Sample records for bouri oil field

  1. San Miguelito oil field

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Haines

    1970-01-01

    San Miguelito oil field is located on the Ventura Anticline, 4 miles northwest of Ventura, about midway between the Rincon and Ventura Avenue oil fields. The field was discovered in 1931 by means of surface geology. Accumulation occurs mostly within the Pliocene Lower Pico and Repetto sands, many of which are repeated by numerous thrust faults. The major structural feature

  2. Abandoned Texas oil fields

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-12-01

    Data for Texas abandoned oil fields were primarily derived from two sources: (1) Texas Railroad Commission (TRRC), and (2) Dwight's ENERGYDATA. For purposes of this report, abandoned oil fields are defined as those fields that had no production during 1977. The TRRC OILMASTER computer tapes were used to identify these abandoned oil fields. The tapes also provided data on formation depth, gravity of oil production, location (both district and county), discovery date, and the cumulative production of the field since its discovery. In all, the computer tapes identified 9211 abandoned fields, most of which had less than 250,000 barrel cumulative production. This report focuses on the 676 abandoned onshore Texas oil fields that had cumulative production of over 250,000 barrels. The Dwight's ENERGYDATA computer tapes provided production histories for approximately two-thirds of the larger fields abandoned in 1966 and thereafter. Fields which ceased production prior to 1966 will show no production history nor abandonment date in this report. The Department of Energy hopes the general availability of these data will catalyze the private sector recovery of this unproduced resource.

  3. Santa Susana oil field

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. S. Mitchell; M. Wolff

    1971-01-01

    The Santa Susana oil field lies within the Oak Ridge- Santa Susana Mt. uplift in the Ventura Basin, S. California. The dominant geologic feature of the area is the Oak Ridge anticline, complicated by 2 major thrust fault systems. Stratigraphically, the area consists of an undetermined thickness of Cenozoic sediments of both marine and nonmarine origin. The subsurface structure of

  4. Tazerka oil field

    SciTech Connect

    Gueneau, J.

    1988-08-01

    The Tazerka field was discovered in 1979 on a heavily faulted structure 60 km off the coast of Tunisia in water depths of 150-250 m. It is situated to the north of two similar oil discoveries found in 1977-1978 (Birsa, Oudna) and is located in the same structural trend. The geology of the reservoir rock is discussed along with the origin of the play and the early exploration history.

  5. Abandoned oil fields of Texas Gulf Coast

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1984-01-01

    One nonconventional oil target in Texas is the oil that remains in abandoned fields, defined as those fields that had no oil or gas production in 1977 and 1982. This target includes oil that has not been tapped by conventional field development because of reservoir heterogeneity and oil in reservoirs that have not been subjected to any secondary or tertiary

  6. Oil Field WLAN Plan and OPNET Simulation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wang Xiu-fang; Jiang Jing

    2009-01-01

    With the development of WLAN (wireless local area network) technology, WLAN has been used in every walk of life. In this paper, we applied WLAN technology in oil field. In order to improve operational efficiency, and monitor the measure stations and single well in field, some oil extraction factory want to construct WLAN to access to the original network. The

  7. Abandoned oil fields of Texas Gulf Coast

    SciTech Connect

    Dutton, S.P.

    1984-04-01

    One nonconventional oil target in Texas is the oil that remains in abandoned fields, defined as those fields that had no oil or gas production in 1977 and 1982. This target includes oil that has not been tapped by conventional field development because of reservoir heterogeneity and oil in reservoirs that have not been subjected to any secondary or tertiary recovery efforts. A total of 138 abandoned oil fields having individual cumulative production greater than 500,000 bbl are located in the Texas Gulf Coast (railroad Commission of Texas Districts 2, 3, and 4). These 138 onshore fields produced 276 million barrels of oil before being abandoned. Nongiant fields in the Texas Gulf Coast average about 40% ultimate recovery, so these fields probably originally contained about 700 million bbl of oil in place. Therefore, about 424 million bbl of oil remain unrecovered. Reservoirs in these abandoned fields are Tertiary sandstones. The 44 abandoned fields in the upper Texas Gulf Coast (District 3) produced from a wide range of plays; those plays with the largest number of abandoned fields are Yegua and Frio deep-seated domes, Eocene deltaic sandstone, and Frio barrier/strand-plain sandstone. The 19 abandoned fields in the middle Texas Gulf Coast (District 2) produced mainly from Wilcox and Frio fluvial/deltaic sandstones and from Frio and Jackson-Yegua barrier/strand-plain sandstones. The lower Texas Gulf Coast (District 4) contains 75 abandoned fields that produced from Frio fluvial/deltaic and barrier/strand-plain sandstones and from Jackson-Yegua barrier/strand-plain sandstones.

  8. Global oil, gas fields, sizes tallied, analyzed

    SciTech Connect

    Ivanhoe, L.F.; Leckie, G.

    1993-02-15

    Oil company explorationists and government planners concerned with future oil and gas supplies need realistic numbers on the sizes and distribution of known fields to help compare regions and estimate what sizes of fields may still be expected in any nation or oil province. Clearly regional summaries are not substitutes for details on individual countries or basins when evaluating the local prospectivity of any area or oil province, each of which must be appraised on its own merits. The authors hope that publication of these regional summaries will encourage others to release similar and more detailed data on individual nations and basins.

  9. Oil flotation processes for cleaning oil field produced water

    SciTech Connect

    Leech, C.A.

    1987-01-01

    The 1974 report on a study conducted for the Offshore Operators Committee concluded: ''flotation units and loose media coalescers were found to produce the lowest means effluent oil concentration of the processes studied.'' Severe operating problems reported with loose media coalescers resulted in flotation processes being recommended as the final step in cleaning oil from produced water. The ''traditional methods,'' which include flotation, appear to have solved the insoluble oil problem in all offshore areas where water is openly discharged. Two basic flotation processes are used for treating oil field produced water, dissolved gas flotation (DGF) and induced gas flotation (IGF). Flotation units unite gas bubbles with insoluble substances to reduce their apparent specific gravity, thus greatly accelerating rise velocity and separation. They can remove soluble components only if insolubilized. Thus, the ability of flotation units to remove total organics from produced water is limited by soluble components.

  10. Azerbaijan field to step up oil flow

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-10-19

    This paper reports that a unit of Pennzoil Co., Houston, is scheduled to operate a development program that could more than double oil production from Guneshli field off Azerbaijan in the southern Caspian Sea. Under agreements signed in Baku, Pennzoil Caspian Corp., Ramco Energy Ltd. of Aberdeen, Scotland, and state oil company Azerneft will have exclusive right to jointly develop the field. Partners' shares and other project details are to be laid out in the final development plan, expected by yearend.

  11. Remediation of oil field wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, R.W.; Wentz, C.A.

    1990-01-01

    Treatment and disposal of drilling muds and hazardous wastes has become a growing concern in the oil and gas industry. Further, past practices involving improper disposal require considerable research and cost to effectively remediate contaminated soils. This paper investigates two case histories describing the treatments employed to handle the liquid wastes involved. Both case histories describe the environmentally safe cleanup operations that were employed. 1 ref., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  12. Electrical distribution and substation system for heavy oil production field

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. R. Adams; J. M. Patel

    1983-01-01

    California's Midway-Sunset oil field, located in the San Joaquin Valley, is one of the nations largest areas producing low gravity or heavy crude oil. Located on the west side of the southern portion of the valley, the Midway-Sunset oil field covers approximately 200 square miles. Santa Fe Energy Company is one of the largest oil producers in this field. Rapid

  13. Innovative technologies for managing oil field waste.

    SciTech Connect

    Veil, J. A.; Environmental Assessment

    2003-09-01

    Each year, the oil industry generates millions of barrels of wastes that need to be properly managed. For many years, most oil field wastes were disposed of at a significant cost. However, over the past decade, the industry has developed many processes and technologies to minimize the generation of wastes and to more safely and economically dispose of the waste that is generated. Many companies follow a three-tiered waste management approach. First, companies try to minimize waste generation when possible. Next, they try to find ways to reuse or recycle the wastes that are generated. Finally, the wastes that cannot be reused or recycled must be disposed of. Argonne National Laboratory (Argonne) has evaluated the feasibility of various oil field waste management technologies for the U.S. Department of Energy. This paper describes four of the technologies Argonne has reviewed. In the area of waste minimization, the industry has developed synthetic-based drilling muds (SBMs) that have the desired drilling properties of oil-based muds without the accompanying adverse environmental impacts. Use of SBMs avoids significant air pollution from work boats hauling offshore cuttings to shore for disposal and provides more efficient drilling than can be achieved with water-based muds. Downhole oil/water separators have been developed to separate produced water from oil at the bottom of wells. The produced water is directly injected to an underground formation without ever being lifted to the surface, thereby avoiding potential for groundwater or soil contamination. In the area of reuse/recycle, Argonne has worked with Southeastern Louisiana University and industry to develop a process to use treated drill cuttings to restore wetlands in coastal Louisiana. Finally, in an example of treatment and disposal, Argonne has conducted a series of four baseline studies to characterize the use of salt caverns for safe and economic disposal of oil field wastes.

  14. Potential oil-field discoveries for Azerbaijan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Bagirov; I. Lerche

    1998-01-01

    In Azerbaijan, about 300 structures that could be oil fields are known onshore, and 66 structures are already recognized in the offshore region. The question is what fraction of these structures can be expected to yield horizons with commercial value. To find an answer to this problem a statistical analysis has been conducted of data covering the last 100 years

  15. The Big Mountain oil field, Ventura, California

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hall

    1967-01-01

    The Big Mt. oil field is believed to be primarily a fault trap accumulation. All faults are hidden beneath the unconformity at the base of the Vaqueros Formation, or die out before reaching the surface. The Sespe Formation is divided into an upper sandy unit, a middle alternating sand and shale unit, and a lower sandy unit in the Big

  16. Oil field water handling: qualitative separation equals theory plus judgment

    SciTech Connect

    Bradley, B.W.

    1985-10-14

    One of the most prevalent problems in oil field operations is the coproduction of oil and formation water, and the resulting problem of qualitative separation of water and oil. This article discusses the separation and handling of oil field brines. Oil dispersions can be cleaned up by a variety of devices which use gravity as the principal separating mechanism. Acceptable practices for disposing of oil-field brine produced with the crude oil include: injection into permeable underground formations containing saline water; reuse for supplementary recovery operations; and deoiling treatment acceptable for ocean disposal.

  17. Assessment of remaining recoverable oil in selected major oil fields of the San Joaquin Basin, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Cook, Troy A.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Gautier, Donald L.; Klett, Timothy R.; Verma, Mahendra K.; Ryder, Robert T.; Attanasi, Emil D.; Freeman, Philip A.; Le, Phoung A.

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) recently completed an estimate of volumes of technically recoverable, conventional oil that could eventually be added to reserves in nine selected major oil fields in the San Joaquin Basin in central California. The mean total volume of potential oil reserves that might be added in the nine fields using improved oil-recovery technologies was estimated to be about 6.5 billion barrels of oil.

  18. Preliminary Assessment of Oil Contamination Levels in Soils Contaminated with Oil Lakes in the Greater Burgan Oil Fields, Kuwait

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Al-Sarawi; M. S. Massoud; F. Al-Abdali

    1998-01-01

    Measurements taken for total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPHs), total organic carbon (TOC) and trace metals [vanadium (V), nickel (Ni), cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb)] in 40 soil samples are used to delineate oil contamination levels and state of oil penetration in soils heavily contaminated with oil lakes in Al-Ahmadi and Burgan oil fields. All soil horizons in Al-Ahmadi profile contain very

  19. Geology of the Tambaredjo oil field, Suriname

    SciTech Connect

    Dronkert, H. (Delft Univ. of Technology (Netherlands)); Wong, T.E. (Geological Survey of the Netherlands, Haarlem (Netherlands))

    1993-02-01

    After the initial discovery in the sixties of oil below the coastal plain of Suriname (S. America), the State Oil Company of Suriname started production of the unique Tambaredjo field in 1982. The heavy, biodegraded oil (14-16[degrees] API) is produced under compaction drive, from the Paleocene T-sand (average thickness 5 m) at a depth of about 300 m. More than 300 wells have been drilled in an area of about 200 km[sup 2]. High resolution seismics makes it possible to correlate units down to 2 m thick. This dense network of bore holes is very suitable for geological correlations and 3D modeling. The T-sand reservoir consists of angular, medium to coarse grained unconsolidated sands with interfingering clays and lignites. The sands are deposited on a well cemented erosional Cretaceous basement. The reservoir is sealed by locally continuous clays. The oil is trapped in structural highs created by syn-sedimentary rejuvenated basement faults. The depositional environment of the T-sand ranges from fluviatile to deltaic. Frequent avulsion and synsedimentary faulting created a highly compartmented reservoir. Although interconnectedness of the sand bodies is high, clay smears and silting out of the edges confine reservoir compartments. The best genetic sand units such as channel fills or mouth bar deposits hardly correlate over more than a few hundred meters. The Tambaredjo oil field offers an unique opportunity to study the detailed sedimentology and petroleum geology of a fluvio-deltaic transitional realm on the passive margin along the Guiana coast.

  20. Physical Properties as Indicators of Oil Penetration in Soils Contaminated with oil Lakes in the Greater Burgan Oil Fields, Kuwait

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Al-Sarawi; M. S. Massoud; S. A. Wahba

    1998-01-01

    Measurements were made on 60 samples to determine the physical properties of the soil profiles contaminated with oil lakes in Al-Ahmadi and Burgan oil fields which include 80% of the Greater Burgan oil wells in southern Kuwait. The two soil profiles have similar saturation percentages, field capacities, wilting coefficients, low available water capacities due to statification and very low matric

  1. Electrical distribution and substation system for heavy oil production field

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, E.R.; Patel, J.M.

    1983-09-01

    California's Midway-Sunset oil field, located in the San Joaquin Valley, is one of the nations largest areas producing low gravity or heavy crude oil. Located on the west side of the southern portion of the valley, the Midway-Sunset oil field covers approximately 200 square miles. Santa Fe Energy Company is one of the largest oil producers in this field. Rapid expansion of oil producing and oil treating facilities over the last sixteen years has prompted some serious considerations of power distribution and electrical energy availability to meet the needs of this expanding producing field. Santa Fe's electrical load for this field has grown from 6.8MW to 13.5MW in just the last five years and is expected to increase to 30 MW by the year 1985. This paper shows the electrical needs of such an oil production facility due to the special demands of heavy, crude oil secondary-recovery methods.

  2. OPTIMAL DEVELOPMENT PLANNING OF OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS FIELD

    E-print Network

    Grossmann, Ignacio E.

    , well drilling schedule and production profiles of oil, water and gas in each time period. The model canOPTIMAL DEVELOPMENT PLANNING OF OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS FIELD INFRASTRUCTURE UNDER COMPLEX FISCAL Pittsburgh, PA 15213 Abstract The optimal development planning of offshore oil and gas fields has received

  3. Bayesian Networks in the Management of Oil Field Piracy Risk

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    and various applicable rules that constitute the legal status of oil rigs create a complex situation, whichBayesian Networks in the Management of Oil Field Piracy Risk A. Bouejla 1 , X. Chaze 1 , F In recent years, pirate attacks against shipping and oil field installations have become more frequent

  4. Gullfaks oil field - From challenge to success

    SciTech Connect

    Carlsen, H.; Nygaard, O. (Statoil A.S., Stavanger (Norway))

    1990-09-01

    The giant Gullfaks oil field was discovered in 1978. The field contains oil reserves in excess of 1.3 billion bbl. The field is located in the northeastern past of Block 34/10 in the Norwegian sector of the North Sea. Gullfaks represents the shallowest structural element of the Tampen Spur and was formed during the Late Jurassic to Early Cretaceous as a sloping high with a westerly structural dip gradually decreasing toward the east. The major north-south-striking faults, with easterly sloping fault planes, divided the field into several rotated fault blocks. Central and eastern parts of the structure have been eroded by the Early Cretaceous transgression. The reservoir sandstones are comprised of the Middle Jurassic to Early Cretaceous as a sloping high with a westerly structural dip gradually decreasing toward the east. The major north-south-striking faults, with easterly sloping fault planes, divided the field into several rotated fault blocks. Central and eastern parts of the structure have been eroded by the Early Cretaceous transgression. The reservoir sandstones are comprised of the Middle Jurassic delta-deposited Brent Group, the Lower Jurassic shallow-marine sandstones of the Cook Formation, and the Lower Jurassic shallow-marine sandstones of the Cook Formation, and the Lower Jurassic fluvial channel and delta-plain deposits of the Statfjord Formation. The presence of gas in the post-Jurassic section and a variable water depth have complicated seismic interpretation. However, the improved quality of the 1985 three dimensional seismic survey and deliberate deepening of the development wells have resulted in a more accurate and complete structural interpretation. The Brent reserves in the western part of the field currently are being developed by the Gullfaks A and B platforms. The eastern part of the field is developed by a third platform, Gulflaks C. Water injection is the major drive mechanism maintaining reservoir pressure above the bubble point.

  5. Episodic production of fractured reservoirs: The Phelps anticline oil field

    SciTech Connect

    Wilkerson, G. (Bureau of Land Management, Bakersfield, CA (United States))

    1991-02-01

    The Phelps anticline is a fault-bounded structure on the distal west flank of the Midway-Sunset oil field. Production is from the McDonald fractured shale. Histories for this field indicate that oil is recovered most effectively through episodic production. Breathing fractures are the cause of this reservoir behavior and suggest a new approach to hydrocarbon recovery from low-grade oil fields.

  6. Episodic production of fractured reservoirs: The Phelps anticline oil field

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1991-01-01

    The Phelps anticline is a fault-bounded structure on the distal west flank of the Midway-Sunset oil field. Production is from the McDonald fractured shale. Histories for this field indicate that oil is recovered most effectively through episodic production. Breathing fractures are the cause of this reservoir behavior and suggest a new approach to hydrocarbon recovery from low-grade oil fields.

  7. The Long March of the Chinese Giant Oil Fields

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mikael Höök; Tang Xu; Pang Xiongqi; Kjell Aleklett

    Over 70% of China's domestic oil production is obtained from nine giant oilfields. Understanding the behaviour of these fields is essential to both domestic oil production and future Chinese oil imports. This study utilizes decline curves and depletion rate analysis to create some future production outlooks for the Chinese giants. Based on our study, we can only conclude that China's

  8. Analyses of 800 crude oils from United States oil fields

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. J. Coleman; E. M. Shelton; D. T. Nichols; C. J. Thompson

    1978-01-01

    The quality and related characteristics of crude oils produced and marketed throughout the United States is of both theoretical and practical interest to producers, refiners, marketers, and consumers as well as to state and federal agencies. The Bartlesville (Oklahoma) Energy Technology Center (BETC), a part of the U.S. Department of Energy, analyzes crude oils from around the world and this

  9. Maturity assessment of oils from the Sakhalin oil fields in Russia: phenanthrene content as a tool

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K Stojanovi?; G. S Pevneva; J. A Golovko; A. K Golovko; P Pfendt

    2001-01-01

    A correlation analysis of maturation parameters was carried out on 14 crude oil samples from nine oil fields on Sakhalin Island (Russia). The oils were taken from reservoir rocks of Miocene age at depths ranging from 73 to 2841 m. On the basis of GC analysis of the alkane fraction (n-alkanes and the isoprenoid alkanes pristane and phytane) as well

  10. Correlation of source rocks and oils in the Sespe oil field, Ventura County, California

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. G. Lillis; M. S. Clark

    1991-01-01

    The Sespe oil field in the central Ventura basin produces low sulfur (< 1%), intermediate gravity (23-32° API) oil from Middle Eocene to Lower Miocene reservoirs in the upper plate of the San Cayetano thrust. Previous studies proposed the Eocene Cozy Dell, Matilija, and Juncal formations in the San Cayetano overthrust as the source rocks. Alternatively, the oils could be

  11. Cumulative impacts of oil fields on northern Alaska landscapes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. A. Walker; P. J. Webber; E. F. Binnian; K. R. Everett; N. D. Lederer; E. A. Nordstrand; M. D. Walker

    1987-01-01

    Proposed further developments on Alaska's Arctic Coastal Plain raise questions about cumulative effects on arctic tundra ecosystems of development of multiple large oil fields. Maps of historical changes to the Prudhoe Bay Oil field show indirect impacts can lag behind planned developments by many years and the total area eventually disturbed can greatly exceed the planned area of construction. For

  12. Cumulative Impacts of Oil Fields on Northern Alaskan Landscapes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. A. Walker; P. J. Webber; E. F. Binnian; K. R. Everett; N. D. Lederer; E. A. Nordstrand; M. D. Walker

    1987-01-01

    Proposed further developments on Alaska's Arctic Coastal Plain raise questions about cumulative effects on arctic tundra ecosystems of development of multiple large oil fields. Maps of historical changes to the Prudhoe Bay Oil Field show indirect impacts can lag behind planned developments by many years and the total area eventually disturbed can greatly exceed the planned area of construction. For

  13. Silverthread oil field, Ventura County, California: a hydrodynamic trap

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. N. Hacker; R. L. Hester

    1987-01-01

    Silverthread oil field is located in west-central Ventura County, California. An unusual combination of Miocene turbidite sand deposition, tight folding, faulting, and hydrodynamics have created an accumulation of over 6 million bbl of oil from 33 wells. This field is also unique in that it lies beneath the convergence of several opposing major thrust faults which effectively hide any surface

  14. A reservoir management study of a mature oil field

    E-print Network

    Peruzzi, Tave

    1995-01-01

    An integrated geological, petrophysical and reservoir engineering review was performed for a mature, producing oil field. Like many older fields, important data are missing or were not collected. The techniques used in this thesis may be applied...

  15. Polymer flooding increases production in giant oil field

    SciTech Connect

    Delamaide, E.; Corlay, P. (Inst. Francais du Petrole, Paris (France))

    1994-12-01

    Daqing field, discovered in 1959, is the largest oil field in the People's Republic of China, with original oil in place exceeding two billion tons. Reservoir heterogeneity and oil viscosity have resulted in moderate displacement efficiency and high watercut. To increase recovery, polymer injection was tested in two pilots between 1987 and 1992, after lab and reservoir studies. Both pilots proved highly successful and led to the decision to extend polymer injection to the whole field. This article presents the history of Daqing polymer flooding, from preliminary studies to full-field extension.

  16. Stress fields; a key to oil migration

    SciTech Connect

    Du Rouchet, J.

    1981-01-01

    A coherent oil-migration model based on geomechanical considerations includes both the high-molecular kerogen structure and the capillary properties of source rocks. Oil is squeezed from kerogen by compaction following oil generation. This squeezing effect should be created by the differential stress (maximum compressive stress minus least compressive stress) acting on the kerogen which has been chemically broken up by oil formation. In sedimentary bodies whose water is at hydrostatic pressure, the migration of oil seems to involve two processes: (1) lateral transfer, by channeling into the more coarsely microporous layers of the source rocks, from the oil generation site toward the geologic structure or lower pressured zone; and (2) vertical transfer from source rock to reservoir by the opening or structural tops, where the least compressive stress is slightly greater than or equal to the pore pressure, and where the capillary pressure increment (2..gamma../R) of oil in the microporosity exceeds the tensile strength of the rock. In sedimentary bodies whose water is overpressured, the pore pressure should be governed by the least compressive stress and thus migration should begin by oil transfers in a system of small open fractures, and eventually in larger fractures. The theory demonstrates the impossibility of oil being transferred to the reservoir under true tensile conditions (negative effective compressive stress) and thus explains the large asphaltic veins of southeastern Turkey and the well-known bitumen veins of the Uinta basin.

  17. Assessment of remaining recoverable oil in selected major oil fields of the Permian Basin, Texas and New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Cook, Troy A.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Gautier, Donald L.; Klett, Timothy R.; Verma, Mahendra K.; Ryder, Robert T.; Attanasi, Emil D.; Freeman, Philip A.; Le, Phoung A.

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) recently completed an estimate of technically recoverable, conventional oil in selected oil fields in the Permian Basin in west Texas and southeastern New Mexico. The mean total volume of potential additional oil resources that might be added using improved oil-recovery technologies was estimated to be about 2.7 billion barrels of oil.

  18. Kill fluid for oil field operations

    SciTech Connect

    Sydansk, R.D.

    1990-08-14

    This patent describes a process employing a kill fluid to substantially reduce the volumetric flow of formation fluid into a wellbore penetrating a formation containing the formation fluid below an earthen surface. It comprises: admixing components of a continuous flowing gel at the surface comprising of water-soluble carboxylate-containing polymer, a complex capable of crosslinking the polymer and formed of at least one electropositive chromium III species and at least one electronegative carboxylatespecies, and an aqueous solvent for the polymer and the complex; crosslinking the polymer and the complex to form the gel, wherein the kill fluid comprises the gel; placing a volume of the kill fluid in the wellbore sufficient to create a hydrostatic head which exerts a kill fluid pressure against the formation fluid substantially equal to or greater than the formation fluid pressure and thereby substantially reduces the volumetric flow of the formation fluid into the wellbore; performing an oil field operation after placing the volume of the kill fluid in the wellbore; and removing the gel from the wellbore to substantially restore the volumetric flow of the formation fluid into the wellbore.

  19. Environmental contamination in the oil fields of western Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Albers, P.H.; Belisle, A.A.; Swineford, D.M.; Hall, R.J.

    1985-01-01

    The effects on freshwater wildlife of chronic exposure to oil field discharges are not well known. Collections of wastewater, aquatic invertebrates, fish, salamanders, and small mammals were made in several streams in the oil fields of western Pennsylvania during 1980-81. Estimates of the petroleum content of two wastewater discharges were high (21.9 and 8.4 ppm) and one was low (0.3 ppm). Water conductivity was inversely related to aquatic invertebrate biomass. Hydrocarbons accumulated in significantly greater amounts in crayfish, fish, and small mammals from collection sites with oil extraction activity than from sites without oil extraction activity. Estimates of total petroleum in invertebrates, trout, and suckers averaged between 200 and 280 ppm for oil extraction sites and between 8 and 80 ppm for sites without oil extraction activity: Oil extraction activity did not affect metal accumulation by fish. Oil and wastewater discharges in oil fields disrupt community composition and can cause an overall reduction in stream productivity.

  20. Heat pump system utilizing produced water in oil fields

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zhaolin Gu; Jian Qiu; Yun Li; Guoguang Cai

    2003-01-01

    As the alternative to the heating furnace for crude oil heating, a heat pump system utilizing produced water, a main byproduct, in oil fields was proposed and the thermodynamic model of the system was established. A particular compression process with inner evaporative spray water cooling was applied in the screw compressor and an analysis method for the variable-mass compression process

  1. Oil and Gas field code master list 1995

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1995-12-01

    This is the fourteenth annual edition of the Energy Information Administration`s (EIA) Oil and Gas Field Code Master List. It reflects data collected through October 1995 and provides standardized field name spellings and codes for all identified oil and/or gas fields in the US. The Field Code Index, a listing of all field names and the States in which they occur, ordered by field code, has been removed from this year`s publications to reduce printing and postage costs. Complete copies (including the Field Code Index) will be available on the EIA CD-ROM and the EIA World-Wide Web Site. Future editions of the complete Master List will be available on CD-ROM and other electronic media. There are 57,400 field records in this year`s Oil and Gas Field Code Master List. As it is maintained by EIA, the Master List includes the following: field records for each State and county in which a field resides; field records for each offshore area block in the Gulf of Mexico in which a field resides; field records for each alias field name (see definition of alias below); and fields crossing State boundaries that may be assigned different names by the respective State naming authorities. Taking into consideration the double-counting of fields under such circumstances, EIA identifies 46,312 distinct fields in the US as of October 1995. This count includes fields that no longer produce oil or gas, and 383 fields used in whole or in part for oil or gas Storage. 11 figs., 6 tabs.

  2. Characterizing Air Toxics from Oil Field Operations in Los Angeles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCarthy, M. C.; Brown, S. G.; DeWinter, J. L.; Bai, S.; O'Brien, T.; Vaughn, D.; Peltier, R.; Soltis, J.; Field, R. A.; Murphy, S. M.; Roberts, P. T.

    2014-12-01

    The Inglewood Oil Field in urban Los Angeles has been in operation for more than 70 years. Neighborhoods surrounding the oil field are concerned with the potential emissions of air toxics from oil field operations. The Baldwin Hills Air Quality Study focused on (1) quantifying air toxics concentrations originating from the Inglewood Oil Field operations, including drilling and well workovers, and (2) assessing the health risk of both acute and chronic exposure to air toxics emitted from oil field operations. Key pollutants identified for characterization included diesel particulate matter (DPM), cadmium, benzene, nickel, formaldehyde, mercury, manganese, acrolein, arsenic, and lead. The field study began in November 2012 and ended in November 2013. Four types of instruments were used to characterize oil field operations: (1) Aethalometers to measure black carbon (BC; as a proxy for DPM); (2) X-ray fluorescence spectrometer (XRF) for metals; (3) Proton-Transfer-Reaction Time-of?Flight Mass Spectrometry (PTR-TOFMS) for volatile organic compounds; and (4) meteorological sensors to help assess the wind patterns, temperature, and humidity that influence pollutant concentrations. Overall concentrations of most of the species measured in the study were quite low for an urban area. We determined that there were statistically significant increases in concentrations of DPM associated with oil field operations when winds were from the west-southwest. BC concentrations increased by 0.036 to 0.056 ?g/m3, on average, when winds originated from the west-southwest, compared to annual mean BC concentrations of approximately 0.67 ?g/m3. West-southwest winds occurred 53% of the time during the study. No other pollutants showed strong statistical evidence of chronic or acute risk from oil field operations.

  3. Tengiz oil field, Kazakstan: A carbonate platform and supergiant field

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, W.R. [Chevron Overseas Petroleum, Inc., San Ramon, CA (United States); Garber, R.A. [Chevron USA, Midland, TX (United States)

    1996-12-31

    The Tengiz oil field was discovered in 1979 on the northeastern shore of the Caspian Sea in western Kazakstan. The Carboniferous and Devonian age carbonate reservoir is more than 2000 in, thick, 270 km{sup 2} in area extent and buried to a depth of 4000 m (13,120 ft.). The oil column exceeds 1450 m in length and is highly overpressured. The Tengiz reservoir resembles a modem day constructional-type carbonate platform in size, shape and lithofacies. The top of the platform is relatively flat, except for structural highs along the northern, eastern and southern platform margins that developed during post-depositional down-faulting of the platform interior. The platform edge is a depositional escarpment along which subsequent faulting has occurred. Debris-slope conglomerates, shed off the platform during growth, surround the platform escarpment. Bashkirian age ootitic, crinoidal, algal grainstones comprise the upper 100 m of the platform and overlie 350 m of Serpukhovian and Okskian age brachiopodal, crinoidal, algal packstones. Lithofacies are a really widespread and show little variation in composition and stratigraphic thickness across the entire platform. Depositional cycle thicknesses are less than 5 meters for the Bashkirian grainstones and up to 30 meters for the Serpukhovian/Oksky packstones. Lagoonal and reefal lithofacies have not been identified in core to date. Porosity is highly variable and includes interparticle, moldic, channel, vuggy and fracture pore types. Solid bitumen is present in much of the pore space. Secondary porosity formed both before and after bitumen precipitation. Production logs and core data reveal that zones with secondary porosity provide fluid entry into the wellbore.

  4. Tengiz oil field, Kazakstan: A carbonate platform and supergiant field

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, W.R. (Chevron Overseas Petroleum, Inc., San Ramon, CA (United States)); Garber, R.A. (Chevron USA, Midland, TX (United States))

    1996-01-01

    The Tengiz oil field was discovered in 1979 on the northeastern shore of the Caspian Sea in western Kazakstan. The Carboniferous and Devonian age carbonate reservoir is more than 2000 in, thick, 270 km[sup 2] in area extent and buried to a depth of 4000 m (13,120 ft.). The oil column exceeds 1450 m in length and is highly overpressured. The Tengiz reservoir resembles a modem day constructional-type carbonate platform in size, shape and lithofacies. The top of the platform is relatively flat, except for structural highs along the northern, eastern and southern platform margins that developed during post-depositional down-faulting of the platform interior. The platform edge is a depositional escarpment along which subsequent faulting has occurred. Debris-slope conglomerates, shed off the platform during growth, surround the platform escarpment. Bashkirian age ootitic, crinoidal, algal grainstones comprise the upper 100 m of the platform and overlie 350 m of Serpukhovian and Okskian age brachiopodal, crinoidal, algal packstones. Lithofacies are a really widespread and show little variation in composition and stratigraphic thickness across the entire platform. Depositional cycle thicknesses are less than 5 meters for the Bashkirian grainstones and up to 30 meters for the Serpukhovian/Oksky packstones. Lagoonal and reefal lithofacies have not been identified in core to date. Porosity is highly variable and includes interparticle, moldic, channel, vuggy and fracture pore types. Solid bitumen is present in much of the pore space. Secondary porosity formed both before and after bitumen precipitation. Production logs and core data reveal that zones with secondary porosity provide fluid entry into the wellbore.

  5. Largest US oil and gas fields, August 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-08-06

    The Largest US Oil and Gas Fields is a technical report and part of an Energy Information Administration (EIA) series presenting distributions of US crude oil and natural gas resources, developed using field-level data collected by EIA`s annual survey of oil and gas proved reserves. The series` objective is to provide useful information beyond that routinely presented in the EIA annual report on crude oil and natural gas reserves. These special reports also will provide oil and gas resource analysts with a fuller understanding of the nature of US crude oil and natural gas occurrence, both at the macro level and with respect to the specific subjects addressed. The series` approach is to integrate EIA`s crude oil and natural gas survey data with related data obtained from other authoritative sources, and then to present illustrations and analyses of interest to a broad spectrum of energy information users ranging from the general public to oil and gas industry personnel.

  6. Repair wind field in oil contaminated areas with SAR images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Jie; He, Yijun; Long, Xiao; Hou, Chawei; Liu, Xin; Meng, Junmin

    2015-03-01

    In this paper, we compared the normalized radar cross section in the cases of oil spill, biogenic slicks, and clean sea areas with image samples made from 11-pixel NRCS average, and determined their thresholds of the NRCS of the synthetic aperture radar. The results show that the thresholds of oil and biogenic slicks exhibit good consistency with the corresponding synthetic aperture radar images. In addition, we used the normalized radar cross section of clean water from adjacent patches of oil or biogenic slicks areas to replace that of oil or biogenic slicks areas, and retrieve wind field by CMOD5.n and compare wind velocity mending of oil and biogenic slicks areas with Weather Research and Forecasting modeled data, from which the root mean squares of wind speed (wind direction) inversion are 0.89 m/s (20.26°) and 0.88 m/s (7.07°), respectively. Therefore, after the occurrence of oil spill or biogenic slicks, the real wind field could be repaired using the method we introduced in this paper. We believe that this method could improve the accuracy in assessment of a real wind field on medium and small scales at sea, and enhance effectively the monitoring works on similar oil or biogenic slicks incidents at sea surface.

  7. Correlation of source rocks and oils in the Sespe oil field, Ventura County, California

    SciTech Connect

    Lillis, P.G. (Geological Survey, Lakewood, CO (United States)); Clark, M.S. (Colorado School of Mines, Golden (United States))

    1991-02-01

    The Sespe oil field in the central Ventura basin produces low sulfur (< 1%), intermediate gravity (23-32{degree} API) oil from Middle Eocene to Lower Miocene reservoirs in the upper plate of the San Cayetano thrust. Previous studies proposed the Eocene Cozy Dell, Matilija, and Juncal formations in the San Cayetano overthrust as the source rocks. Alternatively, the oils could be derived from the Miocene Monterey Formation in the subthrust. Gas chromatography and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry data are used to characterize and correlate the Sespe oils from comparison with bitumen extracts of the possible source rocks. The oils have pristane/phytane ratios of 1.3-1.6, bisnorhopane/hopane ratios of about 0.2, and relatively low amounts of diasteranes, oleanane, and C{sub 29} steranes. These data indicate that all of the oils belong to the same family and that variations in the API gravity are due to the degree of biodegradation. In addition, the sterane and triterpane distributions imply that the source organic matter is derived from marine phytoplankton and bacteria with a minor contribution from land plants. The Sespe oils do not correlate with the upper plate Eocene source rocks but correlate fairly well with the upper plate Eocene source rocks. Thus, a subthrust source is proposed. However, the Sespe oils have higher gravity and lower sulfur content than typical Monterey oils. The low sulfur content may result from the higher iron content, due to terrigenous input, of the Sespe field source rocks relative to other Monterey source rocks. Alternatively, the Sespe oils were expelled from the Monterey Formation at relatively high levels of thermal maturity.

  8. Unitizing and waterflooding the California Yowlumne Oil Field

    SciTech Connect

    Burzlaff, A.A.

    1983-03-01

    The Yowlumne field, located at the southern end of the San Joaquin Valley of California, is one of the largest new onshore oil fields discovered in California in the past twenty years. The field, at an average depth of 12,200', has produced over 42 million barrels of oil since its discovery in 1974. In May, 1982, a portion of the Yowlumne field was unitized and called Yowlumne Unit ''B''. Nine operators and about 160 royalty owners cooperated to form this unit. A two phase unitization formula based on remaining primary and initial hydrocarbon pore volume was used to form Unit ''B''. A secondary waterflood project is being implemented which is estimated to increase oil recovery by some 25 million barrels.

  9. Distribution of Thermophilic Marine Sulfate Reducers in North Sea Oil Field Waters and Oil Reservoirs

    PubMed Central

    Nilsen, R. K.; Beeder, J.; Thorstenson, T.; Torsvik, T.

    1996-01-01

    The distribution of thermophilic marine sulfate reducers in produced oil reservoir waters from the Gullfaks oil field in the Norwegian sector of the North Sea was investigated by using enrichment cultures and genus-specific fluorescent antibodies produced against the genera Archaeoglobus, Desulfotomaculum, and Thermodesulforhabdus. The thermophilic marine sulfate reducers in this environment could mainly be classified as species belonging to the genera Archaeoglobus and Thermodesulforhabdus. In addition, some unidentified sulfate reducers were present. Culturable thermophilic Desulfotomaculum strains were not detected. Specific strains of thermophilic sulfate reducers inhabited different parts of the oil reservoir. No correlation between the duration of seawater injection and the numbers of thermophilic sulfate reducers in the produced waters was observed. Neither was there any correlation between the concentration of hydrogen sulfide and the numbers of thermophilic sulfate reducers. The results indicate that thermophilic and hyperthermophilic sulfate reducers are indigenous to North Sea oil field reservoirs and that they belong to a deep subterranean biosphere. PMID:16535321

  10. Reverse osmosis process successfully converts oil field brine into freshwater

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. T. Tao; S. Curtice; R. D. Hobbs; J. L. Sides; J. D. Wieser; C. A. Dyke; D. Tuohey; P. F. Pilger

    1993-01-01

    A state-of-the-art process in the San Ardo oil field converted produced brine into freshwater. The conversion process used chemical clarification, softening, filtration, and reverse osmosis (RO). After extensive testing resolved RO membrane fouling problems, the pilot plant successfully handled water with about 7,000 mg\\/l. of total dissolved solids, 250 mg\\/l. silica, and 170 mg\\/l. soluble oil. The treated water complies

  11. Remote sensing assessment of oil lakes and oil-polluted surfaces at the Greater Burgan oil field, Kuwait

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwarteng, Andy Yaw

    A heinous catastrophe imposed on Kuwait's desert environment during the 1990 to 1991 Arabian Gulf War was the formation of oil lakes and oil-contaminated surfaces. Presently, the affected areas consist of oil lakes, thick light and disintegrated tarmats, black soil and vegetation. In this study, Landsat TM, Spot, colour aerial photographs and IRS-1D digital image data acquired between 1989 and 1998 were used to monitor the spatial and temporal changes of the oil lakes and polluted surfaces at the Greater Burgan oil field. The use of multisensor datasets provided the opportunity to observe the polluted areas in different wavelengths, look angles and resolutions. The images were digitally enhanced to optimize the visual outlook and improve the information content. The data documented the gradual disappearance of smaller oil lakes and soot/black soil from the surface with time. Even though some of the contaminants were obscured by sand and vegetation and not readily observed on the surface or from satellite images, the harmful chemicals still remain in the soil. Some of the contaminated areas displayed a remarkable ability to support vegetation growth during the higher than average rainfall that occurred between 1992 to 1998. The total area of oil lakes calculated from an IRS-1D panchromatic image acquired on 16 February 1998, using supervised classification applied separately to different parts, was 24.13 km 2.

  12. Alkanes in shrimp from the Buccaneer Oil Field

    SciTech Connect

    Middleditch, B.S.; Basile, B.; Chang, E.S.

    1982-07-01

    A total of 36 samples of shrimp were examined from the region of the Buccaneer oil field, eighteen of which were representatives of the commercial species Penaeus aztecus and the rest were various other species: Penaeus duorarum (pink shrimp), Trachypenaeus duorarum (sugar shrimp), Squilla empusa (mantis shrimp), and Sicyonia dorsalis (chevron shrimp). The alkanes and deuteriated alkanes were completely separated by GC, so a mass spectrometer was not required for their detection and quantitation. To confirm the identities of individual compounds, however, some samples were examined by combined gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Results show that only thirteen of the forty shrimp collected from the region of the Buccaneer oil field contained petroleum alkanes, and the majority of these were obtained from trawls immediately adjacent to the production platforms. It appears that shrimp caught in the region of the Buccaneer oil field are not appreciably tainted with hydrocarbons discharged from the production platforms. (JMT)

  13. Feasibility study of enhanced oil recovery in six oil fields of Colombia. Export trade information (Final)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-09-01

    The study was prepared for the Empresa Colombiana de Petroleos by Scientific Software-Intercomp, Inc. The primary objectives of the study were to determine which of the reservoirs in the principal fields were amenable to enhanced oil recovery (EOR) processes, to evaluate which process was the most effective from both a technical and economic point of view, and to propose the steps required to further investigate the recommended EOR methods at the laboratory and field (pilot) level. The Final Report (Volume 1) is divided into the following sections (along with summary, conclusions, recommendations, tables and figures): (1) Data Gathering and Review; (2) Enhanced Oil Recovery Reservoir Screening; (3) Laboratory and Field Coordination; (4) Rescreening of Selected Reservoirs; and (5) Enhanced Oil Recovery Pilots.

  14. Basement reservoir in Zeit Bay oil field, Gulf of Suez

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. Zahran; S. Askary

    1988-01-01

    Fractured basement, one of the most important reservoirs of Zeit Bay field, contains nearly one-third of oil in place of the field. The flow rates per well vary from 700 to 9,000 BOPD. Due to its well-established production potential, 60% of the wells for the development of the field were drilled down to basement. The Zeit Bay basement consist of

  15. Basement reservoir in Zeit Bay oil field, Gulf of Suez

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. Zahran; S. Askary

    1988-01-01

    Fractured basement, one of the most important reservoirs of Zeit Bay field, contains nearly one-third of oil in place of the field. The flow rates per well vary from 700 to 9,000 BOPD. Due to its well-established production potential, 60% of the wells for the development of the field were drilled down to basement. The Zeit Bay basement consists of

  16. Dalhart's only Permian field gets best oil well

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-07-20

    This paper reports that activity is picking up in Proctor Ranch oil field in the northwestern Texas panhandle, the only Permian producing field in the lightly drilled Dalhart basin. During the last 2 1/2 months, the field has a new operator and a new producing well, the best of five drilled since discovery in 1990. Corlena Oil Co., Amarillo, acquired the field from McKinney Oil Co. in May and tested its first well in early July. The 1-64 Proctor, 18 miles west of Channing, pumped at rates as high as 178 bd of oil and 6 b/d of water from Permian Wolfcamp dolomite perforations at 4,016-29 ft. Corlena plans to drill another well south of the field soon. The lease requires that the next well be spudded by early November. The field appears to be combination structural-stratigraphic trap in which the dolomite pinches out against the Bravo Domes-Oldham nose to the west.

  17. Measuring marine oil spill extent by Markov Random Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moctezuma, Miguel; Parmiggiani, Flavio; Lopez Lopez, Ludwin

    2014-10-01

    The Deepwater Horizon oil spill of the Gulf of Mexico in the spring of 2010 was the largest accidental marine oil spill in the history of the petroleum industry. An immediate request, after the accident, was to detect the oil slick and to measure its extent: SAR images were the obvious tool to be employed for the task. This paper presents a processing scheme based on Markov Random Fields (MRF) theory. MRF theory describes the global information by probability terms involving local neighborhood representations of the SAR backscatter data. The random degradation introduced by speckle noise is dealt with a pre-processing stage which applies a nonlinear diffusion filter. Spatial context attributes are structured by the Bayes equation derived from a Maximum-A-Posteriori (MAP) estimation. The probability terms define an objective function of a MRF model whose goal is to detect contours and fine structures. The markovian segmentation problem is solved with a numerical optimization method. The scheme was applied to an Envisat/ASAR image over the Gulf of Mexico of May 9, 2010, when the oil spill was already fully developed. The final result was obtained with 51 recursion cycles, where, at each step, the segmentation consists of a 3-class label field (open sea and two oil slick thicknesses). Both the MRF model and the parameters of the stochastic optimization procedure will be provided, together with the area measurement of the two kinds of oil slick.

  18. Oil

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Brieske, Joel A.

    2002-01-01

    The first site, offered by the Institute of Petroleum, is called Fossils into Fuel (1). It describes how oil and gas are formed and processed, as well as offering short quizzes on each section. The second site (2) is maintained by the Department of Energy. Visitors can learn about the history of oil use, how itâ??s found and extracted, and more. The next site, called Picture an Oil Well (3), is a one-page illustration and description of the workings of an oil well, offered by the California Department of Conservation. The fourth site, hosted by the Minerals Management Service, is called Stacey Visits an Offshore Oil Rig (4). It tells the story of a girl taking a field trip on an offshore oil rig and what she finds when sheâ??s there. The Especially for Kids Web site (5) is presented by NOAA and explores facts about the effects of oil spills. Kids can do experiments, get help writing a report, find further information on the provided additional links, and more. From the Environmental Protection Agency, the sixth site is called Oil Spill Program (6), and it also delves into the topic of oil spills. It provides information about the EPA's program for preventing, preparing for, and responding to oil spills that occur in and around inland waters of the United States. The next site, offered by How Stuff Works.com, is called How Oil Refining Works (7). Descriptions of crude oil, fractional distillation, chemical processing, and more is presented in a succinct but informative way. The last site is from The Center for Subsurface Modeling (CSM) of the Texas Institute for Computational and Applied Mathematics and is called CSMâ??s Picture Gallery (8). After clicking the Gallery link, visitors will find animations and images that represent CSMâ??s work such as oil spill simulations, discontinuous galerkin, the tyranny of scale, contaminant remediation, etc.

  19. Tar Creek study, Sargent oil field, Santa Clara County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wagner, David L.; Fedasko, Bill; Carnahan, J.R.; Brunetti, Ross; Magoon, Leslie B.; Lillis, Paul G.; Lorenson, Thomas D.; Stanley, Richard G.

    2002-01-01

    Field work in the Tar Creek area of Sargent oil field was performed June 26 to 28, 2000. The Santa Clara County study area is located in Sections, 30, 31, and 32, Township 11 South, Range 4 East, M.D.B&M; and in Sections 25 and 36, Township 11 South, Range 3 East, M.D.B.&M., north and south of Tar Creek, west of Highway 101. The work was a cooperative effort of the California Department of Conservation's Division of Oil, Gas, and Geothermal Resources (DOGGR), California Geological Survey (CGS), and the United States Geological Survey (USGS). The purpose of the project was to map the stratigraphy and geologic structure (David Wagner, CGS); sample oil for age dating (Les Magoon, USGS); and search for undocumented wells plus conduct a GPS survey of the area (Bill Fedasko, J.P. Carnahan, and Ross Brunetti, DOGGR)

  20. Spectral anomaly over Railroad Valley oil field, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Feldman, S.C. (Bechtel Corp., San Francisco, CA (USA)); Honey, F.R. (Geoscan Pty Ltd., Perth (Australia)); Ballew, G.I. (Geodata Images, Carson City, NV (USA))

    1990-05-01

    Oil was first discovered in Railroad Valley, south-central Nevada in 1954. Since that time, over 195 wells have been drilled and six oil fields have been found: Bacon Flat, Currant, Trap Spring, Eagle Springs, Grant Canyon and Kate Spring. Two wells in the Grant Canyon field had flows between 2,480 and 4,108 bbl/day in 1987 and may be the most prolific wells onshore in the continental US. Production in the Railroad Valley fields is from Oligocene volcanic and sedimentary rocks and Paleozoic carbonate formations. Traps are structural or structural and stratigraphic, and reservoir seals are indurated or clayey valley fill, weathered tuff, and shales in Tertiary sediments. Reservoir temperatures range between 95 and 309{degree}F. Previous workers have identified a statistically significant positive correlation between hydrocarbon microseepage and vegetation anomalies over the Railroad Valley oil fields with Landsat Multispectral Scanner (MSS) imagery. Several flight lines of high spectral and spatial resolution imagery in the visible, near infrared, shortwave infrared, and thermal infrared regions of the spectrum were flown with Geoscan's MkII Airborne Multispectral Scanner to determine if there was a mineralogical signature associated with the oil fields. The 24-channel scanner collected 8-m resolution picture elements over a swath of about 8 km. Image processing strategies were developed from a knowledge of the spectral curves of minerals in the laboratory. The results from processing Geoscans MkII data were also compared with those obtained from processing Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) imagery over the same area. An 8 {times} 6 km carbonate and iron anomaly was detected on the processed MkII imagery over the Trap Spring oil field. This anomaly may be related to hot spring activity, reported by other workers, that has formed extensive calcite deposits along faults.

  1. Monitoring Induced Seismicity at an Oil\\/Gas Field

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. S. Kuleli; S. Sarkar; M. N. Toksoz; F. Al-Kindy; I. W. El Hussain; S. Al-Hashmi

    2009-01-01

    Seismicity at an oil\\/gas field has been monitored with surface and borehole seismic networks. Since the seismic monitoring started in 1999, thousands of events have been recorded, located and analyzed. The ``surface'' seismic network consists of five stations with seismometers in shallow boreholes at 125-150 m depth. The deep network is made up of five downhole geophone arrays, each with

  2. Monitoring Microseismicity in a Carbonate Oil Field, North Oman

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. El-Hussain; A. Al-Lazki; S. Al-Hashmi; K. Al-Toubi; Y. Al-Shijbi; M. Al-Saifi; F. Al-Kindy; O. Ibi

    2006-01-01

    Microseismicity was monitored continuously for 2003 and 2004 years using shallow downhole seismic network in a carbonate oil field in Northern Oman. A total of 406 microearthquake events were analyzed to assess events location relative to producing horizons. The depth of the microearthquakes ranges from 0 to 2.95 km below the ground surface. The events location is confined to the

  3. Applications of Water-Soluble Polymers in the Oil Field

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Chatterji; J. K. Borchardt

    1981-01-01

    Water-soluble polymers commonly used in the oil field are reviewed. The properties of guar, guar derivatives, cellulose derivatives, xanthan gum, locust bean gum, starches, and synthetic polymers, especially polyacrylamides, are discussed and related to chemical structures of the polymers. Original data comparing polymer solution viscosity properties under identical conditions are presented. These data include effect of polymer concentration on solution

  4. Extraction of Field Pennycress Seed Oil by Full Pressing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Field pennycress (Thlasphi arvense L., Brassicaceae) is a winter annual that grows widely in the temperate North America. Its seeds contain up to 36% oil (db) with the major fatty acid as erucic acid (38%). With an estimated seed production of 1,700 – 2,200 kg/ha, pennycress can be a major source of...

  5. Biodiesel Prepared From Field Pennycress Oil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Field pennycress (Thlaspi arvense L., FP) is a winter annual species of the mustard family (Brassicaceae) which is widely distributed throughout temperate North America that can serve as a winter rotational crop for conventional crops, thus not displacing farm land or negatively impacting the food s...

  6. Dispersant and fluid loss additives for oil field cements

    SciTech Connect

    George, C.; Gerke, R. R.

    1985-12-10

    Dispersants and fluid loss additives for inclusion in oil field cements and methods of using the resultant compositions in oil, gas and water well cementing operations are disclosed. Such compositions incorporate a polymeric additive prepared by caustic-catalyzed condensation for formaldehyde with acetone, or a substance derived from acetone, wherein said polymer includes sodium sulfonate groups in an amount sufficient to render such polymer water soluble. A second fluid loss additive such as hydroxyethyl cellulose, carboxymethylhydroxyethyl cellulose, copolymers of N,N-dimethylacrylamide and 2-acrylamido, 2-methyl propane sulfonic acid or copolymers of acrylamide and 2-acrylamido, 2-methyl propane sulfonic acid may optionally be included.

  7. Exxon Valdez Oil Spill: Google Earth Virtual Field Trip Activity

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The 2008 ATEEC Fellows Institute brought 18 community college and high school instructors from the environmental sciences to Alaska. They created virtual field trips using Google Earth. In this beautifully designed virtual field trip your students will take a trip through the Prince William Sound from the Alyeska Marine Terminal. From there the class will explore the path that the oil took as it made its way hundreds of miles down the coasts of Alaska. Learn about the environmental impacts of the spill and more. A great resource for learning about this disaster. In 1989 the Exxon Valdez oil tanker hit Bligh Reef through the passage of Prince William sound near Valdez Alaska. This dumped millions of gallons of crude oil into the Pacific. In this nicely designed virtual field trip learn about the path that the oil took and the impacts it had on the the communities wildlife and the world. Explore the spill like never before. Teachers guide included. This resource is free to download. Users must first create a login with ATEEC's website to access the file.

  8. Giant oil fields of the Gulf Coast area

    SciTech Connect

    Haeberle, F.R.

    1993-09-01

    The 134 giant fields in the Gulf Coastal area contain 29% of the total giant-field reserves. Cumulative production is 32% of the giant-field cumulative total and 20% of the United States cumulative production. Eighty-nine of the giant fields are offshore with 22% of the reserves, 11 fields are in east Texas with 24% of the reserves, and 1 field is in Florida with 1% of the reserves. In 106 of the giant fields the primary producing interval is Cenozoic with 65% of the reserves, and in 28 giant fields the producing interval is Mesozoic with 35% of the reserves. The primary producing interval is Mesozoic with 35% of the reserves. The primary producing interval in 124 giant fields consists of clastics with 91% of the reserves, in 7 fields the primary lithology is carbonates with 6% of the reserves, and in 3 giant fields the lithology is mixed clastics and carbonates. A total of 127 fields are in structural traps with all of the reserves, 4 fields are stratigraphic traps (3%) with 18% of the reserves, and 3 fields are combination traps with 1% of the reserves. Over 50 of the giant oil fields in structural traps are salt domes. The most prevalent types of giant fields in the Gulf Coastal area are onshore structural traps with Cenozoic clastics as the primary producing intervals.

  9. DOE tallies Class III oil recovery field projects

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-07-25

    Here are details from midterm proposals submitted as part of the US Department of Energy's Class 3 oil recovery field demonstration candidate projects. All of the proposals emphasize dissemination of project details so that the results, if successful, can be applied widely in similar reservoirs. Project results will also be fed into a national petroleum technology transfer network. The proposals include: Gulf of Mexico, Gulf coast, offshore California, a California thermal, immiscible CO[sub 2], produced/potable water, microbial EOR, California diatomite, West Texas Spraberry field, and other Permian Basin fields.

  10. Geologic control of natural marine hydrocarbon seep emissions, Coal Oil Point seep field, California

    E-print Network

    Luyendyk, Bruce

    ORIGINAL Geologic control of natural marine hydrocarbon seep emissions, Coal Oil Point seep field geology and gas-phase (methane) seepage for the Coal Oil Point (COP) seep field, one of the world's largest and best-studied marine oil and gas seep fields, located over a producing hydrocarbon reservoir

  11. Strategies for field application of foams in heavy oil reservoirs

    SciTech Connect

    Isaacs, E.E.; Ivory, J.; Law, D.H.S. [Alberta Research Council, Edmonton (Canada)

    1995-12-31

    Steam-based processes in heavy oil reservoirs that are not stabilized by gravity have poor vertical and areal conformance. This is because gases are more mobile within the pore space than liquids and steam tends to override or channel through oil in a formation. The steam-foam process which consists of adding surfactant with or without non-condensible gas to the injected steam, was developed to improve the sweep efficiency of steam drive and cyclic steam processes. The foam-forming components injected with the steam stabilize the liquid lamellae and cause some of the steam to exist as a discontinuous phase. The steam mobility (gas relative permeability) is thereby reduced resulting in an increased pressure gradient in the steam-swept region, to divert steam to the unheated interval and displace the heated oil better. The propagation of surfactant in the reservoir is determined by its thermal stability, adsorption, precipitation, and oil partitioning behaviour. The propagation of the foam is determined by the mechanisms that generate and destroyfoam in the reservoir, including gas and liquid velocities, condensation and evaporation, non-condensible gas, and the presence of oil. Strategies were developed to minimize the chemical requirements for generating effective steam-foams. Economic steam-foam processes requires that surfactant losses are minimized, foam propagation and foam stability is maximized at surfactant concentrations lower than has hereto been used in the field. This paper, based on laboratory finding and field experience, discusses the important considerations which affect the efficient application of steam-foam in the field.

  12. Archaeoglobus fulgidus Isolated from Hot North Sea Oil Field Waters

    PubMed Central

    Beeder, Janiche; Nilsen, Roald Kåre; Rosnes, Jan Thomas; Torsvik, Terje; Lien, Torleiv

    1994-01-01

    A hyperthermophilic sulfate reducer, strain 7324, was isolated from hot (75°C) oil field waters from an oil production platform in the Norwegian sector of the North Sea. It was enriched on a complex medium and isolated on lactate with sulfate. The cells were nonmotile, irregular coccoid to disc shaped, and 0.3 to 1.0 ?m wide. The temperature for growth was between 60 and 85°C with an optimum of 76°C. Lactate, pyruvate, and valerate plus H2 were utilized as carbon and energy sources with sulfate as electron acceptor. Lactate was completely oxidized to CO2. The cells contained an active carbon monoxide dehydrogenase but no 2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase activity, indicating that lactate was oxidized to CO2 via the acetyl coenzyme A/carbon monoxide dehydrogenase pathway. The cells produced small amounts of methane simultaneously with sulfate reduction. F420 was detected in the cells which showed a blue-green fluorescence at 420 nm. On the basis of morphological, physiological, and serological features, the isolate was classified as an Archaeoglobus sp. Strain 7324 showed 100% DNA-DNA homology with A. fulgidus Z, indicating that it belongs to the species A. fulgidus. Archaeoglobus sp. has been selectively enriched and immunomagnetically captured from oil field waters from three different platforms in the North Sea. Our results show that strain 7324 may grow in oil reservoirs at 70 to 85°C and contribute to hydrogen sulfide formation in this environment. Images PMID:16349231

  13. Clay-oil droplet suspensions in electric fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rozynek, Zbigniew; Fossum, Jon Otto; Kjerstad, Knut; Mikkelsen, Alexander; Castberg, Rene

    2012-02-01

    Silicone oil droplets containing synthetic smectite clay submerged in immiscible organic oil have been studied by observing clay particle movement and oil circulation when an electric field is applied. Results show how electric field strength, dielectric and electrorheological properties as well as electrohydrodynamics determine the fluid flow and clay particle formation. In a presence of the DC electric fields the clay particles formed a ribbon-like structure onto the inner surface of the droplet. The structure consists of short chain-like clay elements orienting parallel to the electric field direction. It is suggested that a combination of two phenomena, namely the induced viscous flow (electrohydrodynamic effect) and the polarization of the clay particles (dielectric effect), contribute to the ribbon-like structure formation. -/abstract- References [1] G. Taylor, Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Series A. Mathematical and Physical Sciences 291 (1966) 159--166. [2] J. R. Melcher and G. I. Taylor, Annual Review of Fluid Mechanics 1 (1969) 111--146. [3] H. Sato, N. Kaji, T. Mochizuki, and Y. H. Mori, Physics of Fluids 18 (2006) 127101. [4] D. A. Saville, Annual Review of Fluid Mechanics 29 (1997) 27--64. [5] J. O. Fossum, Y. M'eheust, K. P. S. Parmar, K. D. Knudsen, K. J. Måløy, and D. M. Fonseca Europhysics Letters 74

  14. Oil gravity distribution in the diatomite at South Belridge Field, Kern County, CA: Implications for oil sourcing and migration

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, D.W.; Sande, J.J. [Shell Western E& P Inc., Bakersfield, CA (United States); Doe, P.H. [Shell Development Co., Houston, TX (United States)

    1995-04-01

    Understanding oil gravity distribution in the Belridge Diatomite has led to economic infill development and specific enhanced recovery methods for targeted oil properties. To date more than 100 wells have provided samples used to determining vertical and areal distribution of oil gravity in the field. Detailed geochemical analyses were also conducted on many of the oil samples to establish different oil types, relative maturities, and to identify transformed oils. The geochemical analysis also helped identify source rock expulsion temperatures and depositional environments. The data suggests that the Belridge diatomite has been charged by a single hydrocarbon source rock type and was generated over a relatively wide range of temperatures. Map and statistical data support two distinct oil segregation processes occurring post expulsion. Normal gravity segregation within depositional cycles of diatomite have caused lightest oils to migrate to the crests of individual cycle structures. Some data suggests a loss of the light end oils in the uppermost cycles to the Tulare Formation above, or through early biodegradation. Structural rotation post early oil expulsion has also left older, heavier oils concentrated on the east flank of the structure. With the addition of other samples from the south central San Joaquin area, we have been able to tie the Belridge diatomite hydrocarbon charge into a regional framework. We have also enhanced our ability to predict oil gravity and well primary recovery by unraveling some key components of the diatomite oil source and migration history.

  15. Structural evolution of Harmaliyah oil field, eastern Saudi Arabia

    SciTech Connect

    Ibrahim, M.W. (Kenton Court, London, England); Khan, M.S.; Khatib, H.

    1981-11-01

    The history of structural growth of the Harmaliyah oil field in eastern Saudi Arabia was studied by means of a series of paleostructural maps to determine if early entrapment of hydrocarbons played an important role in preserving the high porosity of the Kimmeridgian (Upper Jurassic) Arab D reservoir. The Arab D has been affected by shallow or preburial diagenesis - a common feature in Arabian Upper Jurassic calcarenitic reservoirs. Closure forming the structural trap in the Arab D at Harmaliyah oil field developed principally during the late Turonian (Late Cretaceous). During Kimmeridgian (Late Jurassic)-early Turonian (Late Cretaceous) time, shallow or preburial diagenesis of the calcarenitic Arab D reservoir rocks seems to have played a major part in preservation of porosity before the porosity was filled with hydrocarbons.

