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1

Abandoned Texas oil fields  

SciTech Connect

Data for Texas abandoned oil fields were primarily derived from two sources: (1) Texas Railroad Commission (TRRC), and (2) Dwight's ENERGYDATA. For purposes of this report, abandoned oil fields are defined as those fields that had no production during 1977. The TRRC OILMASTER computer tapes were used to identify these abandoned oil fields. The tapes also provided data on formation depth, gravity of oil production, location (both district and county), discovery date, and the cumulative production of the field since its discovery. In all, the computer tapes identified 9211 abandoned fields, most of which had less than 250,000 barrel cumulative production. This report focuses on the 676 abandoned onshore Texas oil fields that had cumulative production of over 250,000 barrels. The Dwight's ENERGYDATA computer tapes provided production histories for approximately two-thirds of the larger fields abandoned in 1966 and thereafter. Fields which ceased production prior to 1966 will show no production history nor abandonment date in this report. The Department of Energy hopes the general availability of these data will catalyze the private sector recovery of this unproduced resource.

Not Available

1980-12-01

2

Oil fields of the World  

Microsoft Academic Search

This book makes an inventory of the known oil fields of the world and attempts to arrive at a balanced picture of the actual and potential sources of oil supply. This book considers the major oil fields from among the more than 30,000 significant oil accumulations that have been discovered. Important facts about the geology, geography, and production history of

Tiratsoo

1973-01-01

3

Russian-English oil-field dictionary  

Microsoft Academic Search

This dictionary covers approximately 30,000 terms with particular emphasis on those phrases most commonly used in the Soviet oil and gas industry, including such areas as construction of wells, development of offshore oil and gas fields, construction of oil and gas field facilities, pipeline construction and transportation. Includes reference to the latest Soviet achievements in oil field technology and oil-field

Stoliarov

1983-01-01

4

Giant oil fields and world oil resources  

Microsoft Academic Search

Expectations about future oil availability and ultimate conventional world oil resources play a major role in shaping energy policy proposals. However, considerable disagreement exists both about oil availability and ultimately recoverable conventional world oil resources, hampering efforts to reach agreement on energy policies. The absence of consensus is the result both of several economic, technical, and geologic uncertainties that cannot

Nehring

1978-01-01

5

Physicochemical methods for enhancing oil recovery from oil fields  

Microsoft Academic Search

Physicochemical methods for enhancing oil recovery from oil fields that are developed using water flooding and thermal steam treatment are considered. The results of pilot testing of processes based on these methods carried out at West Siberian and Chinese oil fields are analysed. The attention is focused on the processes that make use of surfactant blends and alkaline buffer solutions

L K Altunina; V A Kuvshinov

2007-01-01

6

Russian-English oil-field dictionary  

SciTech Connect

This dictionary covers approximately 30,000 terms with particular emphasis on those phrases most commonly used in the Soviet oil and gas industry, including such areas as construction of wells, development of offshore oil and gas fields, construction of oil and gas field facilities, pipeline construction and transportation. Includes reference to the latest Soviet achievements in oil field technology and oil-field equipment design. Alternative translations are given with an indication of correct usage in particular situations. Also includes an appendix of conversion tables, units and abbreviations.

Stoliarov, D.E.

1983-01-01

7

Sarir oil field, Libya-desert surprise  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Bunker Hunt-British Petroleum Sarir oil field of Libya appears to be one of the 10 to 12 super-giants of the world. Credited with 11 to 13 billion bbl of oil in place, it is a water-drive field that could, and probably will, recover nearly 50% of its total oil. The maximum oil column is 300 ft and the area

Sanford

1970-01-01

8

Giant oil fields and world oil resources  

Microsoft Academic Search

The results of Rand Corp. research to date on the size and distribution of the known and ultimately recoverable conventional crude oil resources of the world are presented. The research was sponsored by the Office of Economic Research of the Central Intelligence Agency. The research project was initiated for 2 reasons: (1) to provide a detailed, publicly available description of

Nehring

1978-01-01

9

Feasibility Study of Heavy Oil Field  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, application of different enhanced tertiary oil recovery methods were applied considering fluid properties and reservoir characteristics of the heavy oil field. Effect of different oil and inflation rates were analyzed considering project economic life, pay out time, cash flow, and profit to investment ratio for steam flooding and CO2 methods. CO2 injection is found to be more

M. V. Kok; C. Acar

2007-01-01

10

Investigating oiled birds from oil field waste pits.  

PubMed

Procedures and results of investigations concerning the oiling of inland raptors, migratory water-fowl and other birds are presented. Freon washings from the oiled birds and oil from the pits were analyzed by gas chromatography. In most instances the source of the oil could be established by chromatographic procedures. The numbers of birds involved (including many on the endangered species list) suggested the need for netting or closing oil field waste pits and mud disposal pits. Maintaining a proper chain of custody was important. PMID:1746147

Gregory, D G; Edwards, W C

1991-10-01

11

Resources of small oil and gas fields  

Microsoft Academic Search

In presently known small oil fields, a remaining recoverable reserve of about 3100 million bbl appears evident. As much as 2000 million bbl remain in place in abandoned small fields, of which at least 500 million eventually may be recovered through redevelopment or, in a few cases, mining. Reserves of oil in stripper wells amount to about 5200 million bbl.

1984-01-01

12

Abandoned oil fields of Texas Gulf Coast  

SciTech Connect

One nonconventional oil target in Texas is the oil that remains in abandoned fields, defined as those fields that had no oil or gas production in 1977 and 1982. This target includes oil that has not been tapped by conventional field development because of reservoir heterogeneity and oil in reservoirs that have not been subjected to any secondary or tertiary recovery efforts. A total of 138 abandoned oil fields having individual cumulative production greater than 500,000 bbl are located in the Texas Gulf Coast (railroad Commission of Texas Districts 2, 3, and 4). These 138 onshore fields produced 276 million barrels of oil before being abandoned. Nongiant fields in the Texas Gulf Coast average about 40% ultimate recovery, so these fields probably originally contained about 700 million bbl of oil in place. Therefore, about 424 million bbl of oil remain unrecovered. Reservoirs in these abandoned fields are Tertiary sandstones. The 44 abandoned fields in the upper Texas Gulf Coast (District 3) produced from a wide range of plays; those plays with the largest number of abandoned fields are Yegua and Frio deep-seated domes, Eocene deltaic sandstone, and Frio barrier/strand-plain sandstone. The 19 abandoned fields in the middle Texas Gulf Coast (District 2) produced mainly from Wilcox and Frio fluvial/deltaic sandstones and from Frio and Jackson-Yegua barrier/strand-plain sandstones. The lower Texas Gulf Coast (District 4) contains 75 abandoned fields that produced from Frio fluvial/deltaic and barrier/strand-plain sandstones and from Jackson-Yegua barrier/strand-plain sandstones.

Dutton, S.P.

1984-04-01

13

Development of mature oil fields — A review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Development of mature oil fields has been, and will increasingly be, an attractive subject. Mature field development practices can be divided into two major groups: (1) well engineering and (2) reservoir engineering. This paper focuses on the reservoir engineering aspects.An extensive review of previously reported reservoir management practices for mature field development is provided. After the definition of mature field

Tayfun Babadagli

2007-01-01

14

Samotlor oil field, West Siberia (USSR)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Samotlor oil field is located in the Tyumen region of the vast West Siberian Lowland of the Soviet Union. It is the largest of the more than 300 fields that have been discovered in the region as of the late 1980s. This field is typical of many of the giant fields of the world with respect to reservoir rock

1991-01-01

15

Fault seals in oil fields in Nevada  

Microsoft Academic Search

Faults forms seals for oil accumulations in the Eagle Springs, Trap Spring, and Blackburn fields, and probably in the Grant Canyon field, in Nevada. The main boundary fault on the east side of the Pine Valley graben forms a seal in the Blackburn field. A fault on the west side of the trap Spring field forms a seal. In Grant

N. H. Foster; H. K. Veal; L. C. Bortz

1987-01-01

16

Commercial utilization of oil field brines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Salt water has long been a scourge to oil producers, environmentalists, farmers, timber growers, and other landowners, and a nuisance to the public in general. Paradoxically, oil-field brines, in some applications, have become a utilizable resource because of the existence of useful minerals dissolved in the brines at economically recoverable concentrations. Nowhere is this paradox of disdainful uselessness, on one

Bray

1977-01-01

17

Azerbaijan field to step up oil flow  

SciTech Connect

This paper reports that a unit of Pennzoil Co., Houston, is scheduled to operate a development program that could more than double oil production from Guneshli field off Azerbaijan in the southern Caspian Sea. Under agreements signed in Baku, Pennzoil Caspian Corp., Ramco Energy Ltd. of Aberdeen, Scotland, and state oil company Azerneft will have exclusive right to jointly develop the field. Partners' shares and other project details are to be laid out in the final development plan, expected by yearend.

Not Available

1992-10-19

18

Fault seals in oil fields in Nevada  

SciTech Connect

Faults forms seals for oil accumulations in the Eagle Springs, Trap Spring, and Blackburn fields, and probably in the Grant Canyon field, in Nevada. The main boundary fault on the east side of the Pine Valley graben forms a seal in the Blackburn field. A fault on the west side of the trap Spring field forms a seal. In Grant Canyon field, it is interpreted that the main boundary fault on the east side of the Railroad Valley graben forms a seal. Calcite is deposited by hot spring activity, plugging up many fault zones and, in some cases, forming seals. Some fault zones have calcite mineralization up to several thousand feet wide. Within the Eagle Springs field on the east side of the Railroad Valley graben, a northeast-trending fault separates oil accumulations with different oil-water contacts. This separation indicates that the fault forms at least a partial seal within the accumulation.

Foster, N.H.; Veal, H.K.; Bortz, L.C.

1987-08-01

19

Remediation of oil field wastes  

SciTech Connect

Treatment and disposal of drilling muds and hazardous wastes has become a growing concern in the oil and gas industry. Further, past practices involving improper disposal require considerable research and cost to effectively remediate contaminated soils. This paper investigates two case histories describing the treatments employed to handle the liquid wastes involved. Both case histories describe the environmentally safe cleanup operations that were employed. 1 ref., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

Peters, R.W.; Wentz, C.A.

1990-01-01

20

Historic field holds clues to deeper oil  

SciTech Connect

Oil has been produced from the Florence-Canon City area for more than 100 years. Approximately 14 million bbl of oil have been produced from approximately 600 wells in a fractured zone in the lower portion of the Cretaceous Pierre shale. Production is from strata that have a homoclinal dip of 2 west. The updip seal on the reservoir appears to be impermeable clay-gouge zones along faults and fractures between the field and the crest of the Brush Hollow Anticline. The oil probably was generated within the organic-rich shales of the lower Pierre or the underlying Niobrara formation. The fracture porosity in the field may have been formed because of the oil generation, or because of the extension of the strata associated with the drape folding, or a combination of both processes. Eight deep wells have been drilled in the area which are useful in understanding the tectonic and sedimentation pattern for the area.

Weimer, R.J.

1981-06-01

21

Giant oil fields of the world  

Microsoft Academic Search

Men have been finding giant oil fields (500 million bbl or more ultimate recovery) since 1865. Since that time, the world's population has increased from about 1.5 x 10U9D to almost 4 x 10U9D and the annual consumption of curde oil has increased from 3 x 10U6D to 16 x 10U9D bbl. In order to satisfy the projected demand for

J. D. Moody; H. H. Emmerich

1972-01-01

22

Oil field steam production and use  

SciTech Connect

A method and apparatus for oil field steam production and use. Heated refractory particles are flowed through a steam generator in heat exchange relation with well water to generate steam. In accordance with one aspect of the invention, the steam is flowed into a well to heat oil in the well. In accordance with another aspect of the invention, the refractory particles are heated by flowing through a solar receiver in heat exchange relation with solar radiation.

Braun, M. J.

1985-04-30

23

Geology of Kuparuk River Oil Field, Alaska  

SciTech Connect

The Kuparuk River Oil Field is located on the Alaskan Arctic North Slope in the Colville-Prudhoe Trough ca. 25 miles west of the Prudhoe Bay Field. The 23 API crude is similar in type to that in the Prudhoe Bay Field. However, the Kuparuk Reservoir is in early Cretaceous clastics of the Kuparuk River Formation, stratigraphically higher than at Prudhoe. The origin of the oil is believed to be predominantly from the Jurassic Kingak formation with migration occurring along the basal Cretaceous unconformity. The dominant trapping mechanism is stratigraphic pinch-out and truncation of the reservoir at an intraformational unconformity along the southern and western flanks of a southeast plunging antiform. Structural dip closure exists along the northern and eastern flanks with a tilted oil-water contact at ca. 6675 ft subsea. The reservoir sandstones occur within cleaning and coarsening-upward sequences which are interpreted as shallow-marine and sublittoral in origin.

Hardwick, P.; Carman, G.R.

1982-05-01

24

Sacha oil field of Ecuadorian Oriente  

SciTech Connect

The Sacha oil field in the Ecuadorian Oriente was discovered in early 1969. Production began in July 1972, and at the end of 1980 had exceeded 190 million bbl. Drilling through 1980 had resulted in 91 oil wells and 2 dry holes. Estimated original primary recoverable reserves surpass 632 million bbl. The field is on a very low-relief anticline about 17.5 mi (28 km) long and averaging 4 mi (6.5 km) wide. Vertical closure amounts to 200 ft (60 m) and there are 41,000 acres (16,600 ha.) of areal closure on top of the principal reservoir. The Cretaceous sandstones, at drilled depths between 9,300 and 10,100 ft (2,835 and 3,080 m) provide excellent reservoirs. The Hollin Formation, the basal Cretaceous sandstone, is the principal reservoir, having produced 80% of the oil through 1980 and containing about 68% of the original reserves.

Canfield, R.W. (Texaco Petroleum Co., Quito, Ecuador); Bonilla, G.; Robbins, R.K.

1982-08-01

25

Daqing oil field, People's Republic of China: A giant field with oil of nonmarine origin  

SciTech Connect

The Daqing oil field in northeastern China presents an example of the geologic and geochemical conditions necessary for the formation of a giant field in a basin containing only continental (nonmarine) sediments. The geochemical characteristics of the stages of generation, expulsion, migration, and accumulation of oil and gas and their relations to trap development are especially pertinent. The model presented shows close coordination of five bodies (source bed, carrier bed, reservoir, trap, and cap rock) and simultaneous evolution through five stages to form the giant oil field in a large eutrophic lake basin.

Wanli, Y.

1985-07-01

26

Nitrogen, an oil field tool. [Reviews  

Microsoft Academic Search

A review is given on new nitrogen techniques gaining wide use in Permian Basin oil fields, which may have application elsewhere. Nitrogen, being an inert gas, does not form acid with trace moisture. Nitrogen also has no corrosive properties. One of the chief uses of nitrogen is on drill-stem tests. In large acidizing and fracturing jobs, nitrogen has proved to

R. J. Boren; D. L. Johnson

1965-01-01

27

Geology and geochemistry of crude oils, Bolivar coastal fields, Venezuela  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Bolivar Coastal Fields (BCF) are located on the eastern margin of Lake Maracaibo, Venezuela. They form the largest oil field outside of the Middle East and contain mostly heavy oil with a gravity less than 22° API. Thirty crude oils from the BCF were collected along two parallel and generally southwest-northeast trends. These oils were characterized by their API

H. Bockmeulen; C. Barker; P. A. Dickey

1983-01-01

28

Reserve growth of the world's giant oil fields  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Analysis of estimated total recoverable oil volume (field size) of 186 well-known giant oil fields of the world (>0.5 billion bbl of oil, discovered prior to 1981), exclusive of the United States and Canada, demonstrates general increases in field sizes through time. Field sizes were analyzed as a group and within subgroups of the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) and non-OPEC countries. From 1981 through 1996, the estimated volume of oil in the 186 fields for which adequate data were available increased from 617 billion to 777 billion bbl of oil (26%). Processes other than new field discoveries added an estimated 160 billion bbl of oil to known reserves in this subset of the world's oil fields. Although methods for estimating field sizes vary among countries, estimated sizes of the giant oil fields of the world increased, probably for many of the same reasons that estimated sizes of oil fields in the United States increased over the same time period. Estimated volumes in OPEC fields increased from a total of 550 billion to 668 billion bbl of oil and volumes in non-OPEC fields increased from 67 billion to 109 billion bbl of oil. In terms of percent change, non-OPEC field sizes increased more than OPEC field sizes (63% versus 22%). The changes in estimated total recoverable oil volumes that occurred within three 5-year increments between 1981 and 1996 were all positive. Between 1981 and 1986, the increase in estimated total recoverable oil volume within the 186 giant oil fields was 11 billion bbl of oil; between 1986 and 1991, the increase was 120 billion bbl of oil; and between 1991 and 1996, the increase was 29 billion bbl of oil. Fields in both OPEC and non-OPEC countries followed trends of substantial reserve growth.

Klett, T. R.; Schmoker, J. W.

2005-01-01

29

Fiber optic network links oil field controls  

SciTech Connect

To improve automation in the Lost Hills waterflood near Bakersfield, Calif., Chevron U.S.A. Production Co. created a network of remote and central programmable logic controller (PLC) with industrial-strength fiber optics. The network allows for centralized control of information on each well's performance and the field's operational problem. Information can now be more accurately and quickly accessed and managed from the central processing plant and the mainframe accounting system. The installed network uses 3M brand Series 6000 modular fiber optics that are industrial-strength with a large-core of 200[mu]. Since the 1920s, Chevron U.S.A. Production Co. has produced more than 86 million bbl of oil and 173 bcf of gas from the Lost Hills field in California's San Joaquin valley. Waterflooding of the field began in spring 1992. The paper describes field operations, earlier automation efforts, the options reviewed, the fiber optic option, and field installation.

Carswell, P.W. (Chevron U.S.A. Production Co., Bakersfield, CA (United States)); Neeley, J.R. (3M Telecom Systems Group, Austin, TX (United States))

1994-03-07

30

Successful Method of Fracturing in Offshore Oil Fields in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fracturing technology has been applied very rarely in offshore oil fields in China. Compared with on land, fracturing in offshore oil fields has its own features. Firstly, the cost of operation and fracturing treatment is higher, so a higher ratio of success and effect is required. Secondly, deviated wells and horizontal wells, which are common in offshore oil fields, increase

Q. Meng; S. Zhang; X. Huang; B. Chen; S. Tian

2010-01-01

31

Sulfate removal technologies for oil fields seawater injection operations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pressure maintenance in oil fields through seawater injection is taking place on a massive way throughout the world. In some oil fields, the current capacity of seawater injection is well over a million barrels per day (1 barrel of water is equivalent to 42 gal.). The typical incompatibility between oil fields formation waters and seawater causes unusual severe sulfate scale problems in

M. S. H. Bader

2007-01-01

32

Oil and Gas Field Code Master List 1999 Updates  

EIA Publications

The Oil and Gas Field Code Master List Updates 1999 is an addendum to the 1998 edition of the EIA publication Oil and Gas Field Code Master List, an annual listing of all identified oil and gas fields in the United States. These updates represent the addition of new fields to the list and changes to the records of previously listed fields, including deletions. The current publication is based on field information collected through November 1999.

Robert F. King

2000-01-01

33

Oil and Gas Field Code Master List 1998 Updates  

EIA Publications

The Oil and Gas Field Code Master List Updates 1998 is an addendum to the 1997 edition of the EIA publication Oil and Gas Field Code Master List, an annual listing of all identified oil and gas fields in the United States. These updates represent the addition of new fields to the list and changes to the records of previously listed fields, including deletions. The current publication is based on field information collected through October 1998.

Robert F. King

1999-01-01

34

Predicting pavement distress in oil field areas  

SciTech Connect

A study on oil field traffic characteristics was performed and a procedure was developed for assessing current and future effects of oil field truck traffic on surface-treated (stage construction type) pavements. A computer program calculates several types of pavement distress and serviceability parameters to evaluate pavement performance under various axle load repetitions. Stepwise regression analysis of 132 surface-treated pavement sections led to the development of individual distress equations for rutting, raveling, flushing, alligator cracking, patching, longitudinal and transverse cracking, and failures (potholes). The versatility of the program provides a means of anticipating early pavement failures due to increased axle load repetitions. The program also provides the basic framework for computing the effects of other ''special-use'' truck traffic demands.

Mason, J.M.; Scullion, T.; Stampley, B.E.

1983-05-01

35

Predicting pavement distress in oil field areas  

SciTech Connect

A study on oil field traffic characteristics was performed and a procedure was developed for assessing current and future effects of oil field truck traffic on surface-treated (stage construction type) pavements. A computer program calculates several types of pavement distress and serviceability parameters to evaluate pavement performance under various axle load repetitions. Stepwise regression analysis of 132 surface-treated pavement sections led to the development of individual distress equations for rutting, raveling, flushing, alligator cracking, patching, longitudinal and transverse cracking, and failures (potholes). The versatility of the program provides a means of anticipating early pavement failures due to increased axle load repetitions. The program also provides the basic framework for computing the effects of other ''special-use'' truck traffic demands.

Mason, J.M.; Scullion, T.; Stampley, B.E.

1984-05-01

36

Maps of the oil and gas fields, natural gas pipelines, and oil pipelines of Pennsylvania  

Microsoft Academic Search

This map shows oil, natural gas, and gas storage fields and pools of Pennsylvania. It is based on 15-minute topographic bases. The most significant production of oil presently is from the Bradford field, which produced approximately 44% of Pennsylvania's crude oil production in 1976. Most of the oil comes from McKean, Venango, Warren, Forest, and Washington Counties. The county that

W. S. Lytle; L. J. Balogh

1977-01-01

37

Geology of the Tambaredjo oil field, Suriname  

SciTech Connect

After the initial discovery in the sixties of oil below the coastal plain of Suriname (S. America), the State Oil Company of Suriname started production of the unique Tambaredjo field in 1982. The heavy, biodegraded oil (14-16[degrees] API) is produced under compaction drive, from the Paleocene T-sand (average thickness 5 m) at a depth of about 300 m. More than 300 wells have been drilled in an area of about 200 km[sup 2]. High resolution seismics makes it possible to correlate units down to 2 m thick. This dense network of bore holes is very suitable for geological correlations and 3D modeling. The T-sand reservoir consists of angular, medium to coarse grained unconsolidated sands with interfingering clays and lignites. The sands are deposited on a well cemented erosional Cretaceous basement. The reservoir is sealed by locally continuous clays. The oil is trapped in structural highs created by syn-sedimentary rejuvenated basement faults. The depositional environment of the T-sand ranges from fluviatile to deltaic. Frequent avulsion and synsedimentary faulting created a highly compartmented reservoir. Although interconnectedness of the sand bodies is high, clay smears and silting out of the edges confine reservoir compartments. The best genetic sand units such as channel fills or mouth bar deposits hardly correlate over more than a few hundred meters. The Tambaredjo oil field offers an unique opportunity to study the detailed sedimentology and petroleum geology of a fluvio-deltaic transitional realm on the passive margin along the Guiana coast.

Dronkert, H. (Delft Univ. of Technology (Netherlands)); Wong, T.E. (Geological Survey of the Netherlands, Haarlem (Netherlands))

1993-02-01

38

Oil and gas field code master list, 1993  

SciTech Connect

This document contains data collected through October 1993 and provides standardized field name spellings and codes for all identified oil and/or gas fields in the United States. Other Federal and State government agencies, as well as industry, use the EIA Oil and Gas Field Code Master List as the standard for field identification. A machine-readable version of the Oil and Gas Field Code Master List is available from the National Technical Information Service.

Not Available

1993-12-16

39

Tar sands and supergiant oil fields  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sixteen very large ''tar'' deposits are estimated to contain about 2,100 billion bbl of oil in place. This is nearly as much heavy oil as the world's total discovered recoverable oil reserves. The seven largest ''tar'' deposits of the world contain 98% of the world's heavy oil; that is, these seven heavy-oil deposits contain about as much oil in place

Demaison

1977-01-01

40

Weathering of Oils at Sea: Model\\/Field Data Comparisons  

Microsoft Academic Search

The SINTEF Oil Weathering Model (OWM) has been extensively tested with results from full-scale field trials with experimental oil slicks in the Norwegian NOFO Sea trials in 1994 and 1995 and the AEA 1997 trials in UK. The comparisons between oil weathering values predicted by the model and ground-truth obtained from the field trials are presented and discussed. Good laboratory

Per S Daling; Tove StrØm

1999-01-01

41

Salt caverns for oil field waste disposal.  

SciTech Connect

Salt caverns used for oil field waste disposal are created in salt formations by solution mining. When created, caverns are filled with brine. Wastes are introduced into the cavern by pumping them under low pressure. Each barrel of waste injected to the cavern displaces a barrel of brine to the surface. The brine is either used for drilling mud or is disposed of in an injection well. Figure 8 shows an injection pump used at disposal cavern facilities in west Texas. Several types of oil field waste may be pumped into caverns for disposal. These include drilling muds, drill cuttings, produced sands, tank bottoms, contaminated soil, and completion and stimulation wastes. Waste blending facilities are constructed at the site of cavern disposal to mix the waste into a brine solution prior to injection. Overall advantages of salt cavern disposal include a medium price range for disposal cost, large capacity and availability of salt caverns, limited surface land requirement, increased safety, and ease of establishment of individual state regulations.

Veil, J.; Ford, J.; Rawn-Schatzinger, V.; Environmental Assessment; RMC, Consultants, Inc.

2000-07-01

42

Oil and Gas Field Code Master List 1996 Updates  

EIA Publications

The Oil and Gas Field Code Master List Updates 1996 represents a departure from past Energy Information Administration (EIA) practice. This publication does not provide a list of all identified oil and gas fields in the United States as did the fourteen prior annual volumes of the Oil and Gas Field Code Master List. It provides updates to the Field Code Master File that were made subsequent to the publication of Oil and Gas Field Code Master List 1995, based on information collected through October 1996. These updates represent the addition of new fields to the list and changes to the records of previously listed fields, including deletions. This publication is therefore a supplement to theOil and Gas Field Code Master List 1995, which its recipients were requested to retain.

Robert F. King

1996-12-01

43

Stress fields; a key to oil migration  

Microsoft Academic Search

A coherent oil-migration model based on geomechanical considerations includes both the high-molecular kerogen structure and the capillary properties of source rocks. Oil is squeezed from kerogen by compaction following oil generation. This squeezing effect should be created by the differential stress (maximum compressive stress minus least compressive stress) acting on the kerogen which has been chemically broken up by oil

Du Rouchet

1981-01-01

44

Chemical Characterization of Brines from Selected Oil Fields, Tabasco, México  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thirteen brine samples were recovered from nine oil-producing wells in the Agave (Cretaceous) and Saramako (Cretaceous and Tertiary) oil fields. These samples were analyzed for major and trace elements as well as O and D isotopic compositions. The goal of this study was to compare the possible links between oil-related brines enclosed within Cretaceous and Tertiary productive horizons that were

B. Méndez-Ortiz; A. Carrillo-Chavez; J. Tritlla; G. Levresse; E. Gonzalez-Partida; A. Oviedo-Perez; H. Martinez-Kepm; F. Gonzalez-Posadas; L. Clara-Valdes

2004-01-01

45

Geology of California's giant--Wilmington oil field  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Wilmington oil field is in the Los Angeles basin of southern California, one of the most prolific oil-producing basins of the world and considered to be an example of optimum conditions in the habitat of oil. The Wilmington structure, discovered in 1936, is a broad, asymmetrical anticline broken by a series of transverse normal faults which divide the producing

Mayuga

1968-01-01

46

The Long March of the Chinese Giant Oil Fields  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over 70% of China's domestic oil production is obtained from nine giant oilfields. Understanding the behaviour of these fields is essential to both domestic oil production and future Chinese oil imports. This study utilizes decline curves and depletion rate analysis to create some future production outlooks for the Chinese giants. Based on our study, we can only conclude that China's

Mikael Höök; Tang Xu; Pang Xiongqi; Kjell Aleklett

47

Maureen oil field - First year of production  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents the first year of development of the Maureen field in the British sector of the North Sea. A steel platform gravity structure was used for development. The crude oil is tanker-loaded at an articulated loading column (ALC). Production, seawater injection, and gas lifting are discussed. Production covers well completions, wellhead tiebacks, process-plant performance, and downtime. In particular, the performance of the ALC is detailed. At the column, successful modifications to the hawser system for tanker mooring were made, to reduce excessive hawser replacements. Seawater injection experiences are described, and details of the perforating techniques and stimulation treatments are given. Gas lifting of a well to test the surface and downhole facilities is described.

Wootton, D.

1987-02-01

48

Landslide oil field, San Joaquin Valley, California  

SciTech Connect

The Landslide field, located at the southern margin of the San Joaquin basin, was discovered in 1985 by a partnership headed by Channel Exploration Company, on a farm out from Tenneco Oil Company. Initial production from the Tenneco San Emidio 63X-30 was 2064 BOPD, making landslide one of the largest onshore discoveries in California during the past decade. Current production is 7100 BOPD from a sandstone reservoir at 12,500 ft. Fifteen wells have been drilled in the field, six of which are water injectors. Production from the Landslide field occurs from a series of upper Miocene Stevens turbidite sandstones that lie obliquely across an east-plunging structural nose. These turbidite sandstones were deposited as channel-fill sequences within a narrowly bounded levied channel complex. Both the Landslide field and the larger Yowlumne field, located 3 mi to the northwest, comprise a single channel-fan depositional system that developed in the restricted deep-water portion of the San Joaquin basin. Information from the open-hole logs, three-dimensional surveys, vertical seismic profiles, repeat formation tester data, cores, and pressure buildup tests allowed continuous drilling from the initial discovery to the final waterflood injector, without a single dry hole. In addition, the successful application of three-dimensional seismic data in the Landslide development program has helped correctly image channel-fan anomalies in the southern Maricopa basin, where data quality and severe velocity problems have hampered previous efforts. New exploration targets are currently being evaluated on the acreage surrounding the Landslide discovery and should lead to an interesting new round of drilling activity in the Maricopa basin.

Collins, B.P.; March, K.A.; Caballero, J.S.; Stolle, J.M.

1988-03-01

49

Streamer inception field strengths in rape-seed oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper deals with the investigation of streamer inception voltages in rape-seed oils. Earlier investigations have suggested that rape-seed oils may be used as substitutes for mineral oils in high voltage apparatus. However, streamer inception field strengths seem to be much lower. Therefore, investigations of inception field strength have been carried out in point-plane electrode configurations using needle-electrodes with defined

R. Badent; M. Hemmer; U. Konekamp; Y. Julliard; A. J. Schwab

2000-01-01

50

Method of thermal stimulation of oil fields  

Microsoft Academic Search

In an in-situ combustion process for recovering low viscosity oil from an underground oil-bearing formation, a slug of low viscosity, oil-miscible liquid which is not self-ignitable in the presence of oxygen is injected into the formation. Oxidizing gas in injected into the well at sufficiently high pressure that it drives the miscible liquid and oil ahead of it to form

G. H. F

1966-01-01

51

Tires fuel oil field cement manufacturing  

SciTech Connect

In a new process, waste automobile tires added to the fuel mix of gas, coal, and coke help fire kilns to produce API-quality oil field cement. Capital Cement uses this process in its cement-manufacturing plant in San Antonio, in which it also produces construction cement. The tires provide a lower-cost fuel and boost the temperature at a critical stage in the kiln burn process. Also, steel-belted tires add iron content to the mix. According to lab results, tire-burned cement slurries will perform the same as conventionally burned cement slurries. Actual field applications have proven that cement produced by burning tires performs no different than conventionally produced slurries. Capital`s plant uses both dry and wet processes, with separate kilns running both processes at the same time. Cement clinker is partially fired by waste tires in both kiln processes. The tires represent 12% of the fuel consumed by the plant, a number that is expected to increase. Capital burns about 200 tires/hr, or about 1.6 million tires/year.

Caveny, B.; Ashford, D. [Halliburton Energy Services Inc., Duncan, OK (United States); Garcia, J.G. [Capital Cement, San Antonio, TX (United States); Hammack, R. [Halliburton Energy Services Inc., Alice, TX (United States)

1998-08-31

52

Hunton oil and gas fields, Arkansas, Oklahoma, and Panhandle Texas  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Hunton Limestone was discovered to be productive in the Beebe, Okla., area in 1921. Since that time it is estimated that 4,300 Hunton wells in 200 fields have produced 277 million bbl of oil. The largest Hunton field is West Edmond, where 736 wells have produced more than 106 million barrels of oil. The depth of Hunton development ranges

Kunsman

1967-01-01

53

An automatic system measuring electromagnetic parameters for oil field pipes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fault detection and diagnosis of oil field pipes are very important to the petroleum companies, as if known, the fault of steel products can be detected based on the eddy current technique. The depth of a defect on an oil field pipe will determine the change in amplitude and phase of the detected signal. However, this signal is also

Jiming Yin; J Pineda de Gyvez; Mi Lu

1994-01-01

54

Geology and geochemistry of crude oils, Bolivar Coastal Fields, Venezuela  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Bolivar Coastal Fields (BCF) are located on the eastern margin of Lake Maracaibo, Venezuela. They form the largest oil field outside of the Middle East and contain oil which is mostly heavy with a gravity less than 22° API. Lake Maracaibo is now in an intermontane basin enclosed on three sides by the Andes Mountains. The area has a

M. Bockmeulen; C. Barker; P. A. Dickey

1983-01-01

55

Ben South (Tannehill) oil field, Stonewall, County, Texas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ben South is one of 157 Tannehill oil fields on the northeastern shelf of the Permian basin. Texas Railroad Commission District 7B has 66 Tannehill oil fields while District 8A has 21. The discovery well for the Ben South field was the Ryder Scott Management (Sauder) 1 McMeans, completed in 1973. Ben South field production has totaled 749,340 bbl of

Hillock

1984-01-01

56

Maturity assessment of oils from the Sakhalin oil fields in Russia: phenanthrene content as a tool  

Microsoft Academic Search

A correlation analysis of maturation parameters was carried out on 14 crude oil samples from nine oil fields on Sakhalin Island (Russia). The oils were taken from reservoir rocks of Miocene age at depths ranging from 73 to 2841 m. On the basis of GC analysis of the alkane fraction (n-alkanes and the isoprenoid alkanes pristane and phytane) as well

K Stojanovi?; G. S Pevneva; J. A Golovko; A. K Golovko; P Pfendt

2001-01-01

57

Polymer flooding increases production in giant oil field  

SciTech Connect

Daqing field, discovered in 1959, is the largest oil field in the People's Republic of China, with original oil in place exceeding two billion tons. Reservoir heterogeneity and oil viscosity have resulted in moderate displacement efficiency and high watercut. To increase recovery, polymer injection was tested in two pilots between 1987 and 1992, after lab and reservoir studies. Both pilots proved highly successful and led to the decision to extend polymer injection to the whole field. This article presents the history of Daqing polymer flooding, from preliminary studies to full-field extension.

Delamaide, E.; Corlay, P. (Inst. Francais du Petrole, Paris (France))

1994-12-01

58

Saving diesel fuel in the oil field  

SciTech Connect

Describes how diesel electric SCR (silicon controlled rectifier) drilling rigs are helping drillers save fuel expense in the oil fields, along with other energy conservation methods. Compares SCR to conventional drilling rigs. Points out that on conventional rigs, diesel engines drive rig components directly, while on the SCR electric rigs, diesel engines turn a.c. electric generators which supply energy to d.c. electric motors for rig component power. Components of the SCR rigs include drawworks, mud pumps, rotary table, compressors, shakers, blenders and the camp load. Recommends economic principles such as supplying generators large enough to handle the low p.f. (power factor) as well as peak power requirements; and keeping the work load on diesel engines as high as possible for fuel economy. Presents tables of fuel consumed per 100 kW at various load factors; effect of power factor on engine hp required; electric drilling rig power modules; and engine and generator selection guide. Emphasizes consideration of the competitive difference in diesel engine economy.

Elder, B.

1982-11-01

59

Tengiz oil field, Kazakstan: A carbonate platform and supergiant field  

SciTech Connect

The Tengiz oil field was discovered in 1979 on the northeastern shore of the Caspian Sea in western Kazakstan. The Carboniferous and Devonian age carbonate reservoir is more than 2000 in, thick, 270 km[sup 2] in area extent and buried to a depth of 4000 m (13,120 ft.). The oil column exceeds 1450 m in length and is highly overpressured. The Tengiz reservoir resembles a modem day constructional-type carbonate platform in size, shape and lithofacies. The top of the platform is relatively flat, except for structural highs along the northern, eastern and southern platform margins that developed during post-depositional down-faulting of the platform interior. The platform edge is a depositional escarpment along which subsequent faulting has occurred. Debris-slope conglomerates, shed off the platform during growth, surround the platform escarpment. Bashkirian age ootitic, crinoidal, algal grainstones comprise the upper 100 m of the platform and overlie 350 m of Serpukhovian and Okskian age brachiopodal, crinoidal, algal packstones. Lithofacies are a really widespread and show little variation in composition and stratigraphic thickness across the entire platform. Depositional cycle thicknesses are less than 5 meters for the Bashkirian grainstones and up to 30 meters for the Serpukhovian/Oksky packstones. Lagoonal and reefal lithofacies have not been identified in core to date. Porosity is highly variable and includes interparticle, moldic, channel, vuggy and fracture pore types. Solid bitumen is present in much of the pore space. Secondary porosity formed both before and after bitumen precipitation. Production logs and core data reveal that zones with secondary porosity provide fluid entry into the wellbore.

Wood, W.R. (Chevron Overseas Petroleum, Inc., San Ramon, CA (United States)); Garber, R.A. (Chevron USA, Midland, TX (United States))

1996-01-01

60

Oil and Gas field code master list 1995  

SciTech Connect

This is the fourteenth annual edition of the Energy Information Administration`s (EIA) Oil and Gas Field Code Master List. It reflects data collected through October 1995 and provides standardized field name spellings and codes for all identified oil and/or gas fields in the US. The Field Code Index, a listing of all field names and the States in which they occur, ordered by field code, has been removed from this year`s publications to reduce printing and postage costs. Complete copies (including the Field Code Index) will be available on the EIA CD-ROM and the EIA World-Wide Web Site. Future editions of the complete Master List will be available on CD-ROM and other electronic media. There are 57,400 field records in this year`s Oil and Gas Field Code Master List. As it is maintained by EIA, the Master List includes the following: field records for each State and county in which a field resides; field records for each offshore area block in the Gulf of Mexico in which a field resides; field records for each alias field name (see definition of alias below); and fields crossing State boundaries that may be assigned different names by the respective State naming authorities. Taking into consideration the double-counting of fields under such circumstances, EIA identifies 46,312 distinct fields in the US as of October 1995. This count includes fields that no longer produce oil or gas, and 383 fields used in whole or in part for oil or gas Storage. 11 figs., 6 tabs.

NONE

1995-12-01

61

Exploitation of multizones by waterflooding in the Daqing oil field  

SciTech Connect

The distribution of oil and water in the pay zones and the constant changes of relationship taking place among the zones in the course of development of a sandstone oil reservoir by waterflooding bear closely on its stable production and ultimate recovery. So, the result of development of an oil field depends largely on knowledge of the changing conditions and the ability to cope with them by regulatory or reconstructive measures. All the pay zones in the Daqing oil field have been clearly segregated, and on this basis, different zones in the one and same well may be flooded and produced separately. The development of the Daqing oil field has been successful, comparable to similar oil fields in the U.S. and Soviet Union in the following respects, which are disucssed: reservoir pressure maintained; wells kept flowing; stable average daily output; long, stable high- yielding period; and less water consumed than in oil fields of other countries producing oil of similar viscosity. (12 refs.)

Jinyusun; Yangwanli; Wangzhiwu

1982-01-01

62

Horizontal well taps bypassed Dundee oil in Crystal field, Mich.  

SciTech Connect

The Dundee formation (Middle Devonian) has yielded more oil than any other producing interval in Michigan. The Dundee trend, which forms an east-west band across the central Michigan basin, consists of 137 fields which together have yielded more than 350 million bbl of oil. The first commercial Dundee production was established at Mt. Pleasant field in 1928, and most Dundee fields were discovered and brought on production during the 1930s--40s. Wells in many of the fields had very high initial production (IP) rates. IPs in excess of 1,000 b/d of oil were common, with values as high as 9,000 b/d reported. These high flow rates, combined with a thin (10--30 ft) oil column and a strong water drive, resulted in water coning that left significant volumes of oil unrecovered in some fields. One such field, Crystal field in Montcalm County, is the focus of a US Department of energy (DOE) Class 2 Reservoir Demonstration Project designed to demonstrate that horizontal drilling can recover significant volumes of this bypassed oil. The paper describes the demonstration project, regional setting, and the history of the Crystal field.

Wood, J.R.; Allan, J.R.; Huntoon, J.E.; Pennington, W.D. [Michigan Technological Univ., Houghton, MI (United States); Harrison, W.B. III [Western Michigan Univ., Kalamazoo, MI (United States); Taylor, E.; Tester, C.J. [Cronus Development Corp., Traverse City, MI (United States)

1996-10-21

63

Coreflood assay using extremophile microorganisms for recovery of heavy oil in Mexican oil fields.  

PubMed

A considerable portion of oil reserves in Mexico corresponds to heavy oils. This feature makes it more difficult to recover the remaining oil in the reservoir after extraction with conventional techniques. Microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR) has been considered as a promising technique to further increase oil recovery, but its application has been developed mainly with light oils; therefore, more research is required for heavy oil. In this study, the recovery of Mexican heavy oil (11.1°API and viscosity 32,906 mPa s) in a coreflood experiment was evaluated using the extremophile mixed culture A7, which was isolated from a Mexican oil field. Culture A7 includes fermentative, thermophilic, and anaerobic microorganisms. The experiments included waterflooding and MEOR stages, and were carried out under reservoir conditions (70°C and 9.65 MPa). MEOR consisted of injections of nutrients and microorganisms followed by confinement periods. In the MEOR stages, the mixed culture A7 produced surface-active agents (surface tension reduction 27 mN m?¹), solvents (ethanol, 1738 mg L?¹), acids (693 mg L?¹), and gases, and also degraded heavy hydrocarbon fractions in an extreme environment. The interactions of these metabolites with the oil, as well as the bioconversion of heavy oil fractions to lighter fractions (increased alkanes in the C?-C?? range), were the mechanisms responsible for the mobility and recovery of heavy oil from the porous media. Oil recovery by MEOR was 19.48% of the residual oil in the core after waterflooding. These results show that MEOR is a potential alternative to heavy oil recovery in Mexican oil fields. PMID:22704814

Castorena-Cortés, Gladys; Roldán-Carrillo, Teresa; Reyes-Avila, Jesús; Zapata-Peñasco, Icoquih; Mayol-Castillo, Martha; Olguín-Lora, Patricia

2012-06-16

64

Oil field waste disposal costs at commercial disposal facilities  

SciTech Connect

The exploration and production segment of the U.S. oil and gas industry generates millions of barrels of nonhazardous oil field wastes annually. In most cases, operators can dispose of their oil fields wastes at a lower cost on-site than off site and, thus, will choose on-site disposal. However, a significant quantity of oil field wastes are still sent to off-site commercial facilities for disposal. This paper provides information on the availability of commercial disposal companies in different states, the treatment and disposal methods they employ, and how much they charge. There appear to be two major off-site disposal trends. Numerous commercial disposal companies that handle oil field wastes exclusively are located in nine oil-and gas-producing states. They use the same disposal methods as those used for on-site disposal. In addition, the Railroad Commission of Texas has issued permits to allow several salt caverns to be used for disposal of oil field wastes. Twenty-two other oil- and gas-producing states contain few or no disposal companies dedicated to oil and gas industry waste. The only off-site commercial disposal companies available handle general industrial wastes or are sanitary landfills. In those states, operators needing to dispose of oil field wastes off-site must send them to a local landfill or out of state. The cost of off-site commercial disposal varies substantially, depending on the disposal method used, the state in which the disposal company is located, and the degree of competition in the area.

Veil, J.A.

1997-10-01

65

Efficacy of Oil Based Haemorrhagic Septicaemia Vaccine: A Field Trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

An oil adjuvanted vaccine prepared from Pasteurella multocida serotype 6:B was evaluated under field conditions for induction of immune response in cattle and buffaloes and its efficacy was compared with conventionally used Alum precipitated vaccine (APV). A total of 2703 cattle and buffaloes of various age groups (i.e., Adults, Heifers and Calves) were vaccinated with oil adjuvant vaccine (OAV). Alum

R. MUNEER; M. HUSSAIN; A. B. ZAHOOR

66

Excess Water Production Diagnosis in Oil Fields Using Ensemble Classifiers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Excessive water production in oil fields is a challenging problem affecting oil production and entailing high handling and disposing costs as well as environmental issues. Accurate and timely diagnosis of the water production problem will significantly increase the success of the remedial actions taken. The traditional approaches in production data analysis by means of empirical techniques for proper diagnosis of

Minou Rabiei; Ritu Gupta; Yaw Peng Cheong; G. A. S. Soto

2009-01-01

67

Successful Well Stimulation Program Has Revitalized a California Oil Field  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work presents results of a successful suction-acid circulation wash stimulation program in a California oil field. Six of the 7 jobs on producers were successful. Oil gains were as high as 320 bpd in 2 wells, and averaged 135 bpd overall. Four of the wells are producing at rates in excess of initial rates of 8 to 10 yr

E. B. Jr

1976-01-01

68

Nitrile compounds as oil field biocides  

SciTech Connect

Unsaturated nitrile compounds, e.g., acrylonitrile, are used as microbiocides to inhibit undesired bacterial growth in injection water used in enhanced oil recovery methods. The biocides are efficacious for the control of sulfate reducing bacteria, including Desulfovibrio desulfuricans.

Dria, D. E.; Bremer, N. J.; Dria, M. A.; McKain, R. W.

1985-03-26

69

Top oil fields in Texas still pack a big punch  

Microsoft Academic Search

Texas' grand old oil fields will be providing a major share of U.S. crude supplies into the 21st century. That is the verdict of Texas Railroad Commission (TRC) examiners who spent much of 1977 studying the fields' maximum efficient rates (MER's) of production. The study covered 34 of the state's most productive fields, including 10 which are among the top

1978-01-01

70

Revitalizing small offshore oil assets — Field redevelopment feasibility study  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the last two decades, several small size offshore fields in the North Sea have been developed and exploited by tie-in development strategies to existing infrastructure supplied by the nearby large hydrocarbon fields and\\/or pipeline transportation systems. The field under consideration is such an example. However, achieved oil recoveries lower than expected (~18%) led to the abandonment of the asset

P. Permata; D. G. Hatzignatiou

2011-01-01

71

Porosity determination in the Tengiz oil field, Kazakhstan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The thick carbonate reservoir of the Tengiz oil field in Western Kazakhstan consists primarily of clean limestone. Ninety-three wells were drilled in this field but only 74 of these wells have penetrated the reservoir. None of the wells in the field have been drilled completely through the reservoir, nor have any definite fluid contacts been encountered yet. Log information obtained

F. Papa; K. Osman

1995-01-01

72

Evaluation of surfactants for oil field flooding  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  The problem of placing surfactant flooding on an economic basis should be of interest to both the oil producer and the surfactant\\u000a manufacturer. To oil producers it could mean an increase of as much as 6 billion barrels in the recoverable reserves of the\\u000a United States alone. This figure is based on application in areas where conventional water flooding is

C. E. Johnson; J. Seymour; D. Bieri; H. Burrell; A. Gladstone; V. Kavanagh; M. J. Kelly; M. Kramer; R. M. Lawrence

1957-01-01

73

Ben South (Tannehill) oil field, Stonewall, County, Texas  

SciTech Connect

Ben South is one of 157 Tannehill oil fields on the northeastern shelf of the Permian basin. Texas Railroad Commission District 7B has 66 Tannehill oil fields while District 8A has 21. The discovery well for the Ben South field was the Ryder Scott Management (Sauder) 1 McMeans, completed in 1973. Ben South field production has totaled 749,340 bbl of oil through March 1983 from 13 wells. Oil production is from the lower Tannehill (lower Wolfcamp) sands underlying the Stockwether Limestone. These Tannehill sands were deposited in a fluvial environment. Channel-fill and point-bar deposits make up the pay sands. The trapping mechanism is both stratigraphic and structural.

