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1

Early oil fields of West Virginia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The oil industry in West Virginia began in 1860 with discovery of the Burning Springs and Volcano fields along the crest of the Burning Springs Anticline. Three additional shallow fields were discovered by 1868 and a period of rapid development drilling began. Exploratory activity increased again in 1886 when I.C. White's test of his anticlinal theory of oil accumulation discovered

D. G. Patchen; M. E. Hohn

1991-01-01

2

Oil field geothermal waters of Wyoming  

SciTech Connect

Over 150 million gallons of water a day are brought to the surface in the oil fields of Wyoming. The temperature of this water is nearly always greater than 90/sup 0/F, and ranges as high as 230/sup 0/F. The location, volume, temperature, and present use status of co-produced oil field thermal waters are presented briefly.

Hinckley, B.S.

1983-08-01

3

Early oil fields of West Virginia  

SciTech Connect

The oil industry in West Virginia began in 1860 with discovery of the Burning Springs and Volcano fields along the crest of the Burning Springs Anticline. Three additional shallow fields were discovered by 1868 and a period of rapid development drilling began. Exploratory activity increased again in 1886 when I.C. White's test of his anticlinal theory of oil accumulation discovered the large Mannington oil field, 50 mi east of established production. Between 1890 and 1910, 54 fields were discovered, including 9 of the state's largest. By 1910, 11 of the 12 largest fields had been discovered, and by the mid 1920s, most of West Virginia's oil fields were known. The earliest fields were developed in shallow Pennsylvanian sandstones at depths less than 1000 ft. As exploration spread eastward toward the Mannington discovery, depths increased, resulting in Mississippian discoveries in the 1500-2000 ft range and deeper Upper Devonian pools (2000-3500 feet). The average pay in these older fields is in the 5-10 ft range, with only about 12 pools having more than 15 ft of pay. Four of the largest fields also have some of the thickest pays. Most were in the mean IP range of 10-50 BOPD/well, with a few in the 60-100 range, and 4 exceptional fields 200 or more. Estimates of original oil in place (OOIP) for these old oil fields range from 1.9 to 2.5 billion barrels. Most pools contained {lt}30 million barrels, but in the 12 largest fields contained {gt}50 million each, and 3 of these {gt}100 million. However, most West Virginia fields have produced {lt}10 million barrels, with 5 having produced {gt}20 million. Thus, most of these old, shallow oil fields still retain 70-80% of their OOIP. Recovery efficiencies range between 5 and 50%, depending on depositional environment and presumable reservoir heterogeneity.

Patchen, D.G.; Hohn, M.E. (West Virginia Geological Survey, Morgantown (United States))

1991-03-01

4

Oil and Gas Field Code Master List  

EIA Publications

Provides standardized field name spellings and codes for all identified oil and gas fields in the United States for use in conjunction with the Energy Information Administrations proved reserves estimation and allied analytical programs. Other federal and state government agencies, as well as industry, also use it as the standard for domestic field identification.

2014-01-01

5

Methanogenic Oil Degradation in the Dagang Oil Field  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Anaerobic biodegradation is one of the main in situ oil transformation processes in subsurface oil reservoirs. Recent studies have provided evidence of biodegradation of residual oil constituents under methanogenic conditions. Methane, like other biogenic gases, may contribute to reduce the viscosity of oil and enhance its flow characteristics (making it more available) but it can also be used as a energy source. So the aim of the present study was to provide reliable information on in situ biotransformation of oil under methanogenic conditions, and to assess the feasibility of implementing a MEOR strategy at this site. For this reason, chemical and isotopic analyses of injection and production fluids of the Dagang oil field (Hebei province, China) were performed. Microbial abundances were assessed by qPCR, and clone libraries were performed to study the diversity. In addition, microcosms with either oil or 13C-labelled hydrocarbons were inoculated with injection or production waters to characterize microbial processes in vitro. Geochemical and isotopic data were consistent with in situ biogenic methane production linked to aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbon degradation: GC-MS profiles of petroleum samples were nearly devoid of n-alkanes, linear alkylbenzenes, and alkyltoluenes, and light PAH, confirming that Dagang oil is mostly highly weathered. In addition, carbon and hydrogen isotopic signatures of methane (?13CCH4 and ?DCH4, respectively), and the bulk isotopic discrimination (??13C) between methane and CO2 (between 32 and 65 ) were in accordance with previously reported values for methane formation during hydrocarbon degradation. Furthermore, methane-producing Archaea and hydrocarbon-degrading Bacteria were abundant in produced oil-water samples. On the other hand, our laboratory degradation experiments revealed that autochthonous microbiota are capable of significantly degrade oil within several months, with biodegradation patterns resembling those observed in situ, and of producing heavy methane from 13C-labelled n-hexadecane or 2-methylnaphthalene (?13C > 550 and 300, respectively). These results suggest that in situ methanogenesis may occur from the aliphatic and polyaromatic fractions of Dagang reservoir fluids. In summary, the studied areas of the Dagang oilfield may have a significant potential for the in situ conversion of oil into methane as a possible way to increase total hydrocarbon recovery.

Jimnez, Nria; Cai, Minmin; Straaten, Nontje; Yao, Jun; Richnow, Hans Hermann; Krger, Martin

2014-05-01

6

Steam stimulation Tidelands operations, Wilmington oil field  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has been demonstrated many times over that the producing formations and well bores under waterflood operations in the Wilmington field have been remarkable responsive to the energies of steam. The injection of steam for short periods of time may be classified as one of the best methods known for oil stimulation. Under waterflood, results of the steam stimulation of

1970-01-01

7

A reservoir management study of a mature oil field  

E-print Network

to other mature oil fields to make sound engineering and business decisions. I interpreted the geological structure and stratigaphy of the salt dome oil field. Structure, isopach and cross-sectional maps were constructed. Depositional environments...

Peruzzi, Tave

2012-06-07

8

Predicting pavement distress in oil field areas  

SciTech Connect

A study on oil field traffic characteristics was performed and a procedure was developed for assessing current and future effects of oil field truck traffic on surface-treated (stage construction type) pavements. A computer program calculates several types of pavement distress and serviceability parameters to evaluate pavement performance under various axle load repetitions. Stepwise regression analysis of 132 surface-treated pavement sections led to the development of individual distress equations for rutting, raveling, flushing, alligator cracking, patching, longitudinal and transverse cracking, and failures (potholes). The versatility of the program provides a means of anticipating early pavement failures due to increased axle load repetitions. The program also provides the basic framework for computing the effects of other ''special-use'' truck traffic demands.

Mason, J.M.; Scullion, T.; Stampley, B.E.

1983-05-01

9

Predicting pavement distress in oil field areas  

SciTech Connect

A study on oil field traffic characteristics was performed and a procedure was developed for assessing current and future effects of oil field truck traffic on surface-treated (stage construction type) pavements. A computer program calculates several types of pavement distress and serviceability parameters to evaluate pavement performance under various axle load repetitions. Stepwise regression analysis of 132 surface-treated pavement sections led to the development of individual distress equations for rutting, raveling, flushing, alligator cracking, patching, longitudinal and transverse cracking, and failures (potholes). The versatility of the program provides a means of anticipating early pavement failures due to increased axle load repetitions. The program also provides the basic framework for computing the effects of other ''special-use'' truck traffic demands.

Mason, J.M.; Scullion, T.; Stampley, B.E.

1984-05-01

10

Development of Sirikit oil field, Thailand  

SciTech Connect

The Sirikit oil field, Thailand's first significant oil find, was discovered in late 1981 by Thai Shell Exploration and Production Company, Ltd., with its second exploration well. After deciding to develop the field (named after Thailand's queen), Thai Shell took only 1 year to design and install the production station, and organize an unconventional evacuation system (road tanker and railway) before oil came on stream in January 1983. A series of facility upgradings kept pace with the production buildup, to a plateau of about 21,000 b/d. The crude oil is waxy (pour point = about 35/sup 0/C), but it is light (40/sup 0/ API) and has an attractive refinery yield. Associated gas is sold to the nearby (specially installed) electricity generating station. Gas compression was commissioned in 1985 to increase utilization of gas, which previously was flared. The agricultural environment dictated the need for cluster drilling of deviated wells, as well as highlighting the importance of good relationships with the local population and authorities. Safety and security are of particular interest. The field is geologically complex, being very faulted in a lacustrine environment and extremely stratified and heterogeneous in reservoir quality. One of two major reservoirs has a gas cap. After some early surprises in delineating the field, a three-dimensional seismic survey was conducted, which better defined the structure and the reserve potential. Nevertheless, parallel appraisal and development continues on a careful step-by-step approach, using the latest production and pressure data to refine the reservoir geologic model. In November 1985, the Petroleum Authority of Thailand became a minority partner, with Shell remaining as operator.

Brooks, J.

1986-07-01

11

Geology of the Tambaredjo oil field, Suriname  

SciTech Connect

After the initial discovery in the sixties of oil below the coastal plain of Suriname (S. America), the State Oil Company of Suriname started production of the unique Tambaredjo field in 1982. The heavy, biodegraded oil (14-16[degrees] API) is produced under compaction drive, from the Paleocene T-sand (average thickness 5 m) at a depth of about 300 m. More than 300 wells have been drilled in an area of about 200 km[sup 2]. High resolution seismics makes it possible to correlate units down to 2 m thick. This dense network of bore holes is very suitable for geological correlations and 3D modeling. The T-sand reservoir consists of angular, medium to coarse grained unconsolidated sands with interfingering clays and lignites. The sands are deposited on a well cemented erosional Cretaceous basement. The reservoir is sealed by locally continuous clays. The oil is trapped in structural highs created by syn-sedimentary rejuvenated basement faults. The depositional environment of the T-sand ranges from fluviatile to deltaic. Frequent avulsion and synsedimentary faulting created a highly compartmented reservoir. Although interconnectedness of the sand bodies is high, clay smears and silting out of the edges confine reservoir compartments. The best genetic sand units such as channel fills or mouth bar deposits hardly correlate over more than a few hundred meters. The Tambaredjo oil field offers an unique opportunity to study the detailed sedimentology and petroleum geology of a fluvio-deltaic transitional realm on the passive margin along the Guiana coast.

Dronkert, H. (Delft Univ. of Technology (Netherlands)); Wong, T.E. (Geological Survey of the Netherlands, Haarlem (Netherlands))

1993-02-01

12

Oil field waste disposal costs at commercial disposal facilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

The exploration and production segment of the U.S. oil and gas industry generates millions of barrels of nonhazardous oil field wastes annually. In most cases, operators can dispose of their oil fields wastes at a lower cost on-site than off site and, thus, will choose on-site disposal. However, a significant quantity of oil field wastes are still sent to off-site

Veil

1997-01-01

13

Gullfaks oil field - From challenge to success  

SciTech Connect

The giant Gullfaks oil field was discovered in 1978. The field contains oil reserves in excess of 1.3 billion bbl. The field is located in the northeastern past of Block 34/10 in the Norwegian sector of the North Sea. Gullfaks represents the shallowest structural element of the Tampen Spur and was formed during the Late Jurassic to Early Cretaceous as a sloping high with a westerly structural dip gradually decreasing toward the east. The major north-south-striking faults, with easterly sloping fault planes, divided the field into several rotated fault blocks. Central and eastern parts of the structure have been eroded by the Early Cretaceous transgression. The reservoir sandstones are comprised of the Middle Jurassic to Early Cretaceous as a sloping high with a westerly structural dip gradually decreasing toward the east. The major north-south-striking faults, with easterly sloping fault planes, divided the field into several rotated fault blocks. Central and eastern parts of the structure have been eroded by the Early Cretaceous transgression. The reservoir sandstones are comprised of the Middle Jurassic delta-deposited Brent Group, the Lower Jurassic shallow-marine sandstones of the Cook Formation, and the Lower Jurassic shallow-marine sandstones of the Cook Formation, and the Lower Jurassic fluvial channel and delta-plain deposits of the Statfjord Formation. The presence of gas in the post-Jurassic section and a variable water depth have complicated seismic interpretation. However, the improved quality of the 1985 three dimensional seismic survey and deliberate deepening of the development wells have resulted in a more accurate and complete structural interpretation. The Brent reserves in the western part of the field currently are being developed by the Gullfaks A and B platforms. The eastern part of the field is developed by a third platform, Gulflaks C. Water injection is the major drive mechanism maintaining reservoir pressure above the bubble point.

Carlsen, H.; Nygaard, O. (Statoil A.S., Stavanger (Norway))

1990-09-01

14

Oil fields and Hilbert schemes Lorenzo Robbiano, Genova (Italy)  

E-print Network

Oil fields and Hilbert schemes Lorenzo Robbiano, Genova (Italy) In the realm of polynomial algebra non-aligned points in the affine plane over the reals. First of all, it is not clear what measures of physical quantities in an oil field, see http://staff.fim.uni-passau.de/algebraic-oil

Robbiano, Lorenzo

15

Interaction of crude oils and water in Sakhalin oil fields  

Microsoft Academic Search

Distribution of the specific gravity of oil and the yield of fractions up to 300 is considered as a function of hypsometric position of the samples with respect to the pool outline. Relationship is determined between the difference in specific gravity of edge- and crest oils and the carbon dioxide ion content in edgewaters; it is explained by oxidation of

G. A. Amosov; T. A. Kozina

1967-01-01

16

Maturity assessment of oils from the Sakhalin oil fields in Russia: phenanthrene content as a tool  

Microsoft Academic Search

A correlation analysis of maturation parameters was carried out on 14 crude oil samples from nine oil fields on Sakhalin Island (Russia). The oils were taken from reservoir rocks of Miocene age at depths ranging from 73 to 2841 m. On the basis of GC analysis of the alkane fraction (n-alkanes and the isoprenoid alkanes pristane and phytane) as well

K Stojanovi?; G. S Pevneva; J. A Golovko; A. K Golovko; P Pfendt

2001-01-01

17

Oil and Gas Field Code Master List 1990  

SciTech Connect

This is the ninth annual edition of the Energy Information Administration's (EIA) Oil and Gas Field Code Master List. It reflects data collected through October 1990 and provides standardized field name spellings and codes for all identified oil and/or gas fields in the United States. There are 54,963 field records in this year's Oil and Gas Field Code Master List (FCML). This amounts to 467 more than in last year's report. As it is maintained by EIA, the Master List includes: Field records for each state and county in which a field resides; field records for each offshore area block in the Gulf of Mexico in which a field resides;field records for each alias field name; fields crossing state boundaries that may be assigned different names by the respective state naming authorities.

Not Available

1991-01-04

18

Integrated reservoir characterization for the Mazari oil field, Pakistan  

E-print Network

This thesis describes a field study performed on the Mazari oil field located in Sind province, Pakistan. We used an integrated reservoir characterization technique to incorporate the geological, petrophysical, and reservoir performance data...

Ashraf, Ejaz

2012-06-07

19

Polymer flooding increases production in giant oil field  

SciTech Connect

Daqing field, discovered in 1959, is the largest oil field in the People's Republic of China, with original oil in place exceeding two billion tons. Reservoir heterogeneity and oil viscosity have resulted in moderate displacement efficiency and high watercut. To increase recovery, polymer injection was tested in two pilots between 1987 and 1992, after lab and reservoir studies. Both pilots proved highly successful and led to the decision to extend polymer injection to the whole field. This article presents the history of Daqing polymer flooding, from preliminary studies to full-field extension.

Delamaide, E.; Corlay, P. (Inst. Francais du Petrole, Paris (France))

1994-12-01

20

Tengiz oil field, Kazakstan: A carbonate platform and supergiant field  

SciTech Connect

The Tengiz oil field was discovered in 1979 on the northeastern shore of the Caspian Sea in western Kazakstan. The Carboniferous and Devonian age carbonate reservoir is more than 2000 in, thick, 270 km{sup 2} in area extent and buried to a depth of 4000 m (13,120 ft.). The oil column exceeds 1450 m in length and is highly overpressured. The Tengiz reservoir resembles a modem day constructional-type carbonate platform in size, shape and lithofacies. The top of the platform is relatively flat, except for structural highs along the northern, eastern and southern platform margins that developed during post-depositional down-faulting of the platform interior. The platform edge is a depositional escarpment along which subsequent faulting has occurred. Debris-slope conglomerates, shed off the platform during growth, surround the platform escarpment. Bashkirian age ootitic, crinoidal, algal grainstones comprise the upper 100 m of the platform and overlie 350 m of Serpukhovian and Okskian age brachiopodal, crinoidal, algal packstones. Lithofacies are a really widespread and show little variation in composition and stratigraphic thickness across the entire platform. Depositional cycle thicknesses are less than 5 meters for the Bashkirian grainstones and up to 30 meters for the Serpukhovian/Oksky packstones. Lagoonal and reefal lithofacies have not been identified in core to date. Porosity is highly variable and includes interparticle, moldic, channel, vuggy and fracture pore types. Solid bitumen is present in much of the pore space. Secondary porosity formed both before and after bitumen precipitation. Production logs and core data reveal that zones with secondary porosity provide fluid entry into the wellbore.

Wood, W.R. [Chevron Overseas Petroleum, Inc., San Ramon, CA (United States); Garber, R.A. [Chevron USA, Midland, TX (United States)

1996-12-31

21

Coreflood assay using extremophile microorganisms for recovery of heavy oil in Mexican oil fields.  

PubMed

A considerable portion of oil reserves in Mexico corresponds to heavy oils. This feature makes it more difficult to recover the remaining oil in the reservoir after extraction with conventional techniques. Microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR) has been considered as a promising technique to further increase oil recovery, but its application has been developed mainly with light oils; therefore, more research is required for heavy oil. In this study, the recovery of Mexican heavy oil (11.1API and viscosity 32,906 mPa s) in a coreflood experiment was evaluated using the extremophile mixed culture A7, which was isolated from a Mexican oil field. Culture A7 includes fermentative, thermophilic, and anaerobic microorganisms. The experiments included waterflooding and MEOR stages, and were carried out under reservoir conditions (70C and 9.65 MPa). MEOR consisted of injections of nutrients and microorganisms followed by confinement periods. In the MEOR stages, the mixed culture A7 produced surface-active agents (surface tension reduction 27 mN m?), solvents (ethanol, 1738 mg L?), acids (693 mg L?), and gases, and also degraded heavy hydrocarbon fractions in an extreme environment. The interactions of these metabolites with the oil, as well as the bioconversion of heavy oil fractions to lighter fractions (increased alkanes in the C?-C?? range), were the mechanisms responsible for the mobility and recovery of heavy oil from the porous media. Oil recovery by MEOR was 19.48% of the residual oil in the core after waterflooding. These results show that MEOR is a potential alternative to heavy oil recovery in Mexican oil fields. PMID:22704814

Castorena-Corts, Gladys; Roldn-Carrillo, Teresa; Reyes-Avila, Jess; Zapata-Peasco, Icoquih; Mayol-Castillo, Martha; Olgun-Lora, Patricia

2012-10-01

22

Using InSAR to Analyze the Effects of Oil Extraction on the Kuparuk Oil Field  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ground deformation around oil fields is a major concern in regards to the impacts of this human-induced change on the environment. Interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) was used to map the ground deformation in the area of the Kuparuk Oil Field in Northern Alaska from 2007 to 2010. Data packages from the Advanced Land Observation Satellite (ALOS) and corresponding data for the digital elevation model (DEM) were used to create interferograms and the DEM. This was done using MATLAB and Python on a Linux operating system. Selected interferograms were cropped and errors from noise, topography, or atmosphere were minimized through fitting and stacking techniques. After analysis, the InSAR data yielded a chronology of a change in ground deformation around the Kuparuk Oil Field, which is correlated to a history of recovery techniques. Analysis of interferograms from before, in transition, and after application of different techniques can determine patterns of ground deformation in the field. It was found that positive ground deformation was more prevalent before the implementation of new oil recovery techniques as opposed to after implementation, with negative ground deformation occurring during the transition of the applications that allowed for more productive oil extraction. These results quantitatively demonstrate the magnitude of land subsidence that actively recovered oil fields induce. They also suggest that new methods of enhanced oil recovery are stabilizing the subterranean layers being drilled, creating a decrease in positive land deformation. This could support the continuation of research in fields of enhanced oil recovery and carbon sequestration.

Baluyut, E.; Liu, L.; Zebker, H. A.

2012-12-01

23

Prudhoe Bay field oil and gas production facilities  

SciTech Connect

Development of the Prudhoe Bay Oil Field on the Alaskan North Slope has been a continuing challenge to the ingenuity and perseverance of the field's owners and operators. The unique size and geographical location of Prudhoe Bay has required innovative technology to solve the unusual problems that confront the oil-production industry in the Arctic. The learning curve has frequently been steep. More important, however, is that the development of Prudhoe Bay has clearly demonstrated that arctic oil fields can be produced safely, economically, and within the constraints necessary to protect the fragile arctic environment.

Swyter, J.P.

1982-12-01

24

Oil and Gas field code master list 1995  

SciTech Connect

This is the fourteenth annual edition of the Energy Information Administration`s (EIA) Oil and Gas Field Code Master List. It reflects data collected through October 1995 and provides standardized field name spellings and codes for all identified oil and/or gas fields in the US. The Field Code Index, a listing of all field names and the States in which they occur, ordered by field code, has been removed from this year`s publications to reduce printing and postage costs. Complete copies (including the Field Code Index) will be available on the EIA CD-ROM and the EIA World-Wide Web Site. Future editions of the complete Master List will be available on CD-ROM and other electronic media. There are 57,400 field records in this year`s Oil and Gas Field Code Master List. As it is maintained by EIA, the Master List includes the following: field records for each State and county in which a field resides; field records for each offshore area block in the Gulf of Mexico in which a field resides; field records for each alias field name (see definition of alias below); and fields crossing State boundaries that may be assigned different names by the respective State naming authorities. Taking into consideration the double-counting of fields under such circumstances, EIA identifies 46,312 distinct fields in the US as of October 1995. This count includes fields that no longer produce oil or gas, and 383 fields used in whole or in part for oil or gas Storage. 11 figs., 6 tabs.

NONE

1995-12-01

25

The role of oil-to-oil correlation in the development of the Safah field, Oman  

SciTech Connect

The Safah field, located in northwestern Oman, is a large carbonate reservoir on a gently dipping structural nose. To date, more than 90 wells have been drilled in the field, which is operated by Occidental (Chevron share 35%). The Lower Cretaceous Shuaiba Formation limestone forms the reservoir. Differences in the productivity of the wells in the Safah field is controlled by depositional and diagenetic processes that produced differences in the character of the carbonate. To better understand the distribution of the reservoir rocks in the field, oil-to-oil correlation studies, involving samples from the first 35 wells in the field, were done in 1986 and 1988. Peak height ratios from gas chromatograms were plotted on star diagrams and used for the correlation. Three different oil groups were found in the field. The presence of three different oils in what was thought to be a continuous reservoir implied that some barriers to oil mixing are present. Subsequent drilling revealed several areas in the field that may be parts of these barriers. In these areas, which often occur within a few hundred meters of good producing wells, the top of porosity is often very low and the reservoir is of very poor quality. These characteristics may be attributable to either lateral facies changes or diagenetic differences. By indicating these barriers to oil mixing occur in the field, geochemical analysis may prove useful for locating areas in the field which may be less desirable to develop.

Lindberg, F.A.; Ahmed, A.S.; Bluhm, C.T. (Chevron Overseas Petroleum Inc., San Ramon, CA (USA))

1990-05-01

26

Oil Refining: Google Earth Virtual Field Trip Activity  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This page provides a Google Earth virtual field trip activity. Students will learn about oil refining in this short activity from the 2008 ATEEC Fellows Institute. A teacher's guide is included. In this virtual field trip, students learn about the process of oil refining and pose the question to students of alternative sources of fuel. Take a trip to the Petrostar Oil Refinery near the North Pole in Alaska. Learn how oil is refined and discover where oil is refined all around the world. Includes video of a tour taken at the refinery along with questions geared towards critical thinking. This resource is free to download. Users must first create a login with ATEEC's website to access the file.

2013-06-25

27

Microbial Systems for Enhancement of Oil Recovery Used in Romanian Oil Fields  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microbial Enhanced Oil Recovery (MEOR) as a new Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR) technology became mainly after the petroleum crisis in 1973, an important goal of research and development. The right microbial systems involved by this technology play an important role for the applications success.In Romania an intensive R and D activity took place during two generations of MEOR field trials

I. LAZAR

1998-01-01

28

Pretest studies for a microbially enhanced oil recovery field pilot in a hypersaline oil reservoir  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ecological and physiological factors governing microbial activity in the Southeast Vassar Vertz Sand Unit (SEWSU), Payne County, OK, an oil reservoir selected for a microbially enhanced oil recovery field pilot, were studied. Analysis of the brines from the reservoir showed that the SEWSU reservoir is a hypersaline environment rich in calcium and magnesium cations, and contains most of the

Vishvesh K. Bhupathiraju; Michael J. McInerney; Roy M. Knapp

1993-01-01

29

Processing of coal, oil sand and heavy oil in situ by electric and magnetic fields  

Microsoft Academic Search

Improvements to a previously proposed (Fisher, 1979) means for the underground processing of coal, oil sand and heavy oil using eddy currents induced by an alternating magnetic field are presented. Consideration is given to the injection into the fuel layer by pressure from the surface of a hot, saturated high-conductivity aqueous electrolyte solution, which would allow induction heating to depend

S. T. Fisher

1980-01-01

30

Largest US oil and gas fields, August 1993  

SciTech Connect

The Largest US Oil and Gas Fields is a technical report and part of an Energy Information Administration (EIA) series presenting distributions of US crude oil and natural gas resources, developed using field-level data collected by EIA`s annual survey of oil and gas proved reserves. The series` objective is to provide useful information beyond that routinely presented in the EIA annual report on crude oil and natural gas reserves. These special reports also will provide oil and gas resource analysts with a fuller understanding of the nature of US crude oil and natural gas occurrence, both at the macro level and with respect to the specific subjects addressed. The series` approach is to integrate EIA`s crude oil and natural gas survey data with related data obtained from other authoritative sources, and then to present illustrations and analyses of interest to a broad spectrum of energy information users ranging from the general public to oil and gas industry personnel.

Not Available

1993-08-06

31

Geology of oil fields of west Siberian lowland  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since 1959, more than 114 oil and gas fields estimated to contain more than 4 billion tons (28 billion bbl) have been discovered in the W. Siberian Lowland, a topographic and structural basin east of the Ural Mt. All fields discovered to 1970 are on anticlinal structures, found mainly by geophysical work, including magnetic, gravity, and seismic profiling. Detailed seismic

Dickey

1972-01-01

32

Crude oil from the Samgori field  

SciTech Connect

This article analyzes the chemical composition and physical properties of petroleum from the Georgian SSR. The crude oil is light in color, light in distillation range, low-viscosity, and medium-wax, with low contents of resin-asphaltene compounds, sulfur, and metals. This petroleum is characterized by its high content of naphtha cuts with low sulfur contents, low octane numbers (owing to the high contents of paraffin hydrocarbons), and low contents of aromatics. It is determined that the best flow plan for processing the crude is either a fuel scheme or a fuel/lube scheme, depending on the specific product demands.

Dorogochinskaya, V.A.; Manovyan, A.K.; Shigapova, A.K.; Shul'zhenko, E.D.; Varshaver, V.P.

1984-04-01

33

Reservoir microseismicity at the Ekofisk Oil Field  

SciTech Connect

A triaxial, downhole geophone was deployed within the Ekofisk oil reservoir for monitoring ambient microseismicity as a test to determine if microearthquake signals generated from discrete shear failure of the reservoir rock could be detected. The results of the test were positive. During 104 hours of monitoring, 572 discrete events were recorded which have been identified as shear-failure microearthquakes. Reservoir microseismicity was detected at large distances (1000 m) from the monitor borehole and at rates (> 5 events per hour) which may allow practical characterization of the reservoir rock and overburden deformation induced by reservoir pressure changes.

Rutledge, J.T.; Fairbanks, T.D. [Nambe Geophysical, Inc., Santa Fe, NM (United States); Albright, J.N. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Boade, R.R. [Phillips Petroleum Co., Bartlesville, OK (United States); Dangerfield, J.; Landa, G.H. [Phillips Petroleum Co., Tananger (Norway)

1994-07-01

34

Microbial consortia in Oman oil fields: a possible use in enhanced oil recovery.  

PubMed

Microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR) is one of the most economical and efficient methods for extending the life of production wells in a declining reservoir. Microbial consortia from Wafra oil wells and Suwaihat production water, Al-Wusta region, Oman were screened. Microbial consortia in brine samples were identified using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and 16S rRNA gene sequences. The detected microbial consortia of Wafra oil wells were completely different from microbial consortia of Suwaihat formation water. A total of 33 genera and 58 species were identified in Wafra oil wells and Suwaihat production water. All of the identified microbial genera were first reported in Oman, with Caminicella sporogenes for the first time reported from oil fields. Most of the identified microorganisms were found to be anaerobic, thermophilic, and halophilic, and produced biogases, biosolvants, and biosurfactants as by-products, which may be good candidates for MEOR. PMID:23314376

Al-Bahry, Saif N; Elshafie, Abdulkader E; Al-Wahaibi, Yahya M; Al-Bemani, Ali S; Joshi, Sanket J; Al-Maaini, Ratiba A; Al-Alawi, Wafa J; Sugai, Yuichi; Al-Mandhari, Mussalam

2013-01-01

35

Strontium isotopic variations of oil-field waters: a clue to migration history of oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oil-field waters produced from Middle to Lower Pennsylvanian and Mississippian stratigraphic units in several localities in Ness, Hodgeman, Ford, and Clark Counties of Kansas were analyzed for their strontium isotopic compositions to determine the influence of associated rocks on the chemical characters of the fluids. The ⁸⁷Sr\\/⁸⁶Sr ratios of these oil waters, ranging between 0.710 and 0.727, are significantly higher

S. Chaudhuri; V. Broedel; L. Nicastro; R. Robinson

1983-01-01

36

Citronelle oil field, Mobile County, Alabama  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Citronelle field was discovered by the Zack Brooks Drilling Co. No. 1 Donovan, producing from the lower Glen Rose Formation at a depth of 10,879 ft (3,315.9 m). The structure at the producing-depth datum is that of a simple, moderately flat-topped, ovate dome, but the field presents a complex meander-belt pattern with 52 productive sandstone zones in 330 separate

1976-01-01

37

Crosshole EM for oil field characterization and EOR monitoring: Field examples from Lost Hills, California  

Microsoft Academic Search

A steamflood recently initiated by Mobil Development and Production U.S. at the Lost Hills No 3 oil field in California is notable for its shallow depth and the application of electromagnetic (EM) geophysical techniques to monitor the subsurface steam flow. Steam was injected into three stacked eastward-dipping unconsolidated oil sands at depths from 60 to 120 m; the plume is

Michael Wilt; Clifford Schenkel; Michael Wratcher; Ilia Lambert; Carlos Torres-Verdin; Tseng H. W

1996-01-01

38

Reserve Growth in Oil Fields of West Siberian Basin, Russia  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Although reserve (or field) growth has proven to be an important factor contributing to new reserves in mature petroleum basins, it is still a poorly understood phenomenon. Limited studies show that the magnitude of reserve growth is controlled by several major factors, including (1) the reserve booking and reporting requirements in each country, (2) improvements in reservoir characterization and simulation, (3) application of enhanced oil recovery techniques, and (4) the discovery of new and extensions of known pools in discovered fields. Various combinations of these factors can affect the estimates of proven reserves in particular fields and may dictate repeated estimations of reserves during a field's life. This study explores the reserve growth in the 42 largest oil fields in the West Siberian Basin, which contain about 55 percent of the basin's total oil reserves. The West Siberian Basin occupies a vast swampy plain between the Ural Mountains and the Yenisey River, and extends offshore into the Kara Sea; it is the richest petroleum province in Russia. About 600 oil and gas fields with original reserves of 144 billion barrels of oil (BBO) and more than 1,200 trillion cubic feet of gas (TCFG) have been discovered. The principal oil reserves and most of the oil fields are in the southern half of the basin, whereas the northern half contains mainly gas reserves. Sedimentary strata in the basin consist of Upper Triassic through Tertiary clastic rocks. Most oil is produced from Neocomian (Lower Cretaceous) marine to deltaic sandstone reservoirs, although substantial oil reserves are also in the marine Upper Jurassic and continental to paralic Lower to Middle Jurassic sequences. The majority of oil fields are in structural traps, which are gentle, platform-type anticlines with closures ranging from several tens of meters to as much as 150 meters (490 feet). Fields producing from stratigraphic traps are generally smaller except for the giant Talin field which contains oil in Jurassic river-valley sandstones. Principal source rocks are organic-rich marine shales of the Volgian (uppermost Jurassic) Bazhenov Formation, which is 30-50 m (98- 164 feet) thick. Bazhenov-derived oils are mostly of medium gravity, and contain 0.8-1.3 percent sulfur and 2-5 percent paraffin. Oils in the Lower to Middle Jurassic clastics were sourced from lacustrine and estuarine shales of the Toarcian Togur Bed. These oils are medium to low gravity, with low sulfur (less than 0.25 percent) and high paraffin (commonly to 10 percent) contents. Among the 42 fields analyzed for reserve growth, 30 fields are located in the Middle Ob region, which includes the Samotlor field with reserves of more than 25 BBO and the Fedorov field with reserves of about 5 BBO. Data used in the study include year of discovery, year of first production, annual and cumulative production, and remaining reserves reported by Russian reserve categories (A+B+C1 and C2) in January of each year. Correlation of these Russian resource categories to U.S. categories of the Society of Petroleum Engineers classification is complex and somewhat uncertain. Reserve growth in oil fields of West Siberia was calculated using a newly developed Group Growth method, which requires that the total reserve (proven reserve plus cumulative production) of individual fields with an equal length of reserve record be added together starting with discovery year or the first production year. Then the annual growth factor (AGF), which is the ratio of total reserves of two consecutive years, is calculated for all years. Once AGFs have been calculated, the cumulative growth factor (CGF) is calculated by multiplying the AGFs of all the previous years. The CGF data are used to develop reserve growth models. The West Siberian oil fields show a 13-fold reserve growth 20 years after the discovery year and only about a 2-fold growth after the first production year. This difference is attributed to extensive exploration and field delineation activities between the discovery and the first production years. Because of u

Verma, Mahendra K.; Ulmishek, Gregory F.

2006-01-01

39

Remote sensing assessment of oil lakes and oil-polluted surfaces at the Greater Burgan oil field, Kuwait  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A heinous catastrophe imposed on Kuwait's desert environment during the 1990 to 1991 Arabian Gulf War was the formation of oil lakes and oil-contaminated surfaces. Presently, the affected areas consist of oil lakes, thick light and disintegrated tarmats, black soil and vegetation. In this study, Landsat TM, Spot, colour aerial photographs and IRS-1D digital image data acquired between 1989 and 1998 were used to monitor the spatial and temporal changes of the oil lakes and polluted surfaces at the Greater Burgan oil field. The use of multisensor datasets provided the opportunity to observe the polluted areas in different wavelengths, look angles and resolutions. The images were digitally enhanced to optimize the visual outlook and improve the information content. The data documented the gradual disappearance of smaller oil lakes and soot/black soil from the surface with time. Even though some of the contaminants were obscured by sand and vegetation and not readily observed on the surface or from satellite images, the harmful chemicals still remain in the soil. Some of the contaminated areas displayed a remarkable ability to support vegetation growth during the higher than average rainfall that occurred between 1992 to 1998. The total area of oil lakes calculated from an IRS-1D panchromatic image acquired on 16 February 1998, using supervised classification applied separately to different parts, was 24.13 km 2.

Kwarteng, Andy Yaw

40

The Application Of Microbial Enhanced Oil Recovery On Unconventional Oil: A Field Specific Approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A substantial amount of the world's recoverable oil reserves are made from unconventional or heavy resources. However, great difficulty has been had in recovering this oil after primary and secondary recovery methods have been employed. Therefore, tertiary methods such as microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR) have been employed. MEOR involves the use of bacteria and their metabolic products to alter the oil properties or rock permeability within a reservoir in order to promote the flow of oil. Although MEOR has been trialed in the past with mixed outcomes, its feasibility on heavier oils has not been demonstrated. The aim of this study is to show that MEOR can be successfully applied to unconventional oils. By using an indigenous strain of bacteria isolated from a reservoir of interest and applied to field specific microcosms, we will look into the effect of these bacteria compared to variant inoculums to identify which mechanisms of action the bacteria are using to improve recovery. Using this information, we will be able to identify genes of interest and groups of bacteria that may be beneficial for MEOR and look accurately identify favorable bacteria within a reservoir.

Goodman, Sean; Millar, Andrew; Allison, Heather; McCarthy, Alan

2014-05-01

41

Pyrolysis of oil shales of the Turov field  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The results of investigations of the chemical composition, properties, and thermotechnical characteristics of the technological sample of oil shales of the Turov field of Belarus have been given. The results of experimental works on shale pyrolysis on laboratory setups in stationary and moving beds for obtaining high-calorific energy carriers have been shown.

Falyushin, P. L.; Dobrego, K. V.; Kraiko, V. M.; Anufrieva, E. V.

2011-05-01

42

Processing of coal, oil sand and heavy oil in situ by electric and magnetic fields  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Improvements to a previously proposed (Fisher, 1979) means for the underground processing of coal, oil sand and heavy oil using eddy currents induced by an alternating magnetic field are presented. Consideration is given to the injection into the fuel layer by pressure from the surface of a hot, saturated high-conductivity aqueous electrolyte solution, which would allow induction heating to depend entirely on low-frequency eddy currents, and to the use of an outer tube of copper welded to an inner tube of steel for the tunnel and shaft casings and electrical conductors of the underground eddy-current heating installation. The physical and operational parameters of the proposed modifications are given, and it is shown that these improvements would increase the performance margin of the eddy-current heating method over the proposed dielectric heating method for oil shale and oil sand deposits.

Fisher, S. T.

1980-07-01

43

Giant oil fields of the Gulf Coast area  

SciTech Connect

The 134 giant fields in the Gulf Coastal area contain 29% of the total giant-field reserves. Cumulative production is 32% of the giant-field cumulative total and 20% of the United States cumulative production. Eighty-nine of the giant fields are offshore with 22% of the reserves, 11 fields are in east Texas with 24% of the reserves, and 1 field is in Florida with 1% of the reserves. In 106 of the giant fields the primary producing interval is Cenozoic with 65% of the reserves, and in 28 giant fields the producing interval is Mesozoic with 35% of the reserves. The primary producing interval is Mesozoic with 35% of the reserves. The primary producing interval in 124 giant fields consists of clastics with 91% of the reserves, in 7 fields the primary lithology is carbonates with 6% of the reserves, and in 3 giant fields the lithology is mixed clastics and carbonates. A total of 127 fields are in structural traps with all of the reserves, 4 fields are stratigraphic traps (3%) with 18% of the reserves, and 3 fields are combination traps with 1% of the reserves. Over 50 of the giant oil fields in structural traps are salt domes. The most prevalent types of giant fields in the Gulf Coastal area are onshore structural traps with Cenozoic clastics as the primary producing intervals.

Haeberle, F.R.

1993-09-01

44

Survey of tar sand deposits, heavy oil fields, and shallow light oil fields of the United States for underground coal gasification applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

A literature survey was conducted to identify areas of the United States where tar sand deposits, heavy oil fields, or shallow light oil fields might be suitably associated with coal deposits for production of oil by in situ thermal recovery methods using heat derived from underground coal gasification (UCG) processes. The survey is part of a Department of Energy-sponsored program

1986-01-01

45

Reverse osmosis process successfully converts oil field brine into freshwater  

SciTech Connect

A state-of-the-art process in the San Ardo oil field converted produced brine into freshwater. The conversion process used chemical clarification, softening, filtration, and reverse osmosis (RO). After extensive testing resolved RO membrane fouling problems, the pilot plant successfully handled water with about 7,000 mg/l. of total dissolved solids, 250 mg/l. silica, and 170 mg/l. soluble oil. The treated water complies with the stringent California drinking water standard. The paper describes water reclamation, the San Ardo process, stability, reverse osmosis membrane fouling, membranes at high pH, water quality, and costs.

Tao, F.T.; Curtice, S.; Hobbs, R.D.; Sides, J.L.; Wieser, J.D. (Texaco Inc., Bellaire, TX (United States)); Dyke, C.A.; Tuohey, D. (Texaco Inc., Beacon, NY (United States)); Pilger, P.F. (Texaco E and P Inc., Denver, CO (United States))

1993-09-20

46

Stratigraphy of Citronelle Oil Field, AL: Perspectives from Enhanced Oil Recovery and Potential CO2 Sequestration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Citronelle Dome is a giant salt-cored anticline in the eastern Mississippi Interior Salt Basin of south Alabama. The dome forms an elliptical structural closure containing multiple opportunities for enhanced oil recovery (EOR) and large-capacity saline reservoir CO2 sequestration. The Citronelle Oil Field, which is on the crest of the dome, has produced more than 168 MMbbl of 42 gravity oil from marginal marine sandstone in the Lower Cretaceous Donovan Sand. Recently, EOR field tests have begun in the northeastern part of the oil field. Citronelle Unit B-19-10 #2 well (Alabama State Oil and Gas Board Permit No. 3232) will serve as the CO2 injector for the first field test. CO2 will be injected into the Upper Donovan 14-1 and 16-2 sandstone units. All well logs in the 4-square-mile area surrounding the test site have been digitized and used to construct a network of nineteen stratigraphic cross sections correlating Sands 12 through 20A in the Upper Donovan. Detailed study of Citronelle cores has shown that depositional environments in the Donovan Sand differed significantly from the earlier model that has guided past development of the Citronelle Field. The cross sections demonstrate the extreme facies heterogeneity of the Upper Donovan, and this heterogeneity is well expressed within the five-spot well pattern where the field test will be conducted. Many other features bearing on the performance of the CO2 injection test have been discovered. Of particular interest is the 16-2 sand, which is interpreted as a composite of two tiers of channel fills. Pay strata are typically developed in the lower tier, and this is where CO2 will be injected. The upper tier is highly heterogeneous and is interpreted to contain sandstone fills of variable reservoir quality, as well as mudstone plugs.

Hills, D. J.; Pashin, J. C.; Kopaska-Merkel, D. C.; Esposito, R. A.

2008-12-01

47

Fundamental property of electric field in rapeseed ester oil based on Kerr electro-optic measurement  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the future, environmentally friendly insulating oil such as rapeseed ester oil is expected to be utilized as a substitute for mineral oil for power transformers. In addition, electrical insulation design for transformers becomes more important regarding size reduction and enhancement of electric field stress. The fundamental property of the electric field distribution in the rapeseed ester oil and in

K. Nakamura; K. Kato; H. Koide; Y. Hatta; H. Okubo

2006-01-01

48

Compressor scheme will reduce gas flaring in India's oil fields  

SciTech Connect

To reduce flaring of associated gas, Oil India Ltd. will be increasing compression capacity over a 5 year period. Although the ideal condition of zero flaring is seldom possible, as long as flaring is limited to 10% of the total gas produced, the operation may be called satisfactory. It is difficult to control flaring within the satisfactory limits in an aging oil field or where the gas/oil ratio increases rapidly. The volume of low-pressure gas production also influences the rate of flaring. It may not be economical to compress very low-pressure gas for downstream use. Such gas has to be flared for all practical purposes. However, if adequate compression facilities are available so that production of low-pressure gas at wellheads can be reduced through gas injection for formation pressure maintenance, then the volume of low-pressure gas can be reduced, thereby reducing flaring.

Banerjee, N. (Oil India Ltd., Duliajan (IN))

1991-04-22

49

Measurement of Oil Droplet Size Distributions in Food Oil\\/Water Emulsions by Time Domain Pulsed Field Gradient NMR  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new method for measuring oil droplet size distributions by means of a benchtop pulsed field gradient NMR spectrometer operating in the time domain is presented. The continuous water phase is successfully suppressed by gradient pulses in order to measure the dispersed oil phase. Simulations show that for most common oil\\/water food emulsions the influence of droplet diffusion is negligible

G. J. W. Goudappel; J. P. M. van Duynhoven; M. M. W. Mooren

2001-01-01

50

Geologic control of natural marine hydrocarbon seep emissions, Coal Oil Point seep field, California  

E-print Network

Coal Oil Point seep field, underlying geologic structure showing the Monterey Formation (Formation dips north, with the steepest portions along the CoalCoal Oil Point seep field distribution, underlying geologic structure showing faults, Monterey Formation (

Leifer, Ira; Kamerling, Marc J.; Luyendyk, Bruce P.; Wilson, Douglas S.

2010-01-01

51

Source rock identification and oil generation related to trap formation: Southeast Constantine oil field  

SciTech Connect

Petroleum exploration began in the Southeast Constantine basin in the late 1940s. Despite the very early discovery of Djebel Onk field (1954), exploration remains very sparse and relatively unsuccessful due mainly to the geological complexity of the region. The Ras-Toumb oil field was discovered only twenty years later. In 1988, a new discovery, the Guerguit-El-Kihal oil field renewed the interest of explorationists in this region. The Southeast Constantine Mesozoic-Cenozoic basin has a sedimentary sequence of shales and carbonates with a thickness exceeding 7,000 m. Structural traps are related to pyrenean and post-Villafranchian phases. Potential reservoirs with good petrophysical characteristics and seals can be found throughout the section and are mainly Cenomanian-Turonian and Coniacian limestones and dolomites. The known source rocks are Cenomanian-Turonian and Campanian carbonate shales. Kerogen is a mixture of type II and type III for the Campanian. The kerogen has a fair petroleum potential and is often immature or low mature. The Cenomanian-Turonian kerogen is type II amorphous, with a variable but important petroleum potential. Total organic carbon values range from 1.5% to 7%. Maturity corresponds to the oil window. This source rock is well known throughout the Mediterranean region and is related to the oceanic anoxic event. Kinetic modeling of this organic matter evolution indicates favorable oil generation timing related to trap formation ages.

Boudjema, A.; Rahmani, A.; Belhadi, E.M.; Hamel, M.; Bourmouche, R. (Sonatrach, Hussein-Dey Algiers (Algeria))

1990-05-01

52

Rejuvenation of a giant oil field-Quiriquire Field, Venezuela: A team approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Quiriquire field is located in the Maturin basin of eastern Venezuela, at the southeastern corner of the Serrania del Interior mountain range. Since its discovery in 1928, the field has produced over 750 MMBO from a stratigraphically trapped, shallow, Pliocene alluvial fan (Quiriquire Formation). A deep oil zone, the Los Jabillos sand of Oligocene age, was discovered in 1952 on

H. Friestad; R. Hull; D. Miller

1996-01-01

53

Crosshole EM for oil field characterization and EOR monitoring: Field examples from Lost Hills, California  

SciTech Connect

A steamflood recently initiated by Mobil Development and Production U.S. at the Lost Hills No 3 oil field in California is notable for its shallow depth and the application of electromagnetic (EM) geophysical techniques to monitor the subsurface steam flow. Steam was injected into three stacked eastward-dipping unconsolidated oil sands at depths from 60 to 120 m; the plume is expected to develop as an ellipsoid aligned with the regional northwest-southeast strike. Because of the shallow depth of the sands and the high viscosity of the heavy oil, it is important to track the steam in the unconsolidated sediments for both economic and safety reasons. Crosshole and surface-to-borehole electromagnetic imaging were applied for reservoir characterization and steamflood monitoring. The crosshole EM data were collected to map the interwell distribution of the high-resistivity oil sands and to track the injected steam and hot water. Measurements were made in two fiberglass-cased observation wells straddling the steam injector on a northeast-southwest profile. Field data were collected before the steam drive, to map the distribution of the oil sands, and then 6 and 10 months after steam was injected, to monitor the expansion of the steam chest. Resistivity images derived from the collected data clearly delineated the distribution and dipping structure of the target oil sands. Difference images from data collected before and during steamflooding indicate that the steam chest has developed only in the middle and lower oil sands, and it has preferentially migrated westward in the middle oil sand and eastward in the deeper sand. Surface-to-borehole field data sets at Lost Hills were responsive to the large-scale subsurface structure but insufficiently sensitive to model steam chest development in the middle and lower oil sands. As the steam chest develops further, these data will be of more use for process monitoring.

Wilt, M.; Schenkel, C.; Wratcher, M.; Lambert, I.; Torres-Verdin, C.; Tseng H.W.

1996-07-16

54

Multimedia simulation increases understanding of oil field tools  

Microsoft Academic Search

Intelligence augmentation using multimedia techniques shows great promise in letting oil field personnel obtain a better understanding of the operation of downhole tools and surface equipment. Whereas artificial intelligence (AI) includes knowledge-based expert systems to identify and analyze situations and recommend solutions, intelligence augmentation (IA) is a different genre. In the IA process, the designer\\/operator\\/engineer works with a fully simulated,

Schwendemann

1995-01-01

55

Carbon dioxide resistance of fiberglass oil field pipe  

SciTech Connect

Unlined aromatic amine-cured epoxy fiberglass piping systems have been successfully used to handle oil field services requiring resistance to carbon dioxide. Fiberglass pipe made from vinyl ester and premium isophthalic polyester resins have also been proposed for use in this type of service. This paper presents test data comparing the carbon dioxide resistance of fiberglass pipe made from these three resins. Test data for fiberglass pipe exposed to carbon dioxide containing 5% hydrogen sulfide are also presented.

Oswald, K.J.

1988-08-01

56

Increasing Heavy Oil Reserves in the Wilmington Oil Field Through Advanced Reservoir Characterization and Thermal Production Technologies, Class III  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this project was to increase the recoverable heavy oil reserves within sections of the Wilmington Oil Field, near Long Beach, California through the testing and application of advanced reservoir characterization and thermal production technologies. It was hoped that the successful application of these technologies would result in their implementation throughout the Wilmington Field and, through technology transfer, will be extended to increase the recoverable oil reserves in other slope and basin clastic (SBC) reservoirs.

City of Long Beach; Tidelands Oil Production Company; University of Southern California; David K. Davies and Associates

2002-09-30

57

INCREASING HEAVY OIL RESERVES IN THE WILMINGTON OIL FIELD THROUGH ADVANCED RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION AND THERMAL PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGIES  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this project is to increase the recoverable heavy oil reserves within sections of the Wilmington Oil Field, near Long Beach, California, through the testing and application of advanced reservoir characterization and thermal production technologies. The hope is that successful application of these technologies will result in their implementation throughout the Wilmington Field and, through technology transfer, will

2001-01-01

58

The Haven Oil field; Development of a tiny marginal field with horizontal wells  

SciTech Connect

The decrease in large discoveries highlights the need for the industry to focus on safe, low-cost, high-efficiency development of smaller oil fields. This paper describes the development and economic success of one tiny oil field in the North Sea with horizontal well technology and reuse of existing minimal facilities. Emphasis is placed on how predevelopment reservoir simulation studies influenced the design and drilling of wells. The reservoir model results were the basis for economic justification of the project. The paper also compares actual reservoir performance with predictions.

Target, P.L. (Unocal Netherlands B.V. (NL))

1992-04-01

59

Oil  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The first site, offered by the Institute of Petroleum, is called Fossils into Fuel (1). It describes how oil and gas are formed and processed, as well as offering short quizzes on each section. The second site (2) is maintained by the Department of Energy. Visitors can learn about the history of oil use, how itâs found and extracted, and more. The next site, called Picture an Oil Well (3), is a one-page illustration and description of the workings of an oil well, offered by the California Department of Conservation. The fourth site, hosted by the Minerals Management Service, is called Stacey Visits an Offshore Oil Rig (4). It tells the story of a girl taking a field trip on an offshore oil rig and what she finds when sheâs there. The Especially for Kids Web site (5) is presented by NOAA and explores facts about the effects of oil spills. Kids can do experiments, get help writing a report, find further information on the provided additional links, and more. From the Environmental Protection Agency, the sixth site is called Oil Spill Program (6), and it also delves into the topic of oil spills. It provides information about the EPA's program for preventing, preparing for, and responding to oil spills that occur in and around inland waters of the United States. The next site, offered by How Stuff Works.com, is called How Oil Refining Works (7). Descriptions of crude oil, fractional distillation, chemical processing, and more is presented in a succinct but informative way. The last site is from The Center for Subsurface Modeling (CSM) of the Texas Institute for Computational and Applied Mathematics and is called CSMâs Picture Gallery (8). After clicking the Gallery link, visitors will find animations and images that represent CSMâs work such as oil spill simulations, discontinuous galerkin, the tyranny of scale, contaminant remediation, etc.

Brieske, Joel A.

2002-01-01

60

Oil above the Arctic circle. [Milne Point Field  

SciTech Connect

Conoco is developing the company's first Arctic production venture, the Milne Point Field, on Alaska's North Slope. Development will proceed in several phases, with production being maintained. For over 20 years: an initial drilling and production program for the Kuparuk formation, followed by additional drilling to maintain productions as flow from the first wells slows. Subsequent phases in the early 90s would tap the vast reserves of thick oil in another, shallower reservoir. When the project is fully developed, total cost is expected to be near $800 million.

Dresner, S.

