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1

Abandoned Texas Oil Fields.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Data for Texas abandoned oil fields were primarily derived from two sources: (1) Texas Railroad Commission (TRRC), and (2) Dwight's ENERGYDATA. For purposes of this report, abandoned oil fields are defined as those fields that had no production during 197...

1980-01-01

2

Abandoned Texas oil fields  

SciTech Connect

Data for Texas abandoned oil fields were primarily derived from two sources: (1) Texas Railroad Commission (TRRC), and (2) Dwight's ENERGYDATA. For purposes of this report, abandoned oil fields are defined as those fields that had no production during 1977. The TRRC OILMASTER computer tapes were used to identify these abandoned oil fields. The tapes also provided data on formation depth, gravity of oil production, location (both district and county), discovery date, and the cumulative production of the field since its discovery. In all, the computer tapes identified 9211 abandoned fields, most of which had less than 250,000 barrel cumulative production. This report focuses on the 676 abandoned onshore Texas oil fields that had cumulative production of over 250,000 barrels. The Dwight's ENERGYDATA computer tapes provided production histories for approximately two-thirds of the larger fields abandoned in 1966 and thereafter. Fields which ceased production prior to 1966 will show no production history nor abandonment date in this report. The Department of Energy hopes the general availability of these data will catalyze the private sector recovery of this unproduced resource.

Not Available

1980-12-01

3

Abandoned oil fields of Texas Gulf Coast  

Microsoft Academic Search

One nonconventional oil target in Texas is the oil that remains in abandoned fields, defined as those fields that had no oil or gas production in 1977 and 1982. This target includes oil that has not been tapped by conventional field development because of reservoir heterogeneity and oil in reservoirs that have not been subjected to any secondary or tertiary

1984-01-01

4

Piper Oil Field  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Piper Field is located in UK block 15\\/17 near the eastern part of the Moray Firth Basin, 125 miles northeast of Aberdeen, Scotland. The field was discovered in Dec. 1972. Five appraisal wells and one exploratory well were drilled in 1973. A steel platform with 36 well slots and space for 2 drilling rigs was centrally located over the

1979-01-01

5

Physicochemical methods for enhancing oil recovery from oil fields  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Physicochemical methods for enhancing oil recovery from oil fields that are developed using water flooding and thermal steam treatment are considered. The results of pilot testing of processes based on these methods carried out at West Siberian and Chinese oil fields are analysed. The attention is focused on the processes that make use of surfactant blends and alkaline buffer solutions and thermotropic gel-forming systems.

Altunina, L. K.; Kuvshinov, V. A.

2007-10-01

6

Investigating oiled birds from oil field waste pits  

SciTech Connect

Procedures and results of investigations concerning the oiling of inland raptors, migratory water-fowl and other birds are presented. Freon washings from the oiled birds and oil from the pits were analyzed by gas chromatography. In most instances the source of the oil could be established by chromatographic procedures. The numbers of birds involved (including many on the endangered species list) suggested the need for netting or closing oil field waste pits and mud disposal pits. Maintaining a proper chain of custody was important.

Gregory, D.G.; Edwards, W.C. (Oklahoma Animal Disease Diagnostic Laboratory, College of Veterinary Medicine, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater (Unites States))

1991-10-01

7

Investigating oiled birds from oil field waste pits.  

PubMed

Procedures and results of investigations concerning the oiling of inland raptors, migratory water-fowl and other birds are presented. Freon washings from the oiled birds and oil from the pits were analyzed by gas chromatography. In most instances the source of the oil could be established by chromatographic procedures. The numbers of birds involved (including many on the endangered species list) suggested the need for netting or closing oil field waste pits and mud disposal pits. Maintaining a proper chain of custody was important. PMID:1746147

Gregory, D G; Edwards, W C

1991-10-01

8

Oil field geothermal waters of Wyoming  

SciTech Connect

Over 150 million gallons of water a day are brought to the surface in the oil fields of Wyoming. The temperature of this water is nearly always greater than 90/sup 0/F, and ranges as high as 230/sup 0/F. The location, volume, temperature, and present use status of co-produced oil field thermal waters are presented briefly.

Hinckley, B.S.

1983-08-01

9

Smaller Abandoned Texas Oil Fields, Volume 2.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The DOE document, DOE/RA133210-01, Abandoned Texas Oil Fields was released in December 1980. This publication listed 676 abandoned fields that produced 250,000 or more barrels of oil before abandonment. Favorable public response has prompted this new publ...

1981-01-01

10

Smaller Abandoned Texas Oil Fields, Volume 1.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The DOE document, DOE/RA133210-01, Abandoned Texas Oil Fields which was released in December 1980 listed 676 abandoned fields that produced 250,000 or more barrels of oil before abandonment. Favorable public response has prompted this new publication list...

1981-01-01

11

Organic geochemistry of oils from Oil Spring and Florence oil field near Canon City, Colorado  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Oil Spring is an oil seep located approximately 6 miles north of Ca?on City, Colorado. The purpose of this study is to determine whether the oil from Oil Spring and the oil from nearby Florence oil field share a common source. Bulk and molecular geochemical analyses show that the oil seep is most likely derived from a group of geochemically similar Cretaceous source rocks including the Carlile Shale, Greenhorn Limestone, Graneros Shale, and the Mowry Shale. The Florence oil is derived from the Sharon Springs Member of the Upper Cretaceous Pierre Shale.

Lillis, P. G.; Dolan, M. P.; Warden, Augusta; King, J. D.

1998-01-01

12

Innovative technologies for managing oil field waste  

Microsoft Academic Search

Each year, the oil industry generates millions of barrels of wastes that need to be properly managed. For many years, most oil field wastes were disposed of at a significant cost. However, over the past decade, the industry has developed many processes and technologies to minimize the generation of wastes and to more safely and economically dispose of the waste

John A. Veil

2003-01-01

13

Azerbaijan field to step up oil flow  

SciTech Connect

This paper reports that a unit of Pennzoil Co., Houston, is scheduled to operate a development program that could more than double oil production from Guneshli field off Azerbaijan in the southern Caspian Sea. Under agreements signed in Baku, Pennzoil Caspian Corp., Ramco Energy Ltd. of Aberdeen, Scotland, and state oil company Azerneft will have exclusive right to jointly develop the field. Partners' shares and other project details are to be laid out in the final development plan, expected by yearend.

Not Available

1992-10-19

14

Tests identify oil-field polymers  

SciTech Connect

To help choose or monitor polymers for drilling and completing oil and gas wells, convenient test methods are available for the qualitative and, in some cases, quantitative assay of the major oil field polymers. A wide range of water-soluble polymers are being used in the oil field. Each polymer has its own particular application, attribute, and limitation. This paper discusses how the widespread use of tradenames and blends has led to the need for procedures that can both determine the qualitative composition in the product or blend and monitor the polymer level in the fluid.

Best, G.H.; Baird, J. (Kelco Div. of Merck and Co. Inc., San Diego, CA (US))

1989-10-01

15

Methanogenic Oil Degradation in the Dagang Oil Field  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Anaerobic biodegradation is one of the main in situ oil transformation processes in subsurface oil reservoirs. Recent studies have provided evidence of biodegradation of residual oil constituents under methanogenic conditions. Methane, like other biogenic gases, may contribute to reduce the viscosity of oil and enhance its flow characteristics (making it more available) but it can also be used as a energy source. So the aim of the present study was to provide reliable information on in situ biotransformation of oil under methanogenic conditions, and to assess the feasibility of implementing a MEOR strategy at this site. For this reason, chemical and isotopic analyses of injection and production fluids of the Dagang oil field (Hebei province, China) were performed. Microbial abundances were assessed by qPCR, and clone libraries were performed to study the diversity. In addition, microcosms with either oil or 13C-labelled hydrocarbons were inoculated with injection or production waters to characterize microbial processes in vitro. Geochemical and isotopic data were consistent with in situ biogenic methane production linked to aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbon degradation: GC-MS profiles of petroleum samples were nearly devoid of n-alkanes, linear alkylbenzenes, and alkyltoluenes, and light PAH, confirming that Dagang oil is mostly highly weathered. In addition, carbon and hydrogen isotopic signatures of methane (?13CCH4 and ?DCH4, respectively), and the bulk isotopic discrimination (??13C) between methane and CO2 (between 32 and 65 ) were in accordance with previously reported values for methane formation during hydrocarbon degradation. Furthermore, methane-producing Archaea and hydrocarbon-degrading Bacteria were abundant in produced oil-water samples. On the other hand, our laboratory degradation experiments revealed that autochthonous microbiota are capable of significantly degrade oil within several months, with biodegradation patterns resembling those observed in situ, and of producing heavy methane from 13C-labelled n-hexadecane or 2-methylnaphthalene (?13C > 550 and 300, respectively). These results suggest that in situ methanogenesis may occur from the aliphatic and polyaromatic fractions of Dagang reservoir fluids. In summary, the studied areas of the Dagang oilfield may have a significant potential for the in situ conversion of oil into methane as a possible way to increase total hydrocarbon recovery.

Jiménez, Núria; Cai, Minmin; Straaten, Nontje; Yao, Jun; Richnow, Hans Hermann; Krüger, Martin

2014-05-01

16

Amposta oil field (Spanish Mediterranean offshore)  

SciTech Connect

The Amposta oil field lies some 20 km off the Mediterranean coast of Spain directly south of the Ebro delta in 70 m of water. The field is operated by Shell in association with Repsol Exploracion (the Spanish national oil company) and Coparex. The field was discovered in 1970 and came on stream in 1972, reaching a maximum production of 40,000 bbl/day. The current cumulative production of 55.7 million bbl is just 300,000 bbl short of the field's expected ultimate primary recovery. Original production was established via a single-buoy mooring system (SBM) with a permanently moored tanker acting as a floating storage vessel. Oil is produced from a fractured, karstified Lower Cretaceous limestone reservoir in a tilted fault-block structure (areal closure is 900 ha), sealed by overlying Miocene clastics. The top of the reservoir is at 1,746 m; the original oil column was 194 m. Designing the optimal production/drainage scheme for a complex reservoir such as the Amposta field with its intricate pore geometry (channels, caves, and fractures) formed an interesting challenge. The field has produced from 7 wells so far. Until recently pressure could be maintained and dry oil produced. Enhanced recovery tests (gas injection) are presently being undertaken. The heavy, undersaturated, high-sulfur crude (17{degree} API, gas-oil ratio of 380 scf/bbl, and 5.5% sulfur) is an early expulsion product generated from a marly/chalky type II source rock sequence of latest Jurassic-earliest Cretaceous age, underlying the field.

Seeman, U. (Shell Espana, Madrid (Spain))

1988-08-01

17

A field laboratory for improved oil recovery  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of Annex III of the Memorandum of Understanding, undertaken by the Houston Petroleum Research Center at the University of Houston, was to develop a field laboratory for research in improved oil recovery using a Gulf Coast reservoir in Texas. The participants: (1) make a field site selection and conducted a high resolution seismic survey in the demonstration field, (2) obtained characteristics of the reservoir (3) developed an evaluation of local flood efficiency in different parts of the demonstration reservoir, (4) used diverse methodology to evaluate the potential recovery of the remaining oil in the test reservoir, (5) developed cross-well seismic tomography, and (6) will transfer the learned technologies to oil operators through publication and workshops. This abstract is an overview of these tasks.

Hildebrandt, A.F.; McDonald, J.; Claridge, E.; Killough, J.

1992-09-01

18

Venezuela slates second oil field revival round  

SciTech Connect

This paper reports that Venezuela will accept bids under a second round next year from private foreign and domestic companies for production contracts to operate marginal active as well as inactive oil fields. The first such round came earlier this year, involving about 55 other marginal, inactive fields. It resulted in two contractors signed with domestic and foreign companies. It represented the first time since nationalization of the petroleum industry in Venezuela in 1976 that private companies were allowed to produce oil in the country. A public bid tender was expected at presstime last week.

Not Available

1992-12-07

19

Innovative technologies for managing oil field waste.  

SciTech Connect

Each year, the oil industry generates millions of barrels of wastes that need to be properly managed. For many years, most oil field wastes were disposed of at a significant cost. However, over the past decade, the industry has developed many processes and technologies to minimize the generation of wastes and to more safely and economically dispose of the waste that is generated. Many companies follow a three-tiered waste management approach. First, companies try to minimize waste generation when possible. Next, they try to find ways to reuse or recycle the wastes that are generated. Finally, the wastes that cannot be reused or recycled must be disposed of. Argonne National Laboratory (Argonne) has evaluated the feasibility of various oil field waste management technologies for the U.S. Department of Energy. This paper describes four of the technologies Argonne has reviewed. In the area of waste minimization, the industry has developed synthetic-based drilling muds (SBMs) that have the desired drilling properties of oil-based muds without the accompanying adverse environmental impacts. Use of SBMs avoids significant air pollution from work boats hauling offshore cuttings to shore for disposal and provides more efficient drilling than can be achieved with water-based muds. Downhole oil/water separators have been developed to separate produced water from oil at the bottom of wells. The produced water is directly injected to an underground formation without ever being lifted to the surface, thereby avoiding potential for groundwater or soil contamination. In the area of reuse/recycle, Argonne has worked with Southeastern Louisiana University and industry to develop a process to use treated drill cuttings to restore wetlands in coastal Louisiana. Finally, in an example of treatment and disposal, Argonne has conducted a series of four baseline studies to characterize the use of salt caverns for safe and economic disposal of oil field wastes.

Veil, J. A.; Environmental Assessment

2003-09-01

20

Oil field water handling: qualitative separation equals theory plus judgment  

SciTech Connect

One of the most prevalent problems in oil field operations is the coproduction of oil and formation water, and the resulting problem of qualitative separation of water and oil. This article discusses the separation and handling of oil field brines. Oil dispersions can be cleaned up by a variety of devices which use gravity as the principal separating mechanism. Acceptable practices for disposing of oil-field brine produced with the crude oil include: injection into permeable underground formations containing saline water; reuse for supplementary recovery operations; and deoiling treatment acceptable for ocean disposal.

Bradley, B.W.

1985-10-14

21

Oil and Gas Field Code Master List 1999 Updates  

EIA Publications

The Oil and Gas Field Code Master List Updates 1999 is an addendum to the 1998 edition of the EIA publication Oil and Gas Field Code Master List, an annual listing of all identified oil and gas fields in the United States. These updates represent the addition of new fields to the list and changes to the records of previously listed fields, including deletions. The current publication is based on field information collected through November 1999.

Robert F. King

2000-01-01

22

Oil and Gas Field Code Master List 1998 Updates  

EIA Publications

The Oil and Gas Field Code Master List Updates 1998 is an addendum to the 1997 edition of the EIA publication Oil and Gas Field Code Master List, an annual listing of all identified oil and gas fields in the United States. These updates represent the addition of new fields to the list and changes to the records of previously listed fields, including deletions. The current publication is based on field information collected through October 1998.

Robert F. King

1999-01-01

23

Geology of the Tambaredjo oil field, Suriname  

SciTech Connect

After the initial discovery in the sixties of oil below the coastal plain of Suriname (S. America), the State Oil Company of Suriname started production of the unique Tambaredjo field in 1982. The heavy, biodegraded oil (14-16[degrees] API) is produced under compaction drive, from the Paleocene T-sand (average thickness 5 m) at a depth of about 300 m. More than 300 wells have been drilled in an area of about 200 km[sup 2]. High resolution seismics makes it possible to correlate units down to 2 m thick. This dense network of bore holes is very suitable for geological correlations and 3D modeling. The T-sand reservoir consists of angular, medium to coarse grained unconsolidated sands with interfingering clays and lignites. The sands are deposited on a well cemented erosional Cretaceous basement. The reservoir is sealed by locally continuous clays. The oil is trapped in structural highs created by syn-sedimentary rejuvenated basement faults. The depositional environment of the T-sand ranges from fluviatile to deltaic. Frequent avulsion and synsedimentary faulting created a highly compartmented reservoir. Although interconnectedness of the sand bodies is high, clay smears and silting out of the edges confine reservoir compartments. The best genetic sand units such as channel fills or mouth bar deposits hardly correlate over more than a few hundred meters. The Tambaredjo oil field offers an unique opportunity to study the detailed sedimentology and petroleum geology of a fluvio-deltaic transitional realm on the passive margin along the Guiana coast.

Dronkert, H. (Delft Univ. of Technology (Netherlands)); Wong, T.E. (Geological Survey of the Netherlands, Haarlem (Netherlands))

1993-02-01

24

Oil and Gas Field Code Master List 1995  

EIA Publications

The Oil and Gas Field Code Master List 1995 is the fourteenth annual listing of all identified oil and gasfields in the United States. It is updated with field information collected through October 1995. The purpose of this publication is to provide unique, standardized codes for identification of domestic fields. Use of these field codes fosters consistency of field identification by government and industry.

Robert F. King

1995-12-01

25

Oil and Gas Field Code Master List 1996  

EIA Publications

The Oil and Gas Field Code Master List 1996 is the fifteenth annual listing of all identified oil and gasfields in the United States. It is updated with field information collected through October 1996. The purpose of this publication is to provide unique, standardized codes for identification of domestic fields. Use of these field codes fosters consistency of field identification by government and industry.

Robert F. King

1996-12-01

26

Oil and gas field code master list, 1993  

SciTech Connect

This document contains data collected through October 1993 and provides standardized field name spellings and codes for all identified oil and/or gas fields in the United States. Other Federal and State government agencies, as well as industry, use the EIA Oil and Gas Field Code Master List as the standard for field identification. A machine-readable version of the Oil and Gas Field Code Master List is available from the National Technical Information Service.

Not Available

1993-12-16

27

Kuwait City and Fire Scars in the Oil Fields  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This view of the northern Persian Gulf shows Kuwait City and the Tigris and Euphrates River Deltas (29.5N, 48.5E). The oil laden sands and oil lakes of the Kuwait Oil Fields to the north and south of the city are clearly visible as dark patches surrounded by oil free desert sands. Comparison with earlier photos indicate that the oil laden sands are slowly being covered with clean sand carried by strong NW winds called Shmals.

1992-01-01

28

Effect of oil temperature on paraffin waxing of oil field equipment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Analysis of paraffin-waxing of oil field equipment at West Siberian oil fields has shown that the number of wells troubled by wax deposits has been going up every year. Wax deposition causes fall in oil recovery and entails additional cost for deposit removing. Many researchers have studied the distinctive features of the process of wax deposit formation from model solutions

V. D. Makarenko; O. V. Antselovich; M. S. Bakharev; K. A. Murav’ev; A. I. Kalyanov

2005-01-01

29

Salt caverns for oil field waste disposal.  

SciTech Connect

Salt caverns used for oil field waste disposal are created in salt formations by solution mining. When created, caverns are filled with brine. Wastes are introduced into the cavern by pumping them under low pressure. Each barrel of waste injected to the cavern displaces a barrel of brine to the surface. The brine is either used for drilling mud or is disposed of in an injection well. Figure 8 shows an injection pump used at disposal cavern facilities in west Texas. Several types of oil field waste may be pumped into caverns for disposal. These include drilling muds, drill cuttings, produced sands, tank bottoms, contaminated soil, and completion and stimulation wastes. Waste blending facilities are constructed at the site of cavern disposal to mix the waste into a brine solution prior to injection. Overall advantages of salt cavern disposal include a medium price range for disposal cost, large capacity and availability of salt caverns, limited surface land requirement, increased safety, and ease of establishment of individual state regulations.

Veil, J.; Ford, J.; Rawn-Schatzinger, V.; Environmental Assessment; RMC, Consultants, Inc.

2000-07-01

30

Oil and Gas Field Code Master List 2002  

EIA Publications

The Oil and Gas Field Code Master List 2001 is the twenty first annual listing of all identified oil and gas fields in the United States. It is updated with field information collected through November 2002. The purpose of this publication is to provide unique, standardized codes for identification of domestic fields. Use of these field codes fosters consistency of field identification by government and industry.

Robert F. King

2003-01-01

31

Oil and Gas Field Code Master List 2000  

EIA Publications

The Oil and Gas Field Code Master List 2000 is the nineteenth annual listing of all identified oil and gas fields in the United States. It is updated with field information collected through November 2000. The purpose of this publication is to provide unique, standardized codes for identification of domestic fields. Use of these field codes fosters consistency of field identification by government and industry.

Robert F. King

2001-01-01

32

Oil and Gas Field Code Master List 2001  

EIA Publications

The Oil and Gas Field Code Master List 2001 is the twentieth annual listing of all identified oil and gas fields in the United States. It is updated with field information collected through November 2001. The purpose of this publication is to provide unique, standardized codes for identification of domestic fields. Use of these field codes fosters consistency of field identification by government and industry.

Robert F. King

2002-01-01

33

Oil and Gas Field Code Master List 1997  

EIA Publications

The Oil and Gas Field Code Master List 1997 is the seventeenth annual listing of all identified oil and gas fields in the United States. It is updated with field information collected through October 1997. The purpose of this publication is to provide unique, standardized codes for identification of domestic fields. Use of these field codes fosters consistency of field identification by government and industry.

Robert F. King

1998-02-01

34

Oil and Gas Field Code Master List 1998  

EIA Publications

The Oil and Gas Field Code Master List 1998 is the eighteenth annual listing of all identified oil and gas fields in the United States. It is updated with field information collected through October 1998. The purpose of this publication is to provide unique, standardized codes for identification of domestic fields. Use of these field codes fosters consistency of field identification by government and industry.

Robert F. King

1999-01-01

35

Oil and Gas Field Code Master List 2003  

EIA Publications

The Oil and Gas Field Code Master List 2001 is the twenty second annual listing of all identified oil and gas fields in the United States. It is updated with field information collected through November 2002. The purpose of this publication is to provide unique, standardized codes for identification of domestic fields. Use of these field codes fosters consistency of field identification by government and industry.

Robert F. King

2004-03-01

36

Trace elements in crude oil from some new South Caspian oil fields  

Microsoft Academic Search

The trace-elemental composition of crude oil from the new Azeri and Chirag South Caspian oil fields, as well as a stock-tank\\u000a blend of low-wax oils from the May 28 field and Shakh-deniz condensate, was studied. The test oils from the Middle Pliocene\\u000a producing horizon refer to the Apsheron-Prebalkhanian zone, and the Shakh-deniz condensate is associated to the southeastern\\u000a offshore continuation

F. I. Samedova; B. A. Guseinova; A. D. Kuliev; F. Z. Alieva

2009-01-01

37

Oil and Gas Field Code Master List 1996 Updates  

EIA Publications

The Oil and Gas Field Code Master List Updates 1996 represents a departure from past Energy Information Administration (EIA) practice. This publication does not provide a list of all identified oil and gas fields in the United States as did the fourteen prior annual volumes of the Oil and Gas Field Code Master List. It provides updates to the Field Code Master File that were made subsequent to the publication of Oil and Gas Field Code Master List 1995, based on information collected through October 1996. These updates represent the addition of new fields to the list and changes to the records of previously listed fields, including deletions. This publication is therefore a supplement to theOil and Gas Field Code Master List 1995, which its recipients were requested to retain.

Robert F. King

1996-12-01

38

The Long March of the Chinese Giant Oil Fields  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over 70% of China's domestic oil production is obtained from nine giant oilfields. Understanding the behaviour of these fields is essential to both domestic oil production and future Chinese oil imports. This study utilizes decline curves and depletion rate analysis to create some future production outlooks for the Chinese giants. Based on our study, we can only conclude that China's

Mikael Höök; Tang Xu; Pang Xiongqi; Kjell Aleklett

39

Halophilic archaebacteria from the Kalamkass oil field  

SciTech Connect

Two strains of halophilic archaebacteria, growing in a medium containing from 10 to 25% NaCl, were isolated from the brines of the Kalamkass (Mangyshlak) oil field. Both strains are extremely halophilic archaebacteria according to the complex of their phenotypic properties. Strain M-11 was identified as Haloferax mediterranei on the basis of the composition of polar lipids and DNA-DNA homology. The composition of polar lipids and 16S rRNA sequence of strain M-18 allowed us to assign it to the genus Haloferax. This strain differs from the approved species of the genus Haloferax, H. volcanii, and H. mediterranei. However, to describe it as a new species, additional investigations are necessary. 13 refs., 3 figs.

Zvyagintseva, I.S.; Belyaev, S.S.; Borzenkov, I.A.; Kostrikina, N.A.; Milekhina, E.I.; Ivanov, M.V. [Institute of Microbiology, Moscow (Russian Federation)

1995-01-01

40

Technology for Steam Injection of Heavy Oil in Shengli Oil Field  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many types of heavy oil pools have been found in Shengli oil field. The production capacity with 230 × 10 4 t per year has been established since the first steam huff and puff pilot began in 1984. Heavy oil pools which have been put into production by steam flooding method mainly include thick sandstones with active edge and bottom

Huo Guangrong; Li Xianmin; Zhang Guangqing; Shengli Petroleum

41

Maturity assessment of oils from the Sakhalin oil fields in Russia: phenanthrene content as a tool  

Microsoft Academic Search

A correlation analysis of maturation parameters was carried out on 14 crude oil samples from nine oil fields on Sakhalin Island (Russia). The oils were taken from reservoir rocks of Miocene age at depths ranging from 73 to 2841 m. On the basis of GC analysis of the alkane fraction (n-alkanes and the isoprenoid alkanes pristane and phytane) as well

K Stojanovi?; G. S Pevneva; J. A Golovko; A. K Golovko; P Pfendt

2001-01-01

42

Oil and Gas Field Code Master List 1990  

SciTech Connect

This is the ninth annual edition of the Energy Information Administration's (EIA) Oil and Gas Field Code Master List. It reflects data collected through October 1990 and provides standardized field name spellings and codes for all identified oil and/or gas fields in the United States. There are 54,963 field records in this year's Oil and Gas Field Code Master List (FCML). This amounts to 467 more than in last year's report. As it is maintained by EIA, the Master List includes: Field records for each state and county in which a field resides; field records for each offshore area block in the Gulf of Mexico in which a field resides;field records for each alias field name; fields crossing state boundaries that may be assigned different names by the respective state naming authorities.

Not Available

1991-01-04

43

Method of determining interwell oil field fluid saturation distribution  

DOEpatents

A method of determining the oil and brine saturation distribution in an oil field by taking electrical current and potential measurements among a plurality of open-hole wells geometrically distributed throughout the oil field. Poisson's equation is utilized to develop fluid saturation distributions from the electrical current and potential measurement. Both signal generating equipment and chemical means are used to develop current flow among the several open-hole wells.

Donaldson, Erle C. (Bartlesville, OK) [Bartlesville, OK; Sutterfield, F. Dexter (Bartlesville, OK) [Bartlesville, OK

1981-01-01

44

Compact catalytic reactor controls vent odors from oil field  

Microsoft Academic Search

Compact fixed-bed reactors can control HâS emissions from hydrocarbon vent gases. Once installed there is no operating requirement other than routine analysis. This type of reactor is now in service on oil platforms in the North Sea and in the U.S. The design was first tested in the Welton oil field, located in Lincolnshire, U.K. In this field, oil produced

K. Eddington; P. Carnell

1991-01-01

45

Analyses of 800 Crude Oils from United States Oil Fields.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The quality and related characteristics of crude oils produced and marketed throughout the United States is of both theoretical and practical interest to producers, refiners, marketers, and consumers as well as to state and federal agencies. The Bartlesvi...

C. J. Thompson D. T. Nichols E. M. Shelton H. J. Coleman

1978-01-01

46

Upper Valley oil field, Garfield County, Utah. [Guidebook  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Upper Valley field, which was discovered by the Tenneco Oil Co. in 1964, is the only commercial oil field in the Kaiparowitz Basin of S.-central Utah. Porosity development is in the Kaibab Limestone (Permian) and in carbonates of the Timpoweap Member of the Moenkopi Formation (Triassic). The reservoir rock is tan to buff, fine-grained, sucrosic dolomite. The productive intervals

1969-01-01

47

Cumulative impacts of oil fields on northern Alaska landscapes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Proposed further developments on Alaska's Arctic Coastal Plain raise questions about cumulative effects on arctic tundra ecosystems of development of multiple large oil fields. Maps of historical changes to the Prudhoe Bay Oil field show indirect impacts can lag behind planned developments by many years and the total area eventually disturbed can greatly exceed the planned area of construction. For

D. A. Walker; P. J. Webber; E. F. Binnian; K. R. Everett; N. D. Lederer; E. A. Nordstrand; M. D. Walker

1987-01-01

48

Teapot dome: past, present, and future. [Oil field productivity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Teapot Dome field is the 99th largest oil field in the U.S. with a proved reserve of 42,515,000 bbl, yet the field is sparsely drilled and underdeveloped. Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 3 is credited with 38 million bbl of future reserves. Oil production in the Teapot Dome field is from 3 formations--the shallow Shannon at depths of 400 to

W. H. Jr

1977-01-01

49

Microbial processes in oil fields: culprits, problems, and opportunities.  

PubMed

Our understanding of the phylogenetic diversity, metabolic capabilities, ecological roles, and community dynamics of oil reservoir microbial communities is far from complete. The lack of appreciation of the microbiology of oil reservoirs can lead to detrimental consequences such as souring or plugging. In contrast, knowledge of the microbiology of oil reservoirs can be used to enhance productivity and recovery efficiency. It is clear that (1) nitrate and/or nitrite addition controls H2S production, (2) oxygen injection stimulates hydrocarbon metabolism and helps mobilize crude oil, (3) injection of fermentative bacteria and carbohydrates generates large amounts of acids, gases, and solvents that increases oil recovery particularly in carbonate formations, and (4) nutrient injection stimulates microbial growth preferentially in high permeability zones and improves volumetric sweep efficiency and oil recovery. Biosurfactants significantly lower the interfacial tension between oil and water and large amounts of biosurfactant can be made in situ. However, it is still uncertain whether in situ biosurfactant production can be induced on the scale needed for economic oil recovery. Commercial microbial paraffin control technologies slow the rate of decline in oil production and extend the operational life of marginal oil fields. Microbial technologies are often applied in marginal fields where the risk of implementation is low. However, more quantitative assessments of the efficacy of microbial oil recovery will be needed before microbial oil recovery gains widespread acceptance. PMID:19203651

Youssef, Noha; Elshahed, Mostafa S; McInerney, Michael J

2009-01-01

50

Plans to revive oil fields in Venezuela on track  

SciTech Connect

This paper reports on the three operating units of Venezuela's state owned oil company Petroleos de Venezuela SA which will begin receiving bids Feb. 28 from companies interested in operating 55 inactive oil fields in nine producing areas of Venezuela. Francisco Pradas, Pdvsa executive in charge of the program, the the company expects 88 companies or combines of foreign and domestic private companies to participate in the bidding. The program, announced last year, aims to reactivate production in marginal oil fields. It will involve the first direct participation by private companies in Venezuela's oil production since nationalization in 1976.

Not Available

1992-02-24

51

Kill fluid for oil field operations  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a process employing a kill fluid to substantially reduce the volumetric flow of formation fluid into a wellbore penetrating a formation containing the formation fluid below an earthen surface. It comprises: admixing components of a continuous flowing gel at the surface comprising of water-soluble carboxylate-containing polymer, a complex capable of crosslinking the polymer and formed of at least one electropositive chromium III species and at least one electronegative carboxylatespecies, and an aqueous solvent for the polymer and the complex; crosslinking the polymer and the complex to form the gel, wherein the kill fluid comprises the gel; placing a volume of the kill fluid in the wellbore sufficient to create a hydrostatic head which exerts a kill fluid pressure against the formation fluid substantially equal to or greater than the formation fluid pressure and thereby substantially reduces the volumetric flow of the formation fluid into the wellbore; performing an oil field operation after placing the volume of the kill fluid in the wellbore; and removing the gel from the wellbore to substantially restore the volumetric flow of the formation fluid into the wellbore.

Sydansk, R.D.

1990-08-14

52

Coreflood assay using extremophile microorganisms for recovery of heavy oil in Mexican oil fields.  

PubMed

A considerable portion of oil reserves in Mexico corresponds to heavy oils. This feature makes it more difficult to recover the remaining oil in the reservoir after extraction with conventional techniques. Microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR) has been considered as a promising technique to further increase oil recovery, but its application has been developed mainly with light oils; therefore, more research is required for heavy oil. In this study, the recovery of Mexican heavy oil (11.1°API and viscosity 32,906 mPa s) in a coreflood experiment was evaluated using the extremophile mixed culture A7, which was isolated from a Mexican oil field. Culture A7 includes fermentative, thermophilic, and anaerobic microorganisms. The experiments included waterflooding and MEOR stages, and were carried out under reservoir conditions (70°C and 9.65 MPa). MEOR consisted of injections of nutrients and microorganisms followed by confinement periods. In the MEOR stages, the mixed culture A7 produced surface-active agents (surface tension reduction 27 mN m?¹), solvents (ethanol, 1738 mg L?¹), acids (693 mg L?¹), and gases, and also degraded heavy hydrocarbon fractions in an extreme environment. The interactions of these metabolites with the oil, as well as the bioconversion of heavy oil fractions to lighter fractions (increased alkanes in the C?-C?? range), were the mechanisms responsible for the mobility and recovery of heavy oil from the porous media. Oil recovery by MEOR was 19.48% of the residual oil in the core after waterflooding. These results show that MEOR is a potential alternative to heavy oil recovery in Mexican oil fields. PMID:22704814

Castorena-Cortés, Gladys; Roldán-Carrillo, Teresa; Reyes-Avila, Jesús; Zapata-Peñasco, Icoquih; Mayol-Castillo, Martha; Olguín-Lora, Patricia

2012-10-01

53

Tengiz oil field, Kazakstan: A carbonate platform and supergiant field  

SciTech Connect

The Tengiz oil field was discovered in 1979 on the northeastern shore of the Caspian Sea in western Kazakstan. The Carboniferous and Devonian age carbonate reservoir is more than 2000 in, thick, 270 km[sup 2] in area extent and buried to a depth of 4000 m (13,120 ft.). The oil column exceeds 1450 m in length and is highly overpressured. The Tengiz reservoir resembles a modem day constructional-type carbonate platform in size, shape and lithofacies. The top of the platform is relatively flat, except for structural highs along the northern, eastern and southern platform margins that developed during post-depositional down-faulting of the platform interior. The platform edge is a depositional escarpment along which subsequent faulting has occurred. Debris-slope conglomerates, shed off the platform during growth, surround the platform escarpment. Bashkirian age ootitic, crinoidal, algal grainstones comprise the upper 100 m of the platform and overlie 350 m of Serpukhovian and Okskian age brachiopodal, crinoidal, algal packstones. Lithofacies are a really widespread and show little variation in composition and stratigraphic thickness across the entire platform. Depositional cycle thicknesses are less than 5 meters for the Bashkirian grainstones and up to 30 meters for the Serpukhovian/Oksky packstones. Lagoonal and reefal lithofacies have not been identified in core to date. Porosity is highly variable and includes interparticle, moldic, channel, vuggy and fracture pore types. Solid bitumen is present in much of the pore space. Secondary porosity formed both before and after bitumen precipitation. Production logs and core data reveal that zones with secondary porosity provide fluid entry into the wellbore.

Wood, W.R. (Chevron Overseas Petroleum, Inc., San Ramon, CA (United States)); Garber, R.A. (Chevron USA, Midland, TX (United States))

1996-01-01

54

Using InSAR to Analyze the Effects of Oil Extraction on the Kuparuk Oil Field  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ground deformation around oil fields is a major concern in regards to the impacts of this human-induced change on the environment. Interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) was used to map the ground deformation in the area of the Kuparuk Oil Field in Northern Alaska from 2007 to 2010. Data packages from the Advanced Land Observation Satellite (ALOS) and corresponding data for the digital elevation model (DEM) were used to create interferograms and the DEM. This was done using MATLAB and Python on a Linux operating system. Selected interferograms were cropped and errors from noise, topography, or atmosphere were minimized through fitting and stacking techniques. After analysis, the InSAR data yielded a chronology of a change in ground deformation around the Kuparuk Oil Field, which is correlated to a history of recovery techniques. Analysis of interferograms from before, in transition, and after application of different techniques can determine patterns of ground deformation in the field. It was found that positive ground deformation was more prevalent before the implementation of new oil recovery techniques as opposed to after implementation, with negative ground deformation occurring during the transition of the applications that allowed for more productive oil extraction. These results quantitatively demonstrate the magnitude of land subsidence that actively recovered oil fields induce. They also suggest that new methods of enhanced oil recovery are stabilizing the subterranean layers being drilled, creating a decrease in positive land deformation. This could support the continuation of research in fields of enhanced oil recovery and carbon sequestration.

Baluyut, E.; Liu, L.; Zebker, H. A.

2012-12-01

55

Oil and Gas field code master list 1995  

SciTech Connect

This is the fourteenth annual edition of the Energy Information Administration`s (EIA) Oil and Gas Field Code Master List. It reflects data collected through October 1995 and provides standardized field name spellings and codes for all identified oil and/or gas fields in the US. The Field Code Index, a listing of all field names and the States in which they occur, ordered by field code, has been removed from this year`s publications to reduce printing and postage costs. Complete copies (including the Field Code Index) will be available on the EIA CD-ROM and the EIA World-Wide Web Site. Future editions of the complete Master List will be available on CD-ROM and other electronic media. There are 57,400 field records in this year`s Oil and Gas Field Code Master List. As it is maintained by EIA, the Master List includes the following: field records for each State and county in which a field resides; field records for each offshore area block in the Gulf of Mexico in which a field resides; field records for each alias field name (see definition of alias below); and fields crossing State boundaries that may be assigned different names by the respective State naming authorities. Taking into consideration the double-counting of fields under such circumstances, EIA identifies 46,312 distinct fields in the US as of October 1995. This count includes fields that no longer produce oil or gas, and 383 fields used in whole or in part for oil or gas Storage. 11 figs., 6 tabs.

NONE

1995-12-01

56

Reliability of electrical submersible pumps at oil fields  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the investigation of the high rate interruption of more than 170 crude oil wells operated by electrical submersible pumps located at an oil field. The paper analyzes the trips caused by different types of faults at the overhead lines supplying power to the electrical submersible pumps, relying mainly on examining numerous waveforms captured by the fault recorder

M. Khurmy; M. Ramzan

2008-01-01

57

Evaluation of surfactants for oil field flooding  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  The problem of placing surfactant flooding on an economic basis should be of interest to both the oil producer and the surfactant\\u000a manufacturer. To oil producers it could mean an increase of as much as 6 billion barrels in the recoverable reserves of the\\u000a United States alone. This figure is based on application in areas where conventional water flooding is

C. E. Johnson; J. Seymour; D. Bieri; H. Burrell; A. Gladstone; V. Kavanagh; M. J. Kelly; M. Kramer; R. M. Lawrence

1957-01-01

58

Oil Field Produced Water Discharges into Wetlands in Wyoming.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Approximately 600 oil field produced water discharges are permitted in Wyoming by the States Department of Environmental Quality's (WDEQ) National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit program. Wyoming is one of a few states that allows th...

P. Ramirez

2002-01-01

59

Enhanced oil and gas recovery in Michigan: Beaver Creek Field  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Beaver Creek Field produces from an anticlinal structure being waterflooded in the Richfield interval. It produces from one lensic rock unit whose permeability and porosity are relatively uniform throughout the field. Orderly development and prudent operating procedures have allowed the field to surpass its original primary production estimates by over 3,000,000 barrels of oil. 4 figures, 2 tables.

R. J. Pollom; F. L. Layton; J. S. Lorenz; A. D. Matzkanin; S. E. Wilson

1976-01-01

60

Method for determining terrestrial heat flow in oil fields  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method of determining terrestrial heat flow in oil fields from bottom-hole temperatures, electric logs, and thermal conductivity of core samples has been tried in six Reconcavo Basin oil fields in Brazil. The average heat-flow value so determined for the Reconcavo Basin is 1.10 +- 0.15 microcalories\\/cm² sec. The technique can be used for calculating heat flow in continental areas

Humberto Da Silva Carvalho; V. Vacquier

1977-01-01

61

Oil Refining: Google Earth Virtual Field Trip Activity  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This page provides a Google Earth virtual field trip activity. Students will learn about oil refining in this short activity from the 2008 ATEEC Fellows Institute. A teacher's guide is included. In this virtual field trip, students learn about the process of oil refining and pose the question to students of alternative sources of fuel. Take a trip to the Petrostar Oil Refinery near the North Pole in Alaska. Learn how oil is refined and discover where oil is refined all around the world. Includes video of a tour taken at the refinery along with questions geared towards critical thinking. This resource is free to download. Users must first create a login with ATEEC's website to access the file.

2013-06-25

62

Oil and gas field code master list 1994  

SciTech Connect

This is the thirteenth annual edition of the Energy Information Administration`s (EIA) Oil and Gas Field Code Master List. It reflects data collected through October 1994 and provides standardized field name spellings and codes for all identified oil and/or gas fields in the United States. The master field name spellings and codes are to be used by respondents when filing the following Department of Energy (DOE) forms: Form EIA-23, {open_quotes}Annual Survey of Domestic Oil and Gas Reserves,{close_quotes} filed by oil and gas well operators (field codes are required from larger operators only); Forms FERC 8 and EIA-191, {open_quotes}Underground Gas Storage Report,{close_quotes} filed by natural gas producers and distributors who operate underground natural gas storage facilities. Other Federal and State government agencies, as well as industry, use the EIA Oil and Gas Field Code Master List as the standard for field identification. A machine-readable version of the Oil and Gas Field Code Master List is available from the National Technical Information Service, 5285 Port Royal Road, Springfield, Virginia 22161, (703) 487-4650. In order for the Master List to be useful, it must be accurate and remain current. To accomplish this, EIA constantly reviews and revises this list. The EIA welcomes all comments, corrections, and additions to the Master List. All such information should be given to the EIA Field Code Coordinator at (214) 953-1858. EIA gratefully acknowledges the assistance provides by numerous State organizations and trade associations in verifying the existence of fields and their official nomenclature.

Not Available

1995-01-01

63

Oil and gas field code master list 1997  

SciTech Connect

The Oil and Gas Field Code Master List 1997 is the sixteenth annual listing of all identified oil and gas fields in the US. It is updated with field information collected through October 1997. The purpose of this publication is to provide unique, standardized codes for identification of domestic fields. Use of these field codes fosters consistency of field identification by government and industry. As a result of their widespread adoption they have in effect become a national standard. The use of field names and codes listed in this publication is required on survey forms and other reports regarding field-specific data collected by EIA. There are 58,366 field records in this year`s FCML, 437 more than last year. The FCML includes: field records for each State and county in which a field resides; field records for each offshore area block in the Gulf of Mexico in which a field resides; field records for each alias field name (definition of alias is listed); fields crossing State boundaries that may be assigned different names by the respective State naming authorities. This report also contains an Invalid Field Record List of 4 records that have been removed from the FCML since last year`s report. These records were found to be either technically incorrect or to represent field names which were never recognized by State naming authorities.

NONE

1998-02-01

64

Fundamental Study of Imbibition in Fissured Oil Fields  

Microsoft Academic Search

Waterflood efficiency of a fissured oil field is closely dependant on the volume and speed of water imbibition in the elementary blocks. Numberous laboratory tests have been performed on fluids and porous media taken from a field exploited by ELF, and have helped to ascertain the effect of the blocks height and permeability, and the conditions at their limits as

R. Iffly; D. C. Rousselet; J. L. Vermeulen

1972-01-01

65

Alaska's North Slope oil fields: energy asset or defense liability. Student essay  

Microsoft Academic Search

Discovery of an oil bonanza under Alaska's North Slope offers the hope of some relief from dependence on foreign oil sources. At the same time, the vulnerability to hostile action of the oil fields, of the pipeline carrying crude oil to Valdez, and of the tankers shipping oil from Valdez to refineries suggests that reliance on oil from northern Alaska

1975-01-01

66

Verifying a Simplified Fuel Oil Flow Field Measurement Protocol  

SciTech Connect

The Better Buildings program is a U.S. Department of Energy program funding energy efficiency retrofits in buildings nationwide. The program is in need of an inexpensive method for measuring fuel oil consumption that can be used in evaluating the impact that retrofits have in existing properties with oil heat. This project developed and verified a fuel oil flow field measurement protocol that is cost effective and can be performed with little training for use by the Better Buildings program as well as other programs and researchers.

Henderson, H.; Dentz, J.; Doty, C.

2013-07-01

67

Crude oil from the Samgori field  

SciTech Connect

This article analyzes the chemical composition and physical properties of petroleum from the Georgian SSR. The crude oil is light in color, light in distillation range, low-viscosity, and medium-wax, with low contents of resin-asphaltene compounds, sulfur, and metals. This petroleum is characterized by its high content of naphtha cuts with low sulfur contents, low octane numbers (owing to the high contents of paraffin hydrocarbons), and low contents of aromatics. It is determined that the best flow plan for processing the crude is either a fuel scheme or a fuel/lube scheme, depending on the specific product demands.

Dorogochinskaya, V.A.; Manovyan, A.K.; Shigapova, A.K.; Shul'zhenko, E.D.; Varshaver, V.P.

1984-04-01

68

Reservoir microseismicity at the Ekofisk Oil Field  

SciTech Connect

A triaxial, downhole geophone was deployed within the Ekofisk oil reservoir for monitoring ambient microseismicity as a test to determine if microearthquake signals generated from discrete shear failure of the reservoir rock could be detected. The results of the test were positive. During 104 hours of monitoring, 572 discrete events were recorded which have been identified as shear-failure microearthquakes. Reservoir microseismicity was detected at large distances (1000 m) from the monitor borehole and at rates (> 5 events per hour) which may allow practical characterization of the reservoir rock and overburden deformation induced by reservoir pressure changes.

Rutledge, J.T.; Fairbanks, T.D. [Nambe Geophysical, Inc., Santa Fe, NM (United States); Albright, J.N. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Boade, R.R. [Phillips Petroleum Co., Bartlesville, OK (United States); Dangerfield, J.; Landa, G.H. [Phillips Petroleum Co., Tananger (Norway)

1994-07-01

69

Thermal field of an oil bed in a nonstationary pressure field  

Microsoft Academic Search

We carried out a numerical investigation of the temperature field arising in an oil bed due to the Joule-Thomson effect and\\u000a the heat of deaeration of the liquid in the nonstationary pressure field in displacement of oil by water. The formation of\\u000a the temperature field depends substantially on the initial flooding of the bed and the approach of the front

A. R. Sabitov; R. F. Sharafutdinov

1999-01-01

70

A field laboratory for improved oil recovery. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of Annex III of the Memorandum of Understanding, undertaken by the Houston Petroleum Research Center at the University of Houston, was to develop a field laboratory for research in improved oil recovery using a Gulf Coast reservoir in Texas. The participants: (1) make a field site selection and conducted a high resolution seismic survey in the demonstration field, (2) obtained characteristics of the reservoir (3) developed an evaluation of local flood efficiency in different parts of the demonstration reservoir, (4) used diverse methodology to evaluate the potential recovery of the remaining oil in the test reservoir, (5) developed cross-well seismic tomography, and (6) will transfer the learned technologies to oil operators through publication and workshops. This abstract is an overview of these tasks.

Hildebrandt, A.F.; McDonald, J.; Claridge, E.; Killough, J.

1992-09-01

71

Tar mats and residual oil distribution in a giant oil field offshore Abu Dhabi  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes how geochemical data (Rock Eval analysis, SARA composition) combined with wireline log interpretation allows for the recognition of the distribution and continuity of bitumens in a main reservoir of an offshore giant field in Abu Dhabi. The integration of new geochemical data with data and field information provided by the oil company ZADCO allows for the recognition

Bernard Carpentier; Hani Arab; Eric Pluchery; Jean-Marc Chautru

2007-01-01

72

Distribution of Thermophilic Marine Sulfate Reducers in North Sea Oil Field Waters and Oil Reservoirs  

PubMed Central

The distribution of thermophilic marine sulfate reducers in produced oil reservoir waters from the Gullfaks oil field in the Norwegian sector of the North Sea was investigated by using enrichment cultures and genus-specific fluorescent antibodies produced against the genera Archaeoglobus, Desulfotomaculum, and Thermodesulforhabdus. The thermophilic marine sulfate reducers in this environment could mainly be classified as species belonging to the genera Archaeoglobus and Thermodesulforhabdus. In addition, some unidentified sulfate reducers were present. Culturable thermophilic Desulfotomaculum strains were not detected. Specific strains of thermophilic sulfate reducers inhabited different parts of the oil reservoir. No correlation between the duration of seawater injection and the numbers of thermophilic sulfate reducers in the produced waters was observed. Neither was there any correlation between the concentration of hydrogen sulfide and the numbers of thermophilic sulfate reducers. The results indicate that thermophilic and hyperthermophilic sulfate reducers are indigenous to North Sea oil field reservoirs and that they belong to a deep subterranean biosphere.

Nilsen, R. K.; Beeder, J.; Thorstenson, T.; Torsvik, T.