  16. Niger delta oil production, reserves, field sizes assessed

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, D. [Thomas and Associates, Hastings (United Kingdom)

    1995-11-13

    The article presents tables and figures showing the reserve estimates and production histories of the 252 fields in the Niger delta, then makes forecasts of the likelihood of discoveries above a given size. The paper discusses oil reserves, development programs, drilling and 3D seismic surveying, secondary and tertiary EOR, reserve incentives, production facilities, capital spending required, Nigerian export blends, and the trend in these blends.

  17. Crosshole EM for oil field characterization and EOR monitoring: Field examples from Lost Hills, California

    SciTech Connect

    Wilt, M.; Schenkel, C.; Wratcher, M.; Lambert, I.; Torres-Verdin, C.; Tseng H.W.

    1996-07-16

    A steamflood recently initiated by Mobil Development and Production U.S. at the Lost Hills No 3 oil field in California is notable for its shallow depth and the application of electromagnetic (EM) geophysical techniques to monitor the subsurface steam flow. Steam was injected into three stacked eastward-dipping unconsolidated oil sands at depths from 60 to 120 m; the plume is expected to develop as an ellipsoid aligned with the regional northwest-southeast strike. Because of the shallow depth of the sands and the high viscosity of the heavy oil, it is important to track the steam in the unconsolidated sediments for both economic and safety reasons. Crosshole and surface-to-borehole electromagnetic imaging were applied for reservoir characterization and steamflood monitoring. The crosshole EM data were collected to map the interwell distribution of the high-resistivity oil sands and to track the injected steam and hot water. Measurements were made in two fiberglass-cased observation wells straddling the steam injector on a northeast-southwest profile. Field data were collected before the steam drive, to map the distribution of the oil sands, and then 6 and 10 months after steam was injected, to monitor the expansion of the steam chest. Resistivity images derived from the collected data clearly delineated the distribution and dipping structure of the target oil sands. Difference images from data collected before and during steamflooding indicate that the steam chest has developed only in the middle and lower oil sands, and it has preferentially migrated westward in the middle oil sand and eastward in the deeper sand. Surface-to-borehole field data sets at Lost Hills were responsive to the large-scale subsurface structure but insufficiently sensitive to model steam chest development in the middle and lower oil sands. As the steam chest develops further, these data will be of more use for process monitoring.

  18. Greater Burgan of Kuwait: world's second largest oil field

    SciTech Connect

    Youash, Y.Y.

    1989-03-01

    Greater Burgan (Main burgan, Magwa, and Ahmadi) field is located in the Arabian Platform geologic province and the stable shelf tectonic environment of the Mesopotamian geosyncline, a sedimentary basin extending from the Arabian shield on the west to the complexly folded and faulted Zagros Mountains on the east. The structural development in Cretaceous time represents a major anticlinorium bounded by a basin to the west and a synclinorium to the east. Greater Burgan is located within this anticlinorium. The field consists of three dome structures 25 km wide and 65 km long with gentle dips of only few degrees. Faults have little throw and did not contribute to the trapping mechanism. The structural deformation may have been caused by halokinetic movements and most likely by basement block faulting that may have started in the Paleozoic. Greater Burgan was discovered in 1938. All production during the last 40 years has been by its natural pressure. Although natural gas injection has been carried out for some time, no waterflooding has been initiated yet. Recoverable reserves of the field are 87 billion bbl of oil. During the last 5 years giant reserves have been added in this field from the deeper strata of Jurassic age. Several deep wells have been drilled to the Permian for the purpose of discovering gas. So far, no Permian gas has been found in Kuwait. The Permian is 25,000 ft deep, and it is unlikely gas will be found there in the future. However, the potential of the Jurassic reservoirs will be a major target in the future. Also, there is a great possibility of discovering oil in stratigraphic traps, as several producing strata in the nearby fields pinch out on the flanks of this giant structure. Enhanced oil recovery should add significant reserves in the future.

  19. Environmental contaminants in oil field produced waters discharged into wetlands

    SciTech Connect

    Ramirez, P. Jr. [Fish and Wildlife Service, Cheyenne, WY (United States)

    1994-12-31

    The 866-acre Loch Katrine wetland complex in Park County, Wyoming provides habitat for many species of aquatic birds. The complex is sustained primarily by oil field produced waters. This study was designed to determine if constituents in oil field produced waters discharged into Custer Lake and to Loch Katrine pose a risk to aquatic birds inhabiting the wetlands. Trace elements, hydrocarbons and radium-226 concentrations were analyzed in water, sediment and biota collected from the complex during 1992. Arsenic, boron, radium-226 and zinc were elevated in some matrices. The presence of radium-226 in aquatic vegetation suggests that this radionuclide is available to aquatic birds. Oil and grease concentrations in water from the produced water discharge exceeded the maximum 10 mg/l permitted by the WDEQ (1990). Total aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbon concentrations in sediments were highest at the produced water discharge, 6.376 {mu}g/g, followed by Custer Lake, 1.104 {mu}g/g. The higher levels of hydrocarbons found at Custer Lake, compared to Loch Katrine, may be explained by Custer Lake`s closer proximity to the discharge. Benzo(a)pyrene was not detected in bile from gadwalls collected at Loch Katrine but was detected in bile from northern shovelers collected at Custer Lake. Benzo(a)pyrene concentrations in northern shoveler bile ranged from 500 to 960 ng/g (ppb) wet weight. The presence of benzo(a)pyrene in the shovelers indicates exposure to petroleum hydrocarbons.

  20. Geology of Terra Nova oil field, Grand Banks, Newfoundland

    SciTech Connect

    Dwyer, J.D.; Sullivan, G.W.; Park, J.

    1986-05-01

    Oil was discovered at the Petro-Canada et al Terra Nova K-08 well in May 1984. The well was drilled in the Jeanne d'Arc subbasin, 340 km east of St. John's, Newfoundland, and 35 km southeast of the giant Hibernia oil field. Follow-up wells provided log correlations and core data that have been used with a three-dimensional seismic survey to construct a geologic model. Mapping the field demonstrated a combination structural-stratigraphic trap. The reservoir is within the lower part of the Jeanne d'Arc sequence (Upper Jurassic). This conglomeratic sandstone is interpreted as having been deposited in a nearshore to fluvial setting by basinward, northward progradation of fan-delta systems. The reservoir has a depositional limit updip to the south, and is overstepped and sealed by transgressive shales of the upper Jeanne d'Arc. Oil source is from the underlying Egret (Oxfordian-Kimmeridgian) argillaceous limestones. The geologic model and seismic interpretation have been tested by appraisal drilling.

  1. Low-field NMR determinations of the properties of heavy oils and water-in-oil emulsions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. A LaTorraca; K. J Dunn; P. R Webber; R. M Carlson

    1998-01-01

    Low-field (<50 mT) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) well-logging measurements are beginning to be used to obtain estimates of oil viscosity in situ. To build an interpretive capability, we made laboratory T1 and T2 relaxation measurements on a suite of high-density, high-viscosity crude oils. These measurements were also used to estimate oil viscosity and water fraction from T1 and T2 measurements

  2. CO2 Injection for Tertiary Oil Recovery, Granny's Creek Field, Clay County, West Virginia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Royal Watts; William Conner; James Wasson; Albert Yost II

    1982-01-01

    Columbia Gas Transmission Corporation, with financial assistance from the US DOE,planned and operated an Enhanced Oil Recovery Project in the Granny's Creek oil field, Clay County, West Virginia. The objective of the field test was to determine the feasibility and economics of recovering additional oil from a (flooded-out) low-oil saturated reservoir using carbon dioxide (COâ) for miscible displacement of residual

  3. South Belridge Field reaches milestone with its billionth barrel of crude oil

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rintoul

    1995-01-01

    An 84-year-old California oil field which for at least the first two decades of its life was regarded as one of the minor fields of Kern County in May reached a plateau attained previously by only 11 fields in the United States. The South Belridge field 35 miles west of Bakersfield produced its one billionth barrel of oil, thus qualifying

  4. Tertiary development of heavy oil sands through thermal stimulation in the Wilmington Oil Field, California: A geological perspective

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. D. Clarke; M. J. Henry; R. W. Strehle

    1996-01-01

    In 1995, a DOE cost share project was initiated to extend thermal recovery in the Tar Zone, Fault Block 11 of the West Wilmington Oil Field, California. The project involved the collection of old oil well data and the construction of a modern digital data base in order to develop a deterministic geological model. The plan was to rigorously define

  5. Applications of water-soluble polymers in the oil field

    SciTech Connect

    Chatterji, J.; Borchardt, J.K.

    1981-11-01

    Water-soluble polymers commonly used in the oil field are reviewed. The properties of guar, guar derivatives, cellulose derivatives, xanthan gum, locust bean gum, starches, and synthetic polymers, especially polyacrylamides, are discussed and related to chemical structures of the polymers. Original data comparing polymer solution viscosity properties under identical conditions are presented. These data include effect of polymer concentration on solution viscosity, temperature effect on solution viscosity, viscosity in acidic solution, and polymer solution viscosity in the presence of a hemicellulase enzyme. 105 refs.

  6. Methanococcus thermolithotrophicus Isolated from North Sea Oil Field Reservoir Water

    PubMed Central

    Nilsen, R. K.; Torsvik, T.

    1996-01-01

    Methanococcus thermolithotrophicus ST22 was isolated from produced water of a North Sea oil field, on mineral medium with H(inf2)-CO(inf2) as the sole source of carbon and energy. The isolate grew at 17 to 62(deg)C, with an optimum at 60(deg)C. The pH range was 4.9 to 9.8, with optimal growth at pH 5.1 to 5.9; these characteristics reflected its habitat. Strain ST22 was quickly identified and distinguished from the type strain by immunoblotting. PMID:16535247

  7. Preliminary investigation of the applicability of underground coal gasification technology for the production of oil from oil shale deposits and residual oil fields. [Near

    SciTech Connect

    Trudell, L.G.

    1986-07-01

    A preliminary investigation was conducted to find fossil fuel resources, other than tar sands and heavy oil deposits, that are suitably associated with coal for potential application of underground coal gasification (UCG) technology to provide heat for production of liquid hydrocarbons. Preliminary evaluations of UCG applications for in situ retorting of oil shale and for thermal enhanced oil recovery (EOR) from abandoned oil fields indicate large areas where deposits may be suitably associated. Major resources of Devonian-Mississippian black shales and Carboniferous coal occur in the same regions in the Appalachian Basin, Michigan Basin, Eastern Interior Basin (Illinois Basin), and possibly in eastern Oklahoma. Possibilities for UCG applications to Green River oil shales are limited to a few localities on the flanks of the Rock Springs uplift and Wamsutter arch in Wyoming and on the west edge of the Piceance Basin in Colorado. Because conventional primary and secondary oil recovery processes leave 30% to 60% of the oil in the ground, all oil fields that are suitable for thermal EOR processes and are close enough to coal deposits are potential candidates for use of UCG combustible gas and sensible heat. Such relationships are likely to occur in any of the major coal-bearing regions of the eastern United States and in many of the sedimentary basins of the Rocky Mountain coal province. Oil fields and lignite deposits may occur close together in the Gulf Coastal Plains and northern Great Plains. 19 refs., 2 figs.

  8. Low-field NMR determinations of the properties of heavy oils and water-in-oil emulsions.

    PubMed

    LaTorraca, G A; Dunn, K J; Webber, P R; Carlson, R M

    1998-01-01

    Low-field (< 50 mT) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) well-logging measurements are beginning to be used to obtain estimates of oil viscosity in situ. To build an interpretive capability, we made laboratory T1 and T2 relaxation measurements on a suite of high-density, high-viscosity crude oils. These measurements were also used to estimate oil viscosity and water fraction from T1 and T2 measurements on stable, water-in-oil emulsions. High-density, high-viscosity oils have components that relax faster than can be measured by nuclear magnetic resonance logging tools. This requires corrections to T2 logging measurements for accurate estimates of oil saturation and porosity. PMID:9803933

  9. Geochemistry of oil-field water from the North Slope

    SciTech Connect

    Kharaka, Y.K.; Carothers, W.W.

    1989-01-01

    Knowledge of the chemical composition of oil-field water is important in understanding the origin and migration of petroleum as well as the water mineral reactions that affect the porosity and permeability of the reservoir rocks. This knowledge is essential in interpreting electric logs and in determining potential pollution, corrosion, and disposal problems of water produced with oil and gas. Finally, the chemical composition of water is an important factor in determining the conditions (temperature, pressure) for the formation of clathrates. This chapter reports detailed chemical analyses of seven formation-water samples from wells within the NPRA and one surface-and two formation-water samples from the Prudhoe Bay oil field. The authors also report {delta}D and {delta}{sup 18}O values for eight of the water samples as well as analyses for gases from six wells. The formation-water samples were obtained from depths ranging from about 700 to 2800 m and from reservoir rocks ranging in age from Mississippian (Lisburne Group) to Triassic. The reservoir rocks are sandstone except for sample 79-AK-5, which was obtained from a limestone interbedded with sandstone. Generally, the pre-Cretaceous sandstone reservoir rocks on the North Slope have a similar mineral composition. Van de Kamp (1979) gave the following description of these sandstones: Quartz (usually monocrystalline) and chert are the major components; carbonate and clay are variable. Carbonate occurs as detrital grains and as cement, siderite being the most common type. Siderite can form as much as 30 percent of the rock. Clay occurs as a common matrix, generally making up less than 10 percent of the rock. Accessory minerals include pyrite, plagioclase, microcline, glauconite, zircon, sphene, tourmaline, and muscovite.

  10. Work Related Injuries in an Oil field in Oman

    PubMed Central

    Al-Rubaee, Faisal Rabia; Al-Maniri, Abdullah

    2011-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this paper is to describe the epidemiology of occupational injuries in the Harweel oil field, Oman. Methods The study is based on data gathered from a computerized database maintained by Petroleum Development of Oman (PDO). All non-fatal work-related occupational injuries registered between April 2007 and December 2009 were gathered and analyzed. Results A total of 170 work-related injuries were reported during the study period. Foreign body to the eye was the most common type of injury (27.6%) encountered among all injuries, followed by man falls/slips (11.8%). Injury to the upper extremities accounted for the largest percentage (38.8%) among other body parts. While, a significant portion of the injuries (52%) affected workers aged less than 30 years. The average injury rate per 1000 exposed workers per year was 19.8. Conclusion The study outlines the types of injuries most commonly encountered in the oil field in Oman. Additional data is required in order to devise proper epidemiological analysis. Establishing a comprehensive surveillance system for injuries is essential to ascertain factors influencing such injuries. PMID:22125724

  11. Silverthread oil field, Ventura County, California: a hydrodynamic trap

    SciTech Connect

    Hacker, R.N.; Hester, R.L.

    1987-05-01

    Silverthread oil field is located in west-central Ventura County, California. An unusual combination of Miocene turbidite sand deposition, tight folding, faulting, and hydrodynamics have created an accumulation of over 6 million bbl of oil from 33 wells. This field is also unique in that it lies beneath the convergence of several opposing major thrust faults which effectively hide any surface indication of structure at depth. Though previously and often explored by majors and other operators, the remarkable deduction and perseverance by Harry Browne and Argo Petroleum Corporation geologists led to the main area discovery in 1971. Of exceptional interest is the interaction of classic hydrodynamic flow on the distribution of fluids within the reservoir. Thirteen contour maps and numerous structure and stratigraphic sections were required to unravel the sand sequence, faulting, structure, and hydrodynamics. Because of high surface relief, most wells were directionally drilled from islands, and subsequent electric logs had to be unstretched using the Dental Dam technique to facilitate their correlation. A large, lighted, three-dimensional model consisting of thirty-six 2 x 5-ft transparent plexiglas plates was constructed to show a simple resolution of the complexities of this area and will be part of the poster session. This display, they believe, will generate considerable interest in their presentation.

  12. Disposal of brackish water concentrate into depleted oil and gas fields: a texas study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jean-Philippe Nicot; Ali H. Chowdhury

    2005-01-01

    Disposal of concentrate from brackish water desalination plants by deep well injection into oil and gas fields is an attractive option in Texas. Underpressured depleted oil and gas reservoirs cover large areas of the state. Six areas were selected from across Texas for detailed analysis. These sites were characterized by abundant brackish groundwater, a projected shortage of freshwater, depleted oil

  13. FIELD TEST KIT FOR CHARACTERIZING OIL-BRINE EFFLUENTS FROM OFFSHORE DRILLING PLATFORMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This research program was initiated to evaluate test methods for characterizing oil-brine effluents from offshore oil production platforms and to package and deliver a field test kit for on-site oil-brine analyses. After an initial laboratory evaluation and selection of test meth...

  14. Chemical Characterization of Brines from Selected Oil Fields, Tabasco, México

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Méndez-Ortiz, B.; Carrillo-Chavez, A.; Tritlla, J.; Levresse, G.; Gonzalez-Partida, E.; Oviedo-Perez, A.; Martinez-Kepm, H.; Gonzalez-Posadas, F.; Clara-Valdes, L.

    2004-12-01

    Thirteen brine samples were recovered from nine oil-producing wells in the Agave (Cretaceous) and Saramako (Cretaceous and Tertiary) oil fields. These samples were analyzed for major and trace elements as well as O and D isotopic compositions. The goal of this study was to compare the possible links between oil-related brines enclosed within Cretaceous and Tertiary productive horizons that were thought to have similar origin oils. The salinity of the Saramako Cretaceous and Tertiary horizons is very constant, around 30000 ppm, one to six times lower than the salinities found in the Agave Cretaceous Field (from 45000 to 170000 ppm). Major ion chemistry suggests that brines are in equilibrium with the host rock. One of the main difference, besides Mg, resides in the S concentrations, were Agave samples present lower concentrations, probably related to the presence of abundant sulfides in the aquifer's rock. Halogen (Br, Cl) systematics indicates a different origin for the Saramako and Agave brines. The Saramako samples halogen composition plot near normal seawater both in the Na/Cl vs Cl/Br (molar ratios) and the Cl vs Br (ppm) plots. The Agave halogen data scatter near and underneath the seawater evaporation line in the Na/Cl vs Cl/Br (molar ratios), suggesting that these fluids could represent seawater evolved past the point of halite precipitation. The Cl vs Br (ppm) plot indicates that these fluids undergone some degree of mixing with low-salinity fluids, probably seawater. The presence of two different groups of data suggests the compartment of the aquifer. The \\deltaD and \\delta18O data show strong differences between the Saramako and Agave brines. The Saramako brine \\delta18O and \\deltaD isotopic compositions are +2.1% (VSMOW) and -13.8% respectively. The Agave samples have a \\delta18O composition from +4.3% to +6.0% and \\deltaD isotopic composition from -20.0% to -12.6%. Differences in \\delta18O compositions between Saramako and Agave brines indicate that the latter fluids were in equilibrium with the host dolostones at certain temperature. Saramako brine composition indicates a near-pristine seawater origin. Agave brines chemical composition suggests an origin related with a bittern formed after evaporation of seawater past the point of halite precipitation, subsequently mixed with seawater. Oxygen isotopic compositions reflect both different host rock and water to rock interaction phenomena, whereas hydrogen isotopic composition can be modified by diagenetic reactions.

  15. Chemically bonded phosphate ceramic sealant formulations for oil field applications

    DOEpatents

    Wagh, Arun S. (Naperville, IL); Jeong, Seung-Young (Taejon, KR); McDaniel, Richard (Crest Hill, IL)

    2008-10-21

    A sealant for an oil or geothermal well capable of setting within about 3 to about 6 hours at temperatures less than about 250.degree. F. for shallow wells less than about 10,000 feet and deep wells greater than about 10,000 feet having MgO present in the range of from about 9.9 to about 14.5%, KH.sub.2PO.sub.4 present in the range of from about 29.7 to about 27.2%, class C fly ash present in the range of from about 19.8 to about 36.3%, class F fly ash present in the range of from about 19.8 to about 0%, boric acid or borax present in the range of from about 0.39 to about 1.45%, and water present in the range of from about 20.3 to about 21.86% by weight of the sealant.A method of sealing wells is disclosed as are compositions for very high temperature wells is disclosed as is a composition for treating oil field wastes.

  16. A novel associating polymer for oil field water clarification application

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, H.W.; Pacansky, T.J.; Jacques, D.M.

    1988-05-01

    A cationic hydrophobically associating terpolymer, C-RAM, based on methacrylamidopropyltrimethyl ammonium chloride (C), t=octyl acrylamide (R), and acrylamide (Am) has been synthesized by an inverse emulsion polymerization technique. The finished product shows good stability, high total solids, and high molecular weight at low viscosity. This product has been developed primarily for oily water clarification in the oil field. Factors affecting product performance such as charge density, hydrophobe level, molecular weight, reaction conditions, and inverting surfactants have been investigated and optimized. Extended full scale Wemco plant test results show that this product can produce cleaner water at two to three times lower treat rate than currently used products. The plant filter backwash frequency is also significantly reduced thus resulting in a lower maintenance cost of the water treating plant.

  17. Unusual high acidity oils from the Great Palogue Field, Melut Basin, Sudan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lirong Dou; Dingsheng Cheng; Maowen Li; Kunye Xiao; Buqing Shi; Zhi Li

    2008-01-01

    Crude oils produced from the Great Palogue Field in the Melut Basin, Sudan display unusually high total acid number values (TAN, up to 10.4mg KOH\\/g oil). This field was discovered in 2002 and produces oils of highly variable (15–31°) API gravity. The main production comes from the Paleogene Samma and Yabus Formations, with the Upper Cretaceous Melut Formation being a

  18. Oil field effluent water treatment for safe disposal by electroflotation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rupesh M. Bande; B. Prasad; I. M. Mishra; Kailas L. Wasewar

    2008-01-01

    The separation of finely dispersed oil from oil–water emulsion was carried out in an electroflotation cell which has a set of perforated aluminium electrodes. The effect of operating parameters on the performance of batch cell were examined. The parameters investigated are pH, voltage, oil concentration, flotation time, and salinity. The batch experiments have been conducted to optimize electrical input in

  19. Operational use of neem oil as an alternative anopheline larvicide. Part A: laboratory and field efficacy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    O. M. Awad; A. Shimaila

    We conducted a study to determine the laboratory and field efficacy of neem oil towards anopheline larvae. No difference in LC50 was observed between laboratory and field strains for temephos, chlorpyriphos-methyl\\/fenitrothion and neem oil. No difference in susceptibility was found after 3 months of application every 2 weeks. Water treated with a single application of traditional larvicides was free of

  20. Microseismic monitoring of the Chaveroo oil field, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Rutledge, J.T.; Albright, J.N.

    1990-02-06

    Microseismicity was monitored in the Chaveroo oil field in southeastern New Mexico during, and for 5 weeks following, a pressurized stimulation of a well being prepared as an injector for a water flood operation. Three-thousand barrels of water were injected into the reservoir over a 5.5-hour period. Little seismicity was detected during the stimulation. Intermittent monitoring over a 5-week period following the injection indicated detectable seismicity occurring with activity levels varying in time. The most active period recorded occurred just after production resumed in the immediate area of the monitor well. Mapping the microearthquakes using the hodogram technique indicates the events occur along linear trends which corroborate known structural trends of the field. Seismicity trends were defined both parallel and perpendicular to the regionally defined maximum horizontal stress direction. Seventy-three good quality events were recorded, in a cumulative 24 hour period, from which structures were mapped up to 3000 ft from the monitor well. 13 refs., 9 figs.

  1. Increasing Heavy Oil Reserves in the Wilmington Oil Field through Advanced Reservoir Characterization and Thermal Production Technologies

    SciTech Connect

    City of Long Beach; David K.Davies and Associates; Tidelands Oil Production Company; University of Southern California

    1999-06-25

    The objective of this project is to increase the recoverable heavy oil reserves within sections of the Wilmington Oil Field, near Long Beach, California. This is realized through the testing and application of advanced reservoir characterization and thermal production technologies. It is hoped that the successful application of these technologies will result in their implementation throughout the Wilmington Field and through technology transfer, will be extended to increase the recoverable oil reserves in other slope and basin clastic (SBC) reservoirs. The existing steamflood in the Tar zone of Fault Block (FB) II-A has been relatively insufficient because of several producability problems which are common in SBC reservoir; inadequate characterization of the heterogeneous turbidite sands, high permeability thief zones, low gravity oil and non-uniform distribution of the remaining oil. This has resulted in poor sweep efficiency, high steam-oil ratios, and early breakthrough. Operational problems related to steam breakthrough, high reservoir pressure, and unconsolidated sands have caused premature well and downhole equipment failures. In aggregate, these reservoir and operational constraints have resulted in increased operating costs and decreased recoverable reserves.

  2. Basement reservoir in Zeit Bay oil field, Gulf of Suez

    SciTech Connect

    Zahran, I.; Askary, S.

    1988-01-01

    Fractured basement, one of the most important reservoirs of Zeit Bay field, contains nearly one-third of oil in place of the field. The flow rates per well vary from 700 to 9,000 BOPD. Due to its well-established production potential, 60% of the wells for the development of the field were drilled down to basement. The Zeit Bay basement consist of granitic rocks of pegmatitic to coarse porphyritic texture and has equal proportions of alkali feldspars. Dykes of various compositions are present, traversing the granite at different intervals. Dykes include aplite, microsyenite, diabase and lamprophyre. The last two pertain to the post-granitic dykes of later Proterozoic age. The main granitic luton is related to one of the final stages of the tectonic-magmatic cycle of the Arabo-Nubian sheild. The Zeit Bay area was a significant paleohigh until the Miocene, hence its structural picture is very complicated due to the impact of different tectonic movements from the late Precambrian to Cenozoic. The resulting structural elements were carefully investigated and statistically analyzed to decipher the influence of various tectonic events. The presence of high porosity in some intervals and low porosity in others could be tied to the presence of new fractures and the nature of cementing minerals. The relation of mineralized fractures and their depths lead to zonation of porous layers in the granitic pluton. Diagenetic processes on the granitic body and the alternation/resedimentation of the diagenetic products controlled the magnitude and amplitude of the porosity layers.

  3. Basement reservoir in Zeit Bay oil field, Gulf of Suez

    SciTech Connect

    Zahran, I.; Askary, S.

    1988-02-01

    Fractured basement, one of the most important reservoirs of Zeit Bay field, contains nearly one-third of oil in place of the field. The flow rates per well vary from 700 to 9,000 BOPD. Due to its well-established production potential, 60% of the wells for the development of the field were drilled down to basement. The Zeit Bay basement consists of granitic rocks of pegmatitic to coarse porphyritic texture and has equal proportions of alkali feldspars. Dykes of various compositions are present, traversing the granite at different intervals. Dykes include aplite, microsyenite, diabase and lamprophyre. The last two pertain to the post-granitic dykes of late Proterozoic age. The main granitic pluton is related to one of the final stages of the tectonic-magmatic cycle of the Arabo-Nubian shield. The Zeit Bay area was a significant paleohigh until the Miocene, hence its structural picture is very complicated due to the impact of different tectonic movements from the late Precambrian to Cenozoic. The resulting structural elements were carefully investigated and statistically analyzed to decipher the influence of various tectonic events. The presence of high porosity in some intervals and low porosity in others could be tied to the presence of new fractures and the nature of cementing minerals. The relation of mineralized fractures and their depths lead to zonation of porous layers in the granitic pluton. Diagenetic processes on the granitic body and the alteration/resedimentation of the diagenetic products controlled the magnitude and amplitude of the porosity layers. A model has been constructed to illustrate the changes in the primary rock texture and structure with sequential diagenetic processes, taking into consideration the fracture distribution and their opening affinities as related to their depths.

  4. Microseismic monitoring of the Chaveroo oil field, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Rutledge, J.T.; Albright, J.N.; Fairbanks, T.D.; Murphy, M.B.; Roberts, P.M.

    1990-01-01

    Induced microseismicity was monitored in the Chaveroo oil field in southeastern New Mexico during a pressurized stimulation of a well being prepared as an injector for a waterflood operation. In addition, the microseismicity was monitored for 5 weeks following the stimulation while the area was under normal waterflood production. Little seismicity was detected during the 5.5 hour stimulation in which three thousand barrels of water were injected into the reservoir at pressures ranging from 96 to 257 bars in excess of hydrostatic pressure. Intermittent monitoring over the 5-week period indicated detectable seismicity occurred during waterflood production. Monitoring during the 5 weeks, however, was not complete enough to draw general conclusions on temporal variations of observed microseismicity. Seventy-three good quality events recorded over a cumulative 24 hours of intermittent monitoring were located using the hodogram technique. Events were detected at distances up to 1700 m from the monitor well but most occurred within 900 m. The map of microearthquake locations indicated that events occurred in the vicinity of producing wells and away from injection wells. The first half of the sequence of mappable events occurred along linear trends, but the pattern became more scattered during the later half of the sequence. The lack of seismicity during the pressurized injection and the increased seismicity levels occurring away from injection wells during waterflood production, suggest seismicity is not induced by Mohr-Coulomb failure. 6 refs., 6 figs.

  5. Case history -- Reddell Oil Field -- Evangeline Parish, Louisiana

    SciTech Connect

    Austin, C.T. [Austin Exploration Inc., Houston, TX (United States)

    1996-12-31

    The purpose of this paper is to give the gravity meter credit as the main geophysical method used in the discovery of the Reddell Oil Field in Evangeline Parish, Louisiana. LL&E provided me with gravity data to use in the calculation of a salt model of the Reddell Salt Dome. The purpose of the study was to define the structure so the truncation of three (3) prospective sands in the Wilcox, Lower Eocene could be determined. The interpretation of the Reeddell Dome was complicated by the influence of the nearby Pine Prairie Salt Dome and both had to be modeled. A regional gravity was removed from the Bouguer gravity to give a Residual Gravity Map representing the gravity response to the salt domes. Gamma-gamma density logs were used to determine the density of the sediments and the contrasting densities between the sediments and the consistent salt density. Another input for the computer modeling program was a reference surface; in this case the top of the Louann salt, Lower Jurassic. The digital data are gridded with a square grid that is appropriate for the gravity control. The reference surface becomes a series of prisms whose height is a variable. The modeling program uses an iterative procedure to develop a salt structure whose computed gravity matches the input gravity. The domes were successfully modeled from the gravity and a discovery well was drilled at the Reddell Dome. This dome was later developed along with the Pine Prairie Dome.

  6. Case history -- Reddell Oil Field -- Evangeline Parish, Louisiana

    SciTech Connect

    Austin, C.T. (Austin Exploration Inc., Houston, TX (United States))

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to give the gravity meter credit as the main geophysical method used in the discovery of the Reddell Oil Field in Evangeline Parish, Louisiana. LL E provided me with gravity data to use in the calculation of a salt model of the Reddell Salt Dome. The purpose of the study was to define the structure so the truncation of three (3) prospective sands in the Wilcox, Lower Eocene could be determined. The interpretation of the Reeddell Dome was complicated by the influence of the nearby Pine Prairie Salt Dome and both had to be modeled. A regional gravity was removed from the Bouguer gravity to give a Residual Gravity Map representing the gravity response to the salt domes. Gamma-gamma density logs were used to determine the density of the sediments and the contrasting densities between the sediments and the consistent salt density. Another input for the computer modeling program was a reference surface; in this case the top of the Louann salt, Lower Jurassic. The digital data are gridded with a square grid that is appropriate for the gravity control. The reference surface becomes a series of prisms whose height is a variable. The modeling program uses an iterative procedure to develop a salt structure whose computed gravity matches the input gravity. The domes were successfully modeled from the gravity and a discovery well was drilled at the Reddell Dome. This dome was later developed along with the Pine Prairie Dome.

  7. Vertical magnetic field and its analytic signal applicability in oil field underground pipeline detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Zhiyong; Liu, Dejun; Pan, Qi; Zhang, Yingying; Li, Yi; Wang, Zheng

    2015-06-01

    We propose using the vertical component of the magnetic anomaly (vertical magnetic field (VMF)) and its analytic signal (AS) to detect oil field underground pipelines. The connection between two peaks of the VMF curves or the AS curves was used to calculate the pipeline azimuth, and the peak coordinates of the AS were used to determine the horizontal position of pipelines. Then, the effect of the pipeline magnetization direction and pipeline buried depth on the horizontal locating error was analyzed. Three typical pipeline models were used for verifying this method. Results indicate that this method can be used to precisely calculate the stretch direction of the pipeline and effectively improve the identification capability in detecting parallel pipelines. The horizontal position of the pipeline axis can be accurately located by the peak of the AS and the locating error increases with the increase in pipeline buried depth, but it is not affected by pipeline outer diameter, thickness, susceptibility. The instrument design and the VMF measurement strategy are realistic and applicable. The VMF detection with its AS provides a new effective method for horizontal locating and direction calculating of oil field underground pipelines.

  8. An Analysis of the Distribution and Economics of Oil Fields for Enhanced Oil Recovery-Carbon Capture and Storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, Kristyn Ann

    The rising carbon dioxide emissions contributing to climate change has lead to the examination of potential ways to mitigate the environmental impact. One such method is through the geological sequestration of carbon (CCS). Although there are several different forms of geological sequestration (i.e. Saline Aquifers, Oil and Gas Reservoirs, Unminable Coal Seams) the current projects are just initiating the large scale-testing phase. The lead entry point into CCS projects is to combine the sequestration with enhanced oil recovery (EOR) due to the improved economic model as a result of the oil recovery and the pre-existing knowledge of the geological structures. The potential scope of CCS-EOR projects throughout the continental United States in terms of a systematic examination of individual reservoir storage potential has not been examined. Instead the majority of the research completed has centered on either estimating the total United States storage potential or the potential of a single specific reservoir. The purpose of this paper is to examine the relationship between oil recovery, carbon dioxide storage and cost during CCS-EOR. The characteristics of the oil and gas reservoirs examined in this study from the Nehring Oil and Gas Database were used in the CCS-EOR model developed by Sean McCoy to estimate the lifting and storage costs of the different reservoirs throughout the continental United States. This allows for an examination of both technical and financial viability of CCS-EOR as an intermediate step for future CCS projects in other geological formations. One option for mitigating climate change is to store industrial CO2 emissions in geologic reservoirs as part of a process known as carbon capture and storage (CCS). There is general consensus that large-scale deployment of CCS would best be initiated by combining geologic sequestration with enhanced oil recovery (EOR), which can use CO2 to improve production from declining oil fields. Revenues from the produced oil could help offset the current high costs of CCS. The cumulative potential of CCS-EOR in the continental U.S. has been evaluated in terms of both CO2 storage capacity and additional oil production. This thesis examines the same potential, but on a reservoir-by-reservoir basis. Reservoir properties from the Nehring Oil and Gas Database are used as inputs to a CCS-EOR model developed by McCoy (YR) to estimate the storage capacity, oil production and CCS-EOR costs for over 10,000 oil reservoirs located throughout the continental United States. We find that 86% of the reservoirs could store ?1 y or CO2 emissions from a single 500 MW coal-fired power plant (i.e., 3 Mtons CO2). Less than 1% of the reservoirs, on the other hand, appear capable of storing ?30 y of CO2 emissions from a 500 MW plan. But these larger reservoirs are also estimated to contain 48% of the predicted additional oil that could be produced through CCS-EOR. The McCoy model also predicts that the reservoirs will on average produce 4.5 bbl of oil for each ton of sequestered CO2, a ratio known as the utilization factor. This utilization factor is 1.5 times higher that arrived at by the U.S. Department of Energy, and leads to a cumulative production of oil for all the reservoirs examined of ˜183 billion barrels along with a cumulative storage capacity of 41 Mtons CO2. This is equivalent to 26.5 y of current oil consumption by the nation, and 8.5 y of current coal plant emissions.

  9. ORIGINAL ARTICLE On the origin of oil-field water in the Biyang Depression of China

    E-print Network

    Zhan, Hongbin

    ORIGINAL ARTICLE On the origin of oil-field water in the Biyang Depression of China Yong Fu Æ in the Biyang Depression of China and quantitatively analyzed the chemical features of those samples using to be very low in the groundwater of the Biyang Depression. The concentration of anion in the oil

  10. Composition and Physical Properties of Cress (Lepidium sativum L.) and Field Pennycress (Thlaspi arvense L.) Oils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The fatty acid profile and tocopherol, and phytosterol contents of crude cress (Lepidium sativum L.) and field pennycress (Thlaspi arvense L.) oils are reported, along with yields from the corresponding seeds. The physical properties of these oils were also determined, which included oxidative stab...

  11. Department of Mechanical Engineering Spring 2011 Oil Field Spill Containment System

    E-print Network

    Demirel, Melik C.

    PENNSTATE Department of Mechanical Engineering Spring 2011 Oil Field Spill Containment System Overview Fluids associated with Oil and Gas drilling and fracturing operations must be contained at well to contain spills but their mats are very expensive, difficult to install, and most importantly, not leak

  12. Lessons in microbial geochemistry from the Coal Oil Point seep field: progress as prospects

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. L. Valentine; F. Kinnaman; G. Wardlaw; M. Redmond; H. Ding; J. Kimball; L. Busso; A. Larson

    2005-01-01

    The hydrocarbon seeps located offshore Coal Oil Point, Santa Barbara, CA, are estimated to emit 1010 grams of methane and 50 thousand barrels of oil annually, and are among the most prolific in the world. The seep field spans a range of shelf depths and many of the seeps are accessible by SCUBA, making this an ideal location to investigate

  13. Production and Evaluation of Biodiesel from Field Pennycress (Thlaspi Arvense L.) Oil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Field pennycress (Thlaspi arvense L.) oil is evaluated for the first time as a potential feedstock for biodiesel production. Biodiesel was obtained in 82 wt % yield by a standard transesterification procedure with methanol and sodium methoxide catalyst at 60 deg C and an alcohol to oil ratio of 6:1...

  14. Composition and physical properties of cress ( Lepidium sativum L.) and field pennycress ( Thlaspi arvense L .) oils

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bryan R. Moser; Shailesh N. Shah; Jill K. Winkler-Moser; Steven F. Vaughn; Roque L. Evangelista

    2009-01-01

    The fatty acid profiles and tocopherol and phytosterol contents of crude oils of cress (Lepidium sativum L.) and field pennycress (Thlaspi arvense L.) are reported, along with yields from the corresponding seeds. The physical properties of these oils were also determined, which included oxidative stability, kinematic viscosity, viscosity index, low temperature fluidity, specific gravity, acid value, lubricity, and iodine value.

  15. Summary of Field Equipment Requirements for Responding to Riverine Oil Spills in Ice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    2002-01-01

    Oil spill response equipment and field experience in northern riverine and ice environments is limited. Successful responses have depended on planning and preparedness for quick deployment of response equipment into inland ice-covered waters in rivers. This paper is a summary of technology and equipment requirements for responding to riverine pipeline oil spills in ice, particularly as it relates to experiences

  16. Field Operating Experience in Locating and Recovering Landslide-Damaged Oil Wells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. J. Johnson

    1974-01-01

    Landslides have damaged 65 oil wells on Getty Oil Co.'s leases in the Ventura Avenue field. During a landslide, some wells may remain connected to the surface while other wells may be buried. Well damage ranges from slight bending to complete severing of all casing strings, and depth of damage varies from 15 to 120 ft. Two major problems have

  17. A Bayesian Network to Manage Risks of Maritime Piracy against Offshore Oil Fields

    E-print Network

    A Bayesian Network to Manage Risks of Maritime Piracy against Offshore Oil Fields Amal Bouejla1 an innovative solution to the problem of offshore piracy from the perspective of the entire processing chain to manage this large number of parameters and identify appropriate counter-measures. Keywords Oil platforms

  18. Enhancement of the TORIS data base of Appalachian basin oil fields. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1996-01-31

    The Tertiary Oil Recovery Information System, or TORIS, was developed by the Department of Energy in the early 1980s with a goal of accounting for 70% of the nation`s original oil in place (OOIP). More than 3,700 oil reservoirs were included in TORIS, but coverage in the Appalachian basin was poor. This TORIS enhancement project has two main objectives: to increase the coverage of oil fields in the Appalachian basin; and to evaluate data for reservoirs currently in TORIS, and to add, change or delete data as necessary. Both of these objectives have been accomplished. The geological surveys in Kentucky, Ohio, Pennsylvania and West Virginia have identified 113 fields in the Appalachian basin to be included in TORIS that collectively contained 80% of the original oil in place in the basin. Furthermore, data in TORIS at the outset of the project was checked and additional data were added to the original 20 TORIS oil fields. This final report is organized into four main sections: reservoir selection; evaluation of data already in TORIS; industry assistance; and data base creation and validation. Throughout the report the terms pool and reservoir may be used in reference to a single zone of oil accumulation and production within a field. Thus, a field is composed of one or more pools at various stratigraphic levels. These pools or reservoirs also are referred to as pay sands that may be individually named sandstones within a formation or group.

  19. Environmental effects of the Kuwaiti oil field fires

    SciTech Connect

    Hahn, J. (Fraunhofer Inst. for Atmospheric Environmental Research, Garmisch-Partenkirchen (West Germany))

    1991-09-01

    Theory suggests that the rates of smoke emission and heat generation and, consequently, the atmospheric injection height and residence time of the smoke are crucial in determining whether the environmental effects are of global or only regional importance. Confirming the results of model calculations, observations have shown that, up to now, the smoke did not rise higher than to the top of the planetary boundary layer (PBL), about 3,300 m at a maximum. The photochemistry within the smoke cloud very likely is significantly different from that of the smoke-free troposphere. Also, because there is very little precipitation in the greater Gulf region from May through October, it is difficult to predict how and where NO{sub x}, SO{sub 2}, and their oxidation products HNO{sub 3} and H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} will be deposited. Photochemical oxidation should be largely suppressed in the denser parts of the smoke cloud, so major acid deposition is likely to occur at some distance from the source area, probably as far away as 2,000 km. Results of model calculations suggest that the effect of the smoke emission in Kuwait on the Asian summer monsoon is small. In summary, one should expect severe environmental consequences of the Kuwaiti oil field fires for the territory of Kuwait and for parts of Iraq, Jordan, and Saudi Arabia. Serious effects also may be felt in Iran and the other Gulf states, and perhaps even as far away as Turkey and Afghanistan. The surface waters of the Gulf also may be severely affected by smoke deposition. Significant environmental effects on a global or even hemispheric scale, however, are not likely to occur.

  20. 37. SAR2, SHOWING OIL CIRCUIT BREAKERS (ABOVE) AND GENERATOR FIELD ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    37. SAR-2, SHOWING OIL CIRCUIT BREAKERS (ABOVE) AND GENERATOR FIELD COIL CONTROL RHEOSTATS (BELOW). SCE negative no. 10331, November 1, 1923. Photograph by G. Haven Bishop. - Santa Ana River Hydroelectric System, SAR-2 Powerhouse, Redlands, San Bernardino County, CA

  1. Fabrication of superhydrophobic/superoleophilic cotton for application in the field of water/oil separation.

    PubMed

    Liu, Feng; Ma, Miaolian; Zang, Deli; Gao, Zhengxin; Wang, Chengyu

    2014-03-15

    Cotton with superhydrophobic and superoleophilic properties had been successfully fabricated for application in the field of oil/water separation by the combination of SiO2 nanoparticles on cotton fiber surface and subsequent octadecyltrichlorosilane modification. The as-prepared cotton could be used to selectively absorb various common oils and organic solvents up to above 50 times of its own weight while repelling water completely. The absorbed oils were easily collected by a simple vacuum filtration, and the recovered cotton could be reused for several cycles while still keeping high absorption capacity. Moreover, the as-prepared cotton was simply spun into cloth, which not only could be tailored to the water-repellent clothing but also could be used in the oil/water separation filter system. The results presented in this work might provide a simple, low-cost and environment friendly approach for application in the field of water/oil separation. PMID:24528757

  2. Hydrodynamic effect on oil accumulation in a stratigraphic trap, Kitty Field, Powder River Basin, Wyoming

    E-print Network

    Larberg, Gregory Martin

    1976-01-01

    HYDRODYNAMIC EFFECT ON OIL ACCUMULATION IN A STRATIGRAPHIC TRAP, KITTY FIELD, POWDER RIVER BASIN, WYOMING A Thesis by GREGORY MARTIN LARBERG "I Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A8M University in partial fulfillment... of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1976 Major Subject: Geology HYDRODYNAMIC EFFECT ON OIL ACCUMULATION IN A STRATIGRAPHIC TRAP, KITTY FIELD, POWDER RIVER BASIN, WYOMING A Thesis by GREGORY MARTIN LARBERG Approved as to style...

  3. Geologic control of natural marine hydrocarbon seep emissions, Coal Oil Point seep field, California

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ira Leifer; Marc J. Kamerling; Bruce P. Luyendyk; Douglas S. Wilson

    2010-01-01

    High-resolution sonar surveys, and a detailed subsurface model constructed from 3D seismic and well data allowed investigation\\u000a of the relationship between the subsurface geology and gas-phase (methane) seepage for the Coal Oil Point (COP) seep field,\\u000a one of the world’s largest and best-studied marine oil and gas seep fields, located over a producing hydrocarbon reservoir\\u000a near Santa Barbara, California. In

  4. Geologic control of natural marine hydrocarbon seep emissions, Coal Oil Point seep field, California

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ira Leifer; Marc J. Kamerling; Bruce P. Luyendyk; Douglas S. Wilson

    2010-01-01

    High-resolution sonar surveys, and a detailed subsurface model constructed from 3D seismic and well data allowed investigation of the relationship between the subsurface geology and gas-phase (methane) seepage for the Coal Oil Point (COP) seep field, one of the world's largest and best-studied marine oil and gas seep fields, located over a producing hydrocarbon reservoir near Santa Barbara, California. In

  5. Production and Evaluation of Biodiesel from Field Pennycress ( Thlaspi arvense L.) Oil

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bryan R. Moser; Gerhard Knothe; Steven F. Vaughn; Terry A. Isbell

    2009-01-01

    Field pennycress (Thlaspi arVense L.) oil is evaluated for the first time as a feedstock for biodiesel production. Biodiesel was obtained in 82 wt % yield by a standard transesterification procedure with methanol and sodium methoxide catalyst at 60 °C and an alcohol to oil molar ratio of 6:1. Acid-catalyzed pretreatment to reduce the acid value of crude field pennycress

  6. Hydrodynamic effect on oil accumulation in a stratigraphic trap, Kitty Field, Powder River Basin, Wyoming 

    E-print Network

    Larberg, Gregory Martin

    1976-01-01

    HYDRODYNAMIC EFFECT ON OIL ACCUMULATION IN A STRATIGRAPHIC TRAP, KITTY FIELD, POWDER RIVER BASIN, WYOMING A Thesis by GREGORY MARTIN LARBERG "I Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A8M University in partial fulfillment... of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1976 Major Subject: Geology HYDRODYNAMIC EFFECT ON OIL ACCUMULATION IN A STRATIGRAPHIC TRAP, KITTY FIELD, POWDER RIVER BASIN, WYOMING A Thesis by GREGORY MARTIN LARBERG Approved as to style...

  7. Petroleum geology of Sespe field: new oil from an old field

    SciTech Connect

    Lankford, S.M.; Pasquini, D.E.

    1986-04-01

    The Sespe field, discovered 100 years ago, is situated along the north flank of the Ventura basin on the upthrown side of the San Cayetano fault. Production zones range from Eocene to Miocene in age and include the Matilija, Coldwater, and Vaqueros Formations. The Oligocene Sespe Formation is the primary producing zone. Fractured shale of the Miocene Rincon formation also produced but is no longer considered a target. Recent developments demonstrate how additional reserves can be established and produced from an old and nearly fully developed field. A multi-tiered exploitation program ultimately should establish significant new reserves. The field has been drilled on 10-ac spacing, but several recently drilled wells demonstrated that production can be enhanced by infill drilling on 5-ac spacing. The infill wells not only decrease recovery time of proved reserves, but also increase the recoverability of in-place oil from 9% to about 14%. Waterflooding may enhance recoverability even further. After at least nine infill patterns have been drilled, a pilot waterflood project has been planned to determine if displacement can be conducted economically. The authors believe the incremental increase in recoverable reserves of the projects discussed may ultimately exceed all the petroleum produced in the past 100 years. The Sespe field serves as an example of an example of an old field that can be made to yield important new reserves at relatively low risk.

  8. De-convoluting mixed crude oil in Prudhoe Bay Field, North Slope, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peters, K.E.; Scott, Ramos L.; Zumberge, J.E.; Valin, Z.C.; Bird, K.J.

    2008-01-01

    Seventy-four crude oil samples from the Barrow arch on the North Slope of Alaska were studied to assess the relative volumetric contributions from different source rocks to the giant Prudhoe Bay Field. We applied alternating least squares to concentration data (ALS-C) for 46 biomarkers in the range C19-C35 to de-convolute mixtures of oil generated from carbonate rich Triassic Shublik Formation and clay rich Jurassic Kingak Shale and Cretaceous Hue Shale-gamma ray zone (Hue-GRZ) source rocks. ALS-C results for 23 oil samples from the prolific Ivishak Formation reservoir of the Prudhoe Bay Field indicate approximately equal contributions from Shublik Formation and Hue-GRZ source rocks (37% each), less from the Kingak Shale (26%), and little or no contribution from other source rocks. These results differ from published interpretations that most oil in the Prudhoe Bay Field originated from the Shublik Formation source rock. With few exceptions, the relative contribution of oil from the Shublik Formation decreases, while that from the Hue-GRZ increases in reservoirs along the Barrow arch from Point Barrow in the northwest to Point Thomson in the southeast (???250 miles or 400 km). The Shublik contribution also decreases to a lesser degree between fault blocks within the Ivishak pool from west to east across the Prudhoe Bay Field. ALS-C provides a robust means to calculate the relative amounts of two or more oil types in a mixture. Furthermore, ALS-C does not require that pure end member oils be identified prior to analysis or that laboratory mixtures of these oils be prepared to evaluate mixing. ALS-C of biomarkers reliably de-convolutes mixtures because the concentrations of compounds in mixtures vary as linear functions of the amount of each oil type. ALS of biomarker ratios (ALS-R) cannot be used to de-convolute mixtures because compound ratios vary as nonlinear functions of the amount of each oil type.

  9. IMPROVED APPROACHES TO DESIGN OF POLYMER GEL TREATMENTS IN MATURE OIL FIELDS: FIELD DEMONSTRATION IN DICKMAN FIELD, NESS COUNTY, KANSAS

    SciTech Connect

    Ronald Fowler

    2004-11-30

    This report describes the results of the one-year project entitled ''Improved Approaches to Design of Polymer Gel Treatments in Mature Oil Fields: Field Demonstration in Dickman Field, Ness County, Kansas''. The project was a 12-month collaboration of Grand Mesa Operating Company (a small independent), TIORCO Inc. (a company focused on improved recovery technology) and the University of Kansas. The study undertook tasks to determine an optimum polymer gel treatment design in Mississippian reservoirs, demonstrate application, and evaluate the success of the program. The project investigated geologic and engineering parameters and cost-effective technologies required for design and implementation of effective polymer gel treatment programs in the Mississippian reservoir in the Midcontinent. The majority of Mississippian production in Kansas occurs at or near the top of the Mississippian section just below the regional sub-Pennsylvanian unconformity and karst surface. Dickman Field with the extremely high water cuts and low recovery factors is typical of Mississippian reservoirs. Producibility problems in these reservoirs include inadequate reservoir characterization, drilling and completion design problems, and most significantly extremely high water cuts and low recovery factors that place continued operations at or near their economic limits. Geologic, geophysical and engineering data were integrated to provide a technical foundation for candidate selection and treatment design. Data includes core, engineering data, and 3D seismic data. Based on technical and economic considerations a well was selected for gel-polymer treatment (Grand Mesa Operating Company Tilley No.2). The treatment was not successful due to the small amount of polymer that could be injected. Data from the initial well and other candidates in the demonstration area was analyzed using geologic, geophysical and engineering data. Based on the results of the treatment and the integrated reservoir characterization it was determined that a second polymer-gel treatment could not be justified. The Mississippian reservoir at Dickman Field is much more complex than originally anticipated with numerous reservoir compartments and potential attic oil beneath the irregular Mississippian karst. It appears that remaining oil in place could be best recovered using improved oil recovery techniques such as target infill drilling and horizontal wells.

  10. Laser refabricating of expensive parts of the equipment in oil-field on the sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Xi-chen; Wang, Yun-shan; Lei, Jian-bo; Li, Hui-shan

    2005-01-01

    There are many expensive types of equipment in oil field on the sea from U.S.A or Europe in China. Some important components due to wear and erosion do not work; the large economic challenge needs laser recondition of the expensive parts. We have developed new laser cladding process for re-fabricating the long axle shaft and the body case in transferring oil pump in oil field on the sea. Using 5KW-CO2 lasers and the powder feeder, the cladding layer of NiCrSiB alloy on 40CrMo steel axle shaft with no crack and pores has been performed. The control distortion of long axle shaft during laser cladding has been researched. The laser re-fabricating has now been used to repairing production in the Bohai oil field in China.

  11. Oil-field disposal practices in hydrogeologic setting of Midway Sunset and Buena Vista oil fields; review of past effects, current activities, and future scenarios

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. M. Sengebush; S. C. Kiser; E. J. Greenwood; R. N. Crozier; R. A. Crewdson; M. J. Wilson; B. A. Rycerski

    1988-01-01

    Class 2 water disposal in the Midway Sunset and Buena Vista oil fields of Kern County, California, has been by injection and infiltration from spreading ponds into the unsaturated zone, which is typically hundreds of feet thick. Water collection is mostly through an extensive tributary network of collection ditches radiating from several disposal facility locations. The purpose of this study

  12. Field test of re-refined automotive engine oil in RCMP vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Armstrong, J.

    1980-11-01

    A field test has been designed to isolate the performance characteristics of the virgin and re-refined base oils being studied. The conditions selected for the test are those normally experienced by Royal Canadian Mounted Police vehicles in similar service. All test and reference vehicles have been subjected to as equal treatment as possible, in both driving conditions and maintenance schedules. The primary conclusion that can be made with the data obtained to date is that there are statistically significant differences occurring in certain measured properties of used crankcase oil from the two test groups of vehicles. These differences are no doubt attributable, at least in part, to performance differences between the two finished oils, but other factors such as the observed differences in length of oil change interval and top-up requirements are also contributing to the responses being measured. Given the methods by which the test and reference oils were defined and chosen, it might be expected that differences in performance characteristics would be observed, and also that the reference oil might exhibit better performance characteristics than the test oil. However, the final magnitudes of any differences between the oils will not be known until the field test period is completed, and the real significance of these differences, in terms of their effect on the engines, cannot be determined until the engine examinations have been completed.

  13. Preliminary technical and legal evaluation of disposing of nonhazardous oil field waste into salt caverns

    SciTech Connect

    Veil, J.; Elcock, D.; Raivel, M.; Caudle, D.; Ayers, R.C. Jr.; Grunewald, B.

    1996-06-01

    Caverns can be readily formed in salt formations through solution mining. The caverns may be formed incidentally, as a result of salt recovery, or intentionally to create an underground chamber that can be used for storing hydrocarbon products or compressed air or disposing of wastes. The purpose of this report is to evaluate the feasibility, suitability, and legality of disposing of nonhazardous oil and gas exploration, development, and production wastes (hereafter referred to as oil field wastes, unless otherwise noted) in salt caverns. Chapter 2 provides background information on: types and locations of US subsurface salt deposits; basic solution mining techniques used to create caverns; and ways in which salt caverns are used. Later chapters provide discussion of: federal and state regulatory requirements concerning disposal of oil field waste, including which wastes are considered eligible for cavern disposal; waste streams that are considered to be oil field waste; and an evaluation of technical issues concerning the suitability of using salt caverns for disposing of oil field waste. Separate chapters present: types of oil field wastes suitable for cavern disposal; cavern design and location; disposal operations; and closure and remediation. This report does not suggest specific numerical limits for such factors or variables as distance to neighboring activities, depths for casings, pressure testing, or size and shape of cavern. The intent is to raise issues and general approaches that will contribute to the growing body of information on this subject.

  14. Oil Spill Prevention Response and Cleanup: Google Earth Virtual Field Trip Activity

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    In this well thought out virtual field trip your students will learn about oil spill prevention response and cleanup methods at various sites in Alaska. It is an excellent activity to teach students about policy and procedures needed to make oil transportation safe. In addition, it is a great science activity to learn about the microbiology methods behind cleaning up oil spills. The 2008 ATEEC Fellows Institute brought 18 community college and high school instructors from the environmental sciences to Alaska. They created virtual field trips using Google Earth. Learn from the experts in this interactive tour complete with video offering expert insight into the world of the oil industry. In this well thought out Google Earth virtual field trip you will learn about oil spill prevention response and cleanup methods at various sites in Alaska highlighting the Alyeska Marine Terminal. An excellent activity to teach students about policy and procedures needed to make oil transportation safe. In addition it is a great science activity to learn about the microbiology methods behind cleaning up oil spills. An excellent teachers guide is included as well. This resource is free to download. Users must first create a login with ATEEC's website to access the file.

  15. Complete Moment Tensor Determination of Induced Seismicity in Unconventional and Conventional Oil/Gas Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, C.; Li, J.; Toksoz, M. N.

    2013-12-01

    Induced seismicity occurs both in conventional oil/gas fields due to production and water injection and in unconventional oil/gas fields due to hydraulic fracturing. Source mechanisms of these induced earthquakes are of great importance for understanding their causes and the physics of the seismic processes in reservoirs. Previous research on the analysis of induced seismic events in conventional oil/gas fields assumed a double couple (DC) source mechanism. However, recent studies have shown a non-negligible percentage of a non-double-couple (non-DC) component of source moment tensor in hydraulic fracturing events (Šílený et al., 2009; Warpinski and Du, 2010; Song and Toksöz, 2011). In this study, we determine the full moment tensor of the induced seismicity data in a conventional oil/gas field and for hydrofrac events in an unconventional oil/gas field. Song and Toksöz (2011) developed a full waveform based complete moment tensor inversion method to investigate a non-DC source mechanism. We apply this approach to the induced seismicity data from a conventional gas field in Oman. In addition, this approach is also applied to hydrofrac microseismicity data monitored by downhole geophones in four wells in US. We compare the source mechanisms of induced seismicity in the two different types of gas fields and explain the differences in terms of physical processes.

  16. The Tengiz oil field, Pri-Caspian basin, USSR, a super giant of the '80s

    SciTech Connect

    Lisovsky, N.N.; Gogonenkov, G.N.; Petzuukha, Y.A. (Ministry of Oil and Gas, Moscow (USSR))

    1990-05-01

    The supergiant Tengiz oil field, located near the southeastern edge of the Pri-Caspian basin is one of the most important new discoveries made in the last decade. The Tengiz oil field occurs in a desert climate on the edge of the Caspian Sea and experiences extreme temperature variations along with other harsh environmental conditions. The structure was first identified by seismic surveys in 1975 when it became possible to map the base of thick Permian salt. The first exploration well was drilled on the top of the pre-salt structure in 1979 and encountered important oil-bearing carbonates. The drilling of additional appraisal wells and the acquisition of three-dimensional seismic with improved seismic velocities contributed to the development of the Tengiz seismic-geologic model and confirmed the presence of a super-giant oil accumulation. The amplitude of the structure is approximately 1,000 m and covers an area of 400 mi{sup 2}. The oil column exceeds 1,500 m without having encountered an oil-water contact. Proven plus probable reserves are estimated to exceed 18 billion bbl. Oil production rates up to 8,000 bbl/day per well have been experienced. The reservoir rocks, which range from Upper Devonian to Middle Carboniferous, are comprised of biohermal and nodular limestones and characterized by variable porosity and permeability. The best reservoir quality is attributed to widespread fractures, vugs, and solution cavities that supplement the primary porosity. Recrystallization and healed fractures with substantial amounts of solid bitumen are observed throughout the reservoir. The reservoir pressure is abnormally high. The oil gravity is approximately 45{degree} API and the sulfur content is low. There is no gas cap on the Tengiz field, and the oil is highly undersaturated. The associated gas contains a high percentage of H{sub 2}S, which must be considered in field development.

  17. Variations in the Chemical Properties of Soils Contaminated with Oil Lakes in the Greater Burgan Oil Fields, Kuwait

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. S. Massoud; M. Al-Sarawi; S. A. Wahba

    2000-01-01

    The two soil profiles of Al-Ahmadi and Burgan oil fields are alkaline aridsoils with similar pH values and bicarbonate contents. Differences betweenthe carbonate (CaCO3), exchangeable cation and sulphate contents of the twosoil profiles are attributed to the diversified sources of the soils. Carbonateincrements in topsoils of both profiles were probably derived from the newsand dunes formed after the Gulf War

  18. Petroleum geology of Giant oil and gas fields in Turpan Basin Xinjiang China

    SciTech Connect

    Boliang, Hu; Jiajing, Yang, [Lanzhou, Gansu (China)

    1995-08-01

    Turpan Basin is the smallest and the last development basin in three big basins of Xinjiang autonomous region, P.R. China. Since April, 1989, the Shanshan oilfield was discovered, the Oinling, Wenjisang, Midang, Baka, Qiudong and North Putaogou fields were discovered. In 1994, the crude oil productivity of Turpan Basin was a Million tons, with an estimated output of 3 million tons per year by 1995; obviously a key oil productive base in the west basins of China, Tarim, Jungar, Chaidam, Hexi, Erduos and Sichuan Basins. The Turpan Basin is an intermontane basin in a eugeosyncline foldbelt of the north Tianshan Mountains. The oil and gas was produced from the payzone of the Xishanyao, Sanjianfang and Qiketai Formatiosn of the Middle Jurassic series. The geochemical characteristics of the crude oil and gas indicate they derive from the Middle to Lower Jurassic coal series, in which contains the best oil-prone source rocks in the basin.

  19. Evidence of hydrocarbon contamination from the Burgan oil field, Kuwait: interpretations from thermal remote sensing data.

    PubMed

    ud Din, Saif; Al Dousari, Ahmad; Literathy, Peter

    2008-03-01

    The paper presents the application of thermal remote sensing for mapping hydrocarbon polluted sites. This has been achieved by mono-window algorithm for land surface temperature (LST) measurements, using multi-date band 6 data of Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM). The emissivity, transmittance and mean atmospheric temperature were used as critical factors to estimate LST. The changes in the surface emissivity due to oil pollution alter the apparent temperature, which was used as a recognition element to map out oil polluted surfaces. The LST contrast was successfully used to map spatial distribution of hydrocarbon pollution in the Burgan Oil field area of Kuwait. The methodology can be positively used to detect waste dumping, oil spills in oceans and ports, besides environmental management of oil pollution at or near the land surface. PMID:17291680

  20. Laboratory and field observations of stress-wave induced changes in oil flow behavior

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, P. M. (Peter M.); Majer, Ernest Luther; Wooden, W. (William); Daley, T. M. (Thomas M.)