1985-01-01

61

The floating oil pool - A unique trapping mechanism at Kern River field  

SciTech Connect

Geologic reevaluation of the giant Kern River field, a 4 billion bbl oil accumulation, suggests a nontrapping oil emplacement mechanism not previously described in the literature. The field produces 12-14{degree} API oil from a shallow, thick sequence of stacked fluvial sands situated across a homocline that dips 4-5{degree} southwest. Migration of hydrocarbons generated in deeply buried Miocene shales ended in the Kern River field when the oil reached the top of the regional groundwater table, a surface that truncates the dipping beds in the subsurface. The oil floats on top of the groundwater and is confined by an updip seal consisting of simply gravity, or barometric pressure. Significant vertical changes in the groundwater support system in the geologic and historic past have probably been caused by climatic fluctuations or changes in the volume or location of the nearby Kern River. A recharged groundwater support system would have hydraulically lifted the floating oil into shallower sands; a depleted support system would have allowed the oil to flow downdip, leaving behind undersaturated dry oil sands. Lateral propagation of this floating oil pool is limited by the inability of the unpressured oil to overcome capillary resistances and opposing groundwater movements. Stratigraphic complexities and faulting occasionally influence oil distribution, but the upper limits of producible oil are determined by the configuration of the regional groundwater table. Other shallow, heavy San Joaquin Valley oil fields that lack definitive conventional trapping mechanisms probably can also be reclassified as floating oil pools.

Kodl, E.J. (PT Caltex Pacific Indonesia, Sumatra (Indonesia)); Eacman, J.C. (Texaco Producing, Inc., Bakersfield, CA (USA))

1990-05-01

62

Low-field NMR determinations of the properties of heavy oils and water-in-oil emulsions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Low-field (<50 mT) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) well-logging measurements are beginning to be used to obtain estimates of oil viscosity in situ. To build an interpretive capability, we made laboratory T1 and T2 relaxation measurements on a suite of high-density, high-viscosity crude oils. These measurements were also used to estimate oil viscosity and water fraction from T1 and T2 measurements

G. A LaTorraca; K. J Dunn; P. R Webber; R. M Carlson

1998-01-01

63

Techniques to Improve Cyclic Steam Stimulation of Deep and Extra Heavy Oil Reservoirs in Xiaowa Oil Field  

Microsoft Academic Search

Xiaowa oil field is a fault nose in structure with sandstone res- ervoirs, in which 9.7km 2 oil-bearing area and 3627 10 4 t original oil in place is proved. The pay zones that have been developed are Dongying Group and S3 of lower Tertiary. Dongying Group belongs to delta-front regime with good physical properties. S3 belongs to submerged

Cheng Jincai; Yu Hongkun; Yang Xianke; Liu Guiman

1998-01-01

64

Silverthread oil field, Ventura County, California: a hydrodynamic trap  

SciTech Connect

Silverthread oil field is located in west-central Ventura County, California. An unusual combination of Miocene turbidite sand deposition, tight folding, faulting, and hydrodynamics have created an accumulation of over 6 million bbl of oil from 33 wells. This field is also unique in that it lies beneath the convergence of several opposing major thrust faults which effectively hide any surface indication of structure at depth. Though previously and often explored by majors and other operators, the remarkable deduction and perseverance by Harry Browne and Argo Petroleum Corporation geologists led to the main area discovery in 1971. Of exceptional interest is the interaction of classic hydrodynamic flow on the distribution of fluids within the reservoir. Thirteen contour maps and numerous structure and stratigraphic sections were required to unravel the sand sequence, faulting, structure, and hydrodynamics. Because of high surface relief, most wells were directionally drilled from islands, and subsequent electric logs had to be unstretched using the Dental Dam technique to facilitate their correlation. A large, lighted, three-dimensional model consisting of thirty-six 2 x 5-ft transparent plexiglas plates was constructed to show a simple resolution of the complexities of this area and will be part of the poster session. This display, they believe, will generate considerable interest in their presentation.

Hacker, R.N.; Hester, R.L.

1987-05-01

65

Chemical Characterization of Brines from Selected Oil Fields, Tabasco, Mxico  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thirteen brine samples were recovered from nine oil-producing wells in the Agave (Cretaceous) and Saramako (Cretaceous and Tertiary) oil fields. These samples were analyzed for major and trace elements as well as O and D isotopic compositions. The goal of this study was to compare the possible links between oil-related brines enclosed within Cretaceous and Tertiary productive horizons that were thought to have similar origin oils. The salinity of the Saramako Cretaceous and Tertiary horizons is very constant, around 30000 ppm, one to six times lower than the salinities found in the Agave Cretaceous Field (from 45000 to 170000 ppm). Major ion chemistry suggests that brines are in equilibrium with the host rock. One of the main difference, besides Mg, resides in the S concentrations, were Agave samples present lower concentrations, probably related to the presence of abundant sulfides in the aquifer's rock. Halogen (Br, Cl) systematics indicates a different origin for the Saramako and Agave brines. The Saramako samples halogen composition plot near normal seawater both in the Na/Cl vs Cl/Br (molar ratios) and the Cl vs Br (ppm) plots. The Agave halogen data scatter near and underneath the seawater evaporation line in the Na/Cl vs Cl/Br (molar ratios), suggesting that these fluids could represent seawater evolved past the point of halite precipitation. The Cl vs Br (ppm) plot indicates that these fluids undergone some degree of mixing with low-salinity fluids, probably seawater. The presence of two different groups of data suggests the compartment of the aquifer. The \\deltaD and \\delta18O data show strong differences between the Saramako and Agave brines. The Saramako brine \\delta18O and \\deltaD isotopic compositions are +2.1% (VSMOW) and -13.8% respectively. The Agave samples have a \\delta18O composition from +4.3% to +6.0% and \\deltaD isotopic composition from -20.0% to -12.6%. Differences in \\delta18O compositions between Saramako and Agave brines indicate that the latter fluids were in equilibrium with the host dolostones at certain temperature. Saramako brine composition indicates a near-pristine seawater origin. Agave brines chemical composition suggests an origin related with a bittern formed after evaporation of seawater past the point of halite precipitation, subsequently mixed with seawater. Oxygen isotopic compositions reflect both different host rock and water to rock interaction phenomena, whereas hydrogen isotopic composition can be modified by diagenetic reactions.

Mndez-Ortiz, B.; Carrillo-Chavez, A.; Tritlla, J.; Levresse, G.; Gonzalez-Partida, E.; Oviedo-Perez, A.; Martinez-Kepm, H.; Gonzalez-Posadas, F.; Clara-Valdes, L.

2004-12-01

66

HYDROLOGIC CONTROLS ON THE SUBSURFACE TRANSPORT OF OIL-FIELD  

E-print Network

DESCRIPTION As shown in the site map (figure 1), at Site "B" there is an oil tank battery and a waste pit in Osage County, Oklahoma. Salt and crude oil from oil well waste pits and accidental releases from oil tank batteries have contaminated soil, ground water, and surface water at this site. Based on soil

67

Effect of Constant Magnetic Field on the Rheological Properties of High-Paraffinicity Oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of constant magnetic field on the rheological properties and freezing point of a number of high-paraffinicity oils is studied. It is established that the rheological behavior of oils in a magnetic field depends on the content of paraffin hydrocarbons, resins, and asphaltenes. An increase in the main rheological parameters upon the action of magnetic field is observed for

Yu. V. Loskutova; N. V. Yudina

2003-01-01

68

Increasing Heavy Oil Reserves in the Wilmington Oil Field Through Advanced Reservoir Characterization and Thermal Production Technologies, Class III  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this project was to increase the recoverable heavy oil reserves within sections of the Wilmington Oil Field, near Long Beach, California through the testing and application of advanced reservoir characterization and thermal production technologies. The successful application of these technologies would result in expanding their implementation throughout the Wilmington Field and, through technology transfer, to other slope and basin clastic (SBC) reservoirs.

City of Long Beach; Tidelands Oil Production Company; University of Southern California; David K. Davies and Associates

2002-09-30

69

Low-field NMR determinations of the properties of heavy oils and water-in-oil emulsions.  

PubMed

Low-field (< 50 mT) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) well-logging measurements are beginning to be used to obtain estimates of oil viscosity in situ. To build an interpretive capability, we made laboratory T1 and T2 relaxation measurements on a suite of high-density, high-viscosity crude oils. These measurements were also used to estimate oil viscosity and water fraction from T1 and T2 measurements on stable, water-in-oil emulsions. High-density, high-viscosity oils have components that relax faster than can be measured by nuclear magnetic resonance logging tools. This requires corrections to T2 logging measurements for accurate estimates of oil saturation and porosity. PMID:9803933

LaTorraca, G A; Dunn, K J; Webber, P R; Carlson, R M

1998-01-01

70

Disposal of brackish water concentrate into depleted oil and gas fields: a texas study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Disposal of concentrate from brackish water desalination plants by deep well injection into oil and gas fields is an attractive option in Texas. Underpressured depleted oil and gas reservoirs cover large areas of the state. Six areas were selected from across Texas for detailed analysis. These sites were characterized by abundant brackish groundwater, a projected shortage of freshwater, depleted oil

Jean-Philippe Nicot; Ali H. Chowdhury

2005-01-01

71

Fluidized bed combustion for oil field steam generation and process heating applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new approach for large oil field steam generators is examined. It utilizes lower value solid fuels such as coal, lignite, and petroleum coke. The use of solid fuels will result in approximately a 50% increase in net oil production without additional heat input by eliminating the liquid fuel requirements for current oil fired steam generators. The new approach has

J. S. Davis; W. W. Young; C. J. Lyons

1981-01-01

72

Examination of eastern oil shale disposal problems - the Hope Creek field study  

SciTech Connect

A field-based study of problems associated with the disposal of processed Eastern oil shale was initiated in mid-1983 at a private research site in Montgomery County, Kentucky. The study (known as the Hope Creek Spent Oil Shale Disposal Project) is designed to provide information on the geotechnical, revegetation/reclamation, and leachate generation and composition characteristics of processed Kentucky oil shales. The study utilizes processed oil shale materials (retorted oil shale and reject raw oil shale fines) obtained from a pilot plant run of Kentucky oil shale using the travelling grate retort technology. Approximately 1000 tons of processed oil shale were returned to Kentucky for the purpose of the study. The study, composed of three components, is described. The effort to date has concentrated on site preparation and the construction and implementation of the field study research facilities. These endeavors are described and the project direction in the future years is defined.

Koppenaal, D.W.; Kruspe, R.R.; Robl, T.L.; Cisler, K.; Allen, D.L.

1985-02-01

73

Detection of Virgin Olive Oil Adulteration Using Low Field Unilateral NMR  

PubMed Central

The detection of adulteration in edible oils is a concern in the food industry, especially for the higher priced virgin olive oils. This article presents a low field unilateral nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) method for the detection of the adulteration of virgin olive oil that can be performed through sealed bottles providing a non-destructive screening technique. Adulterations of an extra virgin olive oil with different percentages of sunflower oil and red palm oil were measured with a commercial unilateral instrument, the profile NMR-Mouse. The NMR signal was processed using a 2-dimensional Inverse Laplace transformation to analyze the transverse relaxation and self-diffusion behaviors of different oils. The obtained results demonstrated the feasibility of detecting adulterations of olive oil with percentages of at least 10% of sunflower and red palm oils. PMID:24469355

Xu, Zheng; Morris, Robert H.; Bencsik, Martin; Newton, Michael I.

2014-01-01

74

Functional gene diversity of soil microbial communities from five oil-contaminated fields in China  

PubMed Central

To compare microbial functional diversity in different oil-contaminated fields and to know the effects of oil contaminant and environmental factors, soil samples were taken from typical oil-contaminated fields located in five geographic regions of China. GeoChip, a high-throughput functional gene array, was used to evaluate the microbial functional genes involved in contaminant degradation and in other major biogeochemical/metabolic processes. Our results indicated that the overall microbial community structures were distinct in each oil-contaminated field, and samples were clustered by geographic locations. The organic contaminant degradation genes were most abundant in all samples and presented a similar pattern under oil contaminant stress among the five fields. In addition, alkane and aromatic hydrocarbon degradation genes such as monooxygenase and dioxygenase were detected in high abundance in the oil-contaminated fields. Canonical correspondence analysis indicated that the microbial functional patterns were highly correlated to the local environmental variables, such as oil contaminant concentration, nitrogen and phosphorus contents, salt and pH. Finally, a total of 59% of microbial community variation from GeoChip data can be explained by oil contamination, geographic location and soil geochemical parameters. This study provided insights into the in situ microbial functional structures in oil-contaminated fields and discerned the linkages between microbial communities and environmental variables, which is important to the application of bioremediation in oil-contaminated sites. PMID:20861922

Liang, Yuting; Van Nostrand, Joy D; Deng, Ye; He, Zhili; Wu, Liyou; Zhang, Xu; Li, Guanghe; Zhou, Jizhong

2011-01-01

75

Multimedia simulation increases understanding of oil field tools  

SciTech Connect

Intelligence augmentation using multimedia techniques shows great promise in letting oil field personnel obtain a better understanding of the operation of downhole tools and surface equipment. Whereas artificial intelligence (AI) includes knowledge-based expert systems to identify and analyze situations and recommend solutions, intelligence augmentation (IA) is a different genre. In the IA process, the designer/operator/engineer works with a fully simulated, animated, multimedia demonstration of what will occur on the proposed work. He receives no direct recommendations made by the system; however, the system may assist in identifying pitfalls or to simply provide better understanding. The simulation includes the sound of engines, pumps, pressured air, shearing pins, rupturing diaphragms, etc. Viewing may be in an office environment or at the well site. A personal computer (PC) monitor is the only equipment needed in addition to a computer keyboard-sized processor. IA promises to be an improvement over printed manuals, still slide shows, and models as a means of teaching and demonstrating processes. Hardware and startup software costs are modest enough to allow placing the units in every office and field camp of an operating or service company. The most significant expenditure is in engineering time spent developing the presentations for the company's inventory of equipment and processes. The paper describes the system and its uses.

Schwendemann, K. (Halliburton Energy Services, Carrollton, TX (United States))

1995-01-09

76

Integrated reservoir study of the Appleton Oil Field, Escambia County, Alabama  

E-print Network

The objective of this study is the development of a reservoir characterization of the Appleton Oil Field, Escambia County, Alabama, using petrophysical data, reservoir performance data and reservoir simulation. Appleton Field is comprised of two...

Chijuka, Ekene F

2012-06-07

77

Temperature measurements as a tool of the location of oil field development pollution zones  

Microsoft Academic Search

The oil field development and accompanying injection of drainage water, as a rule, pollute the environment, particularly, underground waters. Temperature measurements can be used to control the environmental processes. We analyse the temperature anomalies due to oil field development. We made temperature measurements in production, control and environmental wells, wells used for the injection and disposal of drainage water and

D. Khristoforova

2003-01-01

78

CUMULATIVE IMPACTS OF OIL FIELDS ON NORTHERN ALASKAN LANDSCAPES (JOURNAL VERSION)  

EPA Science Inventory

Proposed further developments on Alaska's Arctic Coastal Plain raise questions about cumulative effects on arctic tundra ecosystems of development of multiple large oil fields. Maps of historical changes to the Prudhoe Bay Oil Field show indirect impacts can lag behind planned de...

79

Evidence for a palaeo-oil column and alteration of residual oil in a gas-condensate field: Integrated oil inclusion and experimental results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the Phuong Dong gas condensate field, Cuu Long Basin, Vietnam, hydrocarbon inclusions in quartz trapped a variety of petroleum fluids in the gas zone. Based on the attributes of the oil inclusion assemblages (fluorescence colour of the oil, bubble size, presence of bitumen), the presence of a palaeo-oil column is inferred prior to migration of gas into the reservoir. When a palaeo-oil column is displaced by gas, a residual volume fraction of oil remains in pores. If the gas does not completely mix with the oil, molecular partitioning between the residual oil and the new gas charge may change the composition and properties of the residual oil (gas stripping or gas washing). To simulate this phenomenon in the laboratory, we sealed small amounts of crude oil (42 and 30 API) and excess pure gas (methane, ethane, or propane) in fused silica capillary capsules (FSCCs), with and without water. These mixtures were characterized with the same methods used to characterize the fluid inclusions, heating and cooling stage microscopy, fluorescence spectroscopy, synchrotron FT-IR, and Raman spectroscopy. At room temperature, mixtures of ethane and propane with the 30 API oil formed a new immiscible fluorescent liquid phase with colour that is visually more blue than the initial oil. The fluorescence of the original oil phase shifted to yellow or disappeared with formation of semi-solid residues. The blue-shift of the fluorescence of the immiscible phases and strong CH stretching bands in FT-IR spectra are consistent with stripping of hydrocarbon molecules from the oil. In experiments in FSCCs with water solid residues are common. At elevated temperature, reproducing geologic reservoir conditions, the fluorescence changes and therefore the molecular fractionation are enhanced. However, the precipitation of solid residues is responsible of more complex changes. Mixing experiments with the 42 API oil do not form a new immiscible hydrocarbon liquid although the fluorescence displays a similar yellow shift when gas is added. Solid residues rarely form in mixtures with 42 API oil. FT-IR spectra suggest that the decrease of fluorescence intensity of the original oil at short wavelengths to be due to the partitioning of low molecular weight aromatic molecules into the vapour phase and/or the new immiscible liquid phase. The decrease of fluorescence intensity at long wavelengths appears to be due to loss of high molecular weight aromatics during precipitation of solid residues by desorption of aromatics and resins from asphaltenes. Desorption of low molecular weight aromatics and resins from asphaltenes during precipitation can also increase the fluorescence intensity at short wavelengths of the residual oil. Water clearly affects the precipitation of semi-solid residues from the oil phase of the lowest API gravity oil. The change of hydrocarbon phase(s) in UV-visible fluorescence and FT-IR enclosed within the FSCCs were compared with the fluorescence patterns of natural fluid inclusions at Phuong Dong gas condensate field. The experimental results support the concept of gas-washing of residual oil and are consistent with the oil inclusion attributes from the current gas zone at Phuong Dong field. The hydrocarbon charge history of the fractured granite reservoir is interpreted to result from the trapping of residual oil after drainage of a palaeo-oil column by gas.

Bourdet, Julien; Burruss, Robert C.; Chou, I.-Ming; Kempton, Richard; Liu, Keyu; Hung, Nguyen Viet

2014-10-01

80

77 FR 40637 - Wyatt VI, Inc., A Division of Wyatt Field Service Company, Working On-Site at Hovensa Oil...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Wyatt Field Service Company, Working On-Site at Hovensa Oil Refinery, Christiansted, St. Croix, VI; Notice of Affirmative Determination...Wyatt Field Service Company, working on-site at Hovensa Oil Refinery, Christiansted, St. Croix, Virgin Islands (subject...

2012-07-10

81

Distribution of oil and gas fields in China offshore basins  

Microsoft Academic Search

China offshore basins have been explored for more than ten years by ourselves, corporation, and cooperation with foreign oil companies. Large sums of seismic data have been acquired, and several hundreds of wells have been drilled. The present daily production in these basins is 250,000 barrels of oil and 350 MMCF of gas. The activity of exploration and development in

Zaisheng Gong; Yang Jiaming

1996-01-01

82

INCREASING HEAVY OIL RESERVES IN THE WILMINGTON OIL FIELD THROUGH ADVANCED RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION AND THERMAL PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGIES  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this project is to increase the recoverable heavy oil reserves within sections of the Wilmington Oil Field, near Long Beach, California through the testing and application of advanced reservoir characterization and thermal production technologies. The successful application of these technologies will result in expanding their implementation throughout the Wilmington Field and, through technology transfer, to other slope and basin clastic (SBC) reservoirs. The existing steamflood in the Tar zone of Fault Block II-A (Tar II-A) has been relatively inefficient because of several producibility problems which are common in SBC reservoirs: inadequate characterization of the heterogeneous turbidite sands, high permeability thief zones, low gravity oil and non-uniform distribution of the remaining oil. This has resulted in poor sweep efficiency, high steam-oil ratios, and early steam breakthrough. Operational problems related to steam breakthrough, high reservoir pressure, and unconsolidated sands have caused premature well and downhole equipment failures. In aggregate, these reservoir and operational constraints have resulted in increased operating costs and decreased recoverable reserves. A suite of advanced reservoir characterization and thermal production technologies are being applied during the project to improve oil recovery and reduce operating costs.

Scott Hara

2001-06-27

83

CO2 Enhanced Oil Recovery Feasibility Evaluation for East Texas Oil Field  

E-print Network

Carbon dioxide enhanced oil recovery (CO2-EOR) has been undergoing for four decades and is now a proven technology. CO2-EOR increases oil recovery, and in the meantime reduces the greenhouse gas emissions by capture CO2 underground. The objectives...

Lu, Ping

2012-08-31

84

ORIGINAL ARTICLE On the origin of oil-field water in the Biyang Depression of China  

E-print Network

ORIGINAL ARTICLE On the origin of oil-field water in the Biyang Depression of China Yong Fu ? in the Biyang Depression of China and quantitatively analyzed the chemical features of those samples using to be very low in the groundwater of the Biyang Depression. The concentration of anion in the oil

Zhan, Hongbin

85

Petroleum, oil field waters, and authigenic mineral assemblages - Are they in metastable equilibrium in hydrocarbon reservoirs?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The hypothesis that although the presence of carboxylic acids and carboxylate anions in oil field waters is commonly attributed to the thermal maturation of kerogen or bacterial degradation of hydrocarbons during water-washing of petroleum in relatively shallow reservoirs, they may have also been produced in deeper reservoirs by the hydrolysis of hydrocarbons in petroleum at the oil-water interface is tested.

Harold C. Helgeson; Annette M. Knox; Christine E. Owens; Everett L. Shock

1993-01-01

86

Petroleum, oil field waters, and authigenic mineral assemblages: Are they in metastable equilibrium in hydrocarbon reservoirs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although the presence of carboxylic acids and carboxylate anions in oil field waters is commonly attributed to the thermal maturation of kerogen or bacterial degradation of hydrocarbons during water-washing of petroleum in relatively shallow reservoirs, they may have also been produced in deeper reservoirs by the hydrolysis of hydrocarbons in petroleum at the oil-water interface. To test this hypothesis, calculations

H. C. Helgeson; A. M. Knox; C. E. Owens; E. L. Shock

1993-01-01

87

Department of Mechanical Engineering Spring 2011 Oil Field Spill Containment System  

E-print Network

PENNSTATE Department of Mechanical Engineering Spring 2011 Oil Field Spill Containment System Overview Fluids associated with Oil and Gas drilling and fracturing operations must be contained at well to contain spills but their mats are very expensive, difficult to install, and most importantly, not leak

Demirel, Melik C.

88

Energy Conservation and Efficiency Improvement for the Electric Motors Operating in U.S. Oil Fields  

E-print Network

energy use in the U.S. is comparable to all auto energy use. Electric motors are the largest users of energy in all mineral extraction activities. In oil fields, electric motors drive the pumping units used for lifting the oil and water to the surface...

Ula, S.; Cain, W.; Nichols, T.

89

108 Florida Entomologist 97(1) March 2014 FIELD EVALUATION OF PETROLEUM SPRAY OIL AND CARBARYL  

E-print Network

108 Florida Entomologist 97(1) March 2014 Proof FIELD EVALUATION OF PETROLEUM SPRAY OIL shown petroleum spray oil (PSO) to be effective against T. marianae. We therefore examined and the population densities of T. marianae at both the locations were significantly higher in control plots than

Reddy, Gadi VP

90

Micellar Enhanced Ultrafiltration to Remove Traces of Petroleum Oil from Oil Field Brine: Use of Pluronic Triblock Copolymer Micelles  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ultrafiltration characteristics of surfactant (Triton X?100)?oil field brine with a cellulosic membrane were analyzed. Triton X?100 permeate concentration was found to be invariant with ultrafiltration time and remained below or close to the surfactant critical micelle concentration (cmc), suggesting a permeate free of micelles. With an increase of the surfactant feed concentration, the permeate surfactant composition also remained unchanged

Mohammed Aoudia; Fakhr Eldin O. Suliman

2003-01-01

91

Enhancement of the TORIS data base of Appalachian basin oil fields. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The Tertiary Oil Recovery Information System, or TORIS, was developed by the Department of Energy in the early 1980s with a goal of accounting for 70% of the nation`s original oil in place (OOIP). More than 3,700 oil reservoirs were included in TORIS, but coverage in the Appalachian basin was poor. This TORIS enhancement project has two main objectives: to increase the coverage of oil fields in the Appalachian basin; and to evaluate data for reservoirs currently in TORIS, and to add, change or delete data as necessary. Both of these objectives have been accomplished. The geological surveys in Kentucky, Ohio, Pennsylvania and West Virginia have identified 113 fields in the Appalachian basin to be included in TORIS that collectively contained 80% of the original oil in place in the basin. Furthermore, data in TORIS at the outset of the project was checked and additional data were added to the original 20 TORIS oil fields. This final report is organized into four main sections: reservoir selection; evaluation of data already in TORIS; industry assistance; and data base creation and validation. Throughout the report the terms pool and reservoir may be used in reference to a single zone of oil accumulation and production within a field. Thus, a field is composed of one or more pools at various stratigraphic levels. These pools or reservoirs also are referred to as pay sands that may be individually named sandstones within a formation or group.

NONE

1996-01-31

92

Real option analysis as a decision tool in oil field developments  

E-print Network

This thesis shows the applicability and value of real options analysis in developing an oil field, and how its use along with decision analysis can maximize the returns on a given project and minimize the losses. It focuses ...

Babajide, Abisoye (Abisoye E.)

2007-01-01

93

Inversion of field-scale partitioning tracer response for characterizing oil saturation distribution: a streamline approach  

E-print Network

through 13 production wells. We first determined the permeability distribution in the field by matching conservative tracer responses and then matched partitioning tracer responses to determine oil saturation distribution. The results of our work agree...

Iliassov, Pavel Alexandrovich

2012-06-07

94

An Analysis of the Distribution and Economics of Oil Fields for Enhanced Oil Recovery-Carbon Capture and Storage  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The rising carbon dioxide emissions contributing to climate change has lead to the examination of potential ways to mitigate the environmental impact. One such method is through the geological sequestration of carbon (CCS). Although there are several different forms of geological sequestration (i.e. Saline Aquifers, Oil and Gas Reservoirs, Unminable Coal Seams) the current projects are just initiating the large scale-testing phase. The lead entry point into CCS projects is to combine the sequestration with enhanced oil recovery (EOR) due to the improved economic model as a result of the oil recovery and the pre-existing knowledge of the geological structures. The potential scope of CCS-EOR projects throughout the continental United States in terms of a systematic examination of individual reservoir storage potential has not been examined. Instead the majority of the research completed has centered on either estimating the total United States storage potential or the potential of a single specific reservoir. The purpose of this paper is to examine the relationship between oil recovery, carbon dioxide storage and cost during CCS-EOR. The characteristics of the oil and gas reservoirs examined in this study from the Nehring Oil and Gas Database were used in the CCS-EOR model developed by Sean McCoy to estimate the lifting and storage costs of the different reservoirs throughout the continental United States. This allows for an examination of both technical and financial viability of CCS-EOR as an intermediate step for future CCS projects in other geological formations. One option for mitigating climate change is to store industrial CO2 emissions in geologic reservoirs as part of a process known as carbon capture and storage (CCS). There is general consensus that large-scale deployment of CCS would best be initiated by combining geologic sequestration with enhanced oil recovery (EOR), which can use CO2 to improve production from declining oil fields. Revenues from the produced oil could help offset the current high costs of CCS. The cumulative potential of CCS-EOR in the continental U.S. has been evaluated in terms of both CO2 storage capacity and additional oil production. This thesis examines the same potential, but on a reservoir-by-reservoir basis. Reservoir properties from the Nehring Oil and Gas Database are used as inputs to a CCS-EOR model developed by McCoy (YR) to estimate the storage capacity, oil production and CCS-EOR costs for over 10,000 oil reservoirs located throughout the continental United States. We find that 86% of the reservoirs could store ?1 y or CO2 emissions from a single 500 MW coal-fired power plant (i.e., 3 Mtons CO2). Less than 1% of the reservoirs, on the other hand, appear capable of storing ?30 y of CO2 emissions from a 500 MW plan. But these larger reservoirs are also estimated to contain 48% of the predicted additional oil that could be produced through CCS-EOR. The McCoy model also predicts that the reservoirs will on average produce 4.5 bbl of oil for each ton of sequestered CO2, a ratio known as the utilization factor. This utilization factor is 1.5 times higher that arrived at by the U.S. Department of Energy, and leads to a cumulative production of oil for all the reservoirs examined of 183 billion barrels along with a cumulative storage capacity of 41 Mtons CO2. This is equivalent to 26.5 y of current oil consumption by the nation, and 8.5 y of current coal plant emissions.

Hall, Kristyn Ann

95

The space-time structure of oil and gas field growth in a complex depositional system  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Shortly after the discovery of an oil and gas field, an initial estimate is usually made of the ultimate recovery of the field. With the passage of time, this initial estimate is almost always revised upward. The phenomenon of the growth of the expected ultimate recovery of a field, which is known as "field growth," is important to resource assessment analysts for several reasons. First, field growth is the source of a large part of future additions to the inventory of proved reserves of crude oil and natural gas in most petroliferous areas of the world. Second, field growth introduces a large negative bias in the forecast of the future rates of discovery of oil and gas fields made by discovery process models. In this study, the growth in estimated ultimate recovery of oil and gas in fields made up of sandstone reservoirs formed in a complex depositional environment (Frio strand plain exploration play) is examined. The results presented here show how the growth of oil and gas fields is tied directly to the architectural element of the shoreline processes and tectonics that caused the deposition of the individual sand bodies hosting the producible hydrocarbon. ?? 1994 Oxford University Press.

Drew, L.J.; Mast, R.F.; Schuenemeyer, J.H.

1994-01-01

96

UK Oil and Gas Collaborative Doctoral Training Centre (2014 start) Project Title: Environmental assessment of deep-water sponge fields in relation to oil and gas  

E-print Network

UK Oil and Gas Collaborative Doctoral Training Centre (2014 start) Project Title: Environmental assessment of deep-water sponge fields in relation to oil and gas activity: a west of Shetland case study industry and government identified sponge grounds in areas of interest to the oil and gas sector

Henderson, Gideon

97

Physiological and phylogenetic diversity of thermophilic spore-forming hydrocarbon-oxidizing bacteria from oil fields  

Microsoft Academic Search

The distribution and population density of aerobic hydrocarbon-oxidizing bacteria in the high-temperature oil fields of Western\\u000a Siberia, Kazakhstan, and China were studied. Seven strains of aerobic thermophilic spore-forming bacteria were isolated from\\u000a the oil fields and studied by microbiological and molecular biological methods. Based on the 16S rRNA gene sequences, phenotypic\\u000a characteristics, and the results of DNA-DNA hybridization, the taxonomic

T. N. Nazina; T. P. Tourova; A. B. Poltaraus; E. V. Novikova; A. E. Ivanova; A. A. Grigoryan; A. M. Lysenko; S. S. Belyaev

2000-01-01

98

Hydrodynamic effect on oil accumulation in a stratigraphic trap, Kitty Field, Powder River Basin, Wyoming  

E-print Network

HYDRODYNAMIC EFFECT ON OIL ACCUMULATION IN A STRATIGRAPHIC TRAP, KITTY FIELD, POWDER RIVER BASIN, WYOMING A Thesis by GREGORY MARTIN LARBERG "I Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A8M University in partial fulfillment... of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1976 Major Subject: Geology HYDRODYNAMIC EFFECT ON OIL ACCUMULATION IN A STRATIGRAPHIC TRAP, KITTY FIELD, POWDER RIVER BASIN, WYOMING A Thesis by GREGORY MARTIN LARBERG Approved as to style...

Larberg, Gregory Martin

2012-06-07

99

Fabrication of superhydrophobic/superoleophilic cotton for application in the field of water/oil separation.  

PubMed

Cotton with superhydrophobic and superoleophilic properties had been successfully fabricated for application in the field of oil/water separation by the combination of SiO2 nanoparticles on cotton fiber surface and subsequent octadecyltrichlorosilane modification. The as-prepared cotton could be used to selectively absorb various common oils and organic solvents up to above 50 times of its own weight while repelling water completely. The absorbed oils were easily collected by a simple vacuum filtration, and the recovered cotton could be reused for several cycles while still keeping high absorption capacity. Moreover, the as-prepared cotton was simply spun into cloth, which not only could be tailored to the water-repellent clothing but also could be used in the oil/water separation filter system. The results presented in this work might provide a simple, low-cost and environment friendly approach for application in the field of water/oil separation. PMID:24528757

Liu, Feng; Ma, Miaolian; Zang, Deli; Gao, Zhengxin; Wang, Chengyu

2014-03-15

100

Volumetric calculations in an oil field: The basis method  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The basis method for estimating oil reserves in place is compared to a traditional procedure that uses ordinary kriging. In the basis method, auxiliary variables that sum to the net thickness of pay are estimated by cokriging. In theory, the procedure should be more powerful because it makes full use of the cross-correlation between variables and forces the original variables to honor interval constraints. However, at least in our case study, the practical advantages of cokriging for estimating oil in place are marginal. ?? 1993.

Olea, R.A.; Pawlowsky, V.; Davis, J.C.

1993-01-01

101

The discovery and development of the El Dorado (Kansas) oil field  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Pioneers named El Dorado, Kansas, in 1857 for the beauty of the site and the promise of future riches but not until 58 years later was black rather than mythical yellow gold discovered when the Stapleton No. 1 oil well came in on October 5, 1915. El Dorado's leaders were envious when nearby towns found huge gas fields and thrived. John Donley, an El Dorado barber, had tried to find either gas or oil in 1878 at a nearby site selected by a spiritualist. He staked out a townsite, spudded a well and drilled 200 feet before running out of money. Wells in 1879 and 1882 produced only brine. In June, 1914, chafed over discovery of oil in nearby Augusta, El Dorado city fathers contracted with Erasmus Haworth, soon to retire from his position as State Geologist, to perform a geological study of the area. His field work outlined the El Dorado Anticline, which unsuccessfully was drilled first in August, 1915. On abandonment, the Wichita Natural Gas Company purchased the lease and drilled the Stapleton No. 1 oil well. More success followed and by 1918, the El Dorado produced 29 million barrels, almost 9% of the nation's oil. Entrepreneurs came and prospered: the Cities Service Oil Company, A.L. Derby, Jack Vickers, and Bill Skelly all became familiar names in Midcontinent oil marketing. Earlier giant fields had hurt the price of crude oil but the El Dorado came in as both World War I and the rapid popularization of motor transport made a market for both light and heavy ends of the refinery stream. The giant gas field never materialized as hoped but in late 1995, the El Dorado Field produced its 300 millionth barrel of oil.

Skelton, L.H.

1997-01-01

102

Characterization and Source of Unknown Tar-Like Material and Slag in a Former Oil Field in Compton, California  

Microsoft Academic Search

The discovery of tar-like material and slag within a ravine traversing a mobile home park and former oil field promulgated its remediation and a subsequent lawsuit brought by the park's owner against the former Dominquez Oil Field (Compton, CA) operator claiming these materials were derived from historic oil production operations. In this study, archived samples of these materials from the

Scott A. Stout

2007-01-01

103

Petroleum, oil field waters, and authigenic mineral assemblages - Are they in metastable equilibrium in hydrocarbon reservoirs?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The hypothesis that although the presence of carboxylic acids and carboxylate anions in oil field waters is commonly attributed to the thermal maturation of kerogen or bacterial degradation of hydrocarbons during water-washing of petroleum in relatively shallow reservoirs, they may have also been produced in deeper reservoirs by the hydrolysis of hydrocarbons in petroleum at the oil-water interface is tested. Calculations were carried out to determine the distribution of species with the minimum Gibbs free energy in overpressured oil field waters in the Texas Gulf Coast assuming metastable equilibrium among calcite, albite, and a representative spectrum of organic and inorganic aqueous species at reservoir temperatures and pressures. The hypothesis that homogeneous equilibrium obtains among carboxylate and carbonate species in oil field waters is confirmed.

Helgeson, Harold C.; Knox, Annette M.; Owens, Christine E.; Shock, Everett L.

1993-07-01

104

Compressor scheme will reduce gas flaring in India's oil fields  

Microsoft Academic Search

To reduce flaring of associated gas, Oil India Ltd. will be increasing compression capacity over a 5 year period. Although the ideal condition of zero flaring is seldom possible, as long as flaring is limited to 10% of the total gas produced, the operation may be called satisfactory. It is difficult to control flaring within the satisfactory limits in an

1991-01-01

105

Arctic National Wildlife Refuge: oil field or wilderness  

Microsoft Academic Search

The second session of the 100th Congress will see continued debate over the prospect of oil and gas drilling on a 19-million-acre expanse of mountains and tundra known as the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR). The arctic refuge, most of which lies above the Arctic Circle, is larger than any refuges in the lower 48 states. Because of its size,

Spitler

1987-01-01

106

Supergiant oil fields and future prospects in the Middle East  

Microsoft Academic Search

Upper Jurassic carbonates, Lower Cretaceous sands, Lower Cretaceous carbonates and Tertiary carbonates of the Middle East contain more than 50% of the worlds oil. Our area of interest covers SE Turkey and Syria in the north to the borders of Yemen and Oman in the south, and from the Red Sea across Saudi Arabia, the Emirates and the Arabian\\/Persian Gulf

L. Christian; D. Johnston

1995-01-01

107

Update on cavern disposal of NORM-contaminated oil field wastes.  

SciTech Connect

Some types of oil and gas production and processing wastes contain naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM). If NORM is present at concentrations above regulatory levels in oil field waste, the waste requires special disposal practices. The existing disposal options for wastes containing NORM are limited and costly. Argonne National Laboratory has previously evaluated the feasibility, legality, risk and economics of disposing of nonhazardous oil field wastes, other than NORM waste, in salt caverns. Cavern disposal of nonhazardous oil field waste, other than NORM waste, is occurring at four Texas facilities, in several Canadian facilities, and reportedly in Europe. This paper evaluates the legality, technical feasibility, economics, and human health risk of disposing of NORM-contaminated oil field wastes in salt caverns as well. Cavern disposal of NORM waste is technically feasible and poses a very low human health risk. From a legal perspective, a review of federal regulations and regulations from several states indicated that there are no outright prohibitions against NORM disposal in salt caverns or other Class II wells, except for Louisiana which prohibits disposal of radioactive wastes or other radioactive materials in salt domes. Currently, however, only Texas and New Mexico are working on disposal cavern regulations, and no states have issued permits to allow cavern disposal of NORM waste. On the basis of the costs currently charged for cavern disposal of nonhazardous oil field waste (NOW), NORM waste disposal in caverns is likely to be cost competitive with existing NORM waste disposal methods when regulatory agencies approve the practice.

Veil, J. A.

1998-09-22

108

Preliminary technical and legal evaluation of disposing of nonhazardous oil field waste into salt caverns  

SciTech Connect

Caverns can be readily formed in salt formations through solution mining. The caverns may be formed incidentally, as a result of salt recovery, or intentionally to create an underground chamber that can be used for storing hydrocarbon products or compressed air or disposing of wastes. The purpose of this report is to evaluate the feasibility, suitability, and legality of disposing of nonhazardous oil and gas exploration, development, and production wastes (hereafter referred to as oil field wastes, unless otherwise noted) in salt caverns. Chapter 2 provides background information on: types and locations of US subsurface salt deposits; basic solution mining techniques used to create caverns; and ways in which salt caverns are used. Later chapters provide discussion of: federal and state regulatory requirements concerning disposal of oil field waste, including which wastes are considered eligible for cavern disposal; waste streams that are considered to be oil field waste; and an evaluation of technical issues concerning the suitability of using salt caverns for disposing of oil field waste. Separate chapters present: types of oil field wastes suitable for cavern disposal; cavern design and location; disposal operations; and closure and remediation. This report does not suggest specific numerical limits for such factors or variables as distance to neighboring activities, depths for casings, pressure testing, or size and shape of cavern. The intent is to raise issues and general approaches that will contribute to the growing body of information on this subject.

Veil, J.; Elcock, D.; Raivel, M.; Caudle, D.; Ayers, R.C. Jr.; Grunewald, B.

1996-06-01

109

Complete Moment Tensor Determination of Induced Seismicity in Unconventional and Conventional Oil/Gas Fields  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Induced seismicity occurs both in conventional oil/gas fields due to production and water injection and in unconventional oil/gas fields due to hydraulic fracturing. Source mechanisms of these induced earthquakes are of great importance for understanding their causes and the physics of the seismic processes in reservoirs. Previous research on the analysis of induced seismic events in conventional oil/gas fields assumed a double couple (DC) source mechanism. However, recent studies have shown a non-negligible percentage of a non-double-couple (non-DC) component of source moment tensor in hydraulic fracturing events (len et al., 2009; Warpinski and Du, 2010; Song and Toksz, 2011). In this study, we determine the full moment tensor of the induced seismicity data in a conventional oil/gas field and for hydrofrac events in an unconventional oil/gas field. Song and Toksz (2011) developed a full waveform based complete moment tensor inversion method to investigate a non-DC source mechanism. We apply this approach to the induced seismicity data from a conventional gas field in Oman. In addition, this approach is also applied to hydrofrac microseismicity data monitored by downhole geophones in four wells in US. We compare the source mechanisms of induced seismicity in the two different types of gas fields and explain the differences in terms of physical processes.

Gu, C.; Li, J.; Toksoz, M. N.

2013-12-01

110

Assessment of Alaska's North Slope Oil Field Capacity to Sequester CO{sub 2}  

SciTech Connect

The capacity of 21 major fields containing more than 95% of the North Slope of Alaska's oil were investigated for CO{sub 2} storage by injecting CO{sub 2} as an enhanced oil recovery (EOR) agent. These fields meet the criteria for the application of miscible and immiscible CO{sub 2}-EOR methods and contain about 40 billion barrels of oil after primary and secondary recovery. Volumetric calculations from this study indicate that these fields have a static storage capacity of 3 billion metric tons of CO{sub 2}, assuming 100% oil recovery, re-pressurizing the fields to pre-fracturing pressure and applying a 50% capacity reduction to compensate for heterogeneity and for water invasion from the underlying aquifer. A ranking produced from this study, mainly controlled by field size and fracture gradient, identifies Prudhoe, Kuparuk, and West Sak as possessing the largest storage capacities under a 20% safety factor on pressures applied during storage to avoid over-pressurization, fracturing, and gas leakage. Simulation studies were conducted using CO{sub 2} Prophet to determine the amount of oil technically recoverable and CO{sub 2} gas storage possible during this process. Fields were categorized as miscible, partially miscible, and immiscible based on the miscibility of CO{sub 2} with their oil. Seven sample fields were selected across these categories for simulation studies comparing pure CO{sub 2} and water-alternating-gas injection. Results showed that the top two fields in each category for recovery and CO{sub 2} storage were Alpine and Point McIntyre (miscible), Prudhoe and Kuparuk (partially miscible), and West Sak and Lisburne (immiscible). The study concludes that 5 billion metric tons of CO{sub 2} can be stored while recovering 14.2 billion barrels of the remaining oil.

Umekwe, Pascal, E-mail: wpascals@gmail.com [Baker Hughes (United States)] [Baker Hughes (United States); Mongrain, Joanna, E-mail: Joanna.Mongrain@shell.com [Shell International Exploration and Production Co (United States)] [Shell International Exploration and Production Co (United States); Ahmadi, Mohabbat, E-mail: mahmadi@alaska.edu [University of Alaska Fairbanks, Petroleum Engineering Department (United States)] [University of Alaska Fairbanks, Petroleum Engineering Department (United States); Hanks, Catherine, E-mail: chanks@gi.alaska.edu [University of Alaska Fairbanks, Geophysical Institute (United States)] [University of Alaska Fairbanks, Geophysical Institute (United States)

2013-03-15

111

An overview of giant oil and gas fields of the decade: 1978-1988  

SciTech Connect

Scientific studies and projections of future world energy demand indicate that although alternate-energy fuel sources must be actively pursued and developed, there must be adequate petroleum supplies to bridge the gap. For the international petroleum industry, the years covered by this conference, 1978-1988, were complex. They were years of boom and bust. The world's energy consciousness was boosted sharply by the effects of the 1979 Iranian revolution and the resulting embargo that sent world oil prices to record heights. Global petroleum exploration soon surged, leading to the industry's all-time drilling high in 1981. Then came the oil price collapse in 1985, and the following years were characterized by falling oil prices and drastic budget cuts for exploration and development. Although exploration dropped sharply, there was a steady flow of giant oil and gas field discoveries. Using the giant field designation criteria of 500 million bbl of oil recoverable for fields in Asiatic Russia, North Africa, and the Middle East; 100 million bbl of oil recoverable for the fields in the remainder of the world; and 3 tcf and 1 tcf of gas reserves recoverable for the same areas, respectively, it is estimated that at least 182 oil and gas fields containing an estimated 140 billion BOE were discovered in 46 countries during the years covered by this conference. Today, exploration is slowly gaining momentum in all types of petroleum provinces-intensely explored, partially explored, moderately explored, and essentially unexplored - and as long as exploration continues in whatever area of the world, there will always be opportunities to find giant oil and gas fields.

Halbouty, M.T. (Michel T. Halbouty Energy Co., Houston, TX (USA))

1990-09-01

112

Oil Spill Prevention Response and Cleanup: Google Earth Virtual Field Trip Activity  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this well thought out virtual field trip your students will learn about oil spill prevention response and cleanup methods at various sites in Alaska. It is an excellent activity to teach students about policy and procedures needed to make oil transportation safe. In addition, it is a great science activity to learn about the microbiology methods behind cleaning up oil spills. The 2008 ATEEC Fellows Institute brought 18 community college and high school instructors from the environmental sciences to Alaska. They created virtual field trips using Google Earth. Learn from the experts in this interactive tour complete with video offering expert insight into the world of the oil industry. In this well thought out Google Earth virtual field trip you will learn about oil spill prevention response and cleanup methods at various sites in Alaska highlighting the Alyeska Marine Terminal. An excellent activity to teach students about policy and procedures needed to make oil transportation safe. In addition it is a great science activity to learn about the microbiology methods behind cleaning up oil spills. An excellent teachers guide is included as well. This resource is free to download. Users must first create a login with ATEEC's website to access the file.

2013-06-24

113

INCREASING HEAVY OIL RESERVES IN THE WILMINGTON OIL FIELD THROUGH ADVANCED RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION AND THERMAL PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGIES  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this project is to increase the recoverable heavy oil reserves within sections of the Wilmington Oil Field, near Long Beach, California, through the testing and application of advanced reservoir characterization and thermal production technologies. The hope is that successful application of these technologies will result in their implementation throughout the Wilmington Field and, through technology transfer, will be extended to increase the recoverable oil reserves in other slope and basin clastic (SBC) reservoirs. The existing steamflood in the Tar zone of Fault Block II-A (Tar II-A) has been relatively inefficient because of several producibility problems which are common in SBC reservoirs: inadequate characterization of the heterogeneous turbidite sands, high permeability thief zones, low gravity oil and non-uniform distribution of the remaining oil. This has resulted in poor sweep efficiency, high steam-oil ratios, and early steam breakthrough. Operational problems related to steam breakthrough, high reservoir pressure, and unconsolidated sands have caused premature well and downhole equipment failures. In aggregate, these reservoir and operational constraints have resulted in increased operating costs and decreased recoverable reserves. A suite of advanced reservoir characterization and thermal production technologies are being applied during the project to improve oil recovery and reduce operating costs, including: (1) Development of three-dimensional (3-D) deterministic and stochastic reservoir simulation models--thermal or otherwise--to aid in reservoir management of the steamflood and post-steamflood phases and subsequent development work. (2) Development of computerized 3-D visualizations of the geologic and reservoir simulation models to aid reservoir surveillance and operations. (3) Perform detailed studies of the geochemical interactions between the steam and the formation rock and fluids. (4) Testing and proposed application of a novel alkaline-steam well completion technique for the containment of the unconsolidated formation sands and control of fluid entry and injection profiles. (5) Installation of a 2100 ft, 14 inch insulated, steam line beneath a harbor channel to supply steam to an island location. (6) Testing and proposed application of thermal recovery technologies to increase oil production and reserves: (a) Performing pilot tests of cyclic steam injection and production on new horizontal wells. (b) Performing pilot tests of hot water-alternating-steam (WAS) drive in the existing steam drive area to improve thermal efficiency. (7) Perform a pilot steamflood with the four horizontal injectors and producers using a pseudo steam-assisted gravity-drainage (SAGD) process. (8) Advanced reservoir management, through computer-aided access to production and geologic data to integrate reservoir characterization, engineering, monitoring and evaluation.

Unknown

2001-08-08

114

Increased Oil Recovery from Mature Oil Fields Using Gelled Polymer Treatments  

SciTech Connect

Gelled polymer treatments were applied to oil reservoirs to increase oil production and to reduce water production by altering the fluid movement within the reservoir. This report is aimed at reducing barriers to the widespread use of these treatments by developing methods to predict gel behavior during placement in matrix rock and fractures, determining the persistence of permeability reduction after gel placement, and by developing methods to design production well treatments to control water production. Procedures were developed to determine the weight-average molecular weight and average size of polyacrylamide samples in aqueous solutions. Sample preparation techniques were key to achieving reproducible results.

Willhite, G.P.; Green, D.W.; McCool, S.

2001-03-28

115

Bird Mortality in Oil Field Wastewater Disposal Facilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Commercial and centralized oilfield wastewater disposal facilities (COWDFs) are used in the Western United States for the\\u000a disposal of formation water produced from oil and natural gas wells. In Colorado, New Mexico, Utah, and Wyoming, COWDFs use\\u000a large evaporation ponds to dispose of the wastewater. Birds are attracted to these large evaporation ponds which, if not managed\\u000a properly, can cause

Pedro Ramirez Jr

2010-01-01

116

Petroleum geology of Giant oil and gas fields in Turpan Basin Xinjiang China  

SciTech Connect

Turpan Basin is the smallest and the last development basin in three big basins of Xinjiang autonomous region, P.R. China. Since April, 1989, the Shanshan oilfield was discovered, the Oinling, Wenjisang, Midang, Baka, Qiudong and North Putaogou fields were discovered. In 1994, the crude oil productivity of Turpan Basin was a Million tons, with an estimated output of 3 million tons per year by 1995; obviously a key oil productive base in the west basins of China, Tarim, Jungar, Chaidam, Hexi, Erduos and Sichuan Basins. The Turpan Basin is an intermontane basin in a eugeosyncline foldbelt of the north Tianshan Mountains. The oil and gas was produced from the payzone of the Xishanyao, Sanjianfang and Qiketai Formatiosn of the Middle Jurassic series. The geochemical characteristics of the crude oil and gas indicate they derive from the Middle to Lower Jurassic coal series, in which contains the best oil-prone source rocks in the basin.

Boliang, Hu; Jiajing, Yang, [Lanzhou, Gansu (China)

1995-08-01

117

Carbon dioxide resistance of aromatic amine cured epoxy fiberglass oil field pipe  

SciTech Connect

Aromatic amine cured epoxy fiberglass piping systems have been used successfully to handle oil field services requiring resistance to carbon dioxide. Laboratory and field test data verify the suitability of this type of pipe for these services. The laboratory study covers the effects of wet and dry carbon dioxide on aromatic amine cured epoxy fiberglass pipe under pressures from 300 to 850 psig (2.07 to 5.86 MPa). The oil field test data show the effects of 10 years of flowline service handling produced water saturated with gases containing carbon dioxide and hydrogen sulfide.

Oswald, K.J.

1988-03-01

118

Field performance of a laser fluorosensor for the detection of oil spills  

Microsoft Academic Search

An airborne laser fluorosensor is described that was designed to detect and identify targets by means of the characteristic fluorescence emission spectrum. The first field trials of the sensor over marine oil and dye spills are reported. A correlation technique has been developed that, when applied to the data collected during these field trials, clearly differentiated among dye, the two

R. A. ONeil; L. Buja-Bijunas; D. M. Rayner

1980-01-01

119

Washing of field weathered crude oil contaminated soil with an environmentally compatible surfactant, alkyl polyglucoside.  

PubMed

Weathered crude oil contaminated soils (COCSs), which are much more difficult to remediate than those freshly contaminated, are widespread especially at the sites of oil fields and industries. Surfactant enhanced ex situ soil washing could be used to remediate COCSs, but surfactant toxicity becomes one of the major concerns. In this study, a class of green surfactants, alkyl polyglucosides (APGs), were tested in washing the field weathered COCS with relatively high oil concentration (123 mgg(-1) dry soil) from Jilin Oilfield, Northeastern China. APG1214, characterized with longer alkyl chain, was more effective than APG0810 in crude oil removal. Adding inorganic sodium salts into APG1214 solution further improved the crude oil removal efficiency (CORE). Washing parameters (temperature, washing time, agitation speed and solution/soil ratio) were investigated and further optimized integratedly with an orthogonal design. At the optimum conditions, the CORE reached 97%. GC/MS analysis showed that the proportion of small n-alkanes (C(16)-C(23)) in residual crude oil gradually increased, which was helpful to interpret the oil removal mechanism. Moreover, eminent effect on removal of large n-alkanes was achieved from the synergy between APG1214 and inorganic salts, which was opposite to the effect when they were added separately. This study demonstrated a promising way to remediate COCS with ecologically compatible surfactant and provided guidelines for its practical application. PMID:19493558

Han, Mei; Ji, Guodong; Ni, Jinren

2009-07-01

120

Economic Implementation and Optimization of Secondary Oil Recovery Process: St. Mary West Field, Lafayette County, Arkansas  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this study was to investigate the economic appropriateness of several enhanced oil recovery processes that are available to a small mature oil field located in southwest Arkansas and to implement the most economic efficient process evaluated. The State of Arkansas natural resource laws require that an oilfield is to be unitized before conducting a secondary recovery project. This requires all properties that can reasonably be determined to include the oil productive reservoir must be bound together as one common lease by a legal contract that must be approved to be fair and equitable to all property owners within the proposed unit area.

