Science.gov

Sample records for bovine adrenomedullary chromaffin

  1. CONTROL OF CHROMAFFIN CELL DEVELOPMENT AND ADRENOMEDULLARY FUNCTION IN THE NEONATE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Neonatal administration of triodothyronine (T3) accelerates the onset of sympatho-adrenomedullary neurotransmission function. o examine whether this reflected enhanced maturation of splanchnic innervation, we assessed retrograde transport of horse radish peroxidase. here was an i...

  2. A Defined, Controlled Culture System for Primary Bovine Chromaffin Progenitors Reveals Novel Biomarkers and Modulators

    PubMed Central

    Masjkur, Jimmy; Levenfus, Ian; Lange, Sven; Arps-Forker, Carina; Poser, Steve; Qin, Nan; Vukicevic, Vladimir; Chavakis, Triantafyllos; Eisenhofer, Graeme; Bornstein, Stefan R.; Ehrhart-Bornstein, Monika

    2014-01-01

    We present a method to efficiently culture primary chromaffin progenitors from the adult bovine adrenal medulla in a defined, serum-free monolayer system. Tissue is dissociated and plated for expansion under support by the mitogen basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF). The cultures, although not homogenous, contain a subpopulation of cells expressing the neural stem cell marker Hes3 that also propagate. In addition, Hes3 is also expressed in the adult adrenal medulla from where the tissue is taken. Differentiation is induced by bFGF withdrawal and switching to Neurobasal medium containing B27. Following differentiation, Hes3 expression is lost, and cells acquire morphologies and biomarker expression patterns of chromaffin cells and dopaminergic neurons. We tested the effect of different treatments that we previously showed regulate Hes3 expression and cell number in cultures of fetal and adult rodent neural stem cells. Treatment of the cultures with a combination of Delta4, Angiopoietin2, and a Janus kinase inhibitor increases cell number during the expansion phase without significantly affecting catecholamine content levels. Treatment with cholera toxin does not significantly affect cell number but reduces the ratio of epinephrine to norepinephrine content and increases the dopamine content relative to total catecholamines. These data suggest that this defined culture system can be used for target identification in drug discovery programs and that the transcription factor Hes3 may serve as a new biomarker of putative adrenomedullary chromaffin progenitor cells. PMID:24855275

  3. Cholinergic regulation of protein phosphorylation in bovine adrenal chromaffin cells

    SciTech Connect

    Haycock, J.W.; Browning, M.D.; Greengard, P.

    1988-03-01

    Chromaffin cells were isolated from bovine adrenal medullae and maintained in primary culture. After prelabeling with /sup 32/PO/sub 4/, exposure of the chromaffin cells to acetylcholine increased the phosphorylation of a M/sub r/ approx. = 100,000 protein and a M/sub r/ approx. = 60,000 protein (tyrosine hydroxylase), visualized after separation of total cellular proteins in NaDodSO/sub 4//polyacrylamide gels. Immunoprecipitation with antibodies to three known phosphoproteins (100-kDa, 87-kDa, and protein III) revealed an acetylcholine-dependent phosphorylation of these proteins. These three proteins were also shown to be present in bovine adrenal chromaffin cells by immunolabeling techniques. 100-kDa is a M/sub r/ approx. = 100,000 protein selectively phosphorylated by calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase III, 87-kDa is a M/sub r/ approx. = 87,000 protein selectively phosphorylated by protein kinase C, and protein III is a phosphoprotein doublet of M/sub r/ approx. = 74,000 (IIIa) and M/sub r/ approx. = 55,000 (IIIb) phosphorylated by cAMP-dependent protein kinase and calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase I. The data demonstrate that cholinergic activation of chromaffin cells increases the phosphorylation of several proteins and that several protein kinase systems may be involved in these effects.

  4. Mobile and immobile calcium buffers in bovine adrenal chromaffin cells.

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Z; Neher, E

    1993-01-01

    1. The calcium binding capacity (kappa S) of bovine chromaffin cells preloaded with fura-2 was measured during nystatin-perforated-patch recordings. 2. Subsequently, the perforated patch was ruptured to obtain a whole-cell recording situation, and the time course of kappa S was monitored during periods of up to one hour. 3. No rapid change (within 10-20 s) of kappa S was observed upon transition to whole-cell recording, as would be expected, if highly mobile organic anions contributed significantly to calcium buffering. However, approximately half of the cells investigated displayed a drop in kappa S within 2-5 min, indicative of the loss of soluble Ca2+ binding proteins in the range of 7-20 kDa. 4. The average Ca2+ binding capacity (differential ratio of bound calcium over free calcium) was 9 +/- 7 (mean +/- S.E.M.) for the poorly mobile component and 31 +/- 10 for the fixed component. It was concluded that a contribution of 7 from highly mobile buffer would have been detected, if present. Thus, this value can be considered as an upper bound to highly mobile Ca2+ buffer. 5. Both mobile and fixed calcium binding capacity appeared to have relatively low Ca2+ affinity, since kappa S did not change in the range of Ca2+ concentrations between 0.1 and 3 microM. 6. It was found that cellular autofluorescence and contributions to fluorescence of non-hydrolysed or compartmentalized dye contribute a serious error in estimation of kappa S. 'Balanced loading', a degree of fura-2 loading such that the calcium binding capacity of fura-2 equals cellular calcium binding capacity, minimizes these errors. Also, changes in kappa S at the transition from perforated-patch to whole-cell recording can be most faithfully recorded for similar degrees of loading in both situations. 7. Nystatin was found unable to make pores from inside of the plasma membrane of chromaffin cells. With careful preparation and storage the diluted nystatin solution maintained its high activity of membrane

  5. PACAP Controls Adrenomedullary Catecholamine Secretion and Expression of Catecholamine Biosynthetic Enzymes at High Splanchnic Nerve Firing Rates Characteristic of Stress Transduction in Male Mice

    PubMed Central

    Stroth, N.; Kuri, B. A.; Mustafa, T.; Chan, S.-A.

    2013-01-01

    The neuropeptide PACAP (pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide) is a cotransmitter of acetylcholine at the adrenomedullary synapse, where autonomic regulation of hormone secretion occurs. We have previously reported that survival of prolonged metabolic stress in mice requires PACAP-dependent biosynthesis and secretion of adrenomedullary catecholamines (CAs). In the present experiments, we show that CA secretion evoked by direct high-frequency stimulation of the splanchnic nerve is abolished in native adrenal slices from male PACAP-deficient mice. Further, we demonstrate that PACAP is both necessary and sufficient for CA secretion ex vivo during stimulation protocols designed to mimic stress. In vivo, up-regulation of transcripts encoding adrenomedullary CA-synthesizing enzymes (tyrosine hydroxylase, phenylethanolamine N-methyltransferase) in response to both psychogenic and metabolic stressors (restraint and hypoglycemia) is PACAP-dependent. Stressor-induced alteration of the adrenomedullary secretory cocktail also appears to require PACAP, because up-regulation of galanin mRNA is abrogated in male PACAP-deficient mice. We further show that hypoglycemia-induced corticosterone secretion is not PACAP-dependent, ruling out the possibility that glucocorticoids are the main mediators of the aforementioned effects. Instead, experiments with bovine chromaffin cells suggest that PACAP acts directly at the level of the adrenal medulla. By integrating prolonged CA secretion, expression of biosynthetic enzymes and production of modulatory neuropeptides such as galanin, PACAP is crucial for adrenomedullary function. Importantly, our results show that PACAP is the dominant adrenomedullary neurotransmitter during conditions of enhanced secretory demand. PMID:23221599

  6. Superoxide anions mediate veratridine-induced cytochrome c release and caspase activity in bovine chromaffin cells

    PubMed Central

    Jordán, Joaquín; Galindo, María F; Tornero, Daniel; Benavides, Amparo; González, Constancio; Agapito, María T; González-Garcia, Carmen; Ceña, Valentín

    2002-01-01

    Mitochondrial mechanisms involved in veratridine-induced chromaffin cell death have been explored. Exposure to veratridine (30 μM, 1 h) produces cytochrome c release to the cytoplasm that seems to be mediated by superoxide anions and that is blocked by cyclosporin A (10 μM), MnTBAP (10 nM), catalase (100 IU ml−1) and vitamin E (50 μM). Following veratridine treatment, there is an increase in caspase-like activity, blocked by vitamin E (50 μM) and the mitochondrial permeability transition pore blocker cyclosporin A (10 μM). Superoxide anions open the mitochondrial permeability transition pore in isolated mitochondria, an effect that is blocked by vitamin E (50 μM) and cyclosporin A (10 μM), but not by the Ca2+ uniporter blocker ruthenium red (5 μM). These results strongly suggest that under the stress situation caused by veratridine, superoxide anions become important regulators of mitochondrial function in chromaffin cells. Exposure of isolated bovine chromaffin mitochondria to Ca2+ results in mitochondrial swelling. This effect was prevented by ruthenium red (5 μM) and cyclosporin A (10 μM), while it was not modified by vitamin E (50 μM). Veratridine (30 μM, 1 h) markedly decreased total glutathione and GSH content in bovine chromaffin cells. In conclusion, superoxide anions seem to mediate veratridine-induced cytochrome c release, decrease in total glutathione, caspase activation and cell death in bovine chromaffin cells. PMID:12429571

  7. Analgesia induced by isolated bovine chromaffin cells implanted in rat spinal cord.

    PubMed

    Sagen, J; Pappas, G D; Pollard, H B

    1986-10-01

    Chromaffin cells synthesize and secrete several neuroactive substances, including catecholamines and opioid peptides, that, when injected into the spinal cord, induce analgesia. Moreover, the release of these substances from the cells can be stimulated by nicotine. Since chromaffin cells from one species have been shown to survive when transplanted to the central nervous system of another species, these cells are ideal candidates for transplantation to alter pain sensitivity. Bovine chromaffin cells were implanted into the subarachnoid space of the lumbar spinal region in adult rats. Pain sensitivity and response to nicotine stimulation was determined at various intervals following cell implantation. Low doses of nicotine were able to induce potent analgesia in implanted animals as early as one day following their introduction into the host spinal cord. This response could be elicited at least through the 4 months the animals were tested. The induction of analgesia by nicotine in implanted animals was dose related. This analgesia was blocked by the opiate antagonist naloxone and partially attenuated by the adrenergic antagonist phentolamine. These results suggest that the analgesia is due to the stimulated release of opioid peptides and catecholamines from the implanted bovine chromaffin cells and may provide a new therapeutic approach for the relief of pain. PMID:3463981

  8. Analgesia Induced by Isolated Bovine Chromaffin Cells Implanted in Rat Spinal Cord

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sagen, Jacqueline; Pappas, George D.; Pollard, Harvey B.

    1986-10-01

    Chromaffin cells synthesize and secrete several neuroactive substances, including catecholamines and opioid peptides, that, when injected into the spinal cord, induce analgesia. Moreover, the release of these substances from the cells can be stimulated by nicotine. Since chromaffin cells from one species have been shown to survive when transplanted to the central nervous system of another species, these cells are ideal candidates for transplantation to alter pain sensitivity. Bovine chromaffin cells were implanted into the subarachnoid space of the lumbar spinal region in adult rats. Pain sensitivity and response to nicotine stimulation was determined at various intervals following cell implantation. Low doses of nicotine were able to induce potent analgesia in implanted animals as early as one day following their introduction into the host spinal cord. This response could be elicited at least through the 4 months the animals were tested. The induction of analgesia by nicotine in implanted animals was dose related. This analgesia was blocked by the opiate antagonist naloxone and partially attenuated by the adrenergic antagonist phentolamine. These results suggest that the analgesia is due to the stimulated release of opioid peptides and catecholamines from the implanted bovine chromaffin cells and may provide a new therapeutic approach for the relief of pain.

  9. Identification, characterization, and regulation of a nicotinic acetylcholine receptor on bovine adrenal chromaffin cells in culture

    SciTech Connect

    Higgins, L.S.

    1988-01-01

    Synaptic input to bovine adrenal chromaffin cells is mediated by nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (AChRs) and results in secretion of catecholamines. Three probes previously shown to recognize AChRs on neurons were used to identify the AChR on bovine adrenal chromaffin cells in culture: monoclonal antibody mAb 35, a toxin that blocks receptor function, and the agonist nicotine. Competition for {sup 3}H-nicotine binding was used to measure the affinity of cholinergic ligands, and revealed the pharmacological profile expected for a neuronal-type AChR. At steady state the rate both of receptor insertion into and loss from the plasma membrane is about 3%/hour, resulting in a half-life in the surface of about 24 hours. Exposure to the anti-AChR antibody results in a loss of AChRs from the surface of the cells through a process that has the characteristics of antigenic modulation. The number of AChRs on the surface of the chromaffin cells can also be modulated by agonists and hormones, including glucocotricoids. Catecholamines, three peptides that may be secreted by chromaffin cells, and K{sup +}-induced secretion reduce agonist-induced catecholamine release by decreasing the number of AChRs, providing a mechanism for autoregulation.

  10. Analysis of the carbon-13 and proton NMR spectra of bovine chromaffin granules.

    PubMed

    Sharp, R R; Richards, E P

    1977-03-29

    Natural abundance carbon-13 and proton NMR spectra of bovine chromaffin granules have been obtained and analyzed using computer simulation techniques. High resolution spectra show the presence of a fluid aqueous phase containing epinephrine, ATP and a random coil protein. The protein spectrum contains unusually intense resonances due to glutamic acid and proline and has been simulated satisfactorily using the known amino acid composition of chromogranin A. The lipid phase of chromaffin granules gives rise to intense, but very broad, resonances in the carbon-13 spectrum. Protons in the lipid phase are also observable as a very rapid component of the proton-free induction decay (T2 approximately equal to 15 microns). Linewidths of the carbon-13 spectra have been used to set upper limits on rotational correlation times and on the motional anisotropy in the aqueous phase. These limits show that the aqueous phase is a simple solution (not a gel) that is isotropic over regions much larger than solute dimensions. No gel transition is observed between -3 and 25 degrees C. The carbon-13 spectra are definitely inconsistent with a lipoprotein matrix model and chromaffin granules previously proposed by Helle and Serck-Hanssen ((1975) Mol. Cell, Biochem. 6, 127-146). Relative carbon-13 intensities of ATP and epinephrine are not consistent with the known 1 : 4 mol ratio of these components. This fact suggests that epinephrine and ATP are not directly complexed in intact chromaffin granules. PMID:849474

  11. Mixed nicotinic and muscarinic features of cholinergic receptor coupled to secretion in bovine chromaffin cells.

    PubMed Central

    Shirvan, M H; Pollard, H B; Heldman, E

    1991-01-01

    Acetylcholine evokes release from cultured bovine chromaffin cells by a mechanism that is believed to be classically nicotinic. However, we found that the full muscarinic agonist oxotremorine-M (Oxo-M) induced a robust catecholamine (CA) secretion. By contrast, muscarine, pilocarpine, bethanechol, and McN-A-343 did not elicit any secretory response. Desensitization of the response to nicotine by Oxo-M and desensitization of the response to Oxo-M by nicotine suggest that both nicotine and Oxo-M were acting at the same receptor. Additional experiments supporting this conclusion show that nicotine-induced secretion and Oxo-M-induced secretion were similarly blocked by various muscarinic and nicotinic antagonists. Moreover, secretion induced by nicotine and Oxo-M were Ca2+ dependent, and both agonists induced 45Ca2+ uptake. Equilibrium binding studies showed that [3H]Oxo-M bound to chromaffin cell membranes with a Kd value of 3.08 x 10(-8) M and a Hill coefficient of 1.00, suggesting one binding site for this ligand. Nicotine inhibited Oxo-M binding in a noncompetitive manner, suggesting that both ligands bind at two different sites on the same receptor. We propose that the receptor on bovine chromaffin cells that is coupled to secretion represents an unusual cholinergic receptor that has both nicotinic and muscarinic features. Images PMID:2052567

  12. Mixed nicotinic and muscarinic features of cholinergic receptor coupled to secretion in bovine chromaffin cells

    SciTech Connect

    Shirvan, M.H.; Pollard, H.B.; Heldman, E. )

    1991-06-01

    Acetylcholine evokes release from cultured bovine chromaffin cells by a mechanism that is believed to be classically nicotinic. However, the authors found that the full muscarinic agonist oxotremorine-M (Oxo-M) induced a robust catecholamine (CA) secretion. By contrast, muscarine, pilocarpine, bethanechol, and McN-A-343 did not elicit any secretory response. Desensitization of the response to nicotine by Oxo-M and desensitization of the response to Oxo-M by nicotine suggest that both nicotine and Oxo-M were acting at the same receptor. Additional experiments supporting this conclusion show that nicotine-induced secretion and Oxo-M-induced secretion were similarly blocked by various muscarinic and nicotinic antagonists. Moreover, secretion induced by nicotine and Oxo-M were Ca{sup 2+} dependent, and both agonists induced {sup 45}Ca{sup 2+} uptake. Equilibrium binding studies showed that ({sup 3}H)Oxo-M bound to chromaffin cell membranes with a K{sub d} value of 3.08 {times} 10{sup {minus}8}M and a Hill coefficient of 1.00, suggesting one binding site for this ligand. Nicotine inhibited Oxo-M binding in a noncompetitive manner, suggesting that both ligands bind at two different sites on the same receptor. They propose that the receptor on bovine chromaffin cells that is coupled to secretion represents an unusual cholinergic receptor that has both nicotinic and muscarinic features.

  13. Calcium requirements for secretion in bovine chromaffin cells.

    PubMed Central

    Augustine, G J; Neher, E

    1992-01-01

    1. Measurements of membrane capacitance and intracellular Ca2+ concentration, [Ca2+]i, were used to examine the Ca2+ dependence of secretion in single adrenal chromaffin cells. 2. Intracellular dialysis of Ca2+, through a patch pipette, promoted secretion; the rate of secretion increased monotonically as [Ca2+]i was elevated, while the total amount of secretion reached a maximum at 1.5 microM-Ca2+ and declined at high [Ca2+]i. 3. Release of Ca2+ from internal stores, using bradykinin or ionomycin, transiently elevated [Ca2+]i and the rate of secretion. 4. Considering responses to both Ca2+ dialysis and release from internal stores, it appears that the rate of secretion increases over a range of [Ca2+]i levels above 0.2 microM and saturates at concentrations greater than 10 microM, if at all. Secretion appears to have a Hill coefficient for Ca2+ of about 2. At [Ca2+]i greater than 1-2 microM, prolonged elevation of [Ca2+]i, via dialysis, produced lower rates of secretion than transient elevation of [Ca2+]i caused by release from internal stores. This may have been caused by a depletion of readily releasable chromaffin granules during prolonged elevation of [Ca2+]i. 5. Brief depolarizing pulses produced transient rises in both [Ca2+]i and the rate of secretion. The ability of these pulses to evoke secretion 'washed out' during prolonged intracellular dialysis, due to both reduced Ca2+ influx and a diminished ability of the cell to secrete in response to a given Ca2+ load. 6. The kinetics of the secretory response depended upon the size of the depolarization-induced Ca2+ load; small rises in [Ca2+]i increased membrane capacitance only during the depolarization, while larger rises in [Ca2+]i produced increases both during and following the depolarization. The secretory responses that outlasted the depolarization appeared to be due to persistent elevation of [Ca2+]i. Secretory responses were sometimes followed by a slower decline in membrane capacitance, probably due to

  14. Muscarinic receptor-mediated inositol tetrakisphosphate response in bovine adrenal chromaffin cells

    SciTech Connect

    Sanborn, B.B.; Schneider, A.S. )

    1990-01-01

    Inositol trisphosphate (IP{sub 3}), a product of the phosphoinositide cycle, mobilizes intracellular Ca{sup 2+} in many cell types. New evidence suggests that inositol tetrakisphosphate (IP{sub 4}), an IP{sub 3} derivative, may act as another second messenger to further alter calcium homeostasis. However, the function and mechanism of action of IP{sub 4} are presently unresolved. We now report evidence of muscarinic receptor-mediated accumulation of IP{sub 4} in bovine adrenal chromaffin cells, a classic neurosecretory system in which calcium movements have been well studied. Muscarine stimulated an increase in ({sup 3}H)IP{sub 4} and ({sup 3}H)IP{sub 3} accumulation in chromaffin cells and this effect was completely blocked by atropine. ({sup 3}H)IP{sub 4} accumulation was detectable within 15 sec, increased to a maximum by 30 sec and thereafter declined. 2,3-diphosphoglycerate, an inhibitor of IP{sub 3} and IP{sub 4} hydrolysis, enhanced accumulation of these inositol polyphosphates. The results provide the first evidence of a rapid inositol tetrakisphosphate response in adrenal chromaffin cells, which should facilitate the future resolution of the relationship between IP{sub 4} and calcium homeostasis.

  15. Association of the GTP-binding protein Rab3A with bovine adrenal chromaffin granules

    SciTech Connect

    Darchen, F.; Hammel, F.; Monteils, M.P.; Scherman, D. ); Zahraoui, A.; Tavitian, A. )

    1990-08-01

    The Rab3A protein belongs to a large family of small GTP-binding proteins that are present in eukaryotic cells and that share amino acid identities with the Ras proteins (products of the ras protooncogenes). Rab3A, which is specifically located in nervous and endocrine tissues, is suspected to play a key role in secretion. Its localization was investigated in bovine adrenal gland by using a polyclonal antibody. Rab3A was detected in adrenal medulla but not in adrenal cortex. In cultured adrenal medulla cells, Rab3A was specifically expressed in the catecholamine-secreting chromaffin cells. Subcellular fractionation suggested that Rab3A is about 30% cytosolic and that particulate Rab3A is associated with the membrane of chromaffin granules (the catecholamine storage organelles) and with a second compartment likely to be the plasma membrane. The Rab3A localization on chromaffin granule membranes was confirmed by immunoadsorption with an antibody against dopamine {beta}-hydroxylase. Rab3A was not extracted from this membrane by NaCl or KBr but was partially extracted by urea and totally solubilized by Triton X-100, suggesting either an interaction with an intrinsic protein or a membrane association through fatty acid acylation. This study suggests that Rab3A, which may also be located on other secretory vesicles containing noncharacterized small GTP-binding proteins, is involved in their biogenesis or in the regulated secretion process.

  16. Tetrodotoxin-insensitive Na+ channel activator palytoxin inhibits tyrosine uptake into cultured bovine adrenal chromaffin cells

    SciTech Connect

    Morita, K.; Teraoka, K.; Azuma, M.; Oka, M.; Hamano, S. )

    1991-07-01

    The effects of the tetrodotoxin-insensitive Na+ channel activator palytoxin on both the secretion of endogenous catecholamines and the formation of 14C-catecholamines from (14C)tyrosine were examined using cultured bovine adrenal chromaffin cells. Palytoxin was shown to cause the stimulation of catecholamine secretion in a concentration-dependent manner. However, this toxin caused the reduction rather than the stimulation of 14C-catecholamine formation at the same concentrations. Palytoxin failed to cause any alteration in the activity of tyrosine hydroxylase prepared from bovine adrenal medulla. Furthermore, the uptake of (14C)tyrosine into the cells was shown to be inhibited by this toxin under the conditions in which the suppression of 14C-catecholamine formation was observed, and this inhibitory action on tyrosine uptake was closely correlated with that on catecholamine formation. The inhibitory action of palytoxin on tyrosine uptake into the cells was observed to be noncompetitive, and this effect was not altered by the removal of Na+ from the incubation mixture. These results suggest that palytoxin may be able to inhibit the uptake of (14C)tyrosine into the cells, resulting in the suppression of 14C-catecholamine formation, probably through its direct action on the plasma membranes of bovine adrenal chromaffin cells.

  17. Angiotensin II binding to cultured bovine adrenal chromaffin cells: identification of angiotensin II receptors

    SciTech Connect

    Boyd, V.L.; Printz, M.P.

    1986-03-05

    Physiological experiments have provided evidence that angiotensin II stimulates catecholamine secretion from the adrenal gland. Their laboratory and others have now shown by receptor autoradiography the presence of angiotensin II receptors (AIIR) in bovine and rat adrenal medulla. In order to extend these studies they have undertaken to define AIIR on cultured bovine adrenal chromaffin cells. Cells were isolated using the method of Levitt including cell enrichment with Percoll gradient centrifugation. Primary cultures of bovine adrenal medullary cells were maintained in DME/F12 medium containing 10% FCS. Cells were characterized by immunocytochemistry for Met- and Leu-enkephalin, PNMT, DBH and Chromagranin A. Cultured cells bind with high affinity and specificity (/sup 125/I)-ANG II yielding a K/sub D/ of 0.74 nM and B/sub max/ of 24,350 sites/cell. After Percoll treatment values of .77 nm and 34,500 sites/cell are obtained. K/sub D/ values are in close agreement with that obtained in adrenal slices by Healy. Competition studies identify a rank order of binding by this receptor similar to that of other tissues. They conclude that cultured chromaffin cells provide a suitable model system for the investigation and characterization of the ANG II receptor and for cellular studies of its functional significance.

  18. Otilonium: a potent blocker of neuronal nicotinic ACh receptors in bovine chromaffin cells.

    PubMed Central

    Gandía, L.; Villarroya, M.; Lara, B.; Olmos, V.; Gilabert, J. A.; López, M. G.; Martínez-Sierra, R.; Borges, R.; García, A. G.

    1996-01-01

    1. Otilonium, a clinically useful spasmolytic, behaves as a potent blocker of neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (AChR) as well as a mild wide-spectrum Ca2+ channel blocker in bovine adrenal chromaffin cells. 2. 45Ca2+ uptake into chromaffin cells stimulated with high K+ (70 mM, 1 min) was blocked by otilonium with an IC50 of 7.6 microM. The drug inhibited the 45Ca2+ uptake stimulated by the nicotinic AChR agonist, dimethylphenylpiperazinium (DMPP) with a 79 fold higher potency (IC50 = 0.096 microM). 3. Whole-cell Ba2+ currents (IBa) through Ca2+ channels of voltage-clamped chromaffin cells were blocked by otilonium with an IC50 of 6.4 microM, very close to that of K(+)-evoked 45Ca2+ uptake. Blockade developed in 10-20 s, almost as a single step and was rapidly and almost fully reversible. 4. Whole-cell nicotinic AChR-mediated currents (250 ms pulses of 100 microM DMPP) applied at 30 s intervals were blocked by otilonium in a concentration-dependent manner, showing an IC50 of 0.36 microM. Blockade was induced in a step-wise manner. Wash out of otilonium allowed a slow recovery of the current, also in discrete steps. 5. In experiments with recordings in the same cells of whole-cell IDMPP, Na+ currents (INa) and Ca2+ currents (ICa), 1 microM otilonium blocked 87% IDMPP, 7% INa and 13% ICa. 6. Otilonium inhibited the K(+)-evoked catecholamine secretory response of superfused bovine chromaffin cells with an IC50 of 10 microM, very close to the IC50 for blockade of K(+)-induced 45Ca2+ uptake and IBa. 7. Otilonium inhibited the secretory responses induced by 10 s pulses of 50 microM DMPP with an IC50 of 7.4 nM. Hexamethonium blocked the DMPP-evoked responses with an IC50 of 29.8 microM, 4,000 fold higher than that of otilonium. 8. In conclusion, otilonium is a potent blocker of nicotinic AChR-mediated responses. The drugs also blocked various subtypes of neuronal voltage-dependent Ca2+ channels at a considerably lower potency. Na+ channels were unaffected by

  19. Sodium and calcium channels in bovine chromaffin cells.

    PubMed

    Fenwick, E M; Marty, A; Neher, E

    1982-10-01

    1. Inward currents in chromaffin cells were studied with the patch-clamp technique (Hamill, Marty, Neher, Sakmann & Sigworth, 1981). The intracellular solution contained 120 mM-Cs(+) and 20 mM-tetraethylammonium (TEA(+)). Na(+) currents were studied after blockade of Ca(2+) channels with 1 mM-Co(2+) applied externally. Ca(2+) currents were recorded after eliminating Na(+) currents with tetrodotoxin (TTX). The current recordings were obtained in cell-attached, outside-out and whole-cell recording configurations (Hamill et al. 1981).2. Single channel measurements gave an elementary current amplitude of 1 pA at -10 mV for Na(+) channels. This amplitude increased with hyperpolarization between -10 and -40 mV, but did not vary significantly between -40 and -70 mV.3. The mean Na(+) channel open time was 1 ms at -30 mV. This open time decreased both with depolarization and hyperpolarization. Its value was close to the time constant of inactivation, tau(h), above -20 mV.4. Ensemble fluctuation analysis of Na(+) currents gave results consistent with those of single channel measurements. Noise power spectra obtained between -35 mV and 0 mV could be fitted with a single Lorentzian. A range of Na(+) channel densities of 1.5-10 channels per mum(2) was calculated.5. Cell-attached single Ca(2+) channel recordings were obtained in isotonic BaCl(2) solution. The single channel amplitude was 0.9 pA at -5 mV, and it became smaller for positive potential values.6. At -5 mV, single Ba(2+) currents appeared as bursts of 1.9 ms mean duration containing on the average 0.6 short gaps. The burst duration was larger at positive potentials.7. Ensemble fluctuation analysis of Ca(2+) channels was performed on whole-cell recordings in external solutions containing isotonic BaCl(2) or external Ca(2+) (Ca(o)) concentrations of 1 and 5 mM. The unit amplitude calculated in the former case was similar to that obtained in single channel measurements.8. Noise power spectra of Ca(2+) or Ba(2+) currents

  20. Stimulation of secretion from bovine adrenal chromaffin cells by microsecond bursts of therapeutic levels of ultrasound.

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, I M; Kinnick, R R; Greenleaf, J F; Fernandez, J M

    1996-01-01

    1. In this study the secretory response of individual bovine adrenal chromaffin cells was monitored using amperometric carbon-fibre microelectrodes. Cells were stimulated to secrete by exposure to 20-100 microseconds long tonebursts of ultrasound (2-4 x 10(5) Pa; peak pressure at 1 MHz). 2. Three types of secretory responses were observed: an almost instantaneous response, a delayed release of catecholamines, or a series of 'burst-like' secretory bouts. 3. Fura-2 measurements of intracellular Ca2+ concentrations showed that the release of catecholamines was accompanied by an increase in the intracellular Ca2+ concentration. In the absence of extracellular Ca2+, secretory responses were not evoked showing that Ca2+ entry was necessary to elicit catecholamine release. Images Figure 1 PMID:8730600

  1. Identification and characterization of an angiotensin II receptor on cultured bovine adrenal chromaffin cells

    SciTech Connect

    Boyd, V.L.

    1987-01-01

    The presence of an angiotensin II receptor on cultured bovine adrenal chromaffin cells was demonstrated by radioligand binding. A single class of finding sites with a K/sub D/ of 0.7 nM was characterized. The use of radioligands also allows the localization of receptors by autoradiography. Autoradiography demonstrated that approximately 50% of the isolated cells bound angiotensin II. It was of interest to see if angiotensin II bound to a cell that possessed a certain phenotype. In order to evaluate this possibility a technique was developed that combined autoradiography and immunocytochemistry. Results indicated that angiotensin II binding sites were not localized preferentially to either norepinephrine or epinephrine cells. Binding of angiotensin II was associated with the release of intracellular catecholamine stores. Cells were pre-loaded with /sup 3/H-norepinephrine and secretion was monitored by following radioactivity released into the supernatant. Alternatively, release of endogenous catecholamines was determined by fluorometric assay.

  2. Physiological stimuli evoke two forms of endocytosis in bovine chromaffin cells

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Shyue-An; Smith, Corey

    2001-01-01

    Exocytosis and endocytosis were measured following single, or trains of, simulated action potentials (sAP) in bovine adrenal chromaffin cells. Catecholamine secretion was measured by oxidative amperometry and cell membrane turnover was measured by voltage clamp cell capacitance measurements. The sAPs evoked inward Na+ and Ca2+ currents that were statistically identical to those evoked by native action potential waveforms. On average, a single secretory granule underwent fusion following sAP stimulation. An equivalent amount of membrane was then quickly internalised (τ = 560 ms). Stimulation with sAP trains revealed a biphasic relationship between cell firing rate and endocytic activity. At basal stimulus frequencies (single to 0.5 Hz) cells exhibited a robust membrane internalisation that then diminished as firing increased to intermediate levels (1.9 and 6 Hz). However at the higher stimulation rates (10 and 16 Hz) endocytic activity rebounded and was again able to effectively maintain cell surface near pre-stimulus levels. Treatment with cyclosporin A and FK506, inhibitors of the phosphatase calcineurin, left endocytosis characteristics unaltered at the lower basal stimulus levels, but blocked the resurgence in endocytosis seen in control cells at higher sAP frequencies. Based on these findings we propose that, under physiological electrical stimulation, chromaffin cells internalise membrane via two distinct pathways that are separable. One is prevalent at basal stimulus frequencies, is lessened with increased firing, and is insensitive to cyclosporin A and FK506. A second endocytic form is activated by increased firing frequencies, and is selectively blocked by cyclosporin A and FK506. PMID:11744761

  3. Veratridine-induced oscillations of cytosolic calcium and membrane potential in bovine chromaffin cells.

    PubMed Central

    López, M G; Artalejo, A R; García, A G; Neher, E; García-Sancho, J

    1995-01-01

    1. Veratridine (VTD) induced large oscillations of the cytosolic Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) and the membrane potential (Vm) in otherwise silent bovine chromaffin cells loaded with fura-2. 2. Depletion of the intracellular Ca2+ stores by thapsigargin or ryanodine did not affect these oscillations. Caffeine had a complex effect, decreasing them in cells with high activity but increasing them in cells with low activity. 3. The [Ca2+]i oscillations required extracellular Ca2+ and Na+ and were blocked by Ni2+ or tetrodotoxin. They were antagonized by high external concentrations of Mg2+ and/or Ca2+. 4. The oscillations of Vm had three phases: (i) slow depolarization (20 mV in 10-40 s); (ii) further fast depolarization (30 mV in 1 s); and (iii) rapid (5 s) repolarization. [Ca2+]i decreased during (i), increased quickly during (ii) with a 1 s delay with regard to the peak depolarization, and decreased during (iii). 5. Slight depolarizations increased the frequency of the oscillations whereas large depolarizations decreased it. 6. The Ca(2+)-dependent K+ channel blocker apamin increased the duration and decreased the frequency of the oscillations. 7. We propose the following mechanism for the oscillations: (i) the membrane depolarizes slowly by a decrease of potassium conductance (gK), perhaps due to a gradual decrease of [Ca2+]i; (ii) the threshold for activation of Na+ channels (decreased by VTD) is reached, producing further depolarization and recruiting Ca2+ channels, and inactivation of both Ca2+ and VTD-poisoned Na+ channels is slow; and (iii) gK increases, aided by activation of Ca(2+)-dependent K+ channels by the increased [Ca2+]i, and the membrane repolarizes. The contribution of the Na+ channels seems essential for the generation of the oscillations. 8. Bovine chromaffin cells have the machinery required for [Ca2+]i oscillations even though the more physiological stimulus tested here (high K+, field electrical stimulation, nicotinic or muscarinic agonists

  4. Stimulation of catecholamine synthesis through unique estrogen receptors in the bovine adrenomedullary plasma membrane by 17{beta}-estradiol

    SciTech Connect

    Yanagihara, Nobuyuki . E-mail: yanagin@med.uoeh-u.ac.jp; Liu, Minhui; Toyohira, Yumiko; Tsutsui, Masato; Ueno, Susumu; Shinohara, Yuko; Takahashi, Kojiro; Tanaka, Kazumi

    2006-01-13

    Incubation of cultured bovine adrenal medullary cells with 17{beta}-estradiol (E{sub 2}) (0.3-100 nM) or membrane-impermeable E{sub 2}-bovine serum albumin (100 nM) acutely increased {sup 14}C-catecholamine synthesis from [{sup 14}C]tyrosine. The stimulatory effect of E{sub 2} was not inhibited by ICI182,780, a nuclear estrogen receptor inhibitor. E{sub 2} also increased tyrosine hydroxylase activity and p44/42MAPK phosphorylation, the former of which was attenuated by U0126, an inhibitor of p44/42MAPK kinase. The plasma membrane isolated from the gland showed two classes of specific binding sites of [{sup 3}H]E{sub 2} with apparent K {sub d}s of 3.2 and 106 nM, and B {sub max}s of 0.44 and 8.5 pmol/mg protein, respectively. The high-affinity binding of [{sup 3}H]E{sub 2} was most strongly inhibited by E{sub 2} and phytoestrogens, and to lesser extents by other steroid hormones, while it was enhanced by ICI182,780 and environmental estrogenic pollutants. These findings suggest that E{sub 2} acutely stimulates catecholamine synthesis via activation of p44/42MAPK through unique estrogen receptors in the plasma membrane of bovine adrenal medulla.

  5. Kinetics of the secretory response in bovine chromaffin cells following flash photolysis of caged Ca2+.

    PubMed Central

    Heinemann, C; Chow, R H; Neher, E; Zucker, R S

    1994-01-01

    The kinetics of the secretory response in bovine chromaffin cells following flash photolysis of caged Ca2+ were studied by capacitance (Cm) measurements with millisecond time resolution. After elevation of the internal Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i), Cm rises rapidly with one or more exponentials. The time constant of the fastest component decreases for higher [Ca2+]i (range 3-600 microM) over three orders of magnitude before it saturates at approximately 1 ms. The corresponding maximal rates of secretion can be as fast as 100,000 fF/s or 40,000 vesicles/s. There is a Ca(2+)-dependent delay before Cm rises, which may reflect the kinetics of multiple Ca2+ ions binding to the secretory apparatus. The initial rise in Cm is described by models containing a sequence of two to four single Ca(2+)-binding steps followed by a rate-limiting exocytosis step. The predicted Ca2+ dissociation constant (Kd) of a single Ca(2+)-binding site is between 7 and 21 microM. At [Ca2+]i > 30 microM clear indications of a fast endocytotic process complicate the analysis of the secretory response. PMID:7696493

  6. Brain RVD-haemopressin, a haemoglobin-derived peptide, inhibits bombesin-induced central activation of adrenomedullary outflow in the rat

    PubMed Central

    Tanaka, Kenjiro; Shimizu, Takahiro; Yanagita, Toshihiko; Nemoto, Takayuki; Nakamura, Kumiko; Taniuchi, Keisuke; Dimitriadis, Fotios; Yokotani, Kunihiko; Saito, Motoaki

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Haemopressin and RVD-haemopressin, derived from the haemoglobin α-chain, are bioactive peptides found in brain and are ligands for cannabinoid CB1 receptors. Activation of brain CB1 receptors inhibited the secretion of adrenal catecholamines (noradrenaline and adrenaline) induced by i.c.v. bombesin in the rat. Here, we investigated the effects of two haemoglobin-derived peptides on this bombesin-induced response EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH Anaesthetised male Wistar rats were pretreated with either haemoglobin-derived peptide, given i.c.v., 30 min before i.c.v. bombesin and plasma catecholamines were subsequently measured electrochemically after HPLC. Direct effects of bombesin on secretion of adrenal catecholamines were examined using bovine adrenal chromaffin cells. Furthermore, activation of haemoglobin α-positive spinally projecting neurons in the rat hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN, a regulatory centre of central adrenomedullary outflow) after i.c.v. bombesin was assessed by immunohistochemical techniques. KEY RESULTS Bombesin given i.c.v. dose-dependently elevated plasma catecholamines whereas incubation with bombesin had no effect on spontaneous and nicotine-induced secretion of catecholamines from chromaffin cells. The bombesin-induced increase in catecholamines was inhibited by pretreatment with i.c.v. RVD-haemopressin (CB1 receptor agonist) but not after pretreatment with haemopressin (CB1 receptor inverse agonist). Bombesin activated haemoglobin α-positive spinally projecting neurons in the PVN. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS The haemoglobin-derived peptide RVD-haemopressin in the brain plays an inhibitory role in bombesin-induced activation of central adrenomedullary outflow via brain CB1 receptors in the rat. These findings provide basic information for the therapeutic use of haemoglobin-derived peptides in the modulation of central adrenomedullary outflow. PMID:24138638

  7. Subcellular compartmentalization of 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium with catecholamines in adrenal medullary chromaffin vesicles may explain the lack of toxicity to adrenal chromaffin cells

    SciTech Connect

    Reinhard, J.F. Jr.; Diliberto, E.J. Jr.; Viveros, O.H.; Daniels, A.J.

    1987-11-01

    Cultures of bovine adrenomedullary chromaffin cells accumulated 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP/sup +/) in a time- and concentration-dependent manner by a process that was prevented by desmethylimipramine. The subcellular localization of the incorporated (methyl-/sup 3/H)MPP/sup +/ was examined by differential centrifugation and sucrose density gradient fractionation and was found to be predominantly colocalized with catecholamines in chromaffin vesicles, and negligible amounts were detected within the mitochondrial fraction. When chromaffin cell membranes were made permeable with the detergent digitonin the absence of calcium, there was no increase in the release of (/sup 3/H)MPP/sup +/, indicating that there is negligible accumulation of the neurotoxin in the cytosol. Simultaneous exposure to digitonin and calcium induced cosecretion of MPP/sup +/ and catecholamines. Stimulation of the cells with nicotine released both catecholamines and MPP/sup +/ at identical rates and percentages of cellular content in a calcium-dependent manner. Last, when cells were incubated with MPP/sup +/ in the presence of tetrabenazine (an inhibitor of vesicular uptake), the chromaffin cell toxicity of MPP/sup +/ was potentiated. The authors submit that the ability of the chromaffin cells to take up and store MPP/sup +/ in the chromaffin vesicle prevents the toxin's interaction with other structures and, thus, prevents cell damage. As an extension of this hypothesis, the relative resistance of some brain monoaminergic neurons to the toxic actions of 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine may result from the subcellular sequestration of MPP/sup +/ in the storage vesicle.

