distribution, lognormal distribution, Gamma distribution, Weibull distribution, and exponential distribution to calculate long-term probability for the distribution of time intervals between successive events. The values of two parameters of these distributions are determined by the maximum likelihood method. The difference in log likelihood between the proposed model and the stationary Poisson process model, which scores both the period of no events and instances of each event, is considered as the index for evaluating the effectiveness of the earthquake probability model. First, we show that the expected value of the log-likelihood difference becomes the expected value of the logarithm of the probability gain. Next, by converting the time unit into the expected value of the interval, the hazard is made to represent a probability gain. This conversion reduces the degrees of freedom of model parameters to 1. We then demonstrate that the expected value of the probability gain in observed parameter values ranges between 2 and 5. Therefore, we can conclude that the long-term probability calculated before an earthquake may become several times larger than that of the Poisson process model.

Imoto, M.

2004-06-01

384

Children's Physical Appearance and Adult Expectations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Caregivers' expectancies and behaviors in relationship to young handicapped children were investigated in this paper. Two studies were conducted in an attempt to answer three questions: (1) How will caregivers respond to the young handicapped child? (2) Do the child's stimulus characteristics, such as physical appearance, create biases in

Feeg, Veronica DeCarolis; Peters, Donald L.

385

NCAA Penalizes Fewer Teams than Expected  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article reports that the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) has penalized fewer teams than it expected this year over athletes' poor academic performance. For years, officials with the NCAA have predicted that strikingly high numbers of college sports teams could be at risk of losing scholarships this year because of their

Sander, Libby

2008-01-01

386

Patients' Expectations for Epilepsy Surgery - Preliminary Results  

Microsoft Academic Search

The patients' preoperative expectations must be well understood because it influences the perceived success of the surgical treatment of epilepsies, and in turn, the perceptions of postoperative quality of life (QoL). This study addresses the importance of working with the patients' perceptions, beliefs and understandings about the preoperative investigation, surgery and postoperative follow-up, so it is possible to foresee the

Priscila Camile; Barioni Salgado; Paula Teixeira Fernandes; Elisabete Abib; Fernando Cendes

387

Effects of Syntactic Expectations on Speech Segmentation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although the effect of acoustic cues on speech segmentation has been extensively investigated, the role of higher order information (e.g., syntax) has received less attention. Here, the authors examined whether syntactic expectations based on subject-verb agreement have an effect on segmentation and whether they do so despite conflicting acoustic

Mattys, Sven L.; Melhorn, James F.; White, Laurence

2007-01-01

388

Expectations and Experiences of Substitute Teachers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article explores the expectations of support for and the experiences of substitute teachers in an urban school division in Saskatchewan. Data were collected in semistructured interviews with seven substitute teachers. The purpose of the study was to explore how substitute teachers frame their professional experiences and construct their roles

Duggleby, Patricia; Badali, Sal

2007-01-01

389

Expectancy-Reality Descrepancy and Patient Improvement.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Fifty-four admissions to the psychiatric unit of a general hospital were asked to predict their length of hospitalization. The difference between their predicted and actual length of hospitalization was calculated (expectancy-reality discrepancy-ERD). Patient ERD scores were compared with self-report, ward, and therapist measures of patient

Webb, Lynn E.; Lamb, Douglas H.

390

Caps and Robbers: What Can You Expect?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The "matching" hats problem is a classic exercise in probability: if "n" people throw their hats in a box, and then each person randomly draws one out again, what is the expected number of people who draw their own hat? This paper presents several extensions to this problem, with solutions that involve interesting tricks with iterated

Zager, Laura A.; Verghese, George C.

2007-01-01

391

Status Valued Goal Objects and Performance Expectations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

I designed an experiment to test predictions, derived from expectation states theories, that the unequal allocation of social rewards among collective task-focused actors will affect the actors' rates of power and prestige behavior. Past research shows that allocations of exchangeable resources can have these effects. The prediction, however, is

Hysom, Stuart J.

2009-01-01

392

Deriving Expectations to Guide Knowledge Base Creation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Successful approaches to developing knowledge acquisition tools use expectations of what the user has to add or may want to add, based on how new knowledge fits within a knowledge base that already exists. When a knowledge base is first cre- ated or undergoes significant extensions and changes, these tools cannot provide much support. This paper presents an approach to

Jihie Kim; Yolanda Gil

1999-01-01

393

Simple relationships between statistical mechanics expectation values  

Microsoft Academic Search

A general procedure for obtaining exact equations between statistical mechanics expectation values is suggested. The procedure is illustrated for quantum and classical systems in a generalized ensemble. Detailed applications are given for the Stockmayer potential in classical statistical thermodynamics. Application to sitesite interactions is also discussed. The resulting equations can be used to detect inconsistencies in approximate theories. This is

Esam Z. Hamad

1996-01-01

394

Passengers' expectations of airport service quality  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose The purpose of this paper is to contribute to the development of a conceptual model of service quality in airports by conducting an empirical investigation into passengers' expectations for this service industry. Design\\/methodology\\/approach The paper is a qualitative exploration of the airport experience from the passengers' perspective was combined with a review of relevant literature to identify

Dale Fodness; Brian Murray

2007-01-01

395

Trends in velocity and policy expectations  

Microsoft Academic Search

U.S. velocity of base money exhibits three distinct trends since 1950. After rising steadily for thirty years, it flattens out in the 1980s and falls substantially in the 1990s. This paper explores whether the observed secular movements in velocity can be accounted for exclusively by endogenous responses to changing expectations about monetary and fiscal policy. We use a model with

David B. Gordon; Eric M. Leeper; Tao Zha

1997-01-01

396

Trends in velocity and policy expectations  

Microsoft Academic Search

U.S. velocity of base money exhibits three distinct trends since 1950. After rising steadily for thirty years, it flattens out in the 1980s and falls substantially in the 1990s. This paper explores whether the observed secular movements in velocity can be accounted for exclusively by endogenous responses to changing expectations about monetary and fiscal policy. We use a model with

David B. Gordon; Eric M. Leeper; Tao A. Zha

1998-01-01

397

Are Low Career Expectations Shortchanging Girls?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A 40-year longitudinal study of creativity that began in 1958 in two schools in Minneapolis, Minnesota, found that girls identified as highly creative in elementary school have been fulfilling that potential as adults to a significantly higher degree those who were less creative. Sex role expectations are discussed. (Contains references.) (CR)

Millar, Garnet W.; Torrance, E. Paul

2002-01-01

398

Solving Rational Expectations Models Using Excel  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Simple problems of discrete-time optimal control can be solved using a standard spreadsheet software. The employed-solution method of backward iteration is intuitively understandable, does not require any programming skills, and is easy to implement so that it is suitable for classroom exercises with rational-expectations models. The author

Strulik, Holger

2004-01-01

399

An Expectation Maximization Approach for Integrated  

E-print Network

, anatomical labelmap, and a mapping from the atlas to the image space. An example of the approach is given the regis- tration of an atlas with the segmentation of MR images. We use an Expectation Maximization for a brain structure-dependent affine mapping approach. The algorithm produces high qual- ity segmentations

Fisher III, John

400

Characteristics Orientation, Needs and Expectations. Symposium.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document contains three papers from a symposium on characteristics orientation, needs, and expectations. "Characteristics Orientation of Emerging Professions: Implications for Research, Policy, and Practice of Continuing Professional Education" (William H. Young, Margot B. Weinstein) reports on a qualitative study that examined emerging

2002

401

Expecting Too Much of Performance Pay?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Pay for performance is not a new idea, and reformers should not ignore the dismal record of merit pay over the past century. Initially adopted with a flourish of expectations during several waves of popularity in the past, every plan eventually fell into disuse. These plans proved to be unexpectedly costly and cumbersome to run. They often

Johnson, Susan Moore; Papay, John P.

2010-01-01

402

Titania bound sodium titanate ion exchanger  

DOEpatents

This invention is method for preparing a titania bound ion exchange composition comprising admixing crystalline sodium titanate and a hydrolyzable titanium compound and, thereafter drying the titania bound crystalline sodium titanate and subjecting the dried titania bound ion exchange composition to optional compaction and calcination steps to improve the physical strength of the titania bound composition.

DeFilippi, Irene C. G. (Palatine, IL); Yates, Stephen Frederic (Rolling Meadows, IL); Shen, Jian-Kun (Lake Zurich, IL); Gaita, Romulus (Morton Grove, IL); Sedath, Robert Henry (Bensenville, IL); Seminara, Gary Joseph (Chicago, IL); Straszewski, Michael Peter (Novi, MI); Anderson, David Joseph (Oak Lawn, IL)

1999-03-23

403

On Page's examples challenging the entropy bound  

Microsoft Academic Search

According to the entropy bound, the entropy of a complete physical system can be universally bounded in terms of its circumscribing radius and total gravitating energy. Page's three recent candidates for counterexamples to the bound are here clarified and refuted by stressing that the energies of all essential parts of the system must be included in the energy the bound

Jacob D. Bekenstein

2000-01-01

404

Delayed (sudden) birth of entanglement  

E-print Network

The concept of time delayed creation of entanglement by the dissipative process of spontaneous emission is investigated. A threshold effect for the creation of entanglement is found that the initially unentangled qubits can be entangled after a finite time despite the fact that the coherence between the qubits exists for all times. This delayed creation of entanglement, that we call sudden birth of entanglement, is opposite to the currently extensively discussed sudden death of entanglement and is characteristic for transient dynamics of one-photon entangled states of the system. We determine the threshold time for the creation of entanglement and find that it is related to time at which the antisymmetric state remains the only excited state being populated. It is shown that the threshold time can be controlled by the distance between the qubits and the direction of initial excitation relative to the interatomic axis. This effect suggests a new alternative for the study of entanglement and provides an interesting resource for creation on demand of entanglement between two qubits.

Z. Ficek; R. Tanas

2008-04-06

405

Holographic bounds and finite inflation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We compare two holographic arguments that impose especially strong bounds on the amount of inflation. One comes from the de Sitter equilibrium cosmology and the other from the work of Banks and Fischler. We find that simple versions of these two approaches yield the same bound on the number of e-foldings. A careful examination reveals that while these pictures are similar in spirit, they are not necessarily identical prescriptions. We apply the two pictures to specific cosmologies which expose potentially important differences and which also demonstrate ways these seemingly simple proposals can be tricky to implement in practice.