Hillock, R.T.

1984-01-01

74

Method for determining terrestrial heat flow in oil fields  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method of determining terrestrial heat flow in oil fields from bottom-hole temperatures, electric logs, and thermal conductivity of core samples has been tried in six Reconcavo Basin oil fields in Brazil. The average heat-flow value so determined for the Reconcavo Basin is 1.10 +- 0.15 microcalories\\/cm² sec. The technique can be used for calculating heat flow in continental areas

Humberto Da Silva Carvalho; V. Vacquier

1977-01-01

75

The Evolution of Giant Oil Field Production Behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

The giant oil fields of the world are only a small fraction of the total number of fields, but their importance is huge. Over\\u000a 50% of the world’s oil production came from giants by 2005 and more than half of the world’s ultimate reserves are found in\\u000a giants. Based on this, it is reasonable to assume that the future development

Mikael Höök; Bengt Söderbergh; Kristofer Jakobsson; Kjell Aleklett

2009-01-01

76

Geology and geochemistry of crude oils, Bolivar coastal fields, Venezuela  

SciTech Connect

The Bolivar Coastal Fields (BCF) are located on the eastern margin of Lake Maracaibo, Venezuela. They form the largest oil field outside of the Middle East and contain mostly heavy oil with a gravity less than 22/sup 0/ API. Thirty crude oils from the BCF were collected along two parallel and generally southwest-northeast trends. These oils were characterized by their API gravity, percent saturates, aromatics, NSO and asphalitic compounds, gas chromatograms for whole oils, C/sub 4/-C/sub 7/ fractions, and aromatics. Also, 24 associated waters were sampled and analyzed for Ca/sup + +/, Mg/sup + +/, Na/sup +/, HCO/sub 3//sup -/, CO/sub 3//sup - -/, SO/sub 4//sup - -/, pH, and total dissolved solids (TDS). The geological and geochemical significances of these analyses are discussed with particular emphasis on the genesis of the petroleum.

Bockmeulen, H. (Inst. Techologico Venezolano del Petroleo, Los Teques, Venezuela); Barker, C.; Dickey, P.A.

1983-02-01

77

CO 2 storage in depleted oil fields: The worldwide potential for carbon dioxide enhanced oil recovery  

Microsoft Academic Search

One option for storing the captured CO2 from the deployment of CO2 capture and storage (CCS) is to inject the CO2 into oil fields, using it to produce additional oil. This option, called CO2 enhanced oil recovery (CO2-EOR), can provide a “bridge” to a low-carbon energy future. However, to date, CO2-EOR has only occurred in a few regions, and just

Michael Godec; Vello Kuuskraa; Tyler Van Leeuwen; L. Stephen Melzer; Neil Wildgust

2011-01-01

78

Alternatives to improve the oil recovery from the Boscan oil field  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several alternatives have been studied to improve the oil recovery from the Boscan oil field, located in the state of Zulia. The experiments were done on injection of water, polymer solutions, emulsions, injection of carbon dioxide and solutions of sodium hydroxide, as well as several combinations of these chemicals. There also were experiments on in situ combustion, and experiments on

Ferrer G

2009-01-01

79

Processing of coal, oil sand and heavy oil in situ by electric and magnetic fields  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper presents the results of a study made to determine the feasibility of extracting the energy commodities - electricity, gas, petroleum, coke, and chemical feedstocks - from coal, oil sand, and heavy oil, heating the deposits by electric and magnetic fields. It is reported that available electrical and chemical data indicate that this process may be technically and economically

S. T. Fisher

1979-01-01

80

Pretest studies for a microbially enhanced oil recovery field pilot in a hypersaline oil reservoir  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ecological and physiological factors governing microbial activity in the Southeast Vassar Vertz Sand Unit (SEWSU), Payne County, OK, an oil reservoir selected for a microbially enhanced oil recovery field pilot, were studied. Analysis of the brines from the reservoir showed that the SEWSU reservoir is a hypersaline environment rich in calcium and magnesium cations, and contains most of the

Vishvesh K. Bhupathiraju; Michael J. McInerney; Roy M. Knapp

1993-01-01

81

Oil and gas field code master list 1997  

SciTech Connect

The Oil and Gas Field Code Master List 1997 is the sixteenth annual listing of all identified oil and gas fields in the US. It is updated with field information collected through October 1997. The purpose of this publication is to provide unique, standardized codes for identification of domestic fields. Use of these field codes fosters consistency of field identification by government and industry. As a result of their widespread adoption they have in effect become a national standard. The use of field names and codes listed in this publication is required on survey forms and other reports regarding field-specific data collected by EIA. There are 58,366 field records in this year`s FCML, 437 more than last year. The FCML includes: field records for each State and county in which a field resides; field records for each offshore area block in the Gulf of Mexico in which a field resides; field records for each alias field name (definition of alias is listed); fields crossing State boundaries that may be assigned different names by the respective State naming authorities. This report also contains an Invalid Field Record List of 4 records that have been removed from the FCML since last year`s report. These records were found to be either technically incorrect or to represent field names which were never recognized by State naming authorities.

NONE

1998-02-01

82

World's giant oil and gas fields, geologic factors affecting their formation, and basin classification. Pt. 1. giant oil and gas fields  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, a giant oil field is defined as one containing 500 million bbl or more of recoverable oil; a giant gas field has a minimum of 3.5 trillion cu ft of recoverable gas. At least 187 giant oil fields and 79 giant gas fields are known. Together they contain an estimated, ultimate, minimum recoverable reserve of 638.77 billion

M. T. Halbouty; A. A. Meyerhoff; R. E. King; R. H. Sr. Dott; H. D. Klemme

1970-01-01

83

Oil and gas field code master list 1994  

SciTech Connect

This is the thirteenth annual edition of the Energy Information Administration`s (EIA) Oil and Gas Field Code Master List. It reflects data collected through October 1994 and provides standardized field name spellings and codes for all identified oil and/or gas fields in the United States. The master field name spellings and codes are to be used by respondents when filing the following Department of Energy (DOE) forms: Form EIA-23, {open_quotes}Annual Survey of Domestic Oil and Gas Reserves,{close_quotes} filed by oil and gas well operators (field codes are required from larger operators only); Forms FERC 8 and EIA-191, {open_quotes}Underground Gas Storage Report,{close_quotes} filed by natural gas producers and distributors who operate underground natural gas storage facilities. Other Federal and State government agencies, as well as industry, use the EIA Oil and Gas Field Code Master List as the standard for field identification. A machine-readable version of the Oil and Gas Field Code Master List is available from the National Technical Information Service, 5285 Port Royal Road, Springfield, Virginia 22161, (703) 487-4650. In order for the Master List to be useful, it must be accurate and remain current. To accomplish this, EIA constantly reviews and revises this list. The EIA welcomes all comments, corrections, and additions to the Master List. All such information should be given to the EIA Field Code Coordinator at (214) 953-1858. EIA gratefully acknowledges the assistance provides by numerous State organizations and trade associations in verifying the existence of fields and their official nomenclature.

Not Available

1995-01-01

84

Takula oil field and the Greater Takula area, Cabinda, Angola  

SciTech Connect

The Greater Takula area comprises three fields that produce oil predominantly from Upper Cretaceous reservoirs. They are located approximately 40 km west-northwest of the Malongo terminal, offshore Cabinda, Angola, in water depths of 50-75 m. Current production levels are approximately 200,000 bbl/day of 320 API oil. The first well in the Takula area, drilled in 1971, tested 5,600 bbl/day of 32{degrees} API oil from Lower Cretaceous pre-salt Toca carbonates. The prospect was initially defined as a horst structure in the lower Congo presalt sedimentary section. Subsequent delineation drilling indicated updip potential for much more significant hydrocarbon accumulations in younger Cenomanian clastic sediments of the Vermelha Formation. The Vermelha pool, structurally a large rollover anticline bounded by growth faults with an areal closure of 4,856 ha (12,000 ac), was discovered in 1980. Appraisal drilling confirmed the existence of a major oil accumulation in multiple reservoirs within the Vermelha. Additional accumulations were found in the underlying Pinda Formation. In May 1982, the 44-5x well was drilled on a separate structure, immediately north of Takula. This well also tested oil from the Vermelha Formation and is now known as the Wamba field. In August 1982, the 57-5x well uncovered another large oil accumulation immediately southeast of the Takula field. This discovery, separated from Takula by a structural saddle, is in pressure communication with the Takula accumulation and is known as the Numbi field. This complex of structures, known as the Greater Takula area, is now in a mature stage of development, having produced over 250 MMSTB from an original oil in place estimate of 3,300 MMSTB. The integration of geology, geophysics, and reservoir engineering-has led to a progressive development, including both primary and waterflood secondary recovery, of this giant oil field complex.

Dale, C.T.; Lopes, J.R. (Chevron Overseas Petroleum, Inc., San Ramon, CA (USA)); Abilio, S.

1990-09-01

85

Geology of oil fields of west Siberian lowland  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since 1959, more than 114 oil and gas fields estimated to contain more than 4 billion tons (28 billion bbl) have been discovered in the W. Siberian Lowland, a topographic and structural basin east of the Ural Mt. All fields discovered to 1970 are on anticlinal structures, found mainly by geophysical work, including magnetic, gravity, and seismic profiling. Detailed seismic

Dickey

1972-01-01

86

Oil spill detection system - results from field trials  

Microsoft Academic Search

The OSD system was thoroughly tested at a field trial carried out in October 2004 off the West Coast of Norway nearby the Troll field. The Norwegian Clean Seas Association for Operating Companies (NOFO) especially arranged the trial for this purpose. 6 small releases of oil equivalents were discharged, and they could be detected and followed by the system during

E. Noest; C. N. Egset

2006-01-01

87

Spreadsheets simplify oil field unitization calculations  

SciTech Connect

Linear programming, now available with most spreadsheet programs, allows companies involved in unitizing oil producing properties to determine their minimum and maximum interest. With spreadsheets, even the smallest companies can do linear programming or optimization techniques without having to know much about the process involved. If each company can easily determine its and the competition`s optimum parameter weight, then reasonable compromise and unitization are more likely. When suspicion and lack of knowledge prevail, parties are less likely to cooperate and form production units. Unit participation formulas vary greatly, even if units have similar reservoir characteristics. This paper reviews an example of linear programming to determine the interests of four different oil companies operating in the same production zones.

Cline, S.B. [Hefner Corp., Oklahoma City, OK (United States)

1995-08-28

88

Sho-Vel-Tum oil field, Oklahoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Prolific oil and gas production is obtained in the Sho-Vel-Tum area of eastern Stephens and western Carter Counties, Okla., from rocks of Permian, Pennsylvanian, Mississippian, Siluro-Devonian, and Ordovician ages. This large, complexly folded and faulted area is in the NW. part of the Ardmore basin between the Arbuckle Mts. on the E. and Wichita Mts. on the W. The first

1968-01-01

89

From Oil Fields to Hilbert Schemes  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a New techniques for dealing with problems of numerical stability in computations involving multivariate polynomials allow a\\u000a new approach to real world problems. Using a modelling problem for the optimization of oil production as a motivation, we\\u000a present several recent developments involving border bases of polynomial ideals. After recalling the foundations of border\\u000a basis theory in the exact case, we present

Martin Kreuzer; Hennie Poulisse; Lorenzo Robbiano

90

Salt caverns show promise for nonhazardous oil field waste disposal  

SciTech Connect

Salt caverns show promise for the disposal of non-hazardous oil field wastes, and there are no apparent regulatory barriers to this application. Solution-mined salt caverns have been used for many years for storing hydrocarbon products. Argonne National laboratory has reviewed the legality, technical suitability, and feasibility of disposing of nonhazardous oil and gas exploration and production wastes in salt caverns. An analysis of regulations indicates that there are no outright regulatory prohibitions on cavern disposal of oil field wastes at either the federal level or in the 11 oil-producing states that were studied (Kansas, Louisiana, Michigan, Mississippi, New Mexico, New York, North Dakota, Ohio, Oklahoma, Pennsylvania, and Texas). The paper discusses the two types of salt deposits in the US, regulatory concerns, wastes, cavern design, disposal operations, closure and remediation, and results of the feasibility study.

Veil, J.A. [Argonne National Lab., Washington, DC (United States)

1996-11-18

91

Natural gas engine oil passes 7000 hour field test  

SciTech Connect

Conoco reports the successful completion of a 7000 hour field test of its EL MAR 3000 natural gas engine oil in Caterpillar's 3516 lean-burn natural gas engine. The EL MAR product line offers a performance package that includes on-site consultation and product support from engineers and technical support personnel, on-time delivery, state-of-the-art quality control procedures and timely and accurate used oil analysis. 8 figs.

Not Available

1994-12-01

92

Oil shale CFBC ash cementation properties in ash fields  

Microsoft Academic Search

The composition, physical\\/geotechnical properties and cementation of circulating fluidized bed combustion (CFBC) oil shale ash were studied in a large-scale field experiment. Compared to pulverized fuel (PF) combustion oil shale ashes, the CFBC process ashes have lower cementation properties due to their different phase composition. For hydraulic deposition at low ash-water ratios of approximately 1:20, which have been successfully used

T. Pihu; H. Arro; A. Prikk; R. Rootamm; A. Konist; K. Kirsimäe; M. Liira; R. Mõtlep

93

Field development options for a waterflooded heavy-oil reservoir  

SciTech Connect

Battrum Unit 4 is a moderately heavy-oil reservoir in Saskatchewan producing under waterflood from a thin sand. This paper describes a history match of previous field behavior and systematically analyzes through the use of numerical simulation the potential benefits to production of further waterflooding (with and without infill drilling), steamflooding, and horizontal drilling. It is found that the remaining oil recovery potential of a steamflood with horizontal well is significantly higher than that of any of the waterflood options.

Kasraie, M. (Petroleum Recovery Inst., Calgary, Alberta (Canada)); Sammon, P.H. (Computer Modelling Group, Calgary, Alberta (Canada)); Jespersen, P.J. (Sceptre Resources Ltd., Calgary, Alberta (United States))

1993-09-01

94

Reverse osmosis process successfully converts oil field brine into freshwater  

Microsoft Academic Search

A state-of-the-art process in the San Ardo oil field converted produced brine into freshwater. The conversion process used chemical clarification, softening, filtration, and reverse osmosis (RO). After extensive testing resolved RO membrane fouling problems, the pilot plant successfully handled water with about 7,000 mg\\/l. of total dissolved solids, 250 mg\\/l. silica, and 170 mg\\/l. soluble oil. The treated water complies

F. T. Tao; S. Curtice; R. D. Hobbs; J. L. Sides; J. D. Wieser; C. A. Dyke; D. Tuohey; P. F. Pilger

1993-01-01

95

Compact catalytic reactor controls vent odors from oil field  

SciTech Connect

Compact fixed-bed reactors can control H{sub 2}S emissions from hydrocarbon vent gases. Once installed there is no operating requirement other than routine analysis. This type of reactor is now in service on oil platforms in the North Sea and in the U.S. The design was first tested in the Welton oil field, located in Lincolnshire, U.K. In this field, oil produced at the well site travels through underground flow lines to a gathering center situated about 6 miles from Lincoln. The center processes up to 6,000 b/d of stabilized crude oil that is shipped by rail tank car. The crude oil has a sulfur content of 0.01% wt/wt and although the gas-to-oil ratio is low, the associated gas can have a high sulfur content, up to 15,000 ppm of H{sub 2}S by volume. The field was designed and is operated to meet very tight environmental constraints. The operations must be hidden from view and there must be no odors. These constraints pose problems for the operations of the Welton site. Local planning constraints precluded the use of vents or flares on the well sites; therefore, the Welton site has had to develop a novel approach to deal with minor gas venting.

Eddington, K. (BP Exploration, Welton (GB)); Carnell, P. (ICI Katalco, Cleveland (GB))

1991-04-22

96

Reservoir microseismicity at the Ekofisk Oil Field  

SciTech Connect

A triaxial, downhole geophone was deployed within the Ekofisk oil reservoir for monitoring ambient microseismicity as a test to determine if microearthquake signals generated from discrete shear failure of the reservoir rock could be detected. The results of the test were positive. During 104 hours of monitoring, 572 discrete events were recorded which have been identified as shear-failure microearthquakes. Reservoir microseismicity was detected at large distances (1000 m) from the monitor borehole and at rates (> 5 events per hour) which may allow practical characterization of the reservoir rock and overburden deformation induced by reservoir pressure changes.

Rutledge, J.T.; Fairbanks, T.D. [Nambe Geophysical, Inc., Santa Fe, NM (United States); Albright, J.N. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Boade, R.R. [Phillips Petroleum Co., Bartlesville, OK (United States); Dangerfield, J.; Landa, G.H. [Phillips Petroleum Co., Tananger (Norway)

1994-07-01

97

Crude oil from the Samgori field  

SciTech Connect

This article analyzes the chemical composition and physical properties of petroleum from the Georgian SSR. The crude oil is light in color, light in distillation range, low-viscosity, and medium-wax, with low contents of resin-asphaltene compounds, sulfur, and metals. This petroleum is characterized by its high content of naphtha cuts with low sulfur contents, low octane numbers (owing to the high contents of paraffin hydrocarbons), and low contents of aromatics. It is determined that the best flow plan for processing the crude is either a fuel scheme or a fuel/lube scheme, depending on the specific product demands.

Dorogochinskaya, V.A.; Manovyan, A.K.; Shigapova, A.K.; Shul'zhenko, E.D.; Varshaver, V.P.

1984-04-01

98

Dalhart's only Permian field gets best oil well  

SciTech Connect

This paper reports that activity is picking up in Proctor Ranch oil field in the northwestern Texas panhandle, the only Permian producing field in the lightly drilled Dalhart basin. During the last 2 1/2 months, the field has a new operator and a new producing well, the best of five drilled since discovery in 1990. Corlena Oil Co., Amarillo, acquired the field from McKinney Oil Co. in May and tested its first well in early July. The 1-64 Proctor, 18 miles west of Channing, pumped at rates as high as 178 bd of oil and 6 b/d of water from Permian Wolfcamp dolomite perforations at 4,016-29 ft. Corlena plans to drill another well south of the field soon. The lease requires that the next well be spudded by early November. The field appears to be combination structural-stratigraphic trap in which the dolomite pinches out against the Bravo Domes-Oldham nose to the west.

Not Available

1992-07-20

99

Geology and regional setting of Kuparuk Oil Field, Alaska  

SciTech Connect

The Kuparuk oil field is located on the Alaskan Arctic plain in the Colville-Prudhoe basin, 10 to 30 mi (16 to 48 km) west of the Prudhoe Bay field. The 24/sup 0/ API crude is similar in type to that in the Permo-Triassic reservoirs in the Prudhoe Bay field; however, it is from the Lower Cretaceous Kuparuk Formation. This reservoir is located in a basin between the Colville and Prudhoe highs. The origin of the oil is believed to be predominantly Lower sequence formations with migration occurring possibly via the Prudhoe Bay field. The dominant trapping mechanism is stratigraphic pinch-out and truncation of the reservoir at a local unconformity along the southern and western flanks of a southeast-plunging antiform. Structural dip closure exists along the northern and eastern flanks. The reservoir sandstones occur within sequences which become cleaner and coarser upward, and are thought to be shallow marine in origin with a provenance to the northeast. They are interpreted to be infrarift sediments on what is now a passive, Atlantic-type continental margin. Two of the four major lithostratigraphic units mapped within the Kuparuk Formation exhibit good reservoir characteristics and extend over an area in excess of 200 mi/sup 2/ (518 km/sup 2/). The cumulative net pay in the Kuparuk field ranges up to 90 ft, and the estimate of movable oil-in-place is 4.4 billion stock tank bbl. There is no gas cap. The field exhibits a variable oil-water contact ranging from -6,530 ft (-1,990 m) in the southeast to -6,700 ft (-2,042 m) in the north. After secondary waterflooding, the potential recoverable reserves are estimated to be about 1.0 to 1.5 billion stock tank bbl. Kuparuk field, therefore, ranks as one of the largest oil fields in the United States.

Carman, G.J.; Hardwick, P.

1983-06-01

100

Tar mats and residual oil distribution in a giant oil field offshore Abu Dhabi  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes how geochemical data (Rock Eval analysis, SARA composition) combined with wireline log interpretation allows for the recognition of the distribution and continuity of bitumens in a main reservoir of an offshore giant field in Abu Dhabi. The integration of new geochemical data with data and field information provided by the oil company ZADCO allows for the recognition

Bernard Carpentier; Hani Arab; Eric Pluchery; Jean-Marc Chautru

2007-01-01

101

A decade of drilling developments pays off in offshore Italian oil field  

Microsoft Academic Search

As the only oil field in the world producing systematically through horizontal wells, Rospo Mare, the Italian oil field in the Adriatic, is s ''first.'' Rospo Mare is an uncommon oil field because the nature of its reservoir and the characteristics of its oil prevent it from being produced through conventional vertical wells. But thanks to horizontal drilling techniques developed

P. Dussert; G. Santoro; H. Soudet

1988-01-01

102

Microbial consortia in Oman oil fields: a possible use in enhanced oil recovery.  

PubMed

Microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR) is one of the most economical and efficient methods for extending the life of production wells in a declining reservoir. Microbial consortia from Wafra oil wells and Suwaihat production water, Al-Wusta region, Oman were screened. Microbial consortia in brine samples were identified using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and 16S rRNA gene sequences. The detected microbial consortia of Wafra oil wells were completely different from microbial consortia of Suwaihat formation water. A total of 33 genera and 58 species were identified in Wafra oil wells and Suwaihat production water. All of the identified microbial genera were first reported in Oman, with Caminicella sporogenes for the first time reported from oil fields. Most of the identified microorganisms were found to be anaerobic, thermophilic, and halophilic, and produced biogases, biosolvants, and biosurfactants as by-products, which may be good candidates for MEOR. PMID:23314376

Al-Bahry, Saif N; Elshafie, Abdulkader E; Al-Wahaibi, Yahya M; Al-Bemani, Ali S; Joshi, Sanket J; Al-Maaini, Ratiba A; Al-Alawi, Wafa J; Sugai, Yuichi; Al-Mandhari, Mussalam

2013-01-01

103

Crosshole EM for oil field characterization and EOR monitoring: Field examples from Lost Hills, California  

Microsoft Academic Search

A steamflood recently initiated by Mobil Development and Production U.S. at the Lost Hills No 3 oil field in California is notable for its shallow depth and the application of electromagnetic (EM) geophysical techniques to monitor the subsurface steam flow. Steam was injected into three stacked eastward-dipping unconsolidated oil sands at depths from 60 to 120 m; the plume is

Michael Wilt; Clifford Schenkel; Michael Wratcher; Ilia Lambert; Carlos Torres-Verdin; Tseng H. W

1996-01-01

104

Subtle history and geology of Villeperdue oil field  

SciTech Connect

Villeperdue oil field is located in the Paris basin 80 km east of Paris. The first well was drilled in 1959 and tested some oil. But it was not until 1982, after a subtle seismic and drilling history, that exploration resumed and the field proved commercial. The reservoir is an oolitic limestone of early Callovian age (late Dogger); it has an average thickness of about 30 m and is 1,850 m below ground level. The trap, not obvious from seismic data, is a combination of stratigraphic, structural, and diagenetic features. The structure is a western-plunging nose, and the eastward updip closure is supposedly controlled by permeability change with the possible influence of gentle faults and pressure barriers. The producing surface is about 70 km{sup 2}, with a 60-m oil column. Gross porosity, ranging from 8 to 20%, is highly variable, the result of numerous porosity types. As a result, each well has its own characteristics, and field development is mainly controlled by this problem. Thus, porosity detection over the field, and consequently delineation, are dependent on subtle seismic facies studies. Today, 145 wells have been drilled, of which 120 are producing and 19 are used for water injection. Horizontal wells are planned to increase productivity. Production of this giant oil field (based on the Paris basin scale) has been of 3 million m{sup 3} to date, with an average weekly production of about 13,000 m{sup 3}.

Duval, B.C.; Arbin, P. (TOTAL Compagnie Francais des Petroles, Paris (France))

1990-09-01

105

A turbine oil-degrading bacterial consortium from soils of oil fields and its characteristics  

Microsoft Academic Search

A microbial consortium capable of degrading turbine oil (TuO), which consisted mainly of recalcitrant cycloalkanes and isoalkanes, was obtained from a soil sample collected from oil fields using repeated enrichment. When this consortium, named Atsuta A, was cultured in minimal salts medium containing 0.5% (w\\/v) TuO, it degraded 90% of TuO at 30°C and pH 7 over 5 days. Although

Hidetoshi Okuyama

2008-01-01

106

Application of oil gas-chromatography in reservoir compartmentalization in a mature Venezuelan oil field  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gas chromatographic oil {open_quotes}fingerprinting{close_quotes} was successfully applied in a multidisciplinary production geology project by Maraven, S.A. to define the extent of vertical and lateral continuity of Eocene and Miocene sandstone reservoirs in the highly faulted Bloque I field, Maracaibo Basin, Venezuela. Seventy-five non-biodegraded oils (20°-37.4° API) were analyzed with gas chromatography. Fifty were produced from the Eocene Misoa C-4, C-5,

N. G. Munoz; L. Mompart; S. C. Talukdar

1996-01-01

107

Oil field rejuvenation work starts at 14 project sites  

SciTech Connect

This paper reports that the U.S. Department of Energy and oil and gas companies have released more information about a joint effort to rejuvenate aging U.S. oil fields in danger of abandonment. Work is starting on 14 demonstration projects that could recover 21 million bbl of oil from the fluvial dominated deltaic (FDD) reservoirs in which they are conducted. Wider application of the same techniques, if they are successful, could results in addition of 6.3 billion bbl of reserves, nearly 25% of U.S. crude oil reserves. A multidisciplinary team approach is to be used, with as many as 11 operators, service companies, universities, or state agencies participating in each project. All of the projects will culminate in extensive technology transfer activities. Here are descriptions of the projects gleaned from public abstracts provided by the DOE contractors.

Petzet, G.A. (Oil and Gas Journal (US))

1992-06-22

108

Reserve Growth in Oil Fields of West Siberian Basin, Russia  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Although reserve (or field) growth has proven to be an important factor contributing to new reserves in mature petroleum basins, it is still a poorly understood phenomenon. Limited studies show that the magnitude of reserve growth is controlled by several major factors, including (1) the reserve booking and reporting requirements in each country, (2) improvements in reservoir characterization and simulation, (3) application of enhanced oil recovery techniques, and (4) the discovery of new and extensions of known pools in discovered fields. Various combinations of these factors can affect the estimates of proven reserves in particular fields and may dictate repeated estimations of reserves during a field's life. This study explores the reserve growth in the 42 largest oil fields in the West Siberian Basin, which contain about 55 percent of the basin's total oil reserves. The West Siberian Basin occupies a vast swampy plain between the Ural Mountains and the Yenisey River, and extends offshore into the Kara Sea; it is the richest petroleum province in Russia. About 600 oil and gas fields with original reserves of 144 billion barrels of oil (BBO) and more than 1,200 trillion cubic feet of gas (TCFG) have been discovered. The principal oil reserves and most of the oil fields are in the southern half of the basin, whereas the northern half contains mainly gas reserves. Sedimentary strata in the basin consist of Upper Triassic through Tertiary clastic rocks. Most oil is produced from Neocomian (Lower Cretaceous) marine to deltaic sandstone reservoirs, although substantial oil reserves are also in the marine Upper Jurassic and continental to paralic Lower to Middle Jurassic sequences. The majority of oil fields are in structural traps, which are gentle, platform-type anticlines with closures ranging from several tens of meters to as much as 150 meters (490 feet). Fields producing from stratigraphic traps are generally smaller except for the giant Talin field which contains oil in Jurassic river-valley sandstones. Principal source rocks are organic-rich marine shales of the Volgian (uppermost Jurassic) Bazhenov Formation, which is 30-50 m (98- 164 feet) thick. Bazhenov-derived oils are mostly of medium gravity, and contain 0.8-1.3 percent sulfur and 2-5 percent paraffin. Oils in the Lower to Middle Jurassic clastics were sourced from lacustrine and estuarine shales of the Toarcian Togur Bed. These oils are medium to low gravity, with low sulfur (less than 0.25 percent) and high paraffin (commonly to 10 percent) contents. Among the 42 fields analyzed for reserve growth, 30 fields are located in the Middle Ob region, which includes the Samotlor field with reserves of more than 25 BBO and the Fedorov field with reserves of about 5 BBO. Data used in the study include year of discovery, year of first production, annual and cumulative production, and remaining reserves reported by Russian reserve categories (A+B+C1 and C2) in January of each year. Correlation of these Russian resource categories to U.S. categories of the Society of Petroleum Engineers classification is complex and somewhat uncertain. Reserve growth in oil fields of West Siberia was calculated using a newly developed Group Growth method, which requires that the total reserve (proven reserve plus cumulative production) of individual fields with an equal length of reserve record be added together starting with discovery year or the first production year. Then the annual growth factor (AGF), which is the ratio of total reserves of two consecutive years, is calculated for all years. Once AGFs have been calculated, the cumulative growth factor (CGF) is calculated by multiplying the AGFs of all the previous years. The CGF data are used to develop reserve growth models. The West Siberian oil fields show a 13-fold reserve growth 20 years after the discovery year and only about a 2-fold growth after the first production year. This difference is attributed to extensive exploration and field delineation activities between the discovery and the first production years. Because of u

Verma, Mahendra K.; Ulmishek, Gregory F.

2006-01-01

109

Spectral anomaly over Railroad Valley oil field, Nevada  

SciTech Connect

Oil was first discovered in Railroad Valley, south-central Nevada in 1954. Since that time, over 195 wells have been drilled and six oil fields have been found: Bacon Flat, Currant, Trap Spring, Eagle Springs, Grant Canyon and Kate Spring. Two wells in the Grant Canyon field had flows between 2,480 and 4,108 bbl/day in 1987 and may be the most prolific wells onshore in the continental US. Production in the Railroad Valley fields is from Oligocene volcanic and sedimentary rocks and Paleozoic carbonate formations. Traps are structural or structural and stratigraphic, and reservoir seals are indurated or clayey valley fill, weathered tuff, and shales in Tertiary sediments. Reservoir temperatures range between 95 and 309{degree}F. Previous workers have identified a statistically significant positive correlation between hydrocarbon microseepage and vegetation anomalies over the Railroad Valley oil fields with Landsat Multispectral Scanner (MSS) imagery. Several flight lines of high spectral and spatial resolution imagery in the visible, near infrared, shortwave infrared, and thermal infrared regions of the spectrum were flown with Geoscan's MkII Airborne Multispectral Scanner to determine if there was a mineralogical signature associated with the oil fields. The 24-channel scanner collected 8-m resolution picture elements over a swath of about 8 km. Image processing strategies were developed from a knowledge of the spectral curves of minerals in the laboratory. The results from processing Geoscans MkII data were also compared with those obtained from processing Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) imagery over the same area. An 8 {times} 6 km carbonate and iron anomaly was detected on the processed MkII imagery over the Trap Spring oil field. This anomaly may be related to hot spring activity, reported by other workers, that has formed extensive calcite deposits along faults.

Feldman, S.C. (Bechtel Corp., San Francisco, CA (USA)); Honey, F.R. (Geoscan Pty Ltd., Perth (Australia)); Ballew, G.I. (Geodata Images, Carson City, NV (USA))

1990-05-01

110

Oil field slim hole drilling technology improving  

SciTech Connect

Recent advances in slim hole drilling technology have improved the application of this drilling technique to oil and gas exploration and development wells. These advancements include Optimization of slim hole drilling hydraulics, Application of a small particle weighing agent to improve well control and coring operations, Use of slim hole techniques to drill horizontal wells, Use of a new polycrystalline diamond compact cutter to allow economical re-entry of small diameter wells in hard rock. Slim hole continuous coring and drilling is becoming more accepted as a viable drilling method, especially as exploration budgets become smaller. Typical applications for slim hole equipment include drilling in frontier areas where logistics can be a problem and reentry operations in which the existing well has a small diameter. Typically, slim hole drilling operations use technology borrowed from the mining industry. The rigs are smaller and drill with much higher rotational speeds. Definitions of slim holes vary from a well with 90% drilled, with a diameter of less than 7 in. To a well with 70% drilled with less than 5 in. A goal of slim hole, however it is defined, is the drilling of a well with a diameter smaller than that used on conventional wells in the area. The reduced diameter helps cut rig time and cost and reduces the cost of the tubulars. Another goal of slim hole drilling is the ability to retrieve cores from the entire well during drilling.

Not Available

1992-11-23

111

Pyrolysis of oil shales of the Turov field  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The results of investigations of the chemical composition, properties, and thermotechnical characteristics of the technological sample of oil shales of the Turov field of Belarus have been given. The results of experimental works on shale pyrolysis on laboratory setups in stationary and moving beds for obtaining high-calorific energy carriers have been shown.

Falyushin, P. L.; Dobrego, K. V.; Kraiko, V. M.; Anufrieva, E. V.

2011-05-01

112

Liquid fluid loss control additive for oil field cements  

Microsoft Academic Search

A liquid fluid loss control additive is described for oil field cements consisting essentially of a major amount of a liquid hydrocarbon, the balance of the additive comprising one or more hydrophilic water soluble polymers present in the additive in an amount in the range of from about 1% to about 50% by weight of the additive, an organophilic clay

J. F. Burkhalter; W. A. Weigand

1987-01-01

113

Investigation of motor oil additive detergency under electric field conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

1.It has been established that an emf of about 1 V is set up between two dissimilar metals separated by a layer of motor oil; with normal clearances between internal combustion engine parts, this will create an electric field intensity of up to several thousand volts per centimeter.2.A method has been developed for recording automatically the process of washing deposits

G. I. Shor; I. A. Morozova; V. P. Lapin

1966-01-01

114

Reevaluation of Virgin oil field, Washington County, Utah  

SciTech Connect

Virgin field, located in the western part of the Kaiparowits basin, may hold the key to exploration in south-central Utah and northwestern Arizona. In 1907, Virgin field was the site of the first oil production in the state of Utah. Production was established 3 mi west of the present-day boundary of Zion National Park, near oil seeps and oily tar commonly known by pioneers and the Paiute Indians. This field has continued to produce since 1907 but has not been commercially important. Approximately 60 wells have cumulatively produced 209,182 bbl of oil and 3760 mcf of gas. Typically, individual wells produce only 1 to 5 BOPD. Virgin field produces from discontinuous, porous carbonate zones in the Timpoweap, the basal member of the Triassic Moenkopi Formation. It has been questioned whether more than one well has ever penetrated the same pool. Stratigraphic components, porosity, fracturing, and diagenetic trends, in tandem with hydrodynamic forces, have caused hydrocarbons to pool in a syncline, as there is no positive structural closure in the vicinity of Virgin field. Drilling depths are shallow, 550 ft average, appealing to small operators. Because of new ideas and innovative production techniques, activity continues in this old field.

Brandt, C.J.; Swindel, D.B.; Clem, K.M.

1986-08-01

115

Comparison of Permian basin giant oil fields with giant oil fields of other U. S. productive areas  

SciTech Connect

Covering over 40 million ac, the Permian basin is the fourth largest of the 28 productive areas containing giant fields. The 56 giant fields in the basin compare with the total of 264 giant oil fields in 27 other productive areas. Cumulative production figures of 18 billion bbl from the giant fields in the Permian basin are the largest cumulative production figures from giant fields in any of the productive areas. An estimated 1.9 billion bbl of remaining reserves in giant fields rank the basin third among these areas and the 19.9 billion bbl total reserves in giant fields in the basin are the largest total reserves in giant fields in any of the productive areas. The 1990 production figures from giant fields place the basin second in production among areas with giant fields. However, converting these figures to by-basin averages for the giant fields places the Permian basin 12th in field size among the areas with giant fields. Based on average reserves per well, the basin ranks 18th. Average 1990 production per giant field place the basin seventh and the average 1990 production per well in giant fields place the Permian basin 14th among the areas with giant fields.

Haeberle, F.R. (Consultant Geologist, Dallas, TX (United States))

1992-04-01

116

Remote sensing assessment of oil lakes and oil-polluted surfaces at the Greater Burgan oil field, Kuwait  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A heinous catastrophe imposed on Kuwait's desert environment during the 1990 to 1991 Arabian Gulf War was the formation of oil lakes and oil-contaminated surfaces. Presently, the affected areas consist of oil lakes, thick light and disintegrated tarmats, black soil and vegetation. In this study, Landsat TM, Spot, colour aerial photographs and IRS-1D digital image data acquired between 1989 and 1998 were used to monitor the spatial and temporal changes of the oil lakes and polluted surfaces at the Greater Burgan oil field. The use of multisensor datasets provided the opportunity to observe the polluted areas in different wavelengths, look angles and resolutions. The images were digitally enhanced to optimize the visual outlook and improve the information content. The data documented the gradual disappearance of smaller oil lakes and soot/black soil from the surface with time. Even though some of the contaminants were obscured by sand and vegetation and not readily observed on the surface or from satellite images, the harmful chemicals still remain in the soil. Some of the contaminated areas displayed a remarkable ability to support vegetation growth during the higher than average rainfall that occurred between 1992 to 1998. The total area of oil lakes calculated from an IRS-1D panchromatic image acquired on 16 February 1998, using supervised classification applied separately to different parts, was 24.13 km 2.

Kwarteng, Andy Yaw

117

Application of oil gas-chromatography in reservoir compartmentalization in a mature Venezuelan oil field  

SciTech Connect

Gas chromatographic oil {open_quotes}fingerprinting{close_quotes} was successfully applied in a multidisciplinary production geology project by Maraven, S.A. to define the extent of vertical and lateral continuity of Eocene and Miocene sandstone reservoirs in the highly faulted Bloque I field, Maracaibo Basin, Venezuela. Seventy-five non-biodegraded oils (20{degrees}-37.4{degrees} API) were analyzed with gas chromatography. Fifty were produced from the Eocene Misoa C-4, C-5, C-6 or C-7 horizons, fifteen from the Miocene basal La Rosa and ten from multizone completions. Gas chromatographic and terpane and sterane biomarker data show that all of the oils are genetically related. They were expelled from a type II, Upper Cretaceous marine La Luna source rock at about 0.80-0.90% R{sub o} maturity. Alteration in the reservoir by gas stripping with or without subsequent light hydrocarbons mixing was observed in some oils. Detailed chromatographic comparisons among the oils shown by star plots and cluster analysis utilizing several naphthenic and aromatic peak height ratios, resulted in oil pool groupings. This led to finding previously unknown lateral and vertical reservoir communication and also helped in checking and updating the scaling character of faults. In the commingled oils, percentages of each contributing zone in the mixture were also determined giving Maraven engineers a proven, rapid and inexpensive tool for production allocation and reservoir management The oil pool compartmentalization defined by the geochemical fingerprinting is in very good agreement with the sequence stratigraphic interpretation of the reservoirs and helped evaluate the influence of structure in oil migration and trapping.

Munoz, N.G.; Mompart, L. [Maraven, Caracas (Venezuela); Talukdar, S.C.

1996-08-01

118

Production of Oil-Releasing Compounds by Microorganisms from the Daqing Oil Field, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twenty pure cultures isolated from formation waters of the Daqing oil field were studied with respect to their capacity to produce surface-active compounds in media with individual hydrocarbons, lower alcohols, and fatty acids. Aerobic saprotrophic bacteria belonging to the genera Bacillus, Brevibacillus, Rhodococcus, Dietzia, Kocuria, Gordonia, Cellulomonas, Clavibacter, Pseudomonas, and Acinetobacter decreased the surface tension of cultivation media from 55–63

T. N. Nazina; D. Sh. Sokolova; A. A. Grigor'yan; Y.-F. Xue; S. S. Belyaev; M. V. Ivanov

2003-01-01

119

Clay-oil droplet suspensions in electric fields  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Silicone oil droplets containing synthetic smectite clay submerged in immiscible organic oil have been studied by observing clay particle movement and oil circulation when an electric field is applied. Results show how electric field strength, dielectric and electrorheological properties as well as electrohydrodynamics determine the fluid flow and clay particle formation. In a presence of the DC electric fields the clay particles formed a ribbon-like structure onto the inner surface of the droplet. The structure consists of short chain-like clay elements orienting parallel to the electric field direction. It is suggested that a combination of two phenomena, namely the induced viscous flow (electrohydrodynamic effect) and the polarization of the clay particles (dielectric effect), contribute to the ribbon-like structure formation. -/abstract- References [1] G. Taylor, Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Series A. Mathematical and Physical Sciences 291 (1966) 159--166. [2] J. R. Melcher and G. I. Taylor, Annual Review of Fluid Mechanics 1 (1969) 111--146. [3] H. Sato, N. Kaji, T. Mochizuki, and Y. H. Mori, Physics of Fluids 18 (2006) 127101. [4] D. A. Saville, Annual Review of Fluid Mechanics 29 (1997) 27--64. [5] J. O. Fossum, Y. M'eheust, K. P. S. Parmar, K. D. Knudsen, K. J. Måløy, and D. M. Fonseca Europhysics Letters 74

Rozynek, Zbigniew; Fossum, Jon Otto; Kjerstad, Knut; Mikkelsen, Alexander; Castberg, Rene

2012-02-01

120

Crosshole EM for oil field characterization and EOR monitoring: Field examples from Lost Hills, California  

SciTech Connect

A steamflood recently initiated by Mobil Development and Production U.S. at the Lost Hills No 3 oil field in California is notable for its shallow depth and the application of electromagnetic (EM) geophysical techniques to monitor the subsurface steam flow. Steam was injected into three stacked eastward-dipping unconsolidated oil sands at depths from 60 to 120 m; the plume is expected to develop as an ellipsoid aligned with the regional northwest-southeast strike. Because of the shallow depth of the sands and the high viscosity of the heavy oil, it is important to track the steam in the unconsolidated sediments for both economic and safety reasons. Crosshole and surface-to-borehole electromagnetic imaging were applied for reservoir characterization and steamflood monitoring. The crosshole EM data were collected to map the interwell distribution of the high-resistivity oil sands and to track the injected steam and hot water. Measurements were made in two fiberglass-cased observation wells straddling the steam injector on a northeast-southwest profile. Field data were collected before the steam drive, to map the distribution of the oil sands, and then 6 and 10 months after steam was injected, to monitor the expansion of the steam chest. Resistivity images derived from the collected data clearly delineated the distribution and dipping structure of the target oil sands. Difference images from data collected before and during steamflooding indicate that the steam chest has developed only in the middle and lower oil sands, and it has preferentially migrated westward in the middle oil sand and eastward in the deeper sand. Surface-to-borehole field data sets at Lost Hills were responsive to the large-scale subsurface structure but insufficiently sensitive to model steam chest development in the middle and lower oil sands. As the steam chest develops further, these data will be of more use for process monitoring.

Wilt, M.; Schenkel, C.; Wratcher, M.; Lambert, I.; Torres-Verdin, C.; Tseng H.W.

1996-07-16

121

Bird mortality in oil field wastewater disposal facilities.  

PubMed

Commercial and centralized oilfield wastewater disposal facilities (COWDFs) are used in the Western United States for the disposal of formation water produced from oil and natural gas wells. In Colorado, New Mexico, Utah, and Wyoming, COWDFs use large evaporation ponds to dispose of the wastewater. Birds are attracted to these large evaporation ponds which, if not managed properly, can cause wildlife mortality. The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) conducted 154 field inspections of 28 COWDFs in Wyoming from March 1998 through September 2008 and documented mortality of birds and other wildlife in 9 COWDFs. Of 269 bird carcasses recovered from COWDFs, grebes (Family Podicipedidae) and waterfowl (Anatidae) were the most frequent casualties. Most mortalities were attributed to oil on evaporation ponds, but sodium toxicity and surfactants were the suspected causes of mortality at three COWDFs. Although the oil industry and state and federal regulators have made much progress in reducing bird mortality in oil and gas production facilities, significant mortality incidents continue in COWDFs, particularly older facilities permitted in the early 1980's. Inadequate operation and management of these COWDFs generally results in the discharge of oil into the large evaporation ponds which poses a risk for birds and other wildlife. PMID:20844874

Ramirez, Pedro

2010-09-16

122

Bird Mortality in Oil Field Wastewater Disposal Facilities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Commercial and centralized oilfield wastewater disposal facilities (COWDFs) are used in the Western United States for the disposal of formation water produced from oil and natural gas wells. In Colorado, New Mexico, Utah, and Wyoming, COWDFs use large evaporation ponds to dispose of the wastewater. Birds are attracted to these large evaporation ponds which, if not managed properly, can cause wildlife mortality. The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) conducted 154 field inspections of 28 COWDFs in Wyoming from March 1998 through September 2008 and documented mortality of birds and other wildlife in 9 COWDFs. Of 269 bird carcasses recovered from COWDFs, grebes (Family Podicipedidae) and waterfowl (Anatidae) were the most frequent casualties. Most mortalities were attributed to oil on evaporation ponds, but sodium toxicity and surfactants were the suspected causes of mortality at three COWDFs. Although the oil industry and state and federal regulators have made much progress in reducing bird mortality in oil and gas production facilities, significant mortality incidents continue in COWDFs, particularly older facilities permitted in the early 1980’s. Inadequate operation and management of these COWDFs generally results in the discharge of oil into the large evaporation ponds which poses a risk for birds and other wildlife.

Ramirez, Pedro

2010-11-01

123

Archaeoglobus fulgidus isolated from hot north sea oil field waters  

SciTech Connect

A hyperthermophilic sulfate reducer, strain 7324, was isolated from hot (75[degrees]C) oil field waters from an oil production platform in the Norwegian sector of the North Sea. It was enriched on a complex medium and isolated on lactate with sulfate. The cells were nonmotile, irregular coccoid to disc shaped, and 0.3 to 1.0 [mu]m wide. The temperature for growth was between 60 and 85[degrees]C with an optimum of 76[degrees]C. Lactate, pyruvate, and valerate plus H[sub 2] were utilized as carbon and energy sources with sulfate as electron acceptor. Lactate was completely oxidized to CO[sub 2]. The cells contained an active carbon monoxide dehydrogenase but no 2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase pathway. The cells produced small amounts of methane simultaneously with sulfate reduction. F[sub 420] was detected in the cells which showed a blue-green fluorescence at 420 nm. On the basis of morphological, physiological, and serological features, the isolate was classified as an Archaeoglobus sp. Strain 7324 showed 100% DNA-DNA homology with A. fulgidus Z, indicating that it belongs to the species A. fulgidus. Archaeoglobus sp. has been selectively enriched and immunomagnetically captured from oil fields waters from three different platforms in the North Sea. Our results show that strain 7324 may grow in oil reservoirs at 70 to 85[degrees]C and contribute to hydrogen sulfide formation in this environment. 37 refs., 2 figs.