  8. Modulation of secretion by dopamine involves decreases in calcium and nicotinic currents in bovine chromaffin cells.

    PubMed Central

    Sontag, J M; Sanderson, P; Klepper, M; Aunis, D; Takeda, K; Bader, M F

    1990-01-01

    1. Catecholamine secretion from cultured bovine adrenal chromaffin cells was decreased in a dose-dependent manner by the D2 dopamine agonists apomorphine and LY 17 1555. 2. 45Ca2+ uptake was similarly inhibited and whole-cell Ca2+ currents were reduced by apomorphine. 3. These inhibitory effects of D2 agonists depended on the secretagogue used, being much more pronounced for nicotine-evoked responses compared to high K+ stimulation, indicating another possible site of action of apomorphine up-stream of Ca2+ entry. 4. Inhibition by apomorphine of nicotine-evoked responses could not be explained by competitive antagonism against nicotine or DMPP (1,1-dimethyl-4-phenyl-piperazinium iodide). 5. Apomorphine caused reductions of inward whole-cell nicotinic current evoked by ACh and nicotine. 6. Inhibition of nicotine-evoked secretion and 22Na+ influx by apomorphine were not affected by tetrodotoxin, and voltage-dependent, whole-cell Na+ currents were unaltered by apomorphine. 7. No evidence was obtained for increases in K+ conductance by apomorphine. 8. Action potentials recorded in whole-cell current clamp were blocked by apomorphine when they were triggered by nicotinic depolarization but not when they were elicited by direct electrical stimulation. 9. Inclusion of GDP-beta-S in the pipette internal solution did not affect apomorphine-dependent inhibition of nicotinic-evoked responses, while the decrease in whole-cell Ca2+ current induced by apomorphine was completely inhibited in the presence of GDP-beta-S. 10. Increases in cyclic AMP caused by cholera toxin and forskolin did not change the apomorphine-dependent inhibitory effects on nicotine-evoked secretion, indicating that changes in cyclic AMP levels caused by dopamine receptor stimulation are probably not involved. PMID:2170637

  9. NP04634 prevents cell damage caused by calcium overload and mitochondrial disruption in bovine chromaffin cells.

    PubMed

    Valero, Teresa; del Barrio, Laura; Egea, Javier; Cañas, Noelia; Martínez, Ana; García, Antonio G; Villarroya, Mercedes; López, Manuela G

    2009-04-01

    Marine sponges are becoming a rich source of potential new medicines. NP04634 is a synthetic derivative of 11,19 dideoxyfistularin, a natural product of the Mediterranean sponge Aplysina cavernicola. We report the cytoprotective effects of this new compound in isolated bovine chromaffin cells exposed to cytotoxic stimuli that have been related to neuronal cell death, i.e. Ca(2+) overload and mitochondrial dysfunction. Cell death was achieved by: (i) causing Ca(2+) overload through voltage-dependent calcium channels by exposing the cells to 30 mM K(+), 5 mM Ca(2+) plus 0.3 microM FPL64176 (an L-type Ca(2+)-channel activator); (ii) incubating the cells with veratridine, causing cytosolic Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)](c)) oscillations and mitochondrial disruption; and (iii) blocking mitochondrial complexes I and V using a combination of 30 microM rotenone and 10 microM oligomycin. At 10 microM, NP04634 caused significant protection against 30K(+)/5Ca(2+)/FPL-induced toxicity. NP04634 caused a concentration-dependent reduction in [Ca(2+)](c) induced by 70 mM K(+) in cells loaded with Fluo-4; maximum blockade was 67% at 30 microM. Veratridine caused continuous [Ca(2+)](c) oscillations that translated into 43.4+/-2% cell death. In this model, NP04634 caused 42% and 67% protection at 3 and 10 microM, respectively. NP04634 reduced [Ca(2+)](c) oscillations and mitochondrial depolarization caused by veratridine. NP04634 at 10 microM also protected against mitochondrial disruption caused by rotenone plus oligomycin. In conclusion, NP04634 is a novel compound of marine origin with cytoprotective properties that might have potential therapeutic implications under pathological circumstances involving Ca(2+) overload and mitochondrial disruption, such as in certain neurodegenerative diseases and/or stroke. PMID:19233161

  10. Direct visualization of secretion from single bovine adrenal chromaffin cells by laser-induced native fluorescence imaging microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Tong, W.; Yeung, E.S.

    1998-03-01

    Direct visualization of the secretion process of individual bovine adrenal chromaffin cells was achieved with laser-induced native fluorescence imaging microscopy. By monitoring the native fluorescence of catecholamines excited by the 275 nm laser line with an intensified charge-coupled-device (CCD) camera, we obtained good temporal and spatial resolution simultaneously without using additional fluorescent probes. Large variations were found among individual cells in terms of the amounts of catecholamines secreted and the rates of secretion. Different regions of a cell also behave differently during the secretion process. However, the degree of this local heterogeneity is smaller than in neurons and neuralgia. The influence of deep-ultraviolet (UV) laser excitation on cells is also discussed. This quantitative imaging technique provides a useful noninvasive approach for the study of dynamic cellular changes and the understanding of the molecular mechanisms of secretory processes. {copyright} {ital 1998} {ital Society for Applied Spectroscopy}

  11. Stimulatory actions of bioflavenoids on tyrosine uptake into cultured bovine adrenal chromaffin cells

    SciTech Connect

    Morita, K.; Hamano, S.; Oka, M.; Teraoka, K. )

    1990-09-28

    The effects of flavenoids on L-({sup 14}C)tyrosine uptake into cultured adrenal chromaffin cells were examined. Flavone markedly stimulated tyrosine uptake into these cells in a manner dependent on its concentration. Apigenin also caused a moderate stimulatory action, but quercetin had no significant effect on the uptake. Flavone also stimulated the uptake of histidine, but did not affect the uptake of serine, lysine, or glutamic acid. These results are considered to propose the possibility that flavonoids may be able to stimulate the precursor uptake into the cells, resulting in an enhancement of the biogenic amine production.

  12. Localized secretion of ATP and opioids revealed through single Ca2+ channel modulation in bovine chromaffin cells.

    PubMed

    Carabelli, V; Carra, I; Carbone, E

    1998-06-01

    In bovine chromaffin cells, the Ca2+ channels involved in exocytosis are effectively inhibited by ATP and opioids that are coreleased with catecholamines during cell activity. This autocrine loop causes a delay in Ca2+ channel activation that is quickly removed by preceding depolarizations. Changes in Ca2+ channel gating by secreted products thus make it possible to correlate Ca2+ channel activity to secretory events. Here, using cell-attached patch recordings, we found a remarkable correlation between delayed Ca2+ channel openings and neurotransmitter secretion induced by either local or whole-cell Ba2+ stimulation. The action is specific for N- and P/Q-type channels and largely prevented by PTX and mixtures of purinergic and opioid receptor antagonists. Overall, our data provide evidence that exocytosis, viewed through the autocrine inhibition of non-L-type channels, is detectable in membrane patches of approximately 1 microm2 distributed over 30%-40% of the total cell surface, while Ca2+ channels and autoreceptors are uniformly distributed over most of the cell membrane. PMID:9655512

  13. Brevenal inhibits pacific ciguatoxin-1B-induced neurosecretion from bovine chromaffin cells.

    PubMed

    Mattei, César; Wen, Peter J; Nguyen-Huu, Truong D; Alvarez, Martha; Benoit, Evelyne; Bourdelais, Andrea J; Lewis, Richard J; Baden, Daniel G; Molgó, Jordi; Meunier, Frédéric A

    2008-01-01

    Ciguatoxins and brevetoxins are neurotoxic cyclic polyether compounds produced by dinoflagellates, which are responsible for ciguatera and neurotoxic shellfish poisoning (NSP) respectively. Recently, brevenal, a natural compound was found to specifically inhibit brevetoxin action and to have a beneficial effect in NSP. Considering that brevetoxin and ciguatoxin specifically activate voltage-sensitive Na+ channels through the same binding site, brevenal has therefore a good potential for the treatment of ciguatera. Pacific ciguatoxin-1B (P-CTX-1B) activates voltage-sensitive Na+ channels and promotes an increase in neurotransmitter release believed to underpin the symptoms associated with ciguatera. However, the mechanism through which slow Na+ influx promotes neurosecretion is not fully understood. In the present study, we used chromaffin cells as a model to reconstitute the sequence of events culminating in ciguatoxin-evoked neurosecretion. We show that P-CTX-1B induces a tetrodotoxin-sensitive rise in intracellular Na+, closely followed by an increase in cytosolic Ca2+ responsible for promoting SNARE-dependent catecholamine secretion. Our results reveal that brevenal and beta-naphtoyl-brevetoxin prevent P-CTX-1B secretagogue activity without affecting nicotine or barium-induced catecholamine secretion. Brevenal is therefore a potent inhibitor of ciguatoxin-induced neurotoxic effect and a potential treatment for ciguatera. PMID:18941627

  14. Brevenal Inhibits Pacific Ciguatoxin-1B-Induced Neurosecretion from Bovine Chromaffin Cells

    PubMed Central

    Mattei, César; Alvarez, Martha; Benoit, Evelyne; Bourdelais, Andrea J.; Lewis, Richard J.; Baden, Daniel G.; Molgó, Jordi; Meunier, Frédéric A.

    2008-01-01

    Ciguatoxins and brevetoxins are neurotoxic cyclic polyether compounds produced by dinoflagellates, which are responsible for ciguatera and neurotoxic shellfish poisoning (NSP) respectively. Recently, brevenal, a natural compound was found to specifically inhibit brevetoxin action and to have a beneficial effect in NSP. Considering that brevetoxin and ciguatoxin specifically activate voltage-sensitive Na+ channels through the same binding site, brevenal has therefore a good potential for the treatment of ciguatera. Pacific ciguatoxin-1B (P-CTX-1B) activates voltage-sensitive Na+ channels and promotes an increase in neurotransmitter release believed to underpin the symptoms associated with ciguatera. However, the mechanism through which slow Na+ influx promotes neurosecretion is not fully understood. In the present study, we used chromaffin cells as a model to reconstitute the sequence of events culminating in ciguatoxin-evoked neurosecretion. We show that P-CTX-1B induces a tetrodotoxin-sensitive rise in intracellular Na+, closely followed by an increase in cytosolic Ca2+ responsible for promoting SNARE-dependent catecholamine secretion. Our results reveal that brevenal and β-naphtoyl-brevetoxin prevent P-CTX-1B secretagogue activity without affecting nicotine or barium-induced catecholamine secretion. Brevenal is therefore a potent inhibitor of ciguatoxin-induced neurotoxic effect and a potential treatment for ciguatera. PMID:18941627

  15. Trifluoperazine reduces inward ionic currents and secretion by separate mechanisms in bovine chromaffin cells.

    PubMed

    Clapham, D E; Neher, E

    1984-08-01

    Using patch-clamp techniques, excitation and secretion in chromaffin cells were studied by measurement of unitary inward currents and of stimulus-evoked increments in membrane capacitance. The effect of the calmodulin inhibitor trifluoperazine (TFP) on Na, Ca and acetylcholine-induced (ACh) currents as well as on capacitance increments was investigated. TFP in concentrations up to 10 microM had no effect on Na channel currents. TFP was a potent anticholinergic agent. TFP in concentrations of 100 nM-1 microM decreased net ACh-induced currents by a slow block or allosteric modification of the channel. The effect was only partially reversible. Recovery from desensitization was retarded in direct relation to [TFP]. At the single channel level, TFP was found to slightly shorten open times in 0.5 and 20 microM-ACh. As reported previously, desensitization can be modelled by at least two desensitized states, as reflected by the bursting and clustering behaviour of single channels. TFP shortened clusters mainly by reducing the number of bursts per cluster. Whole-cell Ca currents (ICa) were reduced in 10 microM-TFP from an average of 29 microA cm-2-13 microA cm-2. Changes in capacitance of 1-200 fF were elicited in controls by maximal activation of the Ca current. We interpreted these steps to be the summed result of many exocytotic vesicular fusion events. Capacitance steps depended on ICa and were absent when extracellular Ca was removed. Application of 10 microM-TFP inhibited capacitance steps. The block of capacitance steps by TFP was shown to be independent of the reduction of ACh and Ca inward ionic currents. We conclude that the prevention of exocytosis by TFP is not completely described by its inhibition of electrical excitability but also results from intracellular actions. PMID:6090644

  16. Role of [Na+]i and [Ca2+]i in nicotine-induced norepinephrine release from bovine adrenal chromaffin cells.

    PubMed

    Gerber, S H; Haunstetter, A; Krüger, C; Kaufmann, A; Nobiling, R; Haass, M

    1995-09-01

    Intracellular free sodium ([Na+]i) and calcium ([Ca2+]i) concentrations were determined by sodium-binding benzofuran isophthalate (SBFI) and fura 2 microfluorimetry, respectively, in bovine adrenal chromaffin cells (BCC). Validation of SBFI microfluorimetry by in vitro and in vivo calibration revealed a reliable assessment of [Na+]i within a range of 1-30 mM in single BCC. Nicotine (0.1-10 microM) induced concentration-dependent increases of both [Na+]i (from 3.3 +/- 0.1 to 25.6 +/- 0.4 mM, n = 76, P < 0.001) and [Ca2+]i (from 64 +/- 1 to 467 +/- 16 nM, n = 87, P < 0.001), which were accompanied by an increase in [3H]norepinephrine (NE) release. Consistent with an exocytotic release mechanism, nicotine-induced increments of [Ca2+]i and [3H]NE release were reduced under calcium-free conditions and by gadolinium chloride (40 microM), whereas [Na+]i was not affected. In contrast, a parallel attenuation of nicotine-evoked changes in [Na+]i, [Ca2+]i, and [3H]NE release was observed during reduction of the extracellular sodium concentration. The nicotine-evoked responses were neutralized by the nicotinic receptor antagonist hexamethonium (100 microM) but not by blockade of voltage-dependent sodium channels (1 microM tetrodotoxin). In conclusion, the nicotine-induced exocytotic release of [3H]NE is triggered by an increase in [Ca2+]i, which is facilitated by sodium influx through the nicotinic receptor ionophore. PMID:7573386

  17. Correlation between catecholamine secretion from bovine isolated chromaffin cells and [3H]-ouabain binding to plasma membranes

    PubMed Central

    Aunis, Dominique; García, Antonio G.

    1981-01-01

    1 Secretion of catecholamines (CA) evoked by ouabain, chlormadinone acetate (CMA), phenoxybenzamine (Pbz) and vanadate, four agents known to inhibit Na+, K+-dependent Mg2+-activated adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase) activity has been studied in suspensions of bovine isolated adrenal medullary cells. 2 Acetylcholine (ACh) evoked a 5 fold increase of the basal CA secretion from isolated cells suspended in oxygenated Krebs-bicarbonate solution kept at 27°C. Secretion was antagonized by Ca2+-deprivation or hexamethonium, indicating good functional viability of the cells. 3 Ouabain (10-7 to 10-4 M) evoked a progressive, dose-dependent release of CA from cell suspensions. Study of the time course of the secretory response for 2 h allowed the separation of two components in the secretory response at all doses studied: a slow initial component (0.011 pg/min CA) and a second faster component (0.032 pg/min CA). 4 CMA evoked a clear-cut CA secretory response. The ED50 for CMA was 10-4 M, as compared to 3 × 10-6 M for ouabain. Pbz and vanadate did not induce CA release. 5 [3H]-ouabain was taken up and bound to intact isolated cells by a non-saturable binding process. However, in semi-purified plasma membranes from bovine adrenal medulla a saturable specific [3H]-ouabain binding process was observed with a KD of 8.1 nM. Binding to the membranes was ATP-dependent and antagonized by K+. 6 [3H]-ouabain specific binding to membranes was antagonized by ouabain and CMA, but not by Pbz or vanadate; the ID50 for ouabain and CMA were 10-6 and 10-5 M respectively. 7 Ouabain partially inhibited, in a dose-dependent manner, Na+, K+-Mg2+ ATPase activity of the semi-purified plasma membranes. 8 The results demonstrate a good correlation between the ability of different drugs, known to inhibit ATPase activity, to displace [3H]-ouabain binding to adreno—medullary plasma membranes and their capacity to evoke a CA secretory response from isolated chromaffin cells. The data also suggest that

  18. Munc13-1 acts as a priming factor for large dense-core vesicles in bovine chromaffin cells

    PubMed Central

    Ashery, Uri; Varoqueaux, Frederique; Voets, Thomas; Betz, Andrea; Thakur, Pratima; Koch, Henriette; Neher, Erwin; Brose, Nils; Rettig, Jens

    2000-01-01

    In chromaffin cells the number of large dense-core vesicles (LDCVs) which can be released by brief, intense stimuli represents only a small fraction of the ‘morphologically docked’ vesicles at the plasma membrane. Recently, it was shown that Munc13-1 is essential for a post-docking step of synaptic vesicle fusion. To investigate the role of Munc13-1 in LDCV exocytosis, we overexpressed Munc13-1 in chromaffin cells and stimulated secretion by flash photolysis of caged calcium. Both components of the exocytotic burst, which represent the fusion of release-competent vesicles, were increased by a factor of three. The sustained component, which represents vesicle maturation and subsequent fusion, was increased by the same factor. The response to a second flash, however, was greatly reduced, indicating a depletion of release-competent vesicles. Since there was no apparent change in the number of docked vesicles, we conclude that Munc13-1 acts as a priming factor by accelerating the rate constant of vesicle transfer from a pool of docked, but unprimed vesicles to a pool of release-competent, primed vesicles. PMID:10899113

  19. Intrinsic GABAergic system of adrenal chromaffin cells.

    PubMed Central

    Kataoka, Y; Gutman, Y; Guidotti, A; Panula, P; Wroblewski, J; Cosenza-Murphy, D; Wu, J Y; Costa, E

    1984-01-01

    Histochemical and biochemical studies demonstrate that gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), glutamic acid decarboxylase (EC 4.1.1.15), and GABA aminotransferase (EC 2.6.1.19) are present in bovine adrenal chromaffin cells. Moreover, [3H]GABA can be taken up and stored by primary cultures of adrenal chromaffin cells. Nicotinic receptor stimulation or KCl depolarization releases the [3H]GABA taken up by these cell cultures. GABA and benzodiazepine recognition sites located in chromaffin cells interact with each other with modalities similar to those described for GABA and benzodiazepine recognition sites located in synaptic membranes prepared from brain tissue. Bicuculline facilitates the release of catecholamine from chromaffin cells induced by nicotinic receptor stimulation but it fails to influence the release of catecholamine evoked by K+ depolarization. Since the GABA-benzodiazepine receptor system appears to modulate nicotinic receptor function, it is suggested that GABA transmission might participate in modulating responsiveness of chromaffin cells to incoming cholinergic stimuli. Images PMID:6328506

  20. Dual effect of digitalis glycosides on norepinephrine release from human atrial tissue and bovine adrenal chromaffin cells: differential dependence on [Na+]i and [Ca2+]i.

    PubMed

    Haass, M; Serf, C; Gerber, S H; Krüger, C; Haunstetter, A; Vahl, C F; Nobiling, R; Kübler, W

    1997-06-01

    It was the aim of the present study (1) to characterize the influence of Na+/K(+)-ATPase inhibition by the digitalis glycoside ouabain on both spontaneous and nicotine-evoked norepinephrine release from the human heart; and (2) to further investigate the role of glycoside-induced changes in [Na+]i and [Ca2+]i (determined by microfluorimetry) for catecholamine release. The latter experiments were performed in bovine adrenal medullary chromaffin cells (BCC), an established cell culture model for sympathetic nerves. Ouabain (1-1000 mumol/l) exerted a dual effect on norepinephrine release (determined by HPLC) from incubated human atrial tissue: (I) Ouabain induced a concentration-dependent increase in norepinephrine release, that was calcium-independent and almost completely prevented by blockade of the uptake1-carrier by desipramine (1 mumol/l). The characteristics of this release process are consistent with a non-exocytotic mechanism. (II) In addition, ouabain augmented the nicotine-evoked (1-100 mumol/l) calcium-dependent norepinephrine release, which can be considered to be exocytotic. Na+/K(+)-ATPase inhibition also reduced the threshold concentration of nicotine from 10 to 1 mumol/l and it delayed the rapid tachyphylaxis of its norepinephrine releasing effect in human atrial tissue. In BCC, ouabain increased [Na+]i, [Ca2+]i and [3H]-norepinephrine release in parallel. Under calcium-free conditions, not only the ouabain-induced increase in [Na+]i, but also [3H]-norepinephrine release were enhanced. The ouabain-induced [3H]-norepinephrine release was always closely related to changes in [Na+]i, indicating a key role of [Na+]i for this calcium-independent non-exocytotic norepinephrine release. In addition, pretreatment with ouabain (1 mmol/l) augmented the nicotine-evoked (0.1-10 mumol/l) increments in [Na+]i, [Ca2+]i and [3H]-norepinephrine release. As nicotine-induced norepinephrine release depends on an increase in both [Na+]i and [Ca2+]i, these findings are

  1. Nicotine-induced exocytotic norepinephrine release in guinea-pig heart, human atrium and bovine adrenal chromaffin cells: modulation by single components of ischaemia.

    PubMed

    Krüger, C; Haunstetter, A; Gerber, S; Serf, C; Kaufmann, A; Kübler, W; Haass, M

    1995-08-01

    The influence of single components of myocardial ischaemia, such as anoxia, substrate withdrawal, hyperkalemia and extracellular acidosis, on nicotine-induced norepinephrine (NE) release was investigated in the isolated perfused guinea-pig heart, in incubated human atrial tissue and in cultured bovine adrenal chromaffin cells (BCC). In normoxia, nicotine (1-1000 mumol/l) evoked a concentration-dependent release of NE (determined by high pressure liquid chromatography and electrochemical detection) from guinea-pig heart and human atrium. In contrast to selective anoxia (Po2 < 5 mmHg) or glucose withdrawal, respectively, anoxia in combination with glucose withdrawal (5-40 min) markedly potentiated nicotine-induced NE release both in guinea-pig heart and human atrium. The sensitization of cardiac sympathetic nerve endings to nicotine was characterized by a lower threshold concentration and an approximate two-fold increase of maximum NE release, peaking after 10 min of anoxia and glucose withdrawal. Cyanide intoxication (1 mmol/l) combined with glucose withdrawal resulted in a similar increase of nicotine-induced sympathetic transmitter release both in guinea-pig heart and human atrium. In contrast, the nicotine-induced (10 mumol/l) NE overflow was only slightly potentiated by 10 min of global ischaemia in guinea-pig heart. Both hyperkalemia ([K+] 16 mmol/l) and acidosis (pH 6.8-6.0) distinctly attenuated the stimulatory effect of nicotine in guinea-pig heart and human atrium under normoxic conditions. Consistent with an exocytotic release mechanism, NE release was dependent on the presence of extracellular calcium under all conditions tested. Furthermore, NE overflow from guinea-pig heart was accompanied by a release of the exocytosis marker neuropeptide Y (NPY; determined by radioimmunoassay). In BCC, nicotine (1-10 mumol/l) evoked a release of NE and NPY and a transient rise of [Ca2+]i (determined with fura-2) during normoxia which were both dependent on the

  2. Nitric oxide inhibits neuroendocrine CaV1 L-channel gating via cGMP-dependent protein kinase in cell-attached patches of bovine chromaffin cells

    PubMed Central

    Carabelli, Valentina; D'Ascenzo, Marcello; Carbone, Emilio; Grassi, Claudio

    2002-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) regulates the release of catecholamines from the adrenal medulla but the molecular targets of its action are not yet well identified. Here we show that the NO donor sodium nitroprusside (SNP, 200 μM) causes a marked depression of the single CaV1 L-channel activity in cell-attached patches of bovine chromaffin cells. SNP action was complete within 3-5 min of cell superfusion. In multichannel patches the open probability (NPo) decreased by ∼60 % between 0 and +20 mV. Averaged currents over a number of traces were proportionally reduced and showed no drastic changes to their time course. In single-channel patches the open probability (Po) at +10 mV decreased by the same amount as that of multichannel patches (∼61 %). Such a reduction was mainly associated with an increased probability of null sweeps and a prolongation of mean shut times, while first latency, mean open time and single-channel conductance were not significantly affected. Addition of the NO scavenger carboxy-PTIO or cell treatment with the guanylate cyclase inhibitor ODQ prevented the SNP-induced inhibition. 8-Bromo-cyclicGMP (8-Br-cGMP; 400 μM) mimicked the action of the NO donor and the protein kinase G blocker KT-5823 prevented this effect. The depressive action of SNP was preserved after blocking the cAMP-dependent up-regulatory pathway with the protein kinase A inhibitor H89. Similarly, the inhibitory action of 8-Br-cGMP proceeded regardless of the elevation of cAMP levels, suggesting that cGMP/PKG and cAMP/PKA act independently on L-channel gating. The inhibitory action of 8-Br-cGMP was also independent of the G protein-induced inhibition of L-channels mediated by purinergic and opiodergic autoreceptors. Since Ca2+ channels contribute critically to both the local production of NO and catecholamine release, the NO/PKG-mediated inhibition of neuroendocrine L-channels described here may represent an important autocrine signalling mechanism for controlling the rate of

  3. Direct autocrine inhibition and cAMP-dependent potentiation of single L-type Ca2+ channels in bovine chromaffin cells.

    PubMed

    Carabelli, V; Hernández-Guijo, J M; Baldelli, P; Carbone, E

    2001-04-01

    Using the cell-attached recording configuration, we found that in adult bovine chromaffin cells there exists a direct membrane-delimited inhibition of single Bay K-modified L-channels mediated by opioids and ATP locally released in the recording pipette. This autocrine modulation is mediated by pertussis toxin (PTX)-sensitive G-proteins and causes a 50 % decrease of the open channel probability (Po) and an equivalent percentage increase of null sweeps at +10 mV with no changes to the activation kinetics, single channel conductance and mean open time. The decrease in Po is mainly due to an increase in the occurrence and duration of slow closed times (> 40 ms). Addition of purinergic and opioidergic antagonists (suramin and naloxone) or cell pre-treatment with PTX removes the inhibition while addition of ATP and opioids inside the pipette, but not outside, mimics the effect. Strong pre-pulses (+150 mV, 280 ms) followed by short repolarizations are unable to remove the inhibition at test potential (+10 mV). Increasing the level of cAMP by either direct application of 8-(4-chlorophenylthio)-cAMP (8-CPT-cAMP) or mixtures of forskolin and 1-methyl-3-isobutylxanthine (IBMX) potentiates the activity of L-channels by increasing the mean open time and decreasing the mean closed time and percentage of null sweeps. The cAMP-induced potentiation occurs regardless of whether the G-protein-mediated inhibition is activated by ATP and opioids or inactivated by PTX. Protein kinase inhibitors (H7 and H89) prevent the effects of cAMP without altering the basal autocrine modulation associated with PTX-sensitive G-proteins. Our results provide new evidence for the coexistence of two distinct modulations that may converge on the same neuroendocrine L-channel: a direct G-protein-dependent inhibition and a cAMP-mediated potentiation, which may work in combination to regulate Ca2+ entry during neurosecretion. PMID:11283226

  4. Nitric oxide inhibits neuroendocrine Ca(V)1 L-channel gating via cGMP-dependent protein kinase in cell-attached patches of bovine chromaffin cells.

    PubMed

    Carabelli, Valentina; D'Ascenzo, Marcello; Carbone, Emilio; Grassi, Claudio

    2002-06-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) regulates the release of catecholamines from the adrenal medulla but the molecular targets of its action are not yet well identified. Here we show that the NO donor sodium nitroprusside (SNP, 200 microM) causes a marked depression of the single Ca(V)1 L-channel activity in cell-attached patches of bovine chromaffin cells. SNP action was complete within 3-5 min of cell superfusion. In multichannel patches the open probability (NP(o)) decreased by approximately 60 % between 0 and +20 mV. Averaged currents over a number of traces were proportionally reduced and showed no drastic changes to their time course. In single-channel patches the open probability (P(o)) at +10 mV decreased by the same amount as that of multichannel patches (approximately 61 %). Such a reduction was mainly associated with an increased probability of null sweeps and a prolongation of mean shut times, while first latency, mean open time and single-channel conductance were not significantly affected. Addition of the NO scavenger carboxy-PTIO or cell treatment with the guanylate cyclase inhibitor ODQ prevented the SNP-induced inhibition. 8-Bromo-cyclicGMP (8-Br-cGMP; 400 microM) mimicked the action of the NO donor and the protein kinase G blocker KT-5823 prevented this effect. The depressive action of SNP was preserved after blocking the cAMP-dependent up-regulatory pathway with the protein kinase A inhibitor H89. Similarly, the inhibitory action of 8-Br-cGMP proceeded regardless of the elevation of cAMP levels, suggesting that cGMP/PKG and cAMP/PKA act independently on L-channel gating. The inhibitory action of 8-Br-cGMP was also independent of the G protein-induced inhibition of L-channels mediated by purinergic and opiodergic autoreceptors. Since Ca(2+) channels contribute critically to both the local production of NO and catecholamine release, the NO/PKG-mediated inhibition of neuroendocrine L-channels described here may represent an important autocrine signalling mechanism

  5. Direct autocrine inhibition and cAMP-dependent potentiation of single L-type Ca2+ channels in bovine chromaffin cells

    PubMed Central

    Carabelli, Valentina; Hernández-Guijo, Jesús M; Baldelli, Pietro; Carbone, Emilio

    2001-01-01

    Using the cell-attached recording configuration, we found that in adult bovine chromaffin cells there exists a direct membrane-delimited inhibition of single Bay K-modified L-channels mediated by opioids and ATP locally released in the recording pipette. This autocrine modulation is mediated by pertussis toxin (PTX)-sensitive G-proteins and causes a 50 % decrease of the open channel probability (Po) and an equivalent percentage increase of null sweeps at +10 mV with no changes to the activation kinetics, single channel conductance and mean open time. The decrease in Po is mainly due to an increase in the occurrence and duration of slow closed times (> 40 ms). Addition of purinergic and opioidergic antagonists (suramin and naloxone) or cell pre-treatment with PTX removes the inhibition while addition of ATP and opioids inside the pipette, but not outside, mimics the effect. Strong pre-pulses (+150 mV, 280 ms) followed by short repolarizations are unable to remove the inhibition at test potential (+10 mV). Increasing the level of cAMP by either direct application of 8-(4-chlorophenylthio)-cAMP (8-CPT-cAMP) or mixtures of forskolin and 1-methyl-3-isobutylxanthine (IBMX) potentiates the activity of L-channels by increasing the mean open time and decreasing the mean closed time and percentage of null sweeps. The cAMP-induced potentiation occurs regardless of whether the G-protein-mediated inhibition is activated by ATP and opioids or inactivated by PTX. Protein kinase inhibitors (H7 and H89) prevent the effects of cAMP without altering the basal autocrine modulation associated with PTX-sensitive G-proteins. Our results provide new evidence for the coexistence of two distinct modulations that may converge on the same neuroendocrine L-channel: a direct G-protein-dependent inhibition and a cAMP-mediated potentiation, which may work in combination to regulate Ca2+ entry during neurosecretion. PMID:11283226

  6. Nonreutilizaton of adrenal chromaffin granule membranes following secretion

    SciTech Connect

    Nobiletti, J.B.

    1985-01-01

    The intracellular postexocytotic fate of the adrenal chromaffin granule membrane (reutilization vs. nonreutilization) was addressed through two experimental approaches. First, (/sup 3/H) leucine pulse-chase labeling experiments were conducted in two systems - the isolated retrograde perfused cat adrenal gland and cultured bovine adrenal chromaffin cells to compare chromaffin granule soluble dopamine-B-hydroxylase (DBH) turnover (marker for granule soluble content turnover) to that of membrane-bound DBH (marker for granule membrane turnover). Experiments in cat adrenal glands showed that at all chase periods the granule distribution of radiolabeled DBH was in agreement with the DBH activity distribution (73% membrane-bound/27% soluble) - a result consistent with parallel turnover of soluble and membrane-bound DBH. Experiments in cultured bovine cells showed that labeled soluble and membrane-bound DBH had parallel turnover patterns and at all chase period, the distribution of radiolabeled DBH between the soluble contents and membranes was similar to the DBH activity distribution (50% soluble/50% membrane-bound). The above experiments showed that the soluble contents and membranes turnover in parallel and are consistent with nonreutilization of chromaffin granule membranes following exocytosis. Isolated retrograde perfused bovine adrenal glands were subjected to repetitive acetylcholine stimulation to induce exocytosis and then the dense and less-dense chromaffin granule fractions were isolated. Since both approaches gave results consistent with membrane nonreutilization, the authors conclude that once a chromaffin granule is involved in exocytosis, its membrane is not reutilized for the further synthesis, storage, and secretion of catecholamines.

  7. The presence of lysophosphatidylcholine in chromaffin granules

    PubMed Central

    Arthur, Gilbert; Sheltawy, Ayman

    1980-01-01

    Lysophosphatidylcholine is thought to be a characteristic component of the chromaffin granules in adrenal glands. By the use of a t.l.c. system that resolves minor phospholipids satisfactorily, this subcellular location was confirmed in the present study in bovine glands. However, phospholipid degradation was demonstrated in homogenates of the adrenal medulla and cortex under conditions similar to those of subcellular fractionation (incubation at 4°C for 90min). Phosphatidylethanolamine and cardiolipin were hydrolysed, but the concentration of lysophosphatidylcholine did not change, indicating that the latter was present in the medulla before this treatment. Attempts were made to decrease the time between death of the animal and the extraction of lipids. Lysophosphatidylcholine was easily demonstrable in lipid extracts of the dissected medulla and even in those of the whole bovine gland. For practical reasons it is not possible to decrease further the time lapse before extraction in the case of this animal. Adrenal glands were obtained from anaesthetized and untreated rabbits. These were frozen immediately in liquid N2 and the lipids were extracted. In a control experiment, the glands from rabbit were dissected and treated in the same manner as with those of ox, and then the lipids were extracted. No lysophosphatidylcholine was detected in the extracts from glands frozen in liquid N2 but lysophosphatidylcholine was observed in the controls. These results suggest that lysophosphatidylcholine is not a component of chromaffin granules, but is produced if the period between death of the animal and lipid extraction is unduly prolonged. To discover whether lysophosphatidylcholine affected the permeability barrier properties of chromaffin granules, sonicated liposomes of egg phosphatidylcholine alone or with lysophosphatidylcholine (15mol/100mol) were prepared. Both types were shown by electron microscopy to be largely made up of single bilayer vesicles. The exchange

  8. Core structure, internal osmotic pressure and irreversible structural changes of chromaffin granules during osmometer behaviour.

    PubMed

    Südhof, T C

    1982-01-01

    In the adrenal medullary cells, catecholamines are stored in and secreted from specialized secretory vesicles, the chromaffin granules. In order to gain some understanding of both functions of chromaffin granules, it is important to characterize their biophysical organization. Using isolated bovine chromaffin granules we have investigated the osmometer behaviour of chromaffin granules by 31P-NMR and fluorescence spectroscopy, by turbidity measurements and by electron-microscopic determination of chromaffin granule size distributions. On the basis of the osmometer model we have formulated equations predicting the behaviour of the native catecholamine fluorescence quenching and of the size of chromaffin granules a a function of osmolarity and have shown experimentally that the granules' behaviour conforms to these. It was possible to estimate the osmotic activity of the chromaffin granule core solution and the mean absolute water space in chromaffin granules from the determination of the size distributions as a function of osmotic pressure. With NMR spectroscopy a selective line-broadening of the alpha-resonances was observed with increasing osmolarities, while the gamma-phosphorus resonances remained virtually unchanged. Possibly there is an increase in core viscosity with osmolarity which affects only the alpha- and beta-phosphorus groups. While suspending chromaffin granules from lower to higher osmolarities causes no lysis, moving them back to their original osmolarity at which they were previously stable lyses them, thereby releasing a maximum of 70% of their releasable protein. This 'hyperosmolar' lysis is independent of preincubation times in the higher osmolarities and of the absolute dilution applied but depends on dilution beyond the 405 to 322 mosM sucrose range. Under the experiment conditions no uptake of sucrose from the medium into the granules could be measured, thereby suggesting that hyperosmolar lysis is a phenomenon not due to solute penetration

  9. Effect of weightlessness on sympathetic-adrenomedullary activity of rats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kvetňanský, R.; Torda, T.; Macho, L.; Tigranian, R. A.; Serova, L.; Genin, A. M.

    Three cosmic experiments were performed in which rats spent 18-20 days in space on board the biosatellites "COSMOS 782", "COSMOS 936" and "COSMOS 1129". The following indicators of the sympathetic-adrenomedullary system (SAS) activity were measured: tissue and plasma catecholamines (CA), CA-synthesizing enzymes—tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), dopamine-β-hydroxylase (DBH), phenylethanolamine-N-methyltransferase (PNMT)—as well as CA-degrading enzymes—monoamine oxidase (MAO) and catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT). Adrenal epinephrine (EPI) and norepinephrine (NE) as well as CA-synthesizing and degrading enzymes were not significantly changed in the animals after flight on COSMOS 782. On the other hand, a significant increase was found in heart CA, the indicator which is usually decreased after stress. 26 days after landing all values were at control levels. The results obtained, compared to our previous stress experiments on Earth, suggest that prolonged weightlessness does not appear to be a pronounced stressful stimulus for the SAS. Heart and plasma CA, mainly NE, were increased both in the group living in the state of weightlessness and the group living in a centrifuge and exposed to artificial gravitation 1 g (COSMOS 936), suggesting again that prolonged weightlessness is not an intensive stressful stimulus for the SAS. The animals exposed after space flight on COSMOS 1129 to repeated immobilization stress on Earth showed a significant decrease of adrenal EPI and an expressive increase of adrenal TH activity compared to stressed animals which were not in space. Thus, the results corroborate that prolonged state of weightlessness during space flight though not representing by itself an intensive stressful stimulus for the sympathetic-adrenomedullary system, was found to potentiate the response of "cosmic rats" to stress exposure after return to Earth.

  10. Effect of heart failure on catecholamine granule morphology and storage in chromaffin cells.

    PubMed

    Mahata, Sushil K; Zheng, Hong; Mahata, Sumana; Liu, Xuefei; Patel, Kaushik P

    2016-09-01

    One of the key mechanisms involved in sympathoexcitation in chronic heart failure (HF) is the activation of the adrenal glands. Impact of the elevated catecholamines on the hemodynamic parameters has been previously demonstrated. However, studies linking the structural effects of such overactivation with secretory performance and cell metabolism in the adrenomedullary chromaffin cells in vivo have not been previously reported. In this study, HF was induced in male Sprague-Dawley rats by ligation of the left coronary artery. Five weeks after surgery, cardiac function was assessed by ventricular hemodynamics. HF rats showed increased adrenal weight and adrenal catecholamine levels (norepinephrine, epinephrine and dopamine) compared with sham-operated rats. Rats with HF demonstrated increased small synaptic and dense core vesicle in splanchnic-adrenal synapses indicating trans-synaptic activation of catecholamine biosynthetic enzymes, increased endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi lumen width to meet the demand of increased catecholamine synthesis and release, and more mitochondria with dilated cristae and glycogen to accommodate for the increased energy demand for the increased biogenesis and exocytosis of catecholamines from the adrenal medulla. These findings suggest that increased trans-synaptic activation of the chromaffin cells within the adrenal medulla may lead to increased catecholamines in the circulation which in turn contributes to the enhanced neurohumoral drive, providing a unique mechanistic insight for enhanced catecholamine levels in plasma commonly observed in chronic HF condition. PMID:27402067

  11. Enhanced BDNF signalling following chronic hypoxia potentiates catecholamine release from cultured rat adrenal chromaffin cells

    PubMed Central

    Scott, Angela L; Zhang, Min; Nurse, Colin A

    2015-01-01

    Environmental stressors, including chronic hypoxia, enhance the ability of adrenomedullary chromaffin cells (AMCs) to secrete catecholamines; however, the underlying molecular mechanisms remain unclear. Here, we investigated the role of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) signalling in rat AMCs exposed to chronic hypoxia. In rat adrenal glands, BDNF and its tropomyosin-related kinase B (TrkB) receptor are highly expressed in the cortex and medulla, respectively. Exposure of AMCs to chronic hypoxia (2% O2; 48 h) in vitro caused a significant increase to TrkB mRNA expression. A similar increase was observed in an immortalized chromaffin cell line (MAH cells); however, it was absent in MAH cells deficient in the transcription factor HIF-2α. A specific TrkB agonist, 7,8-dihydroxyflavone (7,8-DHF), stimulated quantal catecholamine secretion from chronically hypoxic (CHox; 2% O2) AMCs to a greater extent than normoxic (Nox; 21% O2) controls. Activation of TrkB by BDNF or 7,8-DHF increased intracellular Ca2+ ([Ca2+]i), an effect that was significantly larger in CHox cells. The 7,8-DHF-induced [Ca2+]i rise was sensitive to the tyrosine kinase inhibitor K252a and nickel (2 mm), but not the Ca2+ store-depleting agent cyclopiazonic acid. Blockade of T-type calcium channels with TTA-P2 (1 μm) or voltage-gated Na+ channels with TTX inhibited BDNF-induced [Ca2+]i increases. BDNF also induced a dose-dependent enhancement of action potential firing in CHox cells. These data demonstrate that during chronic hypoxia, enhancement of BDNF-TrkB signalling increases voltage-dependent Ca2+ influx and catecholamine secretion in chromaffin cells, and that T-type Ca2+ channels play a key role in the signalling pathway. Key points We investigated the role of the neurotrophin BDNF signalling via the TrkB receptor in rat adrenomedullary chromaffin cells (AMCs) exposed to normoxia (Nox; 21% O2) and chronic hypoxia (CHox; 2% O2) in vitro for ∼48 h. TrkB receptor expression was

  12. Adrenomedullary response to hypoglycemia in first-degree relatives of patients with rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Rovensky, J; Imrich, R; Penesova, A; Radikova, Z; Scipova, A; Vlcek, M; Vigas, M

    2008-12-01

    Our recent studies showed blunted adrenomedullary responses to insulin-induced hypoglycemia in premenopausal females with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and systemic sclerosis, suggesting dysregulation of the adrenomedullary hormonal system (AMHS). Since no relationship has been found between degree of AMHS dysfunction and clinical or inflammatory parameters in those patients, we hypothesize the presence of an inherited perturbation of the AMHS. To test this hypothesis, we evaluated adrenomedullary responses to insulin-induced hypoglycemia (0.1 IU/kg) in premenopausal female subjects: 17 glucocorticoid-naïve RA patients, 15 healthy first-degree family members (FDR), and 18 age- and body mass index-matched healthy controls. Our results demonstrate that when compared to controls, RA patients had lower baseline epinephrine levels (P= 0.01) and lower area under response curve (AUC) levels of norepinephrine (P < 0.001) and epinephrine (P < 0.003). In contrast, FDR had lower (P= 0.001) AUC levels of norepinephrine compared to controls and higher (P= 0.033) AUC levels of epinephrine compared to RA patients. There were no significant differences in epinephrine response between FDR and controls. Although we found lower norepinephrine responses to hypoglycemia in FDR of RA patients, adrenomedullary responses to hypoglycemia does not appear to be altered to the degree found in RA patients. PMID:19120156

  13. Dotarizine versus flunarizine as calcium antagonists in chromaffin cells.

    PubMed Central

    Villarroya, M; Gandía, L; Lara, B; Albillos, A; López, M G; García, A G

    1995-01-01

    1. Dotarizine is a novel piperazine derivative structurally related to flunarizine that is currently being evaluated in clinical trials for its antimigraine and antivertigo effects. This clinical profile may be related to its Ca2+ antagonist properties. Therefore, the actions of both compounds as calcium antagonists were compared in bovine chromaffin cells. 2. Dotarizine and flunarizine blocked 45Ca2+ uptake into K+ depolarized chromaffin cells (70 mM K+/0.5 mM Ca2+ for 60 s) in a concentration-dependent manner, with IC50s of 4.8 and 6.7 microM, respectively. 3. Dotarizine and flunarizine also inhibited the whole-cell Ca2+ and Ba2+ currents (ICa, IBa) in voltage-clamped chromaffin cells, induced by depolarizing test pulses to 0 mV, during 50 ms, from a holding potential of -80 mV. Blockade exhibited IC50s of 4 microM for dotarizine and 2.2 microM for flunarizine. Dotarizine increased the rate of inactivation of ICa and IBa; inhibition of whole-cell currents was use-dependent. 4. Transient increases of the cytosolic Ca2+ concentration, [Ca2+]i, produced by K+ stimulation (70 mM K+ for 5 s) of single fura-2-loaded chromaffin cells, were also inhibited by dotarizine and flunarizine with IC50s of 1.2 and 0.6 microM, respectively. Upon washout of dotarizine, the [Ca2+]i increases recovered fully after 5-10 min. In contrast, the responses remained largely inhibited 10 min after washing out flunarizine. 5. Catecholamine release induced by K+ stimulation (10-s pulses of 70 mM) was inhibited by dotarizine with an IC50 of 2.6 microM and by flunarizine with an IC50 of 1.2 microM. The blocking effects of both compounds developed slowly, and was fully established after 20-30 min of superfusion.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7881736

  14. Transplants of immunologically isolated xenogeneic chromaffin cells provide a long-term source of pain-reducing neuroactive substances.