1996-01-01

73

Cretaceous petroleum system of the Khasib and Tannuma oil reservoir, East Baghdad oil field, Iraq  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gas chromatography, palynomorph constituents, and maturation are analyzed for oil samples of the Campanian Khasib and Tannuma\\u000a Formations in the wells of East Baghdad oil field for biomarker studies, while palynomorph constituents and their maturation,\\u000a Rock Eval pyrolysis, total organic carbon (TOC) analysis are carried on for the Upper Jurassic and the Cretaceous Formations\\u000a of core samples from the same

Thamer Khazal Al-Ameri

74

Reserve Growth in Oil Fields of West Siberian Basin, Russia  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Although reserve (or field) growth has proven to be an important factor contributing to new reserves in mature petroleum basins, it is still a poorly understood phenomenon. Limited studies show that the magnitude of reserve growth is controlled by several major factors, including (1) the reserve booking and reporting requirements in each country, (2) improvements in reservoir characterization and simulation, (3) application of enhanced oil recovery techniques, and (4) the discovery of new and extensions of known pools in discovered fields. Various combinations of these factors can affect the estimates of proven reserves in particular fields and may dictate repeated estimations of reserves during a field's life. This study explores the reserve growth in the 42 largest oil fields in the West Siberian Basin, which contain about 55 percent of the basin's total oil reserves. The West Siberian Basin occupies a vast swampy plain between the Ural Mountains and the Yenisey River, and extends offshore into the Kara Sea; it is the richest petroleum province in Russia. About 600 oil and gas fields with original reserves of 144 billion barrels of oil (BBO) and more than 1,200 trillion cubic feet of gas (TCFG) have been discovered. The principal oil reserves and most of the oil fields are in the southern half of the basin, whereas the northern half contains mainly gas reserves. Sedimentary strata in the basin consist of Upper Triassic through Tertiary clastic rocks. Most oil is produced from Neocomian (Lower Cretaceous) marine to deltaic sandstone reservoirs, although substantial oil reserves are also in the marine Upper Jurassic and continental to paralic Lower to Middle Jurassic sequences. The majority of oil fields are in structural traps, which are gentle, platform-type anticlines with closures ranging from several tens of meters to as much as 150 meters (490 feet). Fields producing from stratigraphic traps are generally smaller except for the giant Talin field which contains oil in Jurassic river-valley sandstones. Principal source rocks are organic-rich marine shales of the Volgian (uppermost Jurassic) Bazhenov Formation, which is 30-50 m (98- 164 feet) thick. Bazhenov-derived oils are mostly of medium gravity, and contain 0.8-1.3 percent sulfur and 2-5 percent paraffin. Oils in the Lower to Middle Jurassic clastics were sourced from lacustrine and estuarine shales of the Toarcian Togur Bed. These oils are medium to low gravity, with low sulfur (less than 0.25 percent) and high paraffin (commonly to 10 percent) contents. Among the 42 fields analyzed for reserve growth, 30 fields are located in the Middle Ob region, which includes the Samotlor field with reserves of more than 25 BBO and the Fedorov field with reserves of about 5 BBO. Data used in the study include year of discovery, year of first production, annual and cumulative production, and remaining reserves reported by Russian reserve categories (A+B+C1 and C2) in January of each year. Correlation of these Russian resource categories to U.S. categories of the Society of Petroleum Engineers classification is complex and somewhat uncertain. Reserve growth in oil fields of West Siberia was calculated using a newly developed Group Growth method, which requires that the total reserve (proven reserve plus cumulative production) of individual fields with an equal length of reserve record be added together starting with discovery year or the first production year. Then the annual growth factor (AGF), which is the ratio of total reserves of two consecutive years, is calculated for all years. Once AGFs have been calculated, the cumulative growth factor (CGF) is calculated by multiplying the AGFs of all the previous years. The CGF data are used to develop reserve growth models. The West Siberian oil fields show a 13-fold reserve growth 20 years after the discovery year and only about a 2-fold growth after the first production year. This difference is attributed to extensive exploration and field delineation activities between the discovery and the first production years. Because of u

Verma, Mahendra K.; Ulmishek, Gregory F.

2006-01-01

75

Tar Creek study, Sargent oil field, Santa Clara County, California  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Field work in the Tar Creek area of Sargent oil field was performed June 26 to 28, 2000. The Santa Clara County study area is located in Sections, 30, 31, and 32, Township 11 South, Range 4 East, M.D.B&M; and in Sections 25 and 36, Township 11 South, Range 3 East, M.D.B.&M., north and south of Tar Creek, west of Highway 101. The work was a cooperative effort of the California Department of Conservation's Division of Oil, Gas, and Geothermal Resources (DOGGR), California Geological Survey (CGS), and the United States Geological Survey (USGS). The purpose of the project was to map the stratigraphy and geologic structure (David Wagner, CGS); sample oil for age dating (Les Magoon, USGS); and search for undocumented wells plus conduct a GPS survey of the area (Bill Fedasko, J.P. Carnahan, and Ross Brunetti, DOGGR)

Wagner, David L.; Fedasko, Bill; Carnahan, J.R.; Brunetti, Ross; Magoon, Leslie B.; Lillis, Paul G.; Lorenson, Thomas D.; Stanley, Richard G.

2002-01-01

76

The Application Of Microbial Enhanced Oil Recovery On Unconventional Oil: A Field Specific Approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A substantial amount of the world's recoverable oil reserves are made from unconventional or heavy resources. However, great difficulty has been had in recovering this oil after primary and secondary recovery methods have been employed. Therefore, tertiary methods such as microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR) have been employed. MEOR involves the use of bacteria and their metabolic products to alter the oil properties or rock permeability within a reservoir in order to promote the flow of oil. Although MEOR has been trialed in the past with mixed outcomes, its feasibility on heavier oils has not been demonstrated. The aim of this study is to show that MEOR can be successfully applied to unconventional oils. By using an indigenous strain of bacteria isolated from a reservoir of interest and applied to field specific microcosms, we will look into the effect of these bacteria compared to variant inoculums to identify which mechanisms of action the bacteria are using to improve recovery. Using this information, we will be able to identify genes of interest and groups of bacteria that may be beneficial for MEOR and look accurately identify favorable bacteria within a reservoir.

Goodman, Sean; Millar, Andrew; Allison, Heather; McCarthy, Alan

2014-05-01

77

Pyrolysis of oil shales of the Turov field  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The results of investigations of the chemical composition, properties, and thermotechnical characteristics of the technological sample of oil shales of the Turov field of Belarus have been given. The results of experimental works on shale pyrolysis on laboratory setups in stationary and moving beds for obtaining high-calorific energy carriers have been shown.

Falyushin, P. L.; Dobrego, K. V.; Kraiko, V. M.; Anufrieva, E. V.

2011-05-01

78

Case history -- Reddell Oil Field -- Evangeline Parish, Louisiana  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this paper is to give the gravity meter credit as the main geophysical method used in the discovery of the Reddell Oil Field in Evangeline Parish, Louisiana. LL E provided me with gravity data to use in the calculation of a salt model of the Reddell Salt Dome. The purpose of the study was to define the

1996-01-01

79

Survey of Tar Sand Deposits, Heavy Oil Fields, and Shallow Light Oil Fields of the United States for Underground Coal Gasification Applications.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A literature survey was conducted to identify areas of the United States where tar sand deposits, heavy oil fields, or shallow light oil fields might be suitably associated with coal deposits for production of oil by in situ thermal recovery methods using...

L. G. Trudell

1986-01-01

80

Oil-impregnated rocks of Utah: USERDA field experiment to recover oil from tar sand  

Microsoft Academic Search

The U.S. Energy Research and Development Administration is equipping a field experiment to test the reverse combustion process for recovery of oil from a tar sand on a 10-acre site on the Northwest Asphalt Ridge deposit near Vernal, Utah. A tar sand section 10 ft thick at the top of the Rim Rock Sandstone (Mesaverde, Upper Cretaceous) has been selected

Marchant

1976-01-01

81

Clay-oil droplet suspensions in electric fields  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Silicone oil droplets containing synthetic smectite clay submerged in immiscible organic oil have been studied by observing clay particle movement and oil circulation when an electric field is applied. Results show how electric field strength, dielectric and electrorheological properties as well as electrohydrodynamics determine the fluid flow and clay particle formation. In a presence of the DC electric fields the clay particles formed a ribbon-like structure onto the inner surface of the droplet. The structure consists of short chain-like clay elements orienting parallel to the electric field direction. It is suggested that a combination of two phenomena, namely the induced viscous flow (electrohydrodynamic effect) and the polarization of the clay particles (dielectric effect), contribute to the ribbon-like structure formation. -/abstract- References [1] G. Taylor, Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Series A. Mathematical and Physical Sciences 291 (1966) 159--166. [2] J. R. Melcher and G. I. Taylor, Annual Review of Fluid Mechanics 1 (1969) 111--146. [3] H. Sato, N. Kaji, T. Mochizuki, and Y. H. Mori, Physics of Fluids 18 (2006) 127101. [4] D. A. Saville, Annual Review of Fluid Mechanics 29 (1997) 27--64. [5] J. O. Fossum, Y. M'eheust, K. P. S. Parmar, K. D. Knudsen, K. J. Måløy, and D. M. Fonseca Europhysics Letters 74

Rozynek, Zbigniew; Fossum, Jon Otto; Kjerstad, Knut; Mikkelsen, Alexander; Castberg, Rene

2012-02-01

82

Archaeoglobus fulgidus Isolated from Hot North Sea Oil Field Waters  

PubMed Central

A hyperthermophilic sulfate reducer, strain 7324, was isolated from hot (75°C) oil field waters from an oil production platform in the Norwegian sector of the North Sea. It was enriched on a complex medium and isolated on lactate with sulfate. The cells were nonmotile, irregular coccoid to disc shaped, and 0.3 to 1.0 ?m wide. The temperature for growth was between 60 and 85°C with an optimum of 76°C. Lactate, pyruvate, and valerate plus H2 were utilized as carbon and energy sources with sulfate as electron acceptor. Lactate was completely oxidized to CO2. The cells contained an active carbon monoxide dehydrogenase but no 2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase activity, indicating that lactate was oxidized to CO2 via the acetyl coenzyme A/carbon monoxide dehydrogenase pathway. The cells produced small amounts of methane simultaneously with sulfate reduction. F420 was detected in the cells which showed a blue-green fluorescence at 420 nm. On the basis of morphological, physiological, and serological features, the isolate was classified as an Archaeoglobus sp. Strain 7324 showed 100% DNA-DNA homology with A. fulgidus Z, indicating that it belongs to the species A. fulgidus. Archaeoglobus sp. has been selectively enriched and immunomagnetically captured from oil field waters from three different platforms in the North Sea. Our results show that strain 7324 may grow in oil reservoirs at 70 to 85°C and contribute to hydrogen sulfide formation in this environment. Images

Beeder, Janiche; Nilsen, Roald Kare; Rosnes, Jan Thomas; Torsvik, Terje; Lien, Torleiv

1994-01-01

83

Monitoring Microseismicity in a Carbonate Oil Field, North Oman  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Microseismicity was monitored continuously for 2003 and 2004 years using shallow downhole seismic network in a carbonate oil field in Northern Oman. A total of 406 microearthquake events were analyzed to assess events location relative to producing horizons. The depth of the microearthquakes ranges from 0 to 2.95 km below the ground surface. The events location is confined to the carbonate reservoir boundary and temporally correlates well with the gas production, total fluid productions and water injection for the 2003 year. There is no temporal correlation between oil production and seismic activity for the 2003. Direct month to month temporal correlation is not apparent between any of oil, gas, fluid productions/water injections and the microseismic activity for the 2004 year. However, a strong temporal correlation between gas production and the number of events and an improved correlation between the oil production and the number of events were obtained when applying a time lag of one month. The focal plane solutions for the largest events in the 2003 indicate normal faulting with extensional stress is in the NW-SE directions. The spatial and temporal distribution of seismic events in the carbonate field fit the characteristics of reservoir induced seismicity and the triggering mechanism can be explained by the Mohr envelope criterion. This indicates that the reservoir layers are critically stressed and the pore pressure is changing at variable rate.

El-Hussain, I.; Al-Lazki, A.; Al-Hashmi, S.; Al-Toubi, K.; Al-Shijbi, Y.; Al-Saifi, M.; Al-Kindy, F.; Ibi, O.

2006-12-01

84

Earthquakes in the oil field at Rangely, Colorado  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Seven years of seismic data recorded at the Uinta Basin Observatory were searched for earthquakes originating near an oil field at Rangely, Colorado, located 65 km ESE of the observatory. Changes in the number of earthquakes recorded per year appear to correlate with changes in the quantity of fluid injected per year. Between November 1962 and January 1970, 976 earthquakes were detected near the oil field by the UBO station; 320 earthquakes were larger than magnitude 1. Richter magnitudes are estimated from both S-wave and P-wave measurements and a method based on the duration of the seismic signal is used to estimate the magnitude of the larger shocks. The two largest shocks had magnitudes of 3.4 and 3.3. The total seismic energy released was l0l7 ergs. During this same period the energy used for water injection, measured at the wellhead, was 1021 ergs.

Gibbs, James F.; Healy, John H.; Raleigh, C. Barry; Coakley, John M.

1972-01-01

85

Crosshole EM for oil field characterization and EOR monitoring: Field examples  

Microsoft Academic Search

Crosshole and surface-to-borehole electromagnetic (EM) imaging is applied to reservoir characterization and steam flood monitoring in a central California oil field. Steam was injected into three stacked, eastward-dipping, unconsolidated oil sands within the upper 200 in. The steam plume is expected to develop as an ellipse aligned with the regional northwest-southeast strike. EM measurements were made from two flberglass-cased observation

M. Wilt; C. Schenkel; C. Torres-Verdin; Ki Ha Lee; Hung-Wen Tseng

1994-01-01

86

Niger delta oil production, reserves, field sizes assessed  

SciTech Connect

The article presents tables and figures showing the reserve estimates and production histories of the 252 fields in the Niger delta, then makes forecasts of the likelihood of discoveries above a given size. The paper discusses oil reserves, development programs, drilling and 3D seismic surveying, secondary and tertiary EOR, reserve incentives, production facilities, capital spending required, Nigerian export blends, and the trend in these blends.

Thomas, D. [Thomas and Associates, Hastings (United Kingdom)

1995-11-13

87

Evolution of the Moxizhuang Oil Field, Central Junggar Basin, Northwest China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current oil saturation in the Moxizhuang Oil Field in central Junggar basin was evaluated by logging interpretation and measured on core samples, and the paleo-oil saturation in both the pay zones and water zones was investigated by grain-containing-oil inclusion (GOI) analysis. The pay zones in this field have low oil saturation and display low resistivity and small contrast between pay

Zou Huayao; Zhang Yuanchun; Liu Jianzhang; Shi Jiannan

2008-01-01

88

Sulfide mineralization and magnetization, Cement oil field, Oklahoma  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Geochemical, petrographic, and rock-magnetic studies were undertaken to investigate possible sources for reported positive aeromagnetic anomalies over the Cement oil field, Oklahoma. Ferrimagnetic pyrrhotite (monoclinic, Fe7S8 ), intergrown with more-abundant, nonmagnetic pyrite (FeS2), is present in well-cutting, core, and quarry samples at Cement, and it is the only identified source of possible enhanced magnetization in rocks over the field. Magnetite, found only in well cuttings from Cement, is contamination from drilling. Magnetite was considered previously by others to be the source of magnetic anomalies at Cement.

Reynolds, Richard L.; Fishman, Neil S.; Webring, Michael W.; Wanty, Richard B.; Goldhaber, Martin B.

1989-01-01

89

Increasing Heavy Oil Reserves in the Wilmington Oil Field Through Advanced Reservoir Characterization and Thermal Production Technologies, Class III  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this project was to increase the recoverable heavy oil reserves within sections of the Wilmington Oil Field, near Long Beach, California through the testing and application of advanced reservoir characterization and thermal production technologies. It was hoped that the successful application of these technologies would result in their implementation throughout the Wilmington Field and, through technology transfer, will be extended to increase the recoverable oil reserves in other slope and basin clastic (SBC) reservoirs.

City of Long Beach; Tidelands Oil Production Company; University of Southern California; David K. Davies and Associates

2002-09-30

90

Monitoring Induced Seismicity at an Oil/Gas Field  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Seismicity at an oil/gas field has been monitored with surface and borehole seismic networks. Since the seismic monitoring started in 1999, thousands of events have been recorded, located and analyzed. The “surface” seismic network consists of five stations with seismometers in shallow boreholes at 125-150 m depth. The deep network is made up of five downhole geophone arrays, each with 8 sensors, at depths between 650 m and 1200 m. The shallow network has been in constant operation since 1999 and has recorded about 1500 events. The deep network recorded more than 10,000 events between October 2002 and August 2003. To locate the events, a detailed 1-D velocity model derived from sonic logs was used. Various location methods including NonLinLoc, multi-event grid search and time-difference method were used. The latest uses a library of pre-computed travel time differences for all station pairs and for all potential source locations (Sarkar and Toksoz, 2008). An advantage of using the travel time differences between station pairs is that it eliminates origin time from the location algorithms, thus resolving the depth-origin tradeoff issue. There is no record of any seismic events at the site prior to the initiation of oil field activities. The induced events are more strongly correlated with the gas production rates than with oil production. Events mostly occur on preexisting faults, mapped by 3-D surface seismic. There are two (conjugate) sets of faults in the field. The hypocenters are primarily on the NE-SW striking faults oriented parallel to the maximum regional horizontal stress direction. All events recorded are shallow with focal depth of 400 m to 3000 m. A great majority of the events occur between 800 m and 1100 m depth, closer to the depth of the gas reservoir than to the deeper oil reservoir.

Kuleli, H. S.; Sarkar, S.; Toksoz, M. N.; Al-Kindy, F.; El Hussain, I. W.; Al-Hashmi, S.

2009-12-01

91

Crosshole EM for oil field characterization and EOR monitoring: Field examples  

SciTech Connect

Crosshole and surface-to-borehole electromagnetic (EM) imaging is applied to reservoir characterization and steam flood monitoring in a central California oil field. Steam was injected into three stacked, eastward-dipping, unconsolidated oil sands within the upper 200 in. The steam plume is expected to develop as an ellipse aligned with the regional northwest-southeast strike. EM measurements were made from two flberglass-cased observation wells straddling the steam injector on a northeast-southwest profile. Field data were collected before the initiation of a steam drive to map the distribution of the oil sands and then six months after the steam was injected to monitor the progress of the steam chest. Resisitivity images derived from the EM data collected before steam injection clearly delineate the distribution and dipping structure on the target oil sands. Difference images from data collected before and after steam flooding indicate that the steam chest has developed only in the deeper oil sands, and it has preferentially migrated eastward. Surface-to-borehole measurements were useful in mapping the distribution of the major oil sands, but they were insensitive to resisitivity changes in the early stages of the steam flood.

Wilt, M.; Schenkel, C. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Torres-Verdin, C. [Schlumberger-Doll Research Center, Ridgefield, CT (United States); Lee, Ki Ha [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States); Tseng, Hung-Wen [California Univ., Berkeley, CA (United States)

1994-09-01

92

Geology of Terra Nova oil field, Grand Banks, Newfoundland  

SciTech Connect

Oil was discovered at the Petro-Canada et al Terra Nova K-08 well in May 1984. The well was drilled in the Jeanne d'Arc subbasin, 340 km east of St. John's, Newfoundland, and 35 km southeast of the giant Hibernia oil field. Follow-up wells provided log correlations and core data that have been used with a three-dimensional seismic survey to construct a geologic model. Mapping the field demonstrated a combination structural-stratigraphic trap. The reservoir is within the lower part of the Jeanne d'Arc sequence (Upper Jurassic). This conglomeratic sandstone is interpreted as having been deposited in a nearshore to fluvial setting by basinward, northward progradation of fan-delta systems. The reservoir has a depositional limit updip to the south, and is overstepped and sealed by transgressive shales of the upper Jeanne d'Arc. Oil source is from the underlying Egret (Oxfordian-Kimmeridgian) argillaceous limestones. The geologic model and seismic interpretation have been tested by appraisal drilling.

Dwyer, J.D.; Sullivan, G.W.; Park, J.

1986-05-01

93

Oil  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The first site, offered by the Institute of Petroleum, is called Fossils into Fuel (1). It describes how oil and gas are formed and processed, as well as offering short quizzes on each section. The second site (2) is maintained by the Department of Energy. Visitors can learn about the history of oil use, how itâÂÂs found and extracted, and more. The next site, called Picture an Oil Well (3), is a one-page illustration and description of the workings of an oil well, offered by the California Department of Conservation. The fourth site, hosted by the Minerals Management Service, is called Stacey Visits an Offshore Oil Rig (4). It tells the story of a girl taking a field trip on an offshore oil rig and what she finds when sheâÂÂs there. The Especially for Kids Web site (5) is presented by NOAA and explores facts about the effects of oil spills. Kids can do experiments, get help writing a report, find further information on the provided additional links, and more. From the Environmental Protection Agency, the sixth site is called Oil Spill Program (6), and it also delves into the topic of oil spills. It provides information about the EPA's program for preventing, preparing for, and responding to oil spills that occur in and around inland waters of the United States. The next site, offered by How Stuff Works.com, is called How Oil Refining Works (7). Descriptions of crude oil, fractional distillation, chemical processing, and more is presented in a succinct but informative way. The last site is from The Center for Subsurface Modeling (CSM) of the Texas Institute for Computational and Applied Mathematics and is called CSMâÂÂs Picture Gallery (8). After clicking the Gallery link, visitors will find animations and images that represent CSMâÂÂs work such as oil spill simulations, discontinuous galerkin, the tyranny of scale, contaminant remediation, etc.

Brieske, Joel A.

2002-01-01

94

Genesis and formation oil and gas fields (Azerbaijan)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The large amount of material of HC isotope composition of over 330 samples allow to restore the history of oil and gas deposits formation within the South-Caspian Depression. Maps of isotope composition changes according to area extent, as well as graphs of HC distribution depending upon stratigraphic age, including rocks, graphs of isotope composition change on sampling depth were compiled for HC study and oil-gas deposits formation. Comparison of mud volcanoes gases, oil and gas fields, gas-hydrates and bottom sediments were conducted. Gases genesis according to M. Shoelle and A. James methodic were studied. Model of area paleoconstruction was studied. Two stages of formation were distinguished as a result of gases study of various forms of their manifestation (gases of mud volcanoes, oil and gas fields, gas hydrate, bottom sediments) as well as isotope gases composition distribution in area of extent including stratigraphic age of deposits, depth of sampling and application of M. Shoelle and A. James. There were determined basic ways of HC migration as well as estimated oil-gas content prospective. The first stage has begun in the underlying PS deposits and continued up to PS deposits. At this stage one various kind of tectonic fluctuations can observed. The second stage of HC formation has started from PS and characterised with a change of geodynamic conditions in region. Avalanche sedimentation, predominance of descending movements over ascending ones promoted the accumulation of thick sediments in PS age. As a result of sediments accumulation and tectonic processes (down warping) in the deep-seated basin led to the complication of thermobaric conditions in the sedimentary series. The studied chemical and HC gases isotope composition showed that basic source of oil and gas formation is located in the deep areas of central and near-flank parts of depression. HC migration has mainly occurred upward. Study of HC migration trend in time and area as well as areas of generation etc. allows to reveal some structures where there is evidence of HC accumulation with large and gigantic reserves.

Poletayev, Alexander

2010-05-01

95

Geochemical Specific Characters of the Oil and the Origin of the Oil and Gas Fields  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is generally assumed that the fluid regime of the basement of ancient platforms is not associated with that of the sedimentary cover. This assumption is mainly due to the substantial time gap between the formation of the crystalline and sedimentary rocks as well as the evolutionary differences between the thermal regime of the interior and the redox potentials of fluid systems. The presence of loosely aggregated zones filled with salt-water solutions, oil or gas in the upper basement is explained by downward fluid flows from sedimentary rocks through tectonic faults into the disintegrated crystalline rocks. The formation of such zones is believed to be due to the crustal stratification due to Earth's pulsation, periodic variations of its rotational rate, hydrogenic deconsolidation, burial of the post-Early Proterozoic disintegration zones, etc. This pattern suggests that the matter and energy exchange between the Earth's spheres in the late stages of the platform development could only take place with the help of magmatic melts and the associated fluids during the tectonomagmatic cycles of the Earth's crust transformation. Gas and liquid hydrocarbon components mainly occur in crystalline basement rocks of ancient platforms penetrated to a depth of more than 3000 m due to deep degassing processes. The traces of the upward migration of fluids are sealed in the geological sequence, including the sedimentary cover, within secondary inclusions of rocks and minerals. The fluids are complex, reduced, multicomponent systems that transport lithophilous, chalcophilous and siderophilous elements. The presence of microelements in the bituminous phase of inclusions indicates that metals mainly occur in the complexes containing organic ligands. During the evolution of the fluid systems under new pressure and temperature conditions, low-solubility substances were separated out of the fluid to form hard bitumen, and the lighter components migrated into the overlying fractured and porous rocks. The high metal content of carbonaceous substances and their compositional variations governed by homogenisation temperatures of the inclusions suggest that they are not the products of the decomposition of oil fields. The constant presence of uranium in the fluid and its differentiation products allows the tracing of the systems' migration ways from the crystalline basement to oil-saturated reservoir zones of the sedimentary cover The known geochemical properties of bitumen and oil - high platinum content, specific distributions of rare earth elements, that are not characteristic of the upper crust formations, as well as 143Nd/144Nd and 87Sr/86Sr isotopic compounds, which are out of balance with the organic matter of sedimentary rocks - suggest that hydrocarbons are accumulated in the presence of cooling high-alkalinity mafite-ultramafite intrusions. This logically corresponds to the distribution of seismic anomalies and magnetic and gravity fields in the consolidated crust below the various petroleum fields (for example, South Tatarstan and Nepsky arches of the Romashkino and Verkhne-Chonskoye oil fields). The acquired geochemical and thermodynamic characteristics of the reduced fluids and their differentiation products from the crystalline basement and the sedimentary cover of the southern Siberian and eastern East European platforms indicate that these were formed outside of the sedimentary cover and that the migration was directed upwards. The analysis of the magmatic evolution on platforms reveals its alkaline trend due to the impeded degassing of magmatic sources at depth and the inflow of new doses of alkaline fluids or melts into them. Further evolution of the zones of partial melting of the substratum led, in the authors' view, to the generation of oil-forming fluids and their transportation into the Earth's upper crust. Their interaction with the surrounding rocks in turn led to the formation of oil accumulations. Thus, oil is the product of the interaction of deep, reduced fluids. Oil, graphite of the Archaean crystalline complexes a

Gottikh, Rimma; Pisotskiy, Bogdan; Plotnikova, Irina

2010-05-01

96

Crosshole EM for oil field characterization and EOR monitoring: Field examples from Lost Hills, California.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A steamflood recently initiated by Mobil Development and Production U.S. at the Lost Hills No 3 oil field in California is notable for its shallow depth and the application of electromagnetic (EM) geophysical techniques to monitor the subsurface steam flo...

M. Wilt C. Schenkel M. Wratcher I. Lambert C. Torres-Verdin

1996-01-01

97

Contracts for Field Projects and Supporting Research on Enhanced Oil Recovery and Improved Drilling Technology.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Objectives are listed and technical progress is summarized for contracts for field projects and supporting research on: chemical flooding, carbon dioxide injection, thermal/heavy oil, extraction technology, improved drilling technology, residual oil, and ...

B. Linville

1980-01-01

98

Methanococcus thermolithotrophicus Isolated from North Sea Oil Field Reservoir Water  

PubMed Central

Methanococcus thermolithotrophicus ST22 was isolated from produced water of a North Sea oil field, on mineral medium with H(inf2)-CO(inf2) as the sole source of carbon and energy. The isolate grew at 17 to 62(deg)C, with an optimum at 60(deg)C. The pH range was 4.9 to 9.8, with optimal growth at pH 5.1 to 5.9; these characteristics reflected its habitat. Strain ST22 was quickly identified and distinguished from the type strain by immunoblotting.

Nilsen, R. K.; Torsvik, T.

1996-01-01

99

Design of Temperature Controller for Heating Furnace in Oil Field  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The temperature controller is an important part of the control system design of the crude oil heating furnace. the traditional PID control is usually used in temperature control, but it can not effectively overcome the impact by the interference, load change and the parameters change of system and other factors. Based on the relationship between rules factor ? and the error E , meanwhile, taking into account the change of error r rate EC, the temperature controller is designed adaptive fuzzy control with variable slope. It greatly enhances the robustness of the system. By field application, works well.

Zhenhai, Dou; Lianyun, Sun

100

Burning oil fields as a source of infrasonic waves  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The consideration of burning oil fields in the Persian Gulf as an intense source of infrasonic waves is addressed. Propagation of these waves to high latitudes is discussed. Methods for sensitive detection of such a distant source are presented. Infrasonic data from two Swedish infrasonic stations, recording at 2 Hz (Lulea (65.7 north, 22.5 east) and Lycksele (64.6 north, 18.7 east) during the periods 6 Feb. - 14 Mar. and 7-13 Jun. 1991 are examined in order to demonstrate the reception of these long distance infrasonic waves.

Waldemark, Karina; Liszka, Ludwig

1991-12-01

101

Correlating field and laboratory data for crude oil fouling  

SciTech Connect

Crude oil fouling in a laboratory fouling unit was investigated. The study focused on the preheat-train heat exchangers located just before the crude unit furnace and operating at temperatures in excess of 200 C. A fouling rate model developed using laboratory data from crude blends was used to predict the threshold conditions where negligible fouling was expected under refinery conditions. The results from the model were compared to actual data from a fouling unit located at a refinery. The article discusses factors that may explain the performance of the model and the observed discrepancies between fouling data obtained in the laboratory and the field.

Asomaning, S.; Panchal, C.B.; Liao, C.F.

2000-06-01

102

Low-field NMR determinations of the properties of heavy oils and water-in-oil emulsions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Low-field (<50 mT) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) well-logging measurements are beginning to be used to obtain estimates of oil viscosity in situ. To build an interpretive capability, we made laboratory T1 and T2 relaxation measurements on a suite of high-density, high-viscosity crude oils. These measurements were also used to estimate oil viscosity and water fraction from T1 and T2 measurements

G. A LaTorraca; K. J Dunn; P. R Webber; R. M Carlson

1998-01-01

103

Geochemistry of oil-field water from the North Slope  

SciTech Connect

Knowledge of the chemical composition of oil-field water is important in understanding the origin and migration of petroleum as well as the water mineral reactions that affect the porosity and permeability of the reservoir rocks. This knowledge is essential in interpreting electric logs and in determining potential pollution, corrosion, and disposal problems of water produced with oil and gas. Finally, the chemical composition of water is an important factor in determining the conditions (temperature, pressure) for the formation of clathrates. This chapter reports detailed chemical analyses of seven formation-water samples from wells within the NPRA and one surface-and two formation-water samples from the Prudhoe Bay oil field. The authors also report {delta}D and {delta}{sup 18}O values for eight of the water samples as well as analyses for gases from six wells. The formation-water samples were obtained from depths ranging from about 700 to 2800 m and from reservoir rocks ranging in age from Mississippian (Lisburne Group) to Triassic. The reservoir rocks are sandstone except for sample 79-AK-5, which was obtained from a limestone interbedded with sandstone. Generally, the pre-Cretaceous sandstone reservoir rocks on the North Slope have a similar mineral composition. Van de Kamp (1979) gave the following description of these sandstones: Quartz (usually monocrystalline) and chert are the major components; carbonate and clay are variable. Carbonate occurs as detrital grains and as cement, siderite being the most common type. Siderite can form as much as 30 percent of the rock. Clay occurs as a common matrix, generally making up less than 10 percent of the rock. Accessory minerals include pyrite, plagioclase, microcline, glauconite, zircon, sphene, tourmaline, and muscovite.

Kharaka, Y.K.; Carothers, W.W.

1989-01-01

104

Work Related Injuries in an Oil field in Oman  

PubMed Central

Objectives The aim of this paper is to describe the epidemiology of occupational injuries in the Harweel oil field, Oman. Methods The study is based on data gathered from a computerized database maintained by Petroleum Development of Oman (PDO). All non-fatal work-related occupational injuries registered between April 2007 and December 2009 were gathered and analyzed. Results A total of 170 work-related injuries were reported during the study period. Foreign body to the eye was the most common type of injury (27.6%) encountered among all injuries, followed by man falls/slips (11.8%). Injury to the upper extremities accounted for the largest percentage (38.8%) among other body parts. While, a significant portion of the injuries (52%) affected workers aged less than 30 years. The average injury rate per 1000 exposed workers per year was 19.8. Conclusion The study outlines the types of injuries most commonly encountered in the oil field in Oman. Additional data is required in order to devise proper epidemiological analysis. Establishing a comprehensive surveillance system for injuries is essential to ascertain factors influencing such injuries.

Al-Rubaee, Faisal Rabia; Al-Maniri, Abdullah

2011-01-01

105

Chemical Characterization of Brines from Selected Oil Fields, Tabasco, México  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thirteen brine samples were recovered from nine oil-producing wells in the Agave (Cretaceous) and Saramako (Cretaceous and Tertiary) oil fields. These samples were analyzed for major and trace elements as well as O and D isotopic compositions. The goal of this study was to compare the possible links between oil-related brines enclosed within Cretaceous and Tertiary productive horizons that were thought to have similar origin oils. The salinity of the Saramako Cretaceous and Tertiary horizons is very constant, around 30000 ppm, one to six times lower than the salinities found in the Agave Cretaceous Field (from 45000 to 170000 ppm). Major ion chemistry suggests that brines are in equilibrium with the host rock. One of the main difference, besides Mg, resides in the S concentrations, were Agave samples present lower concentrations, probably related to the presence of abundant sulfides in the aquifer's rock. Halogen (Br, Cl) systematics indicates a different origin for the Saramako and Agave brines. The Saramako samples halogen composition plot near normal seawater both in the Na/Cl vs Cl/Br (molar ratios) and the Cl vs Br (ppm) plots. The Agave halogen data scatter near and underneath the seawater evaporation line in the Na/Cl vs Cl/Br (molar ratios), suggesting that these fluids could represent seawater evolved past the point of halite precipitation. The Cl vs Br (ppm) plot indicates that these fluids undergone some degree of mixing with low-salinity fluids, probably seawater. The presence of two different groups of data suggests the compartment of the aquifer. The \\deltaD and \\delta18O data show strong differences between the Saramako and Agave brines. The Saramako brine \\delta18O and \\deltaD isotopic compositions are +2.1% (VSMOW) and -13.8% respectively. The Agave samples have a \\delta18O composition from +4.3% to +6.0% and \\deltaD isotopic composition from -20.0% to -12.6%. Differences in \\delta18O compositions between Saramako and Agave brines indicate that the latter fluids were in equilibrium with the host dolostones at certain temperature. Saramako brine composition indicates a near-pristine seawater origin. Agave brines chemical composition suggests an origin related with a bittern formed after evaporation of seawater past the point of halite precipitation, subsequently mixed with seawater. Oxygen isotopic compositions reflect both different host rock and water to rock interaction phenomena, whereas hydrogen isotopic composition can be modified by diagenetic reactions.

Méndez-Ortiz, B.; Carrillo-Chavez, A.; Tritlla, J.; Levresse, G.; Gonzalez-Partida, E.; Oviedo-Perez, A.; Martinez-Kepm, H.; Gonzalez-Posadas, F.; Clara-Valdes, L.

2004-12-01

106

Increasing Heavy Oil Reserves in the Wilmington Oil Field Through Advanced Reservoir Characterization and Thermal Production Technologies, Class III  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this project was to increase the recoverable heavy oil reserves within sections of the Wilmington Oil Field, near Long Beach, California through the testing and application of advanced reservoir characterization and thermal production technologies. The successful application of these technologies would result in expanding their implementation throughout the Wilmington Field and, through technology transfer, to other slope and basin clastic (SBC) reservoirs.

City of Long Beach; Tidelands Oil Production Company; University of Southern California; David K. Davies and Associates

2002-09-30

107

Low-field NMR determinations of the properties of heavy oils and water-in-oil emulsions.  

PubMed

Low-field (< 50 mT) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) well-logging measurements are beginning to be used to obtain estimates of oil viscosity in situ. To build an interpretive capability, we made laboratory T1 and T2 relaxation measurements on a suite of high-density, high-viscosity crude oils. These measurements were also used to estimate oil viscosity and water fraction from T1 and T2 measurements on stable, water-in-oil emulsions. High-density, high-viscosity oils have components that relax faster than can be measured by nuclear magnetic resonance logging tools. This requires corrections to T2 logging measurements for accurate estimates of oil saturation and porosity. PMID:9803933

LaTorraca, G A; Dunn, K J; Webber, P R; Carlson, R M

1998-01-01

108

FIELD TEST KIT FOR CHARACTERIZING OIL-BRINE EFFLUENTS FROM OFFSHORE DRILLING PLATFORMS  

EPA Science Inventory

This research program was initiated to evaluate test methods for characterizing oil-brine effluents from offshore oil production platforms and to package and deliver a field test kit for on-site oil-brine analyses. After an initial laboratory evaluation and selection of test meth...

109

Oil Pollution Incident Platform Charlie, Main Pass Block 41 Field Louisiana.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

For roughly eight weeks (February 10 to March 31, 1970), wells on the Chevron Oil Company platform Charlie in the Main Pass Oil Field (MP41C), Gulf of Mexico, were out of control, spewing crude oil and natural gas into the air from the platform level. The...

1971-01-01

110

Oil field waste disposal in salt caverns: An information website  

SciTech Connect

Argonne National Laboratory has completed the construction of a Website for the US Department of Energy (DOE) that provides detailed information on salt caverns and their use for disposing of nonhazardous oil field wastes (NOW) and naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM). Specific topics in the Website include the following: descriptions of salt deposits and salt caverns within the US, salt cavern construction methods, potential types of wastes, waste emplacement, regulatory issues, costs, carcinogenic and noncarcinogenic human health risks associated with postulated cavern release scenarios, new information on cavern disposal (e.g., upcoming meetings, regulatory issues, etc.), other studies supported by the National Petroleum Technology Office (NPTO) (e.g., considerations of site location, cavern stability, development issues, and bedded salt characterization in the Midland Basin), and links to other associated Web sites. In addition, the Website allows downloadable access to reports prepared on the topic that were funded by DOE. Because of the large quantities of NOW and NORM wastes generated annually by the oil industry, information presented on this Website is particularly interesting and valuable to project managers, regulators, and concerned citizens.

Tomasko, D.; Veil, J. A.

1999-12-10

111

Examination of eastern oil shale disposal problems - the Hope Creek field study  

SciTech Connect

A field-based study of problems associated with the disposal of processed Eastern oil shale was initiated in mid-1983 at a private research site in Montgomery County, Kentucky. The study (known as the Hope Creek Spent Oil Shale Disposal Project) is designed to provide information on the geotechnical, revegetation/reclamation, and leachate generation and composition characteristics of processed Kentucky oil shales. The study utilizes processed oil shale materials (retorted oil shale and reject raw oil shale fines) obtained from a pilot plant run of Kentucky oil shale using the travelling grate retort technology. Approximately 1000 tons of processed oil shale were returned to Kentucky for the purpose of the study. The study, composed of three components, is described. The effort to date has concentrated on site preparation and the construction and implementation of the field study research facilities. These endeavors are described and the project direction in the future years is defined.

Koppenaal, D.W.; Kruspe, R.R.; Robl, T.L.; Cisler, K.; Allen, D.L.

1985-02-01

112

A novel associating polymer for oil field water clarification application  

SciTech Connect

A cationic hydrophobically associating terpolymer, C-RAM, based on methacrylamidopropyltrimethyl ammonium chloride (C), t=octyl acrylamide (R), and acrylamide (Am) has been synthesized by an inverse emulsion polymerization technique. The finished product shows good stability, high total solids, and high molecular weight at low viscosity. This product has been developed primarily for oily water clarification in the oil field. Factors affecting product performance such as charge density, hydrophobe level, molecular weight, reaction conditions, and inverting surfactants have been investigated and optimized. Extended full scale Wemco plant test results show that this product can produce cleaner water at two to three times lower treat rate than currently used products. The plant filter backwash frequency is also significantly reduced thus resulting in a lower maintenance cost of the water treating plant.

Yang, H.W.; Pacansky, T.J.; Jacques, D.M.

1988-05-01

113

Data integration for reservoir characterization: A Central Arabian oil field  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A 3-D seismic survey covering an area of 128 square kilometers and a set of well logs from a new oil field in Central Arabia were utilized to study a selected geologic section and to evaluate the detectability of fluid-anomaly signal. The zone of interest includes the Permian Khuff, which is mainly carbonates and the underlying Unayzah, which is siliciclastic rocks. The Unayzah reservoir consists of two compartments that are thoroughly separated by a siltstone layer and sealed by the base Khuff shale. Production is controlled by a combination of structural and stratigraphic trapping. A least squares regression over a plane model was used for mapping the well log properties in x- and y-space. A useful reproduction of logs from two withheld wells was obtained with a prediction error that is normally distributed around zero. Strong amplitudes result from the manifestation of the Khuff channels into the reservoir interval. This overprint phenomenon results from time delay and from wavelet tail. However, the seismic data helped uncover some geologic details, and a weak amplitude flat spot with a limited lateral extent can be recognized in the lower sandstone. In this research, I study in detail the nature and degree of the correspondence between the seismic data and the wireline log data in this field. A plane fit of the estimated OWC seismic times produced a tilted OWC time map that indicates a simple velocity gradient. This procedure of estimating the fluid-contact level on seismic data does not require information on velocity nor seismic reference datum. It provides an improved picture of the relationship between the lithologic units and oil-water-contact. The OWC time at the well locations was estimated within +/-2.5 ms, which amounts to +/-17 ft depth error. This adequately accounts for lateral velocity variations and datum plane adjustment for improved time to depth conversion. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

Aljuhani, Salem Gulaiyel

114

Crude oil bioremediation field experiment in the Sea of Japan.  

PubMed

Experimental bioremediation of crude oil was conducted for approximately 3 months in the intertidal zone of the Sea of Japan, Hyogo Prefecture. Artificial mixtures of weathered Arabian light crude oil and sand taken from the experimental site were wrapped in polyester net envelopes. The envelopes were placed in drum-shaped acrylic vessels with perforated sides to facilitate seawater exchange. The vessels were laid in the intertidal area. Slow release nitrogen and phosphorus synthetic fertilizer granules were added to the oil-sand mixtures in three different amounts. Some oil-sand mixtures were unfertilized controls. The oil-sand mixtures were periodically sampled and changes in the composition of the residual oils were monitored. Oil samples were subjected to gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry for analysis of some representative semi-volatile aliphatic and aromatic compounds. All values for each analyte were normalized against that of hopane to evaluate the extent of oil biodegradation. Significant increases in the concentrations of both nitrogen and phosphorus were found in the fertilized sections in accordance with the amounts of added fertilizers. Although significant natural attenuation of oil was observed in the unfertilized sections, fertilization stimulated the degradation rate of the oil in the early stage of the experimental term. The extent of the oil biodegradation increased as the amount of added fertilizer increased. However, the final degradation efficiencies for each oil component in the fertilized sections were not significantly different from those in the unfertilized sections, and the degradation of each oil component had almost ceased after 6 weeks. We conclude that excessive amounts of macronutrients are required to accelerate oil biodegradation and that fertilization is only effective in the early stages. PMID:12787600

Maki, Hideaki; Hirayama, Noriko; Hiwatari, Takehiko; Kohata, Kunio; Uchiyama, Hiroo; Watanabe, Masataka; Yamasaki, Fumio; Furuki, Masakazu

2003-01-01

115

Infrared spectrometry field-method for identification of natural seep-oils.  

PubMed

An infrared field-method has been developed which is capable of distinguishing between oils originating from natural seepage in the Santa Barbara (California) Channel region and closely similar oils from onshore drilling platforms. The technique involves a minimum of sample preparation and the use of simple infrared instrumentation which can be operated by non-technical personnel. Natural seep-oil samples were collected from the surface of the water, underwater, and from beaches in the area. The non-seep oils were obtained from production wells which were located in the same geographical areas as the seepage and were from several different well depths corresponding to different geological zones. Natural seep-oils are more aromatic than the production oils, and this difference is evidenced by observed differences in the spectra for both weathered and unweathered oils. These spectral differences between seep and non-seep oils have been found to persist after exposure to weathering for a week. PMID:18963475

Grant, D F; Eastwood, D

1983-11-01

116

Using biomarkers to improve heavy oil reservoir management: An example from the cymric field, Kern County, California  

Microsoft Academic Search

For biodegraded oil accumulations, field development can be optimized by using geochemical indicators of variations in the extent of bacterial alteration. Biodegradation typically reduces oil producibility by increasing oil viscosity. In the Cymric field (Kern County, California), sidewall core extracts reveal that the extent of oil biodegradation changes substantially over extremely short vertical distances in a shallow, low-permeability reservoir. Zones

M. A. McCaffrey; H. A. Legarre; S. J. Johnson

1996-01-01

117

Globalizing the oil field; U. S. stronghold seen slipping  

SciTech Connect

This article assesses the current importance of North American reserves in a global context, recent technological trends that tend to erode the leadership that U.S. majors traditionally have enjoyed in this area and the new role played by national oil companies as full-fledged competitors to oil majors, even outside their territorial waters. A few strategic steps are outlined to aid U.S. major oil companies to these global forces meet the challenges created by and to strengthen their position in the global oil business.

Ellis, P.A. (Booz, Allen and Hamilton Inc., Dallas, TX (US)); Deffarges, E.H. (Booz, Allen and Hamilton Inc., San Francisco, CA (US))

1989-12-01

118

Microseismic monitoring of the Chaveroo oil field, New Mexico  

SciTech Connect

Induced microseismicity was monitored in the Chaveroo oil field in southeastern New Mexico during a pressurized stimulation of a well being prepared as an injector for a waterflood operation. In addition, the microseismicity was monitored for 5 weeks following the stimulation while the area was under normal waterflood production. Little seismicity was detected during the 5.5 hour stimulation in which three thousand barrels of water were injected into the reservoir at pressures ranging from 96 to 257 bars in excess of hydrostatic pressure. Intermittent monitoring over the 5-week period indicated detectable seismicity occurred during waterflood production. Monitoring during the 5 weeks, however, was not complete enough to draw general conclusions on temporal variations of observed microseismicity. Seventy-three good quality events recorded over a cumulative 24 hours of intermittent monitoring were located using the hodogram technique. Events were detected at distances up to 1700 m from the monitor well but most occurred within 900 m. The map of microearthquake locations indicated that events occurred in the vicinity of producing wells and away from injection wells. The first half of the sequence of mappable events occurred along linear trends, but the pattern became more scattered during the later half of the sequence. The lack of seismicity during the pressurized injection and the increased seismicity levels occurring away from injection wells during waterflood production, suggest seismicity is not induced by Mohr-Coulomb failure. 6 refs., 6 figs.

Rutledge, J.T.; Albright, J.N.; Fairbanks, T.D.; Murphy, M.B.; Roberts, P.M.

1990-01-01

119

77 FR 40637 - Wyatt VI, Inc., A Division of Wyatt Field Service Company, Working On-Site at Hovensa Oil...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Wyatt Field Service Company, Working On-Site at Hovensa Oil Refinery, Christiansted, St. Croix, VI; Notice of Affirmative Determination...Wyatt Field Service Company, working on-site at Hovensa Oil Refinery, Christiansted, St. Croix, Virgin Islands (subject...

2012-07-10

120

Increasing Heavy Oil Reserves in the Wilmington Oil Field through Advanced Reservoir Characterization and Thermal Production Technologies  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this project is to increase the recoverable heavy oil reserves within sections of the Wilmington Oil Field, near Long Beach, California. This is realized through the testing and application of advanced reservoir characterization and thermal production technologies. It is hoped that the successful application of these technologies will result in their implementation throughout the Wilmington Field and through technology transfer, will be extended to increase the recoverable oil reserves in other slope and basin clastic (SBC) reservoirs. The existing steamflood in the Tar zone of Fault Block (FB) II-A has been relatively insufficient because of several producability problems which are common in SBC reservoir; inadequate characterization of the heterogeneous turbidite sands, high permeability thief zones, low gravity oil and non-uniform distribution of the remaining oil. This has resulted in poor sweep efficiency, high steam-oil ratios, and early breakthrough. Operational problems related to steam breakthrough, high reservoir pressure, and unconsolidated sands have caused premature well and downhole equipment failures. In aggregate, these reservoir and operational constraints have resulted in increased operating costs and decreased recoverable reserves.

City of Long Beach; David K.Davies and Associates; Tidelands Oil Production Company; University of Southern California

1999-06-25

121

Biodegradation of diesel oil by an Arabian Sea sediment culture isolated from the vicinity of an oil field.  

PubMed

Laboratory scale batch studies were performed to test the diesel oil biodegradation ability of ES1 cultures isolated from Arabian Sea sediments obtained from the vicinity of an oil field. This culture could utilize diesel as the sole source of carbon and energy. Under aerobic conditions, 39% loss of diesel oil was observed over 8 days where 80% of the loss was due to aliphatic constituents. Under anoxic nitrate reducing conditions the rate and extent of degradation was significantly lower, i.e., 18% over 50 days. Salt acclimatized cultures could tolerate salinities up to 3.5% and demonstrated optimal performance at a salinity of 0.5%. The optimum N/P ratio for these cultures was found to be in the range of 2:1-5:1. Addition of two trace elemental substance formulations exhibited a significant inhibitory effect on culture growth. This culture has good potential for decontamination of oil-contaminated marine and subsurface environments. PMID:15288270

Mukherji, Suparna; Jagadevan, Sheeja; Mohapatra, Gita; Vijay, Avinash

2004-12-01

122

Chicxulub impact: The origin of reservoir and seal facies in the southeastern Mexico oil fields  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stratigraphic and mineralogic studies of Cretaceous-Tertiary (K-T) boundary sections demonstrate that the offshore oil-producing breccias and seals from oil fields in the Campeche marine platform are of K-T boundary age and that their mode of formation is probably related to the K-T impact event at Chicxulub. The oil-producing carbonate breccia and the overlying dolomitized ejecta layer (seal) found in several

José M. Grajales-Nishimura; Esteban Cedillo-Pardo; Carmen Rosales-Domínguez; Dante J. Morán-Zenteno; Walter Alvarez; Philippe Claeys; José Ruíz-Morales; Jesús García-Hernández; Patricia Padilla-Avila; Antonieta Sánchez-Ríos

2000-01-01

123

IMPROVED APPROACHES TO DESIGN OF POLYMER GEL TREATMENTS IN MATURE OIL FIELDS: FIELD DEMONSTRATION IN DICKMAN FIELD, NESS COUNTY, KANSAS  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the results of the one-year project entitled ''Improved Approaches to Design of Polymer Gel Treatments in Mature Oil Fields: Field Demonstration in Dickman Field, Ness County, Kansas''. The project was a 12-month collaboration of Grand Mesa Operating Company (a small independent), TIORCO Inc. (a company focused on improved recovery technology) and the University of Kansas. The study undertook tasks to determine an optimum polymer gel treatment design in Mississippian reservoirs, demonstrate application, and evaluate the success of the program. The project investigated geologic and engineering parameters and cost-effective technologies required for design and implementation of effective polymer gel treatment programs in the Mississippian reservoir in the Midcontinent. The majority of Mississippian production in Kansas occurs at or near the top of the Mississippian section just below the regional sub-Pennsylvanian unconformity and karst surface. Dickman Field with the extremely high water cuts and low recovery factors is typical of Mississippian reservoirs. Producibility problems in these reservoirs include inadequate reservoir characterization, drilling and completion design problems, and most significantly extremely high water cuts and low recovery factors that place continued operations at or near their economic limits. Geologic, geophysical and engineering data were integrated to provide a technical foundation for candidate selection and treatment design. Data includes core, engineering data, and 3D seismic data. Based on technical and economic considerations a well was selected for gel-polymer treatment (Grand Mesa Operating Company Tilley No.2). The treatment was not successful due to the small amount of polymer that could be injected. Data from the initial well and other candidates in the demonstration area was analyzed using geologic, geophysical and engineering data. Based on the results of the treatment and the integrated reservoir characterization it was determined that a second polymer-gel treatment could not be justified. The Mississippian reservoir at Dickman Field is much more complex than originally anticipated with numerous reservoir compartments and potential attic oil beneath the irregular Mississippian karst. It appears that remaining oil in place could be best recovered using improved oil recovery techniques such as target infill drilling and horizontal wells.