Phillips, Daniel; Scacco, Andrew; Albrecht, Andreas

2015-02-01

406

Astrophysical bounds on superlight gravitinos  

E-print Network

We derive the allowed mass range for the superlight gravitino present in a large class of supersymmetric models from the observed luminosity from Supernova 1987A. We find that for photino masses of order 100 GeV, the mass range $2.6\\times 10^{-6} eV \\leq m_{\\tilde{g}} \\leq 2.2\\times 10^{-8} eV$ for the gravitino $\\tilde{g}$ is excluded by SN1987A observations. Unlike the bounds on $m_{\\tilde{g}}$ from nucleosynthesis, the bounds in the present paper do not depend critically on the uncertainties of the observational input.

J. A. Grifols; R. N. Mohapatra; A. Riotto

1996-10-23

407

Astrophysical bounds on superlight gravitinos  

E-print Network

We derive the allowed mass range for the superlight gravitino present in a large class of supersymmetric models from the observed luminosity from Supernova 1987A. We find that for photino masses of order 100 GeV, the mass range $2.6\\times 10^{-6} eV \\leq m_{\\tilde{g}} \\leq 2.2\\times 10^{-8} eV$ for the gravitino $\\tilde{g}$ is excluded by SN1987A observations. Unlike the bounds on $m_{\\tilde{g}}$ from nucleosynthesis, the bounds in the present paper do not depend critically on the uncertainties of the observational input.

Grifols, J A; Riotto, Antonio

1997-01-01

408

Bounds for nonlocality distillation protocols  

SciTech Connect

Nonlocality can be quantified by the violation of a Bell inequality. Since this violation may be amplified by local operations, an alternative measure has been proposed--distillable nonlocality. The alternative measure is difficult to calculate exactly due to the double exponential growth of the parameter space. In this paper, we give a way to bound the distillable nonlocality of a resource by the solutions to a related optimization problem. Our upper bounds are exponentially easier to compute than the exact value and are shown to be meaningful in general and tight in some cases.

Forster, Manuel [Computer Science Department, ETH Zuerich, CH-8092 Zuerich (Switzerland)

2011-06-15

409

CT of multiple sclerosis: reassessment of delayed scanning with high doses of contrast material  

SciTech Connect

A prospective study involving 87 patients was carried out to evaluate the necessity for a high dose of contrast material in addition to delayed computed tomographic (CT) scanning for optimal detection of the lesions of multiple sclerosis in the brain. In patients with either clinically definite multiple sclerosis or laboratory-supported definite multiple sclerosis, CT scans were obtained with a uniform protocol. Lesions consistent with multiple sclerosis were demonstrated on the second scan in 54 patients. In 36 of these 54 patients, the high-dose delayed scan added information. These results are quite similar to those of a previous study from this institution using different patients, in whom the second scan was obtained immediately after the bolus injection of contrast material containing 40 g of organically bound iodine. The lack of real difference in the results of the two studies indicate that the increased dose, not just the delay in scanning, is necessary for a proper study.

Spiegel, S.M.; Vinuela, F.; Fox, A.J.; Pelz, D.M.

1985-09-01

410

Effect of Departure Delays on Manned Mars Mission Selection  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This study determines the effect on the initial mass in low Earth orbit (IMLEO) of delaying departure from Mars and Earth by 5, 15, and 30 days, once a nominal mission to Mars has been selected. Additionally, the use of a deep-space maneuver (DSM) is considered in order to alleviate the IMLEO penalties. Three different classes of missions are analyzed, using chemical and nuclear thermal propulsion systems in the 2000-2025 time frame: opposition, conjunction, and fast-transfer conjunction. The results indicate that Mars and Earth delays can lead to large IMLEO penalties. Opposition and fast-transfer conjunction-class missions have the highest IMLEO penalties, upwards of 432.4 and 1977.3 metric tons (mt), respectively. Conjunction-class missions, on the other hand, tend to be insensitive to Mars and Earth delays, having IMLEO penalties under 103.5 mt. As expected, nuclear thermal propulsion had significantly lower IMLEO penalties than chemical propulsion. The use of a DSM does not significantly reduce the penalties. The results of this study can enable mission designers to incorporate the influence of off-nominal departure conditions of the interplanetary trajectory in the overall conceptual design of a Mars transfer vehicle.

Desai, Prasun N.; Tartabini, Paul V.

1995-01-01

411

LOWER BOUNDS ON MAGNETIC FIELDS IN INTERGALACTIC VOIDS FROM LONG-TERM GeV-TeV LIGHT CURVES OF THE BLAZAR MRK 421  

SciTech Connect

Lower bounds are derived on the amplitude B of intergalactic magnetic fields (IGMFs) in the region between Galaxy and the blazar Mrk 421, from constraints on the delayed GeV pair-echo flux that are emitted by secondary e {sup -} e {sup +} produced in {gamma}{gamma} interactions between primary TeV gamma rays and the cosmic infrared background. The distribution of galaxies mapped by the Sloan Digital Sky Survey shows that this region is dominated by a large intergalactic void. We utilize data from long-term, simultaneous GeV-TeV observations by the Fermi Large Area Telescope and the ARGO-YBJ experiment extending over 850 days. For an assumed value of B, we evaluate the daily GeV pair-echo flux expected from the TeV data, select the dates where this exceeds the Fermi 2{sigma} sensitivity, compute the probability that this flux is excluded by the Fermi data for each date, and then combine the probabilities using the inverse normal method. Consequently, we exclude B < 10{sup -20.5} G for a field coherence length of 1 kpc at {approx}4{sigma} level, as long as plasma instabilities are unimportant for cooling of the pair beam. This is much more significant than the 2{sigma} bounds we obtained previously from observations of Mrk 501, by virtue of more extensive data from the ARGO-YBJ, as well as improved statistical analysis. Compared with most other studies of IGMF bounds, the evidence we present here for a non-zero IGMF is more robust as it does not rely on unproven assumptions on the primary TeV emission during unobserved periods.

Takahashi, Keitaro [Department of Physics, Kumamoto University, 2-39-1, Kurokami, Kumamoto 860-8555 (Japan); Mori, Masaki [Department of Physical Sciences, Ritsumeikan University, 1-1-1 Noji Higashi, Kusatsu, Shiga 525-8577 (Japan); Ichiki, Kiyotomo [Kobayashi-Maskawa Institute for the Origin of Particles and the Universe, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan); Inoue, Susumu [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Saupfercheckweg 1, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Takami, Hajime, E-mail: keitaro@sci.kumamoto-u.ac.jp [Theory Center, Institute of Particle and Nuclear Studies, KEK, 1-1, Oho, Tsukuba 305-0801 (Japan)

2013-07-10

412

A lower bound for routing on a completely connected optical communication parallel computer  

SciTech Connect

The task of routing a 2-relation on an n-processor completely connected optical communication parallel computer (OCPC) is considered. A lower bound is presented that applies to any randomized distributed algorithm for this task: specifically, it is shown that the expected number of steps required to route a 2-relation is {Omega}({radical} log log n) in the worst case. For comparison, the best upper bound known is O(log log n).

Goldberg, L.A. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Jerrum, M. [Edinburgh Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Computer Science; MacKenzie, P.D. [Texas Univ., Austin, TX (United States). Dept. of Computer Sciences

1993-08-03

413

RESPONSE ACQUISITION BY HUMANS WITH DELAYED REINFORCEMENT  

PubMed Central

The present experiment examined whether a response class was acquired by humans with delayed reinforcement. Eight white circles were presented on a computer touch screen. If the undergraduates touched two of the eight circles in a specified sequence (i.e., touching first the upper-left circle then the bottom-left circle), then the touches initiated an unsignaled resetting delay culminating in point delivery. Participants experienced one of three different delays (0 s, 10 s, or 30 s). Rates of the target two-response sequence were higher with delayed reinforcement than with no reinforcement. Terminal rates of the target sequence decreased and postreinforcement pauses increased as a function of delay duration. Other undergraduates exposed to yoked schedules of response-independent point deliveries failed to acquire the sequence. The results demonstrate that a response class was acquired with delayed reinforcement, extending the generality of this phenomenon found with nonhuman animals to humans. PMID:19949494

Okouchi, Hiroto

2009-01-01

414

Cosmodynamics: Energy conditions, Hubble bounds, density bounds, time and distance bounds  

E-print Network

We refine and extend a programme initiated by one of the current authors [Science 276 (1997) 88; Phys. Rev. D56 (1997) 7578] advocating the use of the classical energy conditions of general relativity in a cosmological setting to place very general bounds on various cosmological parameters. We show how the energy conditions can be used to bound the Hubble parameter H(z), Omega parameter Omega(z), density rho(z), distance d(z), and lookback time T(z) as (relatively) simple functions of the redshift z, present-epoch Hubble parameter H_0, and present-epoch Omega parameter Omega_0. We compare these results with related observations in the literature, and confront the bounds with the recent supernova data.

Celine Cattoen; Matt Visser

2007-12-10

415

Delays in the human heartbeat dynamics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper explores the possibility of applying statistical nonlinear physics methods to elucidate the underlying mechanisms controlling the heart rate. In particular, the presence of delays in RR interval dynamics is studied by using a lagged detrended fluctuation analysis. The results indicate that patients with congestive heart failure (CHF) have a prolonged time delay in the baroreflex response. Some implications of large delays for the functioning of autonomic control in subjects with CHF are discussed.

Alvarez-Ramirez, Jose; Rodriguez, Eduardo; Echeverra, Juan Carlos

2009-06-01

416

LOW DELAY FILTER FOR ADAPTIVE NOISE REDUCTION  

Microsoft Academic Search

A filter structure is proposed which has a significantly lower signal delay than common frequency-domain filtering by means of an analysis-synthesis filter-bank (AS FB). The recently pub- lished filter-bank equalizer (FBE) is a filter(-bank) with a lower signal delay compared to the corresponding AS FB. In this con- tribution, the signal delay of the FBE is further reduced by ap-

Peter Vary

417

Compact programmable photonic variable delay devices  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Optical variable delay devices for providing variable true time delay to multiple optical beams simultaneously. A ladder-structured variable delay device comprises multiple basic building blocks stacked on top of each other resembling a ladder. Each basic building block has two polarization beamsplitters and a polarization rotator array arranged to form a trihedron; Controlling an array element of the polarization rotator array causes a beam passing through the array element either going up to a basic building block above it or reflect back towards a block below it. The beams going higher on the ladder experience longer optical path delay. An index-switched optical variable delay device comprises of many birefringent crystal segments connected with one another, with a polarization rotator array sandwiched between any two adjacent crystal segments. An array element in the polarization rotator array controls the polarization state of a beam passing through the element, causing the beam experience different refractive indices or path delays in the following crystal segment. By independently control each element in each polarization rotator array, variable optical path delays of each beam can be achieved. Finally, an index-switched variable delay device and a ladder-structured variable device are cascaded to form a new device which combines the advantages of the two individual devices. This programmable optic device has the properties of high packing density, low loss, easy fabrication, and virtually infinite bandwidth. The device is inherently two dimensional and has a packing density exceeding 25 lines/cm.sup.2. The delay resolution of the device is on the order of a femtosecond (one micron in space) and the total delay exceeds 10 nanosecond. In addition, the delay is reversible so that the same delay device can be used for both antenna transmitting and receiving.