Beeder, J.; Nilsen, R.K.; Rosnes, J.T. Torsvik, T.; Lien, T. (Univ. of Bergen, Bergen (Norway))

1994-04-01

124

Archaeoglobus fulgidus Isolated from Hot North Sea Oil Field Waters  

PubMed Central

A hyperthermophilic sulfate reducer, strain 7324, was isolated from hot (75°C) oil field waters from an oil production platform in the Norwegian sector of the North Sea. It was enriched on a complex medium and isolated on lactate with sulfate. The cells were nonmotile, irregular coccoid to disc shaped, and 0.3 to 1.0 ?m wide. The temperature for growth was between 60 and 85°C with an optimum of 76°C. Lactate, pyruvate, and valerate plus H2 were utilized as carbon and energy sources with sulfate as electron acceptor. Lactate was completely oxidized to CO2. The cells contained an active carbon monoxide dehydrogenase but no 2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase activity, indicating that lactate was oxidized to CO2 via the acetyl coenzyme A/carbon monoxide dehydrogenase pathway. The cells produced small amounts of methane simultaneously with sulfate reduction. F420 was detected in the cells which showed a blue-green fluorescence at 420 nm. On the basis of morphological, physiological, and serological features, the isolate was classified as an Archaeoglobus sp. Strain 7324 showed 100% DNA-DNA homology with A. fulgidus Z, indicating that it belongs to the species A. fulgidus. Archaeoglobus sp. has been selectively enriched and immunomagnetically captured from oil field waters from three different platforms in the North Sea. Our results show that strain 7324 may grow in oil reservoirs at 70 to 85°C and contribute to hydrogen sulfide formation in this environment. Images

Beeder, Janiche; Nilsen, Roald Kare; Rosnes, Jan Thomas; Torsvik, Terje; Lien, Torleiv

1994-01-01

125

Crosshole EM for oil field characterization and EOR monitoring: Field examples  

Microsoft Academic Search

Crosshole and surface-to-borehole electromagnetic (EM) imaging is applied to reservoir characterization and steam flood monitoring in a central California oil field. Steam was injected into three stacked, eastward-dipping, unconsolidated oil sands within the upper 200 in. The steam plume is expected to develop as an ellipse aligned with the regional northwest-southeast strike. EM measurements were made from two flberglass-cased observation

M. Wilt; C. Schenkel; C. Torres-Verdin; Ki Ha Lee; Hung-Wen Tseng

1994-01-01

126

Biodegradation of diesel oil by an Arabian Sea sediment culture isolated from the vicinity of an oil field  

Microsoft Academic Search

Laboratory scale batch studies were performed to test the diesel oil biodegradation ability of ES1 cultures isolated from Arabian Sea sediments obtained from the vicinity of an oil field. This culture could utilize diesel as the sole source of carbon and energy. Under aerobic conditions, 39% loss of diesel oil was observed over 8 days where 80% of the loss

Suparna Mukherji; Sheeja Jagadevan; Gita Mohapatra; Avinash Vijay

2004-01-01

127

An acoustic system for providing the two-phase liquid profile in oil field storage tanks  

Microsoft Academic Search

The continuing need for in situ measurements of the emulsion layer between crude oil and water within oil field tanks has initiated experimental and theoretical investigations of candidate measurement methods. This paper describes a new low-cost and nonradioactive industrial field prototype device that provides, continuously and in real time, the vertical profile of the 2-phase liquid within oil field tank

M. Meribout; A. Al Naamany; K. Al Busaidi

2009-01-01

128

Analysis of Oil and Gas Reserves, San Ardo Field, California. Final Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The oil and gas reserves of San Ardo Field, California were analyzed. The following conclusions were reached. The San Ardo Field is one of the larger oil fields in California and contains significant reserves of crude oil. The low gravity--high viscosity ...

1975-01-01

129

Performance of electroless nickel coated steel in oil field environments  

SciTech Connect

Details of test programs to establish the corrosion and erosion resistance of electroless nickel coating in saline/CO/sub 2//H/sub 2/S petroleum production environments at temperatures up to 180/sup 0/C (350 F) are presented, together with actual experience with their use. Data on heat treatment and deposit composition effects on electroless nickel corrosion in oil field services are given.

Duncan, R.N.

1983-01-01

130

Ekofisk: first of the giant oil fields in Western Europe  

Microsoft Academic Search

Discovery of the giant Ekofisk field in block 2\\/4 in the Norwegian part of the North Sea in 1969 was a major turning point in the exploration for petroleum in Western Europe. Since that time, the North-Sea has proven to be one of the best areas for exploration anywhere in the world. Current production is 1.5 million barrels of oil

E. Van den Bark; O. D. Thomas

1981-01-01

131

Sulfide mineralization and magnetization, Cement oil field, Oklahoma  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Geochemical, petrographic, and rock-magnetic studies were undertaken to investigate possible sources for reported positive aeromagnetic anomalies over the Cement oil field, Oklahoma. Ferrimagnetic pyrrhotite (monoclinic, Fe7S8 ), intergrown with more-abundant, nonmagnetic pyrite (FeS2), is present in well-cutting, core, and quarry samples at Cement, and it is the only identified source of possible enhanced magnetization in rocks over the field. Magnetite, found only in well cuttings from Cement, is contamination from drilling. Magnetite was considered previously by others to be the source of magnetic anomalies at Cement.

Reynolds, Richard L.; Fishman, Neil S.; Webring, Michael W.; Wanty, Richard B.; Goldhaber, Martin B.

1989-01-01

132

Crosshole EM for oil field characterization and EOR monitoring: Field examples  

SciTech Connect

Crosshole and surface-to-borehole electromagnetic (EM) imaging is applied to reservoir characterization and steam flood monitoring in a central California oil field. Steam was injected into three stacked, eastward-dipping, unconsolidated oil sands within the upper 200 in. The steam plume is expected to develop as an ellipse aligned with the regional northwest-southeast strike. EM measurements were made from two flberglass-cased observation wells straddling the steam injector on a northeast-southwest profile. Field data were collected before the initiation of a steam drive to map the distribution of the oil sands and then six months after the steam was injected to monitor the progress of the steam chest. Resisitivity images derived from the EM data collected before steam injection clearly delineate the distribution and dipping structure on the target oil sands. Difference images from data collected before and after steam flooding indicate that the steam chest has developed only in the deeper oil sands, and it has preferentially migrated eastward. Surface-to-borehole measurements were useful in mapping the distribution of the major oil sands, but they were insensitive to resisitivity changes in the early stages of the steam flood.

Wilt, M.; Schenkel, C. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Torres-Verdin, C. [Schlumberger-Doll Research Center, Ridgefield, CT (United States); Lee, Ki Ha [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States); Tseng, Hung-Wen [California Univ., Berkeley, CA (United States)

1994-09-01

133

Increasing Heavy Oil Reserves in the Wilmington Oil Field Through Advanced Reservoir Characterization and Thermal Production Technologies, Class III  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this project was to increase the recoverable heavy oil reserves within sections of the Wilmington Oil Field, near Long Beach, California through the testing and application of advanced reservoir characterization and thermal production technologies. It was hoped that the successful application of these technologies would result in their implementation throughout the Wilmington Field and, through technology transfer, will be extended to increase the recoverable oil reserves in other slope and basin clastic (SBC) reservoirs.

City of Long Beach; Tidelands Oil Production Company; University of Southern California; David K. Davies and Associates

2002-09-30

134

Geology of Terra Nova oil field, Grand Banks, Newfoundland  

SciTech Connect

Oil was discovered at the Petro-Canada et al Terra Nova K-08 well in May 1984. The well was drilled in the Jeanne d'Arc subbasin, 340 km east of St. John's, Newfoundland, and 35 km southeast of the giant Hibernia oil field. Follow-up wells provided log correlations and core data that have been used with a three-dimensional seismic survey to construct a geologic model. Mapping the field demonstrated a combination structural-stratigraphic trap. The reservoir is within the lower part of the Jeanne d'Arc sequence (Upper Jurassic). This conglomeratic sandstone is interpreted as having been deposited in a nearshore to fluvial setting by basinward, northward progradation of fan-delta systems. The reservoir has a depositional limit updip to the south, and is overstepped and sealed by transgressive shales of the upper Jeanne d'Arc. Oil source is from the underlying Egret (Oxfordian-Kimmeridgian) argillaceous limestones. The geologic model and seismic interpretation have been tested by appraisal drilling.

Dwyer, J.D.; Sullivan, G.W.; Park, J.

1986-05-01

135

Heavy oil recovery by CO/sub 2/ application from Bat1 Raman Field, Turkey  

SciTech Connect

Bat1 Raman Oil Field, in southeastern Turkey, contains 1.85 billion STB of heavy oil in place. The reservoir represents Turkey's biggest single oil reserve. The rapid production decline of the field and increases in the price of crude oil has led TPAO to consider intervening with enhanced oil recovery techniques. Since 1967 various recovery schemes have been attempted including steam and water injection. Extensive laboratory, modeling and comparative engineering studies of various techniques resulted on immiscible CO/sub 2/ application. The paper presents the reservoir engineering aspects of immiscible CO/sub 2/ application as applied to Bat1 Raman Oil Field.

Kantar, K.; Issever, K.; Karaoguz, D.; Varana, L.

1983-03-01

136

Floating oil production unit slated in small field off Gabon  

SciTech Connect

This paper reports on the first U.S. tanker converted to a floating production, storage, and offloading (FPSO) unit which takes up station in Gombe-Beta field off Gabon by Dec. 1. FPSO Ocean Producer will work under a 3 year, day rate contract let late in 1990 by Amoco-Gabon Bombe Marin co., a unit of Amoco Production Co. (OGJ, Dec. 24, 1990, p. 27). Gombe-Beta field is in the Atlantic Ocean about 70 miles south of Port Gentil, Gabon. Ocean Producer will be moored in 50 ft of water 3.7 miles off Gabon, with Bombe-Beta's unmanned production platform about 820 ft astern. The vessel will be held in position by a disconnectable, asymmetric, six point, spread mooring system, It is owned and operated by Oceaneering International Services Ltd. (OISL). Affiliate Oceaneering Production Systems (OPS) converted the 78,061 dwt oil tanker MT Baltimore Sea at a capital cost of $25 million at Gulf Copper Manufacturing Corp.'s Port Arthur, Tex., shipyard. Both companies are units of Oceaneering International Inc., Houston. OPS the Ocean Producer's use in Gombe-Beta field is the shallowest water FPSO application in the world. Amoco-Gabon chose an FPSO production system for Gombe-Beta because it expects the remote field to have a short economic life, and the oil requires extensive processing.

Not Available

1991-10-14

137

Lightweight cementing program increases profit from Kansas oil field  

SciTech Connect

This paper reports that single-stage, lightweight cementing in a Kansas operation improved the cement bond across a permeable oil/water sand. Additionally, pipe movement after pumping helped bond quality by preventing the slurry from beginning its transition time. This delay allowed continued transmission of hydrostatic pressure against the formation. In 1991, OXY USA Inc. completed 12 wells in the Ray field in Kansas. All wells were drilled to the Reagan sand. The sand has a distinct water/oil contact, strong water drive, and good permeability. Because of poor cement bonding across the Reagan, two-stage conventional cementing in the first eight wells did not effectively prevent excessive water production. Some of these wells had to have remedial cement squeezes and be reperforated. This work increased completion costs by about $15,000/well.

McCalmont, A.J. (OXY USA Inc., Wichita KS (United States)); Matthews, B.; Crook, R. (Halliburton Services, Duncan, OK (United States))

1992-06-29

138

Relationship between lithofacies and reservoir quality in giant oil field: Long Beach unit, Wilmington field, California  

SciTech Connect

Long Beach unit is part of the giant Wilmington oil field, Los Angeles basin. Detailed examination of six cores totaling more than 1500 m, 900 core-plug porosity and permeability measurements, and 85 grain size analyses from the major producing interval (the more than 300-m thick Range zone) provided an excellent data set for relating reservoir quality to lithofacies.

Slatt, R.M.

1989-04-01

139

Sword field, offshore California: challenges in making this giant oil field commercial  

Microsoft Academic Search

The major obstacles and challenges involved in exploration and development of a giant deep-water low-gravity oil field are exemplified in the undeveloped Sword field of offshore southern California. In 1979, Conoco Exploration identified a northeast-southwest-trending basement high in 800-2000 ft deep federal waters 12 mi southwest of Pt. Conception at the western end of the Santa Barbara Channel. The intended

James H. Ballard

1988-01-01

140

Compulsory acquisition of oil exploration fields in Delta State, Nigeria : The compensation problem  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to focus on the problems of compensation for compulsory acquisition of oil exploration fields in Delta State with particular reference to the oil field acquired by Agip Oil Company for gas pipeline way leave in Irri and Okpai towns of Delta State. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – A survey was conducted in which questionnaires were

P. S. Ogedengbe

2007-01-01

141

Remaining recoverable petroleum in giant oil fields of the Los Angeles Basin, southern California  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Using a probabilistic geology-based methodology, a team of U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) scientists recently assessed the remaining recoverable oil in 10 oil fields of the Los Angeles Basin in southern California. The results of the assessment suggest that between 1.4 and 5.6 billion barrels of additional oil could be recovered from those fields with existing technology.

Gautier, Donald L.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Cook, Troy A.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Klett, Timothy R.

2012-01-01

142

Methanococcus thermolithotrophicus Isolated from North Sea Oil Field Reservoir Water  

PubMed Central

Methanococcus thermolithotrophicus ST22 was isolated from produced water of a North Sea oil field, on mineral medium with H(inf2)-CO(inf2) as the sole source of carbon and energy. The isolate grew at 17 to 62(deg)C, with an optimum at 60(deg)C. The pH range was 4.9 to 9.8, with optimal growth at pH 5.1 to 5.9; these characteristics reflected its habitat. Strain ST22 was quickly identified and distinguished from the type strain by immunoblotting.

Nilsen, R. K.; Torsvik, T.

1996-01-01

143

Corrosion of alloy steels in oil field fluids  

SciTech Connect

Laboratory and field tests have been conducted on two low alloy and two higher alloy steels at a range of brine salinities and sulfide contents typical of oil well production fluids. AISI types 4130 and 4340 show the same behavior in these fluids as mild steel. AISI type 410 stainless steel and 9% chromium - 1% molybdenum steel corrode at rates as great as that of mild steel at higher chloride or sulfide concentrations. Special corrosion inhibitors are required for higher alloy steels when they are exposed to these conditions.

Martin, R.L.

1987-01-01

144

Correlating field and laboratory data for crude oil fouling  

SciTech Connect

Crude oil fouling in a laboratory fouling unit was investigated. The study focused on the preheat-train heat exchangers located just before the crude unit furnace and operating at temperatures in excess of 200 C. A fouling rate model developed using laboratory data from crude blends was used to predict the threshold conditions where negligible fouling was expected under refinery conditions. The results from the model were compared to actual data from a fouling unit located at a refinery. The article discusses factors that may explain the performance of the model and the observed discrepancies between fouling data obtained in the laboratory and the field.

Asomaning, S.; Panchal, C.B.; Liao, C.F.

2000-06-01

145

Applications of water-soluble polymers in the oil field  

SciTech Connect

Water-soluble polymers commonly used in the oil field are reviewed. The properties of guar, guar derivatives, cellulose derivatives, xanthan gum, locust bean gum, starches, and synthetic polymers, especially polyacrylamides, are discussed and related to chemical structures of the polymers. Original data comparing polymer solution viscosity properties under identical conditions are presented. These data include effect of polymer concentration on solution viscosity, temperature effect on solution viscosity, viscosity in acidic solution, and polymer solution viscosity in the presence of a hemicellulase enzyme. 105 refs.

Chatterji, J.; Borchardt, J.K.

1981-11-01

146

Update on cavern disposal of NORM-contaminated oil field wastes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Some types of oil and gas production and processing wastes contain naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM). If NORM is present at concentrations above regulatory levels in oil field waste, the waste requires special disposal practices. The existin...

J. A. Veil

1998-01-01

147

Relational methodology for integrating and analyzing field test and research data describing enhanced oil recovery  

SciTech Connect

This report demonstrates the application of concepts of relational analysis for the integration of two experimental data bases created by Gulf Universities Research Consortium: the Enhanced Oil Recovery Field Test Data Base; and the Enhanced Oil Recovery Research Data Base.

Bavinger, B.A.; Callaway, S.; Goodbread, D.T.; Gumnick, J.L.

1981-10-01

148

Residual-Oil-Saturation-Technology Test, Bell Creek Field, Montana. Final Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A field test was conducted of the technology available to measure residual oil saturation following waterflood secondary oil recovery processes. The test was conducted in a new well drilled solely for that purpose, located immediately northwest of the Bel...

1981-01-01

149

The floating oil pool - A unique trapping mechanism at Kern River field  

SciTech Connect

Geologic reevaluation of the giant Kern River field, a 4 billion bbl oil accumulation, suggests a nontrapping oil emplacement mechanism not previously described in the literature. The field produces 12-14{degree} API oil from a shallow, thick sequence of stacked fluvial sands situated across a homocline that dips 4-5{degree} southwest. Migration of hydrocarbons generated in deeply buried Miocene shales ended in the Kern River field when the oil reached the top of the regional groundwater table, a surface that truncates the dipping beds in the subsurface. The oil floats on top of the groundwater and is confined by an updip seal consisting of simply gravity, or barometric pressure. Significant vertical changes in the groundwater support system in the geologic and historic past have probably been caused by climatic fluctuations or changes in the volume or location of the nearby Kern River. A recharged groundwater support system would have hydraulically lifted the floating oil into shallower sands; a depleted support system would have allowed the oil to flow downdip, leaving behind undersaturated dry oil sands. Lateral propagation of this floating oil pool is limited by the inability of the unpressured oil to overcome capillary resistances and opposing groundwater movements. Stratigraphic complexities and faulting occasionally influence oil distribution, but the upper limits of producible oil are determined by the configuration of the regional groundwater table. Other shallow, heavy San Joaquin Valley oil fields that lack definitive conventional trapping mechanisms probably can also be reclassified as floating oil pools.

Kodl, E.J. (PT Caltex Pacific Indonesia, Sumatra (Indonesia)); Eacman, J.C. (Texaco Producing, Inc., Bakersfield, CA (USA))

1990-05-01

150

Crude oil from the El'Darovo field  

SciTech Connect

The crudes from the El'darovo field are analyzed. They are light, low-sulfur, low-viscosity, and low pour, with a wax content of 1.2-2.8% by weight and low contents of asphaltenes and nitrogen. The oils from the Lower Cretaceous deposits differ from those from the Upper Creataceous deposits in that they are lower in density, viscosity, and carbon residue, with low contents of resins and asphaltenes, sulfur and nitrogen, and high yields of light fractions. The hydrocarbon composition of the IBP-62 degrees C cut was determined chromatographically in a column packed with CaA zeolite. The properties of the crudes are typical for crudes produced in this region. It is recommended that these crudes should be processed in mixtures with crudes from other fields in the Checheno-Ingush ASSR.

Dorogochinskaya, V.A.; Fadeev, V.S.; Shul'zhenko, E.D.

1985-11-01

151

Silverthread oil field, Ventura County, California: a hydrodynamic trap  

SciTech Connect

Silverthread oil field is located in west-central Ventura County, California. An unusual combination of Miocene turbidite sand deposition, tight folding, faulting, and hydrodynamics have created an accumulation of over 6 million bbl of oil from 33 wells. This field is also unique in that it lies beneath the convergence of several opposing major thrust faults which effectively hide any surface indication of structure at depth. Though previously and often explored by majors and other operators, the remarkable deduction and perseverance by Harry Browne and Argo Petroleum Corporation geologists led to the main area discovery in 1971. Of exceptional interest is the interaction of classic hydrodynamic flow on the distribution of fluids within the reservoir. Thirteen contour maps and numerous structure and stratigraphic sections were required to unravel the sand sequence, faulting, structure, and hydrodynamics. Because of high surface relief, most wells were directionally drilled from islands, and subsequent electric logs had to be unstretched using the Dental Dam technique to facilitate their correlation. A large, lighted, three-dimensional model consisting of thirty-six 2 x 5-ft transparent plexiglas plates was constructed to show a simple resolution of the complexities of this area and will be part of the poster session. This display, they believe, will generate considerable interest in their presentation.

Hacker, R.N.; Hester, R.L.

1987-05-01

152

Techniques to Improve Cyclic Steam Stimulation of Deep and Extra Heavy Oil Reservoirs in Xiaowa Oil Field  

Microsoft Academic Search

Xiaowa oil field is a fault nose in structure with sandstone res- ervoirs, in which 9.7km 2 oil-bearing area and 3627 × 10 4 t original oil in place is proved. The pay zones that have been developed are Dongying Group and S3 of lower Tertiary. Dongying Group belongs to delta-front regime with good physical properties. S3 belongs to submerged

Cheng Jincai; Yu Hongkun; Yang Xianke; Liu Guiman

1998-01-01

153

Impact of Surveillance Fields on Crude Oil Production in the United States.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report presents an analysis of crude oil production trends in the US and focuses on the declining production from old, large fields (surveillance fields). Oil fields in the Alaska North Slope and the federal offshore areas have furnished the substant...

J. H. Wood V. T. Funk J. S. Sanders

1984-01-01

154

Effect of Constant Magnetic Field on the Rheological Properties of High-Paraffinicity Oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of constant magnetic field on the rheological properties and freezing point of a number of high-paraffinicity oils is studied. It is established that the rheological behavior of oils in a magnetic field depends on the content of paraffin hydrocarbons, resins, and asphaltenes. An increase in the main rheological parameters upon the action of magnetic field is observed for

Yu. V. Loskutova; N. V. Yudina

2003-01-01

155

Chemical Characterization of Brines from Selected Oil Fields, Tabasco, México  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thirteen brine samples were recovered from nine oil-producing wells in the Agave (Cretaceous) and Saramako (Cretaceous and Tertiary) oil fields. These samples were analyzed for major and trace elements as well as O and D isotopic compositions. The goal of this study was to compare the possible links between oil-related brines enclosed within Cretaceous and Tertiary productive horizons that were thought to have similar origin oils. The salinity of the Saramako Cretaceous and Tertiary horizons is very constant, around 30000 ppm, one to six times lower than the salinities found in the Agave Cretaceous Field (from 45000 to 170000 ppm). Major ion chemistry suggests that brines are in equilibrium with the host rock. One of the main difference, besides Mg, resides in the S concentrations, were Agave samples present lower concentrations, probably related to the presence of abundant sulfides in the aquifer's rock. Halogen (Br, Cl) systematics indicates a different origin for the Saramako and Agave brines. The Saramako samples halogen composition plot near normal seawater both in the Na/Cl vs Cl/Br (molar ratios) and the Cl vs Br (ppm) plots. The Agave halogen data scatter near and underneath the seawater evaporation line in the Na/Cl vs Cl/Br (molar ratios), suggesting that these fluids could represent seawater evolved past the point of halite precipitation. The Cl vs Br (ppm) plot indicates that these fluids undergone some degree of mixing with low-salinity fluids, probably seawater. The presence of two different groups of data suggests the compartment of the aquifer. The \\deltaD and \\delta18O data show strong differences between the Saramako and Agave brines. The Saramako brine \\delta18O and \\deltaD isotopic compositions are +2.1% (VSMOW) and -13.8% respectively. The Agave samples have a \\delta18O composition from +4.3% to +6.0% and \\deltaD isotopic composition from -20.0% to -12.6%. Differences in \\delta18O compositions between Saramako and Agave brines indicate that the latter fluids were in equilibrium with the host dolostones at certain temperature. Saramako brine composition indicates a near-pristine seawater origin. Agave brines chemical composition suggests an origin related with a bittern formed after evaporation of seawater past the point of halite precipitation, subsequently mixed with seawater. Oxygen isotopic compositions reflect both different host rock and water to rock interaction phenomena, whereas hydrogen isotopic composition can be modified by diagenetic reactions.

Méndez-Ortiz, B.; Carrillo-Chavez, A.; Tritlla, J.; Levresse, G.; Gonzalez-Partida, E.; Oviedo-Perez, A.; Martinez-Kepm, H.; Gonzalez-Posadas, F.; Clara-Valdes, L.

2004-12-01

156

Petroleum geology of the West Siberian Basin and a detailed description of the Samotlor oil field  

Microsoft Academic Search

This is the first in a series of planned studies of important oil-gas regions of the world. It is a compilation, along with some interpretation, of the geology of the West Siberian Basin and a description of the Samotlor oil field, the largest field of USSR. The Samotlor oil field produced 2,200,000 bbl\\/day in 1976, about 20% of total USSR

J. W. Clarke; O. W. Jr. Girard; J. Peterson; J. Rachlin

1977-01-01

157

Storage of oil field-produced waters alters their chemical and microbiological characteristics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many oil fields are in remote locations, and the time required for shipment of produced water samples for microbiological\\u000a examination may be lengthy. No studies have reported on how storage of oil field waters can change their characteristics.\\u000a Produced water samples from three Alberta oil fields were collected in sterile, industry-approved 4-l epoxy-lined steel cans,\\u000a sealed with minimal headspace and

Jordan C. Hulecki; Julia M. Foght; Phillip M. Fedorak

2010-01-01

158

Porosity determination in the Tengiz oil field, Kazakhstan  

SciTech Connect

The thick carbonate reservoir of the Tengiz oil field in Western Kazakhstan consists primarily of clean limestone. Ninety-three wells were drilled in this field but only 74 of these wells have penetrated the reservoir. None of the wells in the field have been drilled completely through the reservoir, nor have any definite fluid contacts been encountered yet. Log information obtained in the field varies widely from well to well. The most frequently available logs are the GR and NGR logs, which, by themselves, offer very little concrete numerical information about the reservoir. Most of the porosity data collected over the Tengiz reservoir was obtained with Russian logging tools. A normalization process, based on available Western log data, was applied to all the porosity log information. This standardized all these data, thus eliminating and digitizing and tool calibration errors. The normalization follows a one point process, thereby preserving the original distribution integrity of the data. Based on maximum tool availability and using the normalized Russian log data, porosity was then determined for the carbonate reservoir. A visual screening method was used to check for errant tool behavior in order to eliminate any obviously incorrect porosity readings. As a final phase in the project, possible ranges of the calculated porosity values were established for probabilistic reserve calculations. These lower and upper range values could then be applied to determine high and low probability cases.

Papa, F.; Osman, K. [Tengizchevroil, San Ramon, CA (United States)

1995-08-01

159

Reliability Test on Oil Field Efficiency with DEA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently, enterprises which are exploring and producing around the world are faced with problems on bot h cost and roductivity. Oil exploration as the top of the whole oil industry, the productivity evaluation of oil exploration is ccordance to researching, programming, and controlling the development of oil enterprises. Bootstrap is a statistical echnique based on the sampling with repetition on

BAO Hanrui; AN Xun

2011-01-01

160

Field Compaction Tests. Research and Development Program on the Disposal of Retorted Oil Shale-Paraho Oil Shale Project.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report contains information on the compaction characteristics of retorted (semiworks plant; direct heating method) oil shale when densified in the field by various types of commercial compacting equipment and the effects of (1) number of equipment pa...

W. G. Holtz

1976-01-01

161

Process for the treatment of highly viscous heavy oils at the oil field to effect desalting and transportability thereof  

SciTech Connect

A treatment of highly viscous and very dense oils at the oil field to effect their desalting, and resulting in the production of an easily transportable hydrocarbon mixture of reduced viscosity, comprising the steps of: (a) diluting the crude oil with a hydrocarbon cut obtained in step (d); (b) subjecting the effluent from step (a) to a desalting-dehydration treatment; (c) subjecting the effluent from step (b) to hydrovisbreaking; and (d) distilling the effluent from step (c), and recycling a hydrocarbon cut to step (a), the remaining part forming a synthetic crude oil of reduced viscosity.

Billon, A.; Peries, J.-P.; Quignard, A.

1985-08-06

162

Increasing Heavy Oil Reserves in the Wilmington Oil Field Through Advanced Reservoir Characterization and Thermal Production Technologies, Class III  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this project was to increase the recoverable heavy oil reserves within sections of the Wilmington Oil Field, near Long Beach, California through the testing and application of advanced reservoir characterization and thermal production technologies. The successful application of these technologies would result in expanding their implementation throughout the Wilmington Field and, through technology transfer, to other slope and basin clastic (SBC) reservoirs.

City of Long Beach; Tidelands Oil Production Company; University of Southern California; David K. Davies and Associates

2002-09-30

163

Feasibility study for the development of the Karakuduk oil field. Volume 1. Export trade information  

SciTech Connect

The study, conducted by Chaparral Resources, was funded by the U.S. Trade and Development Agency. The report shows the results of a feasibility study to better define the characteristics and extent of the Karakuduk Oil Field. The proposed project would include the reworking of four existing exploratory wells and drilling one new well. The plan also calls for the installation of a trunkline, as well as a facility with all necessary oil, has and water handling equipment according to the production needs of the Pilot through Full Production Phases. This is Volume One of a two-volume report and is divided into the following sections: (1) Project Overview and Schedule; (2) Oil Field Reserves; (3) Field Drilling Plan; (4) Field Facilities; (5) Oil Tranpsortation Plan; (6) Oil Marketing Plan; (7) Engineering, Procurement and Construction Plan; (8) Oil Field Operations and Maintenance Plan; (9) Mapping and Survey of Site; (10) Cost Estimate.

NONE

1996-05-01

164

Desalination of produced water from oil production fields by membrane processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water co-produced with oil and gas is termed produced water. Produced water is very difficult wastewater to treat and characteristics changes by well to well. In this study, treatability of produced water generated from oil production fields in Trakya region which is operated by National Oil and Natural Gas Company of Turkey was investigated. The aim of this study is

Mehmet Çakmakce; Necati Kayaalp; Ismail Koyuncu

2008-01-01

165

FIELD TEST KIT FOR CHARACTERIZING OIL-BRINE EFFLUENTS FROM OFFSHORE DRILLING PLATFORMS  

EPA Science Inventory

This research program was initiated to evaluate test methods for characterizing oil-brine effluents from offshore oil production platforms and to package and deliver a field test kit for on-site oil-brine analyses. After an initial laboratory evaluation and selection of test meth...

166

Contextual approach for oil spill detection in SAR images using image fusion and markov random fields  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a study for oil spill detection. The scheme incorporates contextual information using multi-conexity analysis. The image is modeled as a discrete Markov random field (MRF). Each pixel can be classified in two classes: {oil, not-oil}. To determine the class we optimized the a posteriori energy function by means of simulated annealing. The segmentation result contains different levels

Ludwin L; Miguel Moctezuma; F. Parmiggiani

2006-01-01

167

Aging effect on electrical characteristics of insulating oil in field transformer  

Microsoft Academic Search

To ensure long-term reliability of transformers, it is important to identify the degradation characteristics of insulating oil in long-term operations, which are the dominant factors of the transformer dielectric strengths. Analysis on aged field insulating oil was conducted to identify how insulating oil in transformers changes and deteriorates with increasing age and what are the impacts on the electrical characteristics

Masanori Kohtoh; Shuhei Kaneko; Shigemitsu Okabe; Tsuyoshi Amimoto

2009-01-01

168

Alkanes in benthic organisms from the Buccaneer oil field  

SciTech Connect

About 200 g per day of alkanes are present in brine discharged from each of two production platforms in the Buccaneer oil field in the NW Gulf of Mexico. These alkanes disperse rapidly in the water column, so that seawater concentrations of petroleum alkanes in this region are generally very low. They can be taken up to some extent by plankton, fish, and barnacles, but the petroleum alkane concentrations in these organisms are also relatively low. The largest pool of petroleum alkanes is in the surficial sediments, where concentrations of up to 25 ppM are observed, with concentration gradients extending more than 20 m from the production platforms. Organisms are examined which are exposed to these sediments and, for comparison, other specimens from control sites around structures from which there are no discharges.

Middleditch, B.S.; Basile, B.

1980-06-01

169

Examination of eastern oil shale disposal problems - the Hope Creek field study  

SciTech Connect

A field-based study of problems associated with the disposal of processed Eastern oil shale was initiated in mid-1983 at a private research site in Montgomery County, Kentucky. The study (known as the Hope Creek Spent Oil Shale Disposal Project) is designed to provide information on the geotechnical, revegetation/reclamation, and leachate generation and composition characteristics of processed Kentucky oil shales. The study utilizes processed oil shale materials (retorted oil shale and reject raw oil shale fines) obtained from a pilot plant run of Kentucky oil shale using the travelling grate retort technology. Approximately 1000 tons of processed oil shale were returned to Kentucky for the purpose of the study. The study, composed of three components, is described. The effort to date has concentrated on site preparation and the construction and implementation of the field study research facilities. These endeavors are described and the project direction in the future years is defined.

Koppenaal, D.W.; Kruspe, R.R.; Robl, T.L.; Cisler, K.; Allen, D.L.

1985-02-01

170

Data integration for reservoir characterization: A Central Arabian oil field  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A 3-D seismic survey covering an area of 128 square kilometers and a set of well logs from a new oil field in Central Arabia were utilized to study a selected geologic section and to evaluate the detectability of fluid-anomaly signal. The zone of interest includes the Permian Khuff, which is mainly carbonates and the underlying Unayzah, which is siliciclastic rocks. The Unayzah reservoir consists of two compartments that are thoroughly separated by a siltstone layer and sealed by the base Khuff shale. Production is controlled by a combination of structural and stratigraphic trapping. A least squares regression over a plane model was used for mapping the well log properties in x- and y-space. A useful reproduction of logs from two withheld wells was obtained with a prediction error that is normally distributed around zero. Strong amplitudes result from the manifestation of the Khuff channels into the reservoir interval. This overprint phenomenon results from time delay and from wavelet tail. However, the seismic data helped uncover some geologic details, and a weak amplitude flat spot with a limited lateral extent can be recognized in the lower sandstone. In this research, I study in detail the nature and degree of the correspondence between the seismic data and the wireline log data in this field. A plane fit of the estimated OWC seismic times produced a tilted OWC time map that indicates a simple velocity gradient. This procedure of estimating the fluid-contact level on seismic data does not require information on velocity nor seismic reference datum. It provides an improved picture of the relationship between the lithologic units and oil-water-contact. The OWC time at the well locations was estimated within +/-2.5 ms, which amounts to +/-17 ft depth error. This adequately accounts for lateral velocity variations and datum plane adjustment for improved time to depth conversion. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

Aljuhani, Salem Gulaiyel

171

Functional gene diversity of soil microbial communities from five oil-contaminated fields in China  

PubMed Central

To compare microbial functional diversity in different oil-contaminated fields and to know the effects of oil contaminant and environmental factors, soil samples were taken from typical oil-contaminated fields located in five geographic regions of China. GeoChip, a high-throughput functional gene array, was used to evaluate the microbial functional genes involved in contaminant degradation and in other major biogeochemical/metabolic processes. Our results indicated that the overall microbial community structures were distinct in each oil-contaminated field, and samples were clustered by geographic locations. The organic contaminant degradation genes were most abundant in all samples and presented a similar pattern under oil contaminant stress among the five fields. In addition, alkane and aromatic hydrocarbon degradation genes such as monooxygenase and dioxygenase were detected in high abundance in the oil-contaminated fields. Canonical correspondence analysis indicated that the microbial functional patterns were highly correlated to the local environmental variables, such as oil contaminant concentration, nitrogen and phosphorus contents, salt and pH. Finally, a total of 59% of microbial community variation from GeoChip data can be explained by oil contamination, geographic location and soil geochemical parameters. This study provided insights into the in situ microbial functional structures in oil-contaminated fields and discerned the linkages between microbial communities and environmental variables, which is important to the application of bioremediation in oil-contaminated sites.

Liang, Yuting; Van Nostrand, Joy D; Deng, Ye; He, Zhili; Wu, Liyou; Zhang, Xu; Li, Guanghe; Zhou, Jizhong

2011-01-01

172

Microbiological investigations after the ``Bravo'' blowout (Ekofisk oil field, North Sea)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Following the accident in 1977 at an offshore oil producing platform in the Ekofisk oil field (North Sea) an estimated amount of 13000 15000 tons of oil polluted the sea. Microbiological investigations were conducted one to five weeks after the blowout and compared with data collected in the same area during the years before. Bacterial numbers in the water were fairly low. In the floating oil particles, however, extremely high values were obtained (2 × 1011 heterotrophic bacteria 1-1 and 5 × 1010 oil degrading bacteria 1-1). The data on oxygen consumption gave markedly different results indicating that the oil degradation potential of the water seemed to vary widely from one station to another. The greatest increase in oxygen consumption (following the addition of oil to the bottles) occurred in samples taken at the station where oil particles from the blowout were observed floating on the surface. This indicates a higher oil degradation potential.

Gunkel, W.; Pedersen, S.; Dundas, I.; Eimhjellen, K.

1985-03-01

173

Impact of oil field exploitation on eco-environment of the Daqing lakes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Daqing lakes are located in the region with sub-humid continental monsoon climate. Through historical comparison of the\\u000a environment before and after oil field exploitation in the area, the paper analyses the impact of oil field exploitation on\\u000a the eco-environment of the lakes, including the impact of diversion works, drainage works, exploitation and utilization of\\u000a groundwater, dropped crude oil and

Shao-peng Yu; Jin-fu Lu; Guang-you Sun

2003-01-01

174

Producing sour oil and gas in the Jay field of the Florida panhandle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Due to the presence of hydrogen sulfide in the Jay field crude oil, complex facilities including oil stabilization, gas sweetening, and sulfur recovery units were required to produce salable oil and gas. In order to initiate field production and to provide extended well tests, a small 2,000 bpd facility was installed initially. As development drilling proceeded, 6,500 and 12,000 bpd

J. B. Chambers; R. B. Hillegeist

1974-01-01

175

Multimedia simulation increases understanding of oil field tools  

SciTech Connect

Intelligence augmentation using multimedia techniques shows great promise in letting oil field personnel obtain a better understanding of the operation of downhole tools and surface equipment. Whereas artificial intelligence (AI) includes knowledge-based expert systems to identify and analyze situations and recommend solutions, intelligence augmentation (IA) is a different genre. In the IA process, the designer/operator/engineer works with a fully simulated, animated, multimedia demonstration of what will occur on the proposed work. He receives no direct recommendations made by the system; however, the system may assist in identifying pitfalls or to simply provide better understanding. The simulation includes the sound of engines, pumps, pressured air, shearing pins, rupturing diaphragms, etc. Viewing may be in an office environment or at the well site. A personal computer (PC) monitor is the only equipment needed in addition to a computer keyboard-sized processor. IA promises to be an improvement over printed manuals, still slide shows, and models as a means of teaching and demonstrating processes. Hardware and startup software costs are modest enough to allow placing the units in every office and field camp of an operating or service company. The most significant expenditure is in engineering time spent developing the presentations for the company's inventory of equipment and processes. The paper describes the system and its uses.

Schwendemann, K. (Halliburton Energy Services, Carrollton, TX (United States))

1995-01-09

176

Modelling of in situ combustion for Turkish heavy crude oil fields  

Microsoft Academic Search

Different models were used to determine the possibility of in situ combustion applications for heavy crude oil fields in south-east Turkey. In the first approach a one-dimensional model was developed, in which the frontal advance concept is combined with mass and energy balance equations with certain boundary conditions, limitations and assumptions. The recovery histories of three oil fields were determined;

Mustafa V. Kök; Ramazan Ocalan

1995-01-01

177

Operational use of neem oil as an alternative anopheline larvicide. Part A: laboratory and field efficacy  

Microsoft Academic Search

We conducted a study to determine the laboratory and field efficacy of neem oil towards anopheline larvae. No difference in LC50 was observed between laboratory and field strains for temephos, chlorpyriphos-methyl\\/fenitrothion and neem oil. No difference in susceptibility was found after 3 months of application every 2 weeks. Water treated with a single application of traditional larvicides was free of

O. M. Awad; A. Shimaila

178

Giant oil and gas fields of the decade 1968-1978  

Microsoft Academic Search

A giant oil field is defined as a contiguous surface area beneath which is one or more reservoirs with expected reserves of 100 million barrels or more of oil (except in the Middle East or in Asiatic Russia where the reserves must be 500 million barrels or more). A giant gas field has reserves of 1 trillion cubic feet of

Halbouty

1980-01-01

179

Interpretation of the magnetic anomaly over the Omaha Oil Field, Gallatin County, Illinois  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 40 nanoTesla (nT) magnetic anomaly identified in an aeromagnetic survey over southern Illinois contours as a localized magnetic high on the west flank of a regional magnetic low. This magnetic anomaly is generally coincident with the Omaha Oil Field in northwest Gallatin County, Illinois. It was initially assumed that cultural sources of steel associated with this oil field were

Mark A. Sparlin; R. D. Lewis

1994-01-01

180

CUMULATIVE IMPACTS OF OIL FIELDS ON NORTHERN ALASKAN LANDSCAPES (JOURNAL VERSION)  

EPA Science Inventory

Proposed further developments on Alaska's Arctic Coastal Plain raise questions about cumulative effects on arctic tundra ecosystems of development of multiple large oil fields. Maps of historical changes to the Prudhoe Bay Oil Field show indirect impacts can lag behind planned de...

181

Using biomarkers to improve heavy oil reservoir management: An example from the cymric field, Kern County, California  

Microsoft Academic Search

For biodegraded oil accumulations, field development can be optimized by using geochemical indicators of variations in the extent of bacterial alteration. Biodegradation typically reduces oil producibility by increasing oil viscosity. In the Cymric field (Kern County, California), sidewall core extracts reveal that the extent of oil biodegradation changes substantially over extremely short vertical distances in a shallow, low-permeability reservoir. Zones

M. A. McCaffrey; H. A. Legarre; S. J. Johnson

1996-01-01

182

Crude oils from new fields of the Buzachi peninsula  

SciTech Connect

This article presents results from studies of six samples of crude oil taken from development wells in the Tyubedzhik, Karaturun, Kalamkas, and North Kucainik. All of the crudes have high-viscosity (particularly the Tyubedzhik crude) and, with the exception of the North Kucainik, are heavy. The sulfur content in the Kalamkas crude is high (1.5% by weight), while the Tyubedzhik and North Kucainik crudes are low-sulfur. With the exception of the North Kucainik crudes, all of the crudes have low contents of light fractions. The results indicate that the North Kucainik and Tyubedzhik crudes can be processed in mixtures with low-sulfur crudes of the Mangyshlak Peninsula, and the Karaturun and Kalamkas crudes can be processed in mixtures with low-sulfur crudes of the Mangyshlak Peninsula, and the Karaturun and Kalamkas crudes can be processed in mixtures with medium-sulfur crudes from the Karazhanbas, North Buzachi, and Zhalgiz-Tyube fields. It is determined that the low-sulfur North Kucainik and Tyubedzhik crudes, the light fractions of which are rich in naphthenes and isoparaffins, are good feedstocks for the production of high-quality motor fuels.

Shul'zhenko, E.D.; Dorogochinskaya, V.A.; Manovyan, A.K.

1984-05-01

183

Field aided characterization of a sandstone reservoir: Arroyo Grande Oil Field, California, USA  

SciTech Connect

The Arroyo Grande Oil Field in Central California has been productive since 1905 from the miopliocene Edna member of the Pismo formation. The Edna member is a massive poorly consolidated sandstone unit with an average porosity of 0.2 and a permeability of 1000-5000 md; the producing levels are shallow, 100 to 500 m from the ground surface. Excellent surface exposures of the same formation along road cuts across the field and above the reservoir provide an opportunity to study reservoir rocks at the surface and to relate fracture and permeability distribution obtained from cores to folds and faults observed in outcrops. We mapped in outcrops the major structures of the oil field and determine the statistical distribution and orientation of small faults (deformation bands) that have been observed both in cores and outcrop. The relation between deformation bands and major structures has also been characterized with detailed mapping. By using synthetic logs it is possible to determine the log signature of structural heterogeneities such as deformation bands in sandstone; these faults cause a neutron porosity drop respect to the host rock in the order of 1-4%. Image analysis has been used to determine the petrophysical properties of the sandstone in outcrop and in cores; permeability is three orders of magnitude lower in faults than in the host rock and capillary pressure is 1-2 orders of magnitude larger in faults than in the host rock. Faults with tens of meters offsets are associated with an high density of deformation bands (10 to 250 m{sup -1}) and with zones of cement precipitation up to 30 m from the fault. By combining well and field data, we propose a structural model for the oil field in which high angle reverse faults with localized deformation bands control the distribution of the hydrocarbons on the limb of a syncline, thereby explaining the seemingly unexpected direction of slope of the top surface of the reservoir which was inferred by well data only.

Antonellini, M.; Aydin, A. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States)

1995-08-01

184

The space-time structure of oil and gas field growth in a complex depositional system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Shortly after the discovery of an oil and gas field, an initial estimate is usually made of the ultimate recovery of the field. With the passage of time, this initial estimate is almost always revised upward. The phenomenon of the growth of the expected ultimate recovery of a field, which is known as “field growth,” is important to resource assessment

Lawrence J. Drew; Richard F. Mast; John H. Schuenemeyer

1994-01-01

185

Economic impacts of increased crude oil production from Texas oil fields. Report 76-11-01  

Microsoft Academic Search

The importance of increasing our domestic supplies of crude oil to replace expensive, unreliable sources of foreign crude oil is obvious. If additional supplies of crude oil can be produced in the US for near world market prices of $13 per barrel, the drain on the US balance of trade can be decreased and provide increased security from the threat

1976-01-01

186

Low-cost chemical cuts sand problems in heavy oil field  

Microsoft Academic Search

A patented, low-cost calcium hydroxide treatment reduces sand movement in oil fields by strengthening the bonding effects of formation clay. Field results from 108 well treatments in the Getty Oil Company's Kern River field indicate the treatment is effective with both linear and solid string completion. The process is compatible with the 400-500°F steam used in thermal stimulation of wells.

Charles

1976-01-01

187

Distribution of oil and gas fields in China offshore basins  

Microsoft Academic Search

China offshore basins have been explored for more than ten years by ourselves, corporation, and cooperation with foreign oil companies. Large sums of seismic data have been acquired, and several hundreds of wells have been drilled. The present daily production in these basins is 250,000 barrels of oil and 350 MMCF of gas. The activity of exploration and development in

Zaisheng Gong; Yang Jiaming

1996-01-01

188

Increasing Heavy Oil Reserves in the Wilmington Oil Field through Advanced Reservoir Characterization and Thermal Production Technologies  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this project is to increase the recoverable heavy oil reserves within sections of the Wilmington Oil Field, near Long Beach, California. This is realized through the testing and application of advanced reservoir characterization and thermal production technologies. It is hoped that the successful application of these technologies will result in their implementation throughout the Wilmington Field and through technology transfer, will be extended to increase the recoverable oil reserves in other slope and basin clastic (SBC) reservoirs. The existing steamflood in the Tar zone of Fault Block (FB) II-A has been relatively insufficient because of several producability problems which are common in SBC reservoir; inadequate characterization of the heterogeneous turbidite sands, high permeability thief zones, low gravity oil and non-uniform distribution of the remaining oil. This has resulted in poor sweep efficiency, high steam-oil ratios, and early breakthrough. Operational problems related to steam breakthrough, high reservoir pressure, and unconsolidated sands have caused premature well and downhole equipment failures. In aggregate, these reservoir and operational constraints have resulted in increased operating costs and decreased recoverable reserves.