Ronald Fowler

2004-11-30

124

Pressure boosting technology recovers reserves in low pressure oil and gas fields  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fragmentation of reservoirs or production from different zones often results in oil or gas wells having different flowing wellhead pressures (FWHP). In many fields, the wells flow to a manifold, then the oil and gas is transported by pipeline to a processing plant. Production from the low-pressure (LP) wells is often restricted because of the backpressure imposed by the high-pressure

Sarshar

1999-01-01

125

APPLICATION OF CROSS-BOREHOLE RADAR TO MONITOR FIELD­ SCALE VEGETABLE OIL INJECTION EXPERIMENTS FOR BIOSTIMULATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cross-borehole radar methods were used to monitor a field-scale biostimulation pilot project at the Anoka County Riverfront Park (ACP), located downgradient of the Naval Industrial Reserve Ordnance Plant, in Fridley, Minnesota. The goal of the pilot project is to evaluate biostimulation using emulsified vegetable oil to treat ground water contaminated with chlorinated hydrocarbons. Vegetable oil is intended to serve as

Frederick D. Day-Lewis; Roelof J. Versteeg; Clifton C. Casey

126

Experimental and theoretical investigation of the Zaoyuan field heavy oil flow through porous media  

Microsoft Academic Search

The behavior of the heavy oil in the Zaoyuan field of China is characterized by experimental and theoretical studies of its rheology and viscoelasticity, and flow properties in porous media. The Zaoyuan heavy oil requires a certain start-up pressure gradient prior to flow initiation and essentially obeys the Herschel-Bulkley rheological model. The conventional rheological experiments reveal that the Zaoyuan heavy

Shaojun Wang; Yanzhang Huang; Faruk Civan

2006-01-01

127

Summary of Field Equipment Requirements for Responding to Riverine Oil Spills in Ice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oil spill response equipment and field experience in northern riverine and ice environments is limited. Successful responses have depended on planning and preparedness for quick deployment of response equipment into inland ice-covered waters in rivers. This paper is a summary of technology and equipment requirements for responding to riverine pipeline oil spills in ice, particularly as it relates to experiences

2002-01-01

128

Composition and physical properties of cress ( Lepidium sativum L.) and field pennycress ( Thlaspi arvense L .) oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fatty acid profiles and tocopherol and phytosterol contents of crude oils of cress (Lepidium sativum L.) and field pennycress (Thlaspi arvense L.) are reported, along with yields from the corresponding seeds. The physical properties of these oils were also determined, which included oxidative stability, kinematic viscosity, viscosity index, low temperature fluidity, specific gravity, acid value, lubricity, and iodine value.

Bryan R. Moser; Shailesh N. Shah; Jill K. Winkler-Moser; Steven F. Vaughn; Roque L. Evangelista

2009-01-01

129

Lessons in microbial geochemistry from the Coal Oil Point seep field: progress as prospects  

Microsoft Academic Search

The hydrocarbon seeps located offshore Coal Oil Point, Santa Barbara, CA, are estimated to emit 1010 grams of methane and 50 thousand barrels of oil annually, and are among the most prolific in the world. The seep field spans a range of shelf depths and many of the seeps are accessible by SCUBA, making this an ideal location to investigate

D. L. Valentine; F. Kinnaman; G. Wardlaw; M. Redmond; H. Ding; J. Kimball; L. Busso; A. Larson

2005-01-01

130

Costs and Indexes for Domestic Oil and Gas Field Equipment and Production Operations, 1981.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This is the fifth annual report in a series that presents the costs and indexes for domestic oil and gas field equipmnt and production operations for 1981. Equipping and operating costs for oil leases producing by primary means and for gas leases have bee...

V. T. Funk T. C. Anderson

1982-01-01

131

Chemical composition of asphaltenes of crude oil from Baradero field in Cuba  

SciTech Connect

Asphaltenes of crude oil from Baradero field in Cuba have been studied by physical and physicochemical methods. Dynamics of distribution of nitrogen, sulfur, and oxygen and also various functional groups in asphaltenes has been described. These data can be used for the proper deasphalting of crude oil and further treatment of asphaltenes.

Platonov, V.V.; Proskuryakov, V.A.; Klyavina, O.A.; Kolyabina, N.A. [L.N. Tolstoi Tula State Pedagogical Institute (Russian Federation)

1994-09-10

132

Evaluation of water resources for enhanced oil recovery operations, Cement Field, Caddo and Grady Counties, Oklahoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report is based on the results of an investigation of the water resources local to the Cement Oil Field in Caddo and Grady Counties, southwestern, Oklahoma. The intent of the report is to present at least a semi-quantitative estimate of the volume, deliverability, and chemistry of the water potentially available for enhanced oil recovery in one or more Oklahoma

D. A. Preston; W. E. Harrison; K. V. Luza; L. Prater; R. J. Reddy

1982-01-01

133

Dobson Butte field, Williston basin, Stark County, North Dakota: nontypical oil production  

SciTech Connect

The Dobson Butte field (T139N, R96W), Stark County, North Dakota, was discovered in 1982 following a detailed seismic program. Production is primarily from a structural trap in the Interlake Formation of Silurian age. Three oil wells are presently producing from a dolomite reservoir at about 11,000 ft in depth. Primary recoverable reserves of these three producing wells is calculated to be about 2 million bbl of oil. Additional reserves will come from further development of the Interlake reservoir as well as from the deeper Red River (Ordovician) Formation. The Dobson Butte field is a nontypical oil field within the Williston basin as to its high pour point oil (90/sup 0/F), high production water cuts (85-95%), lack of good oil shows in samples, unpredictable noncontinuous oil-producing reservoirs throughout the entire 600-ft Interlake Formation, difficulty in log interpretations, and difficulty in determining the source bed. The interpretation of these nontypical characteristics of Interlake oil production in the Dobson Butte field compared to other Interlake oil production within the Williston basin will have a profound effect upon future Interlake exploration.

Guy, W.J.

1987-05-01

134

ALASKA NORTH SLOPE OIL-FIELD RESTORATION RESEARCH STRATEGY (ANSORRS)  

EPA Science Inventory

This document provides a research strategy to support ecological restoration of disturbances related to oil and gas developments on the North Slope of Alaska that is mutually beneficial to the arctic ecorestoration research community and the arctic regulatory community (including...

135

Modeling reservoir heterogeneity to determine current oil saturation distribution in a mature field  

SciTech Connect

The Rangely field is a 900-well giant oil field located in northwest Colorado. The field is at the facies transition between the clean, eolian Weber Sandstone derived from the north and the tight arkosic sandstones and shales of the Marcon Formation derived from the south. The Weber Sandstone produces from six discrete stratigraphic horizons. The character of these depositional packages varies, both vertically and laterally, across the field. This Heterogeneity significantly affects field performance. The Rangely Weber Sand Unit has produced 700 million STB of oil by primary and secondary recovery from an OOIP of over 1,500 million STB of oil. A tertiary recovery project was initiated in 1986 using carbon dioxide as a solvent. Currently, over one-third of the 30,000 STB/day oil rate is attributed to solvent injection. A team of development geologists and reservoir engineers has been working to ensure the continued success of the CO{sub 2} project by refining the geologic model. The porosity, permeability, and original oil saturation distributions have been redefined using modem data and also to account for reservoir heterogeneity. From this data, the current distribution of recoverable oil was determined through the use of a hybrid simulation technique that combines geostatistical interpolation with finite difference and stream-tube displacement simulators. Knowing the distribution of secondary and tertiary recoverable oil will allow aggressive reservoir management to improve recovery efficiency and project profitability through infill drilling, pattern realignment and prioritized allocation of CO{sub 2} resources.

Collings, R.C.; Morton-Thompson, D. (Chevron U.S.A. Inc., Englewood, CO (USA))

1990-05-01

136

Geographical differences in cancer incidence in the Amazon basin of Ecuador in relation to residence near oil fields  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background Since 1972, oil companies have extracted more than 2 billion barrels of crude oil from the Ecuadorian Amazon, releasing billions of gallons of untreated wastes and oil directly into the environment. This study aimed to determine if there was any difference in overall and specific cancer incidence rates between populations living in proximity to oil fields and those who

Anna-Karin Hurtig; Miguel San Sebastián

2002-01-01

137

The space-time structure of oil and gas field growth in a complex depositional system  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Shortly after the discovery of an oil and gas field, an initial estimate is usually made of the ultimate recovery of the field. With the passage of time, this initial estimate is almost always revised upward. The phenomenon of the growth of the expected ultimate recovery of a field, which is known as "field growth," is important to resource assessment analysts for several reasons. First, field growth is the source of a large part of future additions to the inventory of proved reserves of crude oil and natural gas in most petroliferous areas of the world. Second, field growth introduces a large negative bias in the forecast of the future rates of discovery of oil and gas fields made by discovery process models. In this study, the growth in estimated ultimate recovery of oil and gas in fields made up of sandstone reservoirs formed in a complex depositional environment (Frio strand plain exploration play) is examined. The results presented here show how the growth of oil and gas fields is tied directly to the architectural element of the shoreline processes and tectonics that caused the deposition of the individual sand bodies hosting the producible hydrocarbon. ?? 1994 Oxford University Press.

Drew, L. J.; Mast, R. F.; Schuenemeyer, J. H.

1994-01-01

138

Production and Evaluation of Biodiesel from Field Pennycress ( Thlaspi arvense L.) Oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Field pennycress (Thlaspi arVense L.) oil is evaluated for the first time as a feedstock for biodiesel production. Biodiesel was obtained in 82 wt % yield by a standard transesterification procedure with methanol and sodium methoxide catalyst at 60 °C and an alcohol to oil molar ratio of 6:1. Acid-catalyzed pretreatment to reduce the acid value of crude field pennycress

Bryan R. Moser; Gerhard Knothe; Steven F. Vaughn; Terry A. Isbell

2009-01-01

139

Geologic control of natural marine hydrocarbon seep emissions, Coal Oil Point seep field, California  

Microsoft Academic Search

High-resolution sonar surveys, and a detailed subsurface model constructed from 3D seismic and well data allowed investigation of the relationship between the subsurface geology and gas-phase (methane) seepage for the Coal Oil Point (COP) seep field, one of the world's largest and best-studied marine oil and gas seep fields, located over a producing hydrocarbon reservoir near Santa Barbara, California. In

Ira Leifer; Marc J. Kamerling; Bruce P. Luyendyk; Douglas S. Wilson

2010-01-01

140

Geologic control of natural marine hydrocarbon seep emissions, Coal Oil Point seep field, California  

Microsoft Academic Search

High-resolution sonar surveys, and a detailed subsurface model constructed from 3D seismic and well data allowed investigation\\u000a of the relationship between the subsurface geology and gas-phase (methane) seepage for the Coal Oil Point (COP) seep field,\\u000a one of the world’s largest and best-studied marine oil and gas seep fields, located over a producing hydrocarbon reservoir\\u000a near Santa Barbara, California. In

Ira Leifer; Marc J. Kamerling; Bruce P. Luyendyk; Douglas S. Wilson

2010-01-01

141

Field study - Steinle Ranch, an intermediate depth oil field, shows significant benefit from bauxite proppants  

SciTech Connect

The Steinle Ranch field initially was developed in the mid-1970s. Wells were drilled, cased, perforated, and treated by chemical injection with lease-crude or condensate carriers to restore oil saturation to the formation, which is suspected to be hydrophobic. Stimulation by hydraulic fracturing of 4 wells was attempted from 1975 through 1977 with mixed results and no particular success. These treatments used sand and glass beads for proppant. A fifth hydraulic fracture treatment, in which sintered bauxite was used as the proppant was very successful. As a result, all wells in the field have been fractured. This program, in a mature field in late stages of depletion, at intermediate depth (10,600 ft), has been very successful; ca 940,000 bbl of additional reserves have resulted for a total cost of ca $2,000,000, a return on investment of 9.4:1. Comparing these reserves to estimated reserves if the wells had been propped with sand shows a 23:1 return by the incremental reserves on the incremental cost of the bauxite.

Kohlhaas, C.A.

1982-01-01

142

Influence of Temperature and Oil Content on the Soil\\/Air Partition Coefficient for Hexachlorobenzene in Oil-Contaminated Rice Paddy Field Soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

The soil\\/air partition coefficients (KSA) for hexachlorobenzene (HCB) in oil-contaminated (crude oil and diesel) rice paddy field soils were measured in a solid fugacity meter at different oil concentrations over the temperature range of 5 to 30°C at 100% relative humidity. The results showed that values of KSA increased with a decrease of temperature. As for oil content, there is

Xin He; Shuo Chen; Xie Quan; Huimin Zhao; Yazhi Zhao

2011-01-01

143

The discovery and development of the El Dorado (Kansas) oil field  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Pioneers named El Dorado, Kansas, in 1857 for the beauty of the site and the promise of future riches but not until 58 years later was black rather than mythical yellow gold discovered when the Stapleton No. 1 oil well came in on October 5, 1915. El Dorado's leaders were envious when nearby towns found huge gas fields and thrived. John Donley, an El Dorado barber, had tried to find either gas or oil in 1878 at a nearby site selected by a spiritualist. He staked out a townsite, spudded a well and drilled 200 feet before running out of money. Wells in 1879 and 1882 produced only brine. In June, 1914, chafed over discovery of oil in nearby Augusta, El Dorado city fathers contracted with Erasmus Haworth, soon to retire from his position as State Geologist, to perform a geological study of the area. His field work outlined the El Dorado Anticline, which unsuccessfully was drilled first in August, 1915. On abandonment, the Wichita Natural Gas Company purchased the lease and drilled the Stapleton No. 1 oil well. More success followed and by 1918, the El Dorado produced 29 million barrels, almost 9% of the nation's oil. Entrepreneurs came and prospered: the Cities Service Oil Company, A.L. Derby, Jack Vickers, and Bill Skelly all became familiar names in Midcontinent oil marketing. Earlier giant fields had hurt the price of crude oil but the El Dorado came in as both World War I and the rapid popularization of motor transport made a market for both light and heavy ends of the refinery stream. The giant gas field never materialized as hoped but in late 1995, the El Dorado Field produced its 300 millionth barrel of oil.

Skelton, L. H.

1997-01-01

144

Laser refabricating of expensive parts of the equipment in oil-field on the sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There are many expensive types of equipment in oil field on the sea from U.S.A or Europe in China. Some important components due to wear and erosion do not work; the large economic challenge needs laser recondition of the expensive parts. We have developed new laser cladding process for re-fabricating the long axle shaft and the body case in transferring oil pump in oil field on the sea. Using 5KW-CO2 lasers and the powder feeder, the cladding layer of NiCrSiB alloy on 40CrMo steel axle shaft with no crack and pores has been performed. The control distortion of long axle shaft during laser cladding has been researched. The laser re-fabricating has now been used to repairing production in the Bohai oil field in China.

Yang, Xi-chen; Wang, Yun-shan; Lei, Jian-bo; Li, Hui-shan

2005-01-01

145

Oil, gas field growth projections: Wishful thinking or reality?  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The observed `field growth' for the period from 1992 through 1996 with the US Geological Survey's (USGS) predicted field growth for the same period are compared. Known field recovery of field size is defined as the sum of past cumulative field production and the field's proved reserves. Proved reserves are estimated quantities of hydrocarbons which geologic and engineering data demonstrate with reasonable certainty to recoverable from known fields under existing economic and operating conditions. Proved reserve estimates calculated with this definition are typically conservative. The modeling approach used by the USGS to characterize `field growth phenomena' is statistical rather that geologic in nature.

Attanasi, E. D.; Mast, R. F.; Root, D. H.

1999-01-01

146

Preliminary technical and legal evaluation of disposing of nonhazardous oil field waste into salt caverns  

SciTech Connect

Caverns can be readily formed in salt formations through solution mining. The caverns may be formed incidentally, as a result of salt recovery, or intentionally to create an underground chamber that can be used for storing hydrocarbon products or compressed air or disposing of wastes. The purpose of this report is to evaluate the feasibility, suitability, and legality of disposing of nonhazardous oil and gas exploration, development, and production wastes (hereafter referred to as oil field wastes, unless otherwise noted) in salt caverns. Chapter 2 provides background information on: types and locations of US subsurface salt deposits; basic solution mining techniques used to create caverns; and ways in which salt caverns are used. Later chapters provide discussion of: federal and state regulatory requirements concerning disposal of oil field waste, including which wastes are considered eligible for cavern disposal; waste streams that are considered to be oil field waste; and an evaluation of technical issues concerning the suitability of using salt caverns for disposing of oil field waste. Separate chapters present: types of oil field wastes suitable for cavern disposal; cavern design and location; disposal operations; and closure and remediation. This report does not suggest specific numerical limits for such factors or variables as distance to neighboring activities, depths for casings, pressure testing, or size and shape of cavern. The intent is to raise issues and general approaches that will contribute to the growing body of information on this subject.

Veil, J.; Elcock, D.; Raivel, M.; Caudle, D.; Ayers, R.C. Jr.; Grunewald, B.

1996-06-01

147

Genesis and formation oil and gas fields (Azerbaijan)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The large amount of material of HC isotope composition of over 330 samples allow to restore the history of oil and gas deposits formation within the South-Caspian Depression. Maps of isotope composition changes according to area extent, as well as graphs of HC distribution depending upon stratigraphic age, including rocks, graphs of isotope composition change on sampling depth were compiled

Alexander Poletayev

2010-01-01

148

Correlating Field and Laboratory Data for Crude Oil Fouling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Crude oil fouling in a laboratory fouling unit was investigated. The study focused on the preheat-train heat exchangers located just before the crude unit furnace and operating at temperatures in excess of 200 C. A fouling rate model developed using laboratory data from crude blends was used to predict the threshold conditions where negligible fouling was expected under refinery conditions.

C. B. Panchal; C. F. Liao

2000-01-01

149

Complete Moment Tensor Determination of Induced Seismicity in Unconventional and Conventional Oil/Gas Fields  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Induced seismicity occurs both in conventional oil/gas fields due to production and water injection and in unconventional oil/gas fields due to hydraulic fracturing. Source mechanisms of these induced earthquakes are of great importance for understanding their causes and the physics of the seismic processes in reservoirs. Previous research on the analysis of induced seismic events in conventional oil/gas fields assumed a double couple (DC) source mechanism. However, recent studies have shown a non-negligible percentage of a non-double-couple (non-DC) component of source moment tensor in hydraulic fracturing events (Šílený et al., 2009; Warpinski and Du, 2010; Song and Toksöz, 2011). In this study, we determine the full moment tensor of the induced seismicity data in a conventional oil/gas field and for hydrofrac events in an unconventional oil/gas field. Song and Toksöz (2011) developed a full waveform based complete moment tensor inversion method to investigate a non-DC source mechanism. We apply this approach to the induced seismicity data from a conventional gas field in Oman. In addition, this approach is also applied to hydrofrac microseismicity data monitored by downhole geophones in four wells in US. We compare the source mechanisms of induced seismicity in the two different types of gas fields and explain the differences in terms of physical processes.

Gu, C.; Li, J.; Toksoz, M. N.

2013-12-01

150

An overview of giant oil and gas fields of the decade: 1978-1988  

SciTech Connect

Scientific studies and projections of future world energy demand indicate that although alternate-energy fuel sources must be actively pursued and developed, there must be adequate petroleum supplies to bridge the gap. For the international petroleum industry, the years covered by this conference, 1978-1988, were complex. They were years of boom and bust. The world's energy consciousness was boosted sharply by the effects of the 1979 Iranian revolution and the resulting embargo that sent world oil prices to record heights. Global petroleum exploration soon surged, leading to the industry's all-time drilling high in 1981. Then came the oil price collapse in 1985, and the following years were characterized by falling oil prices and drastic budget cuts for exploration and development. Although exploration dropped sharply, there was a steady flow of giant oil and gas field discoveries. Using the giant field designation criteria of 500 million bbl of oil recoverable for fields in Asiatic Russia, North Africa, and the Middle East; 100 million bbl of oil recoverable for the fields in the remainder of the world; and 3 tcf and 1 tcf of gas reserves recoverable for the same areas, respectively, it is estimated that at least 182 oil and gas fields containing an estimated 140 billion BOE were discovered in 46 countries during the years covered by this conference. Today, exploration is slowly gaining momentum in all types of petroleum provinces-intensely explored, partially explored, moderately explored, and essentially unexplored - and as long as exploration continues in whatever area of the world, there will always be opportunities to find giant oil and gas fields.

Halbouty, M.T. (Michel T. Halbouty Energy Co., Houston, TX (USA))

1990-09-01

151

Oil Spill Prevention Response and Cleanup: Google Earth Virtual Field Trip Activity  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this well thought out virtual field trip your students will learn about oil spill prevention response and cleanup methods at various sites in Alaska. It is an excellent activity to teach students about policy and procedures needed to make oil transportation safe. In addition, it is a great science activity to learn about the microbiology methods behind cleaning up oil spills. The 2008 ATEEC Fellows Institute brought 18 community college and high school instructors from the environmental sciences to Alaska. They created virtual field trips using Google Earth. Learn from the experts in this interactive tour complete with video offering expert insight into the world of the oil industry. In this well thought out Google Earth virtual field trip you will learn about oil spill prevention response and cleanup methods at various sites in Alaska highlighting the Alyeska Marine Terminal. An excellent activity to teach students about policy and procedures needed to make oil transportation safe. In addition it is a great science activity to learn about the microbiology methods behind cleaning up oil spills. An excellent teachers guide is included as well. This resource is free to download. Users must first create a login with ATEEC's website to access the file.

2013-06-24

152

Molecular biologic techniques applied to the microbial prospecting of oil and gas in the Ban 876 gas and oil field in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Currently, molecular biologic techniques achieve a great development in studies of soil samples. The objective of this research\\u000a is to improve methods for microbial prospecting of oil and gas by applying culture-independent techniques to soil sampled\\u000a from above a known oil and gas field. Firstly, the community structure of soil bacteria above the Ban 876 Gas and Oil Field\\u000a was

Fan Zhang; Yuehui She; Yong Zheng; Zhifeng Zhou; Shuqiong Kong; Dujie Hou

2010-01-01

153

The Tengiz oil field, Pri-Caspian basin, USSR, a super giant of the '80s  

SciTech Connect

The supergiant Tengiz oil field, located near the southeastern edge of the Pri-Caspian basin is one of the most important new discoveries made in the last decade. The Tengiz oil field occurs in a desert climate on the edge of the Caspian Sea and experiences extreme temperature variations along with other harsh environmental conditions. The structure was first identified by seismic surveys in 1975 when it became possible to map the base of thick Permian salt. The first exploration well was drilled on the top of the pre-salt structure in 1979 and encountered important oil-bearing carbonates. The drilling of additional appraisal wells and the acquisition of three-dimensional seismic with improved seismic velocities contributed to the development of the Tengiz seismic-geologic model and confirmed the presence of a super-giant oil accumulation. The amplitude of the structure is approximately 1,000 m and covers an area of 400 mi{sup 2}. The oil column exceeds 1,500 m without having encountered an oil-water contact. Proven plus probable reserves are estimated to exceed 18 billion bbl. Oil production rates up to 8,000 bbl/day per well have been experienced. The reservoir rocks, which range from Upper Devonian to Middle Carboniferous, are comprised of biohermal and nodular limestones and characterized by variable porosity and permeability. The best reservoir quality is attributed to widespread fractures, vugs, and solution cavities that supplement the primary porosity. Recrystallization and healed fractures with substantial amounts of solid bitumen are observed throughout the reservoir. The reservoir pressure is abnormally high. The oil gravity is approximately 45{degree} API and the sulfur content is low. There is no gas cap on the Tengiz field, and the oil is highly undersaturated. The associated gas contains a high percentage of H{sub 2}S, which must be considered in field development.

Lisovsky, N.N.; Gogonenkov, G.N.; Petzuukha, Y.A. (Ministry of Oil and Gas, Moscow (USSR))

1990-05-01

154

Increased Oil Recovery from Mature Oil Fields Using Gelled Polymer Treatments  

SciTech Connect

Gelled polymer treatments were applied to oil reservoirs to increase oil production and to reduce water production by altering the fluid movement within the reservoir. This report is aimed at reducing barriers to the widespread use of these treatments by developing methods to predict gel behavior during placement in matrix rock and fractures, determining the persistence of permeability reduction after gel placement, and by developing methods to design production well treatments to control water production. Procedures were developed to determine the weight-average molecular weight and average size of polyacrylamide samples in aqueous solutions. Sample preparation techniques were key to achieving reproducible results.

Willhite, G.P.; Green, D.W.; McCool, S.

2001-03-28

155

9000 wells planned for heavy oil field. [Canada  

SciTech Connect

Beginning in 1983, Esso Resources Canada Ltd. will begin drilling the first of an estimated 9000 directional crude bitumen wells in the tar sands at Cold Lake, Alberta, Canada, the final wells being drilled in the year 2008. The area, covering 50 sq miles of extreme E. Alberta along the Saskatchewan border, contains one of the richest deposits of heavy oil sands in Canada. The company and future partners will drill the bitumen wells directionally into the shallow clearwater formation, which can be reached at approx. 100 m (330 ft). The formation contains an estimated 80 billion bbl of crude bitumen at a rate of 60,000 bpd for 25 yr. This volume of crude will be refined in an upgrading plant to 140,000 bpd of synthetic crude oil. When completed, the Cold Lake project will be one of the largest facilities for producing crude bitumen from wells in the world.

Not Available

1981-05-01

156

Rapid subsidence over oil fields measured by SAR  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Lost Hills and Belridge oil felds are in the San Joaquin Valley, California. The major oil reservoir is high porosity and low permeability diatomite. Extraction of large volumes from shallow depths causes reduction in pore pressure and subsequent compaction, forming a surface subsidence bowl. We measure this subsidence from space using interferometric analysis of SAR (Synthetic Aperture Radar) data collected by the European Space Agency Remote Sensing Satellites (ERS-1 and ERS-2). Maximum subsidence rates are as high as 40 mm in 35 days or > 400 mm/yr, measured from interferograms with time separations ranging from one day to 26 months. The 8- and 26-month interferograms contain areas where the subsidence gradient exceeds the measurement possible with ERS SAR, but shows increased detail in areas of less rapid subsidence. Synoptic mapping of subsidence distribution from satellite data powerfully complements ground-based techniques, permits measurements where access is difficult, and aids identification of underlying causes.

Fielding, E. J.; Blom, R. G.; Goldstein, R. M.

1998-01-01

157

Derivative-Free Optimization for Oil Field Operations  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a A variety of optimization problems associated with oil production involve cost functions and constraints that require calls\\u000a to a subsurface flow simulator. In many situations gradient information cannot be obtained efficiently, or a global search\\u000a is required. This motivates the use of derivative-free (non-invasive, blackbox) optimization methods. This chapter describes\\u000a the use of several derivative-free techniques, including generalized pattern search,

David Ciaurri; Tapan Mukerji; Louis J. Durlofsky

158

Bird Mortality in Oil Field Wastewater Disposal Facilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Commercial and centralized oilfield wastewater disposal facilities (COWDFs) are used in the Western United States for the\\u000a disposal of formation water produced from oil and natural gas wells. In Colorado, New Mexico, Utah, and Wyoming, COWDFs use\\u000a large evaporation ponds to dispose of the wastewater. Birds are attracted to these large evaporation ponds which, if not managed\\u000a properly, can cause

Pedro Ramirez Jr

2010-01-01

159

Livestock poisoning from oil field drilling fluids, muds and additives  

SciTech Connect

The use and potential toxicity of various components of oil well drilling fluids, muds and additives are presented. Many components are extremely caustic resulting in rumenitis. Solvent and petroleum hydrocarbon components may cause aspiration pneumonia and rumen dysfunction. Some additives cause methemoglobinemia. The most frequently encountered heavy metals are lead, chromium, arsenic, lithium and copper. Considerations for investigating livestock poisoning cases and several typical cases are reviewed.

Edwards, W.C.; Gregory, D.G. (Oklahoma Animal Disease Diagnostic Laboratory, College of Veterinary Medicine, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater (Unites States))

1991-10-01

160

Analysis of Oil and Gas Reserves, Eugene Island Block 276 Field, Louisiana. Final Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The following conclusions were reached from the analysis of oil and gas reserves in the Eugene Island Block 276 Field, Louisiana. The Eugene Island Block 276 Field is nearing depletion with four to five years' reserves remaining at the current production ...

1975-01-01

161

The 7 May 2001 induced seismic event in the Ekofisk oil field, North Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

A moderate size seismic event on 7 May 2001 was strongly felt on platforms in the Ekofisk oil field, in the southern North Sea, but did not cause damage to platforms or wells. We combined near- and far-field observations to develop a consistent source model and to determine whether the event was induced. Seismic data placed the epicenter inside the

L. Ottemöller; H. H. Nielsen; K. Atakan; J. Braunmiller; J. Havskov

2005-01-01

162

Planning and management of the Nido Reef Complex Oil Field development, Philippines  

SciTech Connect

As Operator for the Northeast Palawan consortium, Philippines-Cities Service, Inc., commenced the Philippines first commercial offshore oil production from the Nido Reef Complex Oil Field on February 1, 1979, some 11 months after a decision by management to start development. The relative speed at which design, fabrication, and construction were accomplished is attributed to the use of the concepts of project planning, task force approach, and project management. This paper presents the above concepts as applied to the Nido Complex.

Harry, R.Y.

1981-01-01

163

De-convoluting mixed crude oil in Prudhoe Bay Field, North Slope, Alaska  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seventy-four crude oil samples from the Barrow arch on the North Slope of Alaska were studied to assess the relative volumetric contributions from different source rocks to the giant Prudhoe Bay Field. We applied alternating least squares to concentration data (ALS-C) for 46 biomarkers in the range C19–C35 to de-convolute mixtures of oil generated from carbonate rich Triassic Shublik Formation

Kenneth E. Peters; L. Scott Ramos; John E. Zumberge; Zenon C. Valin; Kenneth J. Bird

2008-01-01

164

Process and economic model of in-field heavy oil upgrading using aqueous pyrolysis  

SciTech Connect

A process and economic model for aqueous pyrolysis in-field upgrading of heavy oil has been developed. The model has been constructed using the ASPEN PLUS chemical process simulator. The process features cracking of heavy oil at moderate temperatures in the presence of water to increase oil quality and thus the value of the oil. Calculations with the model indicate that for a 464 Mg/day (3,000 bbl/day) process, which increases the oil API gravity of the processed oil from 13.5{degree} to 22.4{degree}, the required value increase of the oil would need to be at least $2.80/Mg{center_dot}{degree}API($0.40/bbl{center_dot}{degree}API) to make the process economically attractive. This level of upgrading has been demonstrated in preliminary experiments with candidate catalysts. For improved catalysts capable of having the coke make and increasing the pyrolysis rate, a required price increase for the oil as low as $1.34/Mg{center_dot}{degree}API ($0.21/bbl{center_dot}{degree}API)has been calculated.

Thorsness, C. B., LLNL

1997-01-21

165

Observed oil and gas field size distributions: A consequence of the discovery process and prices of oil and gas  

USGS Publications Warehouse

If observed oil and gas field size distributions are obtained by random samplings, the fitted distributions should approximate that of the parent population of oil and gas fields. However, empirical evidence strongly suggests that larger fields tend to be discovered earlier in the discovery process than they would be by random sampling. Economic factors also can limit the number of small fields that are developed and reported. This paper examines observed size distributions in state and federal waters of offshore Texas. Results of the analysis demonstrate how the shape of the observable size distributions change with significant hydrocarbon price changes. Comparison of state and federal observed size distributions in the offshore area shows how production cost differences also affect the shape of the observed size distribution. Methods for modifying the discovery rate estimation procedures when economic factors significantly affect the discovery sequence are presented. A primary conclusion of the analysis is that, because hydrocarbon price changes can significantly affect the observed discovery size distribution, one should not be confident about inferring the form and specific parameters of the parent field size distribution from the observed distributions. ?? 1988 International Association for Mathematical Geology.

Drew, L. J.; Attanasi, E. D.; Schuenemeyer, J. H.

1988-01-01

166

Methane-forming bacteria of oil-fields  

SciTech Connect

Pure cultures of the methanogenic bacteria, Methanobacterium bryantii and M. formicicum have been isolated, for the first time from oil deposits and their morphological, physiological and biochemical properties studied. All strains grow of H/sub 2//CO/sub 2/ and two of the three M. formicicum also utilize formate as a role source of carbon and energy. In no case could methanol, acetate, methylamine or glucose serve as an energy source for these autotrophs. All strains were resistant to penicillin and streptomycin and neither sulfate or sulfide inhibited their growth. Medium salinity inhibited the growth of M. bryantii but not that of M. formicicum.

Laurinavichus, K.S.; Obraztsova, A.Ya.; Belyaev, S.S.; Ivanov, M.V.

1983-03-01

167

Special ESP configurations designed to test and produce Yemen oil field. [Electric-Submersible Pump  

Microsoft Academic Search

Innovative electric-submersible-pump (ESP) configurations were used in the exploration phase of a Yemen oil field discovered by Canadian Occidental Petroleum Ltd. Because of subnormal reservoir pressure, CanOxy developed the field with ESPs and had to install surface components that could operate at the high, 130 F., ambient temperatures common in Yemen. The field is in a remote area that has

1993-01-01

168

Visualization by light transmission of oil and water contents in transient two-phase flow fields  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The difficulty of determining transient fluid contents in a soil-oil-water system is hampering an understanding of the system's flow characteristics. In this paper, we describe a light transmission method (LTM) which can rapidly obtain oil and water contents throughout a large two-dimensional flow field of silica sand. By appropriately coloring the water with 0.005% FD&C blue #1, the hue of the transmitted light is found to be directly related to the water content within the porous media. The hue provides a high resolution measurement of the water and oil contents in transient flow fields (such as unstable flow). Evaluation of the reliability of LTM was assessed by checking the mass balance for a known water injection and its utility in visualizing a whole flow field was exemplified for unstable fingered flow by comparing fluid contents to those obtained with synchrotron X-ray radiation.

Darnault, Christophe J. G.; Throop, James A.; DiCarlo, David A.; Rimmer, Alon; Steenhuis, Tammo S.; Parlange, J.-Yves

1998-06-01

169

Structural styles and stratigraphy of Terra Nova Oil Field, Grand Banks  

SciTech Connect

Mesozoic evolution of the Grand Banks involved several episodes of crustal extension that created a suite of northeast-southwest-trending half-grabens. The dominant period of extension was late Callovian to Aptian, when the crust of the central Grand Banks failed along a gently dipping down-to-the-west shear zone. Listric basin-bounding faults sole at this detachment zone. One of these faults, the Murre fault, bounds the very deep Jeanne d'Arc basin. Cross-basin transfer faults accommodated different amounts and rates of extension and resulted in the conspicuous offset pattern and funnel-shaped geometry of the Jeanne d'Arc basin. The Terra Nova oil fields is located where basin-trending faults are intersected by a transfer fault. The stratigraphy of the Terra Nova oil field is a direct response to this tectonic and structural framework. Subtle faulting associated with incipient rifting resulted in the deposition of oil-prone argillaceous limestones during the Oxfordian-early Kimmeridgian. During the late Kimmeridgian the climax of rifting occurred, which caused floods of coarse clastic material to be shed from the rift shoulders. These sands were deposited in a fan-delta system and form the major reservoir of the Terra Nova oil field. Dispersal patterns were controlled by the structural salient formed by the transfer fault. A depositional limit of the reservoir mirrors the transfer fault and comprises part of the oil-trapping mechanism of the field.

Dwyer, J.D.; Welsink, H.J.

1988-01-01

170

FIELD MANUAL FOR OIL SPILLS IN COLD CLIMATES  

EPA Science Inventory

This manual documents the state-of-the-art response techniques as of early 1979. The manual has been divided into two basic parts: A field manual and supporting data. The field manual consists of a set of matrices that summarizes applicable techniques for various conditions. The ...

171

The Tengis oil field, Pri-Caspian basin, USSR - A super giant of the 1980s  

SciTech Connect

The super giant Tengiz oil field, located near the southeastern edge of the Pri-Caspian basin, is one of the most important new discoveries in the world made in the last decade. The field is in a desert climate on the edge of the Caspian Sea and experiences extreme temperature variations along with other harsh environmental conditions. The structure was first identified by seismic surveys in 1975 when it became possible to map the base of thick Permian salt. The first exploration well was drilled on the top of the presalt structure in 1979 and encountered important oil-bearing carbonates. The drilling of additional appraisal wells and the acquisition of three-dimensional seismic with improved seismic velocities led to the development of the Tengiz seismic-geologic model and confirmed the presence of a super giant oil accumulation. The amplitude of the structure is approximately 1,000 m and covers an area of 400 km{sup 2} . The oil column exceeds 1,500 m without having encountered an oil-water contact. The total original oil and gas in place of the Tengiz field are estimated at 25 billion bbl of oil and 46 tcf of associated gas. Oil production rates up to 8,000 bbl/day per well have been experienced. The reservoir rocks, which range in age from Upper Devonian to Middle Carboniferous, are comprised of biohermal and nodular limestones and characterized by variable porosity and permeability. The best reservoir quality is attributed to widespread fractures, vugs, and solution cavities that supplement the primary porosity. Recrystallization and healed fractures with substantial amounts of solid bitumen are observed throughout the reservoir. The reservoir pressure is abnormally high. The oil gravity is approximately 45{degree} API and the sulfur content is low. There is no gas cap on the Tengiz field, and the oil is highly undersaturated. The associated gas contains a high percentage of H{sub 2}S, which must be considered in field development.

Petzoukha, Y.A. (Ministry of Petroleum Industry, Moscow (USSR))

1990-09-01

172

Developing and extending oil and gas fields without use of computers, remote sensing, seismic, and nonconventional methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most of the geologists who work either as independents or for nonmajor oil companies do not have access to sophisticated seismic data, remote sensing information, and computer-driven maps. Nevertheless, geologists at small companies, such as Cross Timbers Oil, continue to extend oil and gas fields, and develop significant new reserves. They manage to do this by using the same tools

1992-01-01

173

Stochastic Programming Approach for the Planning of Offshore Oil or Gas Field Infrastructure under Decision-Dependent Uncertainty  

Microsoft Academic Search

The planning of offshore oil or gas field infrastructure under uncertainty is addressed in this paper. The main uncertainties considered are in the initial maximum oil or gas flowrate, recoverable oil or gas volume and water breakthrough time of the reservoir, which are represented by discrete distributions. Furthermore, it is assumed that these uncertainties are not immediately realized, but are

Bora Tarhan; Ignacio E. Grossmann; Vikas Goel

2009-01-01

174

Permanent downhole gauges used in reservoir management of complex North Sea oil fields  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents experience with and applications of permanent downhole pressure and temperature gauges in the reservoir management of two complex North Sea oil fields, Gullfaks and Veslefrikk (both operated by Statoil A/S). In total, 40 quartz and quartz capacitance gauges from three different suppliers have been installed in platform wells over 6 years. The gauges have given invaluable real-time data for reservoir management of these two fields and contribute directly to increased daily oil production. The installations have proved to be safe and reliable, as well as good investments.

Unneland, T.; Haughland, T. (Statoil A/S, Stavanger (Norway))

1994-08-01

175

Alaska North Slope oil-field restoration research strategy. Manual  

SciTech Connect

The document provides a research strategy to support ecological restoration of disturbances related to oil and gas developments on the North Slope of Alaska that is mutually beneficial to the arctic ecorestoration research community and the arctic regulatory community (including at least the following entities: The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, EPA, National Marine Fisheries, US FWS, BLM, the Alaska Department of Natural Resources, and the North Slope Borough). The purpose of this strategy is to: (1) identify major information or knowledge gaps that have inhibited restoration activities or slowed the regulatory decision process, (2) determine the potential for filling knowledge gaps through research, and (3) suggest tentative priorities for research that are based on the needs identified in steps one and two.

Wyant, J.G.; Knapp, C.M.

1992-03-01

176

Chicxulub impact: The origin of reservoir and seal facies in the southeastern Mexico oil fields  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Stratigraphic and mineralogic studies of Cretaceous-Tertiary (K-T) boundary sections demonstrate that the offshore oil-producing breccias and seals from oil fields in the Campeche marine platform are of K-T boundary age and that their mode of formation is probably related to the K-T impact event at Chicxulub. The oil-producing carbonate breccia and the overlying dolomitized ejecta layer (seal) found in several wells on the Campeche marine platform contain typical Chicxulub impact products, such as shocked quartz and plagioclase, and altered glass. These offshore units are correlated with thick (˜50 300 m) onshore breccia and impact ejecta layers found at the K-T boundary in the Guayal (Tabasco) and Bochil (Chiapas) sections. Regionally the characteristic sequence is composed of, from base to top, coarse-grained carbonate breccia covered by an ejecta bed and typical K-T boundary clay. The onshore and offshore breccia sequences are likely to have resulted from major slumping of the carbonate platform margin triggered by the Chicxulub impact. Successive arrival times in this area, ˜350 600 km from the crater, of seismic shaking, ballistic ejecta, and tsunami waves fit the observed stratigraphic sequence. The K-T breccia reservoir and seal ejecta layer of the Cantarell oil field, with a current daily production of 1.3 million barrels of oil, are probably the most important known oil-producing units related to an impact event.

Grajales-Nishimura, José M.; Cedillo-Pardo, Esteban; Rosales-Domínguez, Carmen; Morán-Zenteno, Dante J.; Alvarez, Walter; Claeys, Philippe; Ruíz-Morales, José; García-Hernández, Jesús; Padilla-Avila, Patricia; Sánchez-Ríos, Antonieta

2000-04-01

177

Hydro geochemistry Study of Yamama formation water in southern Iraqi oil Fields, Migration,Diagensis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Yamama Formation (Lower Cretaceous) form one of the main oil reservoir in southern Iraq, the present study deals with the general physical and chemical characteristics of Yamama formation water in selected oil fields - southern Iraq. Via the collecting the available water analysis data in in selected 10 wells in southern Iraqi oil fields, Well Logs, as well as, the technical final well reports. The task of this study is to illustrate the chemical and physical variation among the study oil wells, and their relation with the depositional environment, the grading of temperature and pressure, the reason behind of over pressure phenomenon, besides the delineation of oil migration and water reservoir movement direction. The study confirms the occurrences of two types of formation water; the first one is the connate water, which is brine, hypersaline, and marine in nature reflects the possibility of hydrocarbon accumulations. And the second is mixing water reflects the mixing of original marine water with percolating meteoric water for various degree. Regarding the hydrochemical ratios, the direction of water movement and oil migration is from northeast toward west and south west starting from Messan oil Fields, moreover, the secondary migration of oil is in the same direction. The western migration of oil and water attributed to the enhancement of porosity and permeability in this direction, which in turn means the possibility of finding new stratigraphic traps in this direction mainly western of Nasiriya and Garraf areas. The relationship between depositional environment and diagenetic processes in one hand, and the sediment logical units; tidal lime granular unit revealed the occurrences of khidar al-may which extends up to Al-Managish in Kuwait and Nahar Umar - Majnoon, Nasiriya - Abu Amood, as well as the clayey units represented by isolated and semi isolated lagoonal deposits. Based on the ionic ratios in AlZubair, Nahar Umer and Al-Kifil oil fields, outer shelf clay units was identified as zones extends from Kumait - Halfaia - Noor. This study also showed the major role of diagenetic processes such as dissolution and low dolomitization in granular units in changing the chemical composition of Yamama Formation water under study. The ionic ratios and concentration pointed out the occurrences of many sub-basins within the Yamama main basin. The present study showed the movement of formation water is from the centre of the basin toward the periphery, furthermore, the sulphate index clarify the increases in hydrocarbone preservation toward east and northeast direction. .

Ali, A. A.; SOC Team

2013-05-01

178

Microseismic Monitoring Using Surface and Borehole Seismic Stations in an Oil Field, North Oman  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Five shallow borehole seismic stations were installed to monitor microearthquake activities in a carbonate oil field in northern Oman since 1999. This shallow network of seismic station operated continuously until 2002 after which intermittent seismic recording took place due to lack of maintenance and failure of some stations. The objectives of the study are to determine the microseismic parameters in the oil field and to determine the spatial and temporal distribution of these events to evaluate possible triggering mechanism. Well over 400 microearthquakes per year were recorded in the first three years of operation and after that the level of seismic recording fell to less than 200 microearthquakes per year due to failure of some stations. In March 2008, temporary seismic experiment consisting of five near surface seismic stations were installed in the oil field to augment the shallow network station and to evaluate surface installment of seismic instrument to monitor microseismic activities. It has been recognized that microearthquakes data such as size, spatial, and temporal distribution provide information on the pressure waves initiated by either production of or injection of fluids into reservoirs. A total of 44 local microearthquake events were analyzed and located during the temporary seismic stations deployment using a non-linear location software that allows the use of variable accurate velocity model of the subsurface. The events location is confined to oil field reservoir boundary during the recording period and more events occurring at shallow depth. The correlation coefficient between gas production and number of events is the higher compared with the oil production or water injection. The focal plane solution for the largest event in the sequence indicates normal faulting with extensional stress consistent with the existing mapped normal faults in the oil field. Microseismic signal clearly detected by the collocated sensors of the near surface seismic experiment stations and augment the shallow borehole network signal for detection, analysis and locations.

El-Hussain, I.; Al-Hashmi, S.; Al-Shijbi, Y.; Al-Saifi, M.; Al-Toubi, K.; Al-Lazki, A.; Al-Kindy, F.

2009-05-01

179

[Microbial community structure analysis of unexploited oil and gas fields by PCR-DGGE].  

PubMed

Microbial communities of different depths (30, 60, 100, 150, 200cm) from the unexploited oilfield, gas field and control area were studied by PCR-DGGE and sequencing methods. The objectives of this study were to understand the microbial distribution in the regions of unexploited oil and gas fields, and to investigate the potential microbial indicators of oil and gas resources. The results showed that the Dice coefficients between different depths were very low (26-69.9). The microbial communities in the soil of 150 cm and 200 cm depth had greater richness (S > or = 19), diversity (H > or = 2.69) and evenness (E > or = 0. 90). The results of sequencing demonstrated that the bands from oilfield were mainly grouped into alpha-Proteobacteria, gamma-Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Acidobacteria with the predominance of gamma-Proteobacteria (75%). Most of the bands were related to oil-associated and hydrocarbon degrading bacteria, such as Methylophaga and Alcanivorax. While the gas field had alpha, beta, gamma, delta-Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes, and gamma-Proteobacteria accounted for only 24%. More strains showed relativity to methanotrophs, such as Methylocystaceae. Thus, 150 cm and 200 cm were more suitable as the oil-gas exploration sampling depth. Methylocystaceae may act as potential indicators for gas resources, Methylophaga and Alcanivorax for oil. PMID:22452227

Man, Peng; Qi, Hong-Yan; Hu, Qing; Ma, An-Zhou; Bai, Zhi-Hui; Zhuang, Guo-Qiang

2012-01-01

180

Tertiary development of heavy oil sands through thermal stimulation in the Wilmington Oil Field, California: A geological perspective  

SciTech Connect

In 1995, a DOE cost share project was initiated to extend thermal recovery in the Tar Zone, Fault Block 11 of the West Wilmington Oil Field, California. The project involved the collection of old oil well data and the construction of a modern digital data base in order to develop a deterministic geological model. The plan was to rigorously define the geology such that horizontal wells could be accurately placed within the sands containing heavy oil to facilitate gravity drainage. A detailed deterministic geological model was constructed using a state of the art 3D mapping and modeling package. Beginning in July, 1995, five observation wells were drilled. Data inconsistencies were revealed when core hole OB2-003 was drilled. It was discovered that the data used to make the maps was corrupted; as a result, the predicted coring point was missed by more than 20'. Significant modifications to the data base were required due to inaccurate subsidence corrections in the original data set. Horizontal wells were then laid out based on the revised data and the geological model was completely reconstructed. Detailed cross sections extracted from the model were use for geosteering. These cross sections proved to be highly accurate and five more wells are now planned for the target sands. This detailed deterministic model will be further refined and combined with our geostatistical mode for geological control in an advanced reservoir simulator. If successful, the thermal stimulation project will be expanded to other fault blocks.

Clarke, D.D. (Department of Oil Properties, Long Beach, CA (United States)); Henry, M.J.; Strehle, R.W. (Dept. of Oil Properties, Long Beach, CA (United States))

1996-01-01

181

Map Showing Geology, Oil and Gas Fields and Geologic Provinces of Africa, Ver. 2.0  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The US Geological Survey offers the Map Showing Geology, Oil and Gas Fields and Geologic Provinces of Africa Web site and report. The agency's goal for the pieces includes assessing the undiscovered and technically recoverable oil and gas resources of the world. The site includes various descriptions of what the map depicts and how data was processed using Geographic Information Systems. Once the interactive map is activated, users can search and click the map of Africa to view geologic provinces, oil and gas fields, as well as the various surface geological classifications. Although the interface is a bit cumbersome and works best with a fast Internet connection, the unique information provided should draw the attention of those interested in geology. [JAB

Ahlbrandt, Thomas S.; Brownfield, M. E.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Persits, F. M.; Takahashi, K. I.; Tuttle, M. L.

182

Analysis of radiolabelled thiocyanate tracer in oil field brines  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thiocyanate (SCN -) labelled with 14C or 35S is applicable for the tracing of the water flow in water-driven oil production. This work describes two improved methods for increasing the concentration of S 14CN - with sample sizes up to 1000 ml of sampled brine. The radioactivity detection is carried out by low-background liquid scintillation counting using standard-size counting vials of 20 ml. The first method is based on solvent extraction: two extraction/strip steps reduce the volume by the required factor of 100 down to 10 ml. The extraction agent is 0.5M tri-isooctylamine (TiOA) in Solvesso-150 and the stripping agent is 5M NH 3. A chemical yield of 70-75%, a somewhat unfavourable quenching factor and a moderate reproducibility lead to a detection limit LD of 0.04 Bq/1. The second method is based on anion exchange. 1000 ml tracer-containing brine may be loaded onto 6.1 ml of the anion-exchange resin AG1-x8 before significant breakthrough of the tracer. More than 98.4% is absorbed. By elution with 2.8M sodiumperchlorate, more than 99.5% of the absorbed tracer is concentrated in a sharp elution peak of 10 ml. With a total chemical yield of 98%, a lower quenching factor and higher reproducibility than for the solvent extraction method, an LD-value of 0.005 Bq/1 is obtained.

Bjørnstad, T.; Brendsdal, E.; Michelsen, O. B.; Rogde, S. A.