    PubMed

    Sagen, J; Wang, H; Tresco, P A; Aebischer, P

    1993-06-01

    Adrenal medullary chromaffin cells are a potential source of neuroactive substances for transplantation into the CNS to alleviate neurochemical deficits. In particular, work in our laboratory has suggested that adrenal medullary transplants in the spinal subarachnoid space can alleviate pain by providing sustained local delivery of catecholamines and opioid peptides. One of the major limitations for clinical application of neural transplantation is the availability of donor material in sufficient quantities. This limitation may be overcome by the use of xenogeneic donors if long-term graft rejection can be prevented. The purpose of this study was to assess whether xenogeneic chromaffin cells immunologically isolated by semipermeable membranes could survive and continue to reduce pain when transplanted into the CNS. Isolated bovine chromaffin cells were encapsulated by semipermeable polymer membranes and implanted into the rat spinal subarachnoid space. Pain sensitivity was assessed at several intervals up to 3 months following implantation. Results indicated that encapsulated bovine chromaffin cell implants, but not empty control capsules, could repeatedly reduce pain sensitivity with nicotine stimulation for the duration of the study. This response was dose related, indicating that pharmacologic integrity of the transplanted chromaffin cells is retained. The analgesia induced by encapsulated chromaffin cell implants could be attenuated by the opiate antagonist naloxone and the alpha-adrenergic antagonist phentolamine, suggesting the involvement of both opioid peptides and catecholamines in mediating this response. In addition, in vitro neurochemical studies of recultured capsules revealed sustained release of Met-enkephalin and catecholamines from encapsulated cells 3 months following implantation into the spinal subarachnoid space.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7684773

  15. Adrenomedullary Response to Glucagon in Patients with Primary Sjögren’s Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Imrich, Richard; Nikolov, Nikolay P.; Bebris, Lolita; Alevizos, Ilias; Goldstein, David S.; Holmes, Courtney S.; Illei, Gabor G.

    2012-01-01

    Several studies showed signs of autonomic dysfunction in patients with primary Sjögren's syndrome (pSS). Adrenomedullary function might be of importance for pSS pathogenesis by affecting salivary gland functions and modulating immune responses. The aim of the study was to evaluate the adrenomedullary hormonal system in patients with pSS. The glucagon test (1 mg i.v.) was performed in 18 pSS patients and 13 control subjects. During the testing each patient had electrocardiographic and impedance cardiographic monitoring. Plasma epinephrine and norepinephrine were assayed by liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection after batch alumina extraction. Baseline concentrations of epinephrine and norepinephrine were comparable between pSS and controls. Glucagon administration induced a significant increase in systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, heart rate, cardiac output (p < 0.01), stroke volume; however the changes were comparable between pSS and controls. Epinephrine levels increased (p < 0.01) in response to glucagon administration while norepinephrine concentration did not change. There was no significant difference in neurochemical responses to glucagon between pSS and controls. In conclusion, the present results suggest normal adrenomedullary function in pSS. PMID:22350211

  16. Isolation of neural crest derived chromaffin progenitors from adult adrenal medulla.

    PubMed

    Chung, Kuei-Fang; Sicard, Flavie; Vukicevic, Vladimir; Hermann, Andreas; Storch, Alexander; Huttner, Wieland B; Bornstein, Stefan R; Ehrhart-Bornstein, Monika

    2009-10-01

    Chromaffin cells of the adrenal medulla are neural crest-derived cells of the sympathoadrenal lineage. Unlike the closely-related sympathetic neurons, a subpopulation of proliferation-competent cells exists even in the adult. Here, we describe the isolation, expansion, and in vitro characterization of proliferation-competent progenitor cells from the bovine adrenal medulla. Similar to neurospheres, these cells, when prevented from adherence to the culture dish, grew in spheres, which we named chromospheres. These chromospheres were devoid of mRNA specific for smooth muscle cells (MYH11) or endothelial cells (PECAM1). During sphere formation, markers for differentiated chromaffin cells, such as phenylethanolamine-N-methyl transferase, were downregulated while neural progenitor markers nestin, vimentin, musashi 1, and nerve growth factor receptor, as well as markers of neural crest progenitor cells such as Sox1 and Sox9, were upregulated. Clonal analysis and bromo-2'-deoxyuridine-incorporation analysis demonstrated the self-renewing capacity of chromosphere cells. Differentiation protocols using NGF and BMP4 or dexamethasone induced neuronal or endocrine differentiation, respectively. Electrophysiological analyses of neural cells derived from chromospheres revealed functional properties of mature nerve cells, such as tetrodotoxin-sensitive sodium channels and action potentials. Our study provides evidence that proliferation and differentiation competent chromaffin progenitor cells can be isolated from adult adrenal medulla and that these cells might harbor the potential for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases, such as Parkinson's disease. PMID:19609938

  17. Activity of the sympathetic-adrenomedullary system in rats after space flight on the COSMOS biosatellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kvetňanský, R.; Vigaš, M.; Németh, Š.; Macho, L.; Tigranyan, R. A.

    The indicators of adrenomedullary activity (catecholamine content (CA) and the activity of the catecholamine-synthesizing enzymes tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and dopamine-β-hydroxylase (DBH)) were measured in the adrenal glands of rats living in a state of weightlessness for 18.5-19.5 days on board the biosatellites COSMOS 936 and COSMOS 1129. None of these indicators was significantly changed by space flight, neither in the group living in a state of weightlessness nor in the group living in a centrifuge on board the spacecraft and exposed to artificial gravity of 1 g (COSMOS 936). Animals exposed after space flight to repeated immobilization stress on Earth showed a significant decrease of adrenal adrenaline and an appreciable increase in adrenal TH activity compared to stressed animals which were not in space. These results suggest that a prolonged state of weightlessness during space flight does not by itself represent an intensive stressful stimulus for the adrenomedullary system but potentiates the response of cosmonauts to stress after return to Earth.

  18. Right atrial chromaffin paraganglioma in a dog.

    PubMed

    Wey, Aaron C; Moore, Frances M

    2012-09-01

    Cardiac neoplasia is relatively uncommon in canine patients, with the most common neoplasms including right atrial hemangiosarcoma and paragangliomas occurring at the heart base (i.e. chemodectomas or aortic body tumors). Intracardiac paragangliomas are rare neoplasms in humans and have seldom been documented in the veterinary literature. This report describes the clinical course and histopathological findings in an adult canine patient with an intracardiac chromaffin paraganglioma (non-adrenal pheochromocytoma) of the right atrium. PMID:22840732

  19. The organization of the secretory machinery in chromaffin cells as a major factor in modeling exocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Villanueva, José; Torregrosa-Hetland, Cristina J.; Gil, Amparo; González-Vélez, Virginia; Segura, Javier; Viniegra, Salvador; Gutiérrez, Luis M.

    2010-01-01

    The organization of cytoplasm in excitable cells was a largely ignored factor when mathematical models were developed to understand intracellular calcium and secretory behavior. Here we employed a combination of fluorescent evanescent and transmitted light microscopy to explore the F-actin cytoskeletal organization in the vicinity of secretory sites in cultured bovine chromaffin cells. This technique and confocal fluorescent microscopy show chromaffin granules associated with the borders of cortical cytoskeletal cages forming an intricate tridimensional network. Furthermore, the overexpression of SNAP-25 in these cells also reveals the association of secretory machinery clusters with the borders of these cytoskeletal cages. The importance of these F-actin cage borders is stressed when granules appear to interact and remain associated during exocytosis visualized in acridin orange loaded vesicles. These results will prompt us to propose a model of cytoskeletal cages, where the secretory machinery is associated with its borders. Both the calcium level and the secretory response are enhanced in this geometrical arrangement when compared with a random distribution of the secretory machinery that is not restricted to the borders of the cage. PMID:20885775

  20. PC12 Cells Differentiate into Chromaffin Cell-Like Phenotype in Coculture with Adrenal Medullary Endothelial Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mizrachi, Yaffa; Naranjo, Jose R.; Levi, Ben-Zion; Pollard, Harvey B.; Lelkes, Peter I.

    1990-08-01

    Previously we described specific in vitro interactions between PC12 cells, a cloned, catecholamine-secreting pheochromocytoma cell line derived from the rat adrenal medulla, and bovine adrenal medullary endothelial cells. We now demonstrate that these interactions induce the PC12 cells to acquire physical and biochemical characteristics reminiscent of chromaffin cells. Under coculture conditions involving direct cell-cell contact, the endothelial cells and the PC12 cells reduced their rates of proliferation; upon prolonged coculture PC12 cells clustered into nests of cells similar to the organization of chromaffin cells seen in vivo. Within 3 days in coculture with endothelial cells, but not with unrelated control cells, PC12 cells synthesized increased levels of [Met]enkephalin. In addition, PC12 cells, growing on confluent endothelial monolayers, failed to extend neurites in response to nerve growth factor. Neither medium conditioned by endothelial cells nor fixed endothelial cells could by themselves induce all of these different phenomena in the PC12 cells. These results suggest that under coculture conditions PC12 cells change their state of differentiation toward a chromaffin cell-like phenotype. The rapid, transient increase in the expression of the protooncogene c-fos suggests that the mechanism(s) inducing the change in the state of differentiation in PC12 cells in coculture with the endothelial cells may be distinct from that described for the differentiation of PC12 cells--e.g., by glucocorticoids. We propose that similar interactions between endothelial cells and chromaffin cell precursors may occur during embryonic development and that these interactions might be instrumental for the organ-specific differentiation of the adrenal medulla in vivo.

  1. Separation of two pathways for calcium entry into chromaffin cells.

    PubMed Central

    Gandía, L.; Casado, L. F.; López, M. G.; García, A. G.

    1991-01-01

    1. The effects of various drugs on 45Ca + 40Ca uptake into cultured bovine adrenal chromaffin cells evoked by 1,1-dimethyl-4-phenylpiperazinium (DMPP) or high K, were studied. In the presence of 1 mM external 40Ca, with 45Ca as a radiotracer, unstimulated cells took up an average of 0.13 fmol/cell 40Ca and 772 c.p.m./10(6) cells of 45Ca (n = 76). Upon stimulation with DMPP (100 microM for 60 s) or K (59 mM for 60 s), Ca uptake increased to 0.92 and 1 fmol/cell, respectively. 2. Flunarizine behaved as a potent blocker of both DMPP- and K-evoked Ca uptake (IC50 of 1.76 and 1.49 microM, respectively for DMPP and K). A similar picture emerged with Cd ions, though Cd exhibited an IC50 against K (1.86 microM) slightly lower than the IC50 against DMPP (8.14 microM). 3. Clear cut differences were observed with amiloride, guanethidine, nimodipine and nisoldipine which behaved as selective blockers of DMPP-mediated Ca uptake responses: IC50 values to block DMPP effects were 290, 27, 1.1 and 1.63 microM respectively for amiloride, guanethidine, nimodipine and nisoldipine. Amiloride blocked K-evoked Ca uptake by only 35% and guanethidine did not affect it. Nisoldipine inhibited K-evoked Ca uptake only partially at low concentrations (about 30%); a second blocking component was observed at the highest concentration used (10 microM). At 10 microM, nimodipine blocked K-evoked Ca uptake by 50%. 4. Thus, it seems that the nicotinic receptor mediated Ca uptake pathway can be pharmacologically separated from the K-activated pathway.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1652335

  2. Mapping organelle motion reveals a vesicular conveyor belt spatially replenishing secretory vesicles in stimulated chromaffin cells.

    PubMed

    Maucort, Guillaume; Kasula, Ravikiran; Papadopulos, Andreas; Nieminen, Timo A; Rubinsztein-Dunlop, Halina; Meunier, Frederic A

    2014-01-01

    How neurosecretory cells spatially adjust their secretory vesicle pools to replenish those that have fused and released their hormonal content is currently unknown. Here we designed a novel set of image analyses to map the probability of tracked organelles undergoing a specific type of movement (free, caged or directed). We then applied our analysis to time-lapse z-stack confocal imaging of secretory vesicles from bovine Chromaffin cells to map the global changes in vesicle motion and directionality occurring upon secretagogue stimulation. We report a defined region abutting the cortical actin network that actively transports secretory vesicles and is dissipated by actin and microtubule depolymerizing drugs. The directionality of this "conveyor belt" towards the cell surface is activated by stimulation. Actin and microtubule networks therefore cooperatively probe the microenvironment to transport secretory vesicles to the periphery, providing a mechanism whereby cells globally adjust their vesicle pools in response to secretagogue stimulation. PMID:24489879

  3. Vesicle Pools: Lessons from Adrenal Chromaffin Cells

    PubMed Central

    Stevens, David R.; Schirra, Claudia; Becherer, Ute; Rettig, Jens

    2011-01-01

    The adrenal chromaffin cell serves as a model system to study fast Ca2+-dependent exocytosis. Membrane capacitance measurements in combination with Ca2+ uncaging offers a temporal resolution in the millisecond range and reveals that catecholamine release occurs in three distinct phases. Release of a readily releasable (RRP) and a slowly releasable (SRP) pool are followed by sustained release, due to maturation, and release of vesicles which were not release-ready at the start of the stimulus. Trains of depolarizations, a more physiological stimulus, induce release from a small immediately releasable pool of vesicles residing adjacent to calcium channels, as well as from the RRP. The SRP is poorly activated by depolarization. A sequential model, in which non-releasable docked vesicles are primed to a slowly releasable state, and then further mature to the readily releasable state, has been proposed. The docked state, dependent on membrane proximity, requires SNAP-25, synaptotagmin, and syntaxin. The ablation or modification of SNAP-25 and syntaxin, components of the SNARE complex, as well as of synaptotagmin, the calcium sensor, and modulators such complexins and Snapin alter the properties and/or magnitudes of different phases of release, and in particular can ablate the RRP. These results indicate that the composition of the SNARE complex and its interaction with modulatory molecules drives priming and provides a molecular basis for different pools of releasable vesicles. PMID:21423410

  4. Peripheral oxytocin treatment affects the rat adreno-medullary catecholamine content modulating expression of vesicular monoamine transporter 2.

    PubMed

    Jovanovic, P; Spasojevic, N; Stefanovic, B; Bozovic, N; Jasnic, N; Djordjevic, J; Dronjak, S

    2014-01-01

    The neuropeptide oxytocin has been shown to influence on neuroendocrine function. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of peripheral oxytocin treatment on the synthesis, uptake and content of adreno-medullary catecholamine. For this purpose oxytocin (3.6μg/100g body weight, s.c) was administrated to male rats once a day over 14 days. In order to assess the effect of peripheral oxytocin treatment on adreno-medullary catecholamine we measured epinephrine and norepinephrine content and gene expression of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), norepinephrine transporter (NET) and vesicular monoamine transporter 2 (VMAT2) in the adrenal medulla. Our results show a significant increase of epinephrine (1.7-fold, p<0.05) and norepinephrine (1.5-fold, p<0.05) content in oxytocin treated animals compared to saline treated ones. Oxytocin treatment had no effect either on mRNA or protein level of TH and NET. Under oxytocin treatment the increase in VMAT2 mRNA level was not statistically significant, but it caused a significant increase in protein level of VMAT2 (3.7-fold, p<0.001). These findings indicate that oxytocin treatment increases catecholamine content in the rat adrenal medulla modulating VMAT2 expression. PMID:24239562

  5. Vesicle Motion during Sustained Exocytosis in Chromaffin Cells: Numerical Model Based on Amperometric Measurements

    PubMed Central

    Jarukanont, Daungruthai; Bonifas Arredondo, Imelda; Femat, Ricardo; Garcia, Martin E.

    2015-01-01

    Chromaffin cells release catecholamines by exocytosis, a process that includes vesicle docking, priming and fusion. Although all these steps have been intensively studied, some aspects of their mechanisms, particularly those regarding vesicle transport to the active sites situated at the membrane, are still unclear. In this work, we show that it is possible to extract information on vesicle motion in Chromaffin cells from the combination of Langevin simulations and amperometric measurements. We developed a numerical model based on Langevin simulations of vesicle motion towards the cell membrane and on the statistical analysis of vesicle arrival times. We also performed amperometric experiments in bovine-adrenal Chromaffin cells under Ba2+ stimulation to capture neurotransmitter releases during sustained exocytosis. In the sustained phase, each amperometric peak can be related to a single release from a new vesicle arriving at the active site. The amperometric signal can then be mapped into a spike-series of release events. We normalized the spike-series resulting from the current peaks using a time-rescaling transformation, thus making signals coming from different cells comparable. We discuss why the obtained spike-series may contain information about the motion of all vesicles leading to release of catecholamines. We show that the release statistics in our experiments considerably deviate from Poisson processes. Moreover, the interspike-time probability is reasonably well described by two-parameter gamma distributions. In order to interpret this result we computed the vesicles’ arrival statistics from our Langevin simulations. As expected, assuming purely diffusive vesicle motion we obtain Poisson statistics. However, if we assume that all vesicles are guided toward the membrane by an attractive harmonic potential, simulations also lead to gamma distributions of the interspike-time probability, in remarkably good agreement with experiment. We also show that

  6. GPCRs of adrenal chromaffin cells & catecholamines: The plot thickens.

    PubMed

    Lymperopoulos, Anastasios; Brill, Ava; McCrink, Katie A

    2016-08-01

    The circulating catecholamines (CAs) epinephrine (Epi) and norepinephrine (NE) derive from two major sources in the whole organism: the sympathetic nerve endings, which release NE on effector organs, and the chromaffin cells of the adrenal medulla, which are cells that synthesize, store and release Epi (mainly) and NE. All of the Epi in the body and a significant amount of circulating NE derive from the adrenal medulla. The secretion of CAs from adrenal chromaffin cells is regulated in a complex way by a variety of membrane receptors, the vast majority of which are G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), including adrenergic receptors (ARs), which act as "presynaptic autoreceptors" in this regard. There is a plethora of CA-secretagogue signals acting on these receptors but some of them, most notably the α2ARs, inhibit CA secretion. Over the past few years, however, a few new proteins present in chromaffin cells have been uncovered to participate in CA secretion regulation. Most prominent among these are GRK2 and β-arrestin1, which are known to interact with GPCRs regulating receptor signaling and function. The present review will discuss the molecular and signaling mechanisms by which adrenal chromaffin cell-residing GPCRs and their regulatory proteins modulate CA synthesis and secretion. Particular emphasis will be given to the newly discovered roles of GRK2 and β-arrestins in these processes and particular points of focus for future research will be highlighted, as well. PMID:26851510

  7. Dynamic light-scattering study on changes in mobility of chromaffin granules in actin network with its assembly and Ca2+-dependent disassembly by gelsolin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujime, Satoru; Miyamoto, Shigeaki; Funatsu, Takashi; Ishiwata, S.

    1993-06-01

    As a final stage of cell signal transduction, secretory cells release hormones by exocytosis. Before secretory granules contact with the cell membrane for fusion, an actin network barrier must dissociate as a prelude. In order to elucidate dynamical behaviors of secretory granules in actin network, in vitro assembly and disassembly processes of actin networks were examined by means of dynamic light-scattering spectroscopy. We studied actin polymerization in the presence of chromaffin granules isolated from bovine adrenal medullae, and found that the entanglement of actin filaments rapidly formed cages which confined granules in them. We also studied the effect of gelsolin, one of the actin-severing proteins, on the network of actin filaments performed in the presence of chromaffin granules. It turned out that the cages which confined granules rapidly disappeared when gelsolin was added in the presence of free Ca2+ ions. Semiquantitative analyses of dynamic light-scattering spectra permitted us to estimate the changes in the mobility (or translational diffusion coefficient) of chromaffin granules in the actin network with its assembly and Ca2+-dependent disassembly by gelsolin. Based on the present results and some pieces of evidence in literature, a model is proposed for biophysical situations before, during, and after an exocytotic event.

  8. GABA Signaling and Neuroactive Steroids in Adrenal Medullary Chromaffin Cells

    PubMed Central

    Harada, Keita; Matsuoka, Hidetada; Fujihara, Hiroaki; Ueta, Yoichi; Yanagawa, Yuchio; Inoue, Masumi

    2016-01-01

    Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is produced not only in the brain, but also in endocrine cells by the two isoforms of glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD), GAD65 and GAD67. In rat adrenal medullary chromaffin cells only GAD67 is expressed, and GABA is stored in large dense core vesicles (LDCVs), but not synaptic-like microvesicles (SLMVs). The α3β2/3γ2 complex represents the majority of GABAA receptors expressed in rat and guinea pig chromaffin cells, whereas PC12 cells, an immortalized rat chromaffin cell line, express the α1 subunit as well as the α3. The expression of α3, but not α1, in PC12 cells is enhanced by glucocorticoid activity, which may be mediated by both the mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) and the glucocorticoid receptor (GR). GABA has two actions mediated by GABAA receptors in chromaffin cells: it induces catecholamine secretion by itself and produces an inhibition of synaptically evoked secretion by a shunt effect. Allopregnanolone, a neuroactive steroid which is secreted from the adrenal cortex, produces a marked facilitation of GABAA receptor channel activity. Since there are no GABAergic nerve fibers in the adrenal medulla, GABA may function as a para/autocrine factor in the chromaffin cells. This function of GABA may be facilitated by expression of the immature isoforms of GAD and GABAA receptors and the lack of expression of plasma membrane GABA transporters (GATs). In this review, we will consider how the para/autocrine function of GABA is achieved, focusing on the structural and molecular mechanisms for GABA signaling. PMID:27147972

  9. GABA Signaling and Neuroactive Steroids in Adrenal Medullary Chromaffin Cells.

    PubMed

    Harada, Keita; Matsuoka, Hidetada; Fujihara, Hiroaki; Ueta, Yoichi; Yanagawa, Yuchio; Inoue, Masumi

    2016-01-01

    Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is produced not only in the brain, but also in endocrine cells by the two isoforms of glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD), GAD65 and GAD67. In rat adrenal medullary chromaffin cells only GAD67 is expressed, and GABA is stored in large dense core vesicles (LDCVs), but not synaptic-like microvesicles (SLMVs). The α3β2/3γ2 complex represents the majority of GABAA receptors expressed in rat and guinea pig chromaffin cells, whereas PC12 cells, an immortalized rat chromaffin cell line, express the α1 subunit as well as the α3. The expression of α3, but not α1, in PC12 cells is enhanced by glucocorticoid activity, which may be mediated by both the mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) and the glucocorticoid receptor (GR). GABA has two actions mediated by GABAA receptors in chromaffin cells: it induces catecholamine secretion by itself and produces an inhibition of synaptically evoked secretion by a shunt effect. Allopregnanolone, a neuroactive steroid which is secreted from the adrenal cortex, produces a marked facilitation of GABAA receptor channel activity. Since there are no GABAergic nerve fibers in the adrenal medulla, GABA may function as a para/autocrine factor in the chromaffin cells. This function of GABA may be facilitated by expression of the immature isoforms of GAD and GABAA receptors and the lack of expression of plasma membrane GABA transporters (GATs). In this review, we will consider how the para/autocrine function of GABA is achieved, focusing on the structural and molecular mechanisms for GABA signaling. PMID:27147972

  10. Permissive effect of dexamethasone on the increase of proenkephalin mRNA induced by depolarization of chromaffin cells

    SciTech Connect

    Naranjo, J.R.; Mocchetti, I.; Schwartz, J.P.; Costa, E.

    1986-03-01

    In cultured bovine chromaffin cells, changes in the dynamic state of enkephalin stores elicited experimentally were studied by measuring cellular proenkephalin mRNA, as well as enkephalin precursors and authentic enkephalin content of cells and culture media. In parallel, tyrosine hydroxylase mRNA and catecholamine cell content were also determined. Low concentrations (0.5-100 pM) of dexamethasone increased the cell contents of proenkephalin mRNA and enkephalin-containing peptides. High concentrations of the hormone(1 ..mu..M) were required to increase the cell contents of tyrosine hydroxylase mRNA and catecholamines. Depolarization of the cells with 10 ..mu..M veratridine resulted in a depletion of enkephalin and catecholamine stores after 24 hr. The enkephalin, but not the catecholamine, content was restored by 48 hr. An increase in proenkephalin mRNA content might account for the recovery; this increase was curtailed by tetrodotoxin and enhanced by 10 pM dexamethasone. Tyrosine hydroxylase mRNA content was not significantly modified by depolarization, even in the presence of 1 ..mu..M dexamethasone. Aldosterone, progesterone, testosterone, or estradiol (1 ..mu..M) failed to change proenkephalin mRNA. Hence, dexamethasone appears to exert a specific permissive action on the stimulation of the proenkephalin gene elicited by depolarization. Though the catecholamines and enkephalins are localized in the same chromaffin granules and are coreleased by depolarization, the genes coding for the processes that are rate limiting in the production of these neuromodulators can be differentially regulated.

  11. Heterogeneous distribution of exocytotic microdomains in adrenal chromaffin cells resolved by high-density diamond ultra-microelectrode arrays

    PubMed Central

    Gosso, Sara; Turturici, Marco; Franchino, Claudio; Colombo, Elisabetta; Pasquarelli, Alberto; Carbone, Emilio; Carabelli, Valentina

    2014-01-01

    Here we describe the ability of a high-density diamond microelectrode array targeted to resolve multi-site detection of fast exocytotic events from single cells. The array consists of nine boron-doped nanocrystalline diamond ultra-microelectrodes (9-Ch NCD-UMEA) radially distributed within a circular area of the dimensions of a single cell. The device can be operated in voltammetric or chronoamperometric configuration. Sensitivity to catecholamines, tested by dose–response calibrations, set the lowest detectable concentration of adrenaline to ∼5 μm. Catecholamine release from bovine or mouse chromaffin cells could be triggered by electrical stimulation or external KCl-enriched solutions. Spikes detected from the cell apex using carbon fibre microelectrodes showed an excellent correspondence with events measured at the bottom of the cell by the 9-Ch NCD-UMEA, confirming the ability of the array to resolve single quantal secretory events. Subcellular localization of exocytosis was provided by assigning each quantal event to one of the nine channels based on its location. The resulting mapping highlights the heterogeneous distribution of secretory activity in cell microdomains of 12–27 μm2. In bovine chromaffin cells, secretion was highly heterogeneous with zones of high and medium activity in 54% of the cell surface and zones of low or no activity in the remainder. The ‘non-active’ (‘silent’) zones covered 24% of the total and persisted for 6–8 min, indicating stable location. The 9-Ch NCD-UMEA therefore appears suitable for investigating the microdomain organization of neurosecretion with high spatial resolution. PMID:24879870

  12. Heterogeneous distribution of exocytotic microdomains in adrenal chromaffin cells resolved by high-density diamond ultra-microelectrode arrays.

    PubMed

    Gosso, Sara; Turturici, Marco; Franchino, Claudio; Colombo, Elisabetta; Pasquarelli, Alberto; Carbone, Emilio; Carabelli, Valentina

    2014-08-01

    Here we describe the ability of a high-density diamond microelectrode array targeted to resolve multi-site detection of fast exocytotic events from single cells. The array consists of nine boron-doped nanocrystalline diamond ultra-microelectrodes (9-Ch NCD-UMEA) radially distributed within a circular area of the dimensions of a single cell. The device can be operated in voltammetric or chronoamperometric configuration. Sensitivity to catecholamines, tested by dose-response calibrations, set the lowest detectable concentration of adrenaline to ∼5 μm. Catecholamine release from bovine or mouse chromaffin cells could be triggered by electrical stimulation or external KCl-enriched solutions. Spikes detected from the cell apex using carbon fibre microelectrodes showed an excellent correspondence with events measured at the bottom of the cell by the 9-Ch NCD-UMEA, confirming the ability of the array to resolve single quantal secretory events. Subcellular localization of exocytosis was provided by assigning each quantal event to one of the nine channels based on its location. The resulting mapping highlights the heterogeneous distribution of secretory activity in cell microdomains of 12-27 μm2. In bovine chromaffin cells, secretion was highly heterogeneous with zones of high and medium activity in 54% of the cell surface and zones of low or no activity in the remainder. The 'non-active' ('silent') zones covered 24% of the total and persisted for 6-8 min, indicating stable location. The 9-Ch NCD-UMEA therefore appears suitable for investigating the microdomain organization of neurosecretion with high spatial resolution. PMID:24879870

  13. Novel synthetic sulfoglycolipid IG20 facilitates exocytosis in chromaffin cells through the regulation of sodium channels.

    PubMed

    Crespo-Castrillo, Andrea; Punzón, Eva; de Pascual, Ricardo; Maroto, Marcos; Padín, Juan Fernando; García-Álvarez, Isabel; Nanclares, Carmen; Ruiz-Pascual, Lucía; Gandía, Luis; Fernández-Mayoralas, Alfonso; García, Antonio G

    2015-12-01

    In search of druggable synthetic lipids that function as potential modulators of synaptic transmission and plasticity, we synthesized sulfoglycolipid IG20, which stimulates neuritic outgrowth. Here, we have explored its effects on ion channels and exocytosis in bovine chromaffin cells. IG20 augmented the rate of basal catecholamine release. Such effect did not depend on Ca(2+) mobilization from intracellular stores; rather, IG20-elicited secretion entirely dependent on Ca(2+) entry through L-subtype voltage-activated Ca(2+) channels. Those channels were recruited by cell depolarization mediated by IG20 likely through its ability to enhance the recruitment of Na(+) channels at more hyperpolarizing potentials. Confocal imaging with fluorescent derivative IG20-NBD revealed its rapid incorporation and confinement into the plasmalemma, supporting the idea that IG20 effects are exerted through a plasmalemmal-delimited mechanism. Thus, synthetic IG20 seems to mimic several physiological effects of endogenous lipids such as regulation of ion channels, Ca(2+) signaling, and exocytosis. Therefore, sulfoglycolipid IG20 may become a pharmacological tool for investigating the role of the lipid environment on neuronal excitability, ion channels, neurotransmitter release, synaptic efficacy, and neuronal plasticity. It may also inspire the synthesis of druggable sulfoglycolipids aimed at increasing synaptic plasticity and efficacy in neurodegenerative diseases and traumatic brain-spinal cord injury. The novel synthetic sulfoglycolipid IG20 mimics several physiological effects of endogenous lipids such as regulation of ion channels, Ca(2+) signaling, and exocytosis. This profile may eventually drive enhanced synaptic plasticity and efficacy. PMID:26365051

  14. An osmometer model for changes in the buoyant density of chromaffin granules.

    PubMed Central

    Morris, S J; Schultens, H A; Schober, R

    1977-01-01

    We present a model for the structure of isolated bovine adrenal medulla chromaffin granules derived from the dependence of granule density on the osmotic pressure of the suspension medium at 2 degrees C. The granule consists of a flexible, inelastic membrane bounding an osmotically active core. The core consists of a solution space and a separate, nonosmotic phase. Since the granule behaves like a "perfect" osmometer over a wide range of osmolarities, we conclude that (a) within these limits, the core consists of a constant amount of condensed material and a constant number of particles in solution, (b) from the constraints of the osmometer model, the osmolality inside the granule must equal the osmolality outside. Therefore the high concentrations of catecholamines (greater than 0.7 M) and ATP (greater than 0.18 M) measured biochemically cannot be dissolved in the core solution as separate molecules, but must be condensed into larger aggregates. These results are supported by electron micrographic examination of the effect of osmotic pressure changes on granule morphology. Images FIGURE 5 PMID:901901

  15. Brain opioid and nociceptin receptors are involved in regulation of bombesin-induced activation of central sympatho-adrenomedullary outflow in the rat.

    PubMed

    Yawata, Toshio; Higashi, Youichirou; Shimizu, Takahiro; Shimizu, Shogo; Nakamura, Kumiko; Taniuchi, Keisuke; Ueba, Tetsuya; Saito, Motoaki

    2016-01-01

    Previously, we reported that central administration of bombesin, a stress-related peptide, elevated plasma levels of catecholamines (noradrenaline and adrenaline) in the rat. The sympatho-adrenomedullary system, which is an important component of stress responses, can be regulated by the central opioid system. In the present study, therefore, we examined the roles of brain opioid receptor subtypes (µ, δ, and κ) and nociceptin receptors, originally identified as opioid-like orphan receptors, in the bombesin-induced activation of central sympatho-adrenomedullary outflow using anesthetized male Wistar rats. Intracerebroventricularly (i.c.v.) administered bombesin-(1 nmol/animal) induced elevation of plasma catecholamines was significantly potentiated by pretreatment with naloxone (300 and 1000 µg/animal, i.c.v.), a non-selective antagonist for µ-, δ-, and κ-opioid receptors. Pretreatment with cyprodime (100 µg/animal, i.c.v.), a selective antagonist for µ-opioid receptors, also potentiated the bombesin-induced responses. In contrast, pretreatment with naltrindole (100 µg/animal, i.c.v.) or nor-binaltorphimine (100 µg/animal, i.c.v.), a selective antagonist for δ- or κ-opioid receptors, significantly reduced the elevation of bombesin-induced catecholamines. In addition, pretreatment with JTC-801 (30 and 100 µg/animal, i.c.v.) or J-113397 (100 µg/animal, i.c.v.), which are selective antagonists for nociceptin receptors, also reduced the bombesin-induced responses. These results suggest that brain µ-opioid receptors play a suppressive role and that brain δ-, κ-opioid, and nociceptin receptors play a facilitative role in the bombesin-induced elevation of plasma catecholamines in the rat. Thus, in the brain, these receptors could play differential roles in regulating the activation of central sympatho-adrenomedullary outflow. PMID:26427671

  16. The effect of uncouplers on catecholamine incorporation by vesicles of chromaffin granules.

    PubMed Central

    Bashford, C L; Casey, R P; Radda, G K; Ritchie, G A

    1975-01-01

    It is shown that uncouplers inhibit the incorporation of catecholamines by vesicles of chromaffin granules in parallel with their stimulatory effect on the membrane-bound adenosine triphosphatase. PMID:125589

  17. Ultrastructure, ZIO-staining and chromaffinity of gerbil pinealocytes.

    PubMed

    Chau, Y P; Liao, K K; Kao, M H; Huang, B N; Kao, Y S; Lu, K S

    1994-11-01

    The ultrastructure and cytochemistry of the gerbil pineal gland were studied by the conventional electron microscopy, zinc iodide-osmium tetroxide (ZIO) staining and chromaffin reaction. Conventional electron microscopy revealed that the ultrastructure of gerbil pinealocytes are similar to other rodents, i.e., irregular cell contour with numerous cytoplasmic processes, round or oval nucleus and prominent nucleoli, elongated mitochondria with flattened and tubular cristae and dense matrix, well-developed Golgi apparatus and its associated structures, abundant elements of endoplasmic reticulum--both smooth and rough varieties, and bundles of microfilament and microtubule in the cytoplasm. Some pinealocyte processes contain numerous small clear and "slightly coated" vesicles. Numerous profiles of varicosities containing small dense-cored and clear vesicles were frequently encountered. After ZIO treatment, ZIO staining was preferentially localized in the cytoplasm of some, but not all, of the gerbil pinealocytes. Numerous small clear vesicles (30-50 nm in diameter) in the process of the pinealocytes or in the varicosities of the nerve fibers showed strong ZIO-philia. After chromaffin reaction treatment, the number and electron density of small clear and dense-cored vesicles in the profiles of nerve varicosities increased and this indicates that some of the small clear and dense-cored vesicles in the varicosities are reactive. It is thus concluded that (1) the vesicles in the pinealocytes may be rich in cystine and/or cysteine and possibly the organelle is involved in the sequestering calcium ion during the calcification of the pineal concretions, and (2) the small dense-cored and clear vesicles in the nerve fibers in the gerbil pineal parenchyma may contain both serotonin and primary biogenic amines. PMID:7530780

  18. Annexin A2, an essential partner of the exocytotic process in chromaffin cells.

    PubMed

    Gabel, Marion; Chasserot-Golaz, Sylvette

    2016-06-01

    Annexin A2 is a calcium-, actin-, and lipid-binding protein implicated in exocytosis in different cell types, such as neuroendocrine cells. In chromaffin cells, cytosolic annexin A2 is recruited to the plasma membrane upon cell stimulation. Here, we review the latest evidence detailing the functional importance of annexin A2 in different stages of exocytosis. These include the recruitment of annexin A2 to the plasma membrane near soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptor complexes, the role of annexin A2 in the formation of lipid domains at exocytotic sites, and finally the annexin A2 bundling of actin microfilaments associated with chromaffin granules. These structures induce first the coalescence of lipid domains required for the formation of the exocytotic site, and in the second time, exert mechanical force on the granule to favor fusion pore expansion and squeeze the granule to facilitate catecholamine release. Annexin A2 is a calcium-, actin-, and lipid-binding protein implicated in exocytosis in different cell types, including neuroendocrine cells. Upon cell stimulation, annexin A2 translocates from the cytosol to the plasma membrane of chromaffin cells and bundles actin filaments associated with chromaffin granules. This promotes the formation of lipid domains required for granule docking, and facilitates catecholamine release by compressing the granule. This article is part of a mini review series on Chromaffin cells (ISCCB Meeting, 2015). PMID:27037794

  19. Calcium channels in chromaffin cells: focus on L and T types.

    PubMed

    Marcantoni, A; Carabelli, V; Comunanza, V; Hoddah, H; Carbone, E

    2008-02-01

    Voltage-gated Ca2+ channels (Cav) are highly expressed in the adrenal chromaffin cells of mammalian species. Besides shaping action potential waveforms, they are directly involved in the excitation-secretion coupling underlying catecholamine release and, possibly, control other Ca2+-dependent events that originate near the membrane. These functions are shared by a number of Cav channel types (L, N, P/Q, R and T) which have different structure-function characteristics and whose degree of expression changes remarkably among mammalian species. Understanding precisely the functioning of each voltage-gated Ca2+ channels is a crucial task that helps clarifying the Ca2+-dependent mechanisms controlling exocytosis during physiological and pathological conditions. In this paper, we focus on classical and new roles that L- and T-type channels play in the control of chromaffin cell excitability and neurotransmitter release. Interestingly, L-type channels are shown to be implicated in the spontaneous autorhythmicity of chromaffin cells, while T-type channels, which are absent in adult chromaffin cells, are coupled with secretion and can be recruited following long-term beta-adrenergic stimulation or chronic hypoxia. This suggests that like other cells, adrenal chromaffin cells undergo effective remodelling of membrane ion channels and cell functioning during prolonged stress conditions. PMID:18021322

  20. Prolonged exposure of chromaffin cells to nitric oxide down-regulates the activity of soluble guanylyl cyclase and corresponding mRNA and protein levels

    PubMed Central

    Ferrero, Rut; Torres, Magdalena

    2002-01-01

    Background Soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC) is the main receptor for nitric oxide (NO) when the latter is produced at low concentrations. This enzyme exists mainly as a heterodimer consisting of one α and one β subunit and converts GTP to the second intracellular messenger cGMP. In turn, cGMP plays a key role in regulating several physiological processes in the nervous system. The aim of the present study was to explore the effects of a NO donor on sGC activity and its protein and subunit mRNA levels in a neural cell model. Results Continuous exposure of bovine adrenal chromaffin cells in culture to the nitric oxide donor, diethylenetriamine NONOate (DETA/NO), resulted in a lower capacity of the cells to synthesize cGMP in response to a subsequent NO stimulus. This effect was not prevented by an increase of intracellular reduced glutathione level. DETA/NO treatment decreased sGC subunit mRNA and β1 subunit protein levels. Both sGC activity and β1 subunit levels decreased more rapidly in chromaffin cells exposed to NO than in cells exposed to the protein synthesis inhibitor, cycloheximide, suggesting that NO decreases β1 subunit stability. The presence of cGMP-dependent protein kinase (PKG) inhibitors effectively prevented the DETA/NO-induced down regulation of sGC subunit mRNA and partially inhibited the reduction in β1 subunits. Conclusions These results suggest that activation of PKG mediates the drop in sGC subunit mRNA levels, and that NO down-regulates sGC activity by decreasing subunit mRNA levels through a cGMP-dependent mechanism, and by reducing β1 subunit stability. PMID:12350235

  1. Cultured human chromaffin cells grafted in spinal subarachnoid space relieves allodynia in a pain rat model

    PubMed Central

    Jeon, Younghoon; Baek, Woon Yi; Chung, Seung Hyun; Shin, Nari; Kim, Hye Rim

    2011-01-01

    Background Implantation of xenogenic chromaffin cells into the spinal subarachnoid space can produce analgesia in neuropathic pain models. However, transplantation of xenogeneic chromaffin cell has a potential risk of viral or bacterial infections from animals to humans including encephalopathy due to prion transmission. The aim of this study was to investigate the possibility of developing a homogeneic source of therapeutic chromaffin cells. Methods Anti-allodynic effects of human chromaffin cells (HCCs) were evaluated in a neuropathic pain model in rats induced by chronic constriction injury of the sciatic nerve. HCCs encapsulated with alginate-poly-L-lysine-alginate were intrathecally implanted into rats (n = 10), while empty capsules were intrathecally implanted as a control (n = 8). Levels of norepinephrine from encapsulated HCCs before and after nicotinic stimulation were measured. We then perfomed a behavior test (cold allodynia) with acetone. In addition, to assess the potential contribution to pain reduction of opioid peptides released from the HCCs, all animals were injected with naloxone. Results The concentration of norepinephrine after nicotine stimulation was significantly increased compared to basal levels. Intrathecal implantation of encapsulated HCCs, significantly reduced cold allodynia as compared to rats receiving empty capsules (P < 0.05). Fifteen minutes after the injection of naloxone, cold allodynia significantly decreased in rats with HCCs (P < 0.05), while the degree of cold allodynia in control animals was unaltered. Conclusions From these results, it appears that HCCs have a possibility as an analgesic source for transplants delivering pain-reducing neuroactive substances. PMID:21716909

  2. Stimulation of catecholamine secretion from cultured chromaffin cells by an ionophore-mediated rise in intracellular sodium.