    2001-01-01

    We present recent results of laboratory and field experiments designed to validate and quantify the phenomenon of seismically enhanced oil production in marginal reservoirs. Controlled laboratory experiments were performed where mechanical stress oscillations at 100 Hz or less were applied to sandstone cores while flowing oil and/or brine at constant flow rates. Steady-state flow and simulated flooding experiments indicated that stress stimulation causes significant changes in the ability of one fluid to displace the other and on the preference that the rock has for trapping one fluid over the other. For Berea sandstone, which is highly water wet, stress stimulation caused oil production to be impeded during water floods and caused the bulk fluid pressure drop across the core to increase during steady-state simultaneous flow of oil and brine. A possible explanation of these observations is that stimulation caused the core to become more oil wet. Field stimulation tests on producing reservoirs at Lost Hills, California were performed using a downhole fluid pressure pulsation device. Stimulation was applied in one well for 50 days total during July - November 2000. Two groups of producing wells were monitored for changes in oil cut and oil production during the test. A control group of 26 wells displayed an oil-cut increase of 29% and an oil production increase of 26% which are clearly correlated with the stimulation treatment. A larger group of 60 wells showed 11% oil-cut and 17v0 production increases. Similar increases were observed during the October 1999 Hector Mine earthquake, magnitude 7.1, in the Mojave Desert about 230 miles from Lost Hills. Downhole seismic monitoring of the stimulation wavefield is being used to help quantify the frequency range and energy threshold required for effective production enhancement.

  1. Genomic and genotoxic responses to controlled weathered-oil exposures confirm and extend field studies on impacts of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill on native killifish.

    PubMed

    Pilcher, Whitney; Miles, Scott; Tang, Song; Mayer, Greg; Whitehead, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    To understand the ecotoxicological impacts of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill, field studies provide a context for ecological realism but laboratory-based studies offer power for connecting biological effects with specific causes. As a complement to field studies, we characterized genome-wide gene expression responses of Gulf killifish (Fundulus grandis) to oil-contaminated waters in controlled laboratory exposures. Transcriptional responses to the highest concentrations of oiled water in the laboratory were predictive of field-observed responses that coincided with the timing and location of major oiling. The transcriptional response to the low concentration (? 10-fold lower than the high concentration) was distinct from the high concentration and was not predictive of major oiling in the field. The high concentration response was characterized by activation of the molecular signaling pathway that facilitates oil metabolism and oil toxicity. The high concentration also induced DNA damage. The low concentration invoked expression of genes that may support a compensatory response, including genes associated with regulation of transcription, cell cycle progression, RNA processing, DNA damage, and apoptosis. We conclude that the gene expression response detected in the field was a robust indicator of exposure to the toxic components of contaminating oil, that animals in the field were exposed to relatively high concentrations that are especially damaging to early life stages, and that such exposures can damage DNA. PMID:25208076

  2. Oil, gas field growth projections: Wishful thinking or reality?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Attanasi, E.D.; Mast, R.F.; Root, D.H.

    1999-01-01

    The observed `field growth' for the period from 1992 through 1996 with the US Geological Survey's (USGS) predicted field growth for the same period are compared. Known field recovery of field size is defined as the sum of past cumulative field production and the field's proved reserves. Proved reserves are estimated quantities of hydrocarbons which geologic and engineering data demonstrate with reasonable certainty to recoverable from known fields under existing economic and operating conditions. Proved reserve estimates calculated with this definition are typically conservative. The modeling approach used by the USGS to characterize `field growth phenomena' is statistical rather that geologic in nature.

  3. Process and economic model of in-field heavy oil upgrading using aqueous pyrolysis

    SciTech Connect

    Thorsness, C. B., LLNL

    1997-01-21

    A process and economic model for aqueous pyrolysis in-field upgrading of heavy oil has been developed. The model has been constructed using the ASPEN PLUS chemical process simulator. The process features cracking of heavy oil at moderate temperatures in the presence of water to increase oil quality and thus the value of the oil. Calculations with the model indicate that for a 464 Mg/day (3,000 bbl/day) process, which increases the oil API gravity of the processed oil from 13.5{degree} to 22.4{degree}, the required value increase of the oil would need to be at least $2.80/Mg{center_dot}{degree}API($0.40/bbl{center_dot}{degree}API) to make the process economically attractive. This level of upgrading has been demonstrated in preliminary experiments with candidate catalysts. For improved catalysts capable of having the coke make and increasing the pyrolysis rate, a required price increase for the oil as low as $1.34/Mg{center_dot}{degree}API ($0.21/bbl{center_dot}{degree}API)has been calculated.

  4. Spatial variations of hydrocarbon contamination and soil properties in oil exploring fields across China.

    PubMed

    Liang, Yuting; Zhang, Xu; Wang, Jian; Li, Guanghe

    2012-11-30

    Successful site remediation is critically based on a comprehensive understanding of distribution of contaminants, soil physico-chemical and microbial properties in oil contaminated sites. One hundred and ten topsoils were sampled from seven typical oil fields in different geoclimate regions across north to south China to investigate the spatial variances of oil contaminations and soil parameters. Oil concentrations and compositions, soil geochemical properties and microbial populations were analyzed and statistic analysis methods were used to analyze the spatial pattern of soil variables. The results indicated that oil contaminations were serious in most oil exploring areas in China, especially with high levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from petrogenic origin. Ordination analyses indicated a relatively distinct spatial pattern that all soil samples grouped mainly by geographic locations, instead of distributing along contamination or other geochemical variable gradient. Microbial populations were found to be statistically positively correlated with soil nitrogen, phosphorus and water content, and negatively correlated with salt pH and soluble salts (P<0.05). This study provided insights into the spatial variability of soil variables in hydrocarbon-contaminated fields across large spatial scales, which is important for the environmental protection and further remediation in oil contaminated sites according to local conditions. PMID:23069331

  5. Observed oil and gas field size distributions: A consequence of the discovery process and prices of oil and gas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Drew, L.J.; Attanasi, E.D.; Schuenemeyer, J.H.

    1988-01-01

    If observed oil and gas field size distributions are obtained by random samplings, the fitted distributions should approximate that of the parent population of oil and gas fields. However, empirical evidence strongly suggests that larger fields tend to be discovered earlier in the discovery process than they would be by random sampling. Economic factors also can limit the number of small fields that are developed and reported. This paper examines observed size distributions in state and federal waters of offshore Texas. Results of the analysis demonstrate how the shape of the observable size distributions change with significant hydrocarbon price changes. Comparison of state and federal observed size distributions in the offshore area shows how production cost differences also affect the shape of the observed size distribution. Methods for modifying the discovery rate estimation procedures when economic factors significantly affect the discovery sequence are presented. A primary conclusion of the analysis is that, because hydrocarbon price changes can significantly affect the observed discovery size distribution, one should not be confident about inferring the form and specific parameters of the parent field size distribution from the observed distributions. ?? 1988 International Association for Mathematical Geology.

  6. Economic Implementation and Optimization of Secondary Oil Recovery Process: St. Mary West Field, Lafayette County, Arkansas

    SciTech Connect

    Brock P.E., Cary D.

    2003-03-10

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the economic appropriateness of several enhanced oil recovery processes that are available to a small mature oil field located in southwest Arkansas and to implement the most economic efficient process evaluated. The State of Arkansas natural resource laws require that an oilfield is to be unitized before conducting a secondary recovery project. This requires all properties that can reasonably be determined to include the oil productive reservoir must be bound together as one common lease by a legal contract that must be approved to be fair and equitable to all property owners within the proposed unit area.

  7. A Field Test of Soluble-Oil Flooding At Higgs Unit

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. K. Knight

    1973-01-01

    A pilot field test in the West Texas Higgs Unit near Abilene, demonstrated that tertiary oil can be mobilized and recovered by soluble-oil flooding. This small-scale test was conducted near the end of the economic life of a waterflood and confined to a slightly skewed square of five wells, encompassing 8.23 acres, which produced out of the Permian Bluff Creek

  8. An efficient and user friendly investment optimization system for large scale oil field development 

    E-print Network

    Ding, Zixuan

    1992-01-01

    real world problems. Odell and Hosing took a different approach to attack the problem of optimal placement of platform and allocation of wells to these platforms. They proposed to minimize oil recovery and treated investments as constraints rather...AN EFFICIENT AND USER FRIENDLY INVESTMENT OPTIMIZATION SYSTEM FOR LARGE SCAI E OIL FIELD DEVELOPMENT A Thesis by ZIXUAN DING Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas AkM University in partial fulfillment of the requirements...

  9. Rapid subsidence over oil fields measured by SAR

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fielding, E. J.; Blom, R. G.; Goldstein, R. M.

    1998-01-01

    The Lost Hills and Belridge oil felds are in the San Joaquin Valley, California. The major oil reservoir is high porosity and low permeability diatomite. Extraction of large volumes from shallow depths causes reduction in pore pressure and subsequent compaction, forming a surface subsidence bowl. We measure this subsidence from space using interferometric analysis of SAR (Synthetic Aperture Radar) data collected by the European Space Agency Remote Sensing Satellites (ERS-1 and ERS-2). Maximum subsidence rates are as high as 40 mm in 35 days or > 400 mm/yr, measured from interferograms with time separations ranging from one day to 26 months. The 8- and 26-month interferograms contain areas where the subsidence gradient exceeds the measurement possible with ERS SAR, but shows increased detail in areas of less rapid subsidence. Synoptic mapping of subsidence distribution from satellite data powerfully complements ground-based techniques, permits measurements where access is difficult, and aids identification of underlying causes.

  10. Subsidence and Surface Faulting at San Jacinto Monument, Goose Creek Oil Field, and Baytown, Texas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia, T. D.

    Introduction 3-1. San Jacinto Monument State Park 3-2. Wooster Fault 3-3. Brownwood Subdivision 3-4. Burnett School/Baytown Alternative High School Wellhead - Casing 3-5. Exxon Tank Storage Field 3-6. Baytown Community Center 3-7. Pelley Fault (Optional) 3-8. Goose Creek Oil Field (Optional) References

  11. The CPMG Pulse Sequence in Strong Magnetic Field Gradients with Applications to Oil-Well Logging

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Goelman; M. G. Prammer

    1995-01-01

    It is shown that transverse relaxation measurements obtained from CPMG echo trains are valid even in the presence of strong, static magnetic field gradients. In the context of in situ measurements for water or oil exploration, low magnetic fields and short echo spacings are utilized to minimize diffusional effects. Under these conditions, it is shown that, for T1 = T2,

  12. Field performance of a laser fluorosensor for the detection of oil spills

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. A. ONeil; L. Buja-Bijunas; D. M. Rayner

    1980-01-01

    An airborne laser fluorosensor is described that was designed to detect and identify targets by means of the characteristic fluorescence emission spectrum. The first field trials of the sensor over marine oil and dye spills are reported. A correlation technique has been developed that, when applied to the data collected during these field trials, clearly differentiated among dye, the two

  13. The 7 May 2001 induced seismic event in the Ekofisk oil field, North Sea

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. Ottemöller; H. H. Nielsen; K. Atakan; J. Braunmiller; J. Havskov

    2005-01-01

    A moderate size seismic event on 7 May 2001 was strongly felt on platforms in the Ekofisk oil field, in the southern North Sea, but did not cause damage to platforms or wells. We combined near- and far-field observations to develop a consistent source model and to determine whether the event was induced. Seismic data placed the epicenter inside the

  14. Bird Mortality in Oil Field Wastewater Disposal Facilities

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pedro Ramirez Jr

    2010-01-01

    Commercial and centralized oilfield wastewater disposal facilities (COWDFs) are used in the Western United States for the\\u000a disposal of formation water produced from oil and natural gas wells. In Colorado, New Mexico, Utah, and Wyoming, COWDFs use\\u000a large evaporation ponds to dispose of the wastewater. Birds are attracted to these large evaporation ponds which, if not managed\\u000a properly, can cause

  15. Derivative-Free Optimization for Oil Field Operations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David Ciaurri; Tapan Mukerji; Louis J. Durlofsky

    \\u000a A variety of optimization problems associated with oil production involve cost functions and constraints that require calls\\u000a to a subsurface flow simulator. In many situations gradient information cannot be obtained efficiently, or a global search\\u000a is required. This motivates the use of derivative-free (non-invasive, blackbox) optimization methods. This chapter describes\\u000a the use of several derivative-free techniques, including generalized pattern search,

  16. Increased oil recovery from mature oil fields using gelled polymer treatments

    SciTech Connect

    Willhite, G. Paul; Green, Down W.; McCool, Stan

    2000-02-23

    Gelled polymer treatments are applied to oil reservoirs to increase oil production to reduce water production by altering the fluid movement within the reservoir. This research program is aimed at reducing barriers to the widespread use of these treatments by developing methods to predict gel behavior during placement in matrix rock and fractures, determining the persistence of permeability reduction after gel placement, and by developing methods to design production well treatments to control water production. This report describes the progress of the research during the first six months of work. A Dawn EOS multi-angle laser light scattering detector was purchased, installed and calibrated. Experiments were conducted to determine the permeabilities of a bulk gel and of a filter cake which forms when a gel is dehydrated. The pressure at which a gel in a tube is ruptured was measured and was correlated to the length and diameter of the gel.

  17. New information on disposal of oil field wastes in salt caverns

    SciTech Connect

    Veil, J.A.

    1996-10-01

    Solution-mined salt caverns have been used for many years for storing hydrocarbon products. This paper summarizes an Argonne National Laboratory report that reviews the legality, technical suitability, and feasibility of disposing of nonhazardous oil and gas exploration and production wastes in salt caverns. An analysis of regulations indicated that there are no outright regulatory prohibitions on cavern disposal of oil field wastes at either the federal level or in the 11 oil-producing states that were studied. There is no actual field experience on the long-term impacts that might arise following closure of waste disposal caverns. Although research has found that pressures will build-up in a closed cavern, none has specifically addressed caverns filled with oil field wastes. More field research on pressure build-up in closed caverns is needed. On the basis of preliminary investigations, we believe that disposal of oil field wastes in salt caverns is legal and feasible. The technical suitability of the practice depends on whether the caverns are well-sited and well-designed, carefully operated, properly closed, and routinely monitored.

  18. Effects of the Erika oil spill on the common starfish Asterias rubens, evaluated by field and laboratory studies.

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 1 Effects of the Erika oil spill on the common starfish Asterias rubens, evaluated by field number: + 33 2 98 49 86 34 Fax: + 32 2 98 49 86 45 Abstract Impacts of the ,,Erika oil spill by these contaminants. Keywords: Asterias rubens; Erika oil spill; Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons; biomarkers; growth

  19. Oil and reservoir core extracts compositional variations in the Kerkennah Ouest fields, Tunisia

    SciTech Connect

    Ghenma, R. [ETAP, Belvedere (Tunisia); LaFargue, E. [IFP, Malmaison (France)

    1995-08-01

    A suite of oils and reservoir core extracts from the Kerkennah oil fields in Tunisia has been analyzed by various geochemical techniques to elucidate the geological processes which cause variations in oil and extracts composition and their resulting fingerprinting in the different reservoirs of the field. The results obtained greatly helped in the understanding of filling directions which is valuable for future exploration of satellite fields. The oil pools studied are parts of a large geologic province ({open_quotes}the pelagienne plateforme{close_quotes}) where the main oil fields are limited by NW-SE major faults. The two main reservoirs we encountered in the carbonate series of Turonian and Eocene ages and the best reservoir qualities are found in the packstone and grainstone Nummulites facies. Numerous fractures we observed through the fields and we could demonstrate their influence on the filling history of the different fields as well as on the present oil production. Detailed analysis of the light hydrocarbons (C{sub 20-}) as well as the complete study of the C{sub 15+} hydrocarbons indicate compositional variations between the hydrocarbons stored in the Eocene and Turonian reservoirs. The core extracts from the two reservoirs also shows some variations with in particular maturity differences. Apparently the only possible source rock in the area is represented by the Bahloul formation of Turonian age. Within this scenario, we proposed the hypothesis of different behaviours of the main faults over geological time: a first period where the faults acted as conduits for hydrocarbon migration towards both Turonian and Eocene reservoirs and a second period where the faults became impervious to the hydrocarbons moving towards the Eocene reservoirs thus resulting in the storage of more mature hydrocarbons in the Turonian reservoirs only. Also of interest is the observation of different levels of homogenization in the Turonian reservoirs from one field to another.

  20. South Belridge Field reaches milestone with its billionth barrel of crude oil

    SciTech Connect

    Rintoul, B.

    1995-07-01

    An 84-year-old California oil field which for at least the first two decades of its life was regarded as one of the minor fields of Kern County in May reached a plateau attained previously by only 11 fields in the United States. The South Belridge field 35 miles west of Bakersfield produced its one billionth barrel of oil, thus qualifying for membership in oil production`s most exclusive club. The other billion-barrel fields are Alaska`s Prudhoe Bay and Kuparuk River; California`s Wilmington and Huntington Beach; Oklahoma`s ShoVel-Tum; and Texas` East Texas, Yates, Kelly-Snyder, Slaughter, Wasson and Panhandle. California`s Ventura field presently is believed to be the only other field in the United States with the potential to produce one billion barrels. The field, to the first of this year had produced 930.2 MMbo and had estimated reserves of 81.8 MMbo. Production in the South Belridge field last year totaled 43.8 MMbo, or an average of 120 Mbo/d, which was enough to make the field the fifth most productive in the United States.

  1. Arctic National Wildlife Refuge: oil field or wilderness

    SciTech Connect

    Spitler, A.

    1987-11-01

    The second session of the 100th Congress will see continued debate over the prospect of oil and gas drilling on a 19-million-acre expanse of mountains and tundra known as the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR). The arctic refuge, most of which lies above the Arctic Circle, is larger than any refuges in the lower 48 states. Because of its size, the area supports a broad range of linked ecosystems. Of particular concern is the 1.5-million-acre coastal plain, which may be targeted for development. The coastal plain provides a home, at least part of the year, to Alaska's porcupine caribou. The coastal plain also supports many other forms of wildlife-including the wolf, arctic fox, brown bear, polar bear, and arctic peregrine falcon, which is listed as a threatened species. The potential effects of drilling projects extend beyond loss of wildlife; they include desecration of the land itself. Although few members of Congress deny the value of protecting the amazing variety of life on the coastal plain, some insist that limited drilling could be conducted without destroying crucial habitat. Last July, the department tentatively divided some of the targeted lands among native corporations in preparation for leasing to oil companies. In response to what was felt to be an attempt to overstep congressional authority, the House passed HR 2629, banning this kind of land deal without congressional approval. In essence, the measure reiterated congressional authority provided by the Alaska National Interest Lands Conservation Act (ANILCA) of 1980. This act mandated the study of environmental threats and oil potential by the Department of Interior, while putting the ANWR coastal plain off-limits to development without an explicit congressional directive.

  2. Softening of oil field produced water by ion exchange for alkaline flooding and steam flooding

    SciTech Connect

    Reyes, R.B.

    1983-03-01

    Oil field ''produced'' waters usually contain high hardness, and high dissolved solids along with some alkalinity. The problem of disposing of these waters and the need for huge volumes of water for alkaline water flooding and steam generation for steam floods, necessitate the softening and reinjection of softened produced water. Water for alkaline and steam flooding needs to be softened to almost zero hardness to prevent plugging during injection and to prevent scaling on boiler tubes. Softening of high TDS and high hardness waters requires a very selective resin with high operating capacity such as a weak carboxylic acid-type ion exchange resin. Conventional softening with strong acid resins would not work under these conditions. This paper discusses the different processes in softening oil field produced water. Data obtained in softening varieties of produced waters from different oil fields in California are presented. Performance characteristics of weak cation exchange resins and their chemical regenerant requirements are also discussed.

  3. The Tengis oil field, Pri-Caspian basin, USSR - A super giant of the 1980s

    SciTech Connect

    Petzoukha, Y.A. (Ministry of Petroleum Industry, Moscow (USSR))

    1990-09-01

    The super giant Tengiz oil field, located near the southeastern edge of the Pri-Caspian basin, is one of the most important new discoveries in the world made in the last decade. The field is in a desert climate on the edge of the Caspian Sea and experiences extreme temperature variations along with other harsh environmental conditions. The structure was first identified by seismic surveys in 1975 when it became possible to map the base of thick Permian salt. The first exploration well was drilled on the top of the presalt structure in 1979 and encountered important oil-bearing carbonates. The drilling of additional appraisal wells and the acquisition of three-dimensional seismic with improved seismic velocities led to the development of the Tengiz seismic-geologic model and confirmed the presence of a super giant oil accumulation. The amplitude of the structure is approximately 1,000 m and covers an area of 400 km{sup 2} . The oil column exceeds 1,500 m without having encountered an oil-water contact. The total original oil and gas in place of the Tengiz field are estimated at 25 billion bbl of oil and 46 tcf of associated gas. Oil production rates up to 8,000 bbl/day per well have been experienced. The reservoir rocks, which range in age from Upper Devonian to Middle Carboniferous, are comprised of biohermal and nodular limestones and characterized by variable porosity and permeability. The best reservoir quality is attributed to widespread fractures, vugs, and solution cavities that supplement the primary porosity. Recrystallization and healed fractures with substantial amounts of solid bitumen are observed throughout the reservoir. The reservoir pressure is abnormally high. The oil gravity is approximately 45{degree} API and the sulfur content is low. There is no gas cap on the Tengiz field, and the oil is highly undersaturated. The associated gas contains a high percentage of H{sub 2}S, which must be considered in field development.

  4. Toluene depletion in produced oil contributes to souring control in a field subjected to nitrate injection.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, Akhil; Park, Hyung Soo; Nathoo, Safia; Gieg, Lisa M; Jack, Thomas R; Miner, Kirk; Ertmoed, Ryan; Benko, Aaron; Voordouw, Gerrit

    2012-01-17

    Souring in the Medicine Hat Glauconitic C field, which has a low bottom-hole temperature (30 °C), results from the presence of 0.8 mM sulfate in the injection water. Inclusion of 2 mM nitrate to decrease souring results in zones of nitrate-reduction, sulfate-reduction, and methanogenesis along the injection water flow path. Microbial community analysis by pyrosequencing indicated dominant community members in each of these zones. Nitrate breakthrough was observed in 2-PW, a major water- and sulfide-producing well, after 4 years of injection. Sulfide concentrations at four other production wells (PWs) also reached zero, causing the average sulfide concentration in 14 PWs to decrease significantly. Interestingly, oil produced by 2-PW was depleted of toluene, the preferred electron donor for nitrate reduction. 2-PW and other PWs with zero sulfide produced 95% water and 5% oil. At 2 mM nitrate and 5 mM toluene, respectively, this represents an excess of electron acceptor over electron donor. Hence, continuous nitrate injection can change the composition of produced oil and nitrate breakthrough is expected first in PWs with a low oil to water ratio, because oil from these wells is treated on average with more nitrate than is oil from PWs with a high oil to water ratio. PMID:22148580

  5. Development of a complicated fault-block oil field by waterflooding

    SciTech Connect

    Ma, C.; Shuai, S.; Jin, Y.

    1982-01-01

    The Dongxin oil field in China is characterized by a multiplicity of faults that cut the field into small blocks. Development units are divided into three classes according to the amount of natural energy. Insufficiency of natural energy is the main feature of development of the field which dictates the application of waterflooding. The point is emphasized that different types of units are to be differently treated. A comparative study of different types of flooding is presented.

  6. Effect of electric field treatment on unsaturated fatty acid in crude avocado oil.

    PubMed

    Ariza-Ortega, José Alberto; Ramírez-Moreno, Esther; Díaz-Reyes, Joel; Cruz-Cansino, Nelly del Socorro

    2014-09-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the stability of the fatty acids in avocado oil when the product is subjected to different conditions of electric field treatment (voltage: 5 kV cm(-1); frequency: 720 Hz; treatment time: 5, 10, 15, 20, and 25 min). Fatty acids were analyzed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy in the mid-infrared region. Electric field is a suitable method to preserve the oil quality and composition with minimal modifications in unsaturated fatty acids. PMID:25069856

  7. Brief introduction of Huizhou 21-1 and Huizhou 26-1 oil field facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Zhusheng

    1993-12-31

    This article introduces the facility options of the earliest developed fields Huizhou 21-1 and Huizhou 26-1 in east South China Sea. It includes design data (production parameters, sea states and environments, properties of crude oil and so on), process and main facilities. The basic data used for design is fairly precise and reasonable after several years running. The facilities stand the test of typhoon and monsoon, also fully utilize the oil and gas resources of fields and gain fairly economic benefits.

  8. Miscibility study of carbon dioxide injection to enhance oil recovery from Abu-Dhabi oil field Thani reservoire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aljarwan, Abdulla Humaid Saif Saeed

    The subject field in this study has been recognized among the largest offshore oil fields in the world, located in the Arabian Gulf 63 kilometers to the Northwest of Abu Dhabi, producing large quantities of crude oil and associated gas from three different carbonate reservoirs, Thani-I, II and IIII since 1963. In the early 1970's peripheral water injection scheme was adopted to maintain the reservoir pressure and sustain production. Simultaneously, partial waterflooding was applied to one sector of the field, but stopped soon after implementation shadowed by poor sweep efficiency and dramatic escalation of water-cut. Furthermore, hydrocarbon miscible gas injection was implemented in the year 2000 but stopped seven years later, due to high gas oil ratio and aspheltene deposition. In light of such recovery complications, management is considering serious recovery measures to extend plateau production and meet long-term production from this field. Post initial screening phase, it became evident that CO 2 miscible injection is the most suitable way forward. Characteristics of the Thani-III reservoir are within the favorable range for both immiscible and miscible CO2 injection criteria set by Taber, Martine and Serigh. Thani-III reservoir is considered more homogenous, less fractured and with higher production potential than Thani-I and II, hence promoted to be the target of CO2 miscible gas injection. This thesis aims to study the miscibility features of CO2 miscible injecton to enhanced oil recovery from Thani-III reservoir. Comprehensive simulation model is used to determine multi contact miscibility and suitable equation of state with CO2 as a separate pseudo component using one of the industry standard simulation software. Experimental PVT data for bottom hole and separator samples including compositional analysis, differential liberation test, separator tests, constant composition expansion, viscosity measurements and swelling tests for pure CO2 were used to generate and validate the model. In addition to that, simulation studies were conducted to produce coreflooding and slimtube experimental models, which are compared with the conclusions drawn from experimental results. Results of this study have shown comparable results with the lab experimental data in regards to minimum miscibility pressure (MMP) calculation and recovery factor estimation, where the marginal errors between both data sets were no more than 7% at its worst. For example, slimtube experimental results suggested 4230 psig as minimum miscibility pressure, where the simulation study EoS figure is 4130 psig and the slimtube simulation model results is 4180 psig. Similarly, coreflooding experimental data recovery factor at 1.2 PV injected solvent was 75% and a value of 72% recovery factor was obtained from the software single core model at same conditions of pressure and saturations. Results from this study are expected to assist the operator of this field to plan and implement a very attractive enhanced oil recovery program, giving that other factors are well accounted for such as asphaltene deposition, reservoir pressure maintenance, oil saturation, CO2 sequestering and choosing the most appropriate time to maximize the net positive value (NPV) and expected project gain.

  9. Alkaline/surfactant/polymer pilot performance of the west central Saertu, Daqing oil field

    SciTech Connect

    Gao Shutang; Li Huabin; Yang Zhenyu; Pitts, M.J.; Surkalo, H.; Wyatt, K.

    1996-08-01

    A tertiary pilot application of the alkaline/surfactant/polymer (ASP) process was initiated in Sept. 1994 in the west central area of Daqing oil field. The pilot pattern consists of four inverted five-spots, including four injectors, nine producers, and 2 observation wells, encompassing an area of 90,000 m{sup 2} and with a pore volume (PV) of 203,300 m{sup 3}. The target layer is the Saertu II{sub 1-3} (SII{sub 1-3}) sandstone, with an average porosity of 26% and permeability of 1.426 {micro}m{sup 2}. The crude-oil viscosity is 11.5 mPa{center_dot}s at reservoir temperature and the connate-water salinity is 6,800 mg/L. The pilot performance shows a pronounced response from ASP injection. The average pilot area oil production rate increased from 36.7 to 91.5 m{sup 3}/d, while water cut decreased from 82.7% to 59.7%. For the central well Po5, which is surrounded by injection wells, the oil production rate increased from 3.7 to 27.1 m{sup 3}/d, while water cut decreased from 84.0% to 45.8%. Numerical simulation results forecast that the oil recovery will be increased by 18.1% original oil in place (OOIP). Total pilot oil production as of March 1996 is 67,500 m{sup 3} of which 25,300 m{sup 3}, or 18.3% OOIP, is additional produced oil with the current oil cut of 29.7%.

  10. INCREASING HEAVY OIL RESERVES IN THE WILMINGTON OIL FIELD THROUGH ADVANCED RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION AND THERMAL PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGIES

    SciTech Connect

    Scott Hara

    2003-09-04

    The overall objective of this project is to increase heavy oil reserves in slope and basin clastic (SBC) reservoirs through the application of advanced reservoir characterization and thermal production technologies. The project involves improving thermal recovery techniques in the Tar Zone of Fault Blocks II-A and V (Tar II-A and Tar V) of the Wilmington Field in Los Angeles County, near Long Beach, California. A primary objective is to transfer technology which can be applied in other heavy oil formations of the Wilmington Field and other SBC reservoirs, including those under waterflood. The thermal recovery operations in the Tar II-A and Tar V have been relatively inefficient because of several producibility problems which are common in SBC reservoirs. Inadequate characterization of the heterogeneous turbidite sands, high permeability thief zones, low gravity oil, and nonuniform distribution of remaining oil have all contributed to poor sweep efficiency, high steam-oil ratios, and early steam breakthrough. Operational problems related to steam breakthrough, high reservoir pressure, and unconsolidated formation sands have caused premature well and downhole equipment failures. In aggregate, these reservoir and operational constraints have resulted in increased operating costs and decreased recoverable reserves. The advanced technologies to be applied include: (1) Develop three-dimensional (3-D) deterministic and stochastic geologic models. (2) Develop 3-D deterministic and stochastic thermal reservoir simulation models to aid in reservoir management and subsequent development work. (3) Develop computerized 3-D visualizations of the geologic and reservoir simulation models to aid in analysis. (4) Perform detailed study on the geochemical interactions between the steam and the formation rock and fluids. (5) Pilot steam injection and production via four new horizontal wells (2 producers and 2 injectors). (6) Hot water alternating steam (WAS) drive pilot in the existing steam drive area to improve thermal efficiency. (7) Installing an 2400 foot insulated, subsurface harbor channel crossing to supply steam to an island location. (8) Test a novel alkaline steam completion technique to control well sanding problems and fluid entry profiles. (9) Advanced reservoir management through computer-aided access to production and geologic data to integrate reservoir characterization, engineering, monitoring, and evaluation.

  11. INCREASING HEAVY OIL RESERVES IN THE WILMINGTON OIL FIELD THROUGH ADVANCED RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION AND THERMAL PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGIES

    SciTech Connect

    Scott Hara

    2003-06-04

    The overall objective of this project is to increase heavy oil reserves in slope and basin clastic (SBC) reservoirs through the application of advanced reservoir characterization and thermal production technologies. The project involves improving thermal recovery techniques in the Tar Zone of Fault Blocks II-A and V (Tar II-A and Tar V) of the Wilmington Field in Los Angeles County, near Long Beach, California. A primary objective is to transfer technology which can be applied in other heavy oil formations of the Wilmington Field and other SBC reservoirs, including those under waterflood. The thermal recovery operations in the Tar II-A and Tar V have been relatively inefficient because of several producibility problems which are common in SBC reservoirs. Inadequate characterization of the heterogeneous turbidite sands, high permeability thief zones, low gravity oil, and nonuniform distribution of remaining oil have all contributed to poor sweep efficiency, high steam-oil ratios, and early steam breakthrough. Operational problems related to steam breakthrough, high reservoir pressure, and unconsolidated formation sands have caused premature well and downhole equipment failures. In aggregate, these reservoir and operational constraints have resulted in increased operating costs and decreased recoverable reserves. The advanced technologies to be applied include: (1) Develop three-dimensional (3-D) deterministic and stochastic geologic models. (2) Develop 3-D deterministic and stochastic thermal reservoir simulation models to aid in reservoir management and subsequent development work. (3) Develop computerized 3-D visualizations of the geologic and reservoir simulation models to aid in analysis. (4) Perform detailed study on the geochemical interactions between the steam and the formation rock and fluids. (5) Pilot steam injection and production via four new horizontal wells (2 producers and 2 injectors). (6) Hot water alternating steam (WAS) drive pilot in the existing steam drive area to improve thermal efficiency. (7) Installing an 2400 foot insulated, subsurface harbor channel crossing to supply steam to an island location. (8) Test a novel alkaline steam completion technique to control well sanding problems and fluid entry profiles. (9) Advanced reservoir management through computer-aided access to production and geologic data to integrate reservoir characterization, engineering, monitoring, and evaluation.

  12. INCREASING HEAVY OIL RESERVES IN THE WILMINGTON OIL FIELD THROUGH ADVANCED RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION AND THERMAL PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGIES

    SciTech Connect

    Scott Hara

    2004-03-05

    The overall objective of this project is to increase heavy oil reserves in slope and basin clastic (SBC) reservoirs through the application of advanced reservoir characterization and thermal production technologies. The project involves improving thermal recovery techniques in the Tar Zone of Fault Blocks II-A and V (Tar II-A and Tar V) of the Wilmington Field in Los Angeles County, near Long Beach, California. A primary objective is to transfer technology which can be applied in other heavy oil formations of the Wilmington Field and other SBC reservoirs, including those under waterflood. The thermal recovery operations in the Tar II-A and Tar V have been relatively inefficient because of several producibility problems which are common in SBC reservoirs. Inadequate characterization of the heterogeneous turbidite sands, high permeability thief zones, low gravity oil, and nonuniform distribution of remaining oil have all contributed to poor sweep efficiency, high steam-oil ratios, and early steam breakthrough. Operational problems related to steam breakthrough, high reservoir pressure, and unconsolidated formation sands have caused premature well and downhole equipment failures. In aggregate, these reservoir and operational constraints have resulted in increased operating costs and decreased recoverable reserves. The advanced technologies to be applied include: (1) Develop three-dimensional (3-D) deterministic and stochastic geologic models. (2) Develop 3-D deterministic and stochastic thermal reservoir simulation models to aid in reservoir management and subsequent development work. (3) Develop computerized 3-D visualizations of the geologic and reservoir simulation models to aid in analysis. (4) Perform detailed study on the geochemical interactions between the steam and the formation rock and fluids. (5) Pilot steam injection and production via four new horizontal wells (2 producers and 2 injectors). (6) Hot water alternating steam (WAS) drive pilot in the existing steam drive area to improve thermal efficiency. (7) Installing an 2400 foot insulated, subsurface harbor channel crossing to supply steam to an island location. (8) Test a novel alkaline steam completion technique to control well sanding problems and fluid entry profiles. (9) Advanced reservoir management through computer-aided access to production and geologic data to integrate reservoir characterization, engineering, monitoring, and evaluation.

  13. Elastomers in mud motors for oil field applications

    SciTech Connect

    Hendrik, J. [Baker Hughes INTEQ GmbH, Celle (Germany)

    1997-08-01

    Mud motors, the most frequently used downhole drilling motors in modern drilling systems, are described in their application and function. The elastomeric liner in a mud motor acts as a huge continuous seal. Important properties of elastomers such as chemical resistance, fatigue resistance, mechanical strength, abrasion resistance, bonding to steel and processability are discussed. Advantages and disadvantages of NBR, HNBR, FKM, TFEP, and EPDM elastomers for mud motor applications are briefly described. The importance of drilling fluids and their physical and chemical impact on motor elastomers are described. Drilling fluids are categorized in: oil based-, synthetic-, and water based. Results of compatibility tests in the different drilling muds of the presented categories demonstrate the complexity of elastomer development. Elastomers with an equally good performance in all drilling muds are not available. Future developments and improvements are directed towards higher chemical resistance at higher service temperatures. This will be possible only with improved elastomer-to-metal bonding, increased mechanical and better dynamic properties.

  14. FIELD MANUAL FOR OIL SPILLS IN COLD CLIMATES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This manual documents the state-of-the-art response techniques as of early 1979. The manual has been divided into two basic parts: A field manual and supporting data. The field manual consists of a set of matrices that summarizes applicable techniques for various conditions. The ...

  15. Map Showing Geology, Oil and Gas Fields and Geologic Provinces of Africa, Ver. 2.0

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Ahlbrandt, Thomas S.

    The US Geological Survey offers the Map Showing Geology, Oil and Gas Fields and Geologic Provinces of Africa Web site and report. The agency's goal for the pieces includes assessing the undiscovered and technically recoverable oil and gas resources of the world. The site includes various descriptions of what the map depicts and how data was processed using Geographic Information Systems. Once the interactive map is activated, users can search and click the map of Africa to view geologic provinces, oil and gas fields, as well as the various surface geological classifications. Although the interface is a bit cumbersome and works best with a fast Internet connection, the unique information provided should draw the attention of those interested in geology. [JAB

  16. Exploration and development of oil and gas field on the shelf of Sakhalin

    SciTech Connect

    Bogdanchikov, S.M.; Astafiev, V.N.; Bojarshin, E.K. [JSC Sakhalinmorneftegas, Okha (Russian Federation)

    1995-12-31

    The paper describes the level of investigation of Sakhalin shelf for 17 years of prospecting and exploration. 8 oil and gas fields have been discovered with the total recoverable reserves ca. 272 million tons of crude oil and 819 billion m{sup 3} of gas. In the nearest 5--7 years the intensive exploration of these sectors by the companies-winners of tenders is expected. The volumes of drilling can reach 45,000-50,000 m/year. The deterrents are severe environmental conditions on the Sakhalin shelf, which are characterized by a short summer season and complicated ice conditions in winter. Offshore fields of Sakhalin can become one of the most promising sources of import of crude oil and LNG to the countries of Asia Pacific region.

  17. Mathematical Models for Optimal Timing of Drilling on Multilayer Oil and Gas Fields

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Djangir A. Babayev

    1975-01-01

    The following problem of optimal control of multilayer gas and oil fields is formulated: for a given planning horizon find an optimal number of wells to be drilled on each layer and to be transferred between layers as a function of time to meet technological constraints and requirements, and to provide minimum total reduced cost per unit output. The optimal

  18. Application of Rule Based Expert System to Sand Control in Oil Fields

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lai NanjunDong; Dong Wan; Wang Jie; Xiao Xia; Lai Junhui

    2012-01-01

    The rule based expert system model, structure and sand prevention method, sand control design, the evaluation of sand control in detail, and the expert system based on rule and sand control technology of combining rule based expert system, puts forward the comprehensive analysis and evaluation of sand control system, and successfully applied in some oil field.

  19. Field test of re-refined automotive engine oil in RCMP vehicles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1980-01-01

    A field test has been designed to isolate the performance characteristics of the virgin and re-refined base oils being studied. The conditions selected for the test are those normally experienced by Royal Canadian Mounted Police vehicles in similar service. All test and reference vehicles have been subjected to as equal treatment as possible, in both driving conditions and maintenance schedules.

  20. FIELD MANUAL FOR PLUNGING WATER JET USE IN OIL SPILL CLEANUP

    EPA Science Inventory

    The use of plunging water jets can often make possible the control (and, as a consequence, the cleanup) of spilled oil and other floating pollutants in currents too swift for conventional equipment. This short, illustrated manual provides practical information for field and plann...

  1. Preliminary Technical and Legal Evaluation of Disposing of Nonhazardous Oil Field Waste into Salt Caverns

    SciTech Connect

    Ayers, Robert C.; Caudle, Dan; Elcock, Deborah; Raivel, Mary; Veil, John; and Grunewald, Ben

    1999-01-21

    This report presents an initial evaluation of the suitability, feasibility, and legality of using salt caverns for disposal of nonhazardous oil field wastes. Given the preliminary and general nature of this report, we recognize that some of our findings and conclusions maybe speculative and subject to change upon further research on this topic.

  2. Paleogeographic reconstruction of the Prinos oil field submarine fan with the use of logs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Baltas

    1988-01-01

    The Prinos oil field is located in the Gulf of Kavala in the north Aegean Sea, Greece. The sandstones which form the reservoir rock were deposited by a submarine fan during the Messinian. Core analyses of a full reservoir sequence revealed the presence of four facies: A4\\/B2, C, E, and D. FDC, CNL, GR, CAL, HDT, and dipmeter logs of

  3. A test program for the evaluation of oil field thread protectors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. A. Dale; M. C. Moyer; T. W. Sampson

    1983-01-01

    Transportation, handling, and corrosion damage to the threads of oil field tubulars cost the industry millions of dollars each year. This problem has intensified with the increased use of proprietary connections which represent a significant percentage of the total tubular cost. The thread protector is the primary means of protecting the threads from impact and corrosion damage. Exxon Production Research

  4. Quality of field pennycress oil obtained by screw pressing and solvent extraction

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Field pennycress (Thlasphi arvense L., Brassicaceae) is a winter annual that grows widely in temperate North America. Its seeds contain up to 36% oil (dry basis, db) with the major fatty acid being erucic acid (38 %). With an estimated seed production of 1,700 – 2,200 kg/ha, pennycress can be a majo...

  5. Field studies of leaf gas exchanges in oil palm tree (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.)

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Field studies of leaf gas exchanges in oil palm tree (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) E. Dufrene B. Our purpose was to characterize, under conditions of good water supply, variations in leaf photosyn) or leaf water potential and stomatal conductance (Adjahossou, 1983). Only 2 experiments were conducted

  6. Real-time oil-saturation monitoring in rock cores with low-field NMR.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, J; Howe, A M; Clarke, A

    2015-07-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) provides a powerful suite of tools for studying oil in reservoir core plugs at the laboratory scale. Low-field magnets are preferred for well-log calibration and to minimize magnetic-susceptibility-induced internal gradients in the porous medium. We demonstrate that careful data processing, combined with prior knowledge of the sample properties, enables real-time acquisition and interpretation of saturation state (relative amount of oil and water in the pores of a rock). Robust discrimination of oil and brine is achieved with diffusion weighting. We use this real-time analysis to monitor the forced displacement of oil from porous materials (sintered glass beads and sandstones) and to generate capillary desaturation curves. The real-time output enables in situ modification of the flood protocol and accurate control of the saturation state prior to the acquisition of standard NMR core analysis data, such as diffusion-relaxation correlations. Although applications to oil recovery and core analysis are demonstrated, the implementation highlights the general practicality of low-field NMR as an inline sensor for real-time industrial process control. PMID:25996514

  7. Increasing heavy oil reserves in the Wilmington Oil Field through advanced reservoir characterization and thermal production technologies. Annual report, March 30, 1995--March 31, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1997-09-01

    The objective of this project is to increase heavy oil reserves in a portion of the Wilmington Oil Field, near Long Beach, California, by implementing advanced reservoir characterization and thermal production technologies. Based on the knowledge and experience gained with this project, these technologies are intended to be extended to other sections of the Wilmington Oil Field, and, through technology transfer, will be available to increase heavy oil reserves in other slope and basin clastic (SBC) reservoirs. The project involves implementing thermal recovery in the southern half of the Fault Block II-A Tar zone. The existing steamflood in Fault Block II-A has been relatively inefficient due to several producibility problems which are common in SBC reservoirs. Inadequate characterization of the heterogeneous turbidite sands, high permeability thief zones, low gravity oil, and nonuniform distribution of remaining oil have all contributed to poor sweep efficiency, high steam-oil ratios, and early steam breakthrough. Operational problems related to steam breakthrough, high reservoir pressure, and unconsolidated formation sands have caused premature well and downhole equipment failures. In aggregate, these reservoir and operational constraints have resulted in increased operating costs and decreased recoverable reserves. A suite of advanced reservoir characterization and thermal production technologies are being applied during the project to improve oil recovery efficiency and reduce operating costs.

  8. Breakdown Initiation Fields for Surface Flashover of Dielectric Materials Immersed in Transformer Oil

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. P. Wilson; M. J. Given; S. J. MacGregor; I. V. Timoshkin; J. R. Beveridge; K. J. Thomas; M. A. Sinclair; J. M. Lehr

    2008-01-01

    The applied electrical fields required to initiate surface flashover of different types of polymeric insulating material immersed in transformer oil have been investigated. Cylindrical samples of polypropylene, ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene, low-density polyethylene, and Rexolite were tested. Average electrical fields up to ~700 kV\\/cm were applied to samples via a 10-stage, inverting Marx generator. The samples were held between two

  9. Geological history and petroleum system of the Mittelplate oil field, Northern Germany

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Grassmann; B. Cramer; G. Delisle; J. Messner; J. Winsemann

    2005-01-01

    The geological history of Germany’s largest and most productive petroleum accumulation, the Mittelplate oil field in Schleswig-Holstein\\u000a (Northern Germany), is reconstructed by simulating the structural and thermal evolution along a 2D cross-section. The Mittelplate\\u000a field is located at the western flank of the Büsum salt dome at the transition from the Schleswig-Holstein mainland to the\\u000a German North Sea Sector. Organic

  10. Intelligent Optimization System for Selecting Alternatives for Oil Field Exploration by Means of Evolutionary Computation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alexandre Anozé Emerick; Yván Valdivia; Luciana Almeida; Marco Pacheco; Marley Vellasco; Ricardo Portella

    The problem of selecting alternatives for the development of an oil field consists of finding the suitable number of production\\u000a and injection wells and their suitable locations in the field. This is basically an optimization problem, since one wishes\\u000a to find the alternative that offers the highest NPV. In order to solve this problem, this project makes use of evolutionary

  11. Rapid assessment of redevelopment potential in marginal oil fields, application to the cut bank field 

    E-print Network

    Chavez Ballesteros, Luis Eladio

    2005-02-17

    involving numerous wells, and different production and completion practices. The most accurate way to estimate infill potential is to conduct a detailed integrated reservoir study, which is often time-consuming and expensive for operators of marginal oil...

  12. Estimation of oil recovery by in-situ combustion in the Jobo Field of Eastern Venezuela

    SciTech Connect

    Luengo-C, J.R.; Sanyal, S.K.

    1981-03-01

    A laboratory combustion experiment using samples from Jobo Field was completed. The data obtained by this experiment could be used for an approximate estimation of recovery for a pilot project in this field. An isolated pilot test would give enough information to determine the behavior of the combustion process for field applications. Aplication of recovery correlations indicate that a pilot test in an inverted 5-spot pattern (10 to 20 acres spacing) appears adequate for these field conditions. Air injection rates should be calculated and compared with injectivity tests, the ability of the producing wells to handle the oil, and the maximum pressure the reservoir can handle without fracturing.

  13. Low-Salinity Waterflooding to Improve Oil Recovery - Historical Field Evidence

    SciTech Connect

    Eric P. Robertson

    2007-11-01

    Waterflooding is by far the most widely applied method of improved oil recovery. Crude oil/brine/rock interactions can lead to large variations in the displacement efficiency of wa-terfloods. Laboratory water-flood tests and single-well tracer tests have shown that injection of dilute brine can increase oil recovery, but work designed to test the method on a field scale has not yet been undertaken. Historical waterflood records could unintentionally provide some evidence of improved recovery from waterflooding with lower salinity brine. Nu-merous fields in the Powder River basin of Wyoming have been waterflooded using low salinity brine (about 500 ppm) obtained from the Madison limestone or Fox Hills sandstone. Three Minnelusa formation fields in the basin were identified as potential candidates for waterflood comparisons based on the salinity of the connate and injection water. Historical pro-duction and injection data for these fields were obtained from the public record. Field waterflood data were manipulated to be displayed in the same format as laboratory coreflood re-sults. Recovery from fields using lower salinity injection wa-ter was greater than that using higher salinity injection wa-ter—matching recovery trends for laboratory and single-well tests.

  14. Development of Improved Oil Field Waste Injection Disposal Techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Terralog Technologies

    2002-11-25

    The goals of this project have was to: (1) assemble and analyze a comprehensive database of past waste injection operations; (2) develop improved diagnostic techniques for monitoring fracture growth and formation changes; (3) develop operating guidelines to optimize daily operations and ultimate storage capacity of the target formation; and (4) to apply these improved models and guidelines in the field.

  15. Field evaluation of disc-stack centrifuges for separating oil/water emulsions on offshore platforms

    SciTech Connect

    Khatib, Z.I.; Faucher, M.S.; Sellman, E.L.

    1995-12-31

    Separate handling of fluids following a remediation/workover job or treating of slop oil emulsions has become a good practice to reduce upsets in oil and water treating facilities and to avoid production shut-in. This paper demonstrates that the use of high-speed disc-stack centrifuges can be a cost-effective process for handling these fluids, treating difficult emulsions, and generating little or no waste. The physical operation of these centrifuges as dehydrators (purifiers) and/or as deoilers (clarifiers) and their performance in various field applications are presented.

  16. INCREASING HEAVY OIL RESERVES IN THE WILMINGTON OIL FIELD THROUGH ADVANCED RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION AND THERMAL PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGIES

    SciTech Connect

    Scott Hara

    2001-05-07

    The project involves using advanced reservoir characterization and thermal production technologies to improve thermal recovery techniques and lower operating and capital costs in a slope and basin clastic (SBC) reservoir in the Wilmington field, Los Angeles Co., CA. Through September 2000, project work has been completed on the following activities: data preparation; basic reservoir engineering; developing a deterministic three dimensional (3-D) geologic model, a 3-D deterministic reservoir simulation model and a rock-log model; well drilling and completions; and surface facilities on the Fault Block II-A Tar Zone (Tar II-A). Work is continuing on improving core analysis techniques, final reservoir tracer work, operational work and research studies to prevent thermal-related formation compaction in the Tar II-A steamflood area, and operational work on the Tar V steamflood pilot and Tar II-A post steamflood projects. Work was discontinued on the stochastic geologic model and developing a 3-D stochastic thermal reservoir simulation model of the Tar II-A Zone so the project team could use the 3-D deterministic reservoir simulation model to provide alternatives for the Tar II-A post steamflood operations and shale compaction studies. The project team spent the fourth quarter 2000 performing well work and reservoir surveillance on the Tar II-A post-steamflood project and the Tar V horizontal well steamflood pilot. Expanding thermal recovery operations to other sections of the Wilmington Oil Field, including the Tar V horizontal well pilot steamflood project, is a critical part of the City of Long Beach and Tidelands Oil Production Company's development strategy for the field. The current steamflood operations in the Tar V pilot are economical, but recent performance is below projections because of wellbore mechanical limitations that are being evaluated.

  17. Increasing Heavy Oil Reserves in the Wilmington Oil Field Through Advanced Reservoir Characterization and Thermal Production Technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Scott Hara

    1997-08-08

    The project involves improving thermal recovery techniques in a slope and basin clastic (SBC) reservoir in the Wilmington field, Los Angeles Co., Calif. using advanced reservoir characterization and thermal production technologies. The existing steamflood in the Tar zone of Fault Block (FB) II-A has been relatively inefficient because of several producibility problems which are common in SBC reservoirs. Inadequate characterization of the heterogeneous turbidite sands, high permeability thief zones, low gravity oil, and nonuniform distribution of remaining oil have all contributed to poor sweep efficiency, high steam-oil ratios, and early steam breakthrough. Operational problems related to steam breakthrough, high reservoir pressure, and unconsolidated formation sands have caused premature well and downhole equipment failures. In aggregate, these reservoir and operational constraints have resulted in increased operating costs and decreased recoverable reserves. The advanced technologies to be applied include: (1) Develop three-dimensional (3-D) deterministic and stochastic geologic models. (2) Develop 3-D deterministic and stochastic thermal reservoir simulation models to aid in reservoir management and subsequent development work. (3) Develop computerized 3-D visualizations of the geologic and reservoir simulation models to aid in analysis. (4) Perform detailed study on the geochemical interactions between the steam and the formation rock and fluids. (5) Pilot steam injection and production via four new horizontal wells (2 producers and 2 injectors). (6) Hot water alternating steam (WAS) drive pilot in the existing steam drive area to improve thermal efficiency. (7) Installing a 2100 foot insulated, subsurface harbor channel crossing to supply steam to an island location. (8) Test a novel alkaline steam completion technique to control well sanding problems and fluid entry profiles. (9) Advanced reservoir management through computer-aided access to production and geologic data to integrate reservoir characterization, engineering, monitoring, and evaluation. Summary of Technical Progress

  18. Increasing Heavy Oil Reserves in the Wilmington Oil Field Through Advanced Reservoir Characterization and Thermal Production Technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Scott Hara

    1998-03-03

    The project involves improving thermal recovery techniques in a slope and basin clastic (SBC) reservoir in the Wilmington field, Los Angeles Co., Calif. using advanced reservoir characterization and thermal production technologies. The existing steamflood in the Tar zone of Fault Block (FB) II-A has been relatively inefficient because of several producibility problems which are common in SBC reservoirs. Inadequate characterization of the heterogeneous turbidite sands, high permeability thief zones, low gravity oil, and nonuniform distribution of remaining oil have all contributed to poor sweep efficiency, high steam-oil ratios, and early steam breakthrough. Operational problems related to steam breakthrough, high reservoir pressure, and unconsolidated formation sands have caused premature well and downhole equipment failures. In aggregate, these reservoir and operational constraints have resulted in increased operating costs and decreased recoverable reserves. The advanced technologies to be applied include: (1) Develop three-dimensional (3-D) deterministic and stochastic geologic models. (2) Develop 3-D deterministic and stochastic thermal reservoir simulation models to aid in reservoir management and subsequent development work. (3) Develop computerized 3-D visualizations of the geologic and reservoir simulation models to aid in analysis. (4) Perform detailed study on the geochemical interactions between the steam and the formation rock and fluids. (5) Pilot steam injection and production via four new horizontal wells (2 producers and 2 injectors). (6) Hot water alternating steam (WAS) drive pilot in the existing steam drive area to improve thermal efficiency. (7) Installing a 2100 foot insulated, subsurface harbor channel crossing to supply steam to an island location. (8) Test a novel alkaline steam completion technique to control well sanding problems and fluid entry profiles. (9) Advanced reservoir management through computer-aided access to production and geologic data to integrate reservoir characterization, engineering, monitoring, and evaluation.

  19. Brine contamination of shallow ground water and streams in the Brookhaven Oil Field, Lincoln County, Mississippi

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kalkhoff, S.J.

    1986-01-01

    A hydrologic investigation to define areas of brine contamination in shallow freshwater aquifers commonly used for streams that drain the Brookhaven Oil Field, was conducted from October 1983 to September 1984. The Brookhaven Oil Field covers approximately 15 sq mi in northwestern Lincoln County, Mississippi. Since 1943, disposal of approximately 544.2 million barrels of brine pumped from the oil producing zone (lower part of the Tuscaloosa Formation) has contaminated the Citronelle aquifer, the Hattiesburg aquifers, and streams that drain the oil field. Approximately 5 sq mi of the shallow Citronelle aquifer contain water with chloride concentrations higher than normal for this area ( > 20 mg/L). Brine contamination has moved from the source laterally through the Citronelle aquifer to discharge into nearby streams and vertically into the underlying Hattiesburg aquifers. Contamination is most noticeable in Shaws Creek when streamflow originates primarily from groundwater inflow (approximately 87% of the time during the study). Additional study is required to define contaminant plumes, rates of groundwater movement and geohydrochemical reactions between the contaminant and aquifer materials. These data would allow accurate predictions of location, extent and degree of contamination in the study area. (Author 's abstract)

  20. Bluebell Field, Uinta Basin: reservoir characterization for improved well completion and oil recovery

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Montgomery, S.L.; Morgan, C.D.

    1998-01-01

    Bluefield Field is the largest oil-producing area in the Unita basin of northern Utah. The field inclucdes over 300 wells and has produced 137 Mbbl oil and 177 bcf gas from fractured Paleocene-Eocene lacustrine and fluvial deposits of the Green River and Wasatch (Colton) formations. Oil and gas are produced at depths of 10 500-13 000 ft (3330-3940 m), with the most prolific reservoirs existing in over-pressured sandstones of the Colton Formation and the underlying Flagstaff Member of the lower Green River Formation. Despite a number of high-recovery wells (1-3 MMbbl), overall field recovery remains low, less than 10% original oil in place. This low recovery rate is interpreted to be at least partly a result of completion practices. Typically, 40-120 beds are perforated and stimulated with acid (no proppant) over intervals of up to 3000 ft (900 m). Little or no evaluation of individual beds is performed, preventing identification of good-quality reservoir zones, water-producing zones, and thief zones. As a result, detailed understanding of Bluebell reservoirs historically has been poor, inhibiting any improvements in recovery strategies. A recent project undertaken in Bluebell field as part of the U.S. Department of Energy's Class 1 (fluvial-deltaic reservoir) Oil Demonstration program has focused considerable effort on reservoir characterization. This effort has involved interdisciplinary analysis of core, log, fracture, geostatistical, production, and other data. Much valuable new information on reservoir character has resulted, with important implications for completion techniques and recovery expectations. Such data should have excellent applicability to other producing areas in the Uinta Basin withi reservoirs in similar lacustrine and related deposits.Bluebell field is the largest oil-producing area in the Uinta basin of northern Utah. The field includes over 300 wells and has produced 137 MMbbl oil and 177 bcf gas from fractured Paleocene-Eocene lacustrine and fluvial deposits of the Green River and Wasatch (Colton) formations. Oil and gas are produced at depths of 10,500-13,000 ft (3330-3940 m), with the most prolific reservoirs existing in over-pressured sandstones of the Colton Formation and the underlying Flagstaff Member of the lower Green River Formation. Despite a number of high-recovery wells (1-3 MMbbl), overall field recovery remains low, less than 10% original oil in place. This low recovery rate is interpreted to be at least partly a result of completion practices. Typically, 40-120 beds are perforated and stimulated with acid (no proppant) over intervals of up to 3000 ft (900 m). Little or no evaluation of individual beds is performed, preventing identification of good-quality reservoir zones, water-producing zones, and thief zones. As a result, detailed understanding of Bluebell reservoirs historically has been poor, inhibiting any improvements in recovery strategies. A recent project undertaken in Bluebell field as part of the U.S. Department of Energy's Class 1 (fluvial-deltaic reservoir) Oil Demonstration program has focused considerable effort on reservoir characterization. This effort has involved interdisciplinary analysis of core, log, fracture, geostatistical, production, and other data. Much valuable new information on reservoir character has resulted, with important implications for completion techniques and recovery expectations. Such data should have excellent applicability to other producing areas in the Uinta basin with reservoirs in similar lacustrine and related deposits.

  1. Sisterhood in the oil field: informal support networks, gender roles and adaptation among women in the Oklahoma oil field

    SciTech Connect

    Walsh, A.C.

    1988-01-01

    The petroleum drilling industry exhibits a number of definitive characteristics, which combined with the most recent boom/bust drilling cycle, affect women in much the same manner as factors commonly associated with the eroding of women's social and economic positions within modernizing societies. Recognizing that modernization has a negative impact on women, this study focuses on strategies of adaptation employed by women associated both directly and indirectly with the petroleum drilling industry in an oil boom/bust town in western Oklahoma. Utilizing the traditional techniques of ethnographic interview and participant observation, it was shown that informal support networks formed by women enhanced women's adaptation by extending their resource base beyond the nuclear family and encouraging solidarity. Gender-based division of labor was also modified by western energy development. Boom times facilitated a rigid division of labor that gave way to a more flexible arrangement during bust times without a concomitant change in gender-based ideology. This was accounted for by differences in the rates of change for the underlying habits and values associated with the public and private sectors.

  2. Oil-field disposal practices in hydrogeologic setting of Midway Sunset and Buena Vista oil fields; review of past effects, current activities, and future scenarios

    SciTech Connect

    Sengebush, R.M.; Kiser, S.C.; Greenwood, E.J.; Crozier, R.N.; Crewdson, R.A.; Wilson, M.J.; Rycerski, B.A.

    1988-03-01

    Class 2 water disposal in the Midway Sunset and Buena Vista oil fields of Kern County, California, has been by injection and infiltration from spreading ponds into the unsaturated zone, which is typically hundreds of feet thick. Water collection is mostly through an extensive tributary network of collection ditches radiating from several disposal facility locations. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the subsurface movement of fluid in the hydrogeological environment and to determine the fate of the disposed water and its long-term impact on the area.

  3. Electric field dependent dielectric response of alumina/silicone oil colloids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magallon, Louis; Tsui, Stephen

    2014-03-01

    We investigate the dielectric response of a mixture of alumina nanopowder and silicone oil. Frequency and electric field dependent measurements of another insulating colloid, i.e., urea-coated Ba0.8Rb0.4TiO(C2O4)2 nanoparticles immersed in silicone oil, revealed universal dielectric response (UDR) characteristics and, with the application of high voltage, a negative capacitance. Alumina in silicone oil represents a simpler system in which to perform similar dielectric investigation. This colloid is sandwiched in a parallel plate capacitor cell, and the complex impedance is measured via lock-in amplifier at various frequencies and applied dc biases. Furthermore, we will compare and discuss the dielectric behaviors of different sized suspended alumina particles.

  4. Comparison of selected oil-field brines from fields in the Permian basin, West Texas-southeast New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    White, H.G. III

    1992-04-01

    Stiff diagrams of oil-field brines from the west Texas Permian basin are identifiable within the geological framework. Plotted from a simple analysis of three cations and three anions, older Paleozoic waters can be categorized as either 'pristine' or modified, usually by a later influx of Permian or early Pennsylvanian water. These different plots can be segregated by geologic province. The Permian brines differ by age and also by environment (shelf, basin, etc.).

  5. Sulfate-reducing bacteria release barium and radium from naturally occurring radioactive material in oil-field barite

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Phillips, E.J.P.; Landa, E.R.; Kraemer, T.; Zielinski, R.

    2001-01-01

    Scale and sludge deposits formed during oil production can contain elevated levels of Ra, often coprecipitated with barium sulfate (barite). The potential for sulfate-reducing bacteria to release 226 Ra and Ba (a Ra analog) from oil-field barite was evaluated. The concentration of dissolved Ba increased when samples containing pipe scale, tank sludge, or oil-field brine pond sediment were incubated with sulfate-reducing bacteria Desulfovibrio sp., Str LZKI, isolated from an oil-field brine pond. However, Ba release was not stoichiometric with sulfide production in oil-field samples, and <0.1% of the Ba was released. Potential for the release of 226Ra was demonstrated, and the 226 Ra release associated with sulfate-reducing activity was predictable from the amount of Ba released. As with Ba, only a fraction of the 226Ra expected from the amount of sulfide produced was released, and most of the Ra remained associated with the solid material.