City of Long Beach; David K.Davies and Associates; Tidelands Oil Production Company; University of Southern California

1999-06-25

189

INCREASING HEAVY OIL RESERVES IN THE WILMINGTON OIL FIELD THROUGH ADVANCED RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION AND THERMAL PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGIES  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this project is to increase the recoverable heavy oil reserves within sections of the Wilmington Oil Field, near Long Beach, California through the testing and application of advanced reservoir characterization and thermal production technologies. The successful application of these technologies will result in expanding their implementation throughout the Wilmington Field and, through technology transfer, to other slope and basin clastic (SBC) reservoirs. The existing steamflood in the Tar zone of Fault Block II-A (Tar II-A) has been relatively inefficient because of several producibility problems which are common in SBC reservoirs: inadequate characterization of the heterogeneous turbidite sands, high permeability thief zones, low gravity oil and non-uniform distribution of the remaining oil. This has resulted in poor sweep efficiency, high steam-oil ratios, and early steam breakthrough. Operational problems related to steam breakthrough, high reservoir pressure, and unconsolidated sands have caused premature well and downhole equipment failures. In aggregate, these reservoir and operational constraints have resulted in increased operating costs and decreased recoverable reserves. A suite of advanced reservoir characterization and thermal production technologies are being applied during the project to improve oil recovery and reduce operating costs.

Scott Hara

2001-06-27

190

Low-Salinity Waterflooding to Improve Oil Recovery-Historical Field Evidence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Waterflooding is by far the most widely applied method of improved oil recovery. Crude oil\\/brine\\/rock interactions can lead to large variations in the displacement efficiency of wa-terfloods. Laboratory water-flood tests and single-well tracer tests have shown that injection of dilute brine can increase oil recovery, but work designed to test the method on a field scale has not yet been

Eric P. Robertson

2007-01-01

191

Chicxulub impact: The origin of reservoir and seal facies in the southeastern Mexico oil fields  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stratigraphic and mineralogic studies of Cretaceous-Tertiary (K-T) boundary sections demonstrate that the offshore oil-producing breccias and seals from oil fields in the Campeche marine platform are of K-T boundary age and that their mode of formation is probably related to the K-T impact event at Chicxulub. The oil-producing carbonate breccia and the overlying dolomitized ejecta layer (seal) found in several

José M. Grajales-Nishimura; Esteban Cedillo-Pardo; Carmen Rosales-Domínguez; Dante J. Morán-Zenteno; Walter Alvarez; Philippe Claeys; José Ruíz-Morales; Jesús García-Hernández; Patricia Padilla-Avila; Antonieta Sánchez-Ríos

2000-01-01

192

Gas Injection in City of Inglewood Pool Inglewood Oil Field - California  

Microsoft Academic Search

The City of Inglewood Pool gas injection project, Inglewood Oil Field, Calif., provides a 3-yr case history of successful gas injection operations in a depletion type reservoir producing 29° API oil. The pool is a stratigraphic trap which pinches out abruptly upstructure. The structure dips about 30° at the crest, with dips of 60° on the flanks near the oil\\/water

A. K. Hedjazi

1967-01-01

193

Biodegradation of diesel oil by an Arabian Sea sediment culture isolated from the vicinity of an oil field.  

PubMed

Laboratory scale batch studies were performed to test the diesel oil biodegradation ability of ES1 cultures isolated from Arabian Sea sediments obtained from the vicinity of an oil field. This culture could utilize diesel as the sole source of carbon and energy. Under aerobic conditions, 39% loss of diesel oil was observed over 8 days where 80% of the loss was due to aliphatic constituents. Under anoxic nitrate reducing conditions the rate and extent of degradation was significantly lower, i.e., 18% over 50 days. Salt acclimatized cultures could tolerate salinities up to 3.5% and demonstrated optimal performance at a salinity of 0.5%. The optimum N/P ratio for these cultures was found to be in the range of 2:1-5:1. Addition of two trace elemental substance formulations exhibited a significant inhibitory effect on culture growth. This culture has good potential for decontamination of oil-contaminated marine and subsurface environments. PMID:15288270

Mukherji, Suparna; Jagadevan, Sheeja; Mohapatra, Gita; Vijay, Avinash

2004-12-01

194

INCREASED OIL RECOVERY FROM MATURE OIL FIELDS USING GELLED POLYMER TREATMENTS  

SciTech Connect

Gelled polymer treatments are applied to oil reservoirs to increase oil production and to reduce water production by altering the fluid movement within the reservoir. This report describes the results of a three-year research program aimed at reducing barriers to the widespread use of gelled polymer treatments by (1) developing methods to predict gel behavior during placement in matrix rock and fractures, (2) determining the persistence of permeability reduction after gel placement, and (3) developing methods to design production well treatments to control water production. The work focused on the gel system composed of polyacrylamide and chromium acetate. The molar mass of the polymer was about six million. Chromium(III) acetate reacted and formed crosslinks between polymer molecules. The crosslinked polymer molecules, or pre-gel aggregates, combine and grow to eventually form a 3-dimensional gel. A fundamental study to characterize the formation and growth of pre-gel aggregates was conducted. Two methods, flow field-flow fractionation (FFFF) and multi-angle laser light scattering (MALLS) were used. Studies using FFFF were inconclusive. Data taken using MALLS showed that at the gel time the average molar mass of gel aggregates increased by a factor of about three while the average size increase was approximately 50%. Increased acetate concentration in the gelant increases the gel time. The in situ performance of an added-acetate system was investigated to determine the applicability for in-depth treatments. Increased acetate concentrations delayed the development of increased flow resistance during gelant injection in short sandpacks. The development of increased flow resistance (in situ gelation) was extended from 2 to 34 days by increasing the acetate-to-chromium ratio from 38 to 153. In situ gelation occurred at a time that was approximately 22% of the bulk gelation time. When carbonate rocks are treated with gel, chromium retention in the rock may limit in-depth treatment. Chromium retention due to precipitation was investigated by flowing chromium acetate solutions through carbonate rock. Chromium precipitated faster in the rocks than in beaker experiments at similar conditions. A mathematical model previously developed fit the precipitation data reasonably well. The stability of gels when subjected to stress was investigated by experiments with gels placed in tubes and in laboratory-scale fractures. Rupture pressures for gels placed in small diameter tubes were correlated with the ratio of tube length to tube ID. In fractures, fluid leakoff from the fracture to adjacent matrix rock affected gel formation and gel stability in a positive way. Disproportionate permeability reduction (DPR) was studied in unconsolidated sandpacks and in Berea sandstone cores. A conceptual model was developed to explain the presence of DPR. The effect of a pressure gradient, imposed by injection of oil or brine, on the permeability of gel-treated cores was investigated. DPR increased significantly as the pressure gradient was decreased. The magnitude of the pressure gradient had a much larger effect on water permeability than on oil permeability.

G.P. Willhite; D.W. Green; C.S. McCool

2003-05-01

195

Petroleum, oil field waters, and authigenic mineral assemblages: Are they in metastable equilibrium in hydrocarbon reservoirs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although the presence of carboxylic acids and carboxylate anions in oil field waters is commonly attributed to the thermal maturation of kerogen or bacterial degradation of hydrocarbons during water-washing of petroleum in relatively shallow reservoirs, they may have also been produced in deeper reservoirs by the hydrolysis of hydrocarbons in petroleum at the oil-water interface. To test this hypothesis, calculations

H. C. Helgeson; A. M. Knox; C. E. Owens; E. L. Shock

1993-01-01

196

Managing harmonics and resonance with active harmonic filters in an offshore ring main oil field  

Microsoft Academic Search

An international oil company acquired and modified the power supply for a number of offshore oil platforms in one field to conserve operating costs for fuel for the generators. This was accomplished by installation of a 33 kV undersea cabling system between the platforms. The resultant harmonic voltage distortion at the generators and on each platform created major safety concerns

J. R. Johnson

2008-01-01

197

APPLICATION OF CROSS-BOREHOLE RADAR TO MONITOR FIELD­ SCALE VEGETABLE OIL INJECTION EXPERIMENTS FOR BIOSTIMULATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cross-borehole radar methods were used to monitor a field-scale biostimulation pilot project at the Anoka County Riverfront Park (ACP), located downgradient of the Naval Industrial Reserve Ordnance Plant, in Fridley, Minnesota. The goal of the pilot project is to evaluate biostimulation using emulsified vegetable oil to treat ground water contaminated with chlorinated hydrocarbons. Vegetable oil is intended to serve as

Frederick D. Day-Lewis; Roelof J. Versteeg; Clifton C. Casey

198

Composition and Physical Properties of Cress (Lepidium sativum L.) and Field Pennycress (Thlaspi arvense L.) Oils  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The fatty acid profile and tocopherol, and phytosterol contents of crude cress (Lepidium sativum L.) and field pennycress (Thlaspi arvense L.) oils are reported, along with yields from the corresponding seeds. The physical properties of these oils were also determined, which included oxidative stab...

199

Field and laboratory leaching studies of retorted Kentucky oil shale. Final report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this report is to present the results of a field study on the environmental and reclamation characteristics of retorted eastern oil shale and associated materials. Retorted, raw and raw and retorted mixtures of eastern oil shale from a pilo...

T. L. Robl

1990-01-01

200

Petroleum, oil field waters, and authigenic mineral assemblages - Are they in metastable equilibrium in hydrocarbon reservoirs?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The hypothesis that although the presence of carboxylic acids and carboxylate anions in oil field waters is commonly attributed to the thermal maturation of kerogen or bacterial degradation of hydrocarbons during water-washing of petroleum in relatively shallow reservoirs, they may have also been produced in deeper reservoirs by the hydrolysis of hydrocarbons in petroleum at the oil-water interface is tested.

Harold C. Helgeson; Annette M. Knox; Christine E. Owens; Everett L. Shock

1993-01-01

201

Modeling reservoir heterogeneity to determine current oil saturation distribution in a mature field  

SciTech Connect

The Rangely field is a 900-well giant oil field located in northwest Colorado. The field is at the facies transition between the clean, eolian Weber Sandstone derived from the north and the tight arkosic sandstones and shales of the Marcon Formation derived from the south. The Weber Sandstone produces from six discrete stratigraphic horizons. The character of these depositional packages varies, both vertically and laterally, across the field. This Heterogeneity significantly affects field performance. The Rangely Weber Sand Unit has produced 700 million STB of oil by primary and secondary recovery from an OOIP of over 1,500 million STB of oil. A tertiary recovery project was initiated in 1986 using carbon dioxide as a solvent. Currently, over one-third of the 30,000 STB/day oil rate is attributed to solvent injection. A team of development geologists and reservoir engineers has been working to ensure the continued success of the CO{sub 2} project by refining the geologic model. The porosity, permeability, and original oil saturation distributions have been redefined using modem data and also to account for reservoir heterogeneity. From this data, the current distribution of recoverable oil was determined through the use of a hybrid simulation technique that combines geostatistical interpolation with finite difference and stream-tube displacement simulators. Knowing the distribution of secondary and tertiary recoverable oil will allow aggressive reservoir management to improve recovery efficiency and project profitability through infill drilling, pattern realignment and prioritized allocation of CO{sub 2} resources.

Collings, R.C.; Morton-Thompson, D. (Chevron U.S.A. Inc., Englewood, CO (USA))

1990-05-01

202

Micellar Enhanced Ultrafiltration to Remove Traces of Petroleum Oil from Oil Field Brine: Use of Pluronic Triblock Copolymer Micelles  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ultrafiltration characteristics of surfactant (Triton X?100)?oil field brine with a cellulosic membrane were analyzed. Triton X?100 permeate concentration was found to be invariant with ultrafiltration time and remained below or close to the surfactant critical micelle concentration (cmc), suggesting a permeate free of micelles. With an increase of the surfactant feed concentration, the permeate surfactant composition also remained unchanged

Mohammed Aoudia; Fakhr Eldin O. Suliman

2003-01-01

203

Impact of Nitrate on the Sulfur Cycle in Oil Fields  

Microsoft Academic Search

Production of oil from subsurface reservoirs requires injection of water or gas to maintain reservoir pressure. Seawater is\\u000a usually injected on offshore platforms (as in the North Sea). The combination of abundant electron donors (selected oil components)\\u000a and electron acceptors (30 mM sulfate in sea water) can lead to significant production of sulfide in the subsurface through\\u000a action of resident

Gerrit Voordouw

204

Risk Analyses for Disposing Nonhazardous Oil Field Wastes in Salt Caverns.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Salt caverns have been used for several decades to store various hydrocarbon products. In the past few years, four facilities in the United States have been permitted to dispose nonhazardous oil field wastes in salt caverns. Several other disposal caverns...

D. Tomasko D. Elcock J. Veil D. Caudle

1997-01-01

205

37. SAR2, SHOWING OIL CIRCUIT BREAKERS (ABOVE) AND GENERATOR FIELD ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

37. SAR-2, SHOWING OIL CIRCUIT BREAKERS (ABOVE) AND GENERATOR FIELD COIL CONTROL RHEOSTATS (BELOW). SCE negative no. 10331, November 1, 1923. Photograph by G. Haven Bishop. - Santa Ana River Hydroelectric System, SAR-2 Powerhouse, Redlands, San Bernardino County, CA

206

Radiation-thermal processing of high-viscous oil from Karazhanbas field  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Regularities of radiation-induced chemical conversion in high-viscous oil from Karazhanbas field (peninsula Buzachi, Kazakhstan) are discussed. Changes in hydrocarbon and fractional contents of liquid cracking products are analyzed.

Zaykina, R. F.; Zaykin, Y. A.; Mamonova, T. B.; Nadirov, N. K.

2001-02-01

207

Physiological and phylogenetic diversity of thermophilic spore-forming hydrocarbon-oxidizing bacteria from oil fields  

Microsoft Academic Search

The distribution and population density of aerobic hydrocarbon-oxidizing bacteria in the high-temperature oil fields of Western\\u000a Siberia, Kazakhstan, and China were studied. Seven strains of aerobic thermophilic spore-forming bacteria were isolated from\\u000a the oil fields and studied by microbiological and molecular biological methods. Based on the 16S rRNA gene sequences, phenotypic\\u000a characteristics, and the results of DNA-DNA hybridization, the taxonomic

T. N. Nazina; T. P. Tourova; A. B. Poltaraus; E. V. Novikova; A. E. Ivanova; A. A. Grigoryan; A. M. Lysenko; S. S. Belyaev

2000-01-01

208

Heavy-Oil Recovery by In-Situ Combustion - Two Field Cases in Rumania  

Microsoft Academic Search

Laboratory and field results are presented for two Rumanian fields: Suplacu de Barcau and Balaria. In-situ combustion is in the industrial stage at Suplacu de Barcau (38 air-injection wells), and the Balaria project (now 5 air-injection wells) is being expanded. Data given include air injected, oil produced, cumulative air\\/oil ratio, and composition of gas produced. These data, with measurements of

C. P. Cadelle; J. G. Burger; C. P. Bardon; V. Machedon; A. Carcoana; Valentin Petcovici

1981-01-01

209

Sulfide persistence in oil field waters amended with nitrate and acetate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nitrate amendment is normally an effective method for sulfide control in oil field-produced waters. However, this approach\\u000a has occasionally failed to prevent sulfide accumulation, despite the presence of active nitrate-reducing bacterial populations.\\u000a Here, we report our study of bulk chemical transformations in microcosms of oil field waters containing nitrate-reducing,\\u000a sulfide-oxidizing bacteria, but lacking denitrifying heterotrophs. Amendment with combinations of nitrate,

Jordan C. Hulecki; Julia M. Foght; Murray R. Gray; Phillip M. Fedorak

2009-01-01

210

RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION OF UPPER DEVONIAN GORDON SANDSTONE, JACKSONBURG STRINGTOWN OIL FIELD, NORTHWESTERN WEST VIRGINIA  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Jacksonburg-Stringtown oil field contained an estimated 88,500,000 barrels of oil in place, of which approximately 20,000,000 barrels were produced during primary recovery operations. A gas injection project, initiated in 1934, and a pilot waterflood, begun in 1981, yielded additional production from limited portions of the field. The pilot was successful enough to warrant development of a full-scale waterflood in

S. Ameri; K. Aminian; K. L. Avary; H. I. Bilgesu; M. E. Hohn; R. R. McDowell; D. L. Matchen

2001-01-01

211

Structural setting and validation of direct hydrocarbon indicators for Amauligak oil field, Canadian Beaufort Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

The recent discovery of a giant oil field in the southeastern Beaufort-Mackenzie basin has brought this frontier area closer to oil production despite severe environmental conditions. The Amauligak field is a fault-bounded growth structure developed in the Kugmallit Trough, within deltaic deposits of the Beaufort Sea Shelf. Shelf construction occurred during the Late Cretaceous-Tertiary by repeated progradation of the Mackenzie

Enachescu

1990-01-01

212

Geographical differences in cancer incidence in the Amazon basin of Ecuador in relation to residence near oil fields  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background Since 1972, oil companies have extracted more than 2 billion barrels of crude oil from the Ecuadorian Amazon, releasing billions of gallons of untreated wastes and oil directly into the environment. This study aimed to determine if there was any difference in overall and specific cancer incidence rates between populations living in proximity to oil fields and those who

Anna-Karin Hurtig; Miguel San Sebastián

2002-01-01

213

CO 2 sequestration through enhanced oil recovery in a mature oil field  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent advances in enhanced oil recovery (EOR) technology create new opportunities for CO2 sequestration. This paper proposes a technical–economic model for underground storage of CO2 emitted by a fertilizer industry in the Northeast of Brazil, in a hypothetical mature oil reservoir through EOR operation. Simulations based on mass, energy and entropy balances, as well as economic analysis, were assessed for

A. T. F. S. Gaspar Ravagnani; E. L. Ligero; S. B. Suslick

2009-01-01

214

The enigma of oil and gas field growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

Growth in estimates of recovery in discovered fields is an important source of annual additions to United States proven reserves. This paper examines historical field growth and presents estimates of future additions to proved reserves from fields discovered before 1992. Field-level data permitted the sample to be partitioned on the basis of recent field growth patterns into outlier and common

E. D. Attanasi; D. H. Root

1994-01-01

215

Oil-field disposal practices in hydrogeologic setting of Midway Sunset and Buena Vista oil fields; review of past effects, current activities, and future scenarios  

Microsoft Academic Search

Class 2 water disposal in the Midway Sunset and Buena Vista oil fields of Kern County, California, has been by injection and infiltration from spreading ponds into the unsaturated zone, which is typically hundreds of feet thick. Water collection is mostly through an extensive tributary network of collection ditches radiating from several disposal facility locations. The purpose of this study

R. M. Sengebush; S. C. Kiser; E. J. Greenwood; R. N. Crozier; R. A. Crewdson; M. J. Wilson; B. A. Rycerski

1988-01-01

216

Characterization and Source of Unknown “Tar-Like Material” and “Slag” in a Former Oil Field in Compton, California  

Microsoft Academic Search

The discovery of “tar-like material” and “slag” within a ravine traversing a mobile home park and former oil field promulgated its remediation and a subsequent lawsuit brought by the park's owner against the former Dominquez Oil Field (Compton, CA) operator claiming these materials were derived from historic oil production operations. In this study, archived samples of these materials from the

Scott A. Stout

2007-01-01

217

Petroleum, oil field waters, and authigenic mineral assemblages - Are they in metastable equilibrium in hydrocarbon reservoirs?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The hypothesis that although the presence of carboxylic acids and carboxylate anions in oil field waters is commonly attributed to the thermal maturation of kerogen or bacterial degradation of hydrocarbons during water-washing of petroleum in relatively shallow reservoirs, they may have also been produced in deeper reservoirs by the hydrolysis of hydrocarbons in petroleum at the oil-water interface is tested. Calculations were carried out to determine the distribution of species with the minimum Gibbs free energy in overpressured oil field waters in the Texas Gulf Coast assuming metastable equilibrium among calcite, albite, and a representative spectrum of organic and inorganic aqueous species at reservoir temperatures and pressures. The hypothesis that homogeneous equilibrium obtains among carboxylate and carbonate species in oil field waters is confirmed.

Helgeson, Harold C.; Knox, Annette M.; Owens, Christine E.; Shock, Everett L.

1993-07-01

218

Preliminary technical and legal evaluation of disposing of nonhazardous oil field waste into salt caverns  

SciTech Connect

Caverns can be readily formed in salt formations through solution mining. The caverns may be formed incidentally, as a result of salt recovery, or intentionally to create an underground chamber that can be used for storing hydrocarbon products or compressed air or disposing of wastes. The purpose of this report is to evaluate the feasibility, suitability, and legality of disposing of nonhazardous oil and gas exploration, development, and production wastes (hereafter referred to as oil field wastes, unless otherwise noted) in salt caverns. Chapter 2 provides background information on: types and locations of US subsurface salt deposits; basic solution mining techniques used to create caverns; and ways in which salt caverns are used. Later chapters provide discussion of: federal and state regulatory requirements concerning disposal of oil field waste, including which wastes are considered eligible for cavern disposal; waste streams that are considered to be oil field waste; and an evaluation of technical issues concerning the suitability of using salt caverns for disposing of oil field waste. Separate chapters present: types of oil field wastes suitable for cavern disposal; cavern design and location; disposal operations; and closure and remediation. This report does not suggest specific numerical limits for such factors or variables as distance to neighboring activities, depths for casings, pressure testing, or size and shape of cavern. The intent is to raise issues and general approaches that will contribute to the growing body of information on this subject.

Veil, J.; Elcock, D.; Raivel, M.; Caudle, D.; Ayers, R.C. Jr.; Grunewald, B.

1996-06-01

219

Influence of Temperature and Oil Content on the Soil\\/Air Partition Coefficient for Hexachlorobenzene in Oil-Contaminated Rice Paddy Field Soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

The soil\\/air partition coefficients (KSA) for hexachlorobenzene (HCB) in oil-contaminated (crude oil and diesel) rice paddy field soils were measured in a solid fugacity meter at different oil concentrations over the temperature range of 5 to 30°C at 100% relative humidity. The results showed that values of KSA increased with a decrease of temperature. As for oil content, there is

Xin He; Shuo Chen; Xie Quan; Huimin Zhao; Yazhi Zhao

2011-01-01

220

An overview of giant oil and gas fields of the decade: 1978-1988  

SciTech Connect

Scientific studies and projections of future world energy demand indicate that although alternate-energy fuel sources must be actively pursued and developed, there must be adequate petroleum supplies to bridge the gap. For the international petroleum industry, the years covered by this conference, 1978-1988, were complex. They were years of boom and bust. The world's energy consciousness was boosted sharply by the effects of the 1979 Iranian revolution and the resulting embargo that sent world oil prices to record heights. Global petroleum exploration soon surged, leading to the industry's all-time drilling high in 1981. Then came the oil price collapse in 1985, and the following years were characterized by falling oil prices and drastic budget cuts for exploration and development. Although exploration dropped sharply, there was a steady flow of giant oil and gas field discoveries. Using the giant field designation criteria of 500 million bbl of oil recoverable for fields in Asiatic Russia, North Africa, and the Middle East; 100 million bbl of oil recoverable for the fields in the remainder of the world; and 3 tcf and 1 tcf of gas reserves recoverable for the same areas, respectively, it is estimated that at least 182 oil and gas fields containing an estimated 140 billion BOE were discovered in 46 countries during the years covered by this conference. Today, exploration is slowly gaining momentum in all types of petroleum provinces-intensely explored, partially explored, moderately explored, and essentially unexplored - and as long as exploration continues in whatever area of the world, there will always be opportunities to find giant oil and gas fields.

Halbouty, M.T. (Michel T. Halbouty Energy Co., Houston, TX (USA))

1990-09-01

221

FIELD EVALUATION OF THE FUNGUS BEAUVERIA BASSIANA IN ATTRACTICIDAL REFINED AND UNREFINED CANOLA OIL CARRIERS, VS. REFINED SOYBEAN OIL AND ORCHEX OIL, TO CONTROL RANGELAND GRASSHOPPERS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Greenhouse research by the USDA ARS coauthors and a University of Wyoming/USDA ARS field trial in 2002 indicated that there was potential for certain vegetable oils in an attracticidal formulation to enhance the efficacy of Beauveria bassiana Strain GHA in a strip-treatment. In 2003, results from re...

222

Field Preparation of Polymer Solutions Used to Improve Oil Recovery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polymer solutions used to increase oil recovery by waterflood are prepared with automated equipment which dissolves dry polymer powder in flood brine. Proper equipment design, compatible brine, and correct polymer selection are essential to providing a polymer solution which exhibits good mobility control at lowest cost and which retains mobility control throughout the life of the flood. Brine requirements, equipment

George Schurz

1972-01-01

223

Seed oil development of pennycress under field conditions  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Pennycress (Thlaspi sp) has been targeted as a potential oilseed for the biofuels industry. Its seeds contain ~36% oil, where erucic acid is the major fatty acid presented with 38.1%. Additionally, the physical proprieties of the methyl esters are in the range to satisfy the needs of the biodiesel m...

224

Supergiant oil fields and future prospects in the Middle East  

Microsoft Academic Search

Upper Jurassic carbonates, Lower Cretaceous sands, Lower Cretaceous carbonates and Tertiary carbonates of the Middle East contain more than 50% of the worlds oil. Our area of interest covers SE Turkey and Syria in the north to the borders of Yemen and Oman in the south, and from the Red Sea across Saudi Arabia, the Emirates and the Arabian\\/Persian Gulf

L. Christian; D. Johnston

1995-01-01

225

Arctic National Wildlife Refuge: oil field or wilderness  

Microsoft Academic Search

The second session of the 100th Congress will see continued debate over the prospect of oil and gas drilling on a 19-million-acre expanse of mountains and tundra known as the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR). The arctic refuge, most of which lies above the Arctic Circle, is larger than any refuges in the lower 48 states. Because of its size,

Spitler

1987-01-01

226

Estimation of Expected Monetary Values of Selected Oil Fields  

Microsoft Academic Search

As there is uncertainty in estimates of capital, reserves, and net present value in the petroleum industry; risk analysis is the key point for an oil company. It is easy to make decisions after quantifying the uncertainty with ranges of possible values and associated probabilities. Instead of deterministic models, probabilistic evaluations give a wide range of outcomes for decision making.

Mustafa Versan Kok; Egemen Kaya; Serhat Akin

2006-01-01

227

Disposal of NORM-contaminated oil field wastes in salt caverns -- Legality, technical feasibility, economics, and risk.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Some types of oil and gas production and processing wastes contain naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM). This paper evaluates the legality, technical feasibility, economics, and human health risk of disposing of NORM-contaminated oil field was...

J. A. Veil K. P. Smith D. Tomasko D. Elcock D. Blunt

1998-01-01

228

The Tengiz oil field, Pri-Caspian basin, USSR, a super giant of the '80s  

SciTech Connect

The supergiant Tengiz oil field, located near the southeastern edge of the Pri-Caspian basin is one of the most important new discoveries made in the last decade. The Tengiz oil field occurs in a desert climate on the edge of the Caspian Sea and experiences extreme temperature variations along with other harsh environmental conditions. The structure was first identified by seismic surveys in 1975 when it became possible to map the base of thick Permian salt. The first exploration well was drilled on the top of the pre-salt structure in 1979 and encountered important oil-bearing carbonates. The drilling of additional appraisal wells and the acquisition of three-dimensional seismic with improved seismic velocities contributed to the development of the Tengiz seismic-geologic model and confirmed the presence of a super-giant oil accumulation. The amplitude of the structure is approximately 1,000 m and covers an area of 400 mi{sup 2}. The oil column exceeds 1,500 m without having encountered an oil-water contact. Proven plus probable reserves are estimated to exceed 18 billion bbl. Oil production rates up to 8,000 bbl/day per well have been experienced. The reservoir rocks, which range from Upper Devonian to Middle Carboniferous, are comprised of biohermal and nodular limestones and characterized by variable porosity and permeability. The best reservoir quality is attributed to widespread fractures, vugs, and solution cavities that supplement the primary porosity. Recrystallization and healed fractures with substantial amounts of solid bitumen are observed throughout the reservoir. The reservoir pressure is abnormally high. The oil gravity is approximately 45{degree} API and the sulfur content is low. There is no gas cap on the Tengiz field, and the oil is highly undersaturated. The associated gas contains a high percentage of H{sub 2}S, which must be considered in field development.

Lisovsky, N.N.; Gogonenkov, G.N.; Petzuukha, Y.A. (Ministry of Oil and Gas, Moscow (USSR))

1990-05-01

229

South American oil and gas fields: Reasons for their presence and distribution  

SciTech Connect

South American oil and gas fields occur in geographic clusters. Their concentration in relatively small producing areas depends on the present location of the hydrocarbon generating depocenter and results from the basinal oil and gas migration history. By defining both, existing field locations can be explained and new field occurrences can be predicted, including those in overthrust plays. One-and two-stage hydrocarbon migration processes exist: In one-stage migration oil and gas migrate directly from the generating source beds into reservoirs, like in Maturin Basin or Maranon Basin fields. In two-stage migration oil and gas first migrate into a primary reservoir level, from there during a second migration phase into a (commonly younger) secondary reservoir level. Here, the original source beds may be over-mature or even metamorphosed today; examples here are the Maturin, Llanos and Oriente Basins, possibly offshore Trinidad. Definition of generating depocenters is the task of regional exploration. Oil and gas migration analysis is one result of semi-detailed structural mapping using gravity, magnetic, seismic reflection and geochemical data. Oil and gas exploration in two-stage migration basins are especially challenging, like in the Austral Basin of southern Argentina and Chile or possibly in the Parana Basin.

Pratsch, J.C. (Consulting Petroleum Geologist, Houston, TX (United States))

1993-02-01

230

Applications of advanced petroleum production technology and water alternating gas injection for enhanced oil recovery - Mattoon Oil Field, Illinois. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phase I results of a C0-assisted oil recovery demonstration project in selected Cypress Sandstone reservoirs at Mattoon Field, Illinois are reported. The design and scope of this project included C0 injectvity testing in the Pinnell and Sawyer units, well stimulaton treatments with C0 in the Strong unit and infill well drilling, completion and oil production. The field activities were supported

Baroni

1995-01-01

231

Field evaluation of essential oils for reducing attraction by the Japanese beetle (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae).  

PubMed

Forty-one plant essential oils were tested under field conditions for the ability to reduce the attraction of adult Japanese beetles, Popillia japonica Newman (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae), to attractant-baited or nonbaited traps. Treatments applied to a yellow and green Japanese beetle trap included a nonbaited trap, essential oil alone, a Japanese beetle commercial attractant (phenethyl proprionate:eugenol:geraniol, 3:7:3 by volume) (PEG), and an essential oil plus PEG attractant. Eight of the 41 oils reduced attractiveness of the PEG attractant to the Japanese beetle. When tested singly, wintergreen and peppermint oils were the two most effective essential oils at reducing attractiveness of the PEG attractant by 4.2x and 3.5x, respectively. Anise, bergamont mint, cedarleaf, dalmation sage, tarragon, and wormwood oils also reduced attraction of the Japanese beetle to the PEG attractant. The combination of wintergreen oil with ginger, peppermint, or ginger and citronella oils reduced attractiveness of the PEG attractant by 4.7x to 3.1x. Seventeen of the 41 essential oils also reduced attraction to the nonbaited yellow and green traps, resulting in 2.0x to 11.0x reductions in trap counts relative to nonbaited traps. Camphor, coffee, geranium, grapefruit, elemi, and citronella oils increased attractiveness of nonbaited traps by 2.1x to 7.9x when tested singly, but none were more attractive than the PEG attractant. Results from this study identified several plant essential oils that act as semiochemical disruptants against the Japanese beetle. PMID:19736768

Youssef, Nadeer N; Oliver, Jason B; Ranger, Christopher M; Reding, Michael E; Moyseenko, James J; Klein, Michael G; Pappas, Robert S

2009-08-01

232

Improved oil recovery by alkaline flooding in the Huntington Beach Field. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

A pilot test of an alkaline flooding process for improved oil recovery is being conducted by Aminoil USA in the Lower Main Zone of the Huntington Beach Field. This field was developed in 1940 with primary production continuing through 1969. At that time, a pilot waterflood was initiated in Fault Blocks 22\\/23 using a 5-spot pattern with four injection wells.

1982-01-01

233

The Tengis oil field, Pri-Caspian basin, USSR - A super giant of the 1980s  

Microsoft Academic Search

The super giant Tengiz oil field, located near the southeastern edge of the Pri-Caspian basin, is one of the most important new discoveries in the world made in the last decade. The field is in a desert climate on the edge of the Caspian Sea and experiences extreme temperature variations along with other harsh environmental conditions. The structure was first

Petzoukha

1990-01-01

234

The 7 May 2001 induced seismic event in the Ekofisk oil field, North Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

A moderate size seismic event on 7 May 2001 was strongly felt on platforms in the Ekofisk oil field, in the southern North Sea, but did not cause damage to platforms or wells. We combined near- and far-field observations to develop a consistent source model and to determine whether the event was induced. Seismic data placed the epicenter inside the

L. Ottemöller; H. H. Nielsen; K. Atakan; J. Braunmiller; J. Havskov

2005-01-01

235

Reserve Growth in Oil Fields of West Siberian Basin, Russia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although reserve (or field) growth has proved to be an important contributing factor in adding new reserves in mature petroleum basins, it is a poorly understood phenomenon. Although several papers have been published on the U.S. fields, there are only a few publications on fields in other petroleum provinces. This paper explores the reserve growth in the 42 largest West

Mahendra K. Verma; Gregory F. Ulmishek

2003-01-01

236

Bird Mortality in Oil Field Wastewater Disposal Facilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Commercial and centralized oilfield wastewater disposal facilities (COWDFs) are used in the Western United States for the\\u000a disposal of formation water produced from oil and natural gas wells. In Colorado, New Mexico, Utah, and Wyoming, COWDFs use\\u000a large evaporation ponds to dispose of the wastewater. Birds are attracted to these large evaporation ponds which, if not managed\\u000a properly, can cause

Pedro Ramirez Jr

2010-01-01

237

Livestock poisoning from oil field drilling fluids, muds and additives  

SciTech Connect

The use and potential toxicity of various components of oil well drilling fluids, muds and additives are presented. Many components are extremely caustic resulting in rumenitis. Solvent and petroleum hydrocarbon components may cause aspiration pneumonia and rumen dysfunction. Some additives cause methemoglobinemia. The most frequently encountered heavy metals are lead, chromium, arsenic, lithium and copper. Considerations for investigating livestock poisoning cases and several typical cases are reviewed.

Edwards, W.C.; Gregory, D.G. (Oklahoma Animal Disease Diagnostic Laboratory, College of Veterinary Medicine, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater (Unites States))

1991-10-01

238

INCREASING HEAVY OIL RESERVES IN THE WILMINGTON OIL FIELD THROUGH ADVANCED RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION AND THERMAL PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGIES  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this project is to increase the recoverable heavy oil reserves within sections of the Wilmington Oil Field, near Long Beach, California, through the testing and application of advanced reservoir characterization and thermal production technologies. The hope is that successful application of these technologies will result in their implementation throughout the Wilmington Field and, through technology transfer, will be extended to increase the recoverable oil reserves in other slope and basin clastic (SBC) reservoirs. The existing steamflood in the Tar zone of Fault Block II-A (Tar II-A) has been relatively inefficient because of several producibility problems which are common in SBC reservoirs: inadequate characterization of the heterogeneous turbidite sands, high permeability thief zones, low gravity oil and non-uniform distribution of the remaining oil. This has resulted in poor sweep efficiency, high steam-oil ratios, and early steam breakthrough. Operational problems related to steam breakthrough, high reservoir pressure, and unconsolidated sands have caused premature well and downhole equipment failures. In aggregate, these reservoir and operational constraints have resulted in increased operating costs and decreased recoverable reserves. A suite of advanced reservoir characterization and thermal production technologies are being applied during the project to improve oil recovery and reduce operating costs, including: (1) Development of three-dimensional (3-D) deterministic and stochastic reservoir simulation models--thermal or otherwise--to aid in reservoir management of the steamflood and post-steamflood phases and subsequent development work. (2) Development of computerized 3-D visualizations of the geologic and reservoir simulation models to aid reservoir surveillance and operations. (3) Perform detailed studies of the geochemical interactions between the steam and the formation rock and fluids. (4) Testing and proposed application of a novel alkaline-steam well completion technique for the containment of the unconsolidated formation sands and control of fluid entry and injection profiles. (5) Installation of a 2100 ft, 14 inch insulated, steam line beneath a harbor channel to supply steam to an island location. (6) Testing and proposed application of thermal recovery technologies to increase oil production and reserves: (a) Performing pilot tests of cyclic steam injection and production on new horizontal wells. (b) Performing pilot tests of hot water-alternating-steam (WAS) drive in the existing steam drive area to improve thermal efficiency. (7) Perform a pilot steamflood with the four horizontal injectors and producers using a pseudo steam-assisted gravity-drainage (SAGD) process. (8) Advanced reservoir management, through computer-aided access to production and geologic data to integrate reservoir characterization, engineering, monitoring and evaluation.

Unknown

2001-08-08

239

Intelligent fiber sensing system for the oil field area  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Optical Fiber strain sensor using fiber Bragg grating are poised to play a major role in structural health from military to civil engineering. Fiber Bragg Grating sensor is a practical type of fiber optic sensors. Its measurement is encoded with the wavelength of the optical signal reflected from fiber Bragg grating. The method of measuring the absolute optical wavelength is a critical component of the fiber optic sensing system. To reliably detect very small changes in the environment at the sensor, the interrogation system must provide accurate and repeatable wavelength measurements. Energy sources are increasingly scarce in the world. Getting oil from the oil-wells has become more and more difficult. Therefore, new technology to monitor the oil-well condition has become extremely important. The traditional electrical sensor system is no longer useful because of the down-hole's high temperature and high pressure environment. The optical fiber sensing system is the first choice to monitor this condition. This system will reduce the cost and increase the productivity. In the high pressure and high temperature environment, the traditional packed fiber grating pressure-temperature sensor will be no longer reliability. We have to find a new fiber grating temperature-pressure sensor element and the interrogation system. In this work we use the very narrow bandwidth birefringent fiber grating as the sensing element. We obtain the interrogation system has 0.1 pm resolution.

Sun, Wenju; Ma, Linping

2010-08-01

240

Laboratory and field observations of stress-wave induced changes in oil flow behavior  

SciTech Connect

We present recent results of laboratory and field experiments designed to validate and quantify the phenomenon of seismically enhanced oil production in marginal reservoirs. Controlled laboratory experiments were performed where mechanical stress oscillations at 100 Hz or less were applied to sandstone cores while flowing oil and/or brine at constant flow rates. Steady-state flow and simulated flooding experiments indicated that stress stimulation causes significant changes in the ability of one fluid to displace the other and on the preference that the rock has for trapping one fluid over the other. For Berea sandstone, which is highly water wet, stress stimulation caused oil production to be impeded during water floods and caused the bulk fluid pressure drop across the core to increase during steady-state simultaneous flow of oil and brine. A possible explanation of these observations is that stimulation caused the core to become more oil wet. Field stimulation tests on producing reservoirs at Lost Hills, California were performed using a downhole fluid pressure pulsation device. Stimulation was applied in one well for 50 days total during July - November 2000. Two groups of producing wells were monitored for changes in oil cut and oil production during the test. A control group of 26 wells displayed an oil-cut increase of 29% and an oil production increase of 26% which are clearly correlated with the stimulation treatment. A larger group of 60 wells showed 11% oil-cut and 17v0 production increases. Similar increases were observed during the October 1999 Hector Mine earthquake, magnitude 7.1, in the Mojave Desert about 230 miles from Lost Hills. Downhole seismic monitoring of the stimulation wavefield is being used to help quantify the frequency range and energy threshold required for effective production enhancement.

Roberts, P. M. (Peter M.); Majer, Ernest Luther; Wooden, W. (William); Daley, T. M. (Thomas M.)

2001-01-01

241

Increased Oil Recovery from Mature Oil Fields Using Gelled Polymer Treatments  

SciTech Connect

Gelled polymer treatments were applied to oil reservoirs to increase oil production and to reduce water production by altering the fluid movement within the reservoir. This report is aimed at reducing barriers to the widespread use of these treatments by developing methods to predict gel behavior during placement in matrix rock and fractures, determining the persistence of permeability reduction after gel placement, and by developing methods to design production well treatments to control water production. Procedures were developed to determine the weight-average molecular weight and average size of polyacrylamide samples in aqueous solutions. Sample preparation techniques were key to achieving reproducible results.

Willhite, G.P.; Green, D.W.; McCool, S.

2001-03-28

242

Strontium isotope constraint on the genesis of crude oils, oil-field brines and Kuroko ore deposits from the Green Tuff region of northeastern Japan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Crude oils from Akita to northern Niigata oil fields in the Green Tuff region of northeastern Japan have distinctly uniform 87Sr/86Sr ratios (0.7080-0.7082), while those from the southern Niigata oil field contain more radiogenic strontium (0.7095-0.7102). The regional variation in the strontium isotopic composition of crude oils is also reflected in their sulfur contents and sulfur isotopic compositions, and may be attributed to the regional heterogeneity of marine organic sediments from which the crude oils were ultimately derived. The 87Sr/86Sr ratios of most oil-field brines (0.7061-0.7084), however, are different from and vary more locally than those of the accompanying crude oils. This finding supports the view that strontium, and by inference some other dissolved solutes in the brines, may have evolved during diagenesis by reaction of a connate and/or a meteoric water with rocks in the Green Tuff region. Barites in the sulfide ore and anhydrites and gypsums in the sulfate (sekko) ore from the Fukazawa and Kosaka Kuroko deposits in the Hokuroku district are divided by the 87Sr/86Sr ratio of 0.7081 (±0.0001), which is identical to that of crude oils from nearby oil fields. This similarity in ratios lends support to the conclusion that the Kuroko base metal deposits and crude oil deposits were ultimately derived from a common organic sediment named PUMOS (Primitive Undifferentiated Metalliferous Organic Sediments).

Nakano, Takanori; Kajiwara, Yoshimichi; Farrell, Clifton W.

1989-10-01

243

The Prestige oil spill: bacterial community dynamics during a field biostimulation assay  

Microsoft Academic Search

A field bioremediation assay using the oleophilic fertilizer S200 was carried out 12 months after the Prestige heavy fuel-oil spill on a beach on the Cantabrian coast (north Spain). This assay showed that S200-enhanced oil degradation,\\u000a particularly of high-molecular-weight n-alkanes and alkylated PAHs, suggesting an increase in the microbial bioavailability of these compounds. The bacterial community\\u000a structure was determined by cultivation-independent

Núria Jiménez; Marc Viñas; Josep M. Bayona; Joan Albaiges; Anna M. Solanas

2007-01-01

244

Evolution of hydrodynamic field, oil-gas migration and accumulation in Songliao Basin, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

The oil-gas migration and accumulation in the Songliao Basin were analyzed in the view of fluid dynamics by the authors. The\\u000a key point of fluid dynamics is hydrodynamics. Oil-gas migration and accumulation are related closely with formation and evolution\\u000a of hydrodynamic field. Based on abundant data, initial formation pressure and other parameters, such as water head were studied.\\u000a They can

Zhanghua Lou; Rong Zhu; Aimin Jin; Maoming Sun; Xiyuan Cai; Yuanlin Chi

2004-01-01

245

Effectiveness of Zanthoxylum piperitum -derived essential oil as an alternative repellent under laboratory and field applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently, there were considerable efforts made to promote the use of environmentally friendly and biodegradable natural insecticides and repellents, particularly from botanical sources. In this study, Zanthoxylum piperitum-derived essential oil isolated by steam distillation was investigated and compared to the standard synthetic repellent, N,N-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide (DEET), for repellency against mosquitoes under laboratory and field conditions. The oil of Z. piperitum alone

K. Kamsuk; W. Choochote; U. Chaithong; A. Jitpakdi; P. Tippawangkosol; D. Riyong; B. Pitasawat

2007-01-01

246

Methodology For Establishment Of The Radiation Control System At The Karachaganak Oil Gas-Condensate Field  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a At the present time radiological contamination by natural radionuclides of industrial platforms of oil-fields is well-known,\\u000a but far from being resolved problem for many countries. Problem as a whole has gained an environmental-technological value.\\u000a The solution of the problem given requires an introduction at the oil-and-gas production facilities of the complex measures\\u000a on normalization of radiation - ecological conditions, decrease

S. V. Reznikov; K. K. Kadyrzhanov; A. Zh. Tuleushev; Zh. N. Marabaev; S. N. Lukashenko; V. P. Solodukhin; I. V. Kazachevskiy; T. I. Ageyeva

247

Proposed operating strategy for a field mis oil shale retorting experiment (RBOSC Retort O)  

SciTech Connect

A possible operating strategy for a field scale retort (similar to Retort 0) proposed by the Rio Blanco Oil Shale Company (RBOSC)) is discussed. This retorting strategy was developed based on model calculations, pilot retort experiments, and laboratory work carried out at LLL. From these calculations a set of operating conditions are derived that appear to give the best overall retort performance. A performance monitoring strategy is being developed based solely on the exit gas and oil composition.

Braun, R.L.; Campbell, J.H.; McKenzie, D.R.; Raley, J.H.; Gregg, M.L.

1980-01-01

248

Effects of pulsed electric field treatments on quality of peanut oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of pulsed electric fields (PEF) treatment on physicochemical properties of peanut oil were investigated in this paper. Compositions of fatty acid, acid value (AV), peroxide value (PV), as well as carbonyl group value (CGV) of various PEF-treated peanut oil samples with different storage time were determined by GC\\/MS and AOCS standard methods. GC\\/MS analysis showed that little change

Xin-an Zeng; Zhong Han; Zhi-hong Zi

2010-01-01

249

Economic Implementation and Optimization of Secondary Oil Recovery Process: St. Mary West Field, Lafayette County, Arkansas  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this study was to investigate the economic appropriateness of several enhanced oil recovery processes that are available to a small mature oil field located in southwest Arkansas and to implement the most economic efficient process evaluated. The State of Arkansas natural resource laws require that an oilfield is to be unitized before conducting a secondary recovery project. This requires all properties that can reasonably be determined to include the oil productive reservoir must be bound together as one common lease by a legal contract that must be approved to be fair and equitable to all property owners within the proposed unit area.

Brock P.E., Cary D.

2003-03-10

250

Mining petroleum by underground methods. A study of methods used in France and Germany and possible application to depleted oil fields under American conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The contents of this publication includes the following: introduction; mining for oil in France (Pechelbronn oil field and mine); mining for oil in Germany (Wietz mine); discussion of results obtained at Pechelbronn and Wietz, with reference to applications in the United States; methods of producing petroleum in United States; proposed application of European oil-mining methods in depleted oil fields in

1932-01-01

251

Process and economic model of in-field heavy oil upgrading using aqueous pyrolysis  

SciTech Connect

A process and economic model for aqueous pyrolysis in-field upgrading of heavy oil has been developed. The model has been constructed using the ASPEN PLUS chemical process simulator. The process features cracking of heavy oil at moderate temperatures in the presence of water to increase oil quality and thus the value of the oil. Calculations with the model indicate that for a 464 Mg/day (3,000 bbl/day) process, which increases the oil API gravity of the processed oil from 13.5{degree} to 22.4{degree}, the required value increase of the oil would need to be at least $2.80/Mg{center_dot}{degree}API($0.40/bbl{center_dot}{degree}API) to make the process economically attractive. This level of upgrading has been demonstrated in preliminary experiments with candidate catalysts. For improved catalysts capable of having the coke make and increasing the pyrolysis rate, a required price increase for the oil as low as $1.34/Mg{center_dot}{degree}API ($0.21/bbl{center_dot}{degree}API)has been calculated.