    PubMed

    Suchard, S J; Lattanzio, F A; Rubin, R W; Pressman, B C

    1982-09-01

    The significance of intracellular Na+ concentration in catecholamine secretion of cultured bovine adrenal chromaffin cells was investigated using the monovalent carboxylic ionophore monensin. This ionophore, which is known to mediate a one-for-one exchange of intracellular K+ for extracellular Na+, induces a slow, prolonged release of catecholamines which, at 6 h, amounts of 75-90% of the total catecholamines; carbachol induces a rapid pulse of catecholamine secretion of 25-35%. Although secretory granule numbers appear to be qualitatively reduced after carbachol, multiple carbachol, or Ba2+ stimulation, overall granule distribution remains similar to that in untreated cells. Monensin-stimulated catecholamine release requires extracellular Na+ but not Ca2+ whereas carbachol-stimulated catecholamine release requires extracellular Ca2+ and is partially dependent on extracellular Na+. Despite its high selectivity for monovalent ions, monensin is considerably more effective in promoting catecholamine secretion than the divalent ionophores, A23187 and ionomycin, which mediate a more direct entry of extracellular Ca2+ into the cell. We propose that the monensin-stimulated increase in intracellular Na+ levels causes an increase in the availability of intracellular Ca2+ which, in turn, stimulates exocytosis. This hypothesis is supported by the comparable stimulation of catecholamine release by ouabain which inhibits the outwardly directed Na+ pump and thus permits intracellular Na+ to accumulate. The relative magnitudes of the secretion elicited by monensin, carbachol, and the calcium ionophores, are most consistent with the hypothesis that, under normal physiological conditions, Na+ acts by decreasing the propensity of Ca2+-sequestering sites to bind the Ca2+ that enters the cell as a result of acetylcholine stimulation. PMID:7130269

  3. Contribution of BK channels to action potential repolarisation at minimal cytosolic Ca2+ concentration in chromaffin cells.

    PubMed

    Scott, Ricardo S; Bustillo, Diego; Olivos-Oré, Luis Alcides; Cuchillo-Ibañez, Inmaculada; Barahona, Maria Victoria; Carbone, Emilio; Artalejo, Antonio R

    2011-10-01

    BK channels modulate cell firing in excitable cells in a voltage-dependent manner regulated by fluctuations in free cytosolic Ca(2+) during action potentials. Indeed, Ca(2+)-independent BK channel activity has ordinarily been considered not relevant for the physiological behaviour of excitable cells. We employed the patch-clamp technique and selective BK channel blockers to record K(+) currents from bovine chromaffin cells at minimal intracellular (about 10 nM) and extracellular (free Ca(2+)) Ca(2+) concentrations. Despite their low open probability under these conditions (V(50) of +146.8 mV), BK channels were responsible for more than 25% of the total K(+) efflux during the first millisecond of a step depolarisation to +20 mV. Moreover, BK channels activated about 30% faster (τ = 0.55 ms) than the rest of available K(+) channels. The other main source of fast voltage-dependent K(+) efflux at such a low Ca(2+) was a transient K(+) (I(A)-type) current activating with V (50) = -14.2 mV. We also studied the activation of BK currents in response to action potential waveforms and their contribution to shaping action potentials both in the presence and the absence of extracellular Ca(2+). Our results show that BK channels activate during action potentials and accelerate cell repolarisation even at minimal Ca(2+) concentration, and suggest that they could do so also in the presence of extracellular Ca(2+), before Ca(2+) entering the cell facilitates their activity. PMID:21755285

  4. Altered excitability of cultured chromaffin cells following exposure to multi-walled carbon nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Gavello, Daniela; Vandael, David H F; Cesa, Roberta; Premoselli, Federica; Marcantoni, Andrea; Cesano, Federico; Scarano, Domenica; Fubini, Bice; Carbone, Emilio; Fenoglio, Ivana; Carabelli, Valentina

    2012-02-01

    We studied the effects of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) on the electrophysiological properties of cultured mouse chromaffin cells, a model of spontaneously firing cells. The exposure of chromaffin cells to MWCNTs at increasing concentrations (30-263 μg/ml) for 24 h reduced, in a dose-dependent way, both the cell membrane input resistance and the number of spontaneously active cells (from 80-52%). Active cells that survived from the toxic effects of MWCNTs exhibited more positive resting potentials, higher firing frequencies and unaltered voltage-gated Ca(2+), Na(+) and K+ current amplitudes. MWCNTs slowed down the inactivation kinetics of Ca(2+)-dependent BK channels. These electrophysiological effects were accompanied by MWCNTs internalization, as confirmed by transmission electron microscopy, indicating that most of the toxic effects derive from a dose-dependent MWCNTs-cell interaction that damages the spontaneous cell activity. PMID:21322767

  5. Pannexin 1 channels: new actors in the regulation of catecholamine release from adrenal chromaffin cells

    PubMed Central

    Momboisse, Fanny; Olivares, María José; Báez-Matus, Ximena; Guerra, María José; Flores-Muñoz, Carolina; Sáez, Juan C.; Martínez, Agustín D.; Cárdenas, Ana M.

    2014-01-01

    Chromaffin cells of the adrenal gland medulla synthesize and store hormones and peptides, which are released into the blood circulation in response to stress. Among them, adrenaline is critical for the fight-or-flight response. This neurosecretory process is highly regulated and depends on cytosolic [Ca2+]. By forming channels at the plasma membrane, pannexin-1 (Panx1) is a protein involved in many physiological and pathological processes amplifying ATP release and/or Ca2+ signals. Here, we show that Panx1 is expressed in the adrenal gland where it plays a role by regulating the release of catecholamines. In fact, inhibitors of Panx1 channels, such as carbenoxolone (Cbx) and probenecid, reduced the secretory activity induced with the nicotinic agonist 1,1-dimethyl-4-phenyl-piperazinium (DMPP, 50 μM) in whole adrenal glands. A similar inhibitory effect was observed in single chromaffin cells using Cbx or 10Panx1 peptide, another Panx1 channel inhibitors. Given that the secretory response depends on cytosolic [Ca2+] and Panx1 channels are permeable to Ca2+, we studied the possible implication of Panx1 channels in the Ca2+ signaling occurring during the secretory process. In support of this possibility, Panx1 channel inhibitors significantly reduced the Ca2+ signals evoked by DMPP in single chromaffin cells. However, the Ca2+ signals induced by caffeine in the absence of extracellular Ca2+ was not affected by Panx1 channel inhibitors, suggesting that this mechanism does not involve Ca2+ release from the endoplasmic reticulum. Conversely, Panx1 inhibitors significantly blocked the DMPP-induce dye uptake, supporting the idea that Panx1 forms functional channels at the plasma membrane. These findings indicate that Panx1 channels participate in the control the Ca2+ signal that triggers the secretory response of adrenal chromaffin cells. This mechanism could have physiological implications during the response to stress. PMID:25237296

  6. A new diamond biosensor with integrated graphitic microchannels for detecting quantal exocytic events from chromaffin cells.

    PubMed

    Picollo, Federico; Gosso, Sara; Vittone, Ettore; Pasquarelli, Alberto; Carbone, Emilio; Olivero, Paolo; Carabelli, Valentina

    2013-09-14

    An MeV ion-microbeam lithographic technique can be successfully employed for the fabrication of an all-carbon miniaturized cellular biosensor based on graphitic microchannels embedded in a single-crystal diamond matrix. The device is functionally characterized for the in vitro recording of quantal exocytic events from single chromaffin cells, with high sensitivity and signal-to-noise ratio, opening promising perspectives for the realization of monolithic all-carbon cellular biosensors. PMID:23847004

  7. Mitotic cell division in the extraadrenal chromaffin system of various species.

    PubMed

    Mascorro, J A; Yates, R D

    1989-08-01

    Mitotic activity often has been reported in embryonic and fetal sympathetic neuroblasts, principal sympathoblasts, and primitive sympathetic cells in various species at different stages of development. Postnatal adrenal medullary cells also are known to undergo mitosis, but such dividing capabilities rarely have been observed in the true postnatal extraadrenal chromaffin system. Although few in number, this work nevertheless has clearly identified such cells in varying stages of the mitotic cycle in the young dog, Syrian hamster, mouse, rabbit, and rat. The dividing cells were noted in paraaortic chromaffin organs, paraganglia, and within the inferior mesenteric ganglion as well. They displayed the morphological character usually associated with their adrenal medullary catecholaminergic counterparts, including numerous dense-cored vesicles known to be the harbingers of catecholamines and various peptides. Nerve endings were not noticed upon the mitotic cells. The phenomenon of dividing extraadrenal chromaffin cells augments existing data and perhaps suggests that these cells are more endocrine than neural in type and subservient to the adrenal medulla in its classic endocrine function. PMID:2769435

  8. Cytosolic organelles shape calcium signals and exo-endocytotic responses of chromaffin cells.

    PubMed

    García, Antonio G; Padín, Fernando; Fernández-Morales, José C; Maroto, Marcos; García-Sancho, Javier

    2012-01-01

    The concept of stimulus-secretion coupling was born from experiments performed in chromaffin cells 50 years ago. Stimulation of these cells with acetylcholine enhances calcium (Ca(2+)) entry and this generates a transient elevation of the cytosolic Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)](c)) that triggers the exocytotic release of catecholamines. The control of the [Ca(2+)](c) signal is complex and depends on various classes of plasmalemmal calcium channels, cytosolic calcium buffers, the uptake and release of Ca(2+) from cytoplasmic organelles, such as the endoplasmic reticulum, mitochondria, chromaffin vesicles and the nucleus, and Ca(2+) extrusion mechanisms, such as the plasma membrane Ca(2+)-stimulated ATPase, and the Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchanger. Computation of the rates of Ca(2+) fluxes between the different cell compartments support the proposal that the chromaffin cell has developed functional calcium tetrads formed by calcium channels, cytosolic calcium buffers, the endoplasmic reticulum, and mitochondria nearby the exocytotic plasmalemmal sites. These tetrads shape the Ca(2+) transients occurring during cell activation to regulate early and late steps of exocytosis, and the ensuing endocytotic responses. The different patterns of catecholamine secretion in response to stress may thus depend on such local [Ca(2+)](c) transients occurring at different cell compartments, and generated by redistribution and release of Ca(2+) by cytoplasmic organelles. In this manner, the calcium tetrads serve to couple the variable energy demands due to exo-endocytotic activities with energy production and protein synthesis. PMID:22209033

  9. Purification of N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive ATPase from chromaffin granule membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Cidon, S.; Nelson, N.

    1986-07-15

    An N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive ATPase was purified 100-fold from chromaffin granule membranes. The purification procedure included solubilization with polyoxyethylene 9 lauryl ether, chromatography on hydroxylapatite and DEAE-cellulose columns, and glycerol gradient centrifugations. Inclusion of phosphatidylserine and a mixture of protease inhibitors during the purification procedure was necessary to maintain the activity of the preparation. The purified preparation contained four major polypeptides with molecular masses of about 115, 72, 57, and 39 kDa, which were copurified with the ATPase activity. The 115-kDa subunit binds (/sup 14/C)dicyclohexylcarbodiimide and the subunits of 115 and 39 kDa bind (/sup 14/C)N-ethylmaleimide. The ATP-dependent proton uptake activity of chromaffin granule membranes is inhibited 50% with about 20 microM N-ethylmaleimide, while over 5 mM concentrations of the inhibitor were required to block the ATPase activity of the membranes. The ATPase activity of the purified enzyme was inhibited via two different affinities: a high affinity site with a Ki in the microM range and a low affinity site in the mM range, each contributing to about 50% inhibition of the enzyme. It is concluded that the proton-ATPase of chromaffin granule membranes contains at least four subunits with the 115-kDa polypeptide being the main subunit having the active site for the ATPase activity of the enzyme.

  10. Calcium channel types contributing to chromaffin cell excitability, exocytosis and endocytosis.

    PubMed

    Mahapatra, S; Calorio, C; Vandael, D H F; Marcantoni, A; Carabelli, V; Carbone, E

    2012-01-01

    Voltage gated Ca(2+) channels are effective voltage sensors of plasma membrane which convert cell depolarizations into Ca(2+) signaling. The chromaffin cells of the adrenal medulla utilize a large number of Ca(2+) channel types to drive the Ca(2+)-dependent release of catecholamines into blood circulation, during normal or stress-induced conditions. Some of the Ca(2+) channels expressed in chromaffin cells (L, N, P/Q, R and T), however, do not control only vesicle fusion and catecholamine release. They also subserve a variety of key activities which are vital for the physiological and pathological functioning of the cell, like: (i) shaping the action potentials of electrical oscillations driven either spontaneously or by ACh stimulation, (ii) controlling the action potential frequency of tonic or bursts firing, (iii) regulating the compensatory and excess endocytosis following robust exocytosis and (iv) driving the remodeling of Ca(2+) signaling which occurs during stressors stimulation. Here, we will briefly review the well-established properties of voltage-gated Ca(2+) channels accumulated over the past three decades focusing on the most recent discoveries on the role that L- (Cav1.2, Cav1.3) and T-type (Cav3.2) channels play in the control of excitability, exocytosis and endocytosis of chromaffin cells in normal and stress-mimicking conditions. PMID:22317919

  11. Controlled on-chip stimulation of quantal catecholamine release from chromaffin cells using photolysis of caged Ca2+ on transparent indium-tin-oxide microchip electrodes.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiaohui; Gao, Yuanfang; Hossain, Maruf; Gangopadhyay, Shubhra; Gillis, Kevin D

    2008-01-01

    Photorelease of caged Ca(2+) is a uniquely powerful tool to study the dynamics of Ca(2+)-triggered exocytosis from individual cells. Using photolithography and other microfabrication techniques, we have developed transparent microchip devices to enable photorelease of caged Ca(2+), together with electrochemical detection of quantal catecholamine secretion from individual cells or cell arrays as a step towards developing high-throughput experimental devices. A 100 nm thick transparent indium-tin-oxide (ITO) film was sputter-deposited onto glass coverslips, which were then patterned into 24 cell-sized working electrodes (approximately 20 microm by 20 microm). We loaded bovine chromaffin cells with acetoxymethyl (AM) ester derivatives of the Ca(2+) cage NP-EGTA and Ca(2+) indicator dye fura-4F, then transferred these cells onto the working ITO electrodes for amperometric recordings. Upon flash photorelease of caged Ca(2+), a uniform rise of [Ca(2+)](i) within the target cell leads to quantal release of oxidizable catecholamines measured amperometrically by the underlying ITO electrode. We observed a burst of amperometric spikes upon rapid elevation of [Ca(2+)](i) and a "priming" effect of sub-stimulatory [Ca(2+)](i) on the response of cells to subsequent [Ca(2+)](i) elevation, similar to previous reports using different techniques. We conclude that UV photolysis of caged Ca(2+) is a suitable stimulation technique for higher-throughput studies of Ca(2+)-dependent exocytosis on transparent electrochemical microelectrode arrays. PMID:18094774

  12. Controlled On-chip Stimulation of Quantal Catecholamine Release from Chromaffin Cells Using Photolysis of Caged Ca2+ on Transparent Indium-Tin-Oxide Microchip Electrodes

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xiaohui; Gao, Yuanfang; Hossain, Maruf; Gangopadhyay, Shubhra; Gillis, Kevin D.

    2008-01-01

    Photorelease of caged Ca2+ is a uniquely powerful tool to study the dynamics of Ca2+-triggered exocytosis from individual cells. Using photolithography and other microfabrication techniques, we have developed transparent microchip devices to enable photorelease of caged Ca2+ together with electrochemical detection of quantal catecholamine secretion from individual cells or cell arrays as a step towards developing high-throughput experimental devices. A 100 nm - thick transparent Indium-Tin-Oxide (ITO) film was sputter-deposited onto glass coverslips, which were then patterned into 24 cell-sized working electrodes (∼20 μm by 20 μm). We loaded bovine chromaffin cells with acetoxymethyl (AM) ester derivatives of the Ca2+ cage NP-EGTA and Ca2+ indicator dye Fura-4F, then transferred these cells onto the working ITO electrodes for amperometric recordings. Upon flash photorelease of caged Ca2+, a uniform rise of [Ca2+]i within the target cell leads to quantal release of oxidizable catecholamines measured amperometrically by the underlying ITO electrode. We observed a burst of amperometric spikes upon rapid elevation of [Ca2+]i and a “priming” effect of sub-stimulatory [Ca2+]i on the response of cells to subsequent [Ca2+]i elevation, similar to previous reports using different techniques. We conclude that UV photolysis of caged Ca2+ is a suitable stimulation technique for higher-throughput studies of Ca2+-dependent exocytosis on transparent electrochemical microelectrode arrays. PMID:18094774

  13. A glutaraldehyde/potassium dichromate tracing method for the localization and preservation of abdominal extra-adrenal chromaffin tissues.

    PubMed

    Mascorro, J A; Yates, R D; Chen, I L

    1975-11-01

    The present work introduces a method for the localization in situ of the abdominal paraganglia. After treating retroperitoneal tissue blocks with a near-neutral glutaraldehyde/potassium dichromate solution following routine glutaraldehyde perfusion, intra- and extraadrenal chromaffin tissues develop a pronounced brown color from the interaction of glutaraldehyde/potassium dichromate with amines. In this manner, visualization of the abdominal extra-adrenal chromaffin organs is enhanced at the same time that cellular ultrastructure is preserved. Subsequent examination of the dichromate-reacted tissues with the electron microscope confirms that they represent the amine-rich paraganglia. This method offers an effective alternative to extensive sampling of plastic-embedded blocks for localizing peripheral chromaffin tissue and has been used to define the exact distribution of abdominal paraganglia in the rabbit. PMID:58451

  14. Functional chromaffin cell plasticity in response to stress: focus on nicotinic, gap junction, and voltage-gated Ca2+ channels.

    PubMed

    Guérineau, Nathalie C; Desarménien, Michel G; Carabelli, Valentina; Carbone, Emilio

    2012-10-01

    An increase in circulating catecholamines constitutes one of the mechanisms whereby human body responds to stress. In response to chronic stressful situations, the adrenal medullary tissue exhibits crucial morphological and functional changes that are consistent with an improvement of chromaffin cell stimulus-secretion coupling efficiency. Stimulus-secretion coupling encompasses multiple intracellular (chromaffin cell excitability, Ca(2+) signaling, exocytosis, endocytosis) and intercellular pathways (splanchnic nerve-mediated synaptic transmission, paracrine and endocrine communication, gap junctional coupling), each of them being potentially subjected to functional remodeling upon stress. This review focuses on three chromaffin cell incontrovertible actors, the cholinergic nicotinic receptors and the voltage-dependent T-type Ca(2+) channels that are directly involved in Ca(2+)-dependent events controlling catecholamine secretion and electrical activity, and the gap junctional communication involved in the modulation of catecholamine secretion. We show here that these three actors react differently to various stressors, sometimes independently, sometimes in concert or in opposition. PMID:22252244

  15. Functional chromaffin cell plasticity in response to stress: focus on nicotinic, gap junction, and voltage-gated Ca2+ channels

    PubMed Central

    Guérineau, Nathalie C.; Desarménien, Michel G.; Carabelli, Valentina; Carbone, Emilio

    2012-01-01

    An increase in circulating catecholamines constitutes one of the mechanisms whereby human body responds to stress. In response to chronic stressful situations, the adrenal medullary tissue exhibits crucial morphological and functional changes that are consistent with an improvement of chromaffin cell stimulus-secretion coupling efficiency. Stimulus-secretion coupling encompasses multiple intracellular (chromaffin cell excitability, Ca2+ signaling, exocytosis, endocytosis) and intercellular pathways (splanchnic nerve-mediated synaptic transmission, paracrine and endocrine communication, gap junctional coupling), each of them being potentially subjected to functional remodeling upon stress. This review focuses on three chromaffin cell incontrovertible actors, the cholinergic nicotinic receptors and the voltage-dependent T-type Ca2+ channels that are directly involved in Ca2+-dependent events controlling catecholamine secretion and electrical activity, and the gap junctional communication involved in the modulation of catecholamine secretion. We show here that these three actors react differently to various stressors, sometimes independently, sometimes in concert or in opposition. PMID:22252244

  16. The autonomic nervous system and chromaffin tissue: neuroendocrine regulation of catecholamine secretion in non-mammalian vertebrates.

    PubMed

    Perry, Steve F; Capaldo, Anna

    2011-11-16

    If severe enough, periods of acute stress in animals may be associated with the release of catecholamine hormones (noradrenaline and adrenaline) into the circulation; a response termed the acute humoral adrenergic stress response. The release of catecholamines from the sites of storage, the chromaffin cells, is under neuroendocrine control, the complexity of which appears to increase through phylogeny. In the agnathans, the earliest branching vertebrates, the chromaffin cells which are localized predominantly within the heart, lack neuronal innervation and thus catecholamine secretion in these animals is initiated solely by humoral mechanisms. In the more advanced teleost fish, the chromaffin cells are largely confined to the walls of the posterior cardinal vein at the level of the head kidney where they are intermingled with the steroidogenic interrenal cells. Catecholamine secretion from teleost chromaffin cells is regulated by a host of cholinergic and non-cholinergic pathways that ensure sufficient redundancy and flexibility in the secretion process to permit synchronized responses to a myriad of stressors. The complexity of catecholamine secretion control mechanisms continues through the amphibians, reptiles and birds although neural (cholinergic) regulation may become increasingly important in birds. Discrete adrenal glands are present in the non-mammalian tetrapods but unlike in mammals, there is no clear division of a steroidogenic cortex and a chromaffin cell enriched medulla. However, in all groups, there is an obvious intermingling of chromaffin and steroiodogenic cells. The association of the two cell types may be particularly important in the amphibians and birds because like in mammals, the enzyme catalysing the methylation of noradrenaline to adrenaline, PNMT, is under the control of the steroid cortisol. PMID:20547474

  17. Inhibition of catecholamine secretion by iron-rich and iron-deprived multiwalled carbon nanotubes in chromaffin cells.

    PubMed

    Gavello, Daniela; Fenoglio, Ivana; Fubini, Bice; Cesano, Federico; Premoselli, Federica; Renna, Annamaria; Carbone, Emilio; Carabelli, Valentina

    2013-12-01

    The assay of the toxic effects of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) on human health is a stringent need in view of their expected increasing exploitation in industrial and biomedical applications. Most studies so far have been focused on lung toxicity, as the respiratory tract is the main entry of airborne particulate, but there is also recent evidence on the existence of toxic effects of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) on neuronal and neuroendocrine cells (Belyanskaya et al., 2009; Xu et al., 2009; Gavello et al., 2012). Commercial MWCNTs often contain large amounts of metals deriving from the catalyst used during their synthesis. Since metals, particularly iron, may contribute to the toxicity of MWCNTs, we compared here the effects of two short MWCNTs samples (<5μm length), differing only in their iron content (0.5 versus 0.05% w/w) on the secretory responses of neurotransmitters in mouse chromaffin cells. We found that both iron-rich (MWCNT+Fe) and iron-deprived (MWCNT-Fe) samples enter chromaffin cells after 24h exposure, even though incorporation was attenuated in the latter case (40% versus 78% of cells). As a consequence of MWCNT+Fe or MWCNT-Fe exposure (50-263μg/ml, 24h), catecholamine secretion of chromaffin cells is drastically impaired because of the decreased Ca(2+)-dependence of exocytosis, reduced size of ready-releasable pool and lowered rate of vesicle release. On the contrary, both MWCNTs were ineffective in changing the kinetics of neurotransmitter release of single chromaffin granules and their quantal content. Overall, our data indicate that both MWCNT samples dramatically impair secretion in chromaffin cells, thus uncovering a true depressive action of CNTs mainly associated to their structure and degree of aggregation. This cellular "loss-of-function" is only partially attenuated in iron-deprived samples, suggesting a minor role of iron impurities on MWCNTs toxicity in chromaffin cells exocytosis. PMID:23999117

  18. Immobilization and cold stress affect sympatho-adrenomedullary system and pituitary-adrenocortical axis of rats exposed to long-term isolation and crowding.

    PubMed

    Dronjak, Sladjana; Gavrilović, Ljubica; Filipović, Dragana; Radojcić, Marija B

    2004-05-01

    Changes in plasma levels of noradrenaline (NA), adrenaline (A), adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and corticosterone (CORT), as well as in cytosol glucocorticoid receptor (GR) and heat shock protein 70 (Hsp 70) in hippocampus of adult rat males exposed to two long-term types of psychosocial stress, both under basal conditions and in response to immobilization and cold as heterotypic additional stressor were studied. Long-term isolation produced a significant elevation of basal plasma ACTH and CORT levels, but did not affect that of NA and A, while long-term crowding conditions did not elevate the basal plasma levels of these hormones. Long-term isolation of rats exposed to 2 h of immobilization or cold led to a significant elevation of plasma NA, A and CORT in comparison with the controls. Long-term crowding conditions and exposure of animals to immobilization or cold also resulted in an increased plasma NA, A and CORT levels, but to a lesser extent in comparison with the long-term isolation. At the same time, plasma ACTH was significantly more elevated in long-term crowded than in long-term isolated rats. Both kinds of long-term psychosocial stresses (isolation and crowding) had similar but less pronounced effects on cytosol GR and Hsp 70 concentrations in hippocampus comparing to acute immobilization and cold stress. It seems that long-term psychosocial stresses attenuate the effects of an additional stress on hippocampal GR and Hsp 70 concentrations. These data suggest that individual housing of rats appear to act as a stronger stressor than crowding conditions. When the animals suffering a long-term isolation were exposed to either acute immobilization or cold, a stronger activation of the sympatho-adrenomedullary system (SAS) was recorded in comparison with that found in the long-term crowded group subjected to short-term immobilization or cold. No significant differences in the activity of hypotalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis were observed between long

  19. Topography of a vacuolar-type H+-translocating ATPase: chromaffin-granule membrane ATPase I.

    PubMed Central

    Apps, D K; Percy, J M; Perez-Castineira, J R

    1989-01-01

    Proteins exposed on the cytoplasmic face of isolated chromaffin granules were labelled by lactoperoxidase-catalysed radioiodination and by non-enzymic biotinylation. Granule membranes were then prepared, and the H+-translocating ATPase isolated by fractionation with Triton X-114. The labelling of individual ATPase subunits was assessed by polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis, followed by autoradiography or by blotting and decoration with 125I-labelled streptavidin. Subunits of 72, 57 and kDa were strongly labelled, and could be removed from the membrane at pH 11: they are therefore extrinsic proteins. The 120 kDa subunit was also labelled, but it was not solubilized at pH 11. Photolabelling with a hydrophobic probe indicated that this subunit penetrates the bilayer, and enzymic degradation studies showed the presence of N-linked oligosaccharides; this subunit therefore spans the chromaffin-granule membrane. Labelling of the 17 kDa subunit occurred predominantly on the extracytoplasmic (matrix) face of the granule membrane. These results are consistent with this V-type ATPase having a structure that is generally similar to that of mitochondrial (F-type) ATPases, although the attachment of the 120 kDa subunit may be asymmetrical. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 5. PMID:2532503

  20. Identification of a Munc13-sensitive step in chromaffin cell large dense-core vesicle exocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Man, Kwun Nok M; Imig, Cordelia; Walter, Alexander M; Pinheiro, Paulo S; Stevens, David R; Rettig, Jens; Sørensen, Jakob B; Cooper, Benjamin H; Brose, Nils; Wojcik, Sonja M

    2015-01-01

    It is currently unknown whether the molecular steps of large dense-core vesicle (LDCV) docking and priming are identical to the corresponding reactions in synaptic vesicle (SV) exocytosis. Munc13s are essential for SV docking and priming, and we systematically analyzed their role in LDCV exocytosis using chromaffin cells lacking individual isoforms. We show that particularly Munc13-2 plays a fundamental role in LDCV exocytosis, but in contrast to synapses lacking Munc13s, the corresponding chromaffin cells do not exhibit a vesicle docking defect. We further demonstrate that ubMunc13-2 and Munc13-1 confer Ca2+-dependent LDCV priming with similar affinities, but distinct kinetics. Using a mathematical model, we identify an early LDCV priming step that is strongly dependent upon Munc13s. Our data demonstrate that the molecular steps of SV and LDCV priming are very similar while SV and LDCV docking mechanisms are distinct. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.10635.001 PMID:26575293

  1. Impaired maturation of large dense-core vesicles in muted-deficient adrenal chromaffin cells.

    PubMed

    Hao, Zhenhua; Wei, Lisi; Feng, Yaqin; Chen, Xiaowei; Du, Wen; Ma, Jing; Zhou, Zhuan; Chen, Liangyi; Li, Wei

    2015-04-01

    The large dense-core vesicle (LDCV), a type of lysosome-related organelle, is involved in the secretion of hormones and neuropeptides in specialized secretory cells. The granin family is a driving force in LDCV biogenesis, but the machinery for granin sorting to this biogenesis pathway is largely unknown. The mu mutant mouse, which carries a spontaneous null mutation on the Muted gene (also known as Bloc1s5), which encodes a subunit of the biogenesis of lysosome-related organelles complex-1 (BLOC-1), is a mouse model of Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome. Here, we found that LDCVs were enlarged in mu adrenal chromaffin cells. Chromogranin A (CgA, also known as CHGA) was increased in mu adrenals and muted-knockdown cells. The increased CgA in mu mice was likely due a failure to export this molecule out of immature LDCVs, which impairs LDCV maturation and docking. In mu chromaffin cells, the size of readily releasable pool and the vesicle release frequency were reduced. Our studies suggest that the muted protein is involved in the selective export of CgA during the biogenesis of LDCVs. PMID:25673877

  2. Chromaffin granule membrane-F-actin interactions and spectrin-like protein of subcellular organelles: a possible relationship.

    PubMed

    Aunis, D; Perrin, D

    1984-06-01

    The membrane of chromaffin granule, the secretory vesicle of adrenal medullary cells storing catecholamines, enkephalins, and many other components, interacts with F-actin. Using low shear falling ball viscometry to estimate actin binding to membranes, we demonstrated that mitochondrial and plasma membranes from chromaffin cells also provoked large increases in viscosity of F-actin solutions. Mitochondrial membranes also had the capacity to cause complete gelation of F-actin. In addition, vasopressin-containing granules from neurohypophysial tissue were shown to bind F-actin and to increase the viscosity of F-actin solutions. Using an antibody directed against human erythrocyte spectrin, it was found that a spectrin-like protein was associated with secretory granule membrane, mitochondrial membrane, and plasma membrane. The chromaffin granule membrane-associated spectrin-like protein faces the cytoplasmic side, is composed of two subunits (240 kD and 235kD ), the alpha-subunit (240 kD, pHi5 .5) being recognized by the antibody. Nonionic detergents such as Triton X-100 or Nonidet P40 failed to release fully active spectrin-like protein. In contrast, Kyro EOB , a different nonionic detergent, was found to release spectrin-like protein while keeping intact F-actin binding capacity, at least below 0.5% Kyro EOB concentration. Chromaffin cells in culture were stained with antispectrin antibody, showing the presence of spectrin-like protein in the cell periphery close to the cell membrane but also in the cytoplasm. We conclude that in living cells the interaction of F-actin with chromaffin granule membrane spectrin observed in vitro is important in controlling the potential function of secretory vesicles. PMID:6374036

  3. Identification of muscarinic receptor subtypes involved in catecholamine secretion in adrenal medullary chromaffin cells by genetic deletion

    PubMed Central

    Harada, Keita; Matsuoka, Hidetada; Miyata, Hironori; Matsui, Minoru; Inoue, Masumi

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose Activation of muscarinic receptors results in catecholamine secretion in adrenal chromaffin cells in many mammals, and muscarinic receptors partly mediate synaptic transmission from the splanchnic nerve, at least in guinea pigs. To elucidate the physiological functions of muscarinic receptors in chromaffin cells, it is necessary to identify the muscarinic receptor subtypes involved in excitation. Experimental Approach To identify muscarinic receptors, pharmacological tools and strains of mice where one or several muscarinic receptor subtypes were genetically deleted were used. Cellular responses to muscarinic stimulation in isolated chromaffin cells were studied with the patch clamp technique and amperometry. Key Results Muscarinic M1, M4 and M5 receptors were immunologically detected in mouse chromaffin cells, and these receptors disappeared after the appropriate gene deletion. Mouse cells secreted catecholamines in response to muscarinic agonists, angiotensin II and a decrease in external pH. Genetic deletion of M1, but not M3, M4 or M5, receptors in mice abolished secretion in response to muscarine, but not to other stimuli. The muscarine-induced secretion was suppressed by MT7, a snake peptide toxin specific for M1 receptors. Similarly, muscarine failed to induce an inward current in the presence of MT7 in mouse and rat chromaffin cells. The binding affinity of VU0255035 for the inhibition of muscarine-induced currents agreed with that for the M1 receptor. Conclusions and Implications Based upon the effects of genetic deletion of muscarinic receptors and MT7, it is concluded that the M1 receptor alone is responsible for muscarine-induced catecholamine secretion. PMID:25393049

  4. Colocalization of calcium entry and exocytotic release sites in adrenal chromaffin cells.

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, I M; Finnegan, J M; Monck, J R; Wightman, R M; Fernandez, J M

    1995-01-01

    "Snapshot" images of localized Ca2+ influx into patch-clamped chromaffin cells were captured by using a recently developed pulsed-laser imaging system. Transient opening of voltage-sensitive Ca2+ channels gave rise to localized elevations of Ca2+ that had the appearance of either "hotspots" or partial rings found immediately beneath the plasma membrane. When the Ca2+ imaging technique was employed in conjunction with flame-etched carbon-fiber electrodes to spatially map the release sites of catecholamines, it was observed that the sites of Ca2+ entry and catecholamine release were colocalized. These results provide functional support for the idea that secretion occurs from "active zone"-like structures in neuroendocrine cells. Images Fig. 2 PMID:7708668

  5. Ca(2+)-activated K+ channels modulate muscarinic secretion in cat chromaffin cells.

    PubMed Central

    Uceda, G; Artalejo, A R; López, M G; Abad, F; Neher, E; García, A G

    1992-01-01

    1. This study was aimed at testing the hypothesis that Ca(2+)-dependent K+ channels regulate the release of catecholamines mediated by muscarinic stimulation of cat adrenal chromaffin cells. Two parameters were measured: the secretory response to brief pulses of methacholine (100 microM for 10 s) in intact cat adrenal glands perfused at a high rate with oxygenated Krebs solution; and the changes in cytosolic Ca2+ concentrations, [Ca2+]i, produced by puff applications of methacholine pulses (also 100 microM for 10 s) in isolated single cat adrenal chromaffin cells loaded with Fura-2. 2. A pulse of methacholine released 805 +/- 164 ng of catecholamines (mean of thirty-two pulses). d-Tubocurarine (DTC) increased the secretory response in a concentration-dependent manner. The maximum increase (around 1000 ng catecholamines over control values) was reached at 100 microM-DTC and the EC50 was around 10 microM. 3. The secretory responses to methacholine alone, or to the combination of methacholine plus DTC, were strongly dependent on the extracellular Ca2+ concentration, [Ca2+]o. Thus Ca2+o removal from the perfusing solution for 5-10 min abolished catecholamine release. 4. At 0.1 microM, isradipine (an L-type Ca2+ channel blocker) inhibited by 71% the secretory response to DTC plus methacholine. At 1 microM, Bay K 8644 (an L-type Ca2+ channel activator) increased 2-fold the secretory response to DTC plus methacholine (2746 ng of catecholamines). 5. Apamin (1 microM) increased 3.5-fold the secretory response to methacholine pulses (from 500 to 1800 ng of catecholamines). 6. Methacholine pulses enhanced [Ca2+]i from the resting level of 100 nM to a peak of 1000 nM which quickly declined to basal level. DTC (100 microM) enhanced by 20% the [Ca2+]i peak and substantially prolonged its duration. 7. Apamin (1 microM) increased by 60% the [Ca2+]i peak evoked by methacholine, and delayed the initiation of decline of the [Ca2+]i peak. 8. These results are compatible with the idea

  6. Syndapin 3 modulates fusion pore expansion in mouse neuroendocrine chromaffin cells

    PubMed Central

    Samasilp, Prattana; Lopin, Kyle; Chan, Shyue-An; Ramachandran, Rajesh

    2014-01-01

    Adrenal neuroendocrine chromaffin cells receive excitatory synaptic input from the sympathetic nervous system and secrete hormones into the peripheral circulation. Under basal sympathetic tone, modest amounts of freely soluble catecholamine are selectively released through a restricted fusion pore formed between the secretory granule and the plasma membrane. Upon activation of the sympathoadrenal stress reflex, elevated stimulation drives fusion pore expansion, resulting in increased catecholamine secretion and facilitating release of copackaged peptide hormones. Thus regulated expansion of the secretory fusion pore is a control point for differential hormone release of the sympathoadrenal stress response. Previous work has shown that syndapin 1 deletion alters transmitter release and that the dynamin 1-syndapin 1 interaction is necessary for coupled endocytosis in neurons. Dynamin has also been shown to be involved in regulation of fusion pore expansion in neuroendocrine chromaffin cells through an activity-dependent association with syndapin. However, it is not known which syndapin isoform(s) contributes to pore dynamics in neuroendocrine cells. Nor is it known at what stage of the secretion process dynamin and syndapin associate to modulate pore expansion. Here we investigate the expression and localization of syndapin isoforms and determine which are involved in mediating fusion pore expansion. We show that all syndapin isoforms are expressed in the adrenal medulla. Mutation of the SH3 dynamin-binding domain of all syndapin isoforms shows that fusion pore expansion and catecholamine release are limited specifically by mutation of syndapin 3. The mutation also disrupts targeting of syndapin 3 to the cell periphery. Syndapin 3 exists in a persistent colocalized state with dynamin 1. PMID:24500282

  7. L-type calcium channels in adrenal chromaffin cells: role in pace-making and secretion.

    PubMed

    Marcantoni, A; Baldelli, P; Hernandez-Guijo, J M; Comunanza, V; Carabelli, V; Carbone, E

    2007-01-01

    Voltage-gated L-type (Cav1.2 and Cav1.3) channels are widely expressed in cardiovascular tissues and represent the critical drug-target for the treatment of several cardiovascular diseases. The two isoforms are also abundantly expressed in neuronal and neuroendocrine tissues. In the brain, Cav1.2 and Cav1.3 channels control synaptic plasticity, somatic activity, neuronal differentiation and brain aging. In neuroendocrine cells, they are involved in the genesis of action potential generation, bursting activity and hormone secretion. Recent studies have shown that Cav1.2 and Cav1.3 are also expressed in chromaffin cells but their functional role has not yet been identified despite that L-type channels possess interesting characteristics, which confer them an important role in the control of catecholamine secretion during action potentials stimulation. In intact rat adrenal glands L-type channels are responsible for adrenaline and noradrenaline release following splanchnic nerve stimulation or nicotinic receptor activation. L-type channels can be either up- or down-modulated by membrane autoreceptors following distinct second messenger pathways. L-type channels are tightly coupled to BK channels and activate at relatively low-voltages. In this way they contribute to the action potential hyperpolarization and to the pace-maker current controlling action potential firings. L-type channels are shown also to regulate the fast secretion of the immediate readily releasable pool of vesicles with the same Ca(2+)-efficiency of other voltage-gated Ca(2+) channels. In mouse adrenal slices, repeated action potential-like stimulations drive L-type channels to a state of enhanced stimulus-secretion efficiency regulated by beta-adrenergic receptors. Here we will review all these novel findings and discuss the possible implication for a specific role of L-type channels in the control of chromaffin cells activity. PMID:17561252

  8. Nanocrystalline diamond microelectrode arrays fabricated on sapphire technology for high-time resolution of quantal catecholamine secretion from chromaffin cells.