  6. Improved reservoir management of heavy oil assets using biomarker variability in sidewall cores and produced oils: An example from the Cymric Field, Kern County, California

    SciTech Connect

    Legarre, H.A.; Johnson, S.J. (Chevron Production Co., Bakersfield, CA (United States)); McCaffrey, M.A. (Chevron Petroleum Technology, Co., La Habra, CA (United States))

    1996-01-01

    Development of biodegraded oil accumulations can be optimized by using geochemical indicators of variations in the extent of biodegradation. Biodegradation typically reduces oil producibility by increasing oil viscosity. Using the Cymric Field (Kern County, California), we show that the extent of oil biodegradation can change substantially over extremely short vertical distances (feet) in shallow, low-permeability reservoirs. These variations can be mapped laterally for more than a mile using reservoir sidewall core extract compositions. The relationship between oil viscosity and biomarker biodegradation parameters can be calibrated from analyses of produced oils. These relationships can then be used to convert sidewall core biomarker parameters into quantitative predictions of lateral and vertical changes in oil viscosity and gravity. These compositional variations can be used to optimize the placement of new wells and well completion intervals, as well as to assess the relative production from discrete zones. We discuss how this new technique can be used to optimize field development, including parameters such as (1) the placement of completion intervals, (2) the thickness of steam injection intervals, and (3) the spacing between injection intervals in the same well.

  7. Improved reservoir management of heavy oil assets using biomarker variability in sidewall cores and produced oils: An example from the Cymric Field, Kern County, California

    SciTech Connect

    Legarre, H.A.; Johnson, S.J. [Chevron Production Co., Bakersfield, CA (United States); McCaffrey, M.A. [Chevron Petroleum Technology, Co., La Habra, CA (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Development of biodegraded oil accumulations can be optimized by using geochemical indicators of variations in the extent of biodegradation. Biodegradation typically reduces oil producibility by increasing oil viscosity. Using the Cymric Field (Kern County, California), we show that the extent of oil biodegradation can change substantially over extremely short vertical distances (feet) in shallow, low-permeability reservoirs. These variations can be mapped laterally for more than a mile using reservoir sidewall core extract compositions. The relationship between oil viscosity and biomarker biodegradation parameters can be calibrated from analyses of produced oils. These relationships can then be used to convert sidewall core biomarker parameters into quantitative predictions of lateral and vertical changes in oil viscosity and gravity. These compositional variations can be used to optimize the placement of new wells and well completion intervals, as well as to assess the relative production from discrete zones. We discuss how this new technique can be used to optimize field development, including parameters such as (1) the placement of completion intervals, (2) the thickness of steam injection intervals, and (3) the spacing between injection intervals in the same well.

  8. Cost effective modular unit for cleaning oil and gas field waste water

    SciTech Connect

    Zinberg, M.B.; Nenasheva, M.N.; Gafarov, N.A.

    1996-12-31

    Problems of environmental control involving conservation of water resources are vital for the development of giant oil and gas condensate fields near Caspian Sea (Russia) characterized by water shortages. One of the urgent tasks of oil production industry is to use all field waste water consisting of underground, processing and rain water. It was necessary to construct a new highly effective equipment which could be used in local waste water treatment. Now we have at our disposal a technology and equipment to meet the requirements to the treated water quality. Thus we have installed a modular unit of 100 m{sup 3}/a day capacity to clean waste water from oil products, suspended matter and other organic pollutants at Orenburg oil and gas condensate field, Russia. The unit provides with a full treatment of produced water and comprises a settling tank with adhesive facility, the number of sorption filters, Trofactor bioreactors and a disinfecting facility. The equipment is fitted into three boxes measuring 9 x 3.2 x 2.7 in each. The equipment is simple in design that enables to save money, time and space. Sorption filters, bioreactors as well as the Trofactor process are a part of know-how. While working on the unit construction we applied well known methods of settling and sorption. The process of mechanic cleaning is undergoing in the following succession: (1) the gravitational separation in a settling tank where the floated film oil products are constantly gathered and the sediment is periodically taken away, (2) the settled water treatment in sorption Filters of a special kind.

  9. Spore-Forming Thermophilic Sulfate-Reducing Bacteria Isolated from North Sea Oil Field Waters

    PubMed Central

    Rosnes, Jan Thomas; Torsvik, Terje; Lien, Torleiv

    1991-01-01

    Thermophilic sulfate-reducing bacteria were isolated from oil field waters from oil production platforms in the Norwegian sector of the North Sea. Spore-forming rods dominated in the enrichments when lactate, propionate, butyrate, or a mixture of aliphatic fatty acids (C4 through C6) was added as a carbon source and electron donor. Representative strains were isolated and characterized. The isolates grew autotrophically on H2-CO2 and heterotrophically on fatty acids such as formate, propionate, butyrate, caproate, valerate, pyruvate, and lactate and on alcohols such as methanol, ethanol, and propanol. Sulfate, sulfite, and thiosulfate but not nitrate could be used as an electron acceptor. The temperature range for growth was 43 to 78°C; the spores were extremely heat resistant and survived 131°C for 20 min. The optimum pH was 7.0. The isolates grew well in salt concentrations ranging from 0 to 800 mmol of NaCl per liter. Sulfite reductase P582 was present, but cytochrome c and desulfoviridin were not found. Electron micrographs revealed a gram-positive cell organization. The isolates were classified as a Desulfotomaculum sp. on the basis of spore formation, general physiological characteristics, and submicroscopic organization. To detect thermophilic spore-forming sulfate-reducing bacteria in oil field water, polyvalent antisera raised against antigens from two isolates were used. These bacteria were shown to be widespread in oil field water from different platforms. The origin of thermophilic sulfate-reducing bacteria in the pore water of oil reservoirs is discussed. Images PMID:16348538

  10. Use of tracers in laboratory and field tests of underground coal gasification and oil shale retorting. [35 references

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. W. Lyczkowski; C. B. Thorsness; R. J. Cena

    1978-01-01

    Tracers have recently been suggested for laboratory and field experiments of simulated and actual underground retorting of coal and oil shale. The intended use of laboratory and field retort testing is examined and found to be mainly for estimation of properties of the flow field. The field implementation, data reduction procedure and preliminary results of helium tracer work at Hoe

  11. Integrated, multidisciplinary reservoir characterization, modeling and engineering leading to enhanced oil recovery from the Midway-Sunset field, California

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Schamel; C. Forster; M. Deo

    1996-01-01

    The Pru Fee property is developed in a heavy oil, Class III (slope and basin clastic sand), reservoir of the Midway-Sunset field, San Joaquin Basin, California. Wells on the property were shut-in with an estimated 85% of the original oil remaining in place because the reservoir failed to respond to conventional cyclic steaming. Producibility problems are attributed to the close

  12. Synthesis and Characterization of Multifunctional Surfactants in Oil-Field Protection Applications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nabel A. Negm; Ismail A. Aiad

    2007-01-01

    A series of cationic surfactants was prepared using economical raw materials. The chemical structures of the prepared compounds\\u000a were confirmed using elemental analysis, FTIR and 1H-NMR spectra, and melting point determination. The synthesized surfactants were evaluated as oil-field protective additives.\\u000a In this regard, several surface properties of the synthesized surfactants were studied including surface tension, critical\\u000a micelle concentration, effectiveness, efficiency,

  13. Chemical evaluation of oil from field-and storage-damaged soybeans

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. A. Robertson; W. H. Morrison; D. Burdick

    1973-01-01

    In recent years, prolonged wet weather during the harvest season resulted in excessive field- and storagedamaged soybeans,\\u000a particularly in the Southeast. As the severity of the damage increased, analysis of the oil extracted from these beans showed\\u000a a corresponding increase in free fatty acids, Lovibond color, and content of oxidative deterioration products which absorb\\u000a at 270 nm. In general, there

  14. The drilling of a horizontal well in a mature oil field

    SciTech Connect

    Rougeot, J.E.; Lauterbach, K.A.

    1991-01-01

    This report documents the drilling of a medium radius horizontal well in the Bartlesville Sand of the Flatrock Field, Osage County, Oklahoma by Rougeot Oil and Gas Corporation (Rougeot) of Sperry, Oklahoma. The report includes the rationale for selecting the particular site, the details of drilling the well, the production response, conclusions reached, and recommendations made for the future drilling of horizontal wells. 11 figs., 2 tabs.

  15. Dehydration efficiency of AC electrical fields on water-in-model-oil emulsions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cédric Lesaint; Wilhelm R. Glomm; Lars E. Lundgaard; Johan Sjöblom

    2009-01-01

    The effect of several factors has been studied in order to determine their influence on the electrostatic dehydration process of water-in-model-oil emulsions. Not only application time, waveform, strength and frequency of the applied electric field, but also temperature were all found to play a non-negligible role in the process. The results obtained have been correlated to observed phase separation measured

  16. Stability of binary and ternary model oil-field particle suspensions: A multivariate analysis approach

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dorota Dudášová; Geir Rune Flåten; Johan Sjöblom; Gisle Øye

    2009-01-01

    The transmission profiles of one- to three-component particle suspension mixtures were analyzed by multivariate methods such as principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least-squares regression (PLS). The particles mimic the solids present in oil-field-produced water. Kaolin and silica represent solids of reservoir origin, whereas FeS is the product of bacterial metabolic activities, and Fe3O4 corrosion product (e.g., from pipelines). All

  17. Formation of seep bubble plumes in the Coal Oil Point seep field

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ira Leifer; Daniel Culling

    2010-01-01

    The fate of marine seep gases (transport to the atmosphere or dissolution, and either bacterial oxidation or diffusion to\\u000a the atmosphere) is intimately connected with bubble and bubble-plume processes, which are strongly size-dependent. Based on\\u000a measurements with a video bubble measurement system in the Coal Oil Point seep field in the Santa Barbara Channel, California,\\u000a which recorded the bubble-emission size

  18. Bioremediation of hydrocarbon contaminated-oil field drill-cuttings with bacterial isolates

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Reuben N. Okparanma; Josiah M. Ayotamuno; Peremelade P. Arak

    2009-01-01

    The effectiveness of 2 bacterial isolates (Bacillus subtilis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) in the restoration of oil-field drill-cuttings contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) was studied. A mixture of 4 kg of the drill-cuttings and 0.67 kg of top-soil were charged into triplicate plastic reactors labeled A1 to A3, B1 to B3, C1 to C3 and O1 to O3. These were

  19. Transformation of iron sulfide to greigite by nitrite produced by oil field bacteria.

    PubMed

    Lin, Shiping; Krause, Federico; Voordouw, Gerrit

    2009-05-01

    Nitrate, injected into oil fields, can oxidize sulfide formed by sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) through the action of nitrate-reducing sulfide-oxidizing bacteria (NR-SOB). When reservoir rock contains siderite (FeCO(3)), the sulfide formed is immobilized as iron sulfide minerals, e.g. mackinawite (FeS). The aim of our study was to determine the extent to which oil field NR-SOB can oxidize or transform FeS. Because no NR-SOB capable of growth with FeS were isolated, the well-characterized oil field isolate Sulfurimonas sp. strain CVO was used. When strain CVO was presented with a mixture of chemically formed FeS and dissolved sulfide (HS(-)), it only oxidized the HS(-). The FeS remained acid soluble and non-magnetic indicating that it was not transformed. In contrast, when the FeS was formed by adding FeCl(2) to a culture of SRB which gradually produced sulfide, precipitating FeS, and to which strain CVO and nitrate were subsequently added, transformation of the FeS to a magnetic, less acid-soluble form was observed. X-ray diffraction and energy-dispersive spectrometry indicated the transformed mineral to be greigite (Fe(3)S(4)). Addition of nitrite to cultures of SRB, containing microbially formed FeS, was similarly effective. Nitrite reacts chemically with HS(-) to form polysulfide and sulfur (S(0)), which then transforms SRB-formed FeS to greigite, possibly via a sulfur addition pathway (3FeS + S(0) --> Fe(3)S(4)). Further chemical transformation to pyrite (FeS(2)) is expected at higher temperatures (>60 degrees C). Hence, nitrate injection into oil fields may lead to NR-SOB-mediated and chemical mineral transformations, increasing the sulfide-binding capacity of reservoir rock. Because of mineral volume decreases, these transformations may also increase reservoir injectivity. PMID:19290520

  20. Successful sand oil fracturing in the Sespe field, Ventura County, California

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1970-01-01

    Sand-oil fracturing has been used since 1948 mainly in the Mid-Continent-Rocky Mt. areas. This method of well stimulation has increased the rate of flow and increased the producible reserves many-fold over other methods of stimulation. Due to the nature of most California producing formations, the fracturing process has had limited application in California. The Sespe field has demonstrated it can

  1. Short chain aliphatic acid anions in oil field waters and their contribution to the measured alkalinity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Willey, L.M.; Kharaka, Y.K.; Presser, T.S.; Rapp, J.B.; Barnes, I.

    1975-01-01

    High alkalinity values found in some formation waters from Kettleman North Dome oil field are due chiefly to acetate and propionate ions, with some contribution from higher molecular weight organic acid ions. Some of these waters contain no detectable bicarbonate alkalinity. For waters such as these, high supersaturation with respect to calcite will be incorrectly indicated by thermodynamic calculations based upon carbonate concentrations inferred from traditional alkalinity measurements. ?? 1975.

  2. Missa Keswal oil field Potwar, Pakistan, a failure turned into success

    SciTech Connect

    Zaman, A.S.H.; Zahidi, S.A. (Oil and Gas Development Corp., Islamabad (Pakistan))

    1996-01-01

    Missa Keswal oil and gas field is located 70 kms. SSE of Islamabad in the eastern part of Potwar basin. On surface, it is a thrust bounded anticline striking in SW-NE direction. First seismic work was carried out in 1980, followed by drilling of an unsuccessful well. Another well was drilled after an improved seismic programme which resulted in discovery of oil and gas in seven different reservoir units of Cambrian, Permian, Paleocene, Eocene and Miocene age. Among these, three reservoir units namely Jutana, Baganwala and Kussak of Cambarian age had never produced in the Potwar basin earlier. The field had original, in place, proven reserves of 37.650 MMSTB of oil and 27.900 BSCF of gas. Current production from three wells is around 4500 barrels of oil and 7.3 MMSCFD of gas a day. This production comes from fractured limestone and porous sandstone rocks. It is an exploration case history, making a comparison between old and new seismic work. Low density of seismic profiles, inaccurate acquisition and processing parameters and lack of local interpretation experience contributed to earlier failures. Interpretation of new seismic data reveals that strata of platform sequence display a duplex geometry overlain by a passive roof complex of Siwaliks sequence as against earlier interpretation of a pop up structure. Closed area at Eocene level is 30 sq. kms., structure is bounded by a main thrust fault in the strike direction. Few orthognal faults exist which may provide lateral barriers to the flow during production. Probably upward migration of oil from the underthrusted block of the duplex has contributed to the occurrence of a multi-reservoir system in the upper block.

  3. Significant role of structural fractures in Ren-Qiu buried-block oil field, eastern China

    SciTech Connect

    Fei, Q.; Xie-Pei, W.

    1983-03-01

    Ren-qui oil field is in a buried block of Sinian (upper Proterozoic) rocks located in the Ji-zhong depression of the western Bohai Bay basin in eastern China. The main reservoir consists of Sinian dolomite rocks. It is a fault block with a large growth fault on the west side which trends north-northeast with throws of up to 1 km (0.6 mi) or more. The source rocks for the oil are Paleogene age and overlie the Sinian dolomite rocks. The structural fractures are the main factor forming the reservoir of the buried-block oil field. Three structural lines, trending northeast, north-northeast, and northwest, form the regional netted fracture system. The north-northeast growth fault controlled the structural development of the buried block. The block was raised and eroded before the Tertiary sediments were deposited. In the Eocene Epoch, the Ji-zhong depression subsided, but the deposition, faulting, and related uplift of the block happened synchronously as the block was gradually submerged. At the same time, several horizontal and vertical karst zones were formed by the karst water along the netted structural fractures. The Eocene oil source rocks lapped onto the block and so the buried block, with many developed karst fractures, was surrounded by a great thickness of source rocks. As the growth fault developed, the height of the block was increased from 400 m (1300 ft) before the Oligocene to 1300 m (4250 ft) after. As the petroleum was generated, it migrated immediately into the karst fractures of the buried block along the growth fault. The karst-fractured block reservoir has an 800-m (2600-ft) high oil-bearing closure and good connections developed between the karst fractures.

  4. Distribution and origin of groundwater methane in the Wattenberg oil and gas field of northern Colorado.

    PubMed

    Li, Huishu; Carlson, Kenneth H

    2014-02-01

    Public concerns over potential environmental contamination associated with oil and gas well drilling and fracturing in the Wattenberg field in northeast Colorado are increasing. One of the issues of concern is the migration of oil, gas, or produced water to a groundwater aquifer resulting in contamination of drinking water. Since methane is the major component of natural gas and it can be dissolved and transported with groundwater, stray gas in aquifers has elicited attention. The initial step toward understanding the environmental impacts of oil and gas activities, such as well drilling and fracturing, is to determine the occurrence, where it is and where it came from. In this study, groundwater methane data that has been collected in response to a relatively new regulation in Colorado is analyzed. Dissolved methane was detected in 78% of groundwater wells with an average concentration of 4.0 mg/L and a range of 0-37.1 mg/L. Greater than 95% of the methane found in groundwater wells was classified as having a microbial origin, and there was minimal overlap between the C and H isotopic characterization of the produced gas and dissolved methane measured in the aquifer. Neither density of oil/gas wells nor distance to oil/gas wells had a significant impact on methane concentration suggesting other important factors were influencing methane generation and distribution. Thermogenic methane was detected in two aquifer wells indicating a potential contamination pathway from the producing formation, but microbial-origin gas was by far the predominant source of dissolved methane in the Wattenberg field. PMID:24456231

  5. Souring in low-temperature surface facilities of two high-temperature Argentinian oil fields.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, Akhil; An, Dongshan; Cavallaro, Adriana; Voordouw, Gerrit

    2014-09-01

    Produced waters from the Barrancas and Chihuido de la Salina (CHLS) fields in Argentina had higher concentrations of sulfate than were found in the injection waters, suggesting that the formation waters in these reservoirs had a high sulfate concentration and that sulfate-reducing bacteria were inactive downhole. Incubation of produced waters with produced oil gave rapid reduction of sulfate to sulfide (souring) at 37 °C, some at 60 °C, but none at 80 °C. Alkylbenzenes and alkanes served as electron donor, especially in incubations with CHLS oil. Dilution with water to decrease the ionic strength or addition of inorganic phosphate did not increase souring at 37 or 60 °C. These results indicate that souring in these reservoirs is limited by the reservoir temperature (80 °C for the Barrancas and 65-70 °C for the CHLS field) and that souring may accelerate in surface facilities where the oil-water mixture cools. As a result, significant sulfide concentrations are present in these surface facilities. The activity and presence of chemolithotrophic Gammaproteobacteria of the genus Thiomicrospira, which represented 85% of the microbial community in a water plant in the Barrancas field, indicated reoxidation of sulfide and sulfur to sulfate. The presence of these bacteria offers potential for souring control by microbial oxidation in aboveground facilities, provided that formation of corrosive sulfur can be avoided. PMID:24903813

  6. Microbial diversity in methanogenic hydrocarbon-degrading enrichment cultures isolated from a water-flooded oil reservoir (Dagang oil field, China)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiménez, Núria; Cai, Minmin; Straaten, Nontje; Yao, Jun; Richnow, Hans H.; Krüger, Martin

    2015-04-01

    Microbial transformation of oil to methane is one of the main degradation processes taking place in oil reservoirs, and it has important consequences as it negatively affects the quality and economic value of the oil. Nevertheless, methane could constitute a recovery method of carbon from exhausted reservoirs. Previous studies combining geochemical and isotopic analysis with molecular methods showed evidence for in situ methanogenic oil degradation in the Dagang oil field, China (Jiménez et al., 2012). However, the main key microbial players and the underlying mechanisms are still relatively unknown. In order to better characterize these processes and identify the main microorganisms involved, laboratory biodegradation experiments under methanogenic conditions were performed. Microcosms were inoculated with production and injection waters from the reservoir, and oil or 13C-labelled single hydrocarbons (e.g. n-hexadecane or 2-methylnaphthalene) were added as sole substrates. Indigenous microbiota were able to extensively degrade oil within months, depleting most of the n-alkanes in 200 days, and producing methane at a rate of 76 ± 6 µmol day-1 g-1 oil added. They could also produce heavy methane from 13C-labeled 2-methylnaphthalene, suggesting that further methanogenesis may occur from the aromatic and polyaromatic fractions of Dagang reservoir fluids. Microbial communities from oil and 2-methyl-naphthalene enrichment cultures were slightly different. Although, in both cases Deltaproteobacteria, mainly belonging to Syntrophobacterales (e.g. Syntrophobacter, Smithella or Syntrophus) and Clostridia, mostly Clostridiales, were among the most represented taxa, Gammaproteobacteria could be only identified in oil-degrading cultures. The proportion of Chloroflexi, exclusively belonging to Anaerolineales (e.g. Leptolinea, Bellilinea) was considerably higher in 2-methyl-naphthalene degrading cultures. Archaeal communities consisted almost exclusively of representatives of Methanomicrobia (mainly belonging to genera Methanosaeta and Methanoculleus). As both syntrophic Bacteria and methanogenic Archaea are abundant in Dagang, the studied areas of this oil field may have a significant potential to test the in situ conversion of oil into methane as a possible way to increase total hydrocarbon recovery.

  7. Structure of pre-Caspian depression and major oil and gas fields of the region

    SciTech Connect

    Krylov, N.A. (Amoco Production Co., Houston, TX (United States)); Avrov, V.P. (Igirgi, Moscow (USSR)); Lisovsky, N.N.

    1991-03-01

    As a single unified depression, the pre-Caspian basin has been formed from Paleozoic to Cenozoic time. The basin is superimposed on two large pre-Permian depressions. On the Astrakhan-Aktyubinsk zone of uplifts between them is found sharply reduced Carboniferous and Devonian sections. Modern structural plan clearly displays two major structural stages: Subsalt (Paleozoic) and post (post-Kungurian). The post-salt stage is characterized by wide development of salt dome tectonics. It corresponds with its own petroliferous stage containing numerous, mostly small oil accumulations in terrigenous Mesozoic reservoirs. Large recent discoveries-Astrakhan condensate, Karachaganak and Kanazhol-Sinelnikov oil/condensate, Tengiz oil, and other fields-are associated with the Subsalt Paleozoic complex ranging from Lower Permian to the top of Upper Devonian. The Subsalt stage has its own regularities in hydrocarbon phase differentiation; large reserves concentration; dominantly productive carbonates with various reservoirs; and presence of structural, depositional, and erosional factors controlling formation of oil and gas traps. The paper describes major distributional features of the various arc-and-type Permian and Carboniferous formations, which in conjunction with Subsalt paleotemperature data and geochemistry of organic matter represents a basis for the forecast of new discoveries.

  8. Methanotrophy in a Paleoproterozoic oil field ecosystem, Zaonega Formation, Karelia, Russia.

    PubMed

    Qu, Y; Crne, A E; Lepland, A; van Zuilen, M A

    2012-11-01

    Organic carbon rich rocks in the c. 2.0 Ga Zaonega Formation (ZF), Karelia, Russia, preserve isotopic characteristics of a Paleoproterozoic ecosystem and record some of the oldest known oil generation and migration. Isotopic data derived from drill core material from the ZF show a shift in ?(13) C(org) from c. -25‰ in the lower part of the succession to c. -40‰ in the upper part. This stratigraphic shift is a primary feature and cannot be explained by oil migration, maturation effects, or metamorphic overprints. The shift toward (13) C-depleted organic matter (?(13) C(org) < -25‰) broadly coincides with lithological evidence for the generation of oil and gas in the underlying sediments and seepage onto the sea floor. We propose that the availability of thermogenic CH(4) triggered the activity of methanotrophic organisms, resulting in the production of anomalously (13) C-depleted biomass. The stratigraphic shift in ?(13) C(org) records the change from CO(2) -fixing autotrophic biomass to biomass containing a significant contribution from methanotrophy. It has been suggested recently that this shift in ?(13) C(org) reflects global forcing and progressive oxidation of the Earth. However, the lithologic indication for local thermogenic CH(4) , sourced within the oil field, is consistent with basinal methanotrophy. This indicates that regional/basinal processes can also explain the ?(13) C(org) negative isotopic shift observed in the ZF. PMID:23009699

  9. Residual-oil-saturation-technology test, Bell Creek Field, Montana. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-06-01

    A field test was conducted of the technology available to measure residual oil saturation following waterflood secondary oil recovery processes. The test was conducted in a new well drilled solely for that purpose, located immediately northwest of the Bell Creek Micellar Polymer Pilot. The area where the test was conducted was originally drilled during 1968, produced by primary until late 1970, and was under line drive waterflood secondary recovery until early 1976, when the area was shut in at waterflood depletion. This report presents the results of tests conducted to determine waterflood residual oil saturation in the Muddy Sandstone reservoir. The engineering techniques used to determine the magnitude and distribution of the remaining oil saturation included both pressure and sidewall cores, conventional well logs (Dual Laterolog - Micro Spherically Focused Log, Dual Induction Log - Spherically Focused Log, Borehole Compensated Sonic Log, Formation Compensated Density-Compensated Neutron Log), Carbon-Oxygen Logs, Dielectric Logs, Nuclear Magnetism Log, Thermal Decay Time Logs, and a Partitioning Tracer Test.

  10. Focal mechanism determination of induced microearthquakes in an oil field using full waveforms from shallow and deep seismic networks

    E-print Network

    Li, Junlun

    A new, relatively high frequency, full waveform matching method was used to study the focal mechanisms of small, local earthquakes induced in an oil field, which are monitored by a sparse near-surface network and a deep ...

  11. Gas, water, and oil production from Wattenberg field in the Denver Basin, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nelson, Philip H.; Santus, Stephen L.

    2011-01-01

    Gas, oil, and water production data were compiled from selected wells in two tight gas reservoirs-the Codell-Niobrara interval, comprised of the Codell Sandstone Member of the Carlile Shale and the Niobrara Formation; and the Dakota J interval, comprised mostly of the Muddy (J) Sandstone of the Dakota Group; both intervals are of Cretaceous age-in the Wattenberg field in the Denver Basin of Colorado. Production from each well is represented by two samples spaced five years apart, the first sample typically taken two years after production commenced, which generally was in the 1990s. For each producing interval, summary diagrams and tables of oil-versus-gas production and water-versus-gas production are shown with fluid-production rates, the change in production over five years, the water-gas and oil-gas ratios, and the fluid type. These diagrams and tables permit well-to-well and field-to-field comparisons. Fields producing water at low rates (water dissolved in gas in the reservoir) can be distinguished from fields producing water at moderate or high rates, and the water-gas ratios are quantified. The Dakota J interval produces gas on a per-well basis at roughly three times the rate of the Codell-Niobrara interval. After five years of production, gas data from the second samples show that both intervals produce gas, on average, at about one-half the rate as the first sample. Oil-gas ratios in the Codell-Niobrara interval are characteristic of a retrograde gas and are considerably higher than oil-gas ratios in the Dakota J interval, which are characteristic of a wet gas. Water production from both intervals is low, and records in many wells are discontinuous, particularly in the Codell-Niobrara interval. Water-gas ratios are broadly variable, with some of the variability possibly due to the difficulty of measuring small production rates. Most wells for which water is reported have water-gas ratios exceeding the amount that could exist dissolved in gas at reservoir pressure and temperature. The Codell-Niobrara interval is reported to be overpressured (that is, pressure greater than hydrostatic) whereas the underlying Dakota J interval is underpressured (less than hydrostatic), demonstrating a lack of hydraulic communication between the two intervals despite their proximity over a broad geographical area. The underpressuring in the Dakota J interval has been attributed by others to outcropping strata east of the basin. We agree with this interpretation and postulate that the gas accumulation also may contribute to hydraulic isolation from outcrops immediately west of the basin.

  12. Using biomarkers to improve heavy oil reservoir management: An example from the cymric field, Kern County, California

    SciTech Connect

    McCaffrey, M.A. [Chevron Petroleum Technology Co., La Habra, CA (United States); Legarre, H.A.; Johnson, S.J. [Chevron U.S.A. Production Co., Bakersfield, CA (United States)

    1996-06-01

    For biodegraded oil accumulations, field development can be optimized by using geochemical indicators of variations in the extent of bacterial alteration. Biodegradation typically reduces oil producibility by increasing oil viscosity. In the Cymric field (Kern County, California), sidewall core extracts reveal that the extent of oil biodegradation changes substantially over extremely short vertical distances in a shallow, low-permeability reservoir. Zones of more degraded oil can extend laterally for more than a mile. The relationships between oil viscosity and biomarker biodegradation parameters in this field were calibrated from analyses of produced oils, and these relationships were used to convert sidewall core biomarker analyses into quantitative predictions of lateral and vertical changes in oil viscosity and gravity. Compositional variations were also used to allocate production to discrete zones. Viscosity prediction and production allocation can be used to optimize (1) the placement of new wells, (2) the placement of completion intervals, (3) the thickness of steam injection intervals, and (4) the spacing between injection intervals in the same well.

  13. A Fuzzy Feed-Forward/Feedback Control System for a Three-Phase Oil Field Centrifuge.

    SciTech Connect

    Parkinson, W. J. (William Jerry),; Smith, R. E. (Ronald E.); Mortensen, F. N. (Fred N.); Wantuck, P. J. (Paul J.); Ross, Timothy J.; Jamshidi, Mohammad; Miller, N. (Neal)

    2002-01-01

    A set of fuzzy controllers was designed and applied to a commercial three-phase oil field centrifuge. This centrifuge is essentially a one of a kind unit. It is used to recover oil from tank bottoms and oil field and/or refinery sludge. It is unique because it can separate oily emulsions into three separate phases, oil, water, and solids, in one operation. The centrifuge is a large but portable device. It is moved form site to site and is used to separate a large variety of waste emulsions. The centrifuge feedstock varies significantly from site to site and often varies significantly during the daily operation. In this application, fuzzy logic was used on a class of problems not easily solved by classical control techniques. The oil field centrifuge is a highly nonlinear system, with a time varying input. We have been unable to develop a physical-mathematical model of the portion of the centrifuge operation that actually separates the oil, water, and solids. For this portion of the operation we developed a fuzzy feedback control system that modeled a skilled operator's knowledge and actions as opposed to the physical model of the centrifuge itself. Because of the variable feed we had to develop a feed-forward controller that would sense and react to feed changes prior to the time that the actual change reached the centrifuge separation unit. This portion of the control system was also a fuzzy controller designed around the knowledge of a skilled operator. In addition to the combined feed-forward and feedback control systems, we developed a soft-sensor that was used to determine the value of variables needed for the feed-forward control system. These variables could not actually be measured but were calculated from the measurement of other variables. The soft-sensor was developed with a combination of a physical model of the feed system and a skilled operator's expert knowledge. Finally the entire control system is tied together with a fuzzy-SPC (Statistical Process Control) filter, used to filter process and instrument noise and a fuzzy conflict resolution code used to keep the feed-forward and feedback control systems working well together.

  14. NMR measurement of oil shale magnetic relaxation at high magnetic field

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Seymour, Joseph D.; Washburn, Kathryn E.; Kirkland, Catherine M.; Vogt, Sarah J.; Birdwell, Justin E.; Codd, Sarah L.

    2013-01-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) at low field is used extensively to provide porosity and pore-size distributions in reservoir rocks. For unconventional resources, due to low porosity and permeability of the samples, much of the signal exists at very short T2 relaxation times. In addition, the organic content of many shales will also produce signal at short relaxation times. Despite recent improvements in low-field technology, limitations still exist that make it difficult to account for all hydrogen-rich constituents in very tight rocks, such as shales. The short pulses and dead times along with stronger gradients available when using high-field NMR equipment provides a more complete measurement of hydrogen-bearing phases due to the ability to probe shorter T2 relaxation times (-5 sec) than can be examined using low-field equipment. Access to these shorter T2 times allows for confirmation of partially resolved peaks observed in low-field NMR data that have been attributed to solid organic phases in oil shales. High-field (300 MHz or 7 T) NMR measurements of spin-spin T2 and spin-lattice T1 magnetic relaxation of raw and artificially matured oil shales have potential to provide data complementary to low field (2 MHz or 0.05T) measurements. Measurements of high-field T2 and T1-T2 correlations are presented. These data can be interpreted in terms of organic matter phases and mineral-bound water known to be present in the shale samples, as confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and show distributions of hydrogen-bearing phases present in the shales that are similar to those observed in low field measurements.

  15. Compression of dispersions to high stress under electric fields: effects of concentration and dispersing oil.

    PubMed

    Lynch, Rachel; Meng, Y; Filisko, F E

    2006-05-01

    Dispersions of various concentrations (15-35%) were prepared in silicone oils of vastly different viscosities (40, 1000, 10,000, and 30,000 mPa s) and compressed to high values of stress while under an electric field of 2 kV/mm. A purpose of this study was to observe the effect of compression and E field simultaneously on these dispersions and assess predictions of most common and relevant theories. As shown, static stresses of over 1000 kPa could readily be obtained although the data presented here were held below 300 kPa to protect the load cell and equipment. The results are compared to and discussed in terms of a power law fit for stress vs gap since most theories predict such a dependence. The PL exponents fall around 3 ranges: (-2), (-3), and much less than (-3). The PL coefficients however reflect in systematic way the viscosities of the dispersing oils. The compressive stress vs strain behavior is studied with regard to particle concentration and dispersing oil viscosity. PMID:16309696

  16. A fortran program for Monte Carlo simulation of oil-field discovery sequences

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bohling, G.C.; Davis, J.C.

    1993-01-01

    We have developed a program for performing Monte Carlo simulation of oil-field discovery histories. A synthetic parent population of fields is generated as a finite sample from a distribution of specified form. The discovery sequence then is simulated by sampling without replacement from this parent population in accordance with a probabilistic discovery process model. The program computes a chi-squared deviation between synthetic and actual discovery sequences as a function of the parameters of the discovery process model, the number of fields in the parent population, and the distributional parameters of the parent population. The program employs the three-parameter log gamma model for the distribution of field sizes and employs a two-parameter discovery process model, allowing the simulation of a wide range of scenarios. ?? 1993.

  17. Reasons for production decline in the diatomite, Belridge oil field: a rock mechanics view

    SciTech Connect

    Strickland, F.G.

    1982-01-01

    This work summarized research conducted on diatomite cores from the Belridge oil field in Kern County. The study was undertaken to try to explain the rapid decline in oil production in diatomite wells. Characterization of the rock showed that the rock was composed principally of amorphous opaline silica diatoms with only a trace of crystoballite quartz or chert quartz. Physical properties tests showed the diatomite to be of low strength and plastic. Finally, it was established that long-term creep of diatomite into a propped fracture proceeds at a rate of approximately 6 x 10-5 in./day, a phenomenon which may be a primary cause of rapid production declines. The testing program also revealed a matrix stength for the formation of calculated 1325 PSI, a value to consider when depleting the reservoir. This also may help to explain the phase transformation of opal ct at calculated 2000 to 2500 ft depth.

  18. The effect of an oil drilling operation on the trace metal concentrations in offshore bottom sediments of the Campos Basin oil field, SE Brazil

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. E Rezende; L. D Lacerda; A. R. C Ovalle; C. M. M Souza; A. A. R Gobo; D. O Santos

    2002-01-01

    The concentrations of Al, Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, Pb, Ni, Cr, Ba, V, Sn and As in offshore bottom sediments from the Bacia de Campos oil field, SE Brazil, were measured at the beginning and at 7 months after completion of the drilling operation. Concentrations of Al, Fe, Ba, Cr, Ni and Zn were significantly higher closer to the drilling

  19. Disposal of NORM-contaminated oil field wastes in salt caverns -- Legality, technical feasibility, economics, and risk

    SciTech Connect

    Veil, J.A.; Smith, K.P.; Tomasko, D.; Elcock, D.; Blunt, D.; Williams, G.P.

    1998-07-01

    Some types of oil and gas production and processing wastes contain naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM). If NORM is present at concentrations above regulatory levels in oil field waste, the waste requires special disposal practices. The existing disposal options for wastes containing NORM are limited and costly. This paper evaluates the legality, technical feasibility, economics, and human health risk of disposing of NORM-contaminated oil field wastes in salt caverns. Cavern disposal of NORM waste is technically feasible and poses a very low human health risk. From a legal perspective, there are no fatal flaws that would prevent a state regulatory agency from approaching cavern disposal of NORM. On the basis of the costs charged by caverns currently used for disposal of nonhazardous oil field waste (NOW), NORM waste disposal caverns could be cost competitive with existing NORM waste disposal methods when regulatory agencies approve the practice.

  20. Integration of seismic methods with reservoir simulation, Pikes Peak heavy oil field, Saskatchewan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, Ying

    The Pikes Peak heavy oil field has been operated by Husky Energy Ltd since 1981. Steam injection has been successfully employed to increase production. Efforts in geophysics and reservoir engineering have been made to improve interpretations in the mapping of reservoir conditions. This dissertation developed tools and a working flow for integrating the analysis of time-lapse seismic surveys with reservoir simulation, and applied them to the Pikes Peak field. Two time-lapse 2D seismic lines acquired in February 1991 and March 2000 in the eastern part of the field were carefully processed to produce wavelet and structure matched final sections. Reservoir simulation based on the field reservoir production history was carried out. It provided independent complementary information for the time-lapse seismic analysis. A rock physics procedure based on Gassmann's equation and Batzle and Wang's empirical relationship successfully linked the reservoir engineering to the seismic method. Based on the resultant seismic models, synthetic seismic sections were generated as the analogy of field seismic sections. The integrated interpretation for the Pikes Peak reservoir drew the following conclusions: The areas with a gas saturation difference, between two compared time steps, have seismic differences. Thicker gas zones correspond with large reflectivity changes on the top of the reservoir and larger traveltime delays in the seismic section. The thin gas zones only induce large reflectivity changes on the top of the reservoir, and do not have large time delays below the reservoir zone. High temperature regions also correlate with areas having large seismic energy differences. High temperature with thick gas (steam and methane) zones may be evidence for steam existence. The seismic differences at locations far from the production zone are due to the lower pressure that causes solution gas to evolve from the oil. Pressure changes propagate much faster (˜20 m in one month) than temperature changes (˜8 m in a year) based on the reservoir simulation results. The pressure dependence of the seismic data is due to its influences on gas saturation. The bypassed oil area and steam fronts (high temperature front) can be estimated from the temperature and oil saturation distributions from the reservoir simulation. AVO results show a steam and gas zone pattern similar to the one produced by reservoir simulation.

  1. Electrorheology of a zeolite/silicone oil suspension under dc fields

    SciTech Connect

    Tian, Yu; Meng, Yonggang; Wen, Shizhu

    2001-07-01

    The electrorheology of electrorheological (ER) fluids based on zeolite and silicone oil under dc fields was investigated at room temperature. ER fluids with volume fractions of 27% and 30% were prepared and tested. When a 5 kV/mm dc field was applied, shear yield stress of 26.7 kPa was obtained for the latter. The ER fluid with a higher volume fraction of zeolite had a higher current density and a higher shear yield stress under the same electric field. Compared with other ER fluids based on zeolite particles with low shear yield stress, the zeolite employed by us was found to have high dielectric constant and conductivity. The high permittivity mismatch and the high conductivity mismatch of the components of the fluids were considered responsible for the high shear yield stress. {copyright} 2001 American Institute of Physics.

  2. Production optimization of sucker rod pumping wells producing viscous oil in Boscan field, Venezuela

    SciTech Connect

    Guirados, C.; Sandoval, J.; Rivas, O.; Troconis, H.

    1995-12-31

    Boscan field is located in the western coast of Maracaibo lake and is operated by Maraven S.A., affiliate of Petroleos de Venezuela S.A. It has 315 active wells, 252 of which are produced with sucker rod pumping. Other artificial lift methods currently applied in this field are hydraulic (piston) pumping (39 wells) and ESP (24 wells). This paper presents the results of the production optimization of two sucker rod pumping wells of Boscan field producing viscous oil. This optimization has been possible due to the development of a new production scheme and the application of system analysis in completion design. The new production scheme involves the utilization of a subsurface stuffing box assembly and a slotted housing, both designed and patented by Intevep S.A., affiliate of Petroleos de Venezuela S.A. The completion design method and software used in the optimization study were also developed by Intevep S.A. The new production scheme and design method proved to be effective in preventing the causes of the above mentioned problems, allowing the increase of oil production under better operating conditions.

  3. Hydrocarbon bioremediation potential of an unimpacted Kuwaiti oil-field environment.

    PubMed

    Obuekwe, Christian; Hourani, Ghada; Radwan, Samir

    2003-01-01

    Seasonal variations in the hydrocarbon-degrading potential of soil samples from an unimpacted site in the Kuwaiti Burgan oil field environment were studied under mesophilic conditions. Hydrocarbon-degrading microorganisms occurred but varied all-year-round, and their numbers ranged from 1.3 x 10(7) to 9.3 x 10(7) CFU g(-1) dry soil, while hydrocarbon-degrading fungi ranged from 3.0 x 10(4) - 3.8 x 10(5) CFU g(-1) dry soil, depending on the sampling period. These hydrocarbon-degraders also comprised variable but generally high proportions of the total aerobic heterotrophic organisms (2 to > 98%) for bacteria and lower levels (7-9%) for fungi. The crude oil-degrading capacity of the oil-degrading populations (bacteria and fungi) ranged from 80-95% of the hexane-extractable fractions. Differential inhibition studies carried out on soil samples showed that bacteria were the greater contributors to hydrocarbon degradation (79-92%) than fungi. Pure hydrocarbon substrates, hexadecane and phenanthrene, were degraded to near completion after a 28-day incubation by both the bacterial and fungal portions of the soil flora. PMID:15095928

  4. Exposures and cancer incidence near oil fields in the Amazon basin of Ecuador

    PubMed Central

    San, S; Armstrong, B; Cordoba, J; Stephens, C

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVES—To examine environmental exposure and incidence and mortality of cancer in the village of San Carlos surrounded by oil fields in the Amazon basin of Ecuador.?METHODS—Water samples of the local streams were analyzed for total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPHs). A preliminary list of potential cancer cases from 1989 to 1998 was prepared. Cases were compared with expected numbers of cancer morbidity and mortality registrations from a Quito reference population.?RESULTS—Water analysis showed severe exposure to TPHs by the residents. Ten patients with cancer were diagnosed while resident in the village of San Carlos. An overall excess for all types of cancer was found in the male population (8 observed v 3.5 expected) with a risk 2.26 times higher than expected (95% confidence interval (95% CI) 0.97 to 4.46). There was an overall excess of deaths for all types of cancer (6 v 1.6 expected) among the male population 3.6 times higher than the reference population (95% CI 1.31 to 7.81).?CONCLUSIONS—The observed excess of cancer might be associated with the pollution of the environment by toxic contaminants coming from the oil production.???Keywords: cancer; oil; Amazon; Ecuador PMID:11452046

  5. Feasibility study of enhanced oil recovery for fields in decline. Export trade information (Final)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-08-01

    The report, generated by Scientific Software-Intercomp, Inc. for Yacimientos Petroliferos Fiscales Bolivianos, documents the results of a feasibility study which addressed the viability of developing petroleum areas in Bolivia. The primary objective of the project was to describe the reservoirs that have been discovered and their reserves, describe which would be the best alternatives for development of these reservoirs, and to determine the best alternatives for development of all the reserves together. The report, volume 4 of 4, concerns the feasibility of enhancing the oil or condensate recovery from a chosen group of fields (Yapacani, Humberto Suarez Roca, Vibora, La Pena, San Roque, and Camiri).

  6. Investigation of ginkgo biloba leave extracts as corrosion and Oil field microorganism inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Chen, Gang; Zhang, Min; Zhao, Jingrui; Zhou, Rui; Meng, Zuchao; Zhang, Jie

    2013-01-01

    Ginkgo biloba (Ginkgoaceae), originating from China, now distributes all over the world. Wide application of Ginkgo biloba extracts is determined by the main active substances, flavonoids and terpenoids, which indicates its extracts suitable to be used as an effective corrosion inhibitor. The extracts of Ginkgo biloba leave have been investigated on the corrosion inhibition of Q235A steel with weight loss and potentiodynamic polarisation techniques. The inhibition efficiency of the extracts varies with extract concentration. The extracts inhibit corrosion mainly by adsorption mechanism. Potentiodynamic polarisation studies show that extracts are mixed type inhibitors. The antibacterial activity of the extracts against oil field microorganism (SRB, IB and TGB) was also investigated. PMID:23651921

  7. Applying the Aramid Joined v-belt high torque, low speed oil field pumping units

    SciTech Connect

    Stork, D.; Watson, J.

    1982-11-01

    This paper discusses the successful application of Aramid fiber-reinforced Torque Team Plus Joined Vbelts to low speed; (8-20 rpm) high torque, up to (320,000 in-lb); 100% belt driven oil field pumping units. Also discussed is a comparison in operating efficiency over gear or chain units, reduced initial expense, and lower overall maintenance effort. The Aramid reinforced Joined V-belts were applied to a double reduction drive (68-142:1 ratio) eliminating gear or chain reducers. Pumping units range in size from 57,000 in-lb to 320,000 in-lb.

  8. Activity, distribution, and abundance of methane-oxidizing bacteria in the near surface soils of onshore oil and gas fields.

    PubMed

    Xu, Kewei; Tang, Yuping; Ren, Chun; Zhao, Kebin; Wang, Wanmeng; Sun, Yongge

    2013-09-01

    Methane-oxidizing bacteria (MOB) have long been used as an important biological indicator for oil and gas prospecting, but the ecological characteristics of MOB in hydrocarbon microseep systems are still poorly understood. In this study, the activity, distribution, and abundance of aerobic methanotrophic communities in the surface soils underlying an oil and gas field were investigated using biogeochemical and molecular ecological techniques. Measurements of potential methane oxidation rates and pmoA gene copy numbers showed that soils inside an oil and gas field are hot spots of methane oxidation and MOB abundance. Correspondingly, terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism analyses in combination with cloning and sequencing of pmoA genes also revealed considerable differences in the methanotrophic community composition between oil and gas fields and the surrounding soils. Principal component analysis ordination furthermore indicated a coincidence between elevated CH4 oxidation activity and the methanotrophic community structure with type I methanotrophic Methylococcus and Methylobacter, in particular, as indicator species of oil and gas fields. Collectively, our results show that trace methane migrated from oil and gas reservoirs can considerably influence not only the quantity but also the structure of the methanotrophic community. PMID:23090054

  9. Electric field alignment of nanofibrillated cellulose (NFC) in silicone oil: impact on electrical properties.

    PubMed

    Kadimi, Amal; Benhamou, Karima; Ounaies, Zoubeida; Magnin, Albert; Dufresne, Alain; Kaddami, Hamid; Raihane, Mustapha

    2014-06-25

    This work aims to study how the magnitude, frequency, and duration of an AC electric field affect the orientation of two kinds of nanofibrillated cellulose (NFC) dispersed in silicone oil that differ by their surface charge density and aspect ratio. In both cases, the electric field alignment occurs in two steps: first, the NFC makes a gyratory motion oriented by the electric field; second, NFC interacts with itself to form chains parallel to the electric field lines. It was also observed that NFC chains become thicker and longer when the duration of application of the electric field is increased. In-situ dielectric properties have shown that the dielectric constant of the medium increases in comparison to the randomly dispersed NFC (when no electric field is applied). The optimal parameters of alignment were found to be 5000 Vpp/mm and 10 kHz for a duration of 20 min for both kinds of NFC. The highest increase in dielectric constant was achieved with NFC oxidized for 5 min (NFC-O-5 min) at the optimum conditions mentioned above. PMID:24848447

  10. Possible nonanthropogenic origin of two methanogenic isolates from oil?producing wells in the san miguelito field, ventura county, California

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas K. Ng; Paul J. Weimer; Len J. Gawel

    1989-01-01

    Two novel strains of rod?shaped methanogens were isolated from oil?producing wells of high temperature and moderate salinity in the San Miguelito field. The strains grow at 65°C in media containing 6% NaCl, form large aggregates of cell materials in liquid culture, and produce methane from H2 and CO2 only. The geochemistry and microbiology of the oil reservoir and surrounding areas

  11. Effect of Los Lobos thrust fault on tertiary recovery in west San Ardo oil field, Salinas Basin, California

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. E. Laing

    1988-01-01

    Field observations and correlation of wireline logs from wells in the west San Ardo oil field reveal the geometry and character of the Los Lobos thrust fault. The Los Lobos thrust is a northwest-trending, southwest-dipping fault of Pliocene to Pleistocene age, located in the southwest Salinas basin. The surface trace separates the Salinas River on the east from the Aurignac

  12. Effects of nitrate treatment on a mixed species, oil field microbial biofilm.

    PubMed

    Dunsmore, Braden; Youldon, James; Thrasher, David R; Vance, Ian

    2006-06-01

    Biofilms of bacteria, indigenous to oil field produced water, were grown in square section, glass capillary flow cells at 45 degrees C. Initially, in situ image analysis microscopy revealed predominantly coccoid bacteria (length-to-width ratio measurements (l (c):w (c)) of bacterial cells gave a mean value of 1.1), while chemical measurements confirmed sulphate reduction and sulphide production. After nitrate ion addition at 100 and 80 mg/l, in the two repeat experiments respectively, the dominance of rod-shaped bacteria (mean l (c):w (c) = 2.8) was observed. This coincided with the occurrence of nitrate reduction in the treated flow cells. Beneficially, no significant increase in biofilm cover was observed after the addition of nitrate. The dominant culturable nitrate-reducing bacterium was Marinobacter aquaeolei. The l (c):w (c) ratio measured here concurs with previously reported cell dimensions for this organism. Several Marinobacter strains were also isolated from different oil fields in the North Sea where nitrate treatment has been applied to successfully treat reservoir souring, implying that this genus may play an important role in nitrate treatment. PMID:16491355

  13. Oil reserves at Tengiz field reported as 2. 5 billion tons

    SciTech Connect

    Sagers, M.J.

    1987-11-01

    The unusual announcement (reserve figures are normally considered a state secret) occurred during a press conference in Moscow announcing the petrochemical joint venture with Occidental Petroleum and three other Western companies (Montedison and Enichem of Italy and Marubeni of Japan). If the estimates are accurate (it is unknown if the figure refers to total or recoverable reserves), this makes Tengiz not only one of the largest petroleum deposits in the USSR, but in the world. Whether this potential can be developed is still unclear. The Tengiz field was discovered in late 1979 and has been characterized by Soviet experts as one of the most complex and difficult to produce in the entire USSR. The reservoir rocks are of relatively poor quality, and being fissured limestones pose unusual drilling problems. The oil is also quite deep, at 4500-5500 meters. Other development problems arise in the anomalously great reservoir pressure and the high hydrogen sulfide and gas condensate content of the associated gas, which requires the construction of a gas processing facility, to be built nearby at Karaton. The harsh physical environment and the lack of infrastructure (the field is located in salt flats on the edge of the Caspian Sea) also hinder development. The Tengizneftegaz production association was officially established in 1985, but has yet to process any gas or produce any oil.

  14. Blast furnace slag slurries may have limits for oil field use

    SciTech Connect

    Benge, O.G.; Webster, W.W. (Mobil Exploration Producing Technical Center, Dallas, TX (United States))

    1994-07-18

    Thorough testing, economic evaluations, and environmental evaluations of blast furnace slag slurries revealed that replacing Portland cement with slag slurries may compromise essential properties in a cementing operation. The use of blast furnace slag (BFS) slurries should be analyzed on a per case basis for oil well cementing operations. BFS slurry technology may be a viable mud solidification process, but the slurries are not cement and should not be considered as such. Several slurries using field and laboratory prepared drilling fluids solidified with blast furnace slag were investigated to determine thickening time, compressive strength, free water, and other pertinent properties. The tests included an evaluation of the expansion of the set material and shear bond, as well as rheological compatibility studies of the finished slurries with the base muds. These additional tests are critical in the potential application of this process under field conditions.

  15. Field Test of an Aqueous Surfactant System For Oil Recovery, Benton Field, Illinois

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. S. French; G. W. Keys; G. L. Stegemeier; R. C. Ueber; A. Abrams; H. J. Hill

    1973-01-01

    A pilot study of surfactant systems in tertiary recovery operations was conducted on the Tar Springs sandstone in the Benton field, Illinois. The test site covered an area of one acre and included five process wells, three observation wells, and four evaluation core holes. There were four injection phases: (1) a preflood of low-salinity water to displace the high-salinity formation

  16. Petroleum geology of Sespe field: new oil from an old field

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. M. Lankford; D. E. Pasquini

    1986-01-01

    The Sespe field, discovered 100 years ago, is situated along the north flank of the Ventura basin on the upthrown side of the San Cayetano fault. Production zones range from Eocene to Miocene in age and include the Matilija, Coldwater, and Vaqueros Formations. The Oligocene Sespe Formation is the primary producing zone. Fractured shale of the Miocene Rincon formation also

  17. Additional Reserve Recovery Using New Polymer Treatment on High Water Oil Ratio Wells in Alameda Field, Kingman County, Kansas

    SciTech Connect

    James Spillane

    2005-10-01

    The Chemical Flooding process, like a polymer treatment, as a tertiary (enhanced) oil recovery process can be a very good solution based on the condition of this field and its low cost compared to the drilling of new wells. It is an improved water flooding method in which high molecular-weight (macro-size molecules) and water-soluble polymers are added to the injection water to improve the mobility ratio by enhancing the viscosity of the water and by reducing permeability in invaded zones during the process. In other words, it can improve the sweep efficiency by reducing the water mobility. This polymer treatment can be performed on the same active oil producer well rather than on an injector well in the existence of strong water drive in the formation. Some parameters must be considered before any polymer job is performed such as: formation temperature, permeability, oil gravity and viscosity, location and formation thickness of the well, amount of remaining recoverable oil, fluid levels, well productivity, water oil ratio (WOR) and existence of water drive. This improved oil recovery technique has been used widely and has significant potential to extend reservoir life by increasing the oil production and decreasing the water cut. This new technology has the greatest potential in reservoirs that are moderately heterogeneous, contain moderately viscous oils, and have adverse water-oil mobility ratios. For example, many wells in Kansas's Arbuckle formation had similar treatments and we have seen very effective results. In addition, there were previous polymer treatments conducted by Texaco in Alameda Field on a number of wells throughout the Viola-Simpson formation in the early 70's. Most of the treatments proved to be very successful.

  18. Contracts for field projects and supporting research on enhanced oil recovery and improved drilling technology. Progress review No. 34, quarter ending March 31, 1983

    SciTech Connect

    Linville, B. (ed.) [ed.

    1983-07-01

    Progress achieved for the quarter ending March 1983 are presented for field projects and supporting research for the following: chemical flooding; carbon dioxide injection; and thermal/heavy oil. In addition, progress reports are presented for: resource assessment technology; extraction technology; environmental and safety; microbial enhanced oil recovery; oil recovered by gravity mining; improved drilling technology; and general supporting research. (ATT)

  19. Water alternating enriched gas injection to enhance oil production and recovery from San Francisco Field, Colombia

    E-print Network

    Rueda Silva, Carlos Fernando

    2003-01-01

    ) using Kulin oil (21 'API oil Irom Indonesia). ' The same effect of production acceleration was observed in these experiments and steam injectivity was improved with the addition of propane to the steam. Rivero and Mamora (2002) conducted several steam... studies of steam-propane and enriched gas injection for the Minas light crude oil. ' With steam-propane injection no improvement on production and oil recovery was obtained. Enriched gas injection increase the oil recovery in 13'/o, (74'/o OOIP with 5...

  20. Water alternating enriched gas injection to enhance oil production and recovery from San Francisco Field, Colombia 

    E-print Network

    Rueda Silva, Carlos Fernando

    2003-01-01

    ) using Kulin oil (21 'API oil Irom Indonesia). ' The same effect of production acceleration was observed in these experiments and steam injectivity was improved with the addition of propane to the steam. Rivero and Mamora (2002) conducted several steam... studies of steam-propane and enriched gas injection for the Minas light crude oil. ' With steam-propane injection no improvement on production and oil recovery was obtained. Enriched gas injection increase the oil recovery in 13'/o, (74'/o OOIP with 5...

  1. INCREASING HEAVY OIL RESERVES IN THE WILMINGTON OIL FIELD THROUGH ADVANCED RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION AND THERMAL PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGIES

    SciTech Connect

    Scott Hara

    2000-02-18

    The project involves using advanced reservoir characterization and thermal production technologies to improve thermal recovery techniques and lower operating and capital costs in a slope and basin clastic (SBC) reservoir in the Wilmington field, Los Angeles Co., CA. Through March 1999, project work has been completed related to data preparation, basic reservoir engineering, developing a deterministic three dimensional (3-D) geologic model, a 3-D deterministic reservoir simulation model, and a rock-log model, well drilling and completions, and surface facilities. Work is continuing on the stochastic geologic model, developing a 3-D stochastic thermal reservoir simulation model of the Fault Block IIA Tar (Tar II-A) Zone, and operational work and research studies to prevent thermal-related formation compaction. Thermal-related formation compaction is a concern of the project team due to observed surface subsidence in the local area above the steamflood project. Last quarter on January 12, the steamflood project lost its inexpensive steam source from the Harbor Cogeneration Plant as a result of the recent deregulation of electrical power rates in California. An operational plan was developed and implemented to mitigate the effects of the two situations. Seven water injection wells were placed in service in November and December 1998 on the flanks of the Phase 1 steamflood area to pressure up the reservoir to fill up the existing steam chest. Intensive reservoir engineering and geomechanics studies are continuing to determine the best ways to shut down the steamflood operations in Fault Block II while minimizing any future surface subsidence. The new 3-D deterministic thermal reservoir simulator model is being used to provide sensitivity cases to optimize production, steam injection, future flank cold water injection and reservoir temperature and pressure. According to the model, reservoir fill up of the steam chest at the current injection rate of 28,000 BPD and gross and net oil production rates of 7,700 BPD and 750 BOPD (injection to production ratio of 4) will occur in October 1999. At that time, the reservoir should act more like a waterflood and production and cold water injection can be operated at lower net injection rates to be determined. Modeling runs developed this quarter found that varying individual well injection rates to meet added production and local pressure problems by sub-zone could reduce steam chest fill-up by up to one month.

  2. Strontium isotope detection of brine contamination in the East Poplar oil field, Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peterman, Zell E.; Thamke, Joanna N.; Futa, Kiyoto; Oliver, Thomas A.

    2010-01-01

    Brine contamination of groundwater in the East Poplar oil field was first documented in the mid-1980s by the U.S. Geological Survey by using hydrochemistry, with an emphasis on chloride (Cl) and total dissolved solids concentrations. Supply wells for the City of Poplar are located downgradient from the oil field, are completed in the same shallow aquifers that are documented as contaminated, and therefore are potentially at risk of being contaminated. In cooperation with the Office of Environmental Protection of the Fort Peck Tribes, groundwater samples were collected in 2009 and 2010 from supply wells, monitor wells, and the Poplar River for analyses of major and trace elements, including strontium (Sr) concentrations and isotopic compositions. The ratio of strontium-87 to strontium-86 (87Sr/86Sr) is used extensively as a natural tracer in groundwater to detect mixing among waters from different sources and to study the effects of water/rock interaction. On a plot of the reciprocal strontium concentration against the 87Sr/86Sr ratio, mixtures of two end members will produce a linear array. Using this plotting method, data for samples from most of the wells, including the City of Poplar wells, define an array with reciprocal strontium values ranging from 0.08 to 4.15 and 87Sr/86Sr ratios ranging from 0.70811 to 0.70828. This array is composed of a brine end member with an average 87Sr/86Sr of 0.70822, strontium concentrations in excess of 12.5 milligrams per liter (mg/L), and chloride concentrations exceeding 8,000 mg/L mixing with uncontaminated water similar to that in USGS06-08 with 18.0 mg/L chloride, 0.24 mg/L strontium, and a 87Sr/86Sr ratio of 0.70811. The position of samples from the City of Poplar public-water supply wells within this array indicates that brine contamination has reached all three wells. Outliers from this array are EPU-4G (groundwater from the Cretaceous Judith River Formation), brine samples from disposal wells (Huber 5-D and EPU 1-D), USGS92-11 (a well with water that was considerably contaminated in 1992 and becoming less saline with time), and PNR-27 (only slightly below the defined trend with an 87Sr/86Sr ratio of 0.70793). Water samples from the City of Poplar wells are also enriched in anions and cations that are abundant in oil-field brine.

  3. Reduction in natural hydrocarbon seepage from the offshore south Ellwood field near Coal Oil Point, California, due to oil production

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. S. Hornafius; B. P. Luyendyk; D. Quigley; A. Trial

    1996-01-01

    Prolific natural gas seepage, a significant air pollution source in Santa Barbara County, occurs offshore from Coal Oil Point, near Santa Barbara. Seepage rates are quantified by measuring the acoustic return of sonar sources from the gas bubbles rising through the water column, and by measuring the dissolved concentrations of hydrocarbons downcurrent from the gas seep vents. In 1995 we

  4. Reasons for production decline in the diatomite, Belridge oil field: a rock mechanics view

    SciTech Connect

    Strickland, F.G.

    1985-03-01

    This paper summarizes research conducted on diatomite cores from the Belridge oil field in Kern County, CA. The study was undertaken to explain the rapid decline in oil production in diatomite wells by investigating three of six possible reasons. Characterization of the rock indicated that the rock was composed of principally amorphous opaline silica diatoms with only a trace of crystoballite quartz or chert quartz. Physical properties tests showed the diatomite to be of very low strength and plastic. It was established that longterm creep of diatomite into a propped fracture proceeds at a rate of approximately 1.5 microns/D (1.5 ..mu..m/d), a phenomenon that may contribute to rapid production declines. Also revealed was a matrix strength for the formation of about 1,325 psi (9136 kPa), a critical value to consider when depleting the reservoir. This also may help to explain the phase transformation to Opal CT around 2,000to 2,500-ft (610- to 762-m) depth.