1990-12-01

183

Programed oil generation of the Zubair Formation, Southern Iraq oil fields: Results from Petromod software modeling and geochemical analysis  

USGS Publications Warehouse

1D petroleum system modeling was performed on wells in each of four oil fields in South Iraq, Zubair (well Zb-47), Nahr Umr (well NR-9), West Qurna (well WQ-15 and 23), and Majnoon (well Mj-8). In each of these fields, deposition of the Zubair Formation was followed by continuous burial, reaching maximum temperatures of 100??C (equivalent to 0. 70%Ro) at depths of 3,344-3,750 m of well Zb-47 and 3,081. 5-3,420 m of well WQ-15, 120??C (equivalent to 0. 78%Ro) at depths of 3,353-3,645 m of well NR-9, and 3,391-3,691. 5 m of well Mj-8. Generation of petroleum in the Zubair Formation began in the late Tertiary, 10 million years ago. At present day, modeled transformation ratios (TR) indicate that 65% TR of its generation potential has been reached in well Zb-47, 75% TR in well NR-9 and 55-85% TR in West Qurna oil field (wells WQ-15 and WQ-23) and up to 95% TR in well Mj-8, In contrast, younger source rocks are immature to early mature (<20% TR), whereas older source rocks are mature to overmature (100% TR). Comparison of these basin modeling results, in Basrah region, are performed with Kifle oil field in Hilla region of western Euphrates River whereas the Zubair Formation is immature within temperature range of 65-70??C (0. 50%Ro equivalent) with up to 12% (TR = 12%) hydrocarbon generation efficiency and hence poor generation could be assessed in this last location. The Zubair Formation was deposited in a deltaic environment and consists of interbedded shales and porous and permeable sandstones. In Basrah region, the shales have total organic carbon of 0. 5-7. 0 wt%, Tmax 430-470??C and hydrogen indices of up to 466 with S2 = 0. 4-9. 4 of kerogen type II & III and petroleum potential of 0. 4-9. 98 of good hydrocarbon generation, which is consistent with 55-95% hydrocarbon efficiency. These generated hydrocarbons had charged (in part) the Cretaceous and Tertiary reservoirs, especially the Zubair Formation itself, in the traps formed by Alpine collision that closed the Tethys Ocean between Arabian and Euracian Plates and developed folds in Mesopotamian Basin 15-10 million years ago. These traps are mainly stratigraphic facies of sandstones with the shale that formed during the deposition of the Zubair Formation in transgression and regression phases within the main structural folds of the Zubair, Nahr Umr, West Qurna and Majnoon Oil fields. Oil biomarkers of the Zubair Formation Reservoirs are showing source affinity with mixed oil from the Upper Jurassic and Lower Cretaceous strata, including Zubair Formation organic matters, based on presentation of GC and GC-MS results on diagrams of global petroleum systems. ?? 2010 Saudi Society for Geosciences.

Al-Ameri, T. K.; Pitman, J.; Naser, M. E.; Zumberge, J.; Al-Haydari, H. A.

2011-01-01

184

Miscibility study of carbon dioxide injection to enhance oil recovery from Abu-Dhabi oil field Thani reservoire  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The subject field in this study has been recognized among the largest offshore oil fields in the world, located in the Arabian Gulf 63 kilometers to the Northwest of Abu Dhabi, producing large quantities of crude oil and associated gas from three different carbonate reservoirs, Thani-I, II and IIII since 1963. In the early 1970's peripheral water injection scheme was adopted to maintain the reservoir pressure and sustain production. Simultaneously, partial waterflooding was applied to one sector of the field, but stopped soon after implementation shadowed by poor sweep efficiency and dramatic escalation of water-cut. Furthermore, hydrocarbon miscible gas injection was implemented in the year 2000 but stopped seven years later, due to high gas oil ratio and aspheltene deposition. In light of such recovery complications, management is considering serious recovery measures to extend plateau production and meet long-term production from this field. Post initial screening phase, it became evident that CO 2 miscible injection is the most suitable way forward. Characteristics of the Thani-III reservoir are within the favorable range for both immiscible and miscible CO2 injection criteria set by Taber, Martine and Serigh. Thani-III reservoir is considered more homogenous, less fractured and with higher production potential than Thani-I and II, hence promoted to be the target of CO2 miscible gas injection. This thesis aims to study the miscibility features of CO2 miscible injecton to enhanced oil recovery from Thani-III reservoir. Comprehensive simulation model is used to determine multi contact miscibility and suitable equation of state with CO2 as a separate pseudo component using one of the industry standard simulation software. Experimental PVT data for bottom hole and separator samples including compositional analysis, differential liberation test, separator tests, constant composition expansion, viscosity measurements and swelling tests for pure CO2 were used to generate and validate the model. In addition to that, simulation studies were conducted to produce coreflooding and slimtube experimental models, which are compared with the conclusions drawn from experimental results. Results of this study have shown comparable results with the lab experimental data in regards to minimum miscibility pressure (MMP) calculation and recovery factor estimation, where the marginal errors between both data sets were no more than 7% at its worst. For example, slimtube experimental results suggested 4230 psig as minimum miscibility pressure, where the simulation study EoS figure is 4130 psig and the slimtube simulation model results is 4180 psig. Similarly, coreflooding experimental data recovery factor at 1.2 PV injected solvent was 75% and a value of 72% recovery factor was obtained from the software single core model at same conditions of pressure and saturations. Results from this study are expected to assist the operator of this field to plan and implement a very attractive enhanced oil recovery program, giving that other factors are well accounted for such as asphaltene deposition, reservoir pressure maintenance, oil saturation, CO2 sequestering and choosing the most appropriate time to maximize the net positive value (NPV) and expected project gain.

Aljarwan, Abdulla Humaid Saif Saeed

185

Development of Improved Oil Field Waste Injection Disposal Techniques  

SciTech Connect

The goals of this project have was to: (1) assemble and analyze a comprehensive database of past waste injection operations; (2) develop improved diagnostic techniques for monitoring fracture growth and formation changes; (3) develop operating guidelines to optimize daily operations and ultimate storage capacity of the target formation; and (4) to apply these improved models and guidelines in the field.

Terralog Technologies

2002-11-25

186

Enhanced oil recovery. Byron Field polymer waterflood will achieve two important firsts  

SciTech Connect

When Marathon Oil Co. starts up its long-awaited, Byron Field Tensleep-Embar Unit polymer waterflood this December 2, firsts will have been achieved: the Big-Horn basin will see its first full-field commercial tertiary flood, and Marathon also will see its first full-field commercial tertiary flood. Marathon's flood will use a massive amount of polymer. Seventy percent of pore volume will be injected. Big Horn basin fields usually have been subjected only to infill drilling and waterflood because the thicker than average crude lies in heterogeneous formations, yielding a situation whereby, even 60 to 70 yr after discovery, simple infill drilling can cause virgin oil to flow to the well bore. In some cases, 20-, 10-, or 5-acre spacing might be required to drain a reservoir adequately, giving long effective lift to simple primary production techniques. In addition, a natural water drive often is present.

Gill, D.

1982-09-01

187

Disposal of NORM-Contaminated Oil Field Wastes in Salt Caverns  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1995, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Fossil Energy, asked Argonne National Laboratory (Argonne) to conduct a preliminary technical and legal evaluation of disposing of nonhazardous oil field waste (NOW) into salt caverns. That study concluded that disposal of NOW into salt caverns is feasible and legal. If caverns are sited and designed well, operated carefully, closed

D. L. Blunt; D. Elcock; K. P. Smith; D. Tomasko; J. A. Viel

1999-01-01

188

Disposal of NORM-contaminated oil field wastes in Salt Caverns  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1995, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Fossil Energy, asked Argonne National Laboratory (Argonne) to conduct a preliminary technical and legal evaluation of disposing of nonhazardous oil field waste (NOW) into salt caverns. That study concluded that disposal of NOW into salt caverns is feasible and legal. If caverns are sited and designed well, operated carefully, closed

J. A. Veil; K. P. Smith; D. Tomasko; D. Elcock; D. Blunt; G. P. Williams

1998-01-01

189

Field Experiment of Reverse Combustion Oil Recovery from a Utah Tar Sand.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A field experiment to recover oil from tar sand by reverse combusion was conducted at Northwest Asphalt Ridge, near Vernal, Utah. This test was in a 10-ft interval of the Rim Rock sandstone member of the Mesa Verde Formation at a depth of 300 ft. Ignition...

C. S. Land C. Q. Cupps L. C. Marchant F. M. Carlson

1977-01-01

190

Kinetics of dehydroxylation of kaolin in presence of oil field effluent treatment plant sludge  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oil field effluent treatment plant (ETP) sludge contains high amounts of hydrocarbon and its disposal by land filling is a problem. Various methods to utilize the sludge and circumvent the disposal problem have been suggested. The high calorific value of the sludge may be used in calcination of clay and manufacture of ceramic materials. This communication reports the kinetics of

Nabajyoti Saikia; Pinaki Sengupta; Pradip Kumar Gogoi; Prakash Ch Borthakur

2002-01-01

191

Technical and Economic Feasibility Study of Enhanced Oil Recovery in Six Colombian Fields. Appendix B.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The study was prepared for the Empresa Colombiana de Petroleos by Scientific Software-Intercomp, Inc. The primary objectives of the study were to determine which of the reservoirs in the principal fields were amenable to enhanced oil recovery (EOR) proces...

1986-01-01

192

Technical and Economic Feasibility Study of Enhanced Oil Recovery in Six Colombian Fields. Appendix C.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The primary objectives of the study were to determine which of the reservoirs in the principal fields were amenable to enhanced oil recovery (EOR) processes, to evaluate which process was the most effective from both a technical and economic point of view...

1986-01-01

193

Application of Rule Based Expert System to Sand Control in Oil Fields  

Microsoft Academic Search

The rule based expert system model, structure and sand prevention method, sand control design, the evaluation of sand control in detail, and the expert system based on rule and sand control technology of combining rule based expert system, puts forward the comprehensive analysis and evaluation of sand control system, and successfully applied in some oil field.

Lai NanjunDong; Dong Wan; Wang Jie; Xiao Xia; Lai Junhui

2012-01-01

194

FIELD MANUAL FOR PLUNGING WATER JET USE IN OIL SPILL CLEANUP  

EPA Science Inventory

The use of plunging water jets can often make possible the control (and, as a consequence, the cleanup) of spilled oil and other floating pollutants in currents too swift for conventional equipment. This short, illustrated manual provides practical information for field and plann...

195

Exposures and cancer incidence near oil fields in the Amazon basin of Ecuador  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives—To examine environmental exposure and incidence and mortality of cancer in the village of San Carlos sur- rounded by oil fields in the Amazon basin of Ecuador. Methods—Water samples of the local streams were analyzed for total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPHs). A preliminary list of potential cancer cases from 1989 to 1998 was prepared. Cases were compared with expected numbers of

M San Sebastián; B Armstrong; J A Córdoba; C Stephens

2005-01-01

196

The 1-AB block fields-a giant oil accumulation in Eastern Peru  

SciTech Connect

The 1-Ab block fields are located in the northeastern part of Peru. Geologically, the area is the sub-Andean Maranon Basin, a continuation of the Napo Basin from eastern Ecuador. During the 20 years that Occidental has operated Block 1-AB, approximately 11,500 km of seismic data has been recorded and 34 exploratory wells have been drilled, resulting in the discovery of 18 fields, or 53% exploration success. The 1-AB oil accumulation discovered in 1972 is a group of medium to small asymmetric anticlines distributed along six northwest-southeast trending structural alignments: North Capahuari-South Capahuari-Tambo, Carmen-North San Jaacinto and Bartra. This concentration of productive structures in a relative small area is unique within the Maranon basin. The controlling factors include exceptional pre-Cretaceous uplifting and the presence of very good to excellent Cretaceous sandstones reservoirs. The two major Cretaceous producing zones, the Chonta and Vivian sandstones, have been defined within the Coniacian and Campanian ages respectively. The Chonta sands are related to shelfal deposition across Block 1-AB, represented by strand plain and barrier island sediments. The Vivian formation is a massive fluvial sandstone covering all of the Maranon basin and ranging in thickness between 40 and 200 feet. After oil was accumulated, fresh water influxes into the reservoirs of the northern and eastern fields caused oil biodegradation and salinity variation of the reservoir waters, depending upon the intensity of biodegradation. Oil remigration also has been documented for the South Huayari field.

Jarvis, H.A.; Lay, V. (Occidental International Exploration and Production Company, Lima (Peru)); Orosco, C. (Occidental Petroleum Corporation, Lima (Peru))

1993-02-01

197

Enigmatic organosiliceous rocks in the 2000 Ma petrified oil field in Russian Fennoscandia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The c. 2000 Ma, 900 m-thick, Zaonezhskaja Formation in the Onega basin, Russian Fennoscandia, contains one of the greatest accumulations of organic matter (OM) in the Early Precambrian. It also represents a unique preservation of a supergiant petrified oil field. Zaonezhskaja Formation rocks are greenschist-facies volcaniclastic greywackes (distal turbidites), dolostone and limestones, mafic tuffs and lavas intruded by numerous mafic

Yu. Deines; V. Melezhik; A. Lepland; M. Filippov; A. Romashkin; D. Rychanchik

2009-01-01

198

Reservoir Characterization in Balal Oil Field by Means of Inversion, Attribute, and Geostatistical Analysis Methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors focus on the Arab reservoir of Balal oil field in the Persian Gulf. The major reservoir unit in the interested area is composed of alteration of thin dolomite with anhydrite layers. In the available 3D seismic data, these layers are not resolved and generate a composite detectable seismic response, making reservoir characterization difficult through conventional seismic attribute analysis

B. Habibnia; A. Momeni

2012-01-01

199

Evaluation of water resources for enhanced oil recovery operations, Cement Field, Caddo and Grady Counties, Oklahoma  

SciTech Connect

This report is based on the results of an investigation of the water resources local to the Cement Oil Field in Caddo and Grady Counties, southwestern, Oklahoma. The intent of the report is to present at least a semi-quantitative estimate of the volume, deliverability, and chemistry of the water potentially available for enhanced oil recovery in one or more Oklahoma oil fields. Subsequent to a review of several oil fields, the Cement Field was chosen for study because of its large size (25,000 acres), its extensive subsurface control (over 1850 wells), and its long history of production (since 1952) from several producing formations, some of which are already undergoing extensive waterflood operations. A preliminary review of the available data for this study suggested a threefold categorization of water resources, since the data for each category are distinctly different in nature, and, to some extent, different in source. The three categories are: surface water, ground water, and subsurface water. Flow, volume, and chemical analyses of each source are estimated.

Preston, D.A.; Harrison, W.E.; Luza, K.V.; Prater, L.; Reddy, R.J.

1982-02-01

200

Evaluation of Water Resources for Enhanced Oil Recovery Operations, Cement Field, Caddo and Grady Counties, Oklahoma.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report is based on the results of an investigation of the water resources local to the Cement Oil Field in Caddo and Grady Counties, southwestern, Oklahoma. The intent of the report is to present at least a semi-quantitative estimate of the volume, d...

D. A. Preston W. E. Harrison K. V. Luza L. Prater R. J. Reddy

1982-01-01

201

Dynamics of Microbial Processes in the Stratal Waters of the Romashkinskoe Oil Field  

Microsoft Academic Search

The dynamics of the microbial processes developing in parallel with the exploitation of the Romashkinskoe oil field (Tatarstan) were studied in two areas differing in the degree of stratal water freshening. Flooding of the strata, in conjunction with purposeful measures on stratal microflora activation, was shown to increase the microbial population density and activate both methanogenesis and sulfate reduction; the

A. L. Tarasov; I. A. Borzenkov; E. I. Milekhina; S. S. Belyaev; M. V. Ivanov

2002-01-01

202

Optimal Planning and Scheduling of Offshore Oil Field Infrastructure Investment and Operations  

Microsoft Academic Search

A multiperiod mixed-integer linear programming (MILP) model formulation is presented for the planning and scheduling of investment and operation in offshore oil field facilities. The formulation employs a general objective function that optimizes a selected economic indicator (e.g., net present value). For a given planning horizon, the decision variables in the model are the choice of reservoirs to develop, selection

R. R. Iyer; I. E. Grossmann; S. Vasantharajan; A. S. Cullick

1998-01-01

203

Preliminary Technical and Legal Evaluation of Disposing of Nonhazardous Oil Field Waste into Salt Caverns  

SciTech Connect

This report presents an initial evaluation of the suitability, feasibility, and legality of using salt caverns for disposal of nonhazardous oil field wastes. Given the preliminary and general nature of this report, we recognize that some of our findings and conclusions maybe speculative and subject to change upon further research on this topic.

Ayers, Robert C.; Caudle, Dan; Elcock, Deborah; Raivel, Mary; Veil, John; and Grunewald, Ben

1999-01-21

204

Breakdown Initiation Fields for Surface Flashover of Dielectric Materials Immersed in Transformer Oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

The applied electrical fields required to initiate surface flashover of different types of polymeric insulating material immersed in transformer oil have been investigated. Cylindrical samples of polypropylene, ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene, low-density polyethylene, and Rexolite were tested. Average electrical fields up to ~700 kV\\/cm were applied to samples via a 10-stage, inverting Marx generator. The samples were held between two

M. P. Wilson; M. J. Given; S. J. MacGregor; I. V. Timoshkin; J. R. Beveridge; K. J. Thomas; M. A. Sinclair; J. M. Lehr

2008-01-01

205

The Itteville Oil Field: An example of a stratigraphic trap in mid-Jurassic carbonates of the Paris Basin  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Itteville Oil Field is located 30 km south of Paris. The top of the reservoir lies at an average depth of 1450 m below sealevel. The field is situated on a large scale monocline dipping gently toward the present center of the Paris Basin. At reservoir level, no anticline closure is seen to explain the oil accumulation. The reservoir

M. Bez; G. Sambet

1995-01-01

206

Microseismic Monitoring of CO2 Injection in the Aneth Oil Field, San Juan County, Utah  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Microseismic monitoring and several other techniques are being tested for their efficacy in tracking movement and containment of CO2 injected at the Aneth oil field located in San Juan County, Utah. The Southwest Regional Partnership on Carbon Sequestration, funded by the U.S. Department of Energy and managed by DOE's National Energy Technology Laboratory, is supporting this field demonstration, which includes extensive monitoring and analysis of CO2 migration and ultimate sequestration associated with a field-wide CO2 enhanced oil recovery operation. A 60-level geophone string was cemented into a monitoring well equipped with both 3-component and vertical component geophones spanning from 800 to 1700 m depth. The top of the oil reservoir in the study area is at approximately 1730 m depth. Starting in March, 2008 small microearthquakes (M -1 to 0) within about 2 km of the geophone string were detected episodically at rates ranging from about of 0 to 10 events per day. Most of these events delineate a NW-SE oriented fracture zone within the oil reservoir. On June 6, 2008 a M3.7 earthquake occurred approximately 15 km west of the Aneth oil field, near the town of Bluff, Utah. Both reservoir seismicity and oil production rates in the study area increased immediately after the M3.7 event. Seismicity rates over the 3 months since have been elevated and at more steady rates of 10 to 20 events per day. Oil production measured at a nearby tank battery increased approximately 25% above the average rates of the preceding year. While intensive oil field operational activities in the area have contributed to the increase in production rates, the coincident increase in seismicity and production rate may also suggest that the M3.7 regional event remotely changed stress and/or pore pressure conditions within the reservoir. Poroelastic models of the Aneth reservoir suggest a definitive correlation between fluid pressure increases resulting from injection and fracture/strain propagation that is likely responsible for the induced seismic activity. Finally, we are examining seismic data to evaluate whether shear-wave velocity anisotropy might reflect the inferred pore-fluid pressure changes.

Rutledge, J.; Zhou, R.; Huang, L.; McPherson, B.

2008-12-01

207

Immunomagnetically Captured Thermophilic Sulfate-Reducing Bacteria from North Sea Oil Field Waters  

PubMed Central

Immunomagnetic beads (IMB) were used to recover thermophilic sulfate-reducing bacteria from oil field waters from oil production platforms in the Norwegian sector of the North Sea. IMB coated with polyclonal antibodies against whole-cell antigens of the thermophilic Thermodesulfobacterium mobile captured strains GFA1, GFA2, and GFA3. GFA1 was serologically and morphologically identical to T. mobile. GFA2 and GFA3 were spore forming and similar to the Desulfotomaculum strains T90A and T93B previously isolated from North Sea oil field waters by a classical enrichment procedure. Western blots (immunoblots) of whole cells showed that GFA2, GFA3, T90A, and T93B are different serotypes of the same Desulfotomaculum species. Monoclonal antibodies (MAb) against T. mobile type strain cells were produced and used as capture agents on IMB. These MAb, named A4F4, were immunoglobulin M; they were specific to T. mobile and directed against lipopolysaccharides. The prevailing cells immunocaptured with MAb A4F4 were morphologically and serologically similar to T. mobile type strain cells. T. mobile was not detected in these oil field waters by classical enrichment procedures. Furthermore, extraction with antibody-coated IMB allowed pure strains to be isolated directly from primary enrichment cultures without prior time-consuming subculturing and consecutive transfers to selective media. Images

Christensen, Bj?rn; Torsvik, Terje; Lien, Torleiv

1992-01-01

208

FINDING SOLUTIONS FOR THE CLEANUP OF THE LARGEST LAND-BASED OIL SPILL IN THE UNITED STATES: Utilizing a Neutral, Expert, Fact-Finding Panel in the Guadalupe Oil Field Mediation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since 1997, CONCUR has mediated the Guadalupe Oil Field (GOF) mediation process involving the characterization and cleanup of a 3000-acre former oil field in coastal California. The GOF mediation is a highly complex, science-intensive case marked by enormous technical and scientific uncertainty. In addition, the oil field possesses environmental values of national significance, including several endangered species and wetland, coastal,

John K. Gamman; Scott T. McCreary; Steve Lustgarden

209

Bluebell Field, Uinta Basin: reservoir characterization for improved well completion and oil recovery  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Bluefield Field is the largest oil-producing area in the Unita basin of northern Utah. The field inclucdes over 300 wells and has produced 137 Mbbl oil and 177 bcf gas from fractured Paleocene-Eocene lacustrine and fluvial deposits of the Green River and Wasatch (Colton) formations. Oil and gas are produced at depths of 10 500-13 000 ft (3330-3940 m), with the most prolific reservoirs existing in over-pressured sandstones of the Colton Formation and the underlying Flagstaff Member of the lower Green River Formation. Despite a number of high-recovery wells (1-3 MMbbl), overall field recovery remains low, less than 10% original oil in place. This low recovery rate is interpreted to be at least partly a result of completion practices. Typically, 40-120 beds are perforated and stimulated with acid (no proppant) over intervals of up to 3000 ft (900 m). Little or no evaluation of individual beds is performed, preventing identification of good-quality reservoir zones, water-producing zones, and thief zones. As a result, detailed understanding of Bluebell reservoirs historically has been poor, inhibiting any improvements in recovery strategies. A recent project undertaken in Bluebell field as part of the U.S. Department of Energy's Class 1 (fluvial-deltaic reservoir) Oil Demonstration program has focused considerable effort on reservoir characterization. This effort has involved interdisciplinary analysis of core, log, fracture, geostatistical, production, and other data. Much valuable new information on reservoir character has resulted, with important implications for completion techniques and recovery expectations. Such data should have excellent applicability to other producing areas in the Uinta Basin withi reservoirs in similar lacustrine and related deposits.Bluebell field is the largest oil-producing area in the Uinta basin of northern Utah. The field includes over 300 wells and has produced 137 MMbbl oil and 177 bcf gas from fractured Paleocene-Eocene lacustrine and fluvial deposits of the Green River and Wasatch (Colton) formations. Oil and gas are produced at depths of 10,500-13,000 ft (3330-3940 m), with the most prolific reservoirs existing in over-pressured sandstones of the Colton Formation and the underlying Flagstaff Member of the lower Green River Formation. Despite a number of high-recovery wells (1-3 MMbbl), overall field recovery remains low, less than 10% original oil in place. This low recovery rate is interpreted to be at least partly a result of completion practices. Typically, 40-120 beds are perforated and stimulated with acid (no proppant) over intervals of up to 3000 ft (900 m). Little or no evaluation of individual beds is performed, preventing identification of good-quality reservoir zones, water-producing zones, and thief zones. As a result, detailed understanding of Bluebell reservoirs historically has been poor, inhibiting any improvements in recovery strategies. A recent project undertaken in Bluebell field as part of the U.S. Department of Energy's Class 1 (fluvial-deltaic reservoir) Oil Demonstration program has focused considerable effort on reservoir characterization. This effort has involved interdisciplinary analysis of core, log, fracture, geostatistical, production, and other data. Much valuable new information on reservoir character has resulted, with important implications for completion techniques and recovery expectations. Such data should have excellent applicability to other producing areas in the Uinta basin with reservoirs in similar lacustrine and related deposits.

Montgomery, S. L.; Morgan, C. D.

1998-01-01

210

Evaluation of Slime-Producing Bacteria in Oil Field Core Flood Experiments  

PubMed Central

Epifluorescence microscopy and carbohydrate determinations indicated that the decrease in permeability of oil reservoir sand to reclaimed sewage water was partially the result of biological plugging. Filtration and biocide addition studies demonstrated that the increase in bacterial densities and slime concentrations in flooded oil field cores appeared to be due to both deposition from the reclaimed water and in situ microbial growth and slime production. Although these biological components increased throughout the cores during flooding, the region where the water entered the core exhibited the highest cell densities and slime concentrations. The approach described in this report should be useful in predicting the potential of a water source to induce biological plugging of oil reservoir sand.

Geesey, G. G.; Mittelman, M. W.; Lieu, V. T.

1987-01-01

211

Increasing heavy oil reserves in the Wilmington Oil Field through advanced reservoir characterization and thermal production technologies. Annual report, March 30, 1995--March 31, 1996  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this project is to increase heavy oil reserves in a portion of the Wilmington Oil Field, near Long Beach, California, by implementing advanced reservoir characterization and thermal production technologies. Based on the knowledge and experience gained with this project, these technologies are intended to be extended to other sections of the Wilmington Oil Field, and, through technology transfer, will be available to increase heavy oil reserves in other slope and basin clastic (SBC) reservoirs. The project involves implementing thermal recovery in the southern half of the Fault Block II-A Tar zone. The existing steamflood in Fault Block II-A has been relatively inefficient due to several producibility problems which are common in SBC reservoirs. Inadequate characterization of the heterogeneous turbidite sands, high permeability thief zones, low gravity oil, and nonuniform distribution of remaining oil have all contributed to poor sweep efficiency, high steam-oil ratios, and early steam breakthrough. Operational problems related to steam breakthrough, high reservoir pressure, and unconsolidated formation sands have caused premature well and downhole equipment failures. In aggregate, these reservoir and operational constraints have resulted in increased operating costs and decreased recoverable reserves. A suite of advanced reservoir characterization and thermal production technologies are being applied during the project to improve oil recovery efficiency and reduce operating costs.

NONE

1997-09-01

212

Increasing Heavy Oil Reserves in the Wilmington Oil Field Through Advanced Reservoir Characterization and Thermal Production Technologies  

SciTech Connect

The project involves improving thermal recovery techniques in a slope and basin clastic (SBC) reservoir in the Wilmington field, Los Angeles Co., Calif. using advanced reservoir characterization and thermal production technologies. The existing steamflood in the Tar zone of Fault Block (FB) II-A has been relatively inefficient because of several producibility problems which are common in SBC reservoirs. Inadequate characterization of the heterogeneous turbidite sands, high permeability thief zones, low gravity oil, and nonuniform distribution of remaining oil have all contributed to poor sweep efficiency, high steam-oil ratios, and early steam breakthrough. Operational problems related to steam breakthrough, high reservoir pressure, and unconsolidated formation sands have caused premature well and downhole equipment failures. In aggregate, these reservoir and operational constraints have resulted in increased operating costs and decreased recoverable reserves. The advanced technologies to be applied include: (1) Develop three-dimensional (3-D) deterministic and stochastic geologic models. (2) Develop 3-D deterministic and stochastic thermal reservoir simulation models to aid in reservoir management and subsequent development work. (3) Develop computerized 3-D visualizations of the geologic and reservoir simulation models to aid in analysis. (4) Perform detailed study on the geochemical interactions between the steam and the formation rock and fluids. (5) Pilot steam injection and production via four new horizontal wells (2 producers and 2 injectors). (6) Hot water alternating steam (WAS) drive pilot in the existing steam drive area to improve thermal efficiency. (7) Installing a 2100 foot insulated, subsurface harbor channel crossing to supply steam to an island location. (8) Test a novel alkaline steam completion technique to control well sanding problems and fluid entry profiles. (9) Advanced reservoir management through computer-aided access to production and geologic data to integrate reservoir characterization, engineering, monitoring, and evaluation.

Scott Hara

1998-03-03

213

Increasing Heavy Oil Reserves in the Wilmington Oil Field Through Advanced Reservoir Characterization and Thermal Production Technologies  

SciTech Connect

The project involves improving thermal recovery techniques in a slope and basin clastic (SBC) reservoir in the Wilmington field, Los Angeles Co., Calif. using advanced reservoir characterization and thermal production technologies. The existing steamflood in the Tar zone of Fault Block (FB) II-A has been relatively inefficient because of several producibility problems which are common in SBC reservoirs. Inadequate characterization of the heterogeneous turbidite sands, high permeability thief zones, low gravity oil, and nonuniform distribution of remaining oil have all contributed to poor sweep efficiency, high steam-oil ratios, and early steam breakthrough. Operational problems related to steam breakthrough, high reservoir pressure, and unconsolidated formation sands have caused premature well and downhole equipment failures. In aggregate, these reservoir and operational constraints have resulted in increased operating costs and decreased recoverable reserves. The advanced technologies to be applied include: (1) Develop three-dimensional (3-D) deterministic and stochastic geologic models. (2) Develop 3-D deterministic and stochastic thermal reservoir simulation models to aid in reservoir management and subsequent development work. (3) Develop computerized 3-D visualizations of the geologic and reservoir simulation models to aid in analysis. (4) Perform detailed study on the geochemical interactions between the steam and the formation rock and fluids. (5) Pilot steam injection and production via four new horizontal wells (2 producers and 2 injectors). (6) Hot water alternating steam (WAS) drive pilot in the existing steam drive area to improve thermal efficiency. (7) Installing a 2100 foot insulated, subsurface harbor channel crossing to supply steam to an island location. (8) Test a novel alkaline steam completion technique to control well sanding problems and fluid entry profiles. (9) Advanced reservoir management through computer-aided access to production and geologic data to integrate reservoir characterization, engineering, monitoring, and evaluation. Summary of Technical Progress

Scott Hara

1997-08-08

214

Sulfate-reducing bacteria release barium and radium from naturally occurring radioactive material in oil-field barite  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Scale and sludge deposits formed during oil production can contain elevated levels of Ra, often coprecipitated with barium sulfate (barite). The potential for sulfate-reducing bacteria to release 226 Ra and Ba (a Ra analog) from oil-field barite was evaluated. The concentration of dissolved Ba increased when samples containing pipe scale, tank sludge, or oil-field brine pond sediment were incubated with sulfate-reducing bacteria Desulfovibrio sp., Str LZKI, isolated from an oil-field brine pond. However, Ba release was not stoichiometric with sulfide production in oil-field samples, and <0.1% of the Ba was released. Potential for the release of 226Ra was demonstrated, and the 226 Ra release associated with sulfate-reducing activity was predictable from the amount of Ba released. As with Ba, only a fraction of the 226Ra expected from the amount of sulfide produced was released, and most of the Ra remained associated with the solid material.

Phillips, E. J. P.; Landa, E. R.; Kraemer, T.; Zielinski, R.

2001-01-01

215

Effect of flaring of natural gas in oil fields of Assam on rice cultivation.  

PubMed

Assam (India) is endowed with natural resources like oil, coal and natural gas. The crude oil, one of the most precious natural resources, is found in the districts of upper Assam. During the process of extraction of crude oil, low-pressure natural gas is burnt in the air. Most of the oil wells in upper Assam are located near rice fields and therefore, rice crop grown near the oil wells is exposed to light uninterruptedly causing grain sterility resulting significant loss in grain yield. To identify promising varieties for these areas, we studied the effect of flare on rice varieties with different photoperiod sensitivity. The high light intensity and increased light hours were the factors responsible for substantial loss in grain yield near the flare resulting from delay in flower initiation, reduction of panicle length, having less number of grains per panicle and more grain sterility. To prevent significant loss in yield, photoperiod-sensitive traditional and improved rice varieties should not be grown up to the distance of 80 and 100 m, respectively from the boundary wall of the flare pit. Modern weakly-photoperiod sensitive varieties like Ranjti and Mahsuri can be grown 40 m away from the wall while modern photoperiod insensitive variety like Jaya, can be cultivated 20 m away from the wall without significant loss in yield. PMID:23029930

Sharma, K K; Hazarika, S; Kalita, B; Sharma, B

2011-07-01

216

Electrodeless direct current dielectrophoresis using reconfigurable field-shaping oil barriers.  

PubMed

We demonstrate dielectrophoretic (DEP) potential wells using pairs of insulating oil menisci to shape the DC electric field. These oil menisci are arranged in a configuration similar to the quadrupolar electrodes, typically used in DEP, and are shown to produce similar field gradients. While the one-pair well produces a focusing effect on particles in flow, the two-pair well results in creating spatial traps against crossflows. Uncharged polystyrene particles were used to map the DEP force fields and the experimental observations were compared against the field profiles obtained by numerically solving Maxwell's equations. We demonstrate trapping of a single particle due to negative DEP against a pressure-driven crossflow. This can be easily extended to trap and hold cells and other objects against flow for a longer time. We also show the results of particle trapping experiments performed to observe the effect of adjusting the oil menisci and the gap between two pairs of menisci in a four-menisci configuration on the nature of the DEP well formed at the center. A design parameter, Theta, capturing the dimensions of the DEP energy well, is defined and simulations exploring the effects of different geometric features on Theta are presented. PMID:18072223

Thwar, Prasanna K; Linderman, Jennifer J; Burns, Mark A

2007-12-01

217

Oil fields and new plays in the Rioni foreland basin, Republic of Georgia  

SciTech Connect

The Rioni Basin in West Georgia is an Oligocene foredeep that evolved into a Miocene to Pliocene foreland basin, north of the Achara-Trialeti thrust belt and south of the Greater Caucasus. It extends to the west into the Black Sea. A large number of exploration wildcats have been drilled onshore since the nineteenth century and have led to the discovery of three fields. Exploration was prompted by seeps and restricted to frontal ramp anticlines mapped at surface. No wells have been drilled offshore. Supsa (discovered 1889) contains 29 MMbbl oil in clastic Sarmatian reservoirs. The field has around 50 wells but less than 0.5 MMbbl have been produced. Shromisubani (discovered 1973) contains oil within Maeotian and Pontian clastic reservoirs, Chaladidi oil within Upper Cretaceous chalk. Despite this long and apparently intensive exploration effort, several factors make the basin an exciting target for field redevelopment and further exploration. The quality of existing seismic is very poor both on-and offshore. Reinterpretation of the structure of the fold and thrust belt has suggested the presence of new targets and plays which may be imaged by modern seismic methods. In addition, due to problems associated with central planning, discovered fields have not been optimally developed or even fully appraised. The application of new technology, geological interpretation and investment promises to delineate substantial remaining reserves even after more than one hundred years of exploration.

Robinson, A.G.; Griffith, E.T. (JKX Oil and Gas, Guildford (United Kingdom)); Sargeant, J. (RES-Source Limited, Banchory (United Kingdom))

1996-01-01

218

Truncated shifted pareto distribution in assessing size distribution of oil and gas fields  

SciTech Connect

The truncated shifted Pareto (TSP) distribution, a variant of the two-parameter Pareto distribution, in which one parameter is added to shift the distribution right and left and the right-hand side is truncated, is used to model size distributions of oil and gas fields for resource assessment. Assumptions about limits to the left-hand and right-hand side reduce the number of parameters to two. The TSP distribution has advantages over the more customary lognormal distribution because it has a simple analytic expression, allowing exact computation of several statistics of interest, has a J-shape, and has more flexibility in the thickness of the right-hand tail. Oil field sizes from the Minnelusa play in the Powder River Basin, Wyoming and Montana, are used as a case study. Probability plotting procedures allow easy visualization of the fit and help the assessment.

Houghton, J.C.

1988-11-01

219

Geological history and petroleum system of the Mittelplate oil field, Northern Germany  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The geological history of Germany’s largest and most productive petroleum accumulation, the Mittelplate oil field in Schleswig-Holstein (Northern Germany), is reconstructed by simulating the structural and thermal evolution along a 2D cross-section. The Mittelplate field is located at the western flank of the Büsum salt dome at the transition from the Schleswig-Holstein mainland to the German North Sea Sector. Organic geochemical data confirm the Lower Jurassic Posidonia Shale to be the predominant oil source rock in the Schleswig-Holstein area. The studied section is characterized by salt walls and salt domes built up by Permian evaporites. Reconstruction of the structural and thermal evolution of the Mittelplate field by means of basin modelling reveals the dominating influence of salt dynamics on the entire petroleum system: The development of secondary rim-synclines during salt rise provided accommodation space for the deposition of the Posidonia Shale as well as the deltaic Middle Jurassic reservoir sandstones. The rise of the nearby Oldenswort salt wall controlled the timing of maturation and petroleum generation during Cenozoic times. Hydrocarbon migration from the Posidonia Shale into the reservoirs occurred up-dip from the deeper subsiding rim-syncline into the structural trap with the Middle Jurassic reservoir sandstones pinching out at the flank of the Büsum salt dome. Along the modelled 2D section the field’s recent temperature field and its complex reservoir architecture are reconstructed.

Grassmann, S.; Cramer, B.; Delisle, G.; Messner, J.; Winsemann, J.

2005-12-01

220

Reservoir characterization for Chevron's HASDrive field trial, Athabasca oil sands area, northeastern Alberta, Canada  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chevron is currently field testing an in-situ thermal recovery process termed Heated Annulus SteamDrive (HASDrive) on the Lower Cretaceous Athabasca tar sand deposit at the Alberta Oil Sands Technology Research Authority (AOSTRA) Underground Test Facility (UTF) site. The HASDrive process applies heat through a subsurface horizontal pipe to the base of the bitumen-rich reservoir sands of the McMurray Formation. A

R. G. Chalcraft; C. W. Grant

1990-01-01

221

Migration induced compositional changes in oils and condensates of a single field  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thirty-one oils and condensates from the Vermilion 39 field (offshore Louisiana, U.S. Gulf Coast) are examined using techniques of elemental, isotopic and molecular geochemistry, in an effort to determine the causes of compositional differences among them. Compositional variability in elemental concentration, carbon isotope ratios and molecular distributions suggests that at least two sub-groups occur in the sample set. The sub-groups

J. A. Curiale; B. W. Bromley

1996-01-01

222

Seismic monitoring of a steamflood at South Casper Creek oil field, Wyoming  

Microsoft Academic Search

Repeat three-dimensional (3-D) seismic surveys and repeat cross-well seismic surveys were used to monitor fluid flow in a steamflood EOR pilot project at South Casper Creek oil field, Wyoming. The reservoir is a sandstone 160 ft thick at a measured depth of 2,700 ft. Baseline 3-D and cross-well seismic surveys were shot prior to stem injection in the study area.

P. Johnston; Doosung Lee; F. Martens; Noboru Wachi

1991-01-01

223

Formation of seep bubble plumes in the Coal Oil Point seep field  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fate of marine seep gases (transport to the atmosphere or dissolution, and either bacterial oxidation or diffusion to\\u000a the atmosphere) is intimately connected with bubble and bubble-plume processes, which are strongly size-dependent. Based on\\u000a measurements with a video bubble measurement system in the Coal Oil Point seep field in the Santa Barbara Channel, California,\\u000a which recorded the bubble-emission size

Ira Leifer; Daniel Culling

2010-01-01

224

The drilling of a horizontal well in a mature oil field  

SciTech Connect

This report documents the drilling of a medium radius horizontal well in the Bartlesville Sand of the Flatrock Field, Osage County, Oklahoma by Rougeot Oil and Gas Corporation (Rougeot) of Sperry, Oklahoma. The report includes the rationale for selecting the particular site, the details of drilling the well, the production response, conclusions reached, and recommendations made for the future drilling of horizontal wells. 11 figs., 2 tabs.

Rougeot, J.E.; Lauterbach, K.A.

1991-01-01

225

Assessing the Effect of Aquifers and Oil Fields on the Interseismic Velocity Field Across Metropolitan Los Angeles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

GPS observations made from 1994 to 1998 suggest contractional strain to be biggest across the northern half of the metropolis [Argus et al. 1999]. SAR interferometry shows aquifer and oil fields in the metropolis to be rising and falling [Bawden et al. 2001]. If such subsidence and uplift made by man were to accumulate over several years, then horizontal motions accompanying the vertical motions could bias the interseismic velocity field determined from GPS. We assess the size of horizontal motions accompanying the rise and fall of aquifers and oil fields using both GPS geodesy and synthetic aperture radar (SAR) interferometry. We find horizontal oscillations (observed with GPS) of the Santa Ana aquifer to be biggest where vertical oscillations (observed with SAR) change in size most quickly with distance. Using 10 GPS sites in and around the aquifer and 3 seasonal interferograms, we find the horizontal oscillation (in mm) roughly equals 1000 m times the vertical gradient (in mm/m). We next use this empirical relationship to remove from the interseismic velocity field the effect of aquifers and oil fields: we take the horizontal velocity (in mm/year) made by man to be 1000 m times the vertical gradient (in mm/year per m) observed with SAR over several years. Removing motions made by man reduces variations in velocities across the metropolis, allowing the velocity field to be evaluated more instructively for seismic hazard. We then determine the residual velocity field removing both motions made by man and elastic right shear that will be released in great earthquakes along the San Andreas. Contractional strain is observed to be directed north-northeast and to be bigger across the northern half and smaller across the southern half of greater Los Angeles New GPS sites define the spatial variation in contraction much better than before. Relative to the San Gabriel mountains USC is moving at 4.5 +/-1.5 mm/year toward the north-northeast and Palos Verdes is moving at 6 +/-1.5 mm/year toward the north-northeast. (The values following the +/- are 95% conf. limits excluding uncertainty in motions made by man.)

Argus, D. F.; Heflin, M. B.; Peltzer, G.; Bawden, G. W.; Webb, F. H.

2002-12-01

226

PC and mainframe computer-graphics techniques applied to volumetric evaluation of a mature oil field  

SciTech Connect

Mapping and volumetric analysis of large reservoirs are important steps in evaluating mature oil fields for secondary and tertiary development. This paper describes how a research group mapped and conducted an extensive volumetric analysis on the Zenith pool, a large, mature oil field in central Kansas, with a Data General MV20000 minicomputer with Surface III mapping software and a PC with Surfer and spreadsheet software. A step-by-step procedure was developed to generate structure, isopach, and porosity maps for the five main reservoirs in the field. Lotus 123{sup TM} spreadsheets were developed to compile locations, formation tops, and other critical data for more than 500 wells. These data were sent to the minicomputer to generate contour maps depicting structure, isopachs, and porosities with output directed to an electrostatic color plotter. Grid-to-grid manipulation and cross multiplication of these contour maps allowed construction of a porosity-foot map for each reservoir. The final contour maps incorporated the effects of oil/water contact (OWC) with a porosity cutoff determined from porosity/permeability crossplots. Integration of the porosity-foot maps facilitated volumetric and spatial comparison with historic production data.

Newell, K.D.; Schoeling, L.G.; Wong, J.C. (Univ. of Kansas, KS (US))

1990-11-01

227

Distribution and origin of groundwater methane in the Wattenberg oil and gas field of northern Colorado.  

PubMed

Public concerns over potential environmental contamination associated with oil and gas well drilling and fracturing in the Wattenberg field in northeast Colorado are increasing. One of the issues of concern is the migration of oil, gas, or produced water to a groundwater aquifer resulting in contamination of drinking water. Since methane is the major component of natural gas and it can be dissolved and transported with groundwater, stray gas in aquifers has elicited attention. The initial step toward understanding the environmental impacts of oil and gas activities, such as well drilling and fracturing, is to determine the occurrence, where it is and where it came from. In this study, groundwater methane data that has been collected in response to a relatively new regulation in Colorado is analyzed. Dissolved methane was detected in 78% of groundwater wells with an average concentration of 4.0 mg/L and a range of 0-37.1 mg/L. Greater than 95% of the methane found in groundwater wells was classified as having a microbial origin, and there was minimal overlap between the C and H isotopic characterization of the produced gas and dissolved methane measured in the aquifer. Neither density of oil/gas wells nor distance to oil/gas wells had a significant impact on methane concentration suggesting other important factors were influencing methane generation and distribution. Thermogenic methane was detected in two aquifer wells indicating a potential contamination pathway from the producing formation, but microbial-origin gas was by far the predominant source of dissolved methane in the Wattenberg field. PMID:24456231

Li, Huishu; Carlson, Kenneth H

2014-02-01

228

Significant role of structural fractures in Ren-Qiu buried-block oil field, eastern China  

SciTech Connect

Ren-qui oil field is in a buried block of Sinian (upper Proterozoic) rocks located in the Ji-zhong depression of the western Bohai Bay basin in eastern China. The main reservoir consists of Sinian dolomite rocks. It is a fault block with a large growth fault on the west side which trends north-northeast with throws of up to 1 km (0.6 mi) or more. The source rocks for the oil are Paleogene age and overlie the Sinian dolomite rocks. The structural fractures are the main factor forming the reservoir of the buried-block oil field. Three structural lines, trending northeast, north-northeast, and northwest, form the regional netted fracture system. The north-northeast growth fault controlled the structural development of the buried block. The block was raised and eroded before the Tertiary sediments were deposited. In the Eocene Epoch, the Ji-zhong depression subsided, but the deposition, faulting, and related uplift of the block happened synchronously as the block was gradually submerged. At the same time, several horizontal and vertical karst zones were formed by the karst water along the netted structural fractures. The Eocene oil source rocks lapped onto the block and so the buried block, with many developed karst fractures, was surrounded by a great thickness of source rocks. As the growth fault developed, the height of the block was increased from 400 m (1300 ft) before the Oligocene to 1300 m (4250 ft) after. As the petroleum was generated, it migrated immediately into the karst fractures of the buried block along the growth fault. The karst-fractured block reservoir has an 800-m (2600-ft) high oil-bearing closure and good connections developed between the karst fractures.

Fei, Q.; Xie-Pei, W.

1983-03-01

229

The effect of contaminant in breakdown time lag of uniform electric field using impulse breakdown in mineral oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

A breakdown time lag of uniform electric field using sphere-sphere electrodes was measured in pure mineral oil and in contaminated oil. The electrodes were steel spheres of diameter 12.5 mm. The effect for breakdown time lag wielded by differences of the distance between electrodes, applied impulse voltage and contaminant was measured, The breakdown time lag increased proportionally to applied voltage

H. Naoshi; O. A. Aloys; A. Kiyomitsu

1999-01-01

230

Field experiences with rotordynamic instability in high-performance turbomachinery. [oil and natural gas recovery  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Two field situations illustrate the consequences of rotordynamic instability in centrifugal compressors. One involves the reinjection of produced gas into a North Sea oil formation for the temporary extraction of crude. The other describes on-shore compressors used to deliver natural gas from off-shore wells. The problems which developed and the remedies attempted in each case are discussed. Instability problems resulted in lost production, extended construction periods and costs, and heavy maintenance expenditures. The need for effective methods to properly identify the problem in the field and in the compressor design stage is emphasized.

Doyle, H. E.

1980-01-01

231

NMR measurement of oil shale magnetic relaxation at high magnetic field  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) at low field is used extensively to provide porosity and pore-size distributions in reservoir rocks. For unconventional resources, due to low porosity and permeability of the samples, much of the signal exists at very short T2 relaxation times. In addition, the organic content of many shales will also produce signal at short relaxation times. Despite recent improvements in low-field technology, limitations still exist that make it difficult to account for all hydrogen-rich constituents in very tight rocks, such as shales. The short pulses and dead times along with stronger gradients available when using high-field NMR equipment provides a more complete measurement of hydrogen-bearing phases due to the ability to probe shorter T2 relaxation times (-5 sec) than can be examined using low-field equipment. Access to these shorter T2 times allows for confirmation of partially resolved peaks observed in low-field NMR data that have been attributed to solid organic phases in oil shales. High-field (300 MHz or 7 T) NMR measurements of spin-spin T2 and spin-lattice T1 magnetic relaxation of raw and artificially matured oil shales have potential to provide data complementary to low field (2 MHz or 0.05T) measurements. Measurements of high-field T2 and T1-T2 correlations are presented. These data can be interpreted in terms of organic matter phases and mineral-bound water known to be present in the shale samples, as confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and show distributions of hydrogen-bearing phases present in the shales that are similar to those observed in low field measurements.

Seymour, Joseph D.; Washburn, Kathryn E.; Kirkland, Catherine M.; Vogt, Sarah J.; Birdwell, Justin E.; Codd, Sarah L.

2013-01-01

232

Gas, water, and oil production from Wattenberg field in the Denver Basin, Colorado  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Gas, oil, and water production data were compiled from selected wells in two tight gas reservoirs-the Codell-Niobrara interval, comprised of the Codell Sandstone Member of the Carlile Shale and the Niobrara Formation; and the Dakota J interval, comprised mostly of the Muddy (J) Sandstone of the Dakota Group; both intervals are of Cretaceous age-in the Wattenberg field in the Denver Basin of Colorado. Production from each well is represented by two samples spaced five years apart, the first sample typically taken two years after production commenced, which generally was in the 1990s. For each producing interval, summary diagrams and tables of oil-versus-gas production and water-versus-gas production are shown with fluid-production rates, the change in production over five years, the water-gas and oil-gas ratios, and the fluid type. These diagrams and tables permit well-to-well and field-to-field comparisons. Fields producing water at low rates (water dissolved in gas in the reservoir) can be distinguished from fields producing water at moderate or high rates, and the water-gas ratios are quantified. The Dakota J interval produces gas on a per-well basis at roughly three times the rate of the Codell-Niobrara interval. After five years of production, gas data from the second samples show that both intervals produce gas, on average, at about one-half the rate as the first sample. Oil-gas ratios in the Codell-Niobrara interval are characteristic of a retrograde gas and are considerably higher than oil-gas ratios in the Dakota J interval, which are characteristic of a wet gas. Water production from both intervals is low, and records in many wells are discontinuous, particularly in the Codell-Niobrara interval. Water-gas ratios are broadly variable, with some of the variability possibly due to the difficulty of measuring small production rates. Most wells for which water is reported have water-gas ratios exceeding the amount that could exist dissolved in gas at reservoir pressure and temperature. The Codell-Niobrara interval is reported to be overpressured (that is, pressure greater than hydrostatic) whereas the underlying Dakota J interval is underpressured (less than hydrostatic), demonstrating a lack of hydraulic communication between the two intervals despite their proximity over a broad geographical area. The underpressuring in the Dakota J interval has been attributed by others to outcropping strata east of the basin. We agree with this interpretation and postulate that the gas accumulation also may contribute to hydraulic isolation from outcrops immediately west of the basin.