Brock P.E., Cary D.

2003-03-10

121

Hackberry oil and gas fields in southeast Texas: channel\\/fan depositional systems and structural controls  

Microsoft Academic Search

Deep-water sandstones of the Hackberry Formation (Oligocene) host significant quantities of oil and gas. They remain one of the most important deep exploration targets in southeastern-most Texas; new fields producing from the Hackberry have been discovered at a steady rate from 1946 to the present. The Hackberry contains two hydrocarbon plays. The updip play is relatively shallow, oil-rich, and lies

T. E. Ewing; R. S. Reed

1983-01-01

122

Effectiveness of Zanthoxylum piperitum -derived essential oil as an alternative repellent under laboratory and field applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently, there were considerable efforts made to promote the use of environmentally friendly and biodegradable natural insecticides and repellents, particularly from botanical sources. In this study, Zanthoxylum piperitum-derived essential oil isolated by steam distillation was investigated and compared to the standard synthetic repellent, N,N-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide (DEET), for repellency against mosquitoes under laboratory and field conditions. The oil of Z. piperitum alone

K. Kamsuk; W. Choochote; U. Chaithong; A. Jitpakdi; P. Tippawangkosol; D. Riyong; B. Pitasawat

2007-01-01

123

Bioaugmentation and composting of oil-field drill-cuttings containing polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The potentials of bioaugmentation and composting as bioremediation technologies for the removal of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from oil-field drill-cuttings have been compared. From a mud-pit close to a just-completed crude-oil well in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria, 4000 g of drill cuttings was obtained and homogenized with 667 g of top-soil (to serve as microbes carrier) in three

Josiah M. Ayotamuno; Reuben N. Okparanma; Peremelade P. Arak

2009-01-01

124

Planning and management of the Nido Reef Complex Oil Field development, Philippines  

SciTech Connect

As Operator for the Northeast Palawan consortium, Philippines-Cities Service, Inc., commenced the Philippines first commercial offshore oil production from the Nido Reef Complex Oil Field on February 1, 1979, some 11 months after a decision by management to start development. The relative speed at which design, fabrication, and construction were accomplished is attributed to the use of the concepts of project planning, task force approach, and project management. This paper presents the above concepts as applied to the Nido Complex.

Harry, R.Y.

1981-01-01

125

Observed oil and gas field size distributions: A consequence of the discovery process and prices of oil and gas  

USGS Publications Warehouse

If observed oil and gas field size distributions are obtained by random samplings, the fitted distributions should approximate that of the parent population of oil and gas fields. However, empirical evidence strongly suggests that larger fields tend to be discovered earlier in the discovery process than they would be by random sampling. Economic factors also can limit the number of small fields that are developed and reported. This paper examines observed size distributions in state and federal waters of offshore Texas. Results of the analysis demonstrate how the shape of the observable size distributions change with significant hydrocarbon price changes. Comparison of state and federal observed size distributions in the offshore area shows how production cost differences also affect the shape of the observed size distribution. Methods for modifying the discovery rate estimation procedures when economic factors significantly affect the discovery sequence are presented. A primary conclusion of the analysis is that, because hydrocarbon price changes can significantly affect the observed discovery size distribution, one should not be confident about inferring the form and specific parameters of the parent field size distribution from the observed distributions. ?? 1988 International Association for Mathematical Geology.

Drew, L.J.; Attanasi, E.D.; Schuenemeyer, J.H.

1988-01-01

126

Reservoir Model of the Jacksonburg-Stringtown Oil Field; Northwestern West Virginia: Potential for Miscible Carbon Dioxide Enhanced Oil Recovery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Located in northwestern West Virginia, the Jacksonburg-Stringtown field has produced over 22 million barrels of oil (MMBO) since its discovery in 1895. The primary producing interval within the field is the Late Devonian Gordon Stray. Log analysis shows this formation to represent an estuarine depositional system. Four subunits within the formation are defined based on depositional framework: barrier sand, central bay shale, estuarine channels, and fluvial channel subunits. RHOmaa/Umaa lithological composition plots support the conclusion of a marine-influenced estuarine depositional framework. Structural and isopach maps generated with data from 73 local wells reveal a northeast-southwest trending sand deposit of 15-35 foot thickness, which is interpreted as the depocenter for the incised valley of the Gordon Stray. Analysis of formation horizon maps shows that the reservoir is synclinal and, as a result, contains a stratigraphic trap as opposed to the more common structural traps found in the immediate area. Porosity and pore-feet distribution maps indicate high porosity regions in southern regions of the field and high pore volume in northern areas. A miscible CO2 flood model estimates that an additional 7.3 MMBO could be recovered from the high porosity regions in the southern half of the field. The Jacksonburg-Stringtown field is well-suited for enhanced oil recovery and/or geologic CO2 sequestration.

Bergerud, Blake

127

Arctic National Wildlife Refuge: oil field or wilderness  

SciTech Connect

The second session of the 100th Congress will see continued debate over the prospect of oil and gas drilling on a 19-million-acre expanse of mountains and tundra known as the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR). The arctic refuge, most of which lies above the Arctic Circle, is larger than any refuges in the lower 48 states. Because of its size, the area supports a broad range of linked ecosystems. Of particular concern is the 1.5-million-acre coastal plain, which may be targeted for development. The coastal plain provides a home, at least part of the year, to Alaska's porcupine caribou. The coastal plain also supports many other forms of wildlife-including the wolf, arctic fox, brown bear, polar bear, and arctic peregrine falcon, which is listed as a threatened species. The potential effects of drilling projects extend beyond loss of wildlife; they include desecration of the land itself. Although few members of Congress deny the value of protecting the amazing variety of life on the coastal plain, some insist that limited drilling could be conducted without destroying crucial habitat. Last July, the department tentatively divided some of the targeted lands among native corporations in preparation for leasing to oil companies. In response to what was felt to be an attempt to overstep congressional authority, the House passed HR 2629, banning this kind of land deal without congressional approval. In essence, the measure reiterated congressional authority provided by the Alaska National Interest Lands Conservation Act (ANILCA) of 1980. This act mandated the study of environmental threats and oil potential by the Department of Interior, while putting the ANWR coastal plain off-limits to development without an explicit congressional directive.

Spitler, A.

1987-11-01

128

Remote control of off-shore oil field production equipment  

E-print Network

-gas separator and the heater-treater into the gauging tanks, and switch this flow as the tanks are filled. (2) He must accurately gauge each tank as it is filled. (3) He must shut-in the wells if a haaardous or wasteful oonditon arises in the lease... of oil and pollution of the water due to malfunctioning of ths separator or plugging of any of the lines. Assuming that the wells will not be making water, which eliminates the need for a treater and its associated valves, anc assumine that the valves...

Sissom, Alton Wayne

2012-06-07

129

Field test and mathematical modeling of bioremediation of an oil-contaminated soil. Part 1: Field test  

Microsoft Academic Search

A fire-wall area (about 270 ft x 310 ft) with the Bunker C oil contaminated soil was selected for the bioremediation field test. This fire-wall area was separated into 18 plots by dirt dikes to test 6 bioremediation methods with three tests of each method. The six treatment methods were: (a) aeration with basic nutrients and indigenous organisms (BNIO); (b)

K. Y. Li; T. Xu; J. A. Colapret; W. A. Cawley; J. S. Bonner; A. Ernest; P. B. Verramachaneni

1994-01-01

130

Lessons in microbial geochemistry from the Coal Oil Point seep field: progress as prospects.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The hydrocarbon seeps located offshore Coal Oil Point, Santa Barbara, CA, are estimated to emit 1010 grams of methane and 50 thousand barrels of oil annually, and are among the most prolific in the world. The seep field spans a range of shelf depths and many of the seeps are accessible by SCUBA, making this an ideal location to investigate the impact of microbes on the biogeochemical cycling of methane and other hydrocarbons. With funding provided by the National Science Foundation, the Minerals Management Service and the Petroleum Research Fund, we have begun to investigate the interactions between microbes, hydrocarbon distributions, and environmental dynamics in the seep environment. This presentation will provide an overview of Coal Oil Point seep field and the biogeochemical research being conducted there. Several topics will be incorporated including i) the dynamics of oil and gas seepage, ii) the microbial consumption of methane, ethane, propane, butane and crude oil, iii) the distribution and composition of microbial mats, iv) redox differentiation in seep sediments and the importance of advection, and v) the development of experimental tools for the investigation of seep environments. Prospects for future biochemical research in the Coal Oil Point seep field will also be discussed.

Valentine, D. L.; Kinnaman, F.; Wardlaw, G.; Redmond, M.; Ding, H.; Kimball, J.; Busso, L.; Larson, A.

2005-12-01

131

Genomic and genotoxic responses to controlled weathered-oil exposures confirm and extend field studies on impacts of the deepwater horizon oil spill on native killifish.  

PubMed

To understand the ecotoxicological impacts of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill, field studies provide a context for ecological realism but laboratory-based studies offer power for connecting biological effects with specific causes. As a complement to field studies, we characterized genome-wide gene expression responses of Gulf killifish (Fundulus grandis) to oil-contaminated waters in controlled laboratory exposures. Transcriptional responses to the highest concentrations of oiled water in the laboratory were predictive of field-observed responses that coincided with the timing and location of major oiling. The transcriptional response to the low concentration (?10-fold lower than the high concentration) was distinct from the high concentration and was not predictive of major oiling in the field. The high concentration response was characterized by activation of the molecular signaling pathway that facilitates oil metabolism and oil toxicity. The high concentration also induced DNA damage. The low concentration invoked expression of genes that may support a compensatory response, including genes associated with regulation of transcription, cell cycle progression, RNA processing, DNA damage, and apoptosis. We conclude that the gene expression response detected in the field was a robust indicator of exposure to the toxic components of contaminating oil, that animals in the field were exposed to relatively high concentrations that are especially damaging to early life stages, and that such exposures can damage DNA. PMID:25208076

Pilcher, Whitney; Miles, Scott; Tang, Song; Mayer, Greg; Whitehead, Andrew

2014-01-01

132

Genomic and Genotoxic Responses to Controlled Weathered-Oil Exposures Confirm and Extend Field Studies on Impacts of the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill on Native Killifish  

PubMed Central

To understand the ecotoxicological impacts of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill, field studies provide a context for ecological realism but laboratory-based studies offer power for connecting biological effects with specific causes. As a complement to field studies, we characterized genome-wide gene expression responses of Gulf killifish (Fundulus grandis) to oil-contaminated waters in controlled laboratory exposures. Transcriptional responses to the highest concentrations of oiled water in the laboratory were predictive of field-observed responses that coincided with the timing and location of major oiling. The transcriptional response to the low concentration (?10-fold lower than the high concentration) was distinct from the high concentration and was not predictive of major oiling in the field. The high concentration response was characterized by activation of the molecular signaling pathway that facilitates oil metabolism and oil toxicity. The high concentration also induced DNA damage. The low concentration invoked expression of genes that may support a compensatory response, including genes associated with regulation of transcription, cell cycle progression, RNA processing, DNA damage, and apoptosis. We conclude that the gene expression response detected in the field was a robust indicator of exposure to the toxic components of contaminating oil, that animals in the field were exposed to relatively high concentrations that are especially damaging to early life stages, and that such exposures can damage DNA. PMID:25208076

Pilcher, Whitney; Miles, Scott; Tang, Song; Mayer, Greg; Whitehead, Andrew

2014-01-01

133

Power systems study solutions solving lightning power quality and load limitations problems in the Boscan oil field  

Microsoft Academic Search

ChevronTexaco operates their Boscan oil field just West of Maracaibo, Venezuela. The southern half of this field produces oil using electrical submersible pumps with a smaller percentage of beam pumps. The power company supplies this field from a large substation via ten 24 kV aerial lines. Presently, this distribution system is at capacity and plagued with power quality problems. Faced

D. Shipp; J. Sheppard; A. Martinez

2003-01-01

134

FIELD MANUAL FOR OIL SPILLS IN COLD CLIMATES  

EPA Science Inventory

This manual documents the state-of-the-art response techniques as of early 1979. The manual has been divided into two basic parts: A field manual and supporting data. The field manual consists of a set of matrices that summarizes applicable techniques for various conditions. The ...

135

Rapid subsidence over oil fields measured by SAR interferometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Lost Hills and Belridge oilfields are in the San Joaquin Valley, California. The major oil reservoir is high porosity and low permeability diatomite. Extraction of large volumes from shallow depths causes reduction in pore pressure and subsequent compaction, forming a surface subsidence bowl. We measure this subsidence from space using interferometric analysis of SAR (Synthetic Aperture Radar) data collected by the European Space Agency Remote Sensing Satellites (ERS-1 and ERS-2). Maximum subsidence rates are as high as 40 mm in 35 days or >400 mm/yr, measured from interferograms with time separations ranging from one day to 26 months. The 8- and 26-month interferograms contain areas where the subsidence gradient exceeds the measurement possible with ERS SAR, but shows increased detail in areas of less rapid subsidence. Synoptic mapping of subsidence distribution from satellite data powerfully complements ground-based techniques, permits measurements where access is difficult, and aids identification of underlying causes.

Fielding, Eric J.; Blom, Ronald G.; Goldstein, Richard M.

136

Alaska North Slope oil-field restoration research strategy. Manual  

SciTech Connect

The document provides a research strategy to support ecological restoration of disturbances related to oil and gas developments on the North Slope of Alaska that is mutually beneficial to the arctic ecorestoration research community and the arctic regulatory community (including at least the following entities: The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, EPA, National Marine Fisheries, US FWS, BLM, the Alaska Department of Natural Resources, and the North Slope Borough). The purpose of this strategy is to: (1) identify major information or knowledge gaps that have inhibited restoration activities or slowed the regulatory decision process, (2) determine the potential for filling knowledge gaps through research, and (3) suggest tentative priorities for research that are based on the needs identified in steps one and two.

Wyant, J.G.; Knapp, C.M.

1992-03-01

137

Pilot test of alkaline surfactant polymer flooding in Daqing Oil Field  

SciTech Connect

After the success of polymer flooding in Daqing, two alkaline-surfactant-polymer (ASP) floods have been conducted to (1) increase oil recovery further (2) study the feasibility of ASP flooding (3) provide technical and practical experience for expanding the ASP pilots. Inverted five spot pattern is adopted in both pilots. Pilot 1 (PO) is located in the West Central area of Daqing Oil Field and consists of 4 injectors and 9 producers. Pilot 2 (XF) is located in the South area of Daqing Oil Field and has 1 injector and 4 producers. The crude oil of both pilots have high paraffin content and low acid value. Compared to PO, XF has characteristics of lower heterogeneity, lighter oil and higher recovery by water flooding. For each pilot, after extensive screening, an ASP system has been determined. The ASP systems all feature very low surfactant concentration and wide range of ultra low interfacial tension with change of concentration of any of the three components. Core flooding and numerical simulation show more than 20% OOIP incremental recovery by ASP over water flooding for both pilots. By the end of May, 1995, 100% of ASP slug and 100% of the polymer buffer have been injected in the pilots. Production wells showed good responses in terms of large decrease in water cut and increase in oil production. The performance of each pilot has followed the numerical simulation predication very well, or even a bit better. Emulsions showed up in producers, but the emulsions are easy to be broken by a special de-emulsifier. No formation damage and scaling have been detected. The ASP flood pilot tests are technically successful and, based on the preliminary evaluation, economically feasible. Therefore, in the near future, much larger scale ASP flood field tests are going to be performed at several districts in Daqing Oil Field.

Wang Demin; Zhang Zhenhua; Cheng Jiecheng; Yang Jingchun; Gao Shutang; Li Lin

1996-12-31

138

Effects of the Erika oil spill on the common starfish Asterias rubens, evaluated by field and laboratory studies.  

E-print Network

1 1 Effects of the Erika oil spill on the common starfish Asterias rubens, evaluated by field number: + 33 2 98 49 86 34 Fax: + 32 2 98 49 86 45 Abstract Impacts of the ,,Erika oil spill by these contaminants. Keywords: Asterias rubens; Erika oil spill; Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons; biomarkers; growth

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

139

[Determination of lithium in the oil field water by flame atomic absorption spectrometry].  

PubMed

Flame atomic absorption spectrometry was applied to the determination of micro amount of lithium in the oil field water of certain area. In order to determine which method is more appropriate for the determination of lithium content in the oil field water, standard curve method and standard addition method were compared. The effects of dilution, coexistent ions, and deionizers on the determination were studied. For the determination of lithium content in the same diluted oil field water samples, there exist obvious differences between the results obtained from standard addition method and standard curve method. Standard addition method gives results with a larger error, whereas standard curve method gives more accurate results. It is difficult to eliminate the interferences when the standard addition method is used. The standard curve method is found to be more suitable for the determination of micro amount of lithium in the oil field water for its accuracy, simplicity, and feasibility. When the standard curve method is used, both the determined lithium concentration and the recovery change with the dilution extent of the oil field water. In order to get an accurate result, the oil field water sample should be diluted to 1/200 or less. In this case, the recovery by standard addition method ranges from 94.3% to 96.9%. When sodium phosphate or sodium chloride is used as the deionizer, the recovery by standard addition method ranges from 94.6% to 98.6%, or from 94.2% to 96.3%. In the determination of lithium content in oil field water, there are larger experimental errors without the addition of any deionizer. When the concentration of coexistent ions is within an allowed range, the addition of sodium phosphate as a deionizer can eliminate the interferences of the coexistent ions with the determination of the lithium content. If sodium chloride is used as a deionizer, a more accurate result can be obtained when the sodium content in the samples is near the sodium content in the standard solutions. In general, under suitable experimental conditions, sodium chloride can be used as the deionizer for the determination of lithium content in the oil field water. PMID:19385254

Yang, Hong-Jun; Ye, Xiu-Shen; Li, Bing; Wu, Zhi-Jian; Li, Wu

2009-01-01

140

Mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) repellency field tests of essential oils from plants traditionally used in Laos.  

PubMed

Essential oils of Hyptis suaveolens (Lamiaceae), Croton roxburghii (Euphorbiaceae), and Litsea cubeba (Lauraceae) were tested in the field near Vientiane city, Lao PDR, on humans for repellent activity against mosquitoes. Landing mosquitoes were collected and later identified. The most abundant mosquitoes captured belonged to the genera Armigeres, Culex, and Aedes. All the plant oils tested at concentrations of 1.7 microg/cm(2), 3.3 microg/cm(2), and 6.3 microg/cm(2) were significantly more mosquito repellent than the negative control. Croton oil was significantly repellent against mosquitoes of the three genera at the highest (6.3 microg/cm(2)) concentration tested. Litsea oil was significantly repellent against Armigeres at all (1.7 microg/cm(2), 3.3 microg/cm(2), and 6.3 microg/cm(2)) concentrations tested. Hyptis oil was significantly repellent against Armigeres at 3.3 microg/cm(2) and 6.3 microg/cm(2) and against Culex at 1.7 microg/cm(2) and 6.3 microg/cm(2). The oils were analyzed for chemical content of volatiles, mainly terpenes. Main constituents were beta-pinene, sabinene, and 1,8-cineol from oils of the green parts of H. suaveolens; alpha-pinene, beta-pinene, and alpha-phellandrene from fresh bark of C. roxburghii; and alpha-pinene, beta-phellandrene, sabinene, and 1,8-cineol from fresh fruits of L. cubeba. PMID:23270168

Vongsombath, Chanda; Plsson, Katinka; Bjrk, Lars; Borg-Karlson, Anna-Karin; Jaenson, Thomas G T

2012-11-01

141

Risk assessment of nonhazardous oil-field waste disposal in salt caverns.  

SciTech Connect

Salt caverns can be formed in underground salt formations incidentally as a result of mining or intentionally to create underground chambers for product storage or waste disposal. For more than 50 years, salt caverns have been used to store hydrocarbon products. Recently, concerns over the costs and environmental effects of land disposal and incineration have sparked interest in using salt caverns for waste disposal. Countries using or considering using salt caverns for waste disposal include Canada (oil-production wastes), Mexico (purged sulfates from salt evaporators), Germany (contaminated soils and ashes), the United Kingdom (organic residues), and the Netherlands (brine purification wastes). In the US, industry and the regulatory community are pursuing the use of salt caverns for disposal of oil-field wastes. In 1988, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) issued a regulatory determination exempting wastes generated during oil and gas exploration and production (oil-field wastes) from federal hazardous waste regulations--even though such wastes may contain hazardous constituents. At the same time, EPA urged states to tighten their oil-field waste management regulations. The resulting restrictions have generated industry interest in the use of salt caverns for potentially economical and environmentally safe oil-field waste disposal. Before the practice can be implemented commercially, however, regulators need assurance that disposing of oil-field wastes in salt caverns is technically and legally feasible and that potential health effects associated with the practice are acceptable. In 1996, Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) conducted a preliminary technical and legal evaluation of disposing of nonhazardous oil-field wastes (NOW) into salt caverns. It investigated regulatory issues; the types of oil-field wastes suitable for cavern disposal; cavern design and location considerations; and disposal operations, closure and remediation issues. It determined that if caverns are sited and designed well, operated carefully, closed properly, and monitored routinely, they could, from technical and legal perspectives, be suitable for disposing of oil-field wastes. On the basis of these findings, ANL subsequently conducted a preliminary risk assessment on the possibility that adverse human health effects (carcinogenic and noncarcinogenic) could result from exposure to contaminants released from the NOW disposed of in salt caverns. The methodology for the risk assessment included the following steps: identifying potential contaminants of concern; determining how humans could be exposed to these contaminants; assessing contaminant toxicities; estimating contaminant intakes; and estimating human cancer and noncancer risks. To estimate exposure routes and pathways, four postclosure cavern release scenarios were assessed. These were inadvertent cavern intrusion, failure of the cavern seal, failure of the cavern through cracks, failure of the cavern through leaky interbeds, and partial collapse of the cavern roof. Assuming a single, generic, salt cavern and generic oil-field wastes, potential human health effects associated with constituent hazardous substances (arsenic, benzene, cadmium, and chromium) were assessed under each of these scenarios. Preliminary results provided excess cancer risk and hazard index (for noncancer health effects) estimates that were well within the EPA target range for acceptable exposure risk levels. These results lead to the preliminary conclusion that from a human health perspective, salt caverns can provide an acceptable disposal method for nonhazardous oil-field wastes.

Elcock, D.

1998-03-10

142

Hydro geochemistry Study of Yamama formation water in southern Iraqi oil Fields, Migration,Diagensis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Yamama Formation (Lower Cretaceous) form one of the main oil reservoir in southern Iraq, the present study deals with the general physical and chemical characteristics of Yamama formation water in selected oil fields - southern Iraq. Via the collecting the available water analysis data in in selected 10 wells in southern Iraqi oil fields, Well Logs, as well as, the technical final well reports. The task of this study is to illustrate the chemical and physical variation among the study oil wells, and their relation with the depositional environment, the grading of temperature and pressure, the reason behind of over pressure phenomenon, besides the delineation of oil migration and water reservoir movement direction. The study confirms the occurrences of two types of formation water; the first one is the connate water, which is brine, hypersaline, and marine in nature reflects the possibility of hydrocarbon accumulations. And the second is mixing water reflects the mixing of original marine water with percolating meteoric water for various degree. Regarding the hydrochemical ratios, the direction of water movement and oil migration is from northeast toward west and south west starting from Messan oil Fields, moreover, the secondary migration of oil is in the same direction. The western migration of oil and water attributed to the enhancement of porosity and permeability in this direction, which in turn means the possibility of finding new stratigraphic traps in this direction mainly western of Nasiriya and Garraf areas. The relationship between depositional environment and diagenetic processes in one hand, and the sediment logical units; tidal lime granular unit revealed the occurrences of khidar al-may which extends up to Al-Managish in Kuwait and Nahar Umar - Majnoon, Nasiriya - Abu Amood, as well as the clayey units represented by isolated and semi isolated lagoonal deposits. Based on the ionic ratios in AlZubair, Nahar Umer and Al-Kifil oil fields, outer shelf clay units was identified as zones extends from Kumait - Halfaia - Noor. This study also showed the major role of diagenetic processes such as dissolution and low dolomitization in granular units in changing the chemical composition of Yamama Formation water under study. The ionic ratios and concentration pointed out the occurrences of many sub-basins within the Yamama main basin. The present study showed the movement of formation water is from the centre of the basin toward the periphery, furthermore, the sulphate index clarify the increases in hydrocarbone preservation toward east and northeast direction. .

Ali, A. A.; SOC Team

2013-05-01

143

Rapid assessment of redevelopment potential in marginal oil fields, application to the cut bank field  

E-print Network

involving numerous wells, and different production and completion practices. The most accurate way to estimate infill potential is to conduct a detailed integrated reservoir study, which is often time-consuming and expensive for operators of marginal oil...

Chavez Ballesteros, Luis Eladio

2005-02-17

144

Field experiments of multi-channel oceanographic fluorescence lidar for oil spill and chlorophyll- a detection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A Multi-channel Oceanographic Fluorescence Lidar (MOFL), with a UV excitation at 355 nm and multiple receiving channels at typical wavelengths of fluorescence from oil spills and chlorophyll- a (Chl- a), has been developed using the Laser-induced Fluorescence (LIF) technique. The sketch of the MOFL system equipped with a compact multi-channel photomultiplier tube (MPMT) is introduced in the paper. The methods of differentiating the oil fluorescence from the background water fluorescence and evaluating the Chl- a concentration are described. Two field experiments were carried out to investigate the field performance of the system, i.e., an experiment in coastal areas for oil pollution detection and an experiment over the Yellow Sea for Chl- a monitoring. In the coastal experiment, several oil samples and other fluorescence substances were used to analyze the fluorescence spectral characteristics for oil identification, and to estimate the thickness of oil films at the water surface. The experiment shows that both the spectral shape of fluorescence induced from surface water and the intensity ratio of two channels ( I 495/ I 405) are essential to determine oil-spill occurrence. In the airborne experiment, MOFL was applied to measure relative Chl- a concentrations in the upper layer of the ocean. A comparison of relative Chl- a concentration measurements by MOFL and the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) indicates that the two datasets are in good agreement. The results show that the MOFL system is capable of monitoring oil spills and Chl- a in the upper layer of ocean water.

Li, Xiaolong; Zhao, Chaofang; Ma, Youjun; Liu, Zhishen

2014-08-01

145

Investigation of the effects of oil field traffic on low volume roadways  

SciTech Connect

The farm to market roads in Texas are designed to provide service for relatively low traffic volumes and infrequent heavy vehicles. Efforts to increase domestic oil production have increased the demand placed on the rural highway system. These roads were not initially constructed to endure the impact of oil field traffic. This dissertation identifies oil field traffic and provides an estimate of annual cost associated with a reduced pavement life. Identification of oil field traffic through site specific observation provides the basis for the investigation. The study includes a description of traffic during the development of an oil well, an estimation of reduction in pavement life under these operating conditions, a description of associated roadway damage, and an estimation of increased annual pavement cost due to oil well traffic. Three main components of the analysis procedure include a pavement analysis, traffic analysis, and an estimate of the potential traffic generated by an oil well and placed on a section of F.M. roadway. A resurfacing interval for a bituminous surface treated pavement is then determined by comparing the estimated cumulative traffic demand with the terminal structural capability of the intended use pavement section. Comparison of the resurfacing intervals demonstrates the reduction in pavement life; a further comparison is made of the respective annual cost per mile of roadway. The difference between the estimated annual costs constitutes a unit capital loss due to increased traffic. A computational example of the analysis procedure is provided. Specific assumptions and limitations are also discussed. The results of the analysis are summarized in a chart and table format.

Mason, J.M. Jr.

1981-01-01

146

Geometry of Wall Creek sandstones, Salt Creek Oil Field, Wyoming  

Microsoft Academic Search

Modern gamma-ray and density well logs at the Salt Creek field define an optimum development of the middle and lower Wall Creek (First Frontier) Sandstone reservoir, which is unusually thick, well sorted, and porous in a belt about 1 mi wide that crosses the Salt Creek anticline in a north-northeasterly trend. The most distinctive aspect of the geometry of this

1986-01-01

147

Development of Improved Oil Field Waste Injection Disposal Techniques  

SciTech Connect

The goals of this project have was to: (1) assemble and analyze a comprehensive database of past waste injection operations; (2) develop improved diagnostic techniques for monitoring fracture growth and formation changes; (3) develop operating guidelines to optimize daily operations and ultimate storage capacity of the target formation; and (4) to apply these improved models and guidelines in the field.

Terralog Technologies

2002-11-25

148

Programed oil generation of the Zubair Formation, Southern Iraq oil fields: Results from Petromod software modeling and geochemical analysis  

USGS Publications Warehouse

1D petroleum system modeling was performed on wells in each of four oil fields in South Iraq, Zubair (well Zb-47), Nahr Umr (well NR-9), West Qurna (well WQ-15 and 23), and Majnoon (well Mj-8). In each of these fields, deposition of the Zubair Formation was followed by continuous burial, reaching maximum temperatures of 100??C (equivalent to 0. 70%Ro) at depths of 3,344-3,750 m of well Zb-47 and 3,081. 5-3,420 m of well WQ-15, 120??C (equivalent to 0. 78%Ro) at depths of 3,353-3,645 m of well NR-9, and 3,391-3,691. 5 m of well Mj-8. Generation of petroleum in the Zubair Formation began in the late Tertiary, 10 million years ago. At present day, modeled transformation ratios (TR) indicate that 65% TR of its generation potential has been reached in well Zb-47, 75% TR in well NR-9 and 55-85% TR in West Qurna oil field (wells WQ-15 and WQ-23) and up to 95% TR in well Mj-8, In contrast, younger source rocks are immature to early mature (<20% TR), whereas older source rocks are mature to overmature (100% TR). Comparison of these basin modeling results, in Basrah region, are performed with Kifle oil field in Hilla region of western Euphrates River whereas the Zubair Formation is immature within temperature range of 65-70??C (0. 50%Ro equivalent) with up to 12% (TR = 12%) hydrocarbon generation efficiency and hence poor generation could be assessed in this last location. The Zubair Formation was deposited in a deltaic environment and consists of interbedded shales and porous and permeable sandstones. In Basrah region, the shales have total organic carbon of 0. 5-7. 0 wt%, Tmax 430-470??C and hydrogen indices of up to 466 with S2 = 0. 4-9. 4 of kerogen type II & III and petroleum potential of 0. 4-9. 98 of good hydrocarbon generation, which is consistent with 55-95% hydrocarbon efficiency. These generated hydrocarbons had charged (in part) the Cretaceous and Tertiary reservoirs, especially the Zubair Formation itself, in the traps formed by Alpine collision that closed the Tethys Ocean between Arabian and Euracian Plates and developed folds in Mesopotamian Basin 15-10 million years ago. These traps are mainly stratigraphic facies of sandstones with the shale that formed during the deposition of the Zubair Formation in transgression and regression phases within the main structural folds of the Zubair, Nahr Umr, West Qurna and Majnoon Oil fields. Oil biomarkers of the Zubair Formation Reservoirs are showing source affinity with mixed oil from the Upper Jurassic and Lower Cretaceous strata, including Zubair Formation organic matters, based on presentation of GC and GC-MS results on diagrams of global petroleum systems. ?? 2010 Saudi Society for Geosciences.

Al-Ameri, T. K.; Pitman, J.; Naser, M.E.; Zumberge, J.; Al-Haydari, H. A.

2011-01-01

149

Miscibility study of carbon dioxide injection to enhance oil recovery from Abu-Dhabi oil field Thani reservoire  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The subject field in this study has been recognized among the largest offshore oil fields in the world, located in the Arabian Gulf 63 kilometers to the Northwest of Abu Dhabi, producing large quantities of crude oil and associated gas from three different carbonate reservoirs, Thani-I, II and IIII since 1963. In the early 1970's peripheral water injection scheme was adopted to maintain the reservoir pressure and sustain production. Simultaneously, partial waterflooding was applied to one sector of the field, but stopped soon after implementation shadowed by poor sweep efficiency and dramatic escalation of water-cut. Furthermore, hydrocarbon miscible gas injection was implemented in the year 2000 but stopped seven years later, due to high gas oil ratio and aspheltene deposition. In light of such recovery complications, management is considering serious recovery measures to extend plateau production and meet long-term production from this field. Post initial screening phase, it became evident that CO 2 miscible injection is the most suitable way forward. Characteristics of the Thani-III reservoir are within the favorable range for both immiscible and miscible CO2 injection criteria set by Taber, Martine and Serigh. Thani-III reservoir is considered more homogenous, less fractured and with higher production potential than Thani-I and II, hence promoted to be the target of CO2 miscible gas injection. This thesis aims to study the miscibility features of CO2 miscible injecton to enhanced oil recovery from Thani-III reservoir. Comprehensive simulation model is used to determine multi contact miscibility and suitable equation of state with CO2 as a separate pseudo component using one of the industry standard simulation software. Experimental PVT data for bottom hole and separator samples including compositional analysis, differential liberation test, separator tests, constant composition expansion, viscosity measurements and swelling tests for pure CO2 were used to generate and validate the model. In addition to that, simulation studies were conducted to produce coreflooding and slimtube experimental models, which are compared with the conclusions drawn from experimental results. Results of this study have shown comparable results with the lab experimental data in regards to minimum miscibility pressure (MMP) calculation and recovery factor estimation, where the marginal errors between both data sets were no more than 7% at its worst. For example, slimtube experimental results suggested 4230 psig as minimum miscibility pressure, where the simulation study EoS figure is 4130 psig and the slimtube simulation model results is 4180 psig. Similarly, coreflooding experimental data recovery factor at 1.2 PV injected solvent was 75% and a value of 72% recovery factor was obtained from the software single core model at same conditions of pressure and saturations. Results from this study are expected to assist the operator of this field to plan and implement a very attractive enhanced oil recovery program, giving that other factors are well accounted for such as asphaltene deposition, reservoir pressure maintenance, oil saturation, CO2 sequestering and choosing the most appropriate time to maximize the net positive value (NPV) and expected project gain.

Aljarwan, Abdulla Humaid Saif Saeed

150

Exploration and development of oil and gas field on the shelf of Sakhalin  

SciTech Connect

The paper describes the level of investigation of Sakhalin shelf for 17 years of prospecting and exploration. 8 oil and gas fields have been discovered with the total recoverable reserves ca. 272 million tons of crude oil and 819 billion m{sup 3} of gas. In the nearest 5--7 years the intensive exploration of these sectors by the companies-winners of tenders is expected. The volumes of drilling can reach 45,000-50,000 m/year. The deterrents are severe environmental conditions on the Sakhalin shelf, which are characterized by a short summer season and complicated ice conditions in winter. Offshore fields of Sakhalin can become one of the most promising sources of import of crude oil and LNG to the countries of Asia Pacific region.

Bogdanchikov, S.M.; Astafiev, V.N.; Bojarshin, E.K. [JSC Sakhalinmorneftegas, Okha (Russian Federation)

1995-12-31

151

Characteristics of enriched cultures for bio-huff-`n`-puff tests at Jilin oil field  

SciTech Connect

Three enriched cultures (48, 15a, and 26a), selected from more than 80 soil and water samples, could grow anaerobically in the presence of crude oil at 30{degrees}C and could ferment molasses to gases and organic acids. Oil recovery by culture 48 in the laboratory model experiment was enhanced by 25.2% over the original reserves and by 53.7% over the residual reserves. Enriched culture 48 was composed of at least 4 species belonging to the genera Eubacterium, Fusobacterium, and Bacteroides. This enriched culture was used as inoculum for MEOR field trials at Jilin oil field with satisfactory results. The importance of the role of these isolates in EOR was confirmed by their presence and behavior in the fluids produced from the microbiologically treated reservoir.

Xiu-Yuan Wang; Gang Dai; Yan-Fen Xue; Shu-Hua Xie [Institute of Microbiology, Beijing (China)] [and others

1995-12-31

152

INCREASING HEAVY OIL RESERVES IN THE WILMINGTON OIL FIELD THROUGH ADVANCED RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION AND THERMAL PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGIES  

SciTech Connect

The overall objective of this project is to increase heavy oil reserves in slope and basin clastic (SBC) reservoirs through the application of advanced reservoir characterization and thermal production technologies. The project involves improving thermal recovery techniques in the Tar Zone of Fault Blocks II-A and V (Tar II-A and Tar V) of the Wilmington Field in Los Angeles County, near Long Beach, California. A primary objective is to transfer technology which can be applied in other heavy oil formations of the Wilmington Field and other SBC reservoirs, including those under waterflood. The thermal recovery operations in the Tar II-A and Tar V have been relatively inefficient because of several producibility problems which are common in SBC reservoirs. Inadequate characterization of the heterogeneous turbidite sands, high permeability thief zones, low gravity oil, and nonuniform distribution of remaining oil have all contributed to poor sweep efficiency, high steam-oil ratios, and early steam breakthrough. Operational problems related to steam breakthrough, high reservoir pressure, and unconsolidated formation sands have caused premature well and downhole equipment failures. In aggregate, these reservoir and operational constraints have resulted in increased operating costs and decreased recoverable reserves. The advanced technologies to be applied include: (1) Develop three-dimensional (3-D) deterministic and stochastic geologic models. (2) Develop 3-D deterministic and stochastic thermal reservoir simulation models to aid in reservoir management and subsequent development work. (3) Develop computerized 3-D visualizations of the geologic and reservoir simulation models to aid in analysis. (4) Perform detailed study on the geochemical interactions between the steam and the formation rock and fluids. (5) Pilot steam injection and production via four new horizontal wells (2 producers and 2 injectors). (6) Hot water alternating steam (WAS) drive pilot in the existing steam drive area to improve thermal efficiency. (7) Installing an 2400 foot insulated, subsurface harbor channel crossing to supply steam to an island location. (8) Test a novel alkaline steam completion technique to control well sanding problems and fluid entry profiles. (9) Advanced reservoir management through computer-aided access to production and geologic data to integrate reservoir characterization, engineering, monitoring, and evaluation.

Scott Hara

2004-03-05

153

North Blowhorn Creek oil field - a stratigraphic trap in Black Warrior basin of Alabama  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Black Warrior basin of northwestern Alabama contains shallow oil and gas prospects. To date more than 1000 wells have been drilled in the region and more than 90 petroleum fields and pools have been discovered. Mississippian sandstone reservoirs are the most productive horizons for hydrocarbons in the basin, and the Carter sandstone is the most prolific. Identification of stratigraphic

B. L. Bearden; E. A. Mancini; P. R. Reeves

1984-01-01

154

Sedimentology and development of shallow heavy oil deposit, Eastburn Field, Missouri  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eastburn Field, Vernon County, MO, produces heavy, 21 API, crude oil at a depth of 110 ft from a thin, 20 to 30 ft, sandstone stratigraphic trap in the Cherokee group of middle Pennsylvanian age. Sedimentary structures, grain-size trends, and geometry of the sandstone and the nature of associated sediments indicate the fluvial-deltaic origin of the reservoir. Development drilling at

Ebanks; W. J. Jr. Weber

1982-01-01

155

Modeling of Oil-Water Emulsion Separation in Ultrasound Standing Wave Field by Neural Network  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new approach has been introduced for separation of oil in water emulsion by using ultrasound standing wave field. Neural networks model was used to simulate changes in the size of droplet during treatment. Model outputs were then validated and its generalization capability was evaluated. For each network, the optimum values of isotropic spread were obtained by minimizing the root

H. Ghafourian Nasiri; M. T. Hamed Mosavian; R. Kadkhodaee; J. Sargolzae

2012-01-01

156

Flocculation and Separation of Oil Droplets in Ultrasonic Standing Wave Field  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new method for breaking oil in water emulsion based on flocculation of droplets in high intensity ultrasonic standing wave field was developed in this study and the effect of initial droplets size, type of disperse phase as well as the time of sonication and the height of emulsion in the chamber on the extent of interdroplet interactions were investigated

Hanie Ghafourian Nasiri; Rassoul Kadkhodaee; Mohammad Taghi Hamed Mousavian

2012-01-01

157

Petroleum geology of Giant oil and gas fields in Turpan Basin Xinjiang China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Turpan Basin is the smallest and the last development basin in three big basins of Xinjiang autonomous region, P.R. China. Since April, 1989, the Shanshan oilfield was discovered, the Oinling, Wenjisang, Midang, Baka, Qiudong and North Putaogou fields were discovered. In 1994, the crude oil productivity of Turpan Basin was a Million tons, with an estimated output of 3 million

Hu Boliang; Yang Jiajing

1995-01-01

158

FIELD DESCRIPTION Water Oil/Tar Sediment Tissue STUDYNAME Study Name X X X X  

E-print Network

FIELD DESCRIPTION Water Oil/Tar Sediment Tissue STUDYNAME Study Name X X X X QCBATCH Laboratory analysis Group ID X X X X EXSAMPID Investigator's sample identifier X X X X SAMPDATE Date sample collected as YYYYMMDD X X X X SAMPTIME Time sample collected as HH:MM X X X X SITEID Site identifier X X X X STUDYID

159

Application of turbidite facies of the Stevens Oil Zone for reservoir management, Elk Hills Field, California  

Microsoft Academic Search

A detailed depositional model for the uppermost sand reservoirs of the Stevens Oil Zone, Elk Hills Field, California, contains three facies: turbidite channel-fill sand bodies, overbank Sandstone and mudstone, and pelagic and hemipelagic siliceous shale. Sand bodies are the primary producing facies and consist of layered, graded sandstone with good permeability. The presence of incipient anticlines with subsea relief in

S. A. Reid; T. W. Thompson; G. S. McJannet

1996-01-01

160

FIELD MANUAL FOR PLUNGING WATER JET USE IN OIL SPILL CLEANUP  

EPA Science Inventory

The use of plunging water jets can often make possible the control (and, as a consequence, the cleanup) of spilled oil and other floating pollutants in currents too swift for conventional equipment. This short, illustrated manual provides practical information for field and plann...

161

Preliminary Technical and Legal Evaluation of Disposing of Nonhazardous Oil Field Waste into Salt Caverns  

SciTech Connect

This report presents an initial evaluation of the suitability, feasibility, and legality of using salt caverns for disposal of nonhazardous oil field wastes. Given the preliminary and general nature of this report, we recognize that some of our findings and conclusions maybe speculative and subject to change upon further research on this topic.

Ayers, Robert C.; Caudle, Dan; Elcock, Deborah; Raivel, Mary; Veil, John; and Grunewald, Ben

1999-01-21

162

British and American Tax Treatment of U.K. North Sea Oil Fields  

Microsoft Academic Search

In its quest for additional revenue, the U.K. government has made a major change in the taxation system for North Sea oil fields. A new tax, the Supplementary Petroleum Duty (SPD), has been introduced, and the terms of the Petroleum Revenue Tax (PRT) have been tightened. The new tax system was introduced in March 1981 but was effective as of

James S. Moose

1982-01-01

163

Understanding Sectoral Labor Market Dynamics: An Equilibrium Analysis of the Oil and Gas Field Services  

E-print Network

. In the case of the labor market, wages are thought to compel workers to enter sectors where their servicesUnderstanding Sectoral Labor Market Dynamics: An Equilibrium Analysis of the Oil and Gas Field that labor quickly reallocates across sectors in response to price shocks but that substantial wage premia

Sadoulet, Elisabeth

164

Experimental study of enhancement of injectivity and in-situ oil upgrading by steam-propane injection for the Hamaca heavy oil field  

E-print Network

Experiments were conducted to study the feasibility of using propane as a steam additive to accelerate oil production and improve steam injectivity in the Hamaca field, Venezuela. The experiments utilized a vertical injection cell into which a...

Rivero Diaz, Jose Antonio

2012-06-07

165

The field pilot of microbial enhanced oil recovery in a high temperature petroleum reservoir  

Microsoft Academic Search

To evaluate the technical feasibility and effectiveness of improving oil recovery by microbial enhanced water-flooding techniques in high temperature petroleum reservoirs, a field project was initiated with the nature-occurring microorganisms and nutrient injected into an integrated, close Unit with temperature of 73 C and salinity of 16,790 mg\\/L in 2001 in Dagang Oilfield, PetroChina. This paper presents the field design

Liu Jinfeng; Ma Lijun; Mu Bozhong; Liu Rulin; Ni Fangtian; Zhou Jiaxi

2005-01-01

166

McNeal field, Jasper County, Mississippi. A unique Jurassic oil accumulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

McNeal field is significant because it is a unique oil accumulation which is quite different from other Jurassic fields in the southeastern U.S. The productive zone is a Haynesville-Buckner Sand immediately overlying the Jurassic Haynesville-Buckner carbonate-evaporite sequence. The productive sand appears to be an offshore bar that separated the Jurassic carbonate-evaporite sea and the near-shore area of sand accumulation. Immediately

1975-01-01

167

Jurassic Haynesville oil production unfolds in Mississippi's mature Bay Springs field  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses Bay Springs field in western jasper Country, Miss., about 1 mile east of the town of Bay Springs. The field was discovered in 1965 after seismic work conducted by Shell Oil Co. led to the drilling of the Shell 1 C.E. Brown in 27-2n-10e. After initial completion attempts in Jurassic Upper and Lower Smackover yielded unsatisfactory results,

Sticker

1992-01-01

168

[The phylogenetic diversity of aerobic organotrophic bacteria from the Dagan high-temperature oil field].  

PubMed

The distribution and species diversity of aerobic organotrophic bacteria in the Dagan high-temperature oil field (China), which is exploited via flooding, have been studied. Twenty-two strains of the most characteristic thermophilic and mesophilic aerobic organotrophic bacteria have been isolated from the oil stratum. It has been found that, in a laboratory, the mesophilic and thermophilic isolates grow in the temperature, pH, and salinity ranges characteristic of the injection well near-bottom zones or of the oil stratum, respectively, and assimilate a wide range of hydrocarbons, fatty acids, lower alcohols, and crude oil, thus exhibiting adaptation to the environment. Using comparative phylogenetic 16S rRNA analysis, the taxonomic affiliation of the isolates has been established. The aerobic microbial community includes gram-positive bacteria with a high and low G+C content of DNA, and gamma and beta subclasses of Proteobacteria. The thermophilic bacteria belong to the genera Geobacillus and Thermoactinomyces, and the mesophilic strains belong to the genera Bacillus, Micrococcus, Cellulomonas, Pseudomonas, and Acinetobacter. The microbial community of the oil stratum is dominated by known species of the genus Geobacillus (G. subterraneus, G. stearothermophilus, and G. thermoglucosidasius) and a novel species "Geobacillus jurassicus." A number of novel thermophilic oil-oxidizing bacilli have been isolated. PMID:16119855

Nazina, T N; Sokolova, D Sh; Shestakova, N M; Grigor'ian, A A; Mikha?lova, E M; Babich, T L; Lysenko, A M; Turova, T P; Poltaraus, A B; Feng, Tsin'syan; Ni, Fangtian; Beliaev, S S

2005-01-01

169

Brine Contamination of Ground Water and Streams in the Baxterville Oil Field Area, Lamar and Marion Counties, Mississippi.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report defines the extent of oil-field-brine contamination in ground water and streams in the Baxterville oil field area. The report is based largely on data collected during the period October 1984 through November 1985. Water samples were collected ...

S. J. Kalkhoff

1993-01-01

170

Geology of the undeveloped oil and gas fields of Central Offshore Santa Maria Basin, California  

SciTech Connect

Two prominent subsurface structural features of the Central Offshore Santa Maria Basin are the Hosgri fault system and the associated anticlinal fold trend. Exploratory drilling and 3D seismic mapping have delineated a series of oil and gas fields along this trend which underlie four federal units and one non-unitized lease. The units are named after local geography and are called the Lion Rock, Point Sal, Purisima Point and Santa Maria Units. The individual lease, OCS P-0409, overlies the San Miguel field. The Hosgri fault system trends northwest-southeast and effectively forms the eastern boundary of the oil and gas province. Lying semi-parallel with the fault are several anticlinal culminations which have trapped large volumes of oil and gas in the fractured Montery Formation. The Monterey is both source and reservoir rock, averaging 300 meters n thickness throughout the Central Basin. Development of the Monterey Formation as a reservoir rock was through diagensis and tectonism with resulting porosities-from 15 to 20% and permeability up to one Darcy. These parameters coupled with a high geothermal gradient facilitate the inflow rates of the viscous Monterey oil. Some 24 exploration and delineation wells have been drilled in this area and tested at rates ranging from a few hundred to several thousand barrels per day. Estimated oil reserves in the Central Offshore Santa Maria Basin total approximately 1 billion barrels.

Milton, J.D. (CalResources LLC, Bakersfield, CA (United States)); Edwards, E.B. ( Ogle Heck, Carpinteria, CA (United States)); Heck, R.G. (Ogle Heck, Santa Barbara, CA (United States)) (and others)

1996-01-01

171

Geology of the undeveloped oil and gas fields of Central Offshore Santa Maria Basin, California  

SciTech Connect

Two prominent subsurface structural features of the Central Offshore Santa Maria Basin are the Hosgri fault system and the associated anticlinal fold trend. Exploratory drilling and 3D seismic mapping have delineated a series of oil and gas fields along this trend which underlie four federal units and one non-unitized lease. The units are named after local geography and are called the Lion Rock, Point Sal, Purisima Point and Santa Maria Units. The individual lease, OCS P-0409, overlies the San Miguel field. The Hosgri fault system trends northwest-southeast and effectively forms the eastern boundary of the oil and gas province. Lying semi-parallel with the fault are several anticlinal culminations which have trapped large volumes of oil and gas in the fractured Montery Formation. The Monterey is both source and reservoir rock, averaging 300 meters n thickness throughout the Central Basin. Development of the Monterey Formation as a reservoir rock was through diagensis and tectonism with resulting porosities-from 15 to 20% and permeability up to one Darcy. These parameters coupled with a high geothermal gradient facilitate the inflow rates of the viscous Monterey oil. Some 24 exploration and delineation wells have been drilled in this area and tested at rates ranging from a few hundred to several thousand barrels per day. Estimated oil reserves in the Central Offshore Santa Maria Basin total approximately 1 billion barrels.

Milton, J.D. [CalResources LLC, Bakersfield, CA (United States); Edwards, E.B. [ Ogle & Heck, Carpinteria, CA (United States); Heck, R.G. [Ogle & Heck, Santa Barbara, CA (United States)] [and others

1996-12-31

172

Sisterhood in the oil field: informal support networks, gender roles and adaptation among women in the Oklahoma oil field  

SciTech Connect

The petroleum drilling industry exhibits a number of definitive characteristics, which combined with the most recent boom/bust drilling cycle, affect women in much the same manner as factors commonly associated with the eroding of women's social and economic positions within modernizing societies. Recognizing that modernization has a negative impact on women, this study focuses on strategies of adaptation employed by women associated both directly and indirectly with the petroleum drilling industry in an oil boom/bust town in western Oklahoma. Utilizing the traditional techniques of ethnographic interview and participant observation, it was shown that informal support networks formed by women enhanced women's adaptation by extending their resource base beyond the nuclear family and encouraging solidarity. Gender-based division of labor was also modified by western energy development. Boom times facilitated a rigid division of labor that gave way to a more flexible arrangement during bust times without a concomitant change in gender-based ideology. This was accounted for by differences in the rates of change for the underlying habits and values associated with the public and private sectors.

Walsh, A.C.

1988-01-01

173

Structural setting and validation of direct hydrocarbon indicators for Amauligak oil field, Canadian Beaufort Sea  

SciTech Connect

The recent discovery of a giant oil field in the southeastern Beaufort-Mackenzie basin has brought this frontier area closer to oil production despite severe environmental conditions. The Amauligak field is a fault-bounded growth structure developed in the Kugmallit Trough, within deltaic deposits of the Beaufort Sea Shelf. Shelf construction occurred during the Late Cretaceous-Tertiary by repeated progradation of the Mackenzie River delta in response to rift-induced opening of the Canada basin and extension of the Kugmallit Trough. The Amauligak field contains oil and gas in multiple sandstone reservoirs of the Oligocene Kugmallit sequence. The upper sandstones are truncated by an unconformity and sealed by the overlying shales of the Miocene Mackenzie Bay sequence. Based on two-dimensional seismic coverage, the field was initially described as structurally simple. Interactive interpretation on Landmark and SIDIS workstations of a three-dimensional seismic program revealed the local structural complications, spatial configuration, and detailed structural elements of the field. Direct hydrocarbon indicators (DHIs), including amplitude anomaly, phase change, flat spot, and low-frequency zone, associated with a large gas cap were investigated using full amplitude-range and attribute-extraction methods. Interpretation of seismic data and correlation with well results suggest that a combination of structural, stratigraphic, and hydrodynamic factors are responsible for the appearance and distribution of Amauligak DHIs. On the amplitude displays, a fluid contact is seismically mappable over the field, clearly separating the gas cap from the wet reservoir. 16 figs.