  5. Comparison of soft computing techniques for a three-phase oil field centrifuge.

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, R. E. (Ronald E.); Parkinson, w; Miller, N. (Neal)

    2002-01-01

    In this work we compare fuzzy techniques to neural network techniques for building a soft sensor for a three-phase oil field centrifuge. The soft sensor is used in a feed-forward control system that augments a feedback control system. Two approaches were used to develop the soft sensor. The first approach was to use a fuzzy rule based system based upon the experience of an expert operator. The expert operator's experience was supplemented using a computer model of the system. The second approach was to use a neural network to build the inverse of the computer model. The pros and cons of both techniques are discussed. KEYWORDS: fuzzy logic, neural networks, soft sensor, soft computing

  6. The development and field testing of a less hazardous and technically superior oil based drilling fluid

    SciTech Connect

    Kenny, P.; Norman, M.; Friestad, A.M.; Risvik, B.

    1996-12-31

    This paper describes the development and subsequent field results of a new invert emulsion, low toxicity, oil based drilling fluid (LTOBM). The new fluid was developed in response to the anticipated increased usage of LTOBM, and primary considerations in the development were those of working conditions, the environment, technical performance and economics. Developments in invert emulsion drilling fluids have, over recent years, been concentrated in the areas of reducing environmental impact, and improving technical performance. LTOBM have, as a result of this, been largely replaced by synthetic based drilling fluids (SBM), which exhibit similar, or improved technical performance, whilst claiming to have reduced environmental impact. This development focus has resulted in very few changes being made to LTOBM since the replacement of diesel by low toxicity mineral oil. The occupational health hazards involved in using SBM have, however, proven to be similar, or occasionally worse, than with LTOBM. Such health problems can be mainly attributed to two components; the base fluid and lime, the latter being a major contributor to skin irritation problems, and the former to both skin irritation, and inhalation problems. There has been a lack of occupational health studies carried out with respect to the use of SBM compared to LTOBM. This paper describes the laboratory testing conducted, and results obtained during the development, where several base fluids were screened, along with a multitude of fluid additives, prior to obtaining the optimal formulation. The final fluid was designed for use on high temperature high pressure wells and extended reach wells, as well as more {open_quotes}normal wells{close_quotes}. The laboratory data presented is supported by field data from the successful use of the system as a worker friendly, high performance, LTOBM drilling fluid.

  7. LOGAN WASH FIELD TREATABILITY STUDIES OF WASTEWATERS FROM OIL SHALE RETORTING PROCESSES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Treatability studies were conducted on retort water and gas condensate wastewater from modified in-situ oil shale retorts to evaluate the effectiveness of selected treatment technologies for removing organic and inorganic contaminants. At retorts operated by Occidental Oil Shale,...

  8. Saline-water contamination in Quaternary deposits and the Poplar River, East Poplar Oil Field, northeastern Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thamke, J.N.; Craigg, S.D.

    1997-01-01

    The extent of saline-water contamination in Quaternary deposits in and near the East Poplar oil field may be as much as 12.4 square miles and appears to be present throughout the entire saturated zone. The saline-water contamination affects 9-60 billion gallons of ground water. Saline- contaminated water moves westward through Quaternary glacial deposits and merges with southward-flowing water in Quaternary alluvium in the Poplar River valley. Saline ground water discharges into the Poplar River, and increases the dissolved-solids and chloride concentrations of the river. The probable source of saline-water contamination in the Quaternary deposits is brine that is a byproduct of the production of crude oil in the East Poplar oil field study area.

  9. The CPMG Pulse Sequence in Strong Magnetic Field Gradients with Applications to Oil-Well Logging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goelman, G.; Prammer, M. G.

    It is shown that transverse relaxation measurements obtained from CPMG echo trains are valid even in the presence of strong, static magnetic field gradients. In the context of in situ measurements for water or oil exploration, low magnetic fields and short echo spacings are utilized to minimize diffusional effects. Under these conditions, it is shown that, for T1 = T2, the inverse Laplace transformation of the echo train is essentially independent of field homogeneity. For T1 ? T2, the error in determining T2 does not exceed ˜12%, even for high T1/ T2 ratios. In most porous media, T1/ T2 is less than 3, in which case the error is below 8%. Analytical expressions for the echo amplitudes including relaxation are derived based on the density-matrix formalism. We define recursion relations that give the density matrix at echo i by a simple multiplication of the density matrix at echo i - 1 with a set of operators describing the evolution between consecutive echoes. The echo intensity is shown to be a function of the ratio between the radiofrequency strength and the receiver bandwidth. The optimal signal-to-noise ratio is obtained when this ratio is unity. The paper provides the theoretical framework for interpreting data obtained in situ by a modern NMR logging instrument. Furthermore, the results are directly applicable to magnetic resonance imaging.

  10. Diversity of culturable sulfidogenic bacteria in two oil-water separation tanks in the north-eastern oil fields of India.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, Akhil; Vanbroekhoven, Karolien; Lal, Banwari

    2010-02-01

    Sulfidogenic communities in the production waters of onshore oil fields in north-eastern India were examined using a culturing approach. Production water samples were inoculated into medium selective for Sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) and Thiosulfate Reducing Bacteria (TRB). The total number of viable sulfidogenic microorganisms in the samples obtained from the two production water tanks was approximately 10(5) MPN ml(-1) (most probable number per ml). Most of the isolates were thermo-tolerant and could be grown between 40 and 45 degrees C. Hydrogen sulfide production by TRB was significantly higher than by SRB. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequencing, the isolates were grouped in nine different phylotypes. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that most of the SRB were affiliated with the phylum Proteobacteria, encompassing Gram-negative bacteria, belonging to the genera Desulfovibrio, Desulfomicrobium, and Desulfobulbus. However, five isolates grouped with the genus Desulfotomaculum were found to be gram-positive SRB. Most of the thiosulfate reducing isolates was affiliated with the phylum Firmicutes, including Clostridium and Fusibacter and also with the phylum Proteobacteria, including the genera Enterobacter and Citrobacter. Phylotypes related to Clostridium (69%) and Desulfovibrio (53%) dominated the community in the production water samples. This study demonstrates the diversity of the TRB and SRB that play a critical role in the souring mediated corrosion of the oil-water separation tanks in the north-eastern India oil fields. PMID:19427389

  11. Field Simulation of Oil Skimming System Package for Crane Barges in Emergency

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Yoshie; I. Fujita; K. Takezaki

    2008-01-01

    This paper shows a proposal of the oil skimming system in emergency. The system is transported by truck to the port near the coast where we have to recover oil. Because the Japanese coastline is very long, the system should be deployed quickly and efficiently. The crane barge prepares to recover oil at the quay and loads the system on

  12. Time lapse seismic observations and effects of reservoir compressibility at Teal South oil field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Islam, Nayyer

    One of the original ocean-bottom time-lapse seismic studies was performed at the Teal South oil field in the Gulf of Mexico during the late 1990's. This work reexamines some aspects of previous work using modern analysis techniques to provide improved quantitative interpretations. Using three-dimensional volume visualization of legacy data and the two phases of post-production time-lapse data, I provide additional insight into the fluid migration pathways and the pressure communication between different reservoirs, separated by faults. This work supports a conclusion from previous studies that production from one reservoir caused regional pressure decline that in turn resulted in liberation of gas from multiple surrounding unproduced reservoirs. I also provide an explanation for unusual time-lapse changes in amplitude-versus-offset (AVO) data related to the compaction of the producing reservoir which, in turn, changed an isotropic medium to an anisotropic medium. In the first part of this work, I examine regional changes in seismic response due to the production of oil and gas from one reservoir. The previous studies primarily used two post-production ocean-bottom surveys (Phase I and Phase II), and not the legacy streamer data, due to the unavailability of legacy prestack data and very different acquisition parameters. In order to incorporate the legacy data in the present study, all three post-stack data sets were cross-equalized and examined using instantaneous amplitude and energy volumes. This approach appears quite effective and helps to suppress changes unrelated to production while emphasizing those large-amplitude changes that are related to production in this noisy (by current standards) suite of data. I examine the multiple data sets first by using the instantaneous amplitude and energy attributes, and then also examine specific apparent time-lapse changes through direct comparisons of seismic traces. In so doing, I identify time-delays that, when corrected for, indicate water encroachment at the base of the producing reservoir. I also identify specific sites of leakage from various unproduced reservoirs, the result of regional pressure blowdown as explained in previous studies; those earlier studies, however, were unable to identify direct evidence of fluid movement. Of particular interest is the identification of one site where oil apparently leaked from one reservoir into a "new" reservoir that did not originally contain oil, but was ideally suited as a trap for fluids leaking from the neighboring spill-point. With continued pressure drop, oil in the new reservoir increased as more oil entered into the reservoir and expanded, liberating gas from solution. Because of the limited volume available for oil and gas in that temporary trap, oil and gas also escaped from it into the surrounding formation. I also note that some of the reservoirs demonstrate time-lapse changes only in the "gas cap" and not in the oil zone, even though gas must be coming out of solution everywhere in the reservoir. This is explained by interplay between pore-fluid modulus reduction by gas saturation decrease and dry-frame modulus increase by frame stiffening. In the second part of this work, I examine various rock-physics models in an attempt to quantitatively account for frame-stiffening that results from reduced pore-fluid pressure in the producing reservoir, searching for a model that would predict the unusual AVO features observed in the time-lapse prestack and stacked data at Teal South. While several rock-physics models are successful at predicting the time-lapse response for initial production, most fail to match the observations for continued production between Phase I and Phase II. Because the reservoir was initially overpressured and unconsolidated, reservoir compaction was likely significant, and is probably accomplished largely by uniaxial strain in the vertical direction; this implies that an anisotropic model may be required. Using Walton's model for anisotropic unconsolidated sand, I successfully mod

  13. FIELD STUDIES ON USBM AND TOSCO II RETORTED OIL SHALES: VEGETATION, MOISTURE, SALINITY, AND RUNOFF, 1977-1980

    EPA Science Inventory

    Field studies were initiated in 1973 to investigate the vegetative stabilization of processed oil shales and to follow moisture and soluble salt movement within the soil/shale profile. Research plots with two types of retorted shales (TOSCO II and USBM) with leaching and soil cov...

  14. Naphthenic acid extraction and characterization from naphthenate field deposits and crude oils using ESMS and APCI-MS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Murtala A. Mohammed; Ken S. Sorbie

    2009-01-01

    The formation of different types of naphthenate deposit during production operations is becoming an increasing flow assurance problem for the oil industry. Two “end-member” types of naphthenate salts are observed in the field, viz. the more precipitation-like calcium naphthenates and the more emulsion like sodium naphthenates. In order to characterise these naphthenate deposits, it is important to be able to

  15. LABORATORY AND FIELD EVALUATION OF CRYSTALLIZED DOW 704 OIL ON THE PERFORMANCE OF THE PM2.5 WINS FRACTIONATOR

    EPA Science Inventory

    Subsequent to the PM2.5 FRM's 1997 promulgation, technicians at the CT Dept. of Env. Protection observed that the DOW 704 diffusion oil used in the method's WINS fractionator would occasionally crystallize during field use - particularly under wintertime conditions. While the f...

  16. Small-scale structural heterogeneity and well-communication problems in the Granny Creek oil field of West Virginia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. Zheng; T. H. Wilson; R. C. Shumaker

    1993-01-01

    Seismic interpretations of the Granny Creek oil field in West Virginia suggest the presence of numerous small-scale fracture zones and faults. Seismic disruptions interpreted as faults and\\/or fracture zones are represented by abrupt reflection offsets, local amplitude reductions, and waveform changes. These features are enhanced through reprocessing, and the majority of the improvements to the data result from the surface

  17. Class III Mid-Term Project, "Increasing Heavy Oil Reserves in the Wilmington Oil Field Through Advanced Reservoir Characterization and Thermal Production Technologies"

    SciTech Connect

    Scott Hara

    2007-03-31

    The overall objective of this project was to increase heavy oil reserves in slope and basin clastic (SBC) reservoirs through the application of advanced reservoir characterization and thermal production technologies. The project involved improving thermal recovery techniques in the Tar Zone of Fault Blocks II-A and V (Tar II-A and Tar V) of the Wilmington Field in Los Angeles County, near Long Beach, California. A primary objective has been to transfer technology that can be applied in other heavy oil formations of the Wilmington Field and other SBC reservoirs, including those under waterflood. The first budget period addressed several producibility problems in the Tar II-A and Tar V thermal recovery operations that are common in SBC reservoirs. A few of the advanced technologies developed include a three-dimensional (3-D) deterministic geologic model, a 3-D deterministic thermal reservoir simulation model to aid in reservoir management and subsequent post-steamflood development work, and a detailed study on the geochemical interactions between the steam and the formation rocks and fluids. State of the art operational work included drilling and performing a pilot steam injection and production project via four new horizontal wells (2 producers and 2 injectors), implementing a hot water alternating steam (WAS) drive pilot in the existing steamflood area to improve thermal efficiency, installing a 2400-foot insulated, subsurface harbor channel crossing to supply steam to an island location, testing a novel alkaline steam completion technique to control well sanding problems, and starting on an advanced reservoir management system through computer-aided access to production and geologic data to integrate reservoir characterization, engineering, monitoring, and evaluation. The second budget period phase (BP2) continued to implement state-of-the-art operational work to optimize thermal recovery processes, improve well drilling and completion practices, and evaluate the geomechanical characteristics of the producing formations. The objectives were to further improve reservoir characterization of the heterogeneous turbidite sands, test the proficiency of the three-dimensional geologic and thermal reservoir simulation models, identify the high permeability thief zones to reduce water breakthrough and cycling, and analyze the nonuniform distribution of the remaining oil in place. This work resulted in the redevelopment of the Tar II-A and Tar V post-steamflood projects by drilling several new wells and converting idle wells to improve injection sweep efficiency and more effectively drain the remaining oil reserves. Reservoir management work included reducing water cuts, maintaining or increasing oil production, and evaluating and minimizing further thermal-related formation compaction. The BP2 project utilized all the tools and knowledge gained throughout the DOE project to maximize recovery of the oil in place.

  18. Strontium isotopic evolution of oil-field waters from carbonate reservoir rocks in Bindley field, central Kansas, U.S.A

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Chaudhuri; V. Broedel; N. Clauer

    1987-01-01

    Oil-field waters produced from Mississippian carbonate reservoir rocks in Bindley field, Kansas had an average salinity of about 42.8 mg\\/l. They were enriched in Ca, Sr, Na, K, Rb, and Li and depleted in Mg relative to sea water at the same level of either Cl or Br concentration. The average abundances of different elements are as follows: Na--13,460 mg\\/l,

  19. Technical and economic feasibility study of enhanced oil recovery in six Colombian fields. Appendix B. Export trade information

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-09-01

    The study was prepared for the Empresa Colombiana de Petroleos by Scientific Software-Intercomp, Inc. The primary objectives of the study were to determine which of the reservoirs in the principal fields were amenable to enhanced oil recovery (EOR) processes, to evaluate which process was the most effective from both a technical and economic point of view, and to propose the steps required to further investigate the recommended EOR methods at the laboratory and field (pilot) level. Appendix B is divided into three sections: (1) La Cira Field; (2) Casabe Field; and (3) Infantas.

  20. Activities of the Oil Implementation Task Force, reporting period March--August 1991; Contracts for field projects and supporting research on enhanced oil recovery, reporting period October--December 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-10-01

    Activities of DOE's Oil Implementation Task Force for the period March--August 1991 are reviewed. Contracts for fields projects and supporting research on enhanced oil recovery are discussed, with a list of related publications given. Enhanced recovery processes covered include chemical flooding, gas displacement, thermal recovery, and microbial recovery.

  1. A proven elastomer compound for extremely hostile geothermal and oil field environments

    SciTech Connect

    Hirasuna, A.R.; Friese, G.J.; Stephens, C.A.

    1983-02-01

    Since 1979 the Y267 EPDM elastomer has been independently tested by other organizations in a variety of field and laboratory applications. The following are some examples. The same Y267 EPDM O-rings worked with no leaks as logging tool seals for multiple trips to 4600M (15k ft.) at 320/sup 0/C (608F) BHST. A packer element performed flawlessly for five months in a 204/sup 0/C (400F) continuous steam injection well and was retrieved at the end of the test in an as-new condition. A high-pressure Y267 EPDM packer test was performed with complete success at 232/sup 0/C (450F) for a 7.5 day test in sour crude with differential pressures to 138 MPa (20 ksi) and the seal condition was only very slightly changed by the test. Comprehensive compatibility testing of 34 compounds from 15 companies in geothermal brine, isobutane, and oil at 191C-266/sup 0/C (375-510F) showed that the Y267 EPDM was best of the 34 in all three fluids. Over 15 laboratory and over 20 field case histories of Y267 EPDM such as the above examples are reported. All strongly establish that Y267 EPDM is at the cutting edge of technology.

  2. Brine Contamination of Ground Water and Streams in the Baxterville Oil Field Area, Lamar and Marion Counties, Mississippi

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kalkhoff, Stephen J.

    1993-01-01

    A hydrologic investigation to define the extent of brine contamination in ground water and streams in the Baxterville oil field area was conducted from October 1984 through November 1985. The 260-square-mile study area includes the Baxterville oil field (approximately 12.5 square miles) in southwestern Lamar and southeastern Marion Counties, Mississippi. Since 1944, disposal of more than 1 billion barrels of brine pumped from the oil- producing zones has contaminated (increased chloride to greater than background concentrations) parts of the Citronelle and shallow Miocene aquifers and some streams that drain the oil field. Many domestic wells have been abandoned because of the presence of substantial quantities of brine in the ground water. Brine has moved laterally through the shallowest aquifers and discharged into Clear Creek and its tributaries. Although the presence of brine in surface water was greatest during periods of low flow when streamflow originated primarily from ground-water inflow, brine was also detected during high-flow periods when streamflow consisted largely of precipitation runoff.

  3. Monitoring population abundance of the sand lizard Acanthodactylus scutellatus and their ant prey in oil polluted soils at Kuwait's greater Al-Burgan oil field.

    PubMed

    Al-Hashem, M

    2009-11-01

    Desert ecosystems in Al-Burgan oil fields of Kuwait were contaminated by heavy metals and petroleum hydrocarbons due to oil spill generated by the Gulf War in 1990. Studying sand lizard (Acanthodactylus scutellatus) population and their ant prey in the years 2002 and 2003 to detect the effects of oil pollution is now a focus of study. Polluted sites with apparently different degrees of pollution (namely tar mat, soot and clear sites) were compared with control sites outside this region. Total lizard numbers were recorded by using transect method. Number of ants was recorded by walking the transects and counting ants present. The results showed no difference in lizard population between the different study sites in 2002 and 2003 by applying the transect method. No difference in ant populations between the different study sites in 2002 and 2003. Although, the mean estimated lizard numbers were lower at the tar mat sites, the ant number in this location was greatest, meaning that food availability was highest at these sites. This suggests any reduction in the numbers of lizards is unrelated to low resource availability. The lizard numbers at the tar mat sites could be depressed by some property of the pollutants. PMID:20128514

  4. Low field 1H NMR relaxometry and multivariate data analysis in crude oil viscosity prediction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paulo Frederico de Oliveira Ramos; Ingrid Bertoni de Toledo; Christiane Mapheu Nogueira; Etelvino Henrique Novotny; Alexandre Jaime Mello Vieira; Rodrigo Bagueira de Vasconcellos Azeredo

    2009-01-01

    This study explores the application of multivariate data analysis in the viscosity prediction of crude oils using NMR relaxation data. The 1H transverse relaxation times (T2) of 68 Brazilian crude oil samples, ranging from light to extra-heavy (2 to 30,000cP), were measured at 2MHz. Partial least squares regression (PLSR) models were developed to predict the oil viscosity in log viscosity

  5. Environmental assessment of Buccaneer gas and oil field in the northwestern Gulf of Mexico, 1978-1979. Volume VI. Currents and hydrography of the Buccaneer field and adjacent waters. Annual report

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. J. Danek; M. S. Tomlinson

    1980-01-01

    Four seasonal hydrographic surveys were conducted in the vicinity of the Buccaneer Oil Field in an effort to describe the physical environment in and around a producing oil and gas field. The measurements made included currents, wind, waves, total suspended solids, and hydrographic parameters including temperature, salinity, conductivity, dissolved oxygen, pH and transmissivity. The results of the study indicated that

  6. A procedure to estimate the parent population of the size of oil and gas fields as revealed by a study of economic truncation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schuenemeyer, J.H.; Drew, L.J.

    1983-01-01

    An estimation technique has been derived to predict the number of small fields in a geologic play or basin. Historically, many small oil and gas fields went unreported because they were not economical. This led to an underestimation of the number of undiscovered small fields. A study of the distributions of reported oil and gas fields in well-explored areas suggests that the large fields when grouped into log base 2 size classes are geometrically distributed. Further, the number of small fields reported is a function of the cost of exploration and development. Thus, the population field-size distribution is conjectured to be log geometric in form. ?? 1983 Plenum Publishing Corporation.

  7. Analysis of Data from a Downhole Oil/Water Separator Field Trial in East Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Veil, John A.; Layne, Arthur Langhus

    2001-04-19

    Downhole oil/water separator (DOWS) technology is available to separate oil from produced water at the bottom of an oil well. Produced water can be injected directly to a disposal formation rather than lifting it to the surface, treating it there, and reinjecting it. Because of a lack of detailed performance data on DOWS systems, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) provided funding to secure DOWS performance data. A large U.S. oil and gas operator offered to share its data with Argonne National Laboratory. This report summarizes data from the DOWS installation in eastern Texas.

  8. Increased Oil Production and Reserves From Improved Completion Techniques in the Bluebell Field, Uinta Basin, Utah

    SciTech Connect

    Morgan, C.D.; Deo, M.D.

    1998-04-01

    The Bluebell field is productive from the Tertiary lower Green River and Colton (Wasatch) Formations of the Uinta Basin, Utah. The productive interval consists of thousands of feet of interbedded fractured clastic and carbonate beds deposited in the ancestral Lake Uinta. Wells in the Bluebell field are typically completed by perforating 40 or more beds over 1000 to 3000 vertical ft (300-900 m), then stimulating the entire interval with hydrochloric acid. This technique is often referred to as the shot gun completion. Completion techniques used in the Bluebell field were discussed in detail in the Second Annual Report (Curtice, 1996). The shot-gun technique is believed to leave many potentially productive beds damaged and/or untreated, while allowing water-bearing and low-pressure (thief) zones to communicate with the wellbore. A two-year characterization study involved detailed examination of outcrop, core, well logs, surface and subsurface fractures, produced oil-field waters, engineering parameters of the two demonstration wells, and analysis of past completion techniques and effectiveness. The study was intended to improve the geologic characterization of the producing formations and thereby develop completion techniques specific to the producing beds or facies instead of a shot gun approach to stimulating all the beds. The characterization did not identify predictable-facies or predictable-fracture trends within the vertical stratigraphic column as originally hoped. Advanced logging techniques can identify productive beds in individual wells. A field-demonstration program was developed to use cased-hole advanced logging techniques in two wells and recompletion the wells at two different scales based on the logging. The first well was going to be completed at the interval scale using a multiple stage completion technique (about 500 ft [150 m] per stage). The second well will be recompleted at the bed-scale using bridge plug and packer to isolate three or more beds for stimulation. These recompletion will show which logs are most effective in identifying productive beds and what scale of completion is most cost effective. The third demonstration will be the logging and completion of a new well using the logs and completion scale or technique, most effective in the previous demonstrations.

  9. Mining machinery/equipment/parts/services. Oil and gas field equipment/machinery/parts/supplies (Brazil). Oil and gas field machinery, November 1990. Export trade information

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-11-01

    The Brazilian market for oil and gasfield machinery reached approximately $938 million in 1989, of which about $86 million were supplied by imports. The market may reach $2.6 billion by 1993, if indeed the Government of Brazil approves an annual investment plan of $3.5 billion, as proposed by PETROBRAS, the state owned and operated oil and gas production monopoly. According to reports by the Ministry of Economy, investments by PETROBRAS rose from .37% of GDP in 1989 to .41% in 1990. It is predicted that during the next five years its investments will average .56% of GDP. Currently, PETROBRAS imports only about 10% of its equipment needs, but this is expected to more than double by 1993 as a result of a recently adopted procurement policy which calls for purchasing the best available equipment worldwide, at the most favorable price.

  10. Effects of oil pollution at Kuwait's Greater Al-Burgan oil field on the timing of morning emergence, basking and foraging behaviors by the sand lizard Acanthodactylus scutellatus.

    PubMed

    Al-Hashem, M Abdulla; Brain, P F; Omar, S Ahmad

    2008-02-15

    An attempt was made to study the effects of oil pollution in a desert location (the Greater Al-Burgan oil fields, an area damaged in the second Gulf War) in Kuwait on the behaviour of the Sand lizard A. scutellatus. Polluted sites with apparently different degrees of contamination (namely tar mat, soot and clear sites) were compared with control areas outside this region. Between 2002 and 2003, ten lizards (5 of each sex) on each polluted and each control site were observed in the field at a time of the year when they were highly active. Air, substrate and burrow temperatures were recorded and lizards were monitored for their morning emergence times, as well as their basking and foraging activities. The present study confirmed that the morning emergence times and the basking behavior varied in sand lizards among the different pollution site categories. Physical changes in the tar mat sites caused the substrate temperatures in these locations to rise more quickly in the morning in response to solar gain than was the case in the other sites. This gives lizards in these locations the opportunity to emerge earlier and to start eating more quickly, giving them an energetic advantage (perhaps, in turn, influencing their rates of growth and fecundity). The clear sites had the next earliest emergence and were the next hottest but it is difficult to account for this in terms of the physical characteristics of this site. The basking times were clearly shorter on the dark soot and tar mat sites that appeared to have higher solar gain than control or clear sites. There did not appear to be any obvious differences in foraging activity of lizards in the different locations. It appears that some aspects of simple behaviour in these lizards provides a reliable, noninvasive indices for assessing oil pollution in desert locations. The precise impact of these changes in these reptiles on their long-term viability needs to be evaluated. PMID:18817131

  11. Effect of Los Lobos thrust fault on tertiary recovery in west San Ardo oil field, Salinas Basin, California

    SciTech Connect

    Laing, J.E.

    1988-03-01

    Field observations and correlation of wireline logs from wells in the west San Ardo oil field reveal the geometry and character of the Los Lobos thrust fault. The Los Lobos thrust is a northwest-trending, southwest-dipping fault of Pliocene to Pleistocene age, located in the southwest Salinas basin. The surface trace separates the Salinas River on the east from the Aurignac Hills on the west. The Aurignac Hills form the hanging wall and are comprised of fine-grained rocks of the Monterey Formation, which have been thrust northeast over oil-productive Aurignac sand, a shallow marine shelf sand of Miocene age. Analyses of electric and dip logs indicate that the fault plane is steepest near the surface, and flattens with depth. Deformation on the hanging wall involves tight folding with limb distances ranging from 50 to 100 ft, slickensides, and abundant imbricate thrusts that change in orientation from horizontal to vertical over distances of several hundred feet. Deformation on the footwall is much less intense, consisting of drag folding and additional thrust faulting, decreasing in intensity eastward away from the Los Lobos fault plane. These associated thrust-faults displace the oil-productive Aurignac sand and affect tertiary recovery of low-gravity oil.

  12. Costs for off-site disposal of nonhazardous oil field wastes: Salt caverns versus other disposal methods

    SciTech Connect

    Veil, J.A.

    1997-09-01

    According to an American Petroleum Institute production waste survey reported on by P.G. Wakim in 1987 and 1988, the exploration and production segment of the US oil and gas industry generated more than 360 million barrels (bbl) of drilling wastes, more than 20 billion bbl of produced water, and nearly 12 million bbl of associated wastes in 1985. Current exploration and production activities are believed to be generating comparable quantities of these oil field wastes. Wakim estimates that 28% of drilling wastes, less than 2% of produced water, and 52% of associated wastes are disposed of in off-site commercial facilities. In recent years, interest in disposing of oil field wastes in solution-mined salt caverns has been growing. This report provides information on the availability of commercial disposal companies in oil-and gas-producing states, the treatment and disposal methods they employ, and the amounts they charge. It also compares cavern disposal costs with the costs of other forms of waste disposal.

  13. Microbiological and production characteristics of the high-temperature Kongdian petroleum reservoir revealed during field trial of biotechnology for the enhancement of oil recovery

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. N. Nazina; A. A. Griror’yan; Qingxian Feng; N. M. Shestakova; T. L. Babich; N. K. Pavlova; V. S. Ivoilov; Fangtian Ni; Jianqiang Wang; Yuehui She; Tingsheng Xiang; Bowen Mei; Zhibin Luo; S. S. Belyaev; M. V. Ivanov

    2007-01-01

    Microbiological technology for the enhancement of oil recovery based on the activation of the stratal microflora was tested\\u000a in the high-temperature horizons of the Kongdian bed (60C) of the Dagang oil-field (China). This biotechnology consists in\\u000a the pumping of a water-air mixture and nitrogen and phosphorus mineral salts into the oil stratum through injection wells\\u000a in order to stimulate the

  14. Integrated reservoir characterization of a Tulare steamflood finds bypassed oil - South Belridge Field, Kern County, California

    SciTech Connect

    Walter, D.R.; Wylie, A.S. Jr.; Broussard, K.A. (Santa Fe Energy Resources, Bakersfield, CA (United States))

    1996-01-01

    Reservoir quality and producibility are directly related to the characteristics of the depositional lithofacies. Electric log gamma ray/resistivity profiles were used to define facies trends within the Tulare steamflood at South Belridge. Channel and non-channel facies profiles are distinctive across the lease with the channel sands having the better quality reservoir and greater net pay values. Sidewall core permeabilities were averaged over the main producing Tulare intervals with the channels averaging 2000-3000 millidarcies and non-channels 200-500 millidarcies. This supports the lithofacies trend and net pay maps. Although the approach is qualitative, it illustrates the dramatic permeability contrast between the channel and non-channel lithofacies. Temperature maps using downhole temperature surveys and flowline temperatures indicate channel facies temperatures up to 300[degrees] with the non-channel facies having 90[degrees] to 100[degrees] temperatures (near ambient). Higher temperatures also relate to higher average daily production rates for channel associated wells. Channel wells averaged greater than 30 BOPD while non-channel wells averaged 10 BOPD or less. New and replacement well nations have been high graded resulting in favorable production responses. Integration of the lithofacies, permeability and temperature data plus ongoing preventive production optimization work has led to a more efficient Tulare steamflood and identification of bypassed oil on the King-Ellis lease in the South Belridge Field.

  15. Integrated reservoir characterization of a Tulare steamflood finds bypassed oil - South Belridge Field, Kern County, California

    SciTech Connect

    Walter, D.R.; Wylie, A.S. Jr.; Broussard, K.A. [Santa Fe Energy Resources, Bakersfield, CA (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Reservoir quality and producibility are directly related to the characteristics of the depositional lithofacies. Electric log gamma ray/resistivity profiles were used to define facies trends within the Tulare steamflood at South Belridge. Channel and non-channel facies profiles are distinctive across the lease with the channel sands having the better quality reservoir and greater net pay values. Sidewall core permeabilities were averaged over the main producing Tulare intervals with the channels averaging 2000-3000 millidarcies and non-channels 200-500 millidarcies. This supports the lithofacies trend and net pay maps. Although the approach is qualitative, it illustrates the dramatic permeability contrast between the channel and non-channel lithofacies. Temperature maps using downhole temperature surveys and flowline temperatures indicate channel facies temperatures up to 300{degrees} with the non-channel facies having 90{degrees} to 100{degrees} temperatures (near ambient). Higher temperatures also relate to higher average daily production rates for channel associated wells. Channel wells averaged greater than 30 BOPD while non-channel wells averaged 10 BOPD or less. New and replacement well nations have been high graded resulting in favorable production responses. Integration of the lithofacies, permeability and temperature data plus ongoing preventive production optimization work has led to a more efficient Tulare steamflood and identification of bypassed oil on the King-Ellis lease in the South Belridge Field.

  16. Probing asphaltene aggregation in native crude oils with low-field NMR.

    PubMed

    Zielinski, Lukasz; Saha, Indrajit; Freed, Denise E; Hürlimann, Martin D; Liu, Yongsheng

    2010-04-01

    We show that low-field proton nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) relaxation and diffusion experiments can be used to study asphaltene aggregation directly in crude oils. Relaxation was found to be multiexponential, reflecting the composition of a complex fluid. Remarkably, the relaxation data for samples with different asphaltene concentrations can be collapsed onto each other by a simple rescaling of the time dimension with a concentration-dependent factor xi, whereas the observed diffusion behavior is unaffected by asphaltene concentration. We interpret this finding in terms of a theoretical model that explains the enhanced relaxation by the transitory entanglement of solvent hydrocarbons within asphaltene clusters and their subsequent slowed motion and diffusion within the cluster. We relate the measured scaling parameters xi to cluster sizes, which we find to be on the order of 2.2-4.4 nm for an effective sphere diameter. These sizes are in agreement with the typical values reported in the literature as well as with the small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) experiments performed on our samples. PMID:20131761

  17. Location of oil fields in Forest City basin as related to Precambrian tectonics

    SciTech Connect

    Carlson, M.P. (Univ. of Nebraska, Lincoln (USA))

    1989-09-01

    Accumulation of petroleum in the Forest City basin is strongly influenced by the tectonic framework established during the Precambrian. A series of Late Proterozoic orogenies created a fracture pattern in the northern Mid-Continent, which was emphasized by the late Keweenawan, Mid-Continent Rift System (MRS). Reactivated basement structures have created both a structural and depositional imprint on younger rocks. The Southeast Nebraska arch is defined by Middle Ordovician (Simpson) overlap of Arbuckle equivalents. Continuing differential movement along segments of the MRS within the North Kansas basin influenced the regional facies distribution of both the Late Ordovician (Viola) and the Late Devonian (Hunton). Middle Pennsylvanian compression from the Ouachita orogeny produced the Nemaha uplift and reactivated transform faulting on the MRS. Extensions of these southeast-trending fractures created offsets on the Nemaha uplift/Humboldt fault system and enhanced structures that host oil production. Fields that lie upon these wrench-fault trends within the Forest City basin have produced from the Simpson (St. Peter), Viola, and Hunton formations. The Precambrian structures and rock types produce strong geophysical signatures in contrast to the subdued anomalies of the Paleozoic sediments. Analyses of magnetic and gravity data provide an interpretation of the basement rocks and, by extrapolation, an additional exploration tool for locating Paleozoic trends related to reactivation of Precambrian tectonics.

  18. Super-giant oil fields and future prospects in the Middle East

    SciTech Connect

    Christian, L. [Consultant, Dallas, TX (United States); Johnston, D. [Daniel Johnston & Co., Inc., Dallas, TX (United States)

    1995-06-01

    Upper Jurassic carbonates, Lower Cretaceous sands, Lower Cretaceous carbonates and Tertiary carbonates of the Middle East contain more than 50% of the worlds oil. Our area of interest covers SE Turkey and Syria in the north to the borders of Yemen and Oman in the south, and from the Red Sea across Saudi Arabia, the Emirates and the Arabian/Persian Gulf to Iran in the East. There are over 80 fields in this region with over 1 billion barrels of recoverable reserves. Yet only around 30,000 wells have been drilled in this territory. Regional structure and stratigraphy are discussed within the context of three major plays in the region as well as a new play in the Permo-Carboniferous. Numerous opportunities are available and countries such as Iraq and Iran may one day open their doors more to the industry than is presently the case. The dramatic petroleum geology of the region will stamp its influence on the nature of business and opportunities for years to come. While fiscal systems here already offer some of the toughest terms in the world, future deals in the more prolific areas will be even tougher. But, the economies of Middle Eastern scale will provide some of the great mega-opportunities of future international exploration.

  19. Integrated reservoir study of the Appleton Oil Field, Escambia County, Alabama 

    E-print Network

    Chijuka, Ekene F

    2002-01-01

    specifically a possible underestimation of the reported oil in place and the use of infill drilling to exploit these untapped resources The original oil in place (OOIP) using production data was estimated to be 78.8 million STB, which exceeds the reported...

  20. Simulation studies of steam-propane injection for the Hamaca heavy oil field

    E-print Network

    Venturini, Gilberto Jose

    2002-01-01

    Simulation studies were performed to evaluate a novel technology, steam-propane injection, for the heavy Hamaca crude oil. The oil has a gravity of 9.3?API and a viscosity of 25,000 cp at 50?C. Two types of simulation studies were performed: a...

  1. Field tests of six offshore oil containment booms. I. Final report

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. R. Corpuz; R. A. Griffiths

    1978-01-01

    This report describes the test procedures and equipment used in testing six different oil containment booms in the Gulf of Mexico. Oil was not used. Each boom was evaluated for its seakeeping and logistic requirements for deployment and retrieval. Each boom was moored in a U shape, or catenary, configuration. This was done by establishing two sets of mooring buoys

  2. Reservoir simulation of co2 sequestration and enhanced oil recovery in Tensleep Formation, Teapot Dome field 

    E-print Network

    Gaviria Garcia, Ricardo

    2006-04-12

    and the amount of oil that can be produced as a side benefit of CO2 injection. This research discusses the effects of using different reservoir fluid models from EOS regression and fracture permeability in dual porosity models on enhanced oil recovery and CO2...

  3. Logan Wash field treatability studies of wastewaters from oil shale retorting processes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. O. Desai; D. R. Day; T. E. Ctvrtnicek

    1984-01-01

    Treatability studies were conducted on retort water and gas condensate wastewater from modified in-situ oil shale retorts to evaluate the effectiveness of selected treatment technologies for removing organic and inorganic contaminants. At retorts operated by Occidental Oil Shale, Inc., at Logan Wash, Colorado, treatability studies were conducted on retort water using filter coalescing, steam stripping, activated sludge treatment (both with

  4. Stability of binary and ternary model oil-field particle suspensions: a multivariate analysis approach.

    PubMed

    Dudásová, Dorota; Rune Flåten, Geir; Sjöblom, Johan; Øye, Gisle

    2009-09-15

    The transmission profiles of one- to three-component particle suspension mixtures were analyzed by multivariate methods such as principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least-squares regression (PLS). The particles mimic the solids present in oil-field-produced water. Kaolin and silica represent solids of reservoir origin, whereas FeS is the product of bacterial metabolic activities, and Fe(3)O(4) corrosion product (e.g., from pipelines). All particles were coated with crude oil surface active components to imitate particles in real systems. The effects of different variables (concentration, temperature, and coating) on the suspension stability were studied with Turbiscan LAb(Expert). The transmission profiles over 75 min represent the overall water quality, while the transmission during the first 15.5 min gives information for suspension behavior during a representative time period for the hold time in the separator. The behavior of the mixed particle suspensions was compared to that of the single particle suspensions and models describing the systems were built. The findings are summarized as follows: silica seems to dominate the mixture properties in the binary suspensions toward enhanced separation. For 75 min, temperature and concentration are the most significant, while for 15.5 min, concentration is the only significant variable. Models for prediction of transmission spectra from run parameters as well as particle type from transmission profiles (inverse calibration) give a reasonable description of the relationships. In ternary particle mixtures, silica is not dominant and for 75 min, the significant variables for mixture (temperature and coating) are more similar to single kaolin and FeS/Fe(3)O(4). On the other hand, for 15.5 min, the coating is the most significant and this is similar to one for silica (at 15.5 min). The model for prediction of transmission spectra from run parameters gives good estimates of the transmission profiles. Although the model for prediction of particle type from transmission parameters is able to predict some particles, further improvement is required before all particles are consistently correctly classified. Cross-validation was done for both models and estimation errors are reported. PMID:19560152

  5. Comparison and Analysis of Structural Parameters in Rate of Pabde Formation Fracture in Two Iranian Oil Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jamilpour, M.; Mousavi, F.; Rahimpour, H.

    2009-04-01

    Pabde marly formation (Oligocene-Eocene) associated with Gurpi formation plays minor seal role for Bangestan reservoir in Dezful embayment. But sealing role of this formation isn't same through the Dezful embayment. Several parameters affect on sealing efficiency of this formation. In this study comparison and analysis of structural parameters such as shortening percentage and tightness of fold using RMS software. Using FRACA software, the changes in rate of anticline radius of curvature was evaluated as an important parameter in rate of Pabde formation fracture in two oil fields with different sealing efficiency of caprock. Finally comparing of these parameters in two oil fields determined that difference in their trends that caused to different fracture density and therefore make diversity in sealing efficiency of this formation through the Dezful embayment region.

  6. Water in oil emulsion droplet size characterization using a pulsed field gradient with diffusion editing (PFG-DE) NMR technique.

    PubMed

    Aichele, Clint P; Flaum, Mark; Jiang, Tianmin; Hirasaki, George J; Chapman, Walter G

    2007-11-15

    This paper describes a proton nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) technique, pulsed field gradient with diffusion editing (PFG-DE), to quantify drop size distributions of brine/crude oil emulsions. The drop size distributions obtained from this technique were compared to results from the traditional pulsed field gradient (PFG) technique. The PFG-DE technique provides both transverse relaxation (T2) and drop size distributions simultaneously. In addition, the PFG-DE technique does not assume a form of the drop size distribution. An algorithm for the selection of the optimal parameters to use in a PFG-DE measurement is described in this paper. The PFG-DE technique is shown to have the ability to resolve drop size distributions when the T2 distribution of the emulsified brine overlaps either the crude oil or the bulk brine T2 distribution. Finally, the PFG-DE technique is shown to have the ability to resolve a bimodal drop size distribution. PMID:17716679

  7. Bacterial community dynamics and hydorcarbon degradation during a field-scale evaluation of bioremediation on a mudflat beach contaminated with burried oil

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wilfred F. M. Roling; Michael G. Milner; D. Martin Jones; Francesco Fratepietro; Richard P. J. Swannell; Fabien Daniel; Ian M. Head

    2004-01-01

    A field-scale experiment with a complete randomized block design was performed to study the degradation of buried oil on a shoreline over a period of almost 1 year. The following four treatments were examined in three replicate blocks: two levels of fertilizer treatment of oil-treated plots, one receiving a weekly application of liquid fertilizer and the other treated with a

  8. Environmental assessment of an active oil field in the northwestern Gulf of Mexico, 1977-1978. Volume II. Data management and biological investigations. Annual report, 1977-1978

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1979-01-01

    To obtain information concerning the environmental consequences of increased development of the outer continental shelf in the Gulf of Mexico, major research efforts are being made to document environmental conditions before, during, and after oil and gas production, and transmission. Among these efforts is the Environmental Assessment of the Buccaneer Oil and Gas Field. Objectives of the project are: (1)

  9. Desulfacinum subterraneumsp. nov., a New Thermophilic Sulfate-Reducing Bacterium Isolated from a High-Temperature Oil Field

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. P. Rozanova; T. P. Tourova; T. V. Kolganova; A. M. Lysenko; L. L. Mityushina; S. K. Yusupov; S. S. Belyaev

    2001-01-01

    A new thermophilic sulfate-reducing bacterium isolated from the high-temperature White Tiger oil field (Vietnam) is described. Cells of the bacterium are oval (0.4–0.6 by 0.6–1.8 µm), nonmotile, non-spore-forming, and gram-negative. Growth occurs at 45 to 65°C (with an optimum at 60°C) at NaCl concentrations of 0 to 50 g\\/l. In the course of sulfate reduction, the organism can utilize lactate,

  10. Contracts for field projects and supporting research on enhanced oil recovery. Progress review number 86, quarter ending March 31, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1997-05-01

    Summaries are presented for 37 enhanced oil recovery contracts being supported by the Department of Energy. The projects are grouped into gas displacement methods, thermal recovery methods, geoscience technology, reservoir characterization, and field demonstrations in high-priority reservoir classes. Each summary includes the objectives of the project and a summary of the technical progress, as well as information on contract dates, size of award, principal investigator, and company or facility doing the research.

  11. Increasing heavy oil reservers in the Wilmington oil Field through advanced reservoir characterization and thermal production technologies, technical progress report, October 1, 1996--December 31, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Hara, S. [Tidelands Oil Production Co., Long Beach, CA (United States)], Casteel, J. [USDOE Bartlesville Project Office, OK (United States)

    1997-05-11

    The project involves improving thermal recovery techniques in a slope and basin clastic (SBC) reservoir in the Wilmington field, Los Angeles Co., Calif. using advanced reservoir characterization and thermal production technologies. The existing steamflood in the Tar zone of Fault Block (FB) 11-A has been relatively inefficient because of several producibility problems which are common in SBC reservoirs. Inadequate characterization of the heterogeneous turbidite sands, high permeability thief zones, low gravity oil, and nonuniform distribution of remaining oil have all contributed to poor sweep efficiency, high steam-oil ratios, and early steam breakthrough. Operational problems related to steam breakthrough, high reservoir pressure, and unconsolidated formation sands have caused premature well and downhole equipment failures. In aggregate, these reservoir and operational constraints have resulted in increased operating costs and decreased recoverable reserves. The advanced technologies to be applied include: (1) Develop three-dimensional (3-D) deterministic and stochastic geologic models. (2) Develop 3-D deterministic and stochastic thermal reservoir simulation models to aid in reservoir management and subsequent development work. (3) Develop computerized 3-D visualizations of the geologic and reservoir simulation models to aid in analysis. (4) Perform detailed study on the geochemical interactions between the steam and the formation rock and fluids. (5) Pilot steam injection and production via four new horizontal wells (2 producers and 2 injectors). (6) Hot water alternating steam (WAS) drive pilot in the existing steam drive area to improve thermal efficiency. (7) Installing a 2100 foot insulated, subsurface harbor channel crossing to supply steam to an island location. (8) Test a novel alkaline steam completion technique to control well sanding problems and fluid entry profiles. (9) Advanced reservoir management through computer-aided access to production and geologic data to integrate reservoir characterization, engineering, monitoring, and evaluation.

  12. [The role of mutation of gene cyp1A1 and benzapilene in cytogenetic changes of urinary tract epitheliocytes in oil industry workers employed in the oil fields of the North of West Siberia].

    PubMed

    Il'inskikh, N N; Il'inskikh, E N; Il'inskikh, I N; Iamkovaia, E V

    2011-01-01

    The examination of 477 oil industry workers and office personnel (control) employed in the oil fields of the North of Tomsk and Tyumen regions has detected increased number of epithelyocytes with micronuclei and an elevated urine level ofbenzapilene in workers employed in oil production. Especially pronounced changes of the above parameters were observed in men with mutant alleles Val of CYP1A1 gene. An enhanced mutation process in oil production workers may be due to a resultant action of different factors on human genome. Involved may be both mutagens and factors of comutagenic nature. The results obtained in this study suggest a conclusion about urgent need of introduction of new scientifically validated criteria of selection of personnel for oil production in the North of the West Siberia. Health examination of the applicants must include genotyping. PMID:22448487

  13. Fuzzy SPC filter for a feed-forward control system for a three-phase oil field centrifuge.

    SciTech Connect

    Parkinson, W. J. (William Jerry),; Smith, R. E. (Ronald E.); Mortensen, F. N. (Fred N.); Wantuck, P. J. (Paul J.); Jamshidi, Mohammad; Ross, Timothy J.

    2002-01-01

    In this work we describe a signal filter for a feed-forward controller based on the application of fuzzy logic combined with statistical process control (SPC), The feed-forward controller is for a three-phase oil field centrifuge. The centrifuge system is used to separate meta-stable three-phase emulsions consisting of oil and water stabilized by solids. These emulsions are considered to be unusable wastes and must be disposed of in an environmentally acceptable manner. The centrifuge is capable of turning these wastes into clean saleable oil, water that can be reused in an operating process or re-injected into oil wells and, solids that can be disposed of in landfills. The feed-forward controller is used for feed disturbance rejection. It works in conjunction with and, is capable of over-riding the actions of, a feedback controller. The measured feed variables for the feed-forward controller each exhibit reasonably large random fluctuations. It is therefore quite important to use a signal filter that truly recognizes the difference between random noise and a 'caused' event, in order to prevent overriding a perfectly good correction from the feedback controller.

  14. Deposition and chemical diagenesis of tertiary carbonates, Kirkuk oil field, Iraq

    SciTech Connect

    Majid, A.H.; Veizer, J.

    1986-06-01

    The Tertiary carbonate rocks of the Kirkuk oil field in Iraq have been subdivided into 18 major lithologic facies. Their spatial relationships suggest that carbonate deposition proceeded in alternating carbonate ramp and carbonate rimmed shelf settings. Geochemically, these 18 facies can be grouped into three populations: namely, the nearshore (mud flat and bioherm), foreslope, and basinal populations. The nearshore population consists of mudstone, wackestone, packstone, and grainstone with bioclasts of miliolids, peneroplids, rotalids, red algae, corals, Nummulites, Lepidocyclina, and crinoids. The basinal population encompasses mudstone and wackestone with Globigerina, radiolarians, and tintinids. The foreslope population consists of packstone and grainstone with a mixture of Nummulites, Lepidocyclina, and traces of corals and red algae. The nearshore and foreslope groups are characterized by severe recrystallization and contain abundant cements. The porosity is of primary (intergranular and intraskeletal) and secondary (dissolution and fracture) types and is associated mainly with the bioherm and foreslope facies. The nearshore population is characterized by low sodium and strontium contents and light delta/sup 18/O and delta/sup 13/C, whereas the basinal one has the opposite attributes. The foreslope group represents a mixture of these two end members, with nearshore components being dominant. Comparison of the approximate composition of diagenetic solutions responsible for deposition and/or mineralogic stabilization of carbonate constituents with present-day waters of various geologic environments led to the conclusion that the nearshore population was stabilized in a near-surface, meteoric, well-oxygenated aquifer. In contrast, the basinal population was deposited and stabilized in waters of marine parentage.

  15. Salvaging dipmeters using an oil field {open_quotes}Dinosaur{close_quotes}

    SciTech Connect

    Breimayer, A.R.P.; Puzio, L.B. [Terradip, Houston, TX (United States)

    1996-09-01

    Although state-of-the-art methods such as 3-D seismic and formation imaging tools are widely used, the advantages of the old standard dipmeter should not be dismissed. Seismic dip is subject to velocity errors, and formation imagers cannot be run in all borehole conditions. The dipmeter offers a relatively low cost, highly effective alternative for defining geologic features. The 60{double_prime}= 100{prime} scale playback of the raw dipmeter data may be an oil field {open_quotes}dinosaur,{close_quotes} but it is also the key to assessing the reliability of a dipmeter. This playback should be used to determine CORRELATION QUALITY, critical to the accuracy of any dipmeter. Computer computation of the raw dipmeter data does not always yield reliable dip information, particularly when dipmeters are run under adverse hole conditions or in complex geology. This data can be often salvaged by optical correlation of the 60{close_quote} playback - the process of manually correlating raw dipmeter resistivity curves to determine the attitude of bedding planes in the subsurface. Problems such as tool noise, tool pulls, and poor pad contact compromise data quality. These problems can be recognized and compensated for using optical correlation. Finally, at the 60{double_prime} scale many formation textures and structural characteristics visible on the formation imaging logs are also discernible on the standard dipmeter traces. We will offer many Gulf Coast examples and some hands-on demonstrations using the 60{double_prime} data, and show improved tadpole plots which result from optical correlation.

  16. Inversion of field-scale partitioning tracer response for characterizing oil saturation distribution: a streamline approach 

    E-print Network

    Iliassov, Pavel Alexandrovich

    2000-01-01

    Identifying distribution of remaining oil in the reservoir is vital for evaluation of existing waterflood, design of tertiary recovery projects, and location of infill drilling candidates. In recent years, partitioning interwell tracer tests (PITT...

  17. Fully coupled modeling of seabed subsidence and reservoir compaction of North Sea oil fields

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Roland W. Lewis; Axel Makurat; William K. S. Pao

    2003-01-01

      \\u000a This paper focuses on the aspects of fully coupled continuum modeling of multiphase poroelasticity applied to the three-dimensional\\u000a numerical simulations of the Ekofisk oil reservoir in the North Sea (56°29?–34?N, 03°10?–14?E). A systematic presentation\\u000a is chosen to present the methodology behind fully coupled, continuum modeling. First, a historical review of the subsidence\\u000a phenomena above an oil and gas reservoir

  18. Optimization of offshore oil and gas field development using mathematical programming 

    E-print Network

    Grimmett, Todd Thatcher

    1986-01-01

    design. 17 of production from a production facility. For example, a template production requirement could be the necessity for the location of a platform nearby. This platform would be used as a transfer point for the template's produced oil and gas... algorithm in an effort to optimally locate each production platform, providing access to the greatest quantity of recoverable oil. The number and maximum well capacities of platforms is fixed in the optimization. The choice of the number of platforms...

  19. Laboratory and field evaluation of neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) and Chinaberry (Melia azedarach L.) oils as repellents against Phlebotomus orientalis and P. bergeroti (Diptera: Psychodidae) in Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Kebede, Yosef; Gebre-Michael, Teshome; Balkew, Meshesha

    2010-02-01

    The study evaluated the efficacy of neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss.) and Chinaberry (Melia azedarach L.) seed oils as repellents against laboratory and field populations of some sandflies in Ethiopia. In the laboratory, concentrations of 2% and 5% neem oil in coconut oil tested against Phlebotomus orientalis (vector of visceral leishmaniasis) provided 96.28% (95% CI=95.60-96.97) protection up to a mean time of 7h and 20 min and 98.26% (95% CI=93.46-104. 07) protection up to 9h, respectively. Similarly, M. azedarach oil at 2% concentration produced 95.13% (95% CI=90.74-99.52) protection for the same duration (7h and 20 min), while the 5% oil gave 96.20 (95% CI=86.98-105.41) protection for 8h and 20 min against the same species with no significant difference in percentage protection between the two oils at 2% and 5% concentrations. In the field tests with only neem oil (A. indica) against field populations of P. orientalis and P. bergeroti, similar high level of repellencies were recorded with about the same duration of protection. Application of both neem and Chinaberry oils can be safe and low-cost means of personal protection against sandfly bites in endemic areas of Ethiopia, if the community is advised and encouraged to grow the plants abundantly. PMID:19854142

  20. Getty: producing oil from diatomite

    SciTech Connect

    Zublin, L.

    1981-10-01

    Getty Oil Company has developed unconventional oil production techniques which will yield oil from diatomaceous earth. They propose to mine oil-saturated diatomite using open-pit mining methods. Getty's diatomite deposit in the McKittrick field of California is unique because it is cocoa brown and saturated with crude oil. It is classified also as a tightly packed deposit, and oil cannot be extracted by conventional oil field methods.

  1. Peculiarities of the geologic structure of gigantic gas fields of the western Siberian oil and gas province

    SciTech Connect

    Belyi, N.

    1991-03-01

    The Western Siberian Oil and Gas Province is a unique one regarding the concentration of natural gas resources in Mesozoic terrigenous formations. Discovery of gigantic natural gas fields makes it possible to provide high level of gas production for future prospects. The USSR has enormous potential possibilities for discoveries of new natural gas fields onshore, as well as offshore. At present, three gigantic gas fields have been developed, namely Medvezhie, Urongoi, and Yamburg. The first one has been in operation for 18 years. In the Mesozoic section, three productive complexes can be noticed: Upper Cretaceous, Lower Cretaceous, and Jurassic. The Upper Cretaceous production complex is mostly explored, with unique gas resources containing mainly methane having been discovered. The Lower Cretaceous production complex is characterized by considerable lithofaceous uniformity of reservoirs. Gas pools of this complex contain considerable quantities of condensate quite often having oil rims. The Jurassic production complex, which is characterized by its complicated structure and considerable changeability of the filtration properties, is less studied. Study of the geological structural peculiarities of the gigantic gas fields of Western Siberia gives us the possibility to find new approval for the development and exploration of gas fields.

  2. External magnetic field dependent light transmission and scattered speckle pattern in a magnetically polarizable oil-in-water nanoemulsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brojabasi, Surajit; Lahiri, B. B.; Philip, John

    2014-12-01

    We study the magnetic field dependent light transmission and scattered speckle pattern in a magnetically polarizable oil-in-water emulsion of droplet diameter ~220 nm, where the direction of propagation of light is parallel to the direction of the external magnetic field. Up to a magnetic field of 50 Gauss, the nanoemulsion remains opaque due to intense Mie scattering. Above 50 Gauss, the transmitted light intensity increases with external magnetic field up to a critical field (BC). Further increase in the magnetic field leads to a reduction in the transmitted intensity. The BC shifts to a lower magnetic field with increasing volume fraction (?) and follows a power law dependence with ?, indicating a disorder-order transition. The scattered light intensity at the lobe part is found to increase with external magnetic field. The analysis of the lobe part reveals that the speckle contrast increases with external magnetic field due to the coarsening of the linear chain-like aggregates formed along the direction of the external magnetic field. The angular speckle correlation coefficient is found to be symmetrical on either side of the transmitted bright spot and decays exponentially with measurement angles.

  3. Geological and Geochemical Aspects of the Deep Origin of the Oil Fields of Volga-Ural Region in East-European Platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plotnikova, Irina

    2010-05-01

    The study area for research is territory of Tatarstan and the South Tatarstan Arch located in the Volgo-Ural Region, which is an enigmatic crustal segment that occupies the eastern third of the East European Craton. The tectonic structure and history of geological development of this region are mainly defined by the fact that Tatarstan is a junction between several first-order tectonic elements. The present-day structure of the crystalline basement is a result of the evolution of the faults and blocks originally formed in Late Proterozoic times and those that partly originated from the older dislocations. The South Tatarstan arch contains Tatarstani largest oil fields - Romashkino, Novo-Elkhovo and Bavli. The analysis of areal and sectional distribution of the oil fields has allowed the tracing of the close link between the oil bearing capacity of the sedimentary cover and the block structure of the basement. All the oil fields above the South Tatarstan arch are controlled by the faults crosscutting the crystalline basement and the sedimentary cover. Oil accumulations in the lower productive strata of the sedimentary cover are confined to the basement zones with the maximum degree of tectonic fracturing and to the fault-intersection nodes. Genetic identity of oils and bitumens of the sedimentary cover, and the confinement of oil pools to tectonic faults confirm the role of the vertical migration it plays in the formation of commercial oil and bitumen accumulations in the Palaeozoic sedimentary sequences. The report contains data of analyse the distribution of oil in the sedimentary cover of Tatarstan in general and the location of the Romashkino oil field in particular from a new viewpoint, in their relation to the following factors: the composition and tectonomagmatic evolution of the crystalline basement in the pre-platform stage of its development; the fluid dynamic evolution in Phanerozoic times; and neotectonic processes. Cumulative oil production in Tatarstan has already reached 3.1 B tons, thus substantially exceeding hydrocarbons quantity, calculated geochemically on the basis of the Paleozoic source rock potentials of all sedimentary strata. The insufficient maturity of organic matter in Domanic clay-cilicon-carbonate formations obviously shows the impossibility for the commercial amounts of hydrocarbons of being generated from the available material of the sedimentary cover. Integrated analysis of deep drilling, geological data, geochemical characteristics of oil composition and trace elements of oil, geochemistry of dispersed organic matter of Devonian and Carboniferous deposits except the remote migration of oil from the sedimentary strata of the Urals Foredeep and Prikaspian depression toward the South Tatarstan Arch. Dominated role of the deep factors in generation of oil is grounded by results of deep drilling and geological, geochemical, geophysical investigations.

  4. Reservoir characteristics of two minter oil sands based on continuous core, E-logs, and geochemical data: Bee Brake field, East-Central Louisiana

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. B. Echols; D. A. Goddard; A. Bouma

    1993-01-01

    The Bee Brake field area, located in township 4N\\/6E and 4N\\/7E in Concordia Parish, has been one of the more prolific oil-producing areas in east-central Louisiana. Production decline in various fields, however, has sparked interest in the economic feasibility of locating and producing the remaining bypassed oil in the lower Wilcox. For this purpose, the Angelina BBF No. 1 well

  5. Integrated, multidisciplinary reservoir characterization, modeling and engineering leading to enhanced oil recovery from the Midway-Sunset field, California

    SciTech Connect

    Schamel, S.; Forster, C.; Deo, M. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States)] [and others

    1996-12-31

    The Pru Fee property is developed in a heavy oil, Class III (slope and basin clastic sand), reservoir of the Midway-Sunset field, San Joaquin Basin, California. Wells on the property were shut-in with an estimated 85% of the original oil remaining in place because the reservoir failed to respond to conventional cyclic steaming. Producibility problems are attributed to the close proximity of the property to the margin of the field. Specific problems include complex reservoir geometry, thinning pay, bottom water, and dipping beds. These problems are likely common at the margins of the Midway-Sunset and other Class III reservoirs. This project forms the first step in returning the property to production and explores strategies that might be applied elsewhere. Reservoir characterization, modeling, and engineering methods are integrated to design, simulate, and implement a pilot steam flood. A new drillhole provides good quality, core through the pay zone and a full suite of geophysical logs. Correlations between geological and petrophysical data are used to extrapolate reservoir conditions from older logs and yield a 3-dimensional petrophysical model. Numerical results illustrate how each producibility problem might influence production and provide a framework for designing the pilot steam flood. This first phase illustrates how a multidisciplinary team can use established technologies in developing the detailed petrophysical, geological, and numerical models needed to enhance oil recovery from marginal areas of Class III reservoirs.

  6. Integrated, multidisciplinary reservoir characterization, modeling and engineering leading to enhanced oil recovery from the Midway-Sunset field, California

    SciTech Connect

    Schamel, S.; Forster, C.; Deo, M. (Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States)) (and others)

    1996-01-01

    The Pru Fee property is developed in a heavy oil, Class III (slope and basin clastic sand), reservoir of the Midway-Sunset field, San Joaquin Basin, California. Wells on the property were shut-in with an estimated 85% of the original oil remaining in place because the reservoir failed to respond to conventional cyclic steaming. Producibility problems are attributed to the close proximity of the property to the margin of the field. Specific problems include complex reservoir geometry, thinning pay, bottom water, and dipping beds. These problems are likely common at the margins of the Midway-Sunset and other Class III reservoirs. This project forms the first step in returning the property to production and explores strategies that might be applied elsewhere. Reservoir characterization, modeling, and engineering methods are integrated to design, simulate, and implement a pilot steam flood. A new drillhole provides good quality, core through the pay zone and a full suite of geophysical logs. Correlations between geological and petrophysical data are used to extrapolate reservoir conditions from older logs and yield a 3-dimensional petrophysical model. Numerical results illustrate how each producibility problem might influence production and provide a framework for designing the pilot steam flood. This first phase illustrates how a multidisciplinary team can use established technologies in developing the detailed petrophysical, geological, and numerical models needed to enhance oil recovery from marginal areas of Class III reservoirs.

  7. Unconformity-related oil entrapment in Muddy Sandstone: comparison of Kitty and Amos Draw fields, Powder River basin, Wyoming

    SciTech Connect

    Odland, S.K.; Gardner, M.H.; Gustason, E.R.