Yao, X. Steve (Inventor)

1999-01-01

418

Modeling radiation-induced cell cycle delays  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ionizing radiation is known to delay the cell cycle progression. In particular after particle exposure significant delays\\u000a have been observed and it has been shown that the extent of delay affects the expression of damage, such as chromosome aberrations.\\u000a Thus, to predict how cells respond to ionizing radiation and to derive reliable estimates of radiation risks, information\\u000a about radiation-induced cell

Anna Ochab-Marcinek; Ewa Gudowska-Nowak; Elena Nasonova; Sylvia Ritter

2009-01-01

419

Predictive Display For Teleoperation With Delay  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Computer-graphical simulator helps operator control robotic manipulator when controlling and monitoring signals delayed in transmission. Displays phantom image of robot superimposed on delayed "real" monitoring image. Phantom responds to control signals immediately - motion predicts that of robot. After delay, real image follows motion of phantom. System includes high-fidelity, real-time computer-graphical display which gives depth, perspective, and lighting cues improving control.

Bejczy, Antal K.; Kim, Won S.; Venema, Steven C.

1992-01-01

420

Terrestrial Planet Finder cryogenic delay line development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Delay lines provide the path-length compensation that makes the measurement of interference fringes possible. When used for nulling interferometry, the delay line must control path-lengths so that the null is stable and controlled throughout the measurement. We report on a low noise, low disturbance, and high bandwidth optical delay line capable of meeting the TPF interferometer optical path length control requirements at cryogenic temperatures.

Smythe, Robert F.; Swain, Mark R.; Alvarez-Salazar, Oscar; Moore, James D.

2004-01-01

421

Construction project delay-analysis techniques  

E-print Network

OWNER PROJECT 3 AS-BUILT WITHOUT DELAY SCHEDULE APPENDIX D PUBLIC OWNER 3 SNAPSHOT SCHEDULE ON APRIL 21, 1997 . APPENDIX E PUBLIC OWNER 3 SNAPSHOT SCHEDULE ON MAY 10 ", 1997. APPENDIX F PUBLIC OWNER 3 DELAY-ANALYSIS USING ANALYSIS... submission of formal planning documents such as schedules (Knoke, 1997). Lack of availability of planning documents can cause a problem in implementing delay-analysis methods that are based upon the as-planned or the updated as-planned schedule. Another...

Al-Humaidi, Hanouf M

2002-01-01

422

Verification of automotive networks -what to expect (and not expect) from each  

E-print Network

Verification of automotive networks - what to expect (and not expect) from each technique Nicolas NAVET ­ nicolas.navet@uni.lu "Automotive Bus systems + Ethernet" Stuttgart, Germany, December 9-11, 2013. December 09, 2013 #12;1 Outline - 212/11/2013Automotive Bus systems + Ethernet Early-stage timing

Navet, Nicolas

423

Attitudes and expectations: do attitudes towards education mediate the relationship between social networks and parental expectations?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous international research has shown that educational goals are fundamental for explaining differences in the educational attainment between individuals. For a better understanding of educational inequality, it is therefore crucial to know more about the mechanisms leading to different expectations. Our paper contributes to this field of research by empirically testing how social networks affect educational expectations of mothers for

Tobias Roth; Zerrin Salikutluk

2012-01-01

424

Chapter 5. Measurements of Expectations: The Maryland Physics Expectations (MPEX) Survey  

E-print Network

138 Chapter 5. Measurements of Expectations: The Maryland Physics Expectations (MPEX) Survey I successfully learned physics in addition to doing well on the exams. C. Why a Survey? The FCI and other concept as measured by multiple- choice concepts tests compared to traditional instruction (see chapter 4). However

Maryland at College Park, University of

425

Differences in Life Expectancy and Disability Free Life Expectancy in Italy. A Challenge to Health Systems  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Measures of health expectancy such as Disability Free Life Expectancy are used to evaluate and compare regional/national health statuses. These indicators are useful for understanding changes in the health status and defining health policies and decisions on the provision of services because provide useful information on possible areas

Burgio, A.; Murianni, L.; Folino-Gallo, P.

2009-01-01

426

Counting Strings, Wound and Bound  

E-print Network

We analyze zero mode counting problems for Dirac operators that find their origin in string theory backgrounds. A first class of quantum mechanical models for which we compute the number of ground states arises from a string winding an isometric direction in a geometry, taking into account its energy due to tension. Alternatively, the models arise from deforming marginal bound states of a string winding a circle, and moving in an orthogonal geometry. After deformation, the number of bound states is again counted by the zero modes of a Dirac operator. We count these bound states in even dimensional asymptotically linear dilaton backgrounds as well as in Euclidean Taub-NUT. We show multiple pole behavior in the fugacities keeping track of a U(1) charge. We also discuss a second class of counting problems that arises when these backgrounds are deformed via the application of a heterotic duality transformation. We discuss applications of our results to Appell-Lerch sums and the counting of domain wall bound states.

Sujay K. Ashok; Suresh Nampuri; Jan Troost

2013-02-05

427

Counting Strings, Wound and Bound  

E-print Network

We analyze zero mode counting problems for Dirac operators that find their origin in string theory backgrounds. A first class of quantum mechanical models for which we compute the number of ground states arises from a string winding an isometric direction in a geometry, taking into account its energy due to tension. Alternatively, the models arise from deforming marginal bound states of a string winding a circle, and moving in an orthogonal geometry. After deformation, the number of bound states is again counted by the zero modes of a Dirac operator. We count these bound states in even dimensional asymptotically linear dilaton backgrounds as well as in Euclidean Taub-NUT. We show multiple pole behavior in the fugacities keeping track of a U(1) charge. We also discuss a second class of counting problems that arises when these backgrounds are deformed via the application of a heterotic duality transformation. We discuss applications of our results to Appell-Lerch sums and the counting of domain wall bound state...

Ashok, Sujay K; Troost, Jan

2013-01-01

428

Wronskian Method for Bound States  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We propose a simple and straightforward method based on Wronskians for the calculation of bound-state energies and wavefunctions of one-dimensional quantum-mechanical problems. We explicitly discuss the asymptotic behaviour of the wavefunction and show that the allowed energies make the divergent part vanish. As illustrative examples we consider

Fernandez, Francisco M.

2011-01-01

429

Orlov spectra: bounds and gaps  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Orlov spectrum is a new invariant of a triangulated category. It was introduced by D. Orlov building on work of A. Bondal-M. van den Bergh and R. Rouquier. The supremum of the Orlov spectrum of a triangulated category is called the ultimate dimension. In this work, we study Orlov spectra of triangulated categories arising in mirror symmetry. We introduce the notion of gaps and outline their geometric significance. We provide the first large class of examples where the ultimate dimension is finite: categories of singularities associated to isolated hypersurface singularities. Similarly, given any nonzero object in the bounded derived category of coherent sheaves on a smooth Calabi-Yau hypersurface, we produce a new generator by closing the object under a certain monodromy action and uniformly bound this new generator's generation time. In addition, we provide new upper bounds on the generation times of exceptional collections and connect generation time to braid group actions to provide a lower bound on the ultimate dimension of the derived Fukaya category of a symplectic surface of genus greater than one.

Ballard, Matthew; Favero, David; Katzarkov, Ludmil

2012-08-01

430

System dynamics: Portraying bounded rationality  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the linkages between system dynamics and the Carnegie School in their treatment of human decision making. It is argued that the structure of system dynamics models implicitly assumes bounded rationality in decision making and that recognition of this assumption would aid system dynamicists in model construction and in communication with other social science disciplines. The paper begins

John DW Morecroft

1983-01-01

431

Deconstructing culture-bound syndromes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ethnopsychiatry comprises a large field of literature written from diverse perspectives, disciplines and orientations. Its status as an interdisciplinary activity presents formidable obstacles to researchers interested in comparative problems and the development of generalizations. These difficulties can be demonstrated by even a cursory examination of the material written on what has come to be called 'culture-bound syndromes'. In spite of

Ivan Karp

1985-01-01

432

Loosely-Bound Diatomic Molecules.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses concept of covalent bonding as related to homonuclear diatomic molecules. Article draws attention to the existence of bound rare gas and alkaline earth diatomic molecules. Summarizes their molecular parameters and offers spectroscopic data. Strength and variation with distance of interatomic attractive forces is given. (Author/SA)

Balfour, W. J.

1979-01-01

433

Performance bounds for fractal coding  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reports on investigations concerning the performance of fractal transforms. Emerging from the structural constraints of fractal coding schemes, lower bounds for the reconstruction error are given without regarding quantization noise. This implies finding an at least locally optimal transformation matrix. A full search approach is by definition optimal but also intractable for practical implementations. In order to simplify the calculation

Bernd Hiirtgen; Rwth Aachen

1995-01-01

434

Bounded Polymorphism in Session Types  

E-print Network

Bounded Polymorphism in Session Types Malcolm Hole and Simon Gay Department of Computing Science TR Types Simon Gay1 and Malcolm Hole2 1 Department of Computing Science, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 systems, and Gay, Ravara and Vasconcelos [6] have begun to transfer session types from the -calculus

Gay, Simon

435

On the combination of delayed neutron and delayed gamma techniques for fission rate measurement in nuclear fuel  

SciTech Connect

Novel techniques to measure newly induced fissions in spent fuel after re-irradiation at low power have been developed and tested at the Proteus zero-power research reactor. The two techniques are based on the detection of high energy gamma-rays emitted by short-lived fission products and delayed neutrons. The two techniques relate the measured signals to the total fission rate, the isotopic composition of the fuel, and nuclear data. They can be combined to derive better estimates on each of these parameters. This has potential for improvement in many areas. Spent fuel characterisation and safeguard applications can benefit from these techniques for non-destructive assay of plutonium content. Another application of choice is the reduction of uncertainties on nuclear data. As a first application of the combination of the delayed neutron and gamma measurement techniques, this paper shows how to reduce the uncertainties on the relative abundances of the longest delayed neutron group for thermal fissions in {sup 235}U, {sup 239}Pu and fast fissions in {sup 238}U. The proposed experiments are easily achievable in zero-power research reactors using fresh UO{sub 2} and MOX fuel and do not require fast extraction systems. The relative uncertainties (1{sigma}) on the relative abundances are expected to be reduced from 13% to 4%, 16% to 5%, and 38% to 12% for {sup 235}U, {sup 238}U and {sup 239}Pu, respectively. (authors)

Perret, G.; Jordan, K. A. [Paul Scherrer Institut, Villigen, 5232 (Switzerland)

2011-07-01

436

Alcohol expectancies of Irish and Canadian alcoholics.  