Enachescu, M.E. (Husky Oil Operations Ltd., Calgary, Alberta (Canada))

1990-01-01

174

Modeling and Optimizing Rate of Penetration Using Intelligent Systems in an Iranian Southern Oil Field (Ahwaz Oil Field)  

Microsoft Academic Search

For drilling optimization, an equation for the rate of penetration (ROP) is necessary. The rate of penetration depends on many factors such as formation properties, mud properties, weight on the bit, rotary speed, mud hydraulics, and size\\/type of bit. Due to the difficulty of mathematical modeling of ROP, researchers have used experimental results or field data to develop a correlation

R. Arabjamaloei; S. Shadizadeh

2011-01-01

175

Geometry of Wall Creek sandstones, Salt Creek Oil Field, Wyoming  

SciTech Connect

Modern gamma-ray and density well logs at the Salt Creek field define an optimum development of the middle and lower Wall Creek (First Frontier) Sandstone reservoir, which is unusually thick, well sorted, and porous in a belt about 1 mi wide that crosses the Salt Creek anticline in a north-northeasterly trend. The most distinctive aspect of the geometry of this well-sorted sandstone is its east-sloping clinoform shape in cross section. Detailed well-log control defines (1) moderate paleotopography on the basal Wall Creek regional unconformity, then (2) deposition of a local depositional shelf, shelf-edge, and north-trending slope, and finally (3) deposition of optimum sandstone reservoirs across this local shelf edge and slope by a high-energy current that appears to have flowed obliquely downslope northeastward into deeper water. If similar Wall Creek sandstones were deposited east of the Salt Creek field in the deeper part of the Powder River basin, recent wells, which are being drilled 1 mi apart, are too widely spaced to define the geometry of the individual sandstone bodies. Because of the asymmetric shape of the clinoform sandstones, hydrocarbon shows along the east or west edges of a sandstone have different implications as to the possible location of the center of the sandstone body. Many, but not all, Upper Cretaceous sandstones in this part of the basin have clinoform geometry.

Curry, W.H. III

1986-08-01

176

Selection of chemical products for oil field applications in arctic environments  

SciTech Connect

The Kuparuk Oil Field is located on the North Slope of Alaska, well above the Arctic Circle. Kuparuk uses chemicals for a variety of different oil production needs, including corrosion inhibition, emulsion breaking, defoaming, biofouling control, and scale inhibition. The North Slope`s isolated location demands unique logistical support, but it is otherwise accessible by unpaved road and has extensive air service. The Arctic climate provides difficult challenges and requirements for any chemical selection. This paper describes some criteria and practical experiences related to selecting the proper chemical products to be used in the Arctic environment.

Powell, D.E.; VanderWende, E. [ARCO, Alaska, Inc., Anchorage, AK (United States)

1996-08-01

177

Bluebell Field, Uinta Basin: reservoir characterization for improved well completion and oil recovery  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Bluefield Field is the largest oil-producing area in the Unita basin of northern Utah. The field inclucdes over 300 wells and has produced 137 Mbbl oil and 177 bcf gas from fractured Paleocene-Eocene lacustrine and fluvial deposits of the Green River and Wasatch (Colton) formations. Oil and gas are produced at depths of 10 500-13 000 ft (3330-3940 m), with the most prolific reservoirs existing in over-pressured sandstones of the Colton Formation and the underlying Flagstaff Member of the lower Green River Formation. Despite a number of high-recovery wells (1-3 MMbbl), overall field recovery remains low, less than 10% original oil in place. This low recovery rate is interpreted to be at least partly a result of completion practices. Typically, 40-120 beds are perforated and stimulated with acid (no proppant) over intervals of up to 3000 ft (900 m). Little or no evaluation of individual beds is performed, preventing identification of good-quality reservoir zones, water-producing zones, and thief zones. As a result, detailed understanding of Bluebell reservoirs historically has been poor, inhibiting any improvements in recovery strategies. A recent project undertaken in Bluebell field as part of the U.S. Department of Energy's Class 1 (fluvial-deltaic reservoir) Oil Demonstration program has focused considerable effort on reservoir characterization. This effort has involved interdisciplinary analysis of core, log, fracture, geostatistical, production, and other data. Much valuable new information on reservoir character has resulted, with important implications for completion techniques and recovery expectations. Such data should have excellent applicability to other producing areas in the Uinta Basin withi reservoirs in similar lacustrine and related deposits.Bluebell field is the largest oil-producing area in the Uinta basin of northern Utah. The field includes over 300 wells and has produced 137 MMbbl oil and 177 bcf gas from fractured Paleocene-Eocene lacustrine and fluvial deposits of the Green River and Wasatch (Colton) formations. Oil and gas are produced at depths of 10,500-13,000 ft (3330-3940 m), with the most prolific reservoirs existing in over-pressured sandstones of the Colton Formation and the underlying Flagstaff Member of the lower Green River Formation. Despite a number of high-recovery wells (1-3 MMbbl), overall field recovery remains low, less than 10% original oil in place. This low recovery rate is interpreted to be at least partly a result of completion practices. Typically, 40-120 beds are perforated and stimulated with acid (no proppant) over intervals of up to 3000 ft (900 m). Little or no evaluation of individual beds is performed, preventing identification of good-quality reservoir zones, water-producing zones, and thief zones. As a result, detailed understanding of Bluebell reservoirs historically has been poor, inhibiting any improvements in recovery strategies. A recent project undertaken in Bluebell field as part of the U.S. Department of Energy's Class 1 (fluvial-deltaic reservoir) Oil Demonstration program has focused considerable effort on reservoir characterization. This effort has involved interdisciplinary analysis of core, log, fracture, geostatistical, production, and other data. Much valuable new information on reservoir character has resulted, with important implications for completion techniques and recovery expectations. Such data should have excellent applicability to other producing areas in the Uinta basin with reservoirs in similar lacustrine and related deposits.

Montgomery, S.L.; Morgan, C.D.

1998-01-01

178

INCREASING HEAVY OIL RESERVES IN THE WILMINGTON OIL FIELD THROUGH ADVANCED RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION AND THERMAL PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGIES  

SciTech Connect

The project involves using advanced reservoir characterization and thermal production technologies to improve thermal recovery techniques and lower operating and capital costs in a slope and basin clastic (SBC) reservoir in the Wilmington field, Los Angeles Co., CA. Through September 2000, project work has been completed on the following activities: data preparation; basic reservoir engineering; developing a deterministic three dimensional (3-D) geologic model, a 3-D deterministic reservoir simulation model and a rock-log model; well drilling and completions; and surface facilities on the Fault Block II-A Tar Zone (Tar II-A). Work is continuing on improving core analysis techniques, final reservoir tracer work, operational work and research studies to prevent thermal-related formation compaction in the Tar II-A steamflood area, and operational work on the Tar V steamflood pilot and Tar II-A post steamflood projects. Work was discontinued on the stochastic geologic model and developing a 3-D stochastic thermal reservoir simulation model of the Tar II-A Zone so the project team could use the 3-D deterministic reservoir simulation model to provide alternatives for the Tar II-A post steamflood operations and shale compaction studies. The project team spent the fourth quarter 2000 performing well work and reservoir surveillance on the Tar II-A post-steamflood project and the Tar V horizontal well steamflood pilot. Expanding thermal recovery operations to other sections of the Wilmington Oil Field, including the Tar V horizontal well pilot steamflood project, is a critical part of the City of Long Beach and Tidelands Oil Production Company's development strategy for the field. The current steamflood operations in the Tar V pilot are economical, but recent performance is below projections because of wellbore mechanical limitations that are being evaluated.

Scott Hara

2001-05-07

179

Analysis of airborne multi-spectral imagery of an oil spill field trial  

SciTech Connect

A field trial was conducted at Canadian Forces Base Petawawa in May 1993 by the Emergencies Science Division of Environment Canada to test the effectiveness of remote sensing systems to detect oil spills. Shallow test pools covered with various thicknesses and types of oil were overflown by a number of sensors. Imagery from one of the sensors used, the Multi-element Electro-optical Imaging Scanner (MEIS), has recently been transcribed from high density digital tape and analyzed. The MEIS sensor was flown on a Falcon 20 jet and collected data at 7 different wavelengths from 518 nm to 873 nm. Preliminary results show that one of the slicks, Hydraulic Fluid, can be readily identified by its distinctive color in the visible region. The oil slicks, at least under these very controlled conditions, presented unique spectral signatures which could be identified using normal image processing classification techniques.

Kalnins, V.J.; Freemantle, J.R. [Institute for Space and Terrestrial Science, Ontario (Canada); Brown, C.E. [Intermap Technologies, Ontario (Canada)] [and others

1996-12-31

180

Increasing Heavy Oil Reserves in the Wilmington Oil Field Through Advanced Reservoir Characterization and Thermal Production Technologies  

SciTech Connect

The project involves improving thermal recovery techniques in a slope and basin clastic (SBC) reservoir in the Wilmington field, Los Angeles Co., Calif. using advanced reservoir characterization and thermal production technologies. The existing steamflood in the Tar zone of Fault Block (FB) II-A has been relatively inefficient because of several producibility problems which are common in SBC reservoirs. Inadequate characterization of the heterogeneous turbidite sands, high permeability thief zones, low gravity oil, and nonuniform distribution of remaining oil have all contributed to poor sweep efficiency, high steam-oil ratios, and early steam breakthrough. Operational problems related to steam breakthrough, high reservoir pressure, and unconsolidated formation sands have caused premature well and downhole equipment failures. In aggregate, these reservoir and operational constraints have resulted in increased operating costs and decreased recoverable reserves. The advanced technologies to be applied include: (1) Develop three-dimensional (3-D) deterministic and stochastic geologic models. (2) Develop 3-D deterministic and stochastic thermal reservoir simulation models to aid in reservoir management and subsequent development work. (3) Develop computerized 3-D visualizations of the geologic and reservoir simulation models to aid in analysis. (4) Perform detailed study on the geochemical interactions between the steam and the formation rock and fluids. (5) Pilot steam injection and production via four new horizontal wells (2 producers and 2 injectors). (6) Hot water alternating steam (WAS) drive pilot in the existing steam drive area to improve thermal efficiency. (7) Installing a 2100 foot insulated, subsurface harbor channel crossing to supply steam to an island location. (8) Test a novel alkaline steam completion technique to control well sanding problems and fluid entry profiles. (9) Advanced reservoir management through computer-aided access to production and geologic data to integrate reservoir characterization, engineering, monitoring, and evaluation.

Scott Hara

1998-03-03

181

Increasing Heavy Oil Reserves in the Wilmington Oil Field Through Advanced Reservoir Characterization and Thermal Production Technologies  

SciTech Connect

The project involves improving thermal recovery techniques in a slope and basin clastic (SBC) reservoir in the Wilmington field, Los Angeles Co., Calif. using advanced reservoir characterization and thermal production technologies. The existing steamflood in the Tar zone of Fault Block (FB) II-A has been relatively inefficient because of several producibility problems which are common in SBC reservoirs. Inadequate characterization of the heterogeneous turbidite sands, high permeability thief zones, low gravity oil, and nonuniform distribution of remaining oil have all contributed to poor sweep efficiency, high steam-oil ratios, and early steam breakthrough. Operational problems related to steam breakthrough, high reservoir pressure, and unconsolidated formation sands have caused premature well and downhole equipment failures. In aggregate, these reservoir and operational constraints have resulted in increased operating costs and decreased recoverable reserves. The advanced technologies to be applied include: (1) Develop three-dimensional (3-D) deterministic and stochastic geologic models. (2) Develop 3-D deterministic and stochastic thermal reservoir simulation models to aid in reservoir management and subsequent development work. (3) Develop computerized 3-D visualizations of the geologic and reservoir simulation models to aid in analysis. (4) Perform detailed study on the geochemical interactions between the steam and the formation rock and fluids. (5) Pilot steam injection and production via four new horizontal wells (2 producers and 2 injectors). (6) Hot water alternating steam (WAS) drive pilot in the existing steam drive area to improve thermal efficiency. (7) Installing a 2100 foot insulated, subsurface harbor channel crossing to supply steam to an island location. (8) Test a novel alkaline steam completion technique to control well sanding problems and fluid entry profiles. (9) Advanced reservoir management through computer-aided access to production and geologic data to integrate reservoir characterization, engineering, monitoring, and evaluation. Summary of Technical Progress

Scott Hara

1997-08-08

182

Effect of flaring of natural gas in oil fields of Assam on rice cultivation.  

PubMed

Assam (India) is endowed with natural resources like oil, coal and natural gas. The crude oil, one of the most precious natural resources, is found in the districts of upper Assam. During the process of extraction of crude oil, low-pressure natural gas is burnt in the air. Most of the oil wells in upper Assam are located near rice fields and therefore, rice crop grown near the oil wells is exposed to light uninterruptedly causing grain sterility resulting significant loss in grain yield. To identify promising varieties for these areas, we studied the effect of flare on rice varieties with different photoperiod sensitivity. The high light intensity and increased light hours were the factors responsible for substantial loss in grain yield near the flare resulting from delay in flower initiation, reduction of panicle length, having less number of grains per panicle and more grain sterility. To prevent significant loss in yield, photoperiod-sensitive traditional and improved rice varieties should not be grown up to the distance of 80 and 100 m, respectively from the boundary wall of the flare pit. Modern weakly-photoperiod sensitive varieties like Ranjti and Mahsuri can be grown 40 m away from the wall while modern photoperiod insensitive variety like Jaya, can be cultivated 20 m away from the wall without significant loss in yield. PMID:23029930

Sharma, K K; Hazarika, S; Kalita, B; Sharma, B

2011-07-01

183

Oil fields and new plays in the Rioni foreland basin, Republic of Georgia  

SciTech Connect

The Rioni Basin in West Georgia is an Oligocene foredeep that evolved into a Miocene to Pliocene foreland basin, north of the Achara-Trialeti thrust belt and south of the Greater Caucasus. It extends to the west into the Black Sea. A large number of exploration wildcats have been drilled onshore since the nineteenth century and have led to the discovery of three fields. Exploration was prompted by seeps and restricted to frontal ramp anticlines mapped at surface. No wells have been drilled offshore. Supsa (discovered 1889) contains 29 MMbbl oil in clastic Sarmatian reservoirs. The field has around 50 wells but less than 0.5 MMbbl have been produced. Shromisubani (discovered 1973) contains oil within Maeotian and Pontian clastic reservoirs, Chaladidi oil within Upper Cretaceous chalk. Despite this long and apparently intensive exploration effort, several factors make the basin an exciting target for field redevelopment and further exploration. The quality of existing seismic is very poor both on-and offshore. Reinterpretation of the structure of the fold and thrust belt has suggested the presence of new targets and plays which may be imaged by modern seismic methods. In addition, due to problems associated with central planning, discovered fields have not been optimally developed or even fully appraised. The application of new technology, geological interpretation and investment promises to delineate substantial remaining reserves even after more than one hundred years of exploration.

Robinson, A.G.; Griffith, E.T. (JKX Oil and Gas, Guildford (United Kingdom)); Sargeant, J. (RES-Source Limited, Banchory (United Kingdom))

1996-01-01

184

Oil fields and new plays in the Rioni foreland basin, Republic of Georgia  

SciTech Connect

The Rioni Basin in West Georgia is an Oligocene foredeep that evolved into a Miocene to Pliocene foreland basin, north of the Achara-Trialeti thrust belt and south of the Greater Caucasus. It extends to the west into the Black Sea. A large number of exploration wildcats have been drilled onshore since the nineteenth century and have led to the discovery of three fields. Exploration was prompted by seeps and restricted to frontal ramp anticlines mapped at surface. No wells have been drilled offshore. Supsa (discovered 1889) contains 29 MMbbl oil in clastic Sarmatian reservoirs. The field has around 50 wells but less than 0.5 MMbbl have been produced. Shromisubani (discovered 1973) contains oil within Maeotian and Pontian clastic reservoirs, Chaladidi oil within Upper Cretaceous chalk. Despite this long and apparently intensive exploration effort, several factors make the basin an exciting target for field redevelopment and further exploration. The quality of existing seismic is very poor both on-and offshore. Reinterpretation of the structure of the fold and thrust belt has suggested the presence of new targets and plays which may be imaged by modern seismic methods. In addition, due to problems associated with central planning, discovered fields have not been optimally developed or even fully appraised. The application of new technology, geological interpretation and investment promises to delineate substantial remaining reserves even after more than one hundred years of exploration.

Robinson, A.G.; Griffith, E.T. [JKX Oil and Gas, Guildford (United Kingdom); Sargeant, J. [RES-Source Limited, Banchory (United Kingdom)

1996-12-31

185

Cost effective modular unit for cleaning oil and gas field waste water  

SciTech Connect

Problems of environmental control involving conservation of water resources are vital for the development of giant oil and gas condensate fields near Caspian Sea (Russia) characterized by water shortages. One of the urgent tasks of oil production industry is to use all field waste water consisting of underground, processing and rain water. It was necessary to construct a new highly effective equipment which could be used in local waste water treatment. Now we have at our disposal a technology and equipment to meet the requirements to the treated water quality. Thus we have installed a modular unit of 100 m{sup 3}/a day capacity to clean waste water from oil products, suspended matter and other organic pollutants at Orenburg oil and gas condensate field, Russia. The unit provides with a full treatment of produced water and comprises a settling tank with adhesive facility, the number of sorption filters, Trofactor bioreactors and a disinfecting facility. The equipment is fitted into three boxes measuring 9 x 3.2 x 2.7 in each. The equipment is simple in design that enables to save money, time and space. Sorption filters, bioreactors as well as the Trofactor process are a part of know-how. While working on the unit construction we applied well known methods of settling and sorption. The process of mechanic cleaning is undergoing in the following succession: (1) the gravitational separation in a settling tank where the floated film oil products are constantly gathered and the sediment is periodically taken away, (2) the settled water treatment in sorption Filters of a special kind.

Zinberg, M.B.; Nenasheva, M.N.; Gafarov, N.A.

1996-12-31

186

Determination of hexaconazole in field samples of an oil palm plantation.  

PubMed

In oil palm plantations, the fungicide hexaconazole is used to control Ganoderma infection that threatens to destroy or compromisethe palm. The application of hexaconazole is usually through soil drenching, trunk injection, or a combination of these two methods. It is therefore important to have a method to determine the residual amount of hexaconazole in the field such as in samples of water, soil, and leaf to monitor the use and fate of the fungicide in oil palm plantations. This study on the behaviour of hexaconazole in oil palm agro-environment was carried out at the UKM-MPOB Research Station, Bangi Lama, Selangor. Three experimental plots in this estate with 7-year-old Dura x Pisifera (DxP) palms were selected for the field trial. One plot was sprayed with hexaconazole at the manufacturer's recommended dosage, one at double the recommended dosage, and the third plot was untreated control. Hexaconazole residues in the soil, leaf, and water were determined before and after fungicide treatment. Soil samples were randomly collected from three locations at different depths (0-50 cm) and soil collected fromthe same depth were bulked together. Soil, water, and palm leaf were collected at -1 (day before treatment), 0 (day of treatment), 1, 3, 7, 14, 21, 70, 90, and 120 days after treatment. Hexaconazole was detected in soil and oil palm leaf, but was not detected in water from the nearby stream. PMID:22851367

Muhamad, Halimah; Zainol, Maznah; Sahid, Ismail; Abu Seman, Idris

2012-08-01

187

Oil-field wastewater purification by magnetic separation technique using a novel magnetic nanoparticle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the present work, oil-field wastewater purification through superconducting magnetic separation technique using a novel magnetic nanoparticle was investigated. The magnetic nanoparticle, which has a multi-shell structure with ferroferric oxide as core, dense nonporous silica as inter layer and mesoporous silica as outer layer, was synthesized by co-precipitation method. To functionalize the magnetic nanoparticle, plasma polymerization technique was adopted and poly methyl acrylate (PMA) was formed on the surface of the nanoparticle. The multi-shell structure of the nanoparticle was confirmed by transmission electron microscope (TEM) and the characteristic is measurable by FTIR. It is found that most of the pollutants (85% by turbidity or 84% by COD value) in the oil-field wastewater are removed through the superconducting magnetic separation technique using this novel magnetic nanoparticle.

Liu, Zhuonan; Yang, Huihui; Zhang, Hao; Huang, Chuanjun; Li, Laifeng

2012-12-01

188

Jurassic Haynesville oil production unfolds in Mississippi's mature Bay Springs field  

SciTech Connect

This paper discusses Bay Springs field in western jasper Country, Miss., about 1 mile east of the town of Bay Springs. The field was discovered in 1965 after seismic work conducted by Shell Oil Co. led to the drilling of the Shell 1 C.E. Brown in 27-2n-10e. After initial completion attempts in Jurassic Upper and Lower Smackover yielded unsatisfactory results, a completion was made in a Jurassic Lower Cotton Valley sand later to be named the Bay Springs sand. The well was officially tested through perforations at about 14,500 ft in the Bay Springs sand at a rate of 585 b/d of oil through a 10/64 in. choke with a flowing tubing pressure of 1,850 psi. The gravity of the crude was 47.5{degrees} with a GOR of 630:1.

Sticker, E.E. (Mississippi Office of Geology, Jackson, MS (US))

1992-07-13

189

Palaeo-carbonate seep structures above an oil reservoir, Gryphon Field, Tertiary, North Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Petrographic and geochemical analyses performed on a North Sea core from the Gryphon Field reveal the presence of palaeo-degassing features surrounded by injected sandstones in the Eocene interval. The injected sandstones are oil-stained and poorly cemented by carbonate and quartz. 18O isotope analyses indicate that carbonate cementation occurred during shallow burial (likely less than about 300m). Depleted 13C (around -30

Adriano Mazzini; D. Duranti; R. Jonk; J. Parnell; B. T. Cronin; A. Hurst; M. Quine

2003-01-01

190

Heavy-oil recovery using the SolFrac method. [Laboratory and field studies in Kansas  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Bartlesville (Okla.) Energy Research Center of the Bureau of Mines is developing petroleum-recovery techniques for the many shallow, low-productive, heavy-oil sand deposits in Kansas, Oklahoma, and Missouri. In 1971, the Bureau of Mines began a field experiment in Labette County, Kans., using a recovery method that combines chemical explosive fracturing to create communication between wells with solvent injection to

F. S. Johnson; R. T. Johansen

1974-01-01

191

Seismic monitoring of a steamflood at South Casper Creek oil field, Wyoming  

Microsoft Academic Search

Repeat three-dimensional (3-D) seismic surveys and repeat cross-well seismic surveys were used to monitor fluid flow in a steamflood EOR pilot project at South Casper Creek oil field, Wyoming. The reservoir is a sandstone 160 ft thick at a measured depth of 2,700 ft. Baseline 3-D and cross-well seismic surveys were shot prior to stem injection in the study area.

P. Johnston; Doosung Lee; F. Martens; Noboru Wachi

1991-01-01

192

Risk assessment of nonhazardous oil-field waste disposal in salt caverns.  

SciTech Connect

In 1996, Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) conducted a preliminary technical and legal evaluation of disposing of nonhazardous oil-field wastes (NOW) into salt caverns. Argonne determined that if caverns are sited and designed well, operated carefully, closed properly, and monitored routinely, they could be suitable for disposing of oil-field wastes. On the basis of these findings, Argonne subsequently conducted a preliminary evaluation of the possibility that adverse human health effects (carcinogenic and noncarcinogenic) could result from exposure to contaminants released from the NOW disposed of in domal salt caverns. Steps used in this evaluation included the following: identifying potential contaminants of concern, determining how humans could be exposed to these contaminants, assessing contaminant toxicities, estimating contaminant intakes, and calculating human cancer and noncancer risk estimates. Five postclosure cavern release scenarios were assessed. These were inadvertent cavern intrusion, failure of the cavern seal, failure of the cavern through cracks, failure of the cavern through leaky interbeds, and a partial collapse of the cavern roof. Assuming a single, generic, salt cavern and generic oil-field wastes, potential human health effects associated with constituent hazardous substances (arsenic, benzene, cadmium, and chromium) were assessed under each of these scenarios. Preliminary results provided excess cancer risk and hazard index (referring to noncancer health effects) estimates that were well within the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) target range for acceptable exposure risk levels. These results led to the preliminary conclusion that from a human health perspective, salt caverns can provide an acceptable disposal method for nonhazardous oil-field wastes.

Elcock, D.

1998-03-05

193

Bioremediation of hydrocarbon contaminated-oil field drill-cuttings with bacterial isolates  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effectiveness of 2 bacterial isolates (Bacillus subtilis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) in the restoration of oil-field drill-cuttings contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) was studied. A mixture of 4 kg of the drill-cuttings and 0.67 kg of top-soil were charged into triplicate plastic reactors labeled A1 to A3, B1 to B3, C1 to C3 and O1 to O3. These were

Reuben N. Okparanma; Josiah M. Ayotamuno; Peremelade P. Arak

2009-01-01

194

Transformation of iron sulfide to greigite by nitrite produced by oil field bacteria.  

PubMed

Nitrate, injected into oil fields, can oxidize sulfide formed by sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) through the action of nitrate-reducing sulfide-oxidizing bacteria (NR-SOB). When reservoir rock contains siderite (FeCO(3)), the sulfide formed is immobilized as iron sulfide minerals, e.g. mackinawite (FeS). The aim of our study was to determine the extent to which oil field NR-SOB can oxidize or transform FeS. Because no NR-SOB capable of growth with FeS were isolated, the well-characterized oil field isolate Sulfurimonas sp. strain CVO was used. When strain CVO was presented with a mixture of chemically formed FeS and dissolved sulfide (HS(-)), it only oxidized the HS(-). The FeS remained acid soluble and non-magnetic indicating that it was not transformed. In contrast, when the FeS was formed by adding FeCl(2) to a culture of SRB which gradually produced sulfide, precipitating FeS, and to which strain CVO and nitrate were subsequently added, transformation of the FeS to a magnetic, less acid-soluble form was observed. X-ray diffraction and energy-dispersive spectrometry indicated the transformed mineral to be greigite (Fe(3)S(4)). Addition of nitrite to cultures of SRB, containing microbially formed FeS, was similarly effective. Nitrite reacts chemically with HS(-) to form polysulfide and sulfur (S(0)), which then transforms SRB-formed FeS to greigite, possibly via a sulfur addition pathway (3FeS + S(0) --> Fe(3)S(4)). Further chemical transformation to pyrite (FeS(2)) is expected at higher temperatures (>60 degrees C). Hence, nitrate injection into oil fields may lead to NR-SOB-mediated and chemical mineral transformations, increasing the sulfide-binding capacity of reservoir rock. Because of mineral volume decreases, these transformations may also increase reservoir injectivity. PMID:19290520

Lin, Shiping; Krause, Federico; Voordouw, Gerrit

2009-05-01

195

Disposal of NORM-Contaminated Oil Field Wastes in Salt Caverns  

SciTech Connect

In 1995, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Fossil Energy, asked Argonne National Laboratory (Argonne) to conduct a preliminary technical and legal evaluation of disposing of nonhazardous oil field waste (NOW) into salt caverns. That study concluded that disposal of NOW into salt caverns is feasible and legal. If caverns are sited and designed well, operated carefully, closed properly, and monitored routinely, they can be a suitable means of disposing of NOW (Veil et al. 1996). Considering these findings and the increased U.S. interest in using salt caverns for NOW disposal, the Office of Fossil Energy asked Argonne to conduct further research on the cost of cavern disposal compared with the cost of more traditional NOW disposal methods and on preliminary identification and investigation of the risks associated with such disposal. The cost study (Veil 1997) found that disposal costs at the four permitted disposal caverns in the United States were comparable to or lower than the costs of other disposal facilities in the same geographic area. The risk study (Tomasko et al. 1997) estimated that both cancer and noncancer human health risks from drinking water that had been contaminated by releases of cavern contents were significantly lower than the accepted risk thresholds. Since 1992, DOE has funded Argonne to conduct a series of studies evaluating issues related to management and disposal of oil field wastes contaminated with naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM). Included among these studies were radiological dose assessments of several different NORM disposal options (Smith et al. 1996). In 1997, DOE asked Argonne to conduct additional analyses on waste disposal in salt caverns, except that this time the wastes to be evaluated would be those types of oil field wastes that are contaminated by NORM. This report describes these analyses. Throughout the remainder of this report, the term ''NORM waste'' is used to mean ''oil field waste contaminated by NORM''.

Blunt, D.L.; Elcock, D.; Smith, K.P.; Tomasko, D.; Viel, J.A.; and Williams, G.P.

1999-01-21

196

Risk analyses for disposing nonhazardous oil field wastes in salt caverns  

SciTech Connect

Salt caverns have been used for several decades to store various hydrocarbon products. In the past few years, four facilities in the US have been permitted to dispose nonhazardous oil field wastes in salt caverns. Several other disposal caverns have been permitted in Canada and Europe. This report evaluates the possibility that adverse human health effects could result from exposure to contaminants released from the caverns in domal salt formations used for nonhazardous oil field waste disposal. The evaluation assumes normal operations but considers the possibility of leaks in cavern seals and cavern walls during the post-closure phase of operation. In this assessment, several steps were followed to identify possible human health risks. At the broadest level, these steps include identifying a reasonable set of contaminants of possible concern, identifying how humans could be exposed to these contaminants, assessing the toxicities of these contaminants, estimating their intakes, and characterizing their associated human health risks. The contaminants of concern for the assessment are benzene, cadmium, arsenic, and chromium. These were selected as being components of oil field waste and having a likelihood to remain in solution for a long enough time to reach a human receptor.

Tomasko, D.; Elcock, D.; Veil, J.; Caudle, D.

1997-12-01

197

INCREASING WATERFLOOD RESERVES IN THE WILMINGTON OIL FIELD THROUGH IMPROVED RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION AND RESERVOIR MANAGEMENT  

SciTech Connect

This project increased recoverable waterflood reserves in slope and basin reservoirs through improved reservoir characterization and reservoir management. The particular application of this project is in portions of Fault Blocks IV and V of the Wilmington Oil Field, in Long Beach, California, but the approach is widely applicable in slope and basin reservoirs. Transferring technology so that it can be applied in other sections of the Wilmington Field and by operators in other slope and basin reservoirs is a primary component of the project. This project used advanced reservoir characterization tools, including the pulsed acoustic cased-hole logging tool, geologic three-dimensional (3-D) modeling software, and commercially available reservoir management software to identify sands with remaining high oil saturation following waterflood. Production from the identified high oil saturated sands was stimulated by recompleting existing production and injection wells in these sands using conventional means as well as a short radius redrill candidate. Although these reservoirs have been waterflooded over 40 years, researchers have found areas of remaining oil saturation. Areas such as the top sand in the Upper Terminal Zone Fault Block V, the western fault slivers of Upper Terminal Zone Fault Block V, the bottom sands of the Tar Zone Fault Block V, and the eastern edge of Fault Block IV in both the Upper Terminal and Lower Terminal Zones all show significant remaining oil saturation. Each area of interest was uncovered emphasizing a different type of reservoir characterization technique or practice. This was not the original strategy but was necessitated by the different levels of progress in each of the project activities.

Scott Walker; Chris Phillips; Roy Koerner; Don Clarke; Dan Moos; Kwasi Tagbor

2002-02-28

198

Field experiences with rotordynamic instability in high-performance turbomachinery. [oil and natural gas recovery  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Two field situations illustrate the consequences of rotordynamic instability in centrifugal compressors. One involves the reinjection of produced gas into a North Sea oil formation for the temporary extraction of crude. The other describes on-shore compressors used to deliver natural gas from off-shore wells. The problems which developed and the remedies attempted in each case are discussed. Instability problems resulted in lost production, extended construction periods and costs, and heavy maintenance expenditures. The need for effective methods to properly identify the problem in the field and in the compressor design stage is emphasized.

Doyle, H. E.

1980-01-01

199

INCREASING HEAVY OIL RESERVES IN THE WILMINGTON OIL FIELD THROUGH ADVANCED RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION AND THERMAL PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGIES  

SciTech Connect

The project involves using advanced reservoir characterization and thermal production technologies to improve thermal recovery techniques and lower operating and capital costs in a slope and basin clastic (SBC) reservoir in the Wilmington field, Los Angeles Co., CA. Through March 2001, project work has been completed on the following activities: data preparation; basic reservoir engineering; developing a deterministic three dimensional (3-D) geologic model, a 3-D deterministic reservoir simulation model and a rock-log model; well drilling and completions; and surface facilities on the Fault Block II-A Tar Zone (Tar II-A). Work is continuing on research to understand the geochemistry and process regarding the sand consolidation well completion technique, final reservoir tracer work, operational work and research studies to prevent thermal-related formation compaction in the Tar II-A steamflood area, and operational work on the Tar V steamflood pilot and Tar II-A post-steamflood projects. The project team spent the Second Quarter 2001 performing well work and reservoir surveillance on the Tar II-A post-steamflood project. The Tar II-A steamflood reservoirs have been operated over fifteen months at relatively stable pressures, due in large part to the bimonthly pressure monitoring program enacted at the start of the post-steamflood phase in January 1999. Starting in the Fourth Quarter 2000, the project team has ramped up activity to increase production and injection. This work will continue through 2001 as described in the Operational Management section. Expanding thermal recovery operations to other sections of the Wilmington Oil Field, including the Tar V horizontal well pilot steamflood project, is a critical part of the City of Long Beach and Tidelands Oil Production Company's development strategy for the field. The current steamflood operations in the Tar V pilot are economical, but recent performance is below projections because of wellbore mechanical limitations that are being addressed in 2001. Much of the second quarter was spent writing DOE annual and quarterly reports to stay current with contract requirements.

Scott Hara

2001-05-08

200

INCREASING HEAVY OIL RESERVES IN THE WILMINGTON OIL FIELD THROUGH ADVANCED RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION AND THERMAL PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGIES  

SciTech Connect

The project involves using advanced reservoir characterization and thermal production technologies to improve thermal recovery techniques and lower operating and capital costs in a slope and basin clastic (SBC) reservoir in the Wilmington field, Los Angeles Co., Calif. Through June 2001, project work has been completed on the following activities: data preparation; basic reservoir engineering; developing a deterministic three dimensional (3-D) geologic model, a 3-D deterministic reservoir simulation model and a rock-log model; well drilling and completions; and surface facilities on the Fault Block II-A Tar Zone (Tar II-A). Work is continuing on research to understand the geochemistry and process regarding the sand consolidation well completion technique, final reservoir tracer work, operational work and research studies to prevent thermal-related formation compaction in the Tar II-A steamflood area, and operational work on the Tar V steamflood pilot and Tar II-A post-steamflood projects. The project team spent the Third Quarter 2001 performing well work and reservoir surveillance on the Tar II-A post-steamflood project. The Tar II-A post-steamflood operation started in February 1999 and steam chest fillup occurred in September-October 1999. The targeted reservoir pressures in the ''T'' and ''D'' sands are maintained at 90 {+-} 5% hydrostatic levels by controlling water injection and gross fluid production and through the bimonthly pressure monitoring program enacted at the start of the post-steamflood phase. The project team ramped up well work activity from October 2000 to September 2001 to increase production and injection. This work will continue through 2001 as described in the Operational Management section. Expanding thermal recovery operations to other sections of the Wilmington Oil Field, including the Tar V horizontal well pilot steamflood project, is a critical part of the City of Long Beach and Tidelands Oil Production Company's development strategy for the field. The current steamflood operations in the Tar V pilot are economical, but recent performance is below projections because of wellbore mechanical limitations that are being addressed in 2001.

Scott Hara

2001-11-01

201

INCREASING HEAVY OIL RESERVES IN THE WILMINGTON OIL FIELD THROUGH ADVANCED RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION AND THERMAL PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGIES  

SciTech Connect

The project involves using advanced reservoir characterization and thermal production technologies to improve thermal recovery techniques and lower operating and capital costs in a slope and basin clastic (SBC) reservoir in the Wilmington field, Los Angeles Co., Calif. Through September 2001, project work has been completed on the following activities: data preparation; basic reservoir engineering; developing a deterministic three dimensional (3-D) geologic model, a 3-D deterministic reservoir simulation model and a rock-log model; well drilling and completions; and surface facilities on the Fault Block II-A Tar Zone (Tar II-A). Work is continuing on research to understand the geochemistry and process regarding the sand consolidation well completion technique, final reservoir tracer work, operational work and research studies to prevent thermal-related formation compaction in the Tar II-A steamflood area, and operational work on the Tar V steamflood pilot and Tar II-A post-steamflood projects. The project team spent the Fourth Quarter 2001 performing routine well work and reservoir surveillance on the Tar II-A post-steamflood and Tar V pilot steamflood projects. The Tar II-A post-steamflood operation started in February 1999 and steam chest fillup occurred in September-October 1999. The targeted reservoir pressures in the ''T'' and ''D'' sands are maintained at 90 {+-} 5% hydrostatic levels by controlling water injection and gross fluid production and through the bimonthly pressure monitoring program enacted at the start of the post-steamflood phase. The project team ramped up well work activity from October 2000 through November 2001 to increase production and injection. In December, water injection well FW-88 was plug and abandoned and replaced by new well FW-295 into the ''D'' sands to accommodate the Port of Long Beach at their expense. Well workovers are planned for 2002 as described in the Operational Management section. Expanding thermal recovery operations to other sections of the Wilmington Oil Field, including the Tar V horizontal well pilot steamflood project, is a critical part of the City of Long Beach and Tidelands Oil Production Company's development strategy for the field. The steamflood operation in the Tar V pilot project is mature and profitable. Recent production performance is below projections because of wellbore mechanical limitations that were being addressed in 2001. As the fluid production is hot, the pilot steamflood was converted to a hot waterflood project in June 2001.

Scott Hara

2002-01-31

202

NMR measurement of oil shale magnetic relaxation at high magnetic field  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) at low field is used extensively to provide porosity and pore-size distributions in reservoir rocks. For unconventional resources, due to low porosity and permeability of the samples, much of the signal exists at very short T2 relaxation times. In addition, the organic content of many shales will also produce signal at short relaxation times. Despite recent improvements in low-field technology, limitations still exist that make it difficult to account for all hydrogen-rich constituents in very tight rocks, such as shales. The short pulses and dead times along with stronger gradients available when using high-field NMR equipment provides a more complete measurement of hydrogen-bearing phases due to the ability to probe shorter T2 relaxation times (-5 sec) than can be examined using low-field equipment. Access to these shorter T2 times allows for confirmation of partially resolved peaks observed in low-field NMR data that have been attributed to solid organic phases in oil shales. High-field (300 MHz or 7 T) NMR measurements of spin-spin T2 and spin-lattice T1 magnetic relaxation of raw and artificially matured oil shales have potential to provide data complementary to low field (2 MHz or 0.05T) measurements. Measurements of high-field T2 and T1-T2 correlations are presented. These data can be interpreted in terms of organic matter phases and mineral-bound water known to be present in the shale samples, as confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and show distributions of hydrogen-bearing phases present in the shales that are similar to those observed in low field measurements.

Seymour, Joseph D.; Washburn, Kathryn E.; Kirkland, Catherine M.; Vogt, Sarah J.; Birdwell, Justin E.; Codd, Sarah L.

2013-01-01

203

Gas, water, and oil production from Wattenberg field in the Denver Basin, Colorado  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Gas, oil, and water production data were compiled from selected wells in two tight gas reservoirs-the Codell-Niobrara interval, comprised of the Codell Sandstone Member of the Carlile Shale and the Niobrara Formation; and the Dakota J interval, comprised mostly of the Muddy (J) Sandstone of the Dakota Group; both intervals are of Cretaceous age-in the Wattenberg field in the Denver Basin of Colorado. Production from each well is represented by two samples spaced five years apart, the first sample typically taken two years after production commenced, which generally was in the 1990s. For each producing interval, summary diagrams and tables of oil-versus-gas production and water-versus-gas production are shown with fluid-production rates, the change in production over five years, the water-gas and oil-gas ratios, and the fluid type. These diagrams and tables permit well-to-well and field-to-field comparisons. Fields producing water at low rates (water dissolved in gas in the reservoir) can be distinguished from fields producing water at moderate or high rates, and the water-gas ratios are quantified. The Dakota J interval produces gas on a per-well basis at roughly three times the rate of the Codell-Niobrara interval. After five years of production, gas data from the second samples show that both intervals produce gas, on average, at about one-half the rate as the first sample. Oil-gas ratios in the Codell-Niobrara interval are characteristic of a retrograde gas and are considerably higher than oil-gas ratios in the Dakota J interval, which are characteristic of a wet gas. Water production from both intervals is low, and records in many wells are discontinuous, particularly in the Codell-Niobrara interval. Water-gas ratios are broadly variable, with some of the variability possibly due to the difficulty of measuring small production rates. Most wells for which water is reported have water-gas ratios exceeding the amount that could exist dissolved in gas at reservoir pressure and temperature. The Codell-Niobrara interval is reported to be overpressured (that is, pressure greater than hydrostatic) whereas the underlying Dakota J interval is underpressured (less than hydrostatic), demonstrating a lack of hydraulic communication between the two intervals despite their proximity over a broad geographical area. The underpressuring in the Dakota J interval has been attributed by others to outcropping strata east of the basin. We agree with this interpretation and postulate that the gas accumulation also may contribute to hydraulic isolation from outcrops immediately west of the basin.

Nelson, Philip H.; Santus, Stephen L.

2011-01-01

204

Methanotrophy in a Paleoproterozoic oil field ecosystem, Zaonega Formation, Karelia, Russia.  

PubMed

Organic carbon rich rocks in the c. 2.0 Ga Zaonega Formation (ZF), Karelia, Russia, preserve isotopic characteristics of a Paleoproterozoic ecosystem and record some of the oldest known oil generation and migration. Isotopic data derived from drill core material from the ZF show a shift in ?(13) C(org) from c. -25 in the lower part of the succession to c. -40 in the upper part. This stratigraphic shift is a primary feature and cannot be explained by oil migration, maturation effects, or metamorphic overprints. The shift toward (13) C-depleted organic matter (?(13) C(org) < -25) broadly coincides with lithological evidence for the generation of oil and gas in the underlying sediments and seepage onto the sea floor. We propose that the availability of thermogenic CH(4) triggered the activity of methanotrophic organisms, resulting in the production of anomalously (13) C-depleted biomass. The stratigraphic shift in ?(13) C(org) records the change from CO(2) -fixing autotrophic biomass to biomass containing a significant contribution from methanotrophy. It has been suggested recently that this shift in ?(13) C(org) reflects global forcing and progressive oxidation of the Earth. However, the lithologic indication for local thermogenic CH(4) , sourced within the oil field, is consistent with basinal methanotrophy. This indicates that regional/basinal processes can also explain the ?(13) C(org) negative isotopic shift observed in the ZF. PMID:23009699

Qu, Y; Crne, A E; Lepland, A; van Zuilen, M A

2012-11-01

205

Residual-oil-saturation-technology test, Bell Creek Field, Montana. Final report  

SciTech Connect

A field test was conducted of the technology available to measure residual oil saturation following waterflood secondary oil recovery processes. The test was conducted in a new well drilled solely for that purpose, located immediately northwest of the Bell Creek Micellar Polymer Pilot. The area where the test was conducted was originally drilled during 1968, produced by primary until late 1970, and was under line drive waterflood secondary recovery until early 1976, when the area was shut in at waterflood depletion. This report presents the results of tests conducted to determine waterflood residual oil saturation in the Muddy Sandstone reservoir. The engineering techniques used to determine the magnitude and distribution of the remaining oil saturation included both pressure and sidewall cores, conventional well logs (Dual Laterolog - Micro Spherically Focused Log, Dual Induction Log - Spherically Focused Log, Borehole Compensated Sonic Log, Formation Compensated Density-Compensated Neutron Log), Carbon-Oxygen Logs, Dielectric Logs, Nuclear Magnetism Log, Thermal Decay Time Logs, and a Partitioning Tracer Test.

Not Available

1981-06-01

206

A Fuzzy Feed-Forward/Feedback Control System for a Three-Phase Oil Field Centrifuge.  

SciTech Connect

A set of fuzzy controllers was designed and applied to a commercial three-phase oil field centrifuge. This centrifuge is essentially a one of a kind unit. It is used to recover oil from tank bottoms and oil field and/or refinery sludge. It is unique because it can separate oily emulsions into three separate phases, oil, water, and solids, in one operation. The centrifuge is a large but portable device. It is moved form site to site and is used to separate a large variety of waste emulsions. The centrifuge feedstock varies significantly from site to site and often varies significantly during the daily operation. In this application, fuzzy logic was used on a class of problems not easily solved by classical control techniques. The oil field centrifuge is a highly nonlinear system, with a time varying input. We have been unable to develop a physical-mathematical model of the portion of the centrifuge operation that actually separates the oil, water, and solids. For this portion of the operation we developed a fuzzy feedback control system that modeled a skilled operator's knowledge and actions as opposed to the physical model of the centrifuge itself. Because of the variable feed we had to develop a feed-forward controller that would sense and react to feed changes prior to the time that the actual change reached the centrifuge separation unit. This portion of the control system was also a fuzzy controller designed around the knowledge of a skilled operator. In addition to the combined feed-forward and feedback control systems, we developed a soft-sensor that was used to determine the value of variables needed for the feed-forward control system. These variables could not actually be measured but were calculated from the measurement of other variables. The soft-sensor was developed with a combination of a physical model of the feed system and a skilled operator's expert knowledge. Finally the entire control system is tied together with a fuzzy-SPC (Statistical Process Control) filter, used to filter process and instrument noise and a fuzzy conflict resolution code used to keep the feed-forward and feedback control systems working well together.

Parkinson, W. J. (William Jerry),; Smith, R. E. (Ronald E.); Mortensen, F. N. (Fred N.); Wantuck, P. J. (Paul J.); Ross, Timothy J.; Jamshidi, Mohammad; Miller, N. (Neal)

2002-01-01

207

A fortran program for Monte Carlo simulation of oil-field discovery sequences  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We have developed a program for performing Monte Carlo simulation of oil-field discovery histories. A synthetic parent population of fields is generated as a finite sample from a distribution of specified form. The discovery sequence then is simulated by sampling without replacement from this parent population in accordance with a probabilistic discovery process model. The program computes a chi-squared deviation between synthetic and actual discovery sequences as a function of the parameters of the discovery process model, the number of fields in the parent population, and the distributional parameters of the parent population. The program employs the three-parameter log gamma model for the distribution of field sizes and employs a two-parameter discovery process model, allowing the simulation of a wide range of scenarios. ?? 1993.

Bohling, G.C.; Davis, J.C.

1993-01-01

208

Focal mechanism determination of induced microearthquakes in an oil field using full waveforms from shallow and deep seismic networks  

E-print Network

A new, relatively high frequency, full waveform matching method was used to study the focal mechanisms of small, local earthquakes induced in an oil field, which are monitored by a sparse near-surface network and a deep ...

Li, Junlun

209

77 FR 57068 - Hours of Service of Drivers of Commercial Motor Vehicles; Regulatory Guidance for Oil Field...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA...of Service of Drivers of Commercial Motor Vehicles; Regulatory Guidance for Oil Field Exception AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration...

2012-09-17

210

77 FR 46640 - Hours of Service of Drivers of Commercial Motor Vehicles; Regulatory Guidance for Oil Field...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration 49 CFR...of Service of Drivers of Commercial Motor Vehicles; Regulatory Guidance for Oil Field Exceptions AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration...

2012-08-06

211

Reservoir petroleum geochemistry of Sarita (South Texas), Eugene Island 330 and South Marsh Island 128 (offshore Louisiana) oil fields  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hydrocarbon fluid compositions within three petroleum fields were shown to be heterogeneous in some aspects while appearing to have a common source for each field. However biomarker parameters indicate that three difference sources were respectively responsible for each field accumulation. Visual inspection of whole oil chromatograms, gasoline molecular composition, and quantitative concentrations of biomarkers were used to define the range

J. K. Rafalska; P. A. Comet; M. C. II Kennicutt; T. J. McDonald; J. M. Brooks

1991-01-01

212

A quantitative study of fish populations associated with a platform within Buccaneer Oil Field, northwestern Gulf of Mexico  

E-print Network

A QUANTITATIVE STUDY OF FISH POPULATIONS ASSOCIATED WITH A PLATFORM WITHIN BUCCANEER OIL FIELD, NORTHWESTERN GULF OF MEXICO A Thesis by RUSSELL EUGENE PUTT, JR. Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment... of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1982 Major Subject: Oceanography A QUANTITATIVE STUDY OF FISH POPULATIONS ASSOCIATED WITH A PLATFORM WITHIN BUCCANEER OIL FIELD, NORTHWESTERN GULF OF MEXICO A Thesis by RUSSELL EUGENE PUTT, JR...

Putt, Russell Eugene

2012-06-07

213

Recent glacial events in the Norwegian North Sea - implications towards a better understanding of charging/leakage of oil fields and its impact oil exploration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent drilling and appraisal on the Southern Utsira High, Norwegian North Sea, has proved several large oil/gas discoveries, including the giant Johan Sverdrup, Edvard Grieg, Draupne, Ragnarrock and Apollo oil fields, making this a prolific petroleum area. The Southern Utsira High contains a variety of hydrocarbon density fluids found at several stratigraphic levels illustrating the compartmentalized nature of accumulations and charge history. The Southern Utsira High has been in a position to receive an oil/gas charge for a considerable period of time, with the basin towards the west most likely generating petroleum from early Eocene (50M Mabp) to its maximum present day burial depth. However, reservoir temperatures on the Southern Utsira High are just above the threshold for biodegradation (80C). The Southern Utsira High oils are non-biodegraded suggesting that the majority of the oil charged relatively late - ca.3 million years ago to present day. The effects of the glaciation on the filling history of the Southern Utsira High are currently being assessed. It is clear that several erosional surfaces in the Pliocene can be identified, as well as glacial channels and moraine deposits, indicating that significant deposition and erosion occurred in the last five million years. Importantly, the effects of glacial rebound mean that the Southern Utsira High more than likely underwent tilting and possible leakage, not just once, but several times in the last 1 million years. The effects of tilting/leakage of geological areas on oil migration have been recognized by several authors. However, the detailed integration of geological mapping and geochemical evidence has not previously been published. The implications of a detailed assessment of tilting of a ''high' through time are; 1) opening up areas where oil migration is thought to be high risk or impossible; 2) identify possible paleo-oil columns aiding the de-risking of discovery appraisal strategies. The evidence of tilting/leakage of oil accumulations through time can be recognized in several oil fields on the Utsira High. The giant Johan Sverdrup discovery oil columns contain paleo-OWC, residual oil zones/paleo-oil columns, and oil shows considerably deeper than the current OWC or residual oil columns. Lundin has performed detailed mapping of the seabed and water column in the Alvheim/Utsira High areas in order to identify areas of gas leakage and its geological manifestations on the seabed and ultimately resulting in the collection of high quality samples. Results shows that gas leakage is prominent over the Alvheim and Utsira High areas and the implications of this to oil exploration will be discussed. In summary, Lundin's approach to oil migration is to better understand the fluid/gas movement throughout the whole basin through time. The talk will focus on the role of glaciations on the timing of charge from the South Viking Graben, fill-spill directions on the Southern Utsira High, the effects of late tilting/leakage on the charge/re-distribution of oil, and seabed / water column characterization and sampling. All placed in the context of oil exploration.

Stoddart, Daniel

2014-05-01

214

Increased Oil Production and Reserves from Improved Completion Techniques in the Bluebell Field, Uinta Basin, Utah  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this project is to increase oil production and reserves in the Uinta Basin by demonstrating improved completion techniques. Low productivity of Uinta Basin wells is caused by gross production intervals of several thousand feet that contain perforated thief zones, water-bearing zones, and unperforated oil-bearing intervals. Geologic and engineering characterization and computer simulation of the Green River and Wasatch Formations in the Bluebell field will determine reservoir heterogeneities related to fractures and depositional trends. This will be followed by drilling and recompletion of several wells to demonstrate improved completion techniques based on the reservoir characterization. Transfer of the project results will be an ongoing component of the project.

Morgan, Craig D.

1999-11-01

215

A fuzzy control system for a three-phase oil field centrifuge  

SciTech Connect

The three-phase centrifuge discussed here is an excellent device for cleaning up oil field and refinery wastes. These wastes are typically composed of hydrocarbons, water, and solids. This technology converts waste, which is often classified as hazardous, into salable oil, reusable water, and solids that can be placed in landfills. No secondary waste is produced. A major problem is that only one person can set up and run the equipment well enough to provide an optimal cleanup. Demand for this technology has far exceeded a one-man operation. The solution to this problem is an intelligent control system that can replace a highly skilled operator so that several centrifuges can be operated at different locations at the same time.

Parkinson, W.J.; Smith, R.E.; Wantuck, P.J. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Miller, N. [Centech Inc., Casper, WY (United States)

1998-12-31

216

Harsh environment sensors: Aircraft and oil field applications of electromagnetic and acoustic technologies.  