    1986-08-01

    It has long been known that an unconformity plays a critical role in trapping oil in the Muddy Sandstone in the Powder River basin, but opinions have varied as to exactly where in the section that unconformity is located. Their work indicates that there are, in fact, two unconformities associated with the Muddy in the northern part of the basin. The older of these occurs on top of the Skull Creek Shale, whereas the younger is largely intraformational. In places, the younger unconformity has truncated the older one. It is the younger unconformity that is responsible for creating favorable settings for stratigraphic entrapment of oil. Two types of unconformity-related oil traps result from fluvial downcutting into and through the strand-plain sandstones of the oldest member of the Muddy during a major sea level drop. In cases where the unconformity cuts through the Muddy into the underlying Skull Creek Shale, permeable valley-fill sediments, deposited during the Muddy transgression, are juxtaposed against the impermeable Skull Creek Shale along the valley walls. Where valleys are oriented roughly perpendicular to regional structure, as at Kitty field, the updip portion of the valley wall can form a permeability barrier to the fluvial reservoir sandstones of the adjacent valley fill. In cases where the unconformity is intraformational, such as at Amos Draw field, early diagenetic clay, associated with the weathered horizon directly beneath the unconformity, can create a seal on top of the strand-plain sandstones of the oldest member of the Muddy.

  8. Excito-repellency of essential oils against an Aedes aegypti (L.) field population in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Boonyuan, Wasana; Grieco, John P; Bangs, Michael J; Prabaripai, Atchariya; Tantakom, Siripun; Chareonviriyaphap, Theeraphap

    2014-06-01

    An investigation of the behavioral responses of Aedes aegypti (= Stegomyia aegypti) to various concentrations of essential oils (2.5, 5, and 10%) extracted from hairy basil (Ocimum americanum Linn), ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe), lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus Stapf), citronella grass (Cymbopogon nardus Rendle), and plai (Zingiber cassumunar Roxb) were performed using an excito-repellency test chamber. Results showed that Ae. aegypti exhibited varying levels of escape response in both the contact and noncontact chambers in response to different essential oils. The magnitude of the behaviors changed in a dose-response fashion depending on the percent volume to volume concentration of oil used. A 2.5% concentration of hairy basil oil produced a significantly greater escape response compared to the other extracts at the same concentration (P< 0.05). Oils of ginger, lemongrass, and citronella produced stronger irritant and repellent responses at the median 5% concentration compared to the lowest and highest concentrations. There was marked suppression of escape for both contact and noncontact tests using 10% concentrations of hairy basil, lemongrass, and citronella, with high knockdown for all three oils after 30 min. Hairy basil and lemongrass had the highest insecticidal activity to Ae. aegypti, with LC50 values of 6.3 and 6.7 percent, respectively. We conclude that the essential oils from native plants tested, and likely many other extracts found in plants, have inherent repellent and irritant qualities that should to be screened and optimized for their behavior-modifying properties against Ae. aegypti and other biting arthropods of public health and pest importance. PMID:24820563

  9. Application of Rosenbrock search technique to reduce the drilling cost of a well in Bai-Hassan oil field

    SciTech Connect

    Aswad, Z.A.R.; Al-Hadad, S.M.S.

    1983-03-01

    The powerful Rosenbrock search technique, which optimizes both the search directions using the Gram-Schmidt procedure and the step size using the Fibonacci line search method, has been used to optimize the drilling program of an oil well drilled in Bai-Hassan oil field in Kirkuk, Iran, using the twodimensional drilling model of Galle and Woods. This model shows the effect of the two major controllable variables, weight on bit and rotary speed, on the drilling rate, while considering other controllable variables such as the mud properties, hydrostatic pressure, hydraulic design, and bit selection. The effect of tooth dullness on the drilling rate is also considered. Increasing the weight on the drill bit with a small increase or decrease in ratary speed resulted in a significant decrease in the drilling cost for most bit runs. It was found that a 48% reduction in this cost and a 97-hour savings in the total drilling time was possible under certain conditions.

  10. Oil field souring control by nitrate-reducing Sulfurospirillum spp. that outcompete sulfate-reducing bacteria for organic electron donors.

    PubMed

    Hubert, Casey; Voordouw, Gerrit

    2007-04-01

    Nitrate injection into oil reservoirs can prevent and remediate souring, the production of hydrogen sulfide by sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB). Nitrate stimulates nitrate-reducing, sulfide-oxidizing bacteria (NR-SOB) and heterotrophic nitrate-reducing bacteria (hNRB) that compete with SRB for degradable oil organics. Up-flow, packed-bed bioreactors inoculated with water produced from an oil field and injected with lactate, sulfate, and nitrate served as sources for isolating several NRB, including Sulfurospirillum and Thauera spp. The former coupled reduction of nitrate to nitrite and ammonia with oxidation of either lactate (hNRB activity) or sulfide (NR-SOB activity). Souring control in a bioreactor receiving 12.5 mM lactate and 6, 2, 0.75, or 0.013 mM sulfate always required injection of 10 mM nitrate, irrespective of the sulfate concentration. Community analysis revealed that at all but the lowest sulfate concentration (0.013 mM), significant SRB were present. At 0.013 mM sulfate, direct hNRB-mediated oxidation of lactate by nitrate appeared to be the dominant mechanism. The absence of significant SRB indicated that sulfur cycling does not occur at such low sulfate concentrations. The metabolically versatile Sulfurospirillum spp. were dominant when nitrate was present in the bioreactor. Analysis of cocultures of Desulfovibrio sp. strain Lac3, Lac6, or Lac15 and Sulfurospirillum sp. strain KW indicated its hNRB activity and ability to produce inhibitory concentrations of nitrite to be key factors for it to successfully outcompete oil field SRB. PMID:17308184

  11. Oil Field Souring Control by Nitrate-Reducing Sulfurospirillum spp. That Outcompete Sulfate-Reducing Bacteria for Organic Electron Donors? †

    PubMed Central

    Hubert, Casey; Voordouw, Gerrit

    2007-01-01

    Nitrate injection into oil reservoirs can prevent and remediate souring, the production of hydrogen sulfide by sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB). Nitrate stimulates nitrate-reducing, sulfide-oxidizing bacteria (NR-SOB) and heterotrophic nitrate-reducing bacteria (hNRB) that compete with SRB for degradable oil organics. Up-flow, packed-bed bioreactors inoculated with water produced from an oil field and injected with lactate, sulfate, and nitrate served as sources for isolating several NRB, including Sulfurospirillum and Thauera spp. The former coupled reduction of nitrate to nitrite and ammonia with oxidation of either lactate (hNRB activity) or sulfide (NR-SOB activity). Souring control in a bioreactor receiving 12.5 mM lactate and 6, 2, 0.75, or 0.013 mM sulfate always required injection of 10 mM nitrate, irrespective of the sulfate concentration. Community analysis revealed that at all but the lowest sulfate concentration (0.013 mM), significant SRB were present. At 0.013 mM sulfate, direct hNRB-mediated oxidation of lactate by nitrate appeared to be the dominant mechanism. The absence of significant SRB indicated that sulfur cycling does not occur at such low sulfate concentrations. The metabolically versatile Sulfurospirillum spp. were dominant when nitrate was present in the bioreactor. Analysis of cocultures of Desulfovibrio sp. strain Lac3, Lac6, or Lac15 and Sulfurospirillum sp. strain KW indicated its hNRB activity and ability to produce inhibitory concentrations of nitrite to be key factors for it to successfully outcompete oil field SRB. PMID:17308184

  12. Occurrence of oil in the Austin Chalk at Van field, Van Zandt County, Texas: A unique geologic setting

    SciTech Connect

    Lowe, J.T.; Carrington, D.B. (Unocal Corp., Houston, TX (USA))

    1990-09-01

    The Austin Chalk is buried to a depth of only 2,100-2,500 ft and has retained primary microporosity unlike the typical deep fractured chalk reservoirs. The Van structure is a complexly faulted domal anticline created by salt intrusion and is approximately 2,000 ft higher than surrounding structures in the area. A major northwest-dipping fault acts as the primary trapping mechanism. The field has produced 0.5 billion BO from thick Woodbine sands since its discovery in 1929. Occurrence of oil in the Austin Chalk has been known since the field discovery, but prior completions were low rate oil producers. Recent development of a large fracture stimulation technique has resulted in increased production rates of up to 300 BOPD. The Austin Chalk reservoir limits were determined by isopaching feet of minimum productive resistivity having porosity above a cutoff value. The resistivity/porosity isopach showed a direct correlation between Austin Chalk productivity and the Austin Chalk structure and faulting pattern. Structural evidence along with oil typing indicate that the oil in the Austin Chalk has migrated upward along fault planes and through fault juxtaposition from the Woodbine sands 200 ft below the Austin Chalk. Thin-section and scanning electron microscopy work performed on conventional cores showed that the Van Austin Chalk formation is a very fine grained limestone composed primarily of coccoliths. Various amounts of detrital illite clay are present in the coccolith matrix. All effective porosity is micro-intergranular and ranges from 15 to 35%. Based on the core analyses, the main porosity reducing agent and therefore control on reservoir quality is the amount of detrital clay present filling the micropores. Permeability is very low with values ranging from 0.01 to 1.5 md. There is no evidence of significant natural fractures in the core. Artificial fractures are therefore required to create the permeability needed to sustain commercial production rates.

  13. Increasing heavy oil reserves in the Wilmington oil field through advanced reservoir characterization and thermal production technologies. Technical progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Hara, S.

    1996-05-06

    The project involves improving thermal recovery techniques in a slope and basin clastic (SBC) reservoir in the Wilmington field, Los Angeles Co., California using advanced reservoir characterization and thermal production technologies. This is the third quarterly technical progress report for the project. Significant technical achievements accomplished include the drilling of four horizontal wells (two producers and two steam injectors) utilizing a new and lower cost drilling program, the drilling of five observation wells to monitor the horizontal steamflood pilot, the installation of a subsurface harbor channel crossing for delivering steam to an island location, and a geochemical study of the scale minerals being created in the wellbore. Cyclic steam injection into the two horizontal injection wells began in mid-December 1995 utilizing the new 2400 ft steam line under the Cerritos channel and the wells will be placed on production in May. Cyclic steam injection into the two horizontal producers will start in May. Work on the basic reservoir engineering is expected to be completed in March 1996. The deterministic geologic model was improved to add eight layers to the previous ten.

  14. Clove oil as an anaesthetic for adult sockeye salmon: Field trials

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Woody, C.A.; Nelson, J.; Ramstad, K.

    2002-01-01

    Wild migrating sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka exposed to 20, 50 and 80 mg 1-1 of clove oil could be handled within 3 min, recovered within 10 min, and survived 15 min exposure trials. Fish tested at 110 mg 1-1 did not recover from 15 min exposure trials. Response curves developed for induction and recovery time considered the following predictors: clove oil concentration, sex, fish length and depth. A significant positive dependence was observed between induction time and fish length for 20, 50 and 80 mg 1-1 test concentrations; no dependence was observed between induction time and length at 110 and 140 mg 1-1. Recovery time differed as a function of clove oil concentration, but not fish size. A concentration of 50 mg 1-1 is recommended for anaesthetizing sockeye salmon ranging in length from 400 to 550 mm at water temperatures averaging 9-10??C.

  15. [Microbiological and production characteristics of the high-temperature Kongdian bed revealed during field trial of biotechnology for the enhancement of oil recovery].

    PubMed

    Nazina, T N; Grigor'ian, A A; Feng, Ts; Shestakova, N M; Babich, T L; Pavlova, N K; Ivo?lov, V S; Ni, F; Wang, J; She, Y; Xiang, T; Mei, B; Luo, Z; Beliaev, S S; Ivanov, M V

    2007-01-01

    Microbiological technology for the enhancement of oil recovery based on the activation of the stratal microflora was tested in the high-temperature horizons of the Kongdian bed (60 degrees C) of the Dagang oil field (China). This biotechnology consists in the pumping of a water-air mixture and nitrogen and phosphorus mineral salts into the oil stratum through injection wells in order to stimulate the activity of the stratal microflora which produce oil-releasing metabolites. Monitoring of the physicochemical, microbiological, and production characteristics of the test site has revealed large changes in the ecosystem as a result of the application of biotechnology. The cell numbers of thermophilic hydrocarbon-oxidizing, fermentative, sulfate-reducing, and methanogenic microorganisms increased 10-10 000-fold. The rates of methanogenesis and sulfate reduction increased in the near-bottom zone of the injection wells and of some production wells. The microbial oil transformation was accompanied by the accumulation of bicarbonate ions, volatile fatty acids, and biosurfactants in the formation waters, as well as of CH4 and CO2 both in the gas phase and in the oil. Microbial metabolites promoted the additional recovery of oil. As a result of the application of biotechnology, the water content in the production liquid from the test site decreased, and the oil content increased. This allowed the recovery of more than 14000 tons of additional oil over 3.5 years. PMID:17633409

  16. Application of capillary pressure and hydrodynamic flow to quantify downdip extension of shallow, low-gravity oil fields: An example from south Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Billingsley, L.T. (Sandia Oil Gas Corp., San Antonio, TX (United States))

    1996-01-01

    The principles of capillary pressure and hydrodynamic flow can be useful for exploring in mature areas and exploiting old fields. The principles are especially useful in the numerous, shallow stratigraphic traps in the Jackson Group (Oligocene) in South Texas. The field example in this paper had produced oil since 1955 from wells on the updip limit of a shallow (1700 ft) barrier island sandstone reservoir. Despite the updip wells producing at a one percent oil cut, downdip wells were drilled and completed with a very commercial 25% average oil cut in 1990. Field reserves were doubled from 300,000 to 600,000 BO with the additional downdip wells. The success of drilling downdip from watered out wells can be quantified with capillary pressure and hydrodynamic flow calculations. The difference in density between oil and water is part of divisor in both equations. The difference is only 0.08 g/cc in this area, because the oil is 19 gravity (.92 g/cc) and the water is brackish (1.0 g/cc). Thus, a relatively large column of oil can be trapped downdip with only slight grain size changes. Similarly, a relatively modest, downdip water flow within the reservoir could also trap a similar sized oil column. Using reservoir conditions, each equation predicts an approximate oil column of 50 ft. Using these principles, both exploration and development geologists can find commercial oil reserves downdip from existing wells that have watered out or wells with only a hydrocarbon show and water. These principles are especially useful with low-gravity oil accumulations, heterogeneous reservoirs and downdip water flow.

  17. Application of capillary pressure and hydrodynamic flow to quantify downdip extension of shallow, low-gravity oil fields: An example from south Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Billingsley, L.T. [Sandia Oil & Gas Corp., San Antonio, TX (United States)

    1996-12-31

    The principles of capillary pressure and hydrodynamic flow can be useful for exploring in mature areas and exploiting old fields. The principles are especially useful in the numerous, shallow stratigraphic traps in the Jackson Group (Oligocene) in South Texas. The field example in this paper had produced oil since 1955 from wells on the updip limit of a shallow (1700 ft) barrier island sandstone reservoir. Despite the updip wells producing at a one percent oil cut, downdip wells were drilled and completed with a very commercial 25% average oil cut in 1990. Field reserves were doubled from 300,000 to 600,000 BO with the additional downdip wells. The success of drilling downdip from watered out wells can be quantified with capillary pressure and hydrodynamic flow calculations. The difference in density between oil and water is part of divisor in both equations. The difference is only 0.08 g/cc in this area, because the oil is 19 gravity (.92 g/cc) and the water is brackish (1.0 g/cc). Thus, a relatively large column of oil can be trapped downdip with only slight grain size changes. Similarly, a relatively modest, downdip water flow within the reservoir could also trap a similar sized oil column. Using reservoir conditions, each equation predicts an approximate oil column of 50 ft. Using these principles, both exploration and development geologists can find commercial oil reserves downdip from existing wells that have watered out or wells with only a hydrocarbon show and water. These principles are especially useful with low-gravity oil accumulations, heterogeneous reservoirs and downdip water flow.

  18. Activities of the Oil Implementation Task Force, December 1990--February 1991; Contracts for field projects and supporting research on enhanced oil recovery, April--June 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Tiedemann, H.A. (ed.) (USDOE Bartlesville Project Office, OK (USA))

    1991-03-01

    The Oil Implementation Task Force was appointed to implement the US DOE's new oil research program directed toward increasing domestic oil production by expanded research on near- or mid-term enhanced oil recovery methods. An added priority is to preserve access to reservoirs that have the largest potential for oil recovery, but that are threatened by the large number of wells abandoned each year. This report describes the progress of research activities in the following areas: chemical flooding; gas displacement; thermal recovery; resource assessment; microbial technology; geoscience technology; and environmental technology. (CK)

  19. Development and field testing of a Light Aircraft Oil Surveillance System (LAOSS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burns, W.; Herz, M. J.

    1976-01-01

    An experimental device consisting of a conventional TV camera with a low light level photo image tube and motor driven polarized filter arrangement was constructed to provide a remote means of discriminating the presence of oil on water surfaces. This polarized light filtering system permitted a series of successive, rapid changes between the vertical and horizontal components of reflected polarized skylight and caused the oil based substances to be more easily observed and identified as a flashing image against a relatively static water surface background. This instrument was flight tested, and the results, with targets of opportunity and more systematic test site data, indicate the potential usefulness of this airborne remote sensing instrument.

  20. Electric field induced structuring in clay-oil suspensions: new insights from WAXS, SEM, leak current, dielectric permittivity, and rheometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rozynek, Z.; Knudsen, K. D.; Fossum, J. O.; Méheust, Y.; Wang, B.; Zhou, M.

    2010-08-01

    The electric field induced structuring in clay-oil suspensions has been studied by means of wide angle x-ray scattering (WAXS), rheometry, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), as well as leak current density and dielectric constant measurements. The clay particles' orientation distribution was inferred from the azimuthal changes of the clay diffraction peak intensity. The angular width of that distribution was quantified through an orientational order parameter. Chain and column formation processes were distinguished by comparison of the time evolution of the diffraction peak amplitude with that of the current density. Leak current density was measured for different electric field strengths E and clay particle concentrations ?. The following scaling relation was found: J \\propto \\Phi^{ 0.74} E^{2.12} . In addition, the dependence of the yield stress on the electric field and on the particle concentration was measured and shown to scale as: \\tau_{\\mathrm {y}} \\propto \\Phi^{ 0.87} E^{1.66} .

  1. Geologic guide of the central Santa Clara Valley Sespe and Oak Ridge Trend oil fields, Ventura County, California

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-01-01

    The purpose and scope of this field trip is to relate the geologic and economic significance of the Sespe Oil field with the Oak Ridge Trend and discuss the lithologic intra-formational and post-depositional variations in the Sespe Formation across the central Santa Clara Trough. Special attention was given to show the pertinent relationships between outcrop and subsurface electric logging devices as to understand the total concept in subsurface interpretation methods and techniques in the Sespe Field area. This study attempts to discuss and clarify the economic importance of specific strata within the central Santa Clara Trough and for discussion of the complex relationship within the area. No attempt has been made to be an expert on this subject and the only undertaking is to bring together new ideas in order to derive a plausible explanation for complicated events that will allow greater volumes of petroleum to be discovered. 125 references.

  2. Environmental assessment of Buccaneer gas and oil field in the northwestern Gulf of Mexico, 1978-1979. Volume VI. Currents and hydrography of the Buccaneer field and adjacent waters. Annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Danek, L.J.; Tomlinson, M.S.

    1980-11-01

    Four seasonal hydrographic surveys were conducted in the vicinity of the Buccaneer Oil Field in an effort to describe the physical environment in and around a producing oil and gas field. The measurements made included currents, wind, waves, total suspended solids, and hydrographic parameters including temperature, salinity, conductivity, dissolved oxygen, pH and transmissivity. The results of the study indicated that the area can best be described as a mixing zone for coastal and offshore waters.

  3. Application of denaturing high-performance liquid chromatography for monitoring sulfate-reducing bacteria in oil fields.

    PubMed

    Priha, Outi; Nyyssönen, Mari; Bomberg, Malin; Laitila, Arja; Simell, Jaakko; Kapanen, Anu; Juvonen, Riikka

    2013-09-01

    Sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) participate in microbially induced corrosion (MIC) of equipment and H2S-driven reservoir souring in oil field sites. Successful management of industrial processes requires methods that allow robust monitoring of microbial communities. This study investigated the applicability of denaturing high-performance liquid chromatography (DHPLC) targeting the dissimilatory sulfite reductase ß-subunit (dsrB) gene for monitoring SRB communities in oil field samples from the North Sea, the United States, and Brazil. Fifteen of the 28 screened samples gave a positive result in real-time PCR assays, containing 9 × 10(1) to 6 × 10(5) dsrB gene copies ml(-1). DHPLC and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) community profiles of the PCR-positive samples shared an overall similarity; both methods revealed the same samples to have the lowest and highest diversity. The SRB communities were diverse, and different dsrB compositions were detected at different geographical locations. The identified dsrB gene sequences belonged to several phylogenetic groups, such as Desulfovibrio, Desulfococcus, Desulfomicrobium, Desulfobulbus, Desulfotignum, Desulfonatronovibrio, and Desulfonauticus. DHPLC showed an advantage over DGGE in that the community profiles were very reproducible from run to run, and the resolved gene fragments could be collected using an automated fraction collector and sequenced without a further purification step. DGGE, on the other hand, included casting of gradient gels, and several rounds of rerunning, excising, and reamplification of bands were needed for successful sequencing. In summary, DHPLC proved to be a suitable tool for routine monitoring of the diversity of SRB communities in oil field samples. PMID:23793633

  4. Adaptive Management and Planning Models for Cultural Resources in Oil and Gas Fields in New Mexico and Wyoming

    SciTech Connect

    Eckerle, William; Hall, Stephen

    2005-12-30

    In 2002, Gnomon, Inc., entered into a cooperative agreement with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) for a project entitled, Adaptive Management and Planning Models for Cultural Resources in Oil and Gas Fields in New Mexico and Wyoming (DE-FC26-02NT15445). This project, funded through DOE’s Preferred Upstream Management Practices grant program, examined cultural resource management practices in two major oil- and gas-producing areas, southeastern New Mexico and the Powder River Basin of Wyoming (Figure 1). The purpose of this project was to examine how cultural resources have been investigated and managed and to identify more effective management practices. The project also was designed to build information technology and modeling tools to meet both current and future management needs. The goals of the project were described in the original proposal as follows: Goal 1. Create seamless information systems for the project areas. Goal 2. Examine what we have learned from archaeological work in the southeastern New Mexico oil fields and whether there are better ways to gain additional knowledge more rapidly or at a lower cost. Goal 3. Provide useful sensitivity models for planning, management, and as guidelines for field investigations. Goal 4. Integrate management, investigation, and decision- making in a real-time electronic system. Gnomon, Inc., in partnership with the Wyoming State Historic Preservation Office (WYSHPO) and Western GeoArch Research, carried out the Wyoming portion of the project. SRI Foundation, in partnership with the New Mexico Historic Preservation Division (NMHPD), Statistical Research, Inc., and Red Rock Geological Enterprises, completed the New Mexico component of the project. Both the New Mexico and Wyoming summaries concluded with recommendations how cultural resource management (CRM) processes might be modified based on the findings of this research.

  5. Application of Denaturing High-Performance Liquid Chromatography for Monitoring Sulfate-Reducing Bacteria in Oil Fields

    PubMed Central

    Nyyssönen, Mari; Bomberg, Malin; Laitila, Arja; Simell, Jaakko; Kapanen, Anu; Juvonen, Riikka

    2013-01-01

    Sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) participate in microbially induced corrosion (MIC) of equipment and H2S-driven reservoir souring in oil field sites. Successful management of industrial processes requires methods that allow robust monitoring of microbial communities. This study investigated the applicability of denaturing high-performance liquid chromatography (DHPLC) targeting the dissimilatory sulfite reductase ß-subunit (dsrB) gene for monitoring SRB communities in oil field samples from the North Sea, the United States, and Brazil. Fifteen of the 28 screened samples gave a positive result in real-time PCR assays, containing 9 × 101 to 6 × 105 dsrB gene copies ml?1. DHPLC and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) community profiles of the PCR-positive samples shared an overall similarity; both methods revealed the same samples to have the lowest and highest diversity. The SRB communities were diverse, and different dsrB compositions were detected at different geographical locations. The identified dsrB gene sequences belonged to several phylogenetic groups, such as Desulfovibrio, Desulfococcus, Desulfomicrobium, Desulfobulbus, Desulfotignum, Desulfonatronovibrio, and Desulfonauticus. DHPLC showed an advantage over DGGE in that the community profiles were very reproducible from run to run, and the resolved gene fragments could be collected using an automated fraction collector and sequenced without a further purification step. DGGE, on the other hand, included casting of gradient gels, and several rounds of rerunning, excising, and reamplification of bands were needed for successful sequencing. In summary, DHPLC proved to be a suitable tool for routine monitoring of the diversity of SRB communities in oil field samples. PMID:23793633

  6. Chromosomal aberrations in lymphocytes of employees in transformer and generator production exposed to electromagnetic fields and mineral oil.

    PubMed

    Skyberg, K; Hansteen, I L; Vistnes, A I

    2001-04-01

    The objective was to study the risk of cytogenetic damage among high voltage laboratory workers exposed to electromagnetic fields and mineral oil. This is a cross sectional study of 24 exposed and 24 matched controls in a Norwegian transformer factory. The exposure group included employees in the high voltage laboratory and in the generator soldering department. Electric and magnetic fields and oil mist and vapor were measured. Blood samples were analyzed for chromosomal aberrations in cultured lymphocytes. In addition to conventional cultures, the lymphocytes were also treated with hydroxyurea and caffeine. This procedure inhibits DNA synthesis and repair in vitro, revealing in vivo genotoxic lesions that are repaired during conventional culturing. In conventional cultures, the exposure group and the controls showed similar values for all cytogenetic parameters. In the DNA synthesis- and repair-inhibited cultures, generator welders showed no differences compared to controls. Among high voltage laboratory testers, compared to the controls, the median number of chromatid breaks was doubled (5 vs. 2.5 per 50 cells; P<0.05) the median number of chromosome breaks was 2 vs. 0.5 (P>0.05) and the median number of aberrant cells was 5 vs. 3.5 (P<0.05). Further analysis of the inhibited culture data from this and a previous study indicated that years of exposure and smoking increase the risk of aberrations. We conclude that there was no increase in cytogenetic damage among exposed workers compared to controls in the conventional lymphocyte assay. In inhibited cultures, however, there were indications that electromagnetic fields in combination with mineral oil exposure may produce chromosomal aberrations. PMID:11255210

  7. Simulation studies of steam-propane injection for the Hamaca heavy oil field 

    E-print Network

    Venturini, Gilberto Jose

    2002-01-01

    of the five-year forecast period increases with PSR up to a PSR of about 0.05 then declines with increasing PSR up to 0.09. More important, oil recovery at the end of the forecast period with PSR of 0.05 is 6.7% OOIP compared to 2.3% OOIP with pure steam...

  8. Model study on the kinetics of oil field formation damage due to salt precipitation from injection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Moghadasi; H. Müller-Steinhagen; M. Jamialahmadi; A. Sharif

    2004-01-01

    Due to the extensive use of water injection for oil displacement and pressure maintenance in oilfields, many reservoirs experience the problem of scale deposition when injection water starts to break through. In most cases, the scaled-up wells are caused by the formation of sulfate and carbonate scales of calcium and strontium. Due to their relative hardness and low solubility, there

  9. Electrical heating of oil reservoirs; Numerical simulation and field test results

    SciTech Connect

    Pizzarro, J.O.S. (Petrobras, Bahia (BR)); Trevisan, O.V. (Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil))

    1990-10-01

    This paper presents the development of a numerical model designed to simulate EOR by in-situ electric heating. The paper includes the results of validation tests vs. analytical solutions, comparisons of oil production and energy consumption for different electrode schemes, and the results of simulations of the Rio Panon, Brazil, pilot test.

  10. Contracts for field projects and supporting research on enhanced oil recovery. Progress review number 87

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1997-10-01

    Approximately 30 research projects are summarized in this report. Title of the project, contract number, company or university, award amount, principal investigators, objectives, and summary of technical progress are given for each project. Enhanced oil recovery projects include chemical flooding, gas displacement, and thermal recovery. Most of the research projects though are related to geoscience technology and reservoir characterization.

  11. Explosively produced fracture of oil shale. Progress report, July-September 1981. [Field experiments; computer models; retort stability

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    1982-04-01

    The Los Alamos National Laboratory is conducting rock fragmentation research in oil shale to develop the blasting technologies and designs required to create a rubble bed for a modified in situ retort. This report outlines our first field experiments at the Anvil Points Mine in Colorado. These experiments are part of a research program, sponsored by the Laboratory through the Department of Energy and by a Consortium of oil companies. Also included are some typical numerical calculations made in support of proposed field experiments. Two papers detail our progress in computer modeling and theory. The first presents a method for eliminating hourglassing in two-dimensional finite-difference calculations of rock fracture without altering the physical results. The second discusses the significant effect of buoyancy on tracer gas flow through the retort. A paper on retort stability details a computer application of the Schmidt graphical method for calculating fine-scale temperature gradients in a retort wall. The final paper, which describes our approach to field experiments, presents the instrumentation and diagnostic techniques used in rock fragmentation experiments at Anvil Points Mine.

  12. Electric-fields-enhanced destabilization of oil-in-water emulsions flowing through a confined wedgelike gap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Guoxin; Luo, Jianbin; Liu, Shuhai; Guo, Dan; Zhang, Chenhui

    2010-09-01

    External electric fields (EEFs) have been applied on a wedgelike gap in a ball-disk configuration, through which oil-in-water (O/W) emulsions flowed. The film formation properties of O/W emulsions in the contact region between the ball and the disk, which is closely related to the stability of oil droplets in the wedgelike gap, have been investigated experimentally. It is found that the film formation property of emulsions in the contact region increases with the EEF strength, but tends to saturate after a critical EEF strength was reached. For the emulsion with a larger oil concentration, it can be enhanced by EEFs more dramatically. The change in the film formation property is more significant when EEFs were applied in emulsions with relatively high emulsifier concentrations, however, the droplet stability is higher in the emulsions with low emulsifier concentrations even when EEFs were applied. The ability of the deformation and breakup of droplets under EEFs in the wedge was also analyzed theoretically to correlate with the experimental results.

  13. Assessment of the potential environmental fate and effects of oil-field discharge waters containing {sup 226}radium

    SciTech Connect

    Herrera, A.W.; Hill, S.L.; Bergman, H.L. [Univ. of Wyoming, Laramie, WY (United States). Dept. of Zoology and Physiology

    1994-12-31

    The naturally occurring radionuclide, radium-226, has been detected in oil production waters in all regions of the country. A produced water discharge into the Loch Katrina wetland in Park County, WY was investigated with respect to the transport and fate of radium in surface waters. The 866-acre Loch Katrina wetland complex is sustained primarily by oil-field produced waters and provides habitat for many species of aquatic birds. While the short-term benefits of this discharge are indisputable, the long-term hazards posed by the transport of radium from deep aquifers to surface waters are not well understood. Guidelines regulating the management of radium-contaminated sediments in receiving waters or settling ponds in Wyoming have yet to be established. The purpose of this study was to provide information to regional regulatory agencies and the oil and gas industry in the development of guidelines and procedures for managing radium and other naturally occurring radioactive materials. The authors will report the results of the sampling survey of produced waters, sediment and biota performed in the Loch Katrina wetland complex in Wyoming.

  14. Composition and physical properties of siliceous and clay-siliceous reservoir rock in the Okruzhnoye oil field (Sakhalin Island)

    SciTech Connect

    Yurochko, A.I.

    1982-11-01

    Siliceous rocks occur extensively in sedimentary basins in the northern part of the Pacific Mobile Belt. The Okruzhnoye field consists of such rocks. Its main productive horizon is the Pilengskaya Formation, of Miocene age, ranging from 100 to 500 meters in thickness or more and consisting of thin interbedded pelitomorphic siliceous and clay-siliceous rock with a few thin intercalcations of tuff, sandstone, and aleurolite. The productive beds are covered by argillaceous rock and form a stratigraphic trap about 600 meters thick which is filled with oil almost to the spill point. In this paper, the geochemical composition and physical properties of this reservoir are detailed. (JMT)

  15. Increased Oil Production and Reserves from Improved Completion Techniques in the Bluebell Field, Uinta Basin, Utah, Class I

    SciTech Connect

    Morgan, Craig D.; Gwynn, Wallace; Deo, Milind D.; Jarrard, Richard; Curtice, Richard; Morris, Thomas H.; Smouse, DeForrest; Tripp, Carol N.

    2000-01-20

    The objective of this project was to increase oil production and reserves by the use of improved reservoir characterization and completion techniques in the Unita Basin Utah. To accomplish this objective, a two-year geologic and engineering characterization of the Bluebell field was conducted. The study evaluated surface and subsurface data, currently used completion techniques, and common production problems. It was determined that advanced case- and open-hole logs could be effective in determining productive beds and that staged-interval (about 500 ft [150 m] per stage) and bed-scale isolation completion techniques could result in improved well performance.

  16. Cyclodextrin derivatives as chiral selectors for direct gas chromatographic separation of enantiomers in the essential oil, aroma and flavour fields.

    PubMed

    Bicchi, C; D'Amato, A; Rubiolo, P

    1999-05-28

    This article reviews papers published over the period 1995-1998 dealing with the application of cyclodextrin derivatives (CDs) as chiral selector for direct enantiomer GC separation of volatile optically active components in the essential oil, extract, flavour and aroma fields. For each application, the racemate analysed, the CD employed as chiral selector and the matrix investigated are reported. The applications are grouped by analytical technique employed: capillary gas chromatography and capillary gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC and GC-MS); two-dimensional gas chromatography (GC x GC); capillary gas chromatography-isotope ratio-mass spectrometry (GC-IRMS); liquid chromatography-capillary gas chromatography (LC-GC). PMID:10399852

  17. Applications of EOR (enhanced oil recovery) technology in field projects--1990 update

    SciTech Connect

    Pautz, J.F.; Thomas, R.D.

    1991-01-01

    Trends in the type and number of US enhanced oil recovery (EOR) projects are analyzed for the period from 1980 through 1989. The analysis is based on current literature and news media and the Department of Energy (DOE) EOR Project Data Base, which contains information on over 1,348 projects. The characteristics of the EOR projects are grouped by starting date and process type to identify trends in reservoir statistics and applications of process technologies. Twenty-two EOR projects starts were identified for 1989 and ten project starts for 1988. An obvious trend over recent years has been the decline in the number of project starts since 1981 until 1988 which corresponds to the oil price decline during that period. There was a modest recovery in 1989 of project starts, which lags the modest recovery of oil prices in 1987 that was reconfirmed in 1989. During the time frame of 1980 to 1989, there has been a gradual improvement in costs of operation for EOR technology. The perceived average cost of EOR has gone down from a $30/bbl range to low $20/bbl. These costs of operation seems to stay just at the price of oil or slightly above to result in marginal profitability. The use of polymer flooding has drastically decreased both in actual and relative numbers of project starts since the oil price drop in 1986. Production from polymer flooding is down more than 50%. Long-term plans for large, high-cost projects such as CO{sub 2} flooding in West Texas, steamflooding in California, and hydrocarbon flooding on the North Slope have continued to be implemented. EOR process technologies have been refined to be more cost effective as shown by the continued application and rising production attributable to EOR. 8 refs., 6 figs., 13 tabs.

  18. Evidence of hepatotoxicity in the sand lizard Acanthodactylus scutellatus from Kuwait's Greater Al-Burgan oil field.

    PubMed

    Al-Hashem, Mona A

    2011-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of oil pollution in a desert location (the Greater Al-Burgan oil fields, an area damaged in the Gulf War in 1991) in Kuwait on the hepatotoxicity of the Sand lizard Acanthodactylus scutellatus (A. scutellatus). Twenty lizards (10 of each sex) from each polluted and each control sites were collected. Livers were removed from dissected animals and ready for fixation by Bouin's solution and formal-saline. Twenty sections (10 from males and 10 from females) from each tar mat (polluted) and control sites were prepared and examined for cell diameter and nuclear measurements using Cell Analysis Systems. The cytology of hepatocytes showed normal appearance in samples from the control sites. Dead cells were abundant in the sections of lizard livers from the tar mat sites and occurred in notably greater numbers than the sections of livers of animals from the control sites. Examinations of the data confirm that the cell and nuclear diameters in liver samples of males collected from polluted sites were generally greater than those of corresponding females. The liver sections obtained from animals in the tar mat site had greater cellular diameters than counterparts from control sites. Females from the polluted sites were also affected by oil pollution by having larger hepatocyte diameters and their nuclei were also affected, being larger than female nuclei from the control sites. The most remarkable feature observed in hepatocytes of lizards collected from the tar mat sites were swelling of hepatocytes, ballooning degeneration of hepatic cytoplasm and cell death. This study confirmed that the prolonged exposure to oil pollution may result in increased accumulation of contaminants and may cause severe liver pathology in a range of wild organisms such as A. scutellatus. PMID:21411141

  19. Isolation and Characterization of Methanothermobacter crinale sp. nov., a Novel Hydrogenotrophic Methanogen from the Shengli Oil Field?†

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Lei; Dai, Lirong; Li, Xia; Zhang, Hui; Lu, Yahai

    2011-01-01

    Syntrophic acetate oxidation coupled with hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis is an alternative methanogenic pathway in certain thermophilic anaerobic environments such as high-temperature oil reservoirs and thermophilic biogas reactors. In these environments, the dominant thermophilic methanogens were generally related to uncultured organisms of the genus Methanothermobacter. Here we isolated two representative strains, Tm2T and HMD, from the oil sands and oil production water in the Shengli oil field in the People's Republic of China. The type strain, Tm2T, was nonmotile and stained Gram positive. The cells were straight to slightly curved rods (0.3 ?m in width and 2.2 to 5.9 ?m in length), but some of them possessed a coccal shape connecting with the rods at the ends. Strain Tm2T grew with H2-CO2, but acetate is required. Optimum growth of strain Tm2T occurred in the presence of 0.025 g/liter NaCl at pH 6.9 and a temperature of 65°C. The G+C content of the genomic DNA was 40.1 mol% ± 1.3 mol% (by the thermal denaturation method) or 41.1 mol% (by high-performance liquid chromatography). Analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequence indicated that Tm2T was most closely related to Methanothermobacter thermautotrophicus ?HT and Methanothermobacter wolfeii VKM B-1829T (both with a sequence similarity of 96.4%). Based on these phenotypic and phylogenic characteristics, a novel species was proposed and named Methanothermobacter crinale sp. nov. The type strain is Tm2T (ACCC 00699T = JCM 17393T). PMID:21705537

  20. Establishment of an oil and gas database for increased recovery and characterization of oil and gas carbonate reservoir heterogeneity. [Jurassic Smackover Formation

    SciTech Connect

    Kopaska-Merkel, D.C.; Moore, H.E. Jr.; Mann, S.D.; Hall, D.R.

    1992-06-01

    This volume contains maps, well logging correlated to porosity and permeability, structural cross section, graph of production history, porosity vs. natural log permeability plot, detailed core log, paragenetic sequence and reservoir characterization sheet of the following fields in southwest Alabama: Appleton oil field; Barnett oil field; Barrytown oil field; Big Escambia Creek gas and condensate field; Blacksher oil field; Broken Leg Creed oil field; Bucatunna Creed oil field; Chappell Hill oil field; Chatom gas and condensate field; Choctaw Ridge oil field; Chunchula gas and condensate field; Cold Creek oil field; Copeland gas and condensate field; Crosbys Creed gas and condensate field; and East Barnett oil field. (AT)

  1. Establishment of an oil and gas database for increased recovery and characterization of oil and gas carbonate reservoir heterogeneity. Appendix 1, Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Kopaska-Merkel, D.C.; Moore, H.E. Jr.; Mann, S.D.; Hall, D.R.

    1992-06-01

    This volume contains maps, well logging correlated to porosity and permeability, structural cross section, graph of production history, porosity vs. natural log permeability plot, detailed core log, paragenetic sequence and reservoir characterization sheet of the following fields in southwest Alabama: Appleton oil field; Barnett oil field; Barrytown oil field; Big Escambia Creek gas and condensate field; Blacksher oil field; Broken Leg Creed oil field; Bucatunna Creed oil field; Chappell Hill oil field; Chatom gas and condensate field; Choctaw Ridge oil field; Chunchula gas and condensate field; Cold Creek oil field; Copeland gas and condensate field; Crosbys Creed gas and condensate field; and East Barnett oil field. (AT)

  2. Investigation of high-temperature, igneous-related hydraulic fracturing as a reservoir control in the Blackburn and Grant Canyon/Bacon Flat oil fields, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Hulen, J.B.

    1991-01-01

    Research in progress to evaluate natural, igenous-related hydrothermal fracturing as a reservoir control in two eastern Nevada oil fields has revealed evidence of a far more comprehensive role for moderate- to high-temperature hydrothermal systems in Basin-and-Range oil-reservoir evolution. Fluid-inclusion and petrographic studies have shown that (now) oil-bearing dolomite breccias of the Blackburn field (Pine Valley, Eureka County) were formed when overpressured, magmatically-heated, high-temperature (>350{degrees}C) hydrothermal brines explosively ruptured their host rocks; similar studies of texturally identical breccias of the Grant Canyon/Bacon Flat field (Railroad Valley, Nye County) so far do not support such an explosive origin. At Grant Canyon, however, hydrothermal, breccia-cementing quartz hosts primary oil, aqueous/oil, and aqueous fluid inclusions (homogenization temperature = 120{degrees}C) which document a direct geothermal connection for oil migration and entrapment. Moreover, at both Blackburn and Grant Canyon/Bacon Flat, the oil reservoirs are top- and side-sealed by hydrothermally altered Tertiary ignimbrites and epiclastic rocks. Contemporary geothermal activity is also apparent at grant Canyon/Bacon Flat, where subsurface water temperatures reach 171{degrees}C, and at Blackburn, above which a petroleum-providing hot spring issues at a temperature of 90{degrees}C. We suggest that in the Basin and Range province, hydrothermal systems may have: (1) matured oil from otherwise submature source rocks; (2) transported oil to ultimate entrapment sites by convection in moderate-to high-temperature fluids; and (3) sealed reservoir traps through hydrothermal alteration of overlying Tertiary caprocks. 69 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.

  3. Bacterial Community Dynamics and Hydrocarbon Degradation during a Field-Scale Evaluation of Bioremediation on a Mudflat Beach Contaminated with Buried Oil

    PubMed Central

    Röling, Wilfred F. M.; Milner, Michael G.; Jones, D. Martin; Fratepietro, Francesco; Swannell, Richard P. J.; Daniel, Fabien; Head, Ian M.

    2004-01-01

    A field-scale experiment with a complete randomized block design was performed to study the degradation of buried oil on a shoreline over a period of almost 1 year. The following four treatments were examined in three replicate blocks: two levels of fertilizer treatment of oil-treated plots, one receiving a weekly application of liquid fertilizer and the other treated with a slow-release fertilizer; and two controls, one not treated with oil and the other treated with oil but not with fertilizer. Oil degradation was monitored by measuring carbon dioxide evolution and by chemical analysis of the oil. Buried oil was degraded to a significantly greater extent in fertilized plots, but no differences in oil chemistry were observed between the two different fertilizer treatments, although carbon dioxide production was significantly higher in the oil-treated plots that were treated with slow-release fertilizer during the first 14 days of the experiment. Bacterial communities present in the beach sediments were profiled by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis of PCR-amplified 16S rRNA gene fragments and 16S rRNA amplified by reverse transcriptase PCR. Similarities between the DGGE profiles were calculated, and similarity matrices were subjected to statistical analysis. These analyses showed that although significant hydrocarbon degradation occurred both in plots treated with oil alone and in the plots treated with oil and liquid fertilizer, the bacterial community structure in these plots was, in general, not significantly different from that in the control plots that were not treated with oil and did not change over time. In contrast, the bacterial community structure in the plots treated with oil and slow-release fertilizer changed rapidly, and there were significant differences over time, as well as between blocks and even within plots. The differences were probably related to the higher concentrations of nutrients measured in interstitial water from the plots treated with slow-release fertilizer. Bacteria with 16S rRNA sequences closely related (>99.7% identity) to Alcanivorax borkumensis and Pseudomonas stutzeri sequences dominated during the initial phase of oil degradation in the plots treated with slow-release fertilizer. Field data were compared to the results of previous laboratory microcosm experiments, which revealed significant differences. PMID:15128509

  4. Reservoir characteristics of two minter oil sands based on continuous core, E-logs, and geochemical data: Bee Brake field, East-Central Louisiana

    SciTech Connect

    Echols, J.B.; Goddard, D.A.; Bouma, A. (Louisiana State Univ., Baton Rouge, LA (United States))

    1993-09-01

    The Bee Brake field area, located in township 4N/6E and 4N/7E in Concordia Parish, has been one of the more prolific oil-producing areas in east-central Louisiana. Production decline in various fields, however, has sparked interest in the economic feasibility of locating and producing the remaining bypassed oil in the lower Wilcox. For this purpose, the Angelina BBF No. 1 well was drilled, and a 500-ft conventional core and a complete suite of state-of-the-are wireline logs were recovered. Production tests were run on the Minter interval of interest. The 16-ft Minter interval (6742-6758 ft depth), bounded at its top and base by lignite seams, consists of an upper 4-ft oil sand (Bee Brake) and a lower 3-ft oil sand (Angelina). The oil sands are separated by approximately 5 ft of thinly laminated silty shale and 4 ft of very fine-grained silty sandstone. Detailed sedimentologic and petrographic descriptions of the Minter interval provide accurate facies determinations of this lower delta-plain sequence. Petrophysical evaluation, combining core plug and modern electric-log data show differences between reservoir quality of the Bee Brake and Angelina sands. This data will also be useful for correlating and interpolating old electric logs. Organic geochemistry of the oil, lignites, and shales provides insight as to the source of the Minter oils and the sourcing potential of the lignites.

  5. Bacillus thuringiensis and neem seed oil (Azadirachta indica) effects on the potato tuber moth Phthorimaea operculella zeller in the field and stores

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. S. Salama; S. A. Salem

    2000-01-01

    A comparative evaluation for the efficacy of Bacillus thuringiensis and neem seed oil on Phthorimaea operculella has been carried out in the field and store. These two preparations were almost equally effective on the potato tuber moth infestation. The percentage of infestation was reduced through successive application of either preparations in the field up to harvest. No synergism was observed

  6. Hydrolytically stable polymers for use in oil field cementing methods and compositions

    SciTech Connect

    Rao, S. P.; Burkhalter, J. F.

    1985-11-26

    Cementing compositions and methods of using such compositions in oil, gas and water well cementing operations to reduce fluid loss from the composition to the formation are disclosed. Such compositions incorporate certain copolymers and copolymer salts of N,N dimethylacrylamide and 2-acrylamido, 2-methyl propane sulfonic acid having mole ratios of between 1:4 and 4:1 respectively and average molecular weights of between about 75,000 and about 300,000.

  7. An integrated approach to seismic stimulation of oil reservoirs: laboratory, field and theoretical results from DOE/industry collaborations.

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, P. M. (Peter M.); Majer, Ernest Luther; Lo, W. C. (Wei-Cheng); Sposito, Garrison,; Daley, T. M. (Thomas M.)

    2003-01-01

    It has been observed repeatedly that low-frequency (10-500 Hz) seismic stress waves can enhance oil production from depleted reservoirs . Until recently, the majority of these observations have been anecdotal or at the proof-of-concept level. The physics coupling stress waves to multiphase fluid flow behavior in porous media is still poorly understood, even though numerous underlying physical mechanisms have been proposed to explain the observations . Basic research on the phenomenon is being conducted through a U .S. Department of Energy funded collaboration between Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, the University of California at Berkeley, Los Alamos National Laboratory and the U .S . oil and gas industry . The project has focused on three main areas of research: (1) laboratory core flow experiments, (2) field seismic monitoring of downhole stimulation tests, and (3) theoretical modeling of the coupled stress/flow phenomenon . The major goal is to obtain a comprehensive scientific understanding of the seismic stimulation phenomenon so that field application technologies can be improved. Initial developments and experimental results in all three research focus areas confirm historic observations that the stimulated flow phenomenon is real and that a fundamental scientific understanding can be obtained through continued research . Examples of project results and developments are presented here.

  8. Simulation studies of a horizontal well producing from a thin oil-rim reservoir in the SSB1 field, Malaysia 

    E-print Network

    Abdul Hakim, Hazlan

    1995-01-01

    of 1500 SCF/STB results in an oil recovery at 15 years production of 6% OOIP, compared to 7% OOIP if the gas/oil ratio limit is increased to 10,000 SCF/STB, with negligible oil resaturation losses into the gascap. Simulation results indicate that oil...

  9. Integrated Reservoir Characterization and Simulation Studies in Stripper Oil and Gas Fields

    E-print Network

    Wang, Jianwei

    2010-01-14

    field, I integrated geologic and engineering data to build a detailed reservoir characterization model of the Second White Specks (SSPK) reservoir in Garden Plains field, Alberta, Canada. The objectives of this model were to provide insights to controls...

  10. Producing Light Oil from a Frozen Reservoir: Reservoir and Fluid Characterization of Umiat Field, National Petroleum Reserve, Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Hanks, Catherine

    2012-12-31

    Umiat oil field is a light oil in a shallow, frozen reservoir in the Brooks Range foothills of northern Alaska with estimated oil-in-place of over 1 billion barrels. Umiat field was discovered in the 1940’s but was never considered viable because it is shallow, in the permafrost, and far from any transportation infrastructure. The advent of modern drilling and production techniques has made Umiat and similar fields in northern Alaska attractive exploration and production targets. Since 2008 UAF has been working with Renaissance Alaska Inc. and, more recently, Linc Energy, to develop a more robust reservoir model that can be combined with rock and fluid property data to simulate potential production techniques. This work will be used to by Linc Energy as they prepare to drill up to 5 horizontal wells during the 2012-2013 drilling season. This new work identified three potential reservoir horizons within the Cretaceous Nanushuk Formation: the Upper and Lower Grandstand sands, and the overlying Ninuluk sand, with the Lower Grandstand considered the primary target. Seals are provided by thick interlayered shales. Reserve estimates for the Lower Grandstand alone range from 739 million barrels to 2437 million barrels, with an average of 1527 million bbls. Reservoir simulations predict that cold gas injection from a wagon-wheel pattern of multilateral injectors and producers located on 5 drill sites on the crest of the structure will yield 12-15% recovery, with actual recovery depending upon the injection pressure used, the actual Kv/Kh encountered, and other geologic factors. Key to understanding the flow behavior of the Umiat reservoir is determining the permeability structure of the sands. Sandstones of the Cretaceous Nanushuk Formation consist of mixed shoreface and deltaic sandstones and mudstones. A core-based study of the sedimentary facies of these sands combined with outcrop observations identified six distinct facies associations with distinctive permeability trends. The Lower Grandstand sand consists of two coarsening-upward shoreface sands sequences while the Upper Grandstand consists of a single coarsening-upward shoreface sand. Each of the shoreface sands shows a distinctive permeability profile with high horizontal permeability at the top getting progressively poorer towards the base of the sand. In contrast, deltaic sandstones in the overlying Ninuluk are more permeable at the base of the sands, with decreasing permeability towards the sand top. These trends impart a strong permeability anisotropy to the reservoir and are being incorporated into the reservoir model. These observations also suggest that horizontal wells should target the upper part of the major sands. Natural fractures may superimpose another permeability pattern on the Umiat reservoir that need to be accounted for in both the simulation and in drilling. Examination of legacy core from Umiat field indicate that fractures are present in the subsurface, but don't provide information on their orientation and density. Nearby surface exposures of folds in similar stratigraphy indicate there are at least three possible fracture sets: an early, N/S striking set that may predate folding and two sets possibly related to folding: an EW striking set of extension fractures that are parallel to the fold axes and a set of conjugate shear fractures oriented NE and NW. Analysis of fracture spacing suggests that these natural fractures are fairly widely spaced (25-59 cm depending upon the fracture set), but could provide improved reservoir permeability in horizontal legs drilled perpendicular to the open fracture set. The phase behavior of the Umiat fluid needed to be well understood in order for the reservoir simulation to be accurate. However, only a small amount of Umiat oil was available; this oil was collected in the 1940’s and was severely weathered. The composition of this ‘dead’ Umiat fluid was characterized by gas chromatography. This analysis was then compared to theoretical Umiat composition derived using the Pedersen method with original Umiat

  11. Increasing Waterflooding Reservoirs in the Wilmington Oil Field through Improved Reservoir Characterization and Reservoir Management

    SciTech Connect

    Koerner, Roy; Clarke, Don; Walker, Scott

    1999-11-09

    The objectives of this quarterly report was to summarize the work conducted under each task during the reporting period April - June 1998 and to report all technical data and findings as specified in the ''Federal Assistance Reporting Checklist''. The main objective of this project is the transfer of technologies, methodologies, and findings developed and applied in this project to other operators of Slope and Basin Clastic Reservoirs. This project will study methods to identify sands with high remaining oil saturation and to recomplete existing wells using advanced completion technology.

  12. Oil palm water use: calibration of a sap flux method and a field measurement scheme.

    PubMed

    Niu, Furong; Röll, Alexander; Hardanto, Afik; Meijide, Ana; Köhler, Michael; Hendrayanto; Hölscher, Dirk

    2015-05-01

    Oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) water use was assessed by sap flux density measurements with the aim to establish the method and derive water-use characteristics. Thermal dissipation probes were inserted into leaf petioles of mature oil palms. In the laboratory, we tested our set-up against gravimetric measurements and derived new parameters for the original calibration equation that are specific to oil palm petioles. In the lowlands of Jambi, Indonesia, in a 12-year-old monoculture plantation, 56 leaves on 10 palms were equipped with one sensor per leaf. A 10-fold variation in individual leaf water use among leaves was observed, but we did not find significant correlations to the variables trunk height and diameter, leaf azimuthal orientation, leaf inclination or estimated horizontal leaf shading. We thus took an un-stratified approach to determine an appropriate sampling design to estimate stand transpiration (Es, mm?day(-1)) rates of oil palm. We used the relative standard error of the mean (SEn, %) as a measure for the potential estimation error of Es associated with sample size. It was 14% for a sample size of 13 leaves to determine the average leaf water use and four palms to determine the average number of leaves per palm. Increasing these sample sizes only led to minor further decreases of the SEn of Es. The observed 90-day average of Es was 1.1?mm?day(-1) (error margin?±?0.2?mm?day(-1)), which seems relatively low, but does not contradict Penman-Monteith-derived estimates of evapotranspiration. Examining the environmental drivers of Es on an intra-daily scale indicates an early, pre-noon maximum of Es rates (11 am) due to a very sensitive reaction of Es to increasing vapor pressure deficit in the morning. This early peak is followed by a steady decline of Es rates for the rest of the day, despite further rising levels of vapor pressure deficit and radiation; this results in pronounced hysteresis, particularly between Es and vapor pressure deficit. PMID:25787332

  13. Modern Processes of Hydrocarbon Migration and Re-Formation of Oil and Gas Fields (Based on the Results of Monitoring and Geochemical Studies)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plotnikova, Irina; Salakhidinova, Gulmira; Nosova, Fidania; Pronin, Nikita; Ostroukhov, Sergey

    2015-04-01

    Special geochemical studies of oils allowed to allocate a movable migration component of oils in the industrial oil deposits. In the field the migration component of oils varies in different parts of the field. The largest percentage of the light migration component (gas condensate of the oil) was detected in the central part of the Kama-Kinel troughs system. Monitoring of the composition of water, oil and gas (condensate light oil component) in the sedimentary cover and ni crystalline basement led to the conclusion of modern migration of hydrocarbons in sedimentary cover. This proves the existence of the modern processes of formation and reformation of oil and gas fields. This presentation is dedicated to the problem of definition of geochemical criteria of selection of hydrocarbons deposit reformation zone in the sample wells of Minibaevskaya area of Romashkinskoye field. While carrying out this work we examined 11 samples of oil from the Upper Devonian Pashiysky horizon. Four oil samples were collected from wells reckoned among the "anomalous" zones that were marked out according to the results of geophysical, oil field and geological research. Geochemical studies of oils were conducted in the laboratory of geochemistry of the Kazan (Volga-region) Federal University. The wells where the signs of hydrocarbons influx from the deep zones of the crust were recorded are considered to be "anomalous". A number of scientists connect this fact to the hypothesis about periodic influx of deep hydrocarbons to the oil deposits of Romashkinskoye field. Other researchers believe that the source rocks of the adjacent valleys sedimentary cover generate gases when entering the main zone of gas formation, which then migrate up the section and passing through the previously formed deposits of oil, change and "lighten" their composition. Regardless of the point of view on the source of the hydrocarbons, the study of the process of deposits refilling with light hydrocarbons is an important fundamental task of exceptional practical importance. The reservoir water monitoring has been conducted in five wells that have penetrated the water-saturated, loosely aggregated zones of the South Tatarstan Arch's basement. The long-term testing resulted in the production of reservoir water from the basement. The sedimentary cover in these wells is blocked by the column, which prevents water cross-flowing from the sedimentary cover. The observations have shown that the levels, gas saturation, mineralisation, density, and composition of reservoir waters from the loosely aggregated zones of the basement change with time. The varying characteristics of the water include its component composition, redox potential, and amount of chlorine and some other components and trace elements. Compositional changes in gases of the loosely aggregated zones of the basement, variations in the gas saturation of reservoir waters and of their composition, the decreasing density of oil in the sedimentary cover, - all result from one cause. This cause is the movement of fluids (solutions and gases dissolved in them) through the loosely aggregated zones and faults of the Earth's crust and the sedimentary cover. The fluids mainly move vertically in an upward direction, although their migration through subhorizontal, loosely aggregated zones of the crystalline basement is also possible. Fluid migration still takes place in the Earth's crust of ancient platforms. This phenomenon indicates that some portions of the platforms - primarily, their margins - periodically resume tectonic activities. The fluid dynamic activity of the crust define the processes in the sedimentary cover. It affects the development of the sedimentary basin during the sedimentation period, and the formation of mineral deposits. The monitoring of the present-day movement of fluid systems in the loosely aggregated zones of the basement will permit the more detailed study of the present-day fluid regime in the upper portion of the Earth's crust and the sedimentary cover.

  14. Gas, Oil, and Water Production from Grand Valley, Parachute, Rulison, and Mamm Creek Fields in the Piceance Basin, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nelson, Philip H.; Santus, Stephen L.

    2010-01-01

    Gas, oil, and water production data for tight gas reservoirs were compiled from selected wells in western Colorado. These reservoir rocks-the relatively shallow Paleogene Wasatch G sandstone interval in the Parachute and Rulison fields and fluvial sandstones in the deeper Upper Cretaceous Mesaverde Group in the Grand Valley, Parachute, Rulison, and Mamm Creek fields-are characterized by low permeability, low porosity, and the presence of clay minerals in pore space. Production from each well is represented by two samples spaced five years apart, the first sample typically taken two years after production commenced, which was generally in the 1990s. For each producing interval, summary diagrams of oil-versus-gas and water-versus-gas production show fluid production rates, the change in rates during five years, the water-gas and oil-gas ratios, and the fluid type. These diagrams permit well-to-well and field-to-field comparisons. Fields producing water at low rates (water dissolved in gas in the reservoir) can be distinguished from fields producing water at moderate or high rates, and the water-gas ratios are quantified. Dry gas is produced from the Wasatch G interval and wet gas is produced from the Mesaverde Group. Production from the Wasatch G interval is also almost completely free of water, but water production commences with gas production in wells producing from the Mesaverde Group-all of these wells have water-gas ratios exceeding the amount that could exist dissolved in gas at reservoir temperature and pressure. The lack of produced water from the Wasatch G interval is attributed to expansion of the gas accumulation with uplift and erosion. The reported underpressure of the Wasatch G interval is here attributed to hydraulic connection to the atmosphere by outcrops in the Colorado River valley at an elevation lower than that of the gas fields. The amount of reduction of gas production over the five-year time span between the first and second samples is roughly one-half, with median values of second-sample to first-sample gas-production ratios ranging from 0.40 for Rulison-Mesaverde to 0.63 for Rulison-Wasatch G. Commencing with the first sample, the logarithm-of-production rate appears to decline linearly with time in many wells. However, water production is much more erratic as a function of time from an individual well and also from one well to the next within a field. Water production can either decrease or increase with time (from the first to the second sample). In this study, slightly more than half the wells producing from the Mesaverde Group show decreases in water production with time. Plots of water decline versus gas decline show little relation between the two, with only the wells in Rulison field displaying some tendency for water and gas to decline proportionately

  15. Paclobutrazol treatment as a potential strategy for higher seed and oil yield in field-grown camelina sativa L. Crantz

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Camelina (Camelina sativa L. Crantz) is a non-food oilseed crop which holds promise as an alternative biofuel energy resource. Its ability to grow in a variety of climatic and soil conditions and minimal requirements of agronomical inputs than other oilseed crops makes it economically viable for advanced biofuel production. We designed a study to investigate the effect of paclobutrazol [2RS, 3RS)-1-(4-Chlorophenyl)-4,4-dimethyl-2-(1H-1,2,4-triazol-1-yl)pentan-3-ol] (PBZ), a popular plant growth regulator, on the seed and oil yield of Camelina sativa (cv. Celine). Results A field-based micro-trial setup was established in a randomized block design and the study was performed twice within a span of five months (October 2010 to February 2011) and five different PBZ treatments (Control: T0; 25 mg l-1: T1; 50 mg l-1: T2; 75 mg l-1: T3; 100 mg l-1: T4; 125 mg l-1: T5) were applied (soil application) at the time of initiation of flowering. PBZ at 100 mg l-1 concentration (T4) resulted in highest seed and oil yield by 80% and 15%, respectively. The seed yield increment was mainly due to enhanced number of siliques per plant when compared to control. The PBZ - treated plants displayed better photosynthetic leaf gas exchange characteristics, higher chlorophyll contents and possessed dark green leaves which were photosynthetically active for a longer period and facilitated higher photoassimilation. Conclusion We report for the first time that application of optimized PBZ dose can be a potential strategy to achieve higher seed and oil yield from Camelina sativa that holds great promise as a biofuel crop in future. PMID:22410213

  16. Toxicity assessment of oil field produced water treated by evaporative processes to produce water to irrigation.

    PubMed

    Andrade, V T; Andrade, B G; Costa, B R S; Pereira, O A; Dezotti, M

    2010-01-01

    During the productive life of an oil well, a high quantity of produced water is extracted together with the oil, and it may achieve up to 99% in the end of the well's economical life. Desalination is one of mankind's earliest forms of saline water treatment, and nowadays, it is still a common process used throughout the world. A single-effect mechanical vapor compression (MVC) process was tested. This paper aims to assess the potential toxicity of produced water to be re-used in irrigation. Samples of both produced and distilled water were evaluated by 84 chemical parameters. The distilled produced water presented a reduction up to 97% for the majority of the analyzed parameters, including PAHs. Toxicity bioassays were performed with distilled produced water to evaluate the growth inhibition of Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata algae, the acute toxicity to Danio rerio fish, the germination inhibition of Lactuca sativa vegetable and the severity of toxicity, as well as behavior test with Lumbricid Earthworm Eisenia fetida. The ecotoxicological assays results showed no toxicity, indicating that the referred evaporative process can produce water to be reused in irrigation. PMID:20706017

  17. Silica phase changes: Diagenetic agent for oil entrapment, Lost Hills field, California

    SciTech Connect

    Julander, D.R.; Szymanski, D.L. (Chevron USA, Inc., Bakersfield, CA (United States))

    1991-02-01

    The siliceous shales of the Monterey Group are the primary development target at Lost Hills. Silica phase changes have influenced the distribution and entrapment of hydrocarbons. With increasing temperature, opal A phase diatomite is converted to opal CT and finally quartz phase rock. All phases are low in permeability. The opal A diatomite is characteristically high in oil saturation and productive saturation. Productivity from this phase is dependent on structural position and fieldwide variations in oil viscosity and biodegradation. The deeper chert reservoir coincides with the opal CT to quartz phase transition. Porosity is again reduced in this transition, but saturations in the quartz phase rocks increase. Tests in the chert reservoir indicate a single, low-permeability system, suggesting the importance of matric contribution. resistivity and porosity in the diatomite, and resistivity and velocity in the chert, are the physical properties which best reflect saturation. Methods exploiting these properties (FMS, BHTV, borehole, and surface shear wave studies) should be helpful in further characterizing the reservoirs and identifying future pay.