Thorsness, C. B., LLNL

1997-01-21

252

Observed oil and gas field size distributions: a consequence of the discovery process and prices of oil and gas  

SciTech Connect

If observed oil and gas field size distributions are obtained by random samplings, the fitted distributions should approximate that of the parent population of oil and gas fields. However, empirical evidence strongly suggests that larger fields tend to be discovered earlier in the discovery process than they would be by random sampling. Economic factors also can limit the number of small fields that are developed and reported. This paper examines observed size distributions in state and federal waters of offshore Texas. Results of the analysis demonstrate how the shape of the observable size distributions change with significant hydrocarbon price changes. Comparison of state and federal observed size distributions in the offshore area shows how production cost differences also affect the shape of the observed size distribution. Methods for modifying the discovery rate estimation procedures when economic factors significantly affect the discovery sequence are presented. A primary conclusion of the analysis is that, because hydrocarbon price changes can significantly affect the observed discovery size distribution, one should not be confident about inferring the form and specific parameters of the parent field size distribution from the observed distributions.

Drew, L.J.; Attanasi, E.D.; Schuenemeyer, J.H.

1988-11-01

253

Study of Getty Oil Co's successful in-situ combustion project in the Bellevue Field  

SciTech Connect

The in situ combustion project operated by Getty Oil Company in the Bellevue Field, Bossier Parish, Louisiana, has expanded from a single pilot pattern in 1963 to a full-scale operation with more than one hundred patterns in 1981. In this paper, Getty's Bellevue project is traced from its inception to the present. Response to various methods used in the field as well as operational problems are discussed. Ultimate production forecasts are also presented for the field. 2 refs.

Long, R.E.; Nuar, M.F.

1982-01-01

254

Arctic National Wildlife Refuge: oil field or wilderness  

SciTech Connect

The second session of the 100th Congress will see continued debate over the prospect of oil and gas drilling on a 19-million-acre expanse of mountains and tundra known as the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR). The arctic refuge, most of which lies above the Arctic Circle, is larger than any refuges in the lower 48 states. Because of its size, the area supports a broad range of linked ecosystems. Of particular concern is the 1.5-million-acre coastal plain, which may be targeted for development. The coastal plain provides a home, at least part of the year, to Alaska's porcupine caribou. The coastal plain also supports many other forms of wildlife-including the wolf, arctic fox, brown bear, polar bear, and arctic peregrine falcon, which is listed as a threatened species. The potential effects of drilling projects extend beyond loss of wildlife; they include desecration of the land itself. Although few members of Congress deny the value of protecting the amazing variety of life on the coastal plain, some insist that limited drilling could be conducted without destroying crucial habitat. Last July, the department tentatively divided some of the targeted lands among native corporations in preparation for leasing to oil companies. In response to what was felt to be an attempt to overstep congressional authority, the House passed HR 2629, banning this kind of land deal without congressional approval. In essence, the measure reiterated congressional authority provided by the Alaska National Interest Lands Conservation Act (ANILCA) of 1980. This act mandated the study of environmental threats and oil potential by the Department of Interior, while putting the ANWR coastal plain off-limits to development without an explicit congressional directive.

Spitler, A.

1987-11-01

255

Subsidence and recent development operations in Wilmington oil field, California  

Microsoft Academic Search

The problem of surface subsidence in Wilmington field has been widely publicized and has attracted great interest. The maximum subsidence is in excess of 29 ft at the center of an elongated depression which roughly coincides with the production limits of the field. Valuable industrial installations, including the U.S. Naval Shipyard, were constructed over much of the Long Beach-Log Angeles

Albright; M. B. Jr

1968-01-01

256

The Tengis oil field, Pri-Caspian basin, USSR - A super giant of the 1980s  

SciTech Connect

The super giant Tengiz oil field, located near the southeastern edge of the Pri-Caspian basin, is one of the most important new discoveries in the world made in the last decade. The field is in a desert climate on the edge of the Caspian Sea and experiences extreme temperature variations along with other harsh environmental conditions. The structure was first identified by seismic surveys in 1975 when it became possible to map the base of thick Permian salt. The first exploration well was drilled on the top of the presalt structure in 1979 and encountered important oil-bearing carbonates. The drilling of additional appraisal wells and the acquisition of three-dimensional seismic with improved seismic velocities led to the development of the Tengiz seismic-geologic model and confirmed the presence of a super giant oil accumulation. The amplitude of the structure is approximately 1,000 m and covers an area of 400 km{sup 2} . The oil column exceeds 1,500 m without having encountered an oil-water contact. The total original oil and gas in place of the Tengiz field are estimated at 25 billion bbl of oil and 46 tcf of associated gas. Oil production rates up to 8,000 bbl/day per well have been experienced. The reservoir rocks, which range in age from Upper Devonian to Middle Carboniferous, are comprised of biohermal and nodular limestones and characterized by variable porosity and permeability. The best reservoir quality is attributed to widespread fractures, vugs, and solution cavities that supplement the primary porosity. Recrystallization and healed fractures with substantial amounts of solid bitumen are observed throughout the reservoir. The reservoir pressure is abnormally high. The oil gravity is approximately 45{degree} API and the sulfur content is low. There is no gas cap on the Tengiz field, and the oil is highly undersaturated. The associated gas contains a high percentage of H{sub 2}S, which must be considered in field development.

Petzoukha, Y.A. (Ministry of Petroleum Industry, Moscow (USSR))

1990-09-01

257

Cano Limon Field, Colombia: The latest giant oil reservoir in South America  

SciTech Connect

The recent discovery of the giant Cano Limon field in the northern Colombian Los Llanos basin is the most successful result of the Association-type contracts instituted by the Colombian government 15 years ago. A major construction and development drilling effort resulted in production startup in Dec. 1985, 2 1/2 years after discovery. As of publication date, the field oil production rate is about 200,000 STB/D (31.8x10/sup 3/ stock-tank m/sup 3//d). With optimum reservoir management, oil recovery is expected to reach 10/sup 9/ bbl (1.59x10/sup 9/ m/sup 3/).

Rivero, R.T.; Dominguez, J.G.; Slater, J.A.; Hearn, C.L.

1988-06-01

258

Cano Limon Field, Colombia: The latest giant oil reservoir in South America  

SciTech Connect

The recent discovery of the giant Cano Limon field in the Northern Colombian Llanos basin is the most successful result of the association type contracts instituted by the Colombian government 15 years ago. A major construction and development drilling effort resulted in production start-up in December, 1985, 2 1/2 years after discovery. As of publication date, field oil production rate is approaching a projected rate of about 200,000 STB/D. With optimum reservoir management, oil recovery is expected to reach one billion barrels.

Rivero, R.T.; Dominguez, J.G.; Slater, J.A.; Hearn, C.L.

1986-01-01

259

Permanent downhole gauges used in reservoir management of complex North Sea oil fields  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents experience with and applications of permanent downhole pressure and temperature gauges in the reservoir management of two complex North Sea oil fields, Gullfaks and Veslefrikk (both operated by Statoil A/S). In total, 40 quartz and quartz capacitance gauges from three different suppliers have been installed in platform wells over 6 years. The gauges have given invaluable real-time data for reservoir management of these two fields and contribute directly to increased daily oil production. The installations have proved to be safe and reliable, as well as good investments.

Unneland, T.; Haughland, T. (Statoil A/S, Stavanger (Norway))

1994-08-01

260

Outcomes of Pregnancy among Women Living in the Proximity of Oil Fields in the Amazon Basin of Ecuador  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oil companies have released billions of gallons of untreated wastes and oil directly into the environment of the Ecuado- rian Amazon. This cross-sectional study investigated the environmental conditions and reproductive health of women living in rural communities surrounded by oil fields in the Amazon basin and in unexposed communities. Water from local streams was analyzed for total petroleum hydro- carbons

MIGUEL SAN SEBASTIÁN; BEN ARMSTRONG; CAROLYN STEPHENS

261

Increased oil recovery from mature oil fields using gelled polymer treatments  

SciTech Connect

Gelled polymer treatments are applied to oil reservoirs to increase oil production to reduce water production by altering the fluid movement within the reservoir. This research program is aimed at reducing barriers to the widespread use of these treatments by developing methods to predict gel behavior during placement in matrix rock and fractures, determining the persistence of permeability reduction after gel placement, and by developing methods to design production well treatments to control water production. This report describes the progress of the research during the first six months of work. A Dawn EOS multi-angle laser light scattering detector was purchased, installed and calibrated. Experiments were conducted to determine the permeabilities of a bulk gel and of a filter cake which forms when a gel is dehydrated. The pressure at which a gel in a tube is ruptured was measured and was correlated to the length and diameter of the gel.

Willhite, G. Paul; Green, Down W.; McCool, Stan

2000-02-23

262

Alaska North Slope oil-field restoration research strategy. Manual  

SciTech Connect

The document provides a research strategy to support ecological restoration of disturbances related to oil and gas developments on the North Slope of Alaska that is mutually beneficial to the arctic ecorestoration research community and the arctic regulatory community (including at least the following entities: The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, EPA, National Marine Fisheries, US FWS, BLM, the Alaska Department of Natural Resources, and the North Slope Borough). The purpose of this strategy is to: (1) identify major information or knowledge gaps that have inhibited restoration activities or slowed the regulatory decision process, (2) determine the potential for filling knowledge gaps through research, and (3) suggest tentative priorities for research that are based on the needs identified in steps one and two.

Wyant, J.G.; Knapp, C.M.

1992-03-01

263

Chicxulub impact: The origin of reservoir and seal facies in the southeastern Mexico oil fields  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Stratigraphic and mineralogic studies of Cretaceous-Tertiary (K-T) boundary sections demonstrate that the offshore oil-producing breccias and seals from oil fields in the Campeche marine platform are of K-T boundary age and that their mode of formation is probably related to the K-T impact event at Chicxulub. The oil-producing carbonate breccia and the overlying dolomitized ejecta layer (seal) found in several wells on the Campeche marine platform contain typical Chicxulub impact products, such as shocked quartz and plagioclase, and altered glass. These offshore units are correlated with thick (˜50 300 m) onshore breccia and impact ejecta layers found at the K-T boundary in the Guayal (Tabasco) and Bochil (Chiapas) sections. Regionally the characteristic sequence is composed of, from base to top, coarse-grained carbonate breccia covered by an ejecta bed and typical K-T boundary clay. The onshore and offshore breccia sequences are likely to have resulted from major slumping of the carbonate platform margin triggered by the Chicxulub impact. Successive arrival times in this area, ˜350 600 km from the crater, of seismic shaking, ballistic ejecta, and tsunami waves fit the observed stratigraphic sequence. The K-T breccia reservoir and seal ejecta layer of the Cantarell oil field, with a current daily production of 1.3 million barrels of oil, are probably the most important known oil-producing units related to an impact event.

Grajales-Nishimura, José M.; Cedillo-Pardo, Esteban; Rosales-Domínguez, Carmen; Morán-Zenteno, Dante J.; Alvarez, Walter; Claeys, Philippe; Ruíz-Morales, José; García-Hernández, Jesús; Padilla-Avila, Patricia; Sánchez-Ríos, Antonieta

2000-04-01

264

Microseismic Monitoring Using Surface and Borehole Seismic Stations in an Oil Field, North Oman  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Five shallow borehole seismic stations were installed to monitor microearthquake activities in a carbonate oil field in northern Oman since 1999. This shallow network of seismic station operated continuously until 2002 after which intermittent seismic recording took place due to lack of maintenance and failure of some stations. The objectives of the study are to determine the microseismic parameters in the oil field and to determine the spatial and temporal distribution of these events to evaluate possible triggering mechanism. Well over 400 microearthquakes per year were recorded in the first three years of operation and after that the level of seismic recording fell to less than 200 microearthquakes per year due to failure of some stations. In March 2008, temporary seismic experiment consisting of five near surface seismic stations were installed in the oil field to augment the shallow network station and to evaluate surface installment of seismic instrument to monitor microseismic activities. It has been recognized that microearthquakes data such as size, spatial, and temporal distribution provide information on the pressure waves initiated by either production of or injection of fluids into reservoirs. A total of 44 local microearthquake events were analyzed and located during the temporary seismic stations deployment using a non-linear location software that allows the use of variable accurate velocity model of the subsurface. The events location is confined to oil field reservoir boundary during the recording period and more events occurring at shallow depth. The correlation coefficient between gas production and number of events is the higher compared with the oil production or water injection. The focal plane solution for the largest event in the sequence indicates normal faulting with extensional stress consistent with the existing mapped normal faults in the oil field. Microseismic signal clearly detected by the collocated sensors of the near surface seismic experiment stations and augment the shallow borehole network signal for detection, analysis and locations.

El-Hussain, I.; Al-Hashmi, S.; Al-Shijbi, Y.; Al-Saifi, M.; Al-Toubi, K.; Al-Lazki, A.; Al-Kindy, F.

2009-05-01

265

Nature, magnitude, and scope of soluble hydrocarbons in oil field brines  

SciTech Connect

United States federal regulations limit the amount of oil and grease which can be discharged from production platforms into offshore waters to less than 48 ppm. The federally approved monitoring method does not differentiate between brine-soluble and brine-insoluble hydrocarbons. However, conventional water clarifiers are designed to remove brine-insoluble hydrocarbons only. Difficulties in treating brines at various offshore locations may be due to the high concentration of soluble hydrocarbons in these brines. To better define the extent of the soluble hydrocarbon problem, the authors have developed a separation procedure for quantitatively analyzing the composition of oil and grease in oil field brines. Using this procedure, the soluble/insoluble proportions of total oil and grease in brines at numerous offshore Louisiana and California locations were determined. Results of this survey will be presented.

Diel, B.N.; Downs, H.H.

1988-05-01

266

Development of Improved Oil Field Waste Injection Disposal Techniques  

SciTech Connect

The goals of this DOE sponsored project are to: (1) assemble and analyze a comprehensive database of past waste injection operations; (2) develop improved diagnostic techniques for monitoring fracture growth and formation changes; (3) develop operating guidelines to optimize daily operations and ultimate storage capacity of the target formation; and (4) to test these improved models and guidelines in the field.

Terralog Technologies USA Inc.

2001-12-17

267

Greater Burgan of Kuwait: world's second largest oil field  

Microsoft Academic Search

Greater Burgan (Main burgan, Magwa, and Ahmadi) field is located in the Arabian Platform geologic province and the stable shelf tectonic environment of the Mesopotamian geosyncline, a sedimentary basin extending from the Arabian shield on the west to the complexly folded and faulted Zagros Mountains on the east. The structural development in Cretaceous time represents a major anticlinorium bounded by

Youash

1989-01-01

268

Development of Improved Oil Field Waste Injection Disposal Techniques  

SciTech Connect

The goals of this project have was to: (1) assemble and analyze a comprehensive database of past waste injection operations; (2) develop improved diagnostic techniques for monitoring fracture growth and formation changes; (3) develop operating guidelines to optimize daily operations and ultimate storage capacity of the target formation; and (4) to apply these improved models and guidelines in the field.

Terralog Technologies

2002-11-25

269

Waterfloods achieve excellent results in Western Canada oil fields  

Microsoft Academic Search

Among the large waterflood schemes, 2 of the biggest are both in southeastern Saskatchewan. The Midale and Weyburn floods, which went on stream within the past 2 yr, are performing better than expected. The oldest of all, in the Dollard Field of southwestern Saskatchewan, has exceeded all the forecasts for extent of response, increase in production, and sustained period of

Rowland

1965-01-01

270

Map Showing Geology, Oil and Gas Fields and Geologic Provinces of Africa, Ver. 2.0  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The US Geological Survey offers the Map Showing Geology, Oil and Gas Fields and Geologic Provinces of Africa Web site and report. The agency's goal for the pieces includes assessing the undiscovered and technically recoverable oil and gas resources of the world. The site includes various descriptions of what the map depicts and how data was processed using Geographic Information Systems. Once the interactive map is activated, users can search and click the map of Africa to view geologic provinces, oil and gas fields, as well as the various surface geological classifications. Although the interface is a bit cumbersome and works best with a fast Internet connection, the unique information provided should draw the attention of those interested in geology. [JAB

Ahlbrandt, Thomas S.; Persits, F. M.; Tuttle, M. L.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Brownfield, M. E.; Takahashi, K. I.

271

Water–rock interaction during the process of steam stimulation exploitation of viscous crude oil in Liaohe Shuguang Oil Field, Liaoning, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the process of steam stimulation exploitation of viscous crude oil, the injected water, at high temperature and under high pressure, reacts intensively with the host rock. This kind of water–rock interaction in Liaohe Shuguang Oil Field was studied on the basis of analysis of water composition changes, laboratory experiments, mineral saturation indices analysis, and mass balance calculation. Compared with

Qian Hui; Yang Zhenghua; Li Yunfeng; Xu Wancai; Sun Yaqiao

2006-01-01

272

Feasibility study of carbon dioxide capture from power plants and other major stationary sources and storage in Iranian oil fields for enhanced oil recovery (EOR)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Iran, with a record of over one century of oil production, is currently one of the major oil producing countries of the world. Several of the old fields have been depleted to an uneconomical level of production which requires significant amount of natural gas for re-injection so that currently over 100 million cubic meters of natural gas is reinjected daily to

Mohammad Soltanieh; Amir Mohammad Eslami; Adnan Moradian

2009-01-01

273

Disposal of Norm-Contaminated Oil Field Wastes in Salt Caverns.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In 1995, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Fossil Energy, asked Argonne National Laboratory (Argonne) to conduct a preliminary technical and legal evaluation of disposing of nonhazardous oil field waste (NOW) into salt caverns. That study con...

D. L. Blunt D. Elcock K. P. Smith D. Tomasko J. A. Viel G. P. Williams

1999-01-01

274

Improved oil recovery in mature fields through reservoir characterization and management  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Illinois basin is mature with respect to hydrocarbon exploitation in the Pennsylvanian and Mississippian strata. Available subsurface data for the basin commonly are 30 to 50 yr old and of lower quality than today's state-of-the-art data. Recent evaluation of two geologically similar Illinois oil fields shows how the application of new concepts and technologies to the old data can

1993-01-01

275

Scales of geological heterogeneity of a deep-water sand giant oil field  

Microsoft Academic Search

To understand the levels of accuracy that can be placed upon different scales of reservoir description, turbidite intervals in part of the giant Wilmington oil field, California, have been numerically described at four scales of heterogeneity. The degree of accuracy of the description, in terms of real geologic variability, is found to diminish with increasing scale. At the microscale (grains

R. M. Slatt; S. Phillips; J. M. Boak; M. B. Lagoe

1990-01-01

276

The 1-AB block fields-a giant oil accumulation in Eastern Peru  

SciTech Connect

The 1-Ab block fields are located in the northeastern part of Peru. Geologically, the area is the sub-Andean Maranon Basin, a continuation of the Napo Basin from eastern Ecuador. During the 20 years that Occidental has operated Block 1-AB, approximately 11,500 km of seismic data has been recorded and 34 exploratory wells have been drilled, resulting in the discovery of 18 fields, or 53% exploration success. The 1-AB oil accumulation discovered in 1972 is a group of medium to small asymmetric anticlines distributed along six northwest-southeast trending structural alignments: North Capahuari-South Capahuari-Tambo, Carmen-North San Jaacinto and Bartra. This concentration of productive structures in a relative small area is unique within the Maranon basin. The controlling factors include exceptional pre-Cretaceous uplifting and the presence of very good to excellent Cretaceous sandstones reservoirs. The two major Cretaceous producing zones, the Chonta and Vivian sandstones, have been defined within the Coniacian and Campanian ages respectively. The Chonta sands are related to shelfal deposition across Block 1-AB, represented by strand plain and barrier island sediments. The Vivian formation is a massive fluvial sandstone covering all of the Maranon basin and ranging in thickness between 40 and 200 feet. After oil was accumulated, fresh water influxes into the reservoirs of the northern and eastern fields caused oil biodegradation and salinity variation of the reservoir waters, depending upon the intensity of biodegradation. Oil remigration also has been documented for the South Huayari field.

Jarvis, H.A.; Lay, V. (Occidental International Exploration and Production Company, Lima (Peru)); Orosco, C. (Occidental Petroleum Corporation, Lima (Peru))

1993-02-01

277

Multispectral video data for detecting biogeochemical conditions at an Alabama oil field site  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract. Multispectral video data were evaluated to determine their sensitivity to detect environmental conditions associated with hydrocarbon microseepage at the Pollard oil field. Biogeochemical analysis of soil and tree leaves indicates that plants are extracting available heavy metals from the soil environment. Anomalous concentrations of Mn were found in plant tissue. Correlation analysis reveals statistically significant relationships between Mn concentrations

Gary J. Cwick; Michael P. Bishop; Robert C. Howe; Paul W. Mausel; James H. Everitt; David E. Escobar

1995-01-01

278

Enhanced biodegradation of transformer oil in soils with cyclodextrin – from the laboratory to the field  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use cyclodextrins for the intensification of bioremediation by improving the mobility and bioavailability of contaminants has recently been studied. In this work, the role of randomly methylated ß-cyclodextrin in the bioremediation of soils contaminated with transformer oil was studied both in bench scale bioreactors and through field experiments. The aims of this research were to (a) establish the scientific

Mónika Molnár; Laura Leitgib; Katalin Gruiz; Éva Fenyvesi; Nikoletta Szaniszló; József Szejtli; Fabio Fava

2005-01-01

279

Exposures and cancer incidence near oil fields in the Amazon basin of Ecuador  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives—To examine environmental exposure and incidence and mortality of cancer in the village of San Carlos sur- rounded by oil fields in the Amazon basin of Ecuador. Methods—Water samples of the local streams were analyzed for total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPHs). A preliminary list of potential cancer cases from 1989 to 1998 was prepared. Cases were compared with expected numbers of

M San Sebastián; B Armstrong; J A Córdoba; C Stephens

2005-01-01

280

Exposures and cancer incidence near oil fields in the Amazon basin of Ecuador  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVESTo examine environmental exposure and incidence and mortality of cancer in the village of San Carlos surrounded by oil fields in the Amazon basin of Ecuador.METHODSWater samples of the local streams were analyzed for total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPHs). A preliminary list of potential cancer cases from 1989 to 1998 was prepared. Cases were compared with expected numbers of cancer morbidity

M San Sebastián; B Armstrong; J A Córdoba; C Stephens

2001-01-01

281

Comparison of soft computing techniques for a three-phase oil field centrifuge  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work we compare fuzzy techniques to neural network techniques for building a soft sensor for a three-phase oil field centrifuge. The soft sensor is used in a feed-forward control system that augments a feedback control system. Two approaches were used to develop the soft sensor. The first approach was to use a fuzzy rule based system based upon

RONALD E. SMITH; W. JERRY PARKINSON; NEAL J. MILLER

2002-01-01

282

The effect of 25 years of oil field flow line service on epoxy fiberglass pipe  

Microsoft Academic Search

Glass fiber-reinforced epoxy and vinyl ester piping systems have been used for more than 35 years to control corrosion problems in oil fields and chemical and industrial plants. Many case histories have documented successful performances of fiberglass-reinforced thermosetting plastics in a wide range of corrosive services. This information is reinforced by laboratory test data from flat laminates and pipe exposed

Oswald

1988-01-01

283

The effect of 25 years of oil field flow line service on epoxy fiberglass pipe  

Microsoft Academic Search

Glass fiber reinforced epoxy and vinyl ester piping systems have been used for over 35 years to control corrosion problems in oil fields and chemical and industrial plants and many case histories have been reported to document the successful performances of fiberglass reinforced thermosetting plastics in a wide range of corrosive services. This information is reinforced by laboratory test data

Oswald

1988-01-01

284

Preliminary Technical and Legal Evaluation of Disposing of Nonhazardous Oil Field Waste into Salt Caverns  

SciTech Connect

This report presents an initial evaluation of the suitability, feasibility, and legality of using salt caverns for disposal of nonhazardous oil field wastes. Given the preliminary and general nature of this report, we recognize that some of our findings and conclusions maybe speculative and subject to change upon further research on this topic.

Ayers, Robert C.; Caudle, Dan; Elcock, Deborah; Raivel, Mary; Veil, John; and Grunewald, Ben

1999-01-21

285

Cementation and diagenetic fluid mixing in South Brae oil field, North Sea, U. K  

Microsoft Academic Search

The reservoir rocks in the Brae oil field consist of small overlapping submarine fans that form a sediment apron along the western margin of the Viking graben. It is located in the United Kingdom sector of the North Sea and lies 240 km east of the Orkney Islands. Carbonate cementation was the first major diagenetic event, followed closely by compaction

O. M. McLaughlin; R. S. Haszeldeine; A. E. Fallick; G. Rogers

1990-01-01

286

Research on power quality monitoring system of oil field based on ARM  

Microsoft Academic Search

According to the specific requirements of oil field power system parameter measurement, A monitoring system of power quality is designed based on ARM. The hardware design adopts ARM9 processor of SAMSUNG and TI's DSP processor, constructs double CPU architecture, and realizes data GPRS transmission through the SIM300 module. A regulatory center network monitoring software is designed using Borland C++ Builder

Kaiyu Zhang; Hong Zhao; Di Lu

2011-01-01

287

Study of Gas Migration from Naval Oil Shale Reserve No. 3 to the Rulison Field.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The DOE Office of Naval Petroleum and Oil Shale Reserves (NPOSR) was concerned that a significant gas loss from NOSR No. 3 to nearby producing commercial wells in the Rulison Field could occur through migration across the reserve boundary. The DOE also wa...

J. C. Mercer J. R. Ammer C. O. Okoye R. A. Moore A. W. Layne

1985-01-01

288

Gas, Water, and Oil Production from the Wasatch Formation, Greater Natural Buttes Field, Uinta Basin, Utah.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Gas, oil, and water production data were compiled from 38 wells with production commencing during the 1980s from the Wasatch Formation in the Greater Natural Buttes field, Uinta Basin, Utah. This study is one of a series of reports examining fluid product...

E. L. Hoffman P. H. Nelson

2009-01-01

289

Field Guide on Reduction and Disposal of Waste from Oil Refineries and Marketing Installations.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The field guide has been written primarily for those in the oil refining and marketing industry who have responsibility for the management of waste and its disposal. It should also provide useful information to the authorities who exercise legal control o...

D. A. J. Dando B. Bossand R. H. Lilie A. C. Ooms H. Sutherland

1990-01-01

290

Flocculation and Separation of Oil Droplets in Ultrasonic Standing Wave Field  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new method for breaking oil in water emulsion based on flocculation of droplets in high intensity ultrasonic standing wave field was developed in this study and the effect of initial droplets size, type of disperse phase as well as the time of sonication and the height of emulsion in the chamber on the extent of interdroplet interactions were investigated

Hanie Ghafourian Nasiri; Rassoul Kadkhodaee; Mohammad Taghi Hamed Mousavian

2012-01-01

291

Critical laboratory and field evaluation of selected surface prospecting techniques for locating oil and natural gas  

Microsoft Academic Search

The theoretical basis for the radiation HALO method in geochemical exploration for oil and gas is largely unproven but has been covered extensively in the literature. An evaluation of the method was conducted by direct field examination of some of the variables. The variables chosen were surface radiometry, magnetometry, gravity, and near-surface soil sampling. The radiometry included measurements of potassium-40,

R. J. Heemstra; R. M. Ray; T. C. Wesson; J. R. Abrams; G. A. Moore

1979-01-01

292

Surface flashover of oil-immersed dielectric materials in uniform and non-uniform fields  

Microsoft Academic Search

The applied electrical fields required to initiate surface flashover of different types of dielectric material immersed in insulating oil have been investigated, by applying impulses of increasing peak voltage until surface flashover occurred. The behavior of the materials in repeatedly over-volted gaps was also analyzed in terms of breakdown mode (some bulk sample breakdown behaviour was witnessed in this regime),

M. P. Wilson; S. J. MacGregor; M. J. Given; I. V. Timoshkin; M. A. Sinclair; K. J. Thomas; J. M. Lehr

2009-01-01

293

A perfluorocarbon tracer transport and dispersion experiment in the North Sea Ekofisk oil field  

Microsoft Academic Search

A perfluorocarbon tracer (PFT) transport and dispersion experiment has been performed in the Ekofisk section of the North Sea Oil fields. Fifty grams each of three PFTs were injected into a well and 28 surrounding wells were sampled for the presence of PFT. Sampling was accomplished by initially collecting bottles of reservoir hydrocarbon gas and subsequently transferring 5 liter (gas

G. I. Senum; R. N. Dietz; T. W. DOttavio; R. W. Goodrich; E. A. Cote; D. J. Spandau

1990-01-01

294

A perfluorocarbon tracer transport and dispersion experiment in the North Sea Ekofisk oil field  

Microsoft Academic Search

A perfluorocarbon tracer (PFT) transport and dispersion experiment has been performed in the Ekofisk section of the North Sea oil fields. Fifty grams each of three PFTs were injected into a well and 28 surrounding wells were sampled for the presence of PFT. Sampling was accomplished by initially collecting bottles of reservoir hydrocarbon gas and subsequently transferring 5 liter (gas

G. I. Senum; R. N. Dietz; T. W. DOttavio; R. W. Goodrich; E. A. Cote; D. J. Spandau

1989-01-01

295

Geological history and petroleum system of the Mittelplate oil field, Northern Germany  

Microsoft Academic Search

The geological history of Germany’s largest and most productive petroleum accumulation, the Mittelplate oil field in Schleswig-Holstein\\u000a (Northern Germany), is reconstructed by simulating the structural and thermal evolution along a 2D cross-section. The Mittelplate\\u000a field is located at the western flank of the Büsum salt dome at the transition from the Schleswig-Holstein mainland to the\\u000a German North Sea Sector. Organic

S. Grassmann; B. Cramer; G. Delisle; J. Messner; J. Winsemann

2005-01-01

296

Stereoselective biodegradation of tricyclic terpanes in heavy oils from the Bolivar Coastal Fields, Venezuela  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS) and GC–MS–MS analyses of heavy oils from Bolivar Coastal Fields (Lagunillas Field) show a complete set of demethylated tricyclic terpanes. As is the case for the 25-norhopanes, the demethylated tricyclics are probably formed in reservoirs by microbially-mediated removal of the methyl group from the C-10 position, generating putative 17-nor-tricyclic terpanes. Diastereomeric pairs of tricyclic terpanes are

M. Alberdi; J. M. Moldowan; K. E. Peters; J. E. Dahl

2001-01-01

297

How to make a billion-barrel oil field in offshore California commercial  

Microsoft Academic Search

The major obstacles and challenges involved in exploration and development of a giant deep-water low-gravity oil field are exemplified in the undeveloped Sword field of offshore southern California. In 1979, Conoco Exploration identified a northeast-southwest-trending basement high in the 800 to 2,000-ft deep federal waters 12 mi southwest of Pt. Conception at the western end of the Santa Barbara Channel.

J. C. Patterson; J. H. Ballard

1988-01-01

298

How to make a billion-barrel oil field in offshore California commercial  

Microsoft Academic Search

The major obstacles and challenges involved in exploration and development of a giant deep-water low-gravity oil field are exemplified in the undeveloped Sword field of offshore southern California. In 1979, Conoco Exploration identified a northeast-southwest-trending basement high in the 800 to 2000-ft deep federal waters 12 mi southwest of Pt. Conception at the western end of the Santa Barbara Channel.

J. C. Patterson; J. H. Ballard

1988-01-01

299

Breakdown Initiation Fields for Surface Flashover of Dielectric Materials Immersed in Transformer Oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

The applied electrical fields required to initiate surface flashover of different types of polymeric insulating material immersed in transformer oil have been investigated. Cylindrical samples of polypropylene, ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene, low-density polyethylene, and Rexolite were tested. Average electrical fields up to ~700 kV\\/cm were applied to samples via a 10-stage, inverting Marx generator. The samples were held between two

M. P. Wilson; M. J. Given; S. J. MacGregor; I. V. Timoshkin; J. R. Beveridge; K. J. Thomas; M. A. Sinclair; J. M. Lehr

2008-01-01

300

The field pilot of microbial enhanced oil recovery in a high temperature petroleum reservoir  

Microsoft Academic Search

To evaluate the technical feasibility and effectiveness of improving oil recovery by microbial enhanced water-flooding techniques in high temperature petroleum reservoirs, a field project was initiated with the nature-occurring microorganisms and nutrient injected into an integrated, close Unit with temperature of 73 °C and salinity of 16,790 mg\\/L in 2001 in Dagang Oilfield, PetroChina. This paper presents the field design

Liu Jinfeng; Ma Lijun; Mu Bozhong; Liu Rulin; Ni Fangtian; Zhou Jiaxi

2005-01-01

301

Sulfate-Reducing Bacteria Release Barium and Radium from Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material in Oil-Field Barite  

Microsoft Academic Search

Scale and sludge deposits formed during oil production can contain elevated levels of Ra, often coprecipitated with barium sulfate (barite). The potential for sulfate-reducing bacteria to release Ra and Ba (a Ra analog) from oil-field barite was evaluated. The concentration of dissolved Ba increased when samples containing pipe scale, tank sludge, or oil-field brine pond sediment were incubated with sulfate-reducing

2001-01-01

302

Programed oil generation of the Zubair Formation, Southern Iraq oil fields: Results from Petromod software modeling and geochemical analysis  

USGS Publications Warehouse

1D petroleum system modeling was performed on wells in each of four oil fields in South Iraq, Zubair (well Zb-47), Nahr Umr (well NR-9), West Qurna (well WQ-15 and 23), and Majnoon (well Mj-8). In each of these fields, deposition of the Zubair Formation was followed by continuous burial, reaching maximum temperatures of 100??C (equivalent to 0. 70%Ro) at depths of 3,344-3,750 m of well Zb-47 and 3,081. 5-3,420 m of well WQ-15, 120??C (equivalent to 0. 78%Ro) at depths of 3,353-3,645 m of well NR-9, and 3,391-3,691. 5 m of well Mj-8. Generation of petroleum in the Zubair Formation began in the late Tertiary, 10 million years ago. At present day, modeled transformation ratios (TR) indicate that 65% TR of its generation potential has been reached in well Zb-47, 75% TR in well NR-9 and 55-85% TR in West Qurna oil field (wells WQ-15 and WQ-23) and up to 95% TR in well Mj-8, In contrast, younger source rocks are immature to early mature (<20% TR), whereas older source rocks are mature to overmature (100% TR). Comparison of these basin modeling results, in Basrah region, are performed with Kifle oil field in Hilla region of western Euphrates River whereas the Zubair Formation is immature within temperature range of 65-70??C (0. 50%Ro equivalent) with up to 12% (TR = 12%) hydrocarbon generation efficiency and hence poor generation could be assessed in this last location. The Zubair Formation was deposited in a deltaic environment and consists of interbedded shales and porous and permeable sandstones. In Basrah region, the shales have total organic carbon of 0. 5-7. 0 wt%, Tmax 430-470??C and hydrogen indices of up to 466 with S2 = 0. 4-9. 4 of kerogen type II & III and petroleum potential of 0. 4-9. 98 of good hydrocarbon generation, which is consistent with 55-95% hydrocarbon efficiency. These generated hydrocarbons had charged (in part) the Cretaceous and Tertiary reservoirs, especially the Zubair Formation itself, in the traps formed by Alpine collision that closed the Tethys Ocean between Arabian and Euracian Plates and developed folds in Mesopotamian Basin 15-10 million years ago. These traps are mainly stratigraphic facies of sandstones with the shale that formed during the deposition of the Zubair Formation in transgression and regression phases within the main structural folds of the Zubair, Nahr Umr, West Qurna and Majnoon Oil fields. Oil biomarkers of the Zubair Formation Reservoirs are showing source affinity with mixed oil from the Upper Jurassic and Lower Cretaceous strata, including Zubair Formation organic matters, based on presentation of GC and GC-MS results on diagrams of global petroleum systems. ?? 2010 Saudi Society for Geosciences.

Al-Ameri, T. K.; Pitman, J.; Naser, M. E.; Zumberge, J.; Al-Haydari, H. A.

2011-01-01

303

Shaping the global oil peak: A review of the evidence on field sizes, reserve growth, decline rates and depletion rates  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review paper summarises and evaluates the evidence regarding four issues that are considered to be of critical importance for future global oil supply. These are: a) how regional and global oil resources are distributed between different sizes of field; b) why estimates of the recoverable resources from individual fields tend to grow over time and the current and likely

Steve Sorrell; Jamie Speirs; Roger Bentley; Richard Miller; Erica Thompson

304

Reconnaissance evaluation of contamination in the alluvial aquifer in the East Poplar oil field, Roosevelt County, Montana  

Microsoft Academic Search

The alluvial aquifer in the East Poplar oil field was studied to determine the occurrence, movement, and chemical quality of ground water and to evaluate contamination in the alluvial aquifer. In the oil field area, shallow water occurs in alluvium beneath the Poplar River valley floor. Four distinct types of ground water were identified in the study area. Type 1

Levings

1984-01-01

305

Iodine in Oil and Gas Fields: Especially on the Geochemical Consideration of the Prospecting for Iodine Deposits.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Iodine contents in brines of gas and oil fields throughout the world are surveyed from the standpoint of water quality and Cl content, and brines from oil, gas, and coal fields in Japan are studied in terms of Cl content. The distribution of iodine and ha...

K. Motojima

1976-01-01

306

Iodine in oil and gas fields: Especially on the geochemical consideration of the prospecting for iodine deposits  

Microsoft Academic Search

Iodine contents in brines of gas and oil fields throughout the world are surveyed from the standpoint of water quality and Cl content, and brines from oil, gas, and coal fields in Japan are studied in terms of Cl content. The distribution of iodine and halogens and their relationship in underground waters and the relationship between iodine and organic substances

K. Motojima

1976-01-01

307

Structural setting and validation of direct hydrocarbon indicators for Amauligak oil field, Canadian Beaufort Sea  

SciTech Connect

The recent discovery of a giant oil field in the southeastern Beaufort-Mackenzie basin has brought this frontier area closer to oil production despite severe environmental conditions. The Amauligak field is a fault-bounded growth structure developed in the Kugmallit Trough, within deltaic deposits of the Beaufort Sea Shelf. Shelf construction occurred during the Late Cretaceous-Tertiary by repeated progradation of the Mackenzie River delta in response to rift-induced opening of the Canada basin and extension of the Kugmallit Trough. The Amauligak field contains oil and gas in multiple sandstone reservoirs of the Oligocene Kugmallit sequence. The upper sandstones are truncated by an unconformity and sealed by the overlying shales of the Miocene Mackenzie Bay sequence. Based on two-dimensional seismic coverage, the field was initially described as structurally simple. Interactive interpretation on Landmark and SIDIS workstations of a three-dimensional seismic program revealed the local structural complications, spatial configuration, and detailed structural elements of the field. Direct hydrocarbon indicators (DHIs), including amplitude anomaly, phase change, flat spot, and low-frequency zone, associated with a large gas cap were investigated using full amplitude-range and attribute-extraction methods. Interpretation of seismic data and correlation with well results suggest that a combination of structural, stratigraphic, and hydrodynamic factors are responsible for the appearance and distribution of Amauligak DHIs. On the amplitude displays, a fluid contact is seismically mappable over the field, clearly separating the gas cap from the wet reservoir. 16 figs.

Enachescu, M.E. (Husky Oil Operations Ltd., Calgary, Alberta (Canada))

1990-01-01

308

Low-Salinity Waterflooding to Improve Oil Recovery - Historical Field Evidence  

SciTech Connect

Waterflooding is by far the most widely applied method of improved oil recovery. Crude oil/brine/rock interactions can lead to large variations in the displacement efficiency of wa-terfloods. Laboratory water-flood tests and single-well tracer tests have shown that injection of dilute brine can increase oil recovery, but work designed to test the method on a field scale has not yet been undertaken. Historical waterflood records could unintentionally provide some evidence of improved recovery from waterflooding with lower salinity brine. Nu-merous fields in the Powder River basin of Wyoming have been waterflooded using low salinity brine (about 500 ppm) obtained from the Madison limestone or Fox Hills sandstone. Three Minnelusa formation fields in the basin were identified as potential candidates for waterflood comparisons based on the salinity of the connate and injection water. Historical pro-duction and injection data for these fields were obtained from the public record. Field waterflood data were manipulated to be displayed in the same format as laboratory coreflood re-sults. Recovery from fields using lower salinity injection wa-ter was greater than that using higher salinity injection wa-ter—matching recovery trends for laboratory and single-well tests.

Eric P. Robertson

2007-11-01

309

INCREASING HEAVY OIL RESERVES IN THE WILMINGTON OIL FIELD THROUGH ADVANCED RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION AND THERMAL PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGIES  

SciTech Connect

The overall objective of this project is to increase heavy oil reserves in slope and basin clastic (SBC) reservoirs through the application of advanced reservoir characterization and thermal production technologies. The project involves improving thermal recovery techniques in the Tar Zone of Fault Blocks II-A and V (Tar II-A and Tar V) of the Wilmington Field in Los Angeles County, near Long Beach, California. A primary objective is to transfer technology which can be applied in other heavy oil formations of the Wilmington Field and other SBC reservoirs, including those under waterflood. The thermal recovery operations in the Tar II-A and Tar V have been relatively inefficient because of several producibility problems which are common in SBC reservoirs. Inadequate characterization of the heterogeneous turbidite sands, high permeability thief zones, low gravity oil, and nonuniform distribution of remaining oil have all contributed to poor sweep efficiency, high steam-oil ratios, and early steam breakthrough. Operational problems related to steam breakthrough, high reservoir pressure, and unconsolidated formation sands have caused premature well and downhole equipment failures. In aggregate, these reservoir and operational constraints have resulted in increased operating costs and decreased recoverable reserves. The advanced technologies to be applied include: (1) Develop three-dimensional (3-D) deterministic and stochastic geologic models. (2) Develop 3-D deterministic and stochastic thermal reservoir simulation models to aid in reservoir management and subsequent development work. (3) Develop computerized 3-D visualizations of the geologic and reservoir simulation models to aid in analysis. (4) Perform detailed study on the geochemical interactions between the steam and the formation rock and fluids. (5) Pilot steam injection and production via four new horizontal wells (2 producers and 2 injectors). (6) Hot water alternating steam (WAS) drive pilot in the existing steam drive area to improve thermal efficiency. (7) Installing an 2400 foot insulated, subsurface harbor channel crossing to supply steam to an island location. (8) Test a novel alkaline steam completion technique to control well sanding problems and fluid entry profiles. (9) Advanced reservoir management through computer-aided access to production and geologic data to integrate reservoir characterization, engineering, monitoring, and evaluation.

Scott Hara

2003-09-04

310

INCREASING HEAVY OIL RESERVES IN THE WILMINGTON OIL FIELD THROUGH ADVANCED RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION AND THERMAL PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGIES  

SciTech Connect

The overall objective of this project is to increase heavy oil reserves in slope and basin clastic (SBC) reservoirs through the application of advanced reservoir characterization and thermal production technologies. The project involves improving thermal recovery techniques in the Tar Zone of Fault Blocks II-A and V (Tar II-A and Tar V) of the Wilmington Field in Los Angeles County, near Long Beach, California. A primary objective is to transfer technology which can be applied in other heavy oil formations of the Wilmington Field and other SBC reservoirs, including those under waterflood. The thermal recovery operations in the Tar II-A and Tar V have been relatively inefficient because of several producibility problems which are common in SBC reservoirs. Inadequate characterization of the heterogeneous turbidite sands, high permeability thief zones, low gravity oil, and nonuniform distribution of remaining oil have all contributed to poor sweep efficiency, high steam-oil ratios, and early steam breakthrough. Operational problems related to steam breakthrough, high reservoir pressure, and unconsolidated formation sands have caused premature well and downhole equipment failures. In aggregate, these reservoir and operational constraints have resulted in increased operating costs and decreased recoverable reserves. The advanced technologies to be applied include: (1) Develop three-dimensional (3-D) deterministic and stochastic geologic models. (2) Develop 3-D deterministic and stochastic thermal reservoir simulation models to aid in reservoir management and subsequent development work. (3) Develop computerized 3-D visualizations of the geologic and reservoir simulation models to aid in analysis. (4) Perform detailed study on the geochemical interactions between the steam and the formation rock and fluids. (5) Pilot steam injection and production via four new horizontal wells (2 producers and 2 injectors). (6) Hot water alternating steam (WAS) drive pilot in the existing steam drive area to improve thermal efficiency. (7) Installing an 2400 foot insulated, subsurface harbor channel crossing to supply steam to an island location. (8) Test a novel alkaline steam completion technique to control well sanding problems and fluid entry profiles. (9) Advanced reservoir management through computer-aided access to production and geologic data to integrate reservoir characterization, engineering, monitoring, and evaluation.

Scott Hara

2004-03-05

311

INCREASING HEAVY OIL RESERVES IN THE WILMINGTON OIL FIELD THROUGH ADVANCED RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION AND THERMAL PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGIES  

SciTech Connect

The overall objective of this project is to increase heavy oil reserves in slope and basin clastic (SBC) reservoirs through the application of advanced reservoir characterization and thermal production technologies. The project involves improving thermal recovery techniques in the Tar Zone of Fault Blocks II-A and V (Tar II-A and Tar V) of the Wilmington Field in Los Angeles County, near Long Beach, California. A primary objective is to transfer technology which can be applied in other heavy oil formations of the Wilmington Field and other SBC reservoirs, including those under waterflood. The thermal recovery operations in the Tar II-A and Tar V have been relatively inefficient because of several producibility problems which are common in SBC reservoirs. Inadequate characterization of the heterogeneous turbidite sands, high permeability thief zones, low gravity oil, and nonuniform distribution of remaining oil have all contributed to poor sweep efficiency, high steam-oil ratios, and early steam breakthrough. Operational problems related to steam breakthrough, high reservoir pressure, and unconsolidated formation sands have caused premature well and downhole equipment failures. In aggregate, these reservoir and operational constraints have resulted in increased operating costs and decreased recoverable reserves. The advanced technologies to be applied include: (1) Develop three-dimensional (3-D) deterministic and stochastic geologic models. (2) Develop 3-D deterministic and stochastic thermal reservoir simulation models to aid in reservoir management and subsequent development work. (3) Develop computerized 3-D visualizations of the geologic and reservoir simulation models to aid in analysis. (4) Perform detailed study on the geochemical interactions between the steam and the formation rock and fluids. (5) Pilot steam injection and production via four new horizontal wells (2 producers and 2 injectors). (6) Hot water alternating steam (WAS) drive pilot in the existing steam drive area to improve thermal efficiency. (7) Installing an 2400 foot insulated, subsurface harbor channel crossing to supply steam to an island location. (8) Test a novel alkaline steam completion technique to control well sanding problems and fluid entry profiles. (9) Advanced reservoir management through computer-aided access to production and geologic data to integrate reservoir characterization, engineering, monitoring, and evaluation.

Scott Hara

2003-06-04

312

Costs and indices for domestic oil and gas field equipment and production operations 1990 through 1993  

SciTech Connect

This report presents estimated costs and indice for domestic oil and gas field equipment and production operations for 1990, 1991, 1992, and 1993. The costs of all equipment and serives were those in effect during June of each year. The sums (aggregates) of the costs for representative leases by region, depth, and production rate were averaged and indexed. This provides a general measure of the increased or decreased costs from year to year for lease equipment and operations. These general measures do not capture changes in industry-wide costs exactly because of annual variations in the ratio of oil wells to gas wells. The body of the report contains summary tables, and the appendices contain detailed tables. Price changes for oil and gas, changes in taxes on oil and gas revenues, and environmental factors (costs and lease availability) have significant impact on the number and cost of oil and gas wells drilled. These changes also impact the cost of oil and gas production equipment and operations.