PubMed

Recent approaches in alcohol research have dealt with the positive and negative expectations of drinkers regarding alcohol consumption. In this study 61 White male alcoholics from a residential treatment program in Ireland were compared with 53 White male alcoholics from a similar program in Canada on their rank ordering of 13 positive and 12 negative expected consequences from drinking. The Irish seemed to drink for social reasons, striving for tranquilization, detachment, and self-absorption. Their greatest concern was that tranquilization would fail, and they also feared the physical consequences of drinking. Canadians drank for social/sexual enhancement and worried most about trouble with authorities over aggression and getting into debt. PMID:3235223

Teahan, J E

1988-10-01

437

Candidate preferences and expectations of election outcomes.  

PubMed

Analysis of data from the American Life Panel shows that in the presidential election of 2008 and in multiple statewide elections in 2010, citizens exhibited large differences in their expectations of election outcomes. Expectations were strongly positively associated with candidate preferences, persons tending to believe that their preferred candidate is more likely to win the election. Committed supporters of opposing candidates regularly differed by 20-30% in their assessments of the likelihood that each candidate would win. These findings contribute evidence on the false consensus effect, the empirical regularity that own preferences tend to be positively associated with perceptions of social preferences. We used unique measures of preferences and perceptions that enabled respondents to express uncertainty flexibly. We studied a setting that would a priori seem inhospitable to false consensus--one where persons have little private information on social preferences but substantial common knowledge provided by media reports of election polls. PMID:22355121

Delavande, Adeline; Manski, Charles F

2012-03-01

438

Pharmacy student expectations for professional practice.  

PubMed

The professional employment market for pharmacists has changed radically in recent years. Additionally, data regarding perception of future practice among pharmacy students are limited. The purpose of this study was to characterize expectations for professional practice among pharmacy students and to identify curriculum support at a college of pharmacy. A survey examining student educational experiences, career preferences, and demographic variables was distributed to 1,297 students enrolled in the first to sixth year. Six hundred thirty responses were evaluated. Doctor of Pharmacy students indicated that their education better prepared them for their expected career than did Bachelor of Science students (P < .03). The former also had a more positive outlook regarding future career opportunities than the latter (P < .01) and indicated to a greater extent that HMOs and pharmacy benefit management companies are growing sources of employment for pharmacists (P < .001). PMID:10182238

Baran, R W; Shaw, J; Crumlish, K

1998-08-01

439

Oscillation onset in neural delayed feedback  

SciTech Connect

This paper studies dynamical aspects of neural systems with delayed negative feedback modelled by nonlinear delay-differential equations. These systems undergo a Hopf bifurcation from a stable fixed point to a limit cycle oscillation as certain parameters are varied. We show that their frequency of oscillation is robust to parameter variations and noisy fluctuations, a property that makes these systems good candidates for pacemakers. The onset of oscillation is postponed by both additive and parametric noise in the sense that the state variable spends more time near the fixed point. Finally, we show that a distributed delay (rather than a fixed delay) also stabilizes the fixed point solution. 40 refs., 2 figs.

Longtin, A.

1990-01-01

440

Intron Delays and Transcriptional Timing during Development  

PubMed Central

The time taken to transcribe most metazoan genes is significant because of the substantial length of introns. Developmentally regulated gene networks, where timing and dynamic patterns of expression are critical, may be particularly sensitive to intron delays. We revisit and comment on a perspective last presented by Thummel 16 years ago: transcriptional delays may contribute to timing mechanisms during development. We discuss the presence of intron delays in genetic networks. We consider how delays can impact particular moments during development, which mechanistic attributes of transcription can influence them, how they can be modeled, and how they can be studied using recent technological advances as well as classical genetics. PMID:18331713

Swinburne, Ian A.; Silver, Pamela A.

2010-01-01

441

Assessing Patients' Expectations in Ambulatory Medical Practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

To compare three different approaches to the measurement of patients' expectations for care, we conducted a randomized controlled\\u000a trial. Medical outpatients (n = 318) of a small (six-physician), single-specialty (internal medicine), academically affiliated\\u000a private practice in Sacramento, California, were contacted by telephone the night before a scheduled office visit and enrolled\\u000a over a 5-month period in early 1994. Patients were

Richard L. Kravitz; Edward J. Callahan; Rahman Azari; Deirdre Antonius; Charles E. Lewis

1997-01-01

442

Water in stars: expected and unexpected  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have confirmed the presence of water in the early M giant alpha Cet (M1.5III) and supergiant KK Per (M2Iab) by the highest resolution grating mode of SWS, but this result is quite unexpected from present model atmospheres. In late M giant and supergiant stars, water observed originates partly in the photosphere as expected by the model atmospheres, but ISO

T. Tsuji; W. Aoki; K. Ohnaka

1999-01-01

443

Leverage Expectations and Bond Credit Spreads  

E-print Network

Credit Spreads Mark J. Flannery, Stanislava (Stas) Nikolova, and zde ztekin? Abstract In an efficient market, spreads will reflect both the issuers current risk and investors expectations about how that risk might change over time. Collin... and ?Flannery, flannery@ufl.edu, Warrington College of Business Administration, University of Florida, PO Box 117168, Gainesville, FL 32611; Nikolova, nikolovas@sec.gov, U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission, 100 F St NE, Washington, DC 20549; Oztekin, ozde...

Flannery, Mark J.; Nikolova, Stanislava; Ö ztekin, Ö zde

2012-08-04

444

First Contact: Expectations of Beginning Astronomy Students  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Three hundred seven undergraduate students enrolled in Introductory Astronomy were surveyed at the beginning of class to determine their expectations for course content. The course serves as a survey of astronomy for non-science majors and is a distribution course for general education core requirements. The course has no prerequisites, meets three times each week for 50 minutes, and represents three semester credit hours. The university catalog describes the course with the title "PHYSICS 101 - Mysteries of the Sky" and the official course description is: a survey of the struggle to understand the Universe and our place therein. The structure, growth, methods, and limitations of science will be illustrated using the development of astronomy as a vehicle. Present day views of the Universe are presented. Two questions were asked as open response items: What made you decide to take this course? and What do you expect to learn in this course? The reasons that students cited to take the course, in order of frequency, were: interested in astronomy, interesting or fun sounding course, required general education fulfillment, recommendation by peer. Secondary reasons cited were required for major or minor, general interest in science, and was available in the schedule. Tertiary reasons listed were recommendation by advisor or orientation leader, inflate grade point average, and heard good things about the teacher. The students' expectations about what they would learn in the course were numerous. The most common objects listed, in order of frequency, were: stars, constellations, planets, galaxies, black holes, solar system, comets, galaxies, asteroids, moon, and Sun. More interesting were the aspects not specifically related to astronomy. These were weather, atmosphere, UFOs and the unexplained, generally things in the sky. A mid-course survey suggests that students expected to learn more constellations and that the topics would be less in-depth.

Lacey, T. L.; Slater, T. F.

1999-05-01

445

Context-driven expectations about focus alternatives.  

PubMed

What is conveyed by a sentence frequently depends not only on the descriptive content carried by its words, but also on implicit alternatives determined by the context of use. Four visual world eye-tracking experiments examined how alternatives are generated based on aspects of the discourse context and used in interpreting sentences containing the focus operators only and also. Experiment 1 builds on previous reading time studies showing that the interpretations of only sentences are constrained by alternatives explicitly mentioned in the preceding discourse, providing fine-grained time course information about the expectations triggered by only. Experiments 2 and 3 show that, in the absence of explicitly mentioned alternatives, lexical and situation-based categories evoked by the context are possible sources of alternatives. While Experiments 1-3 all demonstrate the discourse dependence of alternatives, only explicit mention triggered expectations about alternatives that were specific to sentences with only. By comparing only with also, Experiment 4 begins to disentangle expectations linked to the meanings of specific operators from those generalizable to the class of focus-sensitive operators. Together, these findings show that the interpretation of sentences with focus operators draws on both dedicated mechanisms for introducing alternatives into the discourse context and general mechanisms associated with discourse processing. PMID:25797456

Kim, Christina S; Gunlogson, Christine; Tanenhaus, Michael K; Runner, Jeffrey T

2015-06-01

446

Employee perceptions of 'profiled' customers' expectations.  