    PubMed

    Carabelli, V; Gosso, S; Marcantoni, A; Xu, Y; Colombo, E; Gao, Z; Vittone, E; Kohn, E; Pasquarelli, A; Carbone, E

    2010-09-15

    The quantal release of oxidizable molecules can be successfully monitored by means of polarized carbon fiber microelectrodes (CFEs) positioned in close proximity to the cell membrane. To partially overcome certain CFE limitations, mainly related to their low spatial resolution and lack of optical transparency, we developed a planar boron-doped nanocrystalline diamond (NCD) prototype, grown on a transparent sapphire wafer. Responsiveness to applied catecholamines as well as the electrochemical and optical properties of the NCD-based device were first characterized by cyclic voltammetry and optical transmittance measurements. By stimulating chromaffin cells positioned on the device with external KCl, well-resolved quantal exocytotic events could be detected either from one NCD microelectrode, or simultaneously from an array of four microelectrodes, indicating that the chip is able to monitor secretory events (amperometric spikes) from a number of isolated chromaffin cells. Spikes detected by the planar NCD device had comparable amplitudes, kinetics and vesicle diameter distributions as those measured by conventional CFEs from the same chromaffin cell. PMID:20570501

  9. CaV1.3 as pacemaker channels in adrenal chromaffin cells: specific role on exo- and endocytosis?

    PubMed

    Comunanza, Valentina; Marcantoni, Andrea; Vandael, David H; Mahapatra, Satyajit; Gavello, Daniela; Carabelli, Valentina; Carbone, Emilio

    2010-01-01

    Voltage-gated L-type calcium channels (LTCCs) are expressed in adrenal chromaffin cells. Besides shaping the action potential (AP), LTCCs are involved in the excitation-secretion coupling controlling catecholamine release and in Ca (2+) -dependent vesicle retrieval. Of the two LTCCs expressed in chromaffin cells (CaV1.2 and CaV1.3), CaV1.3 possesses the prerequisites for pacemaking spontaneously firing cells: low-threshold, steep voltage-dependence of activation and slow inactivation. By using CaV1 .3 (-/-) KO mice and the AP-clamp it has been possible to resolve the time course of CaV1.3 pacemaker currents, which is similar to that regulating substantia nigra dopaminergic neurons. In mouse chromaffin cells CaV1.3 is coupled to fast-inactivating BK channels within membrane nanodomains and controls AP repolarization. The ability to carry subthreshold Ca (2+) currents and activate BK channels confers to CaV1.3 the unique feature of driving Ca (2+) loading during long interspike intervals and, possibly, to control the Ca (2+) -dependent exocytosis and endocytosis processes that regulate catecholamine secretion and vesicle recycling. PMID:21084859

  10. Novel features on the regulation by mitochondria of calcium and secretion transients in chromaffin cells challenged with acetylcholine at 37°C

    PubMed Central

    Caricati‐Neto, Afonso; Padín, Juan‐Fernando; Silva‐Junior, Edilson‐Dantas; Fernández‐Morales, José‐Carlos; de Diego, Antonio‐Miguel G.; Jurkiewicz, Aron; García, Antonio G.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract From experiments performed at room temperature, we know that the buffering of Ca2+ by mitochondria contributes to the shaping of the bulk cytosolic calcium transient ([Ca2+]c) and secretion transients of chromaffin cells stimulated with depolarizing pulses. We also know that the mitochondrial Ca2+ transporters and the release of catecholamine are faster at 37°C with respect to room temperature. Therefore, we planned this investigation to gain further insight into the contribution of mitochondrial Ca2+ buffering to the shaping of [Ca2+]c and catecholamine release transients, using some novel experimental conditions that have not been yet explored namely: (1) perifusion of bovine chromaffin cells (BCCs) with saline at 37°C and their repeated challenging with the physiological neurotransmitter acetylcholine (ACh); (2) separate blockade of mitochondrial Ca2+ uniporter (mCUP) with Ru360 or the mitochondrial Na+/Ca2+ exchanger (mNCX) with CGP37157; (3) full blockade of the mitochondrial Ca2+ cycling (mCC) by the simultaneous inhibition of the mCUP and the mNCX. Ru360 caused a pronounced delay of [Ca2+]c clearance and augmented secretion. In contrast, CGP37157 only caused a tiny delay of [Ca2+]c clearance and a mild decrease in secretion. The mCC resulting in continued Ca2+ uptake and its release back into the cytosol was interrupted by combined Ru360 + CGP37157 (Ru/CGP), the protonophore carbonyl cyanide‐p‐trifluoromethoxyphenylhydrazone, or combined oligomycin + rotenone (O/R); these three treatments caused a mild but sustained elevation of basal [Ca2+]c that, however, was not accompanied by a parallel increase in basal secretion. Nevertheless, all treatments caused a pronounced augmentation of ACh‐induced secretion, with minor changes of the ACh‐induced [Ca2+]c transients. Combined Ru/CGP did not alter the resting membrane potential in current‐clamped cells. Additionally, Ru/CGP did not increase basal [Ca2+]c near subplasmalemmal sites and caused a

  11. Blockade by NNC 55-0396, mibefradil, and nickel of calcium and exocytotic signals in chromaffin cells: implications for the regulation of hypoxia-induced secretion at early life.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Morales, José C; Fernando Padín, J; Vestring, Stefan; Musial, Diego C; de Diego, Antonio-Miguel G; García, Antonio G

    2015-03-15

    Adrenal chromaffin cells (CCs) express high-voltage activated calcium channels (high-VACCs) of the L, N and PQ subtypes; in addition, T-type low-VACCs are also expressed during embryo and neonatal life. Effects of the more frequently used T channel blockers NNC 55-0396 (NNC), mibefradil, and Ni2+ on the whole-cell Ba2+ current (IBa), the K+-elicited [Ca2+]c transients and catecholamine secretion have been studied in adult bovine CCs (BCCs) and rat embryo CCs (RECCs). NNC, mibefradil, and Ni2+ blocked BCC IBa with IC50 of 1.8, 4.9 and 70 μM, while IC50 to block IBa in RECCs were 2.1, 4.4 and 41 μM. Pronounced blockade of K+-elicited [Ca2+]c transients and secretion was also elicited by the three agents. However, the hypoxia-induced secretion (HIS) of catecholamine in RECCs was blocked substantially (75%) with thresholds concentrations of NCC (IC20 to block IBa); this was not the case for mibefradil and Ni2+ that required higher concentrations to block the HIS response. Thus, out of the three compounds, NNC seemed to be an adequate pharmacological tool to discern the contribution of T channels to the HIS response, without a contamination with high-VACC blockade. PMID:25622555

  12. Dietary unsaturated fatty acids differently affect catecholamine handling by adrenal chromaffin cells.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Andreia; Correia, Gustavo; Coelho, Marisa; Araújo, João Ricardo; Pinho, Maria João; Teixeira, Ana Luisa; Medeiros, Rui; Ribeiro, Laura

    2015-05-01

    Catecholamines (CA) play an important role in cardiovascular (CDV) disease risk. Namely, noradrenaline (NA) levels positively correlate whereas adrenaline (AD) levels negatively correlate with obesity and/or CDV disease. Western diets, which are tipically rich in Ω-6 fatty acids (FAs) and deficient in Ω-3 FAs, may contribute to the development of obesity, type 2 diabetes and/or coronary artery disease. Taking this into consideration and the fact that our group has already described that saturated FAs affect catecholamine handling by adrenal chromaffin cells, this work aimed to investigate the effect of unsaturated FAs upon catecholamine handling in the same model. Our results showed that chronic exposure to unsaturated FAs differently modulated CA cellular content and release, regardless of both FA series and number of carbon atoms. Namely, the Ω-6 arachidonic and linoleic acids, based on their effect on CA release and cellular content, seemed to impair NA and AD vesicular transport, whereas γ-linolenic acid selectively impaired AD synthesis and release. Within the Ω-9 FAs, oleic acid was devoid of effect, and elaidic acid behaved similarly to γ-linolenic acid. Eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids (Ω-3 series) impaired the synthesis and release of both NA and AD. These results deserve attention and future development, namely, in what concerns the mechanisms involved and correlative effects in vivo. PMID:25727966

  13. MiR-124 is differentially expressed in derivatives of the sympathoadrenal cell lineage and promotes neurite elongation in chromaffin cells.

    PubMed

    Shtukmaster, Stella; Narasimhan, Priyanka; El Faitwri, Tehani; Stubbusch, Jutta; Ernsberger, Uwe; Rohrer, Hermann; Unsicker, Klaus; Huber, Katrin

    2016-08-01

    The neural-crest-derived sympathoadrenal cell lineage gives rise to sympathetic neurons and to endocrine chromaffin cells of the adrenal medulla. Both cell types express a largely overlapping set of genes, including those coding for the molecular machinery related to the synthesis and exocytotic release of catecholamines. During their early development, sympathetic neurons and chromaffin cells rely on a shared transcription factor network that controls the establishment of these common features. Despite many similarities, mature sympathetic neurons and chromaffin cells significantly differ regarding their morphology and function. Most prominently, sympathetic neurons possess axons that are absent in mammalian adrenal chromaffin cells. The molecular mechanism underlying the divergent development of sympathoadrenal cells into neuronal and endocrine cells remains elusive. Mutational inactivation of the ribonuclease dicer hints at the importance of microRNAs in this diversification. We show here that miR-124 is detectable in developing sympathetic neurons but absent in chromaffin cell precursors. We further demonstrate that miR-124 promotes neurite elongation when transfected into cultured chromaffin cells indicating its capability to support the establishment of a neuronal morphology in non-neuronal sympathoadrenal cells. Our results also show that treatment of PC12 cells with the neurotrophin nerve growth factor leads to an upregulation of miR-124 expression and that inhibition of miR-124 reduces nerve-growth-factor-induced neurite outgrowth in PC12 cells. Thus, our data indicate that miR-124 contributes to the establishment of specific neuronal features in developing sympathoadrenal cells. PMID:27094431

  14. Intranuclear bundles of microfilaments and microtubules in chromaffin cells of the auricle of the heart of a lungfish, Protopterus aethiopicus.

    PubMed

    Scheuermann, D W; Adriaensen, D; De Groodt-Lasseel, M H

    1988-01-01

    Intranuclear microtubular-microfilamentous rod-like inclusions were investigated in chromaffin cells of the auricle of the heart of lungfishes. In conventional electron microscopy, these inclusions reveal a wide variety in appearance, depending on their orientation to the plane of sectioning. Whereas originally they were merely interpreted as a bundle of microfilaments, application of a goniometer stage showed the rod- or spindle-shaped intranuclear inclusions to have a basic substructure of parallel arranged microtubules among microfilaments, which are clearly connected to chromatin granules, occasionally penetrating dense areas of chromatin. The chemical nature and biological significance of these structures, which so far remain enigmatic, are discussed. PMID:3227775

  15. Asthma Pregnancy Alters Postnatal Development of Chromaffin Cells in the Rat Adrenal Medulla

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiao-Zhao; Zou, Ye-Qiang; Zou, Jun-Tao; Li, Yuan-Yuan; Feng, Jun-Tao

    2011-01-01

    Background Adrenal neuroendocrine plays an important role in asthma. The activity of the sympathoadrenal system could be altered by early life events. The effects of maternal asthma during pregnancy on the adrenal medulla of offspring remain unknown. Methodology/Principal Findings This study aims to explore the influence of maternal asthma during pregnancy on the development and function of adrenal medulla in offspring from postnatal day 3 (P3) to postnatal day 60 (P60). Asthmatic pregnant rats (AP), nerve growth factor (NGF)-treated pregnant rats (NP) and NGF antibody-treated pregnant rats (ANP) were sensitized and challenged with ovalbumin (OVA); NP and ANP were treated with NGF and NGF antibody respectively. Offspring rats from the maternal group were divided into four groups: offspring from control pregnant rats (OCP), offspring from AP (OAP), offspring from NP (ONP), and offspring from ANP (OANP). The expressions of phenylethanolamine N-methyltransferase (PNMT) protein in adrenal medulla were analyzed. The concentrations of epinephrine (EPI), corticosterone and NGF in serum were measured. Adrenal medulla chromaffin cells (AMCC) were prone to differentiate into sympathetic nerve cells in OAP and ONP. Both EPI and PNMT were decreased in OAP from P3 to P14, and then reached normal level gradually from P30 to P60, which were lower from birth to adulthood in ONP. Corticosterone concentration increased significantly in OAP and ONP. Conclusion/Significance Asthma pregnancy may promote AMCC to differentiate into sympathetic neurons in offspring rats and inhibit the synthesis of EPI, resulting in dysfunction of bronchial relaxation. PMID:21647384

  16. Non-Faradaic Electrochemical Detection of Exocytosis from Mast and Chromaffin Cells Using Floating-Gate MOS Transistors.

    PubMed

    Jayant, Krishna; Singhai, Amit; Cao, Yingqiu; Phelps, Joshua B; Lindau, Manfred; Holowka, David A; Baird, Barbara A; Kan, Edwin C

    2015-01-01

    We present non-faradaic electrochemical recordings of exocytosis from populations of mast and chromaffin cells using chemoreceptive neuron MOS (CνMOS) transistors. In comparison to previous cell-FET-biosensors, the CνMOS features control (CG), sensing (SG) and floating gates (FG), allows the quiescent point to be independently controlled, is CMOS compatible and physically isolates the transistor channel from the electrolyte for stable long-term recordings. We measured exocytosis from RBL-2H3 mast cells sensitized by IgE (bound to high-affinity surface receptors FcεRI) and stimulated using the antigen DNP-BSA. Quasi-static I-V measurements reflected a slow shift in surface potential () which was dependent on extracellular calcium ([Ca]o) and buffer strength, which suggests sensitivity to protons released during exocytosis. Fluorescent imaging of dextran-labeled vesicle release showed evidence of a similar time course, while un-sensitized cells showed no response to stimulation. Transient recordings revealed fluctuations with a rapid rise and slow decay. Chromaffin cells stimulated with high KCl showed both slow shifts and extracellular action potentials exhibiting biphasic and inverted capacitive waveforms, indicative of varying ion-channel distributions across the cell-transistor junction. Our approach presents a facile method to simultaneously monitor exocytosis and ion channel activity with high temporal sensitivity without the need for redox chemistry. PMID:26686301

  17. Increased Catecholamine Secretion from Single Adrenal Chromaffin Cells in DOCA-Salt Hypertension Is Associated with Potassium Channel Dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The mechanism of catecholamine release from single adrenal chromaffin cells isolated from normotensive and DOCA-salt hypertensive rats was investigated. These cells were used as a model for sympathetic nerves to better understand how exocytotic release of catecholamines is altered in this model of hypertension. Catecholamine secretion was evoked by local application of acetylcholine (1 mM) or high K+ (70 mM), and continuous amperometry was used to monitor catecholamine secretion as an oxidative current. The total number of catecholamine molecules secreted from a vesicle, the total number of vesicles fusing and secreting, and the duration of secretion in response to a stimulus were all significantly greater for chromaffin cells from hypertensive rats as compared to normotensive controls. The greater catecholamine secretion from DOCA-salt cells results, at least in part, from functionally impaired large conductance, Ca2+-activated (BK) and ATP-sensitive K+ channels. This work reveals that there is altered vesicular release of catecholamines from these cells (and possibly from perivascular sympathetic nerves) and this may contribute to increased vasomotor tone in DOCA-salt hypertension. PMID:23937098

  18. Non-Faradaic Electrochemical Detection of Exocytosis from Mast and Chromaffin Cells Using Floating-Gate MOS Transistors

    PubMed Central

    Jayant, Krishna; Singhai, Amit; Cao, Yingqiu; Phelps, Joshua B.; Lindau, Manfred; Holowka, David A.; Baird, Barbara A.; Kan, Edwin C.

    2015-01-01

    We present non-faradaic electrochemical recordings of exocytosis from populations of mast and chromaffin cells using chemoreceptive neuron MOS (CνMOS) transistors. In comparison to previous cell-FET-biosensors, the CνMOS features control (CG), sensing (SG) and floating gates (FG), allows the quiescent point to be independently controlled, is CMOS compatible and physically isolates the transistor channel from the electrolyte for stable long-term recordings. We measured exocytosis from RBL-2H3 mast cells sensitized by IgE (bound to high-affinity surface receptors FcεRI) and stimulated using the antigen DNP-BSA. Quasi-static I-V measurements reflected a slow shift in surface potential () which was dependent on extracellular calcium ([Ca]o) and buffer strength, which suggests sensitivity to protons released during exocytosis. Fluorescent imaging of dextran-labeled vesicle release showed evidence of a similar time course, while un-sensitized cells showed no response to stimulation. Transient recordings revealed fluctuations with a rapid rise and slow decay. Chromaffin cells stimulated with high KCl showed both slow shifts and extracellular action potentials exhibiting biphasic and inverted capacitive waveforms, indicative of varying ion-channel distributions across the cell-transistor junction. Our approach presents a facile method to simultaneously monitor exocytosis and ion channel activity with high temporal sensitivity without the need for redox chemistry. PMID:26686301

  19. Modulation of muscarinic and micotinic cholinergic receptor mediated catecholamine secretion in guinea pig chromaffin cells by phorbol esters

    SciTech Connect

    Figueiredo, J.C.; Fisher, S.K.; Horowitz, M.I.

    1986-05-01

    Isolated guinea pig chromaffin cells possess both nicotinic (nAChR) and muscarinic (mAChR) cholinergic receptors that are positively coupled to catecholamine (CA) release. Sixty to 70% of CA release is mediated by nAChRs and 30-40% by mAChRs. In the absence of added calcium, nAChR mediated CA release was reduced by 65% whereas the muscarinic response was unaffected. The addition of 100nM 12-0-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA), an activator of protein kinase C (PKC), also resulted in an increased CA release. Temporally and quantitatively, this response resembled that of mAChR activation. Addition of optimal concentrations of nicotine (50..mu..M) and TPA (100nM) induced a synergistic increase in CA release. Addition of muscarine (1mM) and TPA resulted in an additive response despite a 40-60% inhibition of mAChR mediated inositol phosphate release by TPA. Thus, in guinea pig chromaffin cells, it appears that PKC activation alone is a sufficient stimulus for CA release and that activation of both nicotinic and muscarinic receptors may further increase this enzyme's activity.

  20. 77 FR 20319 - Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy; Importation of Bovines and Bovine Products

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-04

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service 9 CFR Part 93 RIN 0579-AC68 Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy; Importation of Bovines and Bovine Products Correction In proposed rule...

  1. 78 FR 73993 - Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy; Importation of Bovines and Bovine Products

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-10

    ... Health Inspection Service 9 CFR Parts 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, and 98 RIN 0579-AC68 Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy; Importation of Bovines and Bovine Products Corrections In rule document 2013-28228 appearing...

  2. Intraventricular encapsulated calf adrenal chromaffin cells: viable for at least 500 days in vivo without detectable adverse effects on behavioral/cognitive function or host immune sensitization in rats.

    PubMed

    Lindner, M D; Plone, M A; Frydel, B; Kaplan, F A; Krueger, P M; Bell, W J; Blaney, T J; Winn, S R; Sherman, S S; Doherty, E J; Emerich, D F

    1997-01-01

    Numerous studies have reported that adrenal chromaffin cell transplants, including encapsulated xenogeneic adrenal chromaffin cells, have analgesic effects. However, in addition to efficacy, the clinical utility of encapsulated xenogeneic adrenal chromaffin cells for treatment of chronic pain is dependent on the duration of cell viability in vivo, and their relative safety. The objectives of the present study in rats were to: (1) examine encapsulated calf adrenal chromaffin (CAC) cells for evidence of viable cells and continued release of analgesic agents after an extended period in vivo; (2) determine if intraventricular encapsulated CAC cells produce detectable adverse effects on behavioral/cognitive function; and (3) test for evidence of host immune sensitization after an extended period of exposure to encapsulated xenogeneic adrenal chromaffin cells. Results of the present study suggest that some encapsulated CAC cells remain viable for nearly 1.5 years in vivo and continue to produce catecholamines and met-enkephalin. Post-explant device norepinephrine output was equivalent to amounts previously shown to produce analgesic effects with intrathecal implants. Encapsulated adrenal chromaffin cells also appeared relatively safe, even when implanted in the cerebral ventricals, with a lower side-effect profile than systemic morphine (4 mg/kg). There was no evidence that encapsulated CAC-cells implanted in the ventricles affected body weight, spontaneous activity levels, or performance in the delayed matching to position operant task which is sensitive to deficits in learning, memory, attention, motivation, and motor function. Finally, encapsulated CAC cells produced no detectable evidence of host immune sensitization after 16.7 months in vivo, although unencapsulated CAC cells produced a robust immune response even in aged rats. The results of the present study suggest that adrenal chromaffin cells remain viable in vivo for long periods of time, and that long

  3. Unlocking the bovine genome

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The draft genome sequence of cattle (Bos taurus) has now been analyzed by the Bovine Genome Sequencing and Analysis Consortium and the Bovine HapMap Consortium, which together represent an extensive collaboration involving more than 300 scientists from 25 different countries. ...

  4. Bovine viral diarrhea viruses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Infections with bovine viral diarrhea viruses (BVDV) result in significant economic losses for beef and dairy producers worldwide. BVDV is actually an umbrella term for two species of viruses, BVDV1 and BVDV2, within the Pestivirus genus of the Flavivirus family. While denoted as a bovine pathogen...

  5. The effect of CdSe-ZnS quantum dots on calcium currents and catecholamine secretion in mouse chromaffin cells.

    PubMed

    Gosso, Sara; Gavello, Daniela; Giachello, Carlo N G; Franchino, Claudio; Carbone, Emilio; Carabelli, Valentina

    2011-12-01

    Semiconductor nanocrystal quantum dots (QDs) possess an enormous potential of applications in nanomedicine, drug delivery and bioimaging which derives from their unique photoemission and photostability characteristics. In spite of this, however, their interactions with biological systems and impact on human health are still largely unknown. Here we used neurosecretory mouse chromaffin cells of the adrenal gland for testing the effects of CdSe-ZnS core-shell quantum dots (5-36 nM) on Ca(2+) channels functionality and Ca(2+)-dependent neurosecretion. Prolonged exposure (24 h) to commonly used concentrations of CdSe-ZnS QDs (≥16 nM) showed that the semiconductor nanocrystal is effectively internalized into the cells without affecting cell integrity (no changes of membrane resistance and cell capacitance). QDs reduced the size of Ca(2+) currents by ∼28% in a voltage-independent manner without affecting channel gating. Correspondingly, depolarization-evoked exocytosis, measured at +10 mV, where Ca(2+) currents are maximal, was reduced by 29%. CdSe-ZnS QDs reduced the size of the readily releasable pool (RRP) of secretory vesicles by 32%, the frequency of release by 33% and the overall quantity of released catecholamines by 61%, as measured by carbon fibers amperometry. In addition, the Ca(2+)-dependence of exocytosis was reduced, whereas the catecholamine content of single granules, as well as the kinetics of release, remained unaltered. These data suggest that exposure to CdSe-ZnS QDs impairs Ca(2+) influx and severely interferes with the functionality of the exocytotic machinery, compromising the overall catecholamine supply from chromaffin cells. PMID:21872323

  6. Distinct potentiation of L-type currents and secretion by cAMP in rat chromaffin cells.

    PubMed

    Carabelli, V; Giancippoli, A; Baldelli, P; Carbone, E; Artalejo, A R

    2003-08-01

    We have investigated the potentiating action of cAMP on L-currents of rat chromaffin cells and the corresponding increase of Ca(2+)-evoked secretory responses with the aim of separating the action of cAMP on Ca(2+) entry through L-channels and the downstream effects of cAMP/protein kinase A (PKA) on exocytosis. In omega-toxin-treated rat chromaffin cells, exposure to the permeable cAMP analog 8-(4-chlorophenylthio)-adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate (pCPT-cAMP; 1 mM, 30 min) caused a moderate increase of Ca(2+) charge carried through L-channels (19% in 10 mM Ca(2+) at +10 mV) and a drastic potentiation of secretion ( approximately 100%), measured as membrane capacitance increments (deltaC). The apparent Ca(2+) dependency of exocytosis increased with pCPT-cAMP and was accompanied by 83% enhancement of the readily releasable pool of vesicles with no significant change of the probability of release, as evaluated with paired-pulse stimulation protocols. pCPT-cAMP effects could be mimicked by stimulation of beta(1)-adrenoreceptors and reversed by the PKA inhibitor H89, suggesting strict PKA dependence. For short pulses to +10 mV (100 ms), potentiation of exocytosis by pCPT-cAMP was proportional to the quantity of charge entering the cell and occurred independently of whether L, N, or P/Q channels were blocked, suggesting that cAMP acts as a constant amplification factor for secretion regardless of the channel type carrying Ca(2+). Analysis of statistical variations among depolarization-induced capacitance increments indicates that pCPT-cAMP acts downstream of Ca(2+) entry by almost doubling the mean size of unitary exocytic events, most likely as a consequence of an increased granule-to-granule rather than a granule-to-membrane fusion. PMID:12885675

  7. Distinct Potentiation of L-Type Currents and Secretion by cAMP in Rat Chromaffin Cells

    PubMed Central

    Carabelli, V.; Giancippoli, A.; Baldelli, P.; Carbone, E.; Artalejo, A. R.

    2003-01-01

    We have investigated the potentiating action of cAMP on L-currents of rat chromaffin cells and the corresponding increase of Ca2+-evoked secretory responses with the aim of separating the action of cAMP on Ca2+ entry through L-channels and the downstream effects of cAMP/protein kinase A (PKA) on exocytosis. In ω-toxin-treated rat chromaffin cells, exposure to the permeable cAMP analog 8-(4-chlorophenylthio)-adenosine 3′,5′-monophosphate (pCPT-cAMP; 1 mM, 30 min) caused a moderate increase of Ca2+ charge carried through L-channels (19% in 10 mM Ca2+ at +10 mV) and a drastic potentiation of secretion (∼100%), measured as membrane capacitance increments (ΔC). The apparent Ca2+ dependency of exocytosis increased with pCPT-cAMP and was accompanied by 83% enhancement of the readily releasable pool of vesicles with no significant change of the probability of release, as evaluated with paired-pulse stimulation protocols. pCPT-cAMP effects could be mimicked by stimulation of β1-adrenoreceptors and reversed by the PKA inhibitor H89, suggesting strict PKA dependence. For short pulses to +10 mV (100 ms), potentiation of exocytosis by pCPT-cAMP was proportional to the quantity of charge entering the cell and occurred independently of whether L, N, or P/Q channels were blocked, suggesting that cAMP acts as a constant amplification factor for secretion regardless of the channel type carrying Ca2+. Analysis of statistical variations among depolarization-induced capacitance increments indicates that pCPT-cAMP acts downstream of Ca2+ entry by almost doubling the mean size of unitary exocytic events, most likely as a consequence of an increased granule-to-granule rather than a granule-to-membrane fusion. PMID:12885675

  8. Human Dopamine β-Hydroxylase Promoter Variant Alters Transcription in Chromaffin Cells, Enzyme Secretion, and Blood Pressure

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yuqing; Zhang, Kuixing; Wen, Gen; Rao, Fangwen; Sanchez, Amber P.; Wang, Lei; Rodriguez-Flores, Juan L.; Mahata, Manjula; Mahata, Sushil K.; Waalen, Jill; Ziegler, Michael G.; Hamilton, Bruce A.

    2011-01-01

    Background Dopamine β-hydroxylase (DBH) plays an indispensable role in catecholamine synthesis by converting dopamine into norepinephrine. Here, we characterized a DBH promoter polymorphism (C-2073T; rs1989787; minor allele frequency ∼16%) that influences not only gene transcription but also enzyme secretion and blood pressure (BP) in vivo. Methods Plasma DBH activity was measured spectrophotometrically. DBH genetic effects on BP were tested in subjects with the most extreme BP values in a large primary care population. Functional effects of promoter variants were studied by site-directed mutagenesis in DBH promoter haplotype/luciferase reporter plasmids transfected into chromaffin cells. Sequence motifs were predicted from position weight matrices, and endogenous transcription factor binding was probed by Chromatin ImmunoPrecipitation (ChIP). Results The T-allele of common promoter variant C-2073T was contained in a promoter haplotype that associated with plasma DBH activity, a trait also predicted by that variant itself. Promoter haplotypes including C-2073T predicted BP in the population, and the effect was also referable to C-2073T itself. Computationally, C-2073 disrupted a predicted match for transcription factor c-FOS. Site-directed mutagenesis at C-2073T altered not only basal promoter activity, but also transactivation by c-FOS, as well as the chromaffin cell secretory stimuli nicotine or pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP). Endogenous c-FOS bound to the motif in chromatin. Conclusion These results suggest that DBH promoter variant C-2073T is functional in vivo: this promoter variant seems to initiate a cascade of transcriptional and biochemical changes including augmented DBH secretion, eventuating in elevation of basal BP, and hence cardiovascular risk. The observations suggest new strategies for probing the pathophysiology, risk, and treatment of hypertension. American Journal of Hypertension, advance online publication 2

  9. Direct and remote modulation of L-channels in chromaffin cells: distinct actions on alpha1C and alpha1D subunits?

    PubMed

    Baldelli, Pietro; Hernández-Guijo, Jesus Miguel; Carabelli, Valentina; Novara, Monica; Cesetti, Tiziana; Andrés-Mateos, Eva; Montiel, Carmen; Carbone, Emilio

    2004-02-01

    Understanding precisely the functioning of voltage-gated Ca2+ channels and their modulation by signaling molecules will help clarifying the Ca(2+)-dependent mechanisms controlling exocytosis in chromaffin cells. In recent years, we have learned more about the various pathways through which Ca2+ channels can be up- or down-modulated by hormones and neurotransmitters and how these changes may condition chromaffin cell activity and catecolamine release. Recently, the attention has been focused on the modulation of L-channels (CaV 1), which represent the major Ca2+ current component in rat and human chromaffin cells. L-channels are effectively inhibited by the released content of secretory granules or by applying mixtures of exogenous ATP, opioids, and adrenaline through the activation of receptor-coupled G proteins. This unusual inhibition persists in a wide range of potentials and results from a direct (membrane-delimited) interaction of G protein subunits with the L-channels co-localized in membrane microareas. Inhibition of L-channels can be reversed when the cAMP/PKA pathway is activated by membrane permeable cAMP analog or when cells are exposed to isoprenaline (remote action), suggesting the existence of parallel and opposite effects on L-channel gating by distinctly activated membrane autoreceptors. Here, the authors review the molecular components underlying these two opposing signaling pathways and present new evidence supporting the presence of two L-channel types in rat chromaffin cells (alpha1C and alpha1D), which open new interesting issues concerning Ca(2+)-channel modulation. In light of recent findings on the regulation of exocytosis by Ca(2+)-channel modulation, the authors explore the possible role of L-channels in the autocontrol of catecholamine release. PMID:15034224

  10. The effect of in vivo hydrocortisone administration on the labelling index and size of chromaffin tissue in the postnatal and adult mouse.

    PubMed Central

    Monkhouse, W S

    1986-01-01

    Hydrocortisone administration in vivo to neonatal mice for seven days led to a significant increase in both the size and the labelling index of extra-adrenal chromaffin tissue (as represented by the para-aortic body) of 8 days old mice. In untreated animals at this age, the para-aortic body was in most cases too small to obtain a valid labelling index. In the para-aortic bodies of 14 days old, 21 days old and adult mice, the extra-adrenal chromaffin tissue was too dispersed to obtain values for either volumetric analysis or labelling indices, and hydrocortisone was without significant effect in promoting a hyperplastic response. In the postnatal adrenal medulla at all ages studied, hydrocortisone had no effect on the medullary size or on the labelling indices of either adrenaline- or noradrenaline-storing cells, although it led to a marked diminution of adrenocortical volume. The relative proportion of adrenaline-storing cells increased between the values for 8 days old animals and those for adults; this was unaffected by hydrocortisone. The cortico-medullary ratio remained unchanged from the eighth postnatal day onwards. The results are discussed and related to those of other workers. It is suggested that factors as yet unknown might modulate the response to corticosteroids of developing intra- and extra-adrenal chromaffin tissue. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 PMID:3693040

  11. The solvent action of sodium hypochlorite on bovine tendon collagen, bovine pulp, and bovine gingiva.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, H; Asai, K; Fujita, H; Nakazato, H; Nishimura, Y; Furuse, Y; Sahashi, E

    1985-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the optimum temperature and concentration of sodium hypochlorite solution required to dissolve bovine tendon collagen, pulp, and gingiva. The 10% concentration of sodium hypochlorite solution at 37 degrees C was found to be most effective in dissolving bovine tendon collagen, pulp, and gingiva. Sodium hypochlorite solution was more effective in dissolving bovine pulp or tendon collagen than in dissolving bovine gingiva. PMID:3862046

  12. Muted protein is involved in the targeting of CD63 to large dense-core vesicles of chromaffin cells.

    PubMed

    Zhenhua, Hao; Wei, Li

    2016-08-01

    Large dense-core vesicles (LDCVs) are characterized as a class of lysosome-related organelles (LROs), which undergo regulated release and play important roles in development, metabolism and homeostasis. The Muted protein is a subunit of the biogenesis of lysosome-related organelles complex-1 (BLOC-1), which functions in the biogenesis of lysosomes and LROs. CD63 is a membrane component of lysosomes and LROs. Whether and how CD63 is sorted into LDCVs is largely unknown. In this study, we aim to identify the localization of CD63 in chromaffin cells by colocalization, living cell imaging and cell fractionation. We found that a proportion of CD63-YFP colocalized with NPY-dsRed labeled LDCVs. By sucrose density gradient fractionation, a proportion of CD63 was found to be highly enriched in LDCVs fractions. The Muted mutant mouse is a model of Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome (HPS). We also found that the level of CD63 was significantly decreased in Muted-deficient adrenal glands, suggesting that the Muted protein is important for the steady-state level of CD63. Our results suggest that CD63 is a membrane component of LDCVs and the stability of CD63 is dependent on the Muted protein, which provides a clue to the pathogenesis of LRO defects in HPS. PMID:27531610

  13. The cytosolic inactivation domains of BKi channels in rat chromaffin cells do not behave like simple, open-channel blockers.

    PubMed Central

    Solaro, C R; Ding, J P; Li, Z W; Lingle, C J

    1997-01-01

    Most BK-type voltage- and Ca(2+)-dependent K+ channels in rat chromaffin cells exhibit rapid inactivation. This inactivation is abolished by brief trypsin application to the cytosolic face of membrane patches. Here we examine the effects of cytosolic channel blockade and pore occupancy on this inactivation process, using inside-out patches and whole-cell recordings. Occupancy of a superficial pore-blocking site by cytosolic quaternary blockers does not slow inactivation. Occupancy of a deeper pore-blocking site by cytosolic application of Cs+ is also without effect on the onset of inactivation. Although the rate of inactivation is relatively unaffected by changes in extracellular K+, the rate of recovery from inactivation (at -80 and -140 mV with 10 microM Ca2+) is faster with increases in extracellular K+ but is unaffected by the impermeant ion, Na+. When tail currents are compared after repolarization, either while channels are open or after inactivation, no channel reopening is detectable during recovery from inactivation. BK inactivation appears to be mechanistically distinct from that of other inactivating voltage-dependent channels. Although involving a trypsin-sensitive cytosolic structure, the block to permeation does not appear to occur directly at the cytosolic mouth or inner half of the ion permeation pathway. PMID:9251798

  14. BOVINE VIRAL DIARRHEA VIRUSES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is an umbrella term for two species of viruses, BVDV1 and BVDV2, within the Pestivirus genus of the Flavivirus family. BVDV viruses are further subclassified as cytopathic and noncytopathic based on their activity in cultured epithelial cells. Noncytopathic BVDV p...

  15. Bovine milk exosome proteome

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Exosomes are 40-100 nm membrane vesicles of endocytic origin and are found in blood, urine, amniotic fluid, bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid, as well as human and bovine milk. Exosomes are extracellular organelles important in intracellular communication/signaling, immune function, and biomarkers ...

  16. Protein Crystal Bovine Insulin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The comparison of protein crystal, Bovine Insulin space-grown (left) and earth-grown (right). Facilitates the incorporation of glucose into cells. In diabetics, there is either a decrease in or complete lack of insulin, thereby leading to several harmful complications. Principal Investigator is Larry DeLucas.

  17. Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE), also referred to as “mad cow disease” is a chronic, non-febrile, neuro-degenerative disease affecting the central nervous system. The transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) of domestic animals, of which BSE is a member includes scrapie of sheep...

  18. [Bovine spongiform encephalopathy].

    PubMed

    Suárez Fernández, G

    2001-01-01

    An histórical and conceptual review is made about Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy or mad cows disease and an epidemiological analysis as a present and future health problem. This analysis of BSE should not be negative, considering the truths that we know today. PMID:11783042

  19. Genotyping bovine coronaviruses.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bovine coronaviruses (BoCV) are enveloped, single-stranded, positive-sense RNA viruses of the Coronaviridae family. Infection is associated with enteritis and pneumonia in calves and Winter Dysentery in adult cattle. Strains, isolated more than 50 years ago, are used in vaccines and as laboratory ...

  20. Depressed excitability and ion currents linked to slow exocytotic fusion pore in chromaffin cells of the SOD1(G93A) mouse model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Calvo-Gallardo, Enrique; de Pascual, Ricardo; Fernández-Morales, José-Carlos; Arranz-Tagarro, Juan-Alberto; Maroto, Marcos; Nanclares, Carmen; Gandía, Luis; de Diego, Antonio M G; Padín, Juan-Fernando; García, Antonio G

    2015-01-01

    Altered synaptic transmission with excess glutamate release has been implicated in the loss of motoneurons occurring in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Hyperexcitability or hypoexcitability of motoneurons from mice carrying the ALS mutation SOD1(G93A) (mSOD1) has also been reported. Here we have investigated the excitability, the ion currents, and the kinetics of the exocytotic fusion pore in chromaffin cells from postnatal day 90 to postnatal day 130 mSOD1 mice, when motor deficits are already established. With respect to wild-type (WT), mSOD1 chromaffin cells had a decrease in the following parameters: 95% in spontaneous action potentials, 70% in nicotinic current for acetylcholine (ACh), 35% in Na(+) current, 40% in Ca(2+)-dependent K(+) current, and 53% in voltage-dependent K(+) current. Ca(2+) current was increased by 37%, but the ACh-evoked elevation of cytosolic Ca(2+) was unchanged. Single exocytotic spike events triggered by ACh had the following differences (mSOD1 vs. WT): 36% lower rise rate, 60% higher decay time, 51% higher half-width, 13% lower amplitude, and 61% higher quantal size. The expression of the α3-subtype of nicotinic receptors and proteins of the exocytotic machinery was unchanged in the brain and adrenal medulla of mSOD1, with respect to WT mice. A slower fusion pore opening, expansion, and closure are likely linked to the pronounced reduction in cell excitability and in the ion currents driving action potentials in mSOD1, compared with WT chromaffin cells. PMID:25377090

  1. Fast exocytosis mediated by T- and L-type channels in chromaffin cells: distinct voltage-dependence but similar Ca2+ -dependence.

    PubMed

    Carabelli, V; Marcantoni, A; Comunanza, V; Carbone, E

    2007-09-01

    Expression, spatial distribution and specific roles of different Ca(2+) channels in stimulus-secretion coupling of chromaffin cells are intriguing issues still open to discussion. Most of the evidence supports a role of high-voltage activated (HVA) Ca(2+) channels (L-, N-, P/Q- and R-types) in the control of exocytosis: some suggesting a preferential coupling of specific Ca(2+) channel subunits with the secretory apparatus, others favoring the idea of a contribution to secretion proportional to the expression density and gating properties of Ca(2+) channels. In this work we review recent findings and bring new evidence in favor of the hypothesis that also the LVA (low-voltage-activated, T-type) Ca(2+) channels effectively control fast exocytosis near resting potential in adrenal chromaffin cells of adult rats. T-type channels recruited after long-term treatments with pCPT-cAMP (or chronic hypoxia) are shown to control exocytosis with the same efficacy of L-type channels, which are the dominant Ca(2+) channel types expressed in rodent chromaffin cells. A rigorous comparison of T- and L-type channel properties shows that, although operating at different potentials and with different voltage-sensitivity, the two channels possess otherwise similar Ca(2+)-dependence of exocytosis, size and kinetics of depletion of the immediately releasable pool and mobilize vesicles of the same quantal size. Thus, T- and L-type channels are coupled with the same Ca(2+)-efficiency to the secretory apparatus and deplete the same number of vesicles ready for release. The major difference of the secretory signals controlled by the two channels appear to be the voltage range of operation, suggesting the idea that stressful conditions (hypoxia and persistent beta-adrenergic stimulation) can lower the threshold of cell excitability by recruiting new Ca(2+) channels and activate an additional source of catecholamine secretion. PMID:17340096

  2. Immunoreactive atrial natriuretic peptide and dopamine beta-hydroxylase in myocytes and chromaffin cells of the heart of the African lungfish, Protopterus aethiopicus.

    PubMed

    Larsen, T H; Helle, K B; Saetersdal, T

    1994-07-01

    The heart of the African lungfish, Protopterus aethiopicus, was examined for immunoreactive atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) and dopamine beta-hydroxylase (D beta H) as markers for hormone secreting myocytes and chromaffin cells, respectively. Specific antibodies raised against rat alpha-ANP and rat D beta H were used for immunofluorescence microscopy and immunogold electron microscopy. D beta H-immunoreactive cells were restricted to subendocardial areas of the atrium whereas ANP immunoreactivity occurred throughout both the atrial and the ventricular myocardium, showing particularly strong staining intensity in the atrial myocytes. The granular ANP immunostaining in the atrial myocytes was frequently accumulated in the sarcoplasm. In the ventricular myocytes ANP immunoreactivity occurred as scattered granular staining throughout the sarcoplasm. ANP and D beta H immunofluorescence staining coincided with the presence of immunoreactive specific granules and secretory vesicles in the cardiac myocytes and chromaffin cells, respectively, as revealed by electron microscopy. The number of ANP-containing specific granules was generally high in the atrial myocytes, and they were frequently observed in clusters in subsarcolemmal areas. Granular frequency was considerably lower and the mean granular diameter was smaller (0.142 +/- 0.045 micron versus 0.213 +/- 0.049 micron) in the ventricular than in the atrial myocytes. The present results indicate that ANP and D beta H are phylogenetically highly conserved proteins from the dipnoi to the rat. The large amounts of ANP and of specific granules are consistent with an endocrine myocardium in the Protopterus heart. The presence of D beta H and secretory vesicles in the subendocardial chromaffin cells of the atrium suggests a local production of catecholamines from dopamine in the heart of this dipnoan. PMID:7926645

  3. Vasoactive intestinal polypeptide- and pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide-mediated control of catecholamine release from chromaffin tissue in the rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss.

    PubMed

    Montpetit, C J; Perry, S F

    2000-09-01

    The aim of the present investigation was to assess the relative contributions of cholinergic (acetylcholine) and non-cholinergic vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP), and pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP) neurotransmitters in the neuronal control of catecholamine secretion from the chromaffin tissue lining the posterior cardinal vein of the rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Using an in situ saline-perfused posterior cardinal vein preparation, it was demonstrated that exogenous administration of chicken VIP or human PACAP-27 caused a dose-dependent increase in adrenaline secretion; noradrenaline secretion was unaffected. Analysis of dose-response curves indicated that VIP and PACAP stimulated the secretion of adrenaline with a similar degree of potency (ED(50) for VIP=1.90x10(-11) mol/kg; ED(50) for PACAP=1.03x10(-11) mol/kg). The VIP/PACAP-elicited secretion was diminished in the presence of the VIP receptor antagonist, VIP 6-28, but was unaffected by the PACAP receptor antagonist, PACAP 6-27, or the cholinergic antagonists, hexamethonium and atropine. Thus, this is the first study to demonstrate a direct stimulatory role for VIP or PACAP in catecholamine secretion from piscine chromaffin cells. The relative contribution of cholinergic and non-cholinergic neurotransmitters in the neuronal control of catecholamine secretion from the chromaffin tissue was evaluated using an in situ nerve-stimulating technique previously validated by us in the rainbow trout. This was accomplished by comparing catecholamine secretion in the presence or absence of cholinergic and the VIP and PACAP receptor antagonists during different levels of electrical stimulation. The results demonstrated that cholinergic stimulation predominated during high frequency of electrical stimulation (20 Hz) while the non-cholinergic component prevailed at low frequency (1 Hz). Overall, the results of the present investigation demonstrate that VIP and/or PACAP may directly

  4. Catecholamines-evoked cytosolic Ca2+ rise in endothelial cells from bovine adrenal medulla.

    PubMed

    Vinet, R; Rojas, F; Luxoro, M; Vargas, F; Cortés, M

    2000-01-01

    The effects of catecholamines on intracellular Ca2+ concentrations ([Ca2+]i) in single acutely dissociated bovine adrenal medulla endothelial cells (BAMECs) were measured using the intracellular fluorescent probe Fluo-3 AM. 100 microm epinephrine or norepinephrine induced a biphasic [Ca2+]i rise with an initial peak followed by a delayed phase. 10 microm phenylephrine (alpha1-adrenergic agonist) caused a [Ca2+]i rise similar to that evoked by catecholamines. The increase in [Ca2+]i induced by 10 microm phenylephrine was reverted by 10 microm phenoxybenzamine (alpha-adrenergic antagonist). Neither isoproterenol (beta-adrenergic agonist) nor clonidine (alpha2-adrenergic agonist) induced [Ca2+]i rise. The initial peak was insensitive to zero external Ca2+ and it was abolished after Ca2+ internal storages were emptied by 10 mM caffeine. The delayed phase was reduced to near zero by external Ca2+ removal. These results indicate that BAMECs possess alpha1-adrenergic receptors associated to both the release of caffeine-sensitive intracellular Ca2+ stores and the entry of extracellular Ca2+. We suggest that chromaffin cell secretion may activate BAMECs in vivo through an increase in [Ca2+]i which could induce the secretion of vasoactive factors allowing a rapid entry of hormones into the circulation. PMID:10724332

  5. Effect of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor stimulation on mitochondrial [Ca2+] and secretion in chromaffin cells.