Nelson, Philip H.; Santus, Stephen L.

2011-01-01

233

Structure of pre-Caspian depression and major oil and gas fields of the region  

SciTech Connect

As a single unified depression, the pre-Caspian basin has been formed from Paleozoic to Cenozoic time. The basin is superimposed on two large pre-Permian depressions. On the Astrakhan-Aktyubinsk zone of uplifts between them is found sharply reduced Carboniferous and Devonian sections. Modern structural plan clearly displays two major structural stages: Subsalt (Paleozoic) and post (post-Kungurian). The post-salt stage is characterized by wide development of salt dome tectonics. It corresponds with its own petroliferous stage containing numerous, mostly small oil accumulations in terrigenous Mesozoic reservoirs. Large recent discoveries-Astrakhan condensate, Karachaganak and Kanazhol-Sinelnikov oil/condensate, Tengiz oil, and other fields-are associated with the Subsalt Paleozoic complex ranging from Lower Permian to the top of Upper Devonian. The Subsalt stage has its own regularities in hydrocarbon phase differentiation; large reserves concentration; dominantly productive carbonates with various reservoirs; and presence of structural, depositional, and erosional factors controlling formation of oil and gas traps. The paper describes major distributional features of the various arc-and-type Permian and Carboniferous formations, which in conjunction with Subsalt paleotemperature data and geochemistry of organic matter represents a basis for the forecast of new discoveries.

Krylov, N.A. (Amoco Production Co., Houston, TX (United States)); Avrov, V.P. (Igirgi, Moscow (USSR)); Lisovsky, N.N.

1991-03-01

234

Residual-oil-saturation-technology test, Bell Creek Field, Montana. Final report  

SciTech Connect

A field test was conducted of the technology available to measure residual oil saturation following waterflood secondary oil recovery processes. The test was conducted in a new well drilled solely for that purpose, located immediately northwest of the Bell Creek Micellar Polymer Pilot. The area where the test was conducted was originally drilled during 1968, produced by primary until late 1970, and was under line drive waterflood secondary recovery until early 1976, when the area was shut in at waterflood depletion. This report presents the results of tests conducted to determine waterflood residual oil saturation in the Muddy Sandstone reservoir. The engineering techniques used to determine the magnitude and distribution of the remaining oil saturation included both pressure and sidewall cores, conventional well logs (Dual Laterolog - Micro Spherically Focused Log, Dual Induction Log - Spherically Focused Log, Borehole Compensated Sonic Log, Formation Compensated Density-Compensated Neutron Log), Carbon-Oxygen Logs, Dielectric Logs, Nuclear Magnetism Log, Thermal Decay Time Logs, and a Partitioning Tracer Test.

Not Available

1981-06-01

235

A field experiment to assess impact of chemically dispersed oil on Arabian Gulf corals  

SciTech Connect

Field experiments were conducted on a coral reef at Jurayd Island (Saudi Arabia) in the Arabian Gulf to study the effects of chemically dispersed oil on local corals. Portions of the reef were exposed to predetermined concentrations of oil alone, dispersant alone, and oil-plus-dispersant mixtures. Areas of the reef not exposed to any of the toxicants were used as controls. Arabian Light Crude and Corexit 9527 dispersant were the test toxicants. Two series of experiments were conducted beginning in September 1981, one with a 24-hour exposure period and the other with a 5-day (120-hour) exposure period. Corals were stained for growth rate studies and extensively photographed to document any observed effects. Corals were examined for biological impacts immediately after the exposures, and then at 3-month intervals for 1 year. Water temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen, and hydrocarbon content were recorded during the exposure periods. Coral growth appeared unaffected by exposure to the toxicants. Some Acropora species corals exposed to dispersed oil for 5 days exhibited delayed effects, which became apparent during the relatively cold winter season.

Le Gore, R.S.; Cuddeback, J.E.; Hofmann, J.E.; Marszalek, D.S.

1983-03-01

236

A new reserve growth model for United States oil and gas fields  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Reserve (or field) growth, which is an appreciation of total ultimate reserves through time, is a well-recognized phenomenon, particularly in mature petroleum provinces. The importance of forecasting reserve growth accurately in a mature petroleum province made it necessary to develop improved growth functions, and a critical review of the original Arrington method was undertaken. During a five-year (1992-1996), the original Arrington method gave 1.03% higher than the actual oil reserve growth, whereas the proposed modified method gave a value within 0.3% of the actual growth, and therefore it was accepted for the development for reserve growth models. During a five-year (1992-1996), the USGS 1995 National Assessment gave 39.3% higher oil and 33.6% lower gas than the actual growths, whereas the new model based on Modified Arrington method gave 11.9% higher oil and 29.8% lower gas than the actual growths. The new models forecast predict reserve growths of 4.2 billion barrels of oil (2.7%) and 30.2 trillion cubic feet of gas (5.4%) for the conterminous U.S. for the next five years (1997-2001). ?? 2005 International Association for Mathematical Geology.

Verma, M. K.

2005-01-01

237

77 FR 46640 - Hours of Service of Drivers of Commercial Motor Vehicles; Regulatory Guidance for Oil Field...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration 49 CFR...Hours of Service of Drivers of Commercial Motor Vehicles; Regulatory Guidance for Oil Field Exceptions AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration...

2012-08-06

238

77 FR 57068 - Hours of Service of Drivers of Commercial Motor Vehicles; Regulatory Guidance for Oil Field...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA...Hours of Service of Drivers of Commercial Motor Vehicles; Regulatory Guidance for Oil Field Exception AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration...

2012-09-17

239

Reservoir petroleum geochemistry of Sarita (South Texas), Eugene Island 330 and South Marsh Island 128 (offshore Louisiana) oil fields  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hydrocarbon fluid compositions within three petroleum fields were shown to be heterogeneous in some aspects while appearing to have a common source for each field. However biomarker parameters indicate that three difference sources were respectively responsible for each field accumulation. Visual inspection of whole oil chromatograms, gasoline molecular composition, and quantitative concentrations of biomarkers were used to define the range

J. K. Rafalska; P. A. Comet; M. C. II Kennicutt; T. J. McDonald; J. M. Brooks

1991-01-01

240

Study of the behavior of metal particles in insulation oil under a non-uniform electric field  

Microsoft Academic Search

Insulation oil and copper particles were put into a petri dish made of epoxy resin, and a non-uniform electric field was applied to them. When the nonuniform electric field was applied, the copper particles were observed to form straight lines in the electric field direction with some branching. Moreover, repeated vibrations of the copper particles were also observed around the

N. Mashimo; Y. Aihara; A. Toya; Y. Murata; S. Katakai; N. Numata

2004-01-01

241

A high-field 1 H nuclear magnetic resonance study of the minor components in virgin olive oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

High-field (600 MHz) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy was applied to the direct analysis of virgin olive oil.\\u000a Minor components were studied to assess oil quality and genuineness. Unsaturated and saturated aldehyde resonances, as well\\u000a as those related to other volatile compounds, were identified in the low-field region of the spectrum by two-dimensional techniques.\\u000a Unsaturated aldehydes can be related to

R. Sacchi; M. Patumi; G. Fontanazza; P. Barone; P. Fiordiponti; L. Mannina; E. Rossi; A. L. Segre

1996-01-01

242

Recent glacial events in the Norwegian North Sea - implications towards a better understanding of charging/leakage of oil fields and its impact oil exploration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent drilling and appraisal on the Southern Utsira High, Norwegian North Sea, has proved several large oil/gas discoveries, including the giant Johan Sverdrup, Edvard Grieg, Draupne, Ragnarrock and Apollo oil fields, making this a prolific petroleum area. The Southern Utsira High contains a variety of hydrocarbon density fluids found at several stratigraphic levels illustrating the compartmentalized nature of accumulations and charge history. The Southern Utsira High has been in a position to receive an oil/gas charge for a considerable period of time, with the basin towards the west most likely generating petroleum from early Eocene (50M Mabp) to its maximum present day burial depth. However, reservoir temperatures on the Southern Utsira High are just above the threshold for biodegradation (80°C). The Southern Utsira High oils are non-biodegraded suggesting that the majority of the oil charged relatively late - ca.3 million years ago to present day. The effects of the glaciation on the filling history of the Southern Utsira High are currently being assessed. It is clear that several erosional surfaces in the Pliocene can be identified, as well as glacial channels and moraine deposits, indicating that significant deposition and erosion occurred in the last five million years. Importantly, the effects of glacial rebound mean that the Southern Utsira High more than likely underwent tilting and possible leakage, not just once, but several times in the last 1 million years. The effects of tilting/leakage of geological areas on oil migration have been recognized by several authors. However, the detailed integration of geological mapping and geochemical evidence has not previously been published. The implications of a detailed assessment of tilting of a ''high' through time are; 1) opening up areas where oil migration is thought to be high risk or impossible; 2) identify possible paleo-oil columns aiding the de-risking of discovery appraisal strategies. The evidence of tilting/leakage of oil accumulations through time can be recognized in several oil fields on the Utsira High. The giant Johan Sverdrup discovery oil columns contain paleo-OWC, residual oil zones/paleo-oil columns, and oil shows considerably deeper than the current OWC or residual oil columns. Lundin has performed detailed mapping of the seabed and water column in the Alvheim/Utsira High areas in order to identify areas of gas leakage and its geological manifestations on the seabed and ultimately resulting in the collection of high quality samples. Results shows that gas leakage is prominent over the Alvheim and Utsira High areas and the implications of this to oil exploration will be discussed. In summary, Lundin's approach to oil migration is to better understand the fluid/gas movement throughout the whole basin through time. The talk will focus on the role of glaciations on the timing of charge from the South Viking Graben, fill-spill directions on the Southern Utsira High, the effects of late tilting/leakage on the charge/re-distribution of oil, and seabed / water column characterization and sampling. All placed in the context of oil exploration.

Stoddart, Daniel

2014-05-01

243

Effect of leachability on environmental risk assessment for naturally occurring radioactive materials in petroleum oil fields.  

PubMed

Elevated concentrations of naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM), including 238U, 232Th, and their progeny found in underground geologic deposits, are often encountered during crude oil recovery. Radium, the predominant radionuclide brought to the surface with the crude oil and produced water, co-precipitates with barium in the form of complex compounds of sulfates, carbonates, and silicates found in sludge and scale. These NORM deposits are highly stable and very insoluble under ambient conditions at the earth's surface. However, the co-precipitated radium matrix is not thermodynamically stable at reducing conditions which may enable a fraction of the radium to eventually be released to the environment. Although the fate of radium in uranium mill tailings has been studied extensively, the leachability of radium from crude oil NORM deposits exposed to acid-rain and other aging processes is generally unknown. The leachability of radium from NORM contaminated soil collected at a contaminated oil field in eastern Kentucky was determined using extraction fluids having wide range of pH reflecting different extreme environmental conditions. The average 226Ra concentration in the samples of soil subjected to leachability testing was 32.56 Bq g(-1) +/- 0.34 Bq g(-1). The average leaching potential of 226Ra observed in these NORM contaminated soil samples was 1.3% +/- 0.46% and was independent of the extraction fluid. Risk assessment calculations using the family farm scenario show that the annual dose to a person living and working on this NORM contaminated soil is mainly due to external gamma exposure and radon inhalation. However, waterborne pathways make a non-negligible contribution to the dose for the actual resident families living on farmland with the type of residual NORM contamination due to crude oil recovery operations. PMID:10647985

Rajaretnam, G; Spitz, H B

2000-02-01

244

Sedimentation, zoning of reservoir rocks in W. Siberian basin oil fields  

SciTech Connect

A line pattern of well cluster spacing was chosen in western Siberia because of taiga, marshes, etc., on the surface. The zoning of the oil pools within productive Upper Jurassic J[sub 3] intervals is complicated. This is why until the early 1990s almost each third well drilled in the Shaimsky region on the western edge of the West Siberian basin came up dry. The results of development drilling would be much better if one used some sedimentological relationships of zoning of the reservoir rocks within the oil fields. These natural phenomena are: Paleobasin bathymetry; Distances from the sources of the clastic material; and Proximity of the area of deposition. Using the diagram in this article, one can avoid drilling toward areas where the sandstone pinch out, area of argillization of sand-stones, or where the probability of their absence is high.

Kliger, J.A. (Enforce Energy Corp., New York, NY (United States))

1994-02-07

245

A fuzzy control system for a three-phase oil field centrifuge  

SciTech Connect

The three-phase centrifuge discussed here is an excellent device for cleaning up oil field and refinery wastes. These wastes are typically composed of hydrocarbons, water, and solids. This technology converts waste, which is often classified as hazardous, into salable oil, reusable water, and solids that can be placed in landfills. No secondary waste is produced. A major problem is that only one person can set up and run the equipment well enough to provide an optimal cleanup. Demand for this technology has far exceeded a one-man operation. The solution to this problem is an intelligent control system that can replace a highly skilled operator so that several centrifuges can be operated at different locations at the same time.

Parkinson, W.J.; Smith, R.E.; Wantuck, P.J. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Miller, N. [Centech Inc., Casper, WY (United States)

1998-12-31

246

Structural Relaxation of Water-in-Oil Emulsion under Direct Current Electric Field  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, electrorheology of water-in-oil emulsion is explored in the presence of direct current (DC) electric fields. DC electrorheological (ER) experiments in dynamic mode are performed to study the structural evolution of emulsions from a random configuration to organized microstructures. Critical electric field (CEF), i.e. value of field at which the emulsion structure breakdown occurs, is measured. In this work, all the ER experiments are completed at electric field strength below CEF. Since ER emulsion behavior is controlled by electrical and hydrodynamic forces, structural relaxation of emulsions as a function of electric field strength, dynamic frequency and continuous phase viscosity is investigated. Time evolution of viscosity and electrical current are measured to reflect characteristics of the system microstructure. Also, hysteresis is measured at low electric fields to study the rheological properties restoration after the field has been turned off. The results on the relaxation process show that the electric field induces increase in viscosity as well as electrical current.

Moradi, Mehrnoosh; Alvarado, Vladimir

2010-11-01

247

The role of asphaltenes, resins and other solids in the stabilization of water in oil emulsions and its effects on oil production in Saudi oil fields  

Microsoft Academic Search

The factors contributing to the stability of water-in-oil (w\\/o) emulsions is a problem of great concern and economic importance to the oil companies in the production of oil from underground reservoirs. This paper reports the results of a laboratory investigation into various factors affecting the stability of w\\/o emulsions in some crude oil samples obtained from well heads of different

M. F Ali; M. H Alqam

2000-01-01

248

Hydrocarbon-water interactions during brine migration: Evidence from hydrocarbon inclusions in calcite cements from Danish North Sea oil fields  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Crude oils in primary and secondary fluid inclusions in calcite from fractures in seven offshore oil fields associated with diapiric salt structures in the Danish sector of the North Sea were analyzed by capillary column gas chromatography and compared with crude oils produced from the same reservoirs. Oils from fluid inclusions in all fields show evidence of biodegradation (decreased n-C17/pristane and n-C18/phytane ratios and loss of n-C7, 2-methyl hexane, and 3-methyl hexane relative to methyl cyclohexane) and water washing (absence of benzene and depletion of toluene). Some oils in inclusions are extremely enriched in C6 and C7 cyclic alkanes suggesting that these samples contain hydrocarbons exsolved from ascending, hotter formation waters. Compared to inclusion oils the produced oils are less biodegraded, but are water washed, indicating that both types of oil interacted with large volumes of formation water. The carbon isotopic composition of the calcite host of the fluid inclusions in the Dagmar and Skjold fields is as light as -16.5%. PDB and the sulfur isotopic composition of pyrite in and adjacent to the calcite veins in the Skjold field is as light as -39.6%. CDT, indicating that biodegradation of the oils was a source of some of the carbon in the calcite and sulfate reduction was the source of sulfur for the pyrite. The evidence for microbial degradation of petroleum is consistent with present-day reservoir temperatures (65??-96??C) but is not consistent with previous estimates of the temperatures of calcite vein filling (95??-130??C) which are much higher than the temperatures of known occurrences of biodegraded oil. ?? 1990.

Jensenius, J.; Burruss, R. C.

1990-01-01

249

Integration of seismic methods with reservoir simulation, Pikes Peak heavy oil field, Saskatchewan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Pikes Peak heavy oil field has been operated by Husky Energy Ltd since 1981. Steam injection has been successfully employed to increase production. Efforts in geophysics and reservoir engineering have been made to improve interpretations in the mapping of reservoir conditions. This dissertation developed tools and a working flow for integrating the analysis of time-lapse seismic surveys with reservoir simulation, and applied them to the Pikes Peak field. Two time-lapse 2D seismic lines acquired in February 1991 and March 2000 in the eastern part of the field were carefully processed to produce wavelet and structure matched final sections. Reservoir simulation based on the field reservoir production history was carried out. It provided independent complementary information for the time-lapse seismic analysis. A rock physics procedure based on Gassmann's equation and Batzle and Wang's empirical relationship successfully linked the reservoir engineering to the seismic method. Based on the resultant seismic models, synthetic seismic sections were generated as the analogy of field seismic sections. The integrated interpretation for the Pikes Peak reservoir drew the following conclusions: The areas with a gas saturation difference, between two compared time steps, have seismic differences. Thicker gas zones correspond with large reflectivity changes on the top of the reservoir and larger traveltime delays in the seismic section. The thin gas zones only induce large reflectivity changes on the top of the reservoir, and do not have large time delays below the reservoir zone. High temperature regions also correlate with areas having large seismic energy differences. High temperature with thick gas (steam and methane) zones may be evidence for steam existence. The seismic differences at locations far from the production zone are due to the lower pressure that causes solution gas to evolve from the oil. Pressure changes propagate much faster (˜20 m in one month) than temperature changes (˜8 m in a year) based on the reservoir simulation results. The pressure dependence of the seismic data is due to its influences on gas saturation. The bypassed oil area and steam fronts (high temperature front) can be estimated from the temperature and oil saturation distributions from the reservoir simulation. AVO results show a steam and gas zone pattern similar to the one produced by reservoir simulation.

Zou, Ying

250

Electrorheology of a zeolite/silicone oil suspension under dc fields  

SciTech Connect

The electrorheology of electrorheological (ER) fluids based on zeolite and silicone oil under dc fields was investigated at room temperature. ER fluids with volume fractions of 27% and 30% were prepared and tested. When a 5 kV/mm dc field was applied, shear yield stress of 26.7 kPa was obtained for the latter. The ER fluid with a higher volume fraction of zeolite had a higher current density and a higher shear yield stress under the same electric field. Compared with other ER fluids based on zeolite particles with low shear yield stress, the zeolite employed by us was found to have high dielectric constant and conductivity. The high permittivity mismatch and the high conductivity mismatch of the components of the fluids were considered responsible for the high shear yield stress. {copyright} 2001 American Institute of Physics.

Tian, Yu; Meng, Yonggang; Wen, Shizhu

2001-07-01

251

Four-dimensional seismic analysis of the Hibernia oil field, Grand Banks, Canada  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The seismic reflection method, traditionally a geologic structural imaging tool, is increasingly being utilized for petroleum reservoir monitoring purposes. Time-lapse, or four dimensional (4D) seismic reservoir monitoring is the process by which repeated 3D seismic surveys are acquired over a common area during the production of a petroleum reservoir in an effort to spatially image production related changes. While if successful, this seismic method can have a significant impact on an oil field's development plan, the sometimes subtle nature of the 4D seismic signals restricts the universal application of 4D seismic methods in all reservoirs and operating environments. To examine the potential use of 4D seismic on Canada's Grand Banks, this thesis conducts a 4D seismic analysis of the Hibernia oil field---the first example of 4D seismic technology on the Grand Banks. Due to a challenging environment (seismic and reservoir) at Hibernia for 4D seismic success, rock physics modeling predicts a subtle 4D seismic response for areas of both water and gas injection. To equalize the 4D seismic datasets, specialized poststack cross equalization including a volume event warping process is applied to two 3D post stack seismic datasets from the Hibernia oil field, a pre-production "legacy" survey acquired in 1991, and a 2001 survey. The cross equalization processing improves the repeatability of non-reservoir events fieldwide and enhances reservoir anomalies in some areas of the field. While the data contains a fair degree of noise, 4D seismic anomalies above the noise level can be imaged in areas of both water and gas injection. Through interpretation, some of these anomalies are shown to be consistent with modeled responses to water and gas injection. In addition, there is evidence that some of the seismic anomalies may be due to pore pressure changes in the reservoir. The results of the Hibernia 4D seismic analysis are then used as background for a feasibility analysis for the application of 4D seismic in other fields on the Grand Banks, which compared to Hibernia, prove to have similar 4D seismic potential. In accomplishing these objectives, this thesis makes new contributions in the areas of rock physics modeling, 4D seismic in marginal environments, methods for 4D seismic pressure/saturation inversion, and 4D seismic interpretation. As Hibernia is the first producing field in the region, this thesis provides an important benchmark for the evaluation of the potential role of 4D seismic analysis on development decisions for other Grand Banks fields currently in early production (Terra Nova), or under development (White Rose, Hebron).

Wright, Richard James

252

Gas injection may have triggered earthquakes in the Cogdell oil field, Texas  

PubMed Central

Between 1957 and 1982, water flooding was conducted to improve petroleum production in the Cogdell oil field north of Snyder, TX, and a contemporary analysis concluded this induced earthquakes that occurred between 1975 and 1982. The National Earthquake Information Center detected no further activity between 1983 and 2005, but between 2006 and 2011 reported 18 earthquakes having magnitudes 3 and greater. To investigate these earthquakes, we analyzed data recorded by six temporary seismograph stations deployed by the USArray program, and identified 93 well-recorded earthquakes occurring between March 2009 and December 2010. Relocation with a double-difference method shows that most earthquakes occurred within several northeast–southwest-trending linear clusters, with trends corresponding to nodal planes of regional focal mechanisms, possibly indicating the presence of previously unidentified faults. We have evaluated data concerning injection and extraction of oil, water, and gas in the Cogdell field. Water injection cannot explain the 2006–2011 earthquakes, especially as net volumes (injection minus extraction) are significantly less than in the 1957–1982 period. However, since 2004 significant volumes of gases including supercritical CO2 have been injected into the Cogdell field. The timing of gas injection suggests it may have contributed to triggering the recent seismic activity. If so, this represents an instance where gas injection has triggered earthquakes having magnitudes 3 and larger. Further modeling studies may help evaluate recent assertions suggesting significant risks accompany large-scale carbon capture and storage as a strategy for managing climate change.

Gan, Wei; Frohlich, Cliff

2013-01-01

253

Integration of geological, geochemical, and geophysical spatial data of the Cement oil field, Oklahoma, test site  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Measurement pertaining to geology, geochemistry, and geophysics of the Cement oil field, Oklahoma, test site were collected employing both airborne sensors and ground-based data collection. The measurements include: (1) airborne gamma-ray spectrometry (supplying bismuth 214, thalium 208, and potassium 40 gamma-ray intensities); (2) aeromagnetic survey data; (3) multi-frequency airborne resistivity survey data (supplying apparent electrical resistivity of near surface materials); (4) gravity data; (5) geological and topographic maps; and (6) image data from Landsat MSS and U-2 photography.

Termain, Patricia A.; Donovan, Terrence J.; Chavez, Pat S.

1980-01-01

254

Application of high-resolution imagery for oil fields ecological monitoring  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the paper a methodology of RS-based thematic mapping is introduced which uses an original RS imagery interpretation approach. The implementation of the methodology is based on application of GIS MapInfo Professional and original imagery processing and interpretation system "LandMapper" developed in Tomsk Polytechnic University (TPU). The paper considers the basic principles of imagery interpretation approach adopted in the "LandMapper" system as well as gives the results of its application for Tomsk region oil-fields pollution mapping with use of high resolution images acquired by QuickBird satellite.

Napryushkin, Alexandr A.; Vertinskaya, Eugenia V.; Gavilanes, Doug

2004-10-01

255

Investigation of ginkgo biloba leave extracts as corrosion and Oil field microorganism inhibitors.  

PubMed

Ginkgo biloba (Ginkgoaceae), originating from China, now distributes all over the world. Wide application of Ginkgo biloba extracts is determined by the main active substances, flavonoids and terpenoids, which indicates its extracts suitable to be used as an effective corrosion inhibitor. The extracts of Ginkgo biloba leave have been investigated on the corrosion inhibition of Q235A steel with weight loss and potentiodynamic polarisation techniques. The inhibition efficiency of the extracts varies with extract concentration. The extracts inhibit corrosion mainly by adsorption mechanism. Potentiodynamic polarisation studies show that extracts are mixed type inhibitors. The antibacterial activity of the extracts against oil field microorganism (SRB, IB and TGB) was also investigated. PMID:23651921

Chen, Gang; Zhang, Min; Zhao, Jingrui; Zhou, Rui; Meng, Zuchao; Zhang, Jie

2013-01-01

256

Investigation of ginkgo biloba leave extracts as corrosion and Oil field microorganism inhibitors  

PubMed Central

Ginkgo biloba (Ginkgoaceae), originating from China, now distributes all over the world. Wide application of Ginkgo biloba extracts is determined by the main active substances, flavonoids and terpenoids, which indicates its extracts suitable to be used as an effective corrosion inhibitor. The extracts of Ginkgo biloba leave have been investigated on the corrosion inhibition of Q235A steel with weight loss and potentiodynamic polarisation techniques. The inhibition efficiency of the extracts varies with extract concentration. The extracts inhibit corrosion mainly by adsorption mechanism. Potentiodynamic polarisation studies show that extracts are mixed type inhibitors. The antibacterial activity of the extracts against oil field microorganism (SRB, IB and TGB) was also investigated.

2013-01-01

257

Applying the Aramid Joined v-belt high torque, low speed oil field pumping units  

SciTech Connect

This paper discusses the successful application of Aramid fiber-reinforced Torque Team Plus Joined Vbelts to low speed; (8-20 rpm) high torque, up to (320,000 in-lb); 100% belt driven oil field pumping units. Also discussed is a comparison in operating efficiency over gear or chain units, reduced initial expense, and lower overall maintenance effort. The Aramid reinforced Joined V-belts were applied to a double reduction drive (68-142:1 ratio) eliminating gear or chain reducers. Pumping units range in size from 57,000 in-lb to 320,000 in-lb.

Stork, D.; Watson, J.

1982-11-01

258

Interpreting Reservoir Microseismicity Detected During CO2 Injection at the Aneth Oil Field  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Microseismic monitoring is expected to be a useful tool in CO2 sequestration projects for mapping pressure fronts and detecting fault activation and potential leakage paths. Downhole microseismic monitoring and several other techniques are being tested for their efficacy in tracking movement and containment of CO2 injected at the Aneth oil field located in San Juan County, Utah. The Southwest Regional Partnership on CO2 Sequestration is conducting the monitoring activities in collaboration with Resolute Natural Resources Company, under the support of the U.S. Department of Energy’s National Energy Technology Laboratory. The CO2 injection at Aneth is associated with a field-wide enhanced oil recovery operation following decades of pressure maintenance and oil recovery by water-flood injection. A 60-level geophone string was cemented into a monitoring well equipped with both 3-component and vertical component geophones spanning from 800 to 1700 m depth. The top of the oil reservoir in the study area is at approximately 1730 m depth. Over the first year of monitoring, approximately 3800 microearthquakes have been detected within about 3 km of the geophone string. The Aneth reservoir events are relatively large with magnitudes ranging from approximately -1 to 1. For comparison, reservoir seismicity induced during hydraulic fracturing treatments typically result in events with magnitudes <-1, unless pre-existing faults are pressurized by the treatments. The Aneth events delineate two NW-SE oriented fracture zones located on opposite flanks of the reservoir. Injection activity is fairly uniform over the entire field area, and the microseismicity does not correlate either temporally or spatially with any anomalous changes in injection or production activities near the source locations. Because the activity is fairly isolated and relatively energetic, I speculate that the seismicity may be due to critically stressed structures driven by longer-term production- and/or injection-induced stress changes. Ongoing analysis includes extracting precise arrival time to improve relative source locations and looking for correlations of event occurrence and moment release with field-wide rates of injection and production.

Rutledge, J. T.

2009-12-01

259

The effect of an oil drilling operation on the trace metal concentrations in offshore bottom sediments of the Campos Basin oil field, SE Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concentrations of Al, Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, Pb, Ni, Cr, Ba, V, Sn and As in offshore bottom sediments from the Bacia de Campos oil field, SE Brazil, were measured at the beginning and at 7 months after completion of the drilling operation. Concentrations of Al, Fe, Ba, Cr, Ni and Zn were significantly higher closer to the drilling

C. E Rezende; L. D Lacerda; A. R. C Ovalle; C. M. M Souza; A. A. R Gobo; D. O Santos

2002-01-01

260

Exposures and cancer incidence near oil fields in the Amazon basin of Ecuador  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES—To examine environmental exposure and incidence and mortality of cancer in the village of San Carlos surrounded by oil fields in the Amazon basin of Ecuador.?METHODS—Water samples of the local streams were analyzed for total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPHs). A preliminary list of potential cancer cases from 1989 to 1998 was prepared. Cases were compared with expected numbers of cancer morbidity and mortality registrations from a Quito reference population.?RESULTS—Water analysis showed severe exposure to TPHs by the residents. Ten patients with cancer were diagnosed while resident in the village of San Carlos. An overall excess for all types of cancer was found in the male population (8 observed v 3.5 expected) with a risk 2.26 times higher than expected (95% confidence interval (95% CI) 0.97 to 4.46). There was an overall excess of deaths for all types of cancer (6 v 1.6 expected) among the male population 3.6 times higher than the reference population (95% CI 1.31 to 7.81).?CONCLUSIONS—The observed excess of cancer might be associated with the pollution of the environment by toxic contaminants coming from the oil production.???Keywords: cancer; oil; Amazon; Ecuador

San, S; Armstrong, B; Cordoba, J; Stephens, C

2001-01-01

261

Gas, Water, and Oil Production from the Wasatch Formation, Greater Natural Buttes Field, Uinta Basin, Utah  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Gas, oil, and water production data were compiled from 38 wells with production commencing during the 1980s from the Wasatch Formation in the Greater Natural Buttes field, Uinta Basin, Utah. This study is one of a series of reports examining fluid production from tight gas reservoirs, which are characterized by low permeability, low porosity, and the presence of clay minerals in pore space. The general ranges of production rates after 2 years are 100-1,000 mscf/day for gas, 0.35-3.4 barrel per day for oil, and less than 1 barrel per day for water. The water:gas ratio ranges from 0.1 to10 barrel per million standard cubic feet, indicating that free water is produced along with water dissolved in gas in the reservoir. The oil:gas ratios are typical of a wet gas system. Neither gas nor water rates show dependence upon the number of perforations, although for low gas-flow rates there is some dependence upon the number of sandstone intervals that were perforated. Over a 5-year time span, gas and water may either increase or decrease in a given well, but the changes in production rate do not exhibit any dependence upon well proximity or well location.

Nelson, Philip H.; Hoffman, Eric L.

2009-01-01

262

Microbial Oxidation of Natural Gas in a Plume Emanating from the Coal Oil Point Seep Field  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The hydrocarbon seep field at Coal Oil Point, off the coast of Santa Barbara, California, releases > 1010 g of thermogenic natural gas each year. Gases emitted from Coal Oil Point include methane, ethane, propane, and butane, which are atmospheric pollutants and greenhouse gases. Even though the seeps are at water depths of only 5-80 m, much of the gas dissolves and contributes to a plume that is transported by ocean currents. While hydrocarbons can support bacterial respiration, resulting in the removal of hydrocarbon gas from the plume, the time-scale for the bacterial respiratory response is unconstrained. To track hydrocarbon respiration 3H-ethane, propane, and butane were synthesized using Grignard reagents and tritiated water with yields of >70% and applied as tracers to samples up- and down-current from the seeps at Coal Oil Point. Validation experiments conducted in September 2011 aboard the R/V Atlantis show that 3H-labeled tracers are an order of magnitude more sensitive than previous methods using stable carbon isotopes (Valentine et. al 2010), making this technique preferable in natural systems. Application of the tracers concurrent with plume tracking in July-August 2012 show ethane, propane, and butane consumption are readily inducible on a timescale of days.

Mendes, S. D.; Valentine, D. L.; Perez, C.; Scarlett, R.

2012-12-01

263

Electric Field Alignment of Nanofibrillated Cellulose (NFC) in Silicone Oil: Impact on Electrical Properties.  

PubMed

This work aims to study how the magnitude, frequency, and duration of an AC electric field affect the orientation of two kinds of nanofibrillated cellulose (NFC) dispersed in silicone oil that differ by their surface charge density and aspect ratio. In both cases, the electric field alignment occurs in two steps: first, the NFC makes a gyratory motion oriented by the electric field; second, NFC interacts with itself to form chains parallel to the electric field lines. It was also observed that NFC chains become thicker and longer when the duration of application of the electric field is increased. In-situ dielectric properties have shown that the dielectric constant of the medium increases in comparison to the randomly dispersed NFC (when no electric field is applied). The optimal parameters of alignment were found to be 5000 Vpp/mm and 10 kHz for a duration of 20 min for both kinds of NFC. The highest increase in dielectric constant was achieved with NFC oxidized for 5 min (NFC-O-5min) at the optimum conditions mentioned above. PMID:24848447

Kadimi, Amal; Benhamou, Karima; Ounaies, Zoubeida; Magnin, Albert; Dufresne, Alain; Kaddami, Hamid; Raihane, Mustapha

2014-06-25

264

Habitat of oil in the Lindsborg field, Salina basin, north-central Kansas  

SciTech Connect

The Lindsborg field was discovered in 1938, and is now 14 mi in length and 1-2 mi in width. It has a projected ultimate recovery of 16 MMBO. Three pay zones (5-20 ft thick) produce in the field. The Simpson pay zone (Middle Ordovician) is a well-rounded, quartzitic sandstone that is interpreted to be a paralic, high-energy shelf deposit. The Viola pay (Middle Ordovician) appears to be a dolomitic, lime grainstone but no cores are available to confirm this. The uppermost pay zone, the Upper Ordovician Maquoketa, is a finely laminated, vuggy, cherry dolomite interpreted to have been deposited as a subtidal lime mudstone in a restricted lagoon. The Simpson and Viola pays are structurally trapped in culminations along the crest of the Lindsborg anticline. Although the Maquoketa pay is structurally trapped with the other pay zones in the southern half of the field, its locus of production in the north half of the fields extends 100 ft vertically down the western flank of the anticline. The trapping mechanism is unclear due to lack of core control and modern logging suites, but it may be subtle updip diagenetic change from vuggy to nonvuggy dolomite. The Simpson and Maquoketa oils are geochemically distinct. Both may reflect efficient local source-to-reservoir migration from originally rich but marginally mature Ordovician and Devonian shales that contact each pay zone. If oil in the Lindsborg field is locally generated, the prospectivity of the relatively unproductive and underexplored Salina basin may be enhanced.

Newell, K.D. (Univ. of Kansas, Lawrence (United States))

1991-03-01

265

Geo-information approach to the study of Romashkino oil field geodynamics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Geodynamic processes have an immediate influence on a fluid dynamics, for that version they are of significant importance in the formation and reformation processes of oil and gas deposits. The object of our analysis was Romashkino oil field, which is confined to the anticlinal structure of the arch part of the South Tatar Arch. The initial data in our project include the series of a paper maps, which contain the location of the intersection of production and injection wells with the Kyn horizont at the Romashkino oil field and geologic engineering information, which contains the flow rates's inversions data of the well's production activity. Inversion occurs as a periodic increasing of the flow rates which is not caused by the external special influence on the well, against the long-term production activity's decreasing by the decreasing of oil's flow rates. During the analysis of the data we identified the anomalous wells in which the hydrocarbon feed process was observed with the highest probability based on several criteria. By the using of modern GIS technology we have compared the plots, in which an anomal wells are located, with a block structure of the basement and the sedimentary cover, and with the deconsolidated and fluid's penetrability zones of the crystalline basement. For analysis of tabular data array we used ArcGis software package. Romashkino's map was vectorized by using the EasyTrase and when we assigned a number to each object. When the project was exported to ArcGIS and data obtained the geographic coordinates. We obtained the following attributes for the testing wells: the year of exploitation's beginning, the period of the inversion, the ratio of flow rates before and after inversion, and others. We created a series of maps with location of wells, with a flow rate's inversion by the year (1957-1998) for Minnibayevo area and by the five-year intervals for Minnibayevo area separately and for the Romashkino oil field. The maps of the inversion's density were built by the interpolation from the values of the ratio of oil flow rates before and after the inversion in the wells. These data was selected as a characterizing of the inversion strength. Thereby we created the convenient and informative geodata base through using GIS technology. The comprehensive interpretation of a series of maps, created by ArcGIS software package, is in progress. Firstly an analysis of the location of arrangement of the production wells, in which was occurred inversion of oil production in the process of production activity was made. After this, we compared their location with the block structure scheme. We noticed that the wells are grouped in linear- elongated zone along the fault, there is an affinity of this well to the certain parts of the small-sized blocks. The development of scientific and practical research in this direction is of a high significant because it can lead to a change in the strategy and methodology of the geological prospecting on the one hand and of the exploration of hydrocarbon deposits on the other hand.

Usmanov, S.; Sharipov, B.; Akhmetov, A.; Delev, A.

2012-04-01

266

Activity, distribution, and abundance of methane-oxidizing bacteria in the near surface soils of onshore oil and gas fields.  

PubMed

Methane-oxidizing bacteria (MOB) have long been used as an important biological indicator for oil and gas prospecting, but the ecological characteristics of MOB in hydrocarbon microseep systems are still poorly understood. In this study, the activity, distribution, and abundance of aerobic methanotrophic communities in the surface soils underlying an oil and gas field were investigated using biogeochemical and molecular ecological techniques. Measurements of potential methane oxidation rates and pmoA gene copy numbers showed that soils inside an oil and gas field are hot spots of methane oxidation and MOB abundance. Correspondingly, terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism analyses in combination with cloning and sequencing of pmoA genes also revealed considerable differences in the methanotrophic community composition between oil and gas fields and the surrounding soils. Principal component analysis ordination furthermore indicated a coincidence between elevated CH4 oxidation activity and the methanotrophic community structure with type I methanotrophic Methylococcus and Methylobacter, in particular, as indicator species of oil and gas fields. Collectively, our results show that trace methane migrated from oil and gas reservoirs can considerably influence not only the quantity but also the structure of the methanotrophic community. PMID:23090054

Xu, Kewei; Tang, Yuping; Ren, Chun; Zhao, Kebin; Wang, Wanmeng; Sun, Yongge

2013-09-01

267

Percolation behavior in W/O emulsions stabilized by interfacially active fractions from crude oils in high external electric fields  

SciTech Connect

In this communication the authors report on a percolation behavior of water in oil emulsions stabilized by indigenous surfactants from crude oils in high external electric fields. The static permittivity of the emulsion investigated increases with the applied electric field. When the electric field reaches a certain strength the system collapses and the permittivity of the system resembles that of a series coupling of the water and the oil domains. Regression analysis of a proposed scaling law shows that the system behaves according to a static percolation model, i.e., a bicontinuous system. The authors compare the percolation behavior in high electric fields to that reported in temperature and conductivity studies in w/o microemulsions.

Foerdedal, H.; Sjoeblom, J. [Univ. of Bergen (Norway). Dept. of Chemistry] [Univ. of Bergen (Norway). Dept. of Chemistry

1996-08-10

268

Stratigraphic and structural analysis of Shannon Sandstone, Teapot Dome field: implications for secondary and tertiary oil recovery  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Department of Energy and Lawrence-Allison Associates have initiated three enhanced oil recovery (EOR) pilot projects in the last 4 years in the Shannon Sandstone at the Teapot Dome field. Performance of these pilot projects has generally been poor. As a result, a reevaluation of the geology for the entire field and for the pilot areas was conducted in an

H. Chappelle; G. Emsurak; S. Obernyer

1986-01-01

269

Design, Development and Testing of a Voltage Ride-Thru Solution for Variable Speed Drives in Oil Field Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

ChevronTexaco initiated a plan in 1996 to develop the Boscan Oil Field just West of Maracaibo, Venezuela, that included the expansion and reconditioning of the existing 24 kV distribution system in order to assure a reliable service for the new and existing wells. About 75% of the southern field production uses electrical submersible pumps (ESP) while the remainder uses Beam

D. J. Carnovale; J. Biternas; T. J. Dionise; D. D. Shipp

2007-01-01

270

Magnetic forward models of Cement oil field, Oklahoma, based on rock magnetic, geochemical, and petrologic constraints  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Magnetic forward models of the Cement oil field, Oklahoma, were generated to assess the possibility that ferrimagnetic pyrrhotite related to hydrocarbon seepage in the upper 1 km of Permian strata contributes to aeromagnetic anomalies at Cement. Six bodies having different magnetizations were constructed for the magnetic models. Total magnetizations of the bodies of highest pyrrhotite content range from about 3 ?? 10-3 to 56 ?? 10-3 A/m in the present field direction and yield magnetic anomalies (at 120 m altitude) having amplitudes of less than 1 nT to ~6 to 7 nT, respectively. Numerous assumptions were made in the generation of the models, but nevertheless, the results suggest that pyrrhotite, formed via hydrocarbon reactions and within a range of concentrations estimated at Cement, is capable of causing magnetic anomalies. -from Authors

Reynolds, R. L.; Webring, M.; Grauch, V. J. S.; Tuttle, M.

1990-01-01

271

Porosity type and distribution in selected Richfield oil fields, middle Devonian, central Michigan basin  

SciTech Connect

The Richfield zone of the lower Middle Devonian Lucas Formation has been a source of significant quantities of hydrocarbons in the north-central and Saginaw Bay area of Michigan. Production through 1980 totaled 91,639,006 bbl of oil. Prior work, which interpreted the Richfield's environment of deposition to be sabkha, neglected any detailed study of porosity type and distribution within the zone. Integration of data from core analysis, contemporary geophysical well logs, and thin-section analysis provided a basis for delineating porosity types and porosity distribution within the fields. Porosity type and origin were determined by using the guidelines of Choquette and Pray. Patterns of porosity were mapped within producing fields and presented as time-slice contour maps and cross-sectional fence diagrams. This approach will allow better understanding of the development of porosity in these sabkha carbonates and provides a more reliable method of predicting porosity trends.

Sullivan, K.; Harrison, W.B. III

1984-04-01

272

Analysis of gravity anomaly over coral-reef oil field: Wilfred Pool, Sullivan County, Indiana  

SciTech Connect

To compare the measured and theoretical gravity anomaly of a typical coral-reef oil field, data were collected from the wilfred Pool, Sullivan County, Indiana. Densities of available core samples from the field were determined and the anomaly was calculated, taking into account the lateral and vertical variation of density and the geologic structure known from core studies and drilling-log records of lithologic types penetrated by the wells. Comparison of the theoretical and actual anomalies indicated a rough correspondence except for several sharp negative anomalies on the flanks of the measured gravity anomaly. Further studies indicated that the negative anomalies are possibly due to fluvial erosion that produced, on the surface of the youngest Pennsylvanian sediments, channels which were later filled with glacial till of lower density than the sediments. 13 figures.

Dana, S.W.

1980-03-01

273

Reserve growth of oil and gas fields—Investigations and applications  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The reserve growth of fields has been a topic for ongoing discussion for over half a century and will continue to be studied well into the future. This is due to the expected size of the volumetric contribution of reserve growth to the future supply of oil and natural gas. Understanding past methods of estimating future volumes based on the data assembly methods that have been used can lead to a better understanding of their applicability. The statistical nature of past methods and the (1) possible high level of dependency on a limited number of fields, (2) assumption of an age-based correlation with effective reserve growth, and (3) assumption of long-lived and more common than not reserve growth, may be improved by employing a more geologically based approach.

Cook, Troy A.

2013-01-01

274

3-D reservoir characterization of the House Creek oil field, Powder River Basin, Wyoming  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This CD-ROM is intended to serve a broad audience. An important purpose is to explain geologic and geochemical factors that control petroleum production from the House Creek Field. This information may serve as an analog for other marine-ridge sandstone reservoirs. The 3-D slide and movie images are tied to explanations and 2-D geologic and geochemical images to visualize geologic structures in three dimensions, explain the geologic significance of porosity/permeability distribution across the sandstone bodies, and tie this to petroleum production characteristics in the oil field. Movies, text, images including scanning electron photomicrographs (SEM), thin-section photomicrographs, and data files can be copied from the CD-ROM for use in external mapping, statistical, and other applications.

Higley, Debra K.; Pantea, Michael P.; Slatt, Roger M.

1997-01-01

275

Oil reserves at Tengiz field reported as 2. 5 billion tons  

SciTech Connect

The unusual announcement (reserve figures are normally considered a state secret) occurred during a press conference in Moscow announcing the petrochemical joint venture with Occidental Petroleum and three other Western companies (Montedison and Enichem of Italy and Marubeni of Japan). If the estimates are accurate (it is unknown if the figure refers to total or recoverable reserves), this makes Tengiz not only one of the largest petroleum deposits in the USSR, but in the world. Whether this potential can be developed is still unclear. The Tengiz field was discovered in late 1979 and has been characterized by Soviet experts as one of the most complex and difficult to produce in the entire USSR. The reservoir rocks are of relatively poor quality, and being fissured limestones pose unusual drilling problems. The oil is also quite deep, at 4500-5500 meters. Other development problems arise in the anomalously great reservoir pressure and the high hydrogen sulfide and gas condensate content of the associated gas, which requires the construction of a gas processing facility, to be built nearby at Karaton. The harsh physical environment and the lack of infrastructure (the field is located in salt flats on the edge of the Caspian Sea) also hinder development. The Tengizneftegaz production association was officially established in 1985, but has yet to process any gas or produce any oil.

Sagers, M.J.

1987-11-01

276

Effects of nitrate treatment on a mixed species, oil field microbial biofilm.  

PubMed

Biofilms of bacteria, indigenous to oil field produced water, were grown in square section, glass capillary flow cells at 45 degrees C. Initially, in situ image analysis microscopy revealed predominantly coccoid bacteria (length-to-width ratio measurements (l (c):w (c)) of bacterial cells gave a mean value of 1.1), while chemical measurements confirmed sulphate reduction and sulphide production. After nitrate ion addition at 100 and 80 mg/l, in the two repeat experiments respectively, the dominance of rod-shaped bacteria (mean l (c):w (c) = 2.8) was observed. This coincided with the occurrence of nitrate reduction in the treated flow cells. Beneficially, no significant increase in biofilm cover was observed after the addition of nitrate. The dominant culturable nitrate-reducing bacterium was Marinobacter aquaeolei. The l (c):w (c) ratio measured here concurs with previously reported cell dimensions for this organism. Several Marinobacter strains were also isolated from different oil fields in the North Sea where nitrate treatment has been applied to successfully treat reservoir souring, implying that this genus may play an important role in nitrate treatment. PMID:16491355

Dunsmore, Braden; Youldon, James; Thrasher, David R; Vance, Ian

2006-06-01

277

Paleogeographic reconstruction of the Prinos oil field submarine fan with the use of logs  

SciTech Connect

The Prinos oil field is located in the Gulf of Kavala in the north Aegean Sea, Greece. The sandstones which form the reservoir rock were deposited by a submarine fan during the Messinian. Core analyses of a full reservoir sequence revealed the presence of four facies: A4/B2, C, E, and D. FDC, CNL, GR, CAL, HDT, and dipmeter logs of 24 wells were used to reconstruct the submarine fan. Following determination of the type of facies encountered by each well, the paleocurrent direction, and a fieldwide correlation, the final facies distribution maps were constructed. Studying the facies maps, the isopach maps of the equivalent time zones, and the isobath maps of the equivalent time levels, the author concluded three points. (1) Prinos oil field consists of the middle fan with channels and depositional lobes of a sand-rich fan. (2) Four mega-periods of sedimentation consisting of 14 equivalent time zones were defined. (3) The channels followed the topographic lows, which resulted in their continuous migration. Much of the study utilized dipmeter data in the E facies. Alternations of red and blue patterns appear in the E facies interval with dip direction toward the nearby channel. Because this type of dipmeter pattern is interpreted as cross-bedding, he proposes because the beds of the facies are cross-bedded with dip opposite to the paleocurrent direction from which they were deposited.

Baltas, P.

1988-08-01

278

Structural development of hydrocarbon traps in the Cepu oil fields, northeast Java, Indonesia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Reinterpretation of 18 local and 7 regional seismic lines in northeast Java, numerous exploration wells and their integration with newly measured stratigraphic sections, has enabled a new structural model to be developed for the Cepu oil fields. The generally shallow-water, limey-clastic sequence developed in a rifting back-arc basin with many northeast-southwest oriented basement faults. Deformation in the early Mid Miocene caused reactivation of the basement faults in the Nglobo-Semanggi area with wrenching and the initial development of flower structures. This deformation caused areally restricted erosion of the main reservoir rocks in this area. Upper Pliocene deformation accelerated the development of the flower structures in the Nglobo-Semanggi area which were reflected at the surface as a series of en echelon, hydrocarbon-bearing anticlines. The Tambakromo-Kawengan area underwent minor north over south thrusting along east-west oriented listric, reverse faults with detachment at shallow depths and the development of hydrocarbon-bearing anticlines in the cover sequence. It is possible that further hydrocarbon-bearing folds exist in the subsurface north of the Tambakromo-Kawengan structure. These folds would be related to blind imbricate thrusts parallel to the Tambakromo-Kawengan thrust. The wrench structures and detached compressional structures forming hydrocarbon-bearing folds in the Cepu oil fields are probably a result of the transfer of stresses due to oblique subduction at the Java Trench during the Neogene to Pleistocene.

Soeparyono, N.; Lennox, P. G.

279

Experimental and modeling approach to study separation of water in crude oil emulsion under non-uniform electrical field  

Microsoft Academic Search

In many ways, the use of high electrostatic fields in the separation of water-in-oil emulsions is a mature technology, with\\u000a most developments arising from attempts to improve the process of crude oils, in terms of the separation of water, salt or\\u000a other hydrophilic impurities. In this way, different mechanisms have been proposed until now and several parameters have been\\u000a studied

Kazem Alinezhad; Morteza Hosseini; Kamyar Movagarnejad; Mehdi Salehi

2010-01-01

280

Environmental assessment. Downhole steam generator field test project DEEP STEAM: enhanced oil recovery project (DOE No. 16), Kern County, California  

SciTech Connect

Objective of DEEP STEAM is to develop the technology to economically produce heavy oil from reservoirs greater than 760 m deep using steam injection. The proposed site is in the Kern River Oil Field in the San Joaquin Valley. This document describes the project, existing environment, and possible impact of the project. It is concluded that the proposed action does not significantly affect the quality of the environment, and therefore an environmental impact statement is not required. (DLC)

Church, H.W.; Zak, B.D.