PubMed

There is an old saying that what can be measured can be improved. However, measuring the key parameters in aircraft engines that drive efficiency and emissions is very difficult. This is even more the case in oil field applications, where extremely high pressures and temperatures are commonly encountered. But the benefits to society of reduced emissions (carbon, pollutants, and noise) and improved oil and gas recovery are tremendous. The task for instrument manufacturers is to develop sensors that are both reliable and cost effective. Recent advances in the application of electromagnetic and acoustic technologies are described for measuring temperature, pressure, flow, and composition in harsh environments. The sensors range from inductively and optically coupled ceramic and silicon devices to ultrasonic and SAW devices packaged with high temperature electronics to fiber optic systems. These sensors are now being deployed on new airframes, engines, deep water wells, horizontal tight shale formations, and high temperature/high pressure wells. PMID:25235514

Furlong, Edward R

2014-04-01

217

Sedimentation, zoning of reservoir rocks in W. Siberian basin oil fields  

SciTech Connect

A line pattern of well cluster spacing was chosen in western Siberia because of taiga, marshes, etc., on the surface. The zoning of the oil pools within productive Upper Jurassic J[sub 3] intervals is complicated. This is why until the early 1990s almost each third well drilled in the Shaimsky region on the western edge of the West Siberian basin came up dry. The results of development drilling would be much better if one used some sedimentological relationships of zoning of the reservoir rocks within the oil fields. These natural phenomena are: Paleobasin bathymetry; Distances from the sources of the clastic material; and Proximity of the area of deposition. Using the diagram in this article, one can avoid drilling toward areas where the sandstone pinch out, area of argillization of sand-stones, or where the probability of their absence is high.

Kliger, J.A. (Enforce Energy Corp., New York, NY (United States))

1994-02-07

218

The MS-Q Force Field for Clay Minerals: Application to Oil Production Sungu Hwang, Mario Blanco, Ersan Demiralp, Tahir Cagin, and William A. Goddard, III*  

E-print Network

The MS-Q Force Field for Clay Minerals: Application to Oil Production Sungu Hwang, Mario Blanco of water, hydrocarbons, and polar organic compounds such as oil field production chemicals on clay mineral and corrosion inhibition). Among the minerals present in the walls of oil reservoirs, clay minerals are believed

?agin, Tahir

219

Gas injection may have triggered earthquakes in the Cogdell oil field, Texas  

PubMed Central

Between 1957 and 1982, water flooding was conducted to improve petroleum production in the Cogdell oil field north of Snyder, TX, and a contemporary analysis concluded this induced earthquakes that occurred between 1975 and 1982. The National Earthquake Information Center detected no further activity between 1983 and 2005, but between 2006 and 2011 reported 18 earthquakes having magnitudes 3 and greater. To investigate these earthquakes, we analyzed data recorded by six temporary seismograph stations deployed by the USArray program, and identified 93 well-recorded earthquakes occurring between March 2009 and December 2010. Relocation with a double-difference method shows that most earthquakes occurred within several northeastsouthwest-trending linear clusters, with trends corresponding to nodal planes of regional focal mechanisms, possibly indicating the presence of previously unidentified faults. We have evaluated data concerning injection and extraction of oil, water, and gas in the Cogdell field. Water injection cannot explain the 20062011 earthquakes, especially as net volumes (injection minus extraction) are significantly less than in the 19571982 period. However, since 2004 significant volumes of gases including supercritical CO2 have been injected into the Cogdell field. The timing of gas injection suggests it may have contributed to triggering the recent seismic activity. If so, this represents an instance where gas injection has triggered earthquakes having magnitudes 3 and larger. Further modeling studies may help evaluate recent assertions suggesting significant risks accompany large-scale carbon capture and storage as a strategy for managing climate change. PMID:24191019

Gan, Wei; Frohlich, Cliff

2013-01-01

220

Gas injection may have triggered earthquakes in the Cogdell oil field, Texas.  

PubMed

Between 1957 and 1982, water flooding was conducted to improve petroleum production in the Cogdell oil field north of Snyder, TX, and a contemporary analysis concluded this induced earthquakes that occurred between 1975 and 1982. The National Earthquake Information Center detected no further activity between 1983 and 2005, but between 2006 and 2011 reported 18 earthquakes having magnitudes 3 and greater. To investigate these earthquakes, we analyzed data recorded by six temporary seismograph stations deployed by the USArray program, and identified 93 well-recorded earthquakes occurring between March 2009 and December 2010. Relocation with a double-difference method shows that most earthquakes occurred within several northeast-southwest-trending linear clusters, with trends corresponding to nodal planes of regional focal mechanisms, possibly indicating the presence of previously unidentified faults. We have evaluated data concerning injection and extraction of oil, water, and gas in the Cogdell field. Water injection cannot explain the 2006-2011 earthquakes, especially as net volumes (injection minus extraction) are significantly less than in the 1957-1982 period. However, since 2004 significant volumes of gases including supercritical CO2 have been injected into the Cogdell field. The timing of gas injection suggests it may have contributed to triggering the recent seismic activity. If so, this represents an instance where gas injection has triggered earthquakes having magnitudes 3 and larger. Further modeling studies may help evaluate recent assertions suggesting significant risks accompany large-scale carbon capture and storage as a strategy for managing climate change. PMID:24191019

Gan, Wei; Frohlich, Cliff

2013-11-19

221

Borehole gravity surveys in the Cretaceous-Tertiary Sagavanirktok Formation, Kuparuk River oil field, Alaska  

SciTech Connect

Detailed borehole gravity surveys (sponsored by the US Department of Energy) were made in three wells in the Kuparuk River and westernmost Prudhoe Bay oil fields, Alaska from depths as shallow as 15 m to as great as 1,340 m through permafrost and underlying heavy oil bearing sandstones of the Sagavanirktok Formation. A subbituminous coal-bearing sequence and the stability field for methane hydrate occur partly within and partly below the permafrost zone, whose base, defined by the 0{degree}C isotherm, varies from 464 to 564 m. The surveys provided accurate, large-volume estimates of in-situ bulk density from which equivalent porosity was calculated using independent grain and pore-fluid density information. This density and porosity data helped to define the rock mass properties within the hydrate stability field and the thermal conductivity, seismic character, and compaction history of the permafrost. Bulk density of the unconsolidated to poorly consolidated sections ranges mostly from 1.9 to 2.3 g/cm{sup 3}. The shallow permafrost section appears to be slightly overcompacted in comparison to similar sedimentary sequences in nonpermafrost regions. The cause of this apparent overcompaction is unknown but may be due to freeze-thaw processes that have similarly affected sea floor and surficial deposits elsewhere in the Arctic. Fluctuations of bulk density appear to be controlled principally by (1) textural variations of the sediments, possibly exaggerated locally within the permafrost zone by excess ice, (2) presence or absence of carbonaceous material, and (3) type of pore-fluid (water-ice vs. water vs. hydrocarbons). As hypothetical models predict bulk-density is slightly lower opposite one interval of possible methane hydrate. Porosity may be as high as 40-45% for selected coarser grained units within the permafrost zone, and as high as 30-35% in a series of well sorted, heavy oil-bearing sandstones.

Beyer, L.A. (Geological Survey, Menlo Park, CA (USA))

1990-05-01

222

INCREASING HEAVY OIL RESERVES IN THE WILMINGTON OIL FIELD THROUGH ADVANCED RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION AND THERMAL PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGIES  

SciTech Connect

The project involves using advanced reservoir characterization and thermal production technologies to improve thermal recovery techniques and lower operating and capital costs in a slope and basin clastic (SBC) reservoir in the Wilmington field, Los Angeles Co., Calif. Through December 2001, project work has been completed on the following activities: data preparation; basic reservoir engineering; developing a deterministic three dimensional (3-D) geologic model, a 3-D deterministic reservoir simulation model and a rock-log model; well drilling and completions; and surface facilities on the Fault Block II-A Tar Zone (Tar II-A). Work is continuing on research to understand the geochemistry and process regarding the sand consolidation well completion technique, final reservoir tracer work, operational work and research studies to prevent thermal-related formation compaction in the Tar II-A steamflood area, and operational work on the Tar V steamflood pilot and Tar II-A post-steamflood projects. During the First Quarter 2002, the project team developed an accelerated oil recovery and reservoir cooling plan for the Tar II-A post-steamflood project and began implementing the associated well work in March. The Tar V pilot steamflood project will be converted to post-steamflood cold water injection in April 2002. The Tar II-A post-steamflood operation started in February 1999 and steam chest fillup occurred in September-October 1999. The targeted reservoir pressures in the ''T'' and ''D'' sands are maintained at 90 {+-} 5% hydrostatic levels by controlling water injection and gross fluid production and through the bimonthly pressure monitoring program enacted at the start of the post-steamflood phase. Most of the 2001 well work resulted in maintaining oil and gross fluid production and water injection rates. Reservoir pressures in the ''T'' and ''D'' sands are at 88% and 91% hydrostatic levels, respectively. Well work during the first quarter and plans for 2002 are described in the Reservoir Management section. The steamflood operation in the Tar V pilot project is mature and profitable. Recent production performance has been below projections because of wellbore mechanical limitations that have been addressed during this quarter. As the fluid production temperatures were beginning to exceed 350 F, our self-imposed temperature limit, the pilot steamflood was converted to a hot waterflood project in June 2001 and will be converted to cold water injection next quarter.

Scott Hara

2002-04-30

223

Standard practice for evaluating and qualifying oil field and refinery corrosion inhibitors using rotating cage  

E-print Network

1.1 This practice covers a generally accepted procedure to use the rotating cage (RC) for evaluating corrosion inhibitors for oil field and refinery applications. 1.2 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as the standard. The values given in parentheses are for information only. This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

2006-01-01

224

Feasibility study of enhanced oil recovery for fields in decline. Export trade information (Final)  

SciTech Connect

The report, generated by Scientific Software-Intercomp, Inc. for Yacimientos Petroliferos Fiscales Bolivianos, documents the results of a feasibility study which addressed the viability of developing petroleum areas in Bolivia. The primary objective of the project was to describe the reservoirs that have been discovered and their reserves, describe which would be the best alternatives for development of these reservoirs, and to determine the best alternatives for development of all the reserves together. The report, volume 4 of 4, concerns the feasibility of enhancing the oil or condensate recovery from a chosen group of fields (Yapacani, Humberto Suarez Roca, Vibora, La Pena, San Roque, and Camiri).

Not Available

1991-08-01

225

Investigation of ginkgo biloba leave extracts as corrosion and Oil field microorganism inhibitors  

PubMed Central

Ginkgo biloba (Ginkgoaceae), originating from China, now distributes all over the world. Wide application of Ginkgo biloba extracts is determined by the main active substances, flavonoids and terpenoids, which indicates its extracts suitable to be used as an effective corrosion inhibitor. The extracts of Ginkgo biloba leave have been investigated on the corrosion inhibition of Q235A steel with weight loss and potentiodynamic polarisation techniques. The inhibition efficiency of the extracts varies with extract concentration. The extracts inhibit corrosion mainly by adsorption mechanism. Potentiodynamic polarisation studies show that extracts are mixed type inhibitors. The antibacterial activity of the extracts against oil field microorganism (SRB, IB and TGB) was also investigated. PMID:23651921

2013-01-01

226

Investigation of ginkgo biloba leave extracts as corrosion and Oil field microorganism inhibitors.  

PubMed

Ginkgo biloba (Ginkgoaceae), originating from China, now distributes all over the world. Wide application of Ginkgo biloba extracts is determined by the main active substances, flavonoids and terpenoids, which indicates its extracts suitable to be used as an effective corrosion inhibitor. The extracts of Ginkgo biloba leave have been investigated on the corrosion inhibition of Q235A steel with weight loss and potentiodynamic polarisation techniques. The inhibition efficiency of the extracts varies with extract concentration. The extracts inhibit corrosion mainly by adsorption mechanism. Potentiodynamic polarisation studies show that extracts are mixed type inhibitors. The antibacterial activity of the extracts against oil field microorganism (SRB, IB and TGB) was also investigated. PMID:23651921

Chen, Gang; Zhang, Min; Zhao, Jingrui; Zhou, Rui; Meng, Zuchao; Zhang, Jie

2013-01-01

227

Microbial Oxidation of Natural Gas in a Plume Emanating from the Coal Oil Point Seep Field  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The hydrocarbon seep field at Coal Oil Point, off the coast of Santa Barbara, California, releases > 1010 g of thermogenic natural gas each year. Gases emitted from Coal Oil Point include methane, ethane, propane, and butane, which are atmospheric pollutants and greenhouse gases. Even though the seeps are at water depths of only 5-80 m, much of the gas dissolves and contributes to a plume that is transported by ocean currents. While hydrocarbons can support bacterial respiration, resulting in the removal of hydrocarbon gas from the plume, the time-scale for the bacterial respiratory response is unconstrained. To track hydrocarbon respiration 3H-ethane, propane, and butane were synthesized using Grignard reagents and tritiated water with yields of >70% and applied as tracers to samples up- and down-current from the seeps at Coal Oil Point. Validation experiments conducted in September 2011 aboard the R/V Atlantis show that 3H-labeled tracers are an order of magnitude more sensitive than previous methods using stable carbon isotopes (Valentine et. al 2010), making this technique preferable in natural systems. Application of the tracers concurrent with plume tracking in July-August 2012 show ethane, propane, and butane consumption are readily inducible on a timescale of days.

Mendes, S. D.; Valentine, D. L.; Perez, C.; Scarlett, R.

2012-12-01

228

Uncovering Influences on the Form of Oil and Gas Field Size Distributions  

SciTech Connect

A detailed understanding of the processes that led to empirical oil and gas field size distributions, especially the dynamic character of the discovery process, is needed to improve the quality of forecasts of oil and gas resources. An empirical distribution results from a complex interaction of economic, technical, and social factors with geology in the form of a distribution of deposits. These factors may cause an empirical distribution to mutate nonrandomly through time. Changes in the price of oil, the cost of exploration and development, technology, and access to prospects influence the discovery process. Failure to recognize and account for them in the modeling process can result in serious bias in estimates of the number and volume of future discoveries. In addition, the broad range of some forecasts for a given region may be explained by differences in perspective of those involved in the process. Geologists who understand the basic processes and collect the data may be scientific determinists. Statisticians who model and analyze the data are trained to think in terms of random variables and stochastic processes.

Schuenemeyer, John H. [University of Delaware, U.S. Geological Survey, Department of Geography (United States)], E-mail: jacks@udel.edu; Drew, Lawrence J. [U.S. Geological Survey (United States)

1999-03-15

229

The boomerang area: An example of oil and gas fields related to a transfer zone development  

SciTech Connect

We present results of a study realized from petroleum data of Yacimientos Petroliferos Fiscales Bolivianos of the most important transfer zone of the Bolivian Andean belt: the Santa Cruz transfer zone. Frontal part of the Bolivian Andean belt consists of a thick series (6 to 8 km) of paleozoic to cenozoic sedimentary rocks thrusted eastwards on a sole thrust located in paleozoic series. The frontal part of the belt, globally N-S oriented, undergoes an important deviation East of Santa Cruz with a left lateral offset of 100 Km. Taking into account the E-W shortening direction, this transfer zone can be interpreted as a lateral ramp. The Santa Cruz transfer zone coincide with a set of small oil and gas fields whereas frontal structures lack hydrocarbon occurrences. We are then faced with a two-fold problem: (1) what is the origin of the transfer zone (2) why are the oil and gas concentrated in the transfer zone Our synthesis shows that the transfer zone is superimposed on the limit of a detached Paleozoic basin whose border direction is oblique to the regional shortening direction. We then interpret the oil and gas formation in two steps: (1) source rock maturation and hydrocarbon migration towards the top of the Paleozoic sedimentary wedge before Andean deformation. (2) hydrocarbon dismigration towards anticlinal structures developed during the lateral ramp propagation. In order to test our interpretation we performed a set of analog model experiments whose 3D visualization was analyzed by computerized X-ray tomography.

Specht, M.; Colletta, B.; Letouzey, J. (Institut Francais de petrole, Ruiel-Malmaison (France)); Baby, P. (ORSTOM, Santa Cruz (Bolivia)); Oller, J.; Montemuro, G. (YPFB, Santa Cruz (Bolivia)); Guillier, B. (IFEA, Santa Cruz (Bolivia))

1993-02-01

230

Gas, Water, and Oil Production from the Wasatch Formation, Greater Natural Buttes Field, Uinta Basin, Utah  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Gas, oil, and water production data were compiled from 38 wells with production commencing during the 1980s from the Wasatch Formation in the Greater Natural Buttes field, Uinta Basin, Utah. This study is one of a series of reports examining fluid production from tight gas reservoirs, which are characterized by low permeability, low porosity, and the presence of clay minerals in pore space. The general ranges of production rates after 2 years are 100-1,000 mscf/day for gas, 0.35-3.4 barrel per day for oil, and less than 1 barrel per day for water. The water:gas ratio ranges from 0.1 to10 barrel per million standard cubic feet, indicating that free water is produced along with water dissolved in gas in the reservoir. The oil:gas ratios are typical of a wet gas system. Neither gas nor water rates show dependence upon the number of perforations, although for low gas-flow rates there is some dependence upon the number of sandstone intervals that were perforated. Over a 5-year time span, gas and water may either increase or decrease in a given well, but the changes in production rate do not exhibit any dependence upon well proximity or well location.

Nelson, Philip H.; Hoffman, Eric L.

2009-01-01

231

Microbiology to help solve our energy needs: methanogenesis from oil and the impact of nitrate on the oil-field sulfur cycle.  

PubMed

Our society depends greatly on fossil fuels, and the environmental consequences of this are well known and include significant increases of the CO(2) concentration in the earth's atmosphere. Although microbiology has traditionally played only a minor role in fossil-fuel extraction, two novel key discoveries indicate that this may change. First, the realization that oil components can be converted to methane and CO(2) by methanogenic consortia in the absence of electron acceptors (oxygen, nitrate, sulfate) explains how much of the world's oil has been biodegraded in situ. In addition to inorganic nutrients, only water is needed for these methanogenic conversions. Hence, continued methanogenic biodegradation may have shaped the heavy-oil reservoirs that are so prevalent today. The potential to exploit these reactions, for example, by in situ gasification, is currently being actively investigated. Second, injection of nitrate in oil and gas fields can lower sulfide concentrations. High sulfide concentrations, caused by the action of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB), are associated with increased risk of corrosion, reservoir plugging (through precipitated sulfides), and human safety. Nitrate injection into an oil field stimulates subsurface heterotrophic nitrate-reducing bacteria (hNRB) and nitrate-reducing, sulfide-oxidizing bacteria (NR-SOB). Nitrite, formed by these NRB by partial reduction of nitrate, is a strong and specific SRB inhibitor. Nitrate injection has, therefore, promise in positively controlling the oil-field sulfur cycle. There is now more interest in and potential to apply petroleum microbiology than there has been in the past, allowing microbiologists to contribute to a sustainable energy future. PMID:18378604

Grigoryan, Alexander; Voordouw, Gerrit

2008-03-01

232

A surface vitrinite reflectance anomaly related to Bell Creek oil field, Montana, U.S.A.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Vitrinite reflectance measurements from surface samples of mudrock and coal show anomalously high values over the Bell Creek oil field. The average vitrinite reflectance (Rm) increases to a maximum of 0.9 percent over the field against background values of about 0.3 percent. The Rm anomaly coincides with a geochemical anomaly indicated by diagenetic magnetite in surface rocks and a geobiologic anomaly indicated by ethane-consuming bacteria. These samples were taken from the Upper Cretaceous Hell Creek and Paleocene Fort Union Formations which form an essentially conformable sequence. The depositional environment is similar in both formations, and we expect little variation in the source and composition of the organic matter. The surface R m should be approximately constant because of a uniform thermal history across the field. Temperature studies over local oil fields with similar geology suggest the expected thermal anomaly would be less than 10?C (50?F), which is too small to account for the significantly higher rank over the field. Coal clinkers are rare in the vicinity of Bell Creek and an Rm anomaly caused by burning of the thin, discontinuous coal seams is unlikely. The limited topographic relief, less than 305 m (1,000 ft), over the shallow-dipping homoclinal structure and the poor correlation between Rm and sample locality elevation (r = -0.2) indicate that the Rm anomaly is not due to burial, deformation and subsequent erosion. We conjecture that activity by petroleum-metabolizing bacteria is a possible explanation of the Rm anomaly. Microseepage from oil reservoirs supports large colonies of these organisms, some of which can produce enzymes that can cleave hydrocarbon side-chains on the kerogen molecule. The loss of these side chains causes condensation of the ring structures (Stach and others, 1982) and consequently increases its reflectance. These data indicate that vitrinite reflectance may be a useful tool to explore for stratigraphic traps in the Powder River Basin. Further, the large variation of R across the Bell Creek area suggests that vitrinite reflectance data from surface samples should be interpreted with caution.

Barker, C. E.; Dalziel, M. C.; Pawlewicz, M. J.

1983-01-01

233

3-D reservoir characterization of the House Creek oil field, Powder River Basin, Wyoming  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This CD-ROM is intended to serve a broad audience. An important purpose is to explain geologic and geochemical factors that control petroleum production from the House Creek Field. This information may serve as an analog for other marine-ridge sandstone reservoirs. The 3-D slide and movie images are tied to explanations and 2-D geologic and geochemical images to visualize geologic structures in three dimensions, explain the geologic significance of porosity/permeability distribution across the sandstone bodies, and tie this to petroleum production characteristics in the oil field. Movies, text, images including scanning electron photomicrographs (SEM), thin-section photomicrographs, and data files can be copied from the CD-ROM for use in external mapping, statistical, and other applications.

Higley, Debra K.; Pantea, Michael P.; Slatt, Roger M.

1997-01-01

234

Possibility of induced seismicity in the vicinity of the Sleepy Hollow oil field, southwestern Nebraska  

SciTech Connect

An array of 4 seismographs operating in NW. Kansas SW. Nebraska detected 31 earthquakes in the magnitude range 0.6 to 2.9 from March 1979 to March 1980. A mail canvass revealed a well-constrained felt area ca 10 km across which coincides remarkably well with the oil field. Water injection has been used as a method of enhanced recovery in this field since 1966. Some of the earthquakes occurred on possible downward extensions of faults in the deeper sedimentary rocks and granite basement, implying that some of the seismicity may be induced. However, deeper events and other supporting data suggest current tectonic activity on the Chadron- Cambridge Arch. The recently installed 8-station Sleepy Hollow Seismic Network should provide the data necessary to test these hypotheses. 14 references.

Rothe, G.H.; Lui, C.Y.

1983-10-01

235

Degradation and remediation of soils polluted with oil-field wastewater  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The changes in the properties of gray forest soils and leached chernozems under the impact of contamination with highly saline oil-field wastewater were studied in a model experiment. It was shown that the soil contamination results in the development of technogenic salinization and alkalization leading to worsening of the major soil properties. The salinization of the soils with oil-field wastewater transformed the soil exchange complex: the cation exchange capacity decreased, and the exchangeable sodium percentage increased to up to 25% of the CEC upon the wastewater infiltration and up to 60% of the CEC upon the continuous soil saturation with the wastewater independently of the soil type. The content of exchangeable magnesium also increased due to the phenomenon of super-equivalent exchange. Despite the saturation of the soil adsorption complex with sodium, no development of the soil alkalization took place in the presence of the high concentration of soluble salts. However, the soil alkalization was observed upon the soil washing from soluble salts. The gypsum application to the washed soils lowered the exchangeable sodium concentration to acceptable values and normalized the soil reaction. The gypsum application without the preliminary washing of the soils from soluble salts was of low efficiency; even after six months, the content of exchangeable sodium remained very high. The subsequent soil washing resulted in the removal of the soluble salts but did not affect the degree of the soil alkalization.

Gabbasova, I. M.; Suleymanov, R. R.; Garipov, T. T.

2013-02-01

236

Update on microbial enhanced oil recovery: field test in Kansas, supplementing private tests, will be first for Dept. of Energy  

SciTech Connect

Microbial recovery processes seek to increase production at fields with declining output by repressurizing the oil field, producing surfactants or other agents to release trapped oil and drive it toward production wells, or reducing viscosity of the oil. Microbial techniques promise improved efficiency and low cost. Success of the mechanisms by which MEOR works depends upon selection of the proper species for activity within the reservoir and the ability of the microorganisms to regulate its metabolism in-situ. Four characteristics were given for reservoir in the top 10 oil-producing states: temperature 49/sup 0/C to 90/sup 0/C; pH 3.0 to 9.9; brine concentration 1.3% to 15.6%; nutrients for microbial growth. Permeability, porosity, and pore-size distribution are important characteristics also. (DP)

Not Available

1983-07-11

237

Growth, yield and essential oil content of three cultivars of basil grown under different levels of nitrogen in the field  

Microsoft Academic Search

A field experiment was conducted in Southern Italy to investigate the effect of different nitrogen (N) rates (0, 100 or 300kgha?1) on the number of branchings and leaves per plant, plant height, yield of above-ground fresh biomass, total leaf area, dry weight, leaf-to-stem ratio, leaf essential oil content and the essential oil quality at commercial harvest (full bloom) of the

Maria Isabella Sifola; G. Barbieri

2006-01-01

238

Phylogenetic diversity and activity of anaerobic microorganisms of high-temperature horizons of the Dagang oil field (P. R. China)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The number of microorganisms of major metabolic groups and the rates of sulfate reduction and methanogenesis processes in\\u000a the formation waters of the high-temperature horizons of Dagang oil field have been determined. Using cultural methods, it\\u000a was shown that the microbial community contained aerobic bacteria oxidizing crude oil, anaerobic fermentative bacteria, sulfate-reducing\\u000a bacteria, and methanogens. Using cultural methods, the possibility

T. N. Nazina; N. M. Shestakova; A. A. Grigoryan; E. M. Mikhailova; T. P. Tourova; A. B. Poltaraus; Cingxian Feng; Fangtian Ni; S. S. Belyaev

2006-01-01

239

Water alternating enriched gas injection to enhance oil production and recovery from San Francisco Field, Colombia  

E-print Network

) using Kulin oil (21 'API oil Irom Indonesia). ' The same effect of production acceleration was observed in these experiments and steam injectivity was improved with the addition of propane to the steam. Rivero and Mamora (2002) conducted several steam... studies of steam-propane and enriched gas injection for the Minas light crude oil. ' With steam-propane injection no improvement on production and oil recovery was obtained. Enriched gas injection increase the oil recovery in 13'/o, (74'/o OOIP with 5...

Rueda Silva, Carlos Fernando

2012-06-07

240

Additional Reserve Recovery Using New Polymer Treatment on High Water Oil Ratio Wells in Alameda Field, Kingman County, Kansas  

SciTech Connect

The Chemical Flooding process, like a polymer treatment, as a tertiary (enhanced) oil recovery process can be a very good solution based on the condition of this field and its low cost compared to the drilling of new wells. It is an improved water flooding method in which high molecular-weight (macro-size molecules) and water-soluble polymers are added to the injection water to improve the mobility ratio by enhancing the viscosity of the water and by reducing permeability in invaded zones during the process. In other words, it can improve the sweep efficiency by reducing the water mobility. This polymer treatment can be performed on the same active oil producer well rather than on an injector well in the existence of strong water drive in the formation. Some parameters must be considered before any polymer job is performed such as: formation temperature, permeability, oil gravity and viscosity, location and formation thickness of the well, amount of remaining recoverable oil, fluid levels, well productivity, water oil ratio (WOR) and existence of water drive. This improved oil recovery technique has been used widely and has significant potential to extend reservoir life by increasing the oil production and decreasing the water cut. This new technology has the greatest potential in reservoirs that are moderately heterogeneous, contain moderately viscous oils, and have adverse water-oil mobility ratios. For example, many wells in Kansas's Arbuckle formation had similar treatments and we have seen very effective results. In addition, there were previous polymer treatments conducted by Texaco in Alameda Field on a number of wells throughout the Viola-Simpson formation in the early 70's. Most of the treatments proved to be very successful.

James Spillane

2005-10-01

241

CO2 Storage and Enhanced Oil Recovery: Bald Unit Test Site, Mumford Hills Oil Field, Posey County, Indiana  

SciTech Connect

The Midwest Geological Sequestration Consortium (MGSC) carried out a small-scale carbon dioxide (CO2) injection test in a sandstone within the Clore Formation (Mississippian System, Chesterian Series) in order to gauge the large-scale CO2 storage that might be realized from enhanced oil recovery (EOR) of mature Illinois Basin oil fields via miscible liquid CO2 flooding. As part of the MGSC???????¢????????????????s Validation Phase (Phase II) studies, the small injection pilot test was conducted at the Bald Unit site within the Mumford Hills Field in Posey County, southwestern Indiana, which was chosen for the project on the basis of site infrastructure and reservoir conditions. Geologic data on the target formation were extensive. Core analyses, porosity and permeability data, and geophysical logs from 40 wells were used to construct cross sections and structure contour and isopach maps in order to characterize and define the reservoir architecture of the target formation. A geocellular model of the reservoir was constructed to improve understanding of CO2 behavior in the subsurface. At the time of site selection, the Field was under secondary recovery through edge-water injection, but the wells selected for the pilot in the Bald Unit had been temporarily shut-in for several years. The most recently shut-in production well, which was surrounded by four nearby shut-in production wells in a five-spot pattern, was converted to CO2 injection for this pilot. Two additional wells outside the immediate five-spot pattern, one of which was an active producer, were instrumented to measure surface temperature and pressure. The CO2 injection period lasted from September 3, 2009, through December 14, 2010, with one three-month interruption caused by cessation of CO2 deliveries due to winter weather. Water was injected into the CO2 injection well during this period. A total of 6,300 tonnes (6,950 tons) of CO2 were injected into the reservoir at rates that generally ranged from 18 to 32 tonnes (20 to 35 tons) per day. The CO2 injection bottomhole pressure generally remained at 8.3 to 9.0 MPag (1,200 to 1,300 psig). The CO2 injection was followed by continued monitoring for nine months during post-CO2 water injection. A monitoring, verification, and accounting (MVA) program was designed to determine the fate of injected CO2. Extensive periodic sampling and analysis of brine, groundwater, and produced gases began before CO2 injection and continued through the monitored waterflood periods. Samples were gathered from production wells and three newly installed groundwater monitoring wells. Samples underwent geochemical and isotopic analyses to reveal any CO2-related changes. Groundwater and kinetic modeling and mineralogical analysis were also employed to better understand the long-term dynamics of CO2 in the reservoir. No CO2 leakage into groundwater was detected, and analysis of brine and gas chemistry made it possible to track the path of plume migration and infer geochemical reactions and trapping of CO2. Cased-hole logging did not detect any CO2 in the near-wellbore region. An increase in CO2 concentration was first detected in February 2010 from the gas present in the carboy during brine sampling; however, there was no appreciable gas volume associated with the detection of CO2. The first indication of elevated gas rates from the commingled gas of the pilot???????¢????????????????s production wells occurred in July 2010 and reached a maximum of 0.36 tonnes/day (0.41 tons/day) in September 2010. An estimated 27 tonnes (30 tons) of CO2 were produced at the surface from the gas separator at the tank battery from September 3, 2009, through September 11, 2011, representing 0.5% of the injected CO2. Consequently, 99.5%

Frailey, Scott M.; Krapac, Ivan G.; Damico, James R.; Okwen, Roland T.; McKaskle, Ray W.

2012-03-30

242

Time-lapse Measurements of Scholte Wave Velocity Over a Compacting Oil Field  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Acquisition of time-lapse seismic data over producing oil and gas fields is a proven method for optimizing hydrocarbon production. Most current data have been acquired using towed-streamer seismic vessels but new systems incorporating permanent Ocean Bottom Cable (OBC) systems are gaining in popularity, both as a way to achieve better repeatability and also to reduce the cost of acquiring many time-lapse repeats of the baseline survey. Over the last three years, more than seven repeat data sets have been acquired at the permanent OBC system installed (by the operator, BP) over the Valhall oil field located offshore Norway. This system contains ~2400 four-component receiver stations that are recorded using a dense areal shot grid ("carpet" shoot) that provides high fold and has delivered excellent time-lapse signals starting from the first repeat occurring just three months after the baseline. Time-lapse OBC data are conventionally used to measure amplitude and velocity changes of body wave reflections (PP and PS) but other measurements are also possible. In particular, Scholte waves are strongly visible on records acquired everywhere in the field on appropriately processed data and, given the high fold (because of the dense shots), Scholte wave velocity and anisotropy time-lapse changes obtained with both hydrophone and geophone sensors are accurately and robustly estimated. The resulting shallow velocity maps are very sensitive to the seabed strains and show large velocity changes overlying deep production. Also, reconstruction of compressional "head wave" velocity difference measurements and vertically propagating shear wave shallow time-lapse statics produce maps that resemble the Scholte wave maps, with differences that reflect the physics of the propagation modes and effective fold. A reservoir model that includes deep reservoir volume changes together with appropriate geomechanical properties in the overburden and a shallow conversion of strain to velocity is used to successfully predict the measured velocity changes. The strain/velocity conversion requires asymmetry between crack opening and closing as well as velocity hysteresis and, in fact, the measurements provide an excellent laboratory for testing fracture-model/velocity conversion on in-situ rocks. After calibration, the model together with the data can constrain both volume changes in the reservoir, for making drilling decisions as well as the overburden geomechanical rock properties model, which itself is used for well- path selection and facilities decisions. Scholte wave velocity measurements can also be made using an oil platform as a "passive" source, removing the need for a conventional source near the seafloor. Finally, these measurements might be applicable on time- lapse controlled source measurements of greater generality in a wider geophysical context wherever an accurate measurement of a time-varying surface strain is desired.

Wills, P. B.; Hatchell, P. J.

2007-12-01

243

Strontium isotope detection of brine contamination in the East Poplar oil field, Montana  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Brine contamination of groundwater in the East Poplar oil field was first documented in the mid-1980s by the U.S. Geological Survey by using hydrochemistry, with an emphasis on chloride (Cl) and total dissolved solids concentrations. Supply wells for the City of Poplar are located downgradient from the oil field, are completed in the same shallow aquifers that are documented as contaminated, and therefore are potentially at risk of being contaminated. In cooperation with the Office of Environmental Protection of the Fort Peck Tribes, groundwater samples were collected in 2009 and 2010 from supply wells, monitor wells, and the Poplar River for analyses of major and trace elements, including strontium (Sr) concentrations and isotopic compositions. The ratio of strontium-87 to strontium-86 (87Sr/86Sr) is used extensively as a natural tracer in groundwater to detect mixing among waters from different sources and to study the effects of water/rock interaction. On a plot of the reciprocal strontium concentration against the 87Sr/86Sr ratio, mixtures of two end members will produce a linear array. Using this plotting method, data for samples from most of the wells, including the City of Poplar wells, define an array with reciprocal strontium values ranging from 0.08 to 4.15 and 87Sr/86Sr ratios ranging from 0.70811 to 0.70828. This array is composed of a brine end member with an average 87Sr/86Sr of 0.70822, strontium concentrations in excess of 12.5 milligrams per liter (mg/L), and chloride concentrations exceeding 8,000 mg/L mixing with uncontaminated water similar to that in USGS06-08 with 18.0 mg/L chloride, 0.24 mg/L strontium, and a 87Sr/86Sr ratio of 0.70811. The position of samples from the City of Poplar public-water supply wells within this array indicates that brine contamination has reached all three wells. Outliers from this array are EPU-4G (groundwater from the Cretaceous Judith River Formation), brine samples from disposal wells (Huber 5-D and EPU 1-D), USGS92-11 (a well with water that was considerably contaminated in 1992 and becoming less saline with time), and PNR-27 (only slightly below the defined trend with an 87Sr/86Sr ratio of 0.70793). Water samples from the City of Poplar wells are also enriched in anions and cations that are abundant in oil-field brine.

Peterman, Zell E.; Thamke, Joanna N.; Futa, Kiyoto; Oliver, Thomas A.

2010-01-01

244

RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION OF UPPER DEVONIAN GORDON SANDSTONE, JACKSONBURG STRINGTOWN OIL FIELD, NORTHWESTERN WEST VIRGINIA  

SciTech Connect

The Jacksonburg-Stringtown oil field contained an estimated 88,500,000 barrels of oil in place, of which approximately 20,000,000 barrels were produced during primary recovery operations. A gas injection project, initiated in 1934, and a pilot waterflood, begun in 1981, yielded additional production from limited portions of the field. The pilot was successful enough to warrant development of a full-scale waterflood in 1990, involving approximately 8,900 acres in three units, with a target of 1,500 barrels of oil per acre recovery. Historical patterns of drilling and development within the field suggests that the Gordon reservoir is heterogeneous, and that detailed reservoir characterization is necessary for understanding well performance and addressing problems observed by the operators. The purpose of this work is to establish relationships among permeability, geophysical and other data by integrating geologic, geophysical and engineering data into an interdisciplinary quantification of reservoir heterogeneity as it relates to production. Conventional stratigraphic correlation and core description shows that the Gordon sandstone is composed of three parasequences, formed along the Late Devonian shoreline of the Appalachian Basin. The parasequences comprise five lithofacies, of which one includes reservoir sandstones. Pay sandstones were found to have permeabilities in core ranging from 10 to 200 mD, whereas non-pay sandstones have permeabilities ranging from below the level of instrumental detection to 5 mD; Conglomeratic zones could take on the permeability characteristics of enclosing materials, or could exhibit extremely low values in pay sandstone and high values in non-pay or low permeability pay sandstone. Four electrofacies based on a linear combination of density and scaled gamma ray best matched correlations made independently based on visual comparison of geophysical logs. Electrofacies 4 with relatively high permeability (mean value > 45 mD) was determined to be equivalent to the pay sandstone within the Gordon reservoir. Three-dimensional models of the electrofacies in the pilot waterflood showed that electrofacies 4 is present throughout this area, and the other electrofacies are more disconnected. A three-layer, back-propagation artificial neural network with three slabs in the middle layer can be used to predict permeability and porosity from gamma ray and bulk density logs, the first and the second derivatives of the log data with respect to depth, well location, and log baselines. Two flow units were defined based on the stratigraphic model and geophysical logs. A three-dimensional reservoir model including the flow units, values of permeability calculated through the artificial neural network and injection pressure-rate information were then used as inputs for a reservoir simulator to predict oil production performance for the center producers in the pilot area. This description of the reservoir provided significantly better simulation results than earlier results obtained using simple reservoir models. Bulk density and gamma ray logs were used to identify flow units throughout the field. As predicted by the stratigraphic analysis, one of the flow units crosses stratigraphic units in the reservoir. A neural network was used to predict permeability values for each flow unit in producer and injection wells. The reservoir simulator was utilized to predict the performance of two flood patterns located to the north of the pilot area. Considering the simple model utilized for simulation, the results are in very good agreement with the field history.

S. Ameri; K. Aminian; K.L. Avary; H.I. Bilgesu; M.E. Hohn; R.R. McDowell; D.L. Matchen

2001-07-01

245

Seismic monitoring of in situ combustion process in a heavy oil field  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Three time-lapse 3D seismic surveys are analysed to monitor the effect of in situ combustion, a thermal-enhanced oil recovery process in the Balol heavy oil reservoir in India. The baseline data were acquired prior to the start of the in situ combustion process in four injection wells, while the two monitor surveys were acquired 1 and 2 years after injection start, respectively. We present the results of baseline and second monitor surveys. Fluid substitution studies based on acoustic well logs predict a seismic amplitude decrease at the top reservoir and an increase at the base reservoir. Both the amplitude dimming at the top reservoir and the brightening at the base reservoir are observed in the field data. The extent of the most pronounced 4D anomaly is estimated from the seismic amplitude and time shift analysis. The interesting result of seismic analysis is that the anomalies are laterally shifted towards the northwest, rather than the expected east, from the injector location suggesting a northwest movement of the in situ combustion front. No clear evidence of air leakage into other sand layers, neither above nor below the reservoir sand, is observed. This does not necessarily mean that all the injected air is following the reservoir sand, especially if the thief sand layers are thin. These layers might be difficult to observe on seismic data.

Zadeh, Hossein Mehdi; Srivastava, Ravi P.; Vedanti, Nimisha; Landr, Martin

2010-03-01

246

Increased Oil Production and Reserves from Improved Completion Techniques in the Bluebell Field, Uinta Basin, Utah  

SciTech Connect

The objective of the project is to increase oil production and reserves by the use of improved reservoir characterization and completion techniques in the Uinta Basin, Utah. To accomplish this objective, a two-year geologic and engineering characterization of the Bluebell field was conducted. The study evaluated surface and subsurface data, currently used completion techniques, and common production problems. It was determined that advanced case- and open-hole logs could be effective in determining productive beds and that stage-interval (about 500 ft [150 m] per stage) and bed-scale isolation completion techniques could result in improved well performance. In the first demonstration well (Michelle Ute well discussed in the previous technical report), dipole shear anisotropy (anisotropy) and dual-burst thermal decay time (TDT) logs were run before and isotope tracer log was run after the treatment. The logs were very helpful in characterizing the remaining hydrocarbon potential in the well. But, mechanical failure resulted in a poor recompletion and did not result in a significant improvement in the oil production from the well.

Deo, M.D.; Morgan, C.D.

1999-04-28

247

Experimental and computational studies of water drops falling through model oil with surfactant and subjected to an electric field  

E-print Network

The behaviour of a single sub-millimetre-size water drop falling through a viscous oil while subjected to an electric field is of fundamental importance to industrial applications such as crude oil electrocoalescers. Detailed studies, both experimental and computational, have been performed previously, but an often challenging issue has been the characterization of the fluids. As numerous authors have noted, it is very difficult to have a perfectly clean water-oil system even for very pure model oils, and the presence of trace chemicals may significantly alter the interface behaviour. In this work, we consider a well- characterized water-oil system where controlled amounts of a surface active agent (Span 80) have been added to the oil. This addition dominates any trace contaminants in the oil, such that the interface behaviour can also be well-characterized. We present the results of experiments and corresponding two-phase- flow simulations of a falling water drop covered in surfactant and subjected to a mono...

Ervik, smund; Munkejord, Svend Tollak; Mller, Bernhard

2014-01-01

248

Biogeochemical evidence for subsurface hydrocarbon occurrence, Recluse oil field, Wyoming; preliminary results  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Anomalously high manganese-to-iron ratios occurring in pine needles and sage leaves over the Recluse oil field, Wyoming, suggest effects of petroleum microseepage on the plants. This conclusion is supported by iron and manganese concentrations in soils and carbon and oxygen isotope ratios in rock samples. Seeping hydrocarbons provided reducing conditions sufficient to enable divalent iron and manganese to be organically complexed or adsorbed on solids in the soils. These bound or adsorped elements in the divalent state are essential to plants, and the plants readily assimilate them. The magnitude of the plant anomalies, combined with the supportive isotopic and chemical evidence confirming petroleum leakage, makes a strong case for the use of plants as a biogeochemical prospecting tool.

Dalziel, Mary C.; Donovan, Terrence J.

1980-01-01

249

Comparison of soft computing techniques for a three-phase oil field centrifuge.  

SciTech Connect

In this work we compare fuzzy techniques to neural network techniques for building a soft sensor for a three-phase oil field centrifuge. The soft sensor is used in a feed-forward control system that augments a feedback control system. Two approaches were used to develop the soft sensor. The first approach was to use a fuzzy rule based system based upon the experience of an expert operator. The expert operator's experience was supplemented using a computer model of the system. The second approach was to use a neural network to build the inverse of the computer model. The pros and cons of both techniques are discussed. KEYWORDS: fuzzy logic, neural networks, soft sensor, soft computing

Smith, R. E. (Ronald E.); Parkinson, w; Miller, N. (Neal)

2002-01-01

250

The effect of 25 years of oil field flow line service on epoxy fiberglass pipe  

SciTech Connect

Glass fiber-reinforced epoxy and vinyl ester piping systems have been used for more than 35 years to control corrosion problems in oil fields and chemical and industrial plants. Many case histories have documented successful performances of fiberglass-reinforced thermosetting plastics in a wide range of corrosive services. This information is reinforced by laboratory test data from flat laminates and pipe exposed to numerous chemicals and mixtures of chemicals, but little has been published to document the effect of long-term, in-service exposure on fiberglass equipment. This paper compares data from physical testing of pipe removed from successful corrosive service applications with data obtained from the same type of pipe at the time of manufacture. The information supplied in these papers represents only a few of the successful applications of filament wound epoxy and vinyl ester pipe because it is difficult to obtain permission to remove pipe from an operating line.

Oswald, K.J.

1988-08-01

251

Quantitative Reverse Sample Genome Probing of Microbial Communities and Its Application to Oil Field Production Waters  

PubMed Central

This paper presents a protocol for quantitative analysis of microbial communities by reverse sample genome probing is presented in which (i) whole community DNA is isolated and labeled in the presence of a known amount of an added internal standard and (ii) the resulting spiked reverse genome probe is hybridized with a master filter on which denatured genomic DNAs from bacterial standards isolated from the target environment were spotted in large amounts (up to 1,500 ng) in order to improve detection sensitivity. This protocol allowed reproducible fingerprinting of the microbial community in oil field production waters at 19 sites from which water and biofilm samples were collected. It appeared that selected sulfate-reducing bacteria were significantly enhanced in biofilms covering the metal surfaces in contact with the production waters. Images PMID:16349111

Voordouw, Gerrit; Shen, Yin; Harrington, Clare S.; Telang, Anita J.; Jack, Thomas R.; Westlake, Donald W. S.

1993-01-01

252

Quantitative reverse sample genome probing of microbial communities and its application to oil field production waters  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents a protocol for quantitative analysis of microbial communities by reverse sample genome probing is presented in which (i) whole community DNA is isolated and labeled in the presence of a known amount of an added internal standard and (ii) the resulting spiked reverse genome probe is hybridized with a master filter on which denatured genomic DNAs from bacterial standards isolated from the target environment were spotted in large amounts (up to 1,500 ng) in order to improve detection sensitivity. This protocol allowed reproducible fingerprinting of the microbial community in oil field production waters at 19 sites from which water and biofilm samples were collected. It appeared that selected sulfate-reducing bacteria were significantly enhanced in biofilms covering the metal surfaces in contact with the production waters.

Voordouw, G.; Shen, Y.; Harrington, C.S.; Teland, A.J. (Univ. of Calgary, Alberta (Canada)); Jack, T.R. (Novacor Research and Technology Corporation, Calgary, Alberta (Canada)); Westlake, W.S. (Univ. of Alberta (Canada))

1993-12-01

253

LOGAN WASH FIELD TREATABILITY STUDIES OF WASTEWATERS FROM OIL SHALE RETORTING PROCESSES  

EPA Science Inventory

Treatability studies were conducted on retort water and gas condensate wastewater from modified in-situ oil shale retorts to evaluate the effectiveness of selected treatment technologies for removing organic and inorganic contaminants. At retorts operated by Occidental Oil Shale,...

254

DeepSpillField Study of a Simulated Oil and Gas Blowout in Deep Water  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the worlds increasing demand for oil and gas and dwindling onshore reserves, the need to exploit oil and gas has moved into deep water. This move brings with it the potential of accidental releases from well blowouts and pipeline or riser ruptures. While there is a low risk of such accident thanks to todays technology, the oil industry has

istein Johansen; Henrik Rye; Cortis Cooper

2003-01-01

255

Degradation of Phenanthrene by Bacterial Strains Isolated from Soil in Oil Refinery Fields in Korea  

Microsoft Academic Search

The degradation of phenanthrene, a model PAH compound, by microorganisms either in the mixed culture or individual strain, isolated from oil-contaminated soil in oil refinery vicinity sites, was examined. The effects of pH, temperature, initial concentration of phenanthrene, and the addition of carbon sources on biodegradation potential were also investigated. Results showed that soil samples collected from four oil refinery

JEONG-DONG KIM; SU-HYEUN SHIM; CHOUL-GYUN LEE

2005-01-01

256

Shallow stratigraphy, structure, and salt-related features, Yates oil field area, Pecos and Crockett counties, Texas  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Yates oil field is situated at the southern tip of the Central Basin platform, a Late Pennsylvanian to Late Permian structural and paleotopographic high separating the Midland and Delaware basins in west Texas and southeastern New Mexico. During Leonardian and early Guadalupian times, carbonate sedimentation occurred in a bank environment on the platform edge. Latest Guadalupian sedimentation consisted largely

1988-01-01

257

Stable carbon isotopes of HCO 3 - in oil-field waters--implications for the origin of CO 2  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 13 C values of dissolved HCO 3 - in 75 water samples from 15 oil and gas fields (San Joaquin Valley, Calif., and the Houston-Galveston and Corpus Christi areas of Texas) were determined to study the sources of CO 2 of the dissolved species and carbonate cements that modify the porosity and permeability of many petroleum reservoir rocks. The

William W. Carothers; Yousif K. Kharaka

1980-01-01

258

Thermal field and the presence of oil and gas in the Far East. [Thermal flux variations in the earth  

Microsoft Academic Search

Correlations are drawn between the thermal fields of different places at various depths and the presence of gas and oil in these locations in the Far East. Various arguments are cited as to whether the variations of deposits are due to temperature or pressure factors. To take account of both interrelated factors, a futher concept, the geochronothermobar (time in million

K. M. Sevostyanov; M. A. Vilenskii

1976-01-01

259

Draft Genome Sequences of Three Smithella spp. Obtained from a Methanogenic Alkane-Degrading Culture and Oil Field Produced Water.  

PubMed

Two draft genomes affiliated with Smithella spp. were obtained from a methanogenic alkane-degrading enrichment culture by single-cell sorting and metagenome contig binning, and a third was obtained by single-cell sorting of oil field produced water. Two genomes contained putative assABC genes encoding alkylsuccinate synthase, indicating genetic potential for fumarate activation of alkanes. PMID:25342693

Tan, BoonFei; de Arajo E Silva, Renata; Rozycki, Trent; Nesb, Camilla; Foght, Julia

2014-01-01

260

A low-frequency passive seismic array experiment over an onshore oil field in Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates  

E-print Network

A low-frequency passive seismic array experiment over an onshore oil field in Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates Mohammed Y. Ali1 , Braham Barkat1 , Karl A. Berteussen1 , and James Small1 ABSTRACT A low-frequency, and wave- front azimuths using various techniques, including spectral and time-frequency analyses, particle

Ali, Mohammed

261

Computer technology of quantitative interwell correlation of sediments on the oil and gas fields in the CIS countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the course of studies of the oil and gas fields of the former USSR (including Romashkinskoye, Western Uzbekistan, Orenburg, Odoptu-more, and Karachaganak), methods have been developed to subdivide the rock sequences into sedimentation cycles and subcyles, and to identify washouts and breaks in the section. An IBM-PC program (MSLA) has been developed that enables subdivision and correlation of the

O. I. Barinova; E. E. Kalinina; M. I. Ovtchinnikova

1993-01-01

262

FIELD STUDIES ON USBM AND TOSCO II RETORTED OIL SHALES: VEGETATION, MOISTURE, SALINITY, AND RUNOFF, 1977-1980  

EPA Science Inventory

Field studies were initiated in 1973 to investigate the vegetative stabilization of processed oil shales and to follow moisture and soluble salt movement within the soil/shale profile. Research plots with two types of retorted shales (TOSCO II and USBM) with leaching and soil cov...

263

Draft Genome Sequences of Three Smithella spp. Obtained from a Methanogenic Alkane-Degrading Culture and Oil Field Produced Water  

PubMed Central

Two draft genomes affiliated with Smithella spp. were obtained from a methanogenic alkane-degrading enrichment culture by single-cell sorting and metagenome contig binning, and a third was obtained by single-cell sorting of oil field produced water. Two genomes contained putative assABC genes encoding alkylsuccinate synthase, indicating genetic potential for fumarate activation of alkanes. PMID:25342693

Tan, BoonFei; de Araujo e Silva, Renata; Rozycki, Trent; Nesb?, Camilla

2014-01-01

264

Borehole geophysical data for the East Poplar oil field area, Fort Peck Indian Reservation, northeastern Montana, 1993, 2004, and 2005  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Areas of high electrical conductivity in shallow aquifers in the East Poplar oil field area were delineated by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the Fort Peck Assiniboine and Sioux Tribes, in order to interpret areas of saline-water contamination. Ground, airborne, and borehole geophysical data were collected in the East Poplar oil field area from 1992 through 2005 as part of this delineation. This report presents borehole geophysical data for thirty-two wells that were collected during, 1993, 2004, and 2005 in the East Poplar oil field study area. Natural-gamma and induction instruments were used to provide information about the lithology and conductivity of the soil, rock, and water matrix adjacent to and within the wells. The well logs were also collected to provide subsurface controls for interpretation of a helicopter electromagnetic survey flown over most of the East Poplar oil field in 2004. The objective of the USGS studies was to improve understanding of aquifer hydrogeology particularly in regard to variations in water quality.

Smith, Bruce D.; Thamke, Joanna N.; Tyrrell, Christa

2014-01-01

265

A decade of CO 2 injection into depleting oil fields: Monitoring and research activities of the IEA GHG Weyburn-Midale CO 2 Monitoring and Storage Project  

Microsoft Academic Search

Injection of CO2 into the Weyburn Oil Field, Saskatchewan, Canada, began October 2000 and 10years later approximately 18MT of CO2 will have been stored in the geological reservoir. The CO2 injection is part of an ongoing enhanced oil recovery effort that will extend to 2035 and likely beyond. Both Weyburn and the adjacent Midale oil field are highly suitable for

S. Whittaker; B. Rostron; C. Hawkes; C. Gardner; D. White; J. Johnson; R. Chalaturnyk; D. Seeburger

2011-01-01

266

Molecular and cultivation-based analyses of microbial communities in oil field water and in microcosms amended with nitrate to control H 2 S production  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nitrate injection into oil fields is an alternative to biocide addition for controlling sulfide production (souring) caused\\u000a by sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB). This study examined the suitability of several cultivation-dependent and cultivation-independent\\u000a methods to assess potential microbial activities (sulfidogenesis and nitrate reduction) and the impact of nitrate amendment\\u000a on oil field microbiota. Microcosms containing produced waters from two Western Canadian oil

Raji Kumaraswamy; Sara Ebert; Murray R. Gray; Phillip M. Fedorak; Julia M. Foght

2011-01-01

267

Olive oil pilot-production assisted by pulsed electric field: Impact on extraction yield, chemical parameters and sensory properties.  