    PubMed Central

    Montero, Mayte; Alonso, Maria Teresa; Albillos, Almudena; Cuchillo-Ibáñez, Inmaculada; Olivares, Román; Villalobos, Carlos; Alvarez, Javier

    2002-01-01

    Ca(2+) uptake by mitochondria is a potentially important buffering system able to control cytosolic [Ca(2+)]. In chromaffin cells, we have shown previously that stimulation of either Ca(2+) entry or Ca(2+) release via ryanodine receptors triggers large increases in mitochondrial [Ca(2+)] ([Ca(2+)](M)) approaching the millimolar range, whose blockade dramatically enhances catecholamine secretion [Montero, Alonso, Carnicero, Cuchillo-Ibañez, Albillos, Garcia, Carcia-Sancho and Alvarez (2000) Nat. Cell Biol. 2, 57-61]. In the present study, we have studied the effect of stimulation of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (InsP(3)) receptors using histamine. We find that histamine produces a heterogeneous increase in [Ca(2+)](M), reaching peak levels at approx. 1 microM in 70% of the mitochondrial space to several hundred micromolar in 2-3% of mitochondria. Intermediate levels were found in the rest of the mitochondrial space. Single-cell imaging experiments with aequorin showed that the heterogeneity had both an intercellular and a subcellular origin. Those mitochondria responding to histamine with increases in [Ca(2+)](M) much greater than 1 microM (30%) were the same as those that also responded with large increases in [Ca(2+)](M) following stimulation with either high-K(+) medium or caffeine. Blocking mitochondrial Ca(2+) uptake with protonophores or mitochondrial inhibitors also enhanced catecholamine secretion induced by histamine. These results suggest that some InsP(3) receptors tightly co-localize with ryanodine receptors and voltage-dependent Ca(2+) channels in defined subplasmalemmal functional units designed to control secretion induced by different stimuli. PMID:11931633

  6. Voltage-independent autocrine modulation of L-type channels mediated by ATP, opioids and catecholamines in rat chromaffin cells.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Guijo, J M; Carabelli, V; Gandía, L; García, A G; Carbone, E

    1999-10-01

    The inhibition of L-type channels induced by either bath application of ATP, opioids and catecholamines or by endogenously released neurotransmitters was investigated in rat chromaffin cells with whole-cell recordings (5 mM Ba2+). In both cases, the L-type current, isolated pharmacologically using omega-toxin peptides and potentiated by Bay K 8644, was inhibited by approximately 50% with nearly no changes to the activation-inactivation kinetics. Inhibition was voltage independent at a wide range of potentials (-20 to +50 mV) and insensitive to depolarizing prepulses (+100 mV, 50 ms). Onset and offset of the inhibition were fast (time constants: tau(on) approximately 0.9 s, tau(off) approximately 3.6 s), indicating a rapid mechanism of channel modulation. Whether induced exogenously or from the released granules content in conditions of stopped cell superfusion, the neurotransmitter action was reversible and largely prevented by either intracellular GDP-beta-S, cell treatment with pertussis toxin or simultaneous application of P2y,2x delta/mu-opioidergic and alpha/beta-adrenergic antagonists. This suggests the existence of converging modulatory pathways by which autoreceptors-activated G-proteins reduce the activity of L-type channels through fast interactions. The autocrine inhibition of L-type currents, which was absent in superfused isolated cells, was effective on cell clusters, suggesting that L-type channels may be potently inhibited by cell exocytosis under physiological conditions resembling the intact adrenal glands. PMID:10564365

  7. Characterization of diadenosine tetraphosphate (Ap4A) binding sites in cultured chromaffin cells: evidence for a P2y site.

    PubMed Central

    Pintor, J.; Torres, M.; Castro, E.; Miras-Portugal, M. T.

    1991-01-01

    1. Diadenosine tetraphosphate (Ap4A) a dinucleotide, which is stored in secretory granules, presents two types of high affinity binding sites in chromaffin cells. A Kd value of 8 +/- 0.65 x 10(-11) M and Bmax value of 5420 +/- 450 sites per cell were obtained for the high affinity binding site. A Kd value of 5.6 +/- 0.53 x 10(-9) M and a Bmax value close to 70,000 sites per cell were obtained for the second binding site with high affinity. 2. The diadenosine polyphosphates, Ap3A, Ap4A, Ap5A and Ap6A, displaced [3H]-Ap4A from the two binding sites, the Ki values being 1.0 nM, 0.013 nM, 0.013 nM and 0.013 nM for the very high affinity binding site and 0.5 microM, 0.13 microM, 0.062 microM and 0.75 microM for the second binding site. 3. The ATP analogues displaced [3H]-Ap4A with the potency order of the P2y receptors, adenosine 5'-O-(2 thiodiphosphate) (ADP-beta-S) greater than 5'-adenylyl imidodiphosphate (AMP-PNP) greater than alpha, beta-methylene ATP (alpha, beta-MeATP), in both binding sites. The Ki values were respectively 0.075 nM, 0.2 nM and 0.75 nM for the very high affinity binding site and 0.125 microM, 0.5 microM and 0.9 microM for the second binding site. PMID:1912985

  8. Sustained Exocytosis after Action Potential-Like Stimulation at Low Frequencies in Mouse Chromaffin Cells Depends on a Dynamin-Dependent Fast Endocytotic Process.

    PubMed

    Moya-Díaz, José; Álvarez, Yanina D; Montenegro, Mauricio; Bayonés, Lucas; Belingheri, Ana V; González-Jamett, Arlek M; Cárdenas, Ana M; Marengo, Fernando D

    2016-01-01

    Under basal conditions the action potential firing rate of adrenal chromaffin cells is lower than 0.5 Hz. The maintenance of the secretory response at such frequencies requires a continuous replenishment of releasable vesicles. However, the mechanism that allows such vesicle replenishment remains unclear. Here, using membrane capacitance measurements on mouse chromaffin cells, we studied the mechanism of replenishment of a group of vesicles released by a single action potential-like stimulus (APls). The exocytosis triggered by APls (ETAP) represents a fraction (40%) of the immediately releasable pool, a group of vesicles highly coupled to voltage dependent calcium channels. ETAP was replenished with a time constant of 0.73 ± 0.11 s, fast enough to maintain synchronous exocytosis at 0.2-0.5 Hz stimulation. Regarding the mechanism involved in rapid ETAP replenishment, we found that it depends on the ready releasable pool; indeed depletion of this vesicle pool significantly delays ETAP replenishment. On the other hand, ETAP replenishment also correlates with a dynamin-dependent fast endocytosis process (τ = 0.53 ± 0.01 s). In this regard, disruption of dynamin function markedly inhibits the fast endocytosis and delays ETAP replenishment, but also significantly decreases the synchronous exocytosis during repetitive APls stimulation at low frequencies (0.2 and 0.5 Hz). Considering these findings, we propose a model in where both the transfer of vesicles from ready releasable pool and fast endocytosis allow rapid ETAP replenishment during low stimulation frequencies. PMID:27507935

  9. Sustained Exocytosis after Action Potential-Like Stimulation at Low Frequencies in Mouse Chromaffin Cells Depends on a Dynamin-Dependent Fast Endocytotic Process

    PubMed Central

    Moya-Díaz, José; Álvarez, Yanina D.; Montenegro, Mauricio; Bayonés, Lucas; Belingheri, Ana V.; González-Jamett, Arlek M.; Cárdenas, Ana M.; Marengo, Fernando D.

    2016-01-01

    Under basal conditions the action potential firing rate of adrenal chromaffin cells is lower than 0.5 Hz. The maintenance of the secretory response at such frequencies requires a continuous replenishment of releasable vesicles. However, the mechanism that allows such vesicle replenishment remains unclear. Here, using membrane capacitance measurements on mouse chromaffin cells, we studied the mechanism of replenishment of a group of vesicles released by a single action potential-like stimulus (APls). The exocytosis triggered by APls (ETAP) represents a fraction (40%) of the immediately releasable pool, a group of vesicles highly coupled to voltage dependent calcium channels. ETAP was replenished with a time constant of 0.73 ± 0.11 s, fast enough to maintain synchronous exocytosis at 0.2–0.5 Hz stimulation. Regarding the mechanism involved in rapid ETAP replenishment, we found that it depends on the ready releasable pool; indeed depletion of this vesicle pool significantly delays ETAP replenishment. On the other hand, ETAP replenishment also correlates with a dynamin-dependent fast endocytosis process (τ = 0.53 ± 0.01 s). In this regard, disruption of dynamin function markedly inhibits the fast endocytosis and delays ETAP replenishment, but also significantly decreases the synchronous exocytosis during repetitive APls stimulation at low frequencies (0.2 and 0.5 Hz). Considering these findings, we propose a model in where both the transfer of vesicles from ready releasable pool and fast endocytosis allow rapid ETAP replenishment during low stimulation frequencies. PMID:27507935

  10. Bovine myocardial epithelial inclusions.

    PubMed

    Baker, D C; Schmidt, S P; Langheinrich, K A; Cannon, L; Smart, R A

    1993-01-01

    Light microscopic, histochemical, immunohistochemical, and ultrastructural methods were used to examine myocardial epithelial masses in the hearts of ten cattle. The tissues consisted of paraffin-embedded or formalin-fixed samples from eight hearts that were being inspected in slaughter houses and from two hearts from calves that died of septicemia. The ages of the cattle ranged from 4 days to 12 years; the breeds were unspecified for all but one Hereford female and the two Holstein calves; and there were three males, four females, and three steers. The masses in these cases were compared with similar appearing lesions found in other animal species. The lesions in the bovine hearts were single to multiple, well circumscribed, found in the left ventricle wall, and composed of squamous to cuboidal epithelial cells that formed tubular, ductular, and acinar structures with lumens that were void or filled with amorphous protein globules. Electron microscopic examination revealed epithelial cells that had sparse apical microvilli, tight apical intercellular junctions, perinuclear bundles of filaments, and rare cilia. Almost half of the bovine epithelial masses (4/9) had occasional diastase-resistant periodic acid-Schiff-positive granules in their cytoplasm, and few had hyaluronidase-resistant alcian blue-positive granules (2/9) or colloidal iron-positive granules (1/9). All myocardial masses had abundant collagen surrounding the tubular and acinar structures, and 2/9 had elastin fibers as well. None of the myocardial masses had Churukian-Schenk or Fontana Masson's silver staining granules in epithelial cells. Immunohistochemically, all bovine myocardial tumors stained positively for cytokeratin (8/8), and occasional masses stained positively for vimentin (3/8) or carcinoembryonic antigen (3/8). None of the masses stained positively for desmin. The myocardial epithelial tumors most likely represent endodermal rests of tissue misplaced during organogenesis. PMID:7680178

  11. Enzootic Bovine Leukosis

    PubMed Central

    Reed, V. Ivan

    1981-01-01

    The author emphasizes the significance of enzootic bovine leukosis in Canada. He describes in detail diagnostic methods, various types of the disease and methods of transmission. Various aspects of the disease in Canada are compared with those in other countries. Prevention and control are discussed in a Canadian context and include the current policies of the Government of Canada in relationship to this disease. The possibility of developing a certification program for herds free of the disease is also discussed. The paper includes incidence in various parts of Canada. PMID:6265053

  12. Opposite action of beta1- and beta2-adrenergic receptors on Ca(V)1 L-channel current in rat adrenal chromaffin cells.

    PubMed

    Cesetti, T; Hernández-Guijo, J M; Baldelli, P; Carabelli, V; Carbone, E

    2003-01-01

    Voltage-gated Ca(2+) channels of chromaffin cells are modulated by locally released neurotransmitters through autoreceptor-activated G-proteins. Clear evidence exists in favor of a Ca(2+) channel gating inhibition mediated by purinergic, opioidergic, and alpha-adrenergic autoreceptors. Few and contradictory data suggest also a role of beta-adrenergic autoreceptors (beta-ARs), the action of which, however, remains obscure. Here, using patch-perforated recordings, we show that rat chromaffin cells respond to the beta-AR agonist isoprenaline (ISO) by either upmodulating or downmodulating the amplitude of Ca(2+) currents through two distinct modulatory pathways. ISO (1 microm) could cause either fast inhibition (approximately 25%) or slow potentiation (approximately 25%), or a combination of the two actions. Both effects were completely prevented by propranolol. Slow potentiation was more evident in cells pretreated with pertussis toxin (PTX) or when beta(1)-ARs were selectively stimulated with ISO + ICI118,551. Potentiation was absent when the beta(2)-AR-selective agonist zinterol (1 microm), the protein kinase A (PKA) inhibitor H89, or nifedipine was applied, suggesting that potentiation is associated with a PKA-mediated phosphorylation of L-channels (approximately 40% L-current increase) through beta(1)-ARs. The ISO-induced inhibition was fast and reversible, preserved in cell treated with H89, and mimicked by zinterol. The action of zinterol was mostly on L-channels (38% inhibition). Zinterol action preserved the channel activation kinetics, the voltage-dependence of the I-V characteristic, and was removed by PTX, suggesting that beta(2)AR-mediated channel inhibition was mainly voltage independent and coupled to G(i)/G(o)-proteins. Sequential application of zinterol and ISO mimicked the dual action (inhibition/potentiation) of ISO alone. The two kinetically and pharmacologically distinct beta-ARs signaling uncover alternative pathways, which may serve the autocrine

  13. α-Conotoxins Identify the α3β4* Subtype as the Predominant Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor Expressed in Human Adrenal Chromaffin Cells.

    PubMed

    Hone, Arik J; McIntosh, J Michael; Azam, Layla; Lindstrom, Jon; Lucero, Linda; Whiteaker, Paul; Passas, Juan; Blázquez, Jesús; Albillos, Almudena

    2015-11-01

    Ligands that selectively inhibit human α3β2 and α6β2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChRs) and not the closely related α3β4 and α6β4 subtypes are lacking. Current α-conotoxins (α-Ctxs) that discriminate among these nAChR subtypes in rat fail to discriminate among the human receptor homologs. In this study, we describe the development of α-Ctx LvIA(N9R,V10A) that is 3000-fold more potent on oocyte-expressed human α3β2 than α3β4 and 165-fold more potent on human α6/α3β2β3 than α6/α3β4 nAChRs. This analog was used in conjuction with three other α-Ctx analogs and patch-clamp electrophysiology to characterize the nAChR subtypes expressed by human adrenal chromaffin cells. LvIA(N9R,V10A) showed little effect on the acetylcholine-evoked currents in these cells at concentrations expected to inhibit nAChRs with β2 ligand-binding sites. In contrast, the β4-selective α-Ctx BuIA(T5A,P6O) inhibited >98% of the acetylcholine-evoked current, indicating that most of the heteromeric receptors contained β4 ligand-binding sites. Additional studies using the α6-selective α-Ctx PeIA(A7V,S9H,V10A,N11R,E14A) indicated that the predominant heteromeric nAChR expressed by human adrenal chromaffin cells is the α3β4* subtype (asterisk indicates the possible presence of additional subunits). This conclusion was supported by polymerase chain reaction experiments of human adrenal medulla gland and of cultured human adrenal chromaffin cells that demonstrated prominent expression of RNAs for α3, α5, α7, β2, and β4 subunits and a low abundance of RNAs for α2, α4, α6, and α10 subunits. PMID:26330550

  14. [Bovine immunodeficiency virus: short review].

    PubMed

    Bouillant, A M; Archambault, D

    1990-01-01

    A bovine visna-like virus was isolated by Van Der Maaten et al (1972) but it did not draw attention since, at that time, most efforts were directed towards research on bovine leukemia virus. However, new interest was shown on the bovine visna-like virus after the isolation of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), because of the urgent need for developing animal models for the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). The purpose of this paper is to describe the different stages of the identification of the bovine virus and to up-date knowledge about it. The bovine visna-like virus has recently been named the bovine immuno-deficiency-like virus (BIV) and is the sole bovine lentivirus known to-date. BIV shares morphologic, antigenic and genomic characteristics with other lentiviruses. It grows and induces large syncytia in vitro and generates virus-productive and latent infections in cell culture. It causes persistent infection and slow progressive disease in cattle and probably in sheep. As target cells of the virus are leukocytes, the type of which is unknown, perturbations of the immune system are expected. Consequently, BIV may potentiate the occurrence of secondary infections and play a role in retroviral, multiple infections. It is not oncogenic. Transmission appears to occur in cattle by contact, but evidence of transmission in human beings has not been shown. Finally, BIV may be a potential model in vitro and in vivo for HIV and AIDS. PMID:1963056

  15. Microelectrode Arrays of Diamond-Insulated Graphitic Channels for Real-Time Detection of Exocytotic Events from Cultured Chromaffin Cells and Slices of Adrenal Glands.

    PubMed

    Picollo, Federico; Battiato, Alfio; Bernardi, Ettore; Marcantoni, Andrea; Pasquarelli, Alberto; Carbone, Emilio; Olivero, Paolo; Carabelli, Valentina

    2016-08-01

    A microstructured graphitic 4 × 4 multielectrode array was embedded in a single-crystal diamond substrate (4 × 4 μG-SCD MEA) for real-time monitoring of exocytotic events from cultured chromaffin cells and adrenal slices. The current approach relies on the development of a parallel ion beam lithographic technique, which assures the time-effective fabrication of extended arrays with reproducible electrode dimensions. The reported device is suitable for performing amperometric and voltammetric recordings with high sensitivity and temporal resolution, by simultaneously acquiring data from 16 rectangularly shaped microelectrodes (20 × 3.5 μm(2)) separated by 200 μm gaps. Taking advantage of the array geometry we addressed the following specific issues: (i) detect both the spontaneous and KCl-evoked secretion simultaneously from several chromaffin cells directly cultured on the device surface, (ii) resolve the waveform of different subsets of exocytotic events, and (iii) monitoring quantal secretory events from thin slices of the adrenal gland. The frequency of spontaneous release was low (0.12 and 0.3 Hz, respectively, for adrenal slices and cultured cells) and increased up to 0.9 Hz after stimulation with 30 mM KCl in cultured cells. The spike amplitude as well as rise and decay time were comparable with those measured by carbon fiber microelectrodes and allowed to identify three different subsets of secretory events associated with "full fusion" events, "kiss-and-run" and "kiss-and-stay" exocytosis, confirming that the device has adequate sensitivity and time resolution for real-time recordings. The device offers the significant advantage of shortening the time to collect data by allowing simultaneous recordings from cell populations either in primary cell cultures or in intact tissues. PMID:27376596

  16. Huntingtin-associated protein 1 regulates exocytosis, vesicle docking, readily releasable pool size and fusion pore stability in mouse chromaffin cells

    PubMed Central

    Mackenzie, Kimberly D; Duffield, Michael D; Peiris, Heshan; Phillips, Lucy; Zanin, Mark P; Teo, Ee Hiok; Zhou, Xin-Fu; Keating, Damien J

    2014-01-01

    Huntingtin-associated protein 1 (HAP1) was initially established as a neuronal binding partner of huntingtin, mutations in which underlie Huntington's disease. Subcellular localization and protein interaction data indicate that HAP1 may be important in vesicle trafficking and cell signalling. In this study, we establish that HAP1 is important in several steps of exocytosis in adrenal chromaffin cells. Using carbon-fibre amperometry, we measured single vesicle exocytosis in chromaffin cells obtained from HAP1−/− and HAP1+/+ littermate mice. Numbers of Ca2+-dependent and Ca2+-independent full fusion events in HAP1−/− cells are significantly decreased compared with those in HAP1+/+ cells. We observed no change in the frequency of ‘kiss-and-run’ fusion events or in Ca2+ entry. Whereas release per full fusion event is unchanged in HAP1−/− cells, early fusion pore duration is prolonged, as indicated by the increased duration of pre-spike foot signals. Kiss-and-run events have a shorter duration, indicating opposing roles for HAP1 in the stabilization of the fusion pore during full fusion and transient fusion, respectively. We use electron microscopy to demonstrate a reduction in the number of vesicles docked at the plasma membrane of HAP1−/− cells, where membrane capacitance measurements reveal the readily releasable pool of vesicles to be reduced in size. Our study therefore illustrates that HAP1 regulates exocytosis by influencing the morphological docking of vesicles at the plasma membrane, the ability of vesicles to be released rapidly upon stimulation, and the early stages of fusion pore formation. PMID:24366265

  17. Solution conformation of the synthetic bovine proenkephalin-A209-237 by 1H NMR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Kieffer, B; Dillmann, B; Lefèvre, J F; Goumon, Y; Aunis, D; Metz-Boutigue, M H

    1998-12-11

    Proenkephalin-A has been described to generate enkephalins, opoid peptides, and several derived peptides, which display various biological effects, including antinociception and immunological enhancement. Recently, we have isolated from bovine chromaffin granules a new antibacterial peptide, named enkelytin, which corresponds to the bisphosphorylated form of PEAP209-237 (Goumon, Y., Strub, J. M., Moniatte, M., Nullans, G., Poteur, L., Hubert, P., Van Dorsselaer, A., Aunis, D., and Metz-Boutigue, M. H. (1996) Eur. J. Biochem. 235, 516-525). In this paper, the three-dimensional solution structure of synthetic PEAP209-237 was investigated by NMR. These studies indicate that this peptide, which is unstructured in water, folds into an alpha-helical structure in trifluoroethanol/water (1/1). NMR data revealed two possible three-dimensional models of PEAP209-237. In both models, the proline residue Pro-227 induces a 90 degrees hinge between two alpha-helical segments (Ser-215 to Ser-221 and Glu-228 to Arg-232) leading to an overall L-shaped structure for the molecule. The negative charge of PEAP209-237 and the low amphipathy of the two alpha-helical segments imply new mechanisms to explain the antibacterial activity of enkelytin. PMID:9837932

  18. The innervation of the adrenal gland. IV. Innervation of the rat adrenal medulla from birth to old age. A descriptive and quantitative morphometric and biochemical study of the innervation of chromaffin cells and adrenal medullary neurons in Wistar rats.

    PubMed Central

    Tomlinson, A; Coupland, R E

    1990-01-01

    The innervation of the adrenal medulla has been investigated in normal Wistar rats from birth to old age and ultrastructural findings compared with biochemical markers of the cholinergic innervation of the adrenal gland and catecholamine storage. Morphological evidence of the immaturity of the innervation during the first postnatal week is provided and using quantitative morphometry the innervation of chromaffin cells is shown to reach a mean total of 5.4 synapses per chromaffin cell during the period 26 days to 12 weeks of age. The variation in contents of synaptic profiles is discussed in the light of recent work that demonstrates a major sensory as well as visceral efferent innervation of the gland. Adrenal medullary neurons usually occur in closely packed groups, intimately associated with Schwann cells. Axodendritic and axosomatic synapses on these neurons are described and the likely origin of axonal processes innervating the neurons discussed. In old age the density of innervation remains the same as in young adult animals even though the medulla shows evidence of hyperplasia and hypertrophy of individual chromaffin cells. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 Fig. 14 Fig. 15 Fig. 16 Fig. 17 Fig. 18 Fig. 19 Fig. 20 Fig. 21 Fig. 22 Fig. 23 Fig. 24 Fig. 25 PMID:2384334

  19. Bovine respiratory disease model based on dual infections with infection with bovine viral diarrhea virus and bovine corona virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bovine respiratory disease complex (BRDC) is the leading cause of economic loss in the U.S. cattle industry. BRDC likely results from simultaneous or sequential infections with multiple pathogens including both viruses and bacteria. Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) and bovine corona virus (BoCV...

  20. Material Properties of Inorganic Bovine Cancellous Bovine: Nukbone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piña, Cristina; Palma, Benito; Munguía, Nadia

    2006-09-01

    In this work, inorganic cancellous bovine bone implants prepared in the Instituto de Investigaciones en Materiales — UNAM were characterized. Elementary chemical analysis was made, toxic elements concentration were measured and the content of organic matter also. These implants fulfill all the requirements of the ASTM standards, and therefore it is possible their use in medical applications.

  1. Morphological observations of small granule-containing (chromaffin) cells in the celiac ganglion of the guinea pig, with emphasis on cell contacts.

    PubMed

    Mascorro, J A; Breaux, T F; Yates, R D

    1994-10-01

    Utilizing electron microscopic observation, several contacts between small, granule-containing cells (SGC) and postganglionic neurons (PGN) in the celiac ganglion of the guinea pig have been observed. A SGC in very close association with a PGN was seen to receive a distinct synaptic contact that contained many vesicles with dense cores. This contact was morphologically unlike cholinergic synapses previously reported on chromaffin cells. Because the SGC and PGN were clearly separated by a thin rim of satellite cell cytoplasm mutual to both cells, it is not known how or if the SGC would possibly exert a synaptic or paracrine effect on the PGN. Also, intraganglion SGC existed as large well-vascularized islands within the celiac ganglion. These intraganglion clusters sometimes contained more than 50 cells and perhaps could be considered to function as localized neuroendocrine components within the ganglion by secreting granule products into the nearby blood vessels for local or distant effects, although this certainly is not known. This work reports a unique synaptic ending upon a single-occurring SGC, which, in turn, closely approximates a ganglion neuron in a soma-somatic relationship. In addition, a very close association (but no actual contact) was observed between granule-containing processes, presumably emanating from the intraganglion clusters, and PGN. Whatever the function of ganglionic SGC may be, the exact relationship between SGC and PGN presumably would be of great interest and potential importance. PMID:7812038

  2. The Immediately Releasable Pool of Mouse Chromaffin Cell Vesicles Is Coupled to P/Q-Type Calcium Channels via the Synaptic Protein Interaction Site

    PubMed Central

    Álvarez, Yanina D.; Belingheri, Ana Verónica; Perez Bay, Andrés E.; Javis, Scott E.; Tedford, H. William; Zamponi, Gerald; Marengo, Fernando D.

    2013-01-01

    It is generally accepted that the immediately releasable pool is a group of readily releasable vesicles that are closely associated with voltage dependent Ca2+ channels. We have previously shown that exocytosis of this pool is specifically coupled to P/Q Ca2+ current. Accordingly, in the present work we found that the Ca2+ current flowing through P/Q-type Ca2+ channels is 8 times more effective at inducing exocytosis in response to short stimuli than the current carried by L-type channels. To investigate the mechanism that underlies the coupling between the immediately releasable pool and P/Q-type channels we transiently expressed in mouse chromaffin cells peptides corresponding to the synaptic protein interaction site of Cav2.2 to competitively uncouple P/Q-type channels from the secretory vesicle release complex. This treatment reduced the efficiency of Ca2+ current to induce exocytosis to similar values as direct inhibition of P/Q-type channels via ω-agatoxin-IVA. In addition, the same treatment markedly reduced immediately releasable pool exocytosis, but did not affect the exocytosis provoked by sustained electric or high K+ stimulation. Together, our results indicate that the synaptic protein interaction site is a crucial factor for the establishment of the functional coupling between immediately releasable pool vesicles and P/Q-type Ca2+ channels. PMID:23382986

  3. Role of hypoxia and HIF2α in development of the sympathoadrenal cell lineage and chromaffin cell tumours with distinct catecholamine phenotypic features

    PubMed Central

    Richter, Susan; Qin, Nan; Pacak, Karel; Eisenhofer, Graeme

    2013-01-01

    Hypoxia has wide-ranging impact in normal physiology and disease processes. This stimulus evokes changes in gene expression mediated by transcription factors termed hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs) that affect numerous processes: angiogenesis, cell survival, cellular metabolism, stem cell self- renewal and multipotency, migration, invasiveness and metastatic progression in tumour cells. Over the past decade increasing numbers of reports have emerged documenting differential roles of HIF1α and HIF2α in these processes. In cells of the sympathoadrenal lineage both HIFs differentially mediate influences of hypoxia on catecholamine synthesis and secretion, but HIF2α signalling has particularly prominent functions in regulating developmental processes of growth and differentiation. This article discusses the role of HIF2α and HIF1α in the context of the development, phenotypic features and functions of chromaffin cells. Moreover, current knowledge about tumour formation in cells of the sympathoadrenal lineage, leading to catecholamine producing pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas, is analysed in the light of the HIF2α signalling network. PMID:24054150

  4. 78 FR 72979 - Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy; Importation of Bovines and Bovine Products

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-04

    ..., 2012, we published in the Federal Register (77 FR 15848-15913, Docket No. APHIS-2008-0010) a proposal... January 4, 2005 (70 FR 460-553, Docket No. 03-080-3). The delay of applicability was removed in a final... Products Derived from Bovines,'' published in the Federal Register on September 18, 2007 (72 FR...

  5. Bovine ephemeral fever: a review.

    PubMed

    Nandi, S; Negi, B S

    1999-04-01

    Bovine ephemeral fever is a viral disease of cattle and buffaloes besides subclinical involvement of a variety of ruminant species. The subtropical and temperate regions of Africa, Asia and Australia have experienced the major epidemic of the bovine ephemeral fever but the occurrence in the tropics can not be overlooked. Although the substantial role played by the vectors viz., mosquitoes and culicoides in bovine ephemeral fever perpetuation and dissemination, other vector involvement if any should be extensively studied. The clinical severity of the disease is not apparent and the mortality is low. However, high morbidity, enormous economic losses in terms of significant reduction in production, disruption of national and international trade and finally a variety of complications resulting from the disease have drawn appreciable attention from the researchers around the world to resolve the unsolved questions in this area. In this review, detailed informations of all the aspects of the disease has been provided in a simple, lucid and easily understandable manner. PMID:10051179

  6. Modulation of spontaneous intracellular Ca²⁺ fluctuations and spontaneous cholinergic transmission in rat chromaffin cells in situ by endogenous GABA acting on GABAA receptors.

    PubMed

    Tzitzitlini, Alejandre-García; Pedro, Segura-Chama; Martha, Pérez-Armendáriz E; Rodolfo, Delgado-Lezama; Arturo, Hernández-Cruz

    2016-02-01

    Using fluorescence [Ca(2+)]i imaging in rat adrenal slices, we characterized the effects of agonists and antagonists of the GABAA receptor (GABAA-R) on resting intracellular Ca(2+) ([Ca(2+)]i) and spontaneous [Ca(2+)]i fluctuations (SCFs) in hundreds of individual chromaffin cells (CCs) recorded simultaneously in situ. Muscimol, a GABAA-R agonist (20 μM; 25 s), induced an increase of resting [Ca(2+)]i in 43 ± 3 % of CCs, a decrease in 26 ± 2 %, and no response in 30 ± 5 %. In Ca(2+)-free external medium, SCFs ceased completely and muscimol failed to elicit [Ca(2+)]i rises. All muscimol-induced [Ca(2+)]i changes were blocked by the GABAA-R antagonist bicuculline, suggesting that they result from changes in membrane potential depending on the cell's Cl(-) equilibrium potential. Unexpectedly, bicuculline increased the amplitude and frequency of SCFs in 54 % of CCs, revealing a tonic inhibition of SCFs by ambient GABA acting through GABAA-R. Mecamylamine (a specific nicotinic cholinergic blocker) decreased basal SCF activity in 18 % of CCs and inhibited bicuculline-induced SCF intensification, suggesting that spontaneous acetylcholine (ACh) release from nerve endings contributes to SCF generation in CCs in situ and that blockade of presynaptic GABAA-Rs intensifies SCFs in part through the disinhibition of spontaneous cholinergic transmission. Electrophysiological experiments confirmed that spontaneous excitatory postsynaptic currents recorded from CCs in situ were enhanced by bicuculline. To our knowledge, this is the first description of a regulatory effect of endogenous GABA on synaptic currents and SCFs of adrenal CCs. These findings denote a novel GABA-mediated presynaptic and postsynaptic regulatory mechanism of CC activity which may participate in the control of catecholamine secretion. PMID:26490458

  7. Reduced availability of voltage-gated sodium channels by depolarization or blockade by tetrodotoxin boosts burst firing and catecholamine release in mouse chromaffin cells

    PubMed Central

    Vandael, David H F; Ottaviani, Matteo M; Legros, Christian; Lefort, Claudie; Guérineau, Nathalie C; Allio, Arianna; Carabelli, Valentina; Carbone, Emilio

    2015-01-01

    Action potential (AP) firing in mouse chromaffin cells (MCCs) is mainly sustained by Cav1.3 L-type channels that drive BK and SK currents and regulate the pacemaking cycle. As secretory units, CCs optimally recruit Ca2+ channels when stimulated, a process potentially dependent on the modulation of the AP waveform. Our previous work has shown that a critical determinant of AP shape is voltage-gated sodium channel (Nav) channel availability. Here, we studied the contribution of Nav channels to firing patterns and AP shapes at rest (−50 mV) and upon stimulation (−40 mV). Using quantitative RT-PCR and immunoblotting, we show that MCCs mainly express tetrodotoxin (TTX)-sensitive, fast-inactivating Nav1.3 and Nav1.7 channels that carry little or no Na+ current during slow ramp depolarizations. Time constants and the percentage of recovery from fast inactivation and slow entry into closed-state inactivation are similar to that of brain Nav1.3 and Nav1.7 channels. The fraction of available Nav channels is reduced by half after 10 mV depolarization from −50 to −40 mV. This leads to low amplitude spikes and a reduction in repolarizing K+ currents inverting the net current from outward to inward during the after-hyperpolarization. When Nav channel availability is reduced by up to 20% of total, either by TTX block or steady depolarization, a switch from tonic to burst firing is observed. The spontaneous occurrence of high frequency bursts is rare under control conditions (14% of cells) but leads to major Ca2+-entry and increased catecholamine release. Thus, Nav1.3/Nav1.7 channel availability sets the AP shape, burst-firing initiation and regulates catecholamine secretion in MCCs. Nav channel inactivation becomes important during periods of high activity, mimicking stress responses. PMID:25620605

  8. Stimulus-induced association of Ca(2+)-binding proteins with the plasma membrane detected in situ by photolabeling of intact chromaffin and PC12 cells.

    PubMed Central

    Schwaller, B; Calef, E; Gitler, C; Rosenheck, K

    1993-01-01

    To investigate the involvement of cytosolic proteins in exocytosis, a system with high temporal and spatial resolution has been developed that allows us to detect the interaction of Ca(2+)- and membrane-binding proteins with the plasma membrane during stimulation of intact chromaffin and PC12 (rat pheochromocytoma) cells. We used 5-iodonaphthalene-1-azide (INA), a hydrophobic label that rapidly partitions into the lipid bilayer of biological membranes. Upon photolysis the label covalently attaches to membrane-embedded domains of proteins. Cells, preincubated with INA in the dark, were stimulated by either 300 microM carbamoylcholine or 60 mM K+ and irradiated (20 s) at various time intervals after stimulation. Subsequently, the cytosolic Ca(2+)- and membrane-binding proteins were isolated in the presence of EGTA (EGTA extract). Of the approximately 40 proteins in the EGTA extract, 15 (15-100 kDa) are labeled in both cell types. Upon stimulation, labeling is increased up to 3-fold in some of the proteins compared to cells labeled under basal conditions. In the absence of external Ca2+, no increase is observed. The rate of label incorporation is similar to the rate of exocytosis in several of these proteins. These results indicate that in the event of triggered exocytosis some of the Ca(2+)-binding proteins interact with the plasma membrane and temporarily embed in the lipid bilayer. Our findings support the hypothesis according to which stimulus-induced alterations in the structure of the Ca(2+)-binding proteins lead to their transient insertion into the membrane and thereby to membrane fusion. Images PMID:8433989

  9. Enhanced Ca(2+)-induced Ca(2+) release from intracellular stores contributes to catecholamine hypersecretion in adrenal chromaffin cells from spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Segura-Chama, Pedro; López-Bistrain, Patricia; Pérez-Armendáriz, Elia Martha; Jiménez-Pérez, Nicolás; Millán-Aldaco, Diana; Hernández-Cruz, Arturo

    2015-11-01

    Adrenal chromaffin cells (CCs) from spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) secrete more catecholamine (CA) upon stimulation than CCs from normotensive Wistar Kyoto rats (WKY). Unitary CA exocytosis events, both spontaneous and stimulated, were amperometrically recorded from cultured WKY and SHR CCs. Both strains display spontaneous amperometric spikes but SHR CCs produce more spikes and of higher mean amplitude. After a brief stimulation with high K(+) or caffeine which produces voltage-gated Ca(2+) influx or intracellular Ca(2+) release, respectively, more spikes and of greater mean amplitude and unitary charge were recorded in SHR CCs. Consequently, peak cumulative charge was ~2-fold higher in SHR CCs. Ryanodine (10 μM), a specific blocker of the ryanodine receptors reduced depolarization-induced peak cumulative charge by ~10 % in WKY and ~77 % in SHR CCs, suggesting, a larger contribution of Ca(2+)-induced Ca(2+) release to CA exocytosis in SHR CCs. Accordingly, Ca(2+) imaging showed larger [Ca(2+)]i signals induced both by depolarization and caffeine in SHR CCs. Distribution amplitude histograms showed that small amperometric spikes (0-50 pA) are more frequent in WKY than in SHR CCs. Conversely, medium (50-190 pA) and large (190-290 pA) spikes are more numerous in SHR than in WKY CCs. This study reveals that the enhanced CA secretion in SHR CCs results from a combination of (1) larger depolarization-induced Ca(2+) transients, due to a greater Ca(2+)-induced intracellular Ca(2+) release, (2) more exocytosis events per time unit, and (3) a greater proportion of medium and large amperometric spikes probably due to a higher mean CA content per granule. Enhanced CA release by excessive amplification by Ca(2+) induced Ca(2+) release and larger granule catecholamine content contributes to the increased CA plasma levels and vasomotor tone in SHRs. PMID:25791627

  10. Chronic hypoxia up-regulates α1H T-type channels and low-threshold catecholamine secretion in rat chromaffin cells

    PubMed Central

    Carabelli, V; Marcantoni, A; Comunanza, V; de Luca, A; Díaz, J; Borges, R; Carbone, E

    2007-01-01

    α1H T-type channels recruited by β1-adrenergic stimulation in rat chromaffin cells (RCCs) are coupled to fast exocytosis with the same Ca2+ dependence of high-threshold Ca2+ channels. Here we show that RCCs exposed to chronic hypoxia (CH) for 12–18 h in 3% O2 express comparable densities of functional T-type channels that depolarize the resting cells and contribute to low-voltage exocytosis. Following chronic hypoxia, most RCCs exhibited T-type Ca2+ channels already available at −50 mV with the same gating, pharmacological and molecular features as the α1H isoform. Chronic hypoxia had no effects on cell size and high-threshold Ca2+ current density and was mimicked by overnight incubation with the iron-chelating agent desferrioxamine (DFX), suggesting the involvement of hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs). T-type channel recruitment occurred independently of PKA activation and the presence of extracellular Ca2+. Hypoxia-recruited T-type channels were partially open at rest (T-type ‘window-current’) and contributed to raising the resting potential to more positive values. Their block by 50 μm Ni2+ caused a 5–8 mV hyperpolarization. The secretory response associated with T-type channels could be detected following mild cell depolarizations, either by capacitance increases induced by step depolarizations or by amperometric current spikes induced by increased [KCl]. In the latter case, exocytotic bursts could be evoked even with 2–4 mm KCl and spike frequency was drastically reduced by 50 μm Ni2+. Chronic hypoxia did not alter the shape of spikes, suggesting that hypoxia-recruited T-type channels increase the number of secreted vesicles at low voltages, without altering the mechanism of catecholamine release and the quantal content of released molecules. PMID:17690152

  11. Chronic hypoxia up-regulates alpha1H T-type channels and low-threshold catecholamine secretion in rat chromaffin cells.

    PubMed

    Carabelli, V; Marcantoni, A; Comunanza, V; de Luca, A; Díaz, J; Borges, R; Carbone, E

    2007-10-01

    alpha(1H) T-type channels recruited by beta(1)-adrenergic stimulation in rat chromaffin cells (RCCs) are coupled to fast exocytosis with the same Ca(2+) dependence of high-threshold Ca(2+) channels. Here we show that RCCs exposed to chronic hypoxia (CH) for 12-18 h in 3% O(2) express comparable densities of functional T-type channels that depolarize the resting cells and contribute to low-voltage exocytosis. Following chronic hypoxia, most RCCs exhibited T-type Ca(2+) channels already available at -50 mV with the same gating, pharmacological and molecular features as the alpha(1H) isoform. Chronic hypoxia had no effects on cell size and high-threshold Ca(2+) current density and was mimicked by overnight incubation with the iron-chelating agent desferrioxamine (DFX), suggesting the involvement of hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs). T-type channel recruitment occurred independently of PKA activation and the presence of extracellular Ca(2+). Hypoxia-recruited T-type channels were partially open at rest (T-type 'window-current') and contributed to raising the resting potential to more positive values. Their block by 50 microm Ni(2+) caused a 5-8 mV hyperpolarization. The secretory response associated with T-type channels could be detected following mild cell depolarizations, either by capacitance increases induced by step depolarizations or by amperometric current spikes induced by increased [KCl]. In the latter case, exocytotic bursts could be evoked even with 2-4 mm KCl and spike frequency was drastically reduced by 50 microm Ni(2+). Chronic hypoxia did not alter the shape of spikes, suggesting that hypoxia-recruited T-type channels increase the number of secreted vesicles at low voltages, without altering the mechanism of catecholamine release and the quantal content of released molecules. PMID:17690152

  12. Low-Threshold Exocytosis Induced by cAMP-Recruited CaV3.2 (α1H) Channels in Rat Chromaffin Cells

    PubMed Central

    Giancippoli, A.; Novara, M.; de Luca, A.; Baldelli, P.; Marcantoni, A.; Carbone, E.; Carabelli, V.