1980-02-01

281

Phylogenetic diversity and activity of anaerobic microorganisms of high-temperature horizons of the Dagang oil field (P. R. China)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The number of microorganisms of major metabolic groups and the rates of sulfate reduction and methanogenesis processes in\\u000a the formation waters of the high-temperature horizons of Dagang oil field have been determined. Using cultural methods, it\\u000a was shown that the microbial community contained aerobic bacteria oxidizing crude oil, anaerobic fermentative bacteria, sulfate-reducing\\u000a bacteria, and methanogens. Using cultural methods, the possibility

T. N. Nazina; N. M. Shestakova; A. A. Grigor’yan; E. M. Mikhailova; T. P. Tourova; A. B. Poltaraus; Cingxian Feng; Fangtian Ni; S. S. Belyaev

2006-01-01

282

Occurrence and geochemical activity of microorganisms in high?temperature, water?flooded oil fields of Kazakhstan and Western Siberia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The distribution of different methanogenic and sulfate?reducing bacteria and their activity in formation waters of Uzen, Mykhpay, and Talinskoe oil fields, characterized by temperatures of the strata of 50–70°C and higher, were investigated. Injection of surface waters was shown to result in development of biogenic oil transformation. The temperature of injected waters determined the temperature regime and the presence of

Tamara N. Nazina; Anna E. Ivanova; Igor A. Borzenkov; Sergei S. Belyaev; Michail V. Ivanov

1995-01-01

283

Integrated reservoir characterization of mature oil reservoirs: An example from Oligocene Frio fluvial\\/deltaic sandstones, Rincon Field, south Texas  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Frio fluvial\\/deltaic sandstone along the Vicksburg fault zone play of south Texas has produced nearly 1 billion bbl of oil from fluvial\\/deltaic sandstones since field development began in the 1940s. More than half of the reservoirs in this depositionally complex play have been abandoned, even though large volumes of oil remain. Current efforts integrating geological and engineering reservoir characterization

L. E. McRae; M. H. Holtz

1994-01-01

284

Remains of Homo erectus from Bouri, Middle Awash, Ethiopia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The genesis, evolution and fate of Homo erectus have been explored palaeontologically since the taxon's recognition in the late nineteenth century. Current debate is focused on whether early representatives from Kenya and Georgia should be classified as a separate ancestral species (`H. ergaster'), and whether H. erectus was an exclusively Asian species lineage that went extinct. Lack of resolution of

Berhane Asfaw; W. Henry Gilbert; Yonas Beyene; William K. Hart; Paul R. Renne; Giday WoldeGabriel; Elisabeth S. Vrba; Tim D. White

2002-01-01

285

Additional Reserve Recovery Using New Polymer Treatment on High Water Oil Ratio Wells in Alameda Field, Kingman County, Kansas  

SciTech Connect

The Chemical Flooding process, like a polymer treatment, as a tertiary (enhanced) oil recovery process can be a very good solution based on the condition of this field and its low cost compared to the drilling of new wells. It is an improved water flooding method in which high molecular-weight (macro-size molecules) and water-soluble polymers are added to the injection water to improve the mobility ratio by enhancing the viscosity of the water and by reducing permeability in invaded zones during the process. In other words, it can improve the sweep efficiency by reducing the water mobility. This polymer treatment can be performed on the same active oil producer well rather than on an injector well in the existence of strong water drive in the formation. Some parameters must be considered before any polymer job is performed such as: formation temperature, permeability, oil gravity and viscosity, location and formation thickness of the well, amount of remaining recoverable oil, fluid levels, well productivity, water oil ratio (WOR) and existence of water drive. This improved oil recovery technique has been used widely and has significant potential to extend reservoir life by increasing the oil production and decreasing the water cut. This new technology has the greatest potential in reservoirs that are moderately heterogeneous, contain moderately viscous oils, and have adverse water-oil mobility ratios. For example, many wells in Kansas's Arbuckle formation had similar treatments and we have seen very effective results. In addition, there were previous polymer treatments conducted by Texaco in Alameda Field on a number of wells throughout the Viola-Simpson formation in the early 70's. Most of the treatments proved to be very successful.

James Spillane

2005-10-01

286

Reservoir heterogeneity at West 76 field: An opportunity for increased oil recovery by geologically targeted infill drilling  

Microsoft Academic Search

West 76 is a typical field of the Eocene Jackson-Yegua Barrier\\/Strandplain sandstone play in south Texas. Located in northwest Duval County, the field has produced 4.6 million barrels (MMbbl) as of 1988 and has an estimated 6 MMbbl of remaining mobile oil. The Jackson-Yegua play, which includes nearly 300 fields, has produced 624 MMbbl (as of 1988) and has estimated

1991-01-01

287

CO2 Storage and Enhanced Oil Recovery: Bald Unit Test Site, Mumford Hills Oil Field, Posey County, Indiana  

SciTech Connect

The Midwest Geological Sequestration Consortium (MGSC) carried out a small-scale carbon dioxide (CO2) injection test in a sandstone within the Clore Formation (Mississippian System, Chesterian Series) in order to gauge the large-scale CO2 storage that might be realized from enhanced oil recovery (EOR) of mature Illinois Basin oil fields via miscible liquid CO2 flooding. As part of the MGSC�������¢����������������s Validation Phase (Phase II) studies, the small injection pilot test was conducted at the Bald Unit site within the Mumford Hills Field in Posey County, southwestern Indiana, which was chosen for the project on the basis of site infrastructure and reservoir conditions. Geologic data on the target formation were extensive. Core analyses, porosity and permeability data, and geophysical logs from 40 wells were used to construct cross sections and structure contour and isopach maps in order to characterize and define the reservoir architecture of the target formation. A geocellular model of the reservoir was constructed to improve understanding of CO2 behavior in the subsurface. At the time of site selection, the Field was under secondary recovery through edge-water injection, but the wells selected for the pilot in the Bald Unit had been temporarily shut-in for several years. The most recently shut-in production well, which was surrounded by four nearby shut-in production wells in a five-spot pattern, was converted to CO2 injection for this pilot. Two additional wells outside the immediate five-spot pattern, one of which was an active producer, were instrumented to measure surface temperature and pressure. The CO2 injection period lasted from September 3, 2009, through December 14, 2010, with one three-month interruption caused by cessation of CO2 deliveries due to winter weather. Water was injected into the CO2 injection well during this period. A total of 6,300 tonnes (6,950 tons) of CO2 were injected into the reservoir at rates that generally ranged from 18 to 32 tonnes (20 to 35 tons) per day. The CO2 injection bottomhole pressure generally remained at 8.3 to 9.0 MPag (1,200 to 1,300 psig). The CO2 injection was followed by continued monitoring for nine months during post-CO2 water injection. A monitoring, verification, and accounting (MVA) program was designed to determine the fate of injected CO2. Extensive periodic sampling and analysis of brine, groundwater, and produced gases began before CO2 injection and continued through the monitored waterflood periods. Samples were gathered from production wells and three newly installed groundwater monitoring wells. Samples underwent geochemical and isotopic analyses to reveal any CO2-related changes. Groundwater and kinetic modeling and mineralogical analysis were also employed to better understand the long-term dynamics of CO2 in the reservoir. No CO2 leakage into groundwater was detected, and analysis of brine and gas chemistry made it possible to track the path of plume migration and infer geochemical reactions and trapping of CO2. Cased-hole logging did not detect any CO2 in the near-wellbore region. An increase in CO2 concentration was first detected in February 2010 from the gas present in the carboy during brine sampling; however, there was no appreciable gas volume associated with the detection of CO2. The first indication of elevated gas rates from the commingled gas of the pilot�������¢����������������s production wells occurred in July 2010 and reached a maximum of 0.36 tonnes/day (0.41 tons/day) in September 2010. An estimated 27 tonnes (30 tons) of CO2 were produced at the surface from the gas separator at the tank battery from September 3, 2009, through September 11, 2011, representing 0.5% of the injected CO2. Consequently, 99.5%

Frailey, Scott M.; Krapac, Ivan G.; Damico, James R.; Okwen, Roland T.; McKaskle, Ray W.

2012-03-30

288

Strontium isotope detection of brine contamination in the East Poplar oil field, Montana  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Brine contamination of groundwater in the East Poplar oil field was first documented in the mid-1980s by the U.S. Geological Survey by using hydrochemistry, with an emphasis on chloride (Cl) and total dissolved solids concentrations. Supply wells for the City of Poplar are located downgradient from the oil field, are completed in the same shallow aquifers that are documented as contaminated, and therefore are potentially at risk of being contaminated. In cooperation with the Office of Environmental Protection of the Fort Peck Tribes, groundwater samples were collected in 2009 and 2010 from supply wells, monitor wells, and the Poplar River for analyses of major and trace elements, including strontium (Sr) concentrations and isotopic compositions. The ratio of strontium-87 to strontium-86 (87Sr/86Sr) is used extensively as a natural tracer in groundwater to detect mixing among waters from different sources and to study the effects of water/rock interaction. On a plot of the reciprocal strontium concentration against the 87Sr/86Sr ratio, mixtures of two end members will produce a linear array. Using this plotting method, data for samples from most of the wells, including the City of Poplar wells, define an array with reciprocal strontium values ranging from 0.08 to 4.15 and 87Sr/86Sr ratios ranging from 0.70811 to 0.70828. This array is composed of a brine end member with an average 87Sr/86Sr of 0.70822, strontium concentrations in excess of 12.5 milligrams per liter (mg/L), and chloride concentrations exceeding 8,000 mg/L mixing with uncontaminated water similar to that in USGS06-08 with 18.0 mg/L chloride, 0.24 mg/L strontium, and a 87Sr/86Sr ratio of 0.70811. The position of samples from the City of Poplar public-water supply wells within this array indicates that brine contamination has reached all three wells. Outliers from this array are EPU-4G (groundwater from the Cretaceous Judith River Formation), brine samples from disposal wells (Huber 5-D and EPU 1-D), USGS92-11 (a well with water that was considerably contaminated in 1992 and becoming less saline with time), and PNR-27 (only slightly below the defined trend with an 87Sr/86Sr ratio of 0.70793). Water samples from the City of Poplar wells are also enriched in anions and cations that are abundant in oil-field brine.

Peterman, Zell E.; Thamke, Joanna N.; Futa, Kiyoto; Oliver, Thomas A.

2010-01-01

289

Time-lapse Measurements of Scholte Wave Velocity Over a Compacting Oil Field  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Acquisition of time-lapse seismic data over producing oil and gas fields is a proven method for optimizing hydrocarbon production. Most current data have been acquired using towed-streamer seismic vessels but new systems incorporating permanent Ocean Bottom Cable (OBC) systems are gaining in popularity, both as a way to achieve better repeatability and also to reduce the cost of acquiring many time-lapse repeats of the baseline survey. Over the last three years, more than seven repeat data sets have been acquired at the permanent OBC system installed (by the operator, BP) over the Valhall oil field located offshore Norway. This system contains ~2400 four-component receiver stations that are recorded using a dense areal shot grid ("carpet" shoot) that provides high fold and has delivered excellent time-lapse signals starting from the first repeat occurring just three months after the baseline. Time-lapse OBC data are conventionally used to measure amplitude and velocity changes of body wave reflections (PP and PS) but other measurements are also possible. In particular, Scholte waves are strongly visible on records acquired everywhere in the field on appropriately processed data and, given the high fold (because of the dense shots), Scholte wave velocity and anisotropy time-lapse changes obtained with both hydrophone and geophone sensors are accurately and robustly estimated. The resulting shallow velocity maps are very sensitive to the seabed strains and show large velocity changes overlying deep production. Also, reconstruction of compressional "head wave" velocity difference measurements and vertically propagating shear wave shallow time-lapse statics produce maps that resemble the Scholte wave maps, with differences that reflect the physics of the propagation modes and effective fold. A reservoir model that includes deep reservoir volume changes together with appropriate geomechanical properties in the overburden and a shallow conversion of strain to velocity is used to successfully predict the measured velocity changes. The strain/velocity conversion requires asymmetry between crack opening and closing as well as velocity hysteresis and, in fact, the measurements provide an excellent laboratory for testing fracture-model/velocity conversion on in-situ rocks. After calibration, the model together with the data can constrain both volume changes in the reservoir, for making drilling decisions as well as the overburden geomechanical rock properties model, which itself is used for well- path selection and facilities decisions. Scholte wave velocity measurements can also be made using an oil platform as a "passive" source, removing the need for a conventional source near the seafloor. Finally, these measurements might be applicable on time- lapse controlled source measurements of greater generality in a wider geophysical context wherever an accurate measurement of a time-varying surface strain is desired.

Wills, P. B.; Hatchell, P. J.

2007-12-01

290

RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION OF UPPER DEVONIAN GORDON SANDSTONE, JACKSONBURG STRINGTOWN OIL FIELD, NORTHWESTERN WEST VIRGINIA  

SciTech Connect

The Jacksonburg-Stringtown oil field contained an estimated 88,500,000 barrels of oil in place, of which approximately 20,000,000 barrels were produced during primary recovery operations. A gas injection project, initiated in 1934, and a pilot waterflood, begun in 1981, yielded additional production from limited portions of the field. The pilot was successful enough to warrant development of a full-scale waterflood in 1990, involving approximately 8,900 acres in three units, with a target of 1,500 barrels of oil per acre recovery. Historical patterns of drilling and development within the field suggests that the Gordon reservoir is heterogeneous, and that detailed reservoir characterization is necessary for understanding well performance and addressing problems observed by the operators. The purpose of this work is to establish relationships among permeability, geophysical and other data by integrating geologic, geophysical and engineering data into an interdisciplinary quantification of reservoir heterogeneity as it relates to production. Conventional stratigraphic correlation and core description shows that the Gordon sandstone is composed of three parasequences, formed along the Late Devonian shoreline of the Appalachian Basin. The parasequences comprise five lithofacies, of which one includes reservoir sandstones. Pay sandstones were found to have permeabilities in core ranging from 10 to 200 mD, whereas non-pay sandstones have permeabilities ranging from below the level of instrumental detection to 5 mD; Conglomeratic zones could take on the permeability characteristics of enclosing materials, or could exhibit extremely low values in pay sandstone and high values in non-pay or low permeability pay sandstone. Four electrofacies based on a linear combination of density and scaled gamma ray best matched correlations made independently based on visual comparison of geophysical logs. Electrofacies 4 with relatively high permeability (mean value > 45 mD) was determined to be equivalent to the pay sandstone within the Gordon reservoir. Three-dimensional models of the electrofacies in the pilot waterflood showed that electrofacies 4 is present throughout this area, and the other electrofacies are more disconnected. A three-layer, back-propagation artificial neural network with three slabs in the middle layer can be used to predict permeability and porosity from gamma ray and bulk density logs, the first and the second derivatives of the log data with respect to depth, well location, and log baselines. Two flow units were defined based on the stratigraphic model and geophysical logs. A three-dimensional reservoir model including the flow units, values of permeability calculated through the artificial neural network and injection pressure-rate information were then used as inputs for a reservoir simulator to predict oil production performance for the center producers in the pilot area. This description of the reservoir provided significantly better simulation results than earlier results obtained using simple reservoir models. Bulk density and gamma ray logs were used to identify flow units throughout the field. As predicted by the stratigraphic analysis, one of the flow units crosses stratigraphic units in the reservoir. A neural network was used to predict permeability values for each flow unit in producer and injection wells. The reservoir simulator was utilized to predict the performance of two flood patterns located to the north of the pilot area. Considering the simple model utilized for simulation, the results are in very good agreement with the field history.

S. Ameri; K. Aminian; K.L. Avary; H.I. Bilgesu; M.E. Hohn; R.R. McDowell; D.L. Matchen

2001-07-01

291

The 7 May 2001 induced seismic event in the Ekofisk oil field, North Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A moderate size seismic event on 7 May 2001 was strongly felt on platforms in the Ekofisk oil field, in the southern North Sea, but did not cause damage to platforms or wells. We combined near- and far-field observations to develop a consistent source model and to determine whether the event was induced. Seismic data placed the epicenter inside the Ekofisk field and suggested a shallow source depth based on spectral and moment tensor analysis. GPS data from the Ekofisk platforms displayed permanent vertical and horizontal movement due to the event. A topographic bulge in the sea bottom, revealed by differential bathymetry data, and overpressure in the overburden in the northeastern part of the field, detected only after the event, had been caused by unintentional water injection that started in 1999. The injection pressure and rate were sufficient to raise the overburden. Pressure gauge and compaction data ruled out that the event occurred at reservoir level, which was further supported by unaffected production rates and absence of well failure. We therefore conclude that the event occurred in the overburden, at less than 3 km depth. Initially, this appeared unlikely on account of very low shear strength of the overburden clay-rich shale and mud rocks. The seismic event was induced owing to stress changes caused by water injection. The event possibly initiated on the northern flank of the field near the water injector and may have involved flexure of the overburden into the depression bowl in the rest of the field. Moment tensor analysis is consistent with a pure double-couple source. We suggest that slip occurred on the near-horizontal rather than along the near-vertical nodal plane. Stress drop was low, and owing to the low overburden shear strength, the event released less energy than a typical stress drop event with similar source dimensions.

OttemöLler, L.; Nielsen, H. H.; Atakan, K.; Braunmiller, J.; Havskov, J.

2005-10-01

292

Low-cost FPSO for service in the Zaafarana oil field  

SciTech Connect

The Zaafarana oilfield development, operated by Zaafarana Oil Co. (Zafco) presented a series of unique challenges, including redeployment of an internal-turret mooring system, use of a turret-based electrical-cable jumper system, and permanent use of cable-deployed electric submersible pumps in the gravel-pack well completions. Following a detailed three-dimensional (3D) seismic program, the field was discovered by the first well in December 1990. Four subsequent appraisal wells were drilled. The discovery well and two of the appraisal wells tested oil at rates ranging from 2,000 to 10,100 B/D. Initial development plans called for the use of two conventional platforms with a pipeline to a shore-based treatment and storage terminal. Data acquired from subsequent wells were incorporated into the mapping and reserve estimates resulting in a sharp downgrade of the estimated recoverable reserves. The reduced estimate, combined with a revised pricing scenario, necessitated an amended development plan with significantly lower costs. A new plan that uses a floating production, storage, and offloading (FPSO) facility and a single drilling/wellhead platform, connected by a pipeline and by electrical and control umbilicals, was approved in October 1992.

NONE

1997-04-01

293

Modeling surface deformation due to CO2 injection at an enhanced oil recovery field in Texas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Geodesy Laboratory at the University of South Florida has operated 3 C-GPS stations at an enhanced oil recovery field in Texas since October 2011. Our GPS sites recorded vertical uplift during the injection phase when the reservoir was initially pressurized, and localized subsidence in phase with reservoir pressure after oil extraction started. In this study, we use analytical and numerical models to better understand the small-scale surface deformation observed by GPS due to CO2 injection. First, we use an analytical model of a pressurized horizontal circular crack in an elastic half-space to fit the surface deformation data. Then, constrained by the analytical modeling results, we develop a poroelastic Finite Element Model (FEM) to investigate the influence of reservoir geometry and overlying stratigraphy on surface displacement. A sensitivity study is carried out to understand the effects of realistic geometry and material properties on surface deformation. Our preliminary results show that a poroelastic FEM can explain the location-dependant time delay between the injection and surface response.

Yang, Q.; Abdollahzadeh, M.; Dixon, T. H.; Malservisi, R.; Hosseini, S.

2013-12-01

294

Increased Oil Production and Reserves from Improved Completion Techniques in the Bluebell Field, Uinta Basin, Utah  

SciTech Connect

The objective of the project is to increase oil production and reserves by the use of improved reservoir characterization and completion techniques in the Uinta Basin, Utah. To accomplish this objective, a two-year geologic and engineering characterization of the Bluebell field was conducted. The study evaluated surface and subsurface data, currently used completion techniques, and common production problems. It was determined that advanced case- and open-hole logs could be effective in determining productive beds and that stage-interval (about 500 ft [150 m] per stage) and bed-scale isolation completion techniques could result in improved well performance. In the first demonstration well (Michelle Ute well discussed in the previous technical report), dipole shear anisotropy (anisotropy) and dual-burst thermal decay time (TDT) logs were run before and isotope tracer log was run after the treatment. The logs were very helpful in characterizing the remaining hydrocarbon potential in the well. But, mechanical failure resulted in a poor recompletion and did not result in a significant improvement in the oil production from the well.

Deo, M.D.; Morgan, C.D.

1999-04-28

295

Seismic monitoring of in situ combustion process in a heavy oil field  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Three time-lapse 3D seismic surveys are analysed to monitor the effect of in situ combustion, a thermal-enhanced oil recovery process in the Balol heavy oil reservoir in India. The baseline data were acquired prior to the start of the in situ combustion process in four injection wells, while the two monitor surveys were acquired 1 and 2 years after injection start, respectively. We present the results of baseline and second monitor surveys. Fluid substitution studies based on acoustic well logs predict a seismic amplitude decrease at the top reservoir and an increase at the base reservoir. Both the amplitude dimming at the top reservoir and the brightening at the base reservoir are observed in the field data. The extent of the most pronounced 4D anomaly is estimated from the seismic amplitude and time shift analysis. The interesting result of seismic analysis is that the anomalies are laterally shifted towards the northwest, rather than the expected east, from the injector location suggesting a northwest movement of the in situ combustion front. No clear evidence of air leakage into other sand layers, neither above nor below the reservoir sand, is observed. This does not necessarily mean that all the injected air is following the reservoir sand, especially if the thief sand layers are thin. These layers might be difficult to observe on seismic data.

Zadeh, Hossein Mehdi; Srivastava, Ravi P.; Vedanti, Nimisha; Landrø, Martin

2010-03-01

296

Near-surface study at the Valhall oil field from ambient noise surface wave tomography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We used 6 hr of continuous seismic noise records from 2320 four-component sensors of the Valhall `Life of Field Seismic' network to compute cross-correlations (CCs) of ambient seismic noise. A beamforming analysis showed that at low frequencies (below 2 Hz) the seismic noise sources were spatially homogeneously distributed, whereas at higher frequencies (2-30 Hz), the dominant noise source was the oil platform at the centre of the network. Here, we performed an ambient noise surface wave tomography at frequencies below 2 Hz. We used vertical-component geophones CCs to extract and measure the Scholte waves group velocities dispersion curves that were then processed with a set of quality criteria and inverted to build group velocity maps of the Valhall area. Although Scholte wave group velocity depends on S wave, our group velocity maps show features similar to that was previously obtained from P-wave velocity full-waveform inversion of an active seismic data set. Since the dominant noise source at high frequency (above 3 Hz) was the oil platform, we determined a 2-D S-wave velocity model along a profile aligned with the platform by inverting group velocity dispersion curves of Love waves from transverse-component geophones CCs. We found that S-wave velocity down to 20 m was low and varied along the profile, and could be used to estimate S-wave static.

Mordret, A.; Landès, M.; Shapiro, N. M.; Singh, S. C.; Roux, P.; Barkved, O. I.

2013-06-01

297

Occurence of sulfate- and iron-reducing bacteria in stratal waters of the Romashkinskoe oil field  

SciTech Connect

The occurrence of microorganisms and the rates of terminal biogenic processes-sulfate reduction and methane synthesis-were studied in stratial waters in bed 302 of the Bashkir Carboniferous deposit at the Romashkinskoe oil field. It was shown that bed 302 was a dynamic, highly reduced ecosystem containing sulfates and hydrogen sulfide in considerable concentrations, in which active biogenic processes occurred. Sulfate reduction was a dominating anaerobic process by which the transformation of organic matter occurred. The sulfate-reducing microflora was diverse and characterized by a wide range of metabolic potentials. Enrichment cultures capable of oxidizing many organic substances, such as benzoate, acetate, ethanol, or lactate, at the expense of reduction of sulfates and ferric ion were isolated from 302. It was suggested that the sulfate-reducing microflora might be responsible not only for sulfate reduction in the stratum but also for mobilization of some insoluble iron oxides in the oil-bearing rock. These findings indicate that bacteria carrying out dissimilatory reduction of sulfate and iron can contribute to the geochemistry of organic and mineral compounds in subsurface ecosystems. 24 refs., 2 figs., 6 tabs.

Nazina, T.N.; Ivanova, A.E.; Goulbeva, O.V.; Ibatullin, R.R.; Belyaev, S.S.; Ivanov, M.V. [Institute of Microbiology, Moscow (Russian Federation)

1995-03-01

298

Influences of electric field on living cells in a charged water-in-oil droplet under electrophoretic actuation  

PubMed Central

We experimentally investigate the effects of high electric field on living cells inside a charged droplet under electrophoretic actuation. When an aqueous droplet suspended in a dielectric liquid contacts with electrified electrode, the droplet acquires charge. This charged droplet undergoes electrophoretic motion under strong electric field (1–3?kV/cm), which can be used as a droplet manipulation method in biomicrofluidic applications. However, because strong electric field and use of dielectric oil can be a harmful environment for living cells, the biological feasibilities have been tested. Trypan blue test and cell growth test have been performed to check the viability and proliferation of cells in a droplet under various electric field strengths and actuation times. We have not observed any noticeable influence of electric field and silicone oil on the viability and proliferation of cells, which indicates that electrophoresis could be safely used as a manipulation method for a droplet containing living biological system.

Im, Do Jin; Noh, Jihoon; Yi, Nam Woo; Park, Jaesung; Kang, In Seok

2011-01-01

299

Extensional tectonics and stratigraphy of Hibernia oil field, Grand Banks, Newfoundland  

SciTech Connect

The tectonic evolution of the Grand Banks involved several episodes of rifting and sequential development of the continental margin. The dominant period of rifting and basin formation in the central Grand Banks was late Callovian to Aptian. Extensional failure of the central Grand Banks crust probably occurred along a shear zone that dipped gently to the west. Listric normal basin-forming faults merge at depth with this detachment system. The listric Murre fault soles at 26 km (16 mi), creating the very deep Jeanne d'Arc basin. Cross-basin transfer faults accommodated different amounts and rates of extension and resulted in the conspicuous offset pattern and funnel-shaped geometry of the Jeanne d'Arc basin. The Hibernia oil field is associated with one of these structural salients. 23 figures, 3 tables.

Tankard, A.J.; Welsink, H.J.

1987-10-01

300

Comparison of soft computing techniques for a three-phase oil field centrifuge.  

SciTech Connect

In this work we compare fuzzy techniques to neural network techniques for building a soft sensor for a three-phase oil field centrifuge. The soft sensor is used in a feed-forward control system that augments a feedback control system. Two approaches were used to develop the soft sensor. The first approach was to use a fuzzy rule based system based upon the experience of an expert operator. The expert operator's experience was supplemented using a computer model of the system. The second approach was to use a neural network to build the inverse of the computer model. The pros and cons of both techniques are discussed. KEYWORDS: fuzzy logic, neural networks, soft sensor, soft computing

Smith, R. E. (Ronald E.); Parkinson, w; Miller, N. (Neal)

2002-01-01

301

Reservoir petroleum geochemistry of Sarita (South Texas), Eugene Island 330 and South Marsh Island 128 (offshore Louisiana) oil fields  

SciTech Connect

Hydrocarbon fluid compositions within three petroleum fields were shown to be heterogeneous in some aspects while appearing to have a common source for each field. However biomarker parameters indicate that three difference sources were respectively responsible for each field accumulation. Visual inspection of whole oil chromatograms, gasoline molecular composition, and quantitative concentrations of biomarkers were used to define the range of fluid chemistries observed. Biomarker compositions and content were nearly identical regardless of depth of production, suggesting that all reservoirs within a field were filled with a common fluid. Fluids in reservoirs of the Sarita and Eugene Island 330 fields were biodegraded to varying degrees in the shallowest sand reservoirs. Hydrocarbon fluids in these two fields were also altered by evaporative fractionation, a phase segregation allowing condensate to occur shallower than oil. Alteration due to evaporative fractionation is related to secondary injection of post mature gas and subsequent remigration up faults. South Marsh Island 128 fluids are in a nearly pristine condition. Whole-oil fingerprints and gasoline composition are specific to a given pay zone of fault block and can be used as a correlation tool. Communication between reservoirs is indicated by a common fluid chemistry, whereas fluid chemistry variations suggest compartmentalized accumulations. The scale examination of fluid chemistry within fields can help define the history of reservoir filling and changes in fluid properties during field development and production.

Rafalska, J.K. (Conoco Inc., Ponca City, OK (United States)); Comet, P.A.; Kennicutt, M.C. II; McDonald, T.J.; Brooks, J.M. (Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (United States))

1991-08-01

302

An efficient thermotolerant and halophilic biosurfactant-producing bacterium isolated from Dagang oil field for MEOR application  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dagang Oil field (Petro China Company Limited) is one of the most productive oil fields in China. In this study, 34 biosurfactant-producing strains were isolated and cultured from petroleum reservoir of Dagang oil field, using haemolytic assay and the qualitative oil-displacement test. On the basis of 16S rDNA analysis, the isolates were closely related to the species in genus Pseudomonas, Staphylococcus and Bacillus. One of the isolates identified as Bacillus subtilis BS2 were selected for further study. This bacterium was able to produce a type of biosurfactant with excessive foam-forming properties at 37ºC as well as at higher temperature of 55ºC. The biosurfactant produced by the strain BS2 could reduce the surface tension of the culture broth from 70.87 mN/m to 28.97 mN/m after 8 days of incubation at 37ºC and to 36.15 mN/m after 20 days of incubation at 55ºC, respectively. The biosurfactant showed stability at high temperature (up to 120ºC), a wide range of pH (2 to 12) and salt concentrations (up to 12%) offering potential for biotechnology. Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectrum of extracted biosurfactant tentatively characterized the produced biosurfactant as glycolipid derivative. Elemental analysis of the biosurfactant by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) reveals that the biosurfactant was anionic in nature. 15 days of biodegradation of crude oil suggested a preferential usage of n-alkane upon microbial metabolism of BS2 as a carbon substrate and consequently also for the synthesis of biosurfactants. Core flood studies for oil release indicated 9.6% of additional oil recovery over water flooding at 37ºC and 7.2% of additional oil recovery at 55 ºC. Strain BS2 was characterized as an efficient biosurfactant-producing, thermotolerant and halophillic bacterium and has the potential for application for microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR) through water flooding in China's oil fields even in situ as adapted to reservoir chemistry and temperature.

Wu, Langping; Richnow, Hans; Yao, Jun; Jain, Anil

2014-05-01

303

Sedimentology and sandstone diagenesis of Hibernia formation in Hibernia oil field, Grand Banks of Newfoundland  

SciTech Connect

The Hibernia oil field is the largest discovery off the east coast of North America. The most important reservoir unit in the field is the Upper Jurassic-Lower Cretaceous Hibernia formation, which averages 200 m in thickness and occurs at depths between 3475 and 4200 m. On the basis of sedimentological descriptions of cores and downhole log responses, five lithofacies have been defined, and the formation has been subdivided into two lithostratigraphic units. The Main Hibernia zone is dominated by thick medium to very coarse-grained quartzarenites, interpreted as distributary channel deposits of a deltaic plain environment. The Upper Hibernia zone consists of relatively thin very fine to medium-grained quartzarenites interbedded with mudstones and siltstones. This zone is interpreted as deposits of a shallow marine delta-front environment. Porosities observed in thin section and provided by core analysis in the Hibernia sandstones range from 1 to 22%. Many sandstones with high porosities show evidence of dissolution of carbonate cement and some framework grains. This late enhancement of porosity by decarbonatization preceded main hydrocarbon migration and is a major factor in both the accumulation of large reserves and the potential producibility of the field. Lower porosities are associated mainly with well-compacted sandstones or those retaining abundant unleached carbonate cements. Time-temperature index modeling constrains the interpreted time and depth of hydrocarbon generation and accumulation in the sandstone reservoirs. 17 figures, 2 tables.

Brown, D.M.; McAlpine, K.D.; Yole, R.W.

1989-05-01

304

Temperature-, electric field- and solute-induced percolation in water-in-oil microemulsions.  

PubMed

We report investigations on the percolation of the aqueous phase in water-in-oil microemulsions, comparing systems stabilized by ionic AOT and non-ionic Igepal amphiphiles. First, we briefly review the opposite effect of temperature on the two systems and compare electric conductivity with viscosity data. In the second part, we show that percolation can be induced by high electric fields resulting in a shift of the percolation curve. The electric field measurements allow to investigate the dynamics of clustering of the water droplets to form a network of percolating channels. We examine the slow build-up and the fast decay of the percolating structure, monitoring simultaneously electric conductivity and electric birefringence. In the third part we discuss the effect of some solutes on the percolation curve, especially of small molecules which act as protein denaturants and of native and denatured proteins like methemoglobin, chymotrypsin and gelatin. The spectroscopic determination of the dimerization of hemin, released from denatured hemoglobin, reflects the incorporation of the hemin monomers in the surfactant monolayer. In the gelatin system time resolved electric birefringence shows that even at low concentrations it is the macromolecule which determines the structure of the aqueous domain. In the appendix, a simple estimate of the intrinsic Kerr-constant is given for microemulsion droplets deformed in an electric field. PMID:17023348

Schlicht, L; Spilgies, J H; Runge, F; Lipgens, S; Boye, S; Schübel, D; Ilgenfritz, G

1996-01-16

305

Establishment of an oil and gas database for increased recovery and characterization of oil and gas carbonate reservoir heterogeneity. Appendix 1, Volume 2  

SciTech Connect

This volume contains maps, well logging correlated to porosity and permeability, structural cross section, graph of production history, porosity vs. natural log permeability plots, detailed core log, paragenetic sequence, and reservoir characterization sheet for the following fields in southwest Alabama: East Huxford oil field; Fanny Church oil field; Gin Creek oil field; Gulf Crest oil field; Hanberry Church oil field; Hatter`s Pond oil field; Healing Springs gas condensate field; Huxford oil field; Little Escambia Creek oil field; Little River oil field; Little Rock gas condensate field; Lovetts Creek oil field; Melvin oil field; Mill Creek oil field; Mineola oil field; Movico oil field; and North Choctaw Ridge oil field.

Kopaska-Merkel, D.C.; Moore, H.E. Jr.; Mann, S.D.; Hall, D.R.

1992-06-01

306

Establishment of an oil and gas database for increased recovery and characterization of oil and gas carbonate reservoir heterogeneity. [Jurassic Smackover Formation  

SciTech Connect

This volume contains maps, well logging correlated to porosity and permeability, structural cross section, graph of production history, porosity vs. natural log permeability plots, detailed core log, paragenetic sequence, and reservoir characterization sheet for the following fields in southwest Alabama: East Huxford oil field; Fanny Church oil field; Gin Creek oil field; Gulf Crest oil field; Hanberry Church oil field; Hatter's Pond oil field; Healing Springs gas condensate field; Huxford oil field; Little Escambia Creek oil field; Little River oil field; Little Rock gas condensate field; Lovetts Creek oil field; Melvin oil field; Mill Creek oil field; Mineola oil field; Movico oil field; and North Choctaw Ridge oil field.

Kopaska-Merkel, D.C.; Moore, H.E. Jr.; Mann, S.D.; Hall, D.R.

1992-06-01

307

Stratigraphic and structural analysis of Shannon Sandstone, Teapot Dome field: implications for secondary and tertiary oil recovery  

SciTech Connect

The Department of Energy and Lawrence-Allison Associates have initiated three enhanced oil recovery (EOR) pilot projects in the last 4 years in the Shannon Sandstone at the Teapot Dome field. Performance of these pilot projects has generally been poor. As a result, a reevaluation of the geology for the entire field and for the pilot areas was conducted in an attempt to explain the pilots' performances. Based on core descriptions, conceptual reservoir flow patterns, and post-fireflood coring, only the bar-margin facies was found amenable to fluid displacement processes for oil recovery. This results in 25 million bbl of oil originally in place vs 180 million bbl of oil originally in place as a target for EOR. Stratigraphy alone does not explain the observed production patterns and simulation of the reservoir. Faulting and fracturing are extensive. Based on faults mapped in the in-situ pilot area, 12 to 16 northeast-trending normal faults per mile can be projected. Fracture orientations were obtained by mapping calcareous streaks in the upper and lower Shannon. These orientations confirm directions of premature fluid breakthroughs observed in the pilot projects and in the old East Teapot waterflood. Water resistivities and total dissolved solids measurements, water-cut maps, and daily oil production maps suggest that some faults are partial to total barriers to fluid flow across the field.

Chappelle, H.; Emsurak, G.; Obernyer, S.

1986-08-01

308

Identification of novel bicyclic alkanes from steroid precursors in crude oils from Kelamayi oil field of China  

SciTech Connect

A novel series of bicyclic alkanes in the C/sub 19/-C/sub 22/ range has been discovered in a number of crude oils from a variety of sources. Evidence is provided from laboratory studies to demonstrate that there is a correlation between these bicyclic alkanes and steranes, suggesting in turn that both series of compounds are actually derived from sterol precursors. These bicyclic alkanes appear to be resistant to the effects of biodegradation which in turn enhances their concentration in biodegraded oils following removal of other less resistant compounds. The value of this stability is demonstrated in the correlation of an oil and seep from the Anadarko Basin. The seep is biodegraded such that all regular steranes are removed leaving only rearranged steranes compared with an oil where all steranes are intact. The bicyclic alkane distributions are similar for both samples demonstrating their potential for correlation purposes. The effect of maturation on these components was not evaluated in detail in this particular study.

Zhusheng, J.; Philp, R.P.; Lewis, C.A.

1988-02-01

309

Integrated reservoir characterization of mature oil reservoirs: An example from Oligocene Frio fluvial/deltaic sandstones, Rincon Field, south Texas  

SciTech Connect

The Frio fluvial/deltaic sandstone along the Vicksburg fault zone play of south Texas has produced nearly 1 billion bbl of oil from fluvial/deltaic sandstones since field development began in the 1940s. More than half of the reservoirs in this depositionally complex play have been abandoned, even though large volumes of oil remain. Current efforts integrating geological and engineering reservoir characterization are being used to identify the location of unrecovered mobile oil, estimated at more than 1 billion bbl, that remains in unproduced reservoir zones in fields within this very mature play. Engineering data from Frio reservoirs in Rincon field were used to assess past production behavior, determine completion density, and prioritize zones for incremental reserve growth opportunities. Geologic data have been evaluated to identify interwell stratigraphic heterogeneity and potential for compartmentalization of significant volumes of unrecovered oil. Major oil reservoirs represent deposition in broad, dip-elongate fluvial systems. Individual zones consist of multiple thin (0-40 ft) sandstone units that stack to form gross thicknesses of 50 to 100 ft. They occur both as narrow channel fills isolated vertically and laterally by very low-permeability overbank facies and flood-plain mudstones and as large channel complexes with multiple laterally coalescing sand lobes. Large dip-elongate channel-sandstone complexes provide ideal conditions for the isolation of oil accumulations in multiple reservoir compartments, many of which are now incompletely drained or completely untapped. Reservoir architectural mapping and core analysis data from more than 100 wells are being combined with reserve volumetrics to describe heterogeneity and to identify possible locations of additional reserves within a 100-ft reservoir interval that has already produced more than 15 million bbl of oil.

McRae, L.E.; Holtz, M.H. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States)

1994-09-01

310

Strontium isotopic evolution of oil-field waters from carbonate reservoir rocks in Bindley field, central Kansas, U.S.A  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oil-field waters produced from Mississippian carbonate reservoir rocks in Bindley field, Kansas had an average salinity of about 42.8 mg\\/l. They were enriched in Ca, Sr, Na, K, Rb, and Li and depleted in Mg relative to sea water at the same level of either Cl or Br concentration. The average abundances of different elements are as follows: Na--13,460 mg\\/l,

S. Chaudhuri; V. Broedel; N. Clauer

1987-01-01

311

LOGAN WASH FIELD TREATABILITY STUDIES OF WASTEWATERS FROM OIL SHALE RETORTING PROCESSES  

EPA Science Inventory

Treatability studies were conducted on retort water and gas condensate wastewater from modified in-situ oil shale retorts to evaluate the effectiveness of selected treatment technologies for removing organic and inorganic contaminants. At retorts operated by Occidental Oil Shale,...

312

The Viscosity Reduction of Heavy and Extra Heavy Crude Oils by a Pulsed Magnetic Field  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ever increasing world energy demand requires the use of all hydrocarbon resources available, especially heavy and extra heavy crude oils, in the near future. However, transportation of these crudes is very difficult due to their high viscosity and low mobility. There are many different methods to reduce heavy crude oil viscosity. Some of these methods are heating, blending, water-in-oil emulsion

F. Homayuni; A. A. Hamidi; A. Vatani; A. A. Shaygani; R. Faraji Dana

2011-01-01

313

Isotopic and chemical data from carbonate cements in surface rocks over and near four Oklahoma oil fields  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Carbonate cements in outcropping sandstones overlying the Doyle, Fox-Graham, Velma, and part of Wheeler oil fields, Oklahoma, were analyzed for their C13/ 12, 018/016, iron, and manganese compositions. The peculiar areal distribution of the values obtained is interpreted to be the direct result of hydrocarbon microseepage.

Henry, Mitchell E.; Donovan, Terrence J.

1978-01-01

314

Computer technology of quantitative interwell correlation of sediments on the oil and gas fields in the CIS countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the course of studies of the oil and gas fields of the former USSR (including Romashkinskoye, Western Uzbekistan, Orenburg, Odoptu-more, and Karachaganak), methods have been developed to subdivide the rock sequences into sedimentation cycles and subcyles, and to identify washouts and breaks in the section. An IBM-PC program (MSLA) has been developed that enables subdivision and correlation of the

O. I. Barinova; E. E. Kalinina; M. I. Ovtchinnikova

1993-01-01

315

Effects of the Erika Oil Spill on the Common Starfish Asterias rubens , Evaluated by Field and Laboratory Studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Impacts of the Erika oil spill on the common starfish Asterias rubens were investigated in the field and using laboratory experiments based on contamination via food at different stages of the\\u000a starfish reproductive cycle. Two months after the shipwreck, levels of hydrocarbons characteristic of Erika fuel were significantly higher in pyloric ceca and body wall of A. rubens from a

Guillemette Joly-Turquin; Philippe Dubois; Geoffroy Coteur; Bruno Danis; Sandra Leyzour; Karine Le Menach; Hélène Budzinski; Monique Guillou

2009-01-01

316

FIELD STUDIES ON USBM AND TOSCO II RETORTED OIL SHALES: VEGETATION, MOISTURE, SALINITY, AND RUNOFF, 1977-1980  

EPA Science Inventory

Field studies were initiated in 1973 to investigate the vegetative stabilization of processed oil shales and to follow moisture and soluble salt movement within the soil/shale profile. Research plots with two types of retorted shales (TOSCO II and USBM) with leaching and soil cov...

317

Borehole geophysical data for the East Poplar oil field area, Fort Peck Indian Reservation, northeastern Montana, 1993, 2004, and 2005  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Areas of high electrical conductivity in shallow aquifers in the East Poplar oil field area were delineated by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the Fort Peck Assiniboine and Sioux Tribes, in order to interpret areas of saline-water contamination. Ground, airborne, and borehole geophysical data were collected in the East Poplar oil field area from 1992 through 2005 as part of this delineation. This report presents borehole geophysical data for thirty-two wells that were collected during, 1993, 2004, and 2005 in the East Poplar oil field study area. Natural-gamma and induction instruments were used to provide information about the lithology and conductivity of the soil, rock, and water matrix adjacent to and within the wells. The well logs were also collected to provide subsurface controls for interpretation of a helicopter electromagnetic survey flown over most of the East Poplar oil field in 2004. The objective of the USGS studies was to improve understanding of aquifer hydrogeology particularly in regard to variations in water quality.

Smith, Bruce D.; Thamke, Joanna N.; Tyrrell, Christa

2014-01-01

318

Contracts for field projects and supporting research on enhanced oil recovery, reporting period January--March 1991  

SciTech Connect

Contracts for field projects and supporting research on Enhanced Oil Recovery for the quarter ending March 31, 1991 are reviewed. A list of available publications is listed. Research topics include microbial EOR, foam injection, thermal recovery, surfactant flooding, reservoir rock characterization, and more.

Not Available

1992-03-01

319

Geomechanical characterization and reservoir simulation of a carbon dioxide sequestration project in a mature oil field, Teapot Dome, WY  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this dissertation, I present my contribution towards the understanding and prediction of the risk of CO2 leakage through natural pathways (i.e. faults and fractures). The main portion of this dissertation deals with geomechanical aspects of CO2 Sequestration in Teapot Dome, WY, a mature oil field. The last study investigates the use of induce microseismicity to enhance permeability and injectivity

Laura Chiaramonte

2009-01-01

320

Model building for Chang8 low permeability sandstone reservoir in the Yanchang formation of the Xifeng oil field  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to build a model for the Chang-8 low permeability sandstone reservoir in the Yanchang formation of the Xifeng oil field, we studied sedimentation and diagenesis of sandstone and analyzed major factors controlling this low permeability reservoir. By doing so, we have made clear that the spatial distribution of reservoir attribute parameters is controlled by the spatial distribution of

Fan SONG; Jia-gen HOU; Ni-na SU

2009-01-01

321

Influence of porosity and pore fluid on acoustic properties of chalk: AVO response from oil, South Arne Field, North Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Amplitude versus offset (AVO) inversion provides direct evidence for the presence of light oil in high-porous chalk in the South Arne Field, North Sea. The elastic properties of the chalk were estimated at three scales by analysing core data, log-readings and AVO-inversion results. The velocity-porosity relation of the core data matches a modified upper Hashin-Shtrikman model for Ekofisk Field chalk

Peter Japsen; Anders Bruun; Ida L. Fabricius; Rasmus Rasmussen; O. V. Vejbaek; Jacob Mørch Pedersen; Gary Mavko; Christian Mogensen; C. Hoier

2004-01-01

322

Isotopic composition of oil-field brines from Kettleman North Dome, California, and their geologic implications  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Deuterium and O18 analyses were made on 25 formation-water samples from Miocene (Temblor Formation) and Eocene (McAdams Formation) reservoir rocks at Kettleman North Dome oil field, California, and on three surface water samples from Reef Ridge located about three miles to the west of the field. The ??O18 values obtained generally increase with depth and most probably are due to temperature controlled exchange reactions with carbonate cement and dissolved carbonate species. The ??D values obtained seem to be controlled primarily by the membrane behavior of shales modifying the assumed original values. The contribution of isotopic exchange between water and clays cannot be evaluated at present. The isotopic data support the conclusions based on a detailed study of geology, hydrodynamics, and formation water geochemistry (Kharaka, 1971) which indicate that:. 1. The Temblor Formation waters are probably meteoric in origin concentrated chemically and isotopically by shale membranes, and 2. The McAdams Formation waters were most probably obtained by squeezing the original interstitial marine connate waters of deposition from the underlying Mesozoic sediments. ?? 1973.

Kharaka, Y. K.; Berry, F. A. F.; Friedman, I.

1973-01-01

323

Analysis of AIS data of the Recluse Oil Field, Recluse, Wyoming  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Airborne Imaging Spectrometer (AIS) data were flown over the Recluse, Wyoming oil field on September 9, 1984. Processing software was developed at Earth Satellite Corporation (EarthSat) for interactive analysis of the AIS data. EarthSat's AIS processing capabilities include destriping, solar irradiance corrections, residual calculations, geometric resampling, equal energy normalization, interactive spectral classifications and a variety of compressive algorithms to reduce the data to 8-bit format with a minimum of information loss. The in-house photolab facilities of EarthSat can routinely produce high-quality color renditions of the enhanced AIS data. A total of 80 lithologic samples were collected under the AIS flight lines. Correlation (within the atmospheric windows) between the laboratory and the AIS spectra of sample sites was generally poor. Reasonable correlation was only possible in large, freshly plowed fields. Mixed pixels and contrast between the natural and sample's surfaces were believed responsible for the poor correlation. Finally, a drift of approximately three channels was observed in the diffraction grating position within the 1.8 to 2.1 micron quadrant.

Dykstra, J. D.; Segal, D. B.

1985-01-01

324

El Furrial field miscible gas and water injection enhanced oil recovery project  

SciTech Connect

El Furrial field in the North of Monagas state was discovered in 1987, and originally contained approximately 6.9 million stock tank barrels of off in place. The principal operator, Lagoven S.A., has devoted intensive engineering studies to define the optimum exploitation strategy and maximize final recovery. As a result of these studies, production mechanisms were early identified and a reservoir pressure maintenance program was defined to increase the recovery factor and maintain production rates. Simultaneously with the implementation of a 450,000 barrels of water per day waterflood project, engineering studies were continued to determine the feasibility of a gas injection alternative to complement the water injection program. Those studies demonstrated that a highly efficient miscible displacement could be attained by injecting dry gas at current operational reservoir conditions (6500 psi and 280{degrees}F). Consequently, extensive laboratory work, geostatistical and deterministic reservoir description, and black oil miscible and compositional simulation were performed to define a miscible gas injection implementation plan. As a result it was concluded that major increase in reserves could be obtained by injection of all the produced gas in the field plus some make up gas, together with an expansion of the waterflood. In this paper the methodology, procedures and results of this interdisciplinary effort will be described.

Herbas, P.J.; Diamond, L.; Pedroza, T. [and others

1996-08-01

325

Comparison of Gas Flux and Soil Gas Composition at Two Oil Fields: Rangely, Colorado With CO2EOR, and Teapot Dome, Wyoming at Baseline Condition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carbon Dioxide sequestration in spent oil and gas fields will likely be a significant early option that has economic advantages. A concern is the potential for gas microseepage under the overpressured conditions necessary for operation. A comparison was made between the overpressured Rangely, Colorado CO2-EOR operation and the underpressured Teapot Dome oil field in Wyoming, which is proposed for CO2

R. W. Klusman

2004-01-01

326

Molecular biologic techniques applied to the microbial prospecting of oil and gas in the Ban 876 gas and oil field in China.  