PubMed

The impact of the use of pulsed electric field (PEF) technology on Arroniz olive oil production in terms of extraction yield and chemical and sensory quality has been studied at pilot scale in an industrial oil mill. The application of a PEF treatment (2kV/cm; 11.25kJ/kg) to the olive paste significantly increased the extraction yield by 13.3%, with respect to a control. Furthermore, olive oil obtained by PEF showed total phenolic content, total phytosterols and total tocopherols significantly higher than control (11.5%, 9.9% and 15.0%, respectively). The use of PEF had no negative effects on general chemical and sensory characteristics of the olive oil, maintaining the highest quality according to EU legal standards (EVOO; extra virgin olive oil). Therefore, PEF could be an appropriate technology to improve olive oil yield and produce EVOO enriched in human-health-related compounds, such as polyphenols, phytosterols and tocopherols. PMID:25149017

Purtolas, Eduardo; Martnez de Maran, Iigo

2015-01-15

268

The Prestige oil spill: bacterial community dynamics during a field biostimulation assay.  

PubMed

A field bioremediation assay using the oleophilic fertilizer S200 was carried out 12 months after the Prestige heavy fuel-oil spill on a beach on the Cantabrian coast (north Spain). This assay showed that S200-enhanced oil degradation, particularly of high-molecular-weight n-alkanes and alkylated PAHs, suggesting an increase in the microbial bioavailability of these compounds. The bacterial community structure was determined by cultivation-independent analysis of polymerase chain reaction-amplified 16S rDNA by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis. Bacterial community was mainly composed of alpha-Proteobacteria (Rhodobacteriaceae and Sphingomonadaceae). Representatives of gamma-Proteobacteria (Chromatiales, Moraxellaceae, and Halomonadaceae), Bacteroidetes (Flavobacteriaceae), and Actinobacteria group (Nocardiaceae and Corynebacteriaceae) were also found. The addition of the fertilizer led to the appearance of the bacterium Mesonia algae in the early stages, with a narrow range of growth substrates, which has been associated with the common alga Achrosiphonia sonderi. The presence of Mesonia algae may be attributable to the response of the microbial community to the addition of N and P rather than indicating a role in the biodegradation process. The Rhodococcus group appeared in both assay plots, especially at the end of the experiment. It was also found at another site on the Galician coast that had been affected by the same spill. This genus has been associated with the degradation of n-alkanes up to C(36). Taking into account the high content of heavy alkanes in the Prestige fuel, these microorganisms could play a significant role in the degradation of such fuel. A similar bacterial community structure was observed at another site that showed a similar degree of fuel weathering. PMID:17943279

Jimnez, Nria; Vias, Marc; Bayona, Josep M; Albaiges, Joan; Solanas, Anna M

2007-12-01

269

Strontium isotopic evolution of oil-field waters from carbonate reservoir rocks in Bindley field, central Kansas, U.S.A.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Oil-field waters produced from Mississippian carbonate reservoir rocks in Bindley field, Kansas had an average salinity of about 42.8 mg/l. They were enriched in Ca, Sr, Na, K, Rb, and Li and depleted in Mg relative to sea water at the same level of either Cl or Br concentration. The average abundances of different elements are as follows: Na - 13,460 mg/l, K - 325 mg/1, Rb - 0.9 mg/l, Li - 12 mg/l, Ca - 1,515 mg/l, Sr - 42 mg/l, Mg - 430 mg/l, Cl - 23,000 mg/l, SO 4 - 2,630 mg/l, Br - 32 mg/l. The 87Sr /86Sr values of the waters ranged between 0.7221 and 0.7230, whereas the values of the host carbonate rocks were between 0.7090 and 0.7093. The very high 87Sr /86Sr values of the waters probably occurred as a result of their reaction with alkali feldspar minerals in buried Precambrian crystalline rocks to the east of the Bindley field. The study demonstrates that despite their residence in carbonate reservoir rocks oil-field waters can retain sufficiently distinct isotopic memory that may provide important dues about mineral-water interactions in the chemical evolutionary history of the waters. The study further indicates that very late diagenetic reactions in many carbonate rocks are of minor extent. Difference in the Sr isotopic data among the oil-field waters suggests that the Sr isotopic data can be used as a reliable guide in recognising existence of separate pools in an oil field.

Chaudhuri, S.; Broedel, V.; Clauer, N.

1987-01-01

270

Improved Oil Recovery from Upper Jurassic Smackover Carbonates through the Application of Advanced Technologies at Womack Hill Oil Field, Choctaw and Clarke Counties, Eastern Gulf Coastal Plain  

SciTech Connect

Pruet Production Co. and the Center for Sedimentary Basin Studies at the University of Alabama, in cooperation with Texas A&M University, Mississippi State University, University of Mississippi, and Wayne Stafford and Associates proposed a three-phase, focused, comprehensive, integrated and multidisciplinary study of Upper Jurassic Smackover carbonates (Class II Reservoir), involving reservoir characterization and 3-D modeling (Phase I) and a field demonstration project (Phases II and III) at Womack Hill Field Unit, Choctaw and Clarke Counties, Alabama, eastern Gulf Coastal Plain. Phase I of the project has been completed. The principal objectives of the project are: increasing the productivity and profitability of the Womack Hill Field Unit, thereby extending the economic life of this Class II Reservoir and transferring effectively and in a timely manner the knowledge gained and technology developed from this project to producers who are operating other domestic fields with Class II Reservoirs. The major tasks of the project included reservoir characterization, recovery technology analysis, recovery technology evaluation, and the decision to implement a demonstration project. Reservoir characterization consisted of geoscientific reservoir characterization, petrophysical and engineering property characterization, microbial characterization, and integration of the characterization data. Recovery technology analysis included 3-D geologic modeling, reservoir simulation, and microbial core experiments. Recovery technology evaluation consisted of acquiring and evaluating new high quality 2-D seismic data, evaluating the existing pressure maintenance project in the Womack Hill Field Unit, and evaluating the concept of an immobilized enzyme technology project for the Womack Hill Field Unit. The decision to implement a demonstration project essentially resulted in the decision on whether to conduct an infill drilling project in Womack Hill Field. Reservoir performance, multiwell productivity analysis, and reservoir simulation studies indicate that water injection continues to provide stable support to maintain production from wells in the western unitized area of the field and that the strong water drive present in the eastern area of the field is adequate to sustain production from this part of the field. Although the results from the microbial characterization and microbial core experiments are very promising, it is recommended that an immobilized enzyme technology project not be implemented in the Womack Hill Field Unit until live (freshly taken and properly preserved) cores from the Smackover reservoir in the field are acquired to confirm the microbial core experiments to date. From 3-D geologic modeling, reservoir performance analysis, and reservoir simulation, four areas in the Womack Hill Field were identified as prospective infill drilling sites to recover undrained oil from the field. It was determined that the two areas in the unit area probably can be effectively drained by perforating higher zones in the Smackover reservoir in currently producing wells. The two areas in the eastern (non-unitized) part of the field require the drilling of new wells. The successful drilling and testing of a well in 2003 by J. R. Pounds, Inc. has proven the oil potential of the easternmost site in the non-unitized part of the field. Pruet Production Co. acquired new 2-D seismic data to evaluate the oil potential of the westernmost site. Because of the effects of a fault shadow from the major fault bounding the southern border of the Womack Hill Field, it is difficult to evaluate conclusively this potential drill site. Pruet Production Co. has decided not to drill this new well at this time and to further evaluate the new 2-D seismic profiles after these data have been processed using a pre-stack migration technique. Pruet Production Co. has elected not to continue into Phase II of this project because they are not prepared to make a proposal to the other mineral interest owners regarding the drilling of new wells as part of an infil

Ernest A. Mancini

2003-12-31

271

Improved Oil Recovery from Upper Jurassic Smackover Carbonates through the Application of Advanced Technologies at Womack Hill Oil Field, Choctaw and Clarke Counties, Eastern Gulf Costal Plain  

SciTech Connect

Pruet Production Co. and the Center for Sedimentary Basin Studies at the University of Alabama, in cooperation with Texas A&M University, Mississippi State University, University of Mississippi, and Wayne Stafford and Associates proposed a three-phase, focused, comprehensive, integrated and multidisciplinary study of Upper Jurassic Smackover carbonates (Class II Reservoir), involving reservoir characterization and 3-D modeling (Phase I) and a field demonstration project (Phases II and III) at Womack Hill Field Unit, Choctaw and Clarke Counties, Alabama, eastern Gulf Coastal Plain. Phase I of the project has been completed. The principal objectives of the project are: increasing the productivity and profitability of the Womack Hill Field Unit, thereby extending the economic life of this Class II Reservoir and transferring effectively and in a timely manner the knowledge gained and technology developed from this project to producers who are operating other domestic fields with Class II Reservoirs. The major tasks of the project included reservoir characterization, recovery technology analysis, recovery technology evaluation, and the decision to implement a demonstration project. Reservoir characterization consisted of geoscientific reservoir characterization, petrophysical and engineering property characterization, microbial characterization, and integration of the characterization data. Recovery technology analysis included 3-D geologic modeling, reservoir simulation, and microbial core experiments. Recovery technology evaluation consisted of acquiring and evaluating new high quality 2-D seismic data, evaluating the existing pressure maintenance project in the Womack Hill Field Unit, and evaluating the concept of an immobilized enzyme technology project for the Womack Hill Field Unit. The decision to implement a demonstration project essentially resulted in the decision on whether to conduct an infill drilling project in Womack Hill Field. Reservoir performance, multiwell productivity analysis, and reservoir simulation studies indicate that water injection continues to provide stable support to maintain production from wells in the western unitized area of the field and that the strong water drive present in the eastern area of the field is adequate to sustain production from this part of the field. Although the results from the microbial characterization and microbial core experiments are very promising, it is recommended that an immobilized enzyme technology project not be implemented in the Womack Hill Field Unit until live (freshly taken and properly preserved) cores from the Smackover reservoir in the field are acquired to confirm the microbial core experiments to date. From 3-D geologic modeling, reservoir performance analysis, and reservoir simulation, four areas in the Womack Hill Field were identified as prospective infill drilling sites to recover undrained oil from the field. It was determined that the two areas in the unit area probably can be effectively drained by perforating higher zones in the Smackover reservoir in currently producing wells. The two areas in the eastern (non-unitized) part of the field require the drilling of new wells. The successful drilling and testing of a well in 2003 by J. R. Pounds, Inc. has proven the oil potential of the easternmost site in the non-unitized part of the field. Pruet Production Co. acquired new 2-D seismic data to evaluate the oil potential of the westernmost site. Because of the effects of a fault shadow from the major fault bounding the southern border of the Womack Hill Field, it is difficult to evaluate conclusively this potential drill site. Pruet Production Co. has decided not to drill this new well at this time and to further evaluate the new 2-D seismic profiles after these data have been processed using a pre-stack migration technique. Pruet Production Co. has elected not to continue into Phase II of this project because they are not prepared to make a proposal to the other mineral interest owners regarding the drilling of new wells as part of an infil

Ernest A. Mancini

2006-05-31

272

Increased Oil Production and Reserves From Improved Completion Techniques in the Bluebell Field, Uinta Basin, Utah  

SciTech Connect

The Bluebell field is productive from the Tertiary lower Green River and Colton (Wasatch) Formations of the Uinta Basin, Utah. The productive interval consists of thousands of feet of interbedded fractured clastic and carbonate beds deposited in the ancestral Lake Uinta. Wells in the Bluebell field are typically completed by perforating 40 or more beds over 1000 to 3000 vertical ft (300-900 m), then stimulating the entire interval with hydrochloric acid. This technique is often referred to as the shot gun completion. Completion techniques used in the Bluebell field were discussed in detail in the Second Annual Report (Curtice, 1996). The shot-gun technique is believed to leave many potentially productive beds damaged and/or untreated, while allowing water-bearing and low-pressure (thief) zones to communicate with the wellbore. A two-year characterization study involved detailed examination of outcrop, core, well logs, surface and subsurface fractures, produced oil-field waters, engineering parameters of the two demonstration wells, and analysis of past completion techniques and effectiveness. The study was intended to improve the geologic characterization of the producing formations and thereby develop completion techniques specific to the producing beds or facies instead of a shot gun approach to stimulating all the beds. The characterization did not identify predictable-facies or predictable-fracture trends within the vertical stratigraphic column as originally hoped. Advanced logging techniques can identify productive beds in individual wells. A field-demonstration program was developed to use cased-hole advanced logging techniques in two wells and recompletion the wells at two different scales based on the logging. The first well was going to be completed at the interval scale using a multiple stage completion technique (about 500 ft [150 m] per stage). The second well will be recompleted at the bed-scale using bridge plug and packer to isolate three or more beds for stimulation. These recompletion will show which logs are most effective in identifying productive beds and what scale of completion is most cost effective. The third demonstration will be the logging and completion of a new well using the logs and completion scale or technique, most effective in the previous demonstrations.

Morgan, C.D.; Deo, M.D.

1998-04-01

273

Analysis of Data from a Downhole Oil/Water Separator Field Trial in East Texas  

SciTech Connect

Downhole oil/water separator (DOWS) technology is available to separate oil from produced water at the bottom of an oil well. Produced water can be injected directly to a disposal formation rather than lifting it to the surface, treating it there, and reinjecting it. Because of a lack of detailed performance data on DOWS systems, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) provided funding to secure DOWS performance data. A large U.S. oil and gas operator offered to share its data with Argonne National Laboratory. This report summarizes data from the DOWS installation in eastern Texas.

Veil, John A.; Layne, Arthur Langhus

2001-04-19

274

Chemical composition of oils from recently discovered fields in West Lithuania  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Four minor oil discoveries have been made in West Lithuania in recent years. Studies of the oil composition show that its physical and chemical properties (density, viscosity, petrol content, etc.) and the group composition of hydrocarbons (content of saturated and aromatic hydrocarbons, tars and asphaltenes) mainly depend on the formation conditions and distances of migration between the kitchen and accumulation areas. According to the distribution patterns of n-alkanes and isoprenoids, the examined oils are comparable and generated from sapropel organic matter. There are certain differences in biomarker and carbon isotope data, indicating oil generation from different source rocks containing organic matter of different catagenesis.

Zdanavi?i?t?, Onyt?; Dakhnova, Marina; Kleinas, Ar?nas

2008-01-01

275

Is there widespread metal contamination from in-situ bitumen extraction at Cold Lake, Alberta heavy oil field?  

PubMed

The extraction of oil sands by in-situ methods in Alberta has expanded dramatically in the past two decades and will soon overtake surface mining as the dominant bitumen production process in the province. While concerns regarding regional metal emissions from oil sand mining and bitumen upgrading have arisen, there is a lack of information on emissions from the in-situ industry alone. Here we show using lake sediment records and regionally-distributed soil samples that in the absence of bitumen upgrading and surface mining, there has been no significant metal (As, Cd, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb, V) enrichment from the Cold Lake in-situ oil field. Sediment records demonstrate post-industrial Cd, Hg and Pb enrichment beginning in the early Twentieth Century, which has leveled off or declined since the onset of commercial in-situ bitumen production at Cold Lake in 1985. PMID:23396082

Skierszkan, Elliott K; Irvine, Graham; Doyle, James R; Kimpe, Linda E; Blais, Jules M

2013-03-01

276

The response of solar radiation in Jubail, Saudi Arabia, to smoke from oil field fires in Kuwait  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The relative monthly solar radiation in Jubail Industrial City, Saudi Arabia (300 km southeast of Kuwait City) was reduced to 75% of the recent 10-year mean value by the torching of the first 50 of many oil wells and production facilities in Kuwait in mid-January 1991. The value was reduced further when an additional 600 wells were ignited in late February. Solar radiation continued at 55 65% of normal levels during March to August, when 341 oil wells were still burning. Recovery was rapid as the fires in oil fields located directly upwind of Jubail were extinguished, with the solar radiation reaching 95% of the long-term mean in October.

Riley, James J.; Hicks, Neal G.; Thompson, T. Lewis

1992-09-01

277

Geochemical haloes as an indication of over oil and gas fields in the Arctic shelf  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hydrocarbon deposits at the Arctic shelf of Russia are a source of jet dispersion of heavy metals that forms haloes in sediments and in the bottom layer of sea water. The intensity of the haloes and their spatial position are jointly determined by geological structure of their source and the environment, i.e., hydrocarbon deposits in host rocks, seafloor lithodynamics and oceanographic factors. Based on theoretical works of Kholmyansky and Putikov (2000; 2006; 2008), an application of electrochemical modification of electric prospecting for offshore hydrocarbon exploration and detailed survey of the morphology of deposits was developed. Specialized equipment was developed for studies of electrochemical features of bottom water layer. With this equipment one can detect ion anomalies in water and determine the type of deposit as gas, gas hydrate, gas condensate or oil. At operation, the unit with equipment is towed underwater off the stern of research vessel. Type and configuration of deposits are determined based on occurrence of trace heavy metals detected by ion-selective electrodes. The proposed method was applied to study a few hydrocarbon fields in Barents and Kara seas in 2001 -2012 including Shtokman, Medyn, Polyarnoe, Prirazlomnoye and others. The results allowed us to trace the margins of the deposits in more detail, and geochemical data, in addition, showed the type of deposits. In general, the method has proven efficient and applicable to a wide range of hydrocarbon deposits.

Kholmiansky, Mikhail; Anokhin, Vladimir

2013-04-01

278

Seismic monitoring of a steamflood at South Casper Creek oil field, Wyoming  

SciTech Connect

Repeat three-dimensional (3-D) seismic surveys and repeat cross-well seismic surveys were used to monitor fluid flow in a steamflood EOR pilot project at South Casper Creek oil field, Wyoming. The reservoir is a sandstone 160 ft thick at a measured depth of 2,700 ft. Baseline 3-D and cross-well seismic surveys were shot prior to stem injection in the study area. Steam injection was started, and seven months later monitor surveys were shot using identical survey parameters and geometries. Traveltime delays up to 10 msec are present in the cross-well monitor survey compressional wave arrivals, and traveltime delays up to 8 msec are present in the 3-D monitor survey arrivals. These delays are due to the lower compressional velocity of reservoir rock heated by steam flooding. Differences between tomographic images from the baseline and monitor 3-D surveys are used to infer the position of the steam flood in map view. Cross-sectional and map images of the steam flood position agree. This indicates interwell details of fluid flow in a 160-ft-thick reservoir at a depth of 2,700 ft can be successfully mapped by seismic methods.

Johnston, P.; Doosung Lee; Martens, F. (Unocal, Brea, CA (United States)); Wachi, Noboru (Japan National Oil Co., Chiba (Japan))

1991-02-01

279

The effect of 25 years of oil field flow line service on epoxy fiberglass pipe  

SciTech Connect

Glass fiber reinforced epoxy and vinyl ester piping systems have been used for over 35 years to control corrosion problems in oil fields and chemical and industrial plants and many case histories have been reported to document the successful performances of fiberglass reinforced thermosetting plastics in a wide range of corrosive services. This information is reinforced by laboratory test data from flat laminates and pipe exposed to numerous chemicals and mixtures of chemicals, but little has been published to document the effect of long-term, in-service exposure on fiberglass equipment. The purpose of this paper is to help to fill this void by comparing data from physical testing of pipe removed from successful corrosive service applications with data obtained from the same type of pipe at the time of manufacture. The information supplied in these papers represents only a few of the successful applications of filament wound epoxy and vinyl ester pipe as it is difficult to obtain permission to remove pipe from an operating line.

Oswald, K.J.

1988-01-01

280

Modified vegetation indices for Ganoderma disease detection in oil palm from field spectroradiometer data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High resolution field spectroradiometers are important for spectral analysis and mobile inspection of vegetation disease. The biggest challenges in using this technology for automated vegetation disease detection are in spectral signatures pre-processing, band selection and generating reflectance indices to improve the ability of hyperspectral data for early detection of disease. In this paper, new indices for oil palm Ganoderma disease detection were generated using band ratio and different band combination techniques. Unsupervised clustering method was used to cluster the values of each class resultant from each index. The wellness of band combinations was assessed by using Optimum Index Factor (OIF) while cluster validation was executed using Average Silhouette Width (ASW). 11 modified reflectance indices were generated in this study and the indices were ranked according to the values of their ASW. These modified indices were also compared to several existing and new indices. The results showed that the combination of spectral values at 610.5nm and 738nm was the best for clustering the three classes of infection levels in the determination of the best spectral index for early detection of Ganoderma disease.

Shafri, Helmi Z. M.; Anuar, M. Izzuddin; Saripan, M. Iqbal

2009-10-01

281

Disposal of oil field wastes and NORM wastes into salt caverns.  

SciTech Connect

Salt caverns can be formed through solution mining in the bedded or domal salt formations that are found in many states. Salt caverns have traditionally been used for hydrocarbon storage, but caverns have also been used to dispose of some types of wastes. This paper provides an overview of several years of research by Argonne National Laboratory on the feasibility and legality of using salt caverns for disposing of nonhazardous oil field wastes (NOW) and naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM), the risk to human populations from this disposal method, and the cost of cavern disposal. Costs are compared between the four operating US disposal caverns and other commercial disposal options located in the same geographic area as the caverns. Argonne's research indicates that disposal of NOW into salt caverns is feasible and, in most cases, would not be prohibited by state agencies (although those agencies may need to revise their wastes management regulations). A risk analysis of several cavern leakage scenarios suggests that the risk from cavern disposal of NOW and NORM wastes is below accepted safe risk thresholds. Disposal caverns are economically competitive with other disposal options.

Veil, J. A.

1999-01-27

282

Integrated reservoir characterization of a Tulare steamflood finds bypassed oil - South Belridge Field, Kern County, California  

SciTech Connect

Reservoir quality and producibility are directly related to the characteristics of the depositional lithofacies. Electric log gamma ray/resistivity profiles were used to define facies trends within the Tulare steamflood at South Belridge. Channel and non-channel facies profiles are distinctive across the lease with the channel sands having the better quality reservoir and greater net pay values. Sidewall core permeabilities were averaged over the main producing Tulare intervals with the channels averaging 2000-3000 millidarcies and non-channels 200-500 millidarcies. This supports the lithofacies trend and net pay maps. Although the approach is qualitative, it illustrates the dramatic permeability contrast between the channel and non-channel lithofacies. Temperature maps using downhole temperature surveys and flowline temperatures indicate channel facies temperatures up to 300[degrees] with the non-channel facies having 90[degrees] to 100[degrees] temperatures (near ambient). Higher temperatures also relate to higher average daily production rates for channel associated wells. Channel wells averaged greater than 30 BOPD while non-channel wells averaged 10 BOPD or less. New and replacement well nations have been high graded resulting in favorable production responses. Integration of the lithofacies, permeability and temperature data plus ongoing preventive production optimization work has led to a more efficient Tulare steamflood and identification of bypassed oil on the King-Ellis lease in the South Belridge Field.

Walter, D.R.; Wylie, A.S. Jr.; Broussard, K.A. (Santa Fe Energy Resources, Bakersfield, CA (United States))

1996-01-01

283

Integrated reservoir characterization of a Tulare steamflood finds bypassed oil - South Belridge Field, Kern County, California  

SciTech Connect

Reservoir quality and producibility are directly related to the characteristics of the depositional lithofacies. Electric log gamma ray/resistivity profiles were used to define facies trends within the Tulare steamflood at South Belridge. Channel and non-channel facies profiles are distinctive across the lease with the channel sands having the better quality reservoir and greater net pay values. Sidewall core permeabilities were averaged over the main producing Tulare intervals with the channels averaging 2000-3000 millidarcies and non-channels 200-500 millidarcies. This supports the lithofacies trend and net pay maps. Although the approach is qualitative, it illustrates the dramatic permeability contrast between the channel and non-channel lithofacies. Temperature maps using downhole temperature surveys and flowline temperatures indicate channel facies temperatures up to 300{degrees} with the non-channel facies having 90{degrees} to 100{degrees} temperatures (near ambient). Higher temperatures also relate to higher average daily production rates for channel associated wells. Channel wells averaged greater than 30 BOPD while non-channel wells averaged 10 BOPD or less. New and replacement well nations have been high graded resulting in favorable production responses. Integration of the lithofacies, permeability and temperature data plus ongoing preventive production optimization work has led to a more efficient Tulare steamflood and identification of bypassed oil on the King-Ellis lease in the South Belridge Field.

Walter, D.R.; Wylie, A.S. Jr.; Broussard, K.A. [Santa Fe Energy Resources, Bakersfield, CA (United States)

1996-12-31

284

Probing Asphaltene Aggregation in Native Crude Oils with Low-Field NMR  

SciTech Connect

We show that low-field proton nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) relaxation and diffusion experiments can be used to study asphaltene aggregation directly in crude oils. Relaxation was found to be multiexponential, reflecting the composition of a complex fluid. Remarkably, the relaxation data for samples with different asphaltene concentrations can be collapsed onto each other by a simple rescaling of the time dimension with a concentration-dependent factor {zeta}, whereas the observed diffusion behavior is unaffected by asphaltene concentration. We interpret this finding in terms of a theoretical model that explains the enhanced relaxation by the transitory entanglement of solvent hydrocarbons within asphaltene clusters and their subsequent slowed motion and diffusion within the cluster. We relate the measured scaling parameters {zeta} to cluster sizes, which we find to be on the order of 2.2-4.4 nm for an effective sphere diameter. These sizes are in agreement with the typical values reported in the literature as well as with the small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) experiments performed on our samples.

Zielinski, Lukasz; Saha, Indrajit; Freed, Denise E.; Hrlimann, Martin D.; Liu, Yongsheng (BU-M); (Schlumberger-Doll)

2010-04-13

285

Dynamics of cementation in response to oil charge: Evidence from a Cretaceous carbonate field, U.A.E.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Oil charge is thought to inhibit the growth of cements within subsurface pore systems. We explore this phenomenon in a giant Cretaceous carbonate field from U.A.E., where the oil-filled crest porosity ranges from 10 to 50% and permeability from 0.08 to 830 mD but coeval water leg porosity is reduced to 10 to 23% and permeability to 0.1 to 4 mD. Only 5% of primary interparticle pores (> 30 ?m diameter) in the crest are fully cemented, compared to 99% of pores in the water leg. Syntaxial calcite burial cements (> 10 ?m diameter) in the oil leg show 12 cathodoluminescence zones with oil inclusions ( n = 27) occurring in four of the five final zones. Mean in-situ ion microprobe ?18O VPDB data from the oil leg cements range from -1.2 in the oldest zone decreasing to -10.3 in zone 11, returning to -7.7 in the final zone. The oldest distinguishable cement zone in the water leg shows highly variable ?18O from -3.6 to -9.3 with a mean of -7.3, and with subsequent zones decreasing to a mean value of -9.4 for the youngest cement zone. Decreasing ?18O values are interpreted as indicating increasing temperature reflecting burial and the evolution of pore water composition: broadly similar trends in the oil and water legs suggest precipitation under the same general conditions. Unlike the oil leg cements, the final zone in the water leg occludes nearly all remaining pore space. The ?18O VPDB of bulk micrite from the water leg shows an average of -7.4 ( n = 9) compared to -6.2 ( n = 10) from the oil leg, suggesting the precipitation of further micrite cement at greater burial depths. We infer that burial cementation slowed in the presence of oil due to a reduction of potential nucleation sites as well as porewater and solute movement within weakly oil-wet pores, whereas continued flow and solute movement through all pores including the micropores (< 10 ?m diameter) enabled extensive cementation in the water leg.

Cox, P. A.; Wood, R. A.; Dickson, J. A. D.; Al Rougha, H. B.; Shebl, H.; Corbett, P. W. M.

2010-07-01

286

Monitoring population abundance of the sand lizard Acanthodactylus scutellatus and their ant prey in oil polluted soils at Kuwait's greater Al-Burgan oil field.  

PubMed

Desert ecosystems in Al-Burgan oil fields of Kuwait were contaminated by heavy metals and petroleum hydrocarbons due to oil spill generated by the Gulf War in 1990. Studying sand lizard (Acanthodactylus scutellatus) population and their ant prey in the years 2002 and 2003 to detect the effects of oil pollution is now a focus of study. Polluted sites with apparently different degrees of pollution (namely tar mat, soot and clear sites) were compared with control sites outside this region. Total lizard numbers were recorded by using transect method. Number of ants was recorded by walking the transects and counting ants present. The results showed no difference in lizard population between the different study sites in 2002 and 2003 by applying the transect method. No difference in ant populations between the different study sites in 2002 and 2003. Although, the mean estimated lizard numbers were lower at the tar mat sites, the ant number in this location was greatest, meaning that food availability was highest at these sites. This suggests any reduction in the numbers of lizards is unrelated to low resource availability. The lizard numbers at the tar mat sites could be depressed by some property of the pollutants. PMID:20128514

Al-Hashem, M

2009-11-01

287

IMPROVED OIL RECOVERY FROM UPPER JURASSIC SMACKOVER CARBONATES THROUGH THE APPLICATION OF ADVANCED TECHNOLOGIES AT WOMACK HILL OIL FIELD, CHOCTAW AND CLARKE COUNTIES, EASTERN GULF COASTAL PLAIN  

SciTech Connect

Pruet Production Co. and the Center for Sedimentary Basin Studies at the University of Alabama, in cooperation with Texas A&M University, Mississippi State University, University of Mississippi, and Wayne Stafford and Associates are undertaking a focused, comprehensive, integrated and multidisciplinary study of Upper Jurassic Smackover carbonates (Class II Reservoir), involving reservoir characterization and 3-D modeling and an integrated field demonstration project at Womack Hill Oil Field Unit, Choctaw and Clarke Counties, Alabama, Eastern Gulf Coastal Plain. The principal objectives of the project are: increasing the productivity and profitability of the Womack Hill Field Unit, thereby extending the economic life of this Class II Reservoir and transferring effectively and in a timely manner the knowledge gained and technology developed from this project to producers who are operating other domestic fields with Class II Reservoirs. The principal research efforts for Year 3 of the project have been recovery technology analysis and recovery technology evaluation. The research focus has primarily been on well test analysis, 3-D reservoir simulation, microbial core experiments, and the decision to acquire new seismic data for the Womack Hill Field area. Although Geoscientific Reservoir Characterization and 3-D Geologic Modeling have been completed and Petrophysical and Engineering Characterization and Microbial Characterization are essentially on schedule, a no-cost extension until September 30, 2003, has been granted by DOE so that new seismic data for the Womack Hill Field can be acquired and interpreted to assist in the determination as to whether Phase II of the project should be implemented.

Ernest A. Mancini

2003-05-20

288

ENVIRONMENTAL CHARACTERIZATION OF GEOKINETICS' IN-SITU OIL SHALE RETORTING TECHNOLOGY: FIELD AND ANALYTICAL DATA APPENDICES  

EPA Science Inventory

Air emissions and water effluents from true in-situ oil shale retorting were physically, chemically and biologically characterized by sampling of Geokinetics Retort No. 17, a pilot-scale unit which produced 30 barrels of crude shale oil per day during testing from July 16 to July...

289

Simulation studies of steam-propane injection for the Hamaca heavy oil field  

E-print Network

Simulation studies were performed to evaluate a novel technology, steam-propane injection, for the heavy Hamaca crude oil. The oil has a gravity of 9.3?API and a viscosity of 25,000 cp at 50?C. Two types of simulation studies were performed: a...

Venturini, Gilberto Jose

2012-06-07

290

Prebreakdown phenomena in mineral oil under step and ac voltage in large-gap divergent fields  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an experimental study of the propagation of prebreakdown phenomena in transformer oil, in large point-plane gaps (5 to 20 cm), in positive polarity under step and ac voltages. The prebreakdown phenomena are characterized via the simultaneous recordings of transient currents, charges, photocurrents, and high-speed photographs of the emitted light. In these experimental conditions, prebreakdown phenomena in oil

P. Rain; O. Lesaint

1994-01-01

291

Costs for off-site disposal of nonhazardous oil field wastes: Salt caverns versus other disposal methods  

SciTech Connect

According to an American Petroleum Institute production waste survey reported on by P.G. Wakim in 1987 and 1988, the exploration and production segment of the US oil and gas industry generated more than 360 million barrels (bbl) of drilling wastes, more than 20 billion bbl of produced water, and nearly 12 million bbl of associated wastes in 1985. Current exploration and production activities are believed to be generating comparable quantities of these oil field wastes. Wakim estimates that 28% of drilling wastes, less than 2% of produced water, and 52% of associated wastes are disposed of in off-site commercial facilities. In recent years, interest in disposing of oil field wastes in solution-mined salt caverns has been growing. This report provides information on the availability of commercial disposal companies in oil-and gas-producing states, the treatment and disposal methods they employ, and the amounts they charge. It also compares cavern disposal costs with the costs of other forms of waste disposal.

Veil, J.A.

1997-09-01

292

Enigmatic organosiliceous rocks in the 2000 Ma petrified oil field in Russian Fennoscandia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The c. 2000 Ma, 900 m-thick, Zaonezhskaja Formation in the Onega basin, Russian Fennoscandia, contains one of the greatest accumulations of organic matter (OM) in the Early Precambrian. It also represents a unique preservation of a supergiant petrified oil field. Zaonezhskaja Formation rocks are greenschist-facies volcaniclastic greywackes (distal turbidites), dolostone and limestones, mafic tuffs and lavas intruded by numerous mafic sills. Several sedimentary beds are enriched in OM with the overall content of total organic carbon (TOC) ranging from 0.1 to 16 wt.% whereas d13C varies between -44 and -17 per mil(V-PDB). The formation contains plentiful evidence of generation and migration of oil (now petrified) as well as oil traps. Results of geophysical surveys combined with drillcore data, including results recently obtained within the framework of the Fennoscandian Arctic Russia - Drilling Early Earth Project (FAR-DEEP), revealed numerous bodies of organosiliceous rocks (OSR) containing mainly silica (c. 57 wt.% SiO2), organic carbon (up to 40 wt.%), Al2O3 (c. 5 wt.%), S (c. 2 wt.%), and minor K, Mg, Fe, Ca and Ti. d13C of the OSR ranges between -40 and -20 per mil. The OSR form crudely stratified beds, cupola-like bodies or veins. The cupola-like bodies show cross-cutting (intrusive) contacts with the host turbiditic greywackes, reach thicknesses of 120 m with a lateral extent of several hundreds of metres. Veins are a few tens of centimetres thick. The OSR show close spatial association with gabbro sills. Although different fabrics have been recognised in the OSR, syngenetic macro- and microbreccias per se are the most common rock types. Fragments of different sedimentary rocks, as well as those with alternating C-rich and C-poor concentric lamina are present. The latter suggests precipitation from hydrothermal fluids. The nature of the OSR remains enigmatic. Several models have been advanced for explanation of origin of the OSR. However, neither of them could explain the source, and joint transport of two major components, namely silica and OM. We propose a model involving a hydrothermal system initiated by heat produced during the emplacement of numerous mafic intrusive bodies. Such heat may have created the necessary temperature gradient for earlier oil generation, thermal oil to gas cracking, and initiation of shallow-seated, sub-surface, hydrothermal circulation. The proposed result would have been the mingling of silica leached from mafic rocks with hydrocarbon, and gas (primarily CO2, CH4) extracted from the host sedimentary rocks. Such a gas-rich C-Si-H2O substance would have migrated into permeable beds. A high sedimentation rate, as expected in many turbiditic depositional environments, would have produced a high lithostatic pressure on to unlithified beds during the course of the basin subsidence. This would have forced gas-rich C-Si-H2O fluids that moved either laterally along permeable beds or vertically along zones of weakness. In the first case, sediments 'impregnated' with gas-rich C-Si-H2O fluids would have formed stratigraphic beds of OSR, whereas in the second case the result would been crosscutting veins. Beds may retain some primary layering, whereas veins do not. If veins reached the seafloor, the sediment - C-Si-H2O mush would have extruded in the form of a mud volcano / hydrothermal mound, and thus formed a cupola-like morphology. During the course of compression, the sediment - C-Si-H2O mush might have experienced several stages of partial lithification, as well as fluidisation processes leading to the formation of several generations of micro- and macro-brecciated rocks. The large d13C range of reduced carbon in the OSR suggests a complex maturation process of the biogenic OM. Further detailed microstructural, geochemical, isotopic and biomarker studies are planned for distinguishing between biological and abiological processes involved in the formation of the enigmatic OSR.

Deines, Yu.; Melezhik, V.; Lepland, A.; Filippov, M.; Romashkin, A.; Rychanchik, D.

2009-04-01

293

Effects of oil pollution at Kuwait's Greater Al-Burgan oil field on the timing of morning emergence, basking and foraging behaviors by the sand lizard Acanthodactylus scutellatus.  

PubMed

An attempt was made to study the effects of oil pollution in a desert location (the Greater Al-Burgan oil fields, an area damaged in the second Gulf War) in Kuwait on the behaviour of the Sand lizard A. scutellatus. Polluted sites with apparently different degrees of contamination (namely tar mat, soot and clear sites) were compared with control areas outside this region. Between 2002 and 2003, ten lizards (5 of each sex) on each polluted and each control site were observed in the field at a time of the year when they were highly active. Air, substrate and burrow temperatures were recorded and lizards were monitored for their morning emergence times, as well as their basking and foraging activities. The present study confirmed that the morning emergence times and the basking behavior varied in sand lizards among the different pollution site categories. Physical changes in the tar mat sites caused the substrate temperatures in these locations to rise more quickly in the morning in response to solar gain than was the case in the other sites. This gives lizards in these locations the opportunity to emerge earlier and to start eating more quickly, giving them an energetic advantage (perhaps, in turn, influencing their rates of growth and fecundity). The clear sites had the next earliest emergence and were the next hottest but it is difficult to account for this in terms of the physical characteristics of this site. The basking times were clearly shorter on the dark soot and tar mat sites that appeared to have higher solar gain than control or clear sites. There did not appear to be any obvious differences in foraging activity of lizards in the different locations. It appears that some aspects of simple behaviour in these lizards provides a reliable, noninvasive indices for assessing oil pollution in desert locations. The precise impact of these changes in these reptiles on their long-term viability needs to be evaluated. PMID:18817131

Al-Hashem, M Abdulla; Brain, P F; Omar, S Ahmad

2008-02-15

294

Effects of oil\\/gas field produced water on the macrobenthic community in a small gradient estuary  

Microsoft Academic Search

Little is known about how climatic events (i.e., drought) inhibit or enhance movement of petroleum hydrocarbon laden sediments\\u000a in estuarine systems and how this in turn effects the macrobenthic populations exposed to these sediments. Seventeen collection\\u000a stations were established and monitored at New Bayou, Texas, a small gradient estuary which receives petroleum products via\\u000a oil\\/gas field produced water discharge. Hydrographic,

James M. Nance

1991-01-01

295

Contracts for field projects and supporting research on enhanced oil recovery. Progress review number 86, quarter ending March 31, 1996  

SciTech Connect

Summaries are presented for 37 enhanced oil recovery contracts being supported by the Department of Energy. The projects are grouped into gas displacement methods, thermal recovery methods, geoscience technology, reservoir characterization, and field demonstrations in high-priority reservoir classes. Each summary includes the objectives of the project and a summary of the technical progress, as well as information on contract dates, size of award, principal investigator, and company or facility doing the research.

NONE

1997-05-01

296

Gas accumulation from oil cracking in the eastern Tarim Basin: A case study of the YN2 gas field  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oil and gas exploration in eastern Tarim Basin, NW China has been successful in recent years, with several commercial gas accumulations being discovered in a thermally mature to over-mature region. The Yingnan2 (YN2) gas field, situated in the Yingnan structure of the Yingjisu Depression, produces gases that are relatively enriched in nitrogen and C2+ alkanes. The ?13C1 (?38.6 to ?36.2)

Wenzhi Zhao; Shuichang Zhang; Feiyu Wang; Jianping Chen; Zhongyao Xiao; Fuqing Song

2005-01-01

297

ADAPTIVE MANAGEMENT AND PLANNING MODELS FOR CULTURAL RESOURCES IN OIL & GAS FIELDS IN NEW MEXICO AND WYOMING  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report contains a summary of activities of Gnomon, Inc. and five subcontractors that have taken place during the second six months (July 1, 2003-December 31, 2003) under the DOE-NETL cooperative agreement: ''Adaptive Management and Planning Models for Cultural Resources in Oil & Gas Fields in New Mexico and Wyoming'', DE-FC26-02NT15445. Although Gnomon and all five subcontractors completed tasks during

Peggy Robinson

2004-01-01

298

ADAPTIVE MANAGEMENT AND PLANNING MODELS FOR CULTURAL RESOURCES IN OIL & GAS FIELDS IN NEW MEXICO AND WYOMING  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report contains a summary of activities of Gnomon, Inc. and five subcontractors that have taken place during the first six months of 2004 (January 1, 2004-June 30, 2004) under the DOE-NETL cooperative agreement: ''Adaptive Management and Planning Models for Cultural Resources in Oil & Gas Fields in New Mexico and Wyoming'', DE-FC26-02NT15445. Although Gnomon and all five subcontractors completed

Peggy Robinson

2004-01-01

299

LANDSAT Study of Alteration Aureoles in Surface Rocks Overlying Petroleum Deposits. [Cement and Davenport oil fields, Oklahoma  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The author has identified the following significant results. A series of low altitude underflight remote sensing experiments were flown at Cement and Davenport oil fields, Oklahoma. An experimental algorithm which employs a sinusoidal stretch of brightness values was developed and applied to a January 1973 scene (bands 4, 5, and 6) of Cement. The results, although not spectacular, are extremely encouraging and for the first time demonstrate that the alteration anomaly at Cement may be defined through enhanced LANDSAT images.

Donovan, T. J. (principal investigator)

1975-01-01

300

Carbon dioxide resistance of fiberglass oil field pipe made from aromatic amine cured epoxy, vinyl ester and isophthalic polyester resins  

SciTech Connect

Unlined aromatic amine cured epoxy fiberglass piping systems have been successfully used to handle oil field services requiring resistance to carbon dioxide. Fiberglass pipe made from vinyl ester and premium isophthalic polyester resins have also been proposed for use in this type of service. This paper presents test data comparing the carbon dioxide resistance of fiberglass pipe made from theses resins. Test data for fiberglass pipe exposed to carbon dioxide containing 5% hydrogen sulfide is also presented.

Oswald, K.J.

1988-01-01

301

Chemical and microbiological changes in laboratory incubations of nitrate amendment sour produced waters from three western Canadian oil fields  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nitrate addition to oil field waters stops the biogenic formation of sulfide because the activities of nitrate-reducing bacteria\\u000a (NRB) suppress the activities of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB). In general, there are two types of NRB the heterotrophic\\u000a NRB and the chemolithotrophic NRB. Within the latter group are the nitrate-reducing, sulfide-oxidizing bacteria (NR-SOB).\\u000a To date, no study has specifically addressed the

R E Eckford; P M Fedorak

2002-01-01

302

Comparative laboratory and field evaluation of repellent formulations containing deet and lemon eucalyptus oil against mosquitoes in Queensland, Australia.  

PubMed

A field trial comparing a formulation containing 40% deet (N,N-diethyl-3-methyl benzamide) in ethanol (Bushman) and 32% lemon eucalyptus oil (LEO; Mosi-guard) as protection against mosquitoes at Redcliffe, Queensland, Australia, was conducted in February 2012 and February 2013. The 40% deet formulation provided 100% protection against mosquitoes for 7 h, while the 32% LEO provided >95% protection for 3 h. PMID:24772681

Frances, S P; Rigby, L M; Chow, W K

2014-03-01

303

Brine contamination of ground water and streams in the Baxterville Oil Field Area, Lamar and Marion Counties, Mississippi. Water resources investigation  

SciTech Connect

The report defines the extent of oil-field-brine contamination in ground water and streams in the Baxterville oil field area. The report is based largely on data collected during the period October 1984 through November 1985. Water samples were collected from streams and wells in the study area. Data from a previous study conducted in the vicinity of the nearby Tatum Salt Dome were used for background water-quality information. Natural surface-water quality was determined by sampling streamflow from a nearby basin having no oil field activities and from samples collected in an adjacent basin during a previous study.

Kalkhoff, S.J.

1993-12-31

304

Spirochaeta smaragdinae sp. nov., a new mesophilic strictly anaerobic spirochete from an oil field.  

PubMed

An obligately anaerobic spirochete designated strain SEBR 4228T (T = type strain) was isolated from an oil field of Congo, Central Africa. The strain grew optimally with a sodium chloride concentration of 5% (sodium chloride concentration) growth range 1.0-10%) at 37 degrees C (growth temperature range 20-40 degrees C) and pH of 7.0-7.2 (pH growth range pH 5.5-8.0). Strain SEBR 4228T grew on carbohydrates (glucose, fructose, ribose, D-xylose, galactose, mannitol and mannose), glycerol, fumarate, peptides and yeast extract. Yeast extract was required for growth and could not be replaced by vitamins. It reduced thiosulfate and sulfur, to H2S. Glucose was oxidised to lactate, acetate, CO2 and H2S in the presence of thiosulfate but in its absence lactate, ethanol, CO2 and H2 were produced. Fumarate was fermented to acetate and succinate. The G + C content of strain SEBR 4228T was 50%. Strain SEBR 4228T was spiral shaped measuring 5-30 by 0.3-0.5 micron and was motile with a corkscrew-like motion. Electron microscopy revealed the presence of periplasmic flagella in a 1-2-1 arrangement. Strain SEBR 4228T possessed features typical of the members of the genus Spirochaeta. 16S rRNA sequence analysis revealed that it was closely related to Spirochaeta bajacaliforniensis (similarity 98.6%). The lack of DNA homology with S. bajacaliforniensis (38%), together with other phenotypic differences, indicated that strain SEBR 4228T is a new species, which we have designated Spirochaeta smaragdinae. The type strain is SEBR 4228T (= DSM 11293). PMID:9351200

Magot, M; Fardeau, M L; Arnauld, O; Lanau, C; Ollivier, B; Thomas, P; Patel, B K

1997-10-15

305

Deposition and chemical diagenesis of tertiary carbonates, Kirkuk oil field, Iraq  

SciTech Connect

The Tertiary carbonate rocks of the Kirkuk oil field in Iraq have been subdivided into 18 major lithologic facies. Their spatial relationships suggest that carbonate deposition proceeded in alternating carbonate ramp and carbonate rimmed shelf settings. Geochemically, these 18 facies can be grouped into three populations: namely, the nearshore (mud flat and bioherm), foreslope, and basinal populations. The nearshore population consists of mudstone, wackestone, packstone, and grainstone with bioclasts of miliolids, peneroplids, rotalids, red algae, corals, Nummulites, Lepidocyclina, and crinoids. The basinal population encompasses mudstone and wackestone with Globigerina, radiolarians, and tintinids. The foreslope population consists of packstone and grainstone with a mixture of Nummulites, Lepidocyclina, and traces of corals and red algae. The nearshore and foreslope groups are characterized by severe recrystallization and contain abundant cements. The porosity is of primary (intergranular and intraskeletal) and secondary (dissolution and fracture) types and is associated mainly with the bioherm and foreslope facies. The nearshore population is characterized by low sodium and strontium contents and light delta/sup 18/O and delta/sup 13/C, whereas the basinal one has the opposite attributes. The foreslope group represents a mixture of these two end members, with nearshore components being dominant. Comparison of the approximate composition of diagenetic solutions responsible for deposition and/or mineralogic stabilization of carbonate constituents with present-day waters of various geologic environments led to the conclusion that the nearshore population was stabilized in a near-surface, meteoric, well-oxygenated aquifer. In contrast, the basinal population was deposited and stabilized in waters of marine parentage.

Majid, A.H.; Veizer, J.

1986-06-01

306

Occurrence of oil and gas fields and source rock transformation in the west Siberian basin and Barents Sea platform  

SciTech Connect

The West Siberian and Barents Sea basins contain the largest demonstrated reserves of gas in the world (more than 33 trilion m[sup 3]) and very large recoverable reserves of oil (about 19 billion tons). The main productive reservoirs are of the Jurassic and Cretaceous and are composed of marine and alluvial sandstones. Major gas fields of the West Siberian basin are located north of the Arctic Circle, from which they extend into the Yamal Peninsula and offshore into the Kara Sea. Oil fields of the basin are found mainly in the middle Ob region. Only one giant gas-condensate field has been found in the Barents Sea; however, this area has excellent potential for gas-condensate discoveries in the future. Both basins contain Kimmeridgian-Tithonian black-shale formations, which are prolific oil source rocks. In the Barents Sea basin, Kimmeridgian black shales contain 7 to 9% of organic carbon; total pyrolysis yield ranges from 5.3 to 84.2 mg HC/g rock, and hydrogen index ranges from 270 to 630 mg HC/g TOC. Our pyrolysis data and basin modeling (GALO version) indicate that the realization of the initial petroleum potential in the Shtokmanov field area has not begun because the volume of generated oil (about 8 mg HC/g TOC) is insufficient to start expulsion (threshold of expulsion is equal to 96 mg HC/g TOC). The Bazhenov Formation shales in the central part of the West Siberian basin are characterized by extremely high values of pyrolysis measurements. The organic carbon content ranges from 10 to 25%; the residual petroleum potential varies from 50 to 190 mg HC/g rock; the maturity typically corresponds to the oil window zone; and the amount of expelled hydrocarbons ranges from 40 to 60 mg HC/g rock. The expulsion of oil commenced 90 to 35 m.y. In the northern part of the West Siberian basin, the Bazhenov shales are lean source rocks.

Lopatin, N. (Institute of Geochemistry, Moscow (Russian Federation))

1993-09-01

307

Investigation of Diospyros Kaki L.f husk extracts as corrosion inhibitors and bactericide in oil field  

PubMed Central

Background Hydrochloric acid is used in oil-well acidizing commonly for improving the crude oil production of the low-permeable reservoirs, while it is a great challenge for the metal instruments involved in the acidification. Developing natural products as oilfield chemicals is a straight way to find less expensive, green and eco-friendly materials. The great plant resources in Qin-ling and Ba-shan Mountain Area of Shannxi Province enable the investigating of new green oil field chemicals. Diospyros Kaki L.f (persimmon), a famous fruit tree is widely planted in Qin-ling and Ba-shan Mountain Area of Shaanxi Province. It has been found that the crude persimmon extracts are complex mixtures containing vitamins, p-coumaric acid, gallic acid, catechin, flavonoids, carotenoids and condensed tannin and so on, which indicates the extracts of persimmon husk suitable to be used as green and eco-friendly corrosion inhibitors. Findings Extracts of persimmon husk were investigated, by using weight loss and potentiodynamic polarisation techniques, as green and eco-friendly corrosion inhibitors of Q235A steel in 1M HCl. The inhibition efficiency of the extracts varied with extract concentration from 10 to 1,000 mg/L. There are some synergistic effects between the extracts and KI, KSCN and HMTA. Potentiodynamic polarization studies indicate that extracts are mixed-type inhibitors. Besides, the extracts were screened for antibacterial activity against oil field microorganisms, and they showed good to moderate activity against SRB, IB and TGB. Conclusions The inhibition efficiency of the extracts varied with extract concentration from 10 to 1,000 mg/L, and the highest reaches to 65.1% with the con concentration of 1,000 mg/L WE. KI, KSCN and HMTA they can enhance the IE of WE effectively to 97.3% at most, but not effective for KI and KSCN to AE. Tafel polarisation measurements indicate the extracts behave as mixed type inhibitor. Investigation of the antibacterial activity against oil field microorganism showed the extracts can inhibit SRB, IB and TGB with moderate to highly efficiency under 1,000 mg/L, which makes extracts potential to be used as bifunctional oil field chemicals. PMID:23816431

2013-01-01

308

External magnetic field dependent light transmission and scattered speckle pattern in a magnetically polarizable oil-in-water nanoemulsion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the magnetic field dependent light transmission and scattered speckle pattern in a magnetically polarizable oil-in-water emulsion of droplet diameter ~220 nm, where the direction of propagation of light is parallel to the direction of the external magnetic field. Up to a magnetic field of 50 Gauss, the nanoemulsion remains opaque due to intense Mie scattering. Above 50 Gauss, the transmitted light intensity increases with external magnetic field up to a critical field (BC). Further increase in the magnetic field leads to a reduction in the transmitted intensity. The BC shifts to a lower magnetic field with increasing volume fraction (?) and follows a power law dependence with ?, indicating a disorder-order transition. The scattered light intensity at the lobe part is found to increase with external magnetic field. The analysis of the lobe part reveals that the speckle contrast increases with external magnetic field due to the coarsening of the linear chain-like aggregates formed along the direction of the external magnetic field. The angular speckle correlation coefficient is found to be symmetrical on either side of the transmitted bright spot and decays exponentially with measurement angles.