PubMed

There has been an increasing interest in the issues of quality in service delivery. The SERVQUAL theory addresses these issues and identifies the causes of service quality problems. The practical, managerial implications of the SERVQUAL theory and model are currently being addressed (Reidenbach and Sandifer-Smallwood, 1990; Woodside, Frey and Daly, 1989; Mangold and Babakus, 1991; Webster, 1989; Day, 1992). A handful of these articles have specifically addressed the managerial implications of the SERVQUAL Gap 1 analysis: the identification of employee and management perceptions of consumer expectations (Mangold and Babakus, 1991; Headley and Choi, 1992; Bebko, 1994). Previously, none of the research had mentioned the potential problems inherent in Gap 1 analysis when the organization is faced with several "types" of customers, each with possibly different expectations. Consequently, the results of the GAP 1 analysis may not represent the true picture of employee perceptions of consumer expectations. This would have implications for the validity of the SERVQUAL instrument in assessing a service's ability to deliver quality to consumers. PMID:10186252

Bebko, C P

1998-01-01

447

Couvade Syndrome among Polish expectant fathers  

PubMed Central

Background The aim of the conducted study was to analyze the phenomenon of Couvade Syndrome amongst fathers expecting their children in Poland. The authors examined the frequency of couvade symptoms in male subjects as well as their associations with male empathy. Material/Methods The research involved 143 expectant fathers. All subjects attended antenatal classes, and their female partners were in their third trimester. Before the start of classes, participants were asked to fill in the following questionnaires: a survey for measurement of Couvade Syndrome (which includes a set of 16 symptoms identified by Lipkin and Lamb (19) and translated into Polish), and the Empathic Sensitiveness Scale (SWE). Although participants, on average, did not experience Couvade Syndrome, they did experience symptoms that are commonly linked with the syndrome, namely those related to weight (weight gain, changes in appetite and flatulence). Results The results indicate that expectant fathers experience couvade symptoms related to weight (weight gain, changes in appetite and flatulence). The only empathic component that positively correlates with Couvade Syndrome is personal distress, i.e. the tendency to take on the negative emotions of others. Demographic characteristics are not associated with Couvade Syndrome. Conclusions The frequency of couvade symptoms in male subjects is associated with male empathy. In other words, men who are emotionally sensitive or prone to distress may physiologically experience the pregnancy of their female partners, which can be interpreted as compathy. PMID:23425940

Kazmierczak, Maria; Kielbratowska, Bogumi?a; Pastwa-Wojciechowska, Beata; Preis, Krzysztof

2013-01-01

448

Conciliation of Bayes and Pointwise Quantum State Estimation: Asymptotic information bounds in quantum statistics  

E-print Network

We derive an asymptotic lower bound on the Bayes risk when $N$ identical quantum systems whose state depends on a vector of unknown parameters are jointly measured in an arbitrary way and the parameters of interest estimated on the basis of the resulting data. The bound is an integrated version of a quantum Cram\\'er-Rao bound due to Holevo (1982), and it thereby links the fixed $N$ exact Bayesian optimality usually pursued in the physics literature with the pointwise asymptotic optimality favoured in classical mathematical statistics. By heuristic arguments the bound can be expected to be sharp. This does turn out to be the case in various important examples, where it can be used to prove asymptotic optimality of interesting and useful measurement-and-estimation schemes. On the way we obtain a new family of "dual Holevo bounds" of independent interest.

Richard D. Gill

2009-01-31

449

Reduction of chemical reaction networks through delay distributions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Accurate modelling and simulation of dynamic cellular events require two main ingredients: an adequate description of key chemical reactions and simulation of such chemical events in reasonable time spans. Quite logically, posing the right model is a crucial step for any endeavour in Computational Biology. However, more often than not, it is the associated computational costs which actually limit our capabilities of representing complex cellular behaviour. In this paper, we propose a methodology aimed at representing chains of chemical reactions by much simpler, reduced models. The abridgement is achieved by generation of model-specific delay distribution functions, consecutively fed to a delay stochastic simulation algorithm. We show how such delay distributions can be analytically described whenever the system is solely composed of consecutive first-order reactions, with or without additional "backward" bypass reactions, yielding an exact reduction. For models including other types of monomolecular reactions (constitutive synthesis, degradation, or "forward" bypass reactions), we discuss why one must adopt a numerical approach for its accurate stochastic representation, and propose two alternatives for this. In these cases, the accuracy depends on the respective numerical sample size. Our model reduction methodology yields significantly lower computational costs while retaining accuracy. Quite naturally, computational costs increase alongside network size and separation of time scales. Thus, we expect our model reduction methodologies to significantly decrease computational costs in these instances. We anticipate the use of delays in model reduction will greatly alleviate some of the current restrictions in simulating large sets of chemical reactions, largely applicable in pharmaceutical and biological research.

Barrio, Manuel; Leier, Andr; Marquez-Lago, Tatiana T.

2013-03-01

450

Upper Higgs boson mass bounds from a chirally invariant lattice Higgs-Yukawa model  

E-print Network

We establish the cutoff-dependent upper Higgs boson mass bound by means of direct lattice computations in the framework of a chirally invariant lattice Higgs-Yukawa model emulating the same chiral Yukawa coupling structure as in the Higgs-fermion sector of the Standard Model. As expected from the triviality picture of the Higgs sector, we observe the upper mass bound to decrease with rising cutoff parameter $\\Lambda$. Moreover, the strength of the fermionic contribution to the upper mass bound is explored by comparing to the corresponding analysis in the pure $\\Phi^4$-theory.

P. Gerhold; K. Jansen

2010-02-23

451

DELAYS IN SPECIMEN TRANSPORTATION Delays in transporting specimens from hospital units to the  

E-print Network

DELAYS IN SPECIMEN TRANSPORTATION Delays in transporting specimens from hospital units nurses, phlebotomists, and porters collect and transport specimens. Porters are shared among all units and have responsibilities outside specimen transportation This project seeks to improve the pre

452

Syneresis and delayed detachment in agar plates  

E-print Network

Biogels made of crosslinked polymers such as proteins or polysaccharides behave as porous soft solids and store large amount of solvent. These gels undergo spontaneous aging, called syneresis that consists in the shrinkage of the gel matrix and the progressive expulsion of the solvent. As a result, a biogel originally casted in a container often lose contact with the container sidewalls, and the detachment time is a priori difficult to anticipate since it may occur over variable time spans (from hours to days). Here we report on the syneresis phenomena in agar plates that consist in Petri dishes filled with a gel mainly composed of agar. Direct observations and speckle pattern correlation analysis allow us to rationalize the delayed detachment of the gel from the sidewall of the Petri dish. The detachment time $t^*$ is surprisingly not controlled by the mass loss as one would intuitively expect. Instead, $t^*$ is strongly correlated to the gel minimum thickness $e_{min}$ measured along the sidewall of the plate, and increases as a robust function of $e_{min}$ independently of the prior mass-loss history. Time-resolved correlation spectroscopy atypically applied to such weakly diffusive media gives access to the local thinning rate of the gel. This technique also allows us to detect the gel micro-displacements that are triggered by the water evaporation prior to the detachment, and even to anticipate the latter from a few hours. Our work provides observables to predict the detachment time of agar gels in dishes, and highlights the relevance of speckle pattern correlation analysis for the quantitative investigation of the syneresis dynamics in biopolymer gels.

Thibaut Divoux; Bosi Mao; Patrick Snabre

2015-02-20

453

Frustrated Expectations: Defect Networks and Dark Energy  

E-print Network

We discuss necessary conditions for a network of cosmic domain walls to have a chance of providing the dark energy that might explain the recent acceleration of the universe. We derive a strong bound on the curvature of the walls, which shows that viable candidate networks must be fine-tuned and non-standard. We also discuss various requirements that any stable lattice of frustrated walls must obey. We conjecture that, even though one can build (by hand) lattices that would be stable, no such lattices will ever come out of realistic domain wall forming cosmological phase transitions. We provide some simple numerical simulations that illustrate our results and correct some misconceptions in the published literature, but a detailed numerical analysis is left for a companion paper.

P. P. Avelino; C. J. A. P. Martins; J. Menezes; R. Menezes; J. C. R. E. Oliveira

2006-02-24

454

Transversely bounded DFB lasers. [bounded distributed-feedback lasers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Bounded distributed-feedback (DFB) lasers are studied in detail. Threshold gain and field distribution for a number of configurations are derived and analyzed. More specifically, the thin-film guide, fiber, diffusion guide, and hollow channel with inhomogeneous-cladding DFB lasers are considered. Optimum points exist and must be used in DFB laser design. Different-modes feedback and the effects of the transverse boundaries are included. A number of applications are also discussed.

Elachi, C.; Evans, G.; Yeh, C.

1975-01-01

455

Geometric Stability Switch Criteria in Delay Differential Systems with Delay Dependent Parameters  

Microsoft Academic Search

In most applications of delay differential equations in population dynamics,the need of incorporation of time delays is often the result of the existence of some stage structure. Since the through-stage survival rate is often a function of time delays,it is easy to conceive that these models may involve some delay dependent parameters. The presence of such parameters often greatly complicates

Edoardo Beretta; Yang Kuang

2002-01-01

456

Characterization of gain-aware routing in delay tolerant networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Majority of the existing Delay Tolerant Network (DTN) routing protocols, attempt to minimize one of the popular DTN routing indices, i.e. message delay, forwarding count and storage. However, for many DTN applications such as distributing commercial content, targeting the best performance for one index and compromising the others is insufficient. A more practical solution would be to strike a balance between multiple of these indices. Gain Dissemination Protocol (GDP) is one of the protocols which targets this aim by introducing a gain concept which tries reach a maximum gain of delivery by keeping the balance between the value achieved via delivering the packet to the destination and the forwarding cost involved with that. In this paper, we focus on characterizing the GDP protocol in the scope of mobility. We also propose an upper bound for gain in multicast routing problem, i.e. the Union of Unicast Benchmark (UUB) and compare the performance of a few DTN routing protocols with the former. This eventually reveals the performance scope of a potential gain-aware DTN dissemination protocol.

Hajiaghajani, Faezeh; Piolet Thulasidharan, Yogesh; Taghizadeh, Mahmoud; Biswas, Subir

2013-05-01

457

Delay Banking for Managing Air Traffic  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Delay banking has been invented to enhance air-traffic management in a way that would increase the degree of fairness in assigning arrival, departure, and en-route delays and trajectory deviations to aircraft impacted by congestion in the national airspace system. In delay banking, an aircraft operator (airline, military, general aviation, etc.) would be assigned a numerical credit when any of their flights are delayed because of an air-traffic flow restriction. The operator could subsequently bid against other operators competing for access to congested airspace to utilize part or all of its accumulated credit. Operators utilize credits to obtain higher priority for the same flight, or other flights operating at the same time, or later, in the same airspace, or elsewhere. Operators could also trade delay credits, according to market rules that would be determined by stakeholders in the national airspace system. Delay banking would be administered by an independent third party who would use delay banking automation to continually monitor flights, allocate delay credits, maintain accounts of delay credits for participating airlines, mediate bidding and the consumption of credits of winning bidders, analyze potential transfers of credits within and between operators, implement accepted transfers, and ensure fair treatment of all participating operators. A flow restriction can manifest itself in the form of a delay in assigned takeoff time, a reduction in assigned airspeed, a change in the position for the aircraft in a queue of all aircraft in a common stream of traffic (e.g., similar route), a change in the planned altitude profile for an aircraft, or change in the planned route for the aircraft. Flow restrictions are typically imposed to mitigate traffic congestion at an airport or in a region of airspace, particularly congestion due to inclement weather, or the unavailability of a runway or region of airspace. A delay credit would be allocated to an operator of a flight that has accepted, or upon which was imposed, a flow restriction. The amount of the credit would increase with the amount of delay caused by the flow restriction, the exact amount depending on which of several candidate formulas is eventually chosen. For example, according to one formula, there would be no credit for a delay smaller than some threshold value (e.g., 30 seconds) and the amount of the credit for a longer delay would be set at the amount of the delay minus the threshold value. Optionally, the value of a delay credit could be made to decay with time according to a suitable formula (e.g., an exponential decay). Also, optionally, a transaction charge could be assessed against the value of a delay credit that an operator used on a flight different from the one for which the delay originated or that was traded with a different operator. The delay credits accumulated by a given airline could be utilized in various ways. For example, an operator could enter a bid for priority handling in a new flow restriction that impacts one or more of the operator s flights; if the bid were unsuccessful, all or a portion of the credit would be returned to the bidder. If the bid pertained to a single aircraft that was in a queue, delay credits could be consumed in moving the aircraft to an earlier position within the queue. In the case of a flow restriction involving a choice of alternate routes, planned altitude profile, aircraft spacing, or other non-queue flow restrictions, delay credits could be used to bid for an alternative assignment.