PubMed

Currently, molecular biologic techniques achieve a great development in studies of soil samples. The objective of this research is to improve methods for microbial prospecting of oil and gas by applying culture-independent techniques to soil sampled from above a known oil and gas field. Firstly, the community structure of soil bacteria above the Ban 876 Gas and Oil Field was analyzed based on 16S rRNA gene clone libraries. The soil bacteria communities were consistently different along the depth; however, Chloroflexi and Gemmatimonadetes were predominant and methanotrophs were minor in both bacteria libraries (DGS1 and DGS2). Secondly, the numbers of methane-oxidizing bacteria, quantified using a culture-dependent procedure and culture-independent group-specific real-time PCR (RT-PCR), respectively, were inconsistent with a quantify variance of one or two orders of magnitude. Special emphasis was given to the counting advantages of RT-PCR based on the methanotrophic pmoA gene. Finally, the diversity and distribution of methanotrophic communities in the soil samples were analyzed by constructing clone libraries of functional gene. All 508-bp inserts in clones phylogenetically belonged to the methanotrophic pmoA gene with similarities from 83% to 100%. However, most of the similarities were below 96%. Five clone libraries of methanotrophs clearly showed that the anomalous methanotrophs (Methylosinus and Methylocystis) occupy the studied area. PMID:20107985

Zhang, Fan; She, Yuehui; Zheng, Yong; Zhou, Zhifeng; Kong, Shuqiong; Hou, Dujie

2010-04-01

327

Mining Machinery/Equipment/Parts/Services. Oil and Gas Field Equipment/Machinery/Parts/Supplies (Brazil). Oil and Gas Field Machinery, November 1990.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Brazilian market for oil and gasfield machinery reached approximately $938 million in 1989, of which about $86 million were supplied by imports. The market may reach $2.6 billion by 1993, if indeed the Government of Brazil approves an annual investmen...

1990-01-01

328

Reservoir characterization for Chevron's HASDrive field trial, Athabasca oil sands area, northeastern Alberta, Canada  

SciTech Connect

Chevron is currently field testing an in-situ thermal recovery process termed Heated Annulus SteamDrive (HASDrive) on the Lower Cretaceous Athabasca tar sand deposit at the Alberta Oil Sands Technology Research Authority (AOSTRA) Underground Test Facility (UTF) site. The HASDrive process applies heat through a subsurface horizontal pipe to the base of the bitumen-rich reservoir sands of the McMurray Formation. A vertical steam-injection well aids in mobilization of the heavy crude and sweeps hydrocarbons toward a horizontal subsurface producing well. To evaluate the HASDrive technology, a geologic model was developed to predict the distribution and geometry of reservoir sands and intervening shales. Core studies indicated deposition took place in an estuarine environment, with sands representing tidal channel deposits and shales relating to tidal flat sedimentation. A thorough program of conventional and special core analysis was done on samples from five wells. Special core analysis consisted of miscibly cleaning samples prior to determination of brine permeability. Vertical and horizontal permeability were determined for massive to cross-bedded sandstone as well as four types of shale-bearing sandstone. Of these four, thin shale beds and shale breccia were more effective in reducing permeability and may form barriers to fluid flow. Thin discontinuous shale laminae or shaly wisps merely impede flow. Interactive workstation programs used core and log data petrophysical parameters as input to build a simulator grid of 2,600 blocks in 10 layers to represent a field trial area of approximately 2,000 m{sup 2}. Potential barriers capable of preventing or reducing the flow rate were identified, incorporated into the model, and treated as dimensionless shales (i.e., shaly beds with negligible thickness). The simulator model was then used to the match history of field trial fluid production.

Chalcraft, R.G.; Grant, C.W. (Chevron Oil Field Research Co., La Habra, CA (USA))

1990-05-01

329

Class III Mid-Term Project, "Increasing Heavy Oil Reserves in the Wilmington Oil Field Through Advanced Reservoir Characterization and Thermal Production Technologies"  

SciTech Connect

The overall objective of this project was to increase heavy oil reserves in slope and basin clastic (SBC) reservoirs through the application of advanced reservoir characterization and thermal production technologies. The project involved improving thermal recovery techniques in the Tar Zone of Fault Blocks II-A and V (Tar II-A and Tar V) of the Wilmington Field in Los Angeles County, near Long Beach, California. A primary objective has been to transfer technology that can be applied in other heavy oil formations of the Wilmington Field and other SBC reservoirs, including those under waterflood. The first budget period addressed several producibility problems in the Tar II-A and Tar V thermal recovery operations that are common in SBC reservoirs. A few of the advanced technologies developed include a three-dimensional (3-D) deterministic geologic model, a 3-D deterministic thermal reservoir simulation model to aid in reservoir management and subsequent post-steamflood development work, and a detailed study on the geochemical interactions between the steam and the formation rocks and fluids. State of the art operational work included drilling and performing a pilot steam injection and production project via four new horizontal wells (2 producers and 2 injectors), implementing a hot water alternating steam (WAS) drive pilot in the existing steamflood area to improve thermal efficiency, installing a 2400-foot insulated, subsurface harbor channel crossing to supply steam to an island location, testing a novel alkaline steam completion technique to control well sanding problems, and starting on an advanced reservoir management system through computer-aided access to production and geologic data to integrate reservoir characterization, engineering, monitoring, and evaluation. The second budget period phase (BP2) continued to implement state-of-the-art operational work to optimize thermal recovery processes, improve well drilling and completion practices, and evaluate the geomechanical characteristics of the producing formations. The objectives were to further improve reservoir characterization of the heterogeneous turbidite sands, test the proficiency of the three-dimensional geologic and thermal reservoir simulation models, identify the high permeability thief zones to reduce water breakthrough and cycling, and analyze the nonuniform distribution of the remaining oil in place. This work resulted in the redevelopment of the Tar II-A and Tar V post-steamflood projects by drilling several new wells and converting idle wells to improve injection sweep efficiency and more effectively drain the remaining oil reserves. Reservoir management work included reducing water cuts, maintaining or increasing oil production, and evaluating and minimizing further thermal-related formation compaction. The BP2 project utilized all the tools and knowledge gained throughout the DOE project to maximize recovery of the oil in place.

Scott Hara

2007-03-31

330

Improved Oil Recovery from Upper Jurassic Smackover Carbonates through the Application of Advanced Technologies at Womack Hill Oil Field, Choctaw and Clarke Counties, Eastern Gulf Coastal Plain  

SciTech Connect

Pruet Production Co. and the Center for Sedimentary Basin Studies at the University of Alabama, in cooperation with Texas A&M University, Mississippi State University, University of Mississippi, and Wayne Stafford and Associates proposed a three-phase, focused, comprehensive, integrated and multidisciplinary study of Upper Jurassic Smackover carbonates (Class II Reservoir), involving reservoir characterization and 3-D modeling (Phase I) and a field demonstration project (Phases II and III) at Womack Hill Field Unit, Choctaw and Clarke Counties, Alabama, eastern Gulf Coastal Plain. Phase I of the project has been completed. The principal objectives of the project are: increasing the productivity and profitability of the Womack Hill Field Unit, thereby extending the economic life of this Class II Reservoir and transferring effectively and in a timely manner the knowledge gained and technology developed from this project to producers who are operating other domestic fields with Class II Reservoirs. The major tasks of the project included reservoir characterization, recovery technology analysis, recovery technology evaluation, and the decision to implement a demonstration project. Reservoir characterization consisted of geoscientific reservoir characterization, petrophysical and engineering property characterization, microbial characterization, and integration of the characterization data. Recovery technology analysis included 3-D geologic modeling, reservoir simulation, and microbial core experiments. Recovery technology evaluation consisted of acquiring and evaluating new high quality 2-D seismic data, evaluating the existing pressure maintenance project in the Womack Hill Field Unit, and evaluating the concept of an immobilized enzyme technology project for the Womack Hill Field Unit. The decision to implement a demonstration project essentially resulted in the decision on whether to conduct an infill drilling project in Womack Hill Field. Reservoir performance, multiwell productivity analysis, and reservoir simulation studies indicate that water injection continues to provide stable support to maintain production from wells in the western unitized area of the field and that the strong water drive present in the eastern area of the field is adequate to sustain production from this part of the field. Although the results from the microbial characterization and microbial core experiments are very promising, it is recommended that an immobilized enzyme technology project not be implemented in the Womack Hill Field Unit until live (freshly taken and properly preserved) cores from the Smackover reservoir in the field are acquired to confirm the microbial core experiments to date. From 3-D geologic modeling, reservoir performance analysis, and reservoir simulation, four areas in the Womack Hill Field were identified as prospective infill drilling sites to recover undrained oil from the field. It was determined that the two areas in the unit area probably can be effectively drained by perforating higher zones in the Smackover reservoir in currently producing wells. The two areas in the eastern (non-unitized) part of the field require the drilling of new wells. The successful drilling and testing of a well in 2003 by J. R. Pounds, Inc. has proven the oil potential of the easternmost site in the non-unitized part of the field. Pruet Production Co. acquired new 2-D seismic data to evaluate the oil potential of the westernmost site. Because of the effects of a fault shadow from the major fault bounding the southern border of the Womack Hill Field, it is difficult to evaluate conclusively this potential drill site. Pruet Production Co. has decided not to drill this new well at this time and to further evaluate the new 2-D seismic profiles after these data have been processed using a pre-stack migration technique. Pruet Production Co. has elected not to continue into Phase II of this project because they are not prepared to make a proposal to the other mineral interest owners regarding the drilling of new wells as part of an infil

Ernest A. Mancini

2003-12-31

331

Improved Oil Recovery from Upper Jurassic Smackover Carbonates through the Application of Advanced Technologies at Womack Hill Oil Field, Choctaw and Clarke Counties, Eastern Gulf Costal Plain  

SciTech Connect

Pruet Production Co. and the Center for Sedimentary Basin Studies at the University of Alabama, in cooperation with Texas A&M University, Mississippi State University, University of Mississippi, and Wayne Stafford and Associates proposed a three-phase, focused, comprehensive, integrated and multidisciplinary study of Upper Jurassic Smackover carbonates (Class II Reservoir), involving reservoir characterization and 3-D modeling (Phase I) and a field demonstration project (Phases II and III) at Womack Hill Field Unit, Choctaw and Clarke Counties, Alabama, eastern Gulf Coastal Plain. Phase I of the project has been completed. The principal objectives of the project are: increasing the productivity and profitability of the Womack Hill Field Unit, thereby extending the economic life of this Class II Reservoir and transferring effectively and in a timely manner the knowledge gained and technology developed from this project to producers who are operating other domestic fields with Class II Reservoirs. The major tasks of the project included reservoir characterization, recovery technology analysis, recovery technology evaluation, and the decision to implement a demonstration project. Reservoir characterization consisted of geoscientific reservoir characterization, petrophysical and engineering property characterization, microbial characterization, and integration of the characterization data. Recovery technology analysis included 3-D geologic modeling, reservoir simulation, and microbial core experiments. Recovery technology evaluation consisted of acquiring and evaluating new high quality 2-D seismic data, evaluating the existing pressure maintenance project in the Womack Hill Field Unit, and evaluating the concept of an immobilized enzyme technology project for the Womack Hill Field Unit. The decision to implement a demonstration project essentially resulted in the decision on whether to conduct an infill drilling project in Womack Hill Field. Reservoir performance, multiwell productivity analysis, and reservoir simulation studies indicate that water injection continues to provide stable support to maintain production from wells in the western unitized area of the field and that the strong water drive present in the eastern area of the field is adequate to sustain production from this part of the field. Although the results from the microbial characterization and microbial core experiments are very promising, it is recommended that an immobilized enzyme technology project not be implemented in the Womack Hill Field Unit until live (freshly taken and properly preserved) cores from the Smackover reservoir in the field are acquired to confirm the microbial core experiments to date. From 3-D geologic modeling, reservoir performance analysis, and reservoir simulation, four areas in the Womack Hill Field were identified as prospective infill drilling sites to recover undrained oil from the field. It was determined that the two areas in the unit area probably can be effectively drained by perforating higher zones in the Smackover reservoir in currently producing wells. The two areas in the eastern (non-unitized) part of the field require the drilling of new wells. The successful drilling and testing of a well in 2003 by J. R. Pounds, Inc. has proven the oil potential of the easternmost site in the non-unitized part of the field. Pruet Production Co. acquired new 2-D seismic data to evaluate the oil potential of the westernmost site. Because of the effects of a fault shadow from the major fault bounding the southern border of the Womack Hill Field, it is difficult to evaluate conclusively this potential drill site. Pruet Production Co. has decided not to drill this new well at this time and to further evaluate the new 2-D seismic profiles after these data have been processed using a pre-stack migration technique. Pruet Production Co. has elected not to continue into Phase II of this project because they are not prepared to make a proposal to the other mineral interest owners regarding the drilling of new wells as part of an infil

Ernest A. Mancini

2006-05-31

332

Increased Oil Production and Reserves From Improved Completion Techniques in the Bluebell Field, Uinta Basin, Utah  

SciTech Connect

The Bluebell field is productive from the Tertiary lower Green River and Colton (Wasatch) Formations of the Uinta Basin, Utah. The productive interval consists of thousands of feet of interbedded fractured clastic and carbonate beds deposited in the ancestral Lake Uinta. Wells in the Bluebell field are typically completed by perforating 40 or more beds over 1000 to 3000 vertical ft (300-900 m), then stimulating the entire interval with hydrochloric acid. This technique is often referred to as the shot gun completion. Completion techniques used in the Bluebell field were discussed in detail in the Second Annual Report (Curtice, 1996). The shot-gun technique is believed to leave many potentially productive beds damaged and/or untreated, while allowing water-bearing and low-pressure (thief) zones to communicate with the wellbore. A two-year characterization study involved detailed examination of outcrop, core, well logs, surface and subsurface fractures, produced oil-field waters, engineering parameters of the two demonstration wells, and analysis of past completion techniques and effectiveness. The study was intended to improve the geologic characterization of the producing formations and thereby develop completion techniques specific to the producing beds or facies instead of a shot gun approach to stimulating all the beds. The characterization did not identify predictable-facies or predictable-fracture trends within the vertical stratigraphic column as originally hoped. Advanced logging techniques can identify productive beds in individual wells. A field-demonstration program was developed to use cased-hole advanced logging techniques in two wells and recompletion the wells at two different scales based on the logging. The first well was going to be completed at the interval scale using a multiple stage completion technique (about 500 ft [150 m] per stage). The second well will be recompleted at the bed-scale using bridge plug and packer to isolate three or more beds for stimulation. These recompletion will show which logs are most effective in identifying productive beds and what scale of completion is most cost effective. The third demonstration will be the logging and completion of a new well using the logs and completion scale or technique, most effective in the previous demonstrations.

Morgan, C.D.; Deo, M.D.

1998-04-01

333

Correlations among hydrocarbon microseepage, soil chemistry, and uptake of micronutrients by plants, Bell Creek oil field, Montana  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Chelate-extractable iron and manganese concentrations in soils over and around the Bell Creek oil field suggest that compared to low average background values, there are moderate amounts of these elements directly over the production area and higher concentrations distributed in an aureole pattern around the periphery of the field. Adsorbed and organically bound iron and manganese appear to be readily taken up by plants resulting in anomalously high levels of these elements in leaves and needles over the oil field and suggesting correlation with corresponding low concentrations in soils. Iron and manganese appear to have bypassed the soil formation process where, under normal oxidizing conditions, they would have ultimately precipitated as insoluble oxides and hydroxides. ?? 1985.

Roeming, S. S.; Donovan, T. J.

1985-01-01

334

A procedure to estimate the parent population of the size of oil and gas fields as revealed by a study of economic truncation  

USGS Publications Warehouse

An estimation technique has been derived to predict the number of small fields in a geologic play or basin. Historically, many small oil and gas fields went unreported because they were not economical. This led to an underestimation of the number of undiscovered small fields. A study of the distributions of reported oil and gas fields in well-explored areas suggests that the large fields when grouped into log base 2 size classes are geometrically distributed. Further, the number of small fields reported is a function of the cost of exploration and development. Thus, the population field-size distribution is conjectured to be log geometric in form. ?? 1983 Plenum Publishing Corporation.

Schuenemeyer, J. H.; Drew, L. J.

1983-01-01

335

Viscosity Reduction of Heavy and Extra Heavy Crude Oils by Pulsed Electric Field  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ever-increasing world energy demand would require the use of all hydrocarbon resources available, especially heavy and extra-heavy crude oils in the near future. However, transportation of these crudes is very difficult due to their high viscosity and low mobility. There are many different methods to reduce heavy crude oil viscosity. Some of these methods are heating, blending, water-in-oil emulsion

F. Homayuni; A. A. Hamidi; A. Vatani; A. A. Shaygani; R. Faraji Dana

2011-01-01

336

Reduction in natural hydrocarbon seepage from the offshore south Ellwood field near Coal Oil Point, California, due to oil production  

SciTech Connect

Prolific natural gas seepage, a significant air pollution source in Santa Barbara County, occurs offshore from Coal Oil Point, near Santa Barbara. Seepage rates are quantified by measuring the acoustic return of sonar sources from the gas bubbles rising through the water column, and by measuring the dissolved concentrations of hydrocarbons downcurrent from the gas seep vents. In 1995 we digitally recorded 3.5 kHz data in the same location as a 1972-1973 survey. Comparison of the data suggests a substantial reduction in natural seepage within one mile of Platform Holly since oil production began in 1972 from the Monterey Formation reservoir, which is the source of the gas. Dissolved concentrations of hydrocarbons were measured in the ocean 2-6 miles downcurrent from Platform Holly in an area where concentrations were previously measured in a 1981 SNIFFER survey. The dissolved propane concentrations in 1995 had a peak value of 7 ppm, whereas in 1981 the peak value was 65 ppm. A reduction in natural gas seepage rate is also indicated by the 60% decline in the amount of seep gas captured by a seep containment device located one mile east of Platform Holly. The reduction in gas seepage rate may be attributed to a 40% reduction in subsurface reservoir pressure under Platform Holly that resulted from withdrawal of 43 MMBO and a similar volume of water from the Monterey Formation since 1972.

Hornafius, J.S.; Luyendyk, B.P.; Quigley, D.; Trial, A. (Univ. of California, Santa Barbara, CA (United States)) (and others)

1996-01-01

337

Aerobic biodegradation process of petroleum and pathway of main compounds in water flooding well of Dagang oil field.  

PubMed

Aerobic biodegradation of crude oil and its pathways were investigated via in vitro culture and GC-MS analysis in water flooding wells of Dagang oil field. The in vitro aerobic culture lasted 90 days when 99.0% of n-alkanes and 43.03-99.9% of PAHs were degraded and the biomarkers and their ratios were changed. The spectra of components in the residual oil showed the similar biodegradation between aerobic process of 90 days and degradation in reservoir which may last for some millions years, and the potential of serious aerobic biodegradation of petroleum in reservoir. 24 Metabolites compounds were separated and identified from aerobic culture, including fatty acid, naphthenic acid, aromatic carboxylic acid, unsaturated acid, alcohols, ketones and aldehydes. The pathways of alkanes and aromatics were proposed, which suggests that oxidation of hydrocarbon to organic acid is an important process in the aerobic biodegradation of petroleum. PMID:23867530

Cai, Minmin; Yao, Jun; Yang, Huaijun; Wang, Ruixia; Masakorala, Kanaji

2013-09-01

338

Activities of the Oil Implementation Task Force, reporting period March--August 1991; Contracts for field projects and supporting research on enhanced oil recovery, reporting period October--December 1990  

SciTech Connect

Activities of DOE's Oil Implementation Task Force for the period March--August 1991 are reviewed. Contracts for fields projects and supporting research on enhanced oil recovery are discussed, with a list of related publications given. Enhanced recovery processes covered include chemical flooding, gas displacement, thermal recovery, and microbial recovery.

Not Available

1991-10-01

339

Isolation and characterization of Methanoculleus receptaculi sp. nov. from Shengli oil field, China.  

PubMed

Three strictly anaerobic, thermophilic methanogens (ZC-2T, ZC-3 and ZC-6) were isolated from Shengli oil field, China. The 16S rRNA gene sequences of the three strains were nearly identical, possessing > 99.8% sequence similarity. They also possessed high sequence similarity, 97.4%, to Methanoculleus palmolei strain INSLUZ(T) (97.4% and 97.5%, respectively), indicating that they represented a novel species within the genus Methanoculleus. Cells of strain ZC-2T were nonmotile cocci, 0.8-1.7 microm in diameter, and always occurred singly or in pairs. The three strains used H2/CO2 or sodium formate as substrates for methanogenesis but not sodium acetate, trimethylamine, monomethylamine, ethanol, dimethyl sulfide, isopropanol, isobutanol, butan-2-ol or H2/CO. Optimum growth of strain ZC-2T occurred in the presence of 0.2 M NaCl, pH 7.5-7.8 and temperature 50-55 degrees C with a specific growth rate of 0.084 h(-1). The mol% G+C content of the genomic DNA was 55.2 mol%. Based on these phenotypic and phylogenetic characteristics, strains ZC-2T, ZC-3 and ZC-6 are proposed to represent a novel species in the genus Methanoculleus and named Methanoculleus receptaculi sp. nov. The type strain is ZC-2T (CGMCC 1.5087T=DSM 18860T). PMID:18557787

Cheng, Lei; Qiu, Tian-Lei; Li, Xia; Wang, Wei-Dong; Deng, Yu; Yin, Xiao-Bo; Zhang, Hui

2008-08-01

340

Probing Asphaltene Aggregation in Native Crude Oils with Low-Field NMR  

SciTech Connect

We show that low-field proton nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) relaxation and diffusion experiments can be used to study asphaltene aggregation directly in crude oils. Relaxation was found to be multiexponential, reflecting the composition of a complex fluid. Remarkably, the relaxation data for samples with different asphaltene concentrations can be collapsed onto each other by a simple rescaling of the time dimension with a concentration-dependent factor {zeta}, whereas the observed diffusion behavior is unaffected by asphaltene concentration. We interpret this finding in terms of a theoretical model that explains the enhanced relaxation by the transitory entanglement of solvent hydrocarbons within asphaltene clusters and their subsequent slowed motion and diffusion within the cluster. We relate the measured scaling parameters {zeta} to cluster sizes, which we find to be on the order of 2.2-4.4 nm for an effective sphere diameter. These sizes are in agreement with the typical values reported in the literature as well as with the small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) experiments performed on our samples.

Zielinski, Lukasz; Saha, Indrajit; Freed, Denise E.; Hrlimann, Martin D.; Liu, Yongsheng (BU-M); (Schlumberger-Doll)

2010-04-13

341

Probing asphaltene aggregation in native crude oils with low-field NMR.  

PubMed

We show that low-field proton nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) relaxation and diffusion experiments can be used to study asphaltene aggregation directly in crude oils. Relaxation was found to be multiexponential, reflecting the composition of a complex fluid. Remarkably, the relaxation data for samples with different asphaltene concentrations can be collapsed onto each other by a simple rescaling of the time dimension with a concentration-dependent factor xi, whereas the observed diffusion behavior is unaffected by asphaltene concentration. We interpret this finding in terms of a theoretical model that explains the enhanced relaxation by the transitory entanglement of solvent hydrocarbons within asphaltene clusters and their subsequent slowed motion and diffusion within the cluster. We relate the measured scaling parameters xi to cluster sizes, which we find to be on the order of 2.2-4.4 nm for an effective sphere diameter. These sizes are in agreement with the typical values reported in the literature as well as with the small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) experiments performed on our samples. PMID:20131761

Zielinski, Lukasz; Saha, Indrajit; Freed, Denise E; Hürlimann, Martin D; Liu, Yongsheng

2010-04-01

342

Aneth oil field, giant carbonate stratigraphic trap, Paradox basin, Utah, U. S. A  

SciTech Connect

The Aneth oil field (approximately 400 million bbl original primary reserves) occurs within an isolated southeast-northwest-trending Pennsylvanian (Desmoinesian) algal carbonate bank buildup located approximately 25 mi (40 km) basinward of the main carbonate shelf of the Paradox basin in Utah. Desmoinesian deposition was strongly cyclic, with as many as 30 main evaporite-carbonate cycles recognized. The Aneth algal bank is part of the Desert Creek cycle, which is the first cycle above that of the most widespread salt-bearing cycle. The Desert Creek carbonate facies grades basinward to increasingly prevalent evaporite facies, dominated by thick salt beds in the basin center. Within the isolated algal-mound facies, the Desert Creek cycle is characterized by a vertical succession that includes (1) basal black, organic-rich, dolomitic, silty shale, (2) overlying dark chalky, finely crystalline dolomite, which grades upward into (3) the main carbonate mound facies, dominated by accumulations of calcareous, leafy green algae with associated brachiopods, fusulinids, small foraminifera, ostracodes, and rare corals. Mound buildups are overlain by a relatively thin, black, organic-rich shale unit, the basal bed of the succeeding mound-bearing Ismay cycle. This unit thickens markedly on the flanks of the Desert Creek and other mound buildup. Interrelated depositional processes of these various sedimentary facies have resulted in a close association between source rock, large reservoir, and seal at Aneth, and contributed significantly toward the large size of the Aneth accumulation.

Petterson, J.A. (Univ. of Montana, Missoula (United States))

1991-03-01

343

Aneth oil field carbonate mound reservoir - Organic-rich mudbank origin  

SciTech Connect

The Aneth oil field (approximately 400 million bbl ultimate recovery) occurs within an isolated southeast-northwest-trending Pennsylvanian (Desmoinesian) algal carbonate bank buildup located approximately 25 mi (40 km) basinward of the main carbonate shelf of the Paradox basin in Utah. Desmoinesian deposition was strongly cyclic, with as many as 30 main evaporite-carbonate cycles recognized. The Aneth algal bank is part of the Desert Creek cycle, which is the first cycle above that of the most widespread salt-bearing cycle. The Desert Creek carbonate facies grades basinward to increasingly prevalent evaporite facies, dominated by thick salt beds in the basin center. Within the isolated algal-mound facies, the Desert Creek cycle is characterized by a vertical succession that includes (1) basal black, organic-rich, dolomitic, silty shale, and (2) overlying dark chalky, finely crystalline dolomite which grades upward into (3) the main carbonate mound facies dominated by accumulations of calcareous, leafy green algae with associated brachiopods, fusulinids, small foraminifera, ostracods, and, rarely, corals. Mound buildups are overlain by a relatively thin, black, organic-rich shale unit, the basal bed of the succeeding mound-bearing Ismay cycle. This upper shale unit thickens markedly on the flanks of the Desert Creek and other mounds.

Peterson, J.A. (Geological Survey, Missoula, MT (USA))

1989-09-01

344

Super-giant oil fields and future prospects in the Middle East  

SciTech Connect

Upper Jurassic carbonates, Lower Cretaceous sands, Lower Cretaceous carbonates and Tertiary carbonates of the Middle East contain more than 50% of the worlds oil. Our area of interest covers SE Turkey and Syria in the north to the borders of Yemen and Oman in the south, and from the Red Sea across Saudi Arabia, the Emirates and the Arabian/Persian Gulf to Iran in the East. There are over 80 fields in this region with over 1 billion barrels of recoverable reserves. Yet only around 30,000 wells have been drilled in this territory. Regional structure and stratigraphy are discussed within the context of three major plays in the region as well as a new play in the Permo-Carboniferous. Numerous opportunities are available and countries such as Iraq and Iran may one day open their doors more to the industry than is presently the case. The dramatic petroleum geology of the region will stamp its influence on the nature of business and opportunities for years to come. While fiscal systems here already offer some of the toughest terms in the world, future deals in the more prolific areas will be even tougher. But, the economies of Middle Eastern scale will provide some of the great mega-opportunities of future international exploration.

Christian, L. [Consultant, Dallas, TX (United States); Johnston, D. [Daniel Johnston & Co., Inc., Dallas, TX (United States)

1995-06-01

345

Modified vegetation indices for Ganoderma disease detection in oil palm from field spectroradiometer data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High resolution field spectroradiometers are important for spectral analysis and mobile inspection of vegetation disease. The biggest challenges in using this technology for automated vegetation disease detection are in spectral signatures pre-processing, band selection and generating reflectance indices to improve the ability of hyperspectral data for early detection of disease. In this paper, new indices for oil palm Ganoderma disease detection were generated using band ratio and different band combination techniques. Unsupervised clustering method was used to cluster the values of each class resultant from each index. The wellness of band combinations was assessed by using Optimum Index Factor (OIF) while cluster validation was executed using Average Silhouette Width (ASW). 11 modified reflectance indices were generated in this study and the indices were ranked according to the values of their ASW. These modified indices were also compared to several existing and new indices. The results showed that the combination of spectral values at 610.5nm and 738nm was the best for clustering the three classes of infection levels in the determination of the best spectral index for early detection of Ganoderma disease.

Shafri, Helmi Z. M.; Anuar, M. Izzuddin; Saripan, M. Iqbal

2009-10-01

346

Trace element content and distribution in a single fluid inclusion from Dunbar Oil Field, North Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Synchrotron X-ray fluorescence (SXRF) analysis of individual fluid inclusions was performed on a suite of samples collected above and beneath a well-documented connectivity barrier of the Dunbar oil field, North Sea. The fluid inclusion analyzed consists of two phases (liquid + vapor), low salinity aqueous brines lining overgrowth zone of detrital quartz that formed during secondary silicification of the host sandstone. SXRF measurements indicate that the inclusion fluid contains a large variety of major and trace elements including CI, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe. Co, Ni, Cu. Zn, Ga, Se, Br, Rb, Sr. Zr, Nb, Cd, Ba, Pb. Chemical mapping of a large inclusion (30 ?m) together with element correlation diagrams show that, with the exception of Ca, Sr, Br and in lesser extent Zn, which display an homogeneous distribution throughout the inclusion, most elements show small-scale distribution heterogeneities that are best interpreted in terms of infra-?m solid phases suspended in the fluid phase. Calculated concentration estimates are critically dependent of the interpretation made for the origin of these solid phases (heterogeneous trapping vs. precipitated from the ambient inclusion fluid).

Foriel, J.; Philippot, P.; Menez, B.; Simionovici, A.; Bohic, S.

2003-03-01

347

Evaluation of Oil Generation Potentiality of Bituminous Rocks from Tatarstan's Fields and Problems of Its Realization  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the paper, the data on oil and gas generation potential of organic matter in bituminous rocks occurring in the territory of Tatarstan in different age deposits (from Upper Permian to Devonian) and the results of laboratory experiments on study- ing heavy oil and organic matter transformations under hydrothermal conditions are discussed. It is shown that the prospective hydrocarbon sources

G. P. Kayukova; G. V. Romanov; T. N. Yusupova; M. S. Zonn; G. A. Petrov; R. Kh

348

An effect of magnetic field exposure on microorganisms associated with fuel oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two 30 urn tortuous path depth filters, associated with either a magnetic or non?magnetic, but otherwise identical, fuel treatment device were placed in a tandem recirculating fuel oil system comprising a single reservoir of fuel oil (red diesel) contaminated with seawater and fuel degrading microbes. For 17 d the recirculating system, with no added mixing of the reservoir, showed no

Michael Kugele; Andrew B Yule; Maher Kalaji

1999-01-01

349

Plans for 300MW and 800MW oil field cogeneration plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Within the next few years, the Bakersfield area of California may well lay claim to the cogeneration capital of the world - provided the California Energy Commission (CEC) approves proposals for two different facilities each of which reportedly would be much larger than any known fossil-fired cogeneration plant in existence. Getty Oil of Los Angeles, Calif. and Shell Oil of

Stambler

2009-01-01

350

ENVIRONMENTAL CHARACTERIZATION OF GEOKINETICS' IN-SITU OIL SHALE RETORTING TECHNOLOGY: FIELD AND ANALYTICAL DATA APPENDICES  

EPA Science Inventory

Air emissions and water effluents from true in-situ oil shale retorting were physically, chemically and biologically characterized by sampling of Geokinetics Retort No. 17, a pilot-scale unit which produced 30 barrels of crude shale oil per day during testing from July 16 to July...

351

Computer technology of quantitative interwell correlation of sediments on the oil and gas fields in the CIS countries  

SciTech Connect

In the course of studies of the oil and gas fields of the former USSR (including Romashkinskoye, Western Uzbekistan, Orenburg, Odoptu-more, and Karachaganak), methods have been developed to subdivide the rock sequences into sedimentation cycles and subcyles, and to identify washouts and breaks in the section. An IBM-PC program (MSLA) has been developed that enables subdivision and correlation of the well section to be made according to the multilevel hierarchy model of sequences devised by Guberman. With the help of the MSLA program, this model can be applied to well-correlation problems where there are no preliminary data available such as geological markers, cores, or ditch samples. The technique has been used in studies of the structure of oil and gas fields involving computer models and as an [open quotes]expert[close quotes] system.

Barinova, O.I.; Kalinina, E.E.; Ovtchinnikova, M.I. (Oil and Gas Research Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation))

1993-09-01

352

The influence of bioaugmentation and biosurfactant addition on bioremediation efficiency of diesel-oil contaminated soil: feasibility during field studies.  

PubMed

The study focused on assessing the influence of bioaugmentation and addition of rhamnolipids on diesel oil biodegradation efficiency during field studies. Initial laboratory studies (measurement of emitted CO2 and dehydrogenase activity) were carried out in order to select the consortium for bioaugmentation as well as to evaluate the most appropriate concentration of rhamnolipids. The selected consortium consisted of following bacterial taxa: Aeromonas hydrophila, Alcaligenes xylosoxidans, Gordonia sp., Pseudomonas fluorescens, Pseudomonas putida, Rhodococcus equi, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, Xanthomonas sp. It was established that the application of rhamnolipids at 150 mg/kg of soil was most appropriate in terms of dehydrogenase activity. Based on the obtained results, four treatment methods were designed and tested during 365 days of field studies: I) natural attenuation; II) addition of rhamnolipids; III) bioaugmentation; IV) bioaugmentation and addition of rhamnolipids. It was observed that bioaugmentation contributed to the highest diesel oil biodegradation efficiency, whereas the addition of rhamnolipids did not notably influence the treatment process. PMID:24291585

Szulc, Alicja; Ambro?ewicz, Damian; Sydow, Mateusz; ?awniczak, ?ukasz; Piotrowska-Cyplik, Agnieszka; Marecik, Roman; Chrzanowski, ?ukasz

2014-01-01

353

Canada's Geological Survey sees onshore fields as best hope for self-sufficiency in oil: new report calls into question Ottawa's emphasis on the offshore frontiers  

SciTech Connect

The Geological Survey of Canada (GSC) says that Canada will need to rely on its western reserves until offshore sites reach production status in the 1990's. The GSC recommends a renewed exploration effort and oil sands development in Alberta to secure enough oil for the 1980's but also supports government incentives for offshore exploration. The report predicts major discoveries on the East Coast, and cites the Arctic Islands as having the largest oil field in Canada. (DCK)

Hatter, D.

1984-01-01

354

Fracture characterization and fluid flow simulation with geomechanical constraints for a CO 2–EOR and sequestration project Teapot Dome Oil Field, Wyoming, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mature oil and gas reservoirs are attractive targets for geological sequestration of CO2 because of their potential storage capacities and the possible cost offsets from enhanced oil recovery (EOR).In this work, we analyze the fracture system of the Tensleep Formation to develop a geomechanically-constrained 3D reservoir fluid flow simulation at Teapot Dome Oil Field, WY, USA. Teapot Dome is the

Laura Chiaramonte; Mark Zoback; Julio Friedmann; Vicki Stamp; Chris Zahm

2011-01-01

355

Late diagenetic indicators of buried oil and gas: II, Direct detection experiment at Cement and Garza oil fields, Oklahoma and Texas, using enhanced LANDSAT I and II images  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Cement oil field, Oklahoma, was a test site for an experiment designed to evaluate LANDSAT's capability to detect an alteration zone in surface rocks caused by hydrocarbon microseepage. Loss of iron and impregnation of sandstone by carbonate cements and replacement of gypsum by calcite are the major alteration phenomena at Cement. The bedrock alterations are partially masked by unaltered overlying beds, thick soils, and dense natural and cultivated vegetation. Interpreters biased by detailed ground truth were able to map the alteration zone subjectively using a magnified, filtered, and sinusoidally stretched LANDSAT composite image; other interpreters, unbiased by ground truth data, could not duplicate that interpretation. Similar techniques were applied at a secondary test site (Garza oil field, Texas), where similar alterations in surface rocks occur. Enhanced LANDSAT images resolved the alteration zone to a biased interpreter and some individual altered outcrops could be mapped using higher resolution SKYLAB color and conventional black and white aerial photographs suggesting repeat experiments with LANDSAT C and D.

Donovan, Terrence J.; Termain, Patricia A.; Henry, Mitchell E.

1979-01-01

356

LANDSAT Study of Alteration Aureoles in Surface Rocks Overlying Petroleum Deposits. [Cement and Davenport oil fields, Oklahoma  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The author has identified the following significant results. A series of low altitude underflight remote sensing experiments were flown at Cement and Davenport oil fields, Oklahoma. An experimental algorithm which employs a sinusoidal stretch of brightness values was developed and applied to a January 1973 scene (bands 4, 5, and 6) of Cement. The results, although not spectacular, are extremely encouraging and for the first time demonstrate that the alteration anomaly at Cement may be defined through enhanced LANDSAT images.

Donovan, T. J. (principal investigator)

1975-01-01

357

Comparative laboratory and field evaluation of repellent formulations containing deet and lemon eucalyptus oil against mosquitoes in Queensland, Australia.  

PubMed

A field trial comparing a formulation containing 40% deet (N,N-diethyl-3-methyl benzamide) in ethanol (Bushman) and 32% lemon eucalyptus oil (LEO; Mosi-guard) as protection against mosquitoes at Redcliffe, Queensland, Australia, was conducted in February 2012 and February 2013. The 40% deet formulation provided 100% protection against mosquitoes for 7 h, while the 32% LEO provided >95% protection for 3 h. PMID:24772681

Frances, S P; Rigby, L M; Chow, W K

2014-03-01

358

Study of formation and inhibition of barium sulfate deposits in oil fields. Application to the Algerian field Tin Fouye Tabankort.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The aim of this work is the study of deposition-corrosion phenomena observed in water injection produced by incompatibility of formation water and injected water and research of an inhibitor adapted to specific conditions of the oil deposit of Tin Fouye T...

N. Messaoudene

1990-01-01

359

Effect of Nitrate Injection on the Microbial Community in an Oil Field as Monitored by Reverse Sample Genome Probing  

PubMed Central

The reverse sample genome probe (RSGP) method, developed for monitoring the microbial community in oil fields with a moderate subsurface temperature, has been improved by (i) isolation of a variety of heterotrophic bacteria and inclusion of their genomes on the oil field master filter and (ii) use of phosphorimaging technology for the rapid quantitation of hybridization signals. The new master filter contains the genomes of 30 sulfate-reducing, 1 sulfide-oxidizing, and 16 heterotrophic bacteria. Most have been identified by partial 16S rRNA sequencing. Use of improved RSGP in monitoring the effect of nitrate injection in an oil field indicated that the sulfide-oxidizing, nitrate-reducing isolate CVO (a Campylobacter sp.) becomes the dominant community component immediately after injection. No significant enhancement of other community members, including the sulfate-reducing bacteria, was observed. The elevated level of CVO decayed at most sampling sites within 30 days after nitrate injection was terminated. Chemical analyses indicated a corresponding decrease and subsequent increase in sulfide concentrations. Thus, transient injection of a higher potential electron acceptor into an anaerobic subsurface system can have desirable effects (i.e., reduction of sulfide levels) without a permanent adverse influence on the resident microbial community.

Telang, A. J.; Ebert, S.; Foght, J. M.; Westlake, D.; Jenneman, G. E.; Gevertz, D.; Voordouw, G.

1997-01-01

360

Observasjoner av sjoefugl i forbindelse med eksperimentelt oljeutslipp - Friggfeltet august 1995. (Sea bird observations during an experimental oil spill on the Frigg field August 1995).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

During an experimental oil spill on the Frigg field in August 1995, the distribution and number of sea birds was mapped prior to the release of the first oil spill. As discussed in this report, behavioural studies were carried out to estimate the number o...

S. H. Lorentsen

1995-01-01

361

Increasing Waterflooding Reservoirs in the Wilmington Oil Field through Improved Reservoir Characterization and Reservoir Management, Class III  

SciTech Connect

This project was intended to increase recoverable waterflood reserves in slope and basin reservoirs through improved reservoir characterization and reservoir management. The particular application of this project is in portions of Fault Blocks IV and V of the Wilmington Oil Field, in Long Beach, California, but the approach is widely applicable in slope and basin reservoirs, transferring technology so that it can be applied in other sections of the Wilmington field and by operators in other slope and basin reservoirs is a primary component of the project.

Koerner, Roy; Clarke, Don; Walker, Scott; Phillips, Chris; Nguyen, John; Moos, Dan; Tagbor, Kwasi

2001-08-07

362

Analysis of data from a downhole oil/water separator field trial in east Texas.  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) National Petroleum Technology Office (NPTO) is interested in promoting new technologies that can produce oil and gas at a lower cost or with enhanced environmental protection at a reasonable cost. Several years ago, DOE became aware of a new technology for produced water management known as a downhole oil/water separator (or DOWS). A DOWS system separates oil from water at the bottom of a production well and injects the water directly to a disposal zone without lifting it to the surface. DOWS technology offered three potential advantages over traditional pumping systems. First, DOWS were reported to reduce the volume of produced water brought to the surface. Second, the volume of oil produced often increased. Third, because large volumes of produced water were not being lifted to the surface past drinking water zones and subsequently reinjected downward past the same drinking water zones, there was less opportunity for contamination of those zones.

Veil, J. A.; Langhus, B.

2002-08-15

363

Performance of a Low-Permeability Sandstone Oil Reservoir, West Avant Field, Osage County, Okla.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Information and data necessary for research on improving methods of oil recovery from low-permeability reservoirs and for comparison and evaluation of performance of such reservoirs with those producing from more permeable sands were obtained. Core analys...

K. H. Johnston

1968-01-01

364

Engine dynamometer evaluation of oil formulation factors for improved field sludge protection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent examples of sludge incidence in vehicles operated on API SF, SF\\/CC and SF\\/CD category oils in both severe duty and normal consumer service from Europe and North America are presented. A comparison of the chemical and morphological characteristics of sludge taken from these vehicles is summarized, as are the sludge-preventing capabilities of various North American and European reference oils.

D. R. Carroll; R. Robson

1987-01-01

365

Increasing Waterflood Reserves in the Wilmington Oil Field through Improved Reservoir Characterization and Reservoir Management  

SciTech Connect

This project used advanced reservoir characterization tools, including the pulsed acoustic cased-hole logging tool, geologic three-dimensional (3-D) modeling software, and commercially available reservoir management software to identify sands with remaining high oil saturation following waterflood. Production from the identified high oil saturated sands was stimulated by recompleting existing production and injection wells in these sands using conventional means as well as a short radius redrill candidate.

Clarke, D.; Koerner, R.; Moos D.; Nguyen, J.; Phillips, C.; Tagbor, K.; Walker, S.

1999-04-05

366

Pacific region adds fields and technology to stretch and amplify huge oil reserves  

SciTech Connect

The Pacific region combines the best features of the oilpatch with three states that give operators plenty of exploration prospects and two states at the forefront of development technology. The region offers something for everyone, but it has been hamstrung by low oil prices. It looks as if the repeal on the ban on exports Alaskan oil will go a long way toward easing the low-price restriction.

Lyle, D.

1995-12-01

367

Fully coupled modeling of seabed subsidence and reservoir compaction of North Sea oil fields  

Microsoft Academic Search

  \\u000a This paper focuses on the aspects of fully coupled continuum modeling of multiphase poroelasticity applied to the three-dimensional\\u000a numerical simulations of the Ekofisk oil reservoir in the North Sea (56°29?–34?N, 03°10?–14?E). A systematic presentation\\u000a is chosen to present the methodology behind fully coupled, continuum modeling. First, a historical review of the subsidence\\u000a phenomena above an oil and gas reservoir

Roland W. Lewis; Axel Makurat; William K. S. Pao

2003-01-01

368

Sources of aeromagnetic anomalies over Cement oil field (Oklahoma), Simpson oil field (Alaska), and the Wyoming-Idaho-Utah thrust belt  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Geochemical and rock magnetic studies, undertaken to determine the causes of magnetic anomalies have revealed different magnetic sources developed under different sedimentologic, geochemical, and structural settings. Results show that abiologic and biologic mechanisms can generate different magnetic sulfide minerals in zones of sulfide hydrocarbon seepage. More commonly, sulfidic seepage could either diminish magnetization by replacement of detrital magnetic minerals with nonmagnetic sulfide minerals, or it would have no effect on magnetization if such detrital minerals were originally absent. An important negative result is the absence of abundant secondary (diagenetic) magnetite in the seepage environments. Although secondary magnetite occurs in some biodegraded crude oils, concentrations of such magnetite capable of producing aeromagnetic anomalies have not been documented. -from Authors

Reynolds, R. L.; Fishman, N. S.; Hudson, M. R.

1991-01-01

369

Ground level concentration of sulfur dioxide at Kuwait`s major population centers during the oil-field fires  

SciTech Connect

During the Iraqi occupation, Kuwait`s oil wells were ignited. the fires were damaging to the country`s oil resources and air quality. The impact of the oil-field fires on the air quality was studied to determine the level of exposure to pollutants in major population centers. The period of July-September 1991 was selected for examination. A mathematical model was used to compute the ground-level concentration isopleths. The results of these computations are supported by significant concentrations measured and reported by the Environmental Protection Council, Kuwait. The ground-level concentrations of sulfur dioxide in the major population centers, whether measure or estimated, were less than the ambient standards of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency`s air pollution index. The dispersive characteristics were classified according to wind conditions. The results of this assessment provide historical data on Kuwait`s oil fires and may be useful in assessing risks resulting from this catastrophe. 6 refs., 10 fig., 2 tab.

Al-Ajmi, D.N.; Marmoush, Y.R. [Kuwait Institute for Scientific Research (Kuwait)] [Kuwait Institute for Scientific Research (Kuwait)

1996-08-01

370

Fuzzy SPC filter for a feed-forward control system for a three-phase oil field centrifuge.  

SciTech Connect

In this work we describe a signal filter for a feed-forward controller based on the application of fuzzy logic combined with statistical process control (SPC), The feed-forward controller is for a three-phase oil field centrifuge. The centrifuge system is used to separate meta-stable three-phase emulsions consisting of oil and water stabilized by solids. These emulsions are considered to be unusable wastes and must be disposed of in an environmentally acceptable manner. The centrifuge is capable of turning these wastes into clean saleable oil, water that can be reused in an operating process or re-injected into oil wells and, solids that can be disposed of in landfills. The feed-forward controller is used for feed disturbance rejection. It works in conjunction with and, is capable of over-riding the actions of, a feedback controller. The measured feed variables for the feed-forward controller each exhibit reasonably large random fluctuations. It is therefore quite important to use a signal filter that truly recognizes the difference between random noise and a 'caused' event, in order to prevent overriding a perfectly good correction from the feedback controller.

Parkinson, W. J. (William Jerry),; Smith, R. E. (Ronald E.); Mortensen, F. N. (Fred N.); Wantuck, P. J. (Paul J.); Jamshidi, Mohammad; Ross, Timothy J.

2002-01-01

371

Use of radium isotopes to determine the age and origin of radioactive barite at oil-field production sites  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Radium-bearing barite (radiobarite) is a common constituent of scale and sludge deposits that form in oil-field production equipment. The barite forms as a precipitate from radium-bearing, saline formation water that is pumped to the surface along with oil. Radioactivity levels in some oil-field equipment and in soils contaminated by scale and sludge can be sufficiently high to pose a potential health threat. Accurate determinations of radium isotopes (226Ra+228Ra) in soils are required to establish the level of soil contamination and the volume of soil that may exceed regulatory limits for total radium content. In this study the radium isotopic data are used to provide estimates of the age of formation of the radiobarite contaminant. Age estimates require that highly insoluble radiobarite approximates a chemically closed system from the time of its formation. Age estimates are based on the decay of short-lived 228Ra (half-life=5.76 years) compared to 226Ra (half-life=1600 years). Present activity ratios of 228Ra/226Ra in radiobarite-rich scale or highly contaminated soil are compared to initial ratios at the time of radiobarite precipitation. Initial ratios are estimated by measurements of saline water or recent barite precipitates at the site or by considering a range of probable initial ratios based on reported values in modern oil-field brines. At sites that contain two distinct radiobarite sources of different age, the soils containing mixtures of sources can be identified, and mixing proportions quantified using radium concentration and isotopic data. These uses of radium isotope data provide more description of contamination history and can possibly address liability issues. Copyright ?? 2000 .

Zielinski, R. A.; Otton, J. K.; Budahn, J. R.

2001-01-01

372

Reservoir heterogeneity at West 76 field: An opportunity for increased oil recovery by geologically targeted infill drilling  

SciTech Connect

West 76 is a typical field of the Eocene Jackson-Yegua Barrier/Strandplain sandstone play in south Texas. Located in northwest Duval County, the field has produced 4.6 million barrels (MMbbl) as of 1988 and has an estimated 6 MMbbl of remaining mobile oil. The Jackson-Yegua play, which includes nearly 300 fields, has produced 624 MMbbl (as of 1988) and has estimated remaining mobile oil in excess of 1 billion barrels (Bbbl). Production at West 76 is from the Cole Sands of the uppermost Jackson Group at depths of 1,300 to 1,400 ft. The trapping mechanism is principally stratigraphic, but small normal faults influence production trends. Reservoir geometry is highly complex with numerous internal permeability barriers. The reservoir section was constructed by a progradational and overlying retrogradational barrier beach system that deposited discontinuous strike-oriented beach ridges, a strike-oriented tidal channel unit, and sand-poor lagoonal facies. Production trends mirror the strike-aligned beach-ridge and tidal-channel facies but also bear a minor dip-oriented component associated with the washover sand facies. Infill wells that produce from beach-ridge facies at rates an order of magnitude higher than existing, neighboring wells reflect the significant reservoir heterogeneity and highlight the considerable potential for untapped reservoir compartments. Identification of these compartments from detailed characterization of the reservoir provides targets for infill drilling and, ultimately, increased oil recovery. The geologic heterogeneity at West 76 has application to the entire Jackson-Yeuga Barrier/Strandplain sandstone play and increased recovery of the estimated 1 Bbbl of remaining mobile oil.

Hamilton, D.S. (Univ. of Texas, Austin (United States))

1991-03-01

373

Use of radium isotopes to determine the age and origin of radioactive barite at oil-field production sites.  