Not Available

1994-07-08

313

Rock Creek oil field CO/sub 2/ pilot tests, Roane County, West Virginia  

SciTech Connect

This paper reports on the design and operation of two CO/sub 2/ EOR tests conducted in the Rock Creek field in Roane County, WV. The history, fluid properties, and geology of the Rock Creek field are presented first. The test area is then addressed more specifically with an evaluation of the cores and the geophysical logs of the injection, production, and observation wells. Finally, the injection history and the production response are documented. The first test was conducted in two 10-acre (4-ha), normal five-spot patterns, with 13,000 scf CO/sub 2//STB oil (2315 st m/sup 3//stock-tank m/sup 3/) injected. This test effort recovered 13,078 STB (2079 stock-tank m/sup 3/) of oil (3% of the original oil in place (OOIP)) but was terminated after 3 years before all oil capable of being mobilized was recovered. About 15% of an HCPV was injected. The first test was followed by a second, smaller test that, given the same amount of CO/sub 2/ to be purchased, would result in an increase in HCPV's of CO/sub 2/ injected and a greater potential for oil recovery. The second test was conducted in a 1.55-acre (0.63-ha), normal four-spot pattern contained within the original test pattern. This test lasted 2 years, with 9,000 scf CO/sub 2//STB oil (1603 std m/sup 3//stock-tank m/sup 3/) injected. Recovery from this test was 3,821 STB (607 stock-tank m/sup 3/) of oil (11% of the OOIP). About 48% of an HCPV was injected. It appears that CO/sub 2/ miscible flooding is technically successful in Appalachian reservoirs.

Brummert, A.C.; Watts, R.J.; Boone, D.A.; Wasson, J.A.

1988-03-01

314

Sisterhood in the oil field: informal support networks, gender roles and adaptation among women in the Oklahoma oil field  

SciTech Connect

The petroleum drilling industry exhibits a number of definitive characteristics, which combined with the most recent boom/bust drilling cycle, affect women in much the same manner as factors commonly associated with the eroding of women's social and economic positions within modernizing societies. Recognizing that modernization has a negative impact on women, this study focuses on strategies of adaptation employed by women associated both directly and indirectly with the petroleum drilling industry in an oil boom/bust town in western Oklahoma. Utilizing the traditional techniques of ethnographic interview and participant observation, it was shown that informal support networks formed by women enhanced women's adaptation by extending their resource base beyond the nuclear family and encouraging solidarity. Gender-based division of labor was also modified by western energy development. Boom times facilitated a rigid division of labor that gave way to a more flexible arrangement during bust times without a concomitant change in gender-based ideology. This was accounted for by differences in the rates of change for the underlying habits and values associated with the public and private sectors.

Walsh, A.C.

1988-01-01

315

Oil-field disposal practices in hydrogeologic setting of Midway Sunset and Buena Vista oil fields; review of past effects, current activities, and future scenarios  

SciTech Connect

Class 2 water disposal in the Midway Sunset and Buena Vista oil fields of Kern County, California, has been by injection and infiltration from spreading ponds into the unsaturated zone, which is typically hundreds of feet thick. Water collection is mostly through an extensive tributary network of collection ditches radiating from several disposal facility locations. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the subsurface movement of fluid in the hydrogeological environment and to determine the fate of the disposed water and its long-term impact on the area.

Sengebush, R.M.; Kiser, S.C.; Greenwood, E.J.; Crozier, R.N.; Crewdson, R.A.; Wilson, M.J.; Rycerski, B.A.

1988-03-01

316

An acoustic system for providing the two-phase liquid profile in oil field storage tanks.  

PubMed

The continuing need for in situ measurements of the emulsion layer between crude oil and water within oil field tanks has initiated experimental and theoretical investigations of candidate measurement methods. This paper describes a new low-cost and nonradioactive industrial field prototype device that provides, continuously and in real time, the vertical profile of the 2-phase liquid within oil field tank separators (i.e., percentage of water in oil at different heights of the tank, as well as the emulsion layer interfaces) using ultrasonic waves. The device, which has been installed in a vessel through an 8-in. flange, consists of a 1-D array of tens of ultrasonic transducers (28 transducers in this paper) that are activated in a time-multiplexed manner by an embedded transmitter fixed on the top of the tank. This latest version implements a feedforward neural network with back-propagation learning to determine the vertical water-cut distribution along the vessel. It also implements an expert-system-based algorithm to determine the lower and higher positions of the emulsion layer. The results obtained from the extensive experiments, which have been conducted under various conditions of temperature, indicate that the device can determine the profile of the 2-phase liquid within a relative error of +/- 3%. PMID:19942511

Meribout, Mahmoud; Al Naamany, Ahmed; Al Busaidi, Khamis

2009-10-01

317

Immunomagnetically captured thermophilic sulfate-reducing bacteria from North Sea oil field waters  

SciTech Connect

Immunomagnetic beads (IMB) were used to recover thermophilic sulfate-reducing bacteria from oil field waters from oil production platforms in the Norwegian sector of the North Sea. IMB coated with polyclonal antibodies against whole-cell antigens of the thermophilic Thermodesulfobacterium mobile captured strains GFA1, GFA2, and GFA3. GFA1 was serologically and morphologically identical to T. mobile. GFA2 and GFA3 were spore forming and similar to the Desulgotomaculum strains T90A and T93B previously isolated from North Sea oil field waters by a classical enrichment procedure. Western blots (immunoblots) of whole cells showed that GFA2, GFA3, T90A, and T93B are different serotypes of the same Desulfotomaculum species. Monoclonal antibodies (MAb) against T. mobile type strain cells were produced and used as capture agents on IMB. These MAb, named A4F4, were immunoglobulin M; they were specific to T. mobile and directed against lipopolysaccharides. The prevailing cells immunocaptured with MAb A4F4 were morphologically and serologically similar to T. mobile type strain cells T. mobile was not detected in these oil field waters by classical enrichment procedures. Furthermore, extraction with antibody-coated IMB allowed pure strains to be isolated directly from primary enrichment cultures without prior time-consuming subculturing and consecutive transfers to selective media.

Christensen, B.; Torsvik, T.; Lien, T. (Univ. of Bergen (Norway))

1992-04-01

318

Brine contamination of shallow ground water and streams in the Brookhaven Oil Field, Lincoln County, Mississippi  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A hydrologic investigation to define areas of brine contamination in shallow freshwater aquifers commonly used for streams that drain the Brookhaven Oil Field, was conducted from October 1983 to September 1984. The Brookhaven Oil Field covers approximately 15 sq mi in northwestern Lincoln County, Mississippi. Since 1943, disposal of approximately 544.2 million barrels of brine pumped from the oil producing zone (lower part of the Tuscaloosa Formation) has contaminated the Citronelle aquifer, the Hattiesburg aquifers, and streams that drain the oil field. Approximately 5 sq mi of the shallow Citronelle aquifer contain water with chloride concentrations higher than normal for this area ( > 20 mg/L). Brine contamination has moved from the source laterally through the Citronelle aquifer to discharge into nearby streams and vertically into the underlying Hattiesburg aquifers. Contamination is most noticeable in Shaws Creek when streamflow originates primarily from groundwater inflow (approximately 87% of the time during the study). Additional study is required to define contaminant plumes, rates of groundwater movement and geohydrochemical reactions between the contaminant and aquifer materials. These data would allow accurate predictions of location, extent and degree of contamination in the study area. (Author 's abstract)

Kalkhoff, S. J.

1986-01-01

319

Episodic migration of natural gas: A new concept of dynamic filling of oil and gas fields  

SciTech Connect

Natural gases form through bacterial and thermogenic conversion of organic matter over extended geological time. The isotopic properties of methane and C2+ hydrocarbons are controlled by maturation and mixing. Gas fields which are actively and repeatedly charged over extended periods of gas formation will receive compositionally and isotopically variable charges of natural gases that can mix in different proportions in single reservoirs. Episodic migration and multiple filling of reservoirs is a ubiquitous phenomenon observed in small and giant gas fields throughout the world. South Italy: Pliocene reservoirs in the Apulian Basin are mixtures of thermogenic and bacterial gases. Carbon isotope signatures of methane and nitrogen contents are direct tracers for the thermogenic component in the gas mixtures. Gas composition variations within continuous reservoir sands suggest a two phase filling of the reservoirs which are in some cases still unmixed. Gases in the Gulf of Mexico are in many cases mixtures of thermogenic and bacterial gases. Variations in isotopic signatures in one field often change from reservoir to reservoir as a result of different mixing ratios of bacterial and thermogenic gases. Angola: Giant oil fields off-shore Cabinda contain thermogenic gases with different isotopic signatures in the gas cap and the oil log, indicating a two phase migration of thermogenic gases from mature to post-mature sources. The gas/oil columns are in some cases variable and suggest compartmentalization and/or unmixed oil hydrocarbon columns. Yacheng Gas Field: Gas composition and isotopic signatures of methane change from west to east in this giant field in the S.China Sea. Inert gas contents also vary vertically in the reservoir suggesting a late charge of a CO{sub 2} rich gas into the structure.

Schoell, M. [Chevron Petroleum Technology Co., La Habra, CA (United States)

1995-08-01

320

Geological reasons for rapid water encroachment in wells at Sutorma oil field  

SciTech Connect

The Sutorma oil field on the northern Surgut dome is one of the new fields in West Siberia. It came into production in 1982, but already by 1983 it was found that the water contents in the fluids produced were much greater than the design values. The adverse effects are particularly pronounced for the main reservoir at the deposit, the BS/sub 10//sup 2/ stratum. Later, similar problems occurred at other fields in the Noyarbr and Purpey regions. It is therefore particularly important to elucidate the geological reasons for water encroachment.

Arkhipov, S.V.; Dvorak, S.V.; Sonich, V.P.; Nikolayeva, Ye.V.

1987-12-01

321

The Zakum Telesystem: An Application of Large-Scale SCADA Systems to a Major Offshore Oil Field  

Microsoft Academic Search

Various types of supervisory-control and data-acquisition (SCADA) systems are in use in oil fields around the world, assisting field personnel in maintaining safe and profitable operations. The Upper Zakum field, one of the largest offshore fields, requires a far more extensive SCADA system with higher levels of distribution than generally needed. This paper outlines the environment and extent of the

Jamel Kahoul

1990-01-01

322

Use of tracers in laboratory and field tests of underground coal gasification and oil shale retorting. [35 references  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tracers have recently been suggested for laboratory and field experiments of simulated and actual underground retorting of coal and oil shale. The intended use of laboratory and field retort testing is examined and found to be mainly for estimation of properties of the flow field. The field implementation, data reduction procedure and preliminary results of helium tracer work at Hoe

R. W. Lyczkowski; C. B. Thorsness; R. J. Cena

1978-01-01

323

Oil fields and new plays in the Rioni foreland basin, Republic of Georgia  

SciTech Connect

The Rioni Basin in West Georgia is an Oligocene foredeep that evolved into a Miocene to Pliocene foreland basin, north of the Achara-Trialeti thrust belt and south of the Greater Caucasus. It extends to the west into the Black Sea. A large number of exploration wildcats have been drilled onshore since the nineteenth century and have led to the discovery of three fields. Exploration was prompted by seeps and restricted to frontal ramp anticlines mapped at surface. No wells have been drilled offshore. Supsa (discovered 1889) contains 29 MMbbl oil in clastic Sarmatian reservoirs. The field has around 50 wells but less than 0.5 MMbbl have been produced. Shromisubani (discovered 1973) contains oil within Maeotian and Pontian clastic reservoirs, Chaladidi oil within Upper Cretaceous chalk. Despite this long and apparently intensive exploration effort, several factors make the basin an exciting target for field redevelopment and further exploration. The quality of existing seismic is very poor both on-and offshore. Reinterpretation of the structure of the fold and thrust belt has suggested the presence of new targets and plays which may be imaged by modern seismic methods. In addition, due to problems associated with central planning, discovered fields have not been optimally developed or even fully appraised. The application of new technology, geological interpretation and investment promises to delineate substantial remaining reserves even after more than one hundred years of exploration.

Robinson, A.G.; Griffith, E.T. (JKX Oil and Gas, Guildford (United Kingdom)); Sargeant, J. (RES-Source Limited, Banchory (United Kingdom))

1996-01-01

324

Geology and reservoir characteristics of carbonate buildup in giant Bu Hasa oil field, Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bu Hasa field in Abu Dhabi was the first giant oil field in the Arabian Gulf to produce from the Lower Cretaceous Shuaiba Formation (Aptian). The field has a productive area of about 155,673 c (63,047 ha.) and 12.6 billion bbl of oil reserves. The formation is composed mainly of rudistid and algal sediments, rudistid mounds having overlain and built

Alsharhan

1987-01-01

325

Spore-forming thermophilic sulfate-reducing bacteria isolated from North Sea oil field waters  

SciTech Connect

Thermophilic sulfate-reducing bacteria were isolated from oil field waters from oil production platforms in the Norwegian sector of the North Sea. Spore-forming rods dominated in the enrichments when lactate, propionate, butyrate, or a mixture of aliphatic fatty acids (C{sub 4} through C{sub 6}) was added as a carbon source and electron donor. Representative strains were isolated and characterized. The isolates grew autotrophically on H{sub 2}-CO{sub 2} and heterotrophically on fatty acids such as formate, propionate, butyrate, caproate, valerate, pyruvate, and lactate and on alcohols such as methanol, ethanol, and propanol. Sulfate, sulfite, and thiosulfate but not nitrate could be used as an electron acceptor. The temperature range for growth was 43 to 78C; the spores were extremely heat resistant and survived 131C for 20 min. The optimum pH was 7.0. The isolates grew well in salt concentrations ranging from 0 to 800 mmol of NaCl per liter. Sulfite reductase P582 was present, but cytochrome c and desulfoviridin were not found. Electron micrographs revealed a gram-positive cell organization. The isolates were classified as a Desulfotomaculum sp. on the basis of spore formation, general physiological characteristics, and submicroscopic organization. To detect thermophilic spore-forming sulfate-reducing bacteria in oil field water, polyvalent antisera raised against antigens from two isolates were used. These bacteria were shown to be widespread in oil field water from different platforms. The origin of thermophilic sulfate-reducing bacteria in the pore water of oil reservoirs is discussed.

Rosnes, J.T.; Torsvik, T.; Lien, T. (Univ. of Bergen (Norway))

1991-08-01

326

Spore-Forming Thermophilic Sulfate-Reducing Bacteria Isolated from North Sea Oil Field Waters  

PubMed Central

Thermophilic sulfate-reducing bacteria were isolated from oil field waters from oil production platforms in the Norwegian sector of the North Sea. Spore-forming rods dominated in the enrichments when lactate, propionate, butyrate, or a mixture of aliphatic fatty acids (C4 through C6) was added as a carbon source and electron donor. Representative strains were isolated and characterized. The isolates grew autotrophically on H2-CO2 and heterotrophically on fatty acids such as formate, propionate, butyrate, caproate, valerate, pyruvate, and lactate and on alcohols such as methanol, ethanol, and propanol. Sulfate, sulfite, and thiosulfate but not nitrate could be used as an electron acceptor. The temperature range for growth was 43 to 78°C; the spores were extremely heat resistant and survived 131°C for 20 min. The optimum pH was 7.0. The isolates grew well in salt concentrations ranging from 0 to 800 mmol of NaCl per liter. Sulfite reductase P582 was present, but cytochrome c and desulfoviridin were not found. Electron micrographs revealed a gram-positive cell organization. The isolates were classified as a Desulfotomaculum sp. on the basis of spore formation, general physiological characteristics, and submicroscopic organization. To detect thermophilic spore-forming sulfate-reducing bacteria in oil field water, polyvalent antisera raised against antigens from two isolates were used. These bacteria were shown to be widespread in oil field water from different platforms. The origin of thermophilic sulfate-reducing bacteria in the pore water of oil reservoirs is discussed. Images

Rosnes, Jan Thomas; Torsvik, Terje; Lien, Torleiv

1991-01-01

327

Sedimentary style and oil-gas field distribution in Western Bohai Bay  

SciTech Connect

Western Bohai Bay is located near Tianjing City and the Yanshan Mountains. Tectonically, it is part of the Bohai Bay rift, including the Qiku, Nanpu, and Cangdong depressions. The Paleogene strata consist of three cycles in the rift. Usually, the sublacustrine fans or basalts formed at the initial stage of every cycle. The dark shales and turbidites developed at the high level of lacustrine transgression. However, the deltas or evaporates appeared at the regressive stage. The sublacustrine fans or deltas generally distribute in the marginal part of a depression, with humic type kerogen. The dark shales of deep lacustrine facies in the inner part of it contain sapropel type kerogen. The transitional zone between them is interbedded shales and sandstones, with mixed type kerogen. The oil-gas fields mainly occur in the transitional zone around the oil-generating center. The great oil-gas fields are formed in areas where the big drape anticline coincided with the sublacustrine fan-front or delta-front sandstones and were sealed by shales or evaporates. A great number of small overpressured oil reservoirs are in the mature source rocks in the depression center.

Hansheng Qiao (Research Institute of Petroleum Exploration, Beijing (China))

1994-07-01

328

Increasing Heavy Oil Reservers in the Wilmington Oil field Through Advanced Reservoir Characterization and Thermal Production Technologies  

SciTech Connect

The project involves improving thermal recovery techniques in a slope and basin clastic (SBC) reservoir in the Wilmington field, Los Angeles Co., Calif. using advanced reservoir characterization and thermal production technologies. The existing steamflood in the Tar zone of Fault Block (FB) 11-A has been relatively inefficient because of several producibility problems which are common in SBC reservoirs. Inadequate characterization of the heterogeneous turbidite sands, high permeability thief zones, low gravity oil, and nonuniform distribution of remaining oil have all contributed to poor sweep efficiency, high steam-oil ratios, and early steam breakthrough. Operational problems related to steam breakthrough, high reservoir pressure, and unconsolidated formation sands have caused premature well and downhole equipment failures. In aggregate, these reservoir and operational constraints have resulted in increased operating costs and decreased recoverable reserves. The advanced technologies to be applied include: (1) Develop three-dimensional (3-D) deterministic and stochastic geologic models. (2) Develop 3-D deterministic and stochastic thermal reservoir simulation models to aid in reservoir management and subsequent development work. (3) Develop computerized 3-D visualizations of the geologic and reservoir simulation models to aid in analysis. (4) Perform detailed study on the geochemical interactions between the steam and the formation rock and fluids. (5) Pilot steam injection and production via four new horizontal wells (2 producers and 2 injectors). (6) Hot water alternating steam (WAS) drive pilot in the existing steam drive area to improve thermal efficiency. (7) Installing a 2100 foot insulated, subsurface harbor channel crossing to supply steam to an island location. (8) Test a novel alkaline steam completion technique to control well sanding problems and fluid entry profiles. (9) Advanced reservoir management through computer-aided access to production and geologic data to integrate reservoir characterization, engineering, monitoring, and evaluation.

Hara, Scott [Tidelands Oil Production Co., Long Beach, CA (United States)

1997-05-05

329

Increasing Heavy Oil Reserves in the Wilmington Oil Field Through Advanced Reservoir Characterization and Thermal Production Technologies  

SciTech Connect

The project involves improving thermal recovery techniques in a slope and basin clastic (SBC) reservoir in the Wilmington field, Los Angeles Co., Calif. using advanced reservoir characterization and thermal production technologies. The existing steamflood in the Tar zone of Fault Block (FB) II-A has been relatively inefficient because of several producibility problems which are common in SBC reservoirs. Inadequate characterization of the heterogeneous turbidite sands, high permeability thief zones, low gravity oil, and nonuniform distribution of remaining oil have all contributed to poor sweep efficiency, high steam-oil ratios, and early steam breakthrough. Operational problems related to steam breakthrough, high reservoir pressure, and unconsolidated formation sands have caused premature well and downhole equipment failures. In aggregate, these reservoir and operational constraints have resulted in increased operating costs and decreased recoverable reserves. The advanced technologies to be applied include: (1) Develop three-dimensional (3-D) deterministic and stochastic geologic models. (2) Develop 3-D deterministic and stochastic thermal reservoir simulation models to aid in reservoir management and subsequent development work. (3) Develop computerized 3-D visualizations of the geologic and reservoir simulation models to aid in analysis. (4) Perform detailed study on the geochemical interactions between the steam and the formation rock and fluids. (5) Pilot steam injection and production via four new horizontal wells (2 producers and 2 injectors). (6) Hot water alternating steam (WAS) drive pilot in the existing steam drive area to improve thermal efficiency. (7) Installing a 2100 foot insulated, subsurface harbor channel crossing to supply steam to an island location. (8) Test a novel alkaline steam completion technique to control well sanding problems and fluid entry profiles. (9) Advanced reservoir management through computer-aided access to production and geologic data to integrate reservoir characterization, engineering, monitoring, and evaluation. Summary of Technical Progress

Scott Hara

1997-08-08

330

Increasing Heavy Oil Reserves in the Wilmington Oil Field Through Advanced Reservoir Characterization and Thermal Production Technologies  

SciTech Connect

The project involves improving thermal recovery techniques in a slope and basin clastic (SBC) reservoir in the Wilmington field, Los Angeles Co., Calif. using advanced reservoir characterization and thermal production technologies. The existing steamflood in the Tar zone of Fault Block (FB) II-A has been relatively inefficient because of several producibility problems which are common in SBC reservoirs. Inadequate characterization of the heterogeneous turbidite sands, high permeability thief zones, low gravity oil, and nonuniform distribution of remaining oil have all contributed to poor sweep efficiency, high steam-oil ratios, and early steam breakthrough. Operational problems related to steam breakthrough, high reservoir pressure, and unconsolidated formation sands have caused premature well and downhole equipment failures. In aggregate, these reservoir and operational constraints have resulted in increased operating costs and decreased recoverable reserves. The advanced technologies to be applied include: (1) Develop three-dimensional (3-D) deterministic and stochastic geologic models. (2) Develop 3-D deterministic and stochastic thermal reservoir simulation models to aid in reservoir management and subsequent development work. (3) Develop computerized 3-D visualizations of the geologic and reservoir simulation models to aid in analysis. (4) Perform detailed study on the geochemical interactions between the steam and the formation rock and fluids. (5) Pilot steam injection and production via four new horizontal wells (2 producers and 2 injectors). (6) Hot water alternating steam (WAS) drive pilot in the existing steam drive area to improve thermal efficiency. (7) Installing a 2100 foot insulated, subsurface harbor channel crossing to supply steam to an island location. (8) Test a novel alkaline steam completion technique to control well sanding problems and fluid entry profiles. (9) Advanced reservoir management through computer-aided access to production and geologic data to integrate reservoir characterization, engineering, monitoring, and evaluation.

Scott Hara

1998-03-03

331

Evaluating GIS for establishing and monitoring environmental conditions of oil fields  

SciTech Connect

Good management of an oil field and compliance with ever-increasing environmental regulations is enhanced by technologies that improve a company`s understanding of field/production facilities and environmental conditions that have occurred to both through time. In Nigeria, Kazakhstan, Indonesia, and offshore Cabinda, remote sensing, computer-aided drafting (CAD) and Global Positioning System (GPF) technologies have effectively been used by Chevron to provide accurate maps of facilities and to better understand environmental conditions. Together these proven technologies have provided a solid and cost-effective base for planning field operation, verifying well and seismic locations, and locating sampling sites. The end product of these technologies is often locations, and locating sampling sites. The end product of these technologies is often cartographic-quality hardcopy images and maps for use in the office and field. Chevron has been evaluating the capability of Geographical Information System (GIS) technology to integrate images, maps, and tabular data into a useful database that can help managers and workers better evaluate conditions in an oil field, plan new facilities, and monitor/predict trends (for example, of air emissions, groundwater, soil chemistry, subsidence, etc.). Remote sensing, CAD (if formatted properly), and GPS data can be integrated to establish the spatial or cartographic base of the GIS. A major obstacle to establishing a sophisticated GIS for an overseas operation is the initial cost of data collection and conversion from legacy data base management systems and hardcopy to appropriate digital format. However, Chevron routinely uses GIS for oil spill modeling and is now using GIS in the field for integrating GPS data with field observations and programs.

Pfeil, R.W.; Ellis, J.W. [Chevron Overseas Petroleum Inc., San Ramon, CA (United States)

1995-04-01

332

Study of Getty Oil Co. 's successful in-situ combustion project in the Bellevue Field  

SciTech Connect

The in situ combustion project operated by Getty Oil Company in the Bellevue Field, Bossier Parish, Louisiana, has expanded from a single pilot pattern in 1963 to a full-scale operation with more than one hundred patterns in 1981. Originally discovered in 1921, the field produced for about ten years under primary production methods. The field remained relatively dormant until Getty Oil Company conducted a successful in situ combustion pilot which commenced in 1963. The project is now producing about 2900 barrels daily of 19.5/sup 0/ API gravity crude from 350 producing wells. Pattern sizes and configurations have varied during the eighteen year project. West and dry combustion methods have been used in the field and a combination of the two methods is used today depending on the stage of burn the pattern is experiencing. Several water-air injection ratios have been tried with varying degrees of success. In this paper, Getty's Bellevue project is traced from its inception to the present. Response to various methods used in the field as well as operational problems are discussed. Ultimate production forecasts are also presented for the field.

Long, R.E.; Nuar, M.F.

1982-01-01

333

[Isolation, identification and diversity analysis of petroleum-degrading bacteria in Shengli Oil Field wetland soil].  

PubMed

The petroleum-degrading bacteria in Shengli Oil Field wetland soil were isolated and identified by traditional experiment methods, and their diversity was analyzed by PCR-DGGE (denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis). A total of thirteen petroleum-degrading bacterial strains were isolated, among which, six strains were found to have the ability of degrading the majority of C12-C26 petroleum hydrocarbon, with a degradation rate of > 90%. These petroleum degraders were phylogeneticly identified as the members of Halomonas, Alcanivorax, and Marinobacter, which were all belonged to gamma-proteobacteria. The uncultured predominant bacteria in Shengli Oil Field wetland soil were of Sulfurovum, Gillisia and Arcobacter. Among the predominant bacteria, gamma-proteobacteria accounted for a larger proportion, followed by alpha-proteobactiria, epsilon-proteobactiria, Actinobacteria, and Flavobacteria. PMID:19803182

Han, Ping; Zheng, Li; Cui, Zhi-Song; Guo, Xiu-Chun; Tian, Li

2009-05-01

334

Oil-field wastewater purification by magnetic separation technique using a novel magnetic nanoparticle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the present work, oil-field wastewater purification through superconducting magnetic separation technique using a novel magnetic nanoparticle was investigated. The magnetic nanoparticle, which has a multi-shell structure with ferroferric oxide as core, dense nonporous silica as inter layer and mesoporous silica as outer layer, was synthesized by co-precipitation method. To functionalize the magnetic nanoparticle, plasma polymerization technique was adopted and poly methyl acrylate (PMA) was formed on the surface of the nanoparticle. The multi-shell structure of the nanoparticle was confirmed by transmission electron microscope (TEM) and the characteristic is measurable by FTIR. It is found that most of the pollutants (85% by turbidity or 84% by COD value) in the oil-field wastewater are removed through the superconducting magnetic separation technique using this novel magnetic nanoparticle.

Liu, Zhuonan; Yang, Huihui; Zhang, Hao; Huang, Chuanjun; Li, Laifeng

2012-12-01

335

Estimated human health risks of disposing of nonhazardous oil field waste in salt caverns  

SciTech Connect

Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) has completed an evaluation of the possibility that adverse human health effects (carcinogenic and noncarcinogenic) could result from exposure to contaminants released from nonhazardous oil field wastes (NOW) disposed in domal salt caverns. In this assessment, several steps were used to evaluate potential human health risks: identifying potential contaminants of concern, determining how humans could be exposed to these contaminants, assessing the contaminants` toxicities, estimating contaminant intakes, and, finally, calculating human cancer and noncancer risks.

Tomasko, D.; Elcock, D.; Veil, J.

1997-09-01

336

Disposal of NORM-contaminated oil field wastes in Salt Caverns.  

SciTech Connect

In 1995, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Fossil Energy, asked Argonne National Laboratory (Argonne) to conduct a preliminary technical and legal evaluation of disposing of nonhazardous oil field waste (NOW) into salt caverns. That study concluded that disposal of NOW into salt caverns is feasible and legal. If caverns are sited and designed well, operated carefully, closed properly, and monitored routinely, they can be a suitable means of disposing of NOW (Veil et al. 1996). Considering these findings and the increased U.S. interest in using salt caverns for NOW disposal, the Office of Fossil Energy asked Argonne to conduct further research on the cost of cavern disposal compared with the cost of more traditional NOW disposal methods and on preliminary identification and investigation of the risks associated with such disposal. The cost study (Veil 1997) found that disposal costs at the four permitted disposal caverns in the United States were comparable to or lower than the costs of other disposal facilities in the same geographic area. The risk study (Tomasko et al. 1997) estimated that both cancer and noncancer human health risks from drinking water that had been contaminated by releases of cavern contents were significantly lower than the accepted risk thresholds. Since 1992, DOE has funded Argonne to conduct a series of studies evaluating issues related to management and disposal of oil field wastes contaminated with naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM). Included among these studies were radiological dose assessments of several different NORM disposal options (Smith et al. 1996). In 1997, DOE asked Argonne to conduct additional analyses on waste disposal in salt caverns, except that this time the wastes to be evaluated would be those types of oil field wastes that are contaminated by NORM. This report describes these analyses. Throughout the remainder of this report, the term ''NORM waste'' is used to mean ''oil field waste contaminated by NORM''.

Veil, J. A.; Smith, K. P.; Tomasko, D.; Elcock, D.; Blunt, D.; Williams, G. P.

1998-08-28

337

An interactive virtual environment inhabited virtual agents for oil-field safety operation training  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an interactive, virtual reality-based training environment specifically developed for training of oil-field safety operation, in which it allows operators to experience situations that would be difficult, costly, or impossible in the real world. We have introduced a semi-autonomous virtual agent, analyzed the different training modes that allow for adapting the training environment to the traineepsilas knowledge and

Xianmei Liu; Aimin Hao

2008-01-01

338

Palaeo-carbonate seep structures above an oil reservoir, Gryphon Field, Tertiary, North Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Petrographic and geochemical analyses performed on a North Sea core from the Gryphon Field reveal the presence of palaeo-degassing features surrounded by injected sandstones in the Eocene interval. The injected sandstones are oil-stained and poorly cemented by carbonate and quartz. 18O isotope analyses indicate that carbonate cementation occurred during shallow burial (likely less than about 300 m). Depleted 13C (around -30‰

Adriano Mazzini; D. Duranti; R. Jonk; J. Parnell; B. T. Cronin; A. Hurst; M. Quine

2003-01-01

339

The drilling of a horizontal well in a mature oil field  

SciTech Connect

This report documents the drilling of a medium radius horizontal well in the Bartlesville Sand of the Flatrock Field, Osage County, Oklahoma by Rougeot Oil and Gas Corporation (Rougeot) of Sperry, Oklahoma. The report includes the rationale for selecting the particular site, the details of drilling the well, the production response, conclusions reached, and recommendations made for the future drilling of horizontal wells. 11 figs., 2 tabs.

Rougeot, J.E.; Lauterbach, K.A.

1991-01-01

340

Disposal of NORM-Contaminated Oil Field Wastes in Salt Caverns  

SciTech Connect

In 1995, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Fossil Energy, asked Argonne National Laboratory (Argonne) to conduct a preliminary technical and legal evaluation of disposing of nonhazardous oil field waste (NOW) into salt caverns. That study concluded that disposal of NOW into salt caverns is feasible and legal. If caverns are sited and designed well, operated carefully, closed properly, and monitored routinely, they can be a suitable means of disposing of NOW (Veil et al. 1996). Considering these findings and the increased U.S. interest in using salt caverns for NOW disposal, the Office of Fossil Energy asked Argonne to conduct further research on the cost of cavern disposal compared with the cost of more traditional NOW disposal methods and on preliminary identification and investigation of the risks associated with such disposal. The cost study (Veil 1997) found that disposal costs at the four permitted disposal caverns in the United States were comparable to or lower than the costs of other disposal facilities in the same geographic area. The risk study (Tomasko et al. 1997) estimated that both cancer and noncancer human health risks from drinking water that had been contaminated by releases of cavern contents were significantly lower than the accepted risk thresholds. Since 1992, DOE has funded Argonne to conduct a series of studies evaluating issues related to management and disposal of oil field wastes contaminated with naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM). Included among these studies were radiological dose assessments of several different NORM disposal options (Smith et al. 1996). In 1997, DOE asked Argonne to conduct additional analyses on waste disposal in salt caverns, except that this time the wastes to be evaluated would be those types of oil field wastes that are contaminated by NORM. This report describes these analyses. Throughout the remainder of this report, the term ''NORM waste'' is used to mean ''oil field waste contaminated by NORM''.

Blunt, D.L.; Elcock, D.; Smith, K.P.; Tomasko, D.; Viel, J.A.; and Williams, G.P.

1999-01-21

341

Field Drying of TopCross High-Oil Corn Grain  

Microsoft Academic Search

L.L.C. (hereafter referred to as Optimum). The Top- Cross system minimizes the yield disadvantage associ- Most high-oil (HO) corn (Zea mays L.) grown in the USA utilizes ated with conventional HOC hybrids and enhances the TopCross system, which involves planting a blend (TC Blend) of two types of corn. Field grain drying of TC Blends may be slower grain nutrient

Peter R. Thomison; Allen B. Geyer; Bert L. Bishop

2001-01-01

342

Alkaline\\/Surfactant\\/Polymer Pilot Performance of the West Central Saertu, Daqing Oil Field  

Microsoft Academic Search

A tertiary pilot application of the alkaline\\/surfactant\\/polymer (ASP) process was initiated in Sept. 1994 in the west central area of Daqing oil field. The pilot pattern consists of four inverted five-spots, including four injectors, nine producers, and 2 observation wells, encompassing an area of 90,000 m² and with a pore volume (PV) of 203,300 m³. The target layer is the

Gao Shutang; Li Huabin; Yang Zhenyu; M. J. Pitts; Harry Surkalo; Kon Wyatt

1996-01-01

343

Seismic monitoring of a steamflood at South Casper Creek oil field, Wyoming  

Microsoft Academic Search

Repeat three-dimensional (3-D) seismic surveys and repeat cross-well seismic surveys were used to monitor fluid flow in a steamflood EOR pilot project at South Casper Creek oil field, Wyoming. The reservoir is a sandstone 160 ft thick at a measured depth of 2,700 ft. Baseline 3-D and cross-well seismic surveys were shot prior to stem injection in the study area.

P. Johnston; Doosung Lee; F. Martens; Noboru Wachi

1991-01-01

344

Flexible riser and mooring system develops small oil fields in the North Sea  

SciTech Connect

This paper reports on the flexible riser and mooring system (FRAMS) which provides a technically straightforward, commercially attractive method of developing small oil fields. A passively moored 60,000-deadweight-ton (60,000-DWT) tanker with deck-mounted equipment provides a swivelless well fluid and injection water path from and to the wellheads. The system can be disconnected rapidly in severe weather.

Thompson, A.M.; Holmes, G. (BP Exploration (GB)); Benstead, P.J. (BP Engineering (GB))

1991-11-01

345

Short chain aliphatic acid anions in oil field waters and their contribution to the measured alkalinity  

USGS Publications Warehouse

High alkalinity values found in some formation waters from Kettleman North Dome oil field are due chiefly to acetate and propionate ions, with some contribution from higher molecular weight organic acid ions. Some of these waters contain no detectable bicarbonate alkalinity. For waters such as these, high supersaturation with respect to calcite will be incorrectly indicated by thermodynamic calculations based upon carbonate concentrations inferred from traditional alkalinity measurements. ?? 1975.

Willey, L. M.; Kharaka, Y. K.; Presser, T. S.; Rapp, J. B.; Barnes, I.

1975-01-01

346

Brine and hydrocarbon evolution during the filling of the Cantarell Oil Field (Gulf of Mexico)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main oil reservoir in the Cantarell Field, offshore Campeche, consists of a dolomitized carbonate breccia with an ejectsseal on top, considered to have been formed during the Chicxulub impact event. Two different dolomitization events have been identified associated with the reservoir. The first generation (D1) is a bright-red luminescent saddle dolomite while the second generation is a minute, non-luminescent

R. Martinez-Ibarra; J. Tritlla; E. Cedillo-Pardo; J. M. Grajales-Nishimura; G. Murillo-Muñetón

2003-01-01

347

Transformation of iron sulfide to greigite by nitrite produced by oil field bacteria.  

PubMed

Nitrate, injected into oil fields, can oxidize sulfide formed by sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) through the action of nitrate-reducing sulfide-oxidizing bacteria (NR-SOB). When reservoir rock contains siderite (FeCO(3)), the sulfide formed is immobilized as iron sulfide minerals, e.g. mackinawite (FeS). The aim of our study was to determine the extent to which oil field NR-SOB can oxidize or transform FeS. Because no NR-SOB capable of growth with FeS were isolated, the well-characterized oil field isolate Sulfurimonas sp. strain CVO was used. When strain CVO was presented with a mixture of chemically formed FeS and dissolved sulfide (HS(-)), it only oxidized the HS(-). The FeS remained acid soluble and non-magnetic indicating that it was not transformed. In contrast, when the FeS was formed by adding FeCl(2) to a culture of SRB which gradually produced sulfide, precipitating FeS, and to which strain CVO and nitrate were subsequently added, transformation of the FeS to a magnetic, less acid-soluble form was observed. X-ray diffraction and energy-dispersive spectrometry indicated the transformed mineral to be greigite (Fe(3)S(4)). Addition of nitrite to cultures of SRB, containing microbially formed FeS, was similarly effective. Nitrite reacts chemically with HS(-) to form polysulfide and sulfur (S(0)), which then transforms SRB-formed FeS to greigite, possibly via a sulfur addition pathway (3FeS + S(0) --> Fe(3)S(4)). Further chemical transformation to pyrite (FeS(2)) is expected at higher temperatures (>60 degrees C). Hence, nitrate injection into oil fields may lead to NR-SOB-mediated and chemical mineral transformations, increasing the sulfide-binding capacity of reservoir rock. Because of mineral volume decreases, these transformations may also increase reservoir injectivity. PMID:19290520

Lin, Shiping; Krause, Federico; Voordouw, Gerrit

2009-03-17

348

Ex situ bioremediation of a soil contaminated by mazut (heavy residual fuel oil) – A field experiment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mazut (heavy residual fuel oil)-polluted soil was exposed to bioremediation in an ex situ field-scale (600m3) study. Re-inoculation was performed periodically with biomasses of microbial consortia isolated from the mazut-contaminated soil. Biostimulation was conducted by adding nutritional elements (N, P and K). The biopile (depth 0.4m) was comprised of mechanically mixed polluted soil with softwood sawdust and crude river sand.

Vladimir P. Beškoski; Gordana Gojgi?-Cvijovi?; Jelena Mili?; Mila Ili?; Srdjan Mileti?; Tatjana Šolevi?; Miroslav M. Vrvi?

2011-01-01

349

Storage of oil field-produced waters alters their chemical and microbiological characteristics.  

PubMed

Many oil fields are in remote locations, and the time required for shipment of produced water samples for microbiological examination may be lengthy. No studies have reported on how storage of oil field waters can change their characteristics. Produced water samples from three Alberta oil fields were collected in sterile, industry-approved 4-l epoxy-lined steel cans, sealed with minimal headspace and stored under anoxic conditions for 14 days at either 4 degrees C or room temperature (ca. 21 degrees C). Storage resulted in significant changes in water chemistry, microbial number estimates and/or community response to amendment with nitrate. During room-temperature storage, activity and growth of sulfate-reducing bacteria (and, to a lesser extent, fermenters and methanogens) in the samples led to significant changes in sulfide, acetate and propionate concentrations as well as a significant increase in most probable number estimates, particularly of sulfate-reducing bacteria. Sulfide production during room-temperature storage was likely to be responsible for the altered response to nitrate amendment observed in microcosms containing sulfidogenic samples. Refrigerated storage suppressed sulfate reduction and growth of sulfate-reducing bacteria. However, declines in sulfide concentrations were observed in two of the three samples stored at 4 degrees C, suggesting abiotic losses of sulfide. In one of the samples stored at room temperature, nitrate amendment led to ammonification. These results demonstrate that storage of oil field water samples for 14 days, such as might occur because of lengthy transport times or delays before analysis in the laboratory, can affect microbial numbers and activity as well as water sample chemistry. PMID:20186564

Hulecki, Jordan C; Foght, Julia M; Fedorak, Phillip M

2010-02-27

350

Experimental Investigations and Field Applications of Oil-Film-Lubricated Mechanical Face Seals with Spiral Grooves  

Microsoft Academic Search

The oil-film-lubricated mechanical face seal described here is a hydrodynamically lubricated, noncontacting, mechanical face seal with zero leakage. On the basis of systematic theoretical analyses, research on design methods, and experimental investigations, many field applications have been made. The experimental investigations include test rig development; long-time high-speed running tests; frequent start-up and shut-down tests; measurements of the seal leakage, face

YUMING WANG; HUIXIA YANG; YADING WANG; XUEMEI DUAN; HAINING WANG

2005-01-01

351

Risk analyses for disposing nonhazardous oil field wastes in salt caverns  

SciTech Connect

Salt caverns have been used for several decades to store various hydrocarbon products. In the past few years, four facilities in the US have been permitted to dispose nonhazardous oil field wastes in salt caverns. Several other disposal caverns have been permitted in Canada and Europe. This report evaluates the possibility that adverse human health effects could result from exposure to contaminants released from the caverns in domal salt formations used for nonhazardous oil field waste disposal. The evaluation assumes normal operations but considers the possibility of leaks in cavern seals and cavern walls during the post-closure phase of operation. In this assessment, several steps were followed to identify possible human health risks. At the broadest level, these steps include identifying a reasonable set of contaminants of possible concern, identifying how humans could be exposed to these contaminants, assessing the toxicities of these contaminants, estimating their intakes, and characterizing their associated human health risks. The contaminants of concern for the assessment are benzene, cadmium, arsenic, and chromium. These were selected as being components of oil field waste and having a likelihood to remain in solution for a long enough time to reach a human receptor.

Tomasko, D.; Elcock, D.; Veil, J.; Caudle, D.

1997-12-01

352

[Physiological and phylogenetic diversity of thermophilic spore-forming hydrocarbon-oxidizing bacteria from oil fields].  

PubMed

The distribution and population density of aerobic hydrocarbon-oxidizing bacteria in the high-temperature oil fields of Western Siberia, Kazakhstan, and China were studied. Seven strains of aerobic thermophilic spore-forming bacteria were isolated from the oil fields and studied by microbiological and molecular biological methods. Based on the 16S rRNA gene sequences, phenotypic characteristics, and the results of DNA-DNA hybridization, the taxonomic affiliation of the isolates was tentatively established. The strains were assigned to the first and fifth subgroups of the genus Bacillus on the phylogenetic branch of the gram-positive bacteria. Strains B and 421 were classified as B. licheniformis. Strains X and U, located between B. stearothermophilus and B. thermocatenulatus on the phylogenetic tree, and strains K, Sam, and 34, related but not identical to B. thermodenitrificans and B. thermoleovorans, undoubtedly represent two new species. Phylogenetically and metabolically related representatives of thermophilic bacilli were found to occur in geographically distant oil fields. PMID:10808498

Nazina, T N; Turova, T P; Poltaraus, A B; Novikova, E V; Ivanova, A E; Grigor'ian, A A; Lysenko, A M; Beliaev, S S

353

Applications of advanced petroleum production technology and water alternating gas injection for enhanced oil recovery - Mattoon Oil Field, Illinois. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Phase I results of a C0{sub 2}-assisted oil recovery demonstration project in selected Cypress Sandstone reservoirs at Mattoon Field, Illinois are reported. The design and scope of this project included C0{sub 2} injectvity testing in the Pinnell and Sawyer units, well stimulaton treatments with C0{sub 2} in the Strong unit and infill well drilling, completion and oil production. The field activities were supported by extensive C0{sub 2}-oil-water coreflood experiments, CO{sub 2} oil-phase interaction experiments, and integrated geologic modeling and reservoir simulations. The progress of the project was made public through presentations at an industry meeting and a DOEs contractors` symposium, through quarterly reports and one-to-one consultations with interested operators. Phase II of this project was not implemented. It would have been a water-alternating-gas (WAG) project of longer duration.

Baroni, M. [American Oil Recovery, Inc., Decatur, IL (United States)

1995-09-01

354

Increasing Waterflood Reserves in the Wilmington Oil Field Through Reservoir Characterization and Reservoir Management  

SciTech Connect

This project is intended to increase recoverable waterflood reserves in slope and basin reservoirs through improved reservoir characterization and reservoir management. The particular application of this project is in portions of Fault Blocks IV and V of the Wilmington Oil Field, in Long Beach, California, but the approach is widely applicable in slope and basin reservoirs. Transferring technology so that it can be applied in other sections of the Wilmington Field and by operators in other slope and basin reservoirs is a primary component of the project.

Chris Phillips; Dan Moos; Don Clarke; John Nguyen; Kwasi Tagbor; Roy Koerner; Scott Walker

1997-04-10

355

Environmental assessment. Downhole steam generator field test project DEEP STEAM: enhanced oil recovery project (DOE No. 16), Kern County, California  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective of DEEP STEAM is to develop the technology to economically produce heavy oil from reservoirs greater than 760 m deep using steam injection. The proposed site is in the Kern River Oil Field in the San Joaquin Valley. This document describes the project, existing environment, and possible impact of the project. It is concluded that the proposed action does

H. W. Church; B. D. Zak

1980-01-01

356

Tribocharging in a rotating shaft–oil–seal system and the effect of an external electric field  

Microsoft Academic Search

The results are shown of tests on the effect of an auxiliary external DC electric field on the braking torque of a rotating shaft. Experiments were carried out on a simplified model of an engine in whose interior a metal shaft rotated with given angular velocities. The shaft was lubricated with different oils producing an oil film between the shaft's

Juliusz B. Gajewski; Marek J. G?ogowski

2005-01-01

357

SEARCH AND CHARACTERIZATION FOR THE SOURCE ROCKS OF OIL-GAS FIELD VELEBIT (SE PANNONIAN BASIN, SERBIA) BASED ON BIOMARKER DISTRIBUTION IN CRUDE OILS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twenty five crude oils from the Velebit oil-gas field (SE Pannonian Basin, Serbia) were investigated in order to define depositional environment, lithology, thermal maturity and depths of corresponding source rocks, and in that way to help in revelation of their localities that are still unknown. Saturated biomarkers (n-alkanes, isoprenoids, steranes and triterpanes) were analysed by gas chromatography (GC), gas chromatography-mass

Jørgen BOJESEN-KOEFOED; Hans Peter NYTOFT

358

Improved reservoir management of heavy oil assets using biomarker variability in sidewall cores and produced oils: An example from the Cymric Field, Kern County, California  

SciTech Connect

Development of biodegraded oil accumulations can be optimized by using geochemical indicators of variations in the extent of biodegradation. Biodegradation typically reduces oil producibility by increasing oil viscosity. Using the Cymric Field (Kern County, California), we show that the extent of oil biodegradation can change substantially over extremely short vertical distances (feet) in shallow, low-permeability reservoirs. These variations can be mapped laterally for more than a mile using reservoir sidewall core extract compositions. The relationship between oil viscosity and biomarker biodegradation parameters can be calibrated from analyses of produced oils. These relationships can then be used to convert sidewall core biomarker parameters into quantitative predictions of lateral and vertical changes in oil viscosity and gravity. These compositional variations can be used to optimize the placement of new wells and well completion intervals, as well as to assess the relative production from discrete zones. We discuss how this new technique can be used to optimize field development, including parameters such as (1) the placement of completion intervals, (2) the thickness of steam injection intervals, and (3) the spacing between injection intervals in the same well.