  18. Brief history of fiber optic sensing in the oil field industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baldwin, Christopher S.

    2014-06-01

    The use of fiber optic sensing in the oil and gas industry has greatly expanded over the past two decades. Since the first optical fiber-based pressure sensor was installed in a well in 1993, the industry has sought to use fiber sensing technology to monitor in-well parameters. Through the years, optical fiber sensing has been used in an increasing number of applications as technical advances have opened the door for new measurements. Today, fiber optic sensors are used routinely to measure temperature throughout the wellbore. Optical sensors also provide pressure measurements at key locations within the well. These measurements are used to verify the integrity of the well, provide feedback during well completion operations, including the actuation of downhole valves, and to monitor the production or injection process. Other sensors, such as seismic monitors and flowmeters, use fiber sensing technology to make in-well measurements. Various optical sensing techniques are used to make these measurements, including Bragg grating, Raman scattering, and coherent Rayleigh scattering. These measurements are made in harsh environments, which require rugged designs for optical cable systems and instrumentation systems. Some of these applications have operating temperatures of 572°F (300°C), and other applications can have pressures in excess of 20,000 psi (1,379 bar). This paper provides a historical perspective on the use of fiber optic sensing in the oil and gas industry from industry firsts to current applications.

  19. Geothermal test hints at oil potential in eastern Arizona volcanic field

    SciTech Connect

    Rauzi, S.L. (Arizona Geological Survey, Tucson, AZ (United States))

    1993-01-03

    A recently drilled geothermal well, funded by the US Department of Energy and the Arizona Department of Commerce, has provided information about the geology of east-central Arizona and west-central New Mexico. Tonto Drilling Services in cooperation with New Mexico State University completed the well, the 1 Alpine-Federal, at a total depth of 4,505 ft. The well is located among volcanic rocks in the Apache-Sitgreaves National Forest about 6 miles north of the town of Alpine and 6.2 miles west of the Arizona-New Mexico line. The well was drilled to determine the hot dry rock geothermal potential of Precambrian rocks. The operator expected to penetrate Precambrian at about 4,200 ft, but the hole was still in Permian rocks at that depth and was in a mafic dike that intruded the Permian rocks at the total depth of 4,505 ft. The hole did show that Cretaceous and Permian strata contain potentially important source rocks for oil and gas that are apparently unaffected by nearby volcanism. These potential oil source rocks are the focus of this article.

  20. Logan Wash field treatability studies of wastewaters from oil shale retorting processes

    SciTech Connect

    Desai, B.O.; Day, D.R.; Ctvrtnicek, T.E.

    1984-06-01

    Treatability studies were conducted on retort water and gas condensate wastewater from modified in-situ oil shale retorts to evaluate the effectiveness of selected treatment technologies for removing organic and inorganic contaminants. At retorts operated by Occidental Oil Shale, Inc., at Logan Wash, Colorado, treatability studies were conducted on retort water using filter coalescing, steam stripping, activated sludge treatment (both with and without powdered activated carbon addition), sand filtration, and granular activated carbon adsorption. Retort water had high concentrations of ammonia-nitrogen, total Kjeldahl nitrogen, alkalinity, dissolved organics, phenols, sulfide, total dissolved solids, boron, potassium and sodium. Steam stripping removed ammonia-nitrogen, alkalinity, and sulfide from retort water and organics removal was low. Gas condensate wastewater had high concentrations of ammonia-nitrogen, total Kjeldahl nitrogen, dissolved organics, alkalinity, phenols, sulfide, and pyridine compounds. The overall scheme for the gas condensate treatment removed ammonia-nitrogen, total Kjeldahl nitrogen, alkalinity, sulfide, biochemical oxygen demand, dissolved organic carbon, chemical oxygen demand, and phenols.

  1. ADAPTIVE MANAGEMENT AND PLANNING MODELS FOR CULTURAL RESOURCES IN OIL & GAS FIELDS IN NEW MEXICO AND WYOMING

    SciTech Connect

    Peggy Robinson

    2005-07-01

    This report summarizes activities that have taken place in the last six (6) months (January 2005-June 2005) under the DOE-NETL cooperative agreement ''Adaptive Management and Planning Models for Cultural Resources in Oil and Gas Fields, New Mexico and Wyoming'' DE-FC26-02NT15445. This project examines the practices and results of cultural resource investigation and management in two different oil and gas producing areas of the United States: southeastern New Mexico and the Powder River Basin of Wyoming. The project evaluates how cultural resource investigations have been conducted in the past and considers how investigation and management could be pursued differently in the future. The study relies upon full database population for cultural resource inventories and resources and geomorphological studies. These are the basis for analysis of cultural resource occurrence, strategies for finding and evaluating cultural resources, and recommendations for future management practices. Activities can be summarized as occurring in either Wyoming or New Mexico. Gnomon as project lead, worked in both areas.

  2. Experimental study of enhancement of injectivity and in-situ oil upgrading by steam-propane injection for the Hamaca heavy oil field 

    E-print Network

    Rivero Diaz, Jose Antonio

    2002-01-01

    that for pure steam injection. Third, oil production acceleration and injectivity increase were practically the same for runs with propane as a steam additive (irrespective of the propane:steam mass ratios). Propane appears to be a viable steam additive...

  3. Improved Oil Recovery from Upper Jurassic Smackover Carbonates through the Application of Advanced Technologies at Womack Hill Oil Field, Choctaw and Clarke Counties, Alabama, Eastern Gulf Coastal Plan (Phase II)

    SciTech Connect

    Ernest A. Mancini; Joe Benson; David Hilton; David Cate; Lewis Brown

    2006-05-29

    The principal research efforts for Phase II of the project were drilling an infill well strategically located in Section 13, T. 10 N., R. 2 W., of the Womack Hill Field, Choctaw and Clarke Counties, Alabama, and obtaining fresh core from the upper Smackover reservoir to test the feasibility of implementing an immobilized enzyme technology project in this field. The Turner Land and Timber Company 13-10 No. 1 well was successfully drilled and tested at a daily rate of 132 barrels of oil in Section 13. The well has produced 27,720 barrels of oil, and is currently producing at a rate of 60 barrels of oil per day. The 13-10 well confirmed the presence of 175,000 barrels of attic (undrained) oil in Section 13. As predicted from reservoir characterization, modeling and simulation, the top of the Smackover reservoir in the 13-10 well is structurally high to the tops of the Smackover in offsetting wells, and the 13-10 well has significantly more net pay than the offsetting wells. The drilling and testing of the 13-10 well showed that the eastern part of the field continues to have a strong water drive and that there is no need to implement a pressure maintenance program in this part of the Womack Hill Field at this time. The success achieved in drilling and testing the 13-10 infill well demonstrates the benefits of building a geologic model to target areas in mature fields that have the potential to contain undrained oil, thus increasing the productivity and profitability of these fields. Microbial cultures that grew at 90 C and converted ethanol to acid were recovered from fresh cuttings from the Smackover carbonate reservoir in an analogous field to the Womack Hill Field in southwest Alabama; however, no viable microorganisms were found in the Smackover cores recovered from the drilling of the 13-10 well in Womack Hill Field. Further evaluation is, therefore, required prior to implementing an immobilized enzyme technology project in the Womack Hill Field.

  4. Integrated reservoir study of the Appleton Oil Field, Escambia County, Alabama

    E-print Network

    Chijuka, Ekene F

    2002-01-01

    of the reservoir rocks and their productivity. In one particular study of the Appleton Field, the authors utilized only two wells in their analysis. In contrast, our study involves the use of all five producing wells in the field. The data available...

  5. Camorim Field, Brazil: facies and oil qualities controlling reservoir behavior and well performances

    Microsoft Academic Search

    O. S. Nascimento; S. X. Menezes; A. Jr. Bandeira; A. M. Pimental; C. M. P. Oliveira

    1982-01-01

    Camorim Field is located offshore Sergipe State, Brazil. The producing section includes 150 M of Cretaceous conglomerates and coarse to very fine-grained sandstones, interbedded with siltstones and shales. Within this interval, 6 pools are recognized based on log correlation and facies analysis. The field has an area of 25 sq km and the reservoir average depth is 1900 m. Twenty-eight

  6. Field studies on USBM and TOSCO II retorted oil shales: vegetation, moisture, salinity, and runoff, 1977-1980. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Kilkelly, M.K.; Berg, W.A.; Harbert, H.P. III

    1981-08-01

    Field studies were initiated in 1973 to investigate the vegetative stabilization of processed oil shales and to follow moisture and soluble salt movement within the soil/shale profile. Research plots with two types of retorted shales (TOSCO II and USBM) with leaching and soil cover treatments were established at two locations: low-elevation (Anvil Points) and high-elevation (Piceance Basin) in western Colorado. Vegetation was established by intensive management including leaching, N and P fertilization, seeding, mulching, and irrigation. After seven growing seasons, a good vegetative cover remained with few differences between treatments, with the exception of the TOSCO retorted shale, south-aspect, which consistently supported less perennial vegetative cover than other treatments. With time, a shift from perennial grasses to dominance by shrubs was observed. Rodent activity on some treatments had a significantly negative effect on vegetative cover.

  7. Measurement of ²²?Ra in soil from oil field: advantages of ?-ray spectrometry and application to the IAEA-448 CRM.

    PubMed

    Ceccatelli, A; Katona, R; Kis-Benedek, G; Pitois, A

    2014-05-01

    The analytical performance of gamma-ray spectrometry for the measurement of (226)Ra in TENORM (Technically Enhanced Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material) soil was investigated by the IAEA. Fast results were obtained for characterization and certification of a new TENORM Certified Reference Material (CRM), identified as IAEA-448 (soil from oil field). The combined standard uncertainty of the gamma-ray spectrometry results is of the order of 2-3% for massic activity measurement values ranging from 16500 Bq kg(-1) to 21500 Bq kg(-1). Methodologies used for the production and certification of the IAEA-448 CRM are presented. Analytical results were confirmed by alpha spectrometry. The "t" test showed agreement between alpha and gamma results at 95% confidence level. PMID:24332337

  8. ADAPTIVE MANAGEMENT AND PLANNING MODELS FOR CULTURAL RESOURCES IN OIL & GAS FIELDS IN NEW MEXICO AND WYOMING

    SciTech Connect

    Peggy Robinson

    2004-07-01

    This report contains a summary of activities of Gnomon, Inc. and five subcontractors that have taken place during the first six months of 2004 (January 1, 2004-June 30, 2004) under the DOE-NETL cooperative agreement: ''Adaptive Management and Planning Models for Cultural Resources in Oil & Gas Fields in New Mexico and Wyoming'', DE-FC26-02NT15445. Although Gnomon and all five subcontractors completed tasks during these six months, most of the technical experimental work was conducted by the subcontractor, SRI Foundation (SRIF). SRIF created a sensitivity model for the Azotea Mesa area of southeastern New Mexico that rates areas as having a very good chance, a good chance, or a very poor chance of containing cultural resource sites. SRIF suggested that the results of the sensitivity model might influence possible changes in cultural resource management (CRM) practices in the Azote Mesa area of southeastern New Mexico.

  9. Field-scale evidence for biogeophysical signatures resulting from natural attenuation of a well characterized crude oil spill

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slater, L. D.; Revil, A.; Atekwana, E. A.; Mewafy, F.; Bekins, B. A.; Cozzarelli, I.; Herkelrath, W. N.; Skold, M.; Ntarlagiannis, D.; Trost, J.; Erickson, M.; Heenan, J. W.; Lane, J. W.; Werkema, D. D.

    2012-12-01

    Recent biogeophysical research has indicated that unique geophysical signatures are associated with the long-term biodegradation of organic contaminants. However, field-scale demonstrations of the presence of these signatures at sites of organic contamination are lacking. For the last three years, we have performed geophysical measurements at the National Crude Oil Spill Fate and Natural Attenuation Research Site, a unique field laboratory situated just outside of Bemidji, MN. At this site, a ruptured pipeline spilled 1,700,000 L of crude oil into an uninhabited area in 1979. Natural attenuation of the spill has been extensively documented and a geochemical database extending back over 20 years is available to constrain interpretation of the geophysical signatures. We report compelling evidence of a transient geobattery associated with biodegradation of this mature hydrocarbon spill. Using an array of boreholes, self-potential measurements acquired from land surface, passing through the smear zone, capture a diagnostic dipole (peak to peak voltages up to 64 mV) indicating a current source centered on the smear zone, with anodic and cathodic reactions below and above the smear zone respectively. Down borehole measurements reveal that the smear zone is characterized by high magnetic susceptibility (MS); laboratory measurements show that this MS enhancement results from precipitation of iron mineral byproducts of biodegradation. These iron minerals presumably facilitate the electron transport between anode and cathode required to support a geobattery. Furthermore, laboratory and field-scale complex resistivity measurements reveal an enhancement in the complex surface conductivity within the smear zone most likely due to these biodegradation byproducts. The geobattery is not permanent, but instead periodically shuts down, presumably due to changes in the gradient of the redox species driving anodic and cathodic reactions. Gas samples show that conditions are anaerobic immediately above the iron mineral byproducts; this suggests that the geobattery is not driven by an aerobic to aerobic transition but instead requires an alternative driving redox couple excluding oxygen. Although further work is needed to fully decipher the origins of these signals, our results at this unique field laboratory indicate that strong field-scale biogeophysical signatures may be expected over mature hydrocarbon spill sites.

  10. Establishment of an oil and gas database for increased recovery and characterization of oil and gas carbonate reservoir heterogeneity. [Jurassic Smackover Formation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. C. Kopaska-Merkel; H. E. Jr. Moore; S. D. Mann; D. R. Hall

    1992-01-01

    This volume contains maps, well logging, structural cross section, graph of production history, porosity vs. natural log permeability plots, detailed core log, paragenetic sequence, and reservoir characterization sheet for the following fields in southwest Alabama: North Smiths Church oil field; North Wallers Creek oil field; Northeast Barnett oil field; Northwest Range oil field; Pace Creek oil field; Palmers Crossroads oil

  11. Establishment of an oil and gas database for increased recovery and characterization of oil and gas carbonate reservoir heterogeneity. Appendix 1, Volume 3

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. C. Kopaska-Merkel; H. E. Jr. Moore; S. D. Mann; D. R. Hall

    1992-01-01

    This volume contains maps, well logging, structural cross section, graph of production history, porosity vs. natural log permeability plots, detailed core log, paragenetic sequence, and reservoir characterization sheet for the following fields in southwest Alabama: North Smiths Church oil field; North Wallers Creek oil field; Northeast Barnett oil field; Northwest Range oil field; Pace Creek oil field; Palmers Crossroads oil

  12. U(VI) bioreduction with emulsified vegetable oil as the electron donor-Model application to a field test

    SciTech Connect

    Tang, Guoping [ORNL; Watson, David B [ORNL; Wu, Wei-min [Stanford University; Schadt, Christopher Warren [ORNL; Parker, Jack C [ORNL; Brooks, Scott C [ORNL

    2013-01-01

    A one-time 2-hour emulsified vegetable oil (EVO) injection in a fast flowing aquifer decreased U discharge to a stream for over a year. Using a comprehensive biogeochemical model developed in the companion article based on microcosm tests, we approximately matched the observed acetate, nitrate, Fe, U, and sulfate concentrations, and described the major evolution trends of multiple microbial functional groups in the field test. While the lab-determined parameters were generally applicable in the field-scale simulation, the EVO hydrolysis rate constant was estimated to be an order of magnitude greater in the field than in the microcosms. The model predicted substantial biomass (sulfate reducers) and U(IV) accumulation near the injection wells and along the side boundaries of the treatment zone where electron donors (long-chain fatty acids) from the injection wells met electron acceptors (sulfate) from the surrounding environment. While EVO retention and hydrolysis characteristics were expected to control treatment longevity, modeling results indicated that electron acceptors such as sulfate may not only compete for electrons but also play a conducive role in degrading complex substrates and enhancing U(VI) reduction and immobilization. As a result, the spacing of the injection wells could be optimized for effective sustainable bioremediation.

  13. Getty: producing oil from diatomite

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zublin

    1981-01-01

    Getty Oil Company has developed unconventional oil production techniques which will yield oil from diatomaceous earth. They propose to mine oil-saturated diatomite using open-pit mining methods. Getty's diatomite deposit in the McKittrick field of California is unique because it is cocoa brown and saturated with crude oil. It is classified also as a tightly packed deposit, and oil cannot be

  14. Oil and Gas Exploration

    E-print Network

    Tingley, Joseph V.

    , Currant, Duckwater Creek, and Sans Spring fields) 4. Three Bar field 5. Tomera Ranch field Geothermal Power Plants 1. Beowawe 2. Bradys Hot Springs 3. Desert Peak 4. Dixie Valley 5. Empire Major mines, oilMetals Industrial Minerals Oil and Gas Geothermal Exploration Development Mining Processing Nevada

  15. Pore-Level Modeling of Carbon Dioxide Sequestration in Oil Fields: A study of viscous and buoyancy forces

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Grant S. Bromhal; M. Ferer; Duane H. Smith

    Underground injection of carbon dioxide for enhanced oil recovery (EOR) is a common practice in the oil and gas industry and has often been cited as a proven method of sequestering CO2 (US DOE, 1999). Of all sequestration methods, this is probably the best understood, as carbon dioxide has been used in the oil industry for many years. Additionally, most

  16. Field Evaluation of a Kudzu/Cottonseed Oil Formulation on the Persistence of the Beet Armyworm Nucleopolyhedrovirus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A plant extract (kudzu) was tested as a UV protectant for SeMNPV, with and without the addition of an oil/emulsifier (cottonseed oil/lecithin) formulation. Aqueous and oil emulsion formulations of the beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua (Hübner), nucleopolyhedrovirus SeMNPV were applied to collards an...

  17. Effect of Oil Pipelines Existing in an HVTL Corridor on the Electric-Field Distribution

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hanafy M. Ismail

    2007-01-01

    High-voltage transmission lines (TLs) are used to transmit bulk electrical power over long distances. As the voltage of transmission increases, the generated electric field also increases. Very high levels of electric fields generated by high-voltage overhead transmission lines can possibly affect humans and animals by creating a potential electric shock hazard. Therefore, corridors or right-of-way (ROW) limits are left on

  18. High temperature annealing of fission tracks in fluorapatite, Santa Fe Springs oil field, Los Angeles Basin, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Naeser, Nancy D.; Crowley, Kevin D.; McCulloh, Thane H.; Reaves, Chris M.

    1990-01-01

    Annealing of fission tracks is a kinetic process dependent primarily on temperature and to a laser extent on time. Several kinetic models of apatite annealing have been proposed. The predictive capabilities of these models for long-term geologic annealing have been limited to qualitative or semiquantitative at best, because of uncertainties associated with (1) the extrapolation of laboratory observations to geologic conditions, (2) the thermal histories of field samples, and (3) to some extent, the effect of apatite composition on reported annealing temperatures. Thermal history in the Santa Fe Springs oil field, Los Angeles Basin, California, is constrained by an exceptionally well known burial history and present-day temperature gradient. Sediment burial histories are continuous and tightly constrained from about 9 Ma to present, with an important tie at 3.4 Ma. No surface erosion and virtually no uplift were recorded during or since deposition of these sediments, so the burial history is simple and uniquely defined. Temperature gradient (???40??C km-1) is well established from oil-field operations. Fission-track data from the Santa Fe Springs area should thus provide one critical field test of kinetic annealing models for apatite. Fission-track analysis has been performed on apatites from sandstones of Pliocene to Miocene age from a deep drill hole at Santa Fe Springs. Apatite composition, determined by electron microprobe, is fluorapatite [average composition (F1.78Cl0.01OH0.21)] with very low chlorine content [less than Durango apatite; sample means range from 0.0 to 0.04 Cl atoms, calculated on the basis of 26(O, F, Cl, OH)], suggesting that the apatite is not unusually resistant to annealing. Fission tracks are preserved in these apatites at exceptionally high present-day temperatures. Track loss is not complete until temperatures reach the extreme of 167-178??C (at 3795-4090 m depth). The temperature-time annealing relationships indicated by the new data from Santa Fe Springs conflict with predictions based on previously published, commonly used, kinetic annealing models for apatite. Work is proceeding on samples from another area of the basin that may resolve this discrepancy.

  19. Essential oils as potential adulticides against two populations of Aedes aegypti, the laboratory and natural field strains, in Chiang Mai province, northern Thailand.

    PubMed

    Chaiyasit, Dana; Choochote, Wej; Rattanachanpichai, Eumporn; Chaithong, Udom; Chaiwong, Prasong; Jitpakdi, Atchariya; Tippawangkosol, Pongsri; Riyong, Doungrat; Pitasawat, Benjawan

    2006-11-01

    Essential oils derived from five plant species, celery (Apium graveolens), caraway (Carum carvi), zedoary (Curcuma zedoaria), long pepper (Piper longum), and Chinese star anise (Illicium verum), were subjected to investigation of adulticidal activity against mosquito vectors. Two populations of Aedes aegypti, the laboratory and natural field strains, collected in Chiang Mai province, northern Thailand were tested in pyrethroid-susceptibility bioassays. The results revealed that the natural field strain of A. aegypti was resistant to permethrin, with mortality rates ranging from 51 to 66%. A mild susceptibility, with mortality rates ranging from 82 to 88%, was observed in the natural field strain of A. aegypti exposed to lambdacyhalothrin, which suggested that this strain was tolerant and might be resistant to this insecticide. However, laboratory-reared A. aegypti exposed to discriminating dosages of permethrin and lambdacyhalothrin induced 100% mortality in all cases, thus indicating complete susceptibility of this strain to these insecticides. The adulticidal activity determined by topical application revealed that all five essential oils exerted a promising adulticidal efficacy against both laboratory and natural field strains of A. aegypti. Although the laboratory strain was slightly more susceptible to these essential oils than the natural field strain, no statistically significant difference was observed. Moreover, comparison of the adulticidal activity indicated that the performance of these essential oils against the two strains of A. aegypti was similar. The highest potential was established from caraway, followed by zedoary, celery, long pepper, and Chinese star anise, with an LC(50) in the laboratory strain of 5.44, 5.94, 5.96, 6.21, and 8.52 microg/mg female, respectively, and 5.54, 6.02, 6.14, 6.35, and 8.83 microg/mg female, respectively, in the field strain. These promising essential oils are, therefore, an alternative in developing and producing mosquito adulticides as an effective measure used in controlling and eradicating mosquito vectors. PMID:16738885

  20. Isolation and Characterization of Strains CVO and FWKO B, Two Novel Nitrate-Reducing, Sulfide-Oxidizing Bacteria Isolated from Oil Field Brine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    DIANE GEVERTZ; ANITA J. TELANG; GERRIT VOORDOUW; GARY E. JENNEMAN

    2000-01-01

    Bacterial strains CVO and FWKO B were isolated from produced brine at the Coleville oil field in Saskatchewan, Canada. Both strains are obligate chemolithotrophs, with hydrogen, formate, and sulfide serving as the only known energy sources for FWKO B, whereas sulfide and elemental sulfur are the only known electron donors for CVO. Neither strain uses thiosulfate as an energy source.

  1. The MS-Q Force Field for Clay Minerals: Application to Oil Production Sungu Hwang, Mario Blanco, Ersan Demiralp, Tahir Cagin, and William A. Goddard, III*

    E-print Network

    Çagin, Tahir

    The MS-Q Force Field for Clay Minerals: Application to Oil Production Sungu Hwang, Mario Blanco to model kaolinite and pyrophyllite clay minerals and their interactions with representative organic molecules. The MS-Q FF reproduces the structural parameters for these clay minerals and gives accurate

  2. Essential oils as potential adulticides against two populations of Aedes aegypti , the laboratory and natural field strains, in Chiang Mai province, northern Thailand

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dana Chaiyasit; Wej Choochote; Eumporn Rattanachanpichai; Udom Chaithong; Prasong Chaiwong; Atchariya Jitpakdi; Pongsri Tippawangkosol; Doungrat Riyong; Benjawan Pitasawat

    2006-01-01

    Essential oils derived from five plant species, celery (Apium graveolens), caraway (Carum carvi), zedoary (Curcuma zedoaria), long pepper (Piper longum), and Chinese star anise (Illicium verum), were subjected to investigation of adulticidal activity against mosquito vectors. Two populations of Aedes aegypti, the laboratory and natural field strains, collected in Chiang Mai province, northern Thailand were tested in pyrethroid-susceptibility bioassays. The

  3. GREEN RIVER AIR QUALITY MODEL DEVELOPMENT: METEOROLOGICAL DATA - AUGUST 1980 FIELD STUDY IN THE PICEANCE CREEK BASIN OIL SHALE RESOURCES AREA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Special meteorological and air quality studies were conducted during August 1980 in the Piceance Creek Basin oil shale resource area of Northwestern Colorado as part of the EPA-sponsored Green River Ambient Model Assessment program. The objective of the limited field program was ...

  4. Model of fluvial deposition for control of oil migration and entrapment in upper Eocene to Oligocene Sespe Formation, West Montalvo field, Ventura County, California

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Kumbe Sadler

    1988-01-01

    The Sespe Formation consists of continental red beds deposited during the tectonism that resulted as the Pacific-Farallon spreading ridge approached the North American plate. The Sespe at West Montalvo field is over 7000 ft thick and consists predominantly of fine to medium-grained sandstones interbedded with siltstone and mudstone deposited in the central part of the Oligocene basin. Oil production was

  5. A three-year field and laboratory evaluation of linseed oil as a concrete sealer J. WRIGHT, Z. SHEN, AND S. RIZKALLA

    E-print Network

    penetration and chloride intrusion, and, consequently, improve the freeze-thaw performance of the concrete844 A three-year field and laboratory evaluation of linseed oil as a concrete sealer J. WRIGHT, Z February 22, 1993 Sealers are used to enhance concrete durability through their ability to prevent moisture

  6. Contracts for field projects and supporting research on enhanced oil recovery. Progress review No. 82, quarterly report, January--March 1995

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1996-06-01

    This document consists of a list of projects supporting work on oil recovery programs. A publications list and index of companies and institutions is provided. The remaining portion of the document provides brief descriptions on projects in chemical flooding, gas displacement, thermal recovery, geoscience, resource assessment, and reservoir class field demonstrations.

  7. Getty mines oil sands in California

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rintoul

    1983-01-01

    A large deposit of oil-laden diatomaceous earth in the McKittrick oil field 40 miles west of Bakersfield, California, has resisted all efforts at production by standard means. Getty Oil Co. is in the pilot phase of a project to recover the Diatomite's oil by an open pit mining operation. It also could have significant implications for other California oil fields,

  8. [Microbiological investigations of high-temperature horizons of the Kongdian petroleum reservoir in connection with field trial of a biotechnology for enhancement of oil recovery].

    PubMed

    Nazina, T N; Grigor'ian, A A; Shestakova, N M; Babich, T L; Ivo?lov, V S; Feng, Q; Ni, F; Wang, J; She, Y; Xiang, T; Luo, Z; Beliaev, S S; Ivanov, M V

    2007-01-01

    The physicochemical conditions and microbiological characteristics of the formation waters of the Kongdian bed of the Dagang oil field (China) were studied. It was demonstrated that this bed is a high-temperature ecosystem with formation waters characterized by low mineralization. The concentrations of nitrogen and phosphorus compounds, as well as of electron acceptors, are low. Oil and oil gas are the main organic matter sources. The bed is exploited with water-flooding. The oil stratum was inhabited mostly by anaerobic thermophilic microorganisms, including fermentative (10(2)-10(5) cells/ml), sulfate-reducing (0-10(2) cells/ml), and methanogenic (0-10(3) cells/ml) microorganisms. Aerobic bacteria were detected mainly in the near-bottom zone of injection wells. The rate of sulfate reduction varied from 0.002 to 18.940 microg S(2-) l(-1) day(-1) and the rate of methanogenesis from 0.012 to 16.235 microg CH4 l(-1) day(-1). Microorganisms with great biotechnological potential inhabited the bed. Aerobic thermophilic bacteria were capable of oxidizing oil with the formation of biomass, the products of partial oxidation of oil (volatile acids), and surfactants. During growth on the culture liquid of oiloxidizing bacteria, methanogenic communities produced methane and carbon dioxide, which also had oil-releasing capabilities. Using various labeled tracers, the primary filtration flows of injected solutions at the testing site were studied. Our comprehensive investigations allowed us to conclude that the tested method for microbial enhancement of oil recovery based on the activation of the stratal microflora can be applied in the Kongdian bed horizons. PMID:17633408

  9. Maps showing geology, oil and gas fields and geological provinces of Africa

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Persits, Feliks M.; Ahlbrandt, T.S.; Tuttle, Michele L.; Charpentier, R.R.; Brownfield, M.E.; Takahashi, Kenneth

    1997-01-01

    The CD-ROM was compiled according to the methodology developed by the U.S. Geological Survey's World Energy Project . The goal of the project was to assess the undiscovered, technically recoverable oil and gas resources of the world and report these results by the year 2000. A worldwide series of geologic maps, published on CD-ROMs, was released by the U.S. Geological Survey's World Energy Project during 1997 - 2000. Specific details of the data sources and map compilation are given in the metadata files on this CD-ROM. These maps were compiled using Environmental Systems Research Institute Inc. (ESRI) ARC/INFO software. Political boundaries and cartographic representations on this map are shown (with permission) from ESRI's ArcWorld 1:3M digital coverage: they have no political significance and are displayed as general reference only. Portions of this database covering the coastline and country boundaries contain proprietary property of ESRI. (Copyright 1992 and 1996, Environmental Systems Research Institute Inc. All rights reserved.)

  10. Acid gas injection and monitoring at the Zama oil field in Alberta, Canada: A case study in demonstration-scale carbon dioxide sequestration

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Steven A. Smith; James A. Sorensen; Edward N. Steadman; John A. Harju

    2009-01-01

    The field validation test, conducted in the Zama oil field of northwestern Alberta, Canada, will evaluate the potential for geological sequestration of CO2 as part of a gas stream that includes high concentrations of H2S (20% to 40%). The results of this project will provide insight regarding the impact of H2S, in conjunction with CO2, on sink integrity (i.e., seal

  11. Activities of the Oil Implementation Task Force; Contracts for field projects and supporting research on enhanced oil recovery, July--September 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Tiedemann, H.A. (ed.) (USDOE Bartlesville Project Office, OK (USA))

    1991-05-01

    The report contains a general introduction and background to DOE's revised National Energy Strategy Advanced Oil Recovery Program and activities of the Oil Implementation Task Force; a detailed synopsis of the symposium, including technical presentations, comments and suggestions; a section of technical information on deltaic reservoirs; and appendices containing a comprehensive listing of references keyed to general deltaic and geological aspects of reservoirs and those relevant to six selected deltaic plays. Enhanced recovery processes include chemical floodings, gas displacement, thermal recovery, geoscience, and microbial recovery.

  12. Competitive Oxidation of Volatile Fatty Acids by Sulfate- and Nitrate-Reducing Bacteria from an Oil Field in Argentina? †

    PubMed Central

    Grigoryan, Aleksandr A.; Cornish, Sabrina L.; Buziak, Brenton; Lin, Shiping; Cavallaro, Adriana; Arensdorf, Joseph J.; Voordouw, Gerrit

    2008-01-01

    Acetate, propionate, and butyrate, collectively referred to as volatile fatty acids (VFA), are considered among the most important electron donors for sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) and heterotrophic nitrate-reducing bacteria (hNRB) in oil fields. Samples obtained from a field in the Neuquén Basin, western Argentina, had significant activity of mesophilic SRB, hNRB, and nitrate-reducing, sulfide-oxidizing bacteria (NR-SOB). In microcosms, containing VFA (3 mM each) and excess sulfate, SRB first used propionate and butyrate for the production of acetate, which reached concentrations of up to 12 mM prior to being used as an electron donor for sulfate reduction. In contrast, hNRB used all three organic acids with similar kinetics, while reducing nitrate to nitrite and nitrogen. Transient inhibition of VFA-utilizing SRB was observed with 0.5 mM nitrite and permanent inhibition with concentrations of 1 mM or more. The addition of nitrate to medium flowing into an upflow, packed-bed bioreactor with an established VFA-oxidizing SRB consortium led to a spike of nitrite up to 3 mM. The nitrite-mediated inhibition of SRB led, in turn, to the transient accumulation of up to 13 mM of acetate. The complete utilization of nitrate and the incomplete utilization of VFA, especially propionate, and sulfate indicated that SRB remained partially inhibited. Hence, in addition to lower sulfide concentrations, an increase in the concentration of acetate in the presence of sulfate in waters produced from an oil field subjected to nitrate injection may indicate whether the treatment is successful. The microbial community composition in the bioreactor, as determined by culturing and culture-independent techniques, indicated shifts with an increasing fraction of nitrate. With VFA and sulfate, the SRB genera Desulfobotulus, Desulfotignum, and Desulfobacter as well as the sulfur-reducing Desulfuromonas and the NR-SOB Arcobacter were detected. With VFA and nitrate, Pseudomonas spp. were present. hNRB/NR-SOB from the genus Sulfurospirillum were found under all conditions. PMID:18502934

  13. Analysis of Bacterial and Archaeal Communities along a High-Molecular-Weight Polyacrylamide Transportation Pipeline System in an Oil Field

    PubMed Central

    Li, Cai-Yun; Li, Jing-Yan; Mbadinga, Serge Maurice; Liu, Jin-Feng; Gu, Ji-Dong; Mu, Bo-Zhong

    2015-01-01

    Viscosity loss of high-molecular-weight partially hydrolyzed polyacrylamide (HPAM) solution was observed in a water injection pipeline before being injected into subterranean oil wells. In order to investigate the possible involvement of microorganisms in HPAM viscosity loss, both bacterial and archaeal community compositions of four samples collected from different points of the transportation pipeline were analyzed using PCR-amplification of the 16S rRNA gene and clone library construction method together with the analysis of physicochemical properties of HPAM solution and environmental factors. Further, the relationship between environmental factors and HPAM properties with microorganisms were delineated by canonical correspondence analysis (CCA). Diverse bacterial and archaeal groups were detected in the four samples. The microbial community of initial solution S1 gathered from the make-up tank is similar to solution S2 gathered from the first filter, and that of solution S3 obtained between the first and the second filter is similar to that of solution S4 obtained between the second filter and the injection well. Members of the genus Acinetobacter sp. were detected with high abundance in S3 and S4 in which HPAM viscosity was considerably reduced, suggesting that they likely played a considerable role in HPAM viscosity loss. This study presents information on microbial community diversity in the HPAM transportation pipeline and the possible involvement of microorganisms in HPAM viscosity loss and biodegradation. The results will help to understand the microbial community contribution made to viscosity change and are beneficial for providing information for microbial control in oil fields. PMID:25849654

  14. Constitutive models for the Etchegoin Sands, Belridge Diatomite, and overburden formations at the Lost Hills oil field, California

    SciTech Connect

    FOSSUM,ARLO F.; FREDRICH,JOANNE T.

    2000-04-01

    This report documents the development of constitutive material models for the overburden formations, reservoir formations, and underlying strata at the Lost Hills oil field located about 45 miles northwest of Bakersfield in Kern County, California. Triaxial rock mechanics tests were performed on specimens prepared from cores recovered from the Lost Hills field, and included measurements of axial and radial stresses and strains under different load paths. The tested intervals comprise diatomaceous sands of the Etchegoin Formation and several diatomite types of the Belridge Diatomite Member of the Monterey Formation, including cycles both above and below the diagenetic phase boundary between opal-A and opal-CT. The laboratory data are used to drive constitutive parameters for the Extended Sandler-Rubin (ESR) cap model that is implemented in Sandia's structural mechanics finite element code JAS3D. Available data in the literature are also used to derive ESR shear failure parameters for overburden formations. The material models are being used in large-scale three-dimensional geomechanical simulations of the reservoir behavior during primary and secondary recovery.

  15. A detailed analysis of wastewater-induced seismicity in the Val d'Agri oil field (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Improta, Luigi; Valoroso, Luisa; Piccinini, Davide; Chiarabba, Claudio

    2015-04-01

    The Val d'Agri basin in the Apennines seismic belt hosts the largest oil field in onshore Europe. High-quality recordings from a temporary dense network unravel a swarm of 111 small-magnitude events (ML ? 1.8) occurred in June 2006 during the first stage of wastewater injection into a high-rate well. High-precision relative locations define a preexisting blind fault located 1 km below the well inside fractured and saturated carbonates where wastewater is reinjected. Seismicity begins 3 h after the initiation of injection. The seismicity rate strictly correlates with injection curves and temporal variations of elastic and anisotropic parameters. Seismicity is induced by rapid communication of pore pressure perturbations along a high-permeability fault zone favorably oriented with respect to the local extensional stress field. Our accurate 3-D locations of 219 events (ML ? 2.2) detected by the local operator network after June 2006 concentrate on the preexisting fault measuring 5 km along dip. Over the following 7.5 years, the seismicity rate correlates with short-term increases in injection pressure.

  16. Contracts for field projects and supporting research on enhanced oil recovery. Progress review No. 89

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1998-04-01

    Summaries are presented for the DOE contracts related to supported research for thermal recovery of petroleum, geoscience technology, and field demonstrations in high-priority reservoir classes. Data included for each project are: title, contract number, principal investigator, research organization, beginning date, expected completion date, amount of award, objectives of the research, and summary of technical progress.

  17. Seismic Illumination Analysis in Poor Oil & Gas Field Data by Using Focal Beam Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Latiff, A. H. Abdul; Ghosh, D. P.; Harith, Z. Z. Tuan

    2014-03-01

    The area underneath shallow gas cloud is an area where the image of subsurface data is generally poor. This distorted image underneath gas zones usually contains precious information of hydrocarbon accumulation. Previously, we analyse the factors contribute to poor subsurface seismic image underneath the gas cloud model and use focal beam technique to understand subsurface illumination information. Encourage by model-based success, we shift our focus to data-based application by applying the focal beam technique into a real field data. The results from this field were analyse in term of resolution function and amplitude versus ray parameter (AVP) imprint for different reflector depth, followed by acquisition analysis on the surface level. For this purpose, a velocity data of a field located in Malay Basin was built before applying the focal beam calculation. We will demonstrate that by using focal beam analysis for this field, we will able to obtain good imaging particularly for target reflector at 2000ms, 4000ms and 6000ms depth, provided the full 3D acquisition geometry was used during focal beam application.

  18. Collecting field pennycress germplasm in Colorado and characterization of oil and root variation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Field pennycress (Thlaspi arvense) has been identified as a possible source of biodiesel that may perform better in colder climates than other biodiesel fuels. A germplasm collection of the species is being maintained by the U.S. Department of Agriculture for use in research, education, and crop imp...

  19. Field Pennycress (Thlaspi arvense L.) Oil: A Promising Source of Biodiesel.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Field pennycress (Thlaspi arvense L., FP) is a winter annual species of the mustard family (Brassicaceae) that is widely distributed throughout temperate North America and which can serve in a winter rotational cycle with conventional crops, thus not displacing existing agricultural production or ne...

  20. Gas, Oil, and Water Production from Jonah, Pinedale, Greater Wamsutter, and Stagecoach Draw Fields in the Greater Green River Basin, Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nelson, Philip H.; Ewald, Shauna M.; Santus, Stephen L.; Trainor, Patrick K.

    2010-01-01

    Gas, oil, and water production data were compiled from selected wells in four gas fields in rocks of Late Cretaceous age in southwestern Wyoming. This study is one of a series of reports examining fluid production from tight-gas reservoirs, which are characterized by low permeability, low porosity, and the presence of clay minerals in pore space. Production from each well is represented by two samples spaced five years apart, the first sample typically taken two years after commencement of production. For each producing interval, summary diagrams of oil versus gas and water versus gas production show fluid production rates, the change in rates during five years, the water-gas and oil-gas ratios, and the fluid type. These diagrams permit well-to-well and field-to-field comparisons. Fields producing water at low rates (water dissolved in gas in the reservoir) can be distinguished from fields producing water at moderate or high rates, and the water-gas ratios are quantified. The ranges of first-sample gas rates in Pinedale field and Jonah field are quite similar, and the average gas production rate for the second sample, taken five years later, is about one-half that of the first sample for both fields. Water rates are generally substantially higher in Pinedale than in Jonah, and water-gas ratios in Pinedale are roughly a factor of ten greater in Pinedale than in Jonah. Gas and water production rates from each field are fairly well grouped, indicating that Pinedale and Jonah fields are fairly cohesive gas-water systems. Pinedale field appears to be remarkably uniform in its flow behavior with time. Jonah field, which is internally faulted, exhibits a small spread in first-sample production rates. In the Greater Wamsutter field, gas production from the upper part of the Almond Formation is greater than from the main part of the Almond. Some wells in the main and the combined (upper and main parts) Almond show increases in water production with time, whereas increases in water production are rare in the upper part of the Almond, and a higher percentage of wells in the upper part of the Almond show water decreasing at the same rate as gas than in the main or combined parts of the Almond. In Stagecoach Draw field, the gas production rate after five years is about one-fourth that of the first sample, whereas in Pinedale, Jonah, and Greater Wamsutter fields, the production rate after five years is about one-half that of the first sample. The more rapid gas decline rate seems to be the outstanding feature distinguishing Stagecoach Draw field, which is characterized as a conventional field, from Pinedale, Jonah, and Greater Wamsutter fields, which are generally characterized as tight-gas accumulations. Oil-gas ratios are fairly consistent within Jonah, Pinedale, and Stagecoach Draw fields, suggesting similar chemical composition and pressure-temperature conditions within each field, and are less than the 20 bbl/mmcf upper limit for wet gas. However, oil-gas ratios vary considerably from one area to another in the Greater Wamsutter field, demonstrating a lack of commonality in either chemistry or pressure-temperature conditions among the six areas. In all wells in all four fields examined here, water production commences with gas production-there are no examples of wells with water-free production and no examples where water production commences after first-sample gas production. The fraction of records with water production higher in the second sample than in the first sample varies from field to field, with Pinedale field showing the lowest percentage of such cases and Jonah field showing the most. Most wells have water-gas ratios exceeding the amount that could exist dissolved in gas at reservoir pressure and temperature.

  1. Area balance and strain in an extensional fault system: Strategies for improved oil recovery in fractured chalk, Gilbertown Field, southwestern Alabama. Final report, March 1996--September 1998

    SciTech Connect

    Pashin, J.C.; Raymond, D.E.; Rindsberg, A.K.; Alabi, G.G.; Carroll, R.E.; Groshong, R.H.; Jin, G.

    1998-12-01

    This project was designed to analyze the structure of Mesozoic and Tertiary strata in Gilbertown Field and adjacent areas to suggest ways in which oil recovery can be improved. The Eutaw Formation comprises 7 major flow units and is dominated by low-resistivity, low-contrast play that is difficult to characterize quantitatively. Selma chalk produces strictly from fault-related fractures that were mineralized as warm fluid migrated from deep sources. Resistivity, dipmeter, and fracture identification logs corroborate that deformation is concentrated in the hanging-wall drag zones. New area balancing techniques were developed to characterize growth strata and confirm that strain is concentrated in hanging-wall drag zones. Curvature analysis indicates that the faults contain numerous fault bends that influence fracture distribution. Eutaw oil is produced strictly from footwall uplifts, whereas Selma oil is produced from fault-related fractures. Clay smear and mineralization may be significant trapping mechanisms in the Eutaw Formation. The critical seal for Selma reservoirs, by contrast, is where Tertiary clay in the hanging wall is juxtaposed with poorly fractured Selma chalk in the footwall. Gilbertown Field can be revitalized by infill drilling and recompletion of existing wells. Directional drilling may be a viable technique for recovering untapped oil from Selma chalk. Revitalization is now underway, and the first new production wells since 1985 are being drilled in the western part of the field.

  2. Geology of oil fields and future exploration potential in west African Aptian Salt basin

    SciTech Connect

    Bignell, R.D.; Edwards, A.D.

    1987-05-01

    The Aptian Salt basin of west Africa, extends from Equatorial Guinea southward to Angola, contains recoverable reserves estimated at nearly 4 billion BOE, and is current producing 600,000 BOPD. The basin developed as a result of tensional forces between west Africa and South America initiated at the end of the Jurassic. The prospective sedimentary sequences ranged in age from Early Cretaceous (uppermost Jurassic in places) to Holocene and is divided by the Aptian transgressive sand and salt into a pre-salt, nonmarine, syn-rift sequence and a post-salt, marine, post-rift sequence. Both the pre- and post-salt sequences contain several successful exploration plays, the most prolific of which are the Early Cretaceous nonmarine sandstone fields in tilted fault blocks of Gabon and Cabinda; Early Cretaceous carbonate buildups on the margins of basement highs in Cabinda; Early Cretaceous transgressive marine sandstone fields in anticlines draped over basement highs in Gabon; Late Cretaceous shallow marine sandstone and carbonate fields in salt-related structures in the Congo, Zaire, Cabinda, and Angola; Late Cretaceous dolomites in structural/stratigraphic traps in Angola; Late Cretaceous/early Tertiary deltaic/estuarine sandstone traps formed by salt movement in Gabon, Cabinda, and angola; and Tertiary marine turbidite fields in Cabinda and Angola. Despite the exploration success in these trends, much of the basin is under or poorly explored. The major problems for exploration are the poor quality of seismic definition beneath the salt, which makes it difficult to predict pre-salt structure and stratigraphy, and the importance of a stratigraphic element in many of the post-salt traps, also difficult to detect on seismic.

  3. Field Laboratory in the Osage Reservation -- Determination of Status of Oil and Gas Operations

    SciTech Connect

    Carroll, Herb; Johnson, W.I.

    1999-04-27

    Microsoft EXCEL and Lotus 1-2-3 spreadsheets have been programmed to perform calculations as reservoir data is entered. These program were developed by BDM-Oklahoma, Inc. personnel for use in the Field Laboratory in the Osage Reservation project. This spreadsheet will also assist Native American Tribe members in evaluation of the petroleum resource on the Osage Mineral Estate, Osage County, Oklahoma and independent operators to evaluate petroleum reservoirs on and off of the Osage Mineral Estate.

  4. Hippocampus lipid peroxidation induced by residual oil fly ash intranasal instillation versus habituation to the open field.

    PubMed

    Zanchi, Ana Claudia; Saiki, Mitiko; Saldiva, Paulo Hilário Nascimento; Barros, Helena Maria Tannhauser; Rhoden, Claudia Ramos

    2010-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have demonstrated the adverse effects of particulate matter (PM) inhalation on the respiratory and cardiovascular systems. It has been reported that air pollution may affect the central nervous system and decrease cognitive function. In rats, residual oil fly ash (ROFA) instillation causes decreased motor activity and increased lipid peroxidation in the striatum and the cerebellum. Our objective was to determine whether chronic instillation of particles induces changes in learning and memory in rats and whether oxidants in the hippocampus may contribute to these adverse effects. Forty-five-day-old male Wistar rats were exposed to ROFA by intranasal instillation and were treated with N-acetylcysteine (NAC) at 150 mg/kg i.p. for 30 days. Control groups were exposed to ROFA, NAC, or neither. On days 1, 8, and 30 of the protocol, rats were submitted to the open field test to evaluate habituation. After the last open field session, the rats were killed by decapitation. The hippocampus was used to determine lipid peroxidation (LP) by the thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances test. ROFA instillation induced an increase in LP in the hippocampus compared to all treatment groups (p = .012). NAC treatment blocked these changes. All of the treatment groups presented a decrease in the frequency of peripheral walking (p = .001), rearing (p = .001), and exploration (p = .001) over time. Our study demonstrates that exposure to particles for 30 days and/or NAC treatment do not modify habituation to an open field, a simple form of learning and memory in rats, and that oxidative damage induced by ROFA does not modulate these processes. PMID:20017596

  5. Effects of Saline-Wastewater Injection on Water Quality in the Altamont-Bluebell Oil and Gas Field, Duchesne County, Utah, 1990-2005

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Steiger, Judy I.

    2007-01-01

    The Altamont-Bluebell oil and gas field in the Uinta Basin in northeastern Utah has been an important oil and natural gas production area since the 1950s. Saline water is produced along with oil during the oil-well drilling and pumping process. The saline wastewater is disposed of by injection into wells completed in the Duchesne River Formation, Uinta Formation, and other underlying formations. There are concerns that the injected saline wastewater could migrate into the upper part of the Duchesne River and Uinta Formations and surficial deposits that are used for drinking-water supply and degrade the quality of the drinking water. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Utah Department of Natural Resources, Division of Oil, Gas, and Mining, began a program in 1990 to monitor water quality in five wells in the Altamont-Bluebell oil and gas field. By 1996, water-quality samples had been collected from 20 wells. Ten of the 20 wells were sampled yearly during 1996-2005 and analyzed for bromide, chloride, and stable isotopes. Comparison of major chemical constituents, bromide-to-chloride ratios, trend analysis, and isotope ratios were used to assess if saline wastewater is migrating into parts of the formation that are developed for drinking-water supplies. Results of four different analyses all indicate that saline wastewater injected into the lower part of the Duchesne River and Uinta Formations and underlying formations is not migrating upward into the upper parts of the formations that are used for drinking-water supplies.

  6. The application of 3-D depth migration to the development of an Alaskan offshore oil field

    SciTech Connect

    Whitcombe, D.N.; Carroll, R.J. (BP Exploration, Houston, TX (United States)); Murray, E.H. Jr.; St. Aubin, L.A. (BP Exploration (Alaska) Inc., Anchorage, AK (United States))

    1994-10-01

    Inconsistencies in fault positioning between overlapping 3-D seismic surveys over the northwestern part of the Endicott Field highlighted lateral positioning errors of the order of 1,000 ft (330 m) in the seismic images. This large uncertainty in fault positioning placed a high and often unacceptable risk on the placement of wells. To quantify and correct for the seismic positioning error, 3-D velocity models were developed for ray-trace modeling. The lateral positioning error maps produced revealed significant variation in the mispositioning within the Endicott Field that were mainly caused by lateral variations in permafrost thickness. These maps have been used to correct the positions of mapped features and have enabled several wells to be successfully placed close to major faults. Prior to this analysis, these wells were considered too risky to place optimally. The seismic data were 3-D poststack depth migrated with the final velocity model, producing a repositioned image that was consistent with the ray-trace predictions. Additionally, a general enhancement of data imaging improved the interpretability and enabled the remapping and subsequent successful development of the peripheral Sag Delta North accumulation.

  7. Oil Oil Everywhere

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-07-18

    This math meets ecology lesson provides hands-on experiences with mixing oil and water, provides surface area information about the 2010 oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico, and gives learners opportunities to estimate small oil spills of their own making. This lesson guide includes questions for learners, assessment options, extensions, and reflection questions.

  8. Oil Displacement Efficiency of Residual Oil after Polymer Flooding can be Enhanced by Betaine Surfactant

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xia Huifen; Qin Liang; Sui Hongyu; Wang Gang

    2010-01-01

    Because the oil is a kind of non-renewable resource, it is essential to enhance the oil recovery of the developed oil fields. Usually, as the remaining potential for exploitation of oil field after the secondary oil recovery is nearly 60% ~ 70%, so the tertiary recovery is always the subject of research for the petroleum experts around the world. Polymer

  9. Reconnaissance evaluation of contamination in the alluvial aquifer in the East Poplar oil field, Roosevelt County, Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Levings, G.W.

    1984-01-01

    Water moving from north to south in the alluvial aquifer of the Poplar River valley becomes contaminated with sodium chloride in the area underlain by the East Poplar oil fields. Four types of ground water were identified in the study area. Type 1 is sodium bicarbonate water. Type 2 is sodium chloride water with varying quantities of calcium and magnesium. Type 3 water contains sodium and chloride in significantly larger concentrations than Type 2. Type 4 water is the brine being injected into brine-disposal wells. Contamination of the alluvial aquifer is indicated by a brine-freshwater interface in the alluvium, by downstream increase in chloride concentration of the Poplar River, and by downstream change in water type of the Poplar River. Contamination also may be indicated by the distribution of iron and manganese concentrations in water from wells near a brine-disposal well. Possible sources of sodium chloride contamination in the alluvium are brine-disposal wells, pipelines, and storage or evaporation pits. The contamination can occur from leaks in the casing of disposal wells or in pipelines caused by the corrosive nature of the brine or from storage or evaporation pits that have been improperly sealed or have sustained tears in the sealing material. (USGS)

  10. Novel Cleanup Agents Designed Exclusively for Oil Field Membrane Filtration Systems Low Cost Field Demonstrations of Cleanup Agents in Controlled Experimental Environments

    SciTech Connect

    David Burnett; Harold Vance

    2007-08-31

    The goal of our project is to develop innovative processes and novel cleaning agents for water treatment facilities designed to remove fouling materials and restore micro-filter and reverse osmosis (RO) membrane performance. This project is part of Texas A&M University's comprehensive study of the treatment and reuse of oilfield brine for beneficial purposes. Before waste water can be used for any beneficial purpose, it must be processed to remove contaminants, including oily wastes such as residual petroleum hydrocarbons. An effective way of removing petroleum from brines is the use of membrane filters to separate oily waste from the brine. Texas A&M and its partners have developed highly efficient membrane treatment and RO desalination for waste water including oil field produced water. We have also developed novel and new cleaning agents for membrane filters utilizing environmentally friendly materials so that the water from the treatment process will meet U.S. EPA drinking water standards. Prototype micellar cleaning agents perform better and use less clean water than alternate systems. While not yet optimized, the new system restores essentially complete membrane flux and separation efficiency after cleaning. Significantly the amount of desalinated water that is required to clean the membranes is reduced by more than 75%.

  11. INCREASING OIL RECOVERY THROUGH ADVANCED REPROCESSING OF 3D SEISMIC, GRANT CANYON AND BACON FLAT FIELDS, NYE COUNTY, NEVADA

    SciTech Connect

    Eric H. Johnson; Don E. French

    2001-06-01

    Makoil, Inc., of Orange, California, with the support of the U.S. Department of Energy has reprocessed and reinterpreted the 3D seismic survey of the Grant Canyon area, Railroad Valley, Nye County, Nevada. The project was supported by Dept. of Energy Grant DE-FG26-00BC15257. The Grant Canyon survey covers an area of 11 square miles, and includes Grant Canyon and Bacon Flat oil fields. These fields have produced over 20 million barrels of oil since 1981, from debris slides of Devonian rocks that are beneath 3,500 to 5,000 ft of Tertiary syntectonic deposits that fill the basin of Railroad Valley. High-angle and low-angle normal faults complicate the trap geometry of the fields, and there is great variability in the acoustic characteristics of the overlying valley fill. These factors combine to create an area that is challenging to interpret from seismic reflection data. A 3D seismic survey acquired in 1992-93 by the operator of the fields has been used to identify development and wildcat locations with mixed success. Makoil believed that improved techniques of processing seismic data and additional well control could enhance the interpretation enough to improve the chances of success in the survey area. The project involved the acquisition of hardware and software for survey interpretation, survey reprocessing, and reinterpretation of the survey. SeisX, published by Paradigm Geophysical Ltd., was chosen as the interpretation software, and it was installed on a Dell Precision 610 computer work station with the Windows NT operating system. The hardware and software were selected based on cost, possible addition of compatible modeling software in the future, and the experience of consulting geophysicists in the Billings area. Installation of the software and integration of the hardware into the local office network was difficult at times but was accomplished with some technical support from Paradigm and Hewlett Packard, manufacturer of some of the network equipment. A number of improvements in the processing of the survey were made compared to the original work. Pre-stack migration was employed, and some errors in muting in the original processing were found and corrected. In addition, improvements in computer hardware allowed interactive monitoring of the processing steps, so that parameters could be adjusted before completion of each step. The reprocessed survey was then loaded into SeisX, v. 3.5, for interpretation work. Interpretation was done on 2, 21-inch monitors connected to the work station. SeisX was prone to crashing, but little work was lost because of this. The program was developed for use under the Unix operating system, and some aspects of the design of the user interface betray that heritage. For example, printing is a 2-stage operation that involves creation of a graphic file using SeisX and printing the file with printer utility software. Because of problems inherent in using graphics files with different software, a significant amount of trial and error is introduced in getting printed output. Most of the interpretation work was done using vertical profiles. The interpretation tools used with time slices are limited and hard to use, but a number to tools and techniques are available to use with vertical profiles. Although this project encountered a number of delays and difficulties, some unavoidable and some self-inflicted, the result is an improved 3D survey and greater confidence in the interpretation. The experiences described in this report will be useful to those that are embarking on a 3D seismic interpretation project.

  12. Integration of Seismic and Petrophysics to Characterize Reservoirs in “ALA” Oil Field, Niger Delta

    PubMed Central

    Alao, P. A.; Olabode, S. O.; Opeloye, S. A.

    2013-01-01

    In the exploration and production business, by far the largest component of geophysical spending is driven by the need to characterize (potential) reservoirs. The simple reason is that better reservoir characterization means higher success rates and fewer wells for reservoir exploitation. In this research work, seismic and well log data were integrated in characterizing the reservoirs on “ALA” field in Niger Delta. Three-dimensional seismic data was used to identify the faults and map the horizons. Petrophysical parameters and time-depth structure maps were obtained. Seismic attributes was also employed in characterizing the reservoirs. Seven hydrocarbon-bearing reservoirs with thickness ranging from 9.9 to 71.6?m were delineated. Structural maps of horizons in six wells containing hydrocarbon-bearing zones with tops and bottoms at range of ?2,453 to ?3,950?m were generated; this portrayed the trapping mechanism to be mainly fault-assisted anticlinal closures. The identified prospective zones have good porosity, permeability, and hydrocarbon saturation. The environments of deposition were identified from log shapes which indicate a transitional-to-deltaic depositional environment. In this research work, new prospects have been recommended for drilling and further research work. Geochemical and biostratigraphic studies should be done to better characterize the reservoirs and reliably interpret the depositional environments. PMID:24068883

  13. Integration of seismic and petrophysics to characterize reservoirs in "ALA" oil field, Niger Delta.

    PubMed

    Alao, P A; Olabode, S O; Opeloye, S A

    2013-01-01

    In the exploration and production business, by far the largest component of geophysical spending is driven by the need to characterize (potential) reservoirs. The simple reason is that better reservoir characterization means higher success rates and fewer wells for reservoir exploitation. In this research work, seismic and well log data were integrated in characterizing the reservoirs on "ALA" field in Niger Delta. Three-dimensional seismic data was used to identify the faults and map the horizons. Petrophysical parameters and time-depth structure maps were obtained. Seismic attributes was also employed in characterizing the reservoirs. Seven hydrocarbon-bearing reservoirs with thickness ranging from 9.9 to 71.6?m were delineated. Structural maps of horizons in six wells containing hydrocarbon-bearing zones with tops and bottoms at range of -2,453 to -3,950?m were generated; this portrayed the trapping mechanism to be mainly fault-assisted anticlinal closures. The identified prospective zones have good porosity, permeability, and hydrocarbon saturation. The environments of deposition were identified from log shapes which indicate a transitional-to-deltaic depositional environment. In this research work, new prospects have been recommended for drilling and further research work. Geochemical and biostratigraphic studies should be done to better characterize the reservoirs and reliably interpret the depositional environments. PMID:24068883

  14. Public hearing or 'hearing public'? an evaluation of the participation of local stakeholders in environmental impact assessment of Ghana's Jubilee oil fields.

    PubMed

    Bawole, Justice Nyigmah

    2013-08-01

    This article investigates the involvement of local stakeholders in the environmental impact assessment (EIA) processes of Ghana's first off-shore oil fields (the Jubilee fields). Adopting key informants interviews and documentary reviews, the article argues that the public hearings and the other stakeholder engagement processes were cosmetic and rhetoric with the view to meeting legal requirements rather than a purposeful interest in eliciting inputs from local stakeholders. It further argues that the operators appear to lack the social legitimacy and social license that will make them acceptable in the project communities. A rigorous community engagement along with a commitment to actively involving local stakeholders in the corporate social responsibility (CSR) programmes of the partners may enhance the image of the partners and improve their social legitimacy. Local government agencies should be capacitated to actively engage project organisers; and government must mitigate the impact of the oil projects through well-structured social support programmes. PMID:23716010

  15. Fuel properties of cottonseed oil

    SciTech Connect

    Karaosmanoglu, F.; Tueter, M.; Goellue, E. [Istanbul Technical Univ. (Turkey). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Yanmaz, S.; Altintig, E. [Sakarya Univ. (Turkey). Dept. of Chemistry

    1999-11-01

    The use of vegetable oils as fuel alternatives has an exceptional importance in the field of research. In this study, evaluation possibilities of cottonseed oil have been investigated as an alternative candidate for diesel fuel and fuel oil. The fuel property tests were performed according to standard analysis methods for oil and fuel. An overall evaluation of the results indicates that cottonseed oil can be proposed as a possible green substitute for fuel.