PubMed

Radium-bearing barite (radiobarite) is a common constituent of scale and sludge deposits that form in oil-field production equipment. The barite forms as a precipitate from radium-bearing, saline formation water that is pumped to the surface along with oil. Radioactivity levels in some oil-field equipment and in soils contaminated by scale and sludge can be sufficiently high to pose a potential health threat. Accurate determinations of radium isotopes (226Ra + 228Ra) in soils are required to establish the level of soil contamination and the volume of soil that may exceed regulatory limits for total radium content. In this study the radium isotopic data are used to provide estimates of the age of formation of the radiobarite contaminant. Age estimates require that highly insoluble radiobarite approximates a chemically closed system from the time of its formation. Age estimates are based on the decay of short-lived 228Ra (half-life = 5.76 years) compared to 226Ra (half-life = 1600 years). Present activity ratios of 228Ra/226Ra in radiobarite-rich scale or highly contaminated soil are compared to initial ratios at the time of radiobarite precipitation. Initial ratios are estimated by measurements of saline water or recent barite precipitates at the site or by considering a range of probable initial ratios based on reported values in modern oil-field brines. At sites that contain two distinct radiobarite sources of different age, the soils containing mixtures of sources can be identified, and mixing proportions quantified using radium concentration and isotopic data. These uses of radium isotope data provide more description of contamination history and can possibly address liability issues. PMID:11428138

Zielinski, R A; Otton, J K; Budahn, J R

2001-01-01

374

Increasing heavy oil reservers in the Wilmington oil Field through advanced reservoir characterization and thermal production technologies, technical progress report, October 1, 1996--December 31, 1996  

SciTech Connect

The project involves improving thermal recovery techniques in a slope and basin clastic (SBC) reservoir in the Wilmington field, Los Angeles Co., Calif. using advanced reservoir characterization and thermal production technologies. The existing steamflood in the Tar zone of Fault Block (FB) 11-A has been relatively inefficient because of several producibility problems which are common in SBC reservoirs. Inadequate characterization of the heterogeneous turbidite sands, high permeability thief zones, low gravity oil, and nonuniform distribution of remaining oil have all contributed to poor sweep efficiency, high steam-oil ratios, and early steam breakthrough. Operational problems related to steam breakthrough, high reservoir pressure, and unconsolidated formation sands have caused premature well and downhole equipment failures. In aggregate, these reservoir and operational constraints have resulted in increased operating costs and decreased recoverable reserves. The advanced technologies to be applied include: (1) Develop three-dimensional (3-D) deterministic and stochastic geologic models. (2) Develop 3-D deterministic and stochastic thermal reservoir simulation models to aid in reservoir management and subsequent development work. (3) Develop computerized 3-D visualizations of the geologic and reservoir simulation models to aid in analysis. (4) Perform detailed study on the geochemical interactions between the steam and the formation rock and fluids. (5) Pilot steam injection and production via four new horizontal wells (2 producers and 2 injectors). (6) Hot water alternating steam (WAS) drive pilot in the existing steam drive area to improve thermal efficiency. (7) Installing a 2100 foot insulated, subsurface harbor channel crossing to supply steam to an island location. (8) Test a novel alkaline steam completion technique to control well sanding problems and fluid entry profiles. (9) Advanced reservoir management through computer-aided access to production and geologic data to integrate reservoir characterization, engineering, monitoring, and evaluation.

Hara, S. [Tidelands Oil Production Co., Long Beach, CA (United States)], Casteel, J. [USDOE Bartlesville Project Office, OK (United States)

1997-05-11

375

Increasing heavy oil reserves in the Wilmington Oil field through advanced reservoir characterization and thermal production technologies. Quarterly report, April 1, 1996--June 30, 1996  

SciTech Connect

The project involves improving thermal recovery techniques in a slope and basin clastic (SBC) reservoir in the Wilmington field, Los Angeles Co., California using advanced reservoir characterization and thermal production technologies. Inadequate characterization of the heterogeneous turbidite sands, high permeability thief zones, low gravity oil, and nonuniform distribution of remaining oil have all contributed to poor sweep efficiency, high steam-oil ratios, and early steam breakthrough. Operational problems related to steam breakthrough, high reservoir pressure, and unconsolidated formation sands have caused premature well and downhole equipment failures. In aggregate, these reservoir and operational constraints have resulted in increased operating costs and decreased recoverable reserves. The technologies include: (1) Develop three-dimensional (3-D) deterministic and stochastic geologic models. (2) Develop 3-D deterministic and stochastic thermal reservoir simulation models to aid in reservoir management and subsequent development work. (3) Develop computerized 3-D visualizations of the geologic and reservoir simulation models to aid in analysis. (4) Perform detailed study on the geochemical interactions between the steam and the formation rock and fluids. (5) Pilot steam injection and production via four new horizontal wells (2 producers and 2 injectors). (6) Hot water alternating steam (WAS) drive pilot in the existing steam drive area to improve thermal efficiency. (7) Installing an 2400 foot insulated, subsurface harbor channel crossing to supply steam to an island location. (8) Test a novel alkaline steam completion technique to control well sanding problems and fluid entry profiles. (9) Advanced reservoir management through computer-aided access to production and geologic data to integrate reservoir characterization, engineering, monitoring, and evaluation.

Hara, S.

1996-08-05

376

Contracts for Field Projects and Supporting Research on Enhanced Oil Recovery and Improved Drilling Technology. Progress Review No. 33, Quarter Ending December 31, 1982.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Progress reports are presented of contracts for field projects and supporting research on chemical flooding, carbon dioxide injection, thermal/heavy oil, resource assessment technology, extraction technology, environmental and safety, microbial enhanced o...

B. Linville

1983-01-01

377

Contracts for Field Projects and Supporting Research on Enhanced Oil Recovery and Improved Drilling Technology. Progress Review No. 31, Quarter Ending June 30, 1982.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Progress reports are presented of contracts for field projects and supporting research on chemical flooding, carbon dioxide injection, thermal/heavy oil, resource assessment technology, extraction technology, environmental, petroleum technology, microbial...

B. Linville

1982-01-01

378

Contracts for Field Projects and Supporting Research on Enhanced Oil Recovery and Improved Drilling Technology. Progress Review No. 32, Quarter Ending September 30, 1982.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Progress reports are presented of contracts for field projects and supporting research on chemical flooding, carbon dioxide injection, thermal/heavy oil, resource assessment technology, extraction technology, environmental and safety, microbial enhanced o...

B. Linville

1983-01-01

379

Field Evaluation of All-Season Tactical Engine Oil OE/HDO-15/40 at Ft. Knox, Kentucky and Ft. Bliss, Texas.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Requirements for a multiviscosity grade 15W-40 engine oil were developed and the lubricant introduced for military consumption. The program efforts cover a demonstration and field validation program of the newly introduced grade 15W-40 lubricant. The test...

E. C. Owens J. P. Buckingham R. A. Alvarez T. C. Bowen W. E. Butler

1986-01-01

380

Excito-repellency of essential oils against an Aedes aegypti (L.) field population in Thailand.  

PubMed

An investigation of the behavioral responses of Aedes aegypti (= Stegomyia aegypti) to various concentrations of essential oils (2.5, 5, and 10%) extracted from hairy basil (Ocimum americanum Linn), ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe), lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus Stapf), citronella grass (Cymbopogon nardus Rendle), and plai (Zingiber cassumunar Roxb) were performed using an excito-repellency test chamber. Results showed that Ae. aegypti exhibited varying levels of escape response in both the contact and noncontact chambers in response to different essential oils. The magnitude of the behaviors changed in a dose-response fashion depending on the percent volume to volume concentration of oil used. A 2.5% concentration of hairy basil oil produced a significantly greater escape response compared to the other extracts at the same concentration (P< 0.05). Oils of ginger, lemongrass, and citronella produced stronger irritant and repellent responses at the median 5% concentration compared to the lowest and highest concentrations. There was marked suppression of escape for both contact and noncontact tests using 10% concentrations of hairy basil, lemongrass, and citronella, with high knockdown for all three oils after 30 min. Hairy basil and lemongrass had the highest insecticidal activity to Ae. aegypti, with LC50 values of 6.3 and 6.7 percent, respectively. We conclude that the essential oils from native plants tested, and likely many other extracts found in plants, have inherent repellent and irritant qualities that should to be screened and optimized for their behavior-modifying properties against Ae. aegypti and other biting arthropods of public health and pest importance. PMID:24820563

Boonyuan, Wasana; Grieco, John P; Bangs, Michael J; Prabaripai, Atchariya; Tantakom, Siripun; Chareonviriyaphap, Theeraphap

2014-06-01

381

Modified Arrington method for calculating reserve growth; a new model for United States oil and gas fields  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Reserve (or field) growth is an appreciation of total ultimate reserves through time and is observed throughout the productive lives of oil and gas fields in all petroleum provinces? but most especially in mature petroleum provinces (like many in the United States) when the rate of finding new discoveries reduces to a low level. The importance of forecasting reserve growth accurately in a mature petroleum province made it necessary to develop improved growth functions, and a critical review of the original Arrington method was undertaken. A modification of the pioneering Arrington (1960) method for estimating reserve growth suggests that, as a basis for optimum reserve growth functions, cumulative growth factor smoothing produces a better match with known volume data than does annual growth factor smoothing. Cumulative growth factor smoothing is thus the basis for the building of reserve growth functions in this study. Estimates of oil and gas growth during 1992?1996 based on the modified Arrington method are closer to the actual volumes than those based on the functions from 1995 National Assessment. The new growth functions predict an average annual reserve growth of 0.42 percent per year for oil and 0.90 percent per year for gas over a 30-year (1996?2026) period.

Verma, M. K.

2003-01-01

382

Reservoir characteristics of two minter oil sands based on continuous core, E-logs, and geochemical data: Bee Brake field, East-Central Louisiana  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Bee Brake field area, located in township 4N\\/6E and 4N\\/7E in Concordia Parish, has been one of the more prolific oil-producing areas in east-central Louisiana. Production decline in various fields, however, has sparked interest in the economic feasibility of locating and producing the remaining bypassed oil in the lower Wilcox. For this purpose, the Angelina BBF No. 1 well

J. B. Echols; D. A. Goddard; A. Bouma

1993-01-01

383

Pilot field testing of Arctic engine oil in army combat/tactical vehicles at Fort Carson, Colorado and Fort Lewis, West Virginia. Interim report January 1977-June 1981  

SciTech Connect

Military lube orders for combat and tactical equipment specify use of a single-viscosity grade lubricant with the grade depending on seasonal or climatic conditions. The use of this oil results in seasonal oil changes, regardless of the condition of the oil. Also, standard issue oils do not offer sufficient lubricant and engine protection over a wide range of ambient temperatures. Pilot field testing was conducted at Fort Carson, CO and Fort Lewis, WA. The objective of the testing was to evaluate the capability of MIL-L-46167 (5) arctic oil (OEA) to provide an interim solution to the lubrication problems being encountered. In addition, the data derived from the test were to be used as a basis for developing multigrade engine oils for Army tactical and combat equipment and to gain supplemental information covering the use of OEA lubricant over expanded temperature ranges.

Tosh, J.D.; Alvarez, R.A.; Butler, W.E.; Owens, E.C.; Bowen, T.C.

1982-07-01

384

Laboratory and field evaluation of neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) and Chinaberry (Melia azedarach L.) oils as repellents against Phlebotomus orientalis and P. bergeroti (Diptera: Psychodidae) in Ethiopia.  

PubMed

The study evaluated the efficacy of neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss.) and Chinaberry (Melia azedarach L.) seed oils as repellents against laboratory and field populations of some sandflies in Ethiopia. In the laboratory, concentrations of 2% and 5% neem oil in coconut oil tested against Phlebotomus orientalis (vector of visceral leishmaniasis) provided 96.28% (95% CI=95.60-96.97) protection up to a mean time of 7h and 20 min and 98.26% (95% CI=93.46-104. 07) protection up to 9h, respectively. Similarly, M. azedarach oil at 2% concentration produced 95.13% (95% CI=90.74-99.52) protection for the same duration (7h and 20 min), while the 5% oil gave 96.20 (95% CI=86.98-105.41) protection for 8h and 20 min against the same species with no significant difference in percentage protection between the two oils at 2% and 5% concentrations. In the field tests with only neem oil (A. indica) against field populations of P. orientalis and P. bergeroti, similar high level of repellencies were recorded with about the same duration of protection. Application of both neem and Chinaberry oils can be safe and low-cost means of personal protection against sandfly bites in endemic areas of Ethiopia, if the community is advised and encouraged to grow the plants abundantly. PMID:19854142

Kebede, Yosef; Gebre-Michael, Teshome; Balkew, Meshesha

2010-02-01

385

ADAPTIVE MANAGEMENT AND PLANNING MODELS FOR CULTURAL RESOURCES IN OIL & GAS FIELDS IN NEW MEXICO AND WYOMING  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes activities that have taken place in the last 6 months (July 2004-December 2004) under the DOE-NETL cooperative agreement ''Adaptive Management and Planning Models for Cultural Resources in Oil and Gas Fields, New Mexico and Wyoming'' DE-FC26-02NT15445. This project examines the practices and results of cultural resource investigation and management in two different oil and gas producing areas of the US: southeastern New Mexico and the Powder River Basin of Wyoming. The project evaluates how cultural resource investigations have been conducted in the past and considers how investigation and management could be pursued differently in the future. The study relies upon full database population for cultural resource inventories and resources and geomorphological studies. These are the basis for analysis of cultural resource occurrence, strategies for finding and evaluating cultural resources, and recommendations for future management practices. Activities can be summarized as occurring in either Wyoming or New Mexico.

Peggy Robinson

2005-01-01

386

Field establishment of fourwing saltbush in processed oil shale and disturbed native soil as influenced by vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizae  

SciTech Connect

Seedlings of fourwing saltbush (Atriplex canescens (Pursh) Nutt.) were inoculated with indigenous vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal (VAM) fungi in a containerized system and transplanted into processed oil shale and disturbed native soil in a semiarid rangeland environment in northwestern Colorado. After two growing seasons in the field, plants inoculated with VAM had greater aboveground biomass, cover, and height than noninoculated plants. Mycorrhizal plants were more effective in the uptake of water and phosphorus. Infection levels of inoculated plants were greatly reduced in processed shale (from 13.0 at outplanting to 3.8 at harvest), but functional VAM associations could be found after two growing seasons. Results indicate that VAM help make processed oil shale a more tractable medium for the establishment of plants representative of later successional stages by allowing these plants to make effective use of the natural resources that are limiting under conditions of high stress. 39 references, 1 figure.

Call, C.A.; McKell, C.M.

1984-04-30

387

Application of Rosenbrock search technique to reduce the drilling cost of a well in Bai-Hassan oil field  

SciTech Connect

The powerful Rosenbrock search technique, which optimizes both the search directions using the Gram-Schmidt procedure and the step size using the Fibonacci line search method, has been used to optimize the drilling program of an oil well drilled in Bai-Hassan oil field in Kirkuk, Iran, using the twodimensional drilling model of Galle and Woods. This model shows the effect of the two major controllable variables, weight on bit and rotary speed, on the drilling rate, while considering other controllable variables such as the mud properties, hydrostatic pressure, hydraulic design, and bit selection. The effect of tooth dullness on the drilling rate is also considered. Increasing the weight on the drill bit with a small increase or decrease in ratary speed resulted in a significant decrease in the drilling cost for most bit runs. It was found that a 48% reduction in this cost and a 97-hour savings in the total drilling time was possible under certain conditions.

Aswad, Z.A.R.; Al-Hadad, S.M.S.

1983-03-01

388

Cementation and diagenetic fluid mixing in South Brae oil field, North Sea, U. K  

SciTech Connect

The reservoir rocks in the Brae oil field consist of small overlapping submarine fans that form a sediment apron along the western margin of the Viking graben. It is located in the United Kingdom sector of the North Sea and lies 240 km east of the Orkney Islands. Carbonate cementation was the first major diagenetic event, followed closely by compaction of the sediment and a minor development of authigenic chlorite and pyrite. This was ensued by a widespread long-term secondary quartz overgrowth phase. A dissolution event followed subjecting feldspar, the micaceous minerals, and the early calcite cement to varying amounts of alteration. Clay minerals, principally illite and kaolinite, and some late calcite and dolomite infilled these dissolution pores at a later stage. Progressive burial diagenesis has resulted in extensive reaction between the sediment and pore fluids, and the history of cementation is preserved in the isotopic composition of the authigenic calcite. Cemented horizons, veins, and concretions were analyzed. Concretions display the most depleted isotopic carbon values, with the carbon becoming progressively lighter towards the margin ({minus}9.53 to {minus}10.51% PDB). The veins have a similar depleted signature of {delta}{sup 13}C ({minus}8.4% PDB) but show the most positive {delta}{sup 18}O PDB and {delta}{sup 18}O SMOW, perhaps indicating their formation by a later pore fluid source enriched in {delta}{sup 18}O. These values are not indicative of an end-member CO{sub 2}, source but may suggest a mixture of bacterial fermentation and sulfate reaction. These calcites have formed in a marine environment, but the mean {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr calcite ratio (0.7119) is considerably more radiogenic than {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr of Upper Jurassic marine waters (0.707). The radiogenic strontium may have been contributed by the dissolution of silicates, such as feldspar supplying {sup 87}Sr//{sup 86}Sr (0.720).

McLaughlin, O.M.; Haszeldeine, R.S. (Glasgow Univ. (Scotland)); Fallick, A.E.; Rogers, G. (SURRC, East Kilbride (England))

1990-05-01

389

Increasing heavy oil reserves in the Wilmington oil field through advanced reservoir characterization and thermal production technologies. Quarterly report, July 1 - September 30, 1996  

SciTech Connect

The project involves improving thermal recovery techniques in a slope and basin clastic (SBC) reservoir in the Wilmington field, Los Angeles Co., Calif. using advanced reservoir characterization and thermal production technologies. This is the sixth quarterly technical progress report for the project. Through September 1996, the project continues to make good progress but is slightly behind schedule. Estimated costs are on budget for the work performed to date. Technical achievements accomplished during the quarter include placing the first two horizontal wells on production following cyclic steam stimulation, completing several draft technical reports and preparing presentations on the deterministic geologic model, steam channel crossing and horizontal well drilling for technical transfer. Cyclic steam injection into the first two horizontal wells was completed in June 1996 and initial oil production from the project began the same month. Work has commenced on the stochastic geologic and reservoir simulation models. High temperature core work and reservoir tracer work will commence in the First Quarter 1997.

Hara, S. [Tidelands Oil Production Co., Long Beach, CA (United States)

1996-12-01

390

The effect of an oil drilling operation on the trace metal concentrations in offshore bottom sediments of the Campos Basin oil field, SE Brazil.  

PubMed

The concentrations of Al, Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, Pb, Ni, Cr, Ba, V, Sn and As in offshore bottom sediments from the Bacia de Campos oil field, SE Brazil, were measured at the beginning and at 7 months after completion of the drilling operation. Concentrations of Al, Fe, Ba, Cr, Ni and Zn were significantly higher closer to the drilling site compared to stations far from the site. Average concentrations of Al, Cu, and in particular of Ni, were significantly higher at the end of the drilling operation than at the beginning. Comparison between drilling area sediments with control sediments of the continental platform, however, showed no significant difference in trace metal concentrations. Under the operation conditions of this drilling event, the results show that while changes in some trace metal concentrations do occur during drilling operations, they are not significantly large to be distinguished from natural variability of the local background concentrations. PMID:12222892

Rezende, C E; Lacerda, L D; Ovalle, A R C; Souza, C M M; Gobo, A A R; Santos, D O

2002-07-01

391

Floating production platforms and their applications in the development of oil and gas fields in the South China Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper studies the current available options for floating production platforms in developing deepwater oil fields and the potential development models of future oil and gas exploration in the South China Sea. A detailed review of current deepwater platforms worldwide was performed through the examples of industry projects, and the pros and cons of each platform are discussed. Four types of platforms are currently used for the deepwater development: tension leg platform, Spar, semi-submersible platform, and the floating production system offloading. Among these, the TLP and Spar can be used for dry tree applications, and have gained popularity in recent years. The dry tree application enables the extension of the drilling application for fixed platforms into floating systems, and greatly reduces the cost and complexity of the subsea operation. Newly built wet tree semi-submersible production platforms for ultra deepwater are also getting their application, mainly due to the much needed payload for deepwater making the conversion of the old drilling semi-submersible platforms impossible. These platforms have been used in different fields around the world for different environments; each has its own advantages and disadvantages. There are many challenges with the successful use of these floating platforms. A lot of lessons have been learned and extensive experience accumulated through the many project applications. Key technologies are being reviewed for the successful use of floating platforms for field development, and potential future development needs are being discussed. Some of the technologies and experience of platform applications can be well used for the development of the South China Sea oil and gas field.

Zhang, Dagang; Chen, Yongjun; Zhang, Tianyu

2014-03-01

392

Control of hydrogen sulfide production in oil fields by managing microbial communities through nitrate or nitrite addition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nitrate or nitrite injection into oil reservoirs during water flooding has the potential to control biological souring, the production of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) by sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB). Souring control is essential because sulfide is toxic, sulfide precipitates can plug reservoir formations, souring lowers crude oil value, and SRB induce corrosion. Nitrate and nitrite can stimulate heterotrophic nitrate- or nitrite-reducing bacteria (hNRB) and nitrate- or nitrite-reducing, sulfide oxidizing bacteria (NRSOB). Nitrite also inhibits SRB activity by blocking the sulfate reduction pathway. Continuous up-flow packed-bed bioreactors were inoculated with produced water from the Coleville oil field to establish sulfide-producing biofilms similar to those found in sour reservoirs. Nitrate or nitrite addition to bioreactors indicated that the dose required for hNRB or NR-SOB to control souring depended on the concentration of oil organics. Either mechanism mediates the net removal of oil organics (lactate) with nitrate or nitrite, with lower doses of nitrate required due to its greater oxidative power. Microbial community analysis by reverse sample genome probing (RSGP) revealed that NR-SOB mediated sulfide removal at low nitrate or nitrite concentrations when lactate was still available to SRB and the redox potential was low. At high nitrate doses hNRB oxidized lactate directly, produced nitrite and maintained a high redox potential, thus excluding SRB activity. Facultatively chemolithotrophic Campylobacter sp. strains were isolated from the bioreactors and incorporated into RSGP analyses, revealing their dominance in both NR-SOB- and hNRB-containing communities. The metabolic flexibility of these strains may confer a competitive advantage over obligate chemolithotrophs like Thiomicrospira sp. strain CVO or hNRB that do not have NR-SOB activity like newly isolated Thauera sp. and Rhodobacter sp. strains. A single high dose of nitrite resulted in immediate inhibition of SRB that was independent of hNRB or NR-SOB. Examination of corrosion coupons following bioreactor experiments revealed that nitrite inhibition was the only mechanism that prevented both souring and corrosion. Sulfide elimination by hNRB or NR-SOB resulted in increased pitting corrosion in the region of greatest microbial activity. These findings are instructive for designing souring control treatments and improve understanding of oil field microbial communities.

Hubert, Casey R. J.

393

Eos modeling and reservoir simulation study of bakken gas injection improved oil recovery in the elm coulee field, Montana  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Bakken Formation in the Williston Basin is one of the most productive liquid-rich unconventional plays. The Bakken Formation is divided into three members, and the Middle Bakken Member is the primary target for horizontal wellbore landing and hydraulic fracturing because of its better rock properties. Even with this new technology, the primary recovery factor is believed to be only around 10%. This study is to evaluate various gas injection EOR methods to try to improve on that low recovery factor of 10%. In this study, the Elm Coulee Oil Field in the Williston Basin was selected as the area of interest. Static reservoir models featuring the rock property heterogeneity of the Middle Bakken Member were built, and fluid property models were built based on Bakken reservoir fluid sample PVT data. By employing both compositional model simulation and Todd-Longstaff solvent model simulation methods, miscible gas injections were simulated and the simulations speculated that oil recovery increased by 10% to 20% of OOIP in 30 years. The compositional simulations yielded lower oil recovery compared to the solvent model simulations. Compared to the homogeneous model, the reservoir model featuring rock property heterogeneity in the vertical direction resulted in slightly better oil recovery, but with earlier CO2 break-through and larger CO2 production, suggesting that rock property heterogeneity is an important property for modeling because it has a big effect on the simulation results. Long hydraulic fractures shortened CO2 break-through time greatly and increased CO 2 production. Water-alternating-gas injection schemes and injection-alternating-shut-in schemes can provide more options for gas injection EOR projects, especially for gas production management. Compared to CO2 injection, separator gas injection yielded slightly better oil recovery, meaning separator gas could be a good candidate for gas injection EOR; lean gas generated the worst results. Reservoir simulations also indicate that original rock properties are the dominant factor for the ultimate oil recovery for both primary recovery and gas injection EOR. Because reservoir simulations provide critical inputs for project planning and management, more effort needs to be invested into reservoir modeling and simulation, including building enhanced geologic models, fracture characterization and modeling, and history matching with field data. Gas injection EOR projects are integrated projects, and the viability of a project also depends on different economic conditions.

Pu, Wanli

394

Oil Field Souring Control by Nitrate-Reducing Sulfurospirillum spp. That Outcompete Sulfate-Reducing Bacteria for Organic Electron Donors? †  

PubMed Central

Nitrate injection into oil reservoirs can prevent and remediate souring, the production of hydrogen sulfide by sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB). Nitrate stimulates nitrate-reducing, sulfide-oxidizing bacteria (NR-SOB) and heterotrophic nitrate-reducing bacteria (hNRB) that compete with SRB for degradable oil organics. Up-flow, packed-bed bioreactors inoculated with water produced from an oil field and injected with lactate, sulfate, and nitrate served as sources for isolating several NRB, including Sulfurospirillum and Thauera spp. The former coupled reduction of nitrate to nitrite and ammonia with oxidation of either lactate (hNRB activity) or sulfide (NR-SOB activity). Souring control in a bioreactor receiving 12.5 mM lactate and 6, 2, 0.75, or 0.013 mM sulfate always required injection of 10 mM nitrate, irrespective of the sulfate concentration. Community analysis revealed that at all but the lowest sulfate concentration (0.013 mM), significant SRB were present. At 0.013 mM sulfate, direct hNRB-mediated oxidation of lactate by nitrate appeared to be the dominant mechanism. The absence of significant SRB indicated that sulfur cycling does not occur at such low sulfate concentrations. The metabolically versatile Sulfurospirillum spp. were dominant when nitrate was present in the bioreactor. Analysis of cocultures of Desulfovibrio sp. strain Lac3, Lac6, or Lac15 and Sulfurospirillum sp. strain KW indicated its hNRB activity and ability to produce inhibitory concentrations of nitrite to be key factors for it to successfully outcompete oil field SRB.

Hubert, Casey; Voordouw, Gerrit

2007-01-01

395

Development and field testing of a Light Aircraft Oil Surveillance System (LAOSS)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An experimental device consisting of a conventional TV camera with a low light level photo image tube and motor driven polarized filter arrangement was constructed to provide a remote means of discriminating the presence of oil on water surfaces. This polarized light filtering system permitted a series of successive, rapid changes between the vertical and horizontal components of reflected polarized skylight and caused the oil based substances to be more easily observed and identified as a flashing image against a relatively static water surface background. This instrument was flight tested, and the results, with targets of opportunity and more systematic test site data, indicate the potential usefulness of this airborne remote sensing instrument.

Burns, W.; Herz, M. J.

1976-01-01

396

Increasing heavy oil reserves in the Wilmington oil field through advanced reservoir characterization and thermal production technologies. Technical progress report  

SciTech Connect

The project involves improving thermal recovery techniques in a slope and basin clastic (SBC) reservoir in the Wilmington field, Los Angeles Co., California using advanced reservoir characterization and thermal production technologies. This is the third quarterly technical progress report for the project. Significant technical achievements accomplished include the drilling of four horizontal wells (two producers and two steam injectors) utilizing a new and lower cost drilling program, the drilling of five observation wells to monitor the horizontal steamflood pilot, the installation of a subsurface harbor channel crossing for delivering steam to an island location, and a geochemical study of the scale minerals being created in the wellbore. Cyclic steam injection into the two horizontal injection wells began in mid-December 1995 utilizing the new 2400 ft steam line under the Cerritos channel and the wells will be placed on production in May. Cyclic steam injection into the two horizontal producers will start in May. Work on the basic reservoir engineering is expected to be completed in March 1996. The deterministic geologic model was improved to add eight layers to the previous ten.

Hara, S.

1996-05-06

397

Power Conditioner for Variable-Frequency Drives in Offshore Oil Fields  

Microsoft Academic Search

The proliferation of variable-frequency ac motor drives (VFDs) as submersible pumps in oil exploration has aggravated many power-quality problems on the distribution network, for which VFDs are themselves susceptible to maloperation. The distortion in the input voltage waveform is a major issue, since the offshore power system cannot be regarded as a stiff source, and thus, distortions in the voltage

Vishal Verma; Bhim Singh; Ambrish Chandra; Kamal Al-Haddad

2010-01-01

398

Development and Field Results of a Unique Drilling Fluid Designed for Heavy Oil Sands Drilling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Drilling Heavy Oil Sands are traditionally fraught with many technical challenges. Stability of the wellbore, accretion of the tar on drill string and solids control equipment, torque- drag considerations, extreme temperature conditions, as well as the handling of oily solids are just some of the challenges that need to be met. This paper describes the development and testing of a

B. K. Warren; L. V. Baltoiu; R. G. Dyck

2005-01-01

399

A Multisensor Intelligent Device for Real-Time Multiphase Flow Metering in Oil Fields  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, a new multiphase flow metering device for real-time measurement of oil, gas, and water flow rates is presented. It is composed of several electrical and acoustic sensors whose signals are digitalized and processed by a multilayer neural network. This latest uses the physical models of multiphase fluids to reduce the complexity of the parameter space while improving

Mahmoud Meribout; Nabeel Z. Al-Rawahi; Ahmed M. Al-Naamany; Ali Al-Bimani; Khamis Al-Busaidi; Adel Meribout

2010-01-01

400

The partial discharge phenomena on the surface of oil impregnated paper with parallel electric field  

Microsoft Academic Search

In power transformers, the interface between the oil and the paper is always the weak point of the electrical insulation. Along on the surface of the paper and the pressboard, Partial discharges (PD) may often appear. They could destroy the paper and lead to electric fault. In this paper, the authors used a needle - plate electrode construction to form

Yangchun Cheng; E. Gockenbach; C. Eichler; Chengrong Li

2010-01-01

401

Jet frac porta-skid--a new concept in oil field service pump equipment. [Preprint  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increasing demands of the free world oil industry call for pumping equipment that can be moved to any location in the world within a matter of hours. Many times these locations are remote and inaccessible to conventional equipment. Offshore drilling and production require equipment capable of a high degree of portability and operation in a minimum of floor space. High

B. Cooper; B. Lewis

1969-01-01

402

Silica phase changes: Diagenetic agent for oil entrapment, Lost Hills field, California  

Microsoft Academic Search

The siliceous shales of the Monterey Group are the primary development target at Lost Hills. Silica phase changes have influenced the distribution and entrapment of hydrocarbons. With increasing temperature, opal A phase diatomite is converted to opal CT and finally quartz phase rock. All phases are low in permeability. The opal A diatomite is characteristically high in oil saturation and

D. R. Julander; D. L. Szymanski

1991-01-01

403

Contracts for field projects and supporting research on enhanced oil recovery. Progress review number 87  

SciTech Connect

Approximately 30 research projects are summarized in this report. Title of the project, contract number, company or university, award amount, principal investigators, objectives, and summary of technical progress are given for each project. Enhanced oil recovery projects include chemical flooding, gas displacement, and thermal recovery. Most of the research projects though are related to geoscience technology and reservoir characterization.

NONE

1997-10-01

404

A comparative analysis of Texas and Louisiana Oil-field NORM Waste Policy  

Microsoft Academic Search

NORM (Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material) Waste Policies for the nation's oil and gas producing states have been in existence since the 1980's, when Louisiana was the first state to develop a NORM regulatory program in 1989. Since that time, expectations for NORM Waste Policies have evolved, as Health, Safety, Environment, and Social responsibility (HSE & SR) grows increasingly important to

Germaine P Johnson

2011-01-01

405

Field Evaluation of Built-In Test Equipment (BITE) for Vehicle Oil and Air Contamination.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A two-phase, three-year project has been completed to select and evaluate candidate commercially available Built-In Test Equipment (BITE) for monitoring diesel engine crankcase lubricant quality (Oil-BITE) and engine induction system are quality (Air-BITE...

R. A. Alvarez J. D. Tosh J. A. Russell F. M. Newman

1981-01-01

406

Reservoir characterization, three-dimensional geological modeling, and reservoir simulation of North Blowhorn Creek Oil Field, Lamar County, Alabama  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

North Blowhorn Creek Oil Field is located in northeastern Lamar County, Alabama. The field was unitized and a water flood project started in 1983. In 1992, a microbial permeability profile modification project began as a result of continued declining production. The original oil in place was estimated to be 16 million barrels. The Carter sandstone lies within the Carter interval which is underlain by the Bangor Limestone and is overlain by the Millerella limestone. The depositional model proposed interprets the Carter sandstone, at North Blowhorn Creek Field, as a delta-destructive barrier island spit complex characterized by spit accretion and later drowned and covered by open shelf deposits. Eight facies were identified within the Carter interval from describing 20 well cores. The Carter is an elongate sand body that trends northwest to southeast. The primary reservoir facies is the foreshore/upper shoreface facies. The trapping mechanism is stratigraphic. Reservoir characterization and modeling of the Carter sandstone has the potential to improve field-scale reservoir management. Resistivity logs were used to identify reservoir rocks in wells without core. 3-D modeling shows the heterogeneous nature of the reservoir facies. Heterogeneities within the reservoir reduce waterflood sweep efficiency across the main axis of the reservoir in the field. Flow is also restricted along the axis of the sand body due in part to spit accretion. The purpose of this study was to integrate 3-D geologic modeling, decline curve and type curve analysis and reservoir simulation to characterize the geology, geometry and flow characteristics of North Blowhorn Creek Oil Field in an effort to provide a reservoir management strategy to increase the ultimate recovery from the field. Decline curve analysis was performed for all production wells to calculate an estimated ultimate recovery (EUR) and amount of remaining reserves for each well. Type curve analysis was performed in an effort to characterize the effectiveness of the water flood and MPPM projects. A reservoir simulation was performed based on the 3-D geologic model that was constructed in a previous study. The simulation work was an effort to find areas of remaining reserves and validate the geologic model.

Panetta, Brian

407

Application of Denaturing High-Performance Liquid Chromatography for Monitoring Sulfate-Reducing Bacteria in Oil Fields  

PubMed Central

Sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) participate in microbially induced corrosion (MIC) of equipment and H2S-driven reservoir souring in oil field sites. Successful management of industrial processes requires methods that allow robust monitoring of microbial communities. This study investigated the applicability of denaturing high-performance liquid chromatography (DHPLC) targeting the dissimilatory sulfite reductase ß-subunit (dsrB) gene for monitoring SRB communities in oil field samples from the North Sea, the United States, and Brazil. Fifteen of the 28 screened samples gave a positive result in real-time PCR assays, containing 9 × 101 to 6 × 105 dsrB gene copies ml?1. DHPLC and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) community profiles of the PCR-positive samples shared an overall similarity; both methods revealed the same samples to have the lowest and highest diversity. The SRB communities were diverse, and different dsrB compositions were detected at different geographical locations. The identified dsrB gene sequences belonged to several phylogenetic groups, such as Desulfovibrio, Desulfococcus, Desulfomicrobium, Desulfobulbus, Desulfotignum, Desulfonatronovibrio, and Desulfonauticus. DHPLC showed an advantage over DGGE in that the community profiles were very reproducible from run to run, and the resolved gene fragments could be collected using an automated fraction collector and sequenced without a further purification step. DGGE, on the other hand, included casting of gradient gels, and several rounds of rerunning, excising, and reamplification of bands were needed for successful sequencing. In summary, DHPLC proved to be a suitable tool for routine monitoring of the diversity of SRB communities in oil field samples.

Nyyssonen, Mari; Bomberg, Malin; Laitila, Arja; Simell, Jaakko; Kapanen, Anu; Juvonen, Riikka

2013-01-01

408

Application of denaturing high-performance liquid chromatography for monitoring sulfate-reducing bacteria in oil fields.  

PubMed

Sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) participate in microbially induced corrosion (MIC) of equipment and H2S-driven reservoir souring in oil field sites. Successful management of industrial processes requires methods that allow robust monitoring of microbial communities. This study investigated the applicability of denaturing high-performance liquid chromatography (DHPLC) targeting the dissimilatory sulfite reductase ß-subunit (dsrB) gene for monitoring SRB communities in oil field samples from the North Sea, the United States, and Brazil. Fifteen of the 28 screened samples gave a positive result in real-time PCR assays, containing 9 × 10(1) to 6 × 10(5) dsrB gene copies ml(-1). DHPLC and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) community profiles of the PCR-positive samples shared an overall similarity; both methods revealed the same samples to have the lowest and highest diversity. The SRB communities were diverse, and different dsrB compositions were detected at different geographical locations. The identified dsrB gene sequences belonged to several phylogenetic groups, such as Desulfovibrio, Desulfococcus, Desulfomicrobium, Desulfobulbus, Desulfotignum, Desulfonatronovibrio, and Desulfonauticus. DHPLC showed an advantage over DGGE in that the community profiles were very reproducible from run to run, and the resolved gene fragments could be collected using an automated fraction collector and sequenced without a further purification step. DGGE, on the other hand, included casting of gradient gels, and several rounds of rerunning, excising, and reamplification of bands were needed for successful sequencing. In summary, DHPLC proved to be a suitable tool for routine monitoring of the diversity of SRB communities in oil field samples. PMID:23793633

Priha, Outi; Nyyssönen, Mari; Bomberg, Malin; Laitila, Arja; Simell, Jaakko; Kapanen, Anu; Juvonen, Riikka

2013-09-01

409

Adaptive Management and Planning Models for Cultural Resources in Oil and Gas Fields in New Mexico and Wyoming  

SciTech Connect

In 2002, Gnomon, Inc., entered into a cooperative agreement with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) for a project entitled, Adaptive Management and Planning Models for Cultural Resources in Oil and Gas Fields in New Mexico and Wyoming (DE-FC26-02NT15445). This project, funded through DOE’s Preferred Upstream Management Practices grant program, examined cultural resource management practices in two major oil- and gas-producing areas, southeastern New Mexico and the Powder River Basin of Wyoming (Figure 1). The purpose of this project was to examine how cultural resources have been investigated and managed and to identify more effective management practices. The project also was designed to build information technology and modeling tools to meet both current and future management needs. The goals of the project were described in the original proposal as follows: Goal 1. Create seamless information systems for the project areas. Goal 2. Examine what we have learned from archaeological work in the southeastern New Mexico oil fields and whether there are better ways to gain additional knowledge more rapidly or at a lower cost. Goal 3. Provide useful sensitivity models for planning, management, and as guidelines for field investigations. Goal 4. Integrate management, investigation, and decision- making in a real-time electronic system. Gnomon, Inc., in partnership with the Wyoming State Historic Preservation Office (WYSHPO) and Western GeoArch Research, carried out the Wyoming portion of the project. SRI Foundation, in partnership with the New Mexico Historic Preservation Division (NMHPD), Statistical Research, Inc., and Red Rock Geological Enterprises, completed the New Mexico component of the project. Both the New Mexico and Wyoming summaries concluded with recommendations how cultural resource management (CRM) processes might be modified based on the findings of this research.

Eckerle, William; Hall, Stephen

2005-12-30

410

Applications of EOR (enhanced oil recovery) technology in field projects--1990 update  

SciTech Connect

Trends in the type and number of US enhanced oil recovery (EOR) projects are analyzed for the period from 1980 through 1989. The analysis is based on current literature and news media and the Department of Energy (DOE) EOR Project Data Base, which contains information on over 1,348 projects. The characteristics of the EOR projects are grouped by starting date and process type to identify trends in reservoir statistics and applications of process technologies. Twenty-two EOR projects starts were identified for 1989 and ten project starts for 1988. An obvious trend over recent years has been the decline in the number of project starts since 1981 until 1988 which corresponds to the oil price decline during that period. There was a modest recovery in 1989 of project starts, which lags the modest recovery of oil prices in 1987 that was reconfirmed in 1989. During the time frame of 1980 to 1989, there has been a gradual improvement in costs of operation for EOR technology. The perceived average cost of EOR has gone down from a $30/bbl range to low $20/bbl. These costs of operation seems to stay just at the price of oil or slightly above to result in marginal profitability. The use of polymer flooding has drastically decreased both in actual and relative numbers of project starts since the oil price drop in 1986. Production from polymer flooding is down more than 50%. Long-term plans for large, high-cost projects such as CO{sub 2} flooding in West Texas, steamflooding in California, and hydrocarbon flooding on the North Slope have continued to be implemented. EOR process technologies have been refined to be more cost effective as shown by the continued application and rising production attributable to EOR. 8 refs., 6 figs., 13 tabs.

Pautz, J.F.; Thomas, R.D.

1991-01-01

411

Increased Oil Production and Reserves from Improved Completion Techniques in the Bluebell Field, Uinta Basin, Utah, Class I  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this project was to increase oil production and reserves by the use of improved reservoir characterization and completion techniques in the Unita Basin Utah. To accomplish this objective, a two-year geologic and engineering characterization of the Bluebell field was conducted. The study evaluated surface and subsurface data, currently used completion techniques, and common production problems. It was determined that advanced case- and open-hole logs could be effective in determining productive beds and that staged-interval (about 500 ft [150 m] per stage) and bed-scale isolation completion techniques could result in improved well performance.

Morgan, Craig D.; Gwynn, Wallace; Deo, Milind D.; Jarrard, Richard; Curtice, Richard; Morris, Thomas H.; Smouse, DeForrest; Tripp, Carol N.

2000-01-20

412

Caribou distribution during the post-calving period in relation to infrastructure in the Prudhoe Bay oil field, Alaska  

USGS Publications Warehouse

There is concern that caribou (Rangifer tarandus) may avoid roads and facilities (i.e., infrastructure) in the Prudhoe Bay oil field (PBOF) in northern Alaska, and that this avoidance can have negative effects on the animals. We quantified the relationship between caribou distribution and PBOF infrastructure during the post-calving period (mid-June to mid-August) with aerial surveys from 1990 to 1995. We conducted four to eight surveys per year with complete coverage of the PBOF. We identified active oil field infrastructure and used a geographic information system (GIS) to construct ten 1 km wide concentric intervals surrounding the infrastructure. We tested whether caribou distribution is related to distance from infrastructure with a chi-squared habitat utilization-availability analysis and log-linear regression. We considered bulls, calves, and total caribou of all sex/age classes separately. The habitat utilization-availability analysis indicated there was no consistent trend of attraction to or avoidance of infrastructure. Caribou frequently were more abundant than expected in the intervals close to infrastructure, and this trend was more pronounced for bulls and for total caribou of all sex/age classes than for calves. Log-linear regression (with Poisson error structure) of numbers of caribou and distance from infrastructure were also done, with and without combining data into the 1 km distance intervals. The analysis without intervals revealed no relationship between caribou distribution and distance from oil field infrastructure, or between caribou distribution and Julian date, year, or distance from the Beaufort Sea coast. The log-linear regression with caribou combined into distance intervals showed the density of bulls and total caribou of all sex/age classes declined with distance from infrastructure. Our results indicate that during the post-calving period: 1) caribou distribution is largely unrelated to distance from infrastructure; 2) caribou regularly use habitats in the PBOF; 3) caribou often occur close to infrastructure; and 4) caribou do not appear to avoid oil field infrastructure.

Cronin, M. A.; Amstrup, S. C.; Durner, G. M.; Noel, L. E.; McDonald, T. L.; Ballard, W. B.

1998-01-01

413

Composition and physical properties of siliceous and clay-siliceous reservoir rock in the Okruzhnoye oil field (Sakhalin Island)  

SciTech Connect

Siliceous rocks occur extensively in sedimentary basins in the northern part of the Pacific Mobile Belt. The Okruzhnoye field consists of such rocks. Its main productive horizon is the Pilengskaya Formation, of Miocene age, ranging from 100 to 500 meters in thickness or more and consisting of thin interbedded pelitomorphic siliceous and clay-siliceous rock with a few thin intercalcations of tuff, sandstone, and aleurolite. The productive beds are covered by argillaceous rock and form a stratigraphic trap about 600 meters thick which is filled with oil almost to the spill point. In this paper, the geochemical composition and physical properties of this reservoir are detailed. (JMT)

Yurochko, A.I.

1982-11-01

414

Outcomes of pregnancy among women living in the proximity of oil fields in the Amazon basin of Ecuador.  

PubMed

Oil companies have released billions of gallons of untreated wastes and oil directly into the environment of the Ecuadorian Amazon. This cross-sectional study investigated the environmental conditions and reproductive health of women living in rural communities surrounded by oil fields in the Amazon basin and in unexposed communities. Water from local streams was analyzed for total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH). The women, aged 17 to 45 years, had resided for at least three years in the study communities. Socioeconomic and reproductive histories of the last three pregnancies were obtained from interviews. Information from the questionnaire was available for 365 exposed and 283 non-exposed women. The study was conducted from November 1998 to April 1999. Streams of exposed communities had TPH concentrations above the allowable limit. After adjustment for potential confounders, the pregnancies of women in exposed communities were more likely to end in spontaneous abortion (OR: 2.47; 95% CI: 1.61-3.79; p < 0.01). No association was found between stillbirth and exposure. An environmental system to control and eliminate the sources of pollution in the area is needed. PMID:12412848

San Sebastián, Miguel; Armstrong, Ben; Stephens, Carolyn

2002-01-01

415

Electric-fields-enhanced destabilization of oil-in-water emulsions flowing through a confined wedgelike gap  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

External electric fields (EEFs) have been applied on a wedgelike gap in a ball-disk configuration, through which oil-in-water (O/W) emulsions flowed. The film formation properties of O/W emulsions in the contact region between the ball and the disk, which is closely related to the stability of oil droplets in the wedgelike gap, have been investigated experimentally. It is found that the film formation property of emulsions in the contact region increases with the EEF strength, but tends to saturate after a critical EEF strength was reached. For the emulsion with a larger oil concentration, it can be enhanced by EEFs more dramatically. The change in the film formation property is more significant when EEFs were applied in emulsions with relatively high emulsifier concentrations, however, the droplet stability is higher in the emulsions with low emulsifier concentrations even when EEFs were applied. The ability of the deformation and breakup of droplets under EEFs in the wedge was also analyzed theoretically to correlate with the experimental results.

Xie, Guoxin; Luo, Jianbin; Liu, Shuhai; Guo, Dan; Zhang, Chenhui

2010-09-01

416

Fluid Flow Simulation For CO2-EOR and Sequestration Utilizing Geomechanical Constraints - Teapot Dome Oil Field, Wyoming  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mature oil and gas reservoirs are attractive targets for geological sequestration of CO2 because of their potential storage capacities and the possible cost offsets from enhanced oil recovery (EOR). In this work we develop a 3D reservoir model and fluid flow simulation of the Tensleep Formation using geomechanical constraints to evaluate the feasibility of a CO2-EOR injection project at Teapot Dome Oil Field, WY. The objective of this work is to model the migration of the injected CO2 as well as to obtain limits on the rates and volumes of CO2 that can be injected without compromising seal integrity. Teapot Dome is an elongated asymmetrical, basement-cored anticline with a north-northwest axis. It is part of the Salt Creek structural trend, located in the southwestern edge of the Powder River Basin. The Tensleep Fm. in this area consists of interdune deposits such as eolian sandstones, sabkha carbonates, evaporites (mostly anhydrite), and some very low permeability dolomicrites. The average porosity is 0.10 ranging from 0.05-0.20. The average permeability is 30 mD, ranging from 10 - 100 mD. The average reservoir thickness is 50 ft. The reservoir has strong aquifer drive. In the area under study, the Tensleep Fm. has its structural crest at 1675 m. It presents a 3-way closure trap against a NE-SW fault to the north. We previously carried out a geomechanical stability analysis and found this fault to be able to support the increase in pressure due to the CO2 to be injected, even if the structure was "filled-to-spill". In this work we combine our previous geomechanical analysis, geostatistical reservoir modeling and fluid flow simulations to investigate critical questions regarding the feasibility of a CO2-EOR project in the Tensleep Fm. The analysis takes into consideration the initial trapping and sealing mechanisms of the reservoir, the consequences of past and present oil production on the initial properties, and the potential effect of CO2 injection on both the reservoir and the seal. Finally, we want to predict the long-term oil recovery of the injection site and what will happen in the system once oil production stops.

Chiaramonte, L.; Zoback, M. D.; Friedmann, J.; Stamp, V.

2007-12-01

417

Activities of the Oil Implementation Task Force, December 1990--February 1991; Contracts for field projects and supporting research on enhanced oil recovery, April--June 1990  

SciTech Connect

The Oil Implementation Task Force was appointed to implement the US DOE's new oil research program directed toward increasing domestic oil production by expanded research on near- or mid-term enhanced oil recovery methods. An added priority is to preserve access to reservoirs that have the largest potential for oil recovery, but that are threatened by the large number of wells abandoned each year. This report describes the progress of research activities in the following areas: chemical flooding; gas displacement; thermal recovery; resource assessment; microbial technology; geoscience technology; and environmental technology. (CK)

Tiedemann, H.A. (ed.) (USDOE Bartlesville Project Office, OK (USA))

1991-03-01

418

Isolation and Characterization of Methanothermobacter crinale sp. nov., a Novel Hydrogenotrophic Methanogen from the Shengli Oil Field?†  

PubMed Central

Syntrophic acetate oxidation coupled with hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis is an alternative methanogenic pathway in certain thermophilic anaerobic environments such as high-temperature oil reservoirs and thermophilic biogas reactors. In these environments, the dominant thermophilic methanogens were generally related to uncultured organisms of the genus Methanothermobacter. Here we isolated two representative strains, Tm2T and HMD, from the oil sands and oil production water in the Shengli oil field in the People's Republic of China. The type strain, Tm2T, was nonmotile and stained Gram positive. The cells were straight to slightly curved rods (0.3 ?m in width and 2.2 to 5.9 ?m in length), but some of them possessed a coccal shape connecting with the rods at the ends. Strain Tm2T grew with H2-CO2, but acetate is required. Optimum growth of strain Tm2T occurred in the presence of 0.025 g/liter NaCl at pH 6.9 and a temperature of 65°C. The G+C content of the genomic DNA was 40.1 mol% ± 1.3 mol% (by the thermal denaturation method) or 41.1 mol% (by high-performance liquid chromatography). Analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequence indicated that Tm2T was most closely related to Methanothermobacter thermautotrophicus ?HT and Methanothermobacter wolfeii VKM B-1829T (both with a sequence similarity of 96.4%). Based on these phenotypic and phylogenic characteristics, a novel species was proposed and named Methanothermobacter crinale sp. nov. The type strain is Tm2T (ACCC 00699T = JCM 17393T).

Cheng, Lei; Dai, Lirong; Li, Xia; Zhang, Hui; Lu, Yahai

2011-01-01

419