Green, Steve

2008-01-01

458

The Tunnel Vision Syndrome: Massively Delaying Progress  

E-print Network

The Tunnel Vision Syndrome: Massively Delaying Progress Reiner Hartenstein, Professor, IEEE fellow facet as the complete answer are far from solving the problem. What is the reason of these slow-down- stream-based computing was delayed for decades by the tunnel vision syndrome. The History of Systolic

Hartenstein, Reiner

459

Delaying gratification depends on social trust  

PubMed Central

Delaying gratification is hard, yet predictive of important life outcomes, such as academic achievement and physical health. Prominent theories focus on the role of self-control, hypersensitivity to immediate rewards, and the cost of time spent waiting. However, delaying gratification may also require trust in people delivering future rewards as promised. To test the role of social trust, participants were presented with character vignettes and faces that varied in trustworthiness, and then choose between hypothetical smaller immediate or larger delayed rewards from those characters. Across two experiments, participants were less willing to wait for delayed rewards from less trustworthy characters, and perceived trustworthiness predicted willingness to delay gratification. These findings provide the first demonstration of a causal role for social trust in willingness to delay gratification, independent of other relevant factors, such as self-control or reward history. Thus, delaying gratification requires choosing not only a later reward, but a reward that is potentially less likely to be delivered, when there is doubt about the person promising it. Implications of this work include the need to revise prominent theories of delay of gratification, and new directions for interventions with populations characterized by impulsivity. PMID:23801977

Michaelson, Laura; de la Vega, Alejandro; Chatham, Christopher H.; Munakata, Yuko

2013-01-01

460

Motivational Determinants of Academic Delay of Gratification.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined motivational determinants of academic delay of gratification (ADOG) with 196 undergraduate college students at a large midwestern university. Students completed the academic delay of gratification scale, in which students are presented with 10 hypothetical situations and they indicate their preference among options offering

Karabenick, Stuart A.; Bembenutty, Hefer

461

Laddering wave in serpentine delay line  

Microsoft Academic Search

The backward propagating crosstalk among the sections of a serpentine delay line accumulates to appear as a laddering wave in the receiving waveform. This occurrence results in severe signal distortion and may significantly reduce the desired time delay. A novel wave tracing analysis is proposed to describe qualitatively the waveform of the laddering wave. Furthermore, a quantitative analysis based on

Ruey-Beei Wu; Fang-Lin Chao

1995-01-01

462

Delaying Developmental Mathematics: The Characteristics and Costs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper investigates which students delay taking a required developmental mathematics course and the impact of delay on student performance in introductory microeconomics. Analysis of a sample of 1462 students at a large Midwestern university revealed that, although developmental-level mathematics students did not reach the same level of

Johnson, Marianne; Kuennen, Eric

2004-01-01

463

Railway Delay Management: Exploring its Algorithmic Complexity  

E-print Network

Railway Delay Management: Exploring its Algorithmic Complexity Michael Gatto, Bj?orn Glaus, Riko in railway systems. Given delayed trains, we want to find a waiting policy for the connecting trains at most twice along fixed routes, or if the railway network has a tree structure, the problem can

Riko Jacob

464

Railway Delay Management: Exploring its Algorithmic Complexity  

E-print Network

Railway Delay Management: Exploring its Algorithmic Complexity Michael Gatto, Bj¨orn Glaus, Riko in railway systems. Given delayed trains, we want to find a waiting policy for the connecting trains at most twice along fixed routes, or if the railway network has a tree structure, the problem can

Riko Jacob

465

A Delay Model for Router Microarchitectures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current router models (2, 3, 5, 6) assume that clock cycle time depends solely on router latency. How- ever, in practice, routers are heavily pipelined, making cycle time largely independent of router latency. In this paper, we describe a router delay model that accurately accounts for pipelining based on technology-in dependent delay estimates derived through detailed gate-level analy- sis. Simulations

Li-shiuan Peh; William J. Dally

2001-01-01

466

Temperature Dependent Wire Delay Estimation in Floorplanning  

E-print Network

Temperature Dependent Wire Delay Estimation in Floorplanning Andreas Thor Winther, Wei Liu, Alberto, Arizona State University, Tempe, USA Abstract--Due to large variations in temperature in VLSI cir- cuits and the linear relationship between metal resistance and temperature, the delay through wires of the same length

Nannarelli, Alberto

467

Why do delayed summaries improve metacomprehension accuracy?  

Microsoft Academic Search

We showed that metacomprehension accuracy improved when participants (N=87 college students) wrote summaries of texts prior to judging their comprehension; however, accuracy only improved when summaries were written after a delay, not when written immediately after reading. We evaluated two hypotheses proposed to account for this delayed-summarization effect (the accessibility hypothesis and the situation model hypothesis). The data suggest that

Mary C. M. Anderson; Keith W. Thiede

2008-01-01

468

Community satisfaction, expectations of moving and migration.  

PubMed

A previous residential mobility model (Speare, 1974) assumes an additive relationship between residential satisfaction, desire to move, and mobility. This paper elaborates the model and applies it to intercounty migration. An interaction between community satisfaction and expectations to migrate is hypothesized which distinguishes four groups of decision makers. A survey in Durham, North Carolina and a unique mobility follow-up over eight years provide the data to test the model and the interaction. Furthermore, using various time periods for identifying migrants offers some methodological insights. Results support Speare's general formulation but only after the interaction is taken into account. A three-year migration interval is found to be appropriate. PMID:870348

Bach, R L; Smith, J

1977-05-01

469

What can we expect from future accelerators  

SciTech Connect

This talk covers a general but highly subjective overview of the expectation for new accelerator development. An updated version of the Livingston chart demonstrates the exponential growth in time of the equivalent laboratory energy of accelerators. A similar Livingston chart pertaining only to electron-positron colliders shows an exponential growth but in the past only one technology - electron-positron storage rings - have been responsible for this development. The question addressed is whether the type of exponential growth reflected by these two charts can be sustained in the future.

Panofsky, W.K.H.

1984-06-01

470

Flood frequency; expected and unexpected probabilities  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Flood-frequency curves may be defined either with or without an ' expeced probability ' adustment; and the two curves differ in the way that they attempt to average the time-sampling uncertainties. A curve with no adustment is shown to estimate a median value of both discharge and frequency of occurrence, while an expected probability curve is shown to estimate a mean frequency of flood years. The attributes and constraints of the two types of curves for various uses are discussed. (Woodard-USGS)

Thomas, D.M.

1976-01-01

471

The Overseas Doctors Training Scheme: failing expectations.  

PubMed Central

The Overseas Doctors Training Scheme needs appraisal. Set up 10 years ago to improve the quality of postgraduate training that overseas (non-European) doctors receive in Britain, the scheme has been popular, but it is questionable how far it has achieved its aims. If Britain is to continue to employ large numbers of overseas doctors in training grades, both through the scheme and through independent arrangements, the apparent mismatch between their expectations and the reality of what Britain offers must be tackled. Images p1629-a PMID:7993422

Richards, T.

1994-01-01

472

Modifications of the Griesmer bound  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Griesmer bound is a classical technique (developed in 1960) for estimating the minimum length n required for a binary linear code with a given dimension k and minimum distance d. In this article, a unified derivation of the Griesmer bound and two new variations on it are presented. The first variation deals with linear codes which contain the all-ones vector; such codes are quite common and are useful in practice because of their 'transparent' properties. The second variation deals with codes that are constrained to contain a word of weight greater than or equal to M. In both cases these constraints (the all-ones word or a word of high weight) can increase the minimum length of a code with given k and d.

Mceliece, R. J.; Solomon, G.

1991-01-01

473

Lower bounds for randomized Exclusive Write PRAMs  

SciTech Connect

In this paper we study the question: How useful is randomization in speeding up Exclusive Write PRAM computations? Our results give further evidence that randomization is of limited use in these types of computations. First we examine a compaction problem on both the CREW and EREW PRAM models, and we present randomized lower bounds which match the best deterministic lower bounds known. (For the CREW PRAM model, the lower bound is asymptotically optimal.) These are the first non-trivial randomized lower bounds known for the compaction problem on these models. We show that our lower bounds also apply to the problem of approximate compaction. Next we examine the problem of computing boolean functions on the CREW PRAM model, and we present a randomized lower bound, which improves on the previous best randomized lower bound for many boolean functions, including the OR function. (The previous lower bounds for these functions were asymptotically optimal, but we improve the constant multiplicative factor.) We also give an alternate proof for the randomized lower bound on PARITY, which was already optimal to within a constant additive factor. Lastly, we give a randomized lower bound for integer merging on an EREW PRAM which matches the best deterministic lower bound known. In all our proofs, we use the Random Adversary method, which has previously only been used for proving lower bounds on models with Concurrent Write capabilities. Thus this paper also serves to illustrate the power and generality of this method for proving parallel randomized lower bounds.

MacKenzie, P.D.

1995-05-02

474

How Students' Salary Expectations Stack up against Actual Earnings.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Survey on salary expectations found that what students expected as a starting salary was significantly higher than actual starting salary. Freshmen expected a higher salary than sophomores did. There was no significant correlation between age and salary expectations, although students with higher GPA's had higher expectations. Gender did not have

Ahmadi, Mohammad; Helms, Marilyn M.; Raiszadeh, Farhad; Ross, Tammy J.