  16. Field and laboratory studies on the effects of neem ( Azadirachta indica) oil on the feeding activity of the large pine weevil ( Hylobius abietis L.) and implications for pest control in commercial conifer plantations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. R. M. Thacker; W. J. Bryan; C. McGinley; S. Heritage; R. H. C. Strang

    2003-01-01

    Field and laboratory studies were carried out to assay the effects of neem oil on the feeding activity of the large pine weevil Hylobius abietis L., the most important pest in restocked commercial conifer plantations thoughout northern Europe. The neem oil formulation was supplied as the product Bugban®, a formulation that is derived from commercial plantation mahogany in India. This

  17. Compositional variability and air-sea flux of ethane and propane in the plume of a large, marine seep field near Coal Oil Point, CA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Susan Mau; Monica B. Heintz; Franklin S. Kinnaman; David L. Valentine

    2010-01-01

    Large quantities of methane (C1), ethane (C2), and propane (C3) emanate from shallow marine seeps near Coal Oil Point (COP),\\u000a California. Concentrations of these gases were analyzed in the surface water down-current of the seep field over a 15-month\\u000a period. The variable proportions of C1, C2, and C3 analyzed in gas bubbles emitted from 16 distinct seeps in the COP

  18. Compositional variability and air-sea flux of ethane and propane in the plume of a large, marine seep field near Coal Oil Point, CA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Susan Mau; Monica B. Heintz; Franklin S. Kinnaman; David L. Valentine

    2010-01-01

    Large quantities of methane (C1), ethane (C2), and propane (C3) emanate from shallow marine seeps near Coal Oil Point (COP), California. Concentrations of these gases were analyzed in the surface water down-current of the seep field over a 15-month period. The variable proportions of C1, C2, and C3 analyzed in gas bubbles emitted from 16 distinct seeps in the COP

  19. Aspects of reservoir geology and production behavior of Sirikit oil field, Thailand: an integrated study using well and 3-D seismic data

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Flint; D. J. Stewart; T. Hyde; E. C. A. Gevers; O. R. F. Dubrule; E. D. Van Riessen

    1988-01-01

    The Sirikit oil field lies in the Phitsanulok basin, one of a series of Tertiary rift-related structures in central and northern Thailand. The tectonic history of the area is complex: the original extensional half graben was deformed during deposition of the upper reservoir sequence by left-lateral strike-slip faulting. Careful interpretation of a three-dimensional seismic data set has resulted in the

  20. Paleosols in the Upper Guantao Formation (Miocene) of the Gudong oil field and their application to the correlation of fluvial deposits

    SciTech Connect

    Liangmiao Ye [Research Institute of Petroleum Exploration and Development, Beijing (China)

    1995-07-01

    The main pay zone of the Upper Guantao Formation of the Gudong oil field, North China basin, is a 300-m-thick fluvial sequence. Due to lack of bio- and lithostratigraphic markers, correlation of the main pay zone has been difficult, especially in the beginning of the oil-field development. However, paleosols are well developed in this fluvial sequence. Core investigation indicates that the paleosols can be identified by a set of characteristics including color of sediment, original plant roots, caliche nodules, sedimentary structures, distribution of facies, and mineral composition. Log responses of paleosols include lower gamma-ray activity and higher sonic {Delta}t value, relative to non-paleosol sediments. An analysis of the evolution of paleosols and controlling geological factors illustrates that paleosols present time-stratigraphic markers and can be used to solve correlation problems. A stratigraphic framework, in which the Upper Guantao Formation was divided into three paleosol sets and two nonpaleosol sets, was built using paleosols as correlation markers. The results prove that the paleosol method of correlation is viable and very helpful for geological study of similar oil fields in the early evaluation and development design phase.

  1. Increasing heavy oil reserves in the Wilmington oil field through advanced reservoir characterization and thermal production technologies. Quarterly technical progress report, March 30, 1995--June 30, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Clarke, D. [Long Beach City Dept. of Oil Properties, CA (United States); Ershaghi, I. [Southern California, CA (United States); Davies, D. [Davies (David K.) and Associates, Kingwood, TX (United States); Phillips, C.; Mondragon, J. [Tidelands Oil Production Company (United States)

    1995-07-28

    This is the first quarterly technical progress report for the project. Although the contract was awarded on March 30, 1995 and Pre-Award Approval was given on January 26, 1995, the partners of this project initiated work on October 1, 1994. As such, this progress report summarizes the work performed from project inception. The production and injection data, reservoir engineering data, and digitized and normalized log data were all completed sufficiently by the end of the quarter to start work on the basic reservoir engineering and geologic stochastic models. Basic reservoir engineering analysis began June 1 and will continue to March, 1996. Design work for the 5 observation/core holes, oil finger printing of the cored oil sands, and tracers surveys began in January, 1995. The wells will be drilled from July--August, 1995 and tracer injection work is projected to start in October, 1995. A preliminary deterministic 3-D geologic model was completed in June which is sufficient to start work on the stochastic 3-D geologic model. The four proposed horizontal wells (two injectors and two producers) have been designed, equipment has been ordered, and the wells will be drilled from mid-August through September. Four existing steam injection wells were converted to hot water injection in March, 1995. Initial rates were kept low to minimize operational problems. Injection rates will be increased significantly in July.

  2. The microbiological activity and toxicity of oil-polluted playa solonchaks and filled grounds within the Severnye Buzachi Oil Field (Kazakhstan)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tynybaeva, T. G.; Kostina, N. V.; Terekhov, A. M.; Kurakov, A. V.

    2008-10-01

    The number of colony-forming units of microorganisms, the viable biomass, and also the intensity of the microbiological processes (respiration, nitrogen fixation, denitrification, and cellulose decomposition) in playa solonchaks and sandy-loamy filled grounds in the territory of the Severnye Buzachi Oilfields (Kazakhstan) were much lower than in other soil types attesting to the limited capability of these substrates for selfpurification. Upon pollution by oil at concentrations of 100 600 mg/kg, the number of copiotrophic bacteria increased, whereas the actinomycetal and fungal populations were reduced and the biomass pool, the rates of CO2 emission, the potential nitrogen fixation, and denitrification became higher. The microbial communities of the playa solonchaks were weakly active and consumed few applied substrates. The biotesting with Artemia salina L. showed that some areas belonged to the lands of the 4th danger class, although the majority of the soil and substrate samples were not toxic. The germination of Lepidium sativum L. seeds was suppressed because of the salt toxicity, which is not related to the oil concentration (30 to 600 mg/kg).

  3. Combination of pulsed electric fields, mild heat and essential oils as an alternative to the ultrapasteurization of liquid whole egg.

    PubMed

    Espina, Laura; Monfort, Silvia; Alvarez, Ignacio; García-Gonzalo, Diego; Pagán, Rafael

    2014-10-17

    The production of microbiologically safe liquid whole egg (LWE) by industrial ultrapasteurization is restricted by the high thermal sensitivity of LWE components. This research proposes an alternative treatment based on the application of pulsed electric fields (PEF) and mild heat, in the presence of natural essential oils (EOs) or their individual components (ICs). The obtained results indicate that the successive application of PEF (25kV/ and 100kJ/kg) followed by heat (60°C during 3.5') to LWE added with 200?L/L of lemon EO would reach 4log10cycles of inactivation of Salmonella Senftenberg 775W and Listeria monocytogenes, when any of these barriers acting alone inactivated less than 1.5log10cycles of either bacteria. Therefore, the synergism between lemon EO and the successive application of PEF and heat would provide a safety level similar to that of ultrapasteurization treatment for Salmonella Senftenberg 775W and L. monocytogenes, but at a lower temperature. To a lesser extent, synergism with the successive application of PEF and heat was also observed in the presence of 200?L/L of carvacrol, citral, (+)-limonene, or mandarin EO, reaching about 3.5log10cycles of inactivation in Salmonella Senftenberg and 3.0log10cycles in L. monocytogenes, respectively. A sensory test on LWE containing 200?L/L of each additive in the form of omelets and sponge cakes revealed that this concentration of mandarin EO, lemon EO, or (+)-limonene did not decrease the sensory acceptability of the LWE-containing products, and lemon EO and mandarin EO even increased the hedonic acceptability of sponge cakes. In conclusion, this process could be applied in the food industry to obtain microbiologically safe LWE, which could be used to produce egg-based products without decreasing (and even increasing) their sensory appeal. PMID:25146463

  4. EFFECTIVENESS AND SAFETY OF STRATEGIES FOR OIL SPILL BIOREMEDIATION: POTENTIAL AND LIMITATION, LABORATORY TO FIELD (RESEARCH BRIEF)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Several important additional research efforts were identified during the development of test systems and protocols for assessing the effectiveness and environmental safety of oil spill commercial bioremediation agents (CBAs). Research that examined CBA efficacy issues included: (...

  5. Area balance and strain in an extensional fault system: Strategies for improved oil recovery in fractured chalk, Gilbertown Field, southwestern Alabama -- Year 2. Annual report, March 1997--March 1998

    SciTech Connect

    Pashin, J.C.; Raymond, D.E.; Rindsberg, A.K.; Alabi, G.G.; Carroll, R.E.

    1998-09-01

    Gilbertown Field is the oldest oil field in Alabama and has produced oil from fractured chalk of the Cretaceous Selma Group and glauconitic sandstone of the Eutaw Formation. Nearly all of Gilbertown Field is still in primary recovery, although waterflooding has been attempted locally. The objective of this project is to analyze the geologic structure and burial history of Mesozoic and Tertiary strata in Gilbertown Field and adjacent areas in order to suggest ways in which oil recovery can be improved. Indeed, the decline of oil production to marginally economic levels in recent years has made this type of analysis timely and practical. Key technical advancements being sought include understanding the relationship of requisite strain to production in Gilbertown reservoirs, incorporation of synsedimentary growth factors into models of area balance, quantification of the relationship between requisite strain and bed curvature, determination of the timing of hydrocarbon generation, and identification of the avenues and mechanisms of fluid transport.

  6. Oil Oil Everywhere

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Lisa Cartwright

    2010-01-01

    This lesson plan makes real world connections as students explore the ability to estimate the surface area of an oil spill. The lesson provides surface area information about the 2010 oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico, and gives students opportunities to estimate small oil spills of their own making. This lesson includes two students activity sheets, one fractional amount overhead sheet, assessment and extension suggestions, and questions for reflection.

  7. Mass spectral analysis of organic aerosol formed downwind of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill: field studies and laboratory confirmations.

    PubMed

    Bahreini, R; Middlebrook, A M; Brock, C A; de Gouw, J A; McKeen, S A; Williams, L R; Daumit, K E; Lambe, A T; Massoli, P; Canagaratna, M R; Ahmadov, R; Carrasquillo, A J; Cross, E S; Ervens, B; Holloway, J S; Hunter, J F; Onasch, T B; Pollack, I B; Roberts, J M; Ryerson, T B; Warneke, C; Davidovits, P; Worsnop, D R; Kroll, J H

    2012-08-01

    In June 2010, the NOAA WP-3D aircraft conducted two survey flights around the Deepwater Horizon (DWH) oil spill. The Gulf oil spill resulted in an isolated source of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) precursors in a relatively clean environment. Measurements of aerosol composition and volatile organic species (VOCs) indicated formation of SOA from intermediate-volatility organic compounds (IVOCs) downwind of the oil spill (Science2011, 331, doi 10.1126/science.1200320). In an effort to better understand formation of SOA in this environment, we present mass spectral characteristics of SOA in the Gulf and of SOA formed in the laboratory from evaporated light crude oil. Compared to urban primary organic aerosol, high-mass-resolution analysis of the background-subtracted SOA spectra in the Gulf (for short, "Gulf SOA") showed higher contribution of C(x)H(y)O(+) relative to C(x)H(y)(+) fragments at the same nominal mass. In each transect downwind of the DWH spill site, a gradient in the degree of oxidation of the Gulf SOA was observed: more oxidized SOA (oxygen/carbon = O/C ?0.4) was observed in the area impacted by fresher oil; less oxidized SOA (O/C ?0.3), with contribution from fragments with a hydrocarbon backbone, was found in a broader region of more-aged surface oil. Furthermore, in the plumes originating from the more-aged oil, contribution of oxygenated fragments to SOA decreased with downwind distance. Despite differences between experimental conditions in the laboratory and the ambient environment, mass spectra of SOA formed from gas-phase oxidation of crude oil by OH radicals in a smog chamber and a flow tube reactor strongly resembled the mass spectra of Gulf SOA (r(2) > 0.94). Processes that led to the observed Gulf SOA characteristics are also likely to occur in polluted regions where VOCs and IVOCs are coemitted. PMID:22788666

  8. Reactivation of an Idle Lease to Increase Heavy Oil Recovery Through Application of Conventional Steam Drive Technology in a Low Dip Slope and Basin Reservoir in the Midway-Sunset Field, San Jaoquin Basin, California

    SciTech Connect

    Steven Schamel

    1998-08-31

    A previously idle portion of the Midway-Sunset field, the ARCO Western Energy Pru Fee property, is being brought back into commercial production through tight integration of geologic characterization, geostatistical modeling, reservoir simulation, and petroleum engineering. This property, shut-in over a decade ago as economically marginal using conventional cyclic steaming methods, has a 200-300 foot thick oil column in the Monarch Sand. However, the sand lacks effective steam barriers and has a thick water-saturation zone above the oil-water contact. These factors require an innovative approach to steam flood production design that will balance optimal total oil production against economically viable steam-oil ratios and production rates. The methods used in the Class III demonstration are accessible to most operators in the Midway-Sunset field and could be used to revitalize properties with declining production of heavy oils throughout the region.

  9. Reactivation of an Idle Lease to Increase Heavy Oil Recovery Through Application of Conventional Steam Drive Technology in a Low Dip Slope and Basin Reservoir in the Midway-Sunset Field, San Jaoquin Basin, California

    SciTech Connect

    Steven Schamel

    1998-03-20

    A previously idle portion of the Midway-Sunset field, the ARCO Western Energy Pru Fee property, is being brought back into commercial production through tight integration of geologic characterization, geostatistical modeling, reservoir simulation, and petroleum engineering. This property, shut-in over a decade ago as economically marginal using conventional cyclic steaming methods, has a 200-300 foot thick oil column in the Monarch Sand. However, the sand lacks effective steam barriers and has a thick water-saturation zone above the oil-water contact. These factors require an innovative approach to steam flood production design that will balance optimal total oil production against economically viable steam-oil ratios and production rates. The methods used in the Class III demonstration are accessible to most operators in the Midway-Sunset field and could be used to revitalize properties with declining production of heavy oils throughout the region.

  10. Ventura Avenue oil field

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hacker

    1970-01-01

    The Ventura Anticline, the most prominent onshore structure in Ventura County, trends east-west for a distance of more than 15 miles from the coast at San Miguelito to Wheeler Canyon. The vertical closure between the bounding synclines exceeds 7,500 ft. It has been estimated that the depth of the sedimentary basin at this structure is more than 50,000 ft, probably

  11. Effect of nitrate and nitrite on sulfide production by two thermophilic, sulfate-reducing enrichments from an oil field in the North Sea.

    PubMed

    Kaster, Krista M; Grigoriyan, Alexander; Jenneman, Gary; Jennneman, Gary; Voordouw, Gerrit

    2007-05-01

    Thermophilic sulfate-reducing bacteria (tSRB) can be major contributors to the production of H(2)S (souring) in oil reservoirs. Two tSRB enrichments from a North Sea oil field, NS-tSRB1 and NS-tSRB2, were obtained at 58 degrees C with acetate-propionate-butyrate and with lactate as the electron donor, respectively. Analysis by rDNA sequencing indicated the presence of Thermodesulforhabdus norvegicus in NS-tSRB1 and of Archaeoglobus fulgidus in NS-tSRB2. Nitrate (10 mM) had no effect on H(2)S production by mid-log phase cultures of NS-tSRB1 and NS-tSRB2, whereas nitrite (0.25 mM or higher) inhibited sulfate reduction. NS-tSRB1 did not recover from inhibition, whereas sulfate reduction activity of NS-tSRB2 recovered after 500 h. Nitrite was also effective in souring inhibition and H(2)S removal in upflow bioreactors, whereas nitrate was similarly ineffective. Hence, nitrite may be preferable for souring prevention in some high-temperature oil fields because it reacts directly with sulfide and provides long-lasting inhibition of sulfate reduction. PMID:17245576

  12. Field Laboratory in the Osage Reservation -- Determination of the Status of Oil and Gas Operations: Task 1. Development of Survey Procedures and Protocols

    SciTech Connect

    Carroll, Herbert B.; Johnson, William I.

    1999-04-27

    Procedures and protocols were developed for the determination of the status of oil, gas, and other mineral operations on the Osage Mineral Reservation Estate. The strategy for surveying Osage County, Oklahoma, was developed and then tested in the field. Two Osage Tribal Council members and two Native American college students (who are members of the Osage Tribe) were trained in the field as a test of the procedures and protocols developed in Task 1. Active and inactive surface mining operations, industrial sites, and hydrocarbon-producing fields were located on maps of the county, which was divided into four more or less equal areas for future investigation. Field testing of the procedures, protocols, and training was successful. No significant damage was found at petroleum production operations in a relatively new production operation and in a mature waterflood operation.

  13. A field and laboratory assessment of oil spill effects on survival and reproduction of Pacific herring following the Exxon Valdez spill

    SciTech Connect

    Pearson, W.H. [Battelle/Marine Sciences Lab., Sequim, WA (United States); Moksness, E. [Inst. of Marine Research, His (Norway). Flodevigen Marine Research; Skalski, J.R. [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Field and laboratory investigations in 1989 and 1990 were designed to assess potential injury to Prince William Sound herring by testing for differences between oiled regions and unoiled reference areas and by relating biological response variables to the concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in eggs-on-kelp samples. Hydrocarbon analyses and laboratory incubation were conducted on eggs-on-kelp samples from Prince William Sound and Sitka Sound. The eggs and hatching larvae were examined to evaluate several response variables: egg development, hatch, larval survival, abnormal development of larvae, larval length, and larval yolk-sac volume. Analysis of 1989 shoreline surveys indicate that about 96% of the total spawn length (158 km) in Prince William Sound occurred along shorelines with no oiling, and less than 1% of the 1989 total spawn length occurred along shorelines with moderate to heavy oiling. Analysis of shoreline oiling in both 1989 and 1990 from all surveys indicates that about 90 to 91% of the total 1989 spawn length occurred along unoiled shorelines. Effects on herring eggs were minor in 1989 even in oiled areas. No significant relationship was found between 1989 PAH burdens in eggs-on-kelp samples and 9 out of 10 biological response variables. In 1989, significantly lower proportions of developed eggs were observed for Cabin Bay samples visibly contaminated with tarry deposits. The location where these effects were seen represented less than 2% of total 1989 spawn length. No effects of the spill on herring were evident in 1990. No significant relationship was found between 1990 PAH burdens and the seven biological response variables studied. 33 refs., 11 figs., 5 tabs.

  14. Kuwait Oil Fires, Kuwait

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The number of oil well fires from the Kuwait Oil Fields (29.5N, 48.0E) set afire by the retreating Iraqi Army during the 1991 Persian Gulf War, has been measurably diminished since the last observation although the smoke plumes were still intact as far south as Qatar. Most of the remaining approximately 300 oil fires are in the two largest fields: Sibirayah, north of Kuwait Bay and the larger Magwas-Burgan-Al Ahmadi field south of Kuwait City.

  15. Heliophrya sp. , a new protozoan biomonitor of pollution: culture techniques, toxin uptake and elimination, and field studies in an oil-polluted stream

    SciTech Connect

    Sayre, P.G.

    1984-01-01

    The stalkless suctorian Heliophyra sp., a sessile ciliated protozoan, was used as a pollution biomonitor. The research objectives were to determine: (1) optimal culture conditions and techniques for biotoxicity testing; (2) ability of Helipophrya to incorporate and eliminate a /sup 14/C oil component and other organic toxins; (3) suitability of Heliophrya as a biomonitor of oil pollution. Selection of culture conditions for Heliophrya were based on survival over a three week period and ability to divide when fed after three weeks. The LC50 (lethal concentration for 50% of the population) for 96 h was 12.4 ppt salinity. Heliophrya were exposed to /sup 14/C toxins for 48 h, then organisms were transferred to nonradioactive water for 96 h. The uptake rate of /sup 14/C octachlorostyrene was higher than /sup 14/C phenanthrene or /sup 14/C diisononyl phthalate. Elimination rates were comparable to other test organisms. Heliophrya and d. pulex were placed at three stations, in a stream which received chronic oil pollution, for periods of 48 h and seven days. A 48 h lab test with dilutions of field water was performed. Water samples were analyzed by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. Death of Heliophrya at the three polluted stations over 48 h was not significantly greater than at a less polluted tributary; however, all the Daphnia in the polluted stream stations were killed. In the seven day field study, Heliophrya had an estimated LC50 of 1 ppm for the aromatic and 29 ppm for the total hydrocarbons. Compared to other species, Heliophrya is moderately sensitive to oil pollution, and is a good companion biomonitor to the more sensitive Daphnia.

  16. Model of fluvial deposition for control of oil migration and entrapment in upper Eocene to Oligocene Sespe Formation, West Montalvo field, Ventura County, California

    SciTech Connect

    Sadler, R.K.

    1988-03-01

    The Sespe Formation consists of continental red beds deposited during the tectonism that resulted as the Pacific-Farallon spreading ridge approached the North American plate. The Sespe at West Montalvo field is over 7000 ft thick and consists predominantly of fine to medium-grained sandstones interbedded with siltstone and mudstone deposited in the central part of the Oligocene basin. Oil production was established in 1951 from the upper 2000 ft, known as the Colonia zone. The Colonia zone has been subdivided into six sandstone packages 350-600 ft thick, based on a model of laterally migrating fluvial systems that created local intraformational unconformities. These systems had unique depositional characteristics that can be inferred from well-log analysis and related to facies described in outcrops surrounding the Ventura basin. These characteristics include sandstone to shale ratios, relative bed thicknesses, lateral continuity of sandstone and shale interbeds, and whether the sandstone beds exhibit normal or reverse grading, or have sharp bases and tops. The fluvial environments include small braided distributary streams, larger trunk streams, and broad shallow braided streams. All of the sandstone packages contain oil-bearing beds, but the package in which the sediments were apparently deposited in a system of broad, shallow braided streams is the most oil-prone. These sandstones are relatively thin, have sharp bases and tops, and are laterally continuous across parts of the field. The rapid sedimentation and the cut-and-fill processes of braided streams may have created interconnecting fluid pathways that allowed the migration and updip accumulation of oil.

  17. High field electron paramagnetic resonance characterization of electronic and structural environments for paramagnetic metal ions and organic free radicals in Deepwater Horizon oil spill tar balls.

    PubMed

    Ramachandran, Vasanth; van Tol, Johan; McKenna, Amy M; Rodgers, Ryan P; Marshall, Alan G; Dalal, Naresh S

    2015-02-17

    In the first use of high-field electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy to characterize paramagnetic metal-organic and free radical species from tar balls and weathered crude oil samples from the Gulf of Mexico (collected after the Deepwater Horizon oil spill) and an asphalt volcano sample collected off the coast of Santa Barbara, CA, we are able to identify for the first time the various paramagnetic species present in the native state of these samples and understand their molecular structures and bonding. The two tar ball and one asphalt volcano samples contain three distinct paramagnetic species: (i) an organic free radical, (ii) a [VO](2+) containing porphyrin, and (iii) a Mn(2+) containing complex. The organic free radical was found to have a disc-shaped or flat structure, based on its axially symmetric spectrum. The characteristic spectral features of the vanadyl species closely resemble those of pure vanadyl porphyrin; hence, its nuclear framework around the vanadyl ion must be similar to that of vanadyl octaethyl porphyrin (VOOEP). The Mn(2+) ion, essentially undetected by low-field EPR, yields a high-field EPR spectrum with well-resolved hyperfine features devoid of zero-field splitting, characteristic of tetrahedral or octahedral Mn-O bonding. Although the lower-field EPR signals from the organic free radicals in fossil fuel samples have been investigated over the last 5 decades, the observed signal was featureless. In contrast, high-field EPR (up to 240 GHz) reveals that the species is a disc-shaped hydrocarbon molecule in which the unpaired electron is extensively delocalized. We envisage that the measured g-value components will serve as a sensitive basis for electronic structure calculations. High-field electron nuclear double resonance experiments should provide an accurate picture of the spin density distribution for both the vanadyl-porphyrin and Mn(2+) complexes, as well as the organic free radical, and will be the focus of follow-up studies. PMID:25647548

  18. Effects of oil pollution at Kuwait's greater Al-Burgan oil field on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon concentrations in the tissues of the desert lizard Acanthodactylus scutellatus and their ant prey.

    PubMed

    Al-Hashem, Mona A; Brain, Paul F; Omar, Samira A

    2007-11-01

    Using indicator species to monitor the effects of oil pollution was thought to be useful to assess whether local desert reptiles and their insect prey could fulfill such a role in an area damaged in the second Gulf War (1990). Polluted sites with apparently different degrees of contamination (namely tar mat, soot, and clear sites) located at Kuwait's Greater Al-Burgan oil field were compared with control areas outside this region in study conducted in 2002. Five Acanthodactylus scutellatus lizards from each study and control site were humanely killed and stored in a freezer at -20 degrees C until analysis. Ants from the same sites were also collected and treated in a similar manner. Lizard and ant whole body tissues were subjected to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) to determine concentrations of petroleum hydrocarbons (HCs). The study concentrated on sixteen polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), EPA priority pollutants used as indicators of petrogenic HC contamination. There were significantly different concentrations of total PAHs in lizards and ants among all four study sites. Of the 16 PAHs, phenanthrene, fluoranthene, and benzo[a]anthracene were present in both lizard and ant samples from the Greater Al-Burgan oil field sites irrespective of the apparent degree of pollution but were undetectable in materials from the control sites. The range of total PAHs in lizards was 26.5-301 ng g(-1) and it was 6.7-82.1 ng g(-1) in ants. Concentrations increased progressively along an expected contamination gradient. Total PAHs were detected in biota even in an area (clear site) that did not appear, virtually, to contain petroleum soil pollution which supports the value of indicator biota species. For all three sites where PAHs were found in biota, the ratio of total PAHs in ants to lizards was consistently 3.3-3.4. These data show that, although 12 years have passed since the Kuwait oil spill catastrophe, all sites are still contaminated with PAHs. Use of lizard and ant materials in monitoring such desert locations seems to be an effective strategy. PMID:17879161

  19. MICROBIAL POPULATION CHANGES DURING BIOREMEDIATION OF AN EXPERIMENTAL OIL SPILL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Three crude oil bioremediation techniques were applied in a randomized block field experiment simulating a coastal oil-spill. Four treatments (no oil control, oil alone, oil + nutrients, and oil + nutrients + an indigenous inoculum) were applied. In-situ microbial community str...

  20. IMPROVED OIL RECOVERY FROM UPPER JURASSIC SMACKOVER CARBONATES THROUGH THE APPLICATION OF ADVANCED TECHNOLOGIES AT WOMACK HILL OIL FIELD, CHOCTAW AND CLARKE COUNTIES, ALABAMA, EASTERN GULF COASTAL PLAIN

    SciTech Connect

    Ernest A. Mancini

    2004-12-13

    The principal research effort for Year 1 of the project is drilling an infill well in the Womack Hill Field, Choctaw and Clarke Counties, Alabama. The objectives of the project are to drill and core an infill well in Womack Hill Field; to utilize samples from the core to evaluate further the feasibility of implementing an immobilized enzyme technology project in the field; and to use the new information resulting from the drilling of the well to revise and modify the 3-D geologic model, to further modify the injection strategy for the existing pressure maintenance program, and to assess whether a second infill well should be drilled using lateral/multilateral well completions.

  1. IMPROVED OIL RECOVERY FROM UPPER JURASSIC SMACKOVER CARBONATES THROUGH THE APPLICATION OF ADVANCED TECHNOLOGIES AT WOMACK HILL OIL FIELD, CHOCTAW AND CLARKE COUNTIES, ALABAMA, EASTERN GULF COASTAL PLAIN

    SciTech Connect

    Ernest A. Mancini

    2004-12-06

    The principal research effort for Year 1 of the project is drilling an infill well in the Womack Hill Field, Choctaw and Clarke Counties, Alabama. The objectives of the project are to drill and core an infill well in Womack Hill Field; to utilize samples from the core to evaluate further the feasibility of implementing an immobilized enzyme technology project in the field; and to use the new information resulting from the drilling of the well to revise and modify the 3-D geologic model, to further modify the injection strategy for the existing pressure maintenance program, and to assess whether a second infill well should be drilled using lateral/multilateral well completions.

  2. Molecular- and cultivation-based analyses of microbial communities in oil field water and in microcosms amended with nitrate to control H2S production.

    PubMed

    Kumaraswamy, Raji; Ebert, Sara; Gray, Murray R; Fedorak, Phillip M; Foght, Julia M

    2011-03-01

    Nitrate injection into oil fields is an alternative to biocide addition for controlling sulfide production ('souring') caused by sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB). This study examined the suitability of several cultivation-dependent and cultivation-independent methods to assess potential microbial activities (sulfidogenesis and nitrate reduction) and the impact of nitrate amendment on oil field microbiota. Microcosms containing produced waters from two Western Canadian oil fields exhibited sulfidogenesis that was inhibited by nitrate amendment. Most probable number (MPN) and fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) analyses of uncultivated produced waters showed low cell numbers (?10(3) MPN/ml) dominated by SRB (>95% relative abundance). MPN analysis also detected nitrate-reducing sulfide-oxidizing bacteria (NRSOB) and heterotrophic nitrate-reducing bacteria (HNRB) at numbers too low to be detected by FISH or denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). In microcosms containing produced water fortified with sulfate, near-stoichiometric concentrations of sulfide were produced. FISH analyses of the microcosms after 55 days of incubation revealed that Gammaproteobacteria increased from undetectable levels to 5-20% abundance, resulting in a decreased proportion of Deltaproteobacteria (50-60% abundance). DGGE analysis confirmed the presence of Delta- and Gammaproteobacteria and also detected Bacteroidetes. When sulfate-fortified produced waters were amended with nitrate, sulfidogenesis was inhibited and Deltaproteobacteria decreased to levels undetectable by FISH, with a concomitant increase in Gammaproteobacteria from below detection to 50-60% abundance. DGGE analysis of these microcosms yielded sequences of Gamma- and Epsilonproteobacteria related to presumptive HNRB and NRSOB (Halomonas, Marinobacterium, Marinobacter, Pseudomonas and Arcobacter), thus supporting chemical data indicating that nitrate-reducing bacteria out-compete SRB when nitrate is added. PMID:21057944

  3. Modeling of stationary air pollution sources in the central and western Kern County oil fields. Task report. volume i: text

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. B. Simmon; F. L. Ludwig; K. C. Nitz

    1979-01-01

    The use of steam injection to recover high viscosity oil in Kern County, California has created the potential for violation of federal and state ambient air quality standards in that area. The increasing number of permit applications for development of new steam generation facilities has prompted the Environmental Protection Agency to commission a study to determine the sulfur dioxide levels

  4. Monitoring of Ground Deformation in the Haoud Berkaoui Oil Field (Sahara, Algeria) Using Time Series Analysis of SAR Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meghraoui, M.; Bouraoui, S.; Bougdal, R.; Cakir, Z.

    2012-12-01

    We investigate the surface displacement in the Haoud Berkaoui (Algerian Sahara) area, a locus of an oil well accident since 1978, using an advanced MT-InSAR analysis. The Haoud Berkaoui area also includes numerous wells that served for oil extraction starting from 1970s. Among all wells, OKN32 and OKN32bis collapsed due to dissolution of evaporitic rocks inducing rapid ground subsidence and eventually a spectacular 320-m-diameter crater and ~80-m-depth as per today. We apply the small baseline (SB) and the PS-InSAR (Persistent Scatterer) methods to retrieve deformation maps and displacement time series from ESA - SAR images (ERS1 and ERS2) acquired between 1992 and 2002. Our analysis delimits the subsidence area and shows an average 1.5 mm/year subsidence located around the OKN32 (oil well) and in the direction of Ouargla city. We also evaluate the possible propagation and the direction of subsidence by studying the spatial temporal variation of subsidence together with the distribution of the other oil wells in the same area. An elastic model with volume decrease is calculated to correlate the surface subsidence with the dissolution-collapse at depth. The study of this incident helps in the understanding of the subsidence process and the mitigation of further underground collapse that may affect neighboring urban areas.

  5. LABORATORY AND FIELD EVALUATION OF CRYSTALLIZED DOW 704 OIL ON THE PERFORMANCE OF THE WINS PM2.5 FRACTIONATOR

    EPA Science Inventory

    Subsequent to the 1997 promulgation of the Federal Reference Method (FRM) for monitoring PM2.5 in ambient air, the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) received reports that the Dow 704 diffusion oil used in the method's WINS fractionator would occasionally cry...

  6. Study and Application on Removal of Silica by Chemical Coagulation Process from the Oil field Produced Water Reused in Boiler

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wang Zhihua; Wang Jinxiu; Dong Nan

    2010-01-01

    The technology of steam injection on the development of heavy oil and low permeability reservoirs has been successfully applied in the worldwide, and one of the key process is the amount of steam injected. The fresh water can be supplied for steam boiler in ground facilities, but it will cause the shortage of fresh water resources. So produced water reuse

  7. Dissolved methane distributions and air-sea flux in the plume of a massive seep field, Coal Oil Point, California

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Susan Mau; David L. Valentine; Jordan F. Clark; Justin Reed; Richard Camilli; Libe Washburn

    2007-01-01

    Large quantities of natural gas are emitted from the seafloor into the stratified coastal ocean near Coal Oil Point, Santa Barbara Channel, California. Methane was quantified in the down current surface water at 79 stations in a 280 km2 study area. The methane plume spread over an area of ?70 km2 and emitted on the order of 5 × 104

  8. Dissolved methane distributions and air-sea flux in the plume of a massive seep field, Coal Oil Point, California

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Susan Mau; David L. Valentine; Jordan F. Clark; Justin Reed; Richard Camilli; Libe Washburn

    2007-01-01

    Large quantities of natural gas are emitted from the seafloor into the stratified coastal ocean near Coal Oil Point, Santa Barbara Channel, California. Methane was quantified in the down current surface water at 79 stations in a 280 km2 study area. The methane plume spread over an area of ~70 km2 and emitted on the order of 5 × 104

  9. COMBUSTION MODIFICATION CONTROLS FOR RESIDENTIAL AND COMMERCIAL HEATING SYSTEMS. VOLUME II: OIL-FIRED RESIDENTIAL FURNACE FIELD TEST

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives methods and results of an environmental assessment test program at an oil-fired, low-emission residential heating unit. The aim of the program was to measure emission changes resulting from changing the operating mode of the low-emission furnace. Emissions of tra...

  10. DESIGN AND FIELD DEMONSTRATION OF A LOW-NOX BURNER FOR TEOR (THERMALLY ENHANCED OIL RECOVERY) STEAMERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses a program that addresses the need for advanced NOx control technology for thermally enhanced oil recovery (TEOR) steam generators. A full-scale (60 million Btu/hr) burner system has been developed and tested, the concept for which was based on fundamental stud...

  11. Coupled Flow and Geomechanical Modeling of Fluid Production and Injection in the Cavone Oil Field, Northern Italy: an Assessment of the Potential for Induced Seismicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jha, B.; Plesch, A.; Shaw, J. H.; Hager, B. H.; Juanes, R.

    2014-12-01

    There has been a recent increase in the number of earthquakes reported in proximity of active oil and gas fields. In particular, the occurrence of a sequence of damaging earthquakes in May 2012 near the Cavone oil field, in Northern Italy, raised the question of whether these earthquakes might have been triggered, or, if not, if future activities might trigger other damaging events. Production and injection of fluids in the underground reservoirs are known to be capable of triggering seismicity by inducing slip on seismogenic faults. However, the effects of injection and production on fault stability in real fields are not always intuitively obvious, and require the development of new-generation coupled flow-geomechanical models that capture the effect of multiphase poromechanics on faults. We study, by way of numerical modeling and simulation, the potential for induced seismicity at the Cavone field. Using a coupled flow and geomechanics model of the field that honors reservoir geology and historical well schedule, we simulate oil production and water injection in the field for a period of three decades leading up to the earthquake sequence. We calculate the change in Coulomb stress on the bounding Mirandola fault, which sourced the May 29, 2012 M 5.8 earthquake. This quantity varies in space and evolves in time with changing pore pressure and total stress in the reservoir. A novel and important aspect of our work is the identification of a potential instability mechanism for a bounding fault at the edge of a reservoir experiencing pressure depletion. The discontinuity in pore pressure across the fault means that there is a discontinuity in effective normal stress and that, therefore, the Coulomb failure criterion must be evaluated locally on both sides of the fault. We track the evolution of the Coulomb stress at the earthquake hypocenter and compare it with the regional tectonic stressing rate to conclude in favor of tectonic origin of the earthquake. In addition, analysis of the locations of aftershocks of the May 2012 sequence shows a lack of seismicity in the area where the stressing rates from contraction of the reservoir are largest. This observed lack of seismic activity within 1-2 km from the reservoir suggests that fluid production and injection from the Cavone field was not an important driver for the observed seismicity.

  12. Formation of oil and gas fields based on carbon-isotope data for methane (as in the Kuybyshev and Orenburg areas)

    SciTech Connect

    Gavrilov, Y.Y.; Teplinskiy, G.I.

    1981-01-01

    The carbon-isotope composition of methane from certain Devonian and Carboniferous oil fields, and gas pools in the Permian from the Kuybyshev and Orenburg regions were studied. It was concluded that the comparatively wide fluctuations in delta C-13 in the gases of the Carboniferous and Devonian deposits reflect a genetic heterogeneity and could scarcely maintain such an intermixing of isotope composition if the deposits had been formed in a homogenized flow of gas which migrated laterally for many hundreds of kilometers. (JMT)

  13. Environmental impact studies of barium and radium discharges by produced waters from the “Bacia de Campos” oil-field offshore platforms, Brazil

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. F Jerez Vegueria; J. M Godoy; N Miekeley

    2002-01-01

    Produced water samples from different E&P offshore petroleum platforms, belonging to the Bacia de Campos oil field, Brazil, were analyzed for barium, 226Ra and 1Ra. The concentrations measured are in the range of 0.36–25.7mgl?1 for barium, 0.012–6.0Bql?1 for 226Ra and <0.05–12.0Bql?1 for 1Ra. A strong correlation between the concentration of barium and radium isotopes was observed (226Ra: r2=0.926; 228Ra: r2=0.785).

  14. Environmental effects of offshore oil production

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Middleditch

    1981-01-01

    The Buccaneer Gas and Oil Field Study is the most comprehensive interdisciplinary ecological study to date of an offshore oil field operating under normal conditions. Involving nearly 30 individual research groups, the study focused on the effects of the oil field structures and on low-level chronic exposure of organisms to various discharges from the production platforms. Chapters cover a wide

  15. Increasing heavy oil reserves in the Wilmington oil field through advanced reservoir characterization and thermal production technologies. Quarterly progress report, July 1, 1995--September 30, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Hara, S.

    1995-12-04

    This project involves improving thermal recovery techniques in a slope and basin clastic (SBC) reservoir in the Wilmington field, Los Angeles, California. Advanced technologies to be employed include the development of 3-D geologic models, 3-D thermal reservoir well stimulation models, computerized 3-D visualizations of the geologic and reservoir simulation models, a detailed study of the geochemistry and rock-fluid interactions and studies of steam completion techniques.

  16. Kinetic study of aggregation of milk protein and/or surfactant-stabilized oil-in-water emulsions by sedimentation field-flow fractionation.

    PubMed

    Kenta, Stella; Raikos, Vassilios; Vagena, Artemis; Sevastos, Dimitrios; Kapolos, John; Koliadima, Athanasia; Karaiskakis, George

    2013-08-30

    Milk proteins are able to facilitate the formation and stabilization of oil droplets in food emulsions. This study employed Sedimentation Field-Flow Fractionation (SdFFF) to monitor changes in particle size distribution of freshly prepared emulsions with varying weight contributions of sodium caseinate (SC) and whey protein concentrate (WPC). The effect of the addition of Tween 80 (T) on the initial droplet size was also investigated. The results indicated that emulsifying ability follows the order Tween 80>WPC>SC, with corresponding weight average droplet diameter of 0.319, 0.487 and 0.531?m respectively, when each of the above emulsifiers was used solely. The stability of sodium caseinate emulsions was studied at 30.5 and 80.0°C by measuring the particle size distribution for a period of 70h. Emulsions withstood the temperatures and exhibited an initial increase in particle size distribution caused by heat-induced droplet aggregation, followed by a decrease to approximately the initial droplet size. The rate of droplet aggregation depends on the severity of thermal processing, as revealed by the kinetics of particle aggregation during aging at different temperatures. Comparison of the experimental rate constants found from SdFFF, with those determined theoretically gives invaluable information about the oil droplet stability and the aggregation mechanism. Based on the proposed mechanistic scheme various physicochemical quantities, which are very important in explaining the stability of oil-in-water emulsions, were determined. Finally, the advantages of SdFFF in studying the aggregation of the oil-in-water droplets, in comparison with other methods used for the same purpose, are discussed. PMID:23899382

  17. Non-destructive Analysis of Oil-Contaminated Soil Core Samples by X-ray Computed Tomography and Low-Field Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Relaxometry: a Case Study

    PubMed Central

    Mitsuhata, Yuji; Nishiwaki, Junko; Kawabe, Yoshishige; Utsuzawa, Shin; Jinguuji, Motoharu

    2010-01-01

    Non-destructive measurements of contaminated soil core samples are desirable prior to destructive measurements because they allow obtaining gross information from the core samples without touching harmful chemical species. Medical X-ray computed tomography (CT) and time-domain low-field nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) relaxometry were applied to non-destructive measurements of sandy soil core samples from a real site contaminated with heavy oil. The medical CT visualized the spatial distribution of the bulk density averaged over the voxel of 0.31?×?0.31?×?2 mm3. The obtained CT images clearly showed an increase in the bulk density with increasing depth. Coupled analysis with in situ time-domain reflectometry logging suggests that this increase is derived from an increase in the water volume fraction of soils with depth (i.e., unsaturated to saturated transition). This was confirmed by supplementary analysis using high-resolution micro-focus X-ray CT at a resolution of ?10 ?m, which directly imaged the increase in pore water with depth. NMR transverse relaxation waveforms of protons were acquired non-destructively at 2.7 MHz by the Carr–Purcell–Meiboom–Gill (CPMG) pulse sequence. The nature of viscous petroleum molecules having short transverse relaxation times (T2) compared to water molecules enabled us to distinguish the water-saturated portion from the oil-contaminated portion in the core sample using an M0–T2 plot, where M0 is the initial amplitude of the CPMG signal. The present study demonstrates that non-destructive core measurements by medical X-ray CT and low-field NMR provide information on the groundwater saturation level and oil-contaminated intervals, which is useful for constructing an adequate plan for subsequent destructive laboratory measurements of cores. PMID:21258437

  18. Oil and hazardous materials technical assistance data system, (OHM-TADS) fields and their definitions. Users' guide

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    The user's guide consists of table 1, OHM-TADS Fields and Their Definitions. Field number, field mnemonic, field title, and the definition is presented. The information in the table includes name, chemical properties, physical properties, biological effects, toxicity, and emergency planning data.

  19. Methane budget of the down-current plume from Coal Oil Point seep field, Santa Barbara Channel, California

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Mau; M. Heintz; D. L. Valentine

    2008-01-01

    Previous research indicates that 5.5-9.6 x 106 mol\\/d (90-150 t\\/d) of methane are emitted from the seafloor into the coastal ocean near Coal Oil Point (COP), Santa Barbara Channel (SBC), California. Methane concentrations and biologically-mediated oxidation rates were quantified at 12 stations in a 198 km2 area down-current from COP during the SEEPS\\

  20. Study on some new water-soluble copolymers and polymer blends used for exploitation of oil field

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, X.; He, Q.; Zhuo, Q.; Mao, W.

    1982-01-01

    Some water-soluble polymers used for oil recovery were prepared by copolymerizing acrylamide and acrylonitrile using ammonium persulfate as initiator. The properties of the mixed aqueous solution of carboxymethly cellulose and partially hydrolyzed polyacrylamide were modified by ultrasonic technique. In addition, the gel characteristics of several etherified polyvinyl alcohols and their blends were studied and some new applications of polyvinyl were exploited. 6 refs.

  1. Isolation and Characterization of Strains CVO and FWKO B, Two Novel Nitrate-Reducing, Sulfide-Oxidizing Bacteria Isolated from Oil Field Brine

    PubMed Central

    Gevertz, Diane; Telang, Anita J.; Voordouw, Gerrit; Jenneman, Gary E.

    2000-01-01

    Bacterial strains CVO and FWKO B were isolated from produced brine at the Coleville oil field in Saskatchewan, Canada. Both strains are obligate chemolithotrophs, with hydrogen, formate, and sulfide serving as the only known energy sources for FWKO B, whereas sulfide and elemental sulfur are the only known electron donors for CVO. Neither strain uses thiosulfate as an energy source. Both strains are microaerophiles (1% O2). In addition, CVO grows by denitrification of nitrate or nitrite whereas FWKO B reduces nitrate only to nitrite. Elemental sulfur is the sole product of sulfide oxidation by FWKO B, while CVO produces either elemental sulfur or sulfate, depending on the initial concentration of sulfide. Both strains are capable of growth under strictly autotrophic conditions, but CVO uses acetate as well as CO2 as its sole carbon source. Neither strain reduces sulfate; however, FWKO B reduces sulfur and displays chemolithoautotrophic growth in the presence of elemental sulfur, hydrogen, and CO2. Both strains grow at temperatures between 5 and 40°C. CVO is capable of growth at NaCl concentrations as high as 7%. The present 16s rRNA analysis suggests that both strains are members of the epsilon subdivision of the division Proteobacteria, with CVO most closely related to Thiomicrospira denitrifcans and FWKO B most closely related to members of the genus Arcobacter. The isolation of these two novel chemolithotrophic sulfur bacteria from oil field brine suggests the presence of a subterranean sulfur cycle driven entirely by hydrogen, carbon dioxide, and nitrate. PMID:10831429

  2. Fuel properties of eleven vegetable oils

    SciTech Connect

    Goering, C.E.; Daugherty, M.J.; Heakin, A.J.; Pryde, E.H.; Schwab, A.W.

    1982-11-01

    Eleven vegetable oils that can be grown as domestic field crops were identified for inclusion in a comparative study of chemical and fuel properties. Sample lots of each oil were subjected to ASTM tests appropriate for diesel fuels. The tests identified some problem areas with vegetable oil fuels. The oil samples were also characterized chemically and certain fuel properties were correlated to chemical compositions.

  3. Fuel properties of eleven vegetable oils

    SciTech Connect

    Goering, C.E.; Schwab, A.W.; Daugherty, M.J.; Pryde, E.H.; Keakin, A.J.

    1981-01-01

    Eleven vegetable oils that can be grown as domestic field crops were identified for inclusion in a comparative study. Sample lots of each oil were subjected to ASTM tests appropriate for diesel fuels. The tests identified some problem areas with vegetable oil fuels. The oil samples were also characterized chemically and certain fuel properties were correlated to chemical composition. 10 refs.

  4. Kerr electro-optic field mapping study of the effect of charge injection on the impulse breakdown strength of transformer oil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, X.; Zahn, M.

    2013-10-01

    The smart use of charge injection to improve breakdown strength in transformer oil is demonstrated in this paper. Hypothetically, bipolar homo-charge injection with reduced electric field at both electrodes may allow higher voltage operation without insulation failure, since electrical breakdown usually initiates at the electrode-dielectric interfaces. To find experimental evidence, the applicability and limitation of the hypothesis is first analyzed. Impulse breakdown tests and Kerr electro-optic field mapping measurements are then conducted with different combinations of parallel-plate aluminum and brass electrodes stressed by millisecond duration impulse. It is found that the breakdown voltage of brass anode and aluminum cathode is ˜50% higher than that of aluminum anode and brass cathode. This can be explained by charge injection patterns from Kerr measurements under a lower voltage, where aluminum and brass electrodes inject negative and positive charges, respectively. This work provides a feasible approach to investigating the effect of electrode material on breakdown strength.

  5. Finding oil in Brazil

    SciTech Connect

    Campos, C.W.M.; Delaney, P.J.V. (Board of Stena Maritima, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil))

    1989-09-01

    Although oil in fractures of bituminous shales of Early Cretaceous age had been known since 1858 in Bahia, oil production in Brazil was delayed for eight decades. There were two fundamental reasons for this belated development. First, the paucity of good oil and gas seeps like those found in other countries and second, Brazilian entrepreneurs did not have the financing or the tradition of risk taking and technology to plunge into oil exploration. Thus, the development of the oil industry in Brazil evolved along different lines than in other countries. Petrobras was the beginning of the modern period of oil exploration in Brazil. Utilizing seismic interpretation methods, oil was discovered onshore in the Sergipe-Alagoas basin in 1957, in the Espirito Santo basin in 1969, and in the Potiquar basin in 1979. After many years of frustration looking for commercial oil in the huge Amazon basin, Petrobras discovered gas in the Jurua River Valley in 1978. Although offshore drilling began with discovery of the Guaricema field in 1968, it was not until the advent of modern offshore drilling and seismic technology that the prolific Garoupa field was discovered in 1974 which opened up the Campos basin. Furthermore, identification of huge structures in deep water by 3D seismic mapping methods indicate a bright future for Petrobras in offshore Brazil.

  6. Oil Spill!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ansberry, Karen Rohrich; Morgan, Emily

    2005-01-01

    An oil spill occurs somewhere in the world almost every day of the year, and the consequences can be devastating. In this month's column, students explore the effects of oil spills on plants, animals, and the environment and investigate oil spill clean-up methods through a simulated oil spill. The activities described in this article give students…

  7. Oil Spills

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Deepwater Horizon/BP oil spill in 2010. (NOAA) Oil Spills During an oil spill in coastal waters, OR&R 's role is to ... Students and teachers can find a variety of oil spill-related educational resources in our Education section . For ...

  8. Increasing heavy oil reserves in the Wilmington oil field through advanced reservoir characterization and thermal production technologies. [Quarterly report], October 1, 1995--December 31, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Hara, S. [Tidelands Oil Production Co., Long Beach, CA (United States)

    1996-01-31

    The project involves improving thermal recovery techniques in a slope and basin clastic (SBC) reservoir in the Wilmington field, Los Angeles Co., California using advanced reservoir characterization and thermal production technologies. This is the third quarterly technical progress report for the project. Through December 1995, the project is on schedule and on budget. Several significant technical achievements have already been successfully accomplished including the drilling of four horizontal wells (two producers and two steam injectors) utilizing a new and lower cost drilling program, the drilling of five observation wells to monitor the horizontal steamflood pilot, the installation of a subsurface harbor channel crossing for delivering steam to an island location, and a geochemical study of the scale minerals being created in the wellbore. Steam injection into the two horizontal injection wells began in mid-December 1995 utilizing the new 2400 ft steam line under the Cerritos Channel. Work on the basic reservoir engineering is expected to be completed in March 1996. A working deterministic geologic model was completed which allowed work to commence on the stochastic geologic and reservoir simulation models.

  9. Speciation of radium-226 in podzols of northeastern Sakhalin in the impact zone of the oil field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manakhov, D. V.; Egorova, Z. N.

    2014-06-01

    Podzols in oil-mining areas of northeastern Sakhalin were examined. The physicochemical properties of the podzols on the industrial plot, on the adjacent territory, and in the background landscapes were characterized. It was found that the distribution of the particular forms of radium-226 in the podzols contaminated with slightly saline and slightly radioactive stratal water differs from that in the background soils. In the contaminated podzols, the portion of exchangeable radium-226 increases in the lower part of the profile; the accumulation of mobile water-soluble and acid-soluble radionuclid increases in the illuvial horizons and decreases in the upper organic horizons.

  10. Increased oil production and reserves from improved completion techniques in the Bluebell field, Uinta Basin, Utah. Tenth quarterly technical progress report, January 1, 1996--March 31, 1996. Revised

    SciTech Connect

    Allison, M.L.

    1996-05-13

    The objective of this project is to increase oil production and reserves in the Uinta Basin by demonstrating improved completion techniques. Low productivity of Uinta Basin will is caused by gross production intervals of several thousand feet that contain perforated thief zones, water-bearing zones, and unperforated oil- bearing intervals. Geologic and engineering characterization and computer simulation of the Green River and Wasatch Formations in the Bluefell field will determine reservoir heterogeneities related to fractures and depositional trends. This will be followed by techniques based on the reservoir characterization. Transfer of the project results will be an ongoing component of the project. Data (net pay thickness, porosity, and water saturation) of more than 100 individuals beds in he lower Green River and Wasatch Formations were used to generate geostatistical realization (numerical- representation) of the reservoir properties. The data set was derived from the Michelle Ute and Malnar Pike demonstration wells and 22 other wells in a 20 (52 km{sup 2}) square-mile area. Beds were studied independently of each other. Principles of sequential Gaussian simulations were used to generate geostatistical realizations of the beds.

  11. A Lagrangean Decomposition Approach for Oil Supply Chain Investment Planning under Uncertainty with Risk

    E-print Network

    Grossmann, Ignacio E.

    of production levels of oil (from oil fields and offshore platforms) and of petroleum products (from oil-wide level [10]. This requires one to consider large supply chains, including oil platforms, marine terminals

  12. An evaluation of known remaining oil resources in the United States. Appendix, Project on Advanced Oil Recovery and the States

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-10-01

    This volume contains appendices for the following: Overview of improved oil recovery methods (enhanced oil recovery methods and advanced secondary recovery methods); Benefits of improved oil recovery, selected data for the analyzed states; and List of TORIS fields and reservoirs.

  13. Increased oil production and reserves from improved completion techniques in the Bluebell field, Uinta Basin, Utah. Annual report, October 1, 1995--September 30, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Morgan, C.D.; Allison, M.L.

    1997-08-01

    The Bluebell field is productive from the Tertiary lower Green River and Wasatch Formations of the Uinta Basin, Utah. The productive interval consists of thousands of feet of interbedded fractured clastic and carbonate beds deposited in a fluvial-dominated lacustrine environment. Wells in the Bluebell field are typically completed by perforating 40 or more beds over 1,000 to 3,000 vertical feet (300-900 m), then stimulating the entire interval. This completion technique is believed to leave many potentially productive beds damaged and/or untreated, while allowing water-bearing and low-pressure (thief) zones to communicate with the wellbore. Geologic and engineering characterization has been used to define improved completion techniques. A two-year characterization study involved detailed examination of outcrop, core, well logs, surface and subsurface fractures, produced oil-field waters, engineering parameters of the two demonstration wells, and analysis of past completion techniques and effectiveness. The characterization study resulted in recommendations for improved completion techniques and a field-demonstration program to test those techniques. The results of the characterization study and the proposed demonstration program are discussed in the second annual technical progress report. The operator of the wells was unable to begin the field demonstration this project year (October 1, 1995 to September 20, 1996). Correlation and thickness mapping of individual beds in the Wasatch Formation was completed and resulted in a. series of maps of each of the individual beds. These data were used in constructing the reservoir models. Non-fractured and fractured geostatistical models and reservoir simulations were generated for a 20-square-mile (51.8-km{sup 2}) portion of the Bluebell field. The modeling provides insights into the effects of fracture porosity and permeability in the Green River and Wasatch reservoirs.

  14. Design of a field experiment for air-steam co-injection for oil recovery in a Utah Tar Sand

    SciTech Connect

    Laski, G.O.; Fahy, L.J.; Martel, R.

    1982-09-01

    This paper presents the design of the US-DOE Laramie Energy Technology Center's projects TS-4 which involves both in-situ reverse combustion and steamflooding, using a numerical simulator. The simulator showed that the combustion could be limited and contained in a middle 10-foot interval with a correlatable high permeability streak within the 65-foot pay zone of the upper Rimrock tar sand formation in Northwest Asphalt Ridge, Uintah County, Utah. A high transmissibility path was assumed to obtain adequate injectivity and sustain a stable reverse combustion. Combustion 'echoes' developed and the front changed into a forward mode as the formation pressure increased and at very low air-injection rates. Oil recovery was accelerated by pre-heating the formation with the combustion before steamflooding the entire sand.

  15. Water issues associated with heavy oil production.

    SciTech Connect

    Veil, J. A.; Quinn, J. J.; Environmental Science Division

    2008-11-28

    Crude oil occurs in many different forms throughout the world. An important characteristic of crude oil that affects the ease with which it can be produced is its density and viscosity. Lighter crude oil typically can be produced more easily and at lower cost than heavier crude oil. Historically, much of the nation's oil supply came from domestic or international light or medium crude oil sources. California's extensive heavy oil production for more than a century is a notable exception. Oil and gas companies are actively looking toward heavier crude oil sources to help meet demands and to take advantage of large heavy oil reserves located in North and South America. Heavy oil includes very viscous oil resources like those found in some fields in California and Venezuela, oil shale, and tar sands (called oil sands in Canada). These are described in more detail in the next chapter. Water is integrally associated with conventional oil production. Produced water is the largest byproduct associated with oil production. The cost of managing large volumes of produced water is an important component of the overall cost of producing oil. Most mature oil fields rely on injected water to maintain formation pressure during production. The processes involved with heavy oil production often require external water supplies for steam generation, washing, and other steps. While some heavy oil processes generate produced water, others generate different types of industrial wastewater. Management and disposition of the wastewater presents challenges and costs for the operators. This report describes water requirements relating to heavy oil production and potential sources for that water. The report also describes how water is used and the resulting water quality impacts associated with heavy oil production.

  16. Late diagenetic indicators of buried oil and gas. 2: Direct detection experiment at Cement and Garza fields, Oklahoma and Texas, using enhanced LANDSAT 1 and 2 images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Donovan, T. J.; Termain, P. A.; Henry, M. E. (principal investigators)

    1979-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. The Cement oil field, Oklahoma, was a test site for an experiment designed to evaluate LANDSAT's capability to detect an alteration zone in surface rocks caused by hydrocarbon microseepage. Loss of iron and impregnation of sandstone by carbonate cements and replacement of gypsum by calcite were the major alteration phenomena at Cement. The bedrock alterations were partially masked by unaltered overlying beds, thick soils, and dense natural and cultivated vegetation. Interpreters, biased by detailed ground truth, were able to map the alteration zone subjectively using a magnified, filtered, and sinusoidally stretched LANDSAT composite image; other interpreters, unbiased by ground truth data, could not duplicate that interpretation.

  17. Pre-injection Comparison of Methods for Sampling Formation Water and Associated Gas from a Monitoring Well at a Carbon Dioxide Injection Site, Citronelle Oil Field, Alabama

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conaway, C.; Thordsen, J. J.; Manning, M. A.; Cook, P. J.; Abedini, A. A.; Trautz, R. C.; Thomas, B.; Kharaka, Y. K.

    2012-12-01

    The chemical composition of formation water and associated gases from the lower Cretaceous Paluxy Formation was determined using four different sampling methods at a well in the Citronelle Oil Field, Alabama, a site that will be used for a carbon dioxide injection experiment. Prior to each of the two sampling periods, the well was cleaned from the drilling fluids and KCl solutions by producing at least three pore volumes of formation water. Accurate measurements of the chemical composition of groundwater or formation water, including dissolved gasses, and gas samples is essential in understanding subsurface geochemical processes occurring as a result of geologic carbon dioxide injection, which is used for enhanced oil recovery (EOR) and has been proposed as a means of carbon sequestration. In this study, formation water and gas samples for geochemical analyses were obtained from well D-9-8 #2 at Citronelle using nitrogen lift, submersible pump, U-Tube, and a downhole (Kuster) sampler. Field chemical analyses included electrical conductivity, hydrogen sulfide, alkalinity, and pH, and laboratory analyses included major, minor and trace elements by mass spectrometry and ion chromatography, dissolved carbon, organic acid anions, free and dissolved gas species. The formation water obtained from this well is a Na-Ca-Cl brine with a salinity of 160,000 and 200,000 mg/L total dissolved solids (TDS). Differences were evident between sampling methodologies, particularly in pH, Fe and alkalinity measurements. The results of the comparison demonstrate the difficulty and importance of preserving volatile analytes in samples, with the downhole sampler and U-Tube system performing most favorably in this aspect.

  18. Impact of Nitrate on the Structure and Function of Bacterial Biofilm Communities in Pipelines Used for Injection of Seawater into Oil Fields? †

    PubMed Central

    Schwermer, Carsten U.; Lavik, Gaute; Abed, Raeid M. M.; Dunsmore, Braden; Ferdelman, Timothy G.; Stoodley, Paul; Gieseke, Armin; de Beer, Dirk

    2008-01-01

    We studied the impact of NO3? on the bacterial community composition, diversity, and function in in situ industrial, anaerobic biofilms by combining microsensor profiling, 15N and 35S labeling, and 16S rRNA gene-based fingerprinting. Biofilms were grown on carbon steel coupons within a system designed to treat seawater for injection into an oil field for pressurized oil recovery. NO3? was added to the seawater in an attempt to prevent bacterial H2S generation and microbially influenced corrosion in the field. Microprofiling of nitrogen compounds and redox potential inside the biofilms showed that the zone of highest metabolic activity was located close to the metal surface, correlating with a high bacterial abundance in this zone. Upon addition, NO3? was mainly reduced to NO2?. In biofilms grown in the absence of NO3?, redox potentials of

  19. The role play by 3-D and 2-D seismic data in the exploration and development of the largest oil field in Argentina

    SciTech Connect

    Gerster, R.L.

    1995-12-31

    Geophysical models based on the interpretation of 2D and 3D seismic data were combined with geological information to initiate exploration and field development of the largest oil field in Argentina, Chihuido-Lomita. Interpretation of 2D seismic profiles provided the initial depositional model of the Avile sand, one of the principal reservoirs in the north of the Neuquen basin, which was used to position the first exploration wells. Analysis of tuning effects arising from the sand allowed mapping of reservoir properties to be carried out, indicating the locations of the most favorable reservoir conditions. The 3D seismic interpretation provided detailed stratigraphic and structural information. Seismic amplitudes were used to create porosity and thickness maps which have a better definition of the distribution of the eolian sand bodies in the Avile. Depth conversion was carried out to eliminate uncertainty about structural trends caused by marked lateral velocity variations. The application of the results from the 3D saved cost by reducing the number of dry holes and by providing an enhanced reservoir description in the early stages of development of the field.

  20. Oil Types

    MedlinePLUS

    ... figure at right shows the weathering processes affecting oil spills: Adsorption (sedimentation): The process by which one substance ... Response Tools for Spills NOAA's Key Questions During Oil Spills Keeping Microplastics out of the Ocean Deepwater Horizon ...