Legarre, H.A.; Johnson, S.J. (Chevron Production Co., Bakersfield, CA (United States)); McCaffrey, M.A. (Chevron Petroleum Technology, Co., La Habra, CA (United States))

1996-01-01

359

Color graphics and computer mapping techniques applied to reappraisal of a mature oil field  

SciTech Connect

Reappraisal of mature oil fields for new drilling and development requires gathering and understanding large amounts of geologic data. Although translating this information into computer databases is usually a tedious effort at the front end of a project, this time will be justified near the end of the project by computational versatility and increased graphical display capabilities. If properly applied, color graphics can be very valuable in the decision-making process. As an example, the Zenith field in central Kansas, which covers 16 mi{sup 2} with wells at 10- to 40-acre spacings, is illustrated using a series of color maps displaying geologic and well data. Color maps with various shades of a given color provide attractive and readily understandable display of isopach, porosity, and porosity-feet information. Data regarding individual wells are effectively presented by placing at mapped well locations color-coded symbols that depict completion dates, abandonment dates, and years producing. Size and color differentiation of these symbols aid in identifying pay zones producing at each well, production potentials, gas-oil ratios, and water-oil ratios. Volumetric information, such as remaining oil in place and associated water saturations, are displayed on maps as colored patches that correspond to specific geographic areas. Computer-generated cross sections constructed from well formation tops also aid in illustrating geologic relationships that may not be readily evident. Color graphics like those listed above helped quickly convey information to geologists and engineers. In turn, decisions were made of where the field would further develop.

Wong, Janchung (Kansas Geological Survey, Lawrence (United States)); Newell, K.D. (Univ. of Kansas, Lawrence (United States))

1991-08-01

360

Deciphering biodegradation effects on light hydrocarbons in crude oils using their stable carbon isotopic composition: A case study from the Gullfaks oil field, offshore Norway  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Compound-specific isotope analysis has become an important tool in environmental studies and is an especially powerful way to evaluate biodegradation of hydrocarbons. Here, carbon isotope ratios of light hydrocarbons were used to characterise in-reservoir biodegradation in the Gullfaks oil field, offshore Norway. Increasing biodegradation, as characterised, for example, by increasing concentration ratios of Pr/ n-C 17 and Ph/ n-C 18, and decreasing concentrations of individual light hydrocarbons were correlated to 13C-enrichment of the light hydrocarbons. The ?13C values of C 4 to C 9n-alkanes increase by 7-3‰ within the six oil samples from the Brent Group of the Gullfaks oil field, slight changes (1-3‰) being observed for several branched alkanes and benzene, whereas no change (<1‰) in ?13C occurs for cyclohexane, methylcyclohexane, and toluene. Application of the Rayleigh equation demonstrated high to fair correlation of concentration and isotope data of i- and n-pentane, n-hexane, and n-heptane, documenting that biodegradation in reservoirs can be described by the Rayleigh model. Using the appropriate isotope fractionation factor of n-hexane, derived from laboratory experiments, quantification of the loss of this petroleum constituent due to biodegradation is possible. Toluene, which is known to be highly susceptible to biodegradation, is not degraded within the Gullfaks oil field, implying that the local microbial community exhibits rather pronounced substrate specificities. The evaluation of combined molecular and isotopic data expands our understanding of the anaerobic degradation processes within this oil field and provides insight into the degradative capabilities of the microorganisms. Additionally, isotope analysis of unbiodegraded to slightly biodegraded crude oils from several oil fields surrounding Gullfaks illustrates the heterogeneity in isotopic composition of the light hydrocarbons due to source effects. This indicates that both source and also maturity effects have to be well constrained when using compound-specific isotope analysis for the assessment of biodegradation.

Vieth, Andrea; Wilkes, Heinz

2006-02-01

361

A Study of Getty Oil Co.'s Successful In-Situ Combustion Project in the Bellevue Field  

Microsoft Academic Search

The in situ combustion project operated by Getty Oil Company in the Bellevue Field, Bossier Parish, Louisiana, has expanded from a single pilot pattern in 1963 to a full-scale operation with more than one hundred patterns in 1981. Originally discovered in 1921, the field produced for about ten years under primary production methods. The field remained relatively dormant until Getty

Ralph Long; Mark Nuar

1982-01-01

362

Toward the preparation of nanocomposites with oriented fillers: electric field-manipulation of cellulose whiskers in silicone oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, the behavior of cellulose whiskers (CWs) in silicone oil is examined under the influence of an AC electric field. The whiskers first rotate in the direction of the electric field, then the ends of the whiskers interact with each other to form chains. Alignment and chain formation were found to be functions of electric field magnitude, frequency,

Sanjay Kalidindi; Zoubeida Ounaies; Hamid Kaddami

2010-01-01

363

Residual-oil-saturation-technology test, Bell Creek Field, Montana. Final report  

SciTech Connect

A field test was conducted of the technology available to measure residual oil saturation following waterflood secondary oil recovery processes. The test was conducted in a new well drilled solely for that purpose, located immediately northwest of the Bell Creek Micellar Polymer Pilot. The area where the test was conducted was originally drilled during 1968, produced by primary until late 1970, and was under line drive waterflood secondary recovery until early 1976, when the area was shut in at waterflood depletion. This report presents the results of tests conducted to determine waterflood residual oil saturation in the Muddy Sandstone reservoir. The engineering techniques used to determine the magnitude and distribution of the remaining oil saturation included both pressure and sidewall cores, conventional well logs (Dual Laterolog - Micro Spherically Focused Log, Dual Induction Log - Spherically Focused Log, Borehole Compensated Sonic Log, Formation Compensated Density-Compensated Neutron Log), Carbon-Oxygen Logs, Dielectric Logs, Nuclear Magnetism Log, Thermal Decay Time Logs, and a Partitioning Tracer Test.

Not Available

1981-06-01

364

Structure of pre-Caspian depression and major oil and gas fields of the region  

SciTech Connect

As a single unified depression, the pre-Caspian basin has been formed from Paleozoic to Cenozoic time. The basin is superimposed on two large pre-Permian depressions. On the Astrakhan-Aktyubinsk zone of uplifts between them is found sharply reduced Carboniferous and Devonian sections. Modern structural plan clearly displays two major structural stages: Subsalt (Paleozoic) and post (post-Kungurian). The post-salt stage is characterized by wide development of salt dome tectonics. It corresponds with its own petroliferous stage containing numerous, mostly small oil accumulations in terrigenous Mesozoic reservoirs. Large recent discoveries-Astrakhan condensate, Karachaganak and Kanazhol-Sinelnikov oil/condensate, Tengiz oil, and other fields-are associated with the Subsalt Paleozoic complex ranging from Lower Permian to the top of Upper Devonian. The Subsalt stage has its own regularities in hydrocarbon phase differentiation; large reserves concentration; dominantly productive carbonates with various reservoirs; and presence of structural, depositional, and erosional factors controlling formation of oil and gas traps. The paper describes major distributional features of the various arc-and-type Permian and Carboniferous formations, which in conjunction with Subsalt paleotemperature data and geochemistry of organic matter represents a basis for the forecast of new discoveries.

Krylov, N.A. (Amoco Production Co., Houston, TX (United States)); Avrov, V.P. (Igirgi, Moscow (USSR)); Lisovsky, N.N.

1991-03-01

365

INCREASING HEAVY OIL RESERVES IN THE WILMINGTON OIL FIELD THROUGH ADVANCED RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION AND THERMAL PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGIES  

SciTech Connect

The project involves using advanced reservoir characterization and thermal production technologies to improve thermal recovery techniques and lower operating and capital costs in a slope and basin clastic (SBC) reservoir in the Wilmington field, Los Angeles Co., Calif. Through September 2001, project work has been completed on the following activities: data preparation; basic reservoir engineering; developing a deterministic three dimensional (3-D) geologic model, a 3-D deterministic reservoir simulation model and a rock-log model; well drilling and completions; and surface facilities on the Fault Block II-A Tar Zone (Tar II-A). Work is continuing on research to understand the geochemistry and process regarding the sand consolidation well completion technique, final reservoir tracer work, operational work and research studies to prevent thermal-related formation compaction in the Tar II-A steamflood area, and operational work on the Tar V steamflood pilot and Tar II-A post-steamflood projects. The project team spent the Fourth Quarter 2001 performing routine well work and reservoir surveillance on the Tar II-A post-steamflood and Tar V pilot steamflood projects. The Tar II-A post-steamflood operation started in February 1999 and steam chest fillup occurred in September-October 1999. The targeted reservoir pressures in the ''T'' and ''D'' sands are maintained at 90 {+-} 5% hydrostatic levels by controlling water injection and gross fluid production and through the bimonthly pressure monitoring program enacted at the start of the post-steamflood phase. The project team ramped up well work activity from October 2000 through November 2001 to increase production and injection. In December, water injection well FW-88 was plug and abandoned and replaced by new well FW-295 into the ''D'' sands to accommodate the Port of Long Beach at their expense. Well workovers are planned for 2002 as described in the Operational Management section. Expanding thermal recovery operations to other sections of the Wilmington Oil Field, including the Tar V horizontal well pilot steamflood project, is a critical part of the City of Long Beach and Tidelands Oil Production Company's development strategy for the field. The steamflood operation in the Tar V pilot project is mature and profitable. Recent production performance is below projections because of wellbore mechanical limitations that were being addressed in 2001. As the fluid production is hot, the pilot steamflood was converted to a hot waterflood project in June 2001.

Scott Hara

2002-01-31

366

INCREASING HEAVY OIL RESERVES IN THE WILMINGTON OIL FIELD THROUGH ADVANCED RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION AND THERMAL PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGIES  

SciTech Connect

The project involves using advanced reservoir characterization and thermal production technologies to improve thermal recovery techniques and lower operating and capital costs in a slope and basin clastic (SBC) reservoir in the Wilmington field, Los Angeles Co., Calif. Through June 2001, project work has been completed on the following activities: data preparation; basic reservoir engineering; developing a deterministic three dimensional (3-D) geologic model, a 3-D deterministic reservoir simulation model and a rock-log model; well drilling and completions; and surface facilities on the Fault Block II-A Tar Zone (Tar II-A). Work is continuing on research to understand the geochemistry and process regarding the sand consolidation well completion technique, final reservoir tracer work, operational work and research studies to prevent thermal-related formation compaction in the Tar II-A steamflood area, and operational work on the Tar V steamflood pilot and Tar II-A post-steamflood projects. The project team spent the Third Quarter 2001 performing well work and reservoir surveillance on the Tar II-A post-steamflood project. The Tar II-A post-steamflood operation started in February 1999 and steam chest fillup occurred in September-October 1999. The targeted reservoir pressures in the ''T'' and ''D'' sands are maintained at 90 {+-} 5% hydrostatic levels by controlling water injection and gross fluid production and through the bimonthly pressure monitoring program enacted at the start of the post-steamflood phase. The project team ramped up well work activity from October 2000 to September 2001 to increase production and injection. This work will continue through 2001 as described in the Operational Management section. Expanding thermal recovery operations to other sections of the Wilmington Oil Field, including the Tar V horizontal well pilot steamflood project, is a critical part of the City of Long Beach and Tidelands Oil Production Company's development strategy for the field. The current steamflood operations in the Tar V pilot are economical, but recent performance is below projections because of wellbore mechanical limitations that are being addressed in 2001.

Scott Hara

2001-11-01

367

INCREASING HEAVY OIL RESERVES IN THE WILMINGTON OIL FIELD THROUGH ADVANCED RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION AND THERMAL PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGIES  

SciTech Connect

The project involves using advanced reservoir characterization and thermal production technologies to improve thermal recovery techniques and lower operating and capital costs in a slope and basin clastic (SBC) reservoir in the Wilmington field, Los Angeles Co., CA. Through March 2001, project work has been completed on the following activities: data preparation; basic reservoir engineering; developing a deterministic three dimensional (3-D) geologic model, a 3-D deterministic reservoir simulation model and a rock-log model; well drilling and completions; and surface facilities on the Fault Block II-A Tar Zone (Tar II-A). Work is continuing on research to understand the geochemistry and process regarding the sand consolidation well completion technique, final reservoir tracer work, operational work and research studies to prevent thermal-related formation compaction in the Tar II-A steamflood area, and operational work on the Tar V steamflood pilot and Tar II-A post-steamflood projects. The project team spent the Second Quarter 2001 performing well work and reservoir surveillance on the Tar II-A post-steamflood project. The Tar II-A steamflood reservoirs have been operated over fifteen months at relatively stable pressures, due in large part to the bimonthly pressure monitoring program enacted at the start of the post-steamflood phase in January 1999. Starting in the Fourth Quarter 2000, the project team has ramped up activity to increase production and injection. This work will continue through 2001 as described in the Operational Management section. Expanding thermal recovery operations to other sections of the Wilmington Oil Field, including the Tar V horizontal well pilot steamflood project, is a critical part of the City of Long Beach and Tidelands Oil Production Company's development strategy for the field. The current steamflood operations in the Tar V pilot are economical, but recent performance is below projections because of wellbore mechanical limitations that are being addressed in 2001. Much of the second quarter was spent writing DOE annual and quarterly reports to stay current with contract requirements.

Scott Hara

2001-05-08

368

Effects of biodegradation on oil and gas field PVT properties and the origin of oil rimmed gas accumulations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dry gas overlying biodegraded oil rims is a common occurrence in the North Sea oil rimmed gas accumulations (ORGAs) and elsewhere in the world. Wet gas biodegradation occurs in Troll, Frigg, Balder and other ORGAs, with propane preferentially degraded over ethane, resulting in gases becoming dryer and oils heavier. We apply several models of biodegradation and compositional change to examine

Steve Larter; Rolando di Primio

2005-01-01

369

Endogenous factors of the formation of oil fields in the crystalline basement of the Cuu Long Basin, south Vietnam shelf  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study of formation constraints of oil-and-gas (hereafter, petroleum) fields in the Precambrian?Mesozoic basement rocks of sedimentary basins or crystalline basement is of special importance in determining the regularities of naphthide genesis and petroleum accumulation. It is known that most oil fields in the basement are related to combined traps composed of outliers of the weathering crust, fractured zones in

V. V. Dontsov; A. E. Lukin

2006-01-01

370

Chemical and microbiological changes in laboratory incubations of nitrate amendment "sour" produced waters from three western Canadian oil fields.  

PubMed

Nitrate addition to oil field waters stops the biogenic formation of sulfide because the activities of nitrate-reducing bacteria (NRB) suppress the activities of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB). In general, there are two types of NRB - the heterotrophic NRB and the chemolithotrophic NRB. Within the latter group are the nitrate-reducing, sulfide-oxidizing bacteria (NR-SOB). To date, no study has specifically addressed the roles of these different NRB in controlling sulfide concentrations in oil field produced waters. This study used different culture media to selectively enumerate heterotrophic NRB and NR-SOB by most probable number (MPN) methods. Produced waters from three sulfide-containing western Canadian oil fields were amended with nitrate as an electron acceptor, but no exogenous electron donor was added to the serum bottle microcosms. Changes in the chemical and microbiological characteristics of the produced waters were monitored during incubation at 21 degrees C. In less than 4 days, the sulfide was removed from the waters from two of the oil fields (designated P and C), whereas nearly 27 days were required for sulfide removal from the water from the third oil field (designated N). Nitrate addition stimulated large increases in the number of the heterotrophic NRB and NR-SOB in the waters from oil fields P and C, but only the NR-SOB were stimulated in the water from oil field N. These data suggest that stimulation of the heterotrophic NRB is required for rapid removal of sulfide from oil field-produced waters. PMID:12407458

Eckford, R E; Fedorak, P M

2002-11-01

371

Toxicological effects of military fog oil obscurant on Daphnia magna and Ceriodaphnia dubia in field and laboratory exposures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our purpose was to determine if the acute and sub-lethal effects of fog oil, an obscurant used for military training, could\\u000a be observed in realistic field exposures. To this end, we exposed Daphnia magna to oil fogs under actual release conditions at a U.S. Army training site. Guided by field investigations, acute toxicity\\u000a experiments were conducted in the laboratory with

Donald M. Cropek; Joan C. Esarey; Cassie L. Conner; Jacob M. Goran; Thomas Smith; David J. Soucek

2008-01-01

372

How to make a billion-barrel oil field in offshore California commercial  

SciTech Connect

The major obstacles and challenges involved in exploration and development of a giant deep-water low-gravity oil field are exemplified in the undeveloped Sword field of offshore southern California. In 1979, Conoco Exploration identified a northeast-southwest-trending basement high in the 800 to 2,000-ft deep federal waters 12 mi southwest of Pt. Conception at the western end of the Santa Barbara Channel. The intended reservoir was fractured Miocene Monterey chert, silicic shales/siltstones,m and dolomites that are draped over the axially faulted structure. Drilling of the initial well in OCS P-0322 in 1982 resulted in discovering the giant Sword field. A confirmation well drilled in OCS P-0320 indicates in-place reserves of well over 1 billion bbl. while the discovered potential is significant, the low gravity (8.5/sup 0/-10.5/sup 0/ API) of the oils discovered to data, along with water depths in excess of 1,500 ft, currently pose economic challenges to successful field development.

Patterson, J.C.; Ballard, J.H.

1988-01-01

373

Using biomarkers to improve heavy oil reservoir management: An example from the cymric field, Kern County, California  

SciTech Connect

For biodegraded oil accumulations, field development can be optimized by using geochemical indicators of variations in the extent of bacterial alteration. Biodegradation typically reduces oil producibility by increasing oil viscosity. In the Cymric field (Kern County, California), sidewall core extracts reveal that the extent of oil biodegradation changes substantially over extremely short vertical distances in a shallow, low-permeability reservoir. Zones of more degraded oil can extend laterally for more than a mile. The relationships between oil viscosity and biomarker biodegradation parameters in this field were calibrated from analyses of produced oils, and these relationships were used to convert sidewall core biomarker analyses into quantitative predictions of lateral and vertical changes in oil viscosity and gravity. Compositional variations were also used to allocate production to discrete zones. Viscosity prediction and production allocation can be used to optimize (1) the placement of new wells, (2) the placement of completion intervals, (3) the thickness of steam injection intervals, and (4) the spacing between injection intervals in the same well.

McCaffrey, M.A. [Chevron Petroleum Technology Co., La Habra, CA (United States); Legarre, H.A.; Johnson, S.J. [Chevron U.S.A. Production Co., Bakersfield, CA (United States)

1996-06-01

374

A fuzzy control system for a three-phase oil field centrifuge  

SciTech Connect

The three-phase centrifuge discussed here is an excellent device for cleaning up oil field and refinery wastes. These wastes are typically composed of hydrocarbons, water, and solids. This technology converts waste, which is often classified as hazardous, into salable oil, reusable water, and solids that can be placed in landfills. No secondary waste is produced. A major problem is that only one person can set up and run the equipment well enough to provide an optimal cleanup. Demand for this technology has far exceeded a one-man operation. The solution to this problem is an intelligent control system that can replace a highly skilled operator so that several centrifuges can be operated at different locations at the same time.

Parkinson, W.J.; Smith, R.E.; Wantuck, P.J. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Miller, N. [Centech Inc., Casper, WY (United States)

1998-12-31

375

Increased Oil Production and Reserves from Improved Completion Techniques in the Bluebell Field, Uinta Basin, Utah  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this project is to increase oil production and reserves in the Uinta Basin by demonstrating improved completion techniques. Low productivity of Uinta Basin wells is caused by gross production intervals of several thousand feet that contain perforated thief zones, water-bearing zones, and non-perforated oil-bearing intervals. Geologic and engineering characterization and computer simulation of the Green River and Wasatch Formations in the Bluebell field will determine reservoir heterogeneities related to fractures and depositional trends. This will be followed by drilling and recompletion of several wells to demonstrate improved completion techniques based on the reservoir characterization. Transfer of the project results will be an ongoing component of the project.

Deo, Milind D.; Morgan, Craig D.

1999-11-01

376

Increased Oil Production and Reserves from Improved Completion Techniques in the Bluebell Field, Uinta Basin, Utah  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this project is to increase oil production and reserves in the Uinta Basin by demonstrating improved completion techniques. Low productivity of Uinta Basin wells is caused by gross production intervals of several thousand feet that contain perforated thief zones, water-bearing zones, and unperforated oil-bearing intervals. Geologic and engineering characterization and computer simulation of the Green River and Wasatch Formations in the Bluebell field will determine reservoir heterogeneities related to fractures and depositional trends. This will be followed by drilling and recompletion of several wells to demonstrate improved completion techniques based on the reservoir characterization. Transfer of the project results will be an ongoing component of the project.

Morgan, Craig D.

1999-11-01

377

Sedimentation, zoning of reservoir rocks in W. Siberian basin oil fields  

SciTech Connect

A line pattern of well cluster spacing was chosen in western Siberia because of taiga, marshes, etc., on the surface. The zoning of the oil pools within productive Upper Jurassic J[sub 3] intervals is complicated. This is why until the early 1990s almost each third well drilled in the Shaimsky region on the western edge of the West Siberian basin came up dry. The results of development drilling would be much better if one used some sedimentological relationships of zoning of the reservoir rocks within the oil fields. These natural phenomena are: Paleobasin bathymetry; Distances from the sources of the clastic material; and Proximity of the area of deposition. Using the diagram in this article, one can avoid drilling toward areas where the sandstone pinch out, area of argillization of sand-stones, or where the probability of their absence is high.

Kliger, J.A. (Enforce Energy Corp., New York, NY (United States))

1994-02-07

378

Hydrocarbon-water interactions during brine migration: Evidence from hydrocarbon inclusions in calcite cements from Danish North Sea oil fields  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Crude oils in primary and secondary fluid inclusions in calcite from fractures in seven offshore oil fields associated with diapiric salt structures in the Danish sector of the North Sea were analyzed by capillary column gas chromatography and compared with crude oils produced from the same reservoirs. Oils from fluid inclusions in all fields show evidence of biodegradation (decreased n- C17/pristane and n- C18/phytane ratios and loss of n-C 7, 2-methyl hexane, and 3-methyl hexane relative to methyl cyclohexane) and water washing (absence of benzene and depletion of toluene). Some oils in inclusions are extremely enriched in C 6 and C 7 cyclic alkanes suggesting that these samples contain hydrocarbons exsolved from ascending, hotter formation waters. Compared to inclusion oils the produced oils are less biodegraded, but are water washed, indicating that both types of oil interacted with large volumes of formation water. The carbon isotopic composition of the calcite host of the fluid inclusions in the Dagmar and Skjold fields is as light as -16.5%. PDB and the sulfur isotopic composition of pyrite in and adjacent to the calcite veins in the Skjold field is as light as -39.6%. CDT, indicating that biodegradation of the oils was a source of some of the carbon in the calcite and sulfate reduction was the source of sulfur for the pyrite. The evidence for microbial degradation of petroleum is consistent with present-day reservoir temperatures (65°-96°C) but is not consistent with previous estimates of the temperatures of calcite vein filling (95°-130°C) which are much higher than the temperatures of known occurrences of biodegraded oil.

Jensenius, Jørgen; Burruss, Robert C.

1990-03-01

379

VSP Monitoring of CO2 Injection at the Aneth Oil Field in Utah  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Remotely tracking the movement of injected CO2 within a geological formation is critically important for ensuring safe and long-term geologic carbon sequestration. To study the capability of vertical seismic profiling (VSP) for remote monitoring of CO2 injection, a geophone string with 60 levels and 96 channels was cemented into a monitoring well at the Aneth oil field in Utah operated by Resolute Natural Resources and Navajo National Oil and Gas Company. The oil field is located in the Paradox Basin of southeastern Utah, and was selected by the Southwest Regional Partnership on Carbon Sequestration, supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, to demonstrate combined enhanced oil recovery (EOR) and CO2 sequestration. The geophones are placed at depths from 805 m to 1704 m, and the oil reservoir is located approximately from 1731 m to 1786 m in depth. A baseline VSP dataset with one zero-offset and seven offset source locations was acquired in October, 2007 before CO2 injection. The offsets/source locations are approximately 1 km away from the monitoring well with buried geophone string. A time-lapse VSP dataset with the same source locations was collected in July, 2008 after five months of CO2/water injection into a horizontal well adjacent to the monitoring well. The total amount of CO2 injected during the time interval between the two VSP surveys was 181,000 MCF (million cubic feet), or 10,500 tons. The time-lapse VSP data are pre-processed to balance the phase and amplitude of seismic events above the oil reservoir. We conduct wave-equation migration imaging and interferometry analysis using the pre-processed time-lapse VSP data. The results demonstrate that time-lapse VSP surveys with high-resolution migration imaging and scattering analysis can provide reliable information about CO2 migration. Both the repeatability of VSP surveys and sophisticated time-lapse data pre-processing are essential to make VSP as an effective tool for monitoring CO2 injection.

Huang, L.; Rutledge, J.; Zhou, R.; Denli, H.; Cheng, A.; Zhao, M.; Peron, J.

2008-12-01

380

Integration of seismic methods with reservoir simulation, Pikes Peak heavy oil field, Saskatchewan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Pikes Peak heavy oil field has been operated by Husky Energy Ltd since 1981. Steam injection has been successfully employed to increase production. Efforts in geophysics and reservoir engineering have been made to improve interpretations in the mapping of reservoir conditions. This dissertation developed tools and a working flow for integrating the analysis of time-lapse seismic surveys with reservoir simulation, and applied them to the Pikes Peak field. Two time-lapse 2D seismic lines acquired in February 1991 and March 2000 in the eastern part of the field were carefully processed to produce wavelet and structure matched final sections. Reservoir simulation based on the field reservoir production history was carried out. It provided independent complementary information for the time-lapse seismic analysis. A rock physics procedure based on Gassmann's equation and Batzle and Wang's empirical relationship successfully linked the reservoir engineering to the seismic method. Based on the resultant seismic models, synthetic seismic sections were generated as the analogy of field seismic sections. The integrated interpretation for the Pikes Peak reservoir drew the following conclusions: The areas with a gas saturation difference, between two compared time steps, have seismic differences. Thicker gas zones correspond with large reflectivity changes on the top of the reservoir and larger traveltime delays in the seismic section. The thin gas zones only induce large reflectivity changes on the top of the reservoir, and do not have large time delays below the reservoir zone. High temperature regions also correlate with areas having large seismic energy differences. High temperature with thick gas (steam and methane) zones may be evidence for steam existence. The seismic differences at locations far from the production zone are due to the lower pressure that causes solution gas to evolve from the oil. Pressure changes propagate much faster (˜20 m in one month) than temperature changes (˜8 m in a year) based on the reservoir simulation results. The pressure dependence of the seismic data is due to its influences on gas saturation. The bypassed oil area and steam fronts (high temperature front) can be estimated from the temperature and oil saturation distributions from the reservoir simulation. AVO results show a steam and gas zone pattern similar to the one produced by reservoir simulation.

Zou, Ying

381

A procedure to estimate the parent population of the size of oil and gas fields as revealed by a study of economic truncation  

Microsoft Academic Search

An estimation technique has been derived to predict the number of small fields in a geologic play or basin. Historically, many small oil and gas fields went unreported because they were not economical. This led to an underestimation of the number of undiscovered small fields. A study of the distributions of reported oil and gas fields in well-explored areas suggests

John H. Schuenemeyer; Lawrence J. Drew

1983-01-01

382

Disposal of NORM-contaminated oil field wastes in salt caverns -- Legality, technical feasibility, economics, and risk  

SciTech Connect

Some types of oil and gas production and processing wastes contain naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM). If NORM is present at concentrations above regulatory levels in oil field waste, the waste requires special disposal practices. The existing disposal options for wastes containing NORM are limited and costly. This paper evaluates the legality, technical feasibility, economics, and human health risk of disposing of NORM-contaminated oil field wastes in salt caverns. Cavern disposal of NORM waste is technically feasible and poses a very low human health risk. From a legal perspective, there are no fatal flaws that would prevent a state regulatory agency from approaching cavern disposal of NORM. On the basis of the costs charged by caverns currently used for disposal of nonhazardous oil field waste (NOW), NORM waste disposal caverns could be cost competitive with existing NORM waste disposal methods when regulatory agencies approve the practice.

Veil, J.A.; Smith, K.P.; Tomasko, D.; Elcock, D.; Blunt, D.; Williams, G.P.

1998-07-01

383

Planktonic nitrate-reducing bacteria and sulfate-reducing bacteria in some western Canadian oil field waters.  

PubMed

Oil fields that use water flooding to enhance oil recovery may become sour because of the production of H(2)S from the reduction of sulfate by sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB). The addition of nitrate to produced waters can stimulate the activities of nitrate-reducing bacteria (NRB) and control sulfide production. Many previous studies have focused on chemolithotrophic bacteria that can use thiosulfate or sulfide as energy sources while reducing nitrate. Little attention has been given to heterotrophic NRB in oil field waters. Three different media were used in this study to enumerate various types of planktonic NRB present in waters from five oil fields in western Canada. The numbers of planktonic SRB and bacteria capable of growth under aerobic conditions were also determined. In general, microbial numbers in the produced waters were very low (<10 ml x (-1)) in samples taken near or at wellheads. However, the numbers increased in the aboveground facilities. No thiosulfate-oxidizing NRB were detected in the oil field waters, but other types of NRB were detected in 16 of 18 produced water samples. The numbers of heterotrophic NRB were equal to or greater than the number of sulfide-oxidizing, chemolithotrophic NRB in 12 of 15 samples. These results showed that each of the oil fields contained NRB, which might be stimulated by nitrate amendment to control H(2)S production by SRB. PMID:12161775

Eckford, R E; Fedorak, P M

2002-08-01

384

Reservoir delineation by geophysical methods in the Suizhong 36-1 oil field, Bohai Gulf, China  

SciTech Connect

The Suizhong 36-1 oil field was discovered in 1987 in the Bohai Gulf, Liandong Bay, People's Republic of China. Oligocene fluviodeltaic and lacustrine sandstones contain over 1 billion bbl of oil in place in a combination structural-stratigraphic trap. An international effort to delineate the reservoirs by geophysical methods was completed in June 1989. Three hundred and fifty km of seismic data was reprocessed and interpreted. Synthetic seismograms were used for correlation and for wavelet processing of the seismic data. Seismic and petrophysical analyses were done to relate the measurable seismic parameters to the subsurface rock and fluid parameters. An attempt was made to reprocess vertical seismic profile data to better relate seismic data to subsurface reservoir parameters. Unfortunately, incomplete field data and/or documentation made such an effort infeasible. Seismic data processing comprised conventional reprocessing, special processing primarily for hydrocarbon indicators, and three-dimensional velocity analysis. The reprocessing of the seismic data improved data quality over that of the original processing. Amplitude vs. offset processing revealed no obvious hydrocarbon indicators in the main reservoir zones. Velocity analysis produced a three-dimensional velocity field that was the key to the interpretation and engineering work that followed. Stratigraphic and structural interpretation was done on a GeoQuest computer workstation and iterated several times to obtain a consistent match with the wells. Seismic attribute generation and analysis were used primarily to reveal patterns associated with the depositional environments. The results suggest that accurate predictions of oil in place are possible with this methodology.

Gustavson, J.B. (Gustavson Associates, Inc., Boulder, CO (USA)); Xin Shigang (Bohai Oil Corp., Tianjin (China))

1990-09-01

385

Investigation of ginkgo biloba leave extracts as corrosion and Oil field microorganism inhibitors  

PubMed Central

Ginkgo biloba (Ginkgoaceae), originating from China, now distributes all over the world. Wide application of Ginkgo biloba extracts is determined by the main active substances, flavonoids and terpenoids, which indicates its extracts suitable to be used as an effective corrosion inhibitor. The extracts of Ginkgo biloba leave have been investigated on the corrosion inhibition of Q235A steel with weight loss and potentiodynamic polarisation techniques. The inhibition efficiency of the extracts varies with extract concentration. The extracts inhibit corrosion mainly by adsorption mechanism. Potentiodynamic polarisation studies show that extracts are mixed type inhibitors. The antibacterial activity of the extracts against oil field microorganism (SRB, IB and TGB) was also investigated.

2013-01-01

386

Gas, Water, and Oil Production from the Wasatch Formation, Greater Natural Buttes Field, Uinta Basin, Utah  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Gas, oil, and water production data were compiled from 38 wells with production commencing during the 1980s from the Wasatch Formation in the Greater Natural Buttes field, Uinta Basin, Utah. This study is one of a series of reports examining fluid production from tight gas reservoirs, which are characterized by low permeability, low porosity, and the presence of clay minerals in pore space. The general ranges of production rates after 2 years are 100-1,000 mscf/day for gas, 0.35-3.4 barrel per day for oil, and less than 1 barrel per day for water. The water:gas ratio ranges from 0.1 to10 barrel per million standard cubic feet, indicating that free water is produced along with water dissolved in gas in the reservoir. The oil:gas ratios are typical of a wet gas system. Neither gas nor water rates show dependence upon the number of perforations, although for low gas-flow rates there is some dependence upon the number of sandstone intervals that were perforated. Over a 5-year time span, gas and water may either increase or decrease in a given well, but the changes in production rate do not exhibit any dependence upon well proximity or well location.

Nelson, Philip H.; Hoffman, Eric L.

2009-01-01

387

Uncovering Influences on the Form of Oil and Gas Field Size Distributions  

SciTech Connect

A detailed understanding of the processes that led to empirical oil and gas field size distributions, especially the dynamic character of the discovery process, is needed to improve the quality of forecasts of oil and gas resources. An empirical distribution results from a complex interaction of economic, technical, and social factors with geology in the form of a distribution of deposits. These factors may cause an empirical distribution to mutate nonrandomly through time. Changes in the price of oil, the cost of exploration and development, technology, and access to prospects influence the discovery process. Failure to recognize and account for them in the modeling process can result in serious bias in estimates of the number and volume of future discoveries. In addition, the broad range of some forecasts for a given region may be explained by differences in perspective of those involved in the process. Geologists who understand the basic processes and collect the data may be scientific determinists. Statisticians who model and analyze the data are trained to think in terms of random variables and stochastic processes.

Schuenemeyer, John H. [University of Delaware, U.S. Geological Survey, Department of Geography (United States)], E-mail: jacks@udel.edu; Drew, Lawrence J. [U.S. Geological Survey (United States)

1999-03-15

388

Pressure boosting technology recovers reserves in low pressure oil and gas fields  

SciTech Connect

Fragmentation of reservoirs or production from different zones often results in oil or gas wells having different flowing wellhead pressures (FWHP). In many fields, the wells flow to a manifold, then the oil and gas is transported by pipeline to a processing plant. Production from the low-pressure (LP) wells is often restricted because of the backpressure imposed by the high-pressure (HP) wells or by the transportation pipeline. To minimize the production restrictions from LP wells, HP wells are usually choked down and their high energy is thus wasted through the choke. A team of engineers from CALTEC, the oil and gas division of BHR Group, have developed a system which harnesses the energy from HP wells to boost production from LP wells. The system is called WELLCOM, short for WELL COMmingling system. This patented system has won the 1998 British Royal Society Esso Energy award for an outstanding contribution to the advancement of science or engineering or technology that leads to a more efficient mobilization, conservation, or use of energy sources.

Sarshar, M.M.

1999-01-01

389

Analytical assessment of horizontal well efficiency with reference to improved oil recovery of the South-East Dragon oil field southern offshore of Vietnam  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nowadays, improved oil recovery (IOR) becomes much needed in field development planning, and is one of the main concerns for engineers in many reservoir management projects. Among IOR methods, horizontal wells have been widely applied in the world, and proved to be a promising technique. However, prudence is required in order to ensure maximum economic benefit in applying the technology.In

N. M. Quy; P. G. Ranjith; S. K. Choi; P. H. Giao; D. Jasinge

2009-01-01

390

Geo-information approach to the study of Romashkino oil field geodynamics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Geodynamic processes have an immediate influence on a fluid dynamics, for that version they are of significant importance in the formation and reformation processes of oil and gas deposits. The object of our analysis was Romashkino oil field, which is confined to the anticlinal structure of the arch part of the South Tatar Arch. The initial data in our project include the series of a paper maps, which contain the location of the intersection of production and injection wells with the Kyn horizont at the Romashkino oil field and geologic engineering information, which contains the flow rates's inversions data of the well's production activity. Inversion occurs as a periodic increasing of the flow rates which is not caused by the external special influence on the well, against the long-term production activity's decreasing by the decreasing of oil's flow rates. During the analysis of the data we identified the anomalous wells in which the hydrocarbon feed process was observed with the highest probability based on several criteria. By the using of modern GIS technology we have compared the plots, in which an anomal wells are located, with a block structure of the basement and the sedimentary cover, and with the deconsolidated and fluid's penetrability zones of the crystalline basement. For analysis of tabular data array we used ArcGis software package. Romashkino's map was vectorized by using the EasyTrase and when we assigned a number to each object. When the project was exported to ArcGIS and data obtained the geographic coordinates. We obtained the following attributes for the testing wells: the year of exploitation's beginning, the period of the inversion, the ratio of flow rates before and after inversion, and others. We created a series of maps with location of wells, with a flow rate's inversion by the year (1957-1998) for Minnibayevo area and by the five-year intervals for Minnibayevo area separately and for the Romashkino oil field. The maps of the inversion's density were built by the interpolation from the values of the ratio of oil flow rates before and after the inversion in the wells. These data was selected as a characterizing of the inversion strength. Thereby we created the convenient and informative geodata base through using GIS technology. The comprehensive interpretation of a series of maps, created by ArcGIS software package, is in progress. Firstly an analysis of the location of arrangement of the production wells, in which was occurred inversion of oil production in the process of production activity was made. After this, we compared their location with the block structure scheme. We noticed that the wells are grouped in linear- elongated zone along the fault, there is an affinity of this well to the certain parts of the small-sized blocks. The development of scientific and practical research in this direction is of a high significant because it can lead to a change in the strategy and methodology of the geological prospecting on the one hand and of the exploration of hydrocarbon deposits on the other hand.

Usmanov, S.; Sharipov, B.; Akhmetov, A.; Delev, A.

2012-04-01

391

INCREASING HEAVY OIL RESERVES IN THE WILMINGTON OIL FIELD THROUGH ADVANCED RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION AND THERMAL PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGIES  

SciTech Connect

The project involves using advanced reservoir characterization and thermal production technologies to improve thermal recovery techniques and lower operating and capital costs in a slope and basin clastic (SBC) reservoir in the Wilmington field, Los Angeles Co., Calif. Through December 2001, project work has been completed on the following activities: data preparation; basic reservoir engineering; developing a deterministic three dimensional (3-D) geologic model, a 3-D deterministic reservoir simulation model and a rock-log model; well drilling and completions; and surface facilities on the Fault Block II-A Tar Zone (Tar II-A). Work is continuing on research to understand the geochemistry and process regarding the sand consolidation well completion technique, final reservoir tracer work, operational work and research studies to prevent thermal-related formation compaction in the Tar II-A steamflood area, and operational work on the Tar V steamflood pilot and Tar II-A post-steamflood projects. During the First Quarter 2002, the project team developed an accelerated oil recovery and reservoir cooling plan for the Tar II-A post-steamflood project and began implementing the associated well work in March. The Tar V pilot steamflood project will be converted to post-steamflood cold water injection in April 2002. The Tar II-A post-steamflood operation started in February 1999 and steam chest fillup occurred in September-October 1999. The targeted reservoir pressures in the ''T'' and ''D'' sands are maintained at 90 {+-} 5% hydrostatic levels by controlling water injection and gross fluid production and through the bimonthly pressure monitoring program enacted at the start of the post-steamflood phase. Most of the 2001 well work resulted in maintaining oil and gross fluid production and water injection rates. Reservoir pressures in the ''T'' and ''D'' sands are at 88% and 91% hydrostatic levels, respectively. Well work during the first quarter and plans for 2002 are described in the Reservoir Management section. The steamflood operation in the Tar V pilot project is mature and profitable. Recent production performance has been below projections because of wellbore mechanical limitations that have been addressed during this quarter. As the fluid production temperatures were beginning to exceed 350 F, our self-imposed temperature limit, the pilot steamflood was converted to a hot waterflood project in June 2001 and will be converted to cold water injection next quarter.

Scott Hara

2002-04-30

392

Walkaway VSP Monitoring of CO2 Injection at the SACROC Oil Field in Texas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Geologic carbon sequestration requires injected CO2 be remotely and reliably monitored to ensure environmental and public safety. To study the capability of vertical seismic profiling (VSP) for monitoring migration of CO2 plume within geologic formations, one baseline and one repeat walkaway VSP surveys were conducted in July 2008 and April 2009, respectively, in the northern area of the Scurry Area Canyon Reef Operators Committee (SACROC) unit, an oil field located in West Texas. The objective of this work is to demonstrate combined enhanced oil recovery with geologic carbon sequestration, in collaboration with Kinder Morgan and the Southwest Regional Partnership on Carbon Sequestration that is supported by the U.S. Department of Energy and managed by the National Energy Technology Laboratory. The walkaway source line consists of 101 vibrator points and crosses the monitoring well along the north-south direction. The monitoring well is located approximately at the center of the walkaway source line. The total length of the source line is 3660 m. Fifteen-level three-component geophones are used to acquire the time-lapse VSP datasets. The geophones are placed at depths from 1524 m to 1737 m, and the oil reservoir is located approximately from 1820 m to 2100 m in depth. The time-lapse VSP data are pre-processed to balance the phase and amplitude of seismic events above the oil reservoir. We conduct imaging and scattering analysis using the pre-processed data. The results demonstrate that walkaway time-lapse VSP surveys with high-resolution imaging and scattering analysis can provide reliable information of injected CO2.

Huang, L.; Rutledge, J. T.; Wang, Y.; Denli, H.; Zhang, Z.; Cheng, A. C.; Peron, J.; Zhao, M.; McPherson, B. J.; Grigg, R.

2009-12-01

393

Effect of Los Lobos thrust fault on tertiary recovery in west San Ardo oil field, Salinas Basin, California  

Microsoft Academic Search

Field observations and correlation of wireline logs from wells in the west San Ardo oil field reveal the geometry and character of the Los Lobos thrust fault. The Los Lobos thrust is a northwest-trending, southwest-dipping fault of Pliocene to Pleistocene age, located in the southwest Salinas basin. The surface trace separates the Salinas River on the east from the Aurignac

J. E. Laing

1988-01-01

394

Percolation behavior in W/O emulsions stabilized by interfacially active fractions from crude oils in high external electric fields  

SciTech Connect

In this communication the authors report on a percolation behavior of water in oil emulsions stabilized by indigenous surfactants from crude oils in high external electric fields. The static permittivity of the emulsion investigated increases with the applied electric field. When the electric field reaches a certain strength the system collapses and the permittivity of the system resembles that of a series coupling of the water and the oil domains. Regression analysis of a proposed scaling law shows that the system behaves according to a static percolation model, i.e., a bicontinuous system. The authors compare the percolation behavior in high electric fields to that reported in temperature and conductivity studies in w/o microemulsions.

Foerdedal, H.; Sjoeblom, J. [Univ. of Bergen (Norway). Dept. of Chemistry

1996-08-10

395

Analysis of gravity anomaly over coral-reef oil field: Wilfred Pool, Sullivan County, Indiana  

SciTech Connect

To compare the measured and theoretical gravity anomaly of a typical coral-reef oil field, data were collected from the wilfred Pool, Sullivan County, Indiana. Densities of available core samples from the field were determined and the anomaly was calculated, taking into account the lateral and vertical variation of density and the geologic structure known from core studies and drilling-log records of lithologic types penetrated by the wells. Comparison of the theoretical and actual anomalies indicated a rough correspondence except for several sharp negative anomalies on the flanks of the measured gravity anomaly. Further studies indicated that the negative anomalies are possibly due to fluvial erosion that produced, on the surface of the youngest Pennsylvanian sediments, channels which were later filled with glacial till of lower density than the sediments. 13 figures.

Dana, S.W.

1980-03-01

396

Magnetic forward models of Cement oil field, Oklahoma, based on rock magnetic, geochemical, and petrologic constraints  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Magnetic forward models of the Cement oil field, Oklahoma, were generated to assess the possibility that ferrimagnetic pyrrhotite related to hydrocarbon seepage in the upper 1 km of Permian strata contributes to aeromagnetic anomalies at Cement. Six bodies having different magnetizations were constructed for the magnetic models. Total magnetizations of the bodies of highest pyrrhotite content range from about 3 ?? 10-3 to 56 ?? 10-3 A/m in the present field direction and yield magnetic anomalies (at 120 m altitude) having amplitudes of less than 1 nT to ~6 to 7 nT, respectively. Numerous assumptions were made in the generation of the models, but nevertheless, the results suggest that pyrrhotite, formed via hydrocarbon reactions and within a range of concentrations estimated at Cement, is capable of causing magnetic anomalies. -from Authors

Reynolds, R. L.; Webring, M.; Grauch, V. J. S.; Tuttle, M.

1990-01-01

397

Blast furnace slag slurries may have limits for oil field use  

SciTech Connect

Thorough testing, economic evaluations, and environmental evaluations of blast furnace slag slurries revealed that replacing Portland cement with slag slurries may compromise essential properties in a cementing operation. The use of blast furnace slag (BFS) slurries should be analyzed on a per case basis for oil well cementing operations. BFS slurry technology may be a viable mud solidification process, but the slurries are not cement and should not be considered as such. Several slurries using field and laboratory prepared drilling fluids solidified with blast furnace slag were investigated to determine thickening time, compressive strength, free water, and other pertinent properties. The tests included an evaluation of the expansion of the set material and shear bond, as well as rheological compatibility studies of the finished slurries with the base muds. These additional tests are critical in the potential application of this process under field conditions.

Benge, O.G.; Webster, W.W. (Mobil Exploration Producing Technical Center, Dallas, TX (United States))

1994-07-18

398

Effects of nitrate treatment on a mixed species, oil field microbial biofilm.  