2000-01-01

475

Expectancy and Treatment Interactions: A Dissociation between Acupuncture Analgesia and Expectancy Evoked Placebo Analgesia  

E-print Network

Recent advances in placebo research have demonstrated the mind's power to alter physiology. In this study, we combined an expectancy manipulation model with both verum and sham acupuncture treatments to address: 1) how and ...

Kong, Jian

476

The Long Arm of Expectancies: Adolescent Alcohol Expectancies Predict Adult Alcohol Use  

PubMed Central

Aims: Alcohol expectancies are strong concurrent predictors of alcohol use and problems, but the current study addressed their unique power to predict from adolescence to midlife. Method: Long-term longitudinal data from the national British Cohort Study 1970 (N = 2146, 59.8% female) were used to predict alcohol use and misuse in the mid-30s by alcohol expectancies reported in adolescence. Results: Cohort members with more positive alcohol expectancies at age 16 reported greater alcohol quantity concurrently, increases in alcohol quantity relative to their peers between ages 16 and 35, and a higher likelihood of lifetime and previous year alcohol misuse at age 35, independent of gender, social class in family of origin, age of alcohol use onset, adolescent delinquent behavior and age 16 exam scores. Conclusions: Alcohol expectancies were strong proximal predictors of alcohol use and predicted relative change in alcohol use and misuse across two decades into middle adulthood. PMID:19808940

Patrick, Megan E.; Wray-Lake, Laura; Finlay, Andrea K.; Maggs, Jennifer L.

2010-01-01

477

Preferences for fixed and variable food sources: variability in amount and delay.  

PubMed

Much research has focused on the effects of environmental variability on foraging decisions. However, the general pattern of preference for variability in delay to reward and aversion to variability in amount of reward remains unexplained a either a mechanistic or a functional level. Starlings' preferences between a fixed and a variable option were studied in two treatments, A and D. The fixed option was the same in both treatments (20-s fixed-interval delay, five units food). In Treatment A the variable option gave two equiprobable amounts of food (20-s delay, three or seven units) and in D it gave two equiprobable delays to food (2.5-s or 60.5-s delays, five units). In both treatments the programmed ratio [amount/(intertrial interval+latency+delay)] in the fixed option equaled the arithmetic mean of the two possible ratios in the variable option (ITI = 40 s, latency = 1 s). The variable option was strongly preferred in Treatment D and was weakly avoided in Treatment A. These results are discussed in the light of two theoretical models, a form of constrained rate maximization and a version of scalar expectancy theory. The latter accommodates more of the data and is based on independently verifiable assumptions, including Weber's law. PMID:7751835

Bateson, M; Kacelnik, A

1995-05-01

478

Preferences for fixed and variable food sources: variability in amount and delay.  

PubMed Central

Much research has focused on the effects of environmental variability on foraging decisions. However, the general pattern of preference for variability in delay to reward and aversion to variability in amount of reward remains unexplained a either a mechanistic or a functional level. Starlings' preferences between a fixed and a variable option were studied in two treatments, A and D. The fixed option was the same in both treatments (20-s fixed-interval delay, five units food). In Treatment A the variable option gave two equiprobable amounts of food (20-s delay, three or seven units) and in D it gave two equiprobable delays to food (2.5-s or 60.5-s delays, five units). In both treatments the programmed ratio [amount/(intertrial interval+latency+delay)] in the fixed option equaled the arithmetic mean of the two possible ratios in the variable option (ITI = 40 s, latency = 1 s). The variable option was strongly preferred in Treatment D and was weakly avoided in Treatment A. These results are discussed in the light of two theoretical models, a form of constrained rate maximization and a version of scalar expectancy theory. The latter accommodates more of the data and is based on independently verifiable assumptions, including Weber's law. PMID:7751835

Bateson, M; Kacelnik, A

1995-01-01

479

Entropy bounds and dark energy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Entropy bounds render quantum corrections to the cosmological constant ? finite. Under certain assumptions, the natural value of ? is of order the observed dark energy density ?10?10eV4, thereby resolving the cosmological constant problem. We note that the dark energy equation of state in these scenarios is w?p\\/?=0 over cosmological distances, and is strongly disfavored by observational data. Alternatively, ?

Stephen D. H. Hsu

2004-01-01

480

Holographic bound and protein linguistics  

E-print Network

The holographic bound in physics constrains the complexity of life. The finite storage capability of information in the observable universe requires the protein linguistics in the evolution of life. We find that the evolution of genetic code determines the variance of amino acid frequencies and genomic GC content among species. The elegant linguistic mechanism is confirmed by the experimental observations based on all known entire proteomes.

Dirson Jian Li; Shengli Zhang

2007-04-10

481

Analytic bounds on transmission probabilities  

SciTech Connect

We develop some new analytic bounds on transmission probabilities (and the related reflection probabilities and Bogoliubov coefficients) for generic one-dimensional scattering problems. To do so we rewrite the Schroedinger equation for some complicated potential whose properties we are trying to investigate in terms of some simpler potential whose properties are assumed known, plus a (possibly large) 'shift' in the potential. Doing so permits us to extract considerable useful information without having to exactly solve the full scattering problem.

Boonserm, Petarpa, E-mail: petarpa.boonserm@gmail.co [Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Science Chulalongkorn University, Phayathai Rd., Pathumwan Bangkok 10330 (Thailand); Visser, Matt, E-mail: matt.visser@msor.vuw.ac.n [School of Mathematics, Statistics, and Operations Research, Victoria University of Wellington (New Zealand)

2010-07-15

482

Semiclassical bounds in magnetic bottles  

E-print Network

The aim of the paper is to derive spectral estimates into several classes of magnetic systems. They include three-dimensional regions with Dirichlet boundary as well as a particle in $\\mathbb{R}^3$ confined by a local change of the magnetic field. We establish two-dimensional Berezin-Li-Yau and Lieb-Thirring-type bounds in the presence of magnetic fields and, using them, get three-dimensional estimates for the eigenvalue moments of the corresponding magnetic Laplacians.

Diana Barseghyan; Pavel Exner; Hynek Kovarik; Timo Weidl

2015-01-13

483

Si photonic crystal waveguide based delay lines  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report a four-channel on-chip true-time-delay (TTD) module based on a photonic crystal waveguide (PCW) array. By minimizing the coupling loss with a photonic crystal taper (PC taper), the delay lines with 1-3mm long PCWs can operate up to a group index ng~23 without significant loss. The large group velocity dispersion enables continuous and wavelength-tunable time delays. Measurements show a highly linear phase-frequency relation, highest time delay up to 216.7 ps, and large tuning ranges of 58.28 ps, 115.74 ps, and 194.16 ps for 1-3mm delay lines, respectively. The chip-scale TTD module can provide +/-44.38 steering for an X-band phased array antenna (PAA), but occupies only 0.18 mm2 area.

Lin, Che-Yun; Zhu, Liang; Subbaraman, Harish; Hosseini, Amir; Wang, Alan X.; Chen, Ray T.

2012-11-01

484

Information bounds for Gaussian copulas.  

PubMed

Often of primary interest in the analysis of multivariate data are the copula parameters describing the dependence among the variables, rather than the univariate marginal distributions. Since the ranks of a multivariate dataset are invariant to changes in the univariate marginal distributions, rank-based estimators are natural candidates for semiparametric copula estimation. Asymptotic information bounds for such estimators can be obtained from an asymptotic analysis of the rank likelihood, i.e. the probability of the multivariate ranks. In this article, we obtain limiting normal distributions of the rank likelihood for Gaussian copula models. Our results cover models with structured correlation matrices, such as exchangeable or circular correlation models, as well as unstructured correlation matrices. For all Gaussian copula models, the limiting distribution of the rank likelihood ratio is shown to be equal to that of a parametric likelihood ratio for an appropriately chosen multivariate normal model. This implies that the semiparametric information bounds for rank-based estimators are the same as the information bounds for estimators based on the full data, and that the multivariate normal distributions are least favorable. PMID:25313292

Hoff, Peter D; Niu, Xiaoyue; Wellner, Jon A

2014-01-01

485

Dynamical Horizon Entropy Bound Conjecture in Loop Quantum Cosmology  

E-print Network

The covariant entropy bound conjecture is an important hint for the quantum gravity, with several versions available in the literature. For cosmology, Ashtekar and Wilson-Ewing ever show the consistence between the loop gravity theory and one version of this conjecture. Recently, S. He and H. Zhang proposed a version for the dynamical horizon of the universe, which validates the entropy bound conjecture for the cosmology filled with perfect fluid in the classical scenario when the universe is far away from the big bang singularity. However, their conjecture breaks down near big bang region. We examine this conjecture in the context of the loop quantum cosmology. With the example of photon gas, this conjecture is protected by the quantum geometry effects as expected.

Li-Fang Li; Jian-Yang Zhu

2010-06-28

486

Chief residents in physiatry. Expectations v training.  

PubMed

A large majority of physical medicine and rehabilitation residencies have chief resident positions, but little has been written about the expectations of the program directors and the training of the chief resident to fulfill those expectations. A 20-item questionnaire was mailed to 73 program directors in physical medicine and rehabilitation in May 1992. The participants were asked about selection methods, their perception of the duties of the chief resident(s), their concerns about the chief resident(s) position, the training and the evaluation of the chief resident(s). An 85% (62/73) response rate was achieved. There was a chief resident position(s) in 98% of the programs responding. Chief resident selection was made mostly by appointment of the chairman and/or program director and/or the vote of the faculty. The program directors perceived the most important duties of the chief resident to be: act as a liaison between faculty and the residents, act as a role model, do scheduling, build teamwork and give constructive feedback. The most important skills were considered to be leadership and stress management. Causes of concern were time pressure, abuse of power, stress and work overload. Opportunities to develop leadership and administrative/management skills were considered the most exciting aspects of the position. It was surprising, however, that only 15 of 61 (25%) provided some formal training. Only 28 of 61 (46%) had a position description. PMID:8398015