Brojabasi, Surajit; Lahiri, B. B.; Philip, John

2014-12-01

309

Increasing Waterflooding Reservoirs in the Wilmington Oil Field through Improved Reservoir Characterization and Reservoir Management, Class III  

SciTech Connect

This project was intended to increase recoverable waterflood reserves in slope and basin reservoirs through improved reservoir characterization and reservoir management. The particular application of this project is in portions of Fault Blocks IV and V of the Wilmington Oil Field, in Long Beach, California, but the approach is widely applicable in slope and basin reservoirs, transferring technology so that it can be applied in other sections of the Wilmington field and by operators in other slope and basin reservoirs is a primary component of the project.

Koerner, Roy; Clarke, Don; Walker, Scott; Phillips, Chris; Nguyen, John; Moos, Dan; Tagbor, Kwasi

2001-08-07

310

Geologic control of natural marine hydrocarbon seep emissions, Coal Oil Point seep field, California  

E-print Network

of the furthest offshore seepage distribution with the Souththe seepage distribution only in part. The farthest offshoreoffshore Coal Oil Point (COP), Californiathe site of the present studyand by assuming that the global seep- emission probability distribution

Leifer, Ira; Kamerling, Marc J.; Luyendyk, Bruce P.; Wilson, Douglas S.

2010-01-01

311

Sources of aeromagnetic anomalies over Cement oil field (Oklahoma), Simpson oil field (Alaska), and the Wyoming-Idaho-Utah thrust belt  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Geochemical and rock magnetic studies, undertaken to determine the causes of magnetic anomalies have revealed different magnetic sources developed under different sedimentologic, geochemical, and structural settings. Results show that abiologic and biologic mechanisms can generate different magnetic sulfide minerals in zones of sulfide hydrocarbon seepage. More commonly, sulfidic seepage could either diminish magnetization by replacement of detrital magnetic minerals with nonmagnetic sulfide minerals, or it would have no effect on magnetization if such detrital minerals were originally absent. An important negative result is the absence of abundant secondary (diagenetic) magnetite in the seepage environments. Although secondary magnetite occurs in some biodegraded crude oils, concentrations of such magnetite capable of producing aeromagnetic anomalies have not been documented. -from Authors

Reynolds, R. L.; Fishman, N. S.; Hudson, M. R.

1991-01-01

312

Open-source LCA tool for estimating greenhouse gas emissions from crude oil production using field characteristics.  

PubMed

Existing transportation fuel cycle emissions models are either general and calculate nonspecific values of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from crude oil production, or are not available for public review and auditing. We have developed the Oil Production Greenhouse Gas Emissions Estimator (OPGEE) to provide open-source, transparent, rigorous GHG assessments for use in scientific assessment, regulatory processes, and analysis of GHG mitigation options by producers. OPGEE uses petroleum engineering fundamentals to model emissions from oil and gas production operations. We introduce OPGEE and explain the methods and assumptions used in its construction. We run OPGEE on a small set of fictional oil fields and explore model sensitivity to selected input parameters. Results show that upstream emissions from petroleum production operations can vary from 3 gCO2/MJ to over 30 gCO2/MJ using realistic ranges of input parameters. Significant drivers of emissions variation are steam injection rates, water handling requirements, and rates of flaring of associated gas. PMID:23634761

El-Houjeiri, Hassan M; Brandt, Adam R; Duffy, James E

2013-06-01

313

Fuzzy SPC filter for a feed-forward control system for a three-phase oil field centrifuge.  

SciTech Connect

In this work we describe a signal filter for a feed-forward controller based on the application of fuzzy logic combined with statistical process control (SPC), The feed-forward controller is for a three-phase oil field centrifuge. The centrifuge system is used to separate meta-stable three-phase emulsions consisting of oil and water stabilized by solids. These emulsions are considered to be unusable wastes and must be disposed of in an environmentally acceptable manner. The centrifuge is capable of turning these wastes into clean saleable oil, water that can be reused in an operating process or re-injected into oil wells and, solids that can be disposed of in landfills. The feed-forward controller is used for feed disturbance rejection. It works in conjunction with and, is capable of over-riding the actions of, a feedback controller. The measured feed variables for the feed-forward controller each exhibit reasonably large random fluctuations. It is therefore quite important to use a signal filter that truly recognizes the difference between random noise and a 'caused' event, in order to prevent overriding a perfectly good correction from the feedback controller.

Parkinson, W. J. (William Jerry),; Smith, R. E. (Ronald E.); Mortensen, F. N. (Fred N.); Wantuck, P. J. (Paul J.); Jamshidi, Mohammad; Ross, Timothy J.

2002-01-01

314

Use of radium isotopes to determine the age and origin of radioactive barite at oil-field production sites.  

PubMed

Radium-bearing barite (radiobarite) is a common constituent of scale and sludge deposits that form in oil-field production equipment. The barite forms as a precipitate from radium-bearing, saline formation water that is pumped to the surface along with oil. Radioactivity levels in some oil-field equipment and in soils contaminated by scale and sludge can be sufficiently high to pose a potential health threat. Accurate determinations of radium isotopes (226Ra + 228Ra) in soils are required to establish the level of soil contamination and the volume of soil that may exceed regulatory limits for total radium content. In this study the radium isotopic data are used to provide estimates of the age of formation of the radiobarite contaminant. Age estimates require that highly insoluble radiobarite approximates a chemically closed system from the time of its formation. Age estimates are based on the decay of short-lived 228Ra (half-life = 5.76 years) compared to 226Ra (half-life = 1600 years). Present activity ratios of 228Ra/226Ra in radiobarite-rich scale or highly contaminated soil are compared to initial ratios at the time of radiobarite precipitation. Initial ratios are estimated by measurements of saline water or recent barite precipitates at the site or by considering a range of probable initial ratios based on reported values in modern oil-field brines. At sites that contain two distinct radiobarite sources of different age, the soils containing mixtures of sources can be identified, and mixing proportions quantified using radium concentration and isotopic data. These uses of radium isotope data provide more description of contamination history and can possibly address liability issues. PMID:11428138

Zielinski, R A; Otton, J K; Budahn, J R

2001-01-01

315

Increasing heavy oil reservers in the Wilmington oil Field through advanced reservoir characterization and thermal production technologies, technical progress report, October 1, 1996--December 31, 1996  

SciTech Connect

The project involves improving thermal recovery techniques in a slope and basin clastic (SBC) reservoir in the Wilmington field, Los Angeles Co., Calif. using advanced reservoir characterization and thermal production technologies. The existing steamflood in the Tar zone of Fault Block (FB) 11-A has been relatively inefficient because of several producibility problems which are common in SBC reservoirs. Inadequate characterization of the heterogeneous turbidite sands, high permeability thief zones, low gravity oil, and nonuniform distribution of remaining oil have all contributed to poor sweep efficiency, high steam-oil ratios, and early steam breakthrough. Operational problems related to steam breakthrough, high reservoir pressure, and unconsolidated formation sands have caused premature well and downhole equipment failures. In aggregate, these reservoir and operational constraints have resulted in increased operating costs and decreased recoverable reserves. The advanced technologies to be applied include: (1) Develop three-dimensional (3-D) deterministic and stochastic geologic models. (2) Develop 3-D deterministic and stochastic thermal reservoir simulation models to aid in reservoir management and subsequent development work. (3) Develop computerized 3-D visualizations of the geologic and reservoir simulation models to aid in analysis. (4) Perform detailed study on the geochemical interactions between the steam and the formation rock and fluids. (5) Pilot steam injection and production via four new horizontal wells (2 producers and 2 injectors). (6) Hot water alternating steam (WAS) drive pilot in the existing steam drive area to improve thermal efficiency. (7) Installing a 2100 foot insulated, subsurface harbor channel crossing to supply steam to an island location. (8) Test a novel alkaline steam completion technique to control well sanding problems and fluid entry profiles. (9) Advanced reservoir management through computer-aided access to production and geologic data to integrate reservoir characterization, engineering, monitoring, and evaluation.

Hara, S. [Tidelands Oil Production Co., Long Beach, CA (United States)], Casteel, J. [USDOE Bartlesville Project Office, OK (United States)

1997-05-11

316

Increasing heavy oil reserves in the Wilmington Oil field through advanced reservoir characterization and thermal production technologies. Quarterly report, April 1, 1996--June 30, 1996  

SciTech Connect

The project involves improving thermal recovery techniques in a slope and basin clastic (SBC) reservoir in the Wilmington field, Los Angeles Co., California using advanced reservoir characterization and thermal production technologies. Inadequate characterization of the heterogeneous turbidite sands, high permeability thief zones, low gravity oil, and nonuniform distribution of remaining oil have all contributed to poor sweep efficiency, high steam-oil ratios, and early steam breakthrough. Operational problems related to steam breakthrough, high reservoir pressure, and unconsolidated formation sands have caused premature well and downhole equipment failures. In aggregate, these reservoir and operational constraints have resulted in increased operating costs and decreased recoverable reserves. The technologies include: (1) Develop three-dimensional (3-D) deterministic and stochastic geologic models. (2) Develop 3-D deterministic and stochastic thermal reservoir simulation models to aid in reservoir management and subsequent development work. (3) Develop computerized 3-D visualizations of the geologic and reservoir simulation models to aid in analysis. (4) Perform detailed study on the geochemical interactions between the steam and the formation rock and fluids. (5) Pilot steam injection and production via four new horizontal wells (2 producers and 2 injectors). (6) Hot water alternating steam (WAS) drive pilot in the existing steam drive area to improve thermal efficiency. (7) Installing an 2400 foot insulated, subsurface harbor channel crossing to supply steam to an island location. (8) Test a novel alkaline steam completion technique to control well sanding problems and fluid entry profiles. (9) Advanced reservoir management through computer-aided access to production and geologic data to integrate reservoir characterization, engineering, monitoring, and evaluation.

Hara, S.

1996-08-05

317

Application of Rosenbrock search technique to reduce the drilling cost of a well in Bai-Hassan oil field  

SciTech Connect

The powerful Rosenbrock search technique, which optimizes both the search directions using the Gram-Schmidt procedure and the step size using the Fibonacci line search method, has been used to optimize the drilling program of an oil well drilled in Bai-Hassan oil field in Kirkuk, Iran, using the twodimensional drilling model of Galle and Woods. This model shows the effect of the two major controllable variables, weight on bit and rotary speed, on the drilling rate, while considering other controllable variables such as the mud properties, hydrostatic pressure, hydraulic design, and bit selection. The effect of tooth dullness on the drilling rate is also considered. Increasing the weight on the drill bit with a small increase or decrease in ratary speed resulted in a significant decrease in the drilling cost for most bit runs. It was found that a 48% reduction in this cost and a 97-hour savings in the total drilling time was possible under certain conditions.

Aswad, Z.A.R.; Al-Hadad, S.M.S.

1983-03-01

318

Clove oil as an anaesthetic for adult sockeye salmon: Field trials  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Wild migrating sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka exposed to 20, 50 and 80 mg 1-1 of clove oil could be handled within 3 min, recovered within 10 min, and survived 15 min exposure trials. Fish tested at 110 mg 1-1 did not recover from 15 min exposure trials. Response curves developed for induction and recovery time considered the following predictors: clove oil concentration, sex, fish length and depth. A significant positive dependence was observed between induction time and fish length for 20, 50 and 80 mg 1-1 test concentrations; no dependence was observed between induction time and length at 110 and 140 mg 1-1. Recovery time differed as a function of clove oil concentration, but not fish size. A concentration of 50 mg 1-1 is recommended for anaesthetizing sockeye salmon ranging in length from 400 to 550 mm at water temperatures averaging 9-10??C.

Woody, C. A.; Nelson, J.; Ramstad, K.

2002-01-01

319

Eos modeling and reservoir simulation study of bakken gas injection improved oil recovery in the elm coulee field, Montana  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Bakken Formation in the Williston Basin is one of the most productive liquid-rich unconventional plays. The Bakken Formation is divided into three members, and the Middle Bakken Member is the primary target for horizontal wellbore landing and hydraulic fracturing because of its better rock properties. Even with this new technology, the primary recovery factor is believed to be only around 10%. This study is to evaluate various gas injection EOR methods to try to improve on that low recovery factor of 10%. In this study, the Elm Coulee Oil Field in the Williston Basin was selected as the area of interest. Static reservoir models featuring the rock property heterogeneity of the Middle Bakken Member were built, and fluid property models were built based on Bakken reservoir fluid sample PVT data. By employing both compositional model simulation and Todd-Longstaff solvent model simulation methods, miscible gas injections were simulated and the simulations speculated that oil recovery increased by 10% to 20% of OOIP in 30 years. The compositional simulations yielded lower oil recovery compared to the solvent model simulations. Compared to the homogeneous model, the reservoir model featuring rock property heterogeneity in the vertical direction resulted in slightly better oil recovery, but with earlier CO2 break-through and larger CO2 production, suggesting that rock property heterogeneity is an important property for modeling because it has a big effect on the simulation results. Long hydraulic fractures shortened CO2 break-through time greatly and increased CO 2 production. Water-alternating-gas injection schemes and injection-alternating-shut-in schemes can provide more options for gas injection EOR projects, especially for gas production management. Compared to CO2 injection, separator gas injection yielded slightly better oil recovery, meaning separator gas could be a good candidate for gas injection EOR; lean gas generated the worst results. Reservoir simulations also indicate that original rock properties are the dominant factor for the ultimate oil recovery for both primary recovery and gas injection EOR. Because reservoir simulations provide critical inputs for project planning and management, more effort needs to be invested into reservoir modeling and simulation, including building enhanced geologic models, fracture characterization and modeling, and history matching with field data. Gas injection EOR projects are integrated projects, and the viability of a project also depends on different economic conditions.

Pu, Wanli

320

Development and field testing of a Light Aircraft Oil Surveillance System (LAOSS)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An experimental device consisting of a conventional TV camera with a low light level photo image tube and motor driven polarized filter arrangement was constructed to provide a remote means of discriminating the presence of oil on water surfaces. This polarized light filtering system permitted a series of successive, rapid changes between the vertical and horizontal components of reflected polarized skylight and caused the oil based substances to be more easily observed and identified as a flashing image against a relatively static water surface background. This instrument was flight tested, and the results, with targets of opportunity and more systematic test site data, indicate the potential usefulness of this airborne remote sensing instrument.

Burns, W.; Herz, M. J.

1976-01-01

321

Increasing heavy oil reserves in the Wilmington oil field through advanced reservoir characterization and thermal production technologies. Technical progress report  

SciTech Connect

The project involves improving thermal recovery techniques in a slope and basin clastic (SBC) reservoir in the Wilmington field, Los Angeles Co., California using advanced reservoir characterization and thermal production technologies. This is the third quarterly technical progress report for the project. Significant technical achievements accomplished include the drilling of four horizontal wells (two producers and two steam injectors) utilizing a new and lower cost drilling program, the drilling of five observation wells to monitor the horizontal steamflood pilot, the installation of a subsurface harbor channel crossing for delivering steam to an island location, and a geochemical study of the scale minerals being created in the wellbore. Cyclic steam injection into the two horizontal injection wells began in mid-December 1995 utilizing the new 2400 ft steam line under the Cerritos channel and the wells will be placed on production in May. Cyclic steam injection into the two horizontal producers will start in May. Work on the basic reservoir engineering is expected to be completed in March 1996. The deterministic geologic model was improved to add eight layers to the previous ten.

Hara, S.

1996-05-06

322

Environmental assessment of Buccaneer gas and oil field in the northwestern Gulf of Mexico, 1978-1979. Volume V. Effects of gas and oil field structures and effluents on fouling community production and function. Annual report  

SciTech Connect

Research performed during 1978-79 was designed to obtain additional information about the effects of offshore platforms and effluents on biofouling communities and to obtain information about the functioning of the system. Produced water was confirmed to be characterized by a high oxygen demand and to increase the respiratory rates of the biofouling community. Stations near the produced water discharge were observed to have significantly lower biofouling biomass than other platform supports and platforms with produced water discharges had lower microalgae biomass than control structures. Sets of the small barnacle species are typically overgrown by B. tintinnabulum in the Buccaneer Oil Field.

Howard, R.L.; Boland, G.S.; Gallaway, B.J.; Dennis, G.D.

1980-12-01

323

Gas lifting a major oil field in Argentina with high CO{sub 2} content associated gas  

SciTech Connect

The El Trapial Field in the Neuquen Province of Central Argentina produces more than 55,000 BOPD after 4 years of operation. The associated gas produced at El Trapial contains as much as 75% CO{sub 2}. Immediately after the discovery of the field, a study indicated that gas lift would meet environmental concerns and be an attractive economical alternative for producing the field. The study also concluded that the high CO{sub 2} fraction gas dissolved in the oil could be used satisfactorily for gas lift purposes. A plan was implemented at that time to design and construct the production facilities around gas lift as the primary artificial lift method. This paper addresses special precautions required for design of the production and gas lift facilities to gas lift successfully with high acid content associated gas. Also discussed is Petrolera Argentina San Jorge`s experience with such a system at El Trapial during the first 2 years of operation.

Blann, J.R.; Laville, G.M.

1997-02-01

324

Applications of EOR (enhanced oil recovery) technology in field projects1990 update  

Microsoft Academic Search

Trends in the type and number of US enhanced oil recovery (EOR) projects are analyzed for the period from 1980 through 1989. The analysis is based on current literature and news media and the Department of Energy (DOE) EOR Project Data Base, which contains information on over 1,348 projects. The characteristics of the EOR projects are grouped by starting date

J. F. Pautz; R. D. Thomas

1991-01-01

325

A Bayesian Network to Manage Risks of Maritime Piracy against Offshore Oil Fields  

E-print Network

an innovative solution to the problem of offshore piracy from the perspective of the entire processing chain of petroleum, and on the other hand shipping capable of transporting crude oil between production7 (L'Agence Nationale de la Recherche) and recognised by regional organisations addresses this need

326

Contracts for field projects and supporting research on enhanced oil recovery. Progress review number 87  

SciTech Connect

Approximately 30 research projects are summarized in this report. Title of the project, contract number, company or university, award amount, principal investigators, objectives, and summary of technical progress are given for each project. Enhanced oil recovery projects include chemical flooding, gas displacement, and thermal recovery. Most of the research projects though are related to geoscience technology and reservoir characterization.

NONE

1997-10-01

327

A Multifrequency Polarimetric SAR Processing Chain to Observe Oil Fields in the Gulf of Mexico  

Microsoft Academic Search

Within the National Environmental Satellite, Data, and Information Service, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Ad- ministration, multiplatform synthetic aperture radar (SAR) im- agery is being used to aid posthurricane and postaccident response efforts in the Gulf of Mexico, such as in the case of the recent Deepwater Horizon oil spill. The main areas of interest related to such disasters are the

Maurizio Migliaccio; Ferdinando Nunziata; Antonio Montuori; Xiaofeng Li; William G. Pichel

2011-01-01

328

Model study on the kinetics of oil field formation damage due to salt precipitation from injection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Due to the extensive use of water injection for oil displacement and pressure maintenance in oilfields, many reservoirs experience the problem of scale deposition when injection water starts to break through. In most cases, the scaled-up wells are caused by the formation of sulfate and carbonate scales of calcium and strontium. Due to their relative hardness and low solubility, there

J. Moghadasi; H. Mller-Steinhagen; M. Jamialahmadi; A. Sharif

2004-01-01

329

Applications of EOR (enhanced oil recovery) technology in field projects--1990 update  

SciTech Connect

Trends in the type and number of US enhanced oil recovery (EOR) projects are analyzed for the period from 1980 through 1989. The analysis is based on current literature and news media and the Department of Energy (DOE) EOR Project Data Base, which contains information on over 1,348 projects. The characteristics of the EOR projects are grouped by starting date and process type to identify trends in reservoir statistics and applications of process technologies. Twenty-two EOR projects starts were identified for 1989 and ten project starts for 1988. An obvious trend over recent years has been the decline in the number of project starts since 1981 until 1988 which corresponds to the oil price decline during that period. There was a modest recovery in 1989 of project starts, which lags the modest recovery of oil prices in 1987 that was reconfirmed in 1989. During the time frame of 1980 to 1989, there has been a gradual improvement in costs of operation for EOR technology. The perceived average cost of EOR has gone down from a $30/bbl range to low $20/bbl. These costs of operation seems to stay just at the price of oil or slightly above to result in marginal profitability. The use of polymer flooding has drastically decreased both in actual and relative numbers of project starts since the oil price drop in 1986. Production from polymer flooding is down more than 50%. Long-term plans for large, high-cost projects such as CO{sub 2} flooding in West Texas, steamflooding in California, and hydrocarbon flooding on the North Slope have continued to be implemented. EOR process technologies have been refined to be more cost effective as shown by the continued application and rising production attributable to EOR. 8 refs., 6 figs., 13 tabs.

Pautz, J.F.; Thomas, R.D.

1991-01-01

330

Gas lifting a major oil field in Argentina with high CO{sub 2} content associated gas  

SciTech Connect

The El Trapial Field in the Neuquen Province of Central Argentina produces more than 50,000 barrels of oil/day after only three years of operation. The associated gas produced at E1 Trapial contains as much as 75% CO{sub 2}. Immediately after the discovery of the field, a study indicated that gas lift would meet environmental concerns and be an attractive economical alternative for producing the field. The study also concluded that the high CO{sub 2} fraction gas dissolved in the oil could be used satisfactorily for gas lift purposes. A plan was implemented at that time to design and construct the production facilities around gas lift as the primary artificial lift method. This paper addresses special precautions required for design of the production and gas lift facilities to successfully gas lift with high acid content associated gas. Also discussed is Petrolera Argentina San Jorge`s experience with such a system at El Trapial during the first two years of operation.

Blann, J.R.; Laville, G.M.

1995-12-31

331

Adaptive Management and Planning Models for Cultural Resources in Oil and Gas Fields in New Mexico and Wyoming  

SciTech Connect

In 2002, Gnomon, Inc., entered into a cooperative agreement with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) for a project entitled, Adaptive Management and Planning Models for Cultural Resources in Oil and Gas Fields in New Mexico and Wyoming (DE-FC26-02NT15445). This project, funded through DOEs Preferred Upstream Management Practices grant program, examined cultural resource management practices in two major oil- and gas-producing areas, southeastern New Mexico and the Powder River Basin of Wyoming (Figure 1). The purpose of this project was to examine how cultural resources have been investigated and managed and to identify more effective management practices. The project also was designed to build information technology and modeling tools to meet both current and future management needs. The goals of the project were described in the original proposal as follows: Goal 1. Create seamless information systems for the project areas. Goal 2. Examine what we have learned from archaeological work in the southeastern New Mexico oil fields and whether there are better ways to gain additional knowledge more rapidly or at a lower cost. Goal 3. Provide useful sensitivity models for planning, management, and as guidelines for field investigations. Goal 4. Integrate management, investigation, and decision- making in a real-time electronic system. Gnomon, Inc., in partnership with the Wyoming State Historic Preservation Office (WYSHPO) and Western GeoArch Research, carried out the Wyoming portion of the project. SRI Foundation, in partnership with the New Mexico Historic Preservation Division (NMHPD), Statistical Research, Inc., and Red Rock Geological Enterprises, completed the New Mexico component of the project. Both the New Mexico and Wyoming summaries concluded with recommendations how cultural resource management (CRM) processes might be modified based on the findings of this research.

Eckerle, William; Hall, Stephen

2005-12-30

332

Application of Denaturing High-Performance Liquid Chromatography for Monitoring Sulfate-Reducing Bacteria in Oil Fields  

PubMed Central

Sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) participate in microbially induced corrosion (MIC) of equipment and H2S-driven reservoir souring in oil field sites. Successful management of industrial processes requires methods that allow robust monitoring of microbial communities. This study investigated the applicability of denaturing high-performance liquid chromatography (DHPLC) targeting the dissimilatory sulfite reductase -subunit (dsrB) gene for monitoring SRB communities in oil field samples from the North Sea, the United States, and Brazil. Fifteen of the 28 screened samples gave a positive result in real-time PCR assays, containing 9 101 to 6 105 dsrB gene copies ml?1. DHPLC and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) community profiles of the PCR-positive samples shared an overall similarity; both methods revealed the same samples to have the lowest and highest diversity. The SRB communities were diverse, and different dsrB compositions were detected at different geographical locations. The identified dsrB gene sequences belonged to several phylogenetic groups, such as Desulfovibrio, Desulfococcus, Desulfomicrobium, Desulfobulbus, Desulfotignum, Desulfonatronovibrio, and Desulfonauticus. DHPLC showed an advantage over DGGE in that the community profiles were very reproducible from run to run, and the resolved gene fragments could be collected using an automated fraction collector and sequenced without a further purification step. DGGE, on the other hand, included casting of gradient gels, and several rounds of rerunning, excising, and reamplification of bands were needed for successful sequencing. In summary, DHPLC proved to be a suitable tool for routine monitoring of the diversity of SRB communities in oil field samples. PMID:23793633

Nyyssonen, Mari; Bomberg, Malin; Laitila, Arja; Simell, Jaakko; Kapanen, Anu; Juvonen, Riikka

2013-01-01

333

Soil gas calibration surveys over the Filo Morado and Loma de La Lata oil and gas fields in the Neuquen basin, Argentina  

SciTech Connect

Detailed soil gas geochemical surveys were conducted for calibration purposes over two fields: Loma de La Lata and Filo Morado in the Neuquen basin in Argentina during November, 1989, for trend Argentina, S.A. by Exploration Technologies, Inc. These two fields were chosen for this calibration study because of their differences in both reservoir composition and entrapment mechanisms. Filo Morado is an anticlinal oil field, while Loma de La Lata is a stratigraphic trap containing an oil and gas reservoir partially underlain by separate gas-condensate reservoir. The geochemical data consist of samples collected on 500- to 1,000-m grids placed directly over these two fields using Exploration Technologies's proprietary soil gas probe technique. The free soil gases were analyzed for methane, ethane, ethylene, propane, propylene, isobutane, and normal butane by flame ionization gas chromatography and for helium and hydrogen by thermal conductivity gas chromatography. The geochemical soil gas data exhibit clearly defined compositional subpopulations that match the composition of the underlying reservoirs and change in direct response to the major structural and/ or stratigraphic features that control the location of the subsurface reservoirs. A single oil source is predicted at Filo Morado, in agreement with the known oil field. Much gassier soil gas data is noted over the Loma de La Lata field where there exists an oil and gas field underlain by a gas-condensate reservoir. However, a very striking change to fairly large magnitude oil type compositional anomalies occurs directly over the northwest portion of the Loma de La Lata field where the Quintuco oil reservoir is the only known producing horizon.

Jones, V.T. (Exploration Technologies, Inc., Houston, TX (United States))

1991-03-01

334

Application of capillary pressure and hydrodynamic flow to quantify downdip extension of shallow, low-gravity oil fields: An example from south Texas  

SciTech Connect

The principles of capillary pressure and hydrodynamic flow can be useful for exploring in mature areas and exploiting old fields. The principles are especially useful in the numerous, shallow stratigraphic traps in the Jackson Group (Oligocene) in South Texas. The field example in this paper had produced oil since 1955 from wells on the updip limit of a shallow (1700 ft) barrier island sandstone reservoir. Despite the updip wells producing at a one percent oil cut, downdip wells were drilled and completed with a very commercial 25% average oil cut in 1990. Field reserves were doubled from 300,000 to 600,000 BO with the additional downdip wells. The success of drilling downdip from watered out wells can be quantified with capillary pressure and hydrodynamic flow calculations. The difference in density between oil and water is part of divisor in both equations. The difference is only 0.08 g/cc in this area, because the oil is 19 gravity (.92 g/cc) and the water is brackish (1.0 g/cc). Thus, a relatively large column of oil can be trapped downdip with only slight grain size changes. Similarly, a relatively modest, downdip water flow within the reservoir could also trap a similar sized oil column. Using reservoir conditions, each equation predicts an approximate oil column of 50 ft. Using these principles, both exploration and development geologists can find commercial oil reserves downdip from existing wells that have watered out or wells with only a hydrocarbon show and water. These principles are especially useful with low-gravity oil accumulations, heterogeneous reservoirs and downdip water flow.

Billingsley, L.T. (Sandia Oil Gas Corp., San Antonio, TX (United States))

1996-01-01

335

Application of capillary pressure and hydrodynamic flow to quantify downdip extension of shallow, low-gravity oil fields: An example from south Texas  

SciTech Connect

The principles of capillary pressure and hydrodynamic flow can be useful for exploring in mature areas and exploiting old fields. The principles are especially useful in the numerous, shallow stratigraphic traps in the Jackson Group (Oligocene) in South Texas. The field example in this paper had produced oil since 1955 from wells on the updip limit of a shallow (1700 ft) barrier island sandstone reservoir. Despite the updip wells producing at a one percent oil cut, downdip wells were drilled and completed with a very commercial 25% average oil cut in 1990. Field reserves were doubled from 300,000 to 600,000 BO with the additional downdip wells. The success of drilling downdip from watered out wells can be quantified with capillary pressure and hydrodynamic flow calculations. The difference in density between oil and water is part of divisor in both equations. The difference is only 0.08 g/cc in this area, because the oil is 19 gravity (.92 g/cc) and the water is brackish (1.0 g/cc). Thus, a relatively large column of oil can be trapped downdip with only slight grain size changes. Similarly, a relatively modest, downdip water flow within the reservoir could also trap a similar sized oil column. Using reservoir conditions, each equation predicts an approximate oil column of 50 ft. Using these principles, both exploration and development geologists can find commercial oil reserves downdip from existing wells that have watered out or wells with only a hydrocarbon show and water. These principles are especially useful with low-gravity oil accumulations, heterogeneous reservoirs and downdip water flow.

Billingsley, L.T. [Sandia Oil & Gas Corp., San Antonio, TX (United States)

1996-12-31

336

Increased Oil Production and Reserves from Improved Completion Techniques in the Bluebell Field, Uinta Basin, Utah, Class I  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this project was to increase oil production and reserves by the use of improved reservoir characterization and completion techniques in the Unita Basin Utah. To accomplish this objective, a two-year geologic and engineering characterization of the Bluebell field was conducted. The study evaluated surface and subsurface data, currently used completion techniques, and common production problems. It was determined that advanced case- and open-hole logs could be effective in determining productive beds and that staged-interval (about 500 ft [150 m] per stage) and bed-scale isolation completion techniques could result in improved well performance.

Morgan, Craig D.; Gwynn, Wallace; Deo, Milind D.; Jarrard, Richard; Curtice, Richard; Morris, Thomas H.; Smouse, DeForrest; Tripp, Carol N.

2000-01-20

337

Standard practice for evaluating and qualifying oil field and refinery corrosion inhibitors using the rotating cylinder electrode  

E-print Network

1.1 This practice covers a generally accepted procedure to use the rotating cylinder electrode (RCE) for evaluating corrosion inhibitors for oil field and refinery applications in defined flow conditions. 1.2 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as the standard. The values given in parentheses are for information only. This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

2006-01-01

338

Composition and physical properties of siliceous and clay-siliceous reservoir rock in the Okruzhnoye oil field (Sakhalin Island)  

SciTech Connect

Siliceous rocks occur extensively in sedimentary basins in the northern part of the Pacific Mobile Belt. The Okruzhnoye field consists of such rocks. Its main productive horizon is the Pilengskaya Formation, of Miocene age, ranging from 100 to 500 meters in thickness or more and consisting of thin interbedded pelitomorphic siliceous and clay-siliceous rock with a few thin intercalcations of tuff, sandstone, and aleurolite. The productive beds are covered by argillaceous rock and form a stratigraphic trap about 600 meters thick which is filled with oil almost to the spill point. In this paper, the geochemical composition and physical properties of this reservoir are detailed. (JMT)

Yurochko, A.I.

1982-11-01

339

Caribou distribution during the post-calving period in relation to infrastructure in the Prudhoe Bay oil field, Alaska  

USGS Publications Warehouse

There is concern that caribou (Rangifer tarandus) may avoid roads and facilities (i.e., infrastructure) in the Prudhoe Bay oil field (PBOF) in northern Alaska, and that this avoidance can have negative effects on the animals. We quantified the relationship between caribou distribution and PBOF infrastructure during the post-calving period (mid-June to mid-August) with aerial surveys from 1990 to 1995. We conducted four to eight surveys per year with complete coverage of the PBOF. We identified active oil field infrastructure and used a geographic information system (GIS) to construct ten 1 km wide concentric intervals surrounding the infrastructure. We tested whether caribou distribution is related to distance from infrastructure with a chi-squared habitat utilization-availability analysis and log-linear regression. We considered bulls, calves, and total caribou of all sex/age classes separately. The habitat utilization-availability analysis indicated there was no consistent trend of attraction to or avoidance of infrastructure. Caribou frequently were more abundant than expected in the intervals close to infrastructure, and this trend was more pronounced for bulls and for total caribou of all sex/age classes than for calves. Log-linear regression (with Poisson error structure) of numbers of caribou and distance from infrastructure were also done, with and without combining data into the 1 km distance intervals. The analysis without intervals revealed no relationship between caribou distribution and distance from oil field infrastructure, or between caribou distribution and Julian date, year, or distance from the Beaufort Sea coast. The log-linear regression with caribou combined into distance intervals showed the density of bulls and total caribou of all sex/age classes declined with distance from infrastructure. Our results indicate that during the post-calving period: 1) caribou distribution is largely unrelated to distance from infrastructure; 2) caribou regularly use habitats in the PBOF; 3) caribou often occur close to infrastructure; and 4) caribou do not appear to avoid oil field infrastructure.

Cronin, M. A.; Amstrup, S. C.; Durner, G. M.; Noel, L. E.; McDonald, T. L.; Ballard, W. B.

1998-01-01

340

Assessment of the potential environmental fate and effects of oil-field discharge waters containing {sup 226}radium  

SciTech Connect

The naturally occurring radionuclide, radium-226, has been detected in oil production waters in all regions of the country. A produced water discharge into the Loch Katrina wetland in Park County, WY was investigated with respect to the transport and fate of radium in surface waters. The 866-acre Loch Katrina wetland complex is sustained primarily by oil-field produced waters and provides habitat for many species of aquatic birds. While the short-term benefits of this discharge are indisputable, the long-term hazards posed by the transport of radium from deep aquifers to surface waters are not well understood. Guidelines regulating the management of radium-contaminated sediments in receiving waters or settling ponds in Wyoming have yet to be established. The purpose of this study was to provide information to regional regulatory agencies and the oil and gas industry in the development of guidelines and procedures for managing radium and other naturally occurring radioactive materials. The authors will report the results of the sampling survey of produced waters, sediment and biota performed in the Loch Katrina wetland complex in Wyoming.

Herrera, A.W.; Hill, S.L.; Bergman, H.L. [Univ. of Wyoming, Laramie, WY (United States). Dept. of Zoology and Physiology

1994-12-31

341

Electric-fields-enhanced destabilization of oil-in-water emulsions flowing through a confined wedgelike gap  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

External electric fields (EEFs) have been applied on a wedgelike gap in a ball-disk configuration, through which oil-in-water (O/W) emulsions flowed. The film formation properties of O/W emulsions in the contact region between the ball and the disk, which is closely related to the stability of oil droplets in the wedgelike gap, have been investigated experimentally. It is found that the film formation property of emulsions in the contact region increases with the EEF strength, but tends to saturate after a critical EEF strength was reached. For the emulsion with a larger oil concentration, it can be enhanced by EEFs more dramatically. The change in the film formation property is more significant when EEFs were applied in emulsions with relatively high emulsifier concentrations, however, the droplet stability is higher in the emulsions with low emulsifier concentrations even when EEFs were applied. The ability of the deformation and breakup of droplets under EEFs in the wedge was also analyzed theoretically to correlate with the experimental results.

Xie, Guoxin; Luo, Jianbin; Liu, Shuhai; Guo, Dan; Zhang, Chenhui

2010-09-01

342

Activities of the Oil Implementation Task Force, December 1990--February 1991; Contracts for field projects and supporting research on enhanced oil recovery, April--June 1990  

SciTech Connect

The Oil Implementation Task Force was appointed to implement the US DOE's new oil research program directed toward increasing domestic oil production by expanded research on near- or mid-term enhanced oil recovery methods. An added priority is to preserve access to reservoirs that have the largest potential for oil recovery, but that are threatened by the large number of wells abandoned each year. This report describes the progress of research activities in the following areas: chemical flooding; gas displacement; thermal recovery; resource assessment; microbial technology; geoscience technology; and environmental technology. (CK)

Tiedemann, H.A. (ed.) (USDOE Bartlesville Project Office, OK (USA))

1991-03-01

343

Isolation and Characterization of Methanothermobacter crinale sp. nov., a Novel Hydrogenotrophic Methanogen from the Shengli Oil Field?  

PubMed Central

Syntrophic acetate oxidation coupled with hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis is an alternative methanogenic pathway in certain thermophilic anaerobic environments such as high-temperature oil reservoirs and thermophilic biogas reactors. In these environments, the dominant thermophilic methanogens were generally related to uncultured organisms of the genus Methanothermobacter. Here we isolated two representative strains, Tm2T and HMD, from the oil sands and oil production water in the Shengli oil field in the People's Republic of China. The type strain, Tm2T, was nonmotile and stained Gram positive. The cells were straight to slightly curved rods (0.3 ?m in width and 2.2 to 5.9 ?m in length), but some of them possessed a coccal shape connecting with the rods at the ends. Strain Tm2T grew with H2-CO2, but acetate is required. Optimum growth of strain Tm2T occurred in the presence of 0.025 g/liter NaCl at pH 6.9 and a temperature of 65C. The G+C content of the genomic DNA was 40.1 mol% 1.3 mol% (by the thermal denaturation method) or 41.1 mol% (by high-performance liquid chromatography). Analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequence indicated that Tm2T was most closely related to Methanothermobacter thermautotrophicus ?HT and Methanothermobacter wolfeii VKM B-1829T (both with a sequence similarity of 96.4%). Based on these phenotypic and phylogenic characteristics, a novel species was proposed and named Methanothermobacter crinale sp. nov. The type strain is Tm2T (ACCC 00699T = JCM 17393T). PMID:21705537

Cheng, Lei; Dai, Lirong; Li, Xia; Zhang, Hui; Lu, Yahai

2011-01-01

344

Evidence of hepatotoxicity in the sand lizard Acanthodactylus scutellatus from Kuwait's Greater Al-Burgan oil field.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of oil pollution in a desert location (the Greater Al-Burgan oil fields, an area damaged in the Gulf War in 1991) in Kuwait on the hepatotoxicity of the Sand lizard Acanthodactylus scutellatus (A. scutellatus). Twenty lizards (10 of each sex) from each polluted and each control sites were collected. Livers were removed from dissected animals and ready for fixation by Bouin's solution and formal-saline. Twenty sections (10 from males and 10 from females) from each tar mat (polluted) and control sites were prepared and examined for cell diameter and nuclear measurements using Cell Analysis Systems. The cytology of hepatocytes showed normal appearance in samples from the control sites. Dead cells were abundant in the sections of lizard livers from the tar mat sites and occurred in notably greater numbers than the sections of livers of animals from the control sites. Examinations of the data confirm that the cell and nuclear diameters in liver samples of males collected from polluted sites were generally greater than those of corresponding females. The liver sections obtained from animals in the tar mat site had greater cellular diameters than counterparts from control sites. Females from the polluted sites were also affected by oil pollution by having larger hepatocyte diameters and their nuclei were also affected, being larger than female nuclei from the control sites. The most remarkable feature observed in hepatocytes of lizards collected from the tar mat sites were swelling of hepatocytes, ballooning degeneration of hepatic cytoplasm and cell death. This study confirmed that the prolonged exposure to oil pollution may result in increased accumulation of contaminants and may cause severe liver pathology in a range of wild organisms such as A. scutellatus. PMID:21411141

Al-Hashem, Mona A

2011-07-01

345

Increasing Waterflood Reserves in the Wilmington Oil Field Through Improved Reservoir Characterization and Reservoir Management  

SciTech Connect

The objectives of this quarterly report are to summarize the work conducted under each task during the reporting period October - December 1997 and to report all technical data and findings as specified in the "Federal Assistance Reporting Checklist". The main objective of this project is the transfer of technologies, methodologies, and findings developed and applied in this project to other operators of Slope and Basin Clastic Reservoirs. This project will study methods to identify sands with high remaining oil saturation and to recomplete existing wells using advanced completion technology. The identification of the sands with high remaining oil saturation will be accomplished by developing a deterministic three dimensional (3-D) geologic model and by using a state of the art reservoir management computer software. The wells identified by the geologic and reservoir engineering work as having the best potential will be logged with cased-hole logging tools. The application of the logging tools will be optimized in the lab by developing a rock-log model. This rock-log model will allow us to translate measurements through casing into effective porosity and hydrocarbon saturation. The wells that are shown to have the best oil production potential will be recompleted. The recompletions will be optimized by evaluating short radius lateral recompletions as well as other recompletion techniques such as the sand consolidation through steam injection.

Chris Phillips; Dan Moos; Don Clarke; John Nguyen; Kwasi Tagbor; Roy Koerner; Scott Walker

1998-01-26

346

Increasing Waterflood Reserves in the Wilmington Oil Field Through Improved Reservoir Characterization and Reservoir Management.  

SciTech Connect

The objectives of this quarterly report are to summarize the work conducted under each task during the reporting period July - September 1997 and to report all technical data and findings as specified in the `Federal Assistance Reporting Checklist`. The main objective of this project is the transfer of technologies, methodologies, and findings developed and applied in this project to other operators of Slope and Basin Clastic Reservoirs. This project will study methods to identify sands with high remaining oil saturation and to recomplete existing wells using advanced completion technology. The identification of the sands with high remaining oil saturation will be accomplished by developing a deterministic three dimensional (3-D) geologic model and by using a state of the art reservoir management computer software. The wells identified by the geologic and reservoir engineering work as having the best potential will be logged with a pulsed acoustic cased-hole logging tool. The application of the logging tools will be optimized in the lab by developing a rock-log model. This rock-log model will allow us to convert shear wave velocity measured through casing into effective porosity and hydrocarbon saturation. The wells that are shown to have the best oil production potential will be recompleted. The recompletions will be optimized by evaluating short radius and ultra-short radius lateral recompletions as well as other techniques.

Koerner, R.; Clarke, D. [Long Beach, City of, Dept, of Oil Properties, CA (United States); Walker, S.; Phillips, C.; Nguyen, J. [Tidelands Oil Production Company, Long Beach, CA (United States); Moos, D. [Stanford Univ., Stanford, CA (United States); Tagbor, K. [Magnetic Pulse, Inc., Houston, TX (United States)

1997-10-21

347

Repellency of hydrogenated catmint oil formulations to black flies and mosquitoes in the field.  

PubMed

The essential oil of catmint, Nepeta cataria L., was hydrogenated to yield an oil enriched in dihydronepetalactone (DHN) diastereomers, termed. This material was used for the preparation of liquid alcohol-based and lotion formulations. The efficacy of these formulations as repellents was tested after application to human test subjects at two locations in the United States: Maine and Florida. In Maine, data on repellency of the hydrogenated catmint oil formulations toward black flies (Simulium decorum Walker) and mosquitoes (primarily Aedes intrudens Dyar) were obtained. In these tests, protection from black flies was conferred for 6 h or more with all formulations, and both liquid and lotion formulations at 15 wt% active ingredient gave complete protection for 7.5 h. All formulations conferred protection from mosquitoes for >4 h, with the best (15 wt% lotion) giving >8 h of complete protection. In Florida, data on repellency toward a mixed population of mosquitoes indicated that all formulations conferred protection for >4 h, with the 15 wt% lotion giving >6 h complete protection from bites. PMID:19058632

Spero, Niketas C; Gonzalez, Yamaira I; Scialdone, Mark A; Hallahan, David L

2008-11-01

348

Reservoir simulation of co2 sequestration and enhanced oil recovery in Tensleep Formation, Teapot Dome field  

E-print Network

Teapot Dome field is located 35 miles north of Casper, Wyoming in Natrona County. This field has been selected by the U.S. Department of Energy to implement a field-size CO2 storage project. With a projected storage of 2.6 million tons of carbon...

Gaviria Garcia, Ricardo

2006-04-12

349

Identification of distinct communities of sulfate-reducing bacteria in oil fields by reverse sample genome probing.  

PubMed

Thirty-five different standards of sulfate-reducing bacteria, identified by reverse sample genome probing and defined as bacteria with genomes showing little or no cross-hybridization, were in part characterized by Southern blotting, using 16S rRNA and hydrogenase gene probes. Samples from 56 sites in seven different western Canadian oil field locations were collected and enriched for sulfate-reducing bacteria by using different liquid media containing one of the following carbon sources: lactate, ethanol, benzoate, decanoate, propionate, or acetate. DNA was isolated from the enrichments and probed by reverse sample genome probing using master filters containing denatured chromosomal DNAs from the 35 sulfate-reducing bacterial standards. Statistical analysis of the microbial compositions at 44 of the 56 sites indicated the presence of two distinct communities of sulfate-reducing bacteria. The discriminating factor between the two communities was the salt concentration of the production waters, which were either fresh water or saline. Of 34 standards detected, 10 were unique to the fresh water and 18 were unique to the saline oil field environment, while only 6 organisms were cultured from both communities. PMID:16348801

Voordouw, G; Voordouw, J K; Jack, T R; Foght, J; Fedorak, P M; Westlake, D W

1992-11-01

350

Application of bioflocculating property of Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain IASST201 in treatment of oil-field formation water.  

PubMed

A bioflocculating activity of 89.8% was depicted by an activated sludge-borne bacteria Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain IASST201 with a yield of bioflocculant of 2.68?g?L(-1) obtained from production media broth after optimization of different parameters. The highest bioflocculation efficiency was found at the pre-stationary phase of the bacterial growth period in the production media broth at 96th hour examined from a growth-flocculation kinetics study. 85.67% of bioflocculation was observed in oil-field formation water, with a separation of 68.7% of aliphatic hydrocarbon contents of the formation water after the application of the bacterial bioflocculant by entrapment mechanism with formation of flocs which was analyzed and examined comparatively through gas-chromatography. Extensive removal of heavy metal contents of the oil-field formation water due to bioflocculation was estimated by Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS). The SEM and AFM studies declare the extracellular polymeric nature of the bioflocculant produced by this bacterium clumped within bacterial biofilm supported with FTIR study of the extracted bioflocculant. PMID:24740803

Pathak, Mihirjyoti; Devi, Arundhuti; Sarma, Hridip Kumar; Lal, Banwari

2014-07-01

351

Application of capillary pressure and hydrodynamic flow to quantify downdip extension of shallow, low-gravity oil fields: An example from south Texas  

Microsoft Academic Search

The principles of capillary pressure and hydrodynamic flow can be useful for exploring in mature areas and exploiting old fields. The principles are especially useful in the numerous, shallow stratigraphic traps in the Jackson Group (Oligocene) in South Texas. The field example in this paper had produced oil since 1955 from wells on the updip limit of a shallow (1700

Lee T. Billingsley

1996-01-01

352

Investigation of high-temperature, igneous-related hydraulic fracturing as a reservoir control in the Blackburn and Grant Canyon/Bacon Flat oil fields, Nevada  

SciTech Connect

Research in progress to evaluate natural, igenous-related hydrothermal fracturing as a reservoir control in two eastern Nevada oil fields has revealed evidence of a far more comprehensive role for moderate- to high-temperature hydrothermal systems in Basin-and-Range oil-reservoir evolution. Fluid-inclusion and petrographic studies have shown that (now) oil-bearing dolomite breccias of the Blackburn field (Pine Valley, Eureka County) were formed when overpressured, magmatically-heated, high-temperature (>350{degrees}C) hydrothermal brines explosively ruptured their host rocks; similar studies of texturally identical breccias of the Grant Canyon/Bacon Flat field (Railroad Valley, Nye County) so far do not support such an explosive origin. At Grant Canyon, however, hydrothermal, breccia-cementing quartz hosts primary oil, aqueous/oil, and aqueous fluid inclusions (homogenization temperature = 120{degrees}C) which document a direct geothermal connection for oil migration and entrapment. Moreover, at both Blackburn and Grant Canyon/Bacon Flat, the oil reservoirs are top- and side-sealed by hydrothermally altered Tertiary ignimbrites and epiclastic rocks. Contemporary geothermal activity is also apparent at grant Canyon/Bacon Flat, where subsurface water temperatures reach 171{degrees}C, and at Blackburn, above which a petroleum-providing hot spring issues at a temperature of 90{degrees}C. We suggest that in the Basin and Range province, hydrothermal systems may have: (1) matured oil from otherwise submature source rocks; (2) transported oil to ultimate entrapment sites by convection in moderate-to high-temperature fluids; and (3) sealed reservoir traps through hydrothermal alteration of overlying Tertiary caprocks. 69 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.

Hulen, J.B.

1991-01-01

353

Improving the clean-up efficiency of field soil contaminated with diesel oil by the application of stabilizers.  

PubMed

Fenton-like oxidation in the presence of stabilizers has been applied in batch and column reactors to treat field soils contaminated with diesel oil. Citrates, ethylene diamine tetra-acetic acid (EDTA), ethylene diamine disuccinic acid (EDDS) and phosphates were assessed as stabilizers. The stability of hydrogen peroxide in the soil was evaluated by varying the concentration of each stabilizer and hydrogen peroxide. In a batch test, the residual concentration of hydrogen peroxide was shown to be directly related to the concentration of these stabilizers. Citrate showed the greatest stabilizing effect of the four stabilizers for hydrogen peroxide and 0.05 M was selected as the optimum dosage. In order to investigate the effect of stabilizer on the efficiency of removal of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) in a column reactor, 30 mL of each stabilizer solution at pH 3 and containing 15% hydrogen peroxide was injected. The batch result confirmed that the greatest TPH removal took place in the presence of citrate in a column reactor. The order of TPH removal in the presence of stabilizers was: citrate > H3PO4 > EDDS > EDTA. TPH removal was affected by the concentration of stabilizer and the initial concentration of TPH. When 0.05 M citrate solution containing 15% hydrogen peroxide was applied to four field soils and an artificially contaminated soil, similar or better TPH removal was observed in the field soils compared to the artificially contaminated soil. This result suggests that Fenton-like oxidation with stabilizer can be effective in restoring field soils contaminated with diesel oil. PMID:24191482

Chang, Yoon-Young; Roh, Hoon; Yang, Jae-Kyu

2013-01-01

354

Orgin and significance of geochemical variability among oils and gas-condensates in the Tiger Shoal Field, northern Gulf of Mexico  

SciTech Connect

Geochemical data placed in geological context is key to understanding the processes controlling the variability of oils and gas-condensates in the Tiger Shoal Field, northern Gulf of Mexico. Thermal maturity at generation and phase partitioning are the principal processes accounting for variability in the bulk and molecular properties of the oils and gas-condensates. Quantification of the extent that these processes altered the oils and gas-condensates between fault blocks and among individual sands permits: (1) documentation of the most effective migration conduits, (2) inference of deeper or shallower pay zones, (3) and assessment of vertical and lateral fluid connectivity. Calibration of bulk to molecular properties will permit rapid assessment of the type and extent of alteration using basic parameters such as API gravity and gas oil ratio (GOR). Upon mass balancing with initial reserves data, a detailed risking scheme for remaining prospects within the field can be formulated.

Kelley, P.A.; Imbus, S.W. [Texaco E& P Technology, Houston, TX (United States); McKeever, S.R. [Texaco E& P Inc., New Orleans, LA (United States)

1995-12-31

355

Silurian "Clinton" Sandstone Reservoir Characterization for Evaluation of CO2-EOR Potential in the East Canton Oil Field, Ohio  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of using CO2-enhanced oil recovery (EOR) in the East Canton oil field (ECOF). Discovered in 1947, the ECOF in northeastern Ohio has produced approximately 95 million barrels (MMbbl) of oil from the Silurian Clinton sandstone. The original oil-in-place (OOIP) for this field was approximately 1.5 billion bbl and this study estimates by modeling known reservoir parameters, that between 76 and 279 MMbbl of additional oil could be produced through secondary recovery in this field, depending on the fluid and formation response to CO2 injection. A CO2 cyclic test (Huff-n-Puff) was conducted on a well in Stark County to test the injectivity in a Clinton-producing oil well in the ECOF and estimate the dispersion or potential breakthrough of the CO2 to surrounding wells. Eighty-one tons of CO2 (1.39 MMCF) were injected over a 20-hour period, after which the well was shut in for a 32-day soak period before production was resumed. Results demonstrated injection rates of 1.67 MMCF of gas per day, which was much higher than anticipated and no CO2 was detected in gas samples taken from eight immediately offsetting observation wells. All data collected during this test was analyzed, interpreted, and incorporated into the reservoir characterization study and used to develop the geologic model. The geologic model was used as input into a reservoir simulation performed by Fekete Associates, Inc., to estimate the behavior of reservoir fluids when large quantities of CO2 are injected into the Clinton sandstone. Results strongly suggest that the majority of the injected CO2 entered the matrix porosity of the reservoir pay zones, where it diffused into the oil. Evidence includes: (A) the volume of injected CO2 greatly exceeded the estimated capacity of the hydraulic fracture and natural fractures; (B) there was a gradual injection and pressure rate build-up during the test; (C) there was a subsequent, gradual flashout of the CO2 within the reservoir during the ensuing monitored production period; and (D) a large amount of CO2 continually off-gassed from wellhead oil samples collected as late as 3 months after injection. After the test well was returned to production, it produced 174 bbl of oil during a 60-day period (September 22 to November 21, 2008), which represents an estimated 58 percent increase in incremental oil production over preinjection estimates of production under normal, conditions. The geologic model was used in a reservoir simulation model for a 700-acre model area and to design a pilot to test the model. The model was designed to achieve a 1-year response time and a five-year simulation period. The reservoir simulation modeling indicated that the injection wells could enhance oil production and lead to an additional 20 percent recovery in the pilot area over a five-year period. The base case estimated that by injecting 500 MCF per day of CO2 into each of the four corner wells, 26,000 STBO would be produced by the central producer over the five-year period. This would compare to 3,000 STBO if a new well were drilled without the benefit of CO2 injection. This study has added significant knowledge to the reservoir characterization of the Clinton in the ECOF and succeeded in identifying a range on CO2-EOR potential. However, additional data on fluid properties (PVT and swelling test), fractures (oriented core and microseis), and reservoir characteristics (relative permeability, capillary pressure, and wet ability) are needed to further narrow the uncertainties and refine the reservoir model and simulation. After collection of this data and refinement of the model and simulation, it is recommended that a larger scale cyclic- CO2 injection test be conducted to better determine the efficacy of CO2-EOR in the Clinton reservoir in the ECOF.