    2006-01-01

    We have studied the functional role of CaV3 channels in triggering fast exocytosis in rat chromaffin cells (RCCs). CaV3 T-type channels were selectively recruited by chronic exposures to cAMP (3 days) via an exchange protein directly activated by cAMP (Epac)-mediated pathway. Here we show that cAMP-treated cells had increased secretory responses, which could be evoked even at very low depolarizations (−50, −40 mV). Potentiation of exocytosis in cAMP-treated cells did not occur in the presence of 50 μM Ni2+, which selectively blocks T-type currents in RCCs. This suggests that the “low-threshold exocytosis” induced by cAMP is due to increased Ca2+ influx through cAMP-recruited T-type channels, rather than to an enhanced secretion downstream of Ca2+ entry, as previously reported for short-term cAMP treatments (20 min). Newly recruited T-type channels increase the fast secretory response at low voltages without altering the size of the immediately releasable pool. They also preserve the Ca2+ dependence of exocytosis, the initial speed of vesicle depletion, and the mean quantal size of single secretory events. All this indicates that cAMP-recruited CaV3 channels enhance the secretory activity of RCCs at low voltages by coupling to the secretory apparatus with a Ca2+ efficacy similar to that of already existing high-threshold Ca2+ channels. Finally, using RT-PCRs we found that the fast inactivating low-threshold Ca2+ current component recruited by cAMP is selectively associated to the α1H (CaV3.2) channel isoform. PMID:16361341

  13. Low-threshold exocytosis induced by cAMP-recruited CaV3.2 (alpha1H) channels in rat chromaffin cells.

    PubMed

    Giancippoli, A; Novara, M; de Luca, A; Baldelli, P; Marcantoni, A; Carbone, E; Carabelli, V

    2006-03-01

    We have studied the functional role of CaV3 channels in triggering fast exocytosis in rat chromaffin cells (RCCs). CaV3 T-type channels were selectively recruited by chronic exposures to cAMP (3 days) via an exchange protein directly activated by cAMP (Epac)-mediated pathway. Here we show that cAMP-treated cells had increased secretory responses, which could be evoked even at very low depolarizations (-50, -40 mV). Potentiation of exocytosis in cAMP-treated cells did not occur in the presence of 50 microM Ni2+, which selectively blocks T-type currents in RCCs. This suggests that the "low-threshold exocytosis" induced by cAMP is due to increased Ca2+ influx through cAMP-recruited T-type channels, rather than to an enhanced secretion downstream of Ca2+ entry, as previously reported for short-term cAMP treatments (20 min). Newly recruited T-type channels increase the fast secretory response at low voltages without altering the size of the immediately releasable pool. They also preserve the Ca2+ dependence of exocytosis, the initial speed of vesicle depletion, and the mean quantal size of single secretory events. All this indicates that cAMP-recruited CaV3 channels enhance the secretory activity of RCCs at low voltages by coupling to the secretory apparatus with a Ca2+ efficacy similar to that of already existing high-threshold Ca2+ channels. Finally, using RT-PCRs we found that the fast inactivating low-threshold Ca2+ current component recruited by cAMP is selectively associated to the alpha1H (CaV3.2) channel isoform. PMID:16361341

  14. Serum susceptibility of bovine pasteurellas.

    PubMed Central

    Blau, K A; Ward, A C; Prieur, D J; Corbeil, L B

    1987-01-01

    In this study, the serum sensitivity of 23 P. haemolytica isolates and 18 P. multocida isolates was determined by incubating dilutions of bacteria with equal volumes of fresh or heat-inactivated bovine serum for one, two, or three hours. Clinical isolates of both Pasteurella species were resistant to serum, whereas isolates from asymptomatic cattle varied in serum susceptibility. The classical pathway of complement appeared to be the principal means of complement mediated killing as detected by incubation in the presence or absence of EGTA-MgCl2. Lyzozyme and iron saturation of serum did not greatly affect serum susceptibility with either of the Pasteurella species. PMID:3300919

  15. Bovine somatic cell nuclear transfer.

    PubMed

    Ross, Pablo J; Cibelli, Jose B

    2010-01-01

    Somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) is a technique by which the nucleus of a differentiated cell is introduced into an oocyte from which its genetic material has been removed by a process called enucleation. In mammals, the reconstructed embryo is artificially induced to initiate embryonic development (activation). The oocyte turns the somatic cell nucleus into an embryonic nucleus. This process is called nuclear reprogramming and involves an important change of cell fate, by which the somatic cell nucleus becomes capable of generating all the cell types required for the formation of a new individual, including extraembryonic tissues. Therefore, after transfer of a cloned embryo to a surrogate mother, an offspring genetically identical to the animal from which the somatic cells where isolated, is born. Cloning by nuclear transfer has potential applications in agriculture and biomedicine, but is limited by low efficiency. Cattle were the second mammalian species to be cloned after Dolly the sheep, and it is probably the most widely used species for SCNT experiments. This is, in part due to the high availability of bovine oocytes and the relatively higher efficiency levels usually obtained in cattle. Given the wide utilization of this species for cloning, several alternatives to this basic protocol can be found in the literature. Here we describe a basic protocol for bovine SCNT currently being used in our laboratory, which is amenable for the use of the nuclear transplantation technique for research or commercial purposes. PMID:20336522

  16. [Toxinology of bovine paraplegic syndrome].

    PubMed

    Sevcik, C; Brito, J C; D'Suze, G; Mijares, A J; Domínguez, M G

    1993-01-01

    A clinical entity named "Bovine Paraplegic Syndrome" ("Síndrome Parapléjico de los Bovinos") has spread alarmingly, in the cattle growing areas of the central and eastern plains of Venezuela. Approximately four million cattle are bread in the area were the disease occurs. The mortality index due to the disease ranges 5 to 25% of the animals at risk, mostly cows, pregnant or lactating. The principal characteristic of the bovine paraplegic syndrome is decubitus, ventral or sternal, in animals that make vane efforts to stand when stimulated. The diagnosis is established ruling out, clinically and with laboratory findings, that the animals are suffering known diseases with similar symptoms such as paralytic rabies, botulism and blood parasites such Trypanosoma sp., Babesia sp., and Anaplasma sp.. Death occurs always, usually after few days, and to this date there is no known treatment able to save the sick cows. In this work, we describe results that suggest the presence of a toxin in the cattle suffering and prone to suffer the syndrome; it is a natural toxin produced by ruminal bacteria. In squid giant axons under voltage clamp conditions, this toxin is very specific to block sodium current during nerve electrical activity. PMID:8085407

  17. Adipogenesis of bovine perimuscular preadipocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Taniguchi, Masaaki; Le Luo Guan; Zhang Bing; Dodson, Michael V.; Okine, Erasmus; Moore, Stephen S.

    2008-02-01

    In this study, non-transformed progeny adipofibroblasts, derived from mature adipocyte dedifferentiation, was used as a novel in vitro model to study adipogenic gene expression in cattle. Adipofibroblasts from dedifferentiated mature perimuscular fat (PMF) tissue were cultured with differentiation stimulants until the cells exhibited morphological differentiation. Treated cells were harvested from day 2 to 16 for RNA extraction, whereas control cells were cultured without addition of stimulants. Results from time course gene expression assays by quantitative real-time PCR revealed that peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR-{gamma}), sterol regulatory element binding protein 1 (SREBP-1) and their six down-stream genes were co-expressed at day 2 post-differentiation induction. When compared to other adipogenesis culture systems, the adipogenic gene expression of bovine PMF adipofibroblasts culture was different, especially to the rodent model. Collectively, these results demonstrated PPAR-{gamma} and SREBP-1 cooperatively play a key role to regulate the re-differentiation of bovine adipofibroblasts, during early conversion stages in vitro.

  18. Loss of Cav1.3 channels reveals the critical role of L-type and BK channel coupling in pacemaking mouse adrenal chromaffin cells.

    PubMed

    Marcantoni, Andrea; Vandael, David H F; Mahapatra, Satyajit; Carabelli, Valentina; Sinnegger-Brauns, Martina J; Striessnig, Joerg; Carbone, Emilio

    2010-01-13

    We studied wild-type (WT) and Cav1.3(-/-) mouse chromaffin cells (MCCs) with the aim to determine the isoform of L-type Ca(2+) channel (LTCC) and BK channels that underlie the pacemaker current controlling spontaneous firing. Most WT-MCCs (80%) were spontaneously active (1.5 Hz) and highly sensitive to nifedipine and BayK-8644 (1,4-dihydro-2,6-dimethyl-5-nitro-4-[2-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl]-3-pyridinecarboxylic acid, methyl ester). Nifedipine blocked the firing, whereas BayK-8644 increased threefold the firing rate. The two dihydropyridines and the BK channel blocker paxilline altered the shape of action potentials (APs), suggesting close coupling of LTCCs to BK channels. WT-MCCs expressed equal fractions of functionally active Cav1.2 and Cav1.3 channels. Cav1.3 channel deficiency decreased the number of normally firing MCCs (30%; 2.0 Hz), suggesting a critical role of these channels on firing, which derived from their slow inactivation rate, sizeable activation at subthreshold potentials, and close coupling to fast inactivating BK channels as determined by using EGTA and BAPTA Ca(2+) buffering. By means of the action potential clamp, in TTX-treated WT-MCCs, we found that the interpulse pacemaker current was always net inward and dominated by LTCCs. Fast inactivating and non-inactivating BK currents sustained mainly the afterhyperpolarization of the short APs (2-3 ms) and only partially the pacemaker current during the long interspike (300-500 ms). Deletion of Cav1.3 channels reduced drastically the inward Ca(2+) current and the corresponding Ca(2+)-activated BK current during spikes. Our data highlight the role of Cav1.3, and to a minor degree of Cav1.2, as subthreshold pacemaker channels in MCCs and open new interesting features about their role in the control of firing and catecholamine secretion at rest and during sustained stimulations matching acute stress. PMID:20071512

  19. PDE type-4 inhibition increases L-type Ca(2+) currents, action potential firing, and quantal size of exocytosis in mouse chromaffin cells.

    PubMed

    Marcantoni, A; Carabelli, V; Vandael, D H; Comunanza, V; Carbone, E

    2009-03-01

    We studied the effects of the cAMP-hydrolyzing enzyme phosphodiesterase type-4 (PDE4) on the L-type Ca(2+) channels (LTCCs) and Ca(2+)-dependent secretion in mouse chromaffin cells (MCCs). The selective PDE4 inhibitor rolipram (3 microM) had a specific potentiating action on Ca(2+) currents of MCCs (40% increase within 3 min). A similar effect was produced by the selective beta(1)-AR agonist denopamine (1 microM) and by the unselective PDEs inhibitor IBMX (100 microM). Rolipram and denopamine actions were selective for LTCCs, and the Ca(2+) current increase remained unchanged if the two compounds were applied simultaneously. This suggests that at rest, LTCCs in MCCs are down-regulated by the low levels of cAMP determined by PDE4 activity and that LTCCs can be up-regulated by either inhibiting PDE4 or activating beta(1)-AR. No other PDEs are likely involved in this specific action. PDE4 inhibition had also a marked effect on the spontaneous firing of resting MCCs and catecholamine secretion. Rolipram up-regulated the LTCCs contributing to the "pace-maker" current underlying action potential (AP) discharges and accelerated the firing rate, with no significant effects on AP waveform. Acceleration of AP firing was also induced by the LTCC-agonist Bay K (1 microM), while nifedipine (3 microM) reduced the firing frequency, suggesting that LTCCs and intracellular cAMP play a key role in setting the pace-maker current regulating MCCs excitability. Rolipram increased also the size of the ready-releasable pool and the quantal content of secretory vesicles without affecting their probability of release. Thus, rolipram acts on MCCs by up-regulating both exocytosis and AP firings. These two processes are effectively down-regulated by PDE4 at rest and can dramatically increase the quantity of released catecholamines when PDE4 is inhibited and/or cAMP is raised. PMID:18779976

  20. Muscarine binding sites in bovine adrenal medulla.

    PubMed

    Barron, B A; Murrin, L C; Hexum, T D

    1986-03-18

    The presence of muscarinic binding sites in the bovine adrenal medulla was investigated using [3H]QNB and the bovine adrenal medulla. Scatchard analysis combined with computer analysis yielded data consistent with a two binding site configuration. KDs of 0.15 and 14 nM and Bmax s of 29 and 210 fmol/mg protein, respectively, were observed. Displacement of [3H]QNB by various cholinergic agents is, in order of decreasing potency: QNB, dexetimide, atropine, scopolamine, imipramine, desipramine, oxotremorine, pilocarpine, acetylcholine, methacholine and carbachol. These results demonstrate the presence of more than one muscarine binding site in the bovine adrenal gland. PMID:3709656

  1. Growth and metabolism of murine and bovine embryos in bovine uterine flushing-supplemented culture media.

    PubMed Central

    Rondeau, M; Guay, P; Goff, A K; Cooke, G M

    1996-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the development and metabolic activity of cultured murine and bovine embryos in 2 standard media (HAM F-10 and RPMI) in the presence or absence of bovine uterine flushings. Murine morulae (n = 653) and day 7 bovine embryos (n = 273) were cultured for 18 h or 36 h in either HAM F-10 or RPMI in the presence or absence of bovine uterine flushings. After culture, the development, quality, and metabolic activity (glucose utilization or methionine uptake and incorporation) of embryos was assessed. It was found that HAM F-10 (without uterine flushings) was a more suitable medium than RPMI for optimal development and metabolism of murine and bovine embryos. Poor quality and development, as well as decreased metabolism, were evident after culture of murine embryos in RPMI; in contrast, this medium had no adverse effects on bovine embryos in culture. Supplementation of HAM F-10 with bovine uterine flushings improved the growth of murine embryos and the protein synthesis (as measured by an increased methionine incorporation) for both murine and bovine embryos. However, supplementation with bovine uterine flushings could not overcome deficiencies of an inappropriate medium (RPMI) for murine embryos. Supplementation of a well-defined culture medium with uterine flushings increased metabolism of embryos in culture, and thus might help to increase pregnancy rates after transfer of such embryos to recipient cows. PMID:8825988

  2. Elastomechanical properties of bovine veins.

    PubMed

    Rossmann, Jenn Stroud

    2010-02-01

    Veins have historically been discussed in qualitative, relative terms: "more compliant" than arteries, subject to "lower pressures". The structural and compositional differences between arteries and veins are directly related to the different functions of these vessels. Veins are often used as grafts to reroute flow from atherosclerotic arteries, and venous elasticity plays a role in the development of conditions such as varicose veins and valvular insufficiency. It is therefore of clinical interest to determine the elastomechanical properties of veins. In the current study, both tensile and vibration testing are used to obtain elastic moduli of bovine veins. Representative stress-strain data are shown, and the mechanical and failure properties reported. Nonlinear and viscoelastic behavior is observed, though most properties show little strain rate dependence. These data suggest parameters for constitutive modeling of veins and may inform the design and testing of prosthetic venous valves as well as vein grafts. PMID:20129420

  3. Bovine mastitis: frontiers in immunogenetics.

    PubMed

    Thompson-Crispi, Kathleen; Atalla, Heba; Miglior, Filippo; Mallard, Bonnie A

    2014-01-01

    Mastitis is one of the most prevalent and costly diseases in the dairy industry with losses attributable to reduced milk production, discarded milk, early culling, veterinary services, and labor costs. Typically, mastitis is an inflammation of the mammary gland most often, but not limited to, bacterial infection, and is characterized by the movement of leukocytes and serum proteins from the blood to the site of infection. It contributes to compromised milk quality and the potential spread of antimicrobial resistance if antibiotic treatment is not astutely applied. Despite the implementation of management practises and genetic selection approaches, bovine mastitis control continues to be inadequate. However, some novel genetic strategies have recently been demonstrated to reduce mastitis incidence by taking advantage of a cow's natural ability to make appropriate immune responses against invading pathogens. Specifically, dairy cattle with enhanced and balanced immune responses have a lower occurrence of disease, including mastitis, and they can be identified and selected for using the high immune response (HIR) technology. Enhanced immune responsiveness is also associated with improved response to vaccination, increased milk, and colostrum quality. Since immunity is an important fitness trait, beneficial associations with longevity and reproduction are also often noted. This review highlights the genetic regulation of the bovine immune system and its vital contributions to disease resistance. Genetic selection approaches currently used in the dairy industry to reduce the incidence of disease are reviewed, including the HIR technology, genomics to improve disease resistance or immune response, as well as the Immunity(+)™ sire line. Improving the overall immune responsiveness of cattle is expected to provide superior disease resistance, increasing animal welfare and food quality while maintaining favorable production levels to feed a growing population. PMID

  4. Bovine Mastitis: Frontiers in Immunogenetics

    PubMed Central

    Thompson-Crispi, Kathleen; Atalla, Heba; Miglior, Filippo; Mallard, Bonnie A.

    2014-01-01

    Mastitis is one of the most prevalent and costly diseases in the dairy industry with losses attributable to reduced milk production, discarded milk, early culling, veterinary services, and labor costs. Typically, mastitis is an inflammation of the mammary gland most often, but not limited to, bacterial infection, and is characterized by the movement of leukocytes and serum proteins from the blood to the site of infection. It contributes to compromised milk quality and the potential spread of antimicrobial resistance if antibiotic treatment is not astutely applied. Despite the implementation of management practises and genetic selection approaches, bovine mastitis control continues to be inadequate. However, some novel genetic strategies have recently been demonstrated to reduce mastitis incidence by taking advantage of a cow’s natural ability to make appropriate immune responses against invading pathogens. Specifically, dairy cattle with enhanced and balanced immune responses have a lower occurrence of disease, including mastitis, and they can be identified and selected for using the high immune response (HIR) technology. Enhanced immune responsiveness is also associated with improved response to vaccination, increased milk, and colostrum quality. Since immunity is an important fitness trait, beneficial associations with longevity and reproduction are also often noted. This review highlights the genetic regulation of the bovine immune system and its vital contributions to disease resistance. Genetic selection approaches currently used in the dairy industry to reduce the incidence of disease are reviewed, including the HIR technology, genomics to improve disease resistance or immune response, as well as the Immunity+™ sire line. Improving the overall immune responsiveness of cattle is expected to provide superior disease resistance, increasing animal welfare and food quality while maintaining favorable production levels to feed a growing population. PMID

  5. Aerosol stability of bovine adenovirus type 3.

    PubMed Central

    Elazhary, M A; Derbyshire, J B

    1979-01-01

    The WBR-1 strain of bovine adenovirus type 3 was suspended in Eagle's medium or bovine nasal secretion and atomized into a rotating drum at temperatures of 6 degrees C or 32 degrees C and relative humidities of 30% or 90%. Impinger samples of the aerosols were collected seven minutes, one, two and three hours postgeneration, and titrated for infectivity in embryonic bovine kidney cell cultures. Under certain conditions of temperature and relative humidity, the virus was more stable in aerosols of Eagle's medium than in nasal secretion. The bovine adenovirus was usually inactivated more rapidly at 30% relative humidity than at 90% relative humidity and during aging of the aerosols the virus was inactivated more rapidly at 32 degrees C than at 6 degrees C. PMID:226247

  6. Bovine TLR2 and TLR4 mediate Cryptosporidium parvum recognition in bovine intestinal epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhengtao; Fu, Yunhe; Gong, Pengtao; Zheng, Jingtong; Liu, Li; Yu, Yuqiang; Li, Jianhua; Li, He; Yang, Ju; Zhang, Xichen

    2015-08-01

    Cryptosporidium parvum (C. parvum) is an intestinal parasite that causes diarrhea in neonatal calves. It results in significant morbidity of neonatal calves and economic losses for producers worldwide. Innate resistance against C. parvum is thought to depend on engagement of pattern recognition receptors. However, the role of innate responses to C. parvum has not been elucidated in bovine. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of TLRs in host-cell responses during C. parvum infection of cultured bovine intestinal epithelial cells. The expressions of TLRs in bovine intestinal epithelial cells were detected by qRT-PCR. To determine which, if any, TLRs may play a role in the response of bovine intestinal epithelial cells to C. parvum, the cells were stimulated with C. parvum and the expression of TLRs were tested by qRT-PCR. The expression of NF-κB was detected by western blotting. Further analyses were carried out in bovine TLRs transfected HEK293 cells and by TLRs-DN transfected bovine intestinal epithelial cells. The results showed that bovine intestinal epithelial cells expressed all known TLRs. The expression of TLR2 and TLR4 were up-regulated when bovine intestinal epithelial cells were treated with C. parvum. Meanwhile, C. parvum induced IL-8 production in TLR2 or TLR4/MD-2 transfected HEK293 cells. Moreover, C. parvum induced NF-κB activation and cytokine expression in bovine intestinal epithelial cells. The induction of NF-κB activation and cytokine expression by C. parvum were reduced in TLR2-DN and TLR4-DN transfected cells. The results showed that bovine intestinal epithelial cells expressed all known TLRs, and bovine intestinal epithelial cells recognized and responded to C. parvum via TLR2 and TLR4. PMID:26048276

  7. Activation of bovine neutrophils by Brucella spp.

    PubMed

    Keleher, Lauren L; Skyberg, Jerod A

    2016-09-01

    Brucellosis is a globally important zoonotic infectious disease caused by gram negative bacteria of the genus Brucella. While many species of Brucella exist, Brucella melitensis, Brucella abortus, and Brucella suis are the most common pathogens of humans and livestock. The virulence of Brucella is largely influenced by its ability to evade host factors, including phagocytic killing mechanisms, which are critical for the host response to infection. The aim of this study was to characterize the bovine neutrophil response to virulent Brucella spp. Here, we found that virulent strains of smooth B. abortus, B. melitensis, B. suis, and virulent, rough, strains of Brucella canis possess similar abilities to resist killing by resting, or IFN-γ-activated, bovine neutrophils. Bovine neutrophils responded to infection with a time-dependent oxidative burst that varied little between Brucella spp. Inhibition of TAK1, or SYK kinase blunted the oxidative burst of neutrophils in response to Brucella infection. Interestingly, Brucella spp. did not induce robust death of bovine neutrophils. These results indicate that bovine neutrophils respond similarly to virulent Brucella spp. In addition, virulent Brucella spp., including naturally rough strains of B. canis, have a conserved ability to resist killing by bovine neutrophils. PMID:27436438

  8. Complete genome sequence of a bovine viral diarrhea virus 2 from commercial fetal bovine serum.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hua; Li, Yan; Gao, Mingchun; Wen, Kai; Jia, Ying; Liu, Xiaomei; Zhang, Wenlong; Ma, Bo; Wang, Junwei

    2012-09-01

    We isolated a bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) from commercial fetal bovine serum and designated it HLJ-10. The complete genome is 12,284 nucleotides (nt); the open reading frame is 11,694 nt, coding 3,898 amino acids. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that this strain belongs to BVDV group 2. PMID:22923795

  9. Bovine viral diarrhea virus: involvement in bovine respiratory disease and diagnostic challenges

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This paper reviews the contribution of bovine viral diarrhea viruses (BVDV) to the development of Bovine Respiratory Disease (BRD). Veterinarians and producers generally consider BRD as one of the most significant diseases affecting production in the cattle industry. BRD can affect the performance (...

  10. The Contribution of Infections with Bovine Viral Diarrhea Viruses to Bovine Respiratory Disease

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The contribution of bovine viral diarrhea viruses (BVDV) to the development of bovine respiratory disease is the sum of a number of different factors. These factors include the contribution of acute uncomplicated BVDV infections, the high incidence of respiratory disease in animals persistently inf...

  11. Prevalence of bovine virus diarrhoea and infectious bovine rhinotracheitis antibodies in Nigerian sheep and goats.

    PubMed

    Taylor, W P; Okeke, A N; Shidali, N N

    1977-08-01

    Neutralising antibodies to bovine virus diarrhoea virus were commoner in Nigerian sheep than goats while precipitating antibodies offered an alternative but less reliable indicator of previous infection. In contrast, neutralising antibodies to infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus were more common in goats than sheep. These findings are discussed in relation to infectivity rates in cattle and general husbandry practices. PMID:410130

  12. Equal sensitivity of Cav1.2 and Cav1.3 channels to the opposing modulations of PKA and PKG in mouse chromaffin cells.

    PubMed

    Mahapatra, Satyajit; Marcantoni, Andrea; Zuccotti, Annalisa; Carabelli, Valentina; Carbone, Emilio

    2012-10-15

    Mouse chromaffin cells (MCCs) express high densities of L-type Ca2+ channels (LTCCs), which control pacemaking activity and catecholamine secretion proportionally to their density of expression. In vivo phosphorylation of LTCCs by cAMP-PKA and cGMP–PKG, regulate LTCC gating in two opposing ways: the cAMP-PKA pathway potentiates while the cGMP–PKG cascade inhibits LTCCs. Despite this, no attempts have been made to answer three key questions related to the two Cav1 isoforms expressed in MCCs (Cav1.2 and Cav1.3): (i) how much are the two Cav1 channels basally modulated by PKA and PKG?, (ii) to what extent can Cav1.2 and Cav1.3 be further regulated by PKA or PKG activation?, and (iii) are the effects of both kinases cumulative when simultaneously active? Here, by comparing the size of L-type currents of wild-type (WT; Cav1.2+Cav1.3) and Cav1.3−/− KO (Cav1.2) MCCs, we provide new evidence that both PKA and PKG pathways affect Cav1.2 and Cav1.3 to the same extent either under basal conditions or induced stimulation. Inhibition of PKA by H89 (5 μM) reduced the L-type current in WT and KO MCCs by∼60%,while inhibition of PKG by KT 5823 (1 μM) increased by∼40% the same current in both cell types. Given that Cav1.2 and Cav1.3 carry the same quantity of Ca2+ currents, this suggests equal sensitivity of Cav1.2 and Cav1.3 to the two basal modulatory pathways. Maximal stimulation of cAMP–PKA by forskolin (100 μM) and activation of cGMP–PKG by pCPT-cGMP (1mM) uncovered a∼25% increase of L-type currents in the first case and∼65% inhibition in the second case in both WT and KO MCCs, suggesting equal sensitivity of Cav1.2 and Cav1.3 during maximal PKA or PKG stimulation. The effects of PKA and PKG were cumulative and most evident when one pathway was activated and the other was inhibited. The two extreme combinations(PKA activation–PKG inhibition vs. PKG activation-PKA inhibition) varied the size of L-type currents by one order of magnitude (from 180% to 18

  13. Equal sensitivity of Cav1.2 and Cav1.3 channels to the opposing modulations of PKA and PKG in mouse chromaffin cells

    PubMed Central

    Mahapatra, Satyajit; Marcantoni, Andrea; Zuccotti, Annalisa; Carabelli, Valentina; Carbone, Emilio

    2012-01-01

    Mouse chromaffin cells (MCCs) express high densities of L-type Ca2+ channels (LTCCs), which control pacemaking activity and catecholamine secretion proportionally to their density of expression. In vivo phosphorylation of LTCCs by cAMP–PKA and cGMP–PKG, regulate LTCC gating in two opposing ways: the cAMP–PKA pathway potentiates while the cGMP–PKG cascade inhibits LTCCs. Despite this, no attempts have been made to answer three key questions related to the two Cav1 isoforms expressed in MCCs (Cav1.2 and Cav1.3): (i) how much are the two Cav1 channels basally modulated by PKA and PKG?, (ii) to what extent can Cav1.2 and Cav1.3 be further regulated by PKA or PKG activation?, and (iii) are the effects of both kinases cumulative when simultaneously active? Here, by comparing the size of L-type currents of wild-type (WT; Cav1.2 + Cav1.3) and Cav1.3−/− KO (Cav1.2) MCCs, we provide new evidence that both PKA and PKG pathways affect Cav1.2 and Cav1.3 to the same extent either under basal conditions or induced stimulation. Inhibition of PKA by H89 (5 μm) reduced the L-type current in WT and KO MCCs by ∼60%, while inhibition of PKG by KT 5823 (1 μm) increased by ∼40% the same current in both cell types. Given that Cav1.2 and Cav1.3 carry the same quantity of Ca2+ currents, this suggests equal sensitivity of Cav1.2 and Cav1.3 to the two basal modulatory pathways. Maximal stimulation of cAMP–PKA by forskolin (100 μm) and activation of cGMP–PKG by pCPT-cGMP (1 mm) uncovered a ∼25% increase of L-type currents in the first case and ∼65% inhibition in the second case in both WT and KO MCCs, suggesting equal sensitivity of Cav1.2 and Cav1.3 during maximal PKA or PKG stimulation. The effects of PKA and PKG were cumulative and most evident when one pathway was activated and the other was inhibited. The two extreme combinations (PKA activation–PKG inhibition vs. PKG activation–PKA inhibition) varied the size of L-type currents by one order of magnitude

  14. Ultrastructure of bovine sperm chromatin.

    PubMed

    Filho, Romualdo Morandi; Beletti, Marcelo Emilio; de Oliveira, Fabio

    2015-12-01

    Mammalian semen chromatin comprises DNA, protamine, and, at lower levels, other proteins. This constitution confers intense compaction to the chromatin, helping to protect the DNA and causing the head of the sperm to be very small, facilitating the safe transport of its genetic contents. It is known that changes in the sperm chromatin compaction lead to fertility problems in bulls, justifying studies of this structure. Although there are theoretical models of sperm chromatin because of its high compaction, there is no morphological evidence of such models. The aim of this study was to demonstrate the ultrastructure of bovine sperm chromatin in an attempt to corroborate the theoretical chromatin models existing today. The isolated bull sperm heads had their chromatin partially unpacked by chemical treatment using sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and dithiothreitol (DTT) and were then embedded in Epon resin. Using an ultramicrotome, ultrathin sections were obtained, which were contrasted with uranyl acetate and lead citrate, and then viewed under transmission electron microscopy. The methodology used allowed the visualization of toroidal structures interconnected by a filamentous nuclear matrix, which is entirely consistent with the most current theoretical models. PMID:26515508

  15. Genetics of bovine abomasal displacement.

    PubMed

    Zerbin, Ina; Lehner, Stefanie; Distl, Ottmar

    2015-04-01

    Displacement of the abomasum (DA) is a common inherited condition in Holstein cows. This article reviews the genetics of DA including risk factors, genetic parameters and molecular genetic results. Breeds other than Holsteins affected by DA include Guernseys, Jerseys, Brown Swiss, Ayrshires and Simmental-Red Holsteins. In most DA cases, left displacements of the abomasum (LDA) are seen. Lactation incidence rates are higher for DA in first lactation Holsteins compared to later lactations. For Holstein cows, heritability estimates for DA are between 0.03 and 0.53. Genetic correlation estimates among DA and milk production traits range from positive to negative. Genome-wide significant genomic regions associated with LDA are located on bovine chromosomes (BTA) 1, 3, 11, 20 and 23. Motilin-associated single nucleotide polymorphisms on BTA23 exhibit a functional relationship with LDA. Pathways for deposition of calcium, insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus and synaptic transmission are significantly related to LDA in Holsteins. Deciphering the DA-associated genomic regions and genes may be an important step in the quest to understand the underlying disease-causing mechanisms and in unravelling mutations with a causal relationship to DA. PMID:25840863

  16. Bovine colostrum: an emerging nutraceutical.

    PubMed

    Bagwe, Siddhi; Tharappel, Leo J P; Kaur, Ginpreet; Buttar, Harpal S

    2015-09-01

    Nutraceutical, a term combining the words "nutrition" and "pharmaceuticals", is a food or food product that provides health benefits as an adjuvant or alternative therapy, including the treatment and prevention of infectious diseases in children and adults. There is emerging evidence that bovine colostrum (BC) may be one of the promising nutraceuticals which can prevent or mitigate various diseases in newborns and adults. Immunity-related disorders are one of the leading causes of mortality in the world. BC is rich in immunity, growth and antimicrobial factors, which promote tissue growth and the maturation of digestive tract and immune function in neonatal animals and humans. The immunoglobulins and lactoferrin present in colostrum are known to build natural immunity in newborns which helps to reduce the mortality rate in this population. Also, the side-effect profile of colostrum proteins and possible lactose intolerance is relatively less in comparison with milk. In general, BC is considered safe and well tolerated. Since colostrum has several important nutritional constituents, well-designed, double-blind, placebo-controlled studies with colostrum products should be conducted to widen its therapeutic use. The objectives of this review are to create awareness about the nutraceutical properties of colostrum and to discuss the various ongoing alternative treatments of colostrum and its active ingredients as well as to address colostrum's future nutraceutical and therapeutic implications in humans. PMID:25781716

  17. Ruminant alphaherpesviruses related to bovine herpesvirus 1.

    PubMed

    Thiry, Julien; Keuser, Véronique; Muylkens, Benoît; Meurens, François; Gogev, Sacha; Vanderplasschen, Alain; Thiry, Etienne

    2006-01-01

    Herpesviruses have mainly co-evolved with their hosts for millions of years. Consequently, different related host species may have been infected by various genetically related herpesviruses. Illustrating this concept, several ruminant alphaherpesviruses have been shown to form a cluster of viruses closely related to bovine herpesvirus 1 (BoHV-1): namely bovine herpesvirus 5, bubaline herpesvirus 1, caprine herpesvirus 1, cervid herpesviruses 1 and 2 and elk herpesvirus 1. These viruses share common antigenic properties and the serological relationships between them can be considered as a threat to BoHV-1 eradication programmes. BoHV-1 is a herpesvirus responsible for infectious bovine rhinotracheitis, which is a disease of major economic concern. In this article, the genetic properties of these ruminant alphaherpesviruses are reviewed on a comparative basis and the issue of interspecific recombination is assessed. The pathogenesis of these infections is described with emphasis on the host range and crossing of the host species barrier. Indeed, the non bovine ruminant species susceptible to these ruminant alphaherpesviruses may be potential BoHV-1 reservoirs. The differential diagnosis of these related infections is also discussed. In addition, available epidemiological data are used to assess the potential of cross-infection in ruminant populations. A better knowledge of these ruminant alphaherpesvirus infections is essential to successfully control infectious bovine rhinotracheitis. PMID:16472518

  18. Bovine Fetal Inoculations with Calf Rotavirus

    PubMed Central

    Schlafer, D. H.; Schultz, R. D.; Scott, F. W.; Duncan, J. R.

    1979-01-01

    The serological and histopathological responses of bovine fetuses to in utero inoculation with virulent and attenuated strains of the calf rotavirus (reovirus-like agent of neonatal calf diarrhea) are described. Thirteen bovine fetuses, 63 to 190 days of gestation, were inoculated in utero with attenuated (three fetuses) or field strain virus (nine fetuses) or both (one fetus). Serum-neutralizing antibody titers ranging from 1:16 to > 1:256 were detected in six of eight fetuses tested, demonstrating the ability of the bovine fetus to respond immunologically to this agent. The youngest fetus in the series was inoculated at 63 days of gestation and developed a titer of 128 in 64 days. This represents the earliest stage of gestation at which a bovine fetus has been inoculated with a bovine virus and found to produce antibody to it. Serum neutralizing titers in six of the eight dams tested increased significantly following the inoculations of their fetuses in utero. Histological changes associated with viral replication and antigenic stimulation of the lymphoreticular system were observed. Pneumonic lesions consisting of both local and diffuse lymphoreticular proliferation were present in five of the nine fetuses that were alive at slaughter. Gliosis and perivascular cuffing were noted in the brains of two of these fetuses and meningitis was seen in one. No evidence of teratogenic change was found. ImagesFig. 2.Fig. 3.Fig. 4.Fig. 5.Fig. 6.Fig. 7. PMID:232853

  19. Recent Progress in Cryopreservation of Bovine Oocytes

    PubMed Central

    Hochi, Shinichi

    2014-01-01

    Principle of oocyte cryoinjury is first overviewed and then research history of cryopreservation using bovine oocytes is summarized for the last two decades with a few special references to recent progresses. Various types of cryodevices have been developed to accelerate the cooling rate and applied to the oocytes from large domestic species enriched with cytoplasmic lipid droplets. Two recent approaches include the qualitative improvement of IVM oocytes prior to the vitrification and the short-term recovery culture of vitrified-warmed oocytes prior to the subsequent IVF. Supplementation of L-carnitine to IVM medium of bovine oocytes has been reported to reduce the amount of cytoplasmic lipid droplets and improve the cryotolerance of the oocytes, but it is still controversial whether the positive effect of L-carnitine is reproducible. Incidence of multiple aster formation, a possible cause for low developmental potential of vitrified-warmed bovine oocytes, was inhibited by a short-term culture of the postwarm oocytes in the presence of Rho-associated coiled-coil kinase (ROCK) inhibitor. Use of an antioxidant α-tocopherol, instead of the ROCK inhibitor, also supported the revivability of the postwarm bovine oocytes. Further improvements of the vitrification procedure, combined with pre- and postvitrification chemical treatment, would overcome the high sensitivity of bovine oocytes to cryopreservation. PMID:24738063

  20. Evaluation of experimental vaccines for bovine viral diarrhea in bovines, ovines and guinea pigs.

    PubMed

    Fernández, F; Costantini, V; Barrandeguy, M; Parreño, V; Schiappacassi, G; Maliandi, F; Leunda, M; Odeón, A

    2009-01-01

    The bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) infection control should be based on elimination of persistently infected animals and on immunization through vaccination, to prevent fetal infection. However, the efficacy of inactivated BVDV vaccines is variable due to its low immunogenicity. This study evaluated the humoral immune response against homologous and heterologous strains of 7 inactivated BVDV vaccines, in bovines and two experimental models (ovine and guinea pig) which might be used to test candidate vaccines. Vaccines formulated with BVDV Singer, Oregon, NADL, and multivalent, induced seroconversion in the three animal models studied, reaching antibody titres higher than 2. Vaccine containing 125C -genotype 2- only induced a low antibody response in ovine, while VS-115 NCP vaccine was not immunogenic. Furthermore, bovine sera at 60 dpv presented homologous as well as heterologous antibody response, indicating a high degree of cross-reactivity among the strains studied. However, when bovine sera were tested against the Argentine field strain 00-693, they showed the lowest levels of cross-reactivity, suggesting the need of continued surveillance to identify and characterize emerging field BVDV strains. Finally, optimal correlations between bovine-ovine and bovine-guinea pig models were observed, indicating that two alternative species could replace bovines when testing the immunogenicity of BVDV candidate vaccines. PMID:19623897

  1. Parthenogenetic activation of bovine oocytes using bovine and murine phospholipase C zeta

    PubMed Central

    Ross, Pablo J; Beyhan, Zeki; Iager, Amy E; Yoon, Sook-Young; Malcuit, Christopher; Schellander, Karl; Fissore, Rafael A; Cibelli, Jose B

    2008-01-01

    Background During natural fertilization, sperm fusion with the oocyte induces long lasting intracellular calcium oscillations which in turn are responsible for oocyte activation. PLCZ1 has been identified as the factor that the sperm delivers into the egg to induce such a response. We tested the hypothesis that PLCZ1 cRNA injection can be used to activate bovine oocytes. Results Mouse and bovine PLCZ1 cRNAs were injected into matured bovine oocytes at different concentrations. Within the concentrations tested, mouse PLCZ1 injection activated bovine oocytes at a maximum rate when the pipette concentration of cRNA ranged from 0.25 to 1 μg/μL, while bovine PLCZ1 was optimal at 0.1 μg/μL. At their most effective concentrations, PLCZ1 induced parthenogenetic development at rates similar to those observed using other activation stimuli such as Ionomycin/CHX and Ionomycin/DMAP. Injection of mouse and bovine PLCZ1 cRNA induced dose-dependent sperm-like calcium oscillations whose frequency increased over time. Injection of bovine and mouse PLCZ1 cRNA also induced IP3R-1 degradation, although bovine PLCZ1 cRNA evoked greater receptor degradation than its mouse counterpart. Conclusion Injection of PLCZ1 cRNA efficiently activated bovine oocytes by inducing a sperm-like calcium oscillatory pattern. Importantly, the high rate of aneuploidy encountered in parthenogenetic embryos activated by certain chemical means was not observed in PLCZ1 activated embryos. PMID:18284699

  2. Understanding and evaluating bovine testes.

    PubMed

    Kastelic, John P

    2014-01-01

    The objective is to briefly review bovine testes and how they are assessed, with an emphasis on articles from Theriogenology. Scrotal circumference (SC) is the most common method to assess testicular size; it varies among individual bulls and breeds and is highly heritable. In general, a large SC is associated with early puberty, more sperm, a higher percentage of morphologically normal sperm, and better reproductive performance in closely related females. Consequently, there are minimum requirements for SC for breeding soundness. In prepubertal bull calves, there is an early rise (10-20 weeks of age) in LH, which is critically related to onset of puberty and testicular development. Feeding bulls approximately 130% of maintenance requirements of energy and protein from approximately 8 to 30 weeks of age increased LH release during the early rise, hastened puberty (approximately 1 month), and increased mature testis size and sperm production (approximately 20%-30%). However, high-energy diets after weaning (>200 days) often reduced sperm production and semen quality. A bull's testes and scrotum have opposing (complementary) temperature gradients, which keep the testicular temperature 2 °C to 6 °C cooler than core body temperature for production of fertile sperm (increased testicular temperature reduces semen quality). Infrared thermography, a quick and noninvasive method of assessing scrotal surface temperature, may be beneficial for evaluations of breeding soundness. The primary clinical use of ultrasonography in assessment of reproductive function in the bull is characterization of grossly detectable lesions in the testes and scrotum. In conclusion, testis size and function are critical for bull fertility, affected by nutrition, and readily assessed clinically. PMID:24274406

  3. New antibacterial peptide derived from bovine hemoglobin.

    PubMed

    Daoud, Rachid; Dubois, Veronique; Bors-Dodita, Loredana; Nedjar-Arroume, Naima; Krier, Francois; Chihib, Nour-Eddine; Mary, Patrice; Kouach, Mostafa; Briand, Gilbert; Guillochon, Didier

    2005-05-01

    Peptic digestion of bovine hemoglobin at low degree of hydrolysis yields an intermediate peptide fraction exhibiting antibacterial activity against Micrococcus luteus A270, Listeria innocua, Escherichia coli and Salmonella enteritidis after separation by reversed-phase HPLC. From this fraction a pure peptide was isolated and analyzed by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS) and electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-MS/MS). This peptide correspond to the 107-136 fragment of the alpha chain of bovine hemoglobin. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) towards the four strains and its hemolytic activity towards bovine erythrocytes were determined. A MIC of 38 microM was reported against L. innocua and 76 microM for other various bacterial species. This peptide had no hemolytic activity up to 380 microM concentration. PMID:15808900

  4. Comparison of human and bovine protoporphyria.

    PubMed

    Brenner, D A; Bloomer, J R

    1979-01-01

    Protoporphyria (PP) is an inherited disorder of porphyrin metabolism in man in which there is excessive accumulation and excretion of protoporphyrin. Recently, a similar disorder has been described in cattle. In this report, the clinical, biochemical, and genetic features of bovine and human PP are compared. Human and bovine PP are characterized by photosensitivity and elevation of erythrocyte and fecal protoporphyrin levels. In both disorders, a deficiency of heme synthase activity is present in all tissues which have been examined. The diseases differ clinically in that hepatobiliary disease has been found thus far only in human PP. They also have different inheritance patterns. Human PP is an autosomal dominant disease, while initial studies strongly suggest that there is an autosomal recessive pattern of inheritance in bovine PP. PMID:392959

  5. Arachidonate metabolism in bovine gallbladder muscle

    SciTech Connect

    Nakano, M.; Hidaka, T.; Ueta, T.; Ogura, R.

    1983-04-01

    Incubation of (1-/sup 14/C)arachidonic acid (AA) with homogenates of bovine gallbladder muscle generated a large amount of radioactive material having the chromatographic mobility of 6-keto-PGF1 alpha (stable product of PGI2) and smaller amounts of products that comigrated with PGF2 alpha PGE2. Formation of these products was inhibited by the cyclooxygenase inhibitor indomethacin. The major radioactive product identified by thin-layer chromatographic mobility and by gas chromatography - mass spectrometric analysis was found to be 6-keto-PGF1 alpha. The quantitative metabolic pattern of (1-/sup 14/C)PGH2 was virtually identical to that of (1-/sup 14/C)AA. Incubation of arachidonic acid with slices of bovine gallbladder muscle released labile anti-aggregatory material in the medium, which was inhibited by aspirin or 15-hydroperoxy-AA. These results indicate that bovine gallbladder muscle has a considerable enzymatic capacity to produce PGI2 from arachidonic acid.

  6. 21 CFR 522.1125 - Hemoglobin glutamer-200 (bovine).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Hemoglobin glutamer-200 (bovine). 522.1125 Section... § 522.1125 Hemoglobin glutamer-200 (bovine). (a) Specifications. Each 125 milliliter bag contains 13 grams per deciliter of polymerized hemoglobin of bovine origin in modified Lactated Ringer's...

  7. 21 CFR 522.1125 - Hemoglobin glutamer-200 (bovine).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Hemoglobin glutamer-200 (bovine). 522.1125 Section... § 522.1125 Hemoglobin glutamer-200 (bovine). (a) Specifications. Each 125 milliliter bag contains 13 grams per deciliter of polymerized hemoglobin of bovine origin in modified Lactated Ringer's...

  8. 21 CFR 522.1125 - Hemoglobin glutamer-200 (bovine).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Hemoglobin glutamer-200 (bovine). 522.1125 Section... § 522.1125 Hemoglobin glutamer-200 (bovine). (a) Specifications. Each 125 milliliter bag contains 13 grams per deciliter of polymerized hemoglobin of bovine origin in modified Lactated Ringer's...

  9. 21 CFR 522.1125 - Hemoglobin glutamer-200 (bovine).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Hemoglobin glutamer-200 (bovine). 522.1125 Section... § 522.1125 Hemoglobin glutamer-200 (bovine). (a) Specifications. Each 125 milliliter bag contains 13 grams per deciliter of polymerized hemoglobin of bovine origin in modified Lactated Ringer's...

  10. 76 FR 26239 - Bovine Tuberculosis and Brucellosis; Public Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-06

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Bovine Tuberculosis and Brucellosis... framework being developed for the bovine tuberculosis and brucellosis programs in the United States. The... tuberculosis (TB) and bovine brucellosis in the United States. In keeping with its commitment to...

  11. Characterization of the bovine C alpha gene.

    PubMed Central

    Brown, W R; Rabbani, H; Butler, J E; Hammarström, L

    1997-01-01

    The complete genomic sequence of a bovine C alpha gene is reported here. The genomic sequence was obtained from a C alpha phage clone that had been cloned from a genomic EMBL4 phage vector library. The C alpha sequence had previously been expressed as a chimeric antibody and identified as IgA using IgA-specific antibodies. Intron/exon boundaries were determined by comparison of the genomic sequence with an expressed bovine C alpha sequence obtained from spleen by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Analysis of 50 Swedish bovine genomic DNA samples using genomic blots and five different restriction enzymes failed to detect evidence of polymorphism. However, PstI digests of Brown Swiss DNA showed a restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP), suggesting that at least two allelic variants of bovine IgA exist. Comparison of the deduced amino acid sequence of bovine IgA with sequences available for other species indicated that the highest homology was with that of swine, another artiodactyl. This was the highest homology observed for all mammalian IgA compared except for that between IgA1 and IgA2 in humans. Bovine IgA shares with rabbit IgA3 and IgA4, an additional N-linked glycosylation site at position 282. However, the collective data indicate that cattle are like swine and rodents and unlike rabbits in having a single locus of the gene encoding IgA of this species. Images Figure 4 PMID:9203958

  12. [Investigation on bovine leukocyte adhesion deficiency].

    PubMed

    Ma, Jin-Zhu; Cui, Yu-Dong; Zhu, Zhan-Bo; Cao, Hong-Wei; Piao, Fan-Ze

    2006-10-01

    Bovine leukocyte adhesion deficiency (BLAD) is autosomal recessive disease. The pathogeny of BLAD is genic mutation of CD18-integrins on the leukocyte. In order to know the carrier and occurrence of bovine leukocyte adhesion deficiency (BLAD) among cows age from one to six years old in China, 1,000 cows were investigated by means of amplifying a CD18 gene fragment via reverse transcriptase-PCR followed by restriction digestion with Taq I. Results showed that 19 cows were BLAD carriers, indicating that the BLAD carrier rate was 1.9 percent. In addition, one cow was found to have BLAD. PMID:17035180

  13. Economics of bovine leukemia virus infection.

    PubMed

    Pelzer, K D

    1997-03-01

    A herd infected with bovine leukemia virus suffers a direct economic loss due to clinical lymphosarcoma. A major indirect cost associated with infection is restriction of the sale of animals and germplasma to foreign markets. Reports on the economic effects of infection on production have been variable and are reviewed in this article. In order to develop cost-effective bovine leukemia virus control programs, costs associated with the disease, the cost of prevention, and expected economic returns from a program need to be considered. PMID:9071750

  14. The interaction between bovine herpesvirus type 1 and activated bovine T lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Griebel, P J; Ohmann, H B; Lawman, M J; Babiuk, L A

    1990-02-01

    The interaction between activated bovine T lymphocytes (BTLs) and bovine herpesvirus type 1 (BHV-1) was investigated. BHV-1 infection of BTLs reduced the amplitude of recombinant bovine interleukin 2-induced proliferative responses. This decreased proliferation was caused by a virus-induced lymphocytolysis which was dependent on viable virus and was not inhibited by recombinant bovine interferon-alpha I1. Furthermore, lymphocytolysis was not associated with virus replication or with the synthesis of detectable levels of viral proteins. Electron microscopic examination of virus-infected cells revealed that lymphocytolysis was characterized by early nuclear disintegration resembling apoptosis. These observations suggest that activated T cells, localized at the site of BHV-1 infection, may be susceptible to virus-induced cytolysis. PMID:2155290

  15. Molecular differentiation of bovine sarcocysts.

    PubMed

    Akhlaghi, Majedeh; Razavi, Mostafa; Hosseini, Arsalan

    2016-07-01

    Cattle are common intermediate hosts of Sarcocystis, and the prevalence in adult bovine muscle is close to 100 % in most regions of the world. Three Sarcocystis spp. are known to infect cattle as intermediate hosts, namely, S. cruzi, S. hirsuta, and S. hominis. The aim of the present study was the molecular identification and differentiation of these three species, Neospora caninum and Besnoitia by PCR and RFLP methods. Tissue samples were obtained from diaphragmatic muscle of 101 cattle slaughtered in Shiraz, Fars Province, Iran, for both smear preparation and DNA extraction. The samples were digested by Pepsin, washed three times with PBS solution before taking smears, fixed in absolute methanol and stained with 10 % Giemsa. The slides were examined microscopically for Sarcocystis bradyzoites and DNA was extracted from 100 mg of Sarcocystis-infected meat samples. Since the primers also bind to 18S rRNA gene of some tissue cyst-forming coccidian protozoa, DNA was also extracted from 100 μl of tachyzoite-containing suspension of N. caninum and Besnoitia isolated from goat to compare RFLP pattern. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was performed on DNA of samples which were microscopically positive for Sarcocystis. Five restriction enzymes Dra1, EcoRV, RsaI, AvaI, and SspI were used for RFLP and DNA of one sample from protozoa was sequenced. Based on the RFLP results, 87 (98.9 %) DNA samples were cut with DraI, indicating infection by S. cruzi. One sample (1.1 %) of PCR products of infected samples was cut only with EcoRV which showed S. hominis infection. Forty-eight samples (53.3 %) of PCR products were cut with both DraI, EcoRV, or with DraI, EcoRV, and RsaI while none of them was cut with SspI, which shows the mixed infection of both S. cruzi and S. hominis and no infection with S. hirsuta. It seems by utilizing these restriction enzymes, RLFP could be a suitable method not only for identification of Sarcocystis species but also for differentiating them

  16. Concurrent Bovine Virus Diarrhea and Bovine Papular Stomatitis Infection in a Calf

    PubMed Central

    Bohac, J. G.; Yates, W. D. G.

    1980-01-01

    A case of concurrent infection with the viruses of bovine virus diarrhea and papular stomatitis in a calf is reported. The difficulties posed by such situations are described and the criteria used for diagnosis outlined. The two diseases are reviewed briefly and the possible mechanisms whereby bovine virus diarrhea virus is suspected of facilitating infection by other agents are discussed. ImagesFigure 1.Figure 2.Figure 3.Figure 4. PMID:7459795

  17. Molecular biology of bovine viral diarrhea virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bovine viral diarrhea viruses (BVDV) are arguably the most important viral pathogen of ruminants worldwide and can cause severe economic loss. Clinical symptoms of the disease caused by BVDV range from subclinical to severe acute hemorrhagic syndrome, with the severity of disease being strain depend...

  18. NUTRIENTS AND EPIGENETICS IN BOVINE CELLS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This is a chapter for a book titled “Livestock Epigenetics” edited by Dr. Hasan Khatib and published by Wiley-Blackwell. This chapter is focused on the research development in our laboratory in the area of interaction of nutrients and genomic phonotype in bovine cells. Briefly, the Research on nutri...

  19. Recombinant Bovine Growth Hormone Criticism Grows.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaard, Greta

    1995-01-01

    Discusses concerns related to the use of recombinant bovine growth hormone in the United States and other countries. Analyses the issue from the perspectives of animal rights, human health, world hunger, concerns of small and organic farmers, costs to the taxpayer, and environmental questions. A sidebar discusses Canadian review of the hormone.…

  20. Unraveling bovin phylogeny: accomplishments and challenges.

    PubMed

    Bibi, Faysal; Vrba, Elisabeth S

    2010-01-01

    The phylogenetic systematics of bovin species forms a common basis for studies at multiple scales, from the level of domestication in populations to major cladogenesis. The main big-picture accomplishments of this productive field, including two recent works, one in BMC Genomics, are reviewed with an eye for some of the limitations and challenges impeding progress. PMID:20525112

  1. Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus: Global Status

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Despite the success of regional bovine viral diarrhea viruses (BVDV) eradication programs, infections with this diverse group of viruses remain a source of economic loss for producers worldwide. There is a wide range of variation among BVDV results in differences in genotype (BVDV1 and BVDV2), biot...

  2. Epidemiology and control of bovine ephemeral fever.

    PubMed

    Walker, Peter J; Klement, Eyal

    2015-01-01

    Bovine ephemeral fever (or 3-day sickness) is an acute febrile illness of cattle and water buffaloes. Caused by an arthropod-borne rhabdovirus, bovine ephemeral fever virus (BEFV), the disease occurs seasonally over a vast expanse of the globe encompassing much of Africa, the Middle East, Asia and Australia. Although mortality rates are typically low, infection prevalence and morbidity rates during outbreaks are often very high, causing serious economic impacts through loss of milk production, poor cattle condition at sale and loss of traction power at harvest. There are also significant impacts on trade to regions in which the disease does not occur, including the Americas and most of Europe. In recent years, unusually severe outbreaks of bovine ephemeral fever have been reported from several regions in Asia and the Middle East, with mortality rates through disease or culling in excess of 10-20%. There are also concerns that, like other vector-borne diseases of livestock, the geographic distribution of bovine ephemeral fever could expand into regions that have historically been free of the disease. Here, we review current knowledge of the virus, including its molecular and antigenic structure, and the epidemiology of the disease across its entire geographic range. We also discuss the effectiveness of vaccination and other strategies to prevent or control infection. PMID:26511615

  3. Bovine respiratory disease research (1983-2009).

    PubMed

    Fulton, Robert W

    2009-12-01

    Bovine respiratory disease (BRD) research has provided significant understanding of the disease over the past 26 years. Modern research tools that have been used include monoclonal antibodies, genomics, polymerase chain reaction, immunohistochemistry (IHC), DNA vaccines and viral vectors coding for immunogens. Emerging/reemerging viruses and new antigenic strains of viruses and bacteria have been identified. Methods of detection and the role for cattle persistently infected bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) were identified; viral subunits, cellular components and bacterial products have been characterized. Product advances have included vaccines for bovine respiratory syncytial virus, Mannheimia haemolytica and Pasteurella multocida; the addition of BVDV2 to the existing vaccines and new antibiotics. The role of Mycoplasma spp., particularly Mycoplasma bovis in BRD, has been more extensively studied. Bovine immunology research has provided more specific information on immune responses, T cell subsets and cytokines. The molecular and genetic basis for viral-bacterial synergy in BRD has been described. Attempts have been made to document how prevention of BRD by proper vaccination and management prior to exposure to infectious agents can minimize disease and serve as economic incentives for certified health programs. PMID:20003649

  4. Bovine viral diarrhea virus: biosecurity and control

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This paper discusses the recommended procedures involved in setting up biosecurity and control programs designed to limit bovine viral diarrhea virus infections in beef cattle operations. For the purpose of these discussions, a working definition of a biosecurity plan was considered to be an organiz...

  5. A physical map of the bovine genome

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background Cattle are important agriculturally and relevant as a model organism. Previously described genetic and radiation hybrid (RH) maps of the bovine genome have been used to identify genomic regions and genes affecting specific traits. Application of these maps to identify influential geneti...

  6. Linkage mapping bovine EST-based SNP

    PubMed Central

    Snelling, Warren M; Casas, Eduardo; Stone, Roger T; Keele, John W; Harhay, Gregory P; Bennett, Gary L; Smith, Timothy PL

    2005-01-01

    Background Existing linkage maps of the bovine genome primarily contain anonymous microsatellite markers. These maps have proved valuable for mapping quantitative trait loci (QTL) to broad regions of the genome, but more closely spaced markers are needed to fine-map QTL, and markers associated with genes and annotated sequence are needed to identify genes and sequence variation that may explain QTL. Results Bovine expressed sequence tag (EST) and bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC)sequence data were used to develop 918 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers to map genes on the bovine linkage map. DNA of sires from the MARC reference population was used to detect SNPs, and progeny and mates of heterozygous sires were genotyped. Chromosome assignments for 861 SNPs were determined by twopoint analysis, and positions for 735 SNPs were established by multipoint analyses. Linkage maps of bovine autosomes with these SNPs represent 4585 markers in 2475 positions spanning 3058 cM . Markers include 3612 microsatellites, 913 SNPs and 60 other markers. Mean separation between marker positions is 1.2 cM. New SNP markers appear in 511 positions, with mean separation of 4.7 cM. Multi-allelic markers, mostly microsatellites, had a mean (maximum) of 216 (366) informative meioses, and a mean 3-lod confidence interval of 3.6 cM Bi-allelic markers, including SNP and other marker types, had a mean (maximum) of 55 (191) informative meioses, and were placed within a mean 8.5 cM 3-lod confidence interval. Homologous human sequences were identified for 1159 markers, including 582 newly developed and mapped SNP. Conclusion Addition of these EST- and BAC-based SNPs to the bovine linkage map not only increases marker density, but provides connections to gene-rich physical maps, including annotated human sequence. The map provides a resource for fine-mapping quantitative trait loci and identification of positional candidate genes, and can be integrated with other data to guide and

  7. Exposure to cAMP and beta-adrenergic stimulation recruits Ca(V)3 T-type channels in rat chromaffin cells through Epac cAMP-receptor proteins.

    PubMed

    Novara, M; Baldelli, P; Cavallari, D; Carabelli, V; Giancippoli, A; Carbone, E

    2004-07-15

    T-type channels are expressed weakly or not at all in adult rat chromaffin cells (RCCs) and there is contrasting evidence as to whether they play a functional role in catecholamine secretion. Here we show that 3-5 days after application of pCPT-cAMP, most RCCs grown in serum-free medium expressed a high density of low-voltage-activated T-type channels without altering the expression and characteristics of high-voltage-activated channels. The density of cAMP-recruited T-type channels increased with time and displayed the typical biophysical and pharmacological properties of low-voltage-activated Ca(2+) channels: (1) steep voltage-dependent activation from -50 mV in 10 mm Ca(2+), (2) slow deactivation but fast and complete inactivation, (3) full inactivation following short conditioning prepulses to -30 mV, (4) effective block of Ca(2+) influx with 50 microM Ni(2+), (5) comparable permeability to Ca(2+) and Ba(2+), and (6) insensitivity to common Ca(2+) channel antagonists. The action of exogenous pCPT-cAMP (200 microM) was prevented by the protein synthesis inhibitor anisomycin and mimicked in most cells by exposure to forskolin and 1-methyl-3-isobutylxanthine (IBMX) or isoprenaline. The protein kinase A (PKA) inhibitor H89 (0.3 microM) and the competitive antagonist of cAMP binding to PKA, Rp-cAMPS, had weak or no effect on the action of pCPT-cAMP. In line with this, the selective Epac agonist 8CPT-2Me-cAMP nicely mimicked the action of pCPT-cAMP and isoprenaline, suggesting the existence of a dominant Epac-dependent recruitment of T-type channels in RCCs that may originate from the activation of beta-adrenoceptors. Stimulation of beta-adrenoceptors occurs autocrinally in RCCs and thus, the neosynthesis of low-voltage-activated channels may represent a new form of 'chromaffin cell plasticity', which contributes, by lowering the threshold of action potential firing, to increasing cell excitability and secretory activity during sustained sympathetic stimulation and

  8. Exposure to cAMP and β-adrenergic stimulation recruits CaV3 T-type channels in rat chromaffin cells through Epac cAMP-receptor proteins

    PubMed Central

    Novara, M; Baldelli, P; Cavallari, D; Carabelli, V; Giancippoli, A; Carbone, E

    2004-01-01

    T-type channels are expressed weakly or not at all in adult rat chromaffin cells (RCCs) and there is contrasting evidence as to whether they play a functional role in catecholamine secretion. Here we show that 3–5 days after application of pCPT-cAMP, most RCCs grown in serum-free medium expressed a high density of low-voltage-activated T-type channels without altering the expression and characteristics of high-voltage-activated channels. The density of cAMP-recruited T-type channels increased with time and displayed the typical biophysical and pharmacological properties of low-voltage-activated Ca2+ channels: (1) steep voltage-dependent activation from −50 mV in 10 mm Ca2+, (2) slow deactivation but fast and complete inactivation, (3) full inactivation following short conditioning prepulses to −30 mV, (4) effective block of Ca2+ influx with 50 μm Ni2+, (5) comparable permeability to Ca2+ and Ba2+, and (6) insensitivity to common Ca2+ channel antagonists. The action of exogenous pCPT-cAMP (200 μm) was prevented by the protein synthesis inhibitor anisomycin and mimicked in most cells by exposure to forskolin and 1-methyl-3-isobutylxanthine (IBMX) or isoprenaline. The protein kinase A (PKA) inhibitor H89 (0.3 μm) and the competitive antagonist of cAMP binding to PKA, Rp-cAMPS, had weak or no effect on the action of pCPT-cAMP. In line with this, the selective Epac agonist 8CPT-2Me-cAMP nicely mimicked the action of pCPT-cAMP and isoprenaline, suggesting the existence of a dominant Epac-dependent recruitment of T-type channels in RCCs that may originate from the activation of β-adrenoceptors. Stimulation of β-adrenoceptors occurs autocrinally in RCCs and thus, the neosynthesis of low-voltage-activated channels may represent a new form of ‘chromaffin cell plasticity’, which contributes, by lowering the threshold of action potential firing, to increasing cell excitability and secretory activity during sustained sympathetic stimulation and/or increased

  9. Molecular definition of bovine argininosuccinate synthetase deficiency.

    PubMed Central

    Dennis, J A; Healy, P J; Beaudet, A L; O'Brien, W E

    1989-01-01

    Citrullinemia is an inborn error of metabolism due to deficiency of the urea cycle enzyme, argininosuccinate synthetase [L-citrulline:L-aspartate ligase (AMP-forming), EC 6.3.4.5]. The disease was first described in humans but was recently reported in dairy cattle in Australia. Here we report the nucleotide sequence of the normal bovine cDNA for argininosuccinate synthetase and the mutation present in animals with citrullinemia. Analysis of DNA from affected animals by Southern blotting did not readily identify the mutation in the bovine gene. RNA (Northern) blotting revealed a major reduction in the steady-state amount of mRNA in the liver of affected animals to less than 5% of controls. The bovine cDNA was cloned and sequenced and revealed 96% identity with the deduced human sequence at the amino acid level. Starting with mutant bovine liver, the mRNA was reverse-transcribed; the cDNA product was amplified with the polymerase chain reaction, cloned, and sequenced. The sequence revealed a C----T transition converting arginine-86 (CGA) to a nonsense codon (TGA). A second C----T transition represented a polymorphism in proline-175 (CCC----CCT). The mutation and the polymorphism were confirmed by amplification of genomic DNA and demonstration with restriction endonuclease enzymes of both the loss of an Ava II site in DNA from mutant animals at codon 86 and the presence or absence of a Dde I site at codon 175. The loss of the Ava II site can be used for rapid, economical, nonradioactive detection of heterozygotes for bovine citrullinemia. Images PMID:2813370

  10. A physical map of the bovine genome

    PubMed Central

    Snelling, Warren M; Chiu, Readman; Schein, Jacqueline E; Hobbs, Matthew; Abbey, Colette A; Adelson, David L; Aerts, Jan; Bennett, Gary L; Bosdet, Ian E; Boussaha, Mekki; Brauning, Rudiger; Caetano, Alexandre R; Costa, Marcos M; Crawford, Allan M; Dalrymple, Brian P; Eggen, André; Everts-van der Wind, Annelie; Floriot, Sandrine; Gautier, Mathieu; Gill, Clare A; Green, Ronnie D; Holt, Robert; Jann, Oliver; Jones, Steven JM; Kappes, Steven M; Keele, John W; de Jong, Pieter J; Larkin, Denis M; Lewin, Harris A; McEwan, John C; McKay, Stephanie; Marra, Marco A; Mathewson, Carrie A; Matukumalli, Lakshmi K; Moore, Stephen S; Murdoch, Brenda; Nicholas, Frank W; Osoegawa, Kazutoyo; Roy, Alice; Salih, Hanni; Schibler, Laurent; Schnabel, Robert D; Silveri, Licia; Skow, Loren C; Smith, Timothy PL; Sonstegard, Tad S; Taylor, Jeremy F; Tellam, Ross; Van Tassell, Curtis P; Williams, John L; Womack, James E; Wye, Natasja H; Yang, George; Zhao, Shaying

    2007-01-01

    Background Cattle are important agriculturally and relevant as a model organism. Previously described genetic and radiation hybrid (RH) maps of the bovine genome have been used to identify genomic regions and genes affecting specific traits. Application of these maps to identify influential genetic polymorphisms will be enhanced by integration with each other and with bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) libraries. The BAC libraries and clone maps are essential for the hybrid clone-by-clone/whole-genome shotgun sequencing approach taken by the bovine genome sequencing project. Results A bovine BAC map was constructed with HindIII restriction digest fragments of 290,797 BAC clones from animals of three different breeds. Comparative mapping of 422,522 BAC end sequences assisted with BAC map ordering and assembly. Genotypes and pedigree from two genetic maps and marker scores from three whole-genome RH panels were consolidated on a 17,254-marker composite map. Sequence similarity allowed integrating the BAC and composite maps with the bovine draft assembly (Btau3.1), establishing a comprehensive resource describing the bovine genome. Agreement between the marker and BAC maps and the draft assembly is high, although discrepancies exist. The composite and BAC maps are more similar than either is to the draft assembly. Conclusion Further refinement of the maps and greater integration into the genome assembly process may contribute to a high quality assembly. The maps provide resources to associate phenotypic variation with underlying genomic variation, and are crucial resources for understanding the biology underpinning this important ruminant species so closely associated with humans. PMID:17697342

  11. Bovine Rhinitis Viruses Are Common in U.S. Cattle with Bovine Respiratory Disease

    PubMed Central

    Hause, Ben M.; Collin, Emily A.; Anderson, Joe; Hesse, Richard A.; Anderson, Gary

    2015-01-01

    Bovine rhinitis viruses (BRV) are established etiological agents of bovine respiratory disease complex however little research into their epidemiology and ecology has been published for several decades. In the U.S., only bovine rhinitis A virus 1 (BRAV1) has been identified while bovine rhinitis A virus 2 (BRAV2) and bovine rhinitis B virus (BRBV) were previously only identified in England and Japan, respectively. Metagenomic sequencing of a nasal swab from a bovine respiratory disease (BRD) diagnostic submission from Kansas identified contigs with approximately 90% nucleotide similarity to BRAV2 and BRBV. A combination of de novo and templated assemblies using reference genomes yielded near complete BRAV2 and BRBV genomes. The near complete genome of bovine rhinitis A virus 1 (BRAV1) was also determined from a historical isolate to enable further molecular epidemiological studies. A 5’-nuclease reverse transcription PCR assay targeting the 3D polymerase gene was designed and used to screen 204 archived BRD clinical specimens. Thirteen (6.4%) were positive. Metagenomic sequencing of six positive samples identified mixed BRAV1/BRAV2, BRAV1/BRBV and BRAV2/BRBV infections for five samples. One sample showed infection only with BRAV1. Seroprevalence studies using a cell culture adapted BRBV found immunofluorescence assay-reactive antibodies were common in the herds analyzed. Altogether, these results demonstrate that BRV infections are common in cattle with respiratory disease and that BRAV1, BRAV2 and BRBV co-circulate in U.S. cattle and have high similarity to viruses isolated more than 30 years ago from diverse locations. PMID:25789939

  12. Bovine rhinitis viruses are common in U.S. cattle with bovine respiratory disease.

    PubMed

    Hause, Ben M; Collin, Emily A; Anderson, Joe; Hesse, Richard A; Anderson, Gary

    2015-01-01

    Bovine rhinitis viruses (BRV) are established etiological agents of bovine respiratory disease complex however little research into their epidemiology and ecology has been published for several decades. In the U.S., only bovine rhinitis A virus 1 (BRAV1) has been identified while bovine rhinitis A virus 2 (BRAV2) and bovine rhinitis B virus (BRBV) were previously only identified in England and Japan, respectively. Metagenomic sequencing of a nasal swab from a bovine respiratory disease (BRD) diagnostic submission from Kansas identified contigs with approximately 90% nucleotide similarity to BRAV2 and BRBV. A combination of de novo and templated assemblies using reference genomes yielded near complete BRAV2 and BRBV genomes. The near complete genome of bovine rhinitis A virus 1 (BRAV1) was also determined from a historical isolate to enable further molecular epidemiological studies. A 5'-nuclease reverse transcription PCR assay targeting the 3D polymerase gene was designed and used to screen 204 archived BRD clinical specimens. Thirteen (6.4%) were positive. Metagenomic sequencing of six positive samples identified mixed BRAV1/BRAV2, BRAV1/BRBV and BRAV2/BRBV infections for five samples. One sample showed infection only with BRAV1. Seroprevalence studies using a cell culture adapted BRBV found immunofluorescence assay-reactive antibodies were common in the herds analyzed. Altogether, these results demonstrate that BRV infections are common in cattle with respiratory disease and that BRAV1, BRAV2 and BRBV co-circulate in U.S. cattle and have high similarity to viruses isolated more than 30 years ago from diverse locations. PMID:25789939

  13. Ontogeny of the Bovine Immune Response 1

    PubMed Central

    Schultz, R. D.; Dunne, H. W.; Heist, C. E.

    1973-01-01

    The ontogenesis of the bovine immune response was studied in three embryos (<40 days) and 106 fetuses of various ages. In the absence of overt antigenic stimulation, fetuses had lymphoid development of the thymus at 42 days of gestation, the spleen was structurally present at 55 days, and certain peripheral lymph nodes were present at 60 days. Mesenteric lymph nodes were structurally present by 100 days of gestation, and lymphoid tissue of the gastrointestinal tract, particularly the lower ileum, was observed in histologic sections of a 175-day fetus with a bacterial infection. Pyroninophilic cells, plasma cells, and germinal centers were present in lymph node sections of antigenically stimulated fetuses. Lymphoid tissue developed more rapidly in fetuses with bacteria, viral antigens, or apparent maternal red-blood-cell antigens than in the normal fetus. Thymic and splenic indices reached maximal values in the 205- to 220-day fetal age group. Immunoglobulin M (IgM)-containing cells were first observed, by immunofluorescence, in a single fetus at 59 days of gestation. Immunoglobulin G (IgG)-containing cells were observed at 145 days of gestation in one fetus with a bacterial and viral infection. IgM-containing cells were observed in 36 fetuses and IgM and IgG cells were present in seven fetuses. Spleen, lymph nodes, thymus, bone marrow, and liver of one fetus from a dam with lymphosarcoma had immunoglobulin-containing cells. Hemal lymph nodes, blood (buffy coat), Peyer patches, and heart and lung sections from fetuses with immunoglobulin-containing cells in spleen or lymph node did not have immunoglobulin-containing cells. Antigens of the virus of bovine virus diarrhea-mucosal disease (BVD) were detected in one fetus, and antigens of infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (IBR) virus were detected in three fetuses; however, viruses were not isolated in primary bovine embryonic kidney cells. Two of the three fetuses with IBR virus antigens had neutralizing serum antibody

  14. Cloning, sequence, and expression of bovine interleukin 2.

    PubMed Central

    Cerretti, D P; McKereghan, K; Larsen, A; Cantrell, M A; Anderson, D; Gillis, S; Cosman, D; Baker, P E

    1986-01-01

    Interleukin 2 (IL-2) cDNA clones have been isolated from both human and murine sources. We report here the isolation of a cDNA clone encoding bovine IL-2. This was accomplished by screening a cDNA library constructed from lectin-stimulated bovine lymph node cells, using a human IL-2 probe. Bovine IL-2 is composed of 155 amino acids and has a predicted molecular weight of 19,555. Alignment of the amino acid sequence with human IL-2 indicates that mature bovine IL-2 is composed of 135 amino acids and has a predicted molecular weight of 15,452. It has an amino acid homology of 65% with human IL-2 and 50% with murine IL-2. Bovine IL-2 is unique among IL-2 homologs in that it has a single N-linked glycosylation site. Biologically active bovine IL-2 was synthesized in an Escherichia coli expression system. Images PMID:3517854

  15. Unraveling bovin phylogeny: accomplishments and challenges

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    The phylogenetic systematics of bovin species forms a common basis for studies at multiple scales, from the level of domestication in populations to major cladogenesis. The main big-picture accomplishments of this productive field, including two recent works, one in BMC Genomics, are reviewed with an eye for some of the limitations and challenges impeding progress. See Research article http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2164/10/177 PMID:20525112

  16. Killing of Brucella abortus by bovine serum.

    PubMed Central

    Corbeil, L B; Blau, K; Inzana, T J; Nielsen, K H; Jacobson, R H; Corbeil, R R; Winter, A J

    1988-01-01

    Studies of the serum bactericidal system in bovine brucellosis were undertaken to investigate the role of the humoral immune response in protection of cattle against the facultative intracellular parasite Brucella abortus. Fresh sera from normal control cattle, infected cattle, and cattle immunized with B. abortus cell envelopes were collected before treatment and during the course of immunization or infection. Normal fresh bovine serum or fresh agammaglobulinemic serum from colostrum-deprived calves was effective in killing smooth virulent B. abortus 2308, but rough strains RB51 (a rough mutant of strain 2308) and 45/20 were much more sensitive to serum. The difference in susceptibility to serum was shown to be correlated with differences in lipopolysaccharide chemotype, with the more resistant strain 2308 having O polysaccharide and the more susceptible strains 45/20 and RB51 lacking O side chains. By treatment of fresh serum with MgCl2 and EGTA [ethylene glycol-bis(beta-aminoethyl ether)-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid] killing was shown to occur via the classical pathway of complement activation. When antibody to B. abortus was present, killing of strain RB51 increased but killing of smooth strain 2308 decreased. The earliest antibody response in serum from infected animals did not interfere with killing. When affinity-purified bovine immunoglobulins specific for B. abortus smooth lipopolysaccharide were added to fresh normal bovine serum, immunoglobulin G1 (IgG1) and IgG2 isotypes blocked killing but IgM and IgA isotypes did not. Thus, it appears that serum from previously unexposed animals or animals early during infection can kill smooth B. abortus, an appropriate defense mechanism before the organism becomes intracellular. At later stages of infection, blocking antibodies predominate. Images PMID:3141287

  17. Random laser action in bovine semen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smuk, Andrei; Lazaro, Edgar; Olson, Leif P.; Lawandy, N. M.

    2011-03-01

    Experiments using bovine semen reveal that the addition of a high-gain water soluble dye results in random laser action when excited by a Q-switched, frequency doubled, Nd:Yag laser. The data shows that the linewidth collapse of the emission is correlated to the sperm count of the individual samples, potentially making this a rapid, low sample volume approach to count determination.

  18. Oxytocin binding sites in bovine mammary tissue

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, Xin.

    1989-01-01

    Oxytocin binding sites were identified and characterized in bovine mammary tissue. ({sup 3}H)-oxytocin binding reached equilibrium by 50 min at 20{degree}C and by 8 hr at 4{degree}C. The half-time of displacement at 20{degree}C was approximately 1 hr. Thyrotropin releasing hormone, adrenocorticotropin, angiotensin I, angiotensin II, pentagastrin, bradykinin, xenopsin and L-valyl-histidyl-L-leucyl-L-threonyl-L-prolyl-L-valyl-L-glutamyl-L-lysine were not competitive. In the presence of 10 nM LiCl, addition of oxytocin to dispersed bovine mammary cells, in which phosphatidylinositol was pre-labelled, caused a time and dose-dependent increase in radioactive inositiol monophosphate incorporation. The possibility that there are distinct vasopressin receptors in bovine mammary tissue was investigated. ({sup 3}H)-vasopressin binding reached equilibrium by 40 min at 20{degree}. The half-time of displacement at 20{degree}C was approximately 1 hr. The ability of the peptides to inhibit ({sup 3}H)-vasopressin binding was: (Thr{sup 4},Gly{sup 7})-oxytocin > Arg{sup 8}-vasopressin > (lys{sup 8})-vasopressin > (Deamino{sup 1},D-arg{sup 8})-vasopressin > oxytocin > d (CH{sub 2}){sub 5}Tyr(Me)AVP.

  19. PHYSICOCHEMICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF LYOPHILIZED BOVINE BONE GRAFTS

    PubMed Central

    Galia, Carlos Roberto; Lourenço, André Luis; Rosito, Ricardo; Souza Macedo, Carlos Alberto; Camargo, Lourdes Maria Araujo Quaresma

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the physicochemical characteristics of lyophilized bovine grafts manufactured on a semi-industrial scale (Orthogen; Baumer S/A*) in accordance with a protocol previously developed by the authors. Methods: The lyophilized bovine bone grafts were characterized by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), X-ray diffractometry (XRD), thermogravimetric (TG) analysis, differential exploratory scanning calorimetry (DSC) and Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. Results: Ca was the main component (60%) found in the samples, followed by P (28%) and O (5%). The mean (sd) pore size was 316 μm (146.7), ranging from 91.2 to 497.8 μm, and 333.5 μm (304.8), ranging from 87.2 to 963.9 μm, at 50x and 150x magnification, respectively. The hydroxyapatite peaks were at 26°C and 32°C, and mass losses were observed between 250°C and 640°C, corresponding to organic material and water. Two temperature transitions (45.67°C and 91.89°C) showed denaturation of type 1 collagen and dehydration of hydroxyapatite. Conclusion: The physicochemical assessment of lyophilized bovine bone grafts in accordance with the protocol developed at semi-industrial scale confirmed that this product presents excellent biocompatibility, with characteristics similar to natural bone. PMID:27027036

  20. Endothelial cells from bovine adrenal medulla develop capillary-like growth patterns in culture.

    PubMed Central

    Banerjee, D K; Ornberg, R L; Youdim, M B; Heldman, E; Pollard, H B

    1985-01-01

    The endocrine barrier between chromaffin cells and the blood stream in the adrenal medulla is made of capillary endothelial cells. We have now succeeded in isolating endothelial cells from adrenal medullary tissue, which are probably derived from this barrier. These cells grow on plastic surfaces in the absence of special growth factors or collagen overlays and differentiate into organized structures quite similar to true capillaries. The cells contain factor VIII:R, a marker for endothelial cells, and form intercellular junctions characteristic of capillary endothelial cells. They also synthesize and secrete basal lamina structures and engage in transcytosis, a characteristic ultrastructural and functional combination of exocytosis and endocytosis across the thin endothelial cell processes. These endothelial cells can take up and deaminate catecholamines by A-type monoamine oxidase, an enzyme functionally distinct from the B-type monoamine oxidase found in chromaffin cells. These data indicate that the chromaffin cell and its endothelial cell neighbor may constitute the functional unit of catecholamine metabolism in the adrenal medulla. Images PMID:3927288

  1. Approaches to biosecurity in bovine embryo transfer programs.

    PubMed

    Givens, M D; Marley, S D

    2008-01-01

    Although transfer of bovine embryos is much less likely to result in transmission of pathogens than transport of postnatal cattle, the epidemiologic risk associated with bovine embryo transfer merits examination. Much research has validated the efficacy of internationally approved processing protocols to render bovine in vivo-derived embryos free of specified pathogens. The purpose of this review is to summarize current sanitary recommendations for bovine embryo transfer, while emphasizing recent research to develop and validate novel approaches to biosecurity. Continued research will enable the development and validation of novel embryo treatments and culture reagents to minimize requirements for testing of embryo or oocyte donors, and testing of embryo recipients. PMID:18028999

  2. The bovine patella as a model of early osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Hargrave-Thomas, E J; Thambyah, A; McGlashan, S R; Broom, N D

    2013-01-01

    The bovine patella model has been used extensively for studying important structure–function aspects of articular cartilage, including its degeneration. However, the degeneration seen in this model has, to our knowledge, never been adequately compared with human osteoarthritis (OA). In this study, bovine patellae displaying normal to severely degenerate states were compared with human tissue displaying intact cartilage to severe OA. Comparisons of normal and OA features were made with histological scoring, morphometric measurements, and qualitative observations. Differential interference contrast microscopy was used to image early OA changes in the articular cartilage matrix and to investigate whether this method provided comparable quality of visualisation of key structural features with standard histology. The intact bovine cartilage was found to be similar to healthy human cartilage and the degenerate bovine cartilage resembled the human OA tissues with regard to structural disruption, cellularity changes, and staining loss. The extent of degeneration in the bovine tissues matched the mild to moderate range of human OA tissues; however, no bovine samples exhibited late-stage OA. Additionally, in both bovine and human tissues, cartilage degeneration was accompanied by calcified cartilage thickening, tidemark duplication, and the advancement of the cement line by protrusions of bony spicules into the calcified cartilage. This comparison of degeneration in the bovine and human tissues suggests a common pathway for the progression of OA and thus the bovine patella is proposed to be an appropriate model for investigating the structural changes associated with early OA. PMID:24111904

  3. Bovine Postparturient Hemoglobinuria: A Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Macwilliams, P. S.; Searcy, G. P.; Bellamy, J. E. C.

    1982-01-01

    Predisposing causes of bovine post-parturient hemoglobinuria are summarized along with suspected pathogeneses, clinical signs, laboratory findings, clinical management and early experimentation. PMID:17422195

  4. Bovine besnoitiosis emerging in Central-Eastern Europe, Hungary

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Besnoitia besnoiti, the cause of bovine besnoitiosis, is a cyst-forming coccidian parasite that has recently been shown to be spreading in several Western and Southern European countries. Findings Clinical cases of bovine besnoitiosis were confirmed for the first time in Hungary, by histological, serological and PCR analyses. Conclusions This is the first report of autochthonous bovine besnoitiosis in Central-Eastern Europe. The emergence of bovine besnoitiosis in this region represents a further example, when human activity (i.e. cattle trading) is the main factor involved in the geographical spread of an infectious disease. PMID:24410743

  5. Lactic Acid Bacteria Isolated from Bovine Mammary Microbiota: Potential Allies against Bovine Mastitis

    PubMed Central

    Saraoui, Taous; Rault, Lucie; Germon, Pierre; Gonzalez-Moreno, Candelaria; Nader-Macias, Fatima M. E.; Baud, Damien; François, Patrice; Chuat, Victoria; Chain, Florian; Langella, Philippe; Nicoli, Jacques; Le Loir, Yves; Even, Sergine

    2015-01-01

    Bovine mastitis is a costly disease in dairy cattle worldwide. As of yet, the control of bovine mastitis is mostly based on prevention by thorough hygienic procedures during milking. Additional strategies include vaccination and utilization of antibiotics. Despite these measures, mastitis is not fully under control, thus prompting the need for alternative strategies. The goal of this study was to isolate autochthonous lactic acid bacteria (LAB) from bovine mammary microbiota that exhibit beneficial properties that could be used for mastitis prevention and/or treatment. Sampling of the teat canal led to the isolation of 165 isolates, among which a selection of ten non-redundant LAB strains belonging to the genera Lactobacillus and Lactococcus were further characterized with regard to several properties: surface properties (hydrophobicity, autoaggregation); inhibition potential of three main mastitis pathogens, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Streptococcus uberis; colonization capacities of bovine mammary epithelial cells (bMEC); and immunomodulation properties. Three strains, Lactobacillus brevis 1595 and 1597 and Lactobacillus plantarum 1610, showed high colonization capacities and a medium surface hydrophobicity. These strains are good candidates to compete with pathogens for mammary gland colonization. Moreover, nine strains exhibited anti-inflammatory properties, as illustrated by the lower IL-8 secretion by E. coli-stimulated bMEC in the presence of these LAB. Full genome sequencing of five candidate strains allowed to check for undesirable genetic elements such as antibiotic resistance genes and to identify potential bacterial determinants involved in the beneficial properties. This large screening of beneficial properties while checking for undesirable genetic markers allowed the selection of promising candidate LAB strains from bovine mammary microbiota for the prevention and/or treatment of bovine mastitis. PMID:26713450

  6. Diagnosis and Control of Viral Diseases of Reproductive Importance: Infectious Bovine Rhinotracheitis and Bovine Viral Diarrhea.

    PubMed

    Newcomer, Benjamin W; Givens, Daniel

    2016-07-01

    Both bovine viral diarrhea virus and bovine herpesvirus 1 can have significant negative reproductive impacts on cattle health. Vaccination is the primary control method for the viral pathogens in US cattle herds. Polyvalent, modified-live vaccines are recommended to provide optimal protection against various viral field strains. Of particular importance to bovine viral diarrhea control is the limitation of contact of pregnant cattle with potential viral reservoirs during the critical first 125 days of gestation. PMID:27140298

  7. Bovine central memory T cells are highly proliferative in response to bovine tuberculosis infection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Long-term (i.e., 14 days) cultured IFN-gamma ELISPOT assays measure central memory T cell (Tcm) responses in both humans and cattle. With bovine tuberculosis, vaccine-elicited long-term IFN-gamma ELISPOT responses correlate with protection. In other species, Tcm’s pose low activation threshold and a...

  8. Bovine viral diarrhea virus infection alters global transcription profiles in bovine endothelial cells

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bovine viral diarrhea viruses (BVDV) are significant pathogens of cattle worldwide. These viruses exist in both non-cytopathic and cytopathic biotypes. Non-cytopathic BVDV can establish persistent lifelong infections in cattle and are a frequent contaminant of biological reagents such as cell cultur...

  9. Description and analysis of the Bovine Gene Atlas - An extensive compendium of bovine transcript profiles

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Bovine Gene Atlas (BGA) is a compendium of over 7.2 million unique 20-base transcript tags profiled from 81 tissues acquired from the cow “L1 Dominette 01449” (L1D), her male fetus, her 255-day-old heifer calf, and her father. The BGA tags were generated on a next-generation massively parallel ...

  10. Bovine central memory T cells are highly proliferative in response to bovine tuberculosis infection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Long-term (i.e., 14 days) cultured IFN-gamma responses of peripheral blood mononuclear cells are used as a correlate of T cell central memory (Tcm) responses in both humans and cattle. With bovine tuberculosis, vaccine-elicited long-term IFN-gamma ELISPOT assays are a correlate of protection. Recent...