Jain, S S; DeLisa, J A; Campagnolo, D

1993-10-01

487

Expectations, Validity, and Reality in Pharmacogenetics  

PubMed Central

In this review we discuss the potential expectations, validity, predictive ability, and reality of pharmacogenetics in (i) titration of medication dose; (ii) prediction of intended (efficacy) drug response; and (iii) dose prediction of unintended (adverse) drug response. We expound on what these potential genetic predictors tell us and more importantly what they cannot tell us. Although pharmacogenetic markers have been hailed as promising tools; these proclamations are based mainly on associations rather than their evaluation as predictors. To put the expectations of the promise of pharmacogenetics in a realistic perspective we review three examples. First warfarin pharmacogenetics, wherein although the validity of the genetic variant-dose is established and there is a validity of genetic variant-hemorrhage association, the clinical utility of testing is not clear. Second, the strong and clinically relevant HLA-Stevens Johnson syndrome/Toxic epidermal necrolysis association highlights the role of ethnicity. Third, the influence of CYP2D6 on tamoxifen efficacy, a model candidate with potential clinical utility, but unclear validity. These examples highlight both the challenges and opportunities of pharmacogenomics. First, establishing a valid association between a genetic variation and drug response; second, doing so for a clinically meaningful outcome and third, providing solid evidence or rationale for improvement in patient outcomes compared to current standard of care PMID:19995676

Limdi, NA; Veenstra, DL

2009-01-01

488

New criteria expected from East Flat project  

SciTech Connect

The East Flat in-situ combustion project began in June 1979 in the isolated East Flat area of the North Ward-Estes field and is expected to provide Gulf with a new set of criteria for in-situ fireflooding. The East Flat area is a small, separate and isolated Queen sand reservoir. Conditions in East Flat are expected to give more control to the combustion process, primarily because of the size and homogeneity of the reservoir. The East Flat project was initiated in an old caustic pilot, which was started in 1973 to determine the effect of a caustic slug injected early in the life of a waterflood. The caustic pilot consisted of 4 injection wells drilled around a single producer to form a 5-arce regular 5-spot pattern. In the combustion project, the in-situ fire was started in the center producing well after its being converted to air injection. As the burn approaches the observation wells, small amounts of water will be injected into them to project the casing from the corrosive gases caused by high temperatures.

Pitts, J.P.

1980-04-01

489

The expected anisotropy in solid inflation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Solid inflation is an effective field theory of inflation in which isotropy and homogeneity are accomplished via a specific combination of anisotropic sources (three scalar fields that individually break isotropy). This results in specific observational signatures that are not found in standard models of inflation: a non-trivial angular dependence for the squeezed bispectrum, and a possibly long period of anisotropic inflation (to drive inflation, the ``solid'' must be very insensitive to any deformation, and thus background anisotropies are very slowly erased). In this paper we compute the expected level of statistical anisotropy in the power spectrum of the curvature perturbations of this model. To do so, we account for the classical background values of the three scalar fields that are generated on large (superhorizon) scales during inflation via a random walk sum, as the perturbation modes leave the horizon. Such an anisotropy is unavoidably generated, even starting from perfectly isotropic classical initial conditions. The expected level of anisotropy is related to the duration of inflation and to the amplitude of the squeezed bispectrum. If this amplitude is close to its current observational limit (so that one of the most interesting predictions of the model can be observed in the near future), we find that a level of statistical anisotropy F2 gives frozen and scale invariant vector perturbations on superhorizon scales.

Bartolo, Nicola; Peloso, Marco; Ricciardone, Angelo; Unal, Caner

2014-11-01

490

[Life expectancy as an indicator of outcome].  

PubMed

Usually survival studies evaluate the percentage of subjects alive or disease-free at a given point in time (cumulative survival percentage). These studies require a lengthy period both for follow up and for the collection of an exhaustive number of cases. In addition, for cancer types with a sharp gradient of cumulative mortality, the estimate may be unstable. On the database of children with Acute Lymphoblastic Leukaemia (ALL) collected by the Childhood Cancer Registry of Piedmont (CCRP) in 1979-1991, we have estimated an alternative time-dimensional index to estimate both patients' life expectancy of patient and number of years gained to death. These estimates have been compared in subsets of the database corresponding to different periods of diagnosis and efficacy of treatment. Life expectancy has been evaluated as the area under the survival curve, on the assumption that after a number of years since diagnosis, survivors have the same mortality rates of the general population. Clinicians are invited to take into consideration the approach described in the present note. PMID:15532875

Viscomi, Silvia; Pastore, Guido; Dama, Elisa; Merletti, Franco; Magnani, Corrado

2004-01-01

491

A delay analysis of tree-based reliable multicast protocols  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a comparative delay analysis of tree-based reliable multicast protocols and show the influence of varying sending rates, group sizes, packet loss probabilities and branching factors of the control tree. Besides the average delivery delay we consider the delay to reliably deliver all packets and the round trip delay. The first two examine the delay between generation of a

C. Maihofer; Kurt Rothermel

2001-01-01

492

ORIGINAL PAPER Echo delay versus spectral cues for temporal hyperacuity  

E-print Network

with the possible use of delay- related artifacts produced by the analog delay devices. Moreover, both electronic combinations of digital, analog, and cable delays, we dissociated the overall delay of jit- tering echoes from the size of the analog component of delay, which alone is presumed to determine the strength

Wilkinson, Gerald S.

493

SAW tapped delay lines for new potential circuit applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two applications for SAW tapped delay lines are discussed. The first uses a SAW differential tapped delay line (TDL) to detect an important property of a single BPSK-type signal, namely, its chirp rate. For this application, differential delay lines are required, since it would be too difficult to build standard delay lines having delay times of the order of 50

William J. Skudera

1988-01-01

494

Understanding network delay changes caused by routing events  

Microsoft Academic Search

Network delays and delay variations are two of the most important network performance metrics directly impacting real-time applica- tions such as voice over IP and time-critical financial transactions. This importance is illustrated by past work on understanding the delay constancy of Internet paths and recent work on predicting network delays using virtual coordinate systems. Merely under- standing currently observed delays

Himabindu Pucha; Ying Zhang; Zhuoqing Morley Mao; Y. Charlie Hu

2007-01-01

495

Understanding network delay changes caused by routing events  

Microsoft Academic Search

Network delays and delay variations are two of the most important network performance metrics directly impacting real-time applications such as voice over IP and time-critical financial transactions. This importance is illustrated by past work on understanding the delay constancy of Internet paths and recent work on predicting network delays using virtual coordinate systems. Merely understanding currently observed delays is insufficient,

Himabindu Pucha; Ying Zhang; Z. Morley Mao; Y. Charlie Hu

2007-01-01

496

Robustness and Stability Analysis of Time Delay Control  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes a modified Time Delay Controller for a class of uncertain nonlinear system. The controller uses delayed inputs and delayed derivative of some of the state variables to estimate the uncertain dynamics. To attenuate the noise amplified by the differentiation, the delay time is chosen to be much larger than the sampling period. Keeping the delay time at

K. Youcef-Toumi; S-T Wu

1992-01-01

497

Telepresence, time delay, and adaptation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Displays are now being used extensively throughout the society. More and more time is spent watching television, movies, computer screens, etc. Furthermore, in an increasing number of cases, the observer interacts with the display and plays the role of operator as well as observer. To a large extent, the normal behavior in the normal environment can also be thought of in these same terms. Taking liberties with Shakespeare, it might be said, all the world's a display and all the individuals in it are operators in and on the display. Within this general context of interactive display systems, a discussion is began with a conceptual overview of a particular class of such systems, namely, teleoperator systems. The notion is considered of telepresence and the factors that limit telepresence, including decorrelation between the: (1) motor output of the teleoperator as sensed directly via the kinesthetic/tactual system, and (2) the motor output of the teleoperator as sensed indirectly via feedback from the slave robot, i.e., via a visual display of the motor actions of the slave robot. Finally, the deleterious effect of time delay (a particular decorrelation) on sensory-motor adaptation (an important phenomenon related to telepresence) is examined.

Held, Richard; Durlach, Nathaniel

1989-01-01

498

Revisiting cosmological bounds on sterile neutrinos  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We employ state-of-the art cosmological observables including supernova surveys and BAO information to provide constraints on the mass and mixing angle of a non-resonantly produced sterile neutrino species, showing that cosmology can effectively rule out sterile neutrinos which decay between BBN and the present day. The decoupling of an additional heavy neutrino species can modify the time dependence of the Universe's expansion between BBN and recombination and, in extreme cases, lead to an additional matter-dominated period; while this could naively lead to a younger Universe with a larger Hubble parameter, it could later be compensated by the extra radiation expected in the form of neutrinos from sterile decay. However, recombination-era observables including the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB), the shift parameter RCMB and the sound horizon rs from Baryon Acoustic Oscillations (BAO) severely constrain this scenario. We self-consistently include the full time-evolution of the coupled sterile neutrino and standard model sectors in an MCMC, showing that if decay occurs after BBN, the sterile neutrino is essentially bounded by the constraint sin2? lesssim 0.026 (ms/eV)?2.

Vincent, Aaron C.; Fernndez Martnez, Enrique; Hernndez, Pilar; Mena, Olga; Lattanzi, Massimiliano

2015-04-01

499

Revisiting cosmological bounds on sterile neutrinos  

E-print Network

We employ state-of-the art cosmological observables including supernova surveys and BAO information to provide constraints on the mass and mixing angle of a non-resonantly produced sterile neutrino species, showing that cosmology can effectively rule out sterile neutrinos which decay between BBN and the present day. The decoupling of an additional heavy neutrino species can modify the time dependence of the Universe's expansion between BBN and recombination and, in extreme cases, lead to an additional matter-dominated period; while this could naively lead to a younger Universe with a larger Hubble parameter, it could later be compensated by the extra radiation expected in the form of neutrinos from sterile decay. However, recombination-era observables including the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB), the shift parameter $R_{CMB}$ and the sound horizon $r_s$ from Baryon Acoustic Oscillations (BAO) severely constrain this scenario. We self-consistently include the full time-evolution of the coupled sterile neutrino and standard model sectors in an MCMC, showing that if decay occurs after BBN, the sterile neutrino is essentially bounded by the constraint $\\sin^2\\theta \\lesssim 0.026 (m_s/\\mathrm{eV})^{-2}$.

Aaron C. Vincent; Enrique Fernandez Martinez; Pilar Hernandez; Massimiliano Lattanzi; Olga Mena

2015-02-19

500

Virial Expansion Bounds Through Tree Partition Schemes  

E-print Network

In this paper, we use tree partition schemes and an algebraic expression for the virial coefficients in terms of the cluster coefficients in order to derve upper bounds on the virial coefficients and consequently lower bounds on the radius of convergence of the virial expansion $\\mathcal{R}_{\\textrm{Vir}}$. The bound on the radius of convergence in the case of the Penrose partition scheme is the same as that proposed by Groeneveld and improves the bound achieved by Lebowitz and Penrose.

Sanjay Ramawadh; Stephen James Tate

2015-04-09