Riley, Ronald; Wicks, John; Perry, Christopher

2009-12-30

356

Fast and selective removal of oils from water surface via highly hydrophobic core-shell Fe2O3@C nanoparticles under magnetic field.  

PubMed

The removal of oil spills or organic contaminants from water surface is of great technological importance for environmental protection. A major challenge is the fast distribution and collection of absorbent materials with high separation selectivity, good thermal stability, and excellent recyclability. Here we reported fast and selective removal of oils from water surface through core-shell Fe(2)O(3)@C nanoparticles under magnetic field. These nanoparticles combined with unsinkable, highly hydrophobic and superoleophilic properties, could selectively absorb lubricating oil up to 3.8 times of the particles' weight while completely repelling water. The oil-absorbed nanoparticles were quickly collected in seconds by applying an external magnetic field. More importantly, the oil could be readily removed from the surfaces of nanoparticles by a simple ultrasonic treatment whereas the particles still kept highly hydrophobic and superolephilic characteristics. Experiment results showed that the highly hydrophobic Fe(2)O(3)@C nanoparticles could be reused in water-oil separation for many cycles. Our results suggest a facile and efficient method that might find practical applications in the cleanup of oil spills and the removal of organic pollutants on water surface. PMID:20942429

Zhu, Qing; Tao, Feng; Pan, Qinmin

2010-11-01

357

Field reconnaissance and estimation of petroleum hydrocarbon and heavy metal contents of soils affected by the Ebocha-8 oil spillage in Niger Delta, Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Field reconnaissance of the Ebocha-8 oil spill-affected site at Obiobi\\/Obrikom in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria was carried out to assess the extent of damage to the terrestrial ecosystem and delimit the epicenter of oil spillage. Following three successive reconnaissance surveys, the area to be sampled was delimited (200200m2), and soil samples were collected using the grid method from

Leo C. Osuji; Chukunedum M. Onojake

2006-01-01

358

Increasing Waterflooding Reservoirs in the Wilmington Oil Field through Improved Reservoir Characterization and Reservoir Management  

SciTech Connect

The objectives of this quarterly report was to summarize the work conducted under each task during the reporting period April - June 1998 and to report all technical data and findings as specified in the ''Federal Assistance Reporting Checklist''. The main objective of this project is the transfer of technologies, methodologies, and findings developed and applied in this project to other operators of Slope and Basin Clastic Reservoirs. This project will study methods to identify sands with high remaining oil saturation and to recomplete existing wells using advanced completion technology.

Koerner, Roy; Clarke, Don; Walker, Scott

1999-11-09

359

Dynamics of electric field induced transient phase separation in water-in-oil microemulsion  

SciTech Connect

Transient phase separation is induced by a high-voltage square pulse in the L{sub 2} phase of ternary Aerosol-OT/isooctane/H{sub 2}O water-in-oil microemulsions as much as 3{degree}C below the critical temperature T{sub c}. The reverse micellar L{sub 2} phase separates to L{sub 2} + LC (lamellar liquid crystalline phase). The multistep process takes place on the microsecond time scale and is monitored by simultaneous birefringence and turbidity detections. A model is proposed for the dynamics of the phase separation and reequilibration.

Tekle, E.; Ueda, M.; Schelly, Z.A. (Univ. of Texas, Arlington (USA))

1989-08-10

360

Oil Field Souring Control by Nitrate-Reducing Sulfurospirillum spp. That Outcompete Sulfate-Reducing Bacteria for Organic Electron Donors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Souring, the undesirable production of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) in oil reservoirs by sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB), is a common problem during secondary oil recovery when water is injected to produce the remaining oil. SRB reduce sulfate in the injection water to sulfide, while oxidizing degradable organic electron do- nors present in the oil reservoir. The concentration of sulfate introduced depends on

Casey Hubert; Gerrit Voordouw

2007-01-01

361

Gas, Oil, and Water Production from Grand Valley, Parachute, Rulison, and Mamm Creek Fields in the Piceance Basin, Colorado  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Gas, oil, and water production data for tight gas reservoirs were compiled from selected wells in western Colorado. These reservoir rocks-the relatively shallow Paleogene Wasatch G sandstone interval in the Parachute and Rulison fields and fluvial sandstones in the deeper Upper Cretaceous Mesaverde Group in the Grand Valley, Parachute, Rulison, and Mamm Creek fields-are characterized by low permeability, low porosity, and the presence of clay minerals in pore space. Production from each well is represented by two samples spaced five years apart, the first sample typically taken two years after production commenced, which was generally in the 1990s. For each producing interval, summary diagrams of oil-versus-gas and water-versus-gas production show fluid production rates, the change in rates during five years, the water-gas and oil-gas ratios, and the fluid type. These diagrams permit well-to-well and field-to-field comparisons. Fields producing water at low rates (water dissolved in gas in the reservoir) can be distinguished from fields producing water at moderate or high rates, and the water-gas ratios are quantified. Dry gas is produced from the Wasatch G interval and wet gas is produced from the Mesaverde Group. Production from the Wasatch G interval is also almost completely free of water, but water production commences with gas production in wells producing from the Mesaverde Group-all of these wells have water-gas ratios exceeding the amount that could exist dissolved in gas at reservoir temperature and pressure. The lack of produced water from the Wasatch G interval is attributed to expansion of the gas accumulation with uplift and erosion. The reported underpressure of the Wasatch G interval is here attributed to hydraulic connection to the atmosphere by outcrops in the Colorado River valley at an elevation lower than that of the gas fields. The amount of reduction of gas production over the five-year time span between the first and second samples is roughly one-half, with median values of second-sample to first-sample gas-production ratios ranging from 0.40 for Rulison-Mesaverde to 0.63 for Rulison-Wasatch G. Commencing with the first sample, the logarithm-of-production rate appears to decline linearly with time in many wells. However, water production is much more erratic as a function of time from an individual well and also from one well to the next within a field. Water production can either decrease or increase with time (from the first to the second sample). In this study, slightly more than half the wells producing from the Mesaverde Group show decreases in water production with time. Plots of water decline versus gas decline show little relation between the two, with only the wells in Rulison field displaying some tendency for water and gas to decline proportionately

Nelson, Philip H.; Santus, Stephen L.

2010-01-01

362

Paclobutrazol treatment as a potential strategy for higher seed and oil yield in field-grown camelina sativa L. Crantz  

PubMed Central

Background Camelina (Camelina sativa L. Crantz) is a non-food oilseed crop which holds promise as an alternative biofuel energy resource. Its ability to grow in a variety of climatic and soil conditions and minimal requirements of agronomical inputs than other oilseed crops makes it economically viable for advanced biofuel production. We designed a study to investigate the effect of paclobutrazol [2RS, 3RS)-1-(4-Chlorophenyl)-4,4-dimethyl-2-(1H-1,2,4-triazol-1-yl)pentan-3-ol] (PBZ), a popular plant growth regulator, on the seed and oil yield of Camelina sativa (cv. Celine). Results A field-based micro-trial setup was established in a randomized block design and the study was performed twice within a span of five months (October 2010 to February 2011) and five different PBZ treatments (Control: T0; 25 mg l-1: T1; 50 mg l-1: T2; 75 mg l-1: T3; 100 mg l-1: T4; 125 mg l-1: T5) were applied (soil application) at the time of initiation of flowering. PBZ at 100 mg l-1 concentration (T4) resulted in highest seed and oil yield by 80% and 15%, respectively. The seed yield increment was mainly due to enhanced number of siliques per plant when compared to control. The PBZ - treated plants displayed better photosynthetic leaf gas exchange characteristics, higher chlorophyll contents and possessed dark green leaves which were photosynthetically active for a longer period and facilitated higher photoassimilation. Conclusion We report for the first time that application of optimized PBZ dose can be a potential strategy to achieve higher seed and oil yield from Camelina sativa that holds great promise as a biofuel crop in future. PMID:22410213

2012-01-01

363

ADAPTIVE MANAGEMENT AND PLANNING MODELS FOR CULTURAL RESOURCES IN OIL & GAS FIELDS IN NEW MEXICO AND WYOMING  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes activities that have taken place in the last six (6) months (January 2005-June 2005) under the DOE-NETL cooperative agreement ''Adaptive Management and Planning Models for Cultural Resources in Oil and Gas Fields, New Mexico and Wyoming'' DE-FC26-02NT15445. This project examines the practices and results of cultural resource investigation and management in two different oil and gas producing areas of the United States: southeastern New Mexico and the Powder River Basin of Wyoming. The project evaluates how cultural resource investigations have been conducted in the past and considers how investigation and management could be pursued differently in the future. The study relies upon full database population for cultural resource inventories and resources and geomorphological studies. These are the basis for analysis of cultural resource occurrence, strategies for finding and evaluating cultural resources, and recommendations for future management practices. Activities can be summarized as occurring in either Wyoming or New Mexico. Gnomon as project lead, worked in both areas.

Peggy Robinson

2005-07-01

364

Integrated Reservoir Characterization and Simulation Studies in Stripper Oil and Gas Fields  

E-print Network

formation in the Wells Draw area of Monument Butte field, Utah, to determine interwell connectivity and to assess optimal recovery strategies. A 3D geostatistical model was built, and geological realizations were ranked using production history matching...

Wang, Jianwei

2010-01-14

365

Leaching of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from oil shale processing waste deposit: a long-term field study.  

PubMed

The leaching behavior of selected polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from an oil shale processing waste deposit was monitored during 2005-2009. Samples were collected from the deposit using a special device for leachate sampling at field conditions without disturbance of the upper layers. Contents of 16 priority PAHs in leachate samples collected from aged and fresh parts of the deposit were determined by GC-MS. The sum of the detected PAHs in leachates varied significantly throughout the study period: 19-315 ?g/l from aged spent shale, and 36-151 ?g/l from fresh spent shale. Among the studied PAHs the low-molecular weight compounds phenanthrene, naphthalene, acenaphthylene, and anthracene predominated. Among the high-molecular weight PAHs benzo[a]anthracene and pyrene leached in the highest concentrations. A spent shale deposit is a source of PAHs that could infiltrate into the surrounding environment for a long period of time. PMID:24631927

Jefimova, Jekaterina; Irha, Natalya; Reinik, Janek; Kirso, Uuve; Steinnes, Eiliv

2014-05-15

366

Measurement of ?Ra in soil from oil field: advantages of ?-ray spectrometry and application to the IAEA-448 CRM.  

PubMed

The analytical performance of gamma-ray spectrometry for the measurement of (226)Ra in TENORM (Technically Enhanced Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material) soil was investigated by the IAEA. Fast results were obtained for characterization and certification of a new TENORM Certified Reference Material (CRM), identified as IAEA-448 (soil from oil field). The combined standard uncertainty of the gamma-ray spectrometry results is of the order of 2-3% for massic activity measurement values ranging from 16500 Bq kg(-1) to 21500 Bq kg(-1). Methodologies used for the production and certification of the IAEA-448 CRM are presented. Analytical results were confirmed by alpha spectrometry. The "t" test showed agreement between alpha and gamma results at 95% confidence level. PMID:24332337

Ceccatelli, A; Katona, R; Kis-Benedek, G; Pitois, A

2014-05-01

367

ADAPTIVE MANAGEMENT AND PLANNING MODELS FOR CULTURAL RESOURCES IN OIL & GAS FIELDS IN NEW MEXICO AND WYOMING  

SciTech Connect

This report contains a summary of activities of Gnomon, Inc. and five subcontractors that have taken place during the second six months (July 1, 2003-December 31, 2003) under the DOE-NETL cooperative agreement: ''Adaptive Management and Planning Models for Cultural Resources in Oil & Gas Fields in New Mexico and Wyoming'', DE-FC26-02NT15445. Although Gnomon and all five subcontractors completed tasks during these six months, most of the technical experimental work was conducted by the subcontractor, SRI Foundation (SRIF). SRIF created a sensitivity model for the Loco Hills area of southeastern New Mexico that rates areas as having a very good chance, a good chance, or a very poor chance of containing cultural resource sites. SRIF suggested that the results of the sensitivity model might influence possible changes in cultural resource management (CRM) practices in the Loco Hills area of southeastern New Mexico.

Peggy Robinson

2004-01-01

368

U(VI) bioreduction with emulsified vegetable oil as the electron donor-Model application to a field test  

SciTech Connect

A one-time 2-hour emulsified vegetable oil (EVO) injection in a fast flowing aquifer decreased U discharge to a stream for over a year. Using a comprehensive biogeochemical model developed in the companion article based on microcosm tests, we approximately matched the observed acetate, nitrate, Fe, U, and sulfate concentrations, and described the major evolution trends of multiple microbial functional groups in the field test. While the lab-determined parameters were generally applicable in the field-scale simulation, the EVO hydrolysis rate constant was estimated to be an order of magnitude greater in the field than in the microcosms. The model predicted substantial biomass (sulfate reducers) and U(IV) accumulation near the injection wells and along the side boundaries of the treatment zone where electron donors (long-chain fatty acids) from the injection wells met electron acceptors (sulfate) from the surrounding environment. While EVO retention and hydrolysis characteristics were expected to control treatment longevity, modeling results indicated that electron acceptors such as sulfate may not only compete for electrons but also play a conducive role in degrading complex substrates and enhancing U(VI) reduction and immobilization. As a result, the spacing of the injection wells could be optimized for effective sustainable bioremediation.

Tang, Guoping [ORNL; Watson, David B [ORNL; Wu, Wei-min [Stanford University; Schadt, Christopher Warren [ORNL; Parker, Jack C [ORNL; Brooks, Scott C [ORNL

2013-01-01

369

Three-dimensional seismic full waveform inversion of ocean bottom cable data from the Valhall oil field  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the past few years, the ability to reconstruct accurate 3D velocity models by full waveform inversion (FWI) has been shown by the academic research and the oil industry. In this study, we present a massively parallel algorithm for 3D seismic FWI together with an application to the ocean bottom cable (OBC) data from the Valhall oil field (North Sea). To achieve a computational efficiency and a flexible algorithm, we design a process, which can combine various forward modelling engines (such as finite-difference or finite-element methods) in time or frequency domains and an inversion core formulated in the frequency domain. Our algorithm relies on two key features: (1) the parametrizations of the subsurface for the seismic modeling and the inversion are uncoupled, that allows to interface different modeling engines with the inversion, and to consider target-oriented imaging. (2) Two nested levels of parallelism, by source distribution and domain decomposition, are implemented for the optimization of the performances of the scheme with respect to the computational platform, the dimensions of the model and the acquisition geometry. We present an application of our algorithm to OBC data recorded in the Valhall oil field. A total of 49 954 air-gun sources and 2 302 receivers located at the sea-floor (70 m depth) are used in this seismic experiment. The dimensions of the inverted target are 9.6 x 16.6 x 4.8 km. For the forward modelling, we adopt a finite-difference method in time to solve the acoustic wave equation, and monochromatic solutions are extracted from time signals. For the inversion, three overlapping groups of frequencies, [3.5 - 4], [4 - 5] and [5 - 7] Hz, respectively, are inverted successively to build a P-wave velocity model from the hydrophone component. The algorithm is performed on a IBM Blue Gene computer, by combining source distribution and domain decomposition over several hundreds of processors. The final FWI model exhibits remarkable structures, which are consistent with previous studies: paleo-channels below the sea-floor, low velocity and fractured zones in depths, probably related to accumulation of gas, and deep reflectors below the reservoir level. Comparison between the inverted model and a well log of vertical velocity possibly reveals the footprint of the anisotropy.

Etienne, V.; Hu, G.; Operto, S.; Virieux, J.

2012-04-01

370

High temperature annealing of fission tracks in fluorapatite, Santa Fe Springs oil field, Los Angeles Basin, California  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Annealing of fission tracks is a kinetic process dependent primarily on temperature and to a laser extent on time. Several kinetic models of apatite annealing have been proposed. The predictive capabilities of these models for long-term geologic annealing have been limited to qualitative or semiquantitative at best, because of uncertainties associated with (1) the extrapolation of laboratory observations to geologic conditions, (2) the thermal histories of field samples, and (3) to some extent, the effect of apatite composition on reported annealing temperatures. Thermal history in the Santa Fe Springs oil field, Los Angeles Basin, California, is constrained by an exceptionally well known burial history and present-day temperature gradient. Sediment burial histories are continuous and tightly constrained from about 9 Ma to present, with an important tie at 3.4 Ma. No surface erosion and virtually no uplift were recorded during or since deposition of these sediments, so the burial history is simple and uniquely defined. Temperature gradient (???40??C km-1) is well established from oil-field operations. Fission-track data from the Santa Fe Springs area should thus provide one critical field test of kinetic annealing models for apatite. Fission-track analysis has been performed on apatites from sandstones of Pliocene to Miocene age from a deep drill hole at Santa Fe Springs. Apatite composition, determined by electron microprobe, is fluorapatite [average composition (F1.78Cl0.01OH0.21)] with very low chlorine content [less than Durango apatite; sample means range from 0.0 to 0.04 Cl atoms, calculated on the basis of 26(O, F, Cl, OH)], suggesting that the apatite is not unusually resistant to annealing. Fission tracks are preserved in these apatites at exceptionally high present-day temperatures. Track loss is not complete until temperatures reach the extreme of 167-178??C (at 3795-4090 m depth). The temperature-time annealing relationships indicated by the new data from Santa Fe Springs conflict with predictions based on previously published, commonly used, kinetic annealing models for apatite. Work is proceeding on samples from another area of the basin that may resolve this discrepancy.

Naeser, Nancy D.; Crowley, Kevin D.; McCulloh, Thane H.; Reaves, Chris M.

1990-01-01

371

New Acid Stimulation Treatment to Sustain Production - Los Angeles Downtown Oil Field  

SciTech Connect

Hydrochloric acid stimulation was successfully used on several wells in the Los Angeles Downtown Field, in the past. The decline rates after stimulation were relatively high and generally within six months to a year, production rates have returned to their prestimulation rates. The wells in Los Angeles Downtown Field have strong scale producing tendencies and many wells are treated for scale control. Four wells were carefully selected that are representative of wells that had a tendency to form calcium carbonate scale and had shown substantial decline over the last few years.

Russell, Richard C.

2003-03-10

372

Study on detailed geological modelling for fluvial sandstone reservoir in Daqing oil field  

SciTech Connect

Guided by the sedimentation theory and knowledge of modern and ancient fluvial deposition and utilizing the abundant information of sedimentary series, microfacies type and petrophysical parameters from well logging curves of close spaced thousands of wells located in a large area. A new method for establishing detailed sedimentation and permeability distribution models for fluvial reservoirs have been developed successfully. This study aimed at the geometry and internal architecture of sandbodies, in accordance to their hierarchical levels of heterogeneity and building up sedimentation and permeability distribution models of fluvial reservoirs, describing the reservoir heterogeneity on the light of the river sedimentary rules. The results and methods obtained in outcrop and modem sedimentation studies have successfully supported the study. Taking advantage of this method, the major producing layers (PI{sub 1-2}), which have been considered as heterogeneous and thick fluvial reservoirs extending widely in lateral are researched in detail. These layers are subdivided into single sedimentary units vertically and the microfacies are identified horizontally. Furthermore, a complex system is recognized according to their hierarchical levels from large to small, meander belt, single channel sandbody, meander scroll, point bar, and lateral accretion bodies of point bar. The achieved results improved the description of areal distribution of point bar sandbodies, provide an accurate and detailed framework model for establishing high resolution predicting model. By using geostatistic technique, it also plays an important role in searching for enriched zone of residual oil distribution.

Zhao Hanqing; Fu Zhiguo; Lu Xiaoguang [Institute of Petroleum Exploration and Development, Daqing (China)

1997-08-01

373

Case report: Profound neurobehavioral deficits in an oil field worker overcome by hydrogen sulfide  

SciTech Connect

A 24-year-old oil well tester was rendered semiconscious by hydrogen sulfide (H2S). He received oxygen and was hospitalized but released in 30 minutes. The next day, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and incontinence of urine and stool led to rehospitalization. These problems and leg shaking, dizziness, sweating, trouble sleeping, and nightmares prevented his return to work. A physical examination, chest x-ray, and pulmonary function tests were normal 39 months after the episode but vibration sense was diminished. Two choice visual reaction times were delayed. Balance was highly abnormal (5 to 6 cm/sec) with eyes closed. Blink reflex latency was slow (R-1 17.5 msec versus normal 14.3 msec). Numbers written on finger tips were not recognized. Verbal and visual recall were impaired but overlearned memory was intact. Cognitive functions measured by Culture Fair, block design, and digit symbol were impaired. Perceptual motor was slow. Scores for confusion, tension-anxiety, depression, and fatigue were elevated and vigor was reduced. Forty-nine months after exposure his reaction time, sway speed, and color vision had not improved. His recall and his cognitive, constructional, and psychomotor speeds had improved but remained abnormal. These deficits are most likely due to H2S. Similar testing of other survivors is recommended.

Kilburn, K.H. (Univ. of Southern California, Los Angeles (United States))

1993-11-01

374

Maps showing geology, oil and gas fields and geological provinces of Africa  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The CD-ROM was compiled according to the methodology developed by the U.S. Geological Survey's World Energy Project . The goal of the project was to assess the undiscovered, technically recoverable oil and gas resources of the world and report these results by the year 2000. A worldwide series of geologic maps, published on CD-ROMs, was released by the U.S. Geological Survey's World Energy Project during 1997 - 2000. Specific details of the data sources and map compilation are given in the metadata files on this CD-ROM. These maps were compiled using Environmental Systems Research Institute Inc. (ESRI) ARC/INFO software. Political boundaries and cartographic representations on this map are shown (with permission) from ESRI's ArcWorld 1:3M digital coverage: they have no political significance and are displayed as general reference only. Portions of this database covering the coastline and country boundaries contain proprietary property of ESRI. (Copyright 1992 and 1996, Environmental Systems Research Institute Inc. All rights reserved.)

Persits, Feliks M.; Ahlbrandt, T.S.; Tuttle, Michele L.; Charpentier, R.R.; Brownfield, M.E.; Takahashi, Kenneth

1997-01-01

375

What measurements tell us about air composition and emissions in three US oil and gas fields  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In 2012 and 2013, the NOAA Global Monitoring Division and several collaborators conducted intensive airborne and ground campaigns in three US oil and gas plays to study emissions of methane and surface ozone precursors. In this presentation we will focus on the multiple species analysis in discrete air samples collected with the NOAA Mobile Laboratory (ML) and the light aircraft in the Uinta Basin (Utah), Denver Julesburg Basin (Colorado) and Barnett Shale (Texas). Hydrocarbon ratios in samples collected with the ML downwind of specific sources show significantly more variability than the aircraft samples. These surface samples provide some useful information about the composition of various sources in each region. Ratios of the non-methane hydrocarbons on the ground and higher in the boundary layer show some differences between the plays, which could be explained by the different composition of the raw gas being produced or by different mixes of sources contributions. Understanding the speciation of atmospheric emissions is critical to identify emission vectors and to assess their potential air quality and climate impacts. Our measurement results will be compared with data from other studies, including emission inventories.

Petron, G.; Miller, B. R.; Montzka, S. A.; Dlugokencky, E. J.; Kofler, J.; Sweeney, C.; Karion, A.; Frost, G. J.; Helmig, D.; Hueber, J.; Schnell, R. C.; Conley, S. A.; Tans, P. P.

2013-12-01

376

Improved Oil Recovery from Upper Jurassic Smackover Carbonates through the Application of Advanced Technologies at Womack Hill Oil Field, Choctaw and Clarke Counties, Alabama, Eastern Gulf Coastal Plan (Phase II)  

SciTech Connect

The principal research efforts for Phase II of the project were drilling an infill well strategically located in Section 13, T. 10 N., R. 2 W., of the Womack Hill Field, Choctaw and Clarke Counties, Alabama, and obtaining fresh core from the upper Smackover reservoir to test the feasibility of implementing an immobilized enzyme technology project in this field. The Turner Land and Timber Company 13-10 No. 1 well was successfully drilled and tested at a daily rate of 132 barrels of oil in Section 13. The well has produced 27,720 barrels of oil, and is currently producing at a rate of 60 barrels of oil per day. The 13-10 well confirmed the presence of 175,000 barrels of attic (undrained) oil in Section 13. As predicted from reservoir characterization, modeling and simulation, the top of the Smackover reservoir in the 13-10 well is structurally high to the tops of the Smackover in offsetting wells, and the 13-10 well has significantly more net pay than the offsetting wells. The drilling and testing of the 13-10 well showed that the eastern part of the field continues to have a strong water drive and that there is no need to implement a pressure maintenance program in this part of the Womack Hill Field at this time. The success achieved in drilling and testing the 13-10 infill well demonstrates the benefits of building a geologic model to target areas in mature fields that have the potential to contain undrained oil, thus increasing the productivity and profitability of these fields. Microbial cultures that grew at 90 C and converted ethanol to acid were recovered from fresh cuttings from the Smackover carbonate reservoir in an analogous field to the Womack Hill Field in southwest Alabama; however, no viable microorganisms were found in the Smackover cores recovered from the drilling of the 13-10 well in Womack Hill Field. Further evaluation is, therefore, required prior to implementing an immobilized enzyme technology project in the Womack Hill Field.

Ernest A. Mancini; Joe Benson; David Hilton; David Cate; Lewis Brown

2006-05-29

377

Petroleum source rock identification of United Kingdom Atlantic Margin oil fields and the Western Canadian Oil Sands using Platinum, Palladium, Osmium and Rhenium: Implications for global petroleum systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study demonstrates that petroleum and source rocks are enriched in Pt and Pd to the ppb level, and that the 187Os/ 188Os composition coupled with the Pt/Pd value permits the fingerprinting of petroleum to its source. Oils from the United Kingdom Atlantic Margin (sourced from the Upper Jurassic Kimmeridge Clay Fm.) as well as source rock samples have been analysed for Pt and Pd. When the Pt/Pd value is compared with 187Os/ 188Os (calculated at the time of oil generation; Os g) the values from both the known source and the oils are similar, demonstrating that they can be used as an oil to source fingerprinting tool. This inorganic petroleum fingerprinting tool is particularly important in heavily biodegraded petroleum systems where traditional fingerprinting techniques (e.g. biomarkers) are severely hampered, e.g. the world's largest oil sand deposit, the West Canadian Oil Sands (WCOS). This has caused the source of the WCOS to be hotly debated, with no present day consensus between inputs from potential source units e.g. Exshaw and Gordondale Fms. 187Os/ 188Os and Pt/Pd fingerprinting of the oil sands shows that the majority of the petroleum have similar 187Os/ 188Os and Pt/Pd values, supporting the hypothesis of one principal source. Analysis of the potential source rocks establishes that the principal source of the oil sands to be from the Jurassic Gordondale Fm., with a minor Exshaw Fm. input. Thus, the combination of previously pioneered Re-Os petroleum geochronology with 187Os/ 188Os and Pt/Pd values of petroleum permits both a temporal and spatial understanding of petroleum systems.

Finlay, Alexander J.; Selby, David; Osborne, Mark J.

2012-01-01

378

Field Instruments for Real Time In-Situ Crude Oil Concentration Measurements  

E-print Network

-situ single wavelength fluorometer (AU-10 field fluorometer, Turner Designs), an in-situ single wavelength fluorometer (Flashlamp, WET Labs), and two in-situ multiple wavelength fluorometers (ECO-FL3 and SAFire, WET Labs) are evaluated for sensitivity and bias...

Fuller, C. B.; Bonner, J. S.; Page, C. A.; Arrambide, G.; Sterling Jr., M. C.; Ojo, T.

379

Contracts for field projects and supporting research on enhanced oil recovery. Progress review No. 89  

SciTech Connect

Summaries are presented for the DOE contracts related to supported research for thermal recovery of petroleum, geoscience technology, and field demonstrations in high-priority reservoir classes. Data included for each project are: title, contract number, principal investigator, research organization, beginning date, expected completion date, amount of award, objectives of the research, and summary of technical progress.

NONE

1998-04-01

380

Development of Russian Oil and Gas Regimes Focusing on the Shtokman Field: Institutional Drivers  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study focuses on the role of political forces in the formation and change of an organizational field. Emerging Arctic offshore industry in contemporary Russia is chosen as a context for empirical investigation. Institutional theory perspective is applied to analyze change processes in governance relations between political and business actors. Building on a qualitative case study of the Shtokman Project

Andrei Mineev

2010-01-01

381

Measuring ignitability for in situ burning of oil spills weathered under Arctic conditions: from laboratory studies to large-scale field experiments.  

PubMed

This paper compares the ignitability of Troll B crude oil weathered under simulated Arctic conditions (0%, 50% and 90% ice cover). The experiments were performed in different scales at SINTEF's laboratories in Trondheim, field research station on Svalbard and in broken ice (70-90% ice cover) in the Barents Sea. Samples from the weathering experiments were tested for ignitability using the same laboratory burning cell. The measured ignitability from the experiments in these different scales showed a good agreement for samples with similar weathering. The ice conditions clearly affected the weathering process, and 70% ice or more reduces the weathering and allows a longer time window for in situ burning. The results from the Barents Sea revealed that weathering and ignitability can vary within an oil slick. This field use of the burning cell demonstrated that it can be used as an operational tool to monitor the ignitability of oil spills. PMID:21714974

Fritt-Rasmussen, Janne; Brandvik, Per Johan

2011-08-01

382

Field Laboratory in the Osage Reservation -- Determination of Status of Oil and Gas Operations  

SciTech Connect

Microsoft EXCEL and Lotus 1-2-3 spreadsheets have been programmed to perform calculations as reservoir data is entered. These program were developed by BDM-Oklahoma, Inc. personnel for use in the Field Laboratory in the Osage Reservation project. This spreadsheet will also assist Native American Tribe members in evaluation of the petroleum resource on the Osage Mineral Estate, Osage County, Oklahoma and independent operators to evaluate petroleum reservoirs on and off of the Osage Mineral Estate.

Carroll, Herb; Johnson, W.I.

1999-04-27

383

Geology of oil fields and future exploration potential in west African Aptian Salt basin  

SciTech Connect

The Aptian Salt basin of west Africa, extends from Equatorial Guinea southward to Angola, contains recoverable reserves estimated at nearly 4 billion BOE, and is current producing 600,000 BOPD. The basin developed as a result of tensional forces between west Africa and South America initiated at the end of the Jurassic. The prospective sedimentary sequences ranged in age from Early Cretaceous (uppermost Jurassic in places) to Holocene and is divided by the Aptian transgressive sand and salt into a pre-salt, nonmarine, syn-rift sequence and a post-salt, marine, post-rift sequence. Both the pre- and post-salt sequences contain several successful exploration plays, the most prolific of which are the Early Cretaceous nonmarine sandstone fields in tilted fault blocks of Gabon and Cabinda; Early Cretaceous carbonate buildups on the margins of basement highs in Cabinda; Early Cretaceous transgressive marine sandstone fields in anticlines draped over basement highs in Gabon; Late Cretaceous shallow marine sandstone and carbonate fields in salt-related structures in the Congo, Zaire, Cabinda, and Angola; Late Cretaceous dolomites in structural/stratigraphic traps in Angola; Late Cretaceous/early Tertiary deltaic/estuarine sandstone traps formed by salt movement in Gabon, Cabinda, and angola; and Tertiary marine turbidite fields in Cabinda and Angola. Despite the exploration success in these trends, much of the basin is under or poorly explored. The major problems for exploration are the poor quality of seismic definition beneath the salt, which makes it difficult to predict pre-salt structure and stratigraphy, and the importance of a stratigraphic element in many of the post-salt traps, also difficult to detect on seismic.

Bignell, R.D.; Edwards, A.D.

1987-05-01

384

GREEN RIVER AIR QUALITY MODEL DEVELOPMENT: METEOROLOGICAL DATA - AUGUST 1980 FIELD STUDY IN THE PICEANCE CREEK BASIN OIL SHALE RESOURCES AREA  

EPA Science Inventory

Special meteorological and air quality studies were conducted during August 1980 in the Piceance Creek Basin oil shale resource area of Northwestern Colorado as part of the EPA-sponsored Green River Ambient Model Assessment program. The objective of the limited field program was ...

385

Essential oils as potential adulticides against two populations of Aedes aegypti , the laboratory and natural field strains, in Chiang Mai province, northern Thailand  

Microsoft Academic Search

Essential oils derived from five plant species, celery (Apium graveolens), caraway (Carum carvi), zedoary (Curcuma zedoaria), long pepper (Piper longum), and Chinese star anise (Illicium verum), were subjected to investigation of adulticidal activity against mosquito vectors. Two populations of Aedes aegypti, the laboratory and natural field strains, collected in Chiang Mai province, northern Thailand were tested in pyrethroid-susceptibility bioassays. The

Dana Chaiyasit; Wej Choochote; Eumporn Rattanachanpichai; Udom Chaithong; Prasong Chaiwong; Atchariya Jitpakdi; Pongsri Tippawangkosol; Doungrat Riyong; Benjawan Pitasawat

2006-01-01

386

Competitive Oxidation of Volatile Fatty Acids by Sulfate- and Nitrate-Reducing Bacteria from an Oil Field in Argentina?  

PubMed Central

Acetate, propionate, and butyrate, collectively referred to as volatile fatty acids (VFA), are considered among the most important electron donors for sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) and heterotrophic nitrate-reducing bacteria (hNRB) in oil fields. Samples obtained from a field in the Neuqun Basin, western Argentina, had significant activity of mesophilic SRB, hNRB, and nitrate-reducing, sulfide-oxidizing bacteria (NR-SOB). In microcosms, containing VFA (3 mM each) and excess sulfate, SRB first used propionate and butyrate for the production of acetate, which reached concentrations of up to 12 mM prior to being used as an electron donor for sulfate reduction. In contrast, hNRB used all three organic acids with similar kinetics, while reducing nitrate to nitrite and nitrogen. Transient inhibition of VFA-utilizing SRB was observed with 0.5 mM nitrite and permanent inhibition with concentrations of 1 mM or more. The addition of nitrate to medium flowing into an upflow, packed-bed bioreactor with an established VFA-oxidizing SRB consortium led to a spike of nitrite up to 3 mM. The nitrite-mediated inhibition of SRB led, in turn, to the transient accumulation of up to 13 mM of acetate. The complete utilization of nitrate and the incomplete utilization of VFA, especially propionate, and sulfate indicated that SRB remained partially inhibited. Hence, in addition to lower sulfide concentrations, an increase in the concentration of acetate in the presence of sulfate in waters produced from an oil field subjected to nitrate injection may indicate whether the treatment is successful. The microbial community composition in the bioreactor, as determined by culturing and culture-independent techniques, indicated shifts with an increasing fraction of nitrate. With VFA and sulfate, the SRB genera Desulfobotulus, Desulfotignum, and Desulfobacter as well as the sulfur-reducing Desulfuromonas and the NR-SOB Arcobacter were detected. With VFA and nitrate, Pseudomonas spp. were present. hNRB/NR-SOB from the genus Sulfurospirillum were found under all conditions. PMID:18502934

Grigoryan, Aleksandr A.; Cornish, Sabrina L.; Buziak, Brenton; Lin, Shiping; Cavallaro, Adriana; Arensdorf, Joseph J.; Voordouw, Gerrit

2008-01-01

387

Constitutive models for the Etchegoin Sands, Belridge Diatomite, and overburden formations at the Lost Hills oil field, California  

SciTech Connect

This report documents the development of constitutive material models for the overburden formations, reservoir formations, and underlying strata at the Lost Hills oil field located about 45 miles northwest of Bakersfield in Kern County, California. Triaxial rock mechanics tests were performed on specimens prepared from cores recovered from the Lost Hills field, and included measurements of axial and radial stresses and strains under different load paths. The tested intervals comprise diatomaceous sands of the Etchegoin Formation and several diatomite types of the Belridge Diatomite Member of the Monterey Formation, including cycles both above and below the diagenetic phase boundary between opal-A and opal-CT. The laboratory data are used to drive constitutive parameters for the Extended Sandler-Rubin (ESR) cap model that is implemented in Sandia's structural mechanics finite element code JAS3D. Available data in the literature are also used to derive ESR shear failure parameters for overburden formations. The material models are being used in large-scale three-dimensional geomechanical simulations of the reservoir behavior during primary and secondary recovery.

FOSSUM,ARLO F.; FREDRICH,JOANNE T.

2000-04-01

388

Gas, Oil, and Water Production from Jonah, Pinedale, Greater Wamsutter, and Stagecoach Draw Fields in the Greater Green River Basin, Wyoming  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Gas, oil, and water production data were compiled from selected wells in four gas fields in rocks of Late Cretaceous age in southwestern Wyoming. This study is one of a series of reports examining fluid production from tight-gas reservoirs, which are characterized by low permeability, low porosity, and the presence of clay minerals in pore space. Production from each well is represented by two samples spaced five years apart, the first sample typically taken two years after commencement of production. For each producing interval, summary diagrams of oil versus gas and water versus gas production show fluid production rates, the change in rates during five years, the water-gas and oil-gas ratios, and the fluid type. These diagrams permit well-to-well and field-to-field comparisons. Fields producing water at low rates (water dissolved in gas in the reservoir) can be distinguished from fields producing water at moderate or high rates, and the water-gas ratios are quantified. The ranges of first-sample gas rates in Pinedale field and Jonah field are quite similar, and the average gas production rate for the second sample, taken five years later, is about one-half that of the first sample for both fields. Water rates are generally substantially higher in Pinedale than in Jonah, and water-gas ratios in Pinedale are roughly a factor of ten greater in Pinedale than in Jonah. Gas and water production rates from each field are fairly well grouped, indicating that Pinedale and Jonah fields are fairly cohesive gas-water systems. Pinedale field appears to be remarkably uniform in its flow behavior with time. Jonah field, which is internally faulted, exhibits a small spread in first-sample production rates. In the Greater Wamsutter field, gas production from the upper part of the Almond Formation is greater than from the main part of the Almond. Some wells in the main and the combined (upper and main parts) Almond show increases in water production with time, whereas increases in water production are rare in the upper part of the Almond, and a higher percentage of wells in the upper part of the Almond show water decreasing at the same rate as gas than in the main or combined parts of the Almond. In Stagecoach Draw field, the gas production rate after five years is about one-fourth that of the first sample, whereas in Pinedale, Jonah, and Greater Wamsutter fields, the production rate after five years is about one-half that of the first sample. The more rapid gas decline rate seems to be the outstanding feature distinguishing Stagecoach Draw field, which is characterized as a conventional field, from Pinedale, Jonah, and Greater Wamsutter fields, which are generally characterized as tight-gas accumulations. Oil-gas ratios are fairly consistent within Jonah, Pinedale, and Stagecoach Draw fields, suggesting similar chemical composition and pressure-temperature conditions within each field, and are less than the 20 bbl/mmcf upper limit for wet gas. However, oil-gas ratios vary considerably from one area to another in the Greater Wamsutter field, demonstrating a lack of commonality in either chemistry or pressure-temperature conditions among the six areas. In all wells in all four fields examined here, water production commences with gas production-there are no examples of wells with water-free production and no examples where water production commences after first-sample gas production. The fraction of records with water production higher in the second sample than in the first sample varies from field to field, with Pinedale field showing the lowest percentage of such cases and Jonah field showing the most. Most wells have water-gas ratios exceeding the amount that could exist dissolved in gas at reservoir pressure and temperature.

Nelson, Philip H.; Ewald, Shauna M.; Santus, Stephen L.; Trainor, Patrick K.

2010-01-01

389

Oil Fires and Oil Slick, Kuwait  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In this color infrared view of the Kuwait oil fires and offshore oil slick, (29.0N, 48.0E), smoke from the burning oil fields both to the north and south of Kuwait City almost totally obliterates the image. Unburned pools of oil on the ground and oil offshore in the Persian Gulf are reflecting sunlight, much the same way as water does, and appear as white or light toned features. The water borne oil slicks drifted south toward the Arab Emirate States.

1991-01-01

390

Applications of advanced petroleum production technology and water alternating gas injection for enhanced oil recovery -- Mattoon Oil Field, Illinois. First quarterly technical progress report, 1993  

Microsoft Academic Search

For work during the first quarter of 1993, American Oil Recovery, Inc. targeted completion of the following specific objectives: Convene meetings of Mattoon Project subcontractors in order to plan and coordinate Project activities. Confirm organizational arrangements and plans for implementation of Mattoon Project. Complete most work on detailed analysis of reservoir geology of productive leases in the Mattoon Project. Identify

Baroni

1993-01-01

391

IDENTIFICATION AND EVALUATION OF SUITABLE DEFOAMING AGENTS FOR CRUDE OIL OF SANTHAL, BALOL & LANWA FIELDS TO ENHANCE EFFICIENCY OF SURFACE EQUIPMENT THEREBY IMPROVING OIL PRODUCTIVITY  

Microsoft Academic Search

Crude of Santhal, Balol & Lanwa being heavy and viscous is prone to foam. Foaming tendency of crude not only decreases the effective efficiency of separator but also reduces storage capacity of storage tanks and pumping efficiency of pumps. Foaminess index is one of the characteristics to assess the degree of foam production in crude oil. The concentration of foaming

K. D. Bassi

392

Integration of seismic and petrophysics to characterize reservoirs in "ALA" oil field, Niger Delta.  

PubMed

In the exploration and production business, by far the largest component of geophysical spending is driven by the need to characterize (potential) reservoirs. The simple reason is that better reservoir characterization means higher success rates and fewer wells for reservoir exploitation. In this research work, seismic and well log data were integrated in characterizing the reservoirs on "ALA" field in Niger Delta. Three-dimensional seismic data was used to identify the faults and map the horizons. Petrophysical parameters and time-depth structure maps were obtained. Seismic attributes was also employed in characterizing the reservoirs. Seven hydrocarbon-bearing reservoirs with thickness ranging from 9.9 to 71.6?m were delineated. Structural maps of horizons in six wells containing hydrocarbon-bearing zones with tops and bottoms at range of -2,453 to -3,950?m were generated; this portrayed the trapping mechanism to be mainly fault-assisted anticlinal closures. The identified prospective zones have good porosity, permeability, and hydrocarbon saturation. The environments of deposition were identified from log shapes which indicate a transitional-to-deltaic depositional environment. In this research work, new prospects have been recommended for drilling and further research work. Geochemical and biostratigraphic studies should be done to better characterize the reservoirs and reliably interpret the depositional environments. PMID:24068883

Alao, P A; Olabode, S O; Opeloye, S A

2013-01-01

393

FIELD TESTING TO DETERMINE THE PRESENCE OR ABSENCE OF SULFUR DIOXIDE EMISSIONS FROM OLD IN SITU OIL SHALE FIELD-SITES  

EPA Science Inventory

One of the major technology needs in the development of the oil shale industry is to adopt and develop methods for controlling the release of pollutants to the environment. Large quantities of sulfur dioxide may be generated from oil shale retorting operations. Sulfur dioxide is ...

394

Enhancements of methane, benzene, and n-pentane by oil and gas fields observed from the DC-3 aircraft campaign: A case study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Observations in the boundary layer from the 1 June flight in Colorado of the 2012 Deep Convective Clouds and Chemistry campaign shows enhancements of n-pentane, methane, and benzene near oil and gas wells that are not correlated with enhancements in carbon monoxide. To further investigate the source of methane emissions, an i-pentane:n-pentane ratio is compared to surface measurements from the Denver-Julesberg Basin and found to be similar. Measurements of n-pentane, methane, benzene and CO are also shown with proximity to Denver to compare an urban signature with an oil and gas well emissions signature. Elevated n-pentane, methane, and benzene mixing ratios without enhancements in CO from the 1 June flight are considered to be strongly influenced by emissions from oil and natural gas fields located near the sampling locations.

Farris, Carolyn Michelle

395

INCREASING OIL RECOVERY THROUGH ADVANCED REPROCESSING OF 3D SEISMIC, GRANT CANYON AND BACON FLAT FIELDS, NYE COUNTY, NEVADA  

SciTech Connect

Makoil, Inc., of Orange, California, with the support of the U.S. Department of Energy has reprocessed and reinterpreted the 3D seismic survey of the Grant Canyon area, Railroad Valley, Nye County, Nevada. The project was supported by Dept. of Energy Grant DE-FG26-00BC15257. The Grant Canyon survey covers an area of 11 square miles, and includes Grant Canyon and Bacon Flat oil fields. These fields have produced over 20 million barrels of oil since 1981, from debris slides of Devonian rocks that are beneath 3,500 to 5,000 ft of Tertiary syntectonic deposits that fill the basin of Railroad Valley. High-angle and low-angle normal faults complicate the trap geometry of the fields, and there is great variability in the acoustic characteristics of the overlying valley fill. These factors combine to create an area that is challenging to interpret from seismic reflection data. A 3D seismic survey acquired in 1992-93 by the operator of the fields has been used to identify development and wildcat locations with mixed success. Makoil believed that improved techniques of processing seismic data and additional well control could enhance the interpretation enough to improve the chances of success in the survey area. The project involved the acquisition of hardware and software for survey interpretation, survey reprocessing, and reinterpretation of the survey. SeisX, published by Paradigm Geophysical Ltd., was chosen as the interpretation software, and it was installed on a Dell Precision 610 computer work station with the Windows NT operating system. The hardware and software were selected based on cost, possible addition of compatible modeling software in the future, and the experience of consulting geophysicists in the Billings area. Installation of the software and integration of the hardware into the local office network was difficult at times but was accomplished with some technical support from Paradigm and Hewlett Packard, manufacturer of some of the network equipment. A number of improvements in the processing of the survey were made compared to the original work. Pre-stack migration was employed, and some errors in muting in the original processing were found and corrected. In addition, improvements in computer hardware allowed interactive monitoring of the processing steps, so that parameters could be adjusted before completion of each step. The reprocessed survey was then loaded into SeisX, v. 3.5, for interpretation work. Interpretation was done on 2, 21-inch monitors connected to the work station. SeisX was prone to crashing, but little work was lost because of this. The program was developed for use under the Unix operating system, and some aspects of the design of the user interface betray that heritage. For example, printing is a 2-stage operation that involves creation of a graphic file using SeisX and printing the file with printer utility software. Because of problems inherent in using graphics files with different software, a significant amount of trial and error is introduced in getting printed output. Most of the interpretation work was done using vertical profiles. The interpretation tools used with time slices are limited and hard to use, but a number to tools and techniques are available to use with vertical profiles. Although this project encountered a number of delays and difficulties, some unavoidable and some self-inflicted, the result is an improved 3D survey and greater confidence in the interpretation. The experiences described in this report will be useful to those that are embarking on a 3D seismic interpretation project.

Eric H. Johnson; Don E. French

2001-06-01

396

Field and laboratory investigations to assess impacts to fish health from oil sands wastewater releases (Part 1)  

SciTech Connect

A combined field and laboratory investigation was conducted during 1995 to evaluate the health of fish which were exposed to wastewaters from Suncor Inc., Oil Sands Group`s operation. This investigation was designed to: assess effects on major trophic components of aquatic ecosystems; assess effects on the general condition and health of fish; and relate chemical characteristics to measured responses. A suite of indicators was examined at several levels of biological organization: biochemical, physiological, whole-organisms, population and community. This comprehensive approach was followed because stress effects on fish cannot be adequately evaluated by measuring a single indicator at a single level of organization. Fish health data for walleye (Stizostedion vitreum), goldeye (Hiodon alosoides) and longnose sucker (Catostomus catostomus) showed that there were no adverse effects on fish health at any level of organization. The laboratory investigations comprised 7 and 28 exposures to wastewater and showed that no observed effect levels (NOELs) and lowest observed effect levels (LOELs) were greater than 10% for biochemical and physiological and whole-organism endpoints.

Swanson, S.M.; Shaw, R.; Lagimodiere, M. [Golder Associates Ltd., Calgary, Alberta (Canada); Goudy, S. [HydroQual Labs. Ltd., Calgary, Alberta (Canada); Gulley, J. [Suncor Inc. Oil Sands Group, Fort McMurray, Alberta (Canada)

1995-12-31

397

Effect of electric-field-induced capillary attraction on the motion of particles at an oil-water interface.  

PubMed

Here, we investigate experimentally and theoretically the motion of spherical glass particles of radii 240-310 microm attached to a tetradecane-water interface. Pairs of particles, which are moving toward each other under the action of lateral capillary force, are observed by optical microscopy. The purpose is to check whether the particle electric charges influence the particle motion, and whether an electric-field-induced capillary attraction could be detected. The particles have been hydrophobized by using two different procedures, which allow one to prepare charged and uncharged particles. To quantify the hydrodynamic viscous effects, we developed a semiempirical quantitative approach, whose validity was verified by control experiments with uncharged particles. An appropriate trajectory function was defined, which should increase linearly with time if the particle motion is driven solely by the gravity-induced capillary force. The analysis of the experimental results evidences for the existence of an additional attraction between two like-charged particles at the oil-water interface. This attraction exceeds the direct electrostatic repulsion between the two particles and leads to a noticeable acceleration of their motion. PMID:18060167

Boneva, Mariana P; Christov, Nikolay C; Danov, Krassimir D; Kralchevsky, Peter A

2007-12-28

398

Microbial Corrosion in Linepipe Steel Under the Influence of a Sulfate-Reducing Consortium Isolated from an Oil Field  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work investigates microbiologically influenced corrosion of API 5L X52 linepipe steel by a sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) consortium. The SRB consortium used in this study was cultivated from a sour oil well in Louisiana, USA. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis indicated that the mixed bacterial consortium contained three phylotypes: members of Proteobacteria ( Desulfomicrobium sp.), Firmicutes ( Clostridium sp.), and Bacteroidetes ( Anaerophaga sp.). The biofilm and the pits that developed with time were characterized using field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM). In addition, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), linear polarization resistance (LPR) and open circuit potential (OCP) were used to analyze the corrosion behavior. Through circuit modeling, EIS results were used to interpret the physicoelectric interactions between the electrode, biofilm and solution interfaces. The results confirmed that extensive localized corrosion activity of SRB is due to a formed biofilm in conjunction with a porous iron sulfide layer on the metal surface. X-ray diffraction (XRD) revealed semiconductive corrosion products predominantly composed of a mixture of siderite (FeCO3), iron sulfide (Fe x S y ), and iron (III) oxide-hydroxide (FeOOH) constituents in the corrosion products for the system exposed to the SRB consortium.

AlAbbas, Faisal M.; Williamson, Charles; Bhola, Shaily M.; Spear, John R.; Olson, David L.; Mishra, Brajendra; Kakpovbia, Anthony E.

2013-11-01

399

Methane budget of the down-current plume from Coal Oil Point seep field, Santa Barbara Channel, California  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Previous research indicates that 5.5-9.6 x 106 mol/d (90-150 t/d) of methane are emitted from the seafloor into the coastal ocean near Coal Oil Point (COP), Santa Barbara Channel (SBC), California. Methane concentrations and biologically-mediated oxidation rates were quantified at 12 stations in a 198 km2 area down-current from COP during the SEEPS"07-Cruise with the R/V Atlantis. A ship-board Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler (ADCP) recorded current velocity patterns simultaneously with water sampling. The observed methane distribution matches the cyclonic gyre which is the normal current flow in this part of the Santa Barbara Channel - pushing water to the shore near the seep field and then broadening the plume while the water turns offshore further from the source. A methane budget was calculated using a box model, with budget terms including methane burden, sea-air flux, oxidative loss, and flux in and out of the 51 km3 box. The results indicate a 0.6% loss via sea-air exchange and a 1.5% loss due to microbial oxidation. The majority of the methane is advected in and out of the box. This data enables a calculation of the amount of dissolved methane emitted from the COP seep field, and when combined with published measurements of bubble flux, allows for a revision of the total methane flux from the COP seeps. Revised estimates for the dissolved methane flux for COP are 5.5 x 106 mol/d, raising the total COP methane release to 7.4-11.5 x 106 mol/d (120-180 t/d). These results represent a snapshot, but serve as a base for the first complete dissolved methane budget of the water column above a seep site in the marine realm.

Mau, S.; Heintz, M.; Valentine, D. L.

2008-12-01

400

Effects of Saline-Wastewater Injection on Water Quality in the Altamont-Bluebell Oil and Gas Field, Duchesne County, Utah, 1990-2005  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Altamont-Bluebell oil and gas field in the Uinta Basin in northeastern Utah has been an important