PubMed

Biofilms of bacteria, indigenous to oil field produced water, were grown in square section, glass capillary flow cells at 45 degrees C. Initially, in situ image analysis microscopy revealed predominantly coccoid bacteria (length-to-width ratio measurements (l (c):w (c)) of bacterial cells gave a mean value of 1.1), while chemical measurements confirmed sulphate reduction and sulphide production. After nitrate ion addition at 100 and 80 mg/l, in the two repeat experiments respectively, the dominance of rod-shaped bacteria (mean l (c):w (c) = 2.8) was observed. This coincided with the occurrence of nitrate reduction in the treated flow cells. Beneficially, no significant increase in biofilm cover was observed after the addition of nitrate. The dominant culturable nitrate-reducing bacterium was Marinobacter aquaeolei. The l (c):w (c) ratio measured here concurs with previously reported cell dimensions for this organism. Several Marinobacter strains were also isolated from different oil fields in the North Sea where nitrate treatment has been applied to successfully treat reservoir souring, implying that this genus may play an important role in nitrate treatment. PMID:16491355

Dunsmore, Braden; Youldon, James; Thrasher, David R; Vance, Ian

2006-02-21

399

Using geochemical techniques to identify salinity sources in the freshwater Navajo aquifer, Aneth Oil Field, Utah  

SciTech Connect

The salinity of water in the Triassic and Jurassic Navajo Sandstone in southeastern Utah has increased locally since 1952. The Navajo aquifer, within the Navajo Sandstone, is major source of water for domestic use and livestock in the area. From 1989 to 1991, concentration of dissolved solids in one well increased by as much as 5500 mg/L. The source or sources of the saline water and the reasons for the local increases are not known; however, mixing with either oil-field brines (OFB) or non-oil-field brines (NOFB) from the Pennsylvanian Paradox Formation could possibly cause the increase salinity. One of the objectives of an ongoing study is to use end-member mixing models and step-wise discriminant analysis to determine the possible source or sources of saline water causing the observed increase in salinity in the Navajo aquifer. Discriminant analysis was used on the major-ion/chloride ratios to identify saline-water sources that could have mixed with Navajo aquifer water.

Nafiz, D.L.; Spangler, L.E. (Geological Survey, Salt Lake City, UT (United States))

1993-08-01

400

Degradation and remediation of soils polluted with oil-field wastewater  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The changes in the properties of gray forest soils and leached chernozems under the impact of contamination with highly saline oil-field wastewater were studied in a model experiment. It was shown that the soil contamination results in the development of technogenic salinization and alkalization leading to worsening of the major soil properties. The salinization of the soils with oil-field wastewater transformed the soil exchange complex: the cation exchange capacity decreased, and the exchangeable sodium percentage increased to up to 25% of the CEC upon the wastewater infiltration and up to 60% of the CEC upon the continuous soil saturation with the wastewater independently of the soil type. The content of exchangeable magnesium also increased due to the phenomenon of super-equivalent exchange. Despite the saturation of the soil adsorption complex with sodium, no development of the soil alkalization took place in the presence of the high concentration of soluble salts. However, the soil alkalization was observed upon the soil washing from soluble salts. The gypsum application to the washed soils lowered the exchangeable sodium concentration to acceptable values and normalized the soil reaction. The gypsum application without the preliminary washing of the soils from soluble salts was of low efficiency; even after six months, the content of exchangeable sodium remained very high. The subsequent soil washing resulted in the removal of the soluble salts but did not affect the degree of the soil alkalization.

Gabbasova, I. M.; Suleymanov, R. R.; Garipov, T. T.

2013-02-01

401

Oil reserves at Tengiz field reported as 2. 5 billion tons  

SciTech Connect

The unusual announcement (reserve figures are normally considered a state secret) occurred during a press conference in Moscow announcing the petrochemical joint venture with Occidental Petroleum and three other Western companies (Montedison and Enichem of Italy and Marubeni of Japan). If the estimates are accurate (it is unknown if the figure refers to total or recoverable reserves), this makes Tengiz not only one of the largest petroleum deposits in the USSR, but in the world. Whether this potential can be developed is still unclear. The Tengiz field was discovered in late 1979 and has been characterized by Soviet experts as one of the most complex and difficult to produce in the entire USSR. The reservoir rocks are of relatively poor quality, and being fissured limestones pose unusual drilling problems. The oil is also quite deep, at 4500-5500 meters. Other development problems arise in the anomalously great reservoir pressure and the high hydrogen sulfide and gas condensate content of the associated gas, which requires the construction of a gas processing facility, to be built nearby at Karaton. The harsh physical environment and the lack of infrastructure (the field is located in salt flats on the edge of the Caspian Sea) also hinder development. The Tengizneftegaz production association was officially established in 1985, but has yet to process any gas or produce any oil.

Sagers, M.J.

1987-11-01

402

Microbiology to help solve our energy needs: methanogenesis from oil and the impact of nitrate on the oil-field sulfur cycle.  

PubMed

Our society depends greatly on fossil fuels, and the environmental consequences of this are well known and include significant increases of the CO(2) concentration in the earth's atmosphere. Although microbiology has traditionally played only a minor role in fossil-fuel extraction, two novel key discoveries indicate that this may change. First, the realization that oil components can be converted to methane and CO(2) by methanogenic consortia in the absence of electron acceptors (oxygen, nitrate, sulfate) explains how much of the world's oil has been biodegraded in situ. In addition to inorganic nutrients, only water is needed for these methanogenic conversions. Hence, continued methanogenic biodegradation may have shaped the heavy-oil reservoirs that are so prevalent today. The potential to exploit these reactions, for example, by in situ gasification, is currently being actively investigated. Second, injection of nitrate in oil and gas fields can lower sulfide concentrations. High sulfide concentrations, caused by the action of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB), are associated with increased risk of corrosion, reservoir plugging (through precipitated sulfides), and human safety. Nitrate injection into an oil field stimulates subsurface heterotrophic nitrate-reducing bacteria (hNRB) and nitrate-reducing, sulfide-oxidizing bacteria (NR-SOB). Nitrite, formed by these NRB by partial reduction of nitrate, is a strong and specific SRB inhibitor. Nitrate injection has, therefore, promise in positively controlling the oil-field sulfur cycle. There is now more interest in and potential to apply petroleum microbiology than there has been in the past, allowing microbiologists to contribute to a sustainable energy future. PMID:18378604

Grigoryan, Alexander; Voordouw, Gerrit

2008-03-01

403

Environmental assessment. Downhole steam generator field test project DEEP STEAM: enhanced oil recovery project (DOE No. 16), Kern County, California  

SciTech Connect

Objective of DEEP STEAM is to develop the technology to economically produce heavy oil from reservoirs greater than 760 m deep using steam injection. The proposed site is in the Kern River Oil Field in the San Joaquin Valley. This document describes the project, existing environment, and possible impact of the project. It is concluded that the proposed action does not significantly affect the quality of the environment, and therefore an environmental impact statement is not required. (DLC)

Church, H.W.; Zak, B.D.

1980-02-01

404

Fuzzy SPC filter for a feed-forward control system for a three-phase oil field centrifuge  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work we describe a signal filter for a feed-forward controller based on the application of fuzzy logic combined with statistical process control (SPC). The feed-forward controller is for a three-phase oil field centrifuge. The centrifuge system is used to separate meta-stable three-phase emulsions consisting of oil and water stabilized by solids. These emulsions are considered to be unusable

W. Jerry Parkinson; Ronald E. Smith; F. N. Mortensen; P. J. Wantuck; Mohammad Jamshidi; Timothy J. Ross

2002-01-01

405

Potential non-tertiary additional oil recovery from heterogeneous submarine-fan reservoirs, Spraberry-Benedum field, Midland basin, Texas  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Spraberry-Benedum field is a multipay, solution-gas drive, combined structural-stratigraphic trap. It contains approximately 200 million bbl of original oil in place and has been waterflooded since 1967. Producing intervals are in the Spraberry formation (Permian, Leonardian), which in this area consists of mixed-sediment submarine-fan deposits (upper and lower Spraberry) and basin-plain facies (middle Spraberry). Principal oil reservoirs, with 12%

E. H. Guevara; J. G. Worrall; T. Walter

1987-01-01

406

Occurrence and geochemical activity of microorganisms in high?temperature, water?flooded oil fields of Kazakhstan and Western Siberia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The distribution of different methanogenic and sulfate?reducing bacteria and their activity in formation waters of Uzen, Mykhpay, and Talinskoe oil fields, characterized by temperatures of the strata of 50–70°C and higher, were investigated. Injection of surface waters was shown to result in development of biogenic oil transformation. The temperature of injected waters determined the temperature regime and the presence of

Tamara N. Nazina; Anna E. Ivanova; Igor A. Borzenkov; Sergei S. Belyaev; Michail V. Ivanov

1995-01-01

407

Phylogenetic diversity and activity of anaerobic microorganisms of high-temperature horizons of the Dagang oil field (P. R. China)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The number of microorganisms of major metabolic groups and the rates of sulfate reduction and methanogenesis processes in\\u000a the formation waters of the high-temperature horizons of Dagang oil field have been determined. Using cultural methods, it\\u000a was shown that the microbial community contained aerobic bacteria oxidizing crude oil, anaerobic fermentative bacteria, sulfate-reducing\\u000a bacteria, and methanogens. Using cultural methods, the possibility

T. N. Nazina; N. M. Shestakova; A. A. Grigor’yan; E. M. Mikhailova; T. P. Tourova; A. B. Poltaraus; Cingxian Feng; Fangtian Ni; S. S. Belyaev

2006-01-01

408

Impact of an indigenous microbial enhanced oil recovery field trial on microbial community structure in a high pour-point oil reservoir.  

PubMed

Based on preliminary investigation of microbial populations in a high pour-point oil reservoir, an indigenous microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR) field trial was carried out. The purpose of the study is to reveal the impact of the indigenous MEOR process on microbial community structure in the oil reservoir using 16Sr DNA clone library technique. The detailed monitoring results showed significant response of microbial communities during the field trial and large discrepancies of stimulated microorganisms in the laboratory and in the natural oil reservoir. More specifically, after nutrients injection, the original dominant populations of Petrobacter and Alishewanella in the production wells almost disappeared. The expected desirable population of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, determined by enrichment experiments in laboratory, was stimulated successfully in two wells of the five monitored wells. Unexpectedly, another potential population of Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes which were not detected in the enrichment culture in laboratory was stimulated in the other three monitored production wells. In this study, monitoring of microbial community displayed a comprehensive alteration of microbial populations during the field trial to remedy the deficiency of culture-dependent monitoring methods. The results would help to develop and apply more MEOR processes. PMID:22159733

Zhang, Fan; She, Yue-Hui; Li, Hua-Min; Zhang, Xiao-Tao; Shu, Fu-Chang; Wang, Zheng-Liang; Yu, Long-Jiang; Hou, Du-Jie

2011-12-13

409

Geologic control of natural marine hydrocarbon seep emissions, Coal Oil Point seep field, California  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High-resolution sonar surveys, and a detailed subsurface model constructed from 3D seismic and well data allowed investigation of the relationship between the subsurface geology and gas-phase (methane) seepage for the Coal Oil Point (COP) seep field, one of the world's largest and best-studied marine oil and gas seep fields, located over a producing hydrocarbon reservoir near Santa Barbara, California. In general, the relationship between terrestrial gas seepage, migration pathways, and hydrocarbon reservoirs has been difficult to assess, in part because the detection and mapping of gas seepage is problematic. For marine seepage, sonar surveys are an effective tool for mapping seep gas bubbles, and thus spatial distributions. Seepage in the COP seep field occurs in an east-west-trending zone about 3-4 km offshore, and in another zone about 1-2 km from shore. The farthest offshore seeps are mostly located near the crest of a major fold, and also along the trend of major faults. Significantly, because faults observed to cut the fold do not account for all the observed seepage, seepage must occur through fracture and joint systems that are difficult to detect, including intersecting faults and fault damage zones. Inshore seeps are concentrated within the hanging wall of a major reverse fault. The subsurface model lacks the resolution to identify specific structural sources in that area. Although to first order the spatial distribution of seeps generally is related to the major structures, other factors must also control their distribution. The region is known to be critically stressed, which would enhance hydraulic conductivity of favorably oriented faults, joints, and bedding planes. We propose that this process explains much of the remaining spatial distribution.

Leifer, Ira; Kamerling, Marc J.; Luyendyk, Bruce P.; Wilson, Douglas S.

2010-06-01

410

Incidence of plasmids in marine Vibrio spp. isolated from an oil field in the northwestern Gulf of Mexico  

SciTech Connect

Presumptive marine Vibrio spp. were collected from an operational oil field and control site located in the northwest Gulf of Mexico. Of 440 isolates analyzed for the presence of extrachromosomal deoxyribonucleic acid elements or plasmids by using the cleared lysate and agarose gel techniques, 31% showed distinct plasmid bands on agarose gels. A majority of the plasmids detected were estimated to have mollecular masses of 10 x 10/sup 6/ or less. Multiple plasmids were observed in approximately half of the plasmid-containing strains. A number of isolates contained plasmids with similar banding and mobility patterns. The oil field area had noticeably more plasmid-containing strains (35 versus 23% in the control site) and a greater number of plasmids per plasmid-containing strain (an average of 2.5 plasmids, vs 1.5 in the control site). Oil field discharges might have resulted in increased plasmid incidence and diversity.

Hada, H.S.; Sizemore, R.K.

1981-01-01

411

Additional Reserve Recovery Using New Polymer Treatment on High Water Oil Ratio Wells in Alameda Field, Kingman County, Kansas  

SciTech Connect

The Chemical Flooding process, like a polymer treatment, as a tertiary (enhanced) oil recovery process can be a very good solution based on the condition of this field and its low cost compared to the drilling of new wells. It is an improved water flooding method in which high molecular-weight (macro-size molecules) and water-soluble polymers are added to the injection water to improve the mobility ratio by enhancing the viscosity of the water and by reducing permeability in invaded zones during the process. In other words, it can improve the sweep efficiency by reducing the water mobility. This polymer treatment can be performed on the same active oil producer well rather than on an injector well in the existence of strong water drive in the formation. Some parameters must be considered before any polymer job is performed such as: formation temperature, permeability, oil gravity and viscosity, location and formation thickness of the well, amount of remaining recoverable oil, fluid levels, well productivity, water oil ratio (WOR) and existence of water drive. This improved oil recovery technique has been used widely and has significant potential to extend reservoir life by increasing the oil production and decreasing the water cut. This new technology has the greatest potential in reservoirs that are moderately heterogeneous, contain moderately viscous oils, and have adverse water-oil mobility ratios. For example, many wells in Kansas's Arbuckle formation had similar treatments and we have seen very effective results. In addition, there were previous polymer treatments conducted by Texaco in Alameda Field on a number of wells throughout the Viola-Simpson formation in the early 70's. Most of the treatments proved to be very successful.

James Spillane

2005-10-01

412

RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION OF UPPER DEVONIAN GORDON SANDSTONE, JACKSONBURG STRINGTOWN OIL FIELD, NORTHWESTERN WEST VIRGINIA  

SciTech Connect

The Jacksonburg-Stringtown oil field contained an estimated 88,500,000 barrels of oil in place, of which approximately 20,000,000 barrels were produced during primary recovery operations. A gas injection project, initiated in 1934, and a pilot waterflood, begun in 1981, yielded additional production from limited portions of the field. The pilot was successful enough to warrant development of a full-scale waterflood in 1990, involving approximately 8,900 acres in three units, with a target of 1,500 barrels of oil per acre recovery. Historical patterns of drilling and development within the field suggests that the Gordon reservoir is heterogeneous, and that detailed reservoir characterization is necessary for understanding well performance and addressing problems observed by the operators. The purpose of this work is to establish relationships among permeability, geophysical and other data by integrating geologic, geophysical and engineering data into an interdisciplinary quantification of reservoir heterogeneity as it relates to production. Conventional stratigraphic correlation and core description shows that the Gordon sandstone is composed of three parasequences, formed along the Late Devonian shoreline of the Appalachian Basin. The parasequences comprise five lithofacies, of which one includes reservoir sandstones. Pay sandstones were found to have permeabilities in core ranging from 10 to 200 mD, whereas non-pay sandstones have permeabilities ranging from below the level of instrumental detection to 5 mD; Conglomeratic zones could take on the permeability characteristics of enclosing materials, or could exhibit extremely low values in pay sandstone and high values in non-pay or low permeability pay sandstone. Four electrofacies based on a linear combination of density and scaled gamma ray best matched correlations made independently based on visual comparison of geophysical logs. Electrofacies 4 with relatively high permeability (mean value > 45 mD) was determined to be equivalent to the pay sandstone within the Gordon reservoir. Three-dimensional models of the electrofacies in the pilot waterflood showed that electrofacies 4 is present throughout this area, and the other electrofacies are more disconnected. A three-layer, back-propagation artificial neural network with three slabs in the middle layer can be used to predict permeability and porosity from gamma ray and bulk density logs, the first and the second derivatives of the log data with respect to depth, well location, and log baselines. Two flow units were defined based on the stratigraphic model and geophysical logs. A three-dimensional reservoir model including the flow units, values of permeability calculated through the artificial neural network and injection pressure-rate information were then used as inputs for a reservoir simulator to predict oil production performance for the center producers in the pilot area. This description of the reservoir provided significantly better simulation results than earlier results obtained using simple reservoir models. Bulk density and gamma ray logs were used to identify flow units throughout the field. As predicted by the stratigraphic analysis, one of the flow units crosses stratigraphic units in the reservoir. A neural network was used to predict permeability values for each flow unit in producer and injection wells. The reservoir simulator was utilized to predict the performance of two flood patterns located to the north of the pilot area. Considering the simple model utilized for simulation, the results are in very good agreement with the field history.

S. Ameri; K. Aminian; K.L. Avary; H.I. Bilgesu; M.E. Hohn; R.R. McDowell; D.L. Matchen

2001-07-01

413

Strontium isotope detection of brine contamination in the East Poplar oil field, Montana  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Brine contamination of groundwater in the East Poplar oil field was first documented in the mid-1980s by the U.S. Geological Survey by using hydrochemistry, with an emphasis on chloride (Cl) and total dissolved solids concentrations. Supply wells for the City of Poplar are located downgradient from the oil field, are completed in the same shallow aquifers that are documented as contaminated, and therefore are potentially at risk of being contaminated. In cooperation with the Office of Environmental Protection of the Fort Peck Tribes, groundwater samples were collected in 2009 and 2010 from supply wells, monitor wells, and the Poplar River for analyses of major and trace elements, including strontium (Sr) concentrations and isotopic compositions. The ratio of strontium-87 to strontium-86 (87Sr/86Sr) is used extensively as a natural tracer in groundwater to detect mixing among waters from different sources and to study the effects of water/rock interaction. On a plot of the reciprocal strontium concentration against the 87Sr/86Sr ratio, mixtures of two end members will produce a linear array. Using this plotting method, data for samples from most of the wells, including the City of Poplar wells, define an array with reciprocal strontium values ranging from 0.08 to 4.15 and 87Sr/86Sr ratios ranging from 0.70811 to 0.70828. This array is composed of a brine end member with an average 87Sr/86Sr of 0.70822, strontium concentrations in excess of 12.5 milligrams per liter (mg/L), and chloride concentrations exceeding 8,000 mg/L mixing with uncontaminated water similar to that in USGS06-08 with 18.0 mg/L chloride, 0.24 mg/L strontium, and a 87Sr/86Sr ratio of 0.70811. The position of samples from the City of Poplar public-water supply wells within this array indicates that brine contamination has reached all three wells. Outliers from this array are EPU-4G (groundwater from the Cretaceous Judith River Formation), brine samples from disposal wells (Huber 5-D and EPU 1-D), USGS92-11 (a well with water that was considerably contaminated in 1992 and becoming less saline with time), and PNR-27 (only slightly below the defined trend with an 87Sr/86Sr ratio of 0.70793). Water samples from the City of Poplar wells are also enriched in anions and cations that are abundant in oil-field brine.

Peterman, Zell E.; Thamke, Joanna N.; Futa, Kiyoto; Oliver, Thomas A.

2010-01-01

414

Contracts for field projects and supporting research on enhanced oil recovery and improved drilling technology. Progress review No. 34, quarter ending March 31, 1983  

SciTech Connect

Progress achieved for the quarter ending March 1983 are presented for field projects and supporting research for the following: chemical flooding; carbon dioxide injection; and thermal/heavy oil. In addition, progress reports are presented for: resource assessment technology; extraction technology; environmental and safety; microbial enhanced oil recovery; oil recovered by gravity mining; improved drilling technology; and general supporting research. (ATT)

Linville, B. (ed.)

1983-07-01

415

Polycrystalline-diamond drill bits for Venezuelan oil-field application  

SciTech Connect

A cooperative USA/Venezuelan R and D drilling program has been performed which was directed toward the development of a hard-rock-drilling capability for the oil industry using diffusion-bonded polycrystalline-diamond compact (PDC) bits. The drilling program was implemented according to Annex V-A Drilling, of the Joint Agreement between the Department of Energy (DOE) of the United States and the Ministry of Energy and Mines (MEM) of the Republic of Venezuela. This report was originally prepared in two sections, one on bit design and fabrication and the other on the field test, to be a portion of a larger Venezuela-MEM/USA-DOE Fossil-Energy Report on Supporting Technology for Enhanced Oil Recovery. As such, it fulfills one of the requirements of the joint agreement. Three diffusion-bonded PDC drill bits of PCI/Sandia design were successfully used by MARAVEN/INTEVEP to drill the deep (13,152 to 14,579 ft) cretaceous carbonate formations located under Lake Maracaibo, Venezuela. The bits gave penetration rates of 4.7, 13.2, and 13.5 feet per hour. This compares with penetration rates for conventional natural-diamond bits, drilling the same formation in nearby offset wells, of 2.0 to 6.77 feet per hour. If PDC bits are used to drill future wells, an average cost savings of about $90,000 per well is projected. 17 figures, 9 tables.

Heckes, A.A.; Meano, W.; Baker, L.E.

1983-04-01

416

Low-cost FPSO for service in the Zaafarana oil field  

SciTech Connect

The Zaafarana oilfield development, operated by Zaafarana Oil Co. (Zafco) presented a series of unique challenges, including redeployment of an internal-turret mooring system, use of a turret-based electrical-cable jumper system, and permanent use of cable-deployed electric submersible pumps in the gravel-pack well completions. Following a detailed three-dimensional (3D) seismic program, the field was discovered by the first well in December 1990. Four subsequent appraisal wells were drilled. The discovery well and two of the appraisal wells tested oil at rates ranging from 2,000 to 10,100 B/D. Initial development plans called for the use of two conventional platforms with a pipeline to a shore-based treatment and storage terminal. Data acquired from subsequent wells were incorporated into the mapping and reserve estimates resulting in a sharp downgrade of the estimated recoverable reserves. The reduced estimate, combined with a revised pricing scenario, necessitated an amended development plan with significantly lower costs. A new plan that uses a floating production, storage, and offloading (FPSO) facility and a single drilling/wellhead platform, connected by a pipeline and by electrical and control umbilicals, was approved in October 1992.

NONE

1997-04-01

417

Near-surface study at the Valhall oil field from ambient noise surface wave tomography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We used 6 hr of continuous seismic noise records from 2320 four-component sensors of the Valhall `Life of Field Seismic' network to compute cross-correlations (CCs) of ambient seismic noise. A beamforming analysis showed that at low frequencies (below 2 Hz) the seismic noise sources were spatially homogeneously distributed, whereas at higher frequencies (2-30 Hz), the dominant noise source was the oil platform at the centre of the network. Here, we performed an ambient noise surface wave tomography at frequencies below 2 Hz. We used vertical-component geophones CCs to extract and measure the Scholte waves group velocities dispersion curves that were then processed with a set of quality criteria and inverted to build group velocity maps of the Valhall area. Although Scholte wave group velocity depends on S wave, our group velocity maps show features similar to that was previously obtained from P-wave velocity full-waveform inversion of an active seismic data set. Since the dominant noise source at high frequency (above 3 Hz) was the oil platform, we determined a 2-D S-wave velocity model along a profile aligned with the platform by inverting group velocity dispersion curves of Love waves from transverse-component geophones CCs. We found that S-wave velocity down to 20 m was low and varied along the profile, and could be used to estimate S-wave static.

Mordret, A.; Landès, M.; Shapiro, N. M.; Singh, S. C.; Roux, P.; Barkved, O. I.

2013-06-01

418

[Biodegradation of oil field wastewater in biological aerated filter (BAF) by immobilization].  

PubMed

A special kind of carrier was used to immobilize effective microorganisms B350M in a biological aerated filter (BAF) react system for treatment of oil field wastewater, which is of salinity > 0.5%, lack of N and P, and contains low organic matter. Through the biodegradation system operated for 142d, the react system can achieve average degradation efficiency 90.5%, 74.4%, 85.6%, 100% for oil, TOC, COD and H2S, when HRT was 4h and COD volumetric load was 1.07 kg/(m3 x d). GC-MS results show that the organic substance in wastewater contain 27 different kind substances, a majority (23) of alkane and a minority (4) of aromatic substances. C14H30 to C28H58 in influent could be decomposed into small molecular substance efficiently, especially the C18H38 to C28H58, and also polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) such as Phenanthrene. The react system had a good diversity, because the carriers provide agreeable air and water condition for microorganisms, to resist high salinity and toxic pollutant. Filamentous microorganisms were observed in a great deal and will not cause foaming and bulking in BAF reactor by immobilization. PMID:16921953

Zhao, Xin; Wang, Yan-ming; Ye, Zheng-fang; Ni, Jin-ren

2006-06-01

419

CO2 Storage and Enhanced Oil Recovery: Bald Unit Test Site, Mumford Hills Oil Field, Posey County, Indiana  

SciTech Connect

The Midwest Geological Sequestration Consortium (MGSC) carried out a small-scale carbon dioxide (CO2) injection test in a sandstone within the Clore Formation (Mississippian System, Chesterian Series) in order to gauge the large-scale CO2 storage that might be realized from enhanced oil recovery (EOR) of mature Illinois Basin oil fields via miscible liquid CO2 flooding. As part of the MGSC�������¢����������������s Validation Phase (Phase II) studies, the small injection pilot test was conducted at the Bald Unit site within the Mumford Hills Field in Posey County, southwestern Indiana, which was chosen for the project on the basis of site infrastructure and reservoir conditions. Geologic data on the target formation were extensive. Core analyses, porosity and permeability data, and geophysical logs from 40 wells were used to construct cross sections and structure contour and isopach maps in order to characterize and define the reservoir architecture of the target formation. A geocellular model of the reservoir was constructed to improve understanding of CO2 behavior in the subsurface. At the time of site selection, the Field was under secondary recovery through edge-water injection, but the wells selected for the pilot in the Bald Unit had been temporarily shut-in for several years. The most recently shut-in production well, which was surrounded by four nearby shut-in production wells in a five-spot pattern, was converted to CO2 injection for this pilot. Two additional wells outside the immediate five-spot pattern, one of which was an active producer, were instrumented to measure surface temperature and pressure. The CO2 injection period lasted from September 3, 2009, through December 14, 2010, with one three-month interruption caused by cessation of CO2 deliveries due to winter weather. Water was injected into the CO2 injection well during this period. A total of 6,300 tonnes (6,950 tons) of CO2 were injected into the reservoir at rates that generally ranged from 18 to 32 tonnes (20 to 35 tons) per day. The CO2 injection bottomhole pressure generally remained at 8.3 to 9.0 MPag (1,200 to 1,300 psig). The CO2 injection was followed by continued monitoring for nine months during post-CO2 water injection. A monitoring, verification, and accounting (MVA) program was designed to determine the fate of injected CO2. Extensive periodic sampling and analysis of brine, groundwater, and produced gases began before CO2 injection and continued through the monitored waterflood periods. Samples were gathered from production wells and three newly installed groundwater monitoring wells. Samples underwent geochemical and isotopic analyses to reveal any CO2-related changes. Groundwater and kinetic modeling and mineralogical analysis were also employed to better understand the long-term dynamics of CO2 in the reservoir. No CO2 leakage into groundwater was detected, and analysis of brine and gas chemistry made it possible to track the path of plume migration and infer geochemical reactions and trapping of CO2. Cased-hole logging did not detect any CO2 in the near-wellbore region. An increase in CO2 concentration was first detected in February 2010 from the gas present in the carboy during brine sampling; however, there was no appreciable gas volume associated with the detection of CO2. The first indication of elevated gas rates from the commingled gas of the pilot�������¢����������������s production wells occurred in July 2010 and reached a maximum of 0.36 tonnes/day (0.41 tons/day) in September 2010. An estimated 27 tonnes (30 tons) of CO2 were produced at the surface from the gas separator at the tank battery from September 3, 2009, through September 11, 2011, representing 0.5% of the injected CO2. Consequently, 99.5%

Frailey, Scott M.; Krapac, Ivan G.; Damico, James R.; Okwen, Roland T.; McKaskle, Ray W.

2012-03-30

420

Strontium isotopic evolution of oil-field waters from carbonate reservoir rocks in Bindley field, central Kansas, U.S.A  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oil-field waters produced from Mississippian carbonate reservoir rocks in Bindley field, Kansas had an average salinity of about 42.8 mg\\/l. They were enriched in Ca, Sr, Na, K, Rb, and Li and depleted in Mg relative to sea water at the same level of either Cl or Br concentration. The average abundances of different elements are as follows: Na--13,460 mg\\/l,

S. Chaudhuri; V. Broedel; N. Clauer

1987-01-01

421

Sedimentology and sandstone diagenesis of Hibernia formation in Hibernia oil field, Grand Banks of Newfoundland  

SciTech Connect

The Hibernia oil field is the largest discovery off the east coast of North America. The most important reservoir unit in the field is the Upper Jurassic-Lower Cretaceous Hibernia formation, which averages 200 m in thickness and occurs at depths between 3475 and 4200 m. On the basis of sedimentological descriptions of cores and downhole log responses, five lithofacies have been defined, and the formation has been subdivided into two lithostratigraphic units. The Main Hibernia zone is dominated by thick medium to very coarse-grained quartzarenites, interpreted as distributary channel deposits of a deltaic plain environment. The Upper Hibernia zone consists of relatively thin very fine to medium-grained quartzarenites interbedded with mudstones and siltstones. This zone is interpreted as deposits of a shallow marine delta-front environment. Porosities observed in thin section and provided by core analysis in the Hibernia sandstones range from 1 to 22%. Many sandstones with high porosities show evidence of dissolution of carbonate cement and some framework grains. This late enhancement of porosity by decarbonatization preceded main hydrocarbon migration and is a major factor in both the accumulation of large reserves and the potential producibility of the field. Lower porosities are associated mainly with well-compacted sandstones or those retaining abundant unleached carbonate cements. Time-temperature index modeling constrains the interpreted time and depth of hydrocarbon generation and accumulation in the sandstone reservoirs. 17 figures, 2 tables.

Brown, D.M.; McAlpine, K.D.; Yole, R.W.

1989-05-01

422

Quantitative reverse sample genome probing of microbial communities and its application to oil field production waters.  

PubMed

This paper presents a protocol for quantitative analysis of microbial communities by reverse sample genome probing is presented in which (i) whole community DNA is isolated and labeled in the presence of a known amount of an added internal standard and (ii) the resulting spiked reverse genome probe is hybridized with a master filter on which denatured genomic DNAs from bacterial standards isolated from the target environment were spotted in large amounts (up to 1,500 ng) in order to improve detection sensitivity. This protocol allowed reproducible fingerprinting of the microbial community in oil field production waters at 19 sites from which water and biofilm samples were collected. It appeared that selected sulfate-reducing bacteria were significantly enhanced in biofilms covering the metal surfaces in contact with the production waters. PMID:16349111

Voordouw, G; Shen, Y; Harrington, C S; Telang, A J; Jack, T R; Westlake, D W

1993-12-01

423

Extensional tectonics and stratigraphy of Hibernia oil field, Grand Banks, Newfoundland  

SciTech Connect

The tectonic evolution of the Grand Banks involved several episodes of rifting and sequential development of the continental margin. The dominant period of rifting and basin formation in the central Grand Banks was late Callovian to Aptian. Extensional failure of the central Grand Banks crust probably occurred along a shear zone that dipped gently to the west. Listric normal basin-forming faults merge at depth with this detachment system. The listric Murre fault soles at 26 km (16 mi), creating the very deep Jeanne d'Arc basin. Cross-basin transfer faults accommodated different amounts and rates of extension and resulted in the conspicuous offset pattern and funnel-shaped geometry of the Jeanne d'Arc basin. The Hibernia oil field is associated with one of these structural salients. 23 figures, 3 tables.

Tankard, A.J.; Welsink, H.J.

1987-10-01

424

Quantitative Reverse Sample Genome Probing of Microbial Communities and Its Application to Oil Field Production Waters  

PubMed Central

This paper presents a protocol for quantitative analysis of microbial communities by reverse sample genome probing is presented in which (i) whole community DNA is isolated and labeled in the presence of a known amount of an added internal standard and (ii) the resulting spiked reverse genome probe is hybridized with a master filter on which denatured genomic DNAs from bacterial standards isolated from the target environment were spotted in large amounts (up to 1,500 ng) in order to improve detection sensitivity. This protocol allowed reproducible fingerprinting of the microbial community in oil field production waters at 19 sites from which water and biofilm samples were collected. It appeared that selected sulfate-reducing bacteria were significantly enhanced in biofilms covering the metal surfaces in contact with the production waters. Images

Voordouw, Gerrit; Shen, Yin; Harrington, Clare S.; Telang, Anita J.; Jack, Thomas R.; Westlake, Donald W. S.

1993-01-01

425

Quantitative determination of partially hydrolyzed polyacrylamide polymers in oil field production water  

SciTech Connect

Partially hydrolyzed polyacrylamide (PHPA) can be determined in a concentration range of 1 ppm to 100 ppm in dirty oil field water with a precision of +/-1% and a lower limit of detection of 10 ppb. Solutions of high molecular weight PHPA are analyzed by high-performance size exclusion chromatography with 100 A pore size, diol bonded phase silica columns eluted with a 0.1 M sodium perchlorate and 0.005 M pentanesulfonic acid paired ion reagent solution. UV detection at 190 nm wavelength is used for quantitation. Polymer solutions must be shear degraded to prevent column plugging. Analyses of water produced by both polymer and polymer plus sulfonate surfactant floods are illustrated. 13 references, 8 figures, 1 table.

Beazley, P.M.

1985-09-01

426

Comparison of soft computing techniques for a three-phase oil field centrifuge.  

SciTech Connect

In this work we compare fuzzy techniques to neural network techniques for building a soft sensor for a three-phase oil field centrifuge. The soft sensor is used in a feed-forward control system that augments a feedback control system. Two approaches were used to develop the soft sensor. The first approach was to use a fuzzy rule based system based upon the experience of an expert operator. The expert operator's experience was supplemented using a computer model of the system. The second approach was to use a neural network to build the inverse of the computer model. The pros and cons of both techniques are discussed. KEYWORDS: fuzzy logic, neural networks, soft sensor, soft computing

Smith, R. E. (Ronald E.); Parkinson, w; Miller, N. (Neal)

2002-01-01

427

Estimate of the risks of disposing nonhazardous oil field wastes into salt caverns  

SciTech Connect

Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) has completed an evaluation of the possibility that adverse human health effects (carcinogenic and noncarcinogenic) could result from exposure to contaminants released from nonhazardous oil field wastes (NOW) disposed in domal salt caverns. Potential human health risks associated with hazardous substances (arsenic, benzene, cadmium, and chromium) in NOW were assessed under four postclosure cavern release scenarios: inadvertent cavern intrusion, failure of the cavern seal, failure of the cavern through cracks or leaky interbeds, and a partial collapse of the cavern roof. To estimate potential human health risks for these scenarios, contaminant concentrations at the receptor were calculated using a one-dimensional solution to an advection/dispersion equation that included first order degradation. Assuming a single, generic salt cavern and generic oil-field wastes, the best-estimate excess cancer risks ranged from 1.7 {times} 10{sup {minus}12} to 1.1 {times} 10{sup {minus}8} and hazard indices (referring to noncancer health effects) ranged from 7 {times} 10{sup {minus}9} to 7 {times} 10{sup {minus}4}. Under worse-case conditions in which the probability of cavern failure is 1.0, excess cancer risks ranged from 4.9 {times} 10{sup {minus}9} to 1.7 {times} 10{sup {minus}5} and hazard indices ranged from 7.0 {times} 10{sup {minus}4} to 0.07. Even under worst-case conditions, the risks are within the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) target range for acceptable exposure levels. From a human health risk perspective, salt caverns can, therefore, provide an acceptable disposal method for NOW.

Tomasko, D.; Elcock, D.; Veil, J.

1997-12-31

428

Establishment of an oil and gas database for increased recovery and characterization of oil and gas carbonate reservoir heterogeneity. Appendix 1, Volume 2  

SciTech Connect

This volume contains maps, well logging correlated to porosity and permeability, structural cross section, graph of production history, porosity vs. natural log permeability plots, detailed core log, paragenetic sequence, and reservoir characterization sheet for the following fields in southwest Alabama: East Huxford oil field; Fanny Church oil field; Gin Creek oil field; Gulf Crest oil field; Hanberry Church oil field; Hatter`s Pond oil field; Healing Springs gas condensate field; Huxford oil field; Little Escambia Creek oil field; Little River oil field; Little Rock gas condensate field; Lovetts Creek oil field; Melvin oil field; Mill Creek oil field; Mineola oil field; Movico oil field; and North Choctaw Ridge oil field.

Kopaska-Merkel, D.C.; Moore, H.E. Jr.; Mann, S.D.; Hall, D.R.

1992-06-01

429

Establishment of an oil and gas database for increased recovery and characterization of oil and gas carbonate reservoir heterogeneity. [Jurassic Smackover Formation  

SciTech Connect

This volume contains maps, well logging correlated to porosity and permeability, structural cross section, graph of production history, porosity vs. natural log permeability plots, detailed core log, paragenetic sequence, and reservoir characterization sheet for the following fields in southwest Alabama: East Huxford oil field; Fanny Church oil field; Gin Creek oil field; Gulf Crest oil field; Hanberry Church oil field; Hatter's Pond oil field; Healing Springs gas condensate field; Huxford oil field; Little Escambia Creek oil field; Little River oil field; Little Rock gas condensate field; Lovetts Creek oil field; Melvin oil field; Mill Creek oil field; Mineola oil field; Movico oil field; and North Choctaw Ridge oil field.

Kopaska-Merkel, D.C.; Moore, H.E. Jr.; Mann, S.D.; Hall, D.R.

1992-06-01

430

Integrated reservoir characterization of mature oil reservoirs: An example from Oligocene Frio fluvial/deltaic sandstones, Rincon Field, south Texas  

SciTech Connect

The Frio fluvial/deltaic sandstone along the Vicksburg fault zone play of south Texas has produced nearly 1 billion bbl of oil from fluvial/deltaic sandstones since field development began in the 1940s. More than half of the reservoirs in this depositionally complex play have been abandoned, even though large volumes of oil remain. Current efforts integrating geological and engineering reservoir characterization are being used to identify the location of unrecovered mobile oil, estimated at more than 1 billion bbl, that remains in unproduced reservoir zones in fields within this very mature play. Engineering data from Frio reservoirs in Rincon field were used to assess past production behavior, determine completion density, and prioritize zones for incremental reserve growth opportunities. Geologic data have been evaluated to identify interwell stratigraphic heterogeneity and potential for compartmentalization of significant volumes of unrecovered oil. Major oil reservoirs represent deposition in broad, dip-elongate fluvial systems. Individual zones consist of multiple thin (0-40 ft) sandstone units that stack to form gross thicknesses of 50 to 100 ft. They occur both as narrow channel fills isolated vertically and laterally by very low-permeability overbank facies and flood-plain mudstones and as large channel complexes with multiple laterally coalescing sand lobes. Large dip-elongate channel-sandstone complexes provide ideal conditions for the isolation of oil accumulations in multiple reservoir compartments, many of which are now incompletely drained or completely untapped. Reservoir architectural mapping and core analysis data from more than 100 wells are being combined with reserve volumetrics to describe heterogeneity and to identify possible locations of additional reserves within a 100-ft reservoir interval that has already produced more than 15 million bbl of oil.

McRae, L.E.; Holtz, M.H. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States)

1994-09-01

431

Saline-water contamination in Quaternary deposits and the Poplar River, East Poplar Oil Field, northeastern Montana  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The extent of saline-water contamination in Quaternary deposits in and near the East Poplar oil field may be as much as 12.4 square miles and appears to be present throughout the entire saturated zone. The saline-water contamination affects 9-60 billion gallons of ground water. Saline- contaminated water moves westward through Quaternary glacial deposits and merges with southward-flowing water in Quaternary alluvium in the Poplar River valley. Saline ground water discharges into the Poplar River, and increases the dissolved-solids and chloride concentrations of the river. The probable source of saline-water contamination in the Quaternary deposits is brine that is a byproduct of the production of crude oil in the East Poplar oil field study area.

Thamke, J. N.; Craigg, S. D.

1997-01-01

432

A Novel Process for Natural Gas Liquids Recovery from Oil Field Associated Gas with Liquefied Natural Gas Cryogenic Energy Utilization  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel process to recovery natural gas liquids from oil field associated gas with liquefied natural gas (LNG) cryogenic energy utilization is proposed. Compared to the current electric refrigeration process, the proposed process uses the cryogenic energy of LNG and saves 62.6% of electricity. The proposed process recovers ethane, liquid petroleum gas (propane and butane) and heavier hydrocarbons, with total

Haijun BIAN; Wendong XU; Xiuxi LI; Yu QIAN

2011-01-01

433

LABORATORY AND FIELD EVALUATION OF CRYSTALLIZED DOW 704 OIL ON THE PERFORMANCE OF THE PM2.5 WINS FRACTIONATOR  

EPA Science Inventory

Subsequent to the PM2.5 FRM's 1997 promulgation, technicians at the CT Dept. of Env. Protection observed that the DOW 704 diffusion oil used in the method's WINS fractionator would occasionally crystallize during field use - particularly under wintertime conditions. While the f...

434

Geomechanical characterization and reservoir simulation of a carbon dioxide sequestration project in a mature oil field, Teapot Dome, WY  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this dissertation, I present my contribution towards the understanding and prediction of the risk of CO2 leakage through natural pathways (i.e. faults and fractures). The main portion of this dissertation deals with geomechanical aspects of CO2 Sequestration in Teapot Dome, WY, a mature oil field. The last study investigates the use of induce microseismicity to enhance permeability and injectivity

Laura Chiaramonte

2009-01-01

435

Occurrence of oil and gas fields and source rock transformation in the west Siberian basin and Barents Sea platform  

Microsoft Academic Search

The West Siberian and Barents Sea basins contain the largest demonstrated reserves of gas in the world (more than 33 trilion m[sup 3]) and very large recoverable reserves of oil (about 19 billion tons). The main productive reservoirs are of the Jurassic and Cretaceous and are composed of marine and alluvial sandstones. Major gas fields of the West Siberian basin

1993-01-01

436

Cyclodextrin derivatives as chiral selectors for direct gas chromatographic separation of enantiomers in the essential oil, aroma and flavour fields  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article reviews papers published over the period 1995–1998 dealing with the application of cyclodextrin derivatives (CDs) as chiral selector for direct enantiomer GC separation of volatile optically active components in the essential oil, extract, flavour and aroma fields. For each application, the racemate analysed, the CD employed as chiral selector and the matrix investigated are reported. The applications are

Carlo Bicchi; Angela D’Amato; Patrizia Rubiolo

1999-01-01

437

Report on testing of engine and transmission ECU's (electronic control units) integrated into oil field services pumping equipment  

Microsoft Academic Search

A microprocessor-based control unit has been developed to interface with an engine\\/transmission\\/pump power train system. The purpose is to establish remote control and test component reliability in the oil field environment. The unit controls pump rate, pressure, engine throttle and transmission range in addition to storing vital statistics and performing diagnostics.

E. Daunis; A. Burmeister

1986-01-01

438

Field manual for plunging water jet use in oil spill cleanup. Final report Sep 82Jul 83  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of plunging water jets can often make possible the control (and, as a consequence, the cleanup) of spilled oil and other floating pollutants in currents too swift for conventional equipment. This short, illustrated manual provides practical information for field and planning personnel on the principles of plunging water jet operation, rapid fabrication of the equipment (from readily available

1984-01-01

439

Carbonate platform evolution, Upper Paleozoic, southern Kazakhstan, USSR: A surface analog for the super giant Tengiz oil field western Kazakhstan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Upper Devonian and Carboniferous carbonate platform and associated bioherms in the Bolshoi Karatau Mountains of southern Kazakhstan are similar to coeval carbonate platform and biohermal reservoir facies recently described in the Tengiz oil field of western Kazakhstan on the southeastern margin of the Pre-Caspian basin. Like Tengiz, the Bolshoi Karatau carbonate platform developed upon Devonian siliciclastics. The size of

H. E. Cook; Y. A. Gatosvseey; S. B. Ponoeearenko; I. G. Styehtsyehnka; V. P. Styehtsyennka; A. E. Zoran; V. Zhemchuzhnikov

1991-01-01

440

Field Evaluation of Satellite-Tracked Surface Drifting Buoys in Simulating the Movement of Spilled Oil in the Marine Environment.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The project, an experimental oil spill and associated analyses, represents the second phase (field portion) of a three phase program. The final (Phase III) goal of the program is the acquisition and deployment of large numbers of drifting buoys in the var...

M. Reed C. Turner A. Odulo T. Isaji S. E. Soerstroem J. P. Mathisen

1990-01-01

441

Jurassic Bazhenov Unit in the Salym oil field, West Siberia - An excellent source rock and fractured shale reservoir  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Upper Jurassic Bazhenov Unit covers approximately 1 million km² of West Siberia and is an excellent source rock. This Unit has proved to be a prolific shale reservoir in 14 local highs with the Salym oil field the major discovery. More than 300 wells have been drilled to date in this area, covering approximately 5800 km². The Bazhenov formation

Y. Petzoukha; A. Rovenskaya; M. Zonn; A. Kononkov

1991-01-01

442

Stable carbon isotopes of HCO 3 - in oil-field waters--implications for the origin of CO 2  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 13 C values of dissolved HCO 3 - in 75 water samples from 15 oil and gas fields (San Joaquin Valley, Calif., and the Houston-Galveston and Corpus Christi areas of Texas) were determined to study the sources of CO 2 of the dissolved species and carbonate cements that modify the porosity and permeability of many petroleum reservoir rocks. The

William W. Carothers; Yousif K. Kharaka

1980-01-01

443

Competitive Oxidation of Volatile Fatty Acids by Sulfate and Nitrate-Reducing Bacteria from an Oil Field in Argentina  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acetate, propionate, and butyrate, collectively referred to as volatile fatty acids (VFA), are considered among the most important electron donors for sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) and heterotrophic nitrate-reducing bacteria (hNRB) in oil fields. Samples obtained from a field in the Neuquen Basin, western Argentina, had significant activity of mesophilic SRB, hNRB, and nitrate-reducing, sulfide-oxidizing bacteria (NR-SOB). In microcosms, containing VFA (3

Aleksandr A. Grigoryan; Sabrina L. Cornish; Brenton Buziak; Shiping Lin; Adriana Cavallaro; Joseph J. Arensdorf; Gerrit Voordouw

2008-01-01

444

Influence of deep gas-steam fluids on the composition of reservoir waters of oil and gas fields  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work the conditions of the formation of low-mineral deep hydrocarbonate sodium waters of oil-and-gas fields are considered.\\u000a Analysis of the boron-bromine ratio of reservoir and condensed waters in several fields of Western Siberia shows that the\\u000a influx of endogenous high-temperature gas-steam fluids into zones containing sedimentogenic brines is a decisive factor in\\u000a the formation of the chemical composition

V. A. Vsevolozhsky; T. A. Kireeva

2010-01-01

445

Stress and fluid-pressure changes associated with oil-field operations: A critical assessment of effects in the focal region of the earthquake  

Microsoft Academic Search

The proximity of the May 2 earthquake to the active oil fields on Anticline Ridge has led to speculation that this earthquake might have been triggered by oil-field operations. Elsewhere, earthquakes have been associated with pore-pressure increases resulting from fluid injection and with subsidence resulting from fluid extraction. Simple calculations show that shale units, which underlie the oil-producing strata, hydraulically

P. Segall; R. F. Yerkes

1990-01-01