Sample records for bovine permanent teeth

  1. Congenital oligodontia of the deciduous teeth and anodontia of the permanent teeth in a cat

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ana Luiza S. Vieira; Natalia de M. Ocarino; Jankerle N. Boeloni; Rogeria Serakides

    2009-01-01

    This report describes a rare case of congenital oligodontia of the deciduous teeth and anodontia of the permanent teeth in a cat. According to cat's veterinarian, the patient had only two deciduous upper canines and no permanent teeth had ever erupted. Post-mortem evaluation showed a complete absence of teeth in the oral cavity and inflammatory lesions were not found on

  2. Maturation of primary and permanent teeth in preterm infants

    PubMed Central

    Backstrom, M; Aine, L; Maki, R; Kuusela, A; Sievanen, H; Koivisto, A; Ikonen, R; Maki, M

    2000-01-01

    AIMS—To elucidate the development of primary and permanent teeth and to interpret the effect of different calcium, phosphorus, and vitamin D supplementation in the neonatal period on dental maturation in preterm children.?METHODS—Preterm infants were randomised to four groups to receive a vitamin D dose of 500 or 1000 IU/day and calcium and phosphorus supplemented or unsupplemented breast milk. The maturity of the primary and permanent teeth was recorded in 30 preterm children. Sixty children aged 2 years and 60 children aged 9-11 years served as controls. Bone mineral content/density was assessed in the preterm infants.?RESULTS—The median (range) corrected teething age was 7 (2-16) months in preterm infants and 6 (2-12) months in controls (p = 0.43). The median (range) number of erupted teeth at 2 years of age was 16 (11-19) in preterm infants and 16 (12-20) in controls (p = 0.16). Maturation of the permanent teeth in the preterm infants was not delayed compared with the controls (mean Demirjian SDS 0.16 v 0.49, p = 0.14). Early dietary intake of either mineral or vitamin D did not affect maturation of the primary dentition in preterm children. Children receiving the higher vitamin D dose in the neonatal period had more mature permanent dentition than those receiving the lower dose, but mineral intake did not affect maturation of the permanent teeth. Dental maturation did not correlate with bone mineral status.?CONCLUSIONS—This is the first longitudinal study to follow primary and permanent tooth maturation in the same preterm children. Premature birth has no appreciable late sequelae in tooth maturation.?? PMID:10952702

  3. Congenital oligodontia of the deciduous teeth and anodontia of the permanent teeth in a cat.

    PubMed

    Vieira, Ana Luiza S; Ocarino, Natalia de M; Boeloni, Jankerle N; Serakides, Rogeria

    2009-02-01

    This report describes a rare case of congenital oligodontia of the deciduous teeth and anodontia of the permanent teeth in a cat. According to cat's veterinarian, the patient had only two deciduous upper canines and no permanent teeth had ever erupted. Post-mortem evaluation showed a complete absence of teeth in the oral cavity and inflammatory lesions were not found on the gums. Histopathological analysis of serial sections of maxilla and mandible revealed absence of odontogenic epithelium, inflammatory cells and odontoclastic resorptive lesions. Diagnosis was confirmed after both the establishment that there were no remaining dental structures and the exclusion of other relevant diseases that lead to tooth loss, such as periodontal disease, renal fibrous osteodystrophy, odontoclastic resorptive lesions, ectodermal dysplasia and trauma. PMID:18835802

  4. Enamel Demineralization in Primary and Permanent Teeth

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. J. Wang; R. Tang; T. Bonstein; P. Bush; G. H. Nancollas

    2006-01-01

    Although enamel demineralization is important for our understanding of caries formation, no consensus has been reached regarding the possible differences in susceptibility of primary and permanent enamel. We used the constant composition (CC) technique to investigate the acid-induced demineralization of these tissues at a relative undersaturation with respect to hydroxyapatite (HAP) of 0.902, pH = 4.5, and ionic strength =

  5. Are bovine teeth a suitable substitute for human teeth in in vitro studies to assess endotoxin load in root canals?

    PubMed

    Melo, Tiago André Fontoura de; Gründling, Grasiela Sabrina Longhi; Montagner, Francisco; Scarparo, Roberta Kochenborger; Figueiredo, José Antônio Poli de; Vier-Pelisser, Fabiana Vieira

    2015-01-01

    The present study aimed to determine the feasibility of using bovine teeth as a suitable alternative for human teeth, in experiments involving in vitro endotoxin contamination. Twenty bovine central incisors and 20 human single-root premolars had their dental crowns removed and root lengths set at 16 mm. Root canals were prepared up to #60 K-file size and sterilized with cobalt-60 gamma irradiation (20 kGy, 6 h). The teeth were randomly divided into four groups: G1-bovine teeth (bovine negative control, n = 10), G2-human teeth (human negative control, n = 10), G3-bovine teeth, inoculated with Escherichia coli (055:B55) LPS, and G4-human teeth inoculated with E. coli LPS. The G1 and G2 groups were exposed to apyrogenic water. After the teeth had been incubated at 37 °C and atmospheric humidity for 24 h, the samples of solutions in the main canals were collected with apyrogenic absorbent paper tips. LPS levels were quantified using Limulus Amebocyte Lysate assay. The data obtained were statistically analyzed using one-way ANOVA, with a significance level of 5%. A high amount of endotoxin was detected in the inoculated human teeth (G4) when compared to the sterilized teeth (G2), as well as in the inoculated bovine teeth (G3) when compared to the inoculated human teeth (G4). However, there was no statistical difference between bovine teeth before and after the E. coli endotoxin inoculation. Therefore, under the mentioned experimental conditions, the use of bovine teeth should not be a choice for laboratory research on endotoxin contamination. PMID:26154374

  6. Assessment of pulp blood flow in primary and permanent teeth using pulse oximetry.

    PubMed

    Pozzobon, Maria Helena; de Sousa Vieira, Ricardo; Alves, Ana Maria Hecke; Reyes-Carmona, Jessie; Teixeira, Cleonice Silveira; de Souza, Beatriz Dulcinéia Mendes; Felippe, Wilson Tadeu

    2011-06-01

    Pulse oximetry (PO) is a well-accepted non-invasive method for assessing vascular health, based on oxygen saturation (SaO(2) ) measurements. The objectives of this study were to design and build a custom-made PO dental sensor holder, to evaluate the effectiveness of PO in determining pulp blood flow in primary and permanent teeth, and to compare the SaO(2) levels obtained in teeth and on the little finger of patients. The PO sensor adapted to the custom-made sensor holder is termed as a device to position and hold the PO sensor. This study evaluated SaO(2) readings obtained in the pulp of 123 teeth of 84 children aged 4-13years. The teeth were divided into three groups: group I - primary teeth: 23 central incisors and 28 canines; group II - permanent teeth: 25 central incisors and 28 canines; and group III - endodontically treated teeth (control): 12 permanent central incisors and seven primary central incisors. The pulp blood flow and SaO(2) were measured and were compared with readings of the patient's finger. Data were analyzed by paired t-tests and Pearson's analysis method. The PO was able to identify all the clinically normal pulps contained in the sample, and all the endodontically treated teeth (controls) showed no response. The mean SaO(2) values were 85.27% in the teeth and 92.85% in the fingers. In conclusion, PO readings were effective in determining pulp blood flow in primary and permanent teeth. However, there was no correlation between the SaO(2) values in the fingers and in the teeth of the patients (P<0.05). PMID:21342436

  7. Genome-Wide Association Study Identifies Four Loci Associated with Eruption of Permanent Teeth

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Frank Geller; Bjarke Feenstra; Hao Zhang; John R. Shaffer; Thomas Hansen; Ann-Louise Esserlind; Heather A. Boyd; Ellen A. Nohr; Nicholas J. Timpson; Ghazaleh Fatemifar; Lavinia Paternoster; David M. Evans; Robert J. Weyant; Steven M. Levy; Mark Lathrop; George Davey Smith; Jeffrey C. Murray; Jes Olesen; Thomas Werge; Mary L. Marazita; Thorkild I. A. Sørensen; Mads Melbye

    2011-01-01

    The sequence and timing of permanent tooth eruption is thought to be highly heritable and can have important implications for the risk of malocclusion, crowding, and periodontal disease. We conducted a genome-wide association study of number of permanent teeth erupted between age 6 and 14 years, analyzed as age-adjusted standard deviation score averaged over multiple time points, based on childhood

  8. Correlations between crown diameters of the deciduous and permanent teeth of Australian Aboriginals.

    PubMed

    Brown, T; Margetts, B; Townsend, G C

    1980-08-01

    Correlations between crown diameters of corresponding teeth and tooth groups in the deciduous and permanent dentitions are reported for Australian Aboriginals. Size associations for within-dentition comparisons were stronger than those for between-dentition. Furthermore, correlations tended to be greater for corresponding tooth groups than for single teeth both within and between dentitions. This co-ordination appears to be well marked in Aboriginals compared with other populations. PMID:6934744

  9. Agenesis of multiple primary and permanent teeth unilaterally and its possible management.

    PubMed

    Ephraim, Rena; Rajamani, T; Feroz, Tp Mohammed; Abraham, Sajith

    2015-05-01

    Oligodontia is the agenesis of numerous teeth (more than six teeth). Agenesis of teeth in primary and permanent dentition is a rare incidence and very few are reported in the dental literature. Although the etiology of congenital agenesis of teeth is unclear, several factors such as a tendency toward genetic predilection, metabolic disorders, trauma, infection, radiation or idiopathic reasons are found to be responsible. Available literature reports agenesis most often of third molars, maxillary lateral incisors, mandibular central and lateral incisors, and mandibular second premolars in decreasing order of frequency of occurrence. Males are more often affected than females. Maxillary primary teeth are more often found affected by agenesis than mandibular primary teeth. Available literature reports missing teeth to be found unilaterally or orbilaterally with a predisposition toward a similar phenomenon occurring in the permanent dentition. In congenital agenesis impaired growth of the alveolar process, reduced lower facial height, speech impairment, deep bite, restriction in the movement of the tongue due to ankyloglossia, asymmetry of the affected side of the face are clinical features evident. There has been no report of complete agenesis of primary and permanent teeth in a whole mandibular quadrant in conjunction with the absence of maxillary second and third molars on the affected side. Here, we report an incidence of a rare occurrence of complete agenesis of more than 10 primary and permanent teeth, unilaterally, in the right mandibular quadrant, in a child of 10 years presenting with a chief complaint of several missing primary teeth and difficulty in speech due to its complete absence. Treatment strategies included various orthodontic and restorative procedures to improve esthetics and function. The orthodontic procedures involved expansion of the narrow maxillary arch to obtain a functionally adapted occlusion and creation of space for future alignment, and uprighting and protecting maxillary right posteriors to accommodate the tongue and rectify speech. Restorative procedures involved fabrication of a removable partial denture as a temporary measure to restore missing teeth, improve esthetics, give lingual support to the lower lip, prevent further downward growth of the right maxillary ridge and to prevent supra eruption of these teeth. PMID:26028909

  10. Agenesis of Multiple Primary and Permanent Teeth Unilaterally and its Possible Management

    PubMed Central

    Ephraim, Rena; Rajamani, T; Feroz, TP Mohammed; Abraham, Sajith

    2015-01-01

    Oligodontia is the agenesis of numerous teeth (more than six teeth). Agenesis of teeth in primary and permanent dentition is a rare incidence and very few are reported in the dental literature. Although the etiology of congenital agenesis of teeth is unclear, several factors such as a tendency toward genetic predilection, metabolic disorders, trauma, infection, radiation or idiopathic reasons are found to be responsible. Available literature reports agenesis most often of third molars, maxillary lateral incisors, mandibular central and lateral incisors, and mandibular second premolars in decreasing order of frequency of occurrence. Males are more often affected than females. Maxillary primary teeth are more often found affected by agenesis than mandibular primary teeth. Available literature reports missing teeth to be found unilaterally or orbilaterally with a predisposition toward a similar phenomenon occurring in the permanent dentition. In congenital agenesis impaired growth of the alveolar process, reduced lower facial height, speech impairment, deep bite, restriction in the movement of the tongue due to ankyloglossia, asymmetry of the affected side of the face are clinical features evident. There has been no report of complete agenesis of primary and permanent teeth in a whole mandibular quadrant in conjunction with the absence of maxillary second and third molars on the affected side. Here, we report an incidence of a rare occurrence of complete agenesis of more than 10 primary and permanent teeth, unilaterally, in the right mandibular quadrant, in a child of 10 years presenting with a chief complaint of several missing primary teeth and difficulty in speech due to its complete absence. Treatment strategies included various orthodontic and restorative procedures to improve esthetics and function. The orthodontic procedures involved expansion of the narrow maxillary arch to obtain a functionally adapted occlusion and creation of space for future alignment, and uprighting and protecting maxillary right posteriors to accommodate the tongue and rectify speech. Restorative procedures involved fabrication of a removable partial denture as a temporary measure to restore missing teeth, improve esthetics, give lingual support to the lower lip, prevent further downward growth of the right maxillary ridge and to prevent supra eruption of these teeth. PMID:26028909

  11. Unknown syndrome: peculiar face, severe hypodontia of permanent teeth, and precocious choroid calcifications.

    PubMed Central

    Pallotta, R; Fusilli, P

    1998-01-01

    We describe a mother and her twin daughters affected with severe hypodontia of the permanent teeth, precocious calcification of the choroid plexus, and minor digital anomalies. The presence of inner telecanthus, broad and flattened nasal bridge, mild ocular proptosis, small nose with anteverted nostrils, and slight microretrognathia gives them an unusual appearance. All three affected persons are of normal intelligence. Images PMID:9610812

  12. Distinctive Genetic Activity Pattern of the Human Dental Pulp between Deciduous and Permanent Teeth

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ji-Hee; Jeon, Mijeong; Song, Je-Seon; Lee, Jae-Ho; Choi, Byung-Jai; Jung, Han-Sung; Moon, Seok Jun; DenBesten, Pamela K.; Kim, Seong-Oh

    2014-01-01

    Human deciduous and permanent teeth exhibit different developmental processes, morphologies, histological characteristics and life cycles. In addition, their pulp tissues react differently to external stimuli, such as the pulp sensitivity test, dental trauma and pulp therapy materials. These suggest differences in gene expression and regulation, and in this study we compared gene-expression profiles of the human dental pulp from deciduous and permanent teeth. Pulp tissues from permanent premolars and deciduous molars aged 11–14 years were extirpated and mRNA was isolated for cDNA microarray analysis, and quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR). Other teeth were used for immunohistochemical analysis (IHC). Microarray analysis identified 263 genes with a twofold or greater difference in expression level between the two types of pulp tissue, 43 and 220 of which were more abundant in deciduous and permanent pulp tissues, respectively. qPCR analysis was conducted for eight randomly selected genes, and the findings were consistent with the cDNA microarray results. IHC confirmed that insulin-like growth factor 2 mRNA-binding protein 1 (IGF2BP1) was broadly expressed in deciduous dental pulp tissue, but minimally expressed in permanent dental pulp tissue. Immunohistochemical analysis showed that calbindin 1 (CALB1), leucine-rich repeat-containing G-protein-coupled receptor 5 (LGR5), and gamma-aminobutyric acid A receptor beta 1 (GABRB1) were abundantly expressed in permanent predentin/odontoblasts, but only minimally expressed in deciduous dental pulp tissue. These results show that deciduous and permanent pulp tissues have different characteristics and gene expression, suggesting that they may have different functions and responses to therapies focused on pulp or dentin regeneration. PMID:25047033

  13. Age and gender influence on lead accumulation in root dentine of human permanent teeth.

    PubMed

    Bercovitz, K; Laufer, D

    1991-01-01

    143 permanent teeth of individuals aged 14-60 yr from a non-occupationally exposed population in northern Israel were analysed for lead accumulation in a atomic absorption spectrophotometer graphite-furnace. A significant correlation was established between lead level and age. No gender correlation was found. The results suggest that any study dealing with lead accumulation in different populations has to compare groups of the same age range, ignoring the sex of the individuals. PMID:1741698

  14. MARGINAL ADAPTATION AND PERFORMANCE OF BIOACTIVE DENTAL RESTORATIVE MATERIALS IN DECIDUOUS AND YOUNG PERMANENT TEETH

    PubMed Central

    Gjorgievska, Elizabeta; Nicholson, John W.; Iljovska, Snezana; Slipper, Ian J.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the adaptation of different types of restorations towards deciduous and young permanent teeth. Materials and Methods: Class V cavities were prepared in deciduous and young permanent teeth and filled with different materials (a conventional glass-ionomer, a resin-modified glass-ionomer, a poly-acid-modified composite resin and a conventional composite resin). Specimens were aged in artificial saliva for 1, 6, 12 and 18 months, then examined by SEM. Results: The composite resin and the polyacid-modified composite had better marginal adaptation than the glass-ionomers, though microcracks developed in the enamel of the tooth. The glass-ionomers showed inferior marginal quality and durability, but no microcracking of the enamel. The margins of the resin-modified glass-ionomer were slightly superior to the conventional glass-ionomer. Conditioning improved the adaptation of the composite resin, but the type of tooth made little or no difference to the performance of the restorative material. All materials were associated with the formation of crystals in the gaps between the filling and the tooth; the quantity and shape of these crystals varied with the material. Conclusions: Resin-based materials are generally better at forming sound, durable margins in deciduous and young permanent teeth than cements, but are associated with microcracks in the enamel. All fluoride-releasing materials give rise to crystalline deposits. PMID:19089281

  15. Root maturation and dentin–pulp response to enamel matrix derivative in pulpotomized permanent teeth

    PubMed Central

    Darwish, Sherif S; Abd El Meguid, Shadia H; Wahba, Nadia A; Mohamed, Ahmed A-R; Chrzanowski, Wojciech

    2014-01-01

    The success of pulpotomy of young permanent teeth depends on the proper selection of dressing materials. This study aimed to evaluate the histological and histomorphometric response of dentin–pulp complex to the enamel matrix derivative (Emdogain® gel) compared to that of calcium hydroxide when used as a pulp dressing in immature young permanent dogs’ teeth. Dentin-like tissues bridging the full width of the coronal pulp at the interface between the injured and healthy pulp tissues were seen after 1 month in both groups. With time, the dentin bridge increased in thickness for calcium hydroxide but disintegrated and fully disappeared for Emdogain-treated group. Progressive inflammation and total pulp degeneration were only evident with Emdogain-treated group. The root apices of Emdogain-treated teeth became matured and closed by cementum that attached to new alveolar bone by a well-oriented periodontal ligament. In young permanent dentition, Emdogain could be a good candidate for periodontium but not dentino–pulpal complex regeneration. PMID:24551447

  16. Root maturation and dentin-pulp response to enamel matrix derivative in pulpotomized permanent teeth.

    PubMed

    Darwish, Sherif S; Abd El Meguid, Shadia H; Wahba, Nadia A; Mohamed, Ahmed A-R; Chrzanowski, Wojciech; Abou Neel, Ensanya A

    2014-01-01

    The success of pulpotomy of young permanent teeth depends on the proper selection of dressing materials. This study aimed to evaluate the histological and histomorphometric response of dentin-pulp complex to the enamel matrix derivative (Emdogain(®) gel) compared to that of calcium hydroxide when used as a pulp dressing in immature young permanent dogs' teeth. Dentin-like tissues bridging the full width of the coronal pulp at the interface between the injured and healthy pulp tissues were seen after 1 month in both groups. With time, the dentin bridge increased in thickness for calcium hydroxide but disintegrated and fully disappeared for Emdogain-treated group. Progressive inflammation and total pulp degeneration were only evident with Emdogain-treated group. The root apices of Emdogain-treated teeth became matured and closed by cementum that attached to new alveolar bone by a well-oriented periodontal ligament. In young permanent dentition, Emdogain could be a good candidate for periodontium but not dentino-pulpal complex regeneration. PMID:24551447

  17. Root maturation and dentin–pulp response to enamel matrix derivative in pulpotomized permanent teeth

    PubMed Central

    Darwish, Sherif S; Abd El Meguid, Shadia H; Wahba, Nadia A; Mohamed, Ahmed A-R; Chrzanowski, Wojciech

    2014-01-01

    The success of pulpotomy of young permanent teeth depends on the proper selection of dressing materials. This study aimed to evaluate the histological and histomorphometric response of dentin–pulp complex to the enamel matrix derivative (Emdogain® gel) compared to that of calcium hydroxide when used as a pulp dressing in immature young permanent dogs’ teeth. Dentin-like tissues bridging the full width of the coronal pulp at the interface between the injured and healthy pulp tissues were seen after 1 month in both groups. With time, the dentin bridge increased in thickness for calcium hydroxide but disintegrated and fully disappeared for Emdogain-treated group. Progressive inflammation and total pulp degeneration were only evident with Emdogain-treated group. The root apices of Emdogain-treated teeth became matured and closed by cementum that attached to new alveolar bone by a well-oriented periodontal ligament. In young permanent dentition, Emdogain could be a good candidate for periodontium but not dentino–pulpal complex regeneration.

  18. Growth and development of permanent teeth germ of transplacental Yu-Cheng babies in Taiwan

    SciTech Connect

    Lan, Shoujen; Yen, Yeayin; Ko, Yingchin; Chen, Engrin (School of Public Health of Kaohsiung Medical College, Kaohsiung City (Taiwan))

    1989-06-01

    This paper is intended to present a study of transplacental Yu-Cheng babies in Taiwan. The focus of the study is to demonstrate how a contaminated food source can affect the growth and development of permanent teeth germ in children. A sporadic outbreak of a peculiar skin disease was reported in Japan in October of 1968. An epidemiological study revealed the outbreak of this disease was caused by contaminated Kanemi rice oil. This episode of rice oil poisoned with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) was the first reported outbreak of PCB poisoning in the world. A second episode occurred in central Taiwan eleven years after the Japanese episode. Registered data from the Taiwan Provincial Government Health Department reported 1,843 cases in 1980. Of this group, more than 800 women were child-bearing age and most of these women would or soon would be married and pregnant. The offsprings of these women were in danger, because it has been proven that PCB intoxication could affect the fetus. These babies, only contaminated through the placenta, are called PCB transplacental Yusho babies in Japan and PCB transplacental Yu-Cheng babies in Taiwan. Babies with PCB poisoning could have Fetal PCB syndrome (FPS) and may have retarded eruption of permanent teeth and other anomalies such as reduced numbers of teeth and abnormal shaped roots. The study of transplacental Yu-Cheng babies is an important public health issue for Taiwan. Although there may be other issues, this study focuses only on the growth and development of permanent teeth of those babies affected by PCB transplacental contamination.

  19. Age Estimation by Assessment of Dentin Translucency in Single Rooted Permanent Teeth

    PubMed Central

    Kattappagari, Kiran Kumar; Kommalapati, Radhika Kalyani; Katuri, Deepthi; Murakonda, Raja Sekhar; Chitturi, Ravi Teja; Reddy, Baddam Venkat Ramana

    2014-01-01

    Background: To estimate the age by evaluating the area and length of dentin translucency in single-rooted ground sections of extracted teeth using digital Vernier caliper and stereomicroscope. Materials and Methods: Ground sections of single rooted permanent anterior teeth were made and stained with 1% methylene blue. The area and length of dentin translucency were measured using digital Vernier caliper and with the help of stereomicroscope. Results: Linear regressive analysis showed that estimation of age by assessing the area of dentin translucency with Vernier caliper was statistically significant and showed a high regression co-efficient (R = 0.7738) when compared to evaluation of age by assessment of length. Multilinear regressive analysis done to calculate age by both area and length also showed a high co-efficient of regression (R = 0.7797). Conclusion: The area of dentin translucency showed good correlation with age when compared to the length. PMID:25628481

  20. Outcomes of Different Vital Pulp Therapy Techniques on Symptomatic Permanent Teeth: A Case Series

    PubMed Central

    Asgary, Saeed; Fazlyab, Mahta; Sabbagh, Sedigheh; Eghbal, Mohammad Jafar

    2014-01-01

    In modern endodontics, vital pulp therapy (VPT) has been considered an ultra-conservative treatment modality. Based on the level of pulp preservation, VPT includes stepwise excavation, indirect pulp capping (IDPC), direct pulp capping (DPC), miniature pulpotomy (MP), partial/Cvek pulpotomy and coronal/complete pulpotomy (CP). The present article reviews the treatment outcomes of 94 permanent teeth with irreversible pulpitis treated with either IDPC (n=28), DPC (n=28), MP (n=29) or CP (n=9) using calcium-enriched mixture (CEM) cement. After a mean follow-up time of 12.3 months, 93 treated teeth were radiographic/clinically successful; only one radiographic failure was observed in the DPC group. PMID:25386213

  1. Prevalence of enamel defects in primary and permanent teeth in a group of schoolchildren from Granada (Spain)

    PubMed Central

    Robles, Maria J.; Bravo-Perez, Manuel; González, Encarnación; Peñalver, Maria A.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine and compare the prevalence and presentations of developmental defects of the enamel (DDE) in the primary and permanent dentitions of a group of healthy schoolchildren residing in Granada (Spain). Study Design: A total of 1,414 healthy schoolchildren were examined using modified DDE criteria for recording enamel defects. Results: The prevalence of DDE of any type was 40.2% in primary dentition and 52% in permanent dentition (p<0.033). Of the 31,820 primary and permanent teeth examined in the study, 699 (4.1%) primary and 1,232 (8.3%) permanent teeth had some form of DDE. Diffuse opacity was the most common type of DDE observed in primary teeth, and demarcated opacity in the permanent teeth. Enamel hypoplasia was the least prevalent defect in both dentition types. Conclusions: The study population showed a high prevalence of DDE in primary as well as in permanent dentition, reflecting the current increasing trend of this condition, which should be considered as a significant public health problem. Key words:Developmental enamel defects, enamel hypoplasia, demarcated opacity, diffuse opacity. PMID:23229271

  2. Observations on the eruption of the permanent incisor teeth of farmed Javan rusa deer (Cervus timorensis russa) in New Caledonia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Bianchi; J. C. Hurlin; S. Lebel; P. Chardonnet

    1997-01-01

    The eruption of the permanent incisor teeth of 14 farmed Javan rusa deer (Cervus timorensis russa) of known birth date and their live weights were observed about every 2 weeks from 12 to 30 months of age. The permanent incisor pattern was 11, 14–17 months; 12, 18–23 months; 13, 20–26 months; and 14, 22–27 months. There was no significant relationship

  3. The effect of low-level laser therapy (810 nm) on root development of immature permanent teeth in dogs.

    PubMed

    Fekrazad, Reza; Seraj, Bahman; Ghadimi, Sara; Tamiz, Parvin; Mottahary, Pouriya; Dehghan, Mohammad-Mehdi

    2015-05-01

    Traumatic injuries and dental caries can be a big challenge to immature teeth. In these cases, the main purpose of treatment is to maintain the pulp vitality. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of low-level laser therapy on accelerating the rate of dentinogenesis in pulpotomy of immature permanent teeth (apexogenesis). Three dogs, 4-6 months old, were used in this study. One jaw in each dog was randomly assigned to laser irradiation group. All selected teeth were pulpotomized with mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) and restored with amalgam. In the laser group, the Ga-Al-As laser (810 nm, 0.3 W, 4 J/cm(2), 9 s) was used on buccal and lingual gingiva of each tooth in 48 h intervals for 2 weeks. In order to observe the newly formed dentine, tetracycline was injected on the 1st, 3rd, 7th, and 14th day after the operation. Then, ground sections of teeth were observed under a fluorescence microscope. The data was analyzed with Generalized Estimating Equations (GEE) test. The mean distance between the lines of tetracycline formed on the 1st and 14th day was significantly higher in the laser group (P?=?0.005). Within the limitation of this study, irradiation of Ga-Al-As laser (810 nm) can accelerate the rate of dentinogenesis in apexogenesis of immature permanent teeth with MTA in dogs. PMID:24858234

  4. Optimal design of auxiliary-teeth to solve circulation current reduction of permanent magnet linear synchronous motor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ki-bong Jang; Jee-hyun Kim; Ho-jin An; Gyu-tak Kim

    2011-01-01

    A discontinuity of magnetic circuits according to the end effect is generated in the permanent magnet linear synchronous motor\\u000a (PMLSM). Due to the unbalanced back electro-motive force (EMF) and impedance produced, unbalanced current is generated. The\\u000a circulating current, which is caused by a decrease in the thrust, is generated by the unbalanced current. The optimal design\\u000a of auxiliary-teeth at the

  5. Posttraumatic Displacement Management: Lateral Luxation and Alveolar Bone Fracture in Young Permanent Teeth with 5 Years of Follow-Up

    PubMed Central

    Honório, Heitor Marques; de Alencar, Catarina Ribeiro Barros; Pereira Júnior, Edmer Silvestre; de Oliveira, Daniela Silva Barroso; de Oliveira, Gabriela Cristina; Rios, Daniela

    2015-01-01

    Dental trauma is an important public health problem due to high prevalence and associated limitations. The external impact accounting for trauma may result in different injury types to teeth and supporting structures. This paper describes a clinical case of tooth trauma in an 8-year-old patient exhibiting the displacement of three permanent teeth with open root apexes. Although the traumatic impact resulted in two injury types to teeth and supporting tissues (lateral luxation and alveolar bone fracture), the therapeutic approach was the same in both situations. The bone and teeth were repositioned by digital pressure, stabilized by semirigid splint, and followed up at every week. After six weeks, the splint was removed. At that moment, the clinical and radiographic findings indicated normal soft/hard tissues and absence of pulp/periodontal pathologies. At the fifth year of follow-up, the treatment success of the case was confirmed, although it has been observed that all lower incisors exhibited pulp obliteration as a consequence of the dental trauma. PMID:25838950

  6. Pulp Revascularization of Immature Permanent Teeth: A Review of the Literature and a Proposal of a New Clinical Protocol

    PubMed Central

    Namour, Mélanie

    2014-01-01

    Tissue engineering is a growing field. In the near future, it will probably be possible to generate a complete vital tooth from a single stem cell. Pulp revascularization is dependent on the ability of residual pulp and apical and periodontal stem cells to differentiate. These cells have the ability to generate a highly vascularized and a conjunctive rich living tissue. This one is able to colonize the available pulp space. Revascularization is a new treatment method for immature necrotic permanent teeth. Up to now, apexification procedures were applied for these teeth, using calcium dihydroxide or MTA to produce an artificial apical barrier. However, the pulp revascularization allows the stimulation of the apical development and the root maturation of immature teeth. Two pulp revascularization techniques are used in the literature, one using calcium dihydroxide and the second using a triple antibiotic paste. Based on these two different pulp revascularization protocols, which obtain the desired therapeutic success, the literature will be reviewed and analyzed according to the relevance of their choice of materials. Based on the literature, we propose a new relevant protocol and a new mixture of antibiotics. PMID:25383384

  7. Effect of effervescent vitamin C preparations on bovine teeth and on some clinical and salivary parameters in man.

    PubMed

    Meurman, J H; Murtomaa, H

    1986-12-01

    Eight effervescent preparations and one chewable vitamin C preparation were tested with regard to dental erosion by immersing bovine tooth specimens for 100 h in 100 ml of the test solutions. For comparison, two effervescent calcium preparations were studied. All the vitamin C products caused distinct erosion and disclosure of dentin in the specimens which could not be found in calcium preparations. Calcium release from the bovine teeth varied from 1.08 to 12.99 micrograms Ca/mm2/h. Softening of the dental tissue assessed as the Vickers hardness units, was most prominent among the specimens where most calcium release was observed. A crossover clinical trial using a test pannel assigned to 1-week periods of excellent vs no mechanical cleaning, and with a consumption of 6.6 times more vitamin C tablets than the recommended daily use, revealed no particular impact of the preparation on a variety of oral health parameters. Except for a slight stimulation of the subjects' salivary flow rate 30 min after consuming the vitamin C, all other differences observed could be explained by the accumulation of plaque during the period without mechanical cleaning. Thus, in patients with normal salivary flow rate a short-term consumption of vitamin C preparations, even in excess, may be regarded as harmless from the dental point of view. However, all the studied preparations are potentially erosive if left in direct contact with the teeth. PMID:3468598

  8. A single-phase reluctance generator with permanent magnets between stator teeth

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Kurihara; T. Kubota; T. Kosaka; T. Nakamura

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a novel single-phase reluctance generator with low-cost ferrite magnets between adjacent stator teeth. The stator has both 4-pole field and 8-pole armature windings. The armature windings are connected to the input terminals of a single-phase full-bridge rectifier circuit as AC power source. The DC output terminals are connected to the field windings to increase the excited flux.

  9. Prevalence of dental caries in primary and permanent teeth and its relation with tooth brushing habits among schoolchildren in Eastern Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Farooqi, Faraz A.; Khabeer, Abdul; Moheet, Imran A.; Khan, Soban Q.; Farooq, Imran; ArRejaie, Aws S.,

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To determine the prevalence of dental caries in the primary and permanent teeth, and evaluate the brushing habits of school children in Dammam, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). Methods: This study was conducted at Dammam, KSA. Oral examination of the participants was conducted from February to May 2014. The total sample size for this cross-sectional study was 711. There were 397 children between the age of 6-9 years, who were examined for primary teeth caries, and 314 between the age 10-12 years were examined for permanent teeth caries. Primary and permanent dentitions were studied for decayed, missing, and filled teeth (dmft [primary teeth], DMFT [permanent teeth]). Results: The overall prevalence of dental caries in primary and permanent teeth was almost 73% (n=711). Among the 6-9-year-old, the prevalence of caries was approximately 78% (n=397) whereas, among the 10-12-year-old children, it was approximately 68% (n=314). Mean dmft value among the 6-9-year-olds was 3.66±3.13 with decayed (d) component of 3.28±2.92, missing (m) component of 0.11±0.69, and filled (f) component of 0.26±0.9. Mean DMFT value among the 10-12-year-old children was 1.94±2.0 with decayed (D) component of 1.76±1.85, missing (M) component of 0.03±0.22, and filled (F) of component 0.15±0.73. Daily tooth brushing had a positive effect on caries prevention, and this effect was statistically significant for caries in primary teeth. Conclusion: Although the prevalence of dental caries in primary and permanent teeth was not found to be as high as other researchers reported from different cities of KSA, still the prevalence was high considering the World Health Organization future oral health goals. Awareness should be provided to students, as well as, teachers and parents regarding the importance of good brushing habits and regular dental visits. PMID:25987118

  10. Comparison of two dentin adhesives to primary vs. permanent bovine dentin.

    PubMed

    Hosoya, Y; Nishiguchi, M; Kashiwabara, Y; Horiuchi, A; Goto, G

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the shear bond strengths of two adhesive systems to the primary and permanent dentin. Labial surfaces of extracted and frozen bovine mandibular primary incisors and permanent incisors were ground with #600 grit SiC paper to expose dentin. Bisco Dental Products All Bond 2 (Group AB2) or Sunmedical Co. Superbond D Liner (Group SDL) tooth surface conditioner and adhesive were applied and bonded with resin composite. A shear bond strength (SBS) test was performed and the data were analyzed by an ANOVA (P < 0.05). After the SBS test, the test surfaces of the dentin and the resin were observed using SEM. SBS on the primary dentin were significantly higher than those on the permanent dentin, both in the nonthermal cycled groups and the thermal cycled groups with the exception of the thermal cycled group of Group SDL. In the thermal cycled group of Group SDL, there was no significant difference between SBS on the primary dentin and SBS on the permanent dentin. Bond strengths on the primary dentin were found to be significantly higher than those on the permanent dentin, when using All Bond 2 or Superbond D Liner adhesive systems. PMID:9643209

  11. CCL3 and CXCL12 production in vitro by dental pulp fibroblasts from permanent and deciduous teeth stimulated by Porphyromonas gingivalis LPS

    PubMed Central

    SIPERT, Carla Renata; MORANDINI, Ana Carolina de Faria; MODENA, Karin Cristina da Silva; DIONÍSIO, Thiago José; MACHADO, Maria Aparecida Andrade Moreira; de OLIVEIRA, Sandra Helena Penha; CAMPANELLI, Ana Paula; SANTOS, Carlos Ferreira

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to compare the production of the chemokines CCL3 and CXCL12 by cultured dental pulp fibroblasts from permanent (PDPF) and deciduous (DDPF) teeth under stimulation by Porphyromonas gingivalis LPS (PgLPS). Material and Methods: Primary culture of fibroblasts from permanent (n=3) and deciduous (n=2) teeth were established using an explant technique. After the fourth passage, fibroblasts were stimulated by increasing concentrations of PgLPS (0 - 10 µg/mL) at 1, 6 and 24 h. The cells were tested for viability through MTT assay, and production of the chemokines CCL3 and CXCL12 was determined through ELISA. Comparisons among samples were performed using One-way ANOVA for MTT assay and Two-way ANOVA for ELISA results. Results: Cell viability was not affected by the antigen after 24 h of stimulation. PgLPS induced the production of CCL3 by dental pulp fibroblasts at similar levels for both permanent and deciduous pulp fibroblasts. Production of CXCL12, however, was significantly higher for PDPF than DDPF at 1 and 6 h. PgLPS, in turn, downregulated the production of CXCL12 by PDPF but not by DDPF. Conclusion: These data suggest that dental pulp fibroblasts from permanent and deciduous teeth may present a differential behavior under PgLPS stimulation. PMID:23739851

  12. Relationship between Malnutrition and the Number of Permanent Teeth in Filipino 10- to 13-Year-Olds

    PubMed Central

    Heinrich-Weltzien, Roswitha; Monse, Bella

    2013-01-01

    In the present study, we determined whether there is a delay in the eruption of permanent teeth (PT) among Filipino adolescents with stunting or thinness. Height, weight, and number of PT were recorded in 1554 Filipino 10- to 13-year-olds (711 boys; 843 girls). z-scores for height (HAZ) and body mass index (BMI) were calculated according to the WHO growth reference, and their correlations to the number of PT were assessed. 54.9% of the children have at least one form of malnutrition. Significantly, more boys (22.9%) than girls (16.5%) were thin, while no sex difference in stunting was noted (boys 48.5%; girls 44.0%). The number of PT was significantly correlated to HAZ and BMI-z-score. Stunted and thin students had significantly fewer PT than their nonaffected peers. These differences tended to be the result of delay in tooth eruption in thin and stunted adolescents. In 13-year-old girls, all PT were erupted regardless of their nutritional status indicating a catch-up. Thin and stunted boys had one tooth less than normal boys at this age. Impaired physical growth and dental development seem to have common risk factors. Therefore, regular monitoring of growth and dental development might be helpful for targeting support programmes in developing countries. PMID:24069590

  13. In vitro antimicrobial activity of Sodium hypochlorite, Chlorhexidine gluconate and Octenidine Dihydrochloride in elimination of microor- ganisms within dentinal tubules of primary and permanent teeth

    PubMed Central

    Bodur, Haluk; Ece, Gülden

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of different irrigation solutions at different time intervals for the elimination of E.faecalis and C.albicans penetrated into the dentine tubules of primary and permanent teeth in vitro. The 4 mm primary and permanent teeth sections were sterilized and contaminated with a mixture of E.faecalis and C.albicans strains. After the application of different irrigation solutions (Sodium hypochlorite, Chlorhexidine gluconate, Octenidine Dihydrochloride, saline) to the contaminated tooth sections according to study groups, neutralizers were applied for inactivation of the solutions after 30 sec, 1 min and 5 min. Dentine shavings were placed into TSB and 10µL from each tube was inoculated on agar plates, followed by an incubation period of 24h at 37°C. The colonies were counted macroscopically. The results were compared by using Kruskal-Wallis and Mann Whitney U tests, with a significance level at p<0.05. Among the irrigation solutions that were tested against E.faecalis on primary and permanent teeth, the most effective one was found as 5-minute application of 0.1% Octenidine Dihydrochloride. The antibacterial effects of the tested solutions on the same time periods against C.albicans revealed no significant difference. There were no statistically significant differences between primary and permanent teeth with respect to the antimicrobial activity of the tested solutions. Moreover, Octenidine Dihydrochloride may be used as an alternative endodontic irrigant. Key words:Chlorhexidine gluconate, dentine tubules, irrigation solutions, Octenidine Dihydrochloride, Sodium hypochlorite. PMID:22143724

  14. Diffusion analysis of one photosensitizer in bovine teeth using fluorescence optical imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montanha, S.; Pratavieira, S.; Jacomassi, D. P.; Rastelli, A. N. S.; Bagnato, V. S.

    2012-01-01

    Some photosensitizers (PSs) used for PACT (Antimicrobial Photodynamic Therapy) show an affinity for bacterial walls and can be photo-activated to cause the desired damage. However, on dentine bacterias may be less susceptible to PACT as a result of limited penetration of the PS. The aim of this study was to evaluate the diffusion of one PS based on hematoporphyrin on dentine structures. Twelve bovine incisors were used. Class III cavities (3 x 3 x 1mm) were prepared on the mesial or distal surfaces using a diamond bur. Photogem® solution at 1 mg/mL (10 uL for each cavity) was used. The experimental Groups were divided according to thickness of dentine remaining and etched or no-etched before the PS application. The fluorescence excitation source was a VelScope® system. For image capture a scientific CCD color camera PixelFly® was coupled to VelScope. For image acquisition and processing, a computational routine was developed at Matlab®. Fick's Law was used to obtain the average diffusion coefficient of PS. Differences were found between all Groups. The longitudinal temporal diffusion was influenced by the different times, thickness and acid etching.

  15. Dental fluctuating asymmetry in the Gullah: tests of hypotheses regarding developmental stability in deciduous vs. permanent and male vs. female teeth.

    PubMed

    Guatelli-Steinberg, Debbie; Sciulli, Paul W; Edgar, Heather H J

    2006-03-01

    In this investigation, deciduous teeth (canines, c; first molars, m1; second molars, m2) and their permanent successors (canines, C; first premolars, P1; second premolars, P2) were used to test two related hypotheses about fluctuating asymmetry (FA). First, based on the biology of the developing dentition, it was predicted that deciduous teeth would be more developmentally stable and thus exhibit less dimensional FA than their permanent successors. Second, based on sex differences in tooth development, it was predicted that female canines would have greater developmental stability (less FA) than male canines. Bucco-lingual measurements were made on dental casts from a single Gullah population. Using a repeated-measures study design (n = 3 repeated measures), we tested these hypotheses on sample sizes ranging from 63-82 antimeric pairs. Neither hypothesis was supported by our data. In most cases, Gullah deciduous teeth did not exhibit statistically significantly less FA than their permanent successors; indeed, statistically significant differences were found for only 3 of 12 deciduous vs. permanent contrasts, and in two cases, the deciduous tooth had greater FA. Female mandibular canines exhibited statistically significantly greater FA than those of males, while there was no statistically significant sex difference in FA for the maxillary canine. FA in these Gullah samples is high when compared to Archaic and late prehistoric Ohio Valley Native Americans, consistent with historical and archaeological evidence that environmental stress was relatively higher in the Gullah population. We suggest that when environmental stress in a population is high, the impact of differences in tooth formation time spans and developmental buffering upon FA may be minor relative to the effect of developmental noise. PMID:16323201

  16. Influence of water-layer thickness on Er:YAG laser ablation of enamel of bovine anterior teeth.

    PubMed

    Mir, Maziar; Meister, Joerg; Franzen, Rene; Sabounchi, Shabnam S; Lampert, Friedrich; Gutknecht, Norbert

    2008-10-01

    Different ideas have been presented to describe the mechanism of augmented laser ablation of dental enamel with different shapes by adding water to the working environment. In this study, the influence of water-laser interaction on the surface of enamel during ablation was investigated at a wavelength of 2.94 microm with different distances between the laser tip and the enamel surface. A motion-control system was used to produce linear incisions uniformly on flat enamel surfaces of bovine anterior teeth, with free-running Er:YAG laser very short pulses (pulse length = 90-120 micros, repetition rate = 10 pulses per second). Four different output energies (100, 200, 300 and 400 mJ) were radiated on samples under distilled water from different distances (0.5, 0.75, 1, 1.25, 1.75 and 2.00 mm). The tooth slices were prepared with a cutting machine, and the surfaces of the ablated areas were measured with software under a light microscope. The average and standard deviation of all cut areas in different groups were reported. There was no significant difference when using a different pulse ablation speed (cm(3)/J) and a water-layer thickness between the tip and enamel surface of 0.5-1.25 mm with energy densities of 30-60 J/cm(2) (200-400 mJ). However, using an output energy of 15 J/cm(2) (100 mJ) and a thicker water layer than 1 mm, a linear ablation did not take place. This information led to a clearer view of the efficiency of Er:YAG laser in the conditions of this study. There are several hypotheses which describe a hydrokinetic effect of Er,Cr:YSGG. These basic studies could guide us to have a correct attitude regarding hydro-mechanical effects of water, although the wavelength of 2.78 microm has a better absorption in hydroxyl branch of water molecules. Therefore, our results do not directly interrupt with the series of investigations done with Er,Cr:YSGG. Water propagation and channel formation under water are investigated during the ablation of tooth enamel with the Er:YAG laser from different distances. Comparing the results of this study with the same research done with water/air spray concludes that the bubble formation and channel propagation in water with this wavelength leads to a more symmetric (linear) ablation process with cavity-preparation-recommended parameters. PMID:17952484

  17. Remineralization Effect of Topical NovaMin Versus Sodium Fluoride (1.1%) on Caries-Like Lesions in Permanent Teeth

    PubMed Central

    Vahid Golpayegani, M.; Sohrabi, A.; Biria, M.; Ansari, G.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: NovaMin, a synthetic mineral composed of calcium, sodium, phosphorous and silica releases deposits of crystalline hydroxyl-carbonate apatite (HCA) structurally similar to tooth mineral composition. The aim of this investigation was to compare the potential remineralization effect of topical NovaMin and Sodium Fluoride gel on caries like lesions in permanent teeth. Materials and Methods: A total of 60 sound human freshly extracted teeth were subjected to a pH-cycling protocol. Specimens were randomly assigned to one of the two treatment groups with NovaMin contained dentifrice applied to group 1, while group 2 received a dentifrice containing 1.1% neutral Sodium Fluoride. Pastes were applied five times after the samples received a demineralization from an earlier cariogenic challenge. Specimens were then evaluated by a Surface Micro Hardness test (SMH, 25G, 5s). Post-treatment SMH measurements were conducted and Mann Whitney test was employed for statistical analysis. Results: Mean post lesion SMH values were 221.99±26.27 and 224.50±28.64 for the first and second groups, respectively. Post treatment SMH values were 232.52±24.34 for NovaMin and 232.03 ±24.46 for the fluoride group. Two way ANOVA test showed a highly significant difference between the two different treatment protocols (p<0.001). Conclusion: NovaMin dentifrice appears to have a greater effect on remineralization of carious-like lesions when compared to that of fluoride containing dentifrice in permanent teeth. PMID:22924104

  18. Morphogenesis and age-related structure of permanent canine teeth in the brown bear, Ursus arctos L., in Arctic Alaska

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert L. Rausch

    1969-01-01

    Morphogenesis of the canine teeth of the brown bear, Ursus arctos L., is described, based upon 101 skulls from the central Brooks Range, in arctic Alaska. The formation of annual layers in the calcified tissues (dentin and cementum) is attributed to interruption of growth and odontogenesis during the annual period of denning.

  19. Are extrinsic black stains of teeth iron-saturated bovine lactoferrin and a sign of iron deficient anemia or iron overload?

    PubMed

    Mesonjesi, Ilir

    2012-08-01

    Extrinsic black stains on teeth are shown to have a relation with a low incidence of caries and are made of a ferric compound. Whole composition and why those stains are formed are not fully understood. Studies have shown low incidence of caries in individuals eating cheese. Lactoferrin is the major iron-binding protein, constituent of milk, stays almost intact during cheese making and has antibacterial activity against dental cavity-inducing Streptococcus mutans. Lactoferrin has a high affinity for iron and whenever it is present it will bind iron and release it only in values of pH<4. In a small survey that I made in dental practice, patients (patients did not report taking any medication; had no frequent gingival bleeding) that had extrinsic black stains on teeth eat >50 g of cheese per day and a good number of them, in addition to cheese, drink one cup of milk per day. Cheese stays much longer in contact with tooth surface than does' milk and bovine lactoferrin has four glycan chains that may contribute to a better adherence. Extrinsic black stains are made of a ferric compound, and people that eat good amounts of cheese (where lactoferrin plays a central role) show to have black stains. Iron must be in sufficient amounts in saliva so that lactoferrin can bind it and as a result making the black stains appear. In iron deficient anemia and in iron overload the concentration of iron present in saliva is much higher than in individuals with no anemia. In conclusion, extrinsic black stains of teeth may be iron-saturated bovine lactoferrin and a sign of iron deficient anemia or iron overload if no iron supplements are taken or individuals have no frequent gingival bleeding. PMID:22632844

  20. Streptococcus uberis: A Permanent Barrier to the Control of Bovine Mastitis?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. A. LEIGH

    1999-01-01

    The prevalence of bovine mastitis has been reduced over the past 25 years due to the implementation of a five-point control plan aimed at reducing exposure, duration and transmission of intramammary infections by bacteria. This has markedly reduced the incidence of bovine mastitis caused by bacteria which show a contagious route of transmission, but has had little effect on the

  1. Repairing Children's Teeth

    MedlinePLUS

    ... ways to do this. Children's primary and permanent teeth sometimes need restoration. There are several reasons this might be needed: Decay (dentists call it caries) Trauma — a broken or cracked tooth Poor development, so that a ... Children's Primary Teeth You may think it's not necessary to place ...

  2. Apical Extrusion of Irrigants in Immature Permanent Teeth by Using EndoVac and Needle Irrigation: An In Vitro Study

    PubMed Central

    Velmurugan, N; Sooriaprakas, C; Jain, Preetham

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Immature teeth have a large apical opening and thin divergent or parallel dentinal walls; hence, with conventional needle irrigation there is a very high possibility of extrusion. This study was done to compare the apical extrusion of NaOCl in an immature root delivered using EndoVac and needle irrigation. Materials and Methods: Eighty freshly extracted maxillary central incisors were decoronated followed by access cavity preparation. Modified organotypic protocol was performed to create an open apex; then, the samples were divided into four groups (n=20): EndoVac Microcannula (group I), EndoVac Macrocannula (group II), NaviTip irrigation needle (group III) and Max-i-Probe Irrigating needle (group IV); 9.0 ml of 3% sodium hypochlorite was delivered slowly over a period of 60 seconds. Extruded irrigants were collected in a vial and analysed statistically. Results: Group I, group III and group IV showed 100% extrusion (20/20) but group II showed only 40% extrusion (8/20). The difference in this respect between group II and other groups was statistically significant (P<0.001). With regards to the volume of extrusion, group II had only 0.23 ml of extruded irrigant. Group I extruded 7.53ml of the irrigant. Group III and group IV extruded the entire volume of irrigant delivered. Conclusion: EndoVac Macrocannula resulted in the least extrusion of irrigant in immature teeth when compared to EndoVac Microcannula and conventional needle irrigation. PMID:25584055

  3. Caries-preventive effect of glass ionomer and resin-based fissure sealants on permanent teeth: a meta analysis.

    PubMed

    Yengopal, Veerasamy; Mickenautsch, Steffen; Bezerra, Ana C; Leal, Soraya C

    2009-09-01

    The purpose of this quantitative systematic review was to appraise the evidence on the caries-preventive effect of glass ionomer cement (GIC) in relation to resin-based fissure sealants. Nine English and two Portuguese databases were searched (15 January 2008). Randomized clinical trials and systematic reviews were considered for inclusion. Trial exclusion criteria were: drop-out rates > 33%; no randomization; baseline differences in groups not statistically adjusted; and no clinically important outcomes were presented. Two authors reviewed the articles independently. The outcome measure for the caries preventive effect was caries absence on sealed teeth. Of the 112 identified articles, 25 were selected for review. Of these, 14 were excluded and 11 accepted (8 trials; 3 systematic reviews). The accepted reviews provided no evidence of superiority of either sealant material. Six trials were included for meta-analysis. The pooled odds ratio was 0.96, 95% CI 0.62-1.49, indicating no difference in the caries-preventive effect of GIC and resin-based fissure sealant material. This systematic review with meta-analysis found no evidence that either material was superior to the other in the prevention of dental caries. Thus, both materials appear equally suitable for clinical application as a fissure sealant material. PMID:19776504

  4. Peculiarities of the anatomo-morphological parameters of teeth and root canals in permanent dentition in Georgian population.

    PubMed

    Chipashvili, N; Beshkenadze, E

    2011-03-01

    One of the main reasons that cause the failure of endodontic treatment is the lack of knowledge of complex anatomy of the tooth cavity. Numerous studies over the years have established a complex structure of the tooth root system, a particular configuration of which determines the uniqueness of each tooth.Numerous researches have laid the foundation for anatomical and morphological peculiarities of root system of the tooth, their classification and nomenclature indices. The anatomical picture of the tooth, its shape, root length - the "norms" have been established in the course of years. Statistical indices do not represent universal criteria due to the fact that anthropometric data are subjected to variations in accordance with national and geographic zones. The aim of our study is to establish anatomo-morphological peculiarities of the groups of teeth, roots and canals in Georgian population and to develop statistically reliable indicators on the basis of anthropological and clinical data. The obtained data will help to improve the effective endodontic treatment and avoid complications after obturation. PMID:21525536

  5. Specialized stem cell niche enables repetitive renewal of alligator teeth

    E-print Network

    Chuong, Cheng-Ming

    for tooth renewal. However, extant mammals can either renew their teeth one time (diphyodont dentition) or not at all (monophyodont dentition). Humans replace their milk teeth with permanent teeth and then lose

  6. Problems of supernumerary teeth, hyperdontia or dentes supernumerarii.

    PubMed

    Proff, Peter; Fanghänel, Jochen; Allegrini, Sergio; Bayerlein, Thomas; Gedrange, Tomas

    2006-03-01

    Supernumerary teeth are extra teeth or toothlike structures which may have either erupted or unerupted in addition to the 20 deciduous teeth and the 32 permanent teeth. This article provides an overview of frequency, distribution and classification of supernumerary teeth. The etiology of supernumerary teeth is still unknown, yet various theories have been presented based on epidemiological studies. Four clinical cases representing the possible manifestations of supernumerary teeth are discussed. PMID:16551014

  7. Dinosaur Teeth

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    In this classroom activity, middle school students learn what kinds of information can be gained by studying teeth. The activity opens with background information for teachers about dinosaur teeth. Working in small groups, students examine their own teeth; hypothesize about how incisors, canine teeth, and molars are used; and test their hypotheses with carrots. The activity concludes with a student worksheet that challenges them to identify the uses of different dinosaur teeth.

  8. While it is commonly understood that tree trunks contain rings representing years of growth, few people know that teeth also permanently mark the passing of time. Over

    E-print Network

    Smith, Tanya M.

    , scientists have been examining microscopic clues locked inside teeth to reconstruct the evolution of human the Map of Time Inside Teeth Like many natural systems, dental formation is characterized by biological) showing microscopic horizontal growth lines contrasted for scale with the ridges on a human thumb (right

  9. Orthodontic movement in deciduous teeth.

    PubMed

    Consolaro, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    Deciduous teeth exfoliate as a result of apoptosis induced by cementoblasts, a process that reveals the mineralized portion of the root while attracting clasts. Root resorption in deciduous teeth is slow due to lack of mediators necessary to speed it up; however, it accelerates and spreads in one single direction whenever a permanent tooth pericoronal follicle, rich in epithelial growth factor (EGF), or other bone resorption mediators come near. The latter are responsible for bone resorption during eruption, and deciduous teeth root resorption and exfoliation. Should deciduous teeth be subjected to orthodontic movement or anchorage, mediators local levels will increase. Thus, one should be fully aware that root resorption in deciduous teeth will speed up and exfoliation will early occur. Treatment planning involving deciduous teeth orthodontic movement and/or anchorage should consider: Are clinical benefits relevant enough as to be worth the risk of undergoing early inconvenient root resorption? PMID:25992982

  10. Malocclusion of teeth

    MedlinePLUS

    Crowded teeth; Misaligned teeth; Crossbite; Overbite; Underbite; Open bite ... Occlusion refers to the alignment of teeth and the way that the upper and lower teeth fit together (bite). The upper teeth should ...

  11. Sensitive Teeth

    MedlinePLUS

    ... down, rather than side to side Using a fluoride toothpaste and mouth rinse Using a toothpaste that ... After a cleaning, your dentist may apply a fluoride varnish to protect your teeth. This temporarily reduces ...

  12. Caries-preventive effect of glass ionomer and resin-based fissure sealants on permanent teeth: An update of systematic review evidence

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background This article constitutes a partial update of the original systematic review evidence by Yengopal et al. from 15 January 2008 (published in the Journal of Oral Science in 2009) with primary focus on research quality in regard to bias risk in trials. Its aim is to update the existing systematic review evidence from the English literature as to whether caries occurrence on pits and fissures of teeth sealed with either GIC or resin is the same. Methods In addition to the 12 trials included during the original systematic review, 5 new trials were identified during the database search (up to 26 August 2010) and 2 further trials were included from a hand search and reference check. Of these, 3 trials were excluded and 16 were accepted for data extraction and quality assessment. The quality of accepted trials was assessed, using updated quality criteria, and the risk of bias was investigated in more depth than previously reported. In addition, the focus of quantitative synthesis was shifted to single datasets that were extracted from the accepted trials. Results Twenty-six dichotomous and 4 continuous datasets were extracted. Meta-analysis and cumulative meta-analysis were used in combining clinically homogenous datasets. The overall outcome of the computed datasets suggest no difference between the caries-preventive effects of GIC- and resin-based fissure sealants. Conclusions This overall outcome is in agreement with the conclusions of the original systematic review. Although the findings of the trials identified in this update may be considered to be less affected by attrition- and publication bias, their risk of selection- and detection-/performance bias is high. Thus, verification of the currently available results requires further high quality randomised control trials. PMID:21276215

  13. Dentist and practice characteristics associated with restorative treatment of enamel caries in permanent teeth: multiple-regression modeling of observational clinical data from The National Dental PBRN

    PubMed Central

    Fellows, Jeffrey L; Gordan, Valeria V.; Gilbert, Gregg H.; Rindal, D. Brad; Qvist, Vibeke; Litaker, Mark S.; Benjamin, Paul; Flink, Håkan; Pihlstrom, Daniel J.; Johnson, Neil

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Current evidence in dentistry recommends non-surgical treatment to manage enamel caries lesions. However, surveyed practitioners report they would restore enamel lesions that are confined to the enamel. We used actual clinical data to evaluate patient, dentist, and practice characteristics associated with restoration of enamel caries, while accounting for other factors. Methods We combined data from a National Dental Practice-Based Research Network observational study of consecutive restorations placed in previously unrestored permanent tooth surfaces and practice/demographic data from 229 participating network dentists. Analysis of variance and logistic regression, using generalized estimating equations (GEE) and variable selection within blocks, were used to test the hypothesis that patient, dentist, and practice characteristics were associated with variations in enamel restorations of occlusal and proximal caries compared to dentin lesions, accounting for dentist and patient clustering. Results Network dentists from 5 regions placed 6,891 restorations involving occlusal and/or proximal caries lesions. Enamel restorations accounted for 16% of enrolled occlusal caries lesions and 6% of enrolled proximal caries lesions. Enamel occlusal restorations varied significantly (p<0.05) by patient age and race/ethnicity, dentist use of caries risk assessment, network region, and practice type. Enamel proximal restorations varied significantly (p<0.05) by dentist race/ethnicity, network region, and practice type. CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE Identifying patient, dentist, and practice characteristics associated with enamel caries restorations can guide strategies to improve provider adherence to evidence-based clinical recommendations. PMID:25000667

  14. Avulsion of permanent teeth: theory to practice.

    PubMed

    Trope, Martin

    2011-08-01

    This paper presents clinical protocols for the emergency, early and post treatment complications of the avulsed tooth. The biological basis for these protocols is presented so that the reader understands the clinical decisions that have been made. Most of the protocols described in this article, but not all, have been adopted in the official guidelines of the International Association of Dental Traumatology. Some experimental results are promising and they have therefore been included in the review to stimulate colleagues to further research. PMID:21635689

  15. Carbonate Content in Developing Human and Bovine Enamel

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Sydney-Zax; I. Mayer; D. Deutsch

    1991-01-01

    The present study describes the detailed changes in carbonate distribution throughout the different stages of development in human and bovine enamel, from early formation to maturation. Twenty-two human maxillary and mandibular deciduous anterior teeth and 46 bovine teeth were studied. The major mineral ions, calcium and phosphorus, were also analyzed to facilitate comparison of carbonate content with progressing mineralization. The

  16. Dental Hygiene: How to Care for Your Child's Teeth

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Once your child is preschool-age, start using fluoride toothpaste. Don't cover the brush with toothpaste; ... most of the toothpaste, and swallowing too much fluoride toothpaste can cause permanent stains on their teeth. ...

  17. Late Developing Supernumeraries in a Case of Nonsyndromic Multiple Supernumerary Teeth

    PubMed Central

    Bozkurt, Mine; Tüzüner Öncül, Ay?egül; Göçer, Rukiye; Sar?, ?aziye

    2015-01-01

    Objective. This case report presents 3-year follow-up of a case of nonsyndromic multiple supernumerary teeth (NSMST) with 11 supernumerary teeth, 2 of which showed subsequent formation. Case Report. A 10-year-old girl was referred to the dental clinic with the chief complaint of delayed eruption. Radiographic examination showed 9 retained supernumerary teeth. The treatment plan consisted of extraction of the supernumerary teeth and associated primary teeth in order to allow the permanent teeth to erupt. After 2 years of follow-up, 2 additional supernumerary teeth were observed. Conclusion. Regular follow-up for late forming supernumeraries is crucial for NSMST cases. PMID:25649422

  18. Late developing supernumeraries in a case of nonsyndromic multiple supernumerary teeth.

    PubMed

    Bozkurt, Mine; Bezgin, Tugba; Tüzüner Öncül, Ay?egül; Göçer, Rukiye; Sar?, ?aziye

    2015-01-01

    Objective. This case report presents 3-year follow-up of a case of nonsyndromic multiple supernumerary teeth (NSMST) with 11 supernumerary teeth, 2 of which showed subsequent formation. Case Report. A 10-year-old girl was referred to the dental clinic with the chief complaint of delayed eruption. Radiographic examination showed 9 retained supernumerary teeth. The treatment plan consisted of extraction of the supernumerary teeth and associated primary teeth in order to allow the permanent teeth to erupt. After 2 years of follow-up, 2 additional supernumerary teeth were observed. Conclusion. Regular follow-up for late forming supernumeraries is crucial for NSMST cases. PMID:25649422

  19. Wisdom Teeth Management

    MedlinePLUS

    ... c) may arise from impacted teeth. Wisdom Teeth Management Research has shown that once periodontal disease is ... of third molars, disease status, and to suggest management options ranging from removal to a monitored retention ...

  20. What Teeth Tell Us

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    In this classroom activity, young students investigate what paleontologists can tell from a dinosaur's teeth. The activity opens with background information for teachers about dinosaur teeth. Students begin by looking at animal photos and describing each creature's teeth. They then conduct an experiment that helps them differentiate between the teeth of meat-eaters and plant-eaters .The activity concludes with a student worksheet that challenges them to identify meat-eating and plant-eating dinosaurs.

  1. Factors influencing trace element composition in human teeth

    SciTech Connect

    Tandon, L. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Iyengar, G.V. [Biomineral Sciences International, Inc., Bethesda, MD (United States)

    1997-12-01

    The authors recently compiled and reviewed the literature published in or after 1978 for 45 major, minor, and trace elements in human teeth as a part of an International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) study. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the various factors that influence the concentration levels of certain trace elements in human teeth. The sampling practices and analytical techniques that are applicable for trace element analysis are also discussed. It is also our intention to identify reference range of values, where data permit such conclusions. The scrutiny was designed to identify only the healthy permanent teeth, and values from teeth with fillings, caries, or periodontal diseases were eliminated.

  2. Ocena zaawansowania choroby próchnicowej z?bów sta?ych za pomoc? urz?dze? Diagnodent i Diagnodent Pen 2190 Comparison of the caries progression estimation in permanent teeth by Diagnodent and Diagnodent Pen 2190 apparatus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alina Socha; Piotr Skomro; Krystyna Opalko

    Diagnodent is a laser diagnostic apparatus used for detecting dentine and enamel lesions at grooves, occlusal and interproximal surfaces. The diagnosis is based on the fluorescence phenomena. Digital analysis of fluorescence signal enables the evaluation of the mineralization degree. The diagnostic procedure is simple, fast, painless and non-invasive. In this study, the 40 teeth were examined. The research material was

  3. Fossilized Dinosaur Teeth Adaptations

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Rick Crosslin

    2004-01-01

    In this activity, learners use models of fossilized dinosaur teeth to understand how dinosaur teeth were used. Learners specifically research Tyrannosaurus rex and Triceratops horridus dinosaurs and determine that Triceratops teeth work the way pliers and scissors operate, and T. rex teeth are like sharp knives. Learners match and sort dinosaurs by the type and use of their teeth. This activity is featured on pp.14-18 (part of a lesson that begins on p.7) of the "Dinosphere" unit of study for grades 3-5.

  4. Armor for Your Teeth

    MedlinePLUS

    Armor for Your Teeth What are sealants? Knights wear armor to protect them in battle. Sealants are like armor for your teeth. They seal the parts of ... bright, blue light makes the sealants hard like armor. Some sealants harden without the light. Last updated ...

  5. [Cryopreservation of teeth].

    PubMed

    Zimmerli, Melanie; Filippi, Andreas

    2010-01-01

    After tooth loss dental implants or fixed prosthetic restorations are not indicated in children and adolescents due to incomplete maxillary and mandibular development. Cryopreservation is a method for long-term storage of healthy teeth which were removed for orthodontic reasons or due to traumatic origin. These preserved teeth can be used as autogenous replants or transplants after tooth loss. During transport to and from the freezing facilities prior to freezing the teeth are stored in a cell culture medium. The tooth is transferred into a freezing tube containing cell culture medium and cryoprotectant DMSO. Teeth autotransplanted after cryopreservation show vitality of the PDL cells. Usually no enamel and/or dentinal cracks can be observed. After tooth loss transplantation of cryopreserved teeth could be an effective and biological therapy for tooth replacement. PMID:21545030

  6. Facial approach to stabilization of mobile maxillary anterior teeth with steep vertical overlap and occlusal trauma

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stavros I. Vitsentzos; Petros T. Koidis

    1997-01-01

    The necessity for splinting and the advantages of some types of permanent, semipermanent, and temporary splinting are given. Specific step-by-step instructions are given for a special purpose splint that can be used for stabilizing mobile maxillary teeth when the patient has thin teeth faciolingually and a steep vertical overlap. This can be the treatment of choice for such patients. (J

  7. Anomalies in primary dentition: Their distribution and correlation with permanent dentition

    PubMed Central

    Mukhopadhyay, Santanu; Mitra, Sanjib

    2014-01-01

    Background: Anomalies in primary dentition are often found to be associated with anomalies in permanent dentition. Aims: This study was performed to evaluate the prevalence of supernumerary teeth, hypodontia, double teeth, and talon cusp in the primary dentition, and their effect on succedaneous permanent teeth. Materials and Methods: In this prospective cross-sectional study, we clinically investigated 2757 Bengali speaking nursery children (1474 girls and 1283 boys), of age four to six years, at their respective schools, and the presence of supernumerary teeth, hypodontia, double teeth, and talon cusp in the primary dentition were recorded. Children with anomalous primary teeth were further subjected to periapical and panoramic radiographic examination, to determine the status of the underlying permanent teeth. Results: The total prevalence of all anomalies in this study was 1.8%. A total of 38 children (21 girls and 17 boys) had anomalies. The prevalence of anomalies was as follows: Supernumerary teeth (0.4%), hypodontia (0.5%), double teeth (0.4%), and talon cusp (0.07%), in both sexes combined. Radiographic examination showed 50% of the patients (19 children) had anomalies in the permanent dentition. Conclusions: Anomalies in primary dentition exhibited a correlation with anomalies in permanent dentition. PMID:24678213

  8. Wear resistance of artificial denture teeth.

    PubMed

    Ghazal, Muhamad; Steiner, Martin; Kern, Matthias

    2008-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the wear resistance of artificial teeth when opposed by antagonists made from the same material. The artificial teeth tested included ceramic teeth, nanofilled composite resin teeth, acrylic resin teeth, and experimental acrylic resin teeth. After 600,000 chewing cycles, the mean total vertical substance loss and mean volume loss for acrylic resin and experimental acrylic resin teeth were significantly lower than for ceramic and composite resin teeth. Composite resin teeth showed more wear than ceramic teeth, while acrylic resin teeth showed less wear than ceramic teeth. However, scanning electron microscopy and laser-scanner observations showed that acrylic resin teeth exhibited deformation at the contact surfaces. PMID:18546774

  9. Management of Internal Root Resorption on Permanent Teeth

    PubMed Central

    Bonte, Eric; Bayet, François; Lasfargues, Jean-Jacques

    2013-01-01

    Internal root resorption (IRR) is a particular category of pulp disease characterized by the loss of dentine as a result of the action of clastic cells stimulated by pulpal inflammation. This review article explains the etiology, the prevalence of IRR, and, in addition to the clinical data, the contribution of the three-dimensional imaging (CBCT) to the diagnosis, the clinical decision, and the therapeutic management of IRR. The authors discussed the various therapeutic options including the orthograde or retrograde fillings of the root canal resorption area. Root canal treatment remains the treatment of choice of internal root resorption as it removes the granulation tissue and blood supply of the clastic cells. The authors describe with different clinical cases the modern endodontic techniques including optical aids, ultrasonic improvement of chemical debridement, and the use of alternative materials such as calcium silicate combined with thermoplastic filling (warm gutta-percha). In these conditions, the prognosis of the conservative treatment of internal resorptions, even if root walls are perforated, is good. PMID:24348560

  10. Strontium metabolism in teeth and enamel dose assessment: analysis of the Techa river data

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. I. Tolstykh; M. O. Degteva; V. P. Kozheurov; E. A. Shishkina; A. A. Romanyukha; A. Wieser; P. Jacob

    2000-01-01

    People living on the banks of the Techa river were exposed to 90Sr in the early 1950s. Data obtained by radiochemical measurements of extracted permanent teeth, 90Sr autopsy measurements in bone and tooth samples, in vivo measurements of surface beta activity of the anterior teeth and\\u000a whole-body counter (WBC) measurements of 90Sr in the skeleton have been analyzed. Surface beta

  11. 21 CFR 872.5550 - Teething ring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 872.5550 Teething...teething ring is a divice intended for use by infants for medical purposes to soothe gums during the teething...

  12. 21 CFR 872.5550 - Teething ring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 872.5550 Teething...teething ring is a divice intended for use by infants for medical purposes to soothe gums during the teething...

  13. 21 CFR 872.5550 - Teething ring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 872.5550 Teething...teething ring is a divice intended for use by infants for medical purposes to soothe gums during the teething...

  14. 21 CFR 872.5550 - Teething ring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 872.5550 Teething...teething ring is a divice intended for use by infants for medical purposes to soothe gums during the teething...

  15. 21 CFR 872.5550 - Teething ring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 872.5550 Teething...teething ring is a divice intended for use by infants for medical purposes to soothe gums during the teething...

  16. Take Care of Your Teeth and Gums

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Brush your teeth 2 times a day with fluoride (“FLOOR-ide”) toothpaste. Floss between your teeth every ... a toothbrush with soft bristles and toothpaste with fluoride. Fluoride is a mineral that helps protect teeth ...

  17. Scorching effects of heat on extracted teeth - A forensic view

    PubMed Central

    Prakash, Ajay P.; Reddy, Shyam D. P.; Rao, Madhusudan T.; Ramanand, O. V.

    2014-01-01

    Context: Fire investigation is the multidisciplinary basis of the exploration, which involves investigations concerning the origin of fire, its cause as well as the identification of victims. At times, victim identification in fire disasters becomes nearly impossible owing to complete destruction of soft tissues. In such circumstances, teeth may prove to be of value since they are extremely hard. A precise understanding of physical and histological changes in teeth subjected to high temperature can provide valuable clues in fire and crime investigations, when dental evidence remains. Aim: The main aim and objective of the study was to investigate structural damage in freshly extracted teeth to heating, at different temperatures for a certain length of time in the laboratory. Settings and Design: Fifty-four freshly extracted teeth of different age groups had been subjected to different temperatures for a period of 15 minutes in the laboratory furnace. Physical and microscopic findings were correlated to the temperature. Materials and Methods: Freshly extracted 54 permanent teeth of different age groups were collected and were subjected to temperatures of 100°C, 300°C, and 600°C. Teeth were then examined for any physical changes such as change in color, texture, or morphology that occurred. Then the teeth were subjected for decalcification following which the tissues were kept for routine processing and were embedded in paraffin wax. Sections of 4 ?m thickness were made and stained in hematoxylin and eosin (H and E) to correlate the microscopic findings to the temperature. Statistical Analysis: Physical and microscopic findings were correlated to the temperature. Results: Microscopic examination revealed definite histological patterns, which were explicitly seen at a particular temperature. The samples showed cracks and charring of the tooth structure with microscopic findings such as widening of dentinal tubules and altered histological staining. Conclusion: Evaluation of incinerated dental remains may provide additional forensic investigative avenues in victim identification because of the consistency of morphological changes, the histological patterns at temperatures that are commonly encountered in common domestic fires. PMID:25177142

  18. Congenital adrenal hyperplasia: a case report with premature teeth exfoliation and bone resorption.

    PubMed

    Angelopoulou, Matina V; Kontogiorgos, Elias; Emmanouil, Dimitris

    2015-06-01

    Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) is an inherited autosomal recessive disorder characterized by insufficient production of cortisol. The aim of this case report was to present a child with CAH, premature exfoliation of primary teeth and accelerated eruption of his permanent teeth related to bone resorption. A 4.5-year-old Caucasian boy with CAH and long-term administration of glucocorticoids was referred for dental restoration. Clinical examination revealed primary molars with worn stainless steel crowns, severe attrition of the upper canines, and absence of the upper incisors. Before the completion of treatment, abnormal mobility of the first upper primary molars and the lower incisors was detected, and a few days later the teeth exfoliated prematurely. Histologic examination revealed normal tooth structure. Alkaline phosphatase and blood cells values were normal. Eruption of the permanent dentition was also accelerated. Tooth mobility was noticed in the permanent teeth as soon as they erupted, along with bone destruction. Examination revealed an elevated level of receptor activator of nuclear factor-?B ligand and lower-than-normal osteoprotegerin and vitamin D levels. The patient was treated with vitamin D supplements, and his teeth have been stable ever since. CAH is a serious chronic disorder appearing in children with accelerated dental development and possibly premature loss of primary teeth. PMID:26009625

  19. Taking Care of Your Teeth

    MedlinePLUS

    ... between eating foods containing sugar. Sugary or starchy foods eaten with a meal are less harmful to your teeth than when they're eaten alone, possibly because the production of saliva, which washes away the sugar and ...

  20. Do Fluoride Ions Protect Teeth?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parkin, Christopher

    1998-01-01

    Begins with the procedure and results from an investigation on the effect of fluoride on the reaction between eggshell (substitute teeth) and dilute ethanoic acid. Describes an elegantly modified and improvised apparatus. (DDR)

  1. A facial talon cusp on maxillary permanent central incisors

    PubMed Central

    Chinni, Suneelkumar; Nanneboyina, Mayuri; Ramachandran, Anilkumar; Chalapathikumar, Hanuman

    2012-01-01

    Talon cusp is a dental anomaly that occurs as an accessory cusp like structure, from the cingulum of maxillary and mandibular anterior teeth. Lingual location is usually considered pathognomic. This case report discuss about the unusual appearance of talon cusp on the facial surface of the maxillary left permanent central incisor and a mild talon cusp on the facial surface of the maxillary right permanent central incisor. PMID:22368344

  2. Management of an infant having natal teeth

    PubMed Central

    Khandelwal, Vishal; Nayak, Ullal Anand; Nayak, Prathibha Anand; Bafna, Yash

    2013-01-01

    Eruption of teeth at or immediately after birth is a relatively rare phenomenon. These teeth are known as ‘natal’ teeth if present at birth and ‘neonatal’ teeth if they erupt during the first 30?days of life. Natal teeth might resemble normal primary dentition in size and shape; however, the teeth are often smaller, conical and yellowish and have hypoplastic enamel and dentin with poor or absent root formation. Complications include difficulty and discomfort during suckling, sublingual ulceration, laceration of the mother’s breasts and aspiration of the teeth. These situations would warrant extraction. If the tooth does not interfere with breast feeding and is otherwise asymptomatic, no treatment is necessary. Negative cultural attitudes towards natal teeth demand good parental counselling and vigilant management in relation to child protection. Both general practice dentists and paediatric dental specialists may be involved in the supervision or treatment of patients with natal and neonatal teeth. PMID:23737593

  3. [Elastic traction for correctly situating rotated teeth in patients with cleft palate].

    PubMed

    Piekarczyk, B

    1990-03-01

    In 15 patients with cleft palate rubber traction was used on 20 rotated permanent incisors placing the traction bands between clasps made of composites on the teeth and orthodontic devices. The method was suitable for correction of the position of rotated incisors in these children. PMID:2104341

  4. Application to Forensic Odontology of Aspartic Acid Racemization in Unerupted and Supernumerary Teeth

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Ogino; H. Ogino

    1988-01-01

    Racemization of aspartic acid in dentin protein during the human lifetime progresses with age. The extent of racemization of aspartic acid in coronal dentin of normal permanent teeth can be used in forensic odontology to estimate the age of an individual at the time of death (Ogino et al., 1985). A series of experiments was conducted with dentin separated from

  5. Bilateral agenesis of maxillary permanent canines: Review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Borzabadi-Farahani, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Oligodontia, or agenesis of six or more teeth, excluding third molars, which involves canine agenesis is rare, and restorative management can be challenging. Bilateral agenesis of a permanent canine in the general population often indicates a several missing adult teeth. The most common sign of it is the primary canine retention beyond its exfoliation age. The multistage restorative management includes the early diagnosis, excluding associated medical problems as well as assessment of patient's malocclusion and facial skeletal pattern, life span of deciduous teeth, possibility of premolar substitution, minimum required number of prosthetic units, patient's preferences, and the cost of treatment. A 10-year-old boy with bilateral agenesis of maxillary permanent canines is described. Some thoughts on the multidisciplinary restorative management of this case are discussed. PMID:25657989

  6. Take Care of Your Child's Teeth

    MedlinePLUS

    ... times a day. Protect your child’s teeth with fluoride (“FLOOR-ide”). Give your child healthy, low-sugar ... a day. Start brushing your child’s teeth with fluoride toothpaste at age 2 – or sooner if a ...

  7. Analysis of colored teeth from Precolumbian Tlatelolco: postmortem transformation or intravitam processes?

    PubMed

    Mansilla, J; Solis, C; Chávez-Lomeli, M E; Gama, J E

    2003-01-01

    The etiological basis of the abnormal coloration of archaeological teeth has been an unsolved question for a long time. Differences in the appearance of some archaeological teeth from Precolumbian adult and infant skeletons, detected by external optical inspection, led us to study this problem. A blue stain is visible in a few of the deciduous erupted teeth, and a brown color in various unerupted teeth in the collection, while brown spots appear on some permanent teeth. Several processes or factors that may occur during one's life, others around the time of death, and still others resulting from postmortem alterations have been reported as potential causes of abnormal tooth coloration.A sample of 35 colored teeth and two soil layers taken from Tlatelolco were analyzed by particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) as well as selective dissolution techniques. Concentrations of total and extractable elements in enamel and soil layers (Cg1-Cg2) were obtained. This paper describes the occurrence and implications of a substantial secondary concentration of Zinc (Zn), manganese (Mn), strontium (Sr), and iron (Fe) in the deciduous erupted and nonerupted teeth as compared to that in the adult teeth. Our interpretation is that, in this archaeological context, the brown spots and blue stains on the teeth are due to differences in tooth enamel porosity and to a postmortem biogeochemical process. The alterations involve cumulization and diagenesis of iron, manganese, and organic matter solutions that were eluviated from the soil and are not the result of antemortem or perimortem conditions such as trauma or disease. PMID:12489138

  8. Natal Teeth: A Case Report and Reappraisal

    PubMed Central

    Malki, Ghadah A.; Al-Badawi, Emad A.; Dahlan, Mohammad A.

    2015-01-01

    The presence of teeth at birth (natal teeth) or within a month after delivery (neonatal teeth) is a rare condition. Natal and neonatal teeth are conditions of significant importance to pediatric dentists and pediatricians. This report discusses a case in which a five-day-old infant required extraction of a mobile mandibular natal tooth to avoid the risk of aspiration and interference with feeding. Also, a review of the literature was conducted to discuss the etiology, clinical features, complications, and management of natal and neonatal teeth. PMID:25722895

  9. Genetic background of supernumerary teeth

    PubMed Central

    Subasioglu, Asli; Savas, Selcuk; Kucukyilmaz, Ebru; Kesim, Servet; Yagci, Ahmet; Dundar, Munis

    2015-01-01

    Supernumerary teeth (ST) are odontostomatologic anomaly characterized by as the existence excessive number of teeth in relation to the normal dental formula. This condition is commonly seen with several congenital genetic disorders such as Gardner's syndrome, cleidocranial dysostosis and cleft lip and palate. Less common syndromes that are associated with ST are; Fabry Disease, Ellis-van Creveld syndrome, Nance-Horan syndrome, Rubinstein-Taybi Syndrome and Trico–Rhino–Phalangeal syndrome. ST can be an important component of a distinctive disorder and an important clue for early diagnosis. Certainly early detecting the abnormalities gives us to make correct management of the patient and also it is important for making well-informed decisions about long-term medical care and treatment. In this review, the genetic syndromes that are related with ST were discussed. PMID:25713500

  10. Teething

    MedlinePLUS

    ... juice can all cause tooth decay. You can buy the following medications and remedies at the drug store: Acetaminophen (Tylenol and others) or ibuprofen can help when your baby is very cranky or uncomfortable. What not to ...

  11. Modeling of stator teeth-tip iron losses in fractional-slot concentrated winding surface PM machines

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. B. Reddy; T. M. Jahns

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a model for estimating the iron losses in the stator teeth tips of surface permanent magnet (SPM) machines with fractional-slot concentrated windings based on simplified semi-analytical solutions for the machine flux densities. This model is being developed for use in machine design optimization software that analyzes very large numbers of candidate designs. Tooth tip design details are

  12. Correlated physicochemical and age changes in embryonic bovine enamel

    Microsoft Academic Search

    William J. Landis; Maria Navarro

    1983-01-01

    Summary  Whole enamel scrapings from unerupted teeth of embryonic calves have been separated into fractions of varying density by stepwise\\u000a centrifugation in bromoform-toluene mixtures of increasing specific gravity. Partition of enamel in this manner yields individual\\u000a fractions of increasing mineral phase age and maturation. Whole scrapings and isolated fractions of the fetal bovine enamel\\u000a were examined by X-ray powder diffraction, scanning

  13. Kuwaiti Parents’ Knowledge of First-Aid Measures of Avulsion and Replantation of Teeth

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Qumasha Al-Jame; Lars Andersson; Adel Al-Asfour

    2007-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to assess the knowledge level of emergency measures for tooth avulsion among Kuwaiti parents. Subjects and Methods: Sixty-three parents completed an Arabic language questionnaire about their first-aid knowledge. The following fields of knowledge were assessed: general body injury treatment principles, tooth avulsion and replantation principles, avulsed permanent\\/primary teeth, cleaning of an avulsed tooth

  14. Electrical Conductance of Fissure Enamel in Recently Erupted Molar Teeth as Related to Caries Status

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. L. Ie; E. H. A. M. Verdonschot; M. J. M. Schaeken; M. A. van’t Hof

    1995-01-01

    Pit-and-fissure caries lesions contribute greatly to the caries incidence in permanent molar teeth in children. To date, the diagnosis of occlusal caries is still performed mainly by visual inspection, periodically aided by bite-wing radiography. However, in detecting small occlusal carious lesions, these methods perform inadequately, especially in low caries prevalence populations or individuals. The use of electrical conductance measurements (ECMs)

  15. Analysis of comb transducers with sliding teeth

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eugene J. Danicki

    2011-01-01

    Ultrasonic comb transducer generates surface acoustic waves on an elastic substrate by periodic traction exerted by its vibrating periodic teeth on the substrate surface. In this paper, the comb teeth are actually sliding elastic spacers between an acoustic buffer and the substrate. The incident wave in acoustic buffer scatters on periodic spacers producing interface waves in the system which transform

  16. Method and apparatus for assembling permanent magnet rotors

    DOEpatents

    Hsu, J.S.; Adams, D.J.

    1999-06-22

    A permanent magnet assembly for assembly in large permanent magnet motors and generators includes a two-piece carrier that can be slid into a slot in the rotor and then secured in place using a set screw. The invention also provides an auxiliary carrier device with guide rails that line up with the teeth of the rotor, so that a permanent magnet assembly can be pushed first into a slot, and then down the slot to its proper location. An auxiliary tool is provided to move the permanent magnet assembly into position in the slot before it is secured in place. Methods of assembling and disassembling the magnet assemblies in the rotor are also disclosed. 2 figs.

  17. Method and apparatus for assembling permanent magnet rotors

    DOEpatents

    Hsu, John S. (Oak Ridge, TN); Adams, Donald J. (Knoxville, TN)

    1999-01-01

    A permanent magnet assembly (22) for assembly in large permanent magnet (PM) motors and generators includes a two-piece carrier (23, 24) that can be slid into a slot (13) in the rotor (10) and then secured in place using a set screw (37). The invention also provides an auxiliary carrier device (50) with guide rails (51) that line up with the teeth (12) of the rotor, so that a permanent magnet assembly (22) can be pushed first into a slot (13), and then down the slot (13) to its proper location. An auxiliary tool (50) is provided to move the permanent magnet assembly (22) into position in the slot (13) before it is secured in place. Methods of assembling and disassembling the magnet assemblies (22) in the rotor (10) are also disclosed.

  18. Dovetail spoke internal permanent magnet machine

    DOEpatents

    Alexander, James Pellegrino (Ballston Lake, NY); EL-Refaie, Ayman Mohamed Fawzi (Niskayuna, NY); Lokhandwalla, Murtuza (Clifton Park, NY); Shah, Manoj Ramprasad (Latham, NY); VanDam, Jeremy Daniel (West Coxsackie, NY)

    2011-08-23

    An internal permanent magnet (IPM) machine is provided. The IPM machine includes a stator assembly and a stator core. The stator core also includes multiple stator teeth. The stator assembly is further configured with stator windings to generate a stator magnetic field when excited with alternating currents and extends along a longitudinal axis with an inner surface defining a cavity. The IPM machine also includes a rotor assembly and a rotor core. The rotor core is disposed inside the cavity and configured to rotate about the longitudinal axis. The rotor assembly further includes a shaft. The shaft further includes multiple protrusions alternately arranged relative to multiple bottom structures provided on the shaft. The rotor assembly also includes multiple stacks of laminations disposed on the protrusions and dovetailed circumferentially around the shaft. The rotor assembly further includes multiple pair of permanent magnets for generating a magnetic field, which magnetic field interacts with the stator magnetic field to produce a torque. The multiple pair of permanent magnets are disposed between the stacks. The rotor assembly also includes multiple middle wedges mounted between each pair of the multiple permanent magnets.

  19. 21 CFR 872.6475 - Heat source for bleaching teeth.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Heat source for bleaching teeth. 872.6475... Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6475 Heat source for bleaching teeth. (a) Identification. A heat source for bleaching teeth is an...

  20. 21 CFR 872.6475 - Heat source for bleaching teeth.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Heat source for bleaching teeth. 872.6475... Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6475 Heat source for bleaching teeth. (a) Identification. A heat source for bleaching teeth is an...

  1. Fracture resistance of posterior teeth restored with modern restorative materials

    PubMed Central

    Hamouda, Ibrahim M.; Shehata, Salah H.

    2011-01-01

    We studied the fracture resistance of maxillary premolars restored with recent restorative materials. Fifty maxillary premolars were divided into five groups: Group 1 were unprepared teeth; Group 2 were teeth prepared without restoration; Group 3 were teeth restored with tetric ceram HB; Group 4 were teeth restored with InTen S; and Group 5 were teeth restored with Admira. The samples were tested using a universal testing machine. Peak loads at fracture were recorded. The teeth restored with Admira had the highest fracture resistance followed by those restored with InTen-S and tetric ceram HB. Prepared, unrestored teeth were the weakest group. There was a significant difference between the fracture resistance of intact teeth and the prepared, unrestored teeth. There was also a significant difference among the tested restorative materials. Teeth restored with Admira showed no significant difference when compared with the unprepared teeth. It was concluded that the teeth restored with Admira exhibited the highest fracture resistance. PMID:23554719

  2. Can Milk Teeth be Impacted? Why Not: A Case of Six Impacted Primary Teeth

    PubMed Central

    Kategari, Yellamma Bai; Chada, Pujita; Vallakatla, Venu

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT% The prevalence rate of impacted primary teeth is rare, still we can see impacted teeth in ectodermal dysplasia anhydrotic (EDA), endocrine deficiencies, metabolic disorders and local factors like cysts, tumors, trauma and thickened overlying bone or soft tissue. In cases of EDA, delayed tooth eruption is one of the characteristic finding. Present case report related to a rare case of primary teeth impaction of a 3 years old male child along with EDA. Intraoral examination and radiographs confirmed impacted primary maxillary and mandibular centrals and mandibular lateral incisors. Treatment carried out was surgical exposure of impacted primary teeth, then after patient was followed up for regular visits to check eruption status of the teeth. How to cite this article: Yadiki JV, Kategari YB, Chada P, Vallakatla V. Can Milk Teeth be Impacted? Why Not: A Case of Six Impacted Primary Teeth. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2014; 7(3):220-222. PMID:25709307

  3. [Influence of food quality and quantity on children's teeth].

    PubMed

    Oka, A E; N'Cho, K J; Kattie, A L; Koffi, N A; Bakayoko-Ly, R

    2003-06-01

    Sugar and tooth decays are bound closely. The mechanisms of destruction of the tooth from the glycolyse are known. The role played by the food in the development of the caries is unique. Foods sweetened of all ways, rich in sucrose are responsible of the intervening of the carious lesions. The transformation of the fermentable sugars in lactic with the absence of hygiene and the action conjugated of the bacteria leads to tooth decays in temporary and permanent denture that evolve very quickly in the absence of treatment. Reasons for which the authors put in evidence in this survey, the influence of the food sweetened on the teeth at the children while showing the cases of caries and its complications due to the excessive consumption of fermentable hydrates of carbon. PMID:14560677

  4. Infrared Spectroscopic Identification of Chosen Dental Materials and Natural Teeth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    H?dzelek, W.; Marcinkowska, A.; Domka, L.; Wachowiak, R.

    2008-08-01

    Studies using solid phase infrared spectroscopy in the range of 400 to 4000 wave numbers were conducted in order to quickly identify solid tooth fragments and differentiate them from dental materials used in the dental practice. The frequently employed dental materials were evaluated. Natural chemical structure of permanent teeth obtained from donors of various ages provided the reference material. The infrared vibrations detected in infrared transmission spectra depended on the chemical structure of examined compound. Comparable distinctive peaks in infrared spectra of natural teeth and inorganic dental materials (porcelain) were exhibited. Analogous infrared spectra of dental materials consisting of organic matrix with inorganic fillers were found. In the case of acrylic materials specific organic groups were enhanced. The prepared database of infrared transmission spectra included 23 dental materials, facilitating their appropriate identification. Application of infrared spectroscopy allowed for a quick differential identification of typical dental materials produced from organic compounds for inorganic restorations (porcelain) and of tooth structure-resembling hydroxyapatite and its contaminate forms with fluoride and carbonate ions.

  5. Romundina and the evolutionary origin of teeth.

    PubMed

    Rücklin, Martin; Donoghue, Philip C J

    2015-06-01

    Theories on the origin of vertebrate teeth have long focused on chondrichthyans as reflecting a primitive condition-but this is better informed by the extinct placoderms, which constitute a sister clade or grade to the living gnathostomes. Here, we show that 'supragnathal' toothplates from the acanthothoracid placoderm Romundina stellina comprise multi-cuspid teeth, each composed of an enameloid cap and core of dentine. These were added sequentially, approximately circumferentially, about a pioneer tooth. Teeth are bound to a bony plate that grew with the addition of marginal teeth. Homologous toothplates in arthrodire placoderms exhibit a more ordered arrangement of teeth that lack enameloid, but their organization into a gnathal, bound by layers of cellular bone associated with the addition of each successional tooth, is the same. The presence of enameloid in the teeth of Romundina suggests that it has been lost in other placoderms. Its covariation in the teeth and dermal skeleton of placoderms suggests a lack of independence early in the evolution of jawed vertebrates. It also appears that the dentition-manifest as discrete gnathal ossifications-was developmentally discrete from the jaws during this formative episode of vertebrate evolution. PMID:26109615

  6. Severe impaction of the primary mandibular second molar accompanied by displacement of the permanent second premolar.

    PubMed

    Matsuyama, Junko; Kinoshita-Kawano, Shoko; Hayashi-Sakai, Sachiko; Mitomi, Tomoe; Sano-Asahito, Tomiko

    2015-01-01

    Tooth impaction is defined as any tooth that fails to erupt into a normal functional position and remains unerupted beyond the time at which it should normally erupt. Reports of impaction and eruption failure in primary teeth are relatively rare compared to permanent teeth. We report 2 rare cases where the second premolar was located on the occlusal side of the impacted mandibular second primary molar. In the first case, the succedaneous permanent tooth erupted after extraction of the primary tooth, fenestration, and traction. In the second case, the succedaneous permanent tooth erupted without fenestration or traction. Although the etiology of the tooth displacement was unknown in both cases, inhibition of the eruptive movement of the primary molar may have been associated with displacement of the succedaneous permanent premolar. PMID:25810929

  7. Permanent magnet materials

    Microsoft Academic Search

    JOSEPH J. BECKER; FRED E. LUBORSKY; D. LUTHER MARTIN

    1968-01-01

    Permanent magnets are finding ever-increasing uses as magnet technology develops and materials improve. Permanent magnet materials are evaluated in terms of the geometry and configuration of the application for which they are intended. The origin of the properties of most modern permanent magnet materials is interpreted in terms of fine-particle theory. The fine-particle structures are produced either synthetically or by

  8. Cleaning Your Child's Mouth and Teeth

    MedlinePLUS

    ... routine. Floss is available in many different sizes, coatings, flavors and forms. If you have trouble using ... teeth. Slide it up and down against that tooth. Next, wrap the floss against the other tooth ...

  9. Taking Care of Your Teeth and Mouth

    MedlinePLUS

    ... can protect your teeth from decay by using fluoride toothpaste. If you are at a higher risk ... of medicines you take), you might need more fluoride. Your dentist or dental hygienist may give you ...

  10. Nova Scotia Dental Association: Healthy Teeth

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    What exact role does sugar play in the formation of cavities? Find the answer to this question and many more at Healthy Teeth, a comprehensive and lively oral health education website for 3rd-6th graders and created by the Nova Scotia Dental Association. The site contains sections on Cavities, Teeth and Gums, Prevention, and more. The sections are student-friendly with straightforward text and fun animated images. Additionally, the site offers hands-on classroom activities and experiments.

  11. The unmet treatment need of traumatized anterior teeth in selected secondary school children in Ibadan, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Ajayi, Mojirade Deborah; Denloye, Obafunke; Abiodun Solanke, Funmilayo I

    2010-02-01

    Treatment of traumatized anterior teeth is highly desirable to relieve pain, maintain esthetics and to preserve the balance of the anterior part of the mouth; however many may go untreated. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of damage to permanent anterior teeth in school adolescents, the average duration of trauma and to ascertain the level of the unmet treatment need. A total of 1532 secondary school children between the ages 12 and 19 years participated in the study. They were randomly selected from public secondary schools in five local government areas in Ibadan using a multistage sampling method. Participants were examined with the aid of mouth mirrors and probes under natural light. Traumatic anterior dental injuries were recorded by the same investigator (DMA) according to WHO classification. One hundred and sixty-five participants sustained injuries to their anterior teeth. Their mean age was 15.47 +/- 2.09 years, with a male to female ratio of 1.5:1. The commonest cause was fall (78.8%) with road traffic accident being the least (1.8%). The tooth most commonly injured is the upper left incisor (48.0%) closely followed by upper right central (43.1%). Enamel fracture was seen in 46.5% and enamel-dentine in 42.6% of the traumatized teeth. Most (79.4%) of the children sustained injury to one tooth only. Of the participants, only 30 (18.2%) had previous dental consultation while only nine (5.5%) consulted the dentist following the trauma; however, none of the teeth had any form of restoration. Average time elapsed between trauma and dental examination was about 3.5 years. Many participants had had injury for about 2 years before dental examination. In conclusion, there is a high unmet treatment need of traumatized anterior teeth in the study population. PMID:19919543

  12. Analytical prediction of the cogging torque in radial-field permanent magnet brushless motors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Z. Q. Zhu; D. Howe

    1992-01-01

    A method for predicting the cogging torque in radial-field permanent magnet brushless motors, based on the analytical calculation of the airgap field distribution and the net lateral force acting on the stator teeth, is developed and validated. The technique is applicable to both internal and external rotor motor topologies, modeled in a cylindrical coordinate system. It can also be applied

  13. Permanent magnet assembly

    DOEpatents

    Chell, Jeremy; Zimm, Carl B.

    2006-12-12

    A permanent magnet assembly is disclosed that is adapted to provide a magnetic field across an arc-shaped gap. Such a permanent magnet assembly can be used, for example, to provide a time-varying magnetic field to an annular region for use in a magnetic refrigerator.

  14. Computer-assisted intraosseous anaesthesia for molar and incisor hypomineralisation teeth. A preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Cabasse, C; Marie-Cousin, A; Huet, A; Sixou, J L

    2015-03-01

    Anesthetizing MIH (Molar and Incisor Hypomineralisation) teeth is one of the major challenges in paediatric dentistry. Computer-assisted IO injection (CAIO) of 4% articaine with 1:200,000 epinephrine (Alphacaine, Septodont) has been shown to be an efficient way to anesthetize teeth in children. The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of this method with MIH teeth. This preliminary study was performed using the Quick Sleeper system (Dental Hi Tec, Cholet, France) that allows computer-controlled rotation of the needle to penetrate the bone and computer-controlled injection of the anaesthetic solution. Patients (39) of the department of Paediatric Dentistry were included allowing 46 sessions (including 32 mandibular first permanent molars) to be assessed. CAIO showed efficacy in 93.5% (43/46) of cases. Failures (3) were due to impossibility to reach the spongy bone (1) and to achieve anaesthesia (2). This prospective study confirms that CAIO anaesthesia is a promising method to anesthetize teeth with MIH that could therefore be routinely used by trained practitioners. PMID:26058304

  15. Immunohistochemical and Western blot analyses of collar enamel in the jaw teeth of gars, Lepisosteus oculatus, an actinopterygian fish.

    PubMed

    Sasagawa, Ichiro; Ishiyama, Mikio; Yokosuka, Hiroyuki; Mikami, Masato; Shimokawa, Hitoyata; Uchida, Takashi

    2014-06-01

    Although most fish have no enamel layer in their teeth, those belonging to Lepisosteus (gars), an extant actinopterygian fish genus, do and so can be used to study amelogenesis. In order to examine the collar enamel matrix in gar teeth, we subjected gar teeth to light and electron microscopic immunohistochemical examinations using an antibody against bovine amelogenin (27 kDa) and antiserum against porcine amelogenin (25 kDa), as well as region-specific antibodies and antiserum against the C-terminus and middle region, and N-terminus of porcine amelogenin, respectively. The enamel matrix exhibited intense immunoreactivity to the anti-bovine amelogenin antibody and the anti-porcine amelogenin antiserum in addition to the C-terminal and middle region-specific antibodies, but not to the N-terminal-specific antiserum. These results suggest that the collar enamel matrix of gar teeth contains amelogenin-like proteins and that these proteins possess domains that closely resemble the C-terminal and middle regions of porcine amelogenin. Western blot analyses of the tooth germs of Lepisosteus were also performed. As a result, protein bands with molecular weights of 78 kDa and 65 kDa were clearly stained by the anti-bovine amelogenin antibody as well as the antiserum against porcine amelogenin and the middle-region-specific antibody. It is likely that the amelogenin-like proteins present in Lepisosteus do not correspond to the amelogenins found in mammals, although they do possess domains that are shared with mammalian amelogenins. PMID:24611716

  16. Direct cores for vital teeth--materials and methods used to retain cores in vital teeth.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Paul H R; Fisher, Nigel L; Bartlett, David W

    2002-12-01

    A core, or foundation restoration, is used to restore extensively damaged teeth to a form suitable for crown preparation. This literature review considers the range of materials which can be used for cores and the evidence for their suitability. The methods for their retention in vital teeth will be presented and appraised. PMID:12526272

  17. Congenitally missing teeth (hypodontia): A review of the literature concerning the etiology, prevalence, risk factors, patterns and treatment

    PubMed Central

    Rakhshan, Vahid

    2015-01-01

    Congenitally missing teeth (CMT), or as usually called hypodontia, is a highly prevalent and costly dental anomaly. Besides an unfavorable appearance, patients with missing teeth may suffer from malocclusion, periodontal damage, insufficient alveolar bone growth, reduced chewing ability, inarticulate pronunciation and other problems. Treatment might be usually expensive and multidisciplinary. This highly frequent and yet expensive anomaly is of interest to numerous clinical, basic science and public health fields such as orthodontics, pediatric dentistry, prosthodontics, periodontics, maxillofacial surgery, anatomy, anthropology and even the insurance industry. This essay reviews the findings on the etiology, prevalence, risk factors, occurrence patterns, skeletal changes and treatments of congenitally missing teeth. It seems that CMT usually appears in females and in the permanent dentition. It is not conclusive whether it tends to occur more in the maxilla or mandible and also in the anterior versus posterior segments. It can accompany various complications and should be attended by expert teams as soon as possible. PMID:25709668

  18. Determinant Versus Permanent Manindra Agrawal

    E-print Network

    Agrawal, Manindra

    Determinant Versus Permanent Manindra Agrawal Abstract. We study the problem of expressing permanent of matrices as determinant of (possibly larger) matrices. This problem has close connections with complexity of arithmetic computations: complexities of computing permanent and determinant roughly correspond

  19. Solid modeling of fossil small mammal teeth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marschallinger, Robert; Hofmann, Peter; Daxner-Höck, Gudrun; Ketcham, Richard A.

    2011-09-01

    This paper presents an approach to create solid models of fossil small mammal teeth using a combination of microcomputed tomography, object based image analysis and voxel modeling. Small mammal teeth, because of their durability, are widely found in Cenozioc sediments the world over and play a key role in stratigraphy as well as in researching the rapid evolution and the paleogeographic spreading of small mammals. Recent advances in microcomputed tomography make this non-destructive analysis method an ideal data source for high-resolution 3D models of fossil small animal teeth. To derive internally consistent solid models of such fossils from micro-CT imagery, we propose a combination of 3D object based image analysis and solid modeling. Incorporating paleontological expert knowledge in the image processing cycle, object based image analysis yields topologically consistent image stacks classified by the main tooth components—enamel, dentine and pulp. Forwarding these data to a voxel modeling system, they can be quantitatively analyzed in an unprecedented manner: going beyond the possibilities of the state-of-art surface models, solid models are capable of unambiguously portraying the entire object volume—teeth can be peeled by material properties, subvolumes can be extracted and automatically analyzed by Boolean operations. The proposed method, which can be flexibly extended to handle a range of paleontological and geological micro-objects, is demonstrated with two typical fossil small mammal teeth.

  20. Unlocking the bovine genome

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The draft genome sequence of cattle (Bos taurus) has now been analyzed by the Bovine Genome Sequencing and Analysis Consortium and the Bovine HapMap Consortium, which together represent an extensive collaboration involving more than 300 scientists from 25 different countries. ...

  1. IDENTIFICATION OF BOVINE MICRORNAS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    MicroRNAs are small ~22 nucleotides-long non-coding RNAs capable of controlling gene expression by inhibiting translation or targeting messenger RNA for degradation. Bovine genome sequence is not yet annotated for the microRNAs and there are currently no bovine miRNAs reported in the miRBase. Alignm...

  2. Low lead level in teeth in Israel.

    PubMed

    Bercovitz, K; Helman, J; Peled, M; Laufer, D

    1993-08-15

    A total of 180 sound teeth extracted from people living mainly in Northern Israel and some in the center of the country, aged 14-75 years, were analysed by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The average lead level in teeth roots ranged between 1.61-25.72 micrograms/g dry root, according to the donor's age. This low level was measured in all the regions which were checked, with no significant differences between them, despite differences in levels of motor traffic rates. Based on the low lead level in teeth, we assume that no further reduction in the lead level in gasoline is needed, as long as motorization rate or gasoline consumption does not change significantly. PMID:8211107

  3. Extreme strength observed in limpet teeth

    PubMed Central

    Barber, Asa H.; Lu, Dun; Pugno, Nicola M.

    2015-01-01

    The teeth of limpets exploit distinctive composite nanostructures consisting of high volume fractions of reinforcing goethite nanofibres within a softer protein phase to provide mechanical integrity when rasping over rock surfaces during feeding. The tensile strength of discrete volumes of limpet tooth material measured using in situ atomic force microscopy was found to range from 3.0 to 6.5 GPa and was independent of sample size. These observations highlight an absolute material tensile strength that is the highest recorded for a biological material, outperforming the high strength of spider silk currently considered to be the strongest natural material, and approaching values comparable to those of the strongest man-made fibres. This considerable tensile strength of limpet teeth is attributed to a high mineral volume fraction of reinforcing goethite nanofibres with diameters below a defect-controlled critical size, suggesting that natural design in limpet teeth is optimized towards theoretical strength limits. PMID:25694539

  4. Extreme strength observed in limpet teeth.

    PubMed

    Barber, Asa H; Lu, Dun; Pugno, Nicola M

    2015-04-01

    The teeth of limpets exploit distinctive composite nanostructures consisting of high volume fractions of reinforcing goethite nanofibres within a softer protein phase to provide mechanical integrity when rasping over rock surfaces during feeding. The tensile strength of discrete volumes of limpet tooth material measured using in situ atomic force microscopy was found to range from 3.0 to 6.5 GPa and was independent of sample size. These observations highlight an absolute material tensile strength that is the highest recorded for a biological material, outperforming the high strength of spider silk currently considered to be the strongest natural material, and approaching values comparable to those of the strongest man-made fibres. This considerable tensile strength of limpet teeth is attributed to a high mineral volume fraction of reinforcing goethite nanofibres with diameters below a defect-controlled critical size, suggesting that natural design in limpet teeth is optimized towards theoretical strength limits. PMID:25694539

  5. Morphometric, densitometric and mechanical properties of mandibular deciduous teeth in 5-month-old Polish Merino sheep

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Caries, enamel hypoplasia, molar incisor hipomineralization, amylogenesis imperfecta, dentine dysplasia, hypophosphatasia and other dental disorders lead to tooth mineralization disturbances and structural abnormalities, decreasing masticatory organ functions. Dental disorders in sheep can lead to premature slaughter before they have attained final stage of their reproductive life and induce economic loss due to high flock replacement costs. Growth rate, health status and meat quality of sheep depends on tooth properties and quality determining in large extent efficiency of the masticatory apparatus and initial food break up. Considering lack of basic anatomical and physiological data on teeth properties in sheep, the aim of the study was to evaluate morphometric, densitometric and mechanical traits of deciduous mandibular incisor, canine and the second premolar obtained at the slaughter age of 5 months of life. Results The obtained results have shown the highest values of weight, total tooth volume, enamel volume and dentine volume in second premolar. Morphometric and mechanical parameters of incisors reached the highest values in first incisor and decreased gradually in second and third incisor, and in canine. Densitometric measurements have not revealed significant differences of the volumetric tooth mineral density in hard dental tissues between the investigated teeth. Conclusions In conclusion, proposed methodological approach is noninvasive since the deciduous teeth undergo physiological replacement with permanent teeth. Deciduous teeth can be easy collected for analyses from large animal population and may reflect mineral status and metabolism resulting from postnatal growth and development of the whole flock. In individual cases, evaluation of properties of deciduous teeth may serve for breeding selection and further reproduction of sheep possessing favorable traits of teeth and better masticatory system functions. PMID:24548814

  6. Determinant Versus Permanent Manindra Agrawal

    E-print Network

    Agrawal, Manindra

    Determinant Versus Permanent Manindra Agrawal IIT Kanpur ICM 2006 Manindra Agrawal (IIT Kanpur) Determinant Versus Permanent ICM 2006 1 / 44 #12;Overview 1 Determinant and Permanent 2 Complexity Notions 3 Known Lower Bounds on Complexity of Permanent 4 Proving Strong Lower Bounds on Determinant Complexity 5

  7. Determinant Versus Permanent Manindra Agrawal

    E-print Network

    Agrawal, Manindra

    Determinant Versus Permanent Manindra Agrawal IIT Kanpur IITK, 2/2007 Manindra Agrawal (IIT Kanpur) Determinant Versus Permanent IITK, 2/2007 1 / 39 #12;Overview 1 Determinant and Permanent 2 A Computational View 3 Known Lower Bounds on Complexity of Permanent 4 Proving Strong Lower Bounds on Determinant

  8. Elephant teeth from the atlantic continental shelf

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Whitmore, F.C., Jr.; Emery, K.O.; Cooke, H.B.S.; Swift, D.J.P.

    1967-01-01

    Teeth of mastodons and mastodons have been recovered by fishermen from at least 40 sites on the continental shelf as deep as 120 meters. Also present are submerged shorelines, peat deposits, lagoonal shells, and relict sands. Evidently elephants and other large mammals ranged this region during the glacial stage of low sea level of the last 25.000 years.

  9. Parts of Your Teeth and Gums

    MedlinePLUS

    ... the dentin underneath is mostly responsible for the color of the tooth. Coffee, tea, tobacco and poor hygiene can cause surface stains on the enamel. Your dentist can remove these stains with simple polishing. ... Dentin gives the tooth its color. Teeth are typically gray-white or yellow, not ...

  10. Simulation of a flow around biting teeth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narusawa, Hideaki; Yamamoto, Eriko; Kuwahara, Kunio

    2008-11-01

    We simulated a flow around biting teeth. The decayed tooth is a disease that a majority of people are annoyed. These are often generated from a deep groove at occlusal surface. It is known that a person who bites well doesn't suffer from a decayed tooth easily. Biting forces reach as much as 60 kg/cm^2 by an adult male, and when chewing, upper and lower teeth approach to bite by those forces. The crushed food mixed with saliva becomes high viscosity fluid, and is pushed out of ditches of teeth in the direction of the cheek or the tongue. Teeth with complex three dimension curved surface are thought to form venturi at this time, and to generate big pressure partially. An excellent dental articulation will possibly help a natural generation of a flow to remove dental plaque, i.e. the cause of the decayed tooth. Moreover, the relation of this flow with the destruction of the filled metal or the polymer is doubted. In this research, we try to clarify the pressure distributions by this flow generation as well as its dynamics when chewing. One of our goals is to enable an objective design of the shape of the dental fillings and the artificial tooth. Tooth has a very small uneven ground and a bluff body. In this case, to calculate a computational numerical simulation to solve the Navier-Stokes equations three dimension Cartesian coordinate system is employed.

  11. Form factors for generated unequal addendum and dedendum gear teeth 

    E-print Network

    Sheets, George Frederick

    1952-01-01

    PORN FACTORS FOR GEHERLTED DREQUkL LDDERDDH /AID DEDEHDDH GEAR TEETH GEORGE FREDERICK SHEETS, JH. approved as to style and oontent by: z Head of Departnent Hayi 1952 FORM FACTORS FOR GEEERATED UEEQUAL ADDEEDUM AED DEDEEDUM GEAR TEETH...

  12. In vitro comparison of laser fluorescence performance with visual examination for detection of occlusal caries in permanent and primary molars

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jonas A. Rodrigues; Michele B. Diniz; Érika B. Josgrilberg; Rita C. L. Cordeiro

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the performance of the DIAGNOdent 2095 with visual examination for occlusal caries detection\\u000a in permanent and primary molars. The sample comprised 148 permanent human molars and 179 primary human molars. The samples\\u000a were measured and visually examined three times by two examiners. After measurement, the teeth were histologically prepared\\u000a and assessed for

  13. The evaluation of a novel method comparing quantitative light-induced fluorescence (QLF) with spectrophotometry to assess staining and bleaching of teeth

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. A. Adeyemi; F. D. Jarad; E. de Josselin de Jong; N. Pender; S. M. Higham

    2010-01-01

    This study reports the development and evaluation of a novel method using quantitative light-induced fluorescence (QLF), which\\u000a enables its use for quantifying and assessing whole tooth surface staining and tooth whitening. The method was compared with\\u000a a spectrophotometer to assess reliability. Two experimental phases, intrinsic stain formation and tooth whitening, were conducted\\u000a in vitro on 16 extracted bovine teeth. Intrinsic

  14. Late Cretaceous Plesiosaur Teeth from Axel Heiberg Island, Nunavut, Canada

    Microsoft Academic Search

    DEBORAH VANDERMARK; JOHN A. TARDUNO; DONALD B. BRINKMAN

    2006-01-01

    We report the discovery of Late Cretaceous plesiosaur teeth from non-marine strata on Axel Heiberg Island in the Canadian High Arctic. In comparison to other plesiosaur teeth, these specimens are most similar to the teeth of elasmosaurs: they have a smooth outer surface and crenulated inner surface, with crenulations that extend nearly to the tip of the tooth. Comparisons with

  15. Further Observations on Tertiary Dentin in Human Deciduous Teeth

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Randi Furseth Klinge

    2001-01-01

    The structure of reparative tertiary dentin in human deciduous teeth has been studied. Reparative dentin is secreted by a new generation of odontoblast-like cells which have been subject to strong stimuli, e.g., trauma or deep active caries lesions with associated pulp inflammation. Ground sections of 25 teeth were prepared, and contact microradiographs were produced. Another 30 teeth were demineralized, embedded

  16. Infectious Bovine Rhinotracheitis 

    E-print Network

    Sprott, L. R.

    1998-11-30

    Infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (IBR) is a complex of disease syndromes occuring throughout the United States and the other major cattle-producing areas of the world. It affects cattle and some wild ruminants. This publication describes...

  17. Treatment of Ectopic Mandibular Second Permanent Molar with Elastic Separators

    PubMed Central

    Rajesh, R.; Naveen, V.; Amit, S.; Baroudi, Kusai; Sampath Reddy, C.; Namineni, Srinivas

    2014-01-01

    Ectopic eruption is a developmental disturbance in which the tooth fails to follow its normal eruption pathway. Ectopic eruption of the second molar is relatively rare. This paper presents the case of thirteen-year-old male with an ectopic mandibular second permanent molar. The condition was corrected with surgical exposure and placement of elastic separators. This case report lays emphasis on the practice of basic methods to obtain acceptable results rather than extensive surgical or orthodontic corrections. It is advised that ectopic teeth should not be neglected especially when it concerns developing caries and malocclusion. PMID:25050182

  18. Regional structural characteristics of bovine periodontal ligament samples and their suitability for biomechanical tests

    PubMed Central

    Bosshardt, Dieter D; Bergomi, Marzio; Vaglio, Giovanna; Wiskott, Anselm

    2008-01-01

    Mechanical testing of the periodontal ligament requires a practical experimental model. Bovine teeth are advantageous in terms of size and availability, but information is lacking as to the anatomy and histology of their periodontium. The aim of this study, therefore, was to characterize the anatomy and histology of the attachment apparatus in fully erupted bovine mandibular first molars. A total of 13 teeth were processed for the production of undecalcified ground sections and decalcified semi-thin sections, for NaOH maceration, and for polarized light microscopy. Histomorphometric measurements relevant to the mechanical behavior of the periodontal ligament included width, number, size and area fraction of blood vessels and fractal analysis of the two hard–soft tissue interfaces. The histological and histomorphometric analyses were performed at four different root depths and at six circumferential locations around the distal and mesial roots. The variety of techniques applied provided a comprehensive view of the tissue architecture of the bovine periodontal ligament. Marked regional variations were observed in width, surface geometry of the two bordering hard tissues (cementum and alveolar bone), structural organization of the principal periodontal ligament connective tissue fibers, size, number and numerical density of blood vessels in the periodontal ligament. No predictable pattern was observed, except for a statistically significant increase in the area fraction of blood vessels from apical to coronal. The periodontal ligament width was up to three times wider in bovine teeth than in human teeth. The fractal analyses were in agreement with the histological observations showing frequent signs of remodeling activity in the alveolar bone – a finding which may be related to the magnitude and direction of occlusal forces in ruminants. Although samples from the apical root portion are not suitable for biomechanical testing, all other levels in the buccal and lingual aspects of the mesial and distal roots may be considered. The bucco-mesial aspect of the distal root appears to be the most suitable location. PMID:18304207

  19. Effect of Diode Laser Irradiation Combined with Topical Fluoride on Enamel Microhardness of Primary Teeth

    PubMed Central

    Bahrololoomi, Zahra; Lotfian, Malihe

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Laser irradiation has been suggested as an adjunct to traditional caries prevention methods. But little is known about the cariostatic effect of diode laser and most studies available are on permanent teeth.The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of diode laser irradiation combined with topical fluoride on enamel surface microhardness. Materials and Methods: Forty-five primary teeth were used in this in vitro study. The teeth were sectioned to produce 90 slabs. The baseline Vickers microhardness number of each enamel surface was determined. The samples were randomly divided into 3 groups. Group 1: 5% NaF varnish, group 2: NaF varnish+ diode laser at 5 W power and group 3: NaF varnish+ diode laser at 7 W power. Then, the final microhardness number of each surface was again determined. The data were statistically analyzed by repeated measures ANOVA at 0.05 level of significance. Results: In all 3 groups, microhardness number increased significantly after surface treatment (P<0.05). However, Microhardness change after treatment was not significantly different among groups (P >0.05). Conclusion: The combined application of diode laser and topical fluoride varnish on enamel surface did not show any significant additional effect on enamel resistance to caries.

  20. Palatal displacement of canine is genetic and related to congenital absence of teeth.

    PubMed

    Pirinen, S; Arte, S; Apajalahti, S

    1996-10-01

    The palatally displaced canine is a harmful complication of dental development. It appears in 1 to 2% of the Western population. According to our clinical experience, this anomaly is seen in families in which missing and peg-shaped teeth are common. It could be caused by the same genetic component that causes incisor-premolar hypodontia. We examined 106 patients who had been operated on and treated orthodontically for palatally impacted canine(s). The patients and their family members were examined for dental anomalies. One hundred and ten first- and 93 second-degree relatives were clinically and radiologically examined, and 35 pedigrees were constructed. Thirty-six percent of the patients had congenitally missing permanent teeth (hypodontia), which is 4.5 times the population prevalence. Hypodontia was noted in 19 to 20% of both the first- and second-degree relatives. This is 2.5 times the population prevalence. Frequency of missing teeth, analyzed by tooth groups, was of the same order as that shown for incisor-premolar hypodontia in the Western population. In six of the 35 pedigrees, a palatally impacted canine was noted in several generations of the same family. Prevalence of this anomaly was 4.9% in the studied group, which is 2.5 times the population prevalence. From the findings, we conclude that the palatally displaced canine belongs to the spectrum of dental abnormalities related to hypodontia. PMID:8955668

  1. Cleidocranial Dysplasia Case Report: Remodeling of Teeth as Aesthetic Restorative Treatment

    PubMed Central

    da Cunha, Leonardo Fernandes; Caetano, Isabela Maria; Dalitz, Fernando; Gonzaga, Carla Castiglia; Mondelli, José

    2014-01-01

    Cleidocranial dysplasia (CCD), is an autosomal dominant disorder with a prevalence of 1 in 1,000,000 individuals. It is generally characterized by orofacial manifestations, including enamel hypoplasia, retained primary teeth, and impacted permanent and supernumerary teeth. The successful treatment involving a timing intervention (orthodontic-maxillofacial surgeons-restorative) is already described. However, the restorative treatment might improve the aesthetic final result in dentistry management for patients with cleidocranial dysplasia. Objective. Therefore, this clinical report presents a conservative restorative management (enamel microabrasion, dental bleaching, and direct composite resin) for aesthetic solution for a patient with CCD. Clinical Considerations. The cosmetic remodeling is a conservative, secure, and low cost therapy that can be associated with other procedures such as enamel microabrasion and dental bleaching to achieve optimal outcome. Additionally, the Golden Proportion can be used to guide dental remodeling to improve the harmony of the smile and the facial composition. Conclusions. Thus, dentists must know and be able to treat dental aesthetic problems in cleidocranial dysplasia patients. The intention of this paper is to describe a restorative approach with the cosmetic remodeling teeth (by grinding or addicting material) associated with enamel microabrasion and dental bleaching to reestablish the form, shape, and color of smile for patients with cleidocranial dysplasia. PMID:25045546

  2. Alkaline "Permanent" Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pacey, Antony

    1991-01-01

    Discussion of paper manufacturing processes and their effects on library materials focuses on the promotion of alkaline "permanent" paper, with less acid, by Canadian library preservation specialists. Standards for paper acidity are explained; advantages of alkaline paper are described, including decreased manufacturing costs; and recyclability is…

  3. Intraradicular reinforcement for traumatized immature teeth.

    PubMed

    Chhabra, Nidhi; Chhabra, Anuj

    2014-01-01

    Immature necrotic teeth after trauma pose both endodontic and restorative challenges because of incomplete closure of the apex, and thin and weakened dentinal walls that make them prone to fracture. The use of light-transmitting plastic posts, in combination with adhesive materials, enable intraradicular reinforcement of flared canals, helping to rehabilitate fractured immature teeth and maintain a functional unit within the dental arch. The purpose of this paper is to present the case of a nine-year-old patient who had a complicated fracture of an immature anterior tooth, which was endodontically treated with mineral trioxide aggregate in the apical third. The dentinal root walls were successfully reinforced with composite resin and a light-transmitting glass fiber post, followed by the placement of a glass fiber composite post and a metal ceramic crown. PMID:24709431

  4. Natal and Neonatal Teeth: An Overview of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Mhaske, Shubhangi; Yuwanati, Monal B.; Mhaske, Ashok; Ragavendra, Raju; Kamath, Kavitha; Saawarn, Swati

    2013-01-01

    The occurrence of natal and neonatal teeth is an uncommon anomaly, which for centuries has been associated with diverse superstitions among different ethnic groups. Natal teeth are more frequent than neonatal teeth, with the ratio being approximately 3?:?1. It must be considered that natal and neonatal teeth are conditions of fundamental importance not only for a dental surgeon but also for a paediatrician since their presence may lead to numerous complications. Early detection and treatment of these teeth are recommended because they may induce deformity or mutilation of tongue, dehydration, inadequate nutrients intake by the infant, and growth retardation, the pattern and time of eruption of teeth and its morphology. This paper presents a concise review of the literature about neonatal teeth. PMID:24024038

  5. Magnetite in the radular teeth of chitons

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Manabu Mizota; Yutaka Maeda

    1986-01-01

    To understand the process by which living organisms synthesize magnetite, we measured the Mössbauer spectra on the teeth at\\u000a different maturation stages along the radula of chitons. Our results show that magnetite is progressively mineralized from\\u000a hydrous ferric oxide precursor in the early stage of maturation. As the denticles become fully mineralized, a part of magnetite\\u000a is oxidized to maghemite

  6. Appearance of the first cemental annulation of permanent incisor teeth of the domestic cat (Felis catus) 

    E-print Network

    Choi, In-Back

    1983-01-01

    . The references herein are consistent with the style and format of Laboratory Animal Science. REVIEW OF LITERATURE Annulation counts in dental cementum have been used to determine age in mammals. The formation of dentinal and cemental layers have been shown... of formation of th first cemental annulation. F inding out when the first annulation is formed in the c, mentun is a prerequisite of accurately aging the domestic cat by counting growth layers of c mentum. It takes I year for one cemental annulation (one...

  7. Appearance of the first cemental annulation of permanent incisor teeth of the domestic cat (Felis catus)

    E-print Network

    Choi, In-Back

    1983-01-01

    Common Marmoset 5 ecies Alces alces Odocoileus hemiomus dd t liens ~i Curvus ~e1a hus Ursus americanus ~se hales h h f Canis latrans Ovis aries ~nti le Odocoileus hemionus Ovis dalli Lynx rufus ~Vul es fulva ~nil t d e lands Ovss...

  8. The FiCTION dental trial protocol – filling children’s teeth: indicated or not?

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background There is a lack of evidence for effective management of dental caries (decay) in children’s primary (baby) teeth and an apparent failure of conventional dental restorations (fillings) to prevent dental pain and infection for UK children in Primary Care. UK dental schools’ teaching has been based on British Society of Paediatric Dentistry guidance which recommends that caries in primary teeth should be removed and a restoration placed. However, the evidence base for this is limited in volume and quality, and comes from studies conducted in either secondary care or specialist practices. Restorations provided in specialist environments can be effective but the generalisability of this evidence to Primary Care has been questioned. The FiCTION trial addresses the Health Technology Assessment (HTA) Programme’s commissioning brief and research question “What is the clinical and cost effectiveness of restoration caries in primary teeth, compared to no treatment?” It compares conventional restorations with an intermediate treatment strategy based on the biological (sealing-in) management of caries and with no restorations. Methods/Design This is a Primary Care-based multi-centre, three-arm, parallel group, patient-randomised controlled trial. Practitioners are recruiting 1461 children, (3–7 years) with at least one primary molar tooth where caries extends into dentine. Children are randomized and treated according to one of three treatment approaches; conventional caries management with best practice prevention, biological management of caries with best practice prevention or best practice prevention alone. Baseline measures and outcome data (at review/treatment during three year follow-up) are assessed through direct reporting, clinical examination including blinded radiograph assessment, and child/parent questionnaires. The primary outcome measure is the incidence of either pain or infection related to dental caries. Secondary outcomes are; incidence of caries in primary and permanent teeth, patient quality of life, cost-effectiveness, acceptability of treatment strategies to patients and parents and their experiences, and dentists’ preferences. Discussion FiCTION will provide evidence for the most clinically-effective and cost-effective approach to managing caries in children’s primary teeth in Primary Care. This will support general dental practitioners in treatment decision making for child patients to minimize pain and infection in primary teeth. The trial is currently recruiting patients. Trial registration Protocol ID: NCTU: ISRCTN77044005 PMID:23725316

  9. Permanent magnet design methodology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leupold, Herbert A.

    1991-01-01

    Design techniques developed for the exploitation of high energy magnetically rigid materials such as Sm-Co and Nd-Fe-B have resulted in a revolution in kind rather than in degree in the design of a variety of electron guidance structures for ballistic and aerospace applications. Salient examples are listed. Several prototype models were developed. These structures are discussed in some detail: permanent magnet solenoids, transverse field sources, periodic structures, and very high field structures.

  10. Bovine Mandibular Fractures

    PubMed Central

    Trent, A. M.; Ferguson, J. G.

    1985-01-01

    A retrospective study of bovine mandibular fractures was conducted. An increased incidence in males, beef breeds and animals less than one year of age was identified when the study group of 17 was compared to the total bovine case load. Manipulation during dystocia was the most common cause of fractures. Four neonates had rostral mandibular fractures. Fractures caudal to or involving the premolars were restricted to animals over a year of age. Treatment was attempted in ten of the seventeen cases, with euthanasia or slaughter elected in the remaining seven cases. Of the five cases treated by internal fixation, all four neonates died from conditions related to septicemia. PMID:17422602

  11. Investigation on the utility of permanent maxillary molar cusp areas for sex estimation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. James Macaluso Jr

    2011-01-01

    Digital photogrammetric methods were employed to assess the level of sexual dimorphism present in permanent maxillary molar\\u000a cusp areas of black South Africans (130 males, 105 females). Odontometric standards were then developed for diagnosing sex,\\u000a based on the cusp area data derived for these teeth. Results demonstrated that all cusp area measurements of both the first\\u000a and second maxillary molars

  12. Histological appearance of postmortem pink teeth: Report of two cases

    PubMed Central

    Gowda, BK Charan; Sivapathasundharam, B; Chatterji, Ananjan; Chatterji, BL

    2015-01-01

    This article presents images and histological changes in the dentin of two cases involving posmortem pink teeth. Postmortem pink teeth were noted among two deceased male individuals. Pink teeth were noted during autopsy examination after twelve days in one corpse, and eight days following death in the second case. During the examination decomposition and putrefaction of the body was noted. Cause of death was drowning in one case and haemorrhages and shock in another. A central incisor tooth was obtained from each body. Both teeth exhibited a pink appearance and the intensity was more pronounced in the cervical region. Although pink teeth can be noted in death due to asphyxia, carbon monoxide poisoning and so on, it is necessary to study the exact role behind the appearance of pink teeth and try to incorporate the finding medico legally. PMID:26005309

  13. Healing process of incisor teeth of diabetic rats replanted after storage in milk.

    PubMed

    Ricieri, Camila Benez; Sonoda, Celso Koogi; Aranega, Alessandra Marcondes; Panzarini, Sônia Regina; Poi, Wilson Roberto; Sundefeld, Maria Lúcia Marçal Mazza; Okamoto, Tetuo

    2009-06-01

    Several local factors that influence the healing process of replanted teeth have been investigated. However, it remains unclear how systemic alterations, such as diabetes mellitus, affect the prognosis of these cases. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the healing process of incisors of non-controlled diabetic rats replanted after storage in bovine long shelf-life (UHT) whole milk. Thirty-two rats were randomly assigned to receive an endovenous injection of either citrate buffer solution (group I - control; n = 16) or streptozotocin dissolved in citrate buffer solution to induce diabetes (group II; n = 16). After confirmation of the diabetic status by analysis of the glycemic levels, the maxillary right incisor of each animal was extracted and immersed in milk for 60 min. The root canals of teeth were then instrumented, and were filled with a calcium hydroxide-based dressing and replanted into their sockets. All animals received systemic antibiotic and were killed by anesthetic overdose 10 and 60 days after replantation. The specimens containing the replanted teeth were removed, fixed, decalcified, and embedded in paraffin. Semi-serial 6-microm-thick sections were obtained and stained with hematoxylin and eosin for histologic and histometric analyses. The results showed that the connective tissue adjacent to the root surface was less organized in the diabetic animals than in the control animals in both periods; the root dentin was less severely affected by root resorption in the diabetic rats; there were no significant differences between the control and diabetic groups regarding the occurrence of replacement resorption and inflammatory resorption. PMID:19583576

  14. Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE), also referred to as “mad cow disease” is a chronic, non-febrile, neuro-degenerative disease affecting the central nervous system. The transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) of domestic animals, of which BSE is a member includes scrapie of sheep...

  15. BOVINE VIRAL DIARRHEA VIRUSES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is an umbrella term for two species of viruses, BVDV1 and BVDV2, within the Pestivirus genus of the Flavivirus family. BVDV viruses are further subclassified as cytopathic and noncytopathic based on their activity in cultured epithelial cells. Noncytopathic BVDV p...

  16. Protein Crystal Bovine Insulin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The comparison of protein crystal, Bovine Insulin space-grown (left) and earth-grown (right). Facilitates the incorporation of glucose into cells. In diabetics, there is either a decrease in or complete lack of insulin, thereby leading to several harmful complications. Principal Investigator is Larry DeLucas.

  17. BRUCELLOSE BOVINE EXPRIMENTALE XII. —

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    BRUCELLOSE BOVINE EXPÉRIMENTALE XII. — PERSISTANCE A L'ÂGE ADULTE DE L'INFECTION CONGÉNITALE Brucella par culture a été pratiquée dans le mucus vaginal avant et après le part, dans la sécrétion, analogue à la souche 544, à partir du mucus vaginal, de la sécrétion mammaire, ante et post pavtum, et des

  18. Bovine besnoitiosis in Germany.

    PubMed

    Rostaher, Ana; Mueller, Ralf S; Majzoub, Monir; Schares, Gereon; Gollnick, Nicole S

    2010-08-01

    This paper reports a case of natural occurring bovine besnoitiosis in Germany. The skin lesions consisted of multifocal hypotrichosis and alopecia, lichenification, erythema and seborrhoea. Histopathologic findings revealed characteristic cysts of Besnoitia spp. The diagnosis was confirmed by serology and the species Besnoitia besnoiti was identified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). PMID:20230585

  19. DIAGNOSIS OF BOVINE NEOSPOROSIS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The protozoan parasite Neospora caninum is a major cause of abortion in cattle. The diagnosis of neosporosis-associated mortality and abortion in cattle is difficult. In the present papers we review histologic, serologic, immunohistochemical, and molecular methods for dignosis of bovine neosporosis....

  20. Genotyping bovine coronaviruses.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bovine coronaviruses (BoCV) are enveloped, single-stranded, positive-sense RNA viruses of the Coronaviridae family. Infection is associated with enteritis and pneumonia in calves and Winter Dysentery in adult cattle. Strains, isolated more than 50 years ago, are used in vaccines and as laboratory ...

  1. Subluxation injuries of maxillary primary. anterior teeth: epidemiology and prognos s of 207 traumatized teeth

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Irwin Fried; Stephane Schwartz; Kathleen Keenan

    1996-01-01

    This study investigated the epidemiology, sequelae, and prognosis of subluxation injuries to the maxillary primary anterior dentition. Data were collected from dental records at the Montreal Children's Hospital, Montreal, Canada, of patients sustaining trauma between 1982 and 1993. The study group consisted of 207 teeth in 134 patients, 81 males and 53females. The age of the patients ranged from 0.8

  2. The bleaching efficiency of KTP and diode 810 nm lasers on teeth stained with different substances: An in vitro study.

    PubMed Central

    Lagori, G; Vescovi, P; Merigo, E; Meleti, M.; Fornaini, C

    2014-01-01

    Background and aims: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the bleaching efficiency of two different lasers (KTP and diode 810 nm) on teeth, randomly divided by means an Excel function (Microsoft Excel 2010 “Fx causale”) and stored in physiological solution, that were previously stained with different substances commonly considered as a cause of tooth discoloration, such as coffee, tea and red fruits and to investigate the role of laser irradiation in an experimental model, during the dental bleaching process. Methods: Three groups of 45 bovine teeth were created and immersed for one week in a solution of tea, coffee or red fruits respectively. Each group was divided into three sub-groups of fifteen teeth. One was bleached with a 30% hydrogen peroxide gel for 30 min only as control, another 15 teeth group was bleached with the gel plus 810 nm diode laser irradiation and the last group was bleached with the gel plus KTP irradiation. The lasers were applied in three cycles of 30 sec each with a power of 1.5 W localized on a 10 mm spot on the teeth. The temperature of the gel was checked during the bleaching procedure using a thermometer and the colour of each tooth was measured by a spectrophotometer. Results: Statistical analysis of the collected data was performed using Graph Pad Prism, version 6.01 software, Kruskal-Wallis test and Dunn's multiple comparison test and Mann-Whitney test. P value <0.0001 was considered extremely significant (***), P value between 0.001 to 0.01 very significant (**), P value between 0.01 to 0.05 significant (*) and P value >0.05 not significant (ns). By these tests diode laser was effective only at bleaching teeth stained with coffee meanwhile the KTP laser was efficient at bleaching teeth with coffee, tea and red fruits stains. Conclusion: This study suggests that a relation between the laser wavelength and the type of staining on the dental enamel and the efficacy of the whitening treatment exists. PMID:24771968

  3. Pharyngeal Teeth of the Freshwater Drum (Aplodinotus grunniens) a Predator of the Zebra Mussel (Dreissena polymorpha)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John R. P. French III

    1997-01-01

    The morphology of pharyngeal teeth of freshwater drum (Aplodinotus grunniens) was studied to determine changes that occur during growth of drum that may relate to consumption of zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) by larger fish. Pharyngeal teeth were of three types. Cardiform teeth were replaced by villiform teeth, which were replaced by molariform teeth as the size class of drum increased.

  4. Storage media for avulsed teeth: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Poi, Wilson Roberto; Sonoda, Celso Koogi; Martins, Christine Men; Melo, Moriel Evangelista; Pellizzer, Eduardo Pizza; de Mendonça, Marcos Rogério; Panzarini, Sônia Regina

    2013-01-01

    Dental avulsion is the most severe type of traumatic tooth injuries because it causes damage to several structures and results in the complete displacement of the tooth from its socket in the alveolar bone. The ideal situation is to replant an exarticulated tooth immediately after avulsion because the extraoral time is a determinant factor for treatment success and for a good prognosis. However, it is not always possible. The success of replantation depends on a number of factors that may contribute to accelerate or minimize the occurrence of root resorption or ankylosis, among which is the type and characteristics of the medium used for temporary storage during the time elapsed between avulsion and replantation. Maintaining the tooth in an adequate wet medium that can preserve, as longer as possible, the vitality of the periodontal ligament cells that remain on root surface is the key to success of replantation. Recent research has led to the development of storage media that produce conditions that closely resemble the original socket environment, with adequate osmolality (cell pressure), pH, nutritional metabolites and glucose, and thus create the best possible conditions for storage. Although these storage media can now be purchased in the form of retail products, the most common scenario is that such a product will not be readily available at the moment of the accident This paper reviews the literature on the different storage media that have been investigated for avulsed teeth based on full-length papers retrieved from PubMed/Medline, Lilacs, BBO and SciELO electronic databases using the key words 'storage medium', 'transportation medium', 'avulsion', 'tooth avulsion', 'replantation', 'tooth replantation', 'milk' and 'propolis'. After application of inclusion and exclusion criteria, 39 papers were selected and critically reviewed with respect to the characteristics, efficacy and ease of access of the storage medium. The review of the literature showed that a wide array of types of wet storage media have been evaluated in laboratory studies and clinical reports, including cell and tissue culture solutions like Hank's Balanced Salt Solution (HBSS); medical/hospital products developed specifically for organ storage purposes, such as Viaspan® and Euro-Collins®; culture media, like Minimum Essential Medium (MEM); saline; natural products like water, saliva, bovine milk and its variations, propolis, green tea, Morus rubra (red mulberry), egg white and coconut water; rehydrating solutions, like Gatorade® and Ricetral, and even contact lens solutions. Based on the literature, it could be stated that, so far, apart from Based on the literature, it could be stated that, so far, apart from solutions designed specifically for storage and culture purposes, regular pasteurized whole milk is the most frequently recommended and with the best prognosis among other solutions that are likely to be available at the scene of an accident, such as water, saline or saliva. Its advantages include its high availability, ready accessibility, physiologically compatible pH and osmolality (fluid pressure) with the root-surface adhered PDL cells, presence of nutrients and growth factors. However, there is not yet a single solution that fulfills all requirements to be considered as the ideal medium for temporary storage of avulsed teeth, and research on this field should carry on. PMID:24474282

  5. Achieving permanency for LGBTQ youth.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, Jill; Freundlich, Madelyn

    2006-01-01

    This article brings together two significant efforts in the child welfare field: achieving permanence for youth in out-of-home care and meeting the needs of lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender and questioning (LGBTQ) youth. During the past several years, a national movement has taken place to assure all children and youth have a permanent family connection before leaving the child welfare system; however, LGBTQ youth are not routinely included in the permanency discussions. At the same time, efforts in addressing the needs of LGBTQ youth have increased, but permanency is rarely mentioned as a need. This article offers models of permanence and practices to facilitate permanence with LGBTQ youth and their families. It also offers a youth-driven, individualized process, using youth development principles to achieve relational, physical, and legal permanence. Reunification efforts are discussed, including services, supports, and education required for youth to return to their family of origin. For those who cannot return home, other family resources are explored. The article also discusses cultural issues as they affect permanence for LGBTQ youth, and, finally, addresses the need for ongoing support services to sustain and support permanency. PMID:16846117

  6. Split Carinae on Tyrannosaurid Teeth and Implications of Their Development

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gregory M. Erickson

    1995-01-01

    Examination of hundreds of shed and intact tyrannosaurid teeth from several taxa and formations revealed that the presence of split carinae is widespread. Approximately 11% of the surveyed teeth showed some degree of expression of this trait. Split carinae were found in Tyrannosaurus rex, Daspletosaurus sp., Albertosaurus sp., and Alectrosaurus olsoni. The trait is also found in non-tyrannosaurids (e.g., Allosaurus

  7. Dual epithelial origin of vertebrate oral teeth Vladimir Soukup1

    E-print Network

    Horacek, Ivan

    LETTERS Dual epithelial origin of vertebrate oral teeth Vladimi´r Soukup1 , Hans-Henning Epperlein2 , Ivan Hora´cek1 & Robert Cerny1 The oral cavity of vertebrates is generally thought to arise to dentin and pulp3­5 . Yet in many vertebrate groups, teeth are not restricted only to the oral cavity6

  8. An Interactive Geometric Technique for Upper and Lower Teeth Segmentation

    E-print Network

    Azevedo, Ricardo

    of corresponding authors: zdeng@cs.uh.edu and xzhou@tmhs.org Abstract. Due to the complexity of the dental models are now extensively used in dental offices to replace the plain cephalometric and panoramic radiographic) teeth are in centric occlusion (peak and valley on the teeth bite down tightly). This brings us a major

  9. Permanent magnet plasma lens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goncharov, A.; Gorshkov, V.; Gubarev, S.; Dobrovolsky, A.; Protsenko, I.; Brown, I.

    2002-02-01

    We have designed and fabricated, for the first time, a simple, compact, and low-cost electrostatic plasma lens based on the use of permanent magnets rather than an electrically driven solenoid to establish the magnetic field. Characteristics of the focused ion beam passed through the lens have been measured. Some of the beam characteristics depend strongly on the applied magnetic field strength and the precise form of the external potential distribution applied along the lens electrodes. The experimental results obtained at the Institute of Physics (Kiev) and at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley) show that this plasma optical device can be used beneficially for focusing and manipulating moderate energy, large area, heavy metal ion beams.

  10. Improvement in properties of plastic teeth by electron beam irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sano, Yuko; Ishikawa, Shun-ichi; Seguchi, Tadao

    2011-11-01

    Improvement of the comfort and esthetics of artificial plastic teeth is desirable for the recently increasing numbers of elderly in society. Plastic teeth made of polycarbonate (PC) were modified by electron beam (EB) irradiation under specific conditions, and the change in the chemical properties of the PC was investigated. The water absorption, glucose attachment, level of bis-phenol-A (BPA) extraction, maltose adhesion, and mucin adhesion on the PC teeth were measured before and after EB irradiation. EB irradiation to a dose of 3.5 kGy at 150 °C in a nitrogen gas atmosphere reduced the water absorption by 20%, glucose absorption by 40%, maltose adhesion by 20%, and the amount of various amino acids, formed as the hydrolysis products of mucin, adhering on the PC teeth were reduced by 60-99%. The BPA content was lower than the detection limit for analysis of both the original and the EB irradiated PC teeth.

  11. Elemental mapping of teeth using ?SRXRF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anjos, M. J.; Barroso, R. C.; Pérez, C. A.; Braz, D.; Moreira, S.; Dias, K. R. H. C.; Lopes, R. T.

    2004-01-01

    Human teeth were analysed by X-ray microfluorescence analysis using synchrotron radiation (?SRXRF). The aim of this work was to study the elemental distribution for Ca, Zn and Sr along the dental regions, enamel, dentine and pulp from patterns of relative fluorescence intensities. The measurements were performed in standard geometry of 45° incidence, exciting with a white beam and using a conventional system collimation (orthogonal slits) in the XRF beamline at the Synchrotron Light National Laboratory (Campinas, Brazil). The results show that Ca distribution is quite constant and it is independent of the tooth type and individuals characteristics. An increase of the Zn concentration was found for the pulp region and for untreated carious areas. Ca and Sr distributions show a similar behavior.

  12. Transposition of teeth: A forensic perspective

    PubMed Central

    Nambiar, Supriya; Mogra, Subraya; Shetty, Surendra

    2014-01-01

    Dental identification plays a key role in mass casualties and is usually based on disturbances of tooth eruption, malocclusions and/or previous dental treatments, changes brought about by age, pathological conditions and developmental disturbances. Tooth transposition is a disturbance of tooth eruption and is defined as change in the position of two adjacent teeth within the same quadrant. This review aims to discuss the prevalence and the etiology of transposition through a literature survey and to discuss its importance and implications as pertaining to the field of forensics. In summary, transposition is a rare and severe positional anomaly that represents a challenge for a dentist. It requires a keen eye on the part of the forensic pathologist to identify the condition. PMID:25177135

  13. Pharyngeal teeth of the freshwater drum (Aplodinotus grunniens) a predator of the zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    French, John R. P., III

    1997-01-01

    The morphology of pharyngeal teeth of freshwater drum (Aplodinotus grunniens) was studied to determine changes that occur during growth of drum that may relate to consumption of zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) by larger fish. Pharyngeal teeth were of three types. Cardiform teeth were replaced by villiform teeth, which were replaced by molariform teeth as the size class of drum increased. Molariform teeth comprised over 85% of total surface area of dentition in fish 265 mm long.

  14. Management of fused supernumerary teeth in children using guided tissue regeneration: long-term follow up of 2 cases.

    PubMed

    Olsen, Christopher B; Johnston, Timothy; Desai, Mala; Peake, Gregory G

    2002-01-01

    Surgical separation of supernumerary teeth fused to permanent incisor teethhas typically given rise to residual post surgical periodontal defects, induding loss of attachment and deep periodontal pocketing with persistent inflammation. Other complications include devitalisation of the retained tooth section, ankylosis, external and replacement resorption. A unique technique of using guided tissue regeneration has been successfully employed to promote periodontal healing, after 2 cases of surgical removal of a supernumerary tooth fused to a permanent maxillary lateral incisor tooth. In the first case, a 2-stage guided tissue regeneration technique was completed with a nonresorbable Gor-Tex membrane, and was followed up after 9 years. The second case was completed using a resorbable Vicryl membrane, in a single-stage guided tissue regenerative technique; and was followed up after 5 years. PMID:12528950

  15. ArteFill ® Permanent Injectable for Soft Tissue Augmentation: II. Indications and Applications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gottfried Lemperle; Neil S. Sadick; Terry R. Knapp; Stefan M. Lemperle

    2010-01-01

    Patients ask for procedures with long-lasting effects. ArteFill is the first permanent injectable approved in 2006 by the\\u000a FDA for nasolabial folds. It consists of cleaned microspheres of polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) suspended in bovine collagen.\\u000a Over the development period of 20 years most of its side effects have been eliminated to achieve the same safety standard\\u000a as today’s hyaluronic acid products. A

  16. Shape optimization of closed slot type permanent magnet motors for cogging torque reduction using evolution strategy

    SciTech Connect

    Chun, J.S.; Jung, H.K. [Seoul National Univ. (Korea, Republic of). School of Electrical Engineering; Yoon, J.S. [LG Industrial Systems Co., Ltd., Anyang, Kyongki (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-03-01

    Permanent magnet motors have been used in a wide variety of industrial applications. For the improvement of servo performances in the permanent magnet motors, a closed slot is adopted in the stator and a rare-earth magnet is used in the rotor. Here, the analysis of a permanent magnet type AC servo motor with both a closed slot and a ring shape magnet is performed by using the finite element method (FEM). The saturation of the bridge part connecting two slot teeth is considered for a nonlinear analysis. The optimal design of the stator is presented for minimizing cogging torque. The torques, i.e., cogging and rated torques are expressed in terms of vector potential computed by directly applying the Maxwell Stress Tensor formula. The minimization of cogging torque of sample model is achieved by using the (1+1) Evolution Strategy (ES) and the rated torque must be more than the specific value.

  17. A Curriculum Vitae of Teeth: Evolution, Generation, Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Koussoulakou, Despina S.; Margaritis, Lukas H.; Koussoulakos, Stauros L.

    2009-01-01

    The ancestor of recent vertebrate teeth was a tooth-like structure on the outer body surface of jawless fishes. Over the course of 500,000,000 years of evolution, many of those structures migrated into the mouth cavity. In addition, the total number of teeth per dentition generally decreased and teeth morphological complexity increased. Teeth form mainly on the jaws within the mouth cavity through mutual, delicate interactions between dental epithelium and oral ectomesenchyme. These interactions involve spatially restricted expression of several, teeth-related genes and the secretion of various transcription and signaling factors. Congenital disturbances in tooth formation, acquired dental diseases and odontogenic tumors affect millions of people and rank human oral pathology as the second most frequent clinical problem. On the basis of substantial experimental evidence and advances in bioengineering, many scientists strongly believe that a deep knowledge of the evolutionary relationships and the cellular and molecular mechanisms regulating the morphogenesis of a given tooth in its natural position, in vivo, will be useful in the near future to prevent and treat teeth pathologies and malformations and for in vitro and in vivo teeth tissue regeneration. PMID:19266065

  18. Estimation of age from development and eruption of teeth

    PubMed Central

    Manjunatha, B. S.; Soni, Nishit K.

    2014-01-01

    The developing dentition is used to assess maturity and estimate the age in many disciplines including anthropology, archeology, forensic science, pediatric dentistry and orthodontics. There is evidence that dental development is less effected than skeletal development by malnutrition and hormonal disorders. There are two methods of dental age assessment, radiographically and by clinically visualization of eruption of teeth. The clinical method to assess dental age is based on the emergence of teeth in the mouth. This method is more suitable since it does not require any special equipment, expertise and is more economical. Tooth formation is the best choice for estimating the age as variations are less as compared to other development factors. Eruption of teeth is one of the changes observed easily among the various dynamic changes that occur from the formation of teeth to the final shedding of teeth. The times of eruption of teeth are fairly constant and this can be made use of in ascertaining the average age of eruption of the tooth. Assessment of age of an individual by examination of teeth is one of the accepted methods of age determination. PMID:25125911

  19. The influence of teeth on denture base processing accuracy.

    PubMed

    Jackson, A D; Lang, B R; Wang, R F

    1993-01-01

    The Michigan Computer Graphics Coordinate Measuring System was used to determine the influence of denture teeth on the accuracy of processed denture bases. Three different processing methods--compression molding, injection pressing, and vacuum-assisted resin pouring--were used. The presence of denture teeth was determined to affect the accuracy of the processed denture bases of all three techniques. For denture bases without teeth, the compression-molding technique demonstrated significant differences in accuracy; however, no significant differences were found in the injection-pressed or resin-poured denture bases. PMID:8240644

  20. A double-sided linear primary permanent magnet vernier machine.

    PubMed

    Du, Yi; Zou, Chunhua; Liu, Xianxing

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present a new double-sided linear primary permanent magnet (PM) vernier (DSLPPMV) machine, which can offer high thrust force, low detent force, and improved power factor. Both PMs and windings of the proposed machine are on the short translator, while the long stator is designed as a double-sided simple iron core with salient teeth so that it is very robust to transmit high thrust force. The key of this new machine is the introduction of double stator and the elimination of translator yoke, so that the inductance and the volume of the machine can be reduced. Hence, the proposed machine offers improved power factor and thrust force density. The electromagnetic performances of the proposed machine are analyzed including flux, no-load EMF, thrust force density, and inductance. Based on using the finite element analysis, the characteristics and performances of the proposed machine are assessed. PMID:25874250

  1. Three-dimensional analysis of tubular permanent magnet machines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chai, J.; Wang, J.; Howe, D.

    2006-04-01

    This paper presents results from a three-dimensional finite element analysis of a tubular permanent magnet machine, and quantifies the influence of the laminated modules from which the stator core is assembled on the flux linkage and thrust force capability as well as on the self- and mutual inductances. The three-dimensional finite element (FE) model accounts for the nonlinear, anisotropic magnetization characteristic of the laminated stator structure, and for the voids which exist between the laminated modules. Predicted results are compared with those deduced from an axisymmetric FE model. It is shown that the emf and thrust force deduced from the three-dimensional model are significantly lower than those which are predicted from an axisymmetric field analysis, primarily as a consequence of the teeth and yoke being more highly saturated due to the presence of the voids in the laminated stator core.

  2. Genetics Home Reference: Permanent neonatal diabetes mellitus

    MedlinePLUS

    ... literature OMIM Genetic disorder catalog Conditions > Permanent neonatal diabetes mellitus On this page: Description Genetic changes Inheritance ... definitions Reviewed July 2011 What is permanent neonatal diabetes mellitus? Permanent neonatal diabetes mellitus is a type ...

  3. Infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis (pinkeye).

    PubMed

    Angelos, John A

    2015-03-01

    As is the case for controlling other infectious livestock diseases, the most successful efforts to control infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis (IBK) will include consideration of the host, the environment, herd management, and ongoing surveillance even after the immediate crisis has passed. Research over many years has led to the discovery of a variety of antibiotic treatments and antibiotic regimens that can be effective against IBK. The discoveries of Mor bovoculi and reports of IBK associated with Mycoplasma spp without concurrent Mor bovis or Mor bovoculi have raised new questions into the roles that other organisms may play in IBK pathogenesis. PMID:25576389

  4. Oral Biofilm Architecture on Natural Teeth

    PubMed Central

    Zijnge, Vincent; van Leeuwen, M. Barbara M.; Degener, John E.; Abbas, Frank; Thurnheer, Thomas; Gmür, Rudolf; M. Harmsen, Hermie J.

    2010-01-01

    Periodontitis and caries are infectious diseases of the oral cavity in which oral biofilms play a causative role. Moreover, oral biofilms are widely studied as model systems for bacterial adhesion, biofilm development, and biofilm resistance to antibiotics, due to their widespread presence and accessibility. Despite descriptions of initial plaque formation on the tooth surface, studies on mature plaque and plaque structure below the gum are limited to landmark studies from the 1970s, without appreciating the breadth of microbial diversity in the plaque. We used fluorescent in situ hybridization to localize in vivo the most abundant species from different phyla and species associated with periodontitis on seven embedded teeth obtained from four different subjects. The data showed convincingly the dominance of Actinomyces sp., Tannerella forsythia, Fusobacterium nucleatum, Spirochaetes, and Synergistetes in subgingival plaque. The latter proved to be new with a possibly important role in host-pathogen interaction due to its localization in close proximity to immune cells. The present study identified for the first time in vivo that Lactobacillus sp. are the central cells of bacterial aggregates in subgingival plaque, and that Streptococcus sp. and the yeast Candida albicans form corncob structures in supragingival plaque. Finally, periodontal pathogens colonize already formed biofilms and form microcolonies therein. These in vivo observations on oral biofilms provide a clear vision on biofilm architecture and the spatial distribution of predominant species. PMID:20195365

  5. Bilateral dens evaginatus (talon cusp) in permanent maxillary lateral incisors: a rare developmental dental anomaly with great clinical significance

    PubMed Central

    Manuja, Naveen; Chaudhary, Seema; Nagpal, Rajni; Rallan, Mandeep

    2013-01-01

    Talon cusp is an accessory cusp-like structure which projects from the cingulum area or cementoenamel junction. It is important for dentists to be aware of the potential complications that may occur with talon cusp. Early diagnosis and treatment is important, especially to prevent pulpal complications in permanent teeth which may be in developing stage in paediatric patients. The purpose of this paper is to report a case of bilateral talon cusp in permanent maxillary lateral incisors. Associated dental anomalies and clinical problems are discussed along with successful management of the case with conservative therapy. PMID:23813995

  6. A Review on Vital Pulp Therapy in Primary Teeth

    PubMed Central

    Parisay, Iman; Ghoddusi, Jamileh; Forghani, Maryam

    2015-01-01

    Maintaining deciduous teeth in function until their natural exfoliation is absolutely necessary. Vital pulp therapy (VPT) is a way of saving deciduous teeth. The most important factors in success of VPT are the early diagnosis of pulp and periradicular status, preservation of the pulp vitality and proper vascularization of the pulp. Development of new biomaterials with suitable biocompatibility and seal has changed the attitudes towards preserving the reversible pulp in cariously exposed teeth. Before exposure and irreversible involvement of the pulp, indirect pulp capping (IPC) is the treatment of choice, but after the spread of inflammation within the pulp chamber and establishment of irreversible pulpitis, removal of inflamed pulp tissue is recommended. In this review, new concepts in preservation of the healthy pulp tissue in deciduous teeth and induction of the reparative dentin formation with new biomaterials instead of devitalization and the consequent destruction of vital tissues are discussed. PMID:25598803

  7. Multiple teeth fractures in dentinogenesis imperfecta: a case report.

    PubMed

    Min, Boram; Song, Je Seon; Lee, Jae-Ho; Choi, Byung-Jai; Kim, Kwang-Mahn; Kim, Seong-Oh

    2014-01-01

    Dentinogenesis imperfecta (DGI) is a hereditary defect consisting of opalescent teeth composed of irregularly formed and hypomineralized dentin. This paper presents the multiple fractures of DGI-affected teeth and suggests the reason of low fracture resistance by observing the dentin microstructures directly using scanning electron microscope (SEM) and by measuring its surface hardness using the Vickers hardness test. SEM revealed that while the enamel microstructure was similar in the DGI-affected and normal teeth, the microstructure of the DGI-affected dentin was poorly woven and more loosely packed than that of the normal dentin. The Vickers hardness of the DGI-affected dentin was 4.89 times softer than the normal dentin. The low fracture resistance of DGI-affected teeth can be attributed to the poorly woven microstructure of their dentin, which leads to a reduction in hardness. PMID:25571690

  8. 21 CFR 872.6475 - Heat source for bleaching teeth.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...6475 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6475 Heat source for bleaching teeth. (a)...

  9. Geometry and design of involute spur gears with asymmetric teeth

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alexander Kapelevich

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents a method of research and design of gears with asymmetric teeth that enables to increase load capacity, reduce weight, size and vibration level. The method is illustrated with numerical examples.

  10. Preservation of Seawater Strontium and Neodymium in Fossil Fish Teeth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, E. E.; Scher, H.

    2003-04-01

    Sr isotope chemostratigraphy of fossil fish teeth, or ichthyoliths, has been suggested as a potential technique for dating carbonate-poor sediments, such as red clays. Data from three DSDP/ODP sites: site 757 in the Indian Ocean, and sites 689 and 1090 in the Southern Ocean, illustrate that fish teeth do not reliably record seawater Sr isotopic signatures. We compared 87Sr/86Sr values measured on foraminifera, fish teeth and pore waters for all three sites for intervals ranging from 0.5 Ma to 38 Ma. Pore waters for both sites 757 and 1090 are less radiogenic than contemporaneous seawater by 0.00010 to 0.00040. Both sites contain a hiatus midway through the section, and the fish teeth and foraminifera values agree below the hiatuses. However, in the overlying section fish teeth values are 0.00008 to 0.00017 lower than contemporaneous foraminifera, indicating that they are altered in the direction of pore water Sr. Age estimates based on Sr isotope chemostratigraphy of these teeth would yield ages that are ˜1.5 m.y. (site 1090) to 4 m.y. (site 757) too old. In contrast, pore water values are more radiogenic than contemporaneous seawater for the section from 25 to 36 Ma at site 689 (Egeberg, et al., 1990). As a result, the fish teeth values plot above the foraminifera values by ˜0.00013, an offset that correlates to an age error of ˜3.5 m.y. for this section of the curve. The hydroxyfluorapatite of fossil fish teeth is a post mortem diagenetic product. Therefore, the integrity of the Sr isotopic signal depends on the timing and rate of recrystallization, as well as the composition of pore waters. Our data imply that the teeth continue to exchange Sr during burial. Consequently, age estimates based on Sr isotopes of fish teeth in sections with altered pore waters can provide gross age determinations (+/- 5 m.y.), but can not be used to fine tune age models. Fish teeth are also utilized as archives for deep water Nd isotopes. The hydroxyapatite of living fish teeth contains ppb levels of Nd, while the hydroxyfluorapatite of the fossil teeth contains 100--400 ppm Nd, thus almost all the Nd is incorporated during recrystallization. This process appears to occur very early while the teeth and pore waters are still in communication with seawater based on the fact that fish teeth obtain high concentrations of Nd within a few mm of the sediment/water interface, and concentrations do not increase systematically with burial depth and sediment age. In addition, teeth from sites with very different sediment compositions and pore water chemistries yield similar Nd isotopic values.

  11. Artificial teeth : dental biofilm analysis on a chip

    E-print Network

    Lam, Raymond Hiu-wai

    2010-01-01

    In this thesis, an "artificial teeth" microfluidic device is developed that provides unprecedented control over the conditions required to simulate the growth of complex dental biofilm. Dental plaque formation is not only ...

  12. A review on vital pulp therapy in primary teeth.

    PubMed

    Parisay, Iman; Ghoddusi, Jamileh; Forghani, Maryam

    2015-01-01

    Maintaining deciduous teeth in function until their natural exfoliation is absolutely necessary. Vital pulp therapy (VPT) is a way of saving deciduous teeth. The most important factors in success of VPT are the early diagnosis of pulp and periradicular status, preservation of the pulp vitality and proper vascularization of the pulp. Development of new biomaterials with suitable biocompatibility and seal has changed the attitudes towards preserving the reversible pulp in cariously exposed teeth. Before exposure and irreversible involvement of the pulp, indirect pulp capping (IPC) is the treatment of choice, but after the spread of inflammation within the pulp chamber and establishment of irreversible pulpitis, removal of inflamed pulp tissue is recommended. In this review, new concepts in preservation of the healthy pulp tissue in deciduous teeth and induction of the reparative dentin formation with new biomaterials instead of devitalization and the consequent destruction of vital tissues are discussed. PMID:25598803

  13. Permanent deformation of asphalt mixes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. M. Muraya

    2007-01-01

    This dissertation describes the results of a research that was conducted on the permanent deformation of asphalt mixtures. Central to this research was the separate characterization of the contribution of the aggregate skeleton and the bituminous mortar towards resistance to permanent deformation. The mixtures considered in this research included porous asphalt, stone mastic asphalt and dense asphalt concrete.\\u000a\\u000aThe test

  14. A Key to the Common Genera of Neogene Shark Teeth Robert W. Purdy

    E-print Network

    Mathis, Wayne N.

    A Key to the Common Genera of Neogene Shark Teeth by Robert W. Purdy Revised March 2006 #12 Sexual Dimorphism in Teeth 11 Abnormal Teeth 11 Using Artificial Tooth Sets to Identify Fossil Shark Teeth 12 Hexanchiform Sharks 12 Squaliform Sharks 13 Lamniform Sharks 13 Carcharhiniform Sharks 14

  15. New insights into the complex architecture of siliceous copepod teeth.

    PubMed

    Michels, Jan; Vogt, Jürgen; Simon, Paul; Gorb, Stanislav N

    2015-06-01

    Copepods belong to the dominant marine zooplankton taxa and play an important role in particle and energy fluxes of the marine water column. Their mandibular gnathobases possess tooth-like structures, so-called teeth. In species feeding on large proportions of diatoms these teeth often contain silica, which is very probably the result of a coevolution with the siliceous diatom frustules. Detailed knowledge of the morphology and composition of the siliceous teeth is essential for understanding their functioning and their significance in the context of feeding interactions between copepods and diatoms. Based on analyses of the gnathobases of the Antarctic copepod Rhincalanus gigas, the present study clearly shows, for the first time, that the silica in the siliceous teeth features large proportions of crystalline silica that is consistent with the mineral ?-cristobalite and is doped with aluminium. The siliceous structures have internal chitinous fibre networks, which are assumed to serve as scaffolds during the silicification process. The compact siliceous teeth of R. gigas are accompanied by structures with large proportions of the elastic protein resilin, likely reducing the mechanical damage of the teeth when the copepods feed on diatoms with very stable frustules. The results indicate that the coevolution with diatom frustules has resulted in gnathobases exhibiting highly sophisticated composite structures. PMID:25622509

  16. Laser light passage through restored and carious posterior teeth.

    PubMed

    Chandler, N P; Pitt Ford, T R; Monteith, B D

    2014-08-01

    Laser Doppler flowmetry (LDF) has been used to investigate pulpal blood flow as a means of pulp vitality testing. Transmission of laser light from the tooth surface to the pulp space may be influenced by caries and restorations. One hundred and twenty-two first and second molars that had caries into dentine, restorations or significant loss of coronal tissue were sectioned in half axio-bucco-lingually. The two sections were illuminated with a laser from their buccal and lingual aspects 2 mm coronal to the amelocemental junction. Light reaching the pulp space was recorded. Buccal and lingual illumination sites were equally effective for 67 teeth (55%). Buccal sites alone were effective for 35 teeth (29%), despite over one-third of these surfaces being restored or featuring enamel or dentine caries. A lingual position alone was effective for 20 teeth (16%). Caries affected light transmission, but for over half the teeth, the pulp could be illuminated from all four probe positions. No effect was found when the influence of mesial and distal restorations on transmission into the corresponding tooth section was examined. The pulp spaces of most (84%) restored, and carious posterior teeth could be illuminated by laser light from their buccal aspect and these teeth could potentially be vitality tested using LDF. PMID:24750450

  17. An investigation of the accuracy of refixing broken teeth to stone casts.

    PubMed

    Likeman, Peter; Paolinelis, George

    2007-09-01

    This study investigated the error in refixing fractured teeth to stone casts. Teeth vulnerable to fracture and adjacent teeth for controls on the same casts were scanned using the Triclone contact scanner. The vulnerable teeth were fractured and refixed using cyanoacrylate adhesive and the casts rescanned. Altogether 35 teeth were fractured and repaired in this way. The mean distance displacement of the repaired teeth was 0.23 mm in the XY (horizontal) plane and 0.1 mm in the Z axis. The mean angular displacement was 0.72 degrees. We can conclude that the angular displacement of the repaired teeth contributed significantly to the measured distance displacement. PMID:17970320

  18. Bleaching effect of ozone on pigmented teeth

    PubMed Central

    Zanjani, Vagharedin Akhavan; Ghasemi, Amir; Torabzadeh, Hassan; Jamali, Mahbobeh; Razmavar, Sara; Baghban, Alireza Akbarzadeh

    2015-01-01

    Background: There have been numerous researches on ozone application in dentistry; yet the data regarding its whitening effect is very limited. The present study compares the bleaching effect of ozone with office bleaching. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, 15 maxillary premolar teeth were selected and sectioned mesio-distally and bucco-lingually. The sections were then placed in tea for 1 week according to the Sulieman method and were divided into three groups each comprised of 15 sections. The samples were bleached as followed; Group I: Bleached with 35% hydrogen peroxide in three intervals of 8 min each, Group II: Underwent ozone treatment using Ozotop unite for 4 min and Group III: Bleached with a combination of both methods. The color indices of the samples, i.e., (a) green-red pigment, (b) blue-yellow pigment, (L) brightness, (?E) overall color change, were evaluated pre- and post-bleaching utilizing a digital camera, Photoshop software and CIE lab index. The color changes of specimens then were calculated and analyzed through randomized analysis of variance and Tukey tests. P < 0.001 was considered to be significant. Results: The color change (?E) in Group II was significantly lower than those in the two other groups (P < 0.001). There was no significant difference between the color change of Groups I and III (P = 0.639). In addition, the results of L, a and b brought forth a similar pattern to the findings obtained from ?E. Conclusion: The hydrogen peroxide gel has a more powerful whitening effect than ozone; in addition, ozone has no synergistic effect when is used simultaneously with hydrogen peroxide. PMID:25709670

  19. The effects of racemization rate for age estimation of pink teeth.

    PubMed

    Sakuma, Ayaka; Saitoh, Hisako; Ishii, Namiko; Iwase, Hirotaro

    2015-03-01

    Pink teeth is thought to result from the seepage of hemoglobin caused by dental pulp decomposition. We investigated whether racemization can be applied for age estimation in cases of pink teeth where the whole tooth is used. The pink teeth used were three cases and the normal teeth for control were five mandibular canines of known age. Age of the pink teeth was calculated on the basis of regression formula obtained from the five control teeth. Only a slight error was noted between the actual and estimated ages of the pink teeth (R(2) = 0.980, r = 0.990): Cases 1-3 actually aged 23, 53, and 59 years were estimated to be 26, 52, and 60 years. Based on our results of testing pink teeth of known age, we suggest that racemization techniques allow for the age estimation of pink teeth using the same methods for normally colored teeth. PMID:25684096

  20. Substantivity of Three Concentrations of Tetraclean in Bovine Root Dentin

    PubMed Central

    Giardino, L; Palazzi, F; Shalavi, S; Farahani, M F

    2012-01-01

    In the present study, the residual antibacterial activity, or substantivity, of three concentrations of Tetraclean (Ogna Laboratori Farmaceutici, Muggiò, Italy) was assessed in bovine root dentin in vitro. One hundred ten dentin tubes prepared from bovine incisor teeth were infected in vitro for 14 days with Enterococcus faecalis. Thereafter, the specimens were divided into five groups as follows: 100% Tetraclean, 10% Tetraclean, 1% Tetraclean, sterile dentin tubes (negative control), and infected dentin tubes (positive control). Dentin chips were collected with round burs into tryptic soy broth and, after culturing, the number of colony-forming units (CFU) was counted. The number of CFU was minimal in the first cultures in all experimental groups, and the results obtained were significantly different in the different groups at all time periods (p<0.05). At all five experimental periods, the 100% Tetraclean group showed the most effective antibacterial action (p<0.05). In each group, the number of CFU increased significantly with time (p<0.05). There was a direct relationship between the concentration of Tetraclean and its substantivity. In conclusion, under the conditions of the study presented here, the substantivity of 100% Tetraclean was significantly higher than that of lower concentrations. PMID:23323220

  1. Viral infections and bovine mastitis: a review.

    PubMed

    Wellenberg, G J; van der Poel, W H M; Van Oirschot, J T

    2002-08-01

    This review deals with the role of viruses in the aetiology of bovine mastitis. Bovine herpesvirus 1, bovine herpesvirus 4, foot-and-mouth disease virus, and parainfluenza 3 virus have been isolated from milk from cows with clinical mastitis. Intramammary inoculations of bovine herpesvirus 1 or parainfluenza 3 virus-induced clinical mastitis, while an intramammary inoculation of foot-and-mouth disease virus resulted in necrosis of the mammary gland. Subclinical mastitis has been induced after a simultaneous intramammary and intranasal inoculation of lactating cows with bovine herpesvirus 4. Bovine leukaemia virus has been detected in mammary tissue of cows with subclinical mastitis, but whether this virus was able to induce bovine mastitis has not been reported. Bovine herpesvirus 2, vaccinia, cowpox, pseudocowpox, vesicular stomatitis, foot-and-mouth disease viruses, and bovine papillomaviruses can play an indirect role in the aetiology of bovine mastitis. These viruses can induce teat lesions, for instance in the ductus papillaris, which result in a reduction of the natural defence mechanisms of the udder and indirectly in bovine mastitis due to bacterial pathogens. Bovine herpesvirus 1, bovine viral diarrhoea virus, bovine immunodeficiency virus, and bovine leukaemia virus infections may play an indirect role in bovine mastitis, due to their immunosuppressive properties. But, more research is warranted to underline their indirect role in bovine mastitis. We conclude that viral infections can play a direct or indirect role in the aetiology of bovine mastitis; therefore, their importance in the aetiology of bovine mastitis and their economical impact needs further attention. PMID:12119136

  2. Texas Bovine Trichomoniasis Control Program 

    E-print Network

    Machen, Richard V.; Gill, Ronald J.; Faries Jr., Floron C.; Hairgrove, Thomas B.

    2009-04-30

    This publication summarizes the disease and transmission characteristics of bovine trichomoniasis in bulls and cows. It also outlines new measures being implemented in Texas to control the spread of the disease....

  3. Cartilage (Bovine and Shark) (PDQ®)

    Cancer.gov

    Expert-reviewed information summary about the use of bovine and shark cartilage as a treatment for people with cancer. Note: The information in this summary is no longer being updated and is provided for reference purposes only.

  4. The retrieval of unerupted teeth in pedodontics: two case reports

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The retrieval of unerupted teeth in pedodontics is always significant to preserve the trophism of adjacent tissues, establish the correct space, provide adequate function and maintain good esthetics for the patient. The treatment plan is based on radiographic examinations and measurements, and on an accurate clinical evaluation; it aims to achieve the best treatment possible depending on the complexity of the specific case. In the most difficult clinical cases it is very important to have an early diagnosis, which is essential to plan the treatment and achieve success. In these cases, the pediatrician is in a strategic position to give an early diagnosis through a child’s medical history and by counting the child’s teeth. Case presentation This article presents two different difficult clinical cases of impacted teeth diagnosed during pediatric age, with a radiological analysis, and successfully treated with orthodontic devices designed for these specific cases. Clinical case 1 describes a 13-year-old Italian girl; clinical case 2 describes a 9-year-old Italian girl. The use of these devices achieved the desired treatment goals. The problems associated with impacted teeth and the biomechanical interventions used for these patients are discussed. Conclusions An early and careful diagnosis followed by an accurate treatment plan for the individual cases can lead to retrieval of the impacted teeth without affecting other anatomic structures and adjacent teeth. In these cases, the pediatrician is in a strategic position to give an early diagnosis through a child’s medical history and by counting the child’s teeth. PMID:25301242

  5. Does trauma in the primary dentition cause sequelae in permanent successors? A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Lenzi, Michele Machado; Alexandria, Adílis Kalina; Ferreira, Daniele Masterson T P; Maia, Lucianne Cople

    2015-04-01

    This systematic review sought scientific evidence (in the literature) that trauma in the primary incisors cause sequelae in permanent successors. Also this work verified whether there was a relation between the presence and type of sequelae in permanent teeth with the child's age at the time of injury and type of trauma. Electronic databases, including the PubMed, Scopus, The Cochrane Library, LILACS, and Web of Science were used to search for original articles up to June 2013. Prospective and retrospective studies that assessed the association of trauma in deciduous incisors and developmental disturbances in permanent successors were selected. Two authors independently reviewed and extracted the data from the included studies. A methodological quality assessment evaluation of the selected studies was performed. The search retrieved 258 citations. Initially, 19 studies fulfilled the selection criteria; however, one (1) was excluded, leaving 18 for the final selection. Despite some limitations in the study designs were observed, especially the lack of a control group in most studies, the evidence found suggests that individuals with trauma in their primary incisors have more developmental disorders in the permanent successors than individuals without a previous trauma. Furthermore, the younger the child is at the time of injury, the more frequent and more severe are the sequelae to the permanent successor incisors. More severe traumas such as intrusion and avulsion are associated to more serious developmental disorders. These results should be analyzed carefully because very few studies evaluated had a control group. PMID:25382149

  6. Lodestone: Nature's own permanent magnet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wasilewski, P.

    1976-01-01

    Magnetic hysteresis and microstructural details are presented which explain why the class of magnetic iron ores defined as proto-lodestones, can behave as permanent magnets, i.e. lodestones. Certain of these proto-lodestones which are not permanent magnets can be made into permanent magnets by charging in a field greater than 1000 oersted. This fact, other experimental observations, and field evidence from antiquity and the middle ages, which seems to indicate that lodestones are found as localized patches within massive ore bodies, suggests that lightning might be responsible for the charging of lodestones. The large remanent magnetization, high values of coercive force, and good time stability for the remanent magnetization are all characteristics of proto-lodestone iron ores which behave magnetically as fine scale ( 10 micrometer) intergrowths when subjected to magnetic hysteresis analysis. The magnetic results are easily understood by analysis of the complex proto lodestone microstructural patterns observable at the micrometer scale and less.

  7. Near-IR imaging of cracks in teeth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fried, William A.; Simon, Jacob C.; Lucas, Seth; Chan, Kenneth H.; Darling, Cynthia L.; Staninec, Michal; Fried, Daniel

    2014-02-01

    Dental enamel is highly transparent at near-IR wavelengths and several studies have shown that these wavelengths are well suited for optical transillumination for the detection and imaging of tooth decay. We hypothesize that these wavelengths are also well suited for imaging cracks in teeth. Extracted teeth with suspected cracks were imaged at several wavelengths in the near-IR from 1300-1700-nm. Extracted teeth were also examined with optical coherence tomography to confirm the existence of suspected cracks. Several teeth of volunteers were also imaged in vivo at 1300-nm to demonstrate clinical potential. In addition we induced cracks in teeth using a carbon dioxide laser and imaged crack formation and propagation in real time using near-IR transillumination. Cracks were clearly visible using near-IR imaging at 1300-nm in both in vitro and in vivo images. Cracks and fractures also interfered with light propagation in the tooth aiding in crack identification and assessment of depth and severity.

  8. The development and replacement of teeth in viviparous caecilians.

    PubMed

    Wake, M H

    1976-01-01

    Tooth development and replacement in fetal and adult viviparous caecilians (Amphibia: Gymnophiona) are described and analyzed according to current theories of tooth succession. The fetal dentition differs from that of the adult in morphology, position, and function. Teeth are used by fetuses to scrape the oviducal epithelium, thus stimulating the secretion of a nutrient substance. Fetal dentitions vary in morphology and position in different species. The ontogeny of teeth of several species is described and the patterns of addition of loci and of replacement are analyzed. Loci are added both posteriorly along the jaw and between existing loci as the jaw grows prior to ossification; subsequently addition is restricted to the posterior part of the jaw. Tooth replacement is alternate. The several rows and patches of teeth are the result of retention of replacement series on the dentigerous elements. Tooth development and replacement in a series of juveniles and adults of different sizes in a single species are also considered. Post-fetal patterns of development and replacement are similar to those seen in larvae and adults of oviparous species. Variation in numbers of teeth and proportions of teeth at particular stages occurs ontogenetically and among individuals of the same size, though proportions occur in a similar pattern throughout the series. The general pattern of tooth replacement in fetuses and adults can be explained by either Edmund's Zahnreihen theory or by Osborn's Tooth Family theory, but replacement in fetal tooth patches and the fetal-adult dentitional transition are explained by neither. PMID:1246080

  9. Near-IR imaging of cracks in teeth

    PubMed Central

    Fried, William A.; Simon, Jacob C.; Lucas, Seth; Chan, Kenneth H.; Darling, Cynthia L.; Staninec, Michal; Fried, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Dental enamel is highly transparent at near-IR wavelengths and several studies have shown that these wavelengths are well suited for optical transillumination for the detection and imaging of tooth decay. We hypothesize that these wavelengths are also well suited for imaging cracks in teeth. Extracted teeth with suspected cracks were imaged at several wavelengths in the near-IR from 1300-1700-nm. Extracted teeth were also examined with optical coherence tomography to confirm the existence of suspected cracks. Several teeth of volunteers were also imaged in vivo at 1300-nm to demonstrate clinical potential. In addition we induced cracks in teeth using a carbon dioxide laser and imaged crack formation and propagation in real time using near-IR transillumination. Cracks were clearly visible using near-IR imaging at 1300-nm in both in vitro and in vivo images. Cracks and fractures also interfered with light propagation in the tooth aiding in crack identification and assessment of depth and severity. PMID:24817806

  10. Social perceptions of individuals missing upper front teeth.

    PubMed

    Willis, Mary S; Esqueda, Cynthia Willis; Schacht, Ryan N

    2008-04-01

    Although it is assumed that there are negative social consequences for individuals missing visible front teeth, no study of the way in which edentulous individuals were perceived in a social context and the potential social repercussions could be located. This initial study concerned college students' perceptions of individuals missing visible upper front teeth. 200 volunteers, 19 to 50 years of age (M = 20.6, SD = 4.4), rated five photographs depicting tooth presence or absence, from a full dentition to missing as many as four upper front teeth, on social traits including attractiveness, health status, educational attainment, satisfaction with life, active social life, aggressiveness, intelligence, trustworthiness, amount of caring, friendship, dating, and likelihood to live as a neighbor. Analysis suggested a person missing visible teeth was more negatively perceived on all social traits than a person with full dentition. Results were strongest when students were proposed to be linked to the edentulous individual in a personal way, i.e., dating or living as neighbor. Men and women agreed on perceptions of social traits and dentition condition. These results suggest the presence of strong Western cultural values, whereby those who are missing teeth may experience significant barriers to personal and social success. PMID:18556899

  11. Clinical and radiographic diagnosis of underlying dark shadow from dentin (ICDAS 4) in permanent molars.

    PubMed

    Bertella, N; Moura, Dos S; Alves, L S; Damé-Teixeira, N; Fontanella, V; Maltz, M

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the radiographic pattern of underlying dark shadow from dentin (ICDAS 4) in permanent molars and assessed the association between enamel breakdown and radiographic features. Ninety-five teeth (54 patients) were clinically and radiographically assessed. The majority of ICDAS 4 caries lesions presented enamel breakdown (n = 78, 82.1%) and no radiographic image (n = 64, 67.4%) or a radiolucent zone restricted to the enamel-dentin junction (n = 17, 17.9%). No association was found between enamel breakdown and radiographic features. This study suggests that a radiographic examination is needed prior to the decision making process for underlying dark shadows from dentin. PMID:23712062

  12. DISTRIBUTION OF BOVINE LEUKEMIA VIRUS PROVIRAL SEQUENCES IN TISSUES OF BOVINE,

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    DISTRIBUTION OF BOVINE LEUKEMIA VIRUS PROVIRAL SEQUENCES IN TISSUES OF BOVINE, OVINE AND HUMAN Leukemia Virus is implicated in the etiology of Enzootic Bovine Leukosis (EBL) (Burny et al., 1978 sequences. Abbreviations BLV Bovine leukemia virus cDNA DNA complementary-to a RNA tem- plate Cot Product

  13. Microfilm Permanence and Archival Quality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Avedon, Don M.

    1972-01-01

    The facts about microfilm permanence and archival quality are presented in simple terms. The major factors, including the film base material, the film emulsion, processing, and storage conditions are reviewed. The designations on the edge of the film are explained and a list of refernces provided. (14 references) (Author)

  14. Tetracycline-induced discoloration of deciduous teeth: case series.

    PubMed

    Vennila, Vijayasree; Madhu, Vasapalli; Rajesh, R; Ealla, Kranti Kiran Reddy; Velidandla, Surekha Reddy; Santoshi, S

    2014-06-01

    Tetracycline was the choice of antibiotic in some of the life-threatening bacterial infections. Due to its adverse effects and ability to cross-placental barrier, its use is contraindicated in pregnancy and in children. This is a case series of four patients with tetracycline-induced discoloration in primary teeth. How to cite the article: Vennila V, Madhu V, Rajesh R, Ealla KKR, Velidandla SR, Santoshi S. Tetracycline induced discoloration of deciduous teeth: Case series. J Int Oral Health 2014;6(3):115-9. PMID:25083046

  15. Tetracycline-Induced Discoloration of Deciduous Teeth: Case Series

    PubMed Central

    Vennila, Vijayasree; Madhu, Vasapalli; Rajesh, R; Ealla, Kranti Kiran Reddy; Velidandla, Surekha Reddy; Santoshi, S

    2014-01-01

    Tetracycline was the choice of antibiotic in some of the life-threatening bacterial infections. Due to its adverse effects and ability to cross-placental barrier, its use is contraindicated in pregnancy and in children. This is a case series of four patients with tetracycline-induced discoloration in primary teeth. How to cite the article: Vennila V, Madhu V, Rajesh R, Ealla KKR, Velidandla SR, Santoshi S. Tetracycline induced discoloration of deciduous teeth: Case series. J Int Oral Health 2014;6(3):115-9. PMID:25083046

  16. Odontomas and Supernumerary Teeth: Is There a Common Origin?

    PubMed Central

    Pippi, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present work is to analyze all scientific evidence to verify whether similarities supporting a unified explanation for odontomas and supernumerary teeth exist. A literature search was first conducted for epidemiologic studies indexed by PubMed, to verify their worldwide incidence. The analysis of the literature data shows some interesting similarities between odontomas and supernumerary teeth concerning their topographic distribution and pathologic manifestations. There is also some indication of common genetic and immuno-histochemical factors. Although from a nosological point of view, odontomas and supernumeraries are classified as distinct entities, they seem to be the expression of the same pathologic process, either malformative or hamartomatous. PMID:25419174

  17. Viral infections and bovine mastitis: a review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. J Wellenberg; W. H. M van der Poel; J. T Van Oirschot

    2002-01-01

    This review deals with the role of viruses in the aetiology of bovine mastitis. Bovine herpesvirus 1, bovine herpesvirus 4, foot-and-mouth disease virus, and parainfluenza 3 virus have been isolated from milk from cows with clinical mastitis. Intramammary inoculations of bovine herpesvirus 1 or parainfluenza 3 virus-induced clinical mastitis, while an intramammary inoculation of foot-and-mouth disease virus resulted in necrosis

  18. 21 CFR 886.4445 - Permanent magnet.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...4445 Permanent magnet. (a) Identification. A permanent magnet is a nonelectric device that generates a magnetic field intended to find and remove metallic foreign bodies from eye tissue. (b) Classification. Class...

  19. 21 CFR 886.4445 - Permanent magnet.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...4445 Permanent magnet. (a) Identification. A permanent magnet is a nonelectric device that generates a magnetic field intended to find and remove metallic foreign bodies from eye tissue. (b) Classification. Class...

  20. 21 CFR 886.4445 - Permanent magnet.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...4445 Permanent magnet. (a) Identification. A permanent magnet is a nonelectric device that generates a magnetic field intended to find and remove metallic foreign bodies from eye tissue. (b) Classification. Class...

  1. 21 CFR 886.4445 - Permanent magnet.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...4445 Permanent magnet. (a) Identification. A permanent magnet is a nonelectric device that generates a magnetic field intended to find and remove metallic foreign bodies from eye tissue. (b) Classification. Class...

  2. 21 CFR 886.4445 - Permanent magnet.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...4445 Permanent magnet. (a) Identification. A permanent magnet is a nonelectric device that generates a magnetic field intended to find and remove metallic foreign bodies from eye tissue. (b) Classification. Class...

  3. Orthodontic management of non-syndromic multiple supernumerary teeth

    PubMed Central

    Singhvi, Vijay; Nambiar, Supriya; Shetty, Siddarth

    2013-01-01

    Hyperdontia amounts to an odontostomatologic anomaly wherein, there is an increase in tooth number irrespective of the location. This case report represents a form of hyperdontia characterized by bilateral multiple supernumerary teeth in both the jaws without any evident familial history. PMID:24403806

  4. SHED: Stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous teeth

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Masako Miura; Stan Gronthos; Mingrui Zhao; Bai Lu; Larry W. Fisher; Pamela Gehron Robey; Songtao Shi

    2003-01-01

    To isolate high-quality human postnatal stem cells from accessible resources is an important goal for stem-cell research. In this study we found that exfoliated human deciduous tooth contains multipotent stem cells [stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous teeth (SHED)]. SHED were identified to be a population of highly proliferative, clonogenic cells capable of differentiating into a variety of cell types

  5. Anesthetic efficacy of meperidine in teeth with symptomatic irreversible pulpitis.

    PubMed

    Mohajeri, Ladan; Salehi, Farnaz; Mehrvarzfar, Payman; Arfaee, Hamide; Bohluli, Behnam; Hamedy, Reza

    2015-01-01

    Achieving adequate pulpal anesthesia in mandibular teeth is always a challenge. Supplementary injections and using drugs in combination are some methods implemented to overcome this hurdle. In this randomized clinical trial, use of meperidine in conjunction with lidocaine in intraligamentary injection did not exhibit significant improvement in anesthesia. PMID:25849469

  6. CO2 laser on apical seal of retrofilled teeth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aun, Carlos E.; Gavini, Giulio; Clasen, Naya F.; Silva Kfouri, Luciana

    1997-05-01

    The CO2 laser has been suggested for occlusion of dentinal tubuli and sterilization of the beveled root surfaces, avoiding degrees of irritants from the root canal system into periapical tissues. This study has evaluated marginal leakage in 40 human single rooted teeth divided into 4 groups of 8 teeth which received retrofillings, and 2 control groups of 4 teeth each. Group A: Super EBA; group B: Super EBA and CO2 laser irradiation; group C: Glass Ionomer Cement; group D: Glass ionomer Cement and laser; group E: positive control; group F: negative control. In groups B and D the power set was 2 watts, 20 msec, with a CT3105 ceramic point. Teeth were placed in 5 percent methylene blue dye for 24 hs and the dye penetration was lower in B. The higher penetration was seen in C. Analysis of variance found statistical difference between groups. In this study the laser irradiation was able to change the amount of dye penetration. It can be assumed that Super EBA and Glass Ionomer Cement have their sealing abilities improved by laser irradiation.

  7. Orthodontic management of non-syndromic multiple supernumerary teeth.

    PubMed

    Singhvi, Vijay; Nambiar, Supriya; Shetty, Siddarth

    2013-10-01

    Hyperdontia amounts to an odontostomatologic anomaly wherein, there is an increase in tooth number irrespective of the location. This case report represents a form of hyperdontia characterized by bilateral multiple supernumerary teeth in both the jaws without any evident familial history. PMID:24403806

  8. Social and psychologic implications of missing teeth for chewing ability.

    PubMed

    Oosterhaven, S P; Westert, G P; Schaub, R M; van der Bilt, A

    1988-04-01

    The impact of loss of teeth on chewing ability was investigated in three groups of patients. One group already had missing teeth replaced by partial dentures, which were taken out during the tests. This group was taken as not being adapted to chew without a complete dentition. A second group had their missing teeth not replaced by partial dentures. During the test they were considered adapted to chew without a complete dentition. A third group had a complete natural dentition and they acted as control group. Tests were carried out regarding chewing ability and swallowing threshold. In addition, a clinical examination was carried out. It was found that the loss of molars significantly reduced chewing performance. Moreover the number of chewing-strokes before swallowing the food-bolus and the mean of the particle size at the point of swallowing were increased. Loss of molars resulted in less positive feelings concerning chewing. Both groups of persons with missing molars showed a similar chewing performance. The group of not adapted patients felt on average more negative about their chewing ability and they indicated more changes in daily activities because of missing teeth. PMID:3162861

  9. Characterization of crocodile teeth: correlation of composition, microstructure, and hardness.

    PubMed

    Enax, Joachim; Fabritius, Helge-Otto; Rack, Alexander; Prymak, Oleg; Raabe, Dierk; Epple, Matthias

    2013-11-01

    Structure and composition of teeth of the saltwater crocodile Crocodylus porosus were characterized by several high-resolution analytical techniques. X-ray diffraction in combination with elemental analysis and infrared spectroscopy showed that the mineral phase of the teeth is a carbonated calcium-deficient nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite in all three tooth-constituting tissues: Dentin, enamel, and cementum. The fluoride content in the three tissues is very low (<0.1 wt.%) and comparable to that in human teeth. The mineral content of dentin, enamel, and cementum as determined by thermogravimetry is 71.3, 80.5, and 66.8 wt.%, respectively. Synchrotron X-ray microtomography showed the internal structure and allowed to visualize the degree of mineralization in dentin, enamel, and cementum. Virtual sections through the tooth and scanning electron micrographs showed that the enamel layer is comparably thin (100-200 ?m). The crystallites in the enamel are oriented perpendicularly to the tooth surface. At the dentin-enamel-junction, the packing density of crystallites decreases, and the crystallites do not display an ordered structure as in the enamel. The microhardness was 0.60±0.05 GPa for dentin, 3.15±0.15 GPa for enamel, 0.26±0.08 GPa for cementum close to the crown, and 0.31±0.04 GPa for cementum close to the root margin. This can be explained with the different degree of mineralization of the different tissue types and is comparable with human teeth. PMID:24091039

  10. Genetics Home Reference: Short stature, hyperextensibility, hernia, ocular depression, Rieger anomaly, and teething ...

    MedlinePLUS

    ... OMIM Genetic disorder catalog Conditions > Short stature, hyperextensibility, hernia, ocular depression, Rieger anomaly, and teething delay (often ... 2013 What is SHORT syndrome? Short stature, hyperextensibility, hernia, ocular depression, Rieger anomaly, and teething delay, commonly ...

  11. Depth profilometric case studies in caries diagnostics of human teeth using modulated laser radiometry and luminescence

    E-print Network

    Mandelis, Andreas

    luminescence monitoring instrument DIAGNOdent by KaVo was also used to examine a set of teeth for comparison and commercialized, such as the DIAGNOdent,2,3 which can dis- tinguish carious and healthy teeth using unmodulated

  12. A KEY TO THE COMMON GENERA OF NEOGENE SHARK TEETH ROBERT W. PURDY

    E-print Network

    Mathis, Wayne N.

    A KEY TO THE COMMON GENERA OF NEOGENE SHARK TEETH BY ROBERT W. PURDY Revised April 2003 #12;2 Table . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 Using Artificial Tooth Sets to Identify Fossil Shark Teeth . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 Hexanchiform Sharks

  13. Sr and Nd isotope systematics in fish teeth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Staudigel, Hubert; Doyle, Pat; Zindler, Alan

    1985-12-01

    High concentrations of Sr and Nd in fish teeth apatite (up to 2000 and 3800 ppm. respectively) make them relatively impervious to diagenetic overprints and allow high-precision analysis of 87Sr/ 86 Sr and 143Nd/ 144Nd of very small amounts of material. 87Sr/ 86Sr ratios of 14 Cenozoic samples (< 55 Ma) from the Atlantic, Indian, and Pacific Oceans and the Caribbean Sea are close to the seawater value at the time of formation, suggesting their use for 87Sr/ 86Sr stratigraphic dating. A compilation of published 143Nd/ 144Nd data from recent Mn-nodules and marine FeMn deposits shows that the North-Central Pacific Ocean and the major portion of the Atlantic Ocean display distinctly different, narrow ranges in isotopic compositions. Between these two ares, the 143Nd/ 144Nd of Mn-nodules vary systematically towards intermediate compositions in the Southern Oceans, reflecting the communication between the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans through the eastward moving Antarctic Circumpolar Current. The 143Nd/ 144Nd of the 2-55 Ma old fish teeth analyzed are typically close to the range of 143Nd/ 144Nd in Recent Mn-nodules and seawater for the respective ocean and, thus, indicate no significant change through this time period. The 143Nd/ 144Nd of fish teeth from the North Pacific Ocean are highest during periods of high aeolian sedimentation. Since such dust probably introduces Nd with a low 143Nd/ 144Nd , it is unlikely that the fish teeth contain any significant amounts of sediment-derived REE's. Our data suggest that fish teeth probably obtained their REE signature from seawater during early diagenesis, not from later diagenetic overprints. For this reason they may be used to study the communication between the paleo-oceans. The 143Nd/ 144Nd of Caribbean Sea fish teeth is nearly constant through the past 8 Ma, precluding major influx of waters from the Pacific or the Atlantic Oceans, despite the evidence for faunal communication through the Isthmus of Panama prior to the Pliocene. The 143Nd/ 144Nd of 33 Ma old fish teeth from the Giant Piston Core, deposited at near equatorial paleolatitudes, suggest that the Central and North Pacific Ocean did not receive sufficient Atlantic-derived REE's to alter its 143Nd/ 144Nd . For this reason, a large-scale equatorial current through the Isthmus of Panama appears to be unlikely.

  14. Analysis of abutment teeth in partially edentulous patients.

    PubMed

    Stanci?, Ivica; Popovac, Aleksandra; Rodi?, Teodora; Stipeti?, Jasmina; Strajni?, Ljiljana; Persi?, Sanja

    2014-06-01

    The aim of the study was to examine changes in the position of the abutment teeth (AT), size of undercuts for a denture clasp, as well as an existence of an adequate preparation of abutment teeth. A total of 156 casts of partially edentulous jaws, with 460 AT, were analyzed. The size of undercuts, a degree of abutment rotation, inclination and migration were measured using a dental parallelometer. The abutment teeth position was related to the level of occlusal plane in a dental articulator. Furthermore, the existence of an adequate preparation of abutment teeth, as well as a type of a denture and a type of a denture retention element were also considered. Analysis were carried out twice on casts made from a hard stone, the first time before the denture treatment had begun and the second time on the new casts obtained after new dentures had been delivered. The first analysis (prior dental treatment) revealed that a total of 33.9% of the analyzed AT were rotated, 31.3% were inclined, 12.1% had migrated, and 57.3% were elongated above the occlusal plane. On the casts obtained after the new dentures had been made, it was observed that none of the AT had an adequate preparation. Only 37.6% of all retention elements were located in adequate undercut positions on the AT. Upon the results of the present study a conclusion can be established that many abutment teeth are rotated, elongated, inclined, and migrated, which point to a requirement for AT preparation prior the manufacture of new denture; however none of the AT was adequately prepared considering insertion plane and many denture elements were located in an inadequate undercut size. PMID:25145006

  15. Hen's teeth with enamel cap: from dream to impossibility

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Background The ability to form teeth was lost in an ancestor of all modern birds, approximately 100-80 million years ago. However, experiments in chicken have revealed that the oral epithelium can respond to inductive signals from mouse mesenchyme, leading to reactivation of the odontogenic pathway. Recently, tooth germs similar to crocodile rudimentary teeth were found in a chicken mutant. These "chicken teeth" did not develop further, but the question remains whether functional teeth with enamel cap would have been obtained if the experiments had been carried out over a longer time period or if the chicken mutants had survived. The next odontogenetic step would have been tooth differentiation, involving deposition of dental proteins. Results Using bioinformatics, we assessed the fate of the four dental proteins thought to be specific to enamel (amelogenin, AMEL; ameloblastin, AMBN; enamelin, ENAM) and to dentin (dentin sialophosphoprotein, DSPP) in the chicken genome. Conservation of gene synteny in amniotes allowed definition of target DNA regions in which we searched for sequence similarity. We found the full-length chicken AMEL and the only N-terminal region of DSPP, and both are invalidated genes. AMBN and ENAM disappeared after chromosomal rearrangements occurred in the candidate region in a bird ancestor. Conclusion These findings not only imply that functional teeth with enamel covering, as present in ancestral Aves, will never be obtained in birds, but they also indicate that these four protein genes were dental specific, at least in the last toothed ancestor of modern birds, a specificity which has been questioned in recent years. PMID:18775069

  16. Dental caries in primary and permanent molars in 7-8-year-old schoolchildren evaluated with Caries Assessment Spectrum and Treatment (CAST) index

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background No reports on a caries pattern covering the full spectrum of the disease could be found in the literature. The aim of this study was to evaluate caries in primary and first permanent molars of 7-8-year-old Polish children by the Caries Assessment Spectrum and Treatment (CAST) index and to find whether there was any correlation between the caries stages in such teeth. Methods The study covered 284 7-8-year-old children from randomly selected schools in the Bialystok District, Poland. The prevalence of CAST categories was evaluated with regard to the first and second primary, and first permanent, molars. The Spearman’s rank correlation coefficient was used to explore the correlation of the distribution of CAST codes among the evaluated teeth. The level of statistical significance was established at p?permanent molars, caries was observed in 14.8% to 17.3% of the molar and most lesions were scored at the non-cavitation level. Caries in primary molars was most often recorded at the stage of cavitated dentine lesion. Teeth with pulpal involvement, sepsis and extracted due to caries were found to be more prevalent in first, and then in second primary molars. A strong correlation was found between the status of teeth from the right and left sides of the oral cavity. The correlation of the status of first and second primary teeth was stronger for the left than for the right side of the mouth, r was 0.627 and 0.472 in maxilla and 0.513 and 0.483 in mandible (p?permanent molars the correlation was assessed to be weak. With regard to the teeth situated in opposite jaws the study revealed that the correlations were moderate - r between 0.33 and 0.49. The intra-examiner reliability was established at 0.96 for the primary dentition and at 0.878 for permanent molars. Conclusion The strongest correlation found in the evaluated population concerned the distribution of caries in primary molars on the left side of the mouth. The study proved the usefulness of the CAST index in epidemiological surveys. PMID:24952612

  17. Development of deciduous and permanent dentitions in the upper jaw of the house shrew (Suncus murinus).

    PubMed

    Yamanaka, Atsushi; Yasui, Kinya; Sonomura, Takahiro; Iwai, Haruki; Uemura, Masanori

    2010-04-01

    The diphyodont tooth replacement in mammals is characterized by a single replacement of a deciduous dentition by a permanent dentition. Despite its significance in mammalian biology and paleontology, little is known about the developmental mechanisms regulating the diphyodont replacement. Because the mouse never replaces its teeth, this study used the house shrew, Suncus murinus, as a model to investigate the control of the diphyodont replacement of a deciduous dentition by successions and additions of permanent teeth. Using morphological and gene expression analyses of serial sections, we have demonstrated the development of the upper dentition of the house shrew. In this species, the deciduous tooth germs are formed but soon become vestigial, whereas the successional and accessional (molar) germs are subsequently formed and developed. There are distinct Shh expression domains in the deciduous, successional, and accessional tooth germs, and those of the latter two germs are identified from the appearance of their primary enamel knots. The developmental sequence of tooth germs in the house shrew indicates that two adjacent primary enamel knots of the successional and accessional germs do not develop simultaneously, but with a constant time lag. We suggest that this mode of tooth succession and accession can be explained by a sequential inhibitory cascade model in which the timing of initiation and the spacing of tooth development are determined by the inhibition from the primary enamel knots of developmentally preceding adjacent tooth germs. PMID:20303065

  18. CBCT evaluation of multiple idiopathic internal resorptions in permanent molars: case report

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Internal inflammatory root resorption is a rare condition in permanent teeth, which requires the presence of necrotic and infected pulp tissue within the coronal portion of the root canal system as well as inflamed pulp tissue apical to the resorptive defect. The aetiology of internal root resorption is not completely understandable, trauma and chronic pulpitis are considered the main risk factors. Case presentation We report a rare case of the multiple idiopathic resorption in the permanent maxillary and mandibular molars in a healthy 33-year-old female patient. In addition to clinical examination the patient was imaged using conventional radiography techniques and cone beam computed tomography (CBCT).The patient had recurrent throbbing pain in her # 46. The radiographic examination including “panoramic radiography and CBCT” revealed that radiographic evidence of internal resorption in #37 #36 #35 #34 #33 #47 #46 #45 #44 #43 #16 #15 #14 #13 and also including in unerupted #17, #26, #27, #28 teeth. The definitive diagnosis was made with the histopathological examination of the extracted tooth. Conclusions Internal root resorption is a rare clinical process that should be examined using different radiographic modalities. CBCT seems to be useful in evaluation of the lesions with superior diagnostic performance. PMID:24739085

  19. High speed internal permanent magnet machine and method of manufacturing the same

    DOEpatents

    Alexander, James Pellegrino (Ballston Lake, NY); EL-Refaie, Ayman Mohamed Fawzi (Niskayuna, NY); Lokhandwalla, Murtuza (Clifton Park, NY); Shah, Manoj Ramprasad (Latham, NY); VanDam, Jeremy Daniel (West Coxsackie, NY)

    2011-09-13

    An internal permanent magnet (IPM) machine is provided. The IPM machine includes a stator assembly and a stator core. The stator core also includes multiple stator teeth. The stator assembly is further configured with stator windings to generate a magnetic field when excited with alternating currents and extends along a longitudinal axis with an inner surface defining a cavity. The IPM machine also includes a rotor assembly and a rotor core. The rotor core is disposed inside the cavity and configured to rotate about the longitudinal axis. The rotor assembly further includes a shaft. The shaft further includes multiple protrusions alternately arranged relative to multiple bottom structures provided on the shaft. The rotor assembly also includes multiple stacks of laminations disposed on the protrusions and dovetailed circumferentially around the shaft. The rotor assembly further includes multiple permanent magnets for generating a magnetic field, which interacts with the stator magnetic field to produce torque. The permanent magnets are disposed between the stacks. The rotor assembly also includes multiple bottom wedges disposed on the bottom structures of the shaft and configured to hold the multiple stacks and the multiple permanent magnets.

  20. National clinical guidelines for the extraction of first permanent molars in children.

    PubMed

    Cobourne, M T; Williams, A; Harrison, M

    2014-12-01

    This article summarises recently updated guidelines produced by the Clinical Governance Directorate of the British Orthodontic Society through the Clinical Standards Committee of the Faculty of Dental Surgery, Royal College of Surgeons of England (FDSRCS) on the extraction of first permanent molars in children. The first permanent molar is susceptible to chronological enamel defects, molar-incisor hypomineralisation and caries, which may necessitate enforced extraction in the developing dentition. In the right circumstances, the extraction of these teeth can be followed by successful eruption of the second permanent molar and ultimately, third molar eruption to complete the molar dentition. For this reason, elective extraction of first permanent molars with a questionable long-term prognosis should be considered when planning enforced extractions. However, a number of factors can influence the decision-making process, including the necessity for a general anaesthetic to allow extraction, potential cooperation with restorative or orthodontic treatment and likely future preventative practice within the family. Moreover, the presence of any underlying malocclusion also needs to be evaluated within the context of extraction planning. The current available evidence has been evaluated and awarded a grade based upon those recommended by the Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network. PMID:25476643

  1. A Measurement of Galvanic Current and Electrical Potential in Extracted Human Teeth

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. Momoi; A. Asanuma; A. Kohno; K. Yanagisawa

    1986-01-01

    When opposing teeth with amalgam and gold restoration are in contact, current flows in the mouth at the instant the dissimilar metals touch. In this study, this condition was simulated by use of resistors and extracted human teeth with amalgam and MOD gold inlay restorations.When both teeth were in contact in a physiological saline solution, we measured current and electrical

  2. Performance of Conventional and New Methods for the Detection of Occlusal Caries in Deciduous Teeth

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Lussi; P. Francescut

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare, in vitro, the performance of different conventional diagnostic techniques with the laser-based device, DIAGNOdent, for diagnosis of occlusal caries in deciduous teeth. 95 deciduous teeth with macroscopically intact occlusal surfaces were selected. All teeth were assessed by the following techniques: visual inspection (VI), visual inspection with magnification (VIM), visual inspection combined with

  3. In Vivo Tetracycline Labeling of Experimentally Induced Reparative Dentin in Human Teeth

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Tagger; S. Perlmutter; H. Galon; M. Helft

    1975-01-01

    Tetracycline hydrochloride was administered to label reparative dentin in teeth indicated for extraction. Deep cavities or pulp capping performed on the teeth one to four months before extraction served as a stimulus for new dentin formation. Examination of undemineralized sections under ultraviolet light revealed fluorescent bands in the reparative dentin of most teeth. The technique can be safely used in

  4. Hydathodal leaf teeth of Chloranthus japonicus (Chloranthaceae) prevent guttation-induced flooding of the mesophyll

    Microsoft Academic Search

    TAYLOR S. FEILD; TAMMY L. SAGE; CHRISTINE CZERNIAK; WILLIAM J. D. ILES

    2005-01-01

    Why the leaves of cold temperate deciduous and moisture- loving angiosperms are so often toothed has long puzzled biologists because the functional consequences of teeth remain poorly understood. Here we provide functional and structural evidence that marginal leaf teeth of Chloranthus japonicus , an understory herb, enable the release of gutta- tion sap during root pressure. When guttation from teeth

  5. Occlusal caries diagnosis in permanent teeth: an in vitro study Diagnóstico de cárie oclusal em dentes permanentes: estudo in vitro

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Braz Oral Res; Gisele Angnes; Vivian Angnes; Rosa Helena; Miranda Grande; Márcio Battistella; Alessandro Dourado Loguercio; Alessandra Reis

    The reduction in caries prevalence has not occurred uniformly for all dental surfaces. As the occlusal surfaces are still the most likely sites for the development of lesions, new methods of diagnosis are still being evalu- ated. This study compared a laser fluorescence (LF) system (DIAGNOdent) with the Ekstrand's visual system for in vitro detection of occlusal caries. A total

  6. Innovative endodontic therapy for anti-inflammatory direct pulp capping of permanent teeth with a mature apex.

    PubMed

    Komabayashi, Takashi; Zhu, Qiang

    2010-05-01

    Direct pulp capping is treatment of an exposed vital pulp with a dental material to facilitate the formation of reparative dentin and maintenance of vital pulp. It has been studied as an alternate way to avoid vital pulp extirpation. However, the success rate of pulp capping is much lower than that of vital pulp extirpation. Therefore, direct pulp capping is currently considered controversial by many clinicians. To increase the success rate, a critical need exists to develop new biologically based therapeutics that reduce pulp inflammation, promote the continued formation of new dentin-pulp complex, and restore vitality by stimulating the regrowth of pulpal tissue. Bioengineered anti-inflammatory direct pulp-capping materials, together with adhesive materials for leakage prevention, have great potential to improve the condition of the existing pulp from an inflamed to a noninflamed status and lead to a high rate of long-term success. PMID:20416524

  7. Gender Determination Using Diagonal Measurements of Maxillary Molar and Canine Teeth in Davangere Population

    PubMed Central

    Tarigoppula, Ratna Kumari V. N.; Kulkarni, Pavan G; BS, Anil

    2014-01-01

    Background: Mesiodistal and buccolingual measurements of the teeth have been the traditional means of determining gender which sometimes are difficult to measure. Aims and Objectives: To assess the degree of sexual dimorphism in upper permanent canines and first molars using diagonal diameters and to evaluate the applicability of diagonal measurements in sex determination. Materials and Methods: Mesiobuccal-distolingual (MBDL) and distobuccal-mesiolingual (DBML) measurements of the crown and cervix of maxillary canine and maxillary molar were taken using digital vernier callipers in 100 upper dental casts obtained from 50 males and 50 females of the age group of 17-25 y. Results: With step wise discriminant function analysis, results were statistically significant with males showing higher diagonal measurement values. The classification accuracy for males was 69% and in females was 73% with overall accuracy of 71%. Results showed that canines exhibited highest accuracy with cervical measurements being more dimorphic. MBDL measurements were found to be more reliable. Most dimorphicmeasurements included right molar cervical MBDL, left molar cervical MBDL followed by right and left molar crown MBDL. Conclusion: In cases of tooth rotations, crowding, certain fillings and attritions where traditional mesio-distal and bucco-lingual measurements are not applicable, diagonal measurements could be of help in predicting gender. PMID:25584308

  8. Evidence for a single loss of mineralized teeth in the common avian ancestor.

    PubMed

    Meredith, Robert W; Zhang, Guojie; Gilbert, M Thomas P; Jarvis, Erich D; Springer, Mark S

    2014-12-12

    Edentulism, the absence of teeth, has evolved convergently among vertebrates, including birds, turtles, and several lineages of mammals. Instead of teeth, modern birds (Neornithes) use a horny beak (rhamphotheca) and a muscular gizzard to acquire and process food. We performed comparative genomic analyses representing lineages of nearly all extant bird orders and recovered shared, inactivating mutations within genes expressed in both the enamel and dentin of teeth of other vertebrate species, indicating that the common ancestor of modern birds lacked mineralized teeth. We estimate that tooth loss, or at least the loss of enamel caps that provide the outer layer of mineralized teeth, occurred about 116 million years ago. PMID:25504730

  9. Colour stability of denture teeth submitted to different cleaning protocols and accelerated artificial aging.

    PubMed

    Freire, T S; Aguilar, F G; Garcia, L da Fonseca Roberti; Pires-de-Souza, F de Carvalho Panzeri

    2014-03-01

    Acrylic resin is widely used for artificial teeth manufacturing due to several important characteristics; however, this material do not present acceptable colour stability over the course of time. This study evaluated the effect of different cleaning protocols and accelerated artificial aging on colour stability of denture teeth made of acrylic resin. Sixty denture teeth in dark and light shades were used, and separated according to the treatment to which they were submitted. Results demonstrated that colour stability of artificial teeth is influenced by the cleaning solution and artificial aging, being dark teeth more susceptible to colour alteration than lighter ones. PMID:24922996

  10. Radiographic Assessment and Chair Time of Rotary Instruments in the Pulpectomy of Primary Second Molar Teeth: A Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Makarem, Abbas; Ravandeh, Navid; Ebrahimi, Masoumeh

    2014-01-01

    Background and aims. The superiority of rotary systems has been reported in several clinical studies on permanent teeth. This study consisted of radiographic assessment and chair time of rotary instruments in the pulpectomy of primary second molar teeth. Materials and methods. In this randomized controlled clinical study, 46 children, 3-6 years of age, were selected. The patients were divided randomly into two groups. In the first group (group A) pulpectomy was carried out with hand instruments and in the second group (group B) the Rotary FlexMaster System was used. T-test and chi-squared test were used to analyze data. Results. The mean instrumentation time in group A was significantly more than that in group B (P<0.001). Also there was a significant difference between both groups in relation to the distance between the apex of mesial root (P<0.001) and distal root (P=0.007) and the canal filling level. Conclusion. Superior radiographic findings and less chair time of pulpectomy with rotary instruments in second primary molar teeth were achieved. PMID:25093051

  11. A COMPARISON OF THE BOVINE LEUKEMIA AND BOVINE SYNCYTIAL VIRUS STATUS IN UTERO-TUBAL CELLS RECOVERED FROM FLUIDS USED

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    A COMPARISON OF THE BOVINE LEUKEMIA AND BOVINE SYNCYTIAL VIRUS STATUS IN UTERO-TUBAL CELLS) (Samagh et al 1977, Serological diagno- sis of bovine leukemia virus infection using dual (glycoprotein, Rotterdam, Aug 29ih-30th ; pp 69-77) that both bovine leukemia virus (BLV) and bovine syncytial virus (BSV

  12. Method of making permanent magnets

    DOEpatents

    McCallum, R.W.; Dennis, K.W.; Lograsso, B.K.; Anderson, I.E.

    1993-09-07

    A method for making an isotropic permanent magnet comprises atomizing a melt of a rare earth-transition metal alloy (e.g., an Nd--Fe--B alloy enriched in Nd and B) under conditions to produce protectively coated, rapidly solidified, generally spherical alloy particles. Wherein a majority of the particles are produced/size classified within a given size fraction (e.g., 5 to 40 microns diameter) exhibiting optimum as-atomized magnetic properties and subjecting the particles to concurrent elevated temperature and elevated isotropic pressure for a time effective to yield a densified, magnetically isotropic magnet compact having enhanced magnetic properties and mechanical properties. 13 figures.

  13. Microleakage of temporary endodontic restorations in teeth restored with amalgam.

    PubMed

    Turner, J E; Anderson, R W; Pashley, D H; Pantera, E A

    1990-01-01

    Microleakage of seven temporary restorative materials was evaluated in endodontic access preparations made in teeth restored with amalgam. Ten teeth were used for each of the seven materials: Cavit, Cavit-G, TERM, zinc phosphate cement, polycarboxylate cement, glass ionomer cement, and IRM. A class I amalgam was placed in the occlusal surface of each experimental tooth and an endodontic access preparation was made entirely within the amalgam. Then the access preparation was restored with one of the temporary restorative materials, and microleakage was evaluated using a fluid filtration technique. The amount of microleakage was quantitated by measuring the fluid flow at 15 min, 1 h, 24 h, 1 wk, and 2 wk after insertion of the temporary restoration. Cavit, Cavit-G, TERM, IRM, and glass ionomer cement all provided excellent seals while zinc phosphate cement and polycarboxylate cement provided less effective seals. PMID:2388011

  14. Sizes of deciduous teeth in 47,XYY males.

    PubMed Central

    Alvesalo, L; Kari, M

    1977-01-01

    Deciduous teeth of six 47,XYY males have been examined, and the tooth sizes were found to be larger than those of controls. We concluded that a factor or factors which influence excess dental growth in 47,XYY males are probably in effect before the age of a few months. The time needed for the achievement of final tooth growth excess seems to be limited to a 9--18 month period. It also became evident that excess dental growth of 47,XYY individuals is a developmentally stable process, and the Y chromosome apparently regulates quantitative variation of the teeth in normal males [2]. These observations on tooth sizes in 47,XYY males suggest a chromosomal influence on dental determination. PMID:900123

  15. Comparison of periodontitis and root replacement in cat teeth with resorptive lesions.

    PubMed

    DuPont, Gregg A; DeBowes, Linda J

    2002-06-01

    Cat teeth with resorptive lesions and periodontitis may have a distinctly different clinical and radiographic appearance compared with teeth that have focal, lesion-associated gingivitis. A retrospective, case-controlled study was performed to determine the occurrence of root replacement in cats with resorptive lesions and associated periodontitis. Of 543 teeth evaluated with resorptive lesions, radiographic and/or clinical signs of periodontitis were identified in 236 (43.5%) teeth. Periodontitis was present in 43 of 275 (15.6%) teeth with root replacement and 193 of 268 (72.0%) teeth that had normal radiodensity and maintenance of the periodontal ligament. There was a significantly lower occurrence of root replacement in cat teeth with resorptive lesions and periodontitis. PMID:12108131

  16. Effects of threaded post placement on strain and stress distribution of endodontically treated teeth.

    PubMed

    Santos Filho, Paulo César Freitas; Soares, Paulo Vinícius; Reis, Bruno Rodrigues; Veríssimo, Crisnicaw; Soares, Carlos José

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of parallel and tapered threaded post placement on the strain and stress distribution of endodontically treated teeth. Fifteen bovine incisors were sectioned 15 mm from their apices, endodontically treated, and divided into three groups (n=5) according to three different threaded posts: parallel threaded post (Radix-Anker, RA); tapered threaded post (Euro-Post, EP) and tapered threaded post (Reforpost II, RII). A strain-gauge was fixed on the proximal surface perpendicular to the long root axis, 2 mm from the cervical limit. Strain generated during post placement was recorded and compared using one-way ANOVA and Tukey's test (?=.05). A scanning electron microscope was used to examine the longitudinal root sections. Stress was evaluated for each group in a two-dimensional finite element analysis. The models were meshed with tetrahedron elements and loaded with 2 N at an angle of 135° to the lingual face. The equivalent Von Mises stress was calculated. The one-way ANOVA showed significant difference among the groups. The RA group (150.0±12.2 A) produced higher external strain than the RII (80.0±12.2 B) and the EP (70.0±6.1 B) groups. The inner strain was approximately five times greater than the external dentin strain. High stress concentrations in each thread of the posts were observed. Scanning electron micrographs showed cracks that started in the threads of the posts. The threaded post placement induced root strain mainly on the parallel side post. Root strain and stress concentration on the post threads tended to create cracks in the inner root canal dentin. PMID:23903859

  17. What is the Best Root Surface Treatment for Avulsed Teeth?

    PubMed Central

    Tuna, Elif B; Yaman, Duygu; Yamamato, Seiko

    2014-01-01

    Dental avulsion is the most severe type of traumatic tooth injuries since it causes damage to several structures and results in avulsion of the tooth from its socket. Management protocols for avulsed teeth should include management of the pulp and periodontal ligament (PDL) cells in order to improve the long-term prognosis and survival of these teeth. The prognosis of the treatment as well as the survival of an avulsed tooth depends on intrinsic and extrinsic factors, such as the duration of the tooth’s extra-alveolar period, replantation time, the type of storage medium, PDL status and duration of splinting. Recent research has led to the development of storage media. However, there is not yet a single solution that fulfills all requirements to be considered as the ideal medium for temporary storage of avulsed teeth, and research on this field should carry on. On the other hand in case of delayed replantation, due to the great risk of tooth loss after avulsion, different root surface treatments have been proposed to prevent and delay root resorption before replantation. For this purpose, researchers have applied some different root surface treatment modalities in delayed replantation of avulsed teeth. Several protocols have been used to maintain PDL viability; some involve fluorides, steroids, sodium alendronate, enamel matrix derivatives (EMD) and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF, FGF-2). Among these applications, bFGF shows promising results in the regeneration of natural tooth structures and tissues. Better understanding of mechanism of bFGF may help to improve new technologies of regeneration of tooth structures. PMID:25317212

  18. Apatite Mineralization in Teeth of the Chiton Acanthopleura echinata

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. P. Lee; L. R. Brooker; D. J. Macey; W. van Bronswijk; J. Webb

    2000-01-01

    .   Raman spectroscopy has been used to demonstrate, for the first time, that calcium mineralization in the core of the major\\u000a lateral teeth of the chiton Acanthopleura echinata takes place as an ordered process, with crystalline carbonated apatite being the first mineral deposited. Deposition begins\\u000a at the top of the tooth core, under the so-called tab region, progresses down the

  19. Esthetic removable partial denture design in replacing maxillary anterior teeth.

    PubMed

    Oh, Won-Suk; Basho, Shveta

    2010-01-01

    Prosthodontic rehabilitation of missing maxillary anterior teeth requires special consideration to restore function and esthetics. This case report describes the prosthodontic management of a patient who lost three maxillary incisors due to a motor vehicle accident. A rotational path removable partial denture was constructed, for which a proximal undercut was created by means of a composite buildup to provide the retention for the prosthesis. PMID:21062709

  20. Comparative clinical wettability of teeth and intraoral mucosa

    Microsoft Academic Search

    PER-OLOF J. Glantz; Robert E. Baier; Rolf Attstrom; Anne E. Meyer; Hermann Gucinski

    1991-01-01

    The observed reduced adhesiveness of human intraoral mucosa, as compared with adjacent teeth, was determined for 14 healthy humans to correlate with differing measured intraoral contact angles for a variety of otherwise non-interacting test liquids on these two equally water-wettable surfaces under clinical conditions. Measurements were made on the front maxillary tooth surfaces and the-inner lower lip mucosal surfaces of

  1. An updated object oriented bovine QTL viewer and genome-wide bovine meta-analysis 

    E-print Network

    Salih, Hanni

    2009-05-15

    Waves of bovine genomic data have been produced as a result of the bovine genome sequencing projects. In addition to the massive amounts of genomic sequence, significant annotation including single nucleotide polymorphisms, sequence tagged sites...

  2. 72 FR 53314 - Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy; Minimal-Risk Regions; Importation of Live Bovines and Products...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2007-09-18

    ...in the UK: inclusion of subclinical infection and the possibility of wider genetic...DISEASE, AFRICAN SWINE FEVER, CLASSICAL SWINE FEVER, AND BOVINE SPONGIFORM ENCEPHALOPATHY...Prohibition of casings due to African swine fever and bovine spongiform...

  3. Color alteration in teeth subjected to different bleaching techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Briso, A. L. F.; Fonseca, M. S. M.; de Almeida, L. C. A. G.; Mauro, S. J.; Dos Santos, P. H.

    2010-12-01

    This study evaluated the color alteration of teeth subjected to the action of different bleaching agents and the influence of light sources commonly used in association with these products, In GI, the specimens remained immersed in artificial saliva. The specimens in GII were bleached with a 10% carbamide peroxide gel 4 hours/day during 3 weeks; the teeth in the other three groups were subjected to three sessions of three 10-min applications of 35% hydrogen peroxide gel at 7-day intervals. In GIII, no light was used, while in GIV and GV the gel was associated with a quartz-tungsten-halogen light and a LED/laser source, respectively. The teeth color was evaluated before and 7 days after the bleaching sessions by reflectance spectrophotometry. Data were analyzed statistically by ANOVA and Fisher's test (? = 0.05), and showed that a significant color change was obtained in all treated groups. After the first week of treatment and at the end of it, the bleaching protocols showed similar results. The results of the present study indicate that association of a light source is not necessary to obtain the bleaching effect and that optimal bleaching can be achieved with all techniques tested.

  4. Improving access to endogenous DNA in ancient bones and teeth

    PubMed Central

    Damgaard, Peter B.; Margaryan, Ashot; Schroeder, Hannes; Orlando, Ludovic; Willerslev, Eske; Allentoft, Morten E.

    2015-01-01

    Poor DNA preservation is the most limiting factor in ancient genomic research. In the majority of ancient bones and teeth, endogenous DNA molecules represent a minor fraction of the whole DNA extract, rendering shot-gun sequencing inefficient for obtaining genomic data. Based on ancient human bone samples from temperate and tropical environments, we show that an EDTA-based enzymatic ‘pre-digestion’ of powdered bone increases the proportion of endogenous DNA several fold. By performing the pre-digestion step between 30?min and 6?hours on five bones, we observe an asymptotic increase in endogenous DNA content, with a 2.7-fold average increase reached at 1?hour. We repeat the experiment using a brief pre-digestion (15 or 30?mins) on 21 ancient bones and teeth from a variety of archaeological contexts and observe an improvement in 16 of these. We here advocate the implementation of a brief pre-digestion step as a standard procedure in ancient DNA extractions. Finally, we demonstrate on 14 ancient teeth that by targeting the outer layer of the roots we obtain up to 14 times more endogenous DNA than when using the inner dentine. Our presented methods are likely to increase the proportion of ancient samples that are suitable for genome-scale characterization. PMID:26081994

  5. Identification of cultivable microorganisms from primary teeth with necrotic pulps.

    PubMed

    Ledezma-Rasillo, Gildardo; Flores-Reyes, Hector; Gonzalez-Amaro, Ana M; Garrocho-Rangel, Arturo; Ruiz-Rodriguez, M del Socorro; Pozos-Guillen, Amaury J

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to identify cultivable microorganisms from primary teeth with necrotic pulps. This experimental study included 21 patients of both sexes between 4 and 7 years of age with necrotic pulps in primary teeth. Twenty-one maxillary and mandibular molars containing at least 1 necrotic canal, an abscess or sinus tract, one or more radiolucent areas in the furcation or periapical region, teeth having at least two thirds of root length, and carious lesions directly exposed to the oral environment were included. After antisepsis of the oral cavity, anesthesia of the affected tooth, and isolation and disinfection of the operative field, 3 sterile absorbent paper points were sequentially placed for 30 seconds for the collection of samples. The samples were immediately processed in an anaerobic chamber, and all isolated microorganisms were identified. Anaerobic species (anaerobic facultative and moderate anaerobes) were isolated in all root canals; 68.4% of root canal samples studied showed a polymicrobial nature. Most of the isolate consisted of Bifidobacterium Spp2 and Streptococcus intermedius. Other less frequently encountered species were Actinomyces israelii, Bifidobacterium spp 1, Clostridium spp, and Candida albicans. Results indicate the existence of combinations of bacterial species in root canal infections of the primary dentition with necrotic pulps, anaerobic bacteria predominating. PMID:20831135

  6. Improving access to endogenous DNA in ancient bones and teeth.

    PubMed

    Damgaard, Peter B; Margaryan, Ashot; Schroeder, Hannes; Orlando, Ludovic; Willerslev, Eske; Allentoft, Morten E

    2015-01-01

    Poor DNA preservation is the most limiting factor in ancient genomic research. In the majority of ancient bones and teeth, endogenous DNA molecules represent a minor fraction of the whole DNA extract, rendering shot-gun sequencing inefficient for obtaining genomic data. Based on ancient human bone samples from temperate and tropical environments, we show that an EDTA-based enzymatic 'pre-digestion' of powdered bone increases the proportion of endogenous DNA several fold. By performing the pre-digestion step between 30?min and 6?hours on five bones, we observe an asymptotic increase in endogenous DNA content, with a 2.7-fold average increase reached at 1?hour. We repeat the experiment using a brief pre-digestion (15 or 30?mins) on 21 ancient bones and teeth from a variety of archaeological contexts and observe an improvement in 16 of these. We here advocate the implementation of a brief pre-digestion step as a standard procedure in ancient DNA extractions. Finally, we demonstrate on 14 ancient teeth that by targeting the outer layer of the roots we obtain up to 14 times more endogenous DNA than when using the inner dentine. Our presented methods are likely to increase the proportion of ancient samples that are suitable for genome-scale characterization. PMID:26081994

  7. Size and placement of developing anterior teeth in immature Neanderthal mandibles from Dederiyeh Cave, Syria: implications for emergence of the modern human chin.

    PubMed

    Fukase, Hitoshi; Kondo, Osamu; Ishida, Hajime

    2015-03-01

    Evolutionary and functional significance of the human chin has long been explored from various perspectives including masticatory biomechanics, speech, and anterior tooth size. Recent ontogenetic studies have indicated that the spatial position of internally forming anterior teeth partially constrains adult mandibular symphyseal morphology. The present study therefore preliminarily examined the size and placement of developing anterior teeth in immature Neanderthal mandibles of Dederiyeh 1 and 2, compared with similarly-aged modern humans (N = 16) and chimpanzees (N = 7) whose incisors are comparatively small and large among extant hominids, respectively. The Dederiyeh 1 mandible is described as slightly presenting a mental trigone and attendant mental fossa, whereas Dederiyeh 2 completely lacks such chin-associated configurations. Results showed that, despite symphyseal size being within the modern human range, both Dederiyeh mandibles accommodated overall larger anterior dentition and displayed a remarkably wide bicanine space compared to those of modern humans. Dederiyeh 2 had comparatively thicker deciduous incisor roots and more enlarged permanent incisor crypts than Dederiyeh 1, but both Dederiyeh individuals exhibited a total dental size mostly intermediate between modern humans and chimpanzees. These findings potentially imply that the large deciduous/permanent incisors collectively distended the labial alveolar bone, obscuring an incipient mental trigone. It is therefore hypothesized that the appearance of chin-associated features, particularly of the mental trigone and fossa, can be accounted for partly by developmental relationships between the sizes of the available mandibular space and anterior teeth. This hypothesis must be, however, further addressed with more referential samples in future studies. PMID:25388672

  8. Sequence homology between bovine and human adenoviruses.

    PubMed Central

    Hu, S L; Hays, W W; Potts, D E

    1984-01-01

    Cross-hybridization has been detected between corresponding regions of the genomes of bovine adenovirus type 3 and human adenovirus type 2. The most conserved region on the viral genomes encodes the hexon polypeptide. The nucleotide sequence of this region in bovine adenovirus type 3 has been determined. Comparison of the predicted amino acid sequences of the bovine adenovirus type 3 and human adenovirus type 2 hexon polypeptides reveals three regions of nonhomology. Images PMID:6694264

  9. Malate dehydrogenase in bovine spermatozoa

    E-print Network

    Lin, Hozong Robert

    1973-01-01

    of the bovine spermatozoa is another objective of this investigation. LITERATURE REVIEW MDH catalyzes the following reversible reaction: + D-malate + NAD ~ oxaloacetate + NADH + H ! ' It also reversibly catalyzes the oxidative decarboxylation.... I Krampitz and Werkman (l941) had, for example, demonstrated i that they can bring about the decarboxylation of oxaloace- tic acid to pyruvate and carbon dioxide. In addition, 26 crII) ln Icm 0 'Icm 2cm 3cm lcm Scm ecm + Figure 4. Schematic...

  10. Gating of Permanent Molds for Aluminum Casting

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David Schwam; John F. Wallace; Tom Engle; Qingming Chang

    2004-01-01

    This report summarizes a two-year project, DE-FC07-011D13983 that concerns the gating of aluminum castings in permanent molds. The main goal of the project is to improve the quality of aluminum castings produced in permanent molds. The approach taken was to determine how the vertical type gating systems used for permanent mold castings can be designed to fill the mold cavity

  11. Correlated physiochemical and age changes in embryonic bovine enamel.

    PubMed

    Landis, W J; Navarro, M

    1983-01-01

    Whole enamel scrapings from unerupted teeth of embryonic calves have been separated into fractions of varying density by stepwise centrifugation in bromoform-toluene mixtures of increasing specific gravity. Partition of enamel in this manner yields individual fractions of increasing mineral phase age and maturation. Whole scrapings and isolated fractions of the fetal bovine enamel were examined by X-ray powder diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and atomic absorption and infrared spectroscopy to determine time-related changes in the physiochemical nature of the constituent mineral phase particles. These analyses showed poorly crystalline hydroxyapatite (HA) as the only detectable solid phase of calcium phosphate present in all fractions, its degree of crystallinity increasing with increasing density. Molar Ca/P ratios and magnesium content were highest in lowest density fractions. Carbonate vibration bands at 875 and 1420-1450 cm-1, common to mineralized tissue, were observed in intermediate and higher density fractions and in whole unfractionated enamel. Another carbonate band at approximately 705 cm-1, unusual to vertebrate calcified tissue, was detected in low density fractions and disappeared rapidly with increasing enamel maturation. Its precise relation with the enamel mineral phase has not been determined. PMID:6839190

  12. Performance improvement of permanent magnet ac motors 

    E-print Network

    Parsa, Leila

    2005-08-29

    is wound such that the induced back-EMF is sinusoidal. C. Property of Permanent Magnet The property of permanent magnet and the selection of pertinent materials are crucial in the design of permanent magnet machine. Barium and strontium ferrites... are broadly used as permanent magnets. Low cost and huge supply of raw material are two major advantages of ferrite. They can be easily produced and their process is adopted for high 4 volume as well as moderately high service temperature. The magnet has...

  13. Evaluation of Pain in Single and Multi Rooted Teeth Treated in Single Visit Endodontic Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Raju, T B V G; Seshadri, Abitha; Vamsipavani, B; Abhilash, K; Subhash, A V; Kumari, K V Halini

    2014-01-01

    Background: The incidence of post-operative pain was compared following single-visit canal treatment in single- and multi-rooted teeth, with and without periapical radiolucency. The article also reviews the issues of postoperative pain and healing, following single-visit and multi-visit endodontic therapy. Single-visit endodontic therapy (SVE) was performed in 50 single-rooted teeth and 60 multiple-rooted teeth. Materials & Methods: Single-visit endodontic therapy (SVE) was performed in 50 single-rooted teeth and 60 multiple-rooted teeth. The subjects were divided as follows: Group I -Single-rooted teeth with periapical radiolucency (n=25); Group II–Single-rooted teeth without periapical radiolucency (n=25); Group III–Multiple-rooted teeth with periapical radiolucency (n=30); and Group IV-Multiple-rooted teeth without periapical radiolucency (n=30). Assessment of postoperative pain was done at 24hrs, 3 days and 1 week using a self report questionnaire. The data was analyzed using non-parametric Kruskal -Wallis test. Results: No statistically significant difference was observed in postoperative pain following SVE between the single-rooted and multiple-rooted teeth groups at 24hrs, 3 days and 1 week. The presence or absence of periapical radiolucency had no significant influence on the incidence of reported postoperative pain following SVE. Conclusion: There was no difference in incidence of pain in single rooted teeth and multi-rooted teeth with and without periapical radiolucencies following SVE. Thus, incidence of post-operative pain does not seem to be a valid comparison criterion between single- and multiple-visit endodontic therapies. Also, the literature suggests similar success rates with single-visit and multiple-visit root canal treatment. How to cite the article: Raju TB, Seshadri A, Vamsipavani B, Abhilash K, Subhash AV, Kumari KV. Evaluation of Pain in Single and Multi Rooted Teeth Treated in Single Visit Endodontic Therapy. J Int Oral Health 2014;6(1):27-32. PMID:24653599

  14. PERMANENT GENETIC RESOURCES NOTE Permanent Genetic Resources added to Molecular Ecology

    E-print Network

    Piller, Kyle R.

    PERMANENT GENETIC RESOURCES NOTE Permanent Genetic Resources added to Molecular Ecology Resources, Huila, Colombia; 8 National Research Institute of Fisheries Science, 6-3-1 Nagai, Yokosuka, Kanagawa 238

  15. Reduction of Cogging Torque in Dual Rotor Permanent Magnet Generator for Direct Coupled Wind Energy Systems

    PubMed Central

    Paulsamy, Sivachandran

    2014-01-01

    In wind energy systems employing permanent magnet generator, there is an imperative need to reduce the cogging torque for smooth and reliable cut in operation. In a permanent magnet generator, cogging torque is produced due to interaction of the rotor magnets with slots and teeth of the stator. This paper is a result of an ongoing research work that deals with various methods to reduce cogging torque in dual rotor radial flux permanent magnet generator (DRFPMG) for direct coupled stand alone wind energy systems (SAWES). Three methods were applied to reduce the cogging torque in DRFPMG. The methods were changing slot opening width, changing magnet pole arc width and shifting of slot openings. A combination of these three methods was applied to reduce the cogging torque to a level suitable for direct coupled SAWES. Both determination and reduction of cogging torque were carried out by finite element analysis (FEA) using MagNet Software. The cogging torque of DRFPMG has been reduced without major change in induced emf. A prototype of 1?kW, 120?rpm DRFPMG was fabricated and tested to validate the simulation results. The test results have good agreement with the simulation predictions. PMID:25202746

  16. Determination of drugs of abuse in bovine dentin using liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Spinner, J; Klima, M; Kempf, J; Huppertz, L M; Auwärter, V; Altenburger, M J; Neukamm, M A

    2014-12-01

    Drugs deposited in human teeth are well preserved; the spectrum of toxicological investigations may therefore be supplemented by an analysis method for drugs in teeth. A liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry assay for the detection and quantification of basic drugs of abuse in bovine dentin samples was developed and validated. The drugs and metabolites amphetamine, methamphetamine, methylenedioxymethylamphetamine, methylenedioxyethylamphetamine, codeine, morphine, cocaine and benzoylecgonine were extracted from 50 mg ground dentin powder by ultrasonication for 60 min in methanol 3 times. The extracts were analyzed on a triple-quadrupole mass-spectrometer in multiple reaction monitoring mode. The method was validated and proved to be accurate, precise, selective, specific and stable with good linearity within the calibration range and a lower limit of quantification of 10 to 20?pg/mg. To artificially load bovine dentin samples with drugs, the natural process of de- and remineralization in the oral cavity was mimicked by a pH-cycling experiment. The artificially drug-loaded dentin samples showed drug concentrations of 20 to 80?pg/mg. The method can be applied in further in vitro experiments as well as in post-mortem cases, especially where limited sample tissue is available. PMID:25476949

  17. Replacement of missing anterior teeth in a patient with temporomandibular disorder.

    PubMed

    Haralur, Satheesh B; Saeed Al-Shahrani, Omar

    2014-01-01

    The loss of anterior teeth leads to extreme psychological trauma, along with functional and esthetic debilitations. Healthy anterior teeth play an important role of protecting the posterior teeth during excursive mandibular movement. Loss of anterior teeth induces posterior interference with extended disocclusion time. Posterior disocclusion is critical to remove the harmful force on the teeth temporomandibular joint and eliminate muscle hypertonicity. Occlusal interference is considered as contributing factor to temporomandibular disorder (TMD) symptoms. Prosthesis design should eliminate deleterious tooth contacts. Establishing optimum anterior guidance is a key to establishing harmonious functional occlusion in addition to the correction of the esthetic and phonetic disabilities. This case report explains the steps involved in the rehabilitation of the TMD patient with loss of maxillary anterior teeth. PMID:24715993

  18. Dolder bar joint mandibular overdenture: a technique for nonparallel abutment teeth.

    PubMed

    Marquardt, G L

    1976-07-01

    A mandibular overdenture technique has been presented that utilizes the Dolder bar joint attachment. Endodontically treated lower canines were retained as abutments. Two techniques for attaching the bar to teeth with divergent root canals were discussed: (1) the Schubiger screw system for those teeth with extremely divergent canals and (2) the Stutz pivots system for teeth with only slightly divergent root canals. The use of the Dolder bar joint offers periodontally involved teeth an improved crown/root ratio and splinting of the teeth. Because the bar is close to the alveolar bone, forces of mastication exert much less leverage to the teeth. Finally, the bar joint offers slight vertical and rotational movement of the denture as well as a stressbreaker action. PMID:787496

  19. Gradient Coil Design in Permanent Magnet MRI

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Guo-jun HU; Yu-hua PENG; Wei ZHAO; Xiao-ying TANG

    2006-01-01

    Based on target field method, the article designs gradient coils for a permanent MRI magnet model. By simulating, winding and testing, the result verifies the validity and feasibility of target field method used in gradient coils design of permanent magnet MRI; moreover, shielded coils can restrain eddy current and can be designed based on target field method easily. The simulated

  20. Modeling of permanent magnet motor drives

    Microsoft Academic Search

    PRAGASAN PILLAY; R. Krishnan

    1988-01-01

    Research has indicated that the permanent magnet motor drives, which include the permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM) and the brushless DC motor (BDCM) could become serious competitors to the induction motor for servo applications. The PMSM has a sinusoidal back EMF and requires sinusoidal stator currents to produce constant torque while the BDCM has a trapezoidal back EMF and requires

  1. Analysis of brushless permanent magnet synchronous motors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Azizur Rahman; Ping Zhou

    1996-01-01

    A brief design review of permanent magnet synchronous motors has been presented. A procedure has been developed to predict the steady state and dynamic performances of a brushless permanent magnet synchronous motor. Finite element analysis has been combined with a lumped parameter circuit model in order to provide satisfactory engineering information. To this end, two coordinated steps are involved. One

  2. Draft, 13 May 1996 Permanent Uncertainty

    E-print Network

    PhysComp96 Full paper Draft, 13 May 1996 Permanent Uncertainty: On the quantum evaluation and Center for Neural Computation The Hebrew University Jerusalem 91904, Israel We investigate the possibility of evaluating permanents and determinants of matrices by quantum computation. All current

  3. Sexual function after permanent prostate brachytherapy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. W. Galbreath; G. S. Merrick; W. M. Butler; R. L. Stipetich; L. J. Abel; J. H. Lief

    2001-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the incidence of potency preservation following permanent prostate brachytherapy and to evaluate the effect of multiple clinical and treatment parameters on penile erectile function.Materials and Methods: 425 patients underwent permanent prostate brachytherapy from April 1995 to October 1999. 209 patients who were potent prior to brachytherapy and currently not receiving hormonal manipulation were mailed an International Index

  4. PERMANENT RESIDENCE EMPLOYMENT-BASED SECOND

    E-print Network

    Engagement can file an application for permanent labor certification on behalf of a foreign national employee for Global Engagement Assistance with Application for Permanent Foreign Labor Certification" and send it to Kristen Hagen (Fax: 850-644-9951, or Address: Center for Global Engagement, MC 4216). · The following

  5. Original article Bovine respiratory syncytial virus

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    antibodies and suggest a widespread BRSV infection in the cattle population of Uruguay. respiratory syncytial. INTRODUCTION Bovine Respiratory Syncytial Virus (BRSV) is the major cause of acute respi- ratory diseaseOriginal article Bovine respiratory syncytial virus: first serological evidence in Uruguay Mauro

  6. Review article Pathobiology of bovine leukemia virus

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    Review article Pathobiology of bovine leukemia virus I Schwartz D Lévy URA-INRA d-Alfort cedex, France (Received 16 March 1994; accepted 25 July 1994) Summary ― Bovine leukemia virus (BLV) is a retrovirus similar to the human T-cell leukemia virus (HTLV). Most BLV infected animals (70

  7. QUANTITATIVE TRAIT LOCI FOR INFECTIOUS BOVINE KERATOCONJUNCTIVITIS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis, also known as pinkeye, is an economically important disease in cattle. The objective of this study was to detect quantitative trait loci associated with infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis in offspring from a Brahman x Hereford sire. The sire was mated to H...

  8. Considerations for ceramic inlays in posterior teeth: a review

    PubMed Central

    Hopp, Christa D; Land, Martin F

    2013-01-01

    This review of ceramic inlays in posterior teeth includes a review of the history of ceramic restorations, followed by common indications and contraindications for their use. A discussion on the potential for tooth wear is followed by a review of recommended preparation design considerations, fabrication methods, and material choices. Despite the improved materials available for fabrication of porcelain inlays, fracture remains a primary mode of inlay failure. Therefore, a brief discussion on strengthening methods for ceramics is included. The review concludes with a section on luting considerations, and offers the clinician specific recommendations for luting procedures. In conclusion, inlay success rates and longevity, as reported in the literature, are summarized. PMID:23750101

  9. Brooke-Spiegler syndrome with associated pegged teeth.

    PubMed

    Carlson, Ryan M; Haddad, Lori; Pui, John C

    2008-11-01

    The occurrence of cylindromas, trichoepitheliomas, and spiradenomas completes the triad for Brooke-Spiegler syndrome (BSS). This combination represents a rare genetic syndrome with tumors expressing adnexal differentiation. Malignant transformation is rare but reported, and surgical excision is warranted to prevent turban tumor formation of the scalp. Genetic testing is encouraged, with mutations present on the cylindromatosis gene, CYLD, locus. The occurrence of pegged teeth in our patient was most interesting, as it has not been reported in the literature in patients with BSS. PMID:19090338

  10. Teeth and numerology from zodiac signs. A correlative study.

    PubMed

    Kudva, S; Bhat, A P

    2000-01-01

    Comparative anatomical descriptions have been time and again mentioned in the literature. Based on these aspects, an attempt is made to correlate the morphological features of the human teeth, the zodiac sun signs and numerology. This unique study (first ever of its kind) is also done with a purpose as to whether a particular 'Zodiac Sunsign' or numerology can predict about an individual dental health, the same way the future predictions are being made. It was quite interesting to note that there are few definite attributable dental morphological traits and health to the specific sun signs and numerology. PMID:11307432

  11. Gating of Permanent Molds for ALuminum Casting

    SciTech Connect

    David Schwam; John F. Wallace; Tom Engle; Qingming Chang

    2004-03-30

    This report summarizes a two-year project, DE-FC07-01ID13983 that concerns the gating of aluminum castings in permanent molds. The main goal of the project is to improve the quality of aluminum castings produced in permanent molds. The approach taken was determine how the vertical type gating systems used for permanent mold castings can be designed to fill the mold cavity with a minimum of damage to the quality of the resulting casting. It is evident that somewhat different systems are preferred for different shapes and sizes of aluminum castings. The main problems caused by improper gating are entrained aluminum oxide films and entrapped gas. The project highlights the characteristic features of gating systems used in permanent mold aluminum foundries and recommends gating procedures designed to avoid common defects. The study also provides direct evidence on the filling pattern and heat flow behavior in permanent mold castings.

  12. Permanent-magnet multipole with adjustable strength

    DOEpatents

    Halbach, K.

    1982-09-20

    Two or more magnetically soft pole pieces are symmetrically positioned along a longitudinal axis to provide a magnetic field within a space defined by the pole pieces. Two or more permanent magnets are mounted to an external magnetically-soft cylindrical sleeve which rotates to bring the permanent magnets into closer coupling with the pole pieces and thereby adjustably control the field strength of the magnetic field produced in the space defined by the pole pieces. The permanent magnets are preferably formed of rare earth cobalt (REC) material which has a high remanent magnetic field and a strong coercive force. The pole pieces and the permanent magnets have corresponding cylindrical surfaces which are positionable with respect to each other to vary the coupling there between. Auxiliary permanent magnets are provided between the pole pieces to provide additional magnetic flux to the magnetic field without saturating the pole pieces.

  13. Fracture Resistance of Simulated Immature Teeth Filled with Resilon, Gutta-Percha, or Composite

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kim L. Wilkinson; Thomas J. Beeson; Timothy C. Kirkpatrick

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the fracture resistance gained by filling root canals of simulated immature teeth with either Resilon, gutta-percha, a self-curing flowable composite resin (BisFil 2B), or a self-curing hybrid composite resin (BisFil II). Seventy-two sheep incisors were divided into six groups of 12 teeth each. Negative controls received no treatment. Teeth in all other

  14. Microbiologic analysis of teeth with failed endodontic treatment and the outcome of conservative re-treatment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Göran Sundqvist; David Figdor; Sten Persson; Ulf Sjögren

    1998-01-01

    Objective. The purposes of this study were to determine what microbial flora were present in teeth after failed root canal therapy and to establish the outcome of conservative re-treatment.Study design. Fifty-four root-filled teeth with persisting periapical lesions were selected for re-treatment. After removal of the root filling, canals were sampled by means of advanced microbiologic techniques. The teeth were then

  15. Shear bond strength of epoxy resin-based endodontic sealers to bovine dentin after ozone application.

    PubMed

    Bojar, Witold; Czarnecka, Beata; Pryli?ski, Mariusz; Walory, Jaros?aw

    2009-01-01

    The idea of using ozone to disinfect root canals is of recent origin. The wide acceptance of epoxy resin-based sealers lead us to investigate whether ozone can influence the adhesion to the dentin. In this study, we tested the shear bond strength of AH Plus and EZ Fill. Forty freshly extracted bovine teeth were randomly divided into 5 groups. 16 of these samples were treated with ozone for 60 seconds (HealOzone, Kavo). 8 samples were conditioned with the G Bond bonding system. The groups tested were: (1) AH Plus, (2) AH Plus and ozone, (3) EZ Fill, (4) EZ Fill and ozone, (5) AH Plus and G Bond. 48 hours after being prepared the specimens were tested for shear bond strength. Statistical analysis showed significant differences between materials (AH Plus > EZ Fill) and significant, positive influence of ozone and bonding agent on the shear bond strength. PMID:20131749

  16. Models of bovine babesiosis including juvenile cattle.

    PubMed

    Saad-Roy, C M; Shuai, Zhisheng; van den Driessche, P

    2015-03-01

    Bovine Babesiosis in cattle is caused by the transmission of protozoa of Babesia spp. by ticks as vectors. Juvenile cattle (<9 months of age) have resistance to Bovine Babesiosis, rarely show symptoms, and acquire immunity upon recovery. Susceptibility to the disease varies between breeds of cattle. Models of the dynamics of Bovine Babesiosis transmitted by the cattle tick that include these factors are formulated as systems of ordinary differential equations. Basic reproduction numbers are calculated, and it is proved that if these numbers are below the threshold value of one, then Bovine Babesiosis dies out. However, above the threshold number of one, the disease may approach an endemic state. In this case, control measures are suggested by determining target reproduction numbers. The percentage of a particular population (for example, the adult bovine population) needed to be controlled to eradicate the disease is evaluated numerically using Columbia data from the literature. PMID:25715822

  17. Scanning electron microscopic analysis of incinerated teeth: An aid to forensic identification

    PubMed Central

    Pol, Chetan A; Gosavi, Suchitra R

    2014-01-01

    Background: Forensic dental identification of victims involved in fire accidents is often a complex and challenging endeavor. Knowledge of the charred human dentition and residues of restorative material can help in the recognition of bodies burned beyond recognition. Aim: To observe the effects of predetermined temperatures on healthy unrestored teeth and different restorative materials in restored teeth, by scanning electron microscope, for the purpose of identification. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted on 135 extracted teeth, which were divided into four groups. Group 1-healthy unrestored teeth, group 2-teeth restored with all ceramic crowns, group 3-teeth restored with class I composite resin and group 4-teeth restored with class I glass ionomer cement (GIC). Results: The scanning electron microscope is useful in the analysis of burned teeth, as it gives fine structural details, requires only a small sample and does not destroy the already fragile specimen. Conclusion: Scanning electron microscope can be a useful tool for the characterization and study of severely burnt teeth for victim identification. PMID:24959034

  18. Microbiological risk for periodontitis of abutment teeth in patients with removable partial dentures.

    PubMed

    Mine, K; Fueki, K; Igarashi, Y

    2009-09-01

    Tannerella forsythia, Porphyromonas gingivalis and Treponema denticola are identified as the red complex which exists in high proportions in periodontally diseased patients. The aim of this study was to assess the microbiological risk for periodontitis of abutment teeth in subjects wearing removable partial dentures (RPDs) by measuring the red complex using BANA-ZymeTM test. Thirty-eight subjects (mean age: 62.2 years) with Kennedy Class II partially edentulous arch participated in this study. The red complex and clinical parameters, such as plaque index, gingival index, probing depth and tooth mobility were recorded at abutment teeth in contact with the direct retainer of unilaterally designed RPDs and the corresponding non-abutment teeth on the opposite side. Mean scores for the red complex, plaque index, gingival index and tooth mobility of the abutment teeth were significantly greater than those of the non-abutment teeth (P < 0.01). No significant mean difference in pocket depth was found between the abutment and non-abutment teeth. Logistic regression analysis revealed that abutment teeth, high scores of plaque index and a maintenance interval longer than 6 months were significant predictors for positive red complex scores (P < 0.05). These results suggest that the microbiological risk for periodontitis of abutment teeth is greater than that for non-abutment teeth in RPD wearers. PMID:19650858

  19. Original article Effects of bovine colostrum acid protein on bone

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    Original article Effects of bovine colostrum acid protein on bone loss and hemobiochemistry indexes that bovine milk and its basic proteins, and bovine colostrums (BC) and their extracts have positive effects hazard on blood lipids of rats under present experimental condition. bovine colostrum / acid protein

  20. [Reactions of school children to the appearance of teeth].

    PubMed

    Dunin-Wilczy?ska, I

    1990-10-01

    Using a questionnaire the author collected data from 170 school children aged 9 to 12 years. In 70% the children came from the families of intelligentsia and in 30% from working classes. The responses to the questionnaire made possible establishing the number of children given nicknames, establishing the cause of the nickname and reaction to it. The own opinion of own appearance was presented by the children who were asked to answer the questions about the physical feature of own body with which they were dissatisfied and which they would like to change. Nicknames of various origin had 72.12% of children. The most frequent were distortions of the first name or family name. No nickname referred to the appearance of teeth. In 81.75% of cases the children were not offended by the nicknames, but nicknames referring to physical features were usually disliked. In self-opinions on own appearance the children mentioned teeth as a feature which they would like to change as first. PMID:2104309

  1. Wear Resistance of Coating Films on Hob Teeth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Umezaki, Yoji; Funaki, Yoshiyuki; Kurokawa, Syuhei; Ohnishi, Osamu; Doi, Toshiro

    The wear resistance of coating films on hob teeth is investigated through the simulated hobbing tests with a flytool. The coating films on hob teeth are titanium family ceramics such as TiN, TiCN, TiSiN and TiAlN and aluminum chromium family ceramics such as AlCrN and AlCrSiN. The wear of coated tools is shown about film thickness, film materials, ingredient ratio in a film component and the oxidization of coating films. The oxidization is clarified from a result of the influence on the crater wear progress through wear cutting tests in atmosphere of nitrogen gas or oxygen gas. The oxidization of TiAlN coating films produces oxide products on the tool rake face, and this oxidation relates to the amount of crater wear. The increase of aluminum concentration in the TiAlN film improves the crater wear resistance in air atmosphere, while it has a reverse effect in nitrogen gases. The AlCrSiN film has effective wear resistance against the abrasive wear and/or oxidization wear. The oxidation film formed on the AlCrSiN film is very firm and this suppresses the oxidation wear on the rake face and works against the abrasive wear advantageously.

  2. Management of furcation-involved teeth. A retrospective analysis.

    PubMed

    Müller, H P; Eger, T; Lange, D E

    1995-12-01

    In the present study, data from more than 550 periodontally diseased patients with more than 1100 furcation invasions were retrospectively analysed. There were apparent differences in the distribution of different furcation degrees in patient populations treated by 2 differently experienced operators. However, treatment modality patterns were rather similar. Scaling during periodontal flap surgery was the most often performed treatment procedure in degree I (97-98%) and II (75-83%) involvements. About 44% of degree III involved teeth were extracted. In order to determine the influence of degree of furcation involvement, tooth type and operator variability on treatment modality, logistic regression analysis was applied. Degree of furcation involvement was an important indicator variable in all models. Scaling as a sole measure was mainly performed in relation to degree I of furcation involvement. With every increase in degree, the odds of scaling decreased by factor 12.7. The odds of root resection was upper 1st molars 46 x higher than in wisdom teeth or lower 2nd molars with the same degree of involvement, but only 3.3 x higher than in lower 1st molars. Tunnel preparation as well as regenerative procedures were mainly confirmed to lower molars. Operator variability was only introduced as a covariate in the extraction model. hence, despite of different operator skill and severity of periodontal disease in treated populations, decision for one or the other treatment modality seems to depend essentially on degree of furcation involvement as well as tooth type. PMID:8613558

  3. Bovine papillomavirus isolation by ultracentrifugation.

    PubMed

    Araldi, R P; Giovanni, D N S; Melo, T C; Diniz, N; Mazzuchelli-de-Souza, J; Sant'Ana, T A; Carvalho, R F; Beçak, W; Stocco, R C

    2014-11-01

    The bovine papillomavirus (BPV) is the etiological agent of bovine papillomatosis, which causes significant economic losses to livestock, characterized by the presence of papillomas that regress spontaneously or persist and progress to malignancy. Currently, there are 13 types of BPVs described in the literature as well as 32 putative new types. This study aimed to isolate viral particles of BPV from skin papillomas, using a novel viral isolation method. The virus types were previously identified with new primers designed. 77 cutaneous papilloma samples of 27 animals, Simmental breed, were surgically removed. The DNA was extracted and subjected to PCR using Delta-Epsilon and Xi primers. The bands were purified and sequenced. The sequences were analyzed using software and compared to the GenBank database, by BLAST tool. The viral typing showed a prevalence of BPV-2 in 81.81% of samples. It was also detected the presence of the putative new virus type BR/UEL2 in one sample. Virus isolation was performed by ultracentrifugation in a single density of cesium chloride. The method of virus isolation is less laborious than those previously described, allowing the isolation of complete virus particles of BPV-2. PMID:25102429

  4. Bovine somatic cell nuclear transfer.

    PubMed

    Ross, Pablo J; Cibelli, Jose B

    2010-01-01

    Somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) is a technique by which the nucleus of a differentiated cell is introduced into an oocyte from which its genetic material has been removed by a process called enucleation. In mammals, the reconstructed embryo is artificially induced to initiate embryonic development (activation). The oocyte turns the somatic cell nucleus into an embryonic nucleus. This process is called nuclear reprogramming and involves an important change of cell fate, by which the somatic cell nucleus becomes capable of generating all the cell types required for the formation of a new individual, including extraembryonic tissues. Therefore, after transfer of a cloned embryo to a surrogate mother, an offspring genetically identical to the animal from which the somatic cells where isolated, is born. Cloning by nuclear transfer has potential applications in agriculture and biomedicine, but is limited by low efficiency. Cattle were the second mammalian species to be cloned after Dolly the sheep, and it is probably the most widely used species for SCNT experiments. This is, in part due to the high availability of bovine oocytes and the relatively higher efficiency levels usually obtained in cattle. Given the wide utilization of this species for cloning, several alternatives to this basic protocol can be found in the literature. Here we describe a basic protocol for bovine SCNT currently being used in our laboratory, which is amenable for the use of the nuclear transplantation technique for research or commercial purposes. PMID:20336522

  5. Adipogenesis of bovine perimuscular preadipocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Taniguchi, Masaaki; Le Luo Guan; Zhang Bing [Department of Agricultural, Food and Nutritional Science, University of Alberta, 410 Ag-For Centre, Edmonton, Alta., T6G 2P5 (Canada); Dodson, Michael V. [Department of Animal Sciences, Washington State University, P.O. Box 646310, Pullman, WA 99164 (United States); Okine, Erasmus [Department of Agricultural, Food and Nutritional Science, University of Alberta, 410 Ag-For Centre, Edmonton, Alta., T6G 2P5 (Canada); Moore, Stephen S. [Department of Agricultural, Food and Nutritional Science, University of Alberta, 410 Ag-For Centre, Edmonton, Alta., T6G 2P5 (Canada)], E-mail: Stephen.moore@ualberta.ca

    2008-02-01

    In this study, non-transformed progeny adipofibroblasts, derived from mature adipocyte dedifferentiation, was used as a novel in vitro model to study adipogenic gene expression in cattle. Adipofibroblasts from dedifferentiated mature perimuscular fat (PMF) tissue were cultured with differentiation stimulants until the cells exhibited morphological differentiation. Treated cells were harvested from day 2 to 16 for RNA extraction, whereas control cells were cultured without addition of stimulants. Results from time course gene expression assays by quantitative real-time PCR revealed that peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR-{gamma}), sterol regulatory element binding protein 1 (SREBP-1) and their six down-stream genes were co-expressed at day 2 post-differentiation induction. When compared to other adipogenesis culture systems, the adipogenic gene expression of bovine PMF adipofibroblasts culture was different, especially to the rodent model. Collectively, these results demonstrated PPAR-{gamma} and SREBP-1 cooperatively play a key role to regulate the re-differentiation of bovine adipofibroblasts, during early conversion stages in vitro.

  6. 77 FR 55895 - Permanent Closure of Cincinnati Blue Ash Airport

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-11

    ...Administration Permanent Closure of Cincinnati Blue Ash Airport AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration...Notice of permanent closure of Cincinnati Blue Ash Airport (ISZ...it was permanently closing Cincinnati Blue Ash Airport (ISZ), Cincinnati,...

  7. 29 CFR 2582.8478-3 - Permanent bonding requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Permanent bonding requirements. 2582.8478-3 Section...REGULATIONS FOR FIDUCIARY RESPONSIBILITY Permanent Bonding Rules § 2582.8478-3 Permanent bonding requirements. (a) General....

  8. 29 CFR 2582.8478-3 - Permanent bonding requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Permanent bonding requirements. 2582.8478-3 Section...REGULATIONS FOR FIDUCIARY RESPONSIBILITY Permanent Bonding Rules § 2582.8478-3 Permanent bonding requirements. (a) General....

  9. 29 CFR 2582.8478-3 - Permanent bonding requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Permanent bonding requirements. 2582.8478-3 Section...REGULATIONS FOR FIDUCIARY RESPONSIBILITY Permanent Bonding Rules § 2582.8478-3 Permanent bonding requirements. (a) General....

  10. 29 CFR 2582.8478-3 - Permanent bonding requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Permanent bonding requirements. 2582.8478-3 Section...REGULATIONS FOR FIDUCIARY RESPONSIBILITY Permanent Bonding Rules § 2582.8478-3 Permanent bonding requirements. (a) General....

  11. 29 CFR 2582.8478-3 - Permanent bonding requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Permanent bonding requirements. 2582.8478-3 Section...REGULATIONS FOR FIDUCIARY RESPONSIBILITY Permanent Bonding Rules § 2582.8478-3 Permanent bonding requirements. (a) General....

  12. Macroscopic Simulation of Isotropic Permanent Magnets

    E-print Network

    Bruckner, Florian; Vogler, Christoph; Heinrichs, Frank; Satz, Armin; Ausserlechner, Udo; Binder, Gernot; Koeck, Helmut; Suess, Dieter

    2015-01-01

    Accurate simulations of isotropic permanent magnets require to take the magnetization process into account and consider the anisotropic, nonlinear, and hysteretic material behaviour near the saturation configuration. An efficient method for the solution of the magnetostatic Maxwell equations including the description of isotropic permanent magnets is presented. The algorithm can easily be implemented on top of existing finite element methods and does not require a full characterization of the hysteresis of the magnetic material. Strayfield measurements of an isotropic permanent magnet and simulation results are in good agreement and highlight the importance of a proper description of the isotropic material.

  13. Permanent multipole magnets with adjustable strength

    SciTech Connect

    Halbach, K.

    1983-03-01

    Preceded by a short discussion of the motives for using permanent magnets in accelerators, a new type of permanent magnet for use in accelerators is presented. The basic design and most important properties of a quadrupole will be described that uses both steel and permanent magnet material. The field gradient produced by this magnet can be adjusted without changing any other aspect of the field produced by this quadrupole. The generalization of this concept to produce other multipole fields, or combination of multipole fields, will also be presented.

  14. Eruption of permanent dentition in rhesus monkeys exposed to ELF (extremely low frequency) fields. Interim report

    SciTech Connect

    David, T.D.; Harris, G.A.; Bley, J.A. Jr

    1983-04-01

    In a study initiated to determine the biological effects of ELF electric and magnetic fields associated with a submarine communications system ELF-exposed male rhesus monkeys gained weight at a slightly faster rate than control males. In order to obtain sufficient data on the physiological effects of electromagnetic fields, a second ELF study was initiated. Whereas the first study was initiated with wild-caught young adult animals, the second study utilized colony-bred animals beginning at 30 days of age. The emphasis of the second study was to substantiate previous findings and determine the underlying mechanisms involved. As in the first study, 30 primates (male and female) were exposed to the ELF electric and magnetic fields, and 30 control animals received the same care and treatment, but were not exposed. This report deals with the development of the permanent teeth relative to ELF exposure and sex. A consistent trend noted was that the teeth of female animals erupted at a slightly earlier age than males. However, no significant differences due to ELF exposure or sex were detected.

  15. Histologic and Immunohistochemical Findings of a Human Immature Permanent Tooth with Apical Periodontitis after Regenerative Endodontic Treatment.

    PubMed

    Lei, Lishan; Chen, Yuemin; Zhou, Ronghui; Huang, Xiaojing; Cai, Zhiyu

    2015-07-01

    Specimens of human immature permanent teeth after regenerative endodontic treatment (RET) are sparse. This case report describes the histologic and immunohistochemical findings of tissue formed in the canal space of a human immature permanent tooth with apical periodontitis after RET. A patient presenting with immature human permanent tooth #29 with apical periodontitis underwent RET. At the 10-month follow-up visit, radiographic examination revealed complete resolution of the periapical lesion, marked narrowing of the apical foramen, increased thickness of the canal walls, and minimal lengthening of the root. Notably, the tooth regained pulp sensibility. Tooth #29 was extracted for orthodontic reasons and processed for histologic and immunohistochemical examination. The canal space was filled with newly formed cementumlike tissue, bonelike tissue, and fibrous connective tissue. The apical closure, thickness, and length increment of the root were caused by the deposition of cementumlike tissue without dentin. Furthermore, neurons and nerve fibers were observed in the canal space; this observation was confirmed by immunohistochemistry. Based on the findings in the present case, after RET, the newly formed tissues in the canal space of the human immature permanent tooth with apical periodontitis were primarily fibrous connective tissue, cementumlike tissue, and bonelike tissue. Nerve regeneration was identified. PMID:25931029

  16. Light-enhanced chemical whitening of teeth: new in vitro investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Todorovska, R.; Dimitrov, S.; Pavlova, P.; Todorov, G.

    2007-03-01

    We report new results on the light enhanced teeth whitening obtained in a research collaboration financed by the Medical Science Council of the Medical University of Sofia. The project is an extension of previous research and its basic goal is to develop new teeth bleaching substances and procedures, in which the activators are diode lamps (LED).

  17. Characterization of biominerals in the radula teeth of the chiton, Acanthopleura hirtosa

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Martin Saunders; Charlie Kong; Jeremy A. Shaw; David J. Macey; Peta L. Clode

    2009-01-01

    Understanding biomineralization processes provides a route to the formation of novel biomimetic materials with potential applications in fields from medicine to materials engineering. The teeth of chitons (marine molluscs) represent an excellent example of a composite biomineralized structure, comprising variable layers of iron oxide, iron oxyhydroxide and apatite. Previous studies of fully mineralized teeth using X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy and

  18. Reconstruction of fractured canine teeth with cast metal crowns and pulpar pins

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ivan Borissov

    During the last few years a significant increase in the number of dogs with traumatic dental problems has been observed, particularly those with fractured canine teeth. In the period 1994-1998, 12 dogs of different breeds (German Shepherd, Dobermann, Pit Bull and Bull Terrier) were referred with complete fractures of a total of 34 canine teeth. After endodontic treatment, preparation of

  19. A Survey of Contemporary Philosophies and Techniques of Restoring Endodontically Treated Teeth in Kuwait

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Steven M. Morgano; John F. Bowley; Lukman Thalib; Ebrahim Abdulkarim

    2001-01-01

    Objective: Numerous methods of restoring endodontically treated teeth have been advocated, and the prognosis of the treatment varies depending on the materials and techniques used. The objective of this study was to improve the understanding of contemporary philosophies and techniques of restoring endodontically treated teeth in Kuwait to serve as a baseline for continuous quality improvement of dental care in

  20. Deciduous teeth occlusal caries detection with 655-nm diode laser confirmed by surface scanning electron microscopy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Danilo Duarte; Yara P. Fonseca; Fatima A. Zanin; Aldo Brugnera

    2000-01-01

    The morphological complexity of the occlusal surface of deciduous molar teeth is considered as a factor to increase vulnerability to caries lesion. Occlusal surface of these teeth shows sulcus, pits and fissures which allow retention of both micro-organisms and food debris which make them more susceptible to caries. In the last decades there was a significant reduction on caries of

  1. Additional dinosaur teeth from the Cenomanian (Late Cretaceous) of Charentes, southwestern France

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Romain Vullo; Didier Néraudeau

    2010-01-01

    Some isolated teeth of theropod and sauropod dinosaurs from the Cenomanian (Late Cretaceous) of Charentes are described. Two new teeth of Troodontidae confirm the presence of this theropod family, previously based on a single specimen. New dental morphotypes are recognized within Dromaeosauridae and Brachiosauridae in comparison with those already known from Charentes. Lastly, a very small tooth is tentatively assigned

  2. The science of anterior teeth selection for a completely edentulous patient: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Vasantha Kumar, M; Ahila, S C; Suganya Devi, S

    2011-03-01

    Esthetic replacement and physiological tooth arrangement made the complete denture biologically compatible and desirable. Proper placement of tooth should be functional and esthetically pleasing to enhance the psychology of the patient. This article reviews the evolution of concepts for teeth selection and the recent techniques employed for selecting anterior teeth for complete dentures. PMID:22379299

  3. Structural deformities of deciduous teeth in patients with hypophosphatemic vitamin D-resistant rickets

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Abe; T. Ooshima; T. S. Lily; Y. Yasufuku; S. Sobue

    1988-01-01

    Structural deformities of deciduous teeth from patients with hypophosphatemic vitamin D-resistant rickets (HVDRR) (1 male and 2 female patients) were examined by means of transmitted light microscopy, contact microradiography, and x-ray microanalysis. Freshly extracted teeth were fixed in formalin and subsequently hemisected longitudinally through the midline. One half was prepared for ground sections and the other half for decalcified sections.

  4. Practical considerations for permanent total enclosures

    SciTech Connect

    Worrall, M. [Amcec Adsorption Systems, Schaumburg, IL (United States)

    1997-12-31

    This paper considers some of the practical consideration of Permanent Total Enclosures (PTEs) for gravure printing facilities. In particular the dispersion of fugitive losses from the presses by thermal air currents generated by heat from the press dryers.

  5. Modeling and optimization of permanent magnetic motors

    E-print Network

    Pinkham, Andrew P

    2008-01-01

    This thesis develops analytic models for the prediction and optimization of radial-flux permanent magnet motor torque and efficiency. It also facilitates the design optimization of electromagnetically-powered rotorcraft ...

  6. Effect of peroxide bleaching on the biaxial flexural strength and modulus of bovine dentin

    PubMed Central

    Carvalho, Adriana Oliveira; Ayres, Ana Paula Almeida; de Almeida, Letícia Cunha Amaral Gonzaga; Briso, André Luiz Fraga; Rueggeberg, Frederick Allen; Giannini, Marcelo

    2015-01-01

    Objective: This study evaluated the effects of carbamide peroxide and hydrogen peroxide on the biaxial flexural strength and flexural modulus of bovine dentin. Materials and Methods: Thirty coronal dentin disks (0.5 mm thick × 6.0 mm diameter) were prepared from bovine teeth. The disks were randomly divided into three groups (n=10): A control group (unbleached), a group bleached with 10% carbamide peroxide (8 h at 37°C), and a group bleached with 38% hydrogen peroxide (three 10 min applications at 37°C). The specimens were tested in a biaxial flexural apparatus held in a universal testing machine at 1.27 mm/min until failure occurred, and the biaxial mechanical properties were calculated. For each test parameter, the data were statistically analyzed by Fisher's PLSD test (predetermined ? = 0.05). Results: The group bleached with 38% hydrogen peroxide demonstrated significantly lower flexural strength than the unbleached control group. Hydrogen peroxide treatment resulted in a significantly lower flexural modulus compared with the control group and with carbamide peroxide bleaching. Conclusion: Exposure of dentin to hydrogen peroxide significantly reduced both the flexural strength and the flexural modulus compared with the no-treatment control, whereas exposure to carbamide peroxide did not significantly affect either parameter.

  7. Object permanence in cats and dogs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Estrella Triana; Robert Pasnak

    1981-01-01

    Object permanence was assessed for cats and dogs, using tasks analogous to those typically employed for human infants. Neither\\u000a species solved all of the problems correctly when rewarded only by the discovery of a hidden toy. However, both species showed\\u000a that they had fully developed concepts of object permanence when the problems were changed so that the animals had to

  8. Permanent magnet edge-field quadrupole

    DOEpatents

    Tatchyn, Roman O. (Mountain View, CA)

    1997-01-01

    Planar permanent magnet edge-field quadrupoles for use in particle accelerating machines and in insertion devices designed to generate spontaneous or coherent radiation from moving charged particles are disclosed. The invention comprises four magnetized rectangular pieces of permanent magnet material with substantially similar dimensions arranged into two planar arrays situated to generate a field with a substantially dominant quadrupole component in regions close to the device axis.

  9. Proteomic analysis from the mineralized radular teeth of the giant Pacific chiton, Cryptochiton stelleri (Mollusca).

    PubMed

    Nemoto, Michiko; Wang, Qianqian; Li, Dongsheng; Pan, Songqin; Matsunaga, Tadashi; Kisailus, David

    2012-09-01

    The biomineralized radular teeth of chitons are known to consist of iron-based magnetic crystals, associated with the maximum hardness and stiffness of any biomineral. Based on our transmission electron microscopy analysis of partially mineralized teeth, we suggest that the organic matrix within the teeth controls the iron oxide nucleation. Thus, we used Nano-LC-MS to perform a proteomic analysis of the organic matrix in radular teeth of the chiton Cryptochiton stelleri in order to identify the proteins involved in the biomineralization process. Since the genome sequence of C. stelleri is not available, cross-species similarity searching and de novo peptide sequencing were used to screen the proteins. Our results indicate that several proteins were dominant in the mineralized part of the radular teeth, amongst which, myoglobin and a highly acidic peptide were identified as possibly involved in the biomineralization process. PMID:22833255

  10. Furcation canals of the maxillary fourth premolar and the mandibular first molar teeth in cats.

    PubMed

    Negro, Viviana B; Hernández, Sabás Z; Maresca, Beatriz M; Lorenzo, Cesar E

    2004-03-01

    The furcation region morphology was evaluated in 103 mature feline carnassial teeth (54 maxillary fourth premolar and 49 mandibular first molar teeth). Patent furcation canals were present in 27.2% of teeth. No significant difference (p = 0.88) in distribution of this anatomical variation was found between maxillary fourth premolar and mandibular first molar teeth. The mean width of these furcation canals was 104.0 microns with two-thirds of the canals having a buccal orientation. The presence of furcation canals could be a factor in the etiopathogenesis of feline dental resorptive lesions, as well as a characteristic to be considered in the diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment of endodontic or periodontic-endodontic lesions in cat teeth. PMID:15108397

  11. Apatite mineralization in teeth of the chiton Acanthopleura echinata.

    PubMed

    Lee, A P; Brooker, L R; Macey, D J; van Bronswijk, W; Webb, J

    2000-11-01

    Raman spectroscopy has been used to demonstrate, for the first time, that calcium mineralization in the core of the major lateral teeth of the chiton Acanthopleura echinata takes place as an ordered process, with crystalline carbonated apatite being the first mineral deposited. Deposition begins at the top of the tooth core, under the so-called tab region, progresses down the interior surface of the tab and lepidocrocite layer, and then extends outwards to the anterior surface. Mineralization is not initiated until the lepidocrocite layer has isolated the core of the tooth from the magnetite cap. The last region to be infiltrated is the anterior basal region of the tooth cusp, immediately above the junction zone. The junction zone is also a region of high ion density, as determined by energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) analysis, but we show here for the first time that it is free of mineral deposits, acting instead as a transfer and storage region. PMID:11136540

  12. A new procedure for calculating contact stresses in gear teeth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Somprakit, Paisan; Huston, Ronald L.

    1991-01-01

    A numerical procedure for evaluating and monitoring contact stresses in meshing gear teeth is discussed. The procedure is intended to extend the range of applicability and to improve the accuracy of gear contact stress analysis. The procedure is based upon fundamental solution from the theory of elasticity. It is an iterative numerical procedure. The method is believed to have distinct advantages over the classical Hertz method, the finite-element method, and over existing approaches with the boundary element method. Unlike many classical contact stress analyses, friction effects and sliding are included. Slipping and sticking in the contact region are studied. Several examples are discussed. The results are in agreement with classical results. Applications are presented for spur gears.

  13. Role of Alcohol in the Fracture Resistance of Teeth

    PubMed Central

    Nalla, R.K.; Kinney, J.H.; Tomsia, A.P.; Ritchie, R.O.

    2008-01-01

    Healthy dentin, the mineralized tissue that makes up the bulk of the tooth, is naturally hydrated in vivo; however, it is known that various chemical reagents, including acetone and ethanol, can induce dehydration and thereby affect its properties. Here, we sought to investigate this in light of the effect of alcohol on the mechanical properties of dentin, specifically by measuring the stiffness, strength, and toughness of dentin in simulated body fluid and Scotch whisky. Results indicated that chemical dehydration induced by the whisky had a significant beneficial effect on the elastic modulus, strength, and fracture toughness of dentin. Although this made teeth more resistant to fracture, the change in properties was fully reversible upon rehydration. This effect is considered to be associated with increased cross-linking of the collagen molecules from intermolecular hydrogen-bonding, where water is replaced with weaker hydrogen-bond-forming solvents such as alcohol. PMID:17062743

  14. An Experimental Study of Fretting of Gear Teeth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krantz, Timothy L.

    2008-01-01

    Experiments were conducted to study fretting of gears. The gears were made from case-carburized AISI 9310 alloy to match the material of a flight actuator gearbox of interest. The objective of the testing was to produce damage representative of that observed on flight hardware. The following correlations and observations were noted. The amplitude of dithering motion very strongly influenced the type and magnitude of damage. Sliding amounts on the order of 30% of the width of the line contact were judged to most readily produce fretting damage. There was observed an incubation period on the order of tens-of-thousands of cycles, and the incubation period was influenced by surface roughness, torque, and the motion extent. Fretting damage could be produced for any of the torques tested, and the severity of damage increased slightly with torque. Gear teeth having surface roughness of 0.7-0.8 micrometer were somewhat more resistant to fretting than were smoother surfaces.

  15. ASSOCIATION BETWEEN INTRA-RADICULAR POSTS AND PERIAPICAL LESIONS IN ENDODONTICALLY TREATED TEETH*

    PubMed Central

    Rosalem, Cíntia Gonçalves Carvalho; Mattos, Claudia Machado de Almeida; Guerra, Selva Maria Gonçalves

    2007-01-01

    Introduction: A significant number of endodontically treated teeth restored with posts have associated periapical lesions, and several authors have discussed the probable causes of the development of these. Attention has been focused on restorative procedures performed after endodontic treatment and their association with the prognosis of endodontic therapy because a number of root-filled teeth will require post- and core-retained restorations. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate, by examination of periapical radiographs, whether the placement of intra-radicular posts in endodontically treated teeth may act as a risk factor for development of periapical lesions. Material and Methods: This case-control study analyzed periapical radiographs of 72 endodontically treated teeth with coronal restorations. All radiographs were obtained from a single private practice. Specimens were assigned to 2 groups: Group 1 (control) was composed of teeth without periapical lesions and Group 2 (case) was composed of teeth with periapical lesions. The number of teeth with and without posts in each group was recorded. Three calibrated examiners analyzed the radiographs visually under X4 magnification. Results: In Group 1, 28 (65.1%) out of 43 teeth were restored with posts. In Group 2, 24 (82.8%) out of 29 teeth had intra-radicular posts. The interpretation of chi-square test showed that these percentages were not significantly different (x2=2.687; p=0.101). Odds ratio was 2.571 (0.8158.118), which indicates that there was no statistically significant association between periapical lesions and posts. Conclusion: Intra-radicular posts placed in endodontically treated teeth were not a significant risk factor for development of periapical lesions in the practice where the cohort of patients was treated. PMID:19089134

  16. FLUORESCEIN-CONJUGATED BOVINE ALBUMIN

    PubMed Central

    Schiller, Alfred A.; Schayer, Richard W.; Hess, E. L.

    1953-01-01

    Fluorescein-bovine albumin conjugates have been prepared and found not to differ appreciably in size, shape, and homogeneity from the precursor, bovine serum albumin. Fluorescein has also been conjugated to rat plasma proteins. Their disappearance rates from the circulation of rats correspond with those obtained from the use of isotope labeling. Their sites of localization in rat tissues were shown to be in the cytoplasm but not in the nuclei of Kupffer cells, fixed macrophages, granulocytes, and proximal renal tubules. Adsorption to endothelium was a characteristic finding. Extracellular localizations were predominantly in the lumina of blood vessels and proximal renal tubules (but never in the lumina of collecting tubules), and the interstitial fluid of skeletal and cardiac muscle (but not that of glandular organs such as the adrenals, liver, and spleen). BAC absorption from the skin of rabbits requires days whereas sodium fluorescein absorption is measured in hours, attesting to the persistence of the colloidal state of BAC in vivo. Fluorescein conjugates have been used to visualize the transcapillary passage of circulating proteins in the mesenteric circulation of frogs and rats by direct microscopic observation and found to diffuse slowly in the manner predicted for plasma proteins. The normal cutaneous vessels of the rat are impermeable in the gross to the labeled proteins; second degree burn promptly increases the permeability of these vessels rendering the presence of the label detectable in the gross in the skin. The process of labeling does not render guinea pig albumin antigenic, although slight antigenicity results from labeling whole plasma protein. It is believed that sufficient biological evidence is presented to support the conclusion that fluorescein-conjugated plasma proteins, particularly albumin, behave in vivo like their native precursors. PMID:13035065

  17. Bovine mastitis: frontiers in immunogenetics.

    PubMed

    Thompson-Crispi, Kathleen; Atalla, Heba; Miglior, Filippo; Mallard, Bonnie A

    2014-01-01

    Mastitis is one of the most prevalent and costly diseases in the dairy industry with losses attributable to reduced milk production, discarded milk, early culling, veterinary services, and labor costs. Typically, mastitis is an inflammation of the mammary gland most often, but not limited to, bacterial infection, and is characterized by the movement of leukocytes and serum proteins from the blood to the site of infection. It contributes to compromised milk quality and the potential spread of antimicrobial resistance if antibiotic treatment is not astutely applied. Despite the implementation of management practises and genetic selection approaches, bovine mastitis control continues to be inadequate. However, some novel genetic strategies have recently been demonstrated to reduce mastitis incidence by taking advantage of a cow's natural ability to make appropriate immune responses against invading pathogens. Specifically, dairy cattle with enhanced and balanced immune responses have a lower occurrence of disease, including mastitis, and they can be identified and selected for using the high immune response (HIR) technology. Enhanced immune responsiveness is also associated with improved response to vaccination, increased milk, and colostrum quality. Since immunity is an important fitness trait, beneficial associations with longevity and reproduction are also often noted. This review highlights the genetic regulation of the bovine immune system and its vital contributions to disease resistance. Genetic selection approaches currently used in the dairy industry to reduce the incidence of disease are reviewed, including the HIR technology, genomics to improve disease resistance or immune response, as well as the Immunity(+)™ sire line. Improving the overall immune responsiveness of cattle is expected to provide superior disease resistance, increasing animal welfare and food quality while maintaining favorable production levels to feed a growing population. PMID:25339959

  18. Bovine Mastitis: Frontiers in Immunogenetics

    PubMed Central

    Thompson-Crispi, Kathleen; Atalla, Heba; Miglior, Filippo; Mallard, Bonnie A.

    2014-01-01

    Mastitis is one of the most prevalent and costly diseases in the dairy industry with losses attributable to reduced milk production, discarded milk, early culling, veterinary services, and labor costs. Typically, mastitis is an inflammation of the mammary gland most often, but not limited to, bacterial infection, and is characterized by the movement of leukocytes and serum proteins from the blood to the site of infection. It contributes to compromised milk quality and the potential spread of antimicrobial resistance if antibiotic treatment is not astutely applied. Despite the implementation of management practises and genetic selection approaches, bovine mastitis control continues to be inadequate. However, some novel genetic strategies have recently been demonstrated to reduce mastitis incidence by taking advantage of a cow’s natural ability to make appropriate immune responses against invading pathogens. Specifically, dairy cattle with enhanced and balanced immune responses have a lower occurrence of disease, including mastitis, and they can be identified and selected for using the high immune response (HIR) technology. Enhanced immune responsiveness is also associated with improved response to vaccination, increased milk, and colostrum quality. Since immunity is an important fitness trait, beneficial associations with longevity and reproduction are also often noted. This review highlights the genetic regulation of the bovine immune system and its vital contributions to disease resistance. Genetic selection approaches currently used in the dairy industry to reduce the incidence of disease are reviewed, including the HIR technology, genomics to improve disease resistance or immune response, as well as the Immunity+™ sire line. Improving the overall immune responsiveness of cattle is expected to provide superior disease resistance, increasing animal welfare and food quality while maintaining favorable production levels to feed a growing population. PMID:25339959

  19. Characterization of the Bovine Cathelicidin Gene Family 

    E-print Network

    Flores, Erin Gillenwaters

    2012-10-19

    the placement of the CATHL cluster at the distal end of bovine chromosome 22 (BTA22), identify any single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and insertion-deletion (indel) polymorphisms within the gene family, explore copy number variation, and investigate...

  20. Bovine TLR2 and TLR4 mediate Cryptosporidium parvum recognition in bovine intestinal epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhengtao; Fu, Yunhe; Gong, Pengtao; Zheng, Jingtong; Liu, Li; Yu, Yuqiang; Li, Jianhua; Li, He; Yang, Ju; Zhang, Xichen

    2015-08-01

    Cryptosporidium parvum (C. parvum) is an intestinal parasite that causes diarrhea in neonatal calves. It results in significant morbidity of neonatal calves and economic losses for producers worldwide. Innate resistance against C. parvum is thought to depend on engagement of pattern recognition receptors. However, the role of innate responses to C. parvum has not been elucidated in bovine. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of TLRs in host-cell responses during C. parvum infection of cultured bovine intestinal epithelial cells. The expressions of TLRs in bovine intestinal epithelial cells were detected by qRT-PCR. To determine which, if any, TLRs may play a role in the response of bovine intestinal epithelial cells to C. parvum, the cells were stimulated with C. parvum and the expression of TLRs were tested by qRT-PCR. The expression of NF-?B was detected by western blotting. Further analyses were carried out in bovine TLRs transfected HEK293 cells and by TLRs-DN transfected bovine intestinal epithelial cells. The results showed that bovine intestinal epithelial cells expressed all known TLRs. The expression of TLR2 and TLR4 were up-regulated when bovine intestinal epithelial cells were treated with C. parvum. Meanwhile, C. parvum induced IL-8 production in TLR2 or TLR4/MD-2 transfected HEK293 cells. Moreover, C. parvum induced NF-?B activation and cytokine expression in bovine intestinal epithelial cells. The induction of NF-?B activation and cytokine expression by C. parvum were reduced in TLR2-DN and TLR4-DN transfected cells. The results showed that bovine intestinal epithelial cells expressed all known TLRs, and bovine intestinal epithelial cells recognized and responded to C. parvum via TLR2 and TLR4. PMID:26048276

  1. Causes and prevalence of traumatic injuries to the permanent incisors of school children aged 10-14 years in Maseru, Lesotho.

    PubMed

    Lin, H; Naidoo, Sudeshni

    2008-04-01

    Traumatic dental injuries are widespread in the population and the prevalence of traumatic dental injuries among school children in different parts of the world varies from about 3% to 45%. Most injuries involve the anterior teeth, which may lead to eating restrictions, changes in physical appearance, speech defects and psychological impacts that affect the child's quality of life. A cross-sectional survey was carried out to investigate the prevalence, aetiology and types of injuries to permanent incisors among schoolchildren aged 10-14 years from Maseru, Lesotho. Upper and lower permanent incisors were examined for dental injuries. The prevalence of traumatic injuries to the permanent incisor teeth was 9.3% (13.3% boys and 6.3% girls). Significantly more boys than girls suffered injury. The most common type of injury was enamel fractures and most common cause was falls. Health promotion policies should aim to create an appropriate and safe environment for children. Soft playground surfaces, school-crossing patrols, marked zebra crossings and bicycle lanes would help create a safe environment. Speed limits for cars and the use of seat belts, air bags, special car seats for children and bicycle helmets should be enforced. Mouth guards should be used when playing sport, in particular contact sports. Education regarding the epidemiology of dental injuries and their prevention through health promotion may play a major role in reducing the prevalence of dental injury and avoiding the financial costs of treatment, especially in developing countries. PMID:18689347

  2. Czy adhezyjnie cementowane wk?ady koronowe wzmacniaj? struktury z?bów? Do bonded inlays reinforce teeth structures?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Beata Dejak

    2008-01-01

    Summary Aim of the study was to compare strength of intact teeth, teeth with the MOD cavity preparations and teeth restored with the ceramic MOD inlays according to the modified von Mises failure criterion. Material and methods. The study was performed ap- plying a 3-dimensional finite element analysis. Three 3-D models of first mandibular molars were created: A - intact

  3. American Journal of Botany 96(4): 738750. 2009. The sensitivity of leaf teeth to climate is well known and

    E-print Network

    Royer, Dana

    738 American Journal of Botany 96(4): 738­750. 2009. The sensitivity of leaf teeth to climate, despite leaf teeth being strongly linked to temperature, less is known about their sensitivity to most underlying causes. Because attributes of fossil leaf teeth, particularly the percent- age of toothed species

  4. Immunohistochemical Localization of LIM Mineralization Protein 1 in Pulp–Dentin Complex of Human Teeth with Normal and Pathologic Conditions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xiaoying Wang; Qi Zhang; Zhi Chen; Lu Zhang

    2008-01-01

    LIM mineralization protein 1 (LMP-1) is an essential positive regulator of osteoblast differentiation and maturation and bone formation. However, the expression and distribution of LMP-1 in human teeth are largely unknown. The aim of this study was to detect the expression of LMP-1 in normal healthy human teeth and human teeth with various pathologic conditions. LMP-1 expression was determined by

  5. The Contribution of Infections with Bovine Viral Diarrhea Viruses to Bovine Respiratory Disease

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The contribution of bovine viral diarrhea viruses (BVDV) to the development of bovine respiratory disease is the sum of a number of different factors. These factors include the contribution of acute uncomplicated BVDV infections, the high incidence of respiratory disease in animals persistently inf...

  6. SEX RATIO AFTER INSEMINATION OF BOVINE SPERMATOZOA ISOLATED USING A BOVINE SERUM ALBUMIN GRADIENT 1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. E. Beal; Lydia M. White; Duane L. Garner

    Summary This experiment was undertaken to de- termine if a method reported to successfully enrich the proportion of Y-chromosome- bearing spermatozoa in human semen could be adapted for separation of bovine sperma- tozoa. Semen was collected from four Angus bulls and aliquots were either separated on discontinuous gradients of bovine serum albumin (BSA) or untreated before processing for cryopreservation. Two

  7. Thermal stability of UV-irradiated collagen in bovine lens capsules and in bovine cornea

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alina Sionkowska

    2005-01-01

    The thermal stability of UVB irradiated collagen in bovine lens capsules and in bovine cornea has been investigated by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). During UVB irradiation the lens capsules and cornea were immersed in water to keep the collagen in a fully hydrated condition at all times. UV irradiation induced changes in collagen which caused both stabilization and destabilization of

  8. Immunosuppressive Activity of Bovine Follicular Fluid on Bovine T Lymphocytes In Vitro1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. A. Fahmi; A. G. Hunter; R. J. F. Markham; B. E. Seguin

    1985-01-01

    Follicular fluid from bovine follicles at various stages of the estrous cycle and cysts were tested in vitro for immuno- suppressive activity. Mitogen-stimulated lymphocyte assays and the mixed lymphocyte reaction were used as test procedures and thymidine uptake was monitored. Follicular fluid and cyst fluid inhibited the deoxyribonucleic acid syn- thesis response of bovine lymphocytes to mitogenic and antigenic stimulation.

  9. Prevalence and characteristics of supernumerary teeth: A survey on 7348 people

    PubMed Central

    Demiriz, Levent; Durmu?lar, Mustafa Cenk; M?s?r, Ahmet Ferhat

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence of supernumerary teeth with by evaluating a large group of adult patients in Turkey and to investigate the characteristics of supernumerary teeth with their complications and treatment options. Study Design: This descriptive and retrospective study was carried out in 7348 adult patients aged over 18 years (3212 females and 4136 males). The characteristics of the supernumerary teeth were noted and the diagnosis was made during clinical and radiographic examination with the help of panaromic, periapical, and occlusal radiography. Information on the demographic variables for each patient, including age and gender, were colleceted. Materials and Methods: All supernumerary teeth were classfied under several titles such as location, position, morphology, eruption, clinical complications, and treatment protocols. The data obtained were subjected to statistical analysis. Chi-squared test was used to determine differences in distribution of supernumerary teeth when stratified by gender. The statistical significance was established by confidence interval of 95% (P ? 0.05). Results: 123 (2.14%) affected patients (69 females and 54 males) were observed with a female:male ratio of 1.28:1 (P < 0.05). One hundred and fifty-six supernumerary teeth were detected in all affected patients. Conclusion: Supernumerary teeth may be observed in adults patients with a similar frequency (2.14%) as in children and young adolescents, and clinicians should take measures and examine all patients carefully even at older ages. PMID:25984466

  10. Tooth development in a model reptile: functional and null generation teeth in the gecko Paroedura picta

    PubMed Central

    Zahradnicek, Oldrich; Horacek, Ivan; Tucker, Abigail S

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes tooth development in a basal squamate, Paroedura picta. Due to its reproductive strategy, mode of development and position within the reptiles, this gecko represents an excellent model organism for the study of reptile development. Here we document the dental pattern and development of non-functional (null generation) and functional generations of teeth during embryonic development. Tooth development is followed from initiation to cytodifferentiation and ankylosis, as the tooth germs develop from bud, through cap to bell stages. The fate of the single generation of non-functional (null generation) teeth is shown to be variable, with some teeth being expelled from the oral cavity, while others are incorporated into the functional bone and teeth, or are absorbed. Fate appears to depend on the initiation site within the oral cavity, with the first null generation teeth forming before formation of the dental lamina. We show evidence for a stratum intermedium layer in the enamel epithelium of functional teeth and show that the bicuspid shape of the teeth is created by asymmetrical deposition of enamel, and not by folding of the inner dental epithelium as observed in mammals. PMID:22780101

  11. Fluorescence properties of human teeth and dental calculus for clinical applications.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yong-Keun

    2015-04-01

    Fluorescent emission of human teeth and dental calculus is important for the esthetic rehabilitation of teeth, diagnosis of dental caries, and detection of dental calculus. The purposes of this review were to summarize the fluorescence and phosphorescence of human teeth by ambient ultraviolet (UV) light, to investigate the clinically relevant fluorescence measurement methods in dentistry, and to review the fluorescence of teeth and dental calculus by specific wavelength light. Dentine was three times more phosphorescent than enamel. When exposed to light sources containing UV components, the fluorescence of human teeth gives them the quality of vitality, and fluorescent emission with a peak of 440 nm is observed. Esthetic restorative materials should have fluorescence properties similar to those of natural teeth. Based on the fluorescence of teeth and restorative materials as determined with a spectrophotometer, a fluorescence parameter was defined. As to the fluorescence spectra by a specific wavelength, varied wavelengths were investigated for clinical applications, and several methods for the diagnosis of dental caries and the detection of dental calculus were developed. Since fluorescent properties of dental hard tissues have been used and would be expanded in diverse fields of clinical practice, these properties should be investigated further, embracing newly developed optical techniques. PMID:25875625

  12. Revitalization of open apex teeth with apical periodontitis using a collagen-hydroxyapatite scaffold.

    PubMed

    Nevins, Alan J; Cymerman, Jerome J

    2015-06-01

    An enhanced revision of the revitalization endodontic technique for immature teeth with apical periodontitis has been described. It includes the addition of collagen-hydroxyapatite scaffold to the currently practiced revascularization technique. Four cases treated in series are presented in this report, 1 case involving 2 teeth. Periapical diagnoses of immature teeth included "asymptomatic apical periodontitis," "symptomatic apical periodontitis," and "acute apical abscess." Additionally, 1 fully developed tooth that had undergone root canal treatment that failed had a periapical diagnosis of acute apical abscess. An established revascularization protocol was used for all teeth. In addition to stimulating blood clots, all teeth were filled with collagen-hydroxyapatite scaffolds. Periapical radiolucencies healed in all teeth, and diffuse radiopacity developed within the coronal portions of canal spaces. Root development with root lengthening occurred in the immature nonvital maxillary premolar that had not undergone prior treatment. The technique of adding a collagen-hydroxyapatite scaffold to the existing revitalization protocol has been described in which substantial hard tissue repair has occurred. This may leave teeth more fully developed and less likely to fracture. PMID:25680956

  13. Cylindrical Hall Thrusters with Permanent Magnets

    SciTech Connect

    Raitses, Yevgeny; Merino, Enrique; Fisch, Nathaniel J.

    2010-10-18

    The use of permanent magnets instead of electromagnet coils for low power Hall thrusters can offer a significant reduction of both the total electric power consumption and the thruster mass. Two permanent magnet versions of the miniaturized cylindrical Hall thruster (CHT) of different overall dimensions were operated in the power range of 50W-300 W. The discharge and plasma plume measurements revealed that the CHT thrusters with permanent magnets and electromagnet coils operate rather differently. In particular, the angular ion current density distribution from the permanent magnet thrusters has an unusual halo shape, with a majority of high energy ions flowing at large angles with respect to the thruster centerline. Differences in the magnetic field topology outside the thruster channel and in the vicinity of the channel exit are likely responsible for the differences in the plume characteristics measured for the CHTs with electromagnets and permanent magnets. It is shown that the presence of the reversing-direction or cusp-type magnetic field configuration inside the thruster channel without a strong axial magnetic field outside the thruster channel does not lead to the halo plasma plume from the CHT. __________________________________________________

  14. Numerical research on characteristics of a teeth-shaped nanoplasmonic waveguide filter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guan, Jianfei; Zhu, Xiaodan

    2015-05-01

    Transmittance spectra of double-sided teeth-shaped nanoplasmonic waveguide filters formed in the metal-insulator-metal (MIM) waveguides are systematically investigated. It is found that a staggered double-sided teeth-shaped structure exhibits a wide and sharp bandgap, furthermore the two staggered double teeths combination can realize the narrow band filter with ultracompact size in the length of a few hundred nanometers. The finite element method is employed in the simulations. Our results may open a way to construct nanoscale waveguide filters for high-density nanoplasmonic integration circuits.

  15. Contact stresses in meshing spur gear teeth: Use of an incremental finite element procedure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hsieh, Chih-Ming; Huston, Ronald L.; Oswald, Fred B.

    1992-01-01

    Contact stresses in meshing spur gear teeth are examined. The analysis is based upon an incremental finite element procedure that simultaneously determines the stresses in the contact region between the meshing teeth. The teeth themselves are modeled by two dimensional plain strain elements. Friction effects are included, with the friction forces assumed to obey Coulomb's law. The analysis assumes that the displacements are small and that the tooth materials are linearly elastic. The analysis procedure is validated by comparing its results with those for the classical two contacting semicylinders obtained from the Hertz method. Agreement is excellent.

  16. Opal phytoliths found on the teeth of the extinct ape Gigantopithecus blacki: implications for paleodietary studies.

    PubMed Central

    Ciochon, R L; Piperno, D R; Thompson, R G

    1990-01-01

    Identification of opal phytoliths bonded to the enamel surface of the teeth of Gigantopithecus blacki indicates that this extinct ape had a varied diet of grasses and fruits. By using the scanning electron microscope at magnifications of 2000-6000x specific opal phytoliths were observed and photographed on the fossilized teeth of an extinct species. Since opal phytoliths represent the inorganic remains of once-living plant cells, their documentation on the teeth of Gigantopithecus introduces a promising technique for the determination of diet in extinct mammalian species which should find numerous applications in the field of paleoanthropology as well as vertebrate paleontology. Images PMID:2236026

  17. Laced permanent magnet quadrupole drift tube magnets

    SciTech Connect

    Feinberg, B.; Behrsing, G.U.; Halbach, K.; Marks, J.S.; Morrison, M.E.; Nelson, D.H.

    1989-03-01

    Twenty-three laced permanent magnet quadrupole drift tube magnets have been constructed, tested, and installed in the SuperHILAC heavy ion linear accelerator at LBL, marking the first accelerator use of this new type of quadrupole. The magnets consist of conventional tape-wound quadrupole electromagnets, using iron pole-pieces, with permanent magnet material (samarium cobalt) inserted between the poles to reduce the effects of saturation. The iron is preloaded with magnetic flux generated by the permanent magnet material, resulting in an asymmetrical saturation curve. Since the polarity of the individual quadrupole magnets in a drift tube linac is never reversed, we can take advantage of this asymmetrical saturation to provide about 20% greater focusing strength than is available with conventional quadrupoles, while replacing the vanadium permendur poletips with iron poletips. Comparisons between these magnets and conventional tape-wound quadrupoles will be presented. 3 refs., 5 figs.

  18. Permanent partner priorities: gay and straight.

    PubMed

    Laner, M R

    1977-01-01

    Based on a design used in previous research with heterosexuals, this study assessed the permanent partner priorities of gay and straight men and women, as well as the perception of those priorities by each gender and sexual orientation. Heterosexuals and homosexuals did not differ in their rank-ordered priorities, but tended to misperceive the priorities of their own and the other groups studied. Differentials of misperception were explained by varying societal pressures experienced by homo- and heterosexual men and women. Implications based on the difference between the competitive nature of courtship and the cooperative nature of permanent pairing were drawn from the findings. PMID:591710

  19. Steroidogenesis in fetal bovine gonads.

    PubMed Central

    Dominguez, M M; Liptrap, R M; Basrur, P K

    1988-01-01

    Gonadal steroidogenesis in bovine fetuses of 40 to 125 days gestation was examined using histochemical procedures and radioimmunoassay on gonadal cultures to determine the physiological correlates of gonadal morphogenesis in cattle. Gonadal morphology and the in vitro secretion patterns were distinct between the sexes by 45 days when testes secreted significantly higher levels of testosterone and androstenedione and lower levels of estrone and 17 beta-estradiol that the ovaries (p less than 0.0001). It would appear that the main steroid route in the ovaries of 45 to 70 day old fetuses is the androstenedione to estrone to 17 beta-estradiol pathway. The high estrone secretion and the decreasing levels of 17 beta-estradiol and testosterone in the ovaries of 70 to 125 day fetuses suggest an inhibition of 17 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase activity. It is postulated that this shift in steroid biosynthetic pathways may be related to the change in cellular events from mitosis to meiosis in fetal ovaries. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 7. PMID:3196968

  20. Genetics of bovine abomasal displacement.

    PubMed

    Zerbin, Ina; Lehner, Stefanie; Distl, Ottmar

    2015-04-01

    Displacement of the abomasum (DA) is a common inherited condition in Holstein cows. This article reviews the genetics of DA including risk factors, genetic parameters and molecular genetic results. Breeds other than Holsteins affected by DA include Guernseys, Jerseys, Brown Swiss, Ayrshires and Simmental-Red Holsteins. In most DA cases, left displacements of the abomasum (LDA) are seen. Lactation incidence rates are higher for DA in first lactation Holsteins compared to later lactations. For Holstein cows, heritability estimates for DA are between 0.03 and 0.53. Genetic correlation estimates among DA and milk production traits range from positive to negative. Genome-wide significant genomic regions associated with LDA are located on bovine chromosomes (BTA) 1, 3, 11, 20 and 23. Motilin-associated single nucleotide polymorphisms on BTA23 exhibit a functional relationship with LDA. Pathways for deposition of calcium, insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus and synaptic transmission are significantly related to LDA in Holsteins. Deciphering the DA-associated genomic regions and genes may be an important step in the quest to understand the underlying disease-causing mechanisms and in unravelling mutations with a causal relationship to DA. PMID:25840863

  1. Evaluation of some risks factors in bovine salmonellosis

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    salmonellosis, namely: metabolic and hepatic parameters; Fasciola hepatica infestation; and bovine virus by Fasciola hepatica as reported by Aitken and Jones (1978); and infection by bovine virus diar- rhoea (BVD

  2. Inferring biological evolution from fracture patterns in teeth.

    PubMed

    Lawn, Brian R; Bush, Mark B; Barani, Amir; Constantino, Paul J; Wroe, Stephen

    2013-12-01

    It is hypothesised that specific tooth forms are adapted to resist fracture, in order to accommodate the high bite forces needed to secure, break down and consume food. Three distinct modes of tooth fracture are identified: longitudinal fracture, where cracks run vertically between the occlusal contact and the crown margin (or vice versa) within the enamel side wall; chipping fracture, where cracks run from near the edge of the occlusal surface to form a spall in the enamel at the side wall; and transverse fracture, where a crack runs horizontally through the entire section of the tooth to break off a fragment and expose the inner pulp. Explicit equations are presented expressing critical bite force for each fracture mode in terms of characteristic tooth dimensions. Distinctive transitions between modes occur depending on tooth form and size, and loading location and direction. Attention is focussed on the relatively flat, low-crowned molars of omnivorous mammals, including humans and other hominins and the elongate canines of living carnivores. At the same time, allusion to other tooth forms - the canines of the extinct sabre-tooth (Smilodon fatalis), the conical dentition of reptiles, and the columnar teeth of herbivores - is made to highlight the generality of the methodology. How these considerations impact on dietary behaviour in fossil and living taxa is discussed. PMID:24012462

  3. Antimicrobial Activity of Filling Materials Used in Primary Teeth Pulpotomy

    PubMed Central

    Pimenta, Hévelin Couto; Borges, Álvaro Henrique; Bandeca, Matheus Coelho; Neves, Ana Thereza Sabóia; Fontes, Rodrigo Gusmão; da Silva, Priscila Vieira; Aranha, Andreza Maria Fábio

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the antibacterial activity of pulp capping materials used in primary teeth (formocresol [FC], zinc oxide and eugenol cement [ZOE], ZOE mixed with FC [ZOEFC], mineral trioxide aggregate [MTA] and calcium hydroxide [CH]) against cariogenic bacteria. The agar plate diffusion test was used for the cultures, including saline solution as a negative control. A base layer of 15 mL of brain heart infusion agar was inoculated with 300 mL of each inoculum. Twelve wells were made and completely filled with one of the testing materials for each bacteria strain. The plates were incubated at 37°C for 48 h. Zones of microbial inhibition and material diffusion were measured and photographed. The results obtained were analyzed by Kruskal–Wallis and Mann–Whitney non-parametric tests. Respectively, the medium zones of bacteria inhibition of FC, ZOE, ZOEFC, MTA and CH against Streptococcus mutans growth were 28.5, 15.2, 20.8, 9.3 and 11.6; against Lactobacillus acidophilus growth were 28.7, 14.8, 15.3, 15.2 and 20.0, and against Actinomyces viscosus growth were 13.6, 13.5, 14.7, 10.0 and 13.6. We might confirmed the high antibacterial activity of FC solution, especially against S. mutans and L. acidophilus, as wells as, the low inhibitory effect of MTA cement on the cariogenic bacteria studied. PMID:25954072

  4. Antimicrobial activity of filling materials used in primary teeth pulpotomy.

    PubMed

    Pimenta, Hévelin Couto; Borges, Álvaro Henrique; Bandeca, Matheus Coelho; Neves, Ana Thereza Sabóia; Fontes, Rodrigo Gusmão; da Silva, Priscila Vieira; Aranha, Andreza Maria Fábio

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the antibacterial activity of pulp capping materials used in primary teeth (formocresol [FC], zinc oxide and eugenol cement [ZOE], ZOE mixed with FC [ZOEFC], mineral trioxide aggregate [MTA] and calcium hydroxide [CH]) against cariogenic bacteria. The agar plate diffusion test was used for the cultures, including saline solution as a negative control. A base layer of 15 mL of brain heart infusion agar was inoculated with 300 mL of each inoculum. Twelve wells were made and completely filled with one of the testing materials for each bacteria strain. The plates were incubated at 37°C for 48 h. Zones of microbial inhibition and material diffusion were measured and photographed. The results obtained were analyzed by Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney non-parametric tests. Respectively, the medium zones of bacteria inhibition of FC, ZOE, ZOEFC, MTA and CH against Streptococcus mutans growth were 28.5, 15.2, 20.8, 9.3 and 11.6; against Lactobacillus acidophilus growth were 28.7, 14.8, 15.3, 15.2 and 20.0, and against Actinomyces viscosus growth were 13.6, 13.5, 14.7, 10.0 and 13.6. We might confirmed the high antibacterial activity of FC solution, especially against S. mutans and L. acidophilus, as wells as, the low inhibitory effect of MTA cement on the cariogenic bacteria studied. PMID:25954072

  5. Ar+ and CuBr laser-assisted chemical bleaching of teeth: estimation of whiteness degree

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dimitrov, S.; Todorovska, Roumyana; Gizbrecht, Alexander I.; Raychev, L.; Petrov, Lyubomir P.

    2003-11-01

    In this work the results of adaptation of impartial methods for color determination aimed at developing of techniques for estimation of human teeth whiteness degree, sufficiently handy for common use in clinical practice are presented. For approbation and by the way of illustration of the techniques, standards of teeth colors were used as well as model and naturally discolored human teeth treated by two bleaching chemical compositions activated by three light sources each: Ar+ and CuBr lasers, and a standard halogen photopolymerization lamp. Typical reflection and fluorescence spectra of some samples are presented; the samples colors were estimated by a standard computer processing in RGB and B coordinates. The results of the applied spectral and colorimetric techniques are in a good agreement with those of the standard computer processing of the corresponding digital photographs and complies with the visually estimated degree of the teeth whiteness judged according to the standard reference scale commonly used in the aesthetic dentistry.

  6. Periapical cemento-osseous dysplasia in maxillary teeth suggesting apical periodontitis: case report.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Cleomar Donizeth; Estrela, Carlos

    2009-01-01

    This article describes the case of a 34-year-old woman whose prosthodontist had referred her for root canal treatment of tooth No. 10, due to an initial diagnosis of apical periodontitis. Although periapical radiolucencies were present, teeth No. 10 and 11 responded positively to pulp vitality tests. A series of periapical radiographs revealed circumscribed periapical radiolucencies on teeth No. 21 and 28, while teeth No. 23, 24, and 27 were associated with mixed radiolucent/radiopaque periapical lesions. All teeth responded to cold stimulus. Based on the clinical and radiographic findings, a diagnosis of periapical cemento-osseous dysplasia was suggested. A re-evaluation 12 months later confirmed this diagnosis. Tooth No. 10 was restored and the patient was scheduled to return for clinical and radiographic follow-up after one year and three years. PMID:21466999

  7. Estimation of Inkjet Printer Spur Gear Teeth Number from Pitch Data String of Limited Length

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akao, Yoshinori; Yamamoto, Atsushi; Higashikawa, Yoshiyasu

    In this paper, we investigate the feasibility of estimating the number of inkjet printer spur gear teeth from pitch data strings of limited length by maximum entropy spectral analysis. The purpose of this study is to improve the efficiency of inkjet printer model identification based on spur mark comparison in the field of forensic document analysis. Experiments were performed using two spur gears in different color inkjet printer models, and eight different lengths of pitch data strings—ranging from three to 10 times the number of spur gear teeth. The result for a data string longer than five times the number of teeth showed a proper estimation within a deviation of one tooth. However, the estimation failed for shorter data strings because the order in maximum entropy analysis was determined inappropriately. The presented results provide information on the number of spur gear teeth from shorter data strings than in a previous study.

  8. Measurement of 210Po in Iranian smokers' and non-smokers' teeth.

    PubMed

    Gholizade Rad, S; Vahabi Moghaddam, M; Hosseini, T; Barati, H; Fattahi, E

    2010-03-01

    Thirty human tooth samples were collected from smoker and non-smoker groups with different ages and different sexes from north of Iran. The samples were analysed by a radiochemical procedure, and the prepared source by spontaneous electrolysis was measured by an alpha spectrometry to determine activity concentrations of (210)Po in teeth. The results indicated that the average (210)Po concentration in Iranian human teeth is 3.94 +/- 2.38 mBq g(-1.) The measured mean activity concentrations of (210)Po in smokers' and non-smokers' teeth were 5.89 +/- 3.59 and 2.55 +/- 1.00 mBq g(-1), respectively. The detailed analysis of 30 tooth samples of Iranian population revealed that smoking habits and age may have some influence on (210)Po content in teeth, although this is not the case of difference in sex. PMID:19951984

  9. Survival time of endodontically treated teeth: a 7-year retrospective clinical study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baldea, Bogdan; Canjau, Silvana; Popescu, Dragos; Tudor, Anca; Todea, Carmen

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this retrospective clinical study was to examine the survival time of endodontically treated teeth (ETT) and the factors that may influence the failure risk, over a period of up to 7 years. The files of 67 patients that received metal free post and core restorations using a standardized technique were analyzed. The survival probability was assessed using Kaplan-Meyer analysis and Log Rank (Matel-Cox). Cox regression was used to assess the risk of failure and to identify possible covariates. The average survival time of the ETT was 6.6 Years. The cumulative failure rate was 5.82% for all type of the restored endodontically treated teeth. The main failure type was encountered in the cervical area of the teeth, and due to the extensive hard tissue loss, the teeth were extracted.

  10. Here Comes the Bride... and Her Teeth Are Nice and Bright

    MedlinePLUS

    ... JADA, Vol. 135, May 2004679 OTHER COSMETIC OPTIONS Bonding. If your teeth are chipped, broken, cracked or ... or have slight gaps, ask your dentist about bonding. Bonding is a cosmetic procedure that uses tooth- ...

  11. Review article Classification of worldwide bovine tuberculosis risk factors

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Review article Classification of worldwide bovine tuberculosis risk factors in cattle: a stratified Tilman, Belgium 2 National and OIE/FAO Bovine Tuberculosis Reference Laboratories, Bacterial Zoonoses ­ The worldwide status of bovine tuberculosis (bTB) as a zoonosis remains of great concern. This article reviews

  12. The evaluation of a novel method comparing quantitative light-induced fluorescence (QLF) with spectrophotometry to assess staining and bleaching of teeth.

    PubMed

    Adeyemi, A A; Jarad, F D; de Josselin de Jong, E; Pender, N; Higham, S M

    2010-02-01

    This study reports the development and evaluation of a novel method using quantitative light-induced fluorescence (QLF), which enables its use for quantifying and assessing whole tooth surface staining and tooth whitening. The method was compared with a spectrophotometer to assess reliability. Two experimental phases, intrinsic stain formation and tooth whitening, were conducted in vitro on 16 extracted bovine teeth. Intrinsic stains were developed via access through lingual surfaces and root canals of these teeth using tea solution (2 g/100 ml, Marks and Spencer Extra Strong Tea, Marks and Spencer, London, UK) for 6 days. Stains were removed using 33% hydrogen peroxide (VWR Prolab, Leicestershire, UK) in cycles over 150 min. Stain development/whitening was monitored with QLF (Inspektor Research systems, Amsterdam, Netherlands) and spectrophotometry (Easy shade, Vita Zahnfabrik, Bad Säckingen, Germany). Parameters Delta F for QLF and Delta E for the spectrophotometer were obtained. The progression of stain intensity and removal observed by the methods were tested for correlation using Pearson's correlation coefficient. Intra-examiner reliability for each method was tested. QLF showed a high correlation with spectrophotometry for detecting and monitoring intrinsic tooth stain progression (Pearson coefficient r was -0.987 with correlation significant p < 0.0001). For stain removal, the Pearson coefficient (r) between both methods was -0.906 with no significance p = 0.094. The use of an external reference material in combination with the inner patch QLF analysis technique had the ability to detect and measure whole tooth surface staining and its removal longitudinally. The reliability of the method shows a potential clinical application. PMID:19306025

  13. Fixed functional space maintainer: novel aesthetic approach for missing maxillary primary anterior teeth

    PubMed Central

    Khare, Vikram; Nayak, Prathibha Anand; Khandelwal, Vishal; Nayak, Ullal Anand

    2013-01-01

    The first-line treatment of non-restorable traumatically injured or carious deciduous teeth is extraction which may be a curse for the future dentition as well as social activity of a child. Various therapeutic modalities from removable partial dentures to fixed space maintainer can be used for replacement of such lost teeth. Two types of fixed aesthetic space maintainers for replacing premature loss of maxillary deciduous incisors in 4-year-old children are discussed. PMID:23737580

  14. In situ Raman spectroscopic studies of the teeth of the chiton Acanthopleura hirtosa

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alasdair P. Lee; John Webb; D. J. Macey; Wilhelm van Bronswijk; Angela R. Savarese; G. Charmaine de Witt

    1998-01-01

    In situ Raman spectroscopy, in combination with energy dispersive spectroscopy, has been used for the first time to determine\\u000a the identities and locations, at the micron level, of mineral phases present in single chiton teeth that have been extensively\\u000a mineralized. At the later stages of development the major lateral teeth of the chiton Acanthopleura hirtosa show characteristic spectroscopic evidence for

  15. NATIVE AMERICANS IN THE SAN FRANCISCO BAY AREA: PATTERNS IN ANCIENT TEETH, PAPIMPSESTS OF BEHAVIOR

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dave Grant

    2010-01-01

    NATIVE AMERICANS IN THE SAN FRANCISCO BAY AREA:\\u000aPATTERNS IN ANCIENT TEETH; PALIMPSESTS OF BEHAVIOR\\u000aby Dave Grant\\u000aIn analyzing burial populations from seven sites in the Santa Clara Valley, patterns on teeth were found that did not conform to the flat normative wear explanation. This study attempts to expand upon the seminal work of Molnar (1968), Hinton (1981), and

  16. Early Pleistocene hominid teeth recovered in Mohui cave in Bubing Basin, Guangxi, South China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wang Wei; Richard Potts; Hou Yamei; Chen Yunfa; Wu Huaying; Yuan Baoyin; Huang Weiwen

    2005-01-01

    Two hominid teeth recovered in Mohui cave are morphologically distinguished fromAustralopithecus in Africa, but close toHomo erectus in China. These teeth are therefore provisionally assigned toHomo erectus. The associated mammalian fauna includeGigantopithecus blacki, Nestoritherium sp.,Sus xiaozhu, Sus peii andAiluropoda microta, which are typical early Pleistocene taxa in South China. The general characteristics of the Mohui faunal assemblage are\\u000a similar to

  17. Multivariate Analyses of Small Theropod Dinosaur Teeth and Implications for Paleoecological Turnover through Time

    PubMed Central

    Larson, Derek W.; Currie, Philip J.

    2013-01-01

    Isolated small theropod teeth are abundant in vertebrate microfossil assemblages, and are frequently used in studies of species diversity in ancient ecosystems. However, determining the taxonomic affinities of these teeth is problematic due to an absence of associated diagnostic skeletal material. Species such as Dromaeosaurus albertensis, Richardoestesia gilmorei, and Saurornitholestes langstoni are known from skeletal remains that have been recovered exclusively from the Dinosaur Park Formation (Campanian). It is therefore likely that teeth from different formations widely disparate in age or geographic position are not referable to these species. Tooth taxa without any associated skeletal material, such as Paronychodon lacustris and Richardoestesia isosceles, have also been identified from multiple localities of disparate ages throughout the Late Cretaceous. To address this problem, a dataset of measurements of 1183 small theropod teeth (the most specimen-rich theropod tooth dataset ever constructed) from North America ranging in age from Santonian through Maastrichtian were analyzed using multivariate statistical methods: canonical variate analysis, pairwise discriminant function analysis, and multivariate analysis of variance. The results indicate that teeth referred to the same taxon from different formations are often quantitatively distinct. In contrast, isolated teeth found in time equivalent formations are not quantitatively distinguishable from each other. These results support the hypothesis that small theropod taxa, like other dinosaurs in the Late Cretaceous, tend to be exclusive to discrete host formations. The methods outlined have great potential for future studies of isolated teeth worldwide, and may be the most useful non-destructive technique known of extracting the most data possible from isolated and fragmentary specimens. The ability to accurately assess species diversity and turnover through time based on isolated teeth will help illuminate patterns of evolution and extinction in these groups and potentially others in greater detail than has previously been thought possible without more complete skeletal material. PMID:23372708

  18. Effects of construction changes in the teeth of a gear transmission on acoustic properties.

    PubMed

    Wieczorek, Andrzej

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents results of experimental research on the acoustic properties of gear wheels with high-profile teeth with differentiated tooth height. Those results showed that gear transmissions with high-profile teeth have the best acoustic properties, with the value of the transverse contact ratio ?? ? 2.0. They also showed that a reduction in tooth height, and thereby in contact ratio, increased the sound pressure level. PMID:23294654

  19. A hybrid pulse transformer with permanent magnets

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tsutomu Mizuno; Yukinobu Takata; Masashi Matsumoto

    2005-01-01

    This paper compares the operating range of a conventional pulse transformer (PT) and a hybrid pulse transformer (HPT) which is designed for miniaturization and increased output power of flyback converters. The HPT expands the operating range of the primary magnetomotive force by impressing the dc bias in cores with permanent magnets. The operating ranges of the conventional PT and the

  20. Distribution of electromagnetic force in permanent magnets

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. H. de Medeiros; G. Reyne; G. Meunier; J. P. Yonnet

    1998-01-01

    Two dual formulations are proposed for the calculation of the electromagnetic forces in permanent magnets. The formulations are based on the virtual work principle with the use of nodal elements. Both methods allow the calculation of global force as well as local force densities. These densities depend on the expression of the magnetic energy or co-energy of the magnet. The

  1. Modified asphalt mixtures resistance to permanent deformations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Piotr Radziszewski

    2007-01-01

    Permanent deformations, primarily in the form of ruts, are one of the basic asphalt pavement damages impairing its service properties. Application of appropriate asphalt mixtures and binder modification are effective methods for improving asphalt courses resistance. While being manufactured, stored, fitted into a road pavement and during long term service, bitumen binders and asphalt mixtures are subject to continuous unfavourable

  2. Sexism and Permanent Exclusion from School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlile, Anna

    2009-01-01

    Focussing on narratives collected during a two year participant observation research project in the children's services department of an urban local authority, this article addresses the intersection between incidents of permanent exclusion from school and assumptions made on the basis of a young person's gender. The article considers gendered…

  3. Spectral analysis of permanent magnet electric machines

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pawel Witczak; Beata Wawrzyniak

    2008-01-01

    Purpose – This paper aims to provide the mathematical background for representation of permanent magnet AC machines in terms of rotating magnetic field waves of any shape instead of being restricted to the sinusoidal. The general idea is to replace the inductances in the mathematical model of the machine by means of adequate time functions of the flux linkage. Design\\/methodology\\/approach

  4. Performance improvement of permanent magnet ac motors

    E-print Network

    Parsa, Leila

    2005-08-29

    .????????????????....????.. 19 B. Background............??..?????.??.?????...?.?.... 20 C. Comparing BLDC Motor and PMSM???????????... 24 D. Harmonic Spectrum of MMF in Machines with Non-sinusoidal Winding Distribution??????????????????.. 26 ix TABLE............................................................................ 58 H. Conclusion??????????????????????. 68 III FAULT TOLERANT OPERATION OF PERMANENT MAGNET MOTOR DRIVES?????????????????????? 69 A. Introduction.????????????????....???.?. 69 B. Fault Tolerant Operation of Five-Phase PMSM...

  5. Sponsoring International Employees For Permanent Resident Status

    E-print Network

    Jacobs, Lucia

    resident (PR ­ "green-card") status in order to legally live and work in the United States on a permanent basis. Under provisions of U.S. immigration law, the University may sponsor certain eligible) by petitioning the U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services (USCIS ­ formerly the Immigration and Naturalization

  6. Pupil Dilation and Object Permanence in Infants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sirois, Sylvain; Jackson, Iain R.

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the relative merits of looking time and pupil diameter measures in the study of early cognitive abilities of infants. Ten-month-old infants took part in a modified version of the classic drawbridge experiment used to study object permanence (Baillargeon, Spelke, & Wasserman, 1985). The study involved a factorial design where…

  7. Removal of a Permanent IVC Filter

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, Bangalore C. Anil [Queen's Medical Centre, Department of Radiology (United Kingdom)], E-mail: anil.kumar@doctors.org.uk; Chakraverty, Sam; Zealley, Ian [Ninewells Hospital, Department of Radiology (United Kingdom)

    2006-02-15

    Inferior vena cava (IVC) filters are increasingly used for prevention of life-threatening pulmonary emboli in patients who have contraindications to anticoagulation therapy. We report a case of the removal of a permanent IVC filter, which was inadvertently inserted due to an incorrect ultrasound report.

  8. Core losses in permanent magnet motors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. R. Slemon; X. Liu

    1990-01-01

    It is pointed out that the conventional approach to core loss prediction using the Fourier series of the space wave of air gap flux density is not applicable to surface mounted permanent magnet (PM) motors. An alternative approach based on the concept that eddy current losses are proportional to the square of the time rate of change of the flux

  9. PROCEDURE FOR ESTIMATING PERMANENT TOTAL ENCLOSURE COSTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses a procedure for estimating permanent total enclosure (PTE) costs. (NOTE: Industries that use add-on control devices must adequately capture emissions before delivering them to the control device. One way to capture emissions is to use PTEs, enclosures that mee...

  10. Laced permanent magnet quadrupole drift tube magnets

    SciTech Connect

    Feinberg, B.; Behrsing, G.U.; Halbach, K.; Marks, J.S.; Morrison, M.E.; Nelson, D.H.

    1988-10-01

    A laced permanent magnet quadrupole drift tube magnet has been constructed for a proof-of-principle test. The magnet is a conventional tape-wound quadrupole electromagnet, using iron pole- pieces, with the addition of permanent magnet material (neodymium iron) between the poles to reduce the effects of saturation. The iron is preloaded with magnetic flux generated by the permanent magnet material, resulting in an asymmetrical saturation curve. Since the polarity of the quadrupole magnets in a drift tube linac is not reversed we can take advantage of this asymmetrical saturation to provide greater focusing strength. The magnet configuration has been optimized and the vanadium permendur poles needed in a conventional quadrupole have been replaced with iron poles. The use of permanent magnet material has allowed us to increase the focusing strength of the magnet by about 20% over that of a conventional tape-wound quadrupole. Comparisons will be made between this magnet and the conventional tape-wound quadrupole. 3 refs., 5 figs.

  11. Pulp responses to precise thermal stimuli in dentin-sensitive teeth.

    PubMed

    Leffingwell, Clifford S; Meinberg, Trudy A; Wagner, Joshua G; Gound, Tom G; Marx, David B; Reinhardt, Richard A

    2004-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether pulpal responses to cold temperatures applied to enamel, using a method that precisely controls the intensity of the cold stimulus or measures the response time, could distinguish dentin-sensitive teeth from nonsensitive teeth. Eighteen human subjects were stimulated with cold temperatures decreasing in 5 degree C intervals (and with tetrafluoroethane) on exposed root and enamel of a dentin-sensitive tooth and enamel of a contralateral nonsensitive tooth. Pain threshold, intensity of pain, time to pain onset, and duration of pain at baseline, 4 h, 8 h, and 1 week were measured. Responses to enamel stimulation of sensitive teeth compared with the nonsensitive teeth usually were highly correlated and not significantly different. The exception was a longer duration of pain in the dentin-sensitive teeth (4.62 +/- 0.47 s) compared with nonsensitive teeth (2.92 +/- 0.49 s; p = 0.016) after enamel stimulation with tetrafluoroethane. Longitudinal studies are necessary to determine whether these slight increases in pain duration indicate an increased probability of pulpal degeneration or need for dentin protection. PMID:15167462

  12. Metallic Burden of Deciduous Teeth and Childhood Behavioral Deficits.

    PubMed

    Chan, Tony J H; Gutierrez, Carolina; Ogunseitan, Oladele A

    2015-01-01

    Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) affects 5%-8% of children in the U.S. (10% of males and 4% of females). The contributions of multiple metal exposures to the childhood behavioral deficits are unclear, although particular metals have been implicated through their neurotoxicity. The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that the body burden of Mn is positively correlated with ADHD symptoms. We also investigated the putative roles of Ca, Fe, Pb, and Hg. We collected shed molars from 266 children (138 boys and 128 girls) who lost a tooth between 11 and 13 years of age. The molars were analyzed for metals using ICP-OES. The third grade teacher of each child completed the Teacher's Disruptive Behavior Disorders Rating Scale (DBD) to produce a score for "Total Disruptive Behavior" and subscale scores for "Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder", Hyperactivity/Impulsivity, Inattention, and Oppositional/Defiant. The mean Mn, Fe, Pb and Ca concentrations found in teeth was 6.1 ± 5.7 µg/g, 22.7 ± 24.1 µg/g, 0.9 ± 1.4 µg/g, and 6.0 × 105 ± 1.6 × 105 µg/g, respectively. Hg was not detected. No significant association was found between Mn and behavioral deficits. Ca was significantly negatively associated, and Pb showed a significant positive association with Hyperactivity/Impulsivity, Inattention, and Oppositional/Defiant Disorders. These findings call into question the putative independent association of manganese exposure and behavioral deficits in children, when the balance of other metallic burden, particularly Ca and Pb burdens play significant roles. PMID:26084001

  13. Metallic Burden of Deciduous Teeth and Childhood Behavioral Deficits

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Tony J.H.; Gutierrez, Carolina; Ogunseitan, Oladele A.

    2015-01-01

    Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) affects 5%–8% of children in the U.S. (10% of males and 4% of females). The contributions of multiple metal exposures to the childhood behavioral deficits are unclear, although particular metals have been implicated through their neurotoxicity. The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that the body burden of Mn is positively correlated with ADHD symptoms. We also investigated the putative roles of Ca, Fe, Pb, and Hg. We collected shed molars from 266 children (138 boys and 128 girls) who lost a tooth between 11 and 13 years of age. The molars were analyzed for metals using ICP-OES. The third grade teacher of each child completed the Teacher’s Disruptive Behavior Disorders Rating Scale (DBD) to produce a score for “Total Disruptive Behavior” and subscale scores for “Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder”, Hyperactivity/Impulsivity, Inattention, and Oppositional/Defiant. The mean Mn, Fe, Pb and Ca concentrations found in teeth was 3.1 ± 2.9 µg/g, 11.4 ± 12.1 µg/g, 0.5 ± 0.7 µg/g, and 3.0 × 105 ± 0.8 × 105 µg/g, respectively. Hg was not detected. No significant association was found between Mn and behavioral deficits. Ca was significantly negatively associated, and Pb showed a significant positive association with Hyperactivity/Impulsivity, Inattention, and Oppositional/Defiant Disorders. These findings call into question the putative independent association of manganese exposure and behavioral deficits in children, when the balance of other metallic burden, particularly Ca and Pb burdens play significant roles. PMID:26084001

  14. 25 CFR 20.511 - Should permanency plans be developed?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HUMAN SERVICES FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE AND SOCIAL SERVICES PROGRAMS Child Assistance Foster Care § 20.511 Should permanency plans be developed? Permanency planning must be developed for all child placements...

  15. 40 CFR 52.2589 - Wisconsin construction permit permanency revision.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 5 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Wisconsin construction permit permanency revision. 52...PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Wisconsin § 52.2589 Wisconsin construction permit permanency revision....

  16. 40 CFR 52.2589 - Wisconsin construction permit permanency revision.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Wisconsin construction permit permanency revision. 52...PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Wisconsin § 52.2589 Wisconsin construction permit permanency revision....

  17. 40 CFR 52.2589 - Wisconsin construction permit permanency revision.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 5 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Wisconsin construction permit permanency revision. 52...PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Wisconsin § 52.2589 Wisconsin construction permit permanency revision....

  18. 40 CFR 52.2589 - Wisconsin construction permit permanency revision.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Wisconsin construction permit permanency revision. 52...PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Wisconsin § 52.2589 Wisconsin construction permit permanency revision....

  19. 40 CFR 52.2589 - Wisconsin construction permit permanency revision.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 5 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Wisconsin construction permit permanency revision. 52...PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Wisconsin § 52.2589 Wisconsin construction permit permanency revision....

  20. 25 CFR 20.511 - Should permanency plans be developed?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HUMAN SERVICES FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE AND SOCIAL SERVICES PROGRAMS Child Assistance Foster Care § 20.511 Should permanency plans be developed? Permanency planning must be developed for all child...

  1. 25 CFR 20.511 - Should permanency plans be developed?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HUMAN SERVICES FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE AND SOCIAL SERVICES PROGRAMS Child Assistance Foster Care § 20.511 Should permanency plans be developed? Permanency planning must be developed for all child...

  2. 25 CFR 20.511 - Should permanency plans be developed?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HUMAN SERVICES FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE AND SOCIAL SERVICES PROGRAMS Child Assistance Foster Care § 20.511 Should permanency plans be developed? Permanency planning must be developed for all child...

  3. 25 CFR 20.511 - Should permanency plans be developed?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HUMAN SERVICES FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE AND SOCIAL SERVICES PROGRAMS Child Assistance Foster Care § 20.511 Should permanency plans be developed? Permanency planning must be developed for all child...

  4. ARE SALAMANDERS USEFUL INDICATORS OF HYDROLOGIC PERMANENCE IN HEADWATER STREAMS?

    EPA Science Inventory

    Regulatory agencies need appropriate indicators of stream permanence to aid in jurisdictional determinations for headwater streams. We evaluated salamanders as permanence indicators because they are often abundant in fishless headwaters. Salamander and habitat data were collect...

  5. Expression of porcine pseudorabies virus genes by a bovine herpesvirus-1 (infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus) vector

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Kit; H. Otsuka; M. Kit

    1992-01-01

    Summary Recombinant DNA techniques were used to insert foreign genes into bovine herpesvirus-1 [infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus (IBRV)] vectors which were attenuated by deletion and\\/or insertion mutations in the IBRV thymidine kinase (tk) gene. In one recombinant, the regulatory and coding sequences of the late pseudorabies virus (PRV) glycoprotein gIII gene, were inserted into the early IBRV tk gene. This

  6. Effects of applying antioxidants on bond strength of bleached bovine dentin

    PubMed Central

    Whang, Hyo-Jin

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Some antioxidants are believed to restore dentin bond strength after dental bleaching. This study was done to evaluate the influence of antioxidants on the bond strength of bleached bovine dentin. Materials and Methods Thirty incisors were randomly assigned to 10 groups (two unbleached control and eight bleached groups: immediate bonding IB, 4 wk delayed bonding DB, 10% sodium ascorbate treated SA, 10% ?-tocopherol treated TP groups). Teeth in half of groups were subjected to thermal stress, whereas the remaining groups were not. Resin-dentin rods with a cross-sectional area of 2.25 mm2 were obtained and microtensile bond strength was determined at a crosshead speed of 1 mm/min. Fifteen specimens were prepared for SEM to compare the surface characteristics of each group. The change in dentin bond strength from thermal stress and antioxidant treatment was evaluated using two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Sheffe's post hoc test at a significance level of 95%. Results The control group exhibited the highest bond strength values, whereas IB group showed the lowest value before and after thermocycling. The DB group recovered its bond strength similar to that of the control group. The SA and TP groups exhibited similar bond strength values with those of the control and DB groups before thermocycling. However, The TP group did not maintain bond strength with thermal stress, whereas the SA group did. Conclusions Applying a 10% sodium ascorbate solution rather than 10% ?-tocopherol solution for 60 sec is recommended to maintain dentin bond strength when restoring non-vitally bleached teeth. PMID:25671211

  7. Detection and Identification of the Atypical Bovine Pestiviruses in Commercial Foetal Bovine Serum Batches

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Hongyan; Vijayaraghavan, Balaje; Belák, Sándor; Liu, Lihong

    2011-01-01

    The recently emerging atypical bovine pestiviruses have been detected in commercial foetal bovine serum (FBS) of mainly South American origin so far. It is unclear how widely the viruses are presented in commercial FBS of different geographic origins. To further investigate the possible pestivirus contamination of commercially available FBS batches, 33 batches of FBS were obtained from ten suppliers and analysed in this study for the presence of both the recognised and the atypical bovine pestiviruses. All 33 batches of FBS were positive by real-time RT-PCR assays for at least one species of bovine pestiviruses. According to the certificate of analysis that the suppliers claimed for each batch of FBS, BVDV-1 was detected in all 11 countries and BVDV-2 was detected exclusively in the America Continent. The atypical pestiviruses were detected in 13 batches claimed to originate from five countries. Analysis of partial 5?UTR sequences showed a high similarity among these atypical bovine pestiviruses. This study has demonstrated, for the first time that commercial FBS batches of different geographic origins are contaminated not only with the recognised species BVDV-1 and BVDV-2, but also with the emerging atypical bovine pestiviruses. PMID:22174836

  8. BRUCELLOSE BOVINE EXPRIMENTALE EXCRTION DE BRUCELLA ABORTUS

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    BRUCELLOSE BOVINE EXPÉRIMENTALE V. - EXCRÉTION DE « BRUCELLA ABORTUS » PAR LE COLOSTRUM ET LE LAIT X io6 B. abortus, souche $44! Les cultures de colostrum, par quartier, et de lait total sont. abortus est trouvée dans le colostrum de 91 p. 100 des vaches et le lait de 85 p. 100. L'élimination de

  9. Molecular biology of bovine viral diarrhea virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bovine viral diarrhea viruses (BVDV) are arguably the most important viral pathogen of ruminants worldwide and can cause severe economic loss. Clinical symptoms of the disease caused by BVDV range from subclinical to severe acute hemorrhagic syndrome, with the severity of disease being strain depend...

  10. Paternally inherited markers in bovine hybrid populations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E L C Verkaar; H Vervaecke; C Roden; L Romero Mendoza; M W Barwegen; T Susilawati; I J Nijman; J A Lenstra

    2003-01-01

    The genetic integrity of crossfertile bovine- or cattle-like species may be endangered by species hybridization. Previously, amplified fragment length polymorphism, satellite fragment length polymorphism and microsatellite assays have been used to analyze the species composition of nuclear DNA in taurine cattle, zebu, banteng and bison populations, while mitochondrial DNA reveals the origin of the maternal lineages. Here, we describe species-specific

  11. Article original pidmiologie molculaire des rotaviroses bovines

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    , sequence analysis demonstrated that all of the isolates from the present study belong to the genotype G6. This result confirms previously published data indicating the prevalence of rotavirus G6 in bovine, and sug- gests that a monovalent vaccine based on G6 antigen would be sufficient to elicit a good protection

  12. Retinol improves bovine embryonic development in vitro

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tracy Livingston; Dawn Eberhardt; J Lannett Edwards; James Godkin

    2004-01-01

    Retinoids are recognized as important regulators of vertebrate development, cell differentiation, and tissue function. Previous studies, performed both in vivo and in vitro, indicate that retinoids influence several reproductive events, including follicular development, oocyte maturation and early embryonic development. The present study evaluated in vitro effects of retinol addition to media containing maturing bovine oocytes and developing embryos in both

  13. Control of bovine hepatic fatty acid oxidation

    SciTech Connect

    Jesse, B.W.; Emery, R.S.; Thomas, J.W.

    1986-09-01

    Fatty acid oxidation by bovine liver slices and mitochondria was examined to determine potential regulatory sites of fatty acid oxidation. Conversion of 1-(/sup 14/C)palmitate to /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ and total (/sup 14/C)acid-soluble metabolites was used to measure fatty acid oxidation. Oxidation of palmitate (1 mM) was linear in both liver slice weight and incubation time. Carnitine stimulated palmitate oxidation; 2 mM dl-carnitine produced maximal stimulation of palmitate oxidation to both CO/sup 2/ and acid-soluble metabolites. Propionate (10 mM) inhibited palmitate oxidation by bovine liver slices. Propionate (.5 to 10 mM) had no effect on palmitate oxidation by mitochondria, but malonyl Coenzyme A, the first committed intermediate of fatty acid synthesis, inhibited mitochondrial palmitate oxidation (inhibition constant = .3 ..mu..M). Liver mitochonndrial carnitine palmitoyltransferase exhibited Michaelis constants for palmitoyl Coenzyme A and l-carnitine of 11.5 ..mu..M and .59 mM, respectively. Long-chain fatty acid oxidation in bovine liver is regulated by mechanisms similar to those in rats but adapted to the unique digestive physiology of the bovine.

  14. Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus: Global Status

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Despite the success of regional bovine viral diarrhea viruses (BVDV) eradication programs, infections with this diverse group of viruses remain a source of economic loss for producers worldwide. There is a wide range of variation among BVDV results in differences in genotype (BVDV1 and BVDV2), biot...

  15. Original article Immersion in bovine insulin stimulates

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Original article Immersion in bovine insulin stimulates growth of tilapia CF Chang SJ Lin 1 insulin on growth responses in tilapia. Juvenile hybrid male tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus x 0 aurea; n each. The fish were immersed into 1 of 2 doses (10 and 100 pg/100 ml water) of insulin or no hormone

  16. Toxicity of DMSO to Bovine Corneal Endothelium

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Steffen Sperling

    1976-01-01

    The toxicity of DMSO to bovine corneal endothelial cells is evaluated by the staining of nuclei in damaged cells by Trypane blue. The number of cells damaged by DMSO in a purely synthetic medium increase with the concentration of DMSO and time. No correlation is found between DMSO toxicity and temperature. The effect of mechanical strain and exposure to DMSO

  17. RAPID LATERAL-FLOW FOR BOVINE TUBERCULOSIS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bovine tuberculosis remains a costly disease in many countries despite extensive eradication and control efforts. Multiple wildlife reservoirs of Mycobacterium bovis infection found in recent decades in the US, Europe, New Zealand, and South Africa play important roles fuelling high rates of disease...

  18. NMR structure of the bovine prion protein

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Francisco López García; Ralph Zahn; Roland Riek; Kurt Wüthrich

    2000-01-01

    The NMR structures of the recombinant 217-residue polypeptide chain of the mature bovine prion protein, bPrP(23-230), and a C-terminal fragment, bPrP(121-230), include a globular domain extending from residue 125 to residue 227, a short flexible chain end of residues 228-230, and an N-terminal flexibly disordered \\

  19. Evolution of Bovine Respiratory Syncytial Virus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    JEAN-FRANCOIS VALARCHER; FRANCOIS SCHELCHER; H. Bourhy

    2000-01-01

    Until now, the analysis of the genetic diversity of bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) has been based on small numbers of field isolates. In this report, we determined the nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequences of regions of the nucleoprotein (N protein), fusion protein (F protein), and glycoprotein (G protein) of 54 European and North American isolates and compared them

  20. The release of bradykinin in bovine mastitis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. R. Eshraghi; I. J. Zeitlin; J. L. Fitzpatrick; H. Ternent; D. Logue

    1999-01-01

    The kinin peptides are released during inflammation and are amongst the most potent known mediators of vasodilatation, pain and oedema. Despite early reports of the presence of kinins in milk, no previous study has investigated the role of the kinin system in bovine mastitis. The present study indicated that mastitis was accompanied by raised levels of bradykinin (BK) in milk

  1. Delayed Neutrophil Apoptosis in Bovine Subclinical Mastitis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Boutet; D. Boulanger; L. Gillet; A. Vanderplasschen; R. Closset; F. Bureau; P. Lekeux

    2004-01-01

    Bovine subclinical mastitis can be defined as a mod- eratedinflammatorydiseasecharacterizedbyapersis- tent accumulation of neutrophils in milk. As GMCSF- mediated delay of neutrophil apoptosis contributes to the accumulation of inflammatory cells at the site of inflammation in many human diseases, we sought to determine whether subclinical mastitis in cows is also associated with a GMCSF-dependent increase in milk- neutrophil survival. We

  2. A serological classification of bovine enteroviruses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. J. Knowles; I. T. R. Barnett

    1985-01-01

    Summary Cross virus neutralization (VN), complement fixation (CF) and immunoprecipitation (IP) tests were employed to compare the seven currently recognized bovine enterovirus (BEV) serotypes with seven serologically distinct strains previously isolated in Great Britain and two other BEV from the United Kingdom. Based on criteria used to differentiate other human and animal picornavirus serotypes, it was discovered that BEV types

  3. A physical map of the bovine genome

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background Cattle are important agriculturally and relevant as a model organism. Previously described genetic and radiation hybrid (RH) maps of the bovine genome have been used to identify genomic regions and genes affecting specific traits. Application of these maps to identify influential geneti...

  4. Biology meets engineering: the structural mechanics of fossil and extant shark teeth.

    PubMed

    Whitenack, Lisa B; Simkins, Daniel C; Motta, Philip J

    2011-02-01

    The majority of studies on the evolution and function of feeding in sharks have focused primarily on the movement of cranial components and muscle function, with little integration of tooth properties or function. As teeth are subjected to sometimes extreme loads during feeding, they undergo stress, strain, and potential failure. As attributes related to structural strength such as material properties and overall shape may be subjected to natural selection, both prey processing ability and structural parameters must be considered to understand the evolution of shark teeth. In this study, finite element analysis was used to visualize stress distributions of fossil and extant shark teeth during puncture, unidirectional draw (cutting), and holding. Under the loading and boundary conditions here, which are consistent with bite forces of large sharks, shark teeth are structurally strong. Teeth loaded in puncture have localized stress concentrations at the cusp apex that diminish rapidly away from the apex. When loaded in draw and holding, the majority of the teeth show stress concentrations consistent with well designed cantilever beams. Notches result in stress concentration during draw and may serve as a weak point; however they are functionally important for cutting prey during lateral head shaking behavior. As shark teeth are replaced regularly, it is proposed that the frequency of tooth replacement in sharks is driven by tooth wear, not tooth failure. As the tooth tip and cutting edges are worn, the surface areas of these features increase, decreasing the amount of stress produced by the tooth. While this wear will not affect the general structural strength of the tooth, tooth replacement may also serve to keep ahead of damage caused by fatigue that may lead to eventual tooth failure. PMID:21210488

  5. More missing teeth are associated with poorer general health in the rural Korean elderly.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hee-Kyung; Lee, Kyung-Dong; Merchant, Anwar T; Lee, Sung-Kook; Song, Keun-Bae; Lee, Sang Gyu; Choi, Youn-Hee

    2010-01-01

    The aim was to investigate the association between missing teeth and general health conditions in elderly Korean people. This cross-sectional study was conducted as a part of a health-screening program supported by the National Health Insurance Corporation of Korea in a local region of Sungju-gun, Gyeongsangbuk-do from 2000 to 2006. The participants were 3611 in number (1494 males and 2117 females) aged 60 years and over. The outcome variable was the number of missing teeth in the mouth determined by dental examination; general medical examination included blood pressure, body height and weight to compute body mass index (BMI). Laboratory investigations included aspartate transaminase (AST), hemoglobin (HB), fasting plasma glucose (FPG), and total cholesterol (CHOL). Demographic factors and smoking status were obtained from questionnaires by an interviewer. Multiple regression models were used as a statistical analysis. The subjects were classified into three groups according to the number of missing teeth (<8, 8-18, and >18). In unadjusted analyses individuals with more missing teeth, had poorer general health status (higher blood pressure, higher levels of AST, FPG, and CHOL, and higher BMI in females). In multiple regression models with the number of missing teeth as an outcome, systolic blood pressure, CHOL, FPG, and HB in males were statistically significant after adjusting for age and smoking. In females, systolic blood pressure, CHOL, FPG, and BMI were positively associated with the number of missing teeth. The number of missing teeth was positively related to poorer general health status such as blood pressure, FPG, CHOL, after adjusting for age and smoking in the rural elderly in Korea. PMID:19230988

  6. Bond of acrylic teeth to different denture base resins after various surface-conditioning methods.

    PubMed

    Lang, Reinhold; Kolbeck, Carola; Bergmann, Rainer; Handel, Gerhard; Rosentritt, Martin

    2012-02-01

    The study examined the bond between different denture base resins and highly cross-linked acrylic denture teeth with different base surface-conditioning methods. One hundred fifty highly cross-linked resin denture teeth (SR-Antaris, No. 11, Ivoclar-Vivadent, FL) were divided into five groups with different surface-conditioning methods of the base surfaces of the teeth (C = control, no surface conditioning, MM = application of methyl methacrylate monomer, SB = sand blasting, SBB = sand blasting + bonding agent, TSS = tribochemical silica coating + silanization). Teeth were bonded to either a cold-cured denture base resin (ProBase Cold, Ivoclar-Vivadent, FL) or heat-cured denture base resins (SR Ivocap Plus, Ivoclar-Vivadent, FL and Lucitone 199, Dentsply, USA). After 24 h of storage in distilled water, compressive load was applied at 90° on the palatal surface of each tooth until fracture. Median failure load ranged between 103 and 257 N for Probase Cold groups, 91 to 261 N for Lucitone 199, and 149 to 320 N for SR Ivocap Plus. For Probase Cold, significant highest failure loads resulted when teeth were treated with SB, SBB, or TSS. For Lucitone 199, significant highest failure loads has been found with MM and TSS treatment. For SR Ivocap Plus, highest failure loads resulted using SBB and TSS. Conditioning of the base surfaces of the teeth prior to denture base processing is highly recommended. Tooth bond is significantly affected by the surface-conditioning method and applied denture base resin. Tribochemical silica coating + silanization method can be recommended for pre-treatment of teeth applying either heat-cured or cold-cured denture base resin. PMID:21181215

  7. Emerging permanent filler technologies: focus on Aquamid

    PubMed Central

    Yamauchi, Paul S

    2014-01-01

    A plethora of soft tissue fillers have been developed within the past decade to correct the cutaneous changes that occur with photoaging. Such fillers, whether nonpermanent, semipermanent, or permanent, are widely used to fill undesired facial rhytides. In addition, fillers are employed to correct atrophy of the face as well as other parts of the body such as the dorsum of the hands through volumization and contouring. The extensive long-term safety outcomes reported with fillers and the ease with which they are administered make them an ideal choice to correct rhytides and to contour the face. However, as with any cosmetic procedure, in order to ensure high patient satisfaction and a safe outcome, proper training in injection techniques, the choice of the proper candidate, and awareness of potential adverse events are essential. This review article focuses on the permanent filler, Aquamid, which is composed of polyacrylamide hydrogel. PMID:25336982

  8. Permanent genetic memory with >1 byte capacity

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Lei; Nielsen, Alec A.K.; Fernandez-Rodriguez, Jesus; McClune, Conor J.; Laub, Michael T.; Lu, Timothy K.; Voigt, Christopher A.

    2014-01-01

    Genetic memory enables the recording of information in the DNA of living cells. Memory can record a transient environmental signal or cell state that is then recalled at a later time. Permanent memory is implemented using irreversible recombinases that invert the orientation of a unit of DNA, corresponding to the [0,1] state of a bit. To expand the memory capacity, we have applied bioinformatics to identify 34 phage integrases (and their cognate attB and attP recognition sites), from which we build 11 memory switches that are perfectly orthogonal to each other and the FimE and HbiF bacterial invertases. Using these switches, a memory array is constructed in Escherichia coli that can record 1.375 bytes of information. It is demonstrated that the recombinases can be layered and used to permanently record the transient state of a transcriptional logic gate. PMID:25344638

  9. Permanent-magnet switched-flux machine

    DOEpatents

    Trzynadlowski, Andrzej M.; Qin, Ling

    2011-06-14

    A permanent-magnet switched-flux (PMSF) device has an outer rotor mounted to a shaft about a central axis extending axially through the PMSF device. First and second pluralities of permanent-magnets (PMs) are respectively mounted in first and second circles, radially outwardly in first and second transverse planes extending from first and second sections of the central axis adjacent to an inner surface of the outer rotor. An inner stator is coupled to the shaft and has i) a stator core having a core axis co-axial with the central axis; and ii) first and second pluralities of stator poles mounted in first and second circles, radially outwardly from the stator core axis in the first and second transverse planes. The first and second pluralities of PMs each include PMs of alternating polarity.

  10. Permanent-magnet switched-flux machine

    DOEpatents

    Trzynadlowski, Andrzej M.; Qin, Ling

    2010-01-12

    A permanent-magnet switched-flux (PMSF) device has a ferromagnetic outer stator mounted to a shaft about a central axis extending axially through the PMSF device. Pluralities of top and bottom stator poles are respectively mounted in first and second circles, radially outwardly in first and second transverse planes extending from first and second sections of the central axis adjacent to an inner surface of the ferromagnetic outer stator. A ferromagnetic inner rotor is coupled to the shaft and has i) a rotor core having a core axis co-axial with the central axis; and ii) first and second discs having respective outer edges with first and second pluralities of permanent magnets (PMs) mounted in first and second circles, radially outwardly from the rotor core axis in the first and second transverse planes. The first and second pluralities of PMs each include PMs of alternating polarity.

  11. Permanent genetic memory with >1-byte capacity.

    PubMed

    Yang, Lei; Nielsen, Alec A K; Fernandez-Rodriguez, Jesus; McClune, Conor J; Laub, Michael T; Lu, Timothy K; Voigt, Christopher A

    2014-12-01

    Genetic memory enables the recording of information in the DNA of living cells. Memory can record a transient environmental signal or cell state that is then recalled at a later time. Permanent memory is implemented using irreversible recombinases that invert the orientation of a unit of DNA, corresponding to the [0,1] state of a bit. To expand the memory capacity, we have applied bioinformatics to identify 34 phage integrases (and their cognate attB and attP recognition sites), from which we build 11 memory switches that are perfectly orthogonal to each other and the FimE and HbiF bacterial invertases. Using these switches, a memory array is constructed in Escherichia coli that can record 1.375 bytes of information. It is demonstrated that the recombinases can be layered and used to permanently record the transient state of a transcriptional logic gate. PMID:25344638

  12. Permanent magnet design for high-speed superconducting bearings

    DOEpatents

    Hull, John R. (5519 S. Bruner, Hinsdale, IL 60521); Uherka, Kenneth L. (830 Ironwood, Frankfort, IL 60423); Abdoud, Robert G. (13 Country Oaks La., Barrington Hills, IL 60010)

    1996-01-01

    A high temperature superconducting bearing including a permanent magnet rotor levitated by a high temperature superconducting structure. The rotor preferably includes one or more concentric permanent magnet rings coupled to permanent magnet ring structures having substantially triangular and quadrangular cross-sections. Both alternating and single direction polarity magnet structures can be used in the bearing.

  13. A novel permanent magnet motor with doubly salient structure

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yuefeng Liao; Feng Liang; Thomas A. Lipo

    1995-01-01

    A new type of doubly salient machine is presented in which the field excitation is provided by nonrotating permanent magnets. This doubly salient permanent magnet (DSPM) motor is shown to be kindred to square waveform permanent magnet brushless DC motors. Linear and nonlinear analyses are made to investigate the characteristics of this new type of PM motor. A prototype DSPM

  14. Permanent magnets for spectrographs and nuclear physical research

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Hadfield; D. L. Mawson

    1952-01-01

    Composite permanent magnets, embodying the latest anisotropic alloys, are being used increasingly in equipment for research in many branches of applied physics. Among the advantages are freedom from power supplies, and also constancy of field, when compared with the electromagnet. Flexibility is achieved in the electro-permanent magnet by either reinforcing the permanent magnet field or artificially aging to a reduced

  15. Stability of permanent-magnet parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ilyushchenko, V. I.

    Data are presented on the time, temperature, and radiation-stability characteristics of permanent magnets composed of barium ferrite, ALNICO alloys, and SmCo5. Magnetic characteristics are constant over a period of 10(4) to 10(5) h. Results are given on reversible and irreversible flux losses. It is concluded that these magnetic materials have a radiation stability similar to that of aluminum and stainless steel.

  16. Superconductor Permanent Magnets for Advanced Propulsion Applications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Phil Putman; Yuxiang Zhou; Kamel Salama; Tony Robertson; Deborah D. Bond

    2005-01-01

    Improved trapped fields of 17 T at 29 K and 11.2 T at 47 K have been reported for the melt-textured YBCO superconductor material. Such high field strengths give the possibility for producing superconductor permanent magnets (SCPM) for plasma-related space propulsion applications, such as the anti-matter trap, magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) propulsion and electrical power generation, and others that are under development

  17. "Permanence" - An Adaptationist Solution to Fermi's Paradox?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cirkovic, Milan M.

    A new solution of Fermi's paradox sketched by SF writer Karl Schroeder in his 2002. novel Permanence is investigated. It is argued that this solution is tightly connected with adaptationism - a widely discussed working hypothesis in evolutionary biology. Schroeder's hypothesis has important ramifications for astrobiology, SETI projects, and future studies. Its weaknesses should be explored without succumbing to the emotional reactions often accompanying adaptationist explanations.

  18. ENHANCEMENT OF NSLS SEXTUPOLES USING PERMANENT MAGNETS.

    SciTech Connect

    RAKOWSKY,G.

    2001-06-18

    The recent upgrade of the NSLS X-Ray Ring energy from 2.584 to 2.8 GeV requires defocusing sextupole fields beyond the operating limits of the present sextupole magnets. We have demonstrated that the required fields can be achieved by addition of permanent magnets to counteract the saturation in the magnet poles. Magnetic measurements on a NSLS sextupole agree with fields predicted by Radia.

  19. When Do Commercial Reactors Permanently Shut Down?

    EIA Publications

    2011-01-01

    For those wishing to obtain current data, the following resources are available: U.S. reactors, go to the Energy Information Administration's nuclear reactor shutdown list. (Note: As of April 30, 2010, the last U.S. reactor to permanently shut down was Big Rock Point in 1997.) Foreign Reactors, go to the Power Reactor Information System (PRIS) on the International Atomic Energy Agency's website.

  20. Planar permanent magnet multipoles: measurements and configurations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Cremer; R. Tatchyn

    1995-01-01

    Biplanar arrays of N rectangular permanent magnet (PM) blocks can be used to generate high quality N-pole fields in close proximity to the array axis. In applications featuring small-diameter charged particle beams, N-poles of adequate quality can be realized at relatively low cost using small volumes of PM material. In this paper we report on recent measurements performed on planar

  1. Microfabricated actuator with moving permanent magnet

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Wagner; W. Benecke

    1991-01-01

    A microactuator is presented which uses electromagnetic force generation within micromachined silicon devices. A rare-earth permanent magnet is bonded on a movable micromachined silicon plate suspended by thin silicon beams. A monolithically integrated planar coil is used to generate a magnetic field which forces the magnet to move vertically. Using a magnet with a dimension of 1.5×1.5×1.0 mm3 and a

  2. Retrosplenial Cortex Codes for Permanent Landmarks

    PubMed Central

    Auger, Stephen D.; Mullally, Sinéad L.; Maguire, Eleanor A.

    2012-01-01

    Landmarks are critical components of our internal representation of the environment, yet their specific properties are rarely studied, and little is known about how they are processed in the brain. Here we characterised a large set of landmarks along a range of features that included size, visual salience, navigational utility, and permanence. When human participants viewed images of these single landmarks during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), parahippocampal cortex (PHC) and retrosplenial cortex (RSC) were both engaged by landmark features, but in different ways. PHC responded to a range of landmark attributes, while RSC was engaged by only the most permanent landmarks. Furthermore, when participants were divided into good and poor navigators, the latter were significantly less reliable at identifying the most permanent landmarks, and had reduced responses in RSC and anterodorsal thalamus when viewing such landmarks. The RSC has been widely implicated in navigation but its precise role remains uncertain. Our findings suggest that a primary function of the RSC may be to process the most stable features in an environment, and this could be a prerequisite for successful navigation. PMID:22912894

  3. The relationship between sports activities and permanent incisor crown fractures in a group of school children aged 7-9 and 11-13 in Ankara, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Cetinba?, Tu?ba; Yildirim, Gözde; Sönmez, Hayriye

    2008-10-01

    The objective of the study was to determine the distribution, aetiology of the crown fractures of permanent anterior teeth in children aged 7-9 and 11-13 years and to identify the role of participation in sports associated with crown fractures. The study population comprised 2570 students from 10 primary schools randomly selected from five municipalities in Ankara, Turkey. Two paediatric dentists examined all permanent maxillary and mandibular incisors for evidence of fracture and completed a standardized examination form to obtain information on the age, gender, severity of incisor injury and frequency and type of sports participation for each child, as well as whether or not children used mouthguards during sports activities. Chi-square and z-tests were used to determine differences. A total of 191 (7.43%) of the 2570 subjects examined were affected by dental trauma. The proportion of fractured incisors was significantly higher in males than in females among older children (P < 0.01). Out of a total of 222 fractured teeth, 84% involved the maxillary central incisors. Bicycling caused significantly higher rates of crown fractures than other types of sports (P < 0.05). The percentage of incisal fractures caused by sports-related accidents was 14.14%. The number of children interested in sports is high, and the sports chosen are generally contact sports. The high rate (14.14%) of crown injuries caused by sports activities supports these findings. PMID:18821957

  4. PERMANENT RESIDENT DATAUPDATE BU students who have become U.S. Permanent Residents ("green card" holders) need to report

    E-print Network

    Suzuki, Masatsugu

    PERMANENT RESIDENT DATAUPDATE BU students who have become U.S. Permanent Residents ("green card" holders) need to report that information to the University so that student computer records can Registration Card). The form and copy of proof of permanent residency should then be scanned, faxed, mailed

  5. Evidence to Suggest That Teeth Act as Human Ornament Displays Signalling Mate Quality

    PubMed Central

    Hendrie, Colin A.; Brewer, Gayle

    2012-01-01

    Ornament displays seen in animals convey information about genetic quality, developmental history and current disease state to both prospective sexual partners and potential rivals. In this context, showing of teeth through smiles etc is a characteristic feature of human social interaction. Tooth development is influenced by genetic and environmental factors. Adult teeth record environmental and traumatic events, as well as the effects of disease and ageing. Teeth are therefore a rich source of information about individuals and their histories. This study examined the effects of digital manipulations of tooth colour and spacing. Results showed that deviation away from normal spacing and/or the presence of yellowed colouration had negative effects on ratings of attractiveness and that these effects were markedly stronger in female models. Whitening had no effect beyond that produced by natural colouration. This indicates that these colour induced alterations in ratings of attractiveness are mediated by increased/decreased yellowing rather than whitening per se. Teeth become yellower and darker with age. Therefore it is suggested that whilst the teeth of both sexes act as human ornament displays, the female display is more complex because it additionally signals residual reproductive value. PMID:22860076

  6. Deciduous teeth structure changes in congenital heart disease: Ultrastructure and microanalysis

    PubMed Central

    El-Sayed, Basmah; Abd-Alhakem, Gehan; Ibrahim, Fatma M.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Oral manifestations recorded for congenital heart disease (CHD) patients include teeth hypoplasia and high caries incidence. These observations suggested that the enamel and dentin of the teeth may be altered, increasing the risk for caries incidence. This study was designed to investigate the effect of CHD on the ultrastructure and composition of deciduous sound teeth. Methods Thirty sound exfoliated human deciduous incisor teeth were selected for this study. They were divided into three groups, Group I (control) from healthy children (n = 6), Group II from acyanotic CHD children (n = 12) and Group III from cyanotic CHD children (n = 12). Each tooth was longitudinally sectioned, providing enough specimens for ultrastructure and chemical analysis using ESEM/EDAX. The results of ESEM/EDAX and dentin image analysis were statistically analyzed using one-way ANOVA test followed by Tukey’s test. Results Enamel of groups II and III showed increased dissolution and irregular orientation of enamel prisms. Orifices of dentinal tubules demonstrated widening and irregular outlines, also lateral branching increased markedly. Image analysis of dentin ESEM photomicrographs showed a highly significant increase in surface area of dentinal tubules. Decrease in calcium (Ca) and phosphorus (P) levels was statistically significant (P < 0.05). Conclusion CHDs affect the structure and chemical composition of deciduous teeth. PMID:25243076

  7. Considerations for the direct pulp capping procedure in primary teeth: a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Kopel, H M

    1992-01-01

    In reviewing the various studies concerning the direct pulp capping procedure in primary teeth, using rigid criteria for case selection and procedure appears to insure a significant amount of success. It is acknowledged that vital primary pulp tissue is capable of healing without resorting to complete pulpectomy, although statistically direct pulp capping has been found to be less successful in primary teeth than indirect pulp therapy or coronal amputation (pulpotomy). To achieve success for direct pulp capping in primary teeth, the considerations involve: selecting teeth with minimal or no clinical signs of pulpal inflammation; or pretreating the carious tooth with a sedative restoration before excavating the caries; disinfecting the cavity floor; enlarging the actual exposure, and flushing out dentinal debris with mild solutions; controlling bleeding by not allowing a clot to form; placing a hard-set, CaOH material over the exposure, followed by a fast-setting, zinc oxide-eugenol cement to achieve a hermetic seal; and lastly, placing a stainless steel crown to minimize microleakage and prevent a fractured or defective restoration. These procedural steps can hardly ensure complete success in direct pulp capping of a primary tooth; but, based on the many cited investigations in this review, a significant amount of success can be expected without resorting more frequently to invasive techniques. Surely the evidence presented leading to the feasibility of direct pulp capping in primary teeth merits further investigations, before dogmatically rejecting this procedure of pulp therapy. PMID:1583199

  8. Penetration of the pulp chamber by carbamide peroxide bleaching agents on teeth restored with a composite resin.

    PubMed

    Gökay, O; Tunçbilek, M; Ertan, R

    2000-05-01

    This in vitro study was performed to evaluate the effect of various concentrations of carbamide peroxide bleaching agents on the pulp chambers of teeth restored by a composite resin. Forty-nine human extracted anterior teeth were used. All the teeth were sectioned 3 mm apical of the cemento-enamel junction and the intracoronal tissue removed. The teeth were separated into the seven groups each containing seven teeth. Twenty-eight teeth were used as controls (groups I-IV), standardized cavities were prepared with the remaining 21 teeth (groups V, VI, VII), and restored with a hybrid composite resin (XR Herculite). Acetate buffer was placed in the pulp chamber to absorb and stabilize any peroxide that might penetrate. Group I was exposed only to distilled water. Groups II and V were applied with 10% CP (Contrast PM), groups III and VI were applied with 15% CP (Contrast PM), groups IV and VII were applied with 35% CP (Quik Start) and left for 30 min at 37 degrees C. Then, the acetate buffer solution in the pulp chamber of each tooth was removed and the chamber was then rinsed twice with 100 ml of distilled water. The contents then had leucocryctal violet and enzyme horseradish peroxidase added. The optical density of the resulting blue solution was determined spectrophotometrically, and was converted into microgram equivalents of hydrogen peroxide. A higher level of bleaching agent penetrated into the pulp chamber in the restored teeth than in the sound teeth. PMID:10887917

  9. Effectiveness of Ozone with or without the Additional Use of Remineralizing Solution on Non-Cavitated Fissure Carious Lesions in Permanent Molars

    PubMed Central

    Atabek, Didem; Oztas, Nurhan

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of ozone alone and with a re-mineralizing solution following application on initial pit and fissure caries lesions in permanent molars. Methods: Forty children (9–12 years) having non-cavitated fissure caries lesions on bilateral 40 first permanent mandibular molar teeth were participated in the study. Patients were randomly allocated to 2 experimental groups consisting of 20 subjects. In the first group, ozone was applied once for 40 seconds to the assigned test teeth of each pair. In the second group, ozone was applied once for 40 seconds to the assigned test teeth of each pair with the use of re-mineralizing solution. Progression or improvement of the caries was assessed at baseline, immediately after treatment and at 1-,2-,3-, and 6 month follow-up by comparing the DIAGNOdent values, Clinical Severity Indexes, Oral Hygiene Scores. The results were analyzed statistically by using the Wilcoxon-Test for dependent samples in each group. When comparing different test groups (control and experimental groups) the Friedman S test followed by the Mann-Whitney U test was used. Results: A statistically significant difference was found between all of the control and experimental test lesions in each group (P<.001). However, there was no statistically significant difference between the ozone treated groups and those using the additional re-mineralizing solution (P>.001). Conclusions: Ozone treatment either alone or combined with a re-mineralizing solution was found to be effective for remineralization of initial fissure caries lesions. PMID:22654551

  10. Modulation of enzymatic activity of Src-family kinases in bovine T cells transformed by Theileria parva.

    PubMed

    Fich, C; Klauenberg, U; Fleischer, B; Bröker, B M

    1998-08-01

    After infection with sporozoites of the protozoon Theileria parva (Tp) bovine T cells are readily transformed to permanent growth in vivo and in vitro. Their transformed state depends on the constant presence of the parasite but membrane signals remain important. Non-receptor tyrosine kinases play a critical role in the transduction of membrane signals in haematopoietic cells. We have investigated Src-family kinases in bovine T cells transformed by Tp. The T cell receptor-associated tyrosine kinase p60fyn had high activity in all cell lines tested. In addition, weak phosphorylation of 2 novel bands was observed associated with Fyn. In contrast to Fyn, enzymatic activity of p56lck, which in T cells has an essential role in signalling, was low. Furthermore, 1 of 3 Tp transformed cell lines was completely devoid of p56lck indicating that the enzyme is not necessary for the Tp dependent growth of the T cells. In addition to p60fyn and p56lck weak enzymatic activity of 1 splice variant of p53/56lyn was observed after infection of T cells with Tp. These data show that growth transformation by Tp influences kinase activity in bovine T cells. However, they also prove that p56lck does not play an essential role in the transformation mechanism. PMID:9778632

  11. Childhood lead exposure and uptake in teeth in the Cleveland area during the era of leaded gasoline.

    PubMed

    Robbins, Norman; Zhang, Zhong-Fa; Sun, Jiayang; Ketterer, Michael E; Lalumandier, James A; Shulze, Richard A

    2010-09-01

    Childhood uptake of lead from exposure to atmospheric leaded gasoline in the United States has been studied using mainly blood lead levels. Since reliable blood lead techniques were used only after the peak use of leaded gasoline, the prior exposure history is unclear. The well-documented decline in blood lead levels after the mid-1970s could represent the continuation of a historic steady decline in exposure from many sources. Alternatively, the post-1970s decline might represent the declining phase of a unimodal rise and fall corresponding closely to usage of leaded gasoline. To assess these possibilities, lead concentration and 207Pb/206Pb isotope ratios were measured in the enamel of permanent molar teeth formed between 1936 and 1993 in mainly African-American donors who grew up in the Cleveland area. Tooth enamel preserves the lead concentration and isotope ratio that prevails during tooth formation. Historical trends in enamel lead concentration were significantly correlated with surrogates of atmospheric lead exposure: lead in sediments of two dated Lake Erie cores, and lead consumed in gasoline. About two-thirds of the total lead uptake into enamel in this period was attributable to leaded gasoline, and the remainder to other sources (e.g. paint). Enamel 207Pb/206Pb isotope ratios were similar to those of one lake sediment. Multivariate analysis revealed significant correlation in neighborhoods with higher levels of traffic, and including lake sediment data, accounted for 53% of the variation in enamel lead levels. Enamel lead concentration was highly correlated with reported African-American childhood blood levels. The extrapolated peak level of 48microg/dL (range 40 to 63) is associated with clinical and behavioral impairments, which may have implications for adults who were children during the peak gasoline lead exposure. In sum, leaded gasoline emission was the predominant source of lead exposure of African-American Cleveland children during the latter two-thirds of the 20th century. PMID:20627360

  12. Comparison of hard tissue interrelationships at the cervical region of teeth based on tooth type and gender difference

    PubMed Central

    Astekar, Madhusudan; Kaur, Prabhpreet; Dhakar, Nidhi; Singh, Jappreet

    2014-01-01

    Context: Cementoenamel junction (CEJ) represents the anatomic limit between the crown and root surface. With advancing age and continuous eruption, this area becomes exposed in the oral media. Consequently, CEJ will be subjected to the action of various physical and chemical factors that might alter its morphology, with the cementum being affected in most cases. Aim: To identify the frequency of hard tissue interrelationships present at the CEJ in relation to different genders, positions and aspects of tooth using a light microscope. Materials and Methods: The cervical regions of 80 permanent teeth (40 male and 40 female), extracted for orthodontic or periodontal reasons, were analyzed after longitudinal ground sections were made in the mesio-distal plane. The CEJ of the prepared sections was then studied and their frequencies were categorized as: cementum overlapping enamel, enamel overlapping cementum, edge-to-edge relationship and the presence of gap junctions. Statistical Analysis: Chi-square test performed using SPSS 15 software. Results: Edge-to-edge contact of the cementum and enamel was most frequent, followed by gap junction and cementum overlapping the enamel, respectively. Chi-square test revealed no statistically significant differences with respect to the gender and tooth aspect, whereas the result was significant when the position of the tooth was studied. Conclusion: The observations of the study indicate a considerable morphological diversity in the anatomical pattern of CEJ. It can be concluded that the region should be protected against dentinal sensitivity, erosion, abrasion, abfraction and resorption, as it is more prone to cervical pathologies. PMID:25125914

  13. Bovine Rhinitis Viruses Are Common in U.S. Cattle with Bovine Respiratory Disease

    PubMed Central

    Hause, Ben M.; Collin, Emily A.; Anderson, Joe; Hesse, Richard A.; Anderson, Gary

    2015-01-01

    Bovine rhinitis viruses (BRV) are established etiological agents of bovine respiratory disease complex however little research into their epidemiology and ecology has been published for several decades. In the U.S., only bovine rhinitis A virus 1 (BRAV1) has been identified while bovine rhinitis A virus 2 (BRAV2) and bovine rhinitis B virus (BRBV) were previously only identified in England and Japan, respectively. Metagenomic sequencing of a nasal swab from a bovine respiratory disease (BRD) diagnostic submission from Kansas identified contigs with approximately 90% nucleotide similarity to BRAV2 and BRBV. A combination of de novo and templated assemblies using reference genomes yielded near complete BRAV2 and BRBV genomes. The near complete genome of bovine rhinitis A virus 1 (BRAV1) was also determined from a historical isolate to enable further molecular epidemiological studies. A 5’-nuclease reverse transcription PCR assay targeting the 3D polymerase gene was designed and used to screen 204 archived BRD clinical specimens. Thirteen (6.4%) were positive. Metagenomic sequencing of six positive samples identified mixed BRAV1/BRAV2, BRAV1/BRBV and BRAV2/BRBV infections for five samples. One sample showed infection only with BRAV1. Seroprevalence studies using a cell culture adapted BRBV found immunofluorescence assay-reactive antibodies were common in the herds analyzed. Altogether, these results demonstrate that BRV infections are common in cattle with respiratory disease and that BRAV1, BRAV2 and BRBV co-circulate in U.S. cattle and have high similarity to viruses isolated more than 30 years ago from diverse locations. PMID:25789939

  14. Bovine rhinitis viruses are common in U.S. cattle with bovine respiratory disease.

    PubMed

    Hause, Ben M; Collin, Emily A; Anderson, Joe; Hesse, Richard A; Anderson, Gary

    2015-01-01

    Bovine rhinitis viruses (BRV) are established etiological agents of bovine respiratory disease complex however little research into their epidemiology and ecology has been published for several decades. In the U.S., only bovine rhinitis A virus 1 (BRAV1) has been identified while bovine rhinitis A virus 2 (BRAV2) and bovine rhinitis B virus (BRBV) were previously only identified in England and Japan, respectively. Metagenomic sequencing of a nasal swab from a bovine respiratory disease (BRD) diagnostic submission from Kansas identified contigs with approximately 90% nucleotide similarity to BRAV2 and BRBV. A combination of de novo and templated assemblies using reference genomes yielded near complete BRAV2 and BRBV genomes. The near complete genome of bovine rhinitis A virus 1 (BRAV1) was also determined from a historical isolate to enable further molecular epidemiological studies. A 5'-nuclease reverse transcription PCR assay targeting the 3D polymerase gene was designed and used to screen 204 archived BRD clinical specimens. Thirteen (6.4%) were positive. Metagenomic sequencing of six positive samples identified mixed BRAV1/BRAV2, BRAV1/BRBV and BRAV2/BRBV infections for five samples. One sample showed infection only with BRAV1. Seroprevalence studies using a cell culture adapted BRBV found immunofluorescence assay-reactive antibodies were common in the herds analyzed. Altogether, these results demonstrate that BRV infections are common in cattle with respiratory disease and that BRAV1, BRAV2 and BRBV co-circulate in U.S. cattle and have high similarity to viruses isolated more than 30 years ago from diverse locations. PMID:25789939

  15. 30 CFR 250.1710 - When must I permanently plug all wells on a lease?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... false When must I permanently plug all wells on a lease? 250.1710 Section 250...Decommissioning Activities Permanently Plugging Wells § 250.1710 When must I permanently plug all wells on a lease? You must permanently plug...

  16. 30 CFR 250.1710 - When must I permanently plug all wells on a lease?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... false When must I permanently plug all wells on a lease? 250.1710 Section 250...Decommissioning Activities Permanently Plugging Wells § 250.1710 When must I permanently plug all wells on a lease? You must permanently plug...

  17. 30 CFR 250.1710 - When must I permanently plug all wells on a lease?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... false When must I permanently plug all wells on a lease? 250.1710 Section 250...Decommissioning Activities Permanently Plugging Wells § 250.1710 When must I permanently plug all wells on a lease? You must permanently plug...

  18. 30 CFR 250.1710 - When must I permanently plug all wells on a lease?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... false When must I permanently plug all wells on a lease? 250.1710 Section 250...Decommissioning Activities Permanently Plugging Wells § 250.1710 When must I permanently plug all wells on a lease? You must permanently plug...

  19. A Comparative Evaluation of the Efficacy of Etching by the Total Etch and Self-etch Dentin Bonding Systems in the Primary Teeth: An in vitro Study

    PubMed Central

    Chaugule, Vishwas; Katge, Farhin; Poojari, Manohar; Pujari, Prashant; Pammi, Thejokrishna

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: Early childhood caries is now affecting the children in dangerous proportions. There is a wide spread loss of the tooth material irrespective of the type of the carious lesion. Restoration of such lesions with a strong permanent bond between the dental tissues and the restorative dental materials would be a highly desirable requisite. Ultramorphological characterizations show that the interfacial morphology and the chemical characterization of the bonding systems appear to be strongly associated with each other and, therefore, observing and understanding the interfacial phenomenon and its quality would be of great importance in the selection of a dental adhesive for its use in pediatric restorative dentistry. Study design: Human primary molars, which were indicated for extraction, for an array of reasons like caries, normal exfoliation, pathological root resorption, over-retained and serial extraction, were collected for the study purpose. Total number of teeth was then equally distributed into two subgroups, each namely A1 (Prime and Bond NT) and A2 (Xeno III). Results: The type of etching pattern that was observed in group A1 (Prime and Bond NT) of Silverstone’s type II compared to the Silverstone’s type III observed in group A2 (Xeno III). Conclusion: Results of this study indicate that the use of an etchant separately followed by the application of the bonding system–Prime and Bond NT–would provide a better quality of adhesion thus improving the quality and longevity of the restoration done within the limits of enamel in primary dentition. How to cite this article: Mithiborwala SH, Chaugule V, Katge F, Poojari M, Pujari P, Pammi T. A Comparative Evaluation of the Efficacy of Etching by the Total Etch and Self-etch Dentin Bonding Systems in the Primary Teeth: An in vitro Study. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2015;8(1):30-36.

  20. Orthodontic tooth movement through the maxillary sinus in an adult with multiple missing teeth.

    PubMed

    Oh, Heesoo; Herchold, Kiri; Hannon, Stephanie; Heetland, Kelly; Ashraf, Golnaz; Nguyen, Vince; Cho, Heon Jae

    2014-10-01

    This case report describes the successful orthodontic tooth movement through the maxillary sinus in an adult patient. A 41-year-old Asian woman had severe lip protrusion and multiple missing posterior teeth. Her orthodontic treatment included the extraction of 2 teeth, maximum retraction of the incisors using the extraction spaces and the existing spaces from the missing molars, and closure of all remaining spaces. Even though the treatment time was extended because of the anatomic and biologic challenges associated with moving posterior teeth over a long distance through the maxillary sinus, a successful outcome was obtained, with significant bone modeling of the maxillary sinus. The results demonstrate that a carefully selected force system can overcome the anatomic limitations of moving tooth against the cortical bone of the maxillary sinus wall in adult patients. PMID:25263152

  1. Esthetic rehabilitation of anterior discolored teeth with lithium disilicate all-ceramic restorations.

    PubMed

    Prevedello, Gustavo Costa; Vieira, Marcelo; Furuse, Adilson Yoshio; Correr, Gisele Maria; Gonzaga, Carla Castiglia

    2012-01-01

    The esthetic treatment of darkened anterior teeth represents a great challenge to dentists, because dental materials ideally should match the natural teeth. The optical behavior of the final restoration is determined by the color of the underlying tooth structure, the color of the luting agent, and the thickness and opacity of the ceramic material used. This article reports a case in which veneers and full crowns made of heat-pressed, lithium disilicate glass-ceramic were used for the esthetic rehabilitation of anterior discolored teeth. The patient was referred for treatment with defective anterior composite resin restorations, provisional acrylic resin crowns, darkening of the gingival margins, and uneven gingival contours. The multidisciplinary treatment plan included dental bleaching, periodontal plastic surgery to create gingival symmetry, and indirect all-ceramic restorations using high-opacity lithium disilicate glass-ceramic ingots. The treatment was successful and an excellent esthetic result was achieved. PMID:22782064

  2. Ageing horses by an examination of their incisor teeth: an (im)possible task?

    PubMed

    Muylle, S; Simoens, P; Lauwers, H

    1996-03-30

    It is generally considered that the age of a horse can be determined by examining its incisor teeth. However, the criteria used to determine age from dental configurations differ widely. The existence of this variety of rules and guidelines was the challenge for the present examination. Detailed descriptions of the incisor teeth of 212 horses of registered age were recorded and the results were compared with the age criteria of various authors. The time at which teeth were shed and the appearance of dental stars seemed to be more reliable features than the disappearance of the cups. The disappearance of the marks occurred four years later than usually stated. Other criteria, such as the presence of the seven-year notch and Galvayne's groove, were too variable and inconsistent to be reliable for the determination of age. PMID:8730689

  3. Deciduous teeth occlusal caries detection with 655-nm diode laser confirmed by surface scanning electron microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duarte, Danilo; Fonseca, Yara P. C.; Zanin, Fatima A. A.; Brugnera, Aldo, Jr.

    2000-03-01

    The morphological complexity of the occlusal surface of deciduous molar teeth is considered as a factor to increase vulnerability to caries lesion. Occlusal surface of these teeth shows sulcus, pits and fissures which allow retention of both micro-organisms and food debris which make them more susceptible to caries. In the last decades there was a significant reduction on caries of smooth surface but not on the occlusal surface where dentinal caries develops under fissures which are apparently caries-free under eye observation. This is known as a hidden caries. The occlusal surface of sound extracted deciduous molar teeth were examined using a 655 nm diode laser (DIAGNOdent - KaVo) in order to detect hidden caries. When there was indication of a hidden caries, the area was examined using SEM and confirm or not the diagnosis. The authors concludes that the diagnosis of caries using 655 diode laser is reliable and precise method.

  4. Indirect porcelain veneers in periodontally compromised teeth. The hybrid technique: a case report.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Baeza, David; Saavedra, Carlos; Garcia-Adámez, Ramón

    2015-01-01

    The loss of periodontal structure causes an esthetic problem for many patients, especially when the esthetic zone is compromised. Among the various types of solutions is the use of composite resins. While this procedure is not aggressive towards tooth structure, it does require the clinician to have a precise technique, and demands strict longterm maintenance. 1 Another way of treating the compromised teeth is with porcelain veneers. This procedure is especially difficult, however, if carried out on periodontal teeth, as it requires preparation along the roots. 2 The intention of the hybrid technique described in this article is to combine both of these procedures in order to obtain a less aggressive treatment with precise management of the soft tissue and an adequate esthetic outcome. The hybrid technique consists of enlarging the root portion of the teeth with composite resin to obtain a less aggressive tooth preparation, and thereafter placing porcelain veneers. PMID:26171444

  5. Measurement of Ca, Zn and Sr in enamel of human teeth by XRF

    SciTech Connect

    Wielopolski, L.; Featherstone, J.D.B.; Cohn, S.H.

    1984-01-01

    Energy dispersive x-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) has been employed to measure Ca, Zn, and Sr in enamel of human teeth. The calibration of the EDXRF system was performed by comparing Sr/Ca ratios with values obtained by atomic absorption analysis of acid etched biopsies of the enamel surface. Two calibration lines were obtained, one line for untreated teeth and the second line for teeth immersed (treated) in solutions containing Sr. A simple analytical model demonstrated that the two calibration lines were the result of the difference in the depth of the enamel sampled by EDXRF and by the acid-etched biopsy. The multi-elemental, non-destructive and quantitative aspects of EDXRF permit the sequential monitoring of the effects of Sr and Zn ions on the mineralization and demineralization processes in human enamel. The portability of the system and adaptability to non-invasive measurements makes it suitable for field studies. 26 references, 4 figures.

  6. Occlusal morphology of permanent mandibular first and second molars in Gujarati population

    PubMed Central

    Dholia, Bhavik; Manjunatha, Bhari Sharanesha

    2015-01-01

    Background: Dental identification has been used since long time for disaster victim identification protocol. There is a difference of opinion regarding whether ethnicity influences dental morphology or not. Few studies have shown the associations between these dental features and crown traits in humans using quantitative methods. The present study is an attempt to find correlation of occlusal morphology of Gujarati population with forensic Odontology. Aim: To study different occlusal morphology of permanent mandibular first and second molars in Gujarati Population. Materials and Methods: This study comprised of a total of 100 participants of Gujarati origin, selected by random sampling method. Total number of cusps and groove patterns of mandibular first and second molar were examined clinically and photographs of the same were taken. A descriptive statistics, Chi-square test and Student t-test were used for analysis of data. Results: Mandibular first molar with 5 cusps in 71%, 4 cusps in 18% and 6 cusps in 11% were noted in the study. Mandibular first molars with “+” groove pattern in 39.5% and “Y” groove pattern in 60.5% were recorded. Mandibular second molar with 5 cusps in 6.5% and 4 cusps in 93.5% were recorded in the study. Mandibular second molars with “+” groove pattern in 93.5% and “Y” groove pattern in 6.5% were recorded. Conclusion: The most common occlusal morphology in permanent mandibular first molar is “5 cusp” and “Y” groove pattern in about 47% and for second molar is “4 cusp” and “+” groove pattern in 88.5% of Gujarati population. It may be concluded that variation in degree of expression and frequency of teeth in dentitions of different populations is different, which may help in forensic identification. PMID:26005303

  7. Effect of Side Permanent Magnets for Reluctance Interior Permanent Magnet Reluctance Machines

    SciTech Connect

    Hsu, John S [ORNL; Lee, Seong T [ORNL; Wiles, Randy H [ORNL; Coomer, Chester [ORNL; Lowe, Kirk T [ORNL

    2007-01-01

    A traditional electric machine uses two dimensional magnetic flux paths in its rotor. This paper presents the development work on the utilization of the third dimension of a rotor. As an example, the air gap flux of a radial gap interior permanent magnet motor can be significantly enhanced by additional permanent magnets (PM) mounted at the sides of the rotor. A prototype motor built with this concept provided higher efficiency and required a shorter stator core length for the same power output as the Toyota/Prius traction drive motor.

  8. Coronal microleakage of endodontically treated teeth with intracanal post exposed to fresh human saliva

    PubMed Central

    de OLIVEIRA, Simone Gomes dias; GOMES, Denise Jornada; COSTA, Marcelo Hissé das Neves; de SOUSA, Ezilmara Rolim; LUND, Rafael Guerra

    2013-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to investigate the coronal microleakage of endodontically treated teeth prepared to receive an intracanal post and teeth with an intracanal post but without a prosthetic crown and exposed to contamination by fresh human saliva. Material and Methods A mechanical-chemical preparation following the step-back technique was carried out in 35 extracted single-rooted human teeth. The teeth were randomly divided into five groups: G1=root canals instrumented, obturated, and prepared to receive an intracanal post (N=10); G2=root canals with cemented posts but without coronal sealing (N=10); PC1=positive control root canals instrumented and open (N=5); PC2=positive control 2 root canals without instrumentation and open (N=5); and NC=negative control healthy teeth (N=5). The crowns were removed except for the control group of intact teeth. The root canals were obturated and sterilized with cobalt 60 gamma irradiation and were then adapted in an apparatus using a Brain Heart Infusion (BHI) medium and fresh human saliva for contamination. Microbial growth was indicated by the presence of turbidity in the BHI liquid medium. Results Data were submitted to the Kaplan-Meier Survival Analysis and the Holm-Sidak statistic method, which observed an index of 90% of microleakage in root canals after 24 hours for G1 and 70% of microleakage in samples at the end of 40 days for G2. Conclusion The results show that root canals with an intracanal post but without a prosthetic crown can be recontaminated when exposed to fresh human saliva in a short period. PMID:24212985

  9. Spatial-temporal changes in Andean plateau climate and elevation from stable isotopes of mammal teeth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bershaw, John; Garzione, Carmala N.; Higgins, Pennilyn; MacFadden, Bruce J.; Anaya, Frederico; Alvarenga, Herculano

    2010-01-01

    Paleoelevation constraints from fossil leaf physiognomy and stable isotopes of sedimentary carbonate suggest that significant surface uplift of the northern Andean plateau, on the order of 2.5 ± 1 km, occurred between ˜ 10.3 and 6.4 Ma. Independent spatial and temporal constraints on paleoelevation and paleoclimate of both the northern and southern plateau are important for understanding the distribution of rapid surface uplift and its relation to climate evolution across the plateau. This study focuses on teeth from modern and extinct mammal taxa (including notoungulates, pyrotheres, and litopterns) spanning ˜ 29 Ma to present, collected from the Altiplano and Eastern Cordillera of Bolivia (16.2°S to 21.4°S), and lowland Brazil. Tooth enamel of large, water-dependent mammals preserves a record of surface water isotopes and the type of plants that animals ingested while their teeth were mineralizing. Previous studies have shown that the ?18O of modern precipitation and surface waters decrease systematically with increasing elevations across the central Andes. Our results from high elevation sites between 3600 and 4100 m show substantially more positive ?18O values for late Oligocene tooth samples compared to < 10 Ma tooth ?18O values. Late Oligocene teeth collected from low elevation sites in southeast Brazil show ?18O values similar (within 2‰) to contemporaneous teeth collected at high elevation in the Eastern Cordillera. This affirms that the Andean plateau was at a very low elevation during the late Oligocene. Late Oligocene teeth from the northern Eastern Cordillera also yield consistent ?13C values of about - 9‰, indicating that the environment was semi-arid at that time. Latitudinal gradients in ?18O values of late Miocene to Pliocene fossil teeth are similar to modern values for large mammals, suggesting that by ˜ 8 Ma in the northern Altiplano and by ˜ 3.6 Ma in the southern Altiplano, both regions had reached high elevation and established a latitudinal rainfall gradient similar to modern.

  10. Discrimination between intact and decayed pulp regions in carious teeth by ADC mapping.

    PubMed

    Cankar, Ksenija; Nemeth, Lidija; Bajd, Franci; Vidmar, Jernej; Serša, Igor

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate an advanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) method, apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) mapping, in the functional assessment of carious teeth. 38 extracted human teeth with scores of 0, 3 and 6 according to International Caries Detection and Assessment System (ICDAS) criteria were screened and subsequently analyzed by MRI at 2.35 T. Histology sectioning of teeth was used for the gold standard by analyzing two extreme cases (intact and severely decayed). ADC maps of the same teeth were calculated from corresponding diffusion-weighted images and used to obtain ADC distributions along dental pulp as functions of the relative pulp length measured from the occlusal pulp side. The measured distributions were analyzed for the best fit by a four-parameter three-segment linear regression model for ADC distribution along the pulp. MRI results were in good agreement with findings in histological sections of identical teeth. The best fit model parameters, relative decayed region depth, relative transition region width and ADC values of intact and decayed pulp tissue, showed statistically significant differences between the ADC values of intact and decayed pulp tissue (1.0 × 10(-9) m(2)/s vs. 0.74-0.89 × 10(-9) m(2)/s) and the relative decayed region depth progressing with ICDAS score (3 vs. 46% with ICDAS 3 vs. ICDAS 6). The results of this feasibility study confirmed relevance of ADC mapping for the discrimination and localization of intact and decayed regions in dental pulps of carious teeth. PMID:24852609

  11. Molecular sex identification of dry human teeth specimens from Sokoto, Northwestern Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Zagga, AD; Ahmed, H. OON; Ismail, SM; Tadros, AA

    2014-01-01

    Background: The advent of molecular techniques has revolutionized the ability of scientists to estimate the sex of individuals. Forensic odontology plays an important role in establishing the sex of victims with bodies mutilated beyond recognition due to major disaster. The genetic difference between males and females is defined by the presence or absence of the Y-chromosome. The use of alphoid-repeat primers in sex estimation was first applied on dried blood. Generally, the X, Y alphoid repeats blind test attest to the accuracy of genetic testing, and also point the potential for occasional error in morphometric sexing. Aim: To estimate genetic sex of dry human teeth specimens from Sokoto, Northwestern Nigeria, using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Materials and Methods: A single-blind study of DNA analysis for sex estimation of nine dry human teeth specimens from Sokoto, Northwestern Nigeria, through PCR, using alphoid repeats primers, was undertaken. Results: The genetic sex of each group of the teeth samples were accurately (100%) identified. For each group of teeth, PCR Sensitivity = 100%, Specificity = 0%, Predictive value of positive test = 100%, Predictive value of negative test = 0%, False positive rate = 0%, False negative rate = 0%, Efficiency of test = 100%. Fisher's exact probability test P = 1. Z-test: z- and P values were invalid. Conclusion: This study has demonstrated the successful use of alphoid-repeat primers in genetic sex identification of human dry teeth samples from Sokoto, Northwestern Nigeria. This is the first known study estimating the sex of human dry teeth specimens by means of PCR in Nigeria. There is need for further studies in Nigeria to complement the findings of this study. PMID:25125922

  12. Comparison of microbial changes in early re-developing biofilms on natural teeth and dentures

    PubMed Central

    Teles, F.R.; Teles, R.P.; Sachdeo, A.; Uzel, N.G.; Song, X.Q.; Torresyap, G.; Singh, M.; Papas, A.; Haffajee, A.D.; Socransky, S.S.

    2013-01-01

    Background and objective Surfaces and fluids can affect oral bacterial colonization. The aim of this study was to compare re-developing biofilms on natural teeth and dentures. Methods Supragingival plaque samples were taken from 55 dentate subjects and the denture teeth of 62 edentulous subjects before and after professional cleaning. Also, samples from 7 “teeth” in randomly selected quadrants were collected after 1, 2, 4 and 7 days of no oral hygiene. Samples were analyzed using checkerboard DNA-DNA hybridization. Counts and proportions of 41 bacterial taxa were determined at each time point and significant differences were sought using the Mann-Whitney test. Ecological succession was determined using a modified moving window analysis. Results Mean total DNA probe counts were similar pre-cleaning but were higher in dentate subjects at all post-cleaning visits (p<0.01). Pre-cleaning edentate biofilms had higher counts and proportions of Streptococcus mitis, Streptococcus oralis and Streptococcus mutans, whereas dentate subjects had higher proportions of Tannerella forsythia, Selenomonas noxia and Neisseria mucosa. By 2 days, mean counts of all taxa were higher in natural teeth and most remained higher at 7 days (p<0.01). Succession was more rapid and complex in dentate subjects. Both groups demonstrated increased proportions of S. mitis and S. oralis by 1 day. N. mucosa, Veillonella parvula and Eikenella corrodens increased in both groups but later in edentate samples. Conclusions “Mature” natural and denture teeth biofilms have similar total numbers of bacteria but different species proportions. Post-cleaning biofilm re-development is more rapid and more complex on natural than denture teeth. PMID:22443543

  13. Factors affecting wear of composite resin denture teeth--24-month results from a clinical study.

    PubMed

    Stober, Thomas; Geiger, Andreas; Rues, Stefan; Dreyhaupt, Jens; Rammelsberg, Peter; Ohlmann, Brigitte

    2012-04-01

    The objectives of this study were to measure the occlusal wear of composite resin denture teeth in patients wearing a complete denture and to evaluate factors affecting wear. Fifty participants provided with complete dentures in at least one jaw were included. Gypsum casts were made from preliminary vinyl polysiloxane impressions 4 weeks after insertion, then after 6 (t(1)), 12 (t(2)), and 24 months (t(3)). Three-hundred and three posterior denture teeth were evaluated after 24 months. Wear was measured indirectly, from the casts, by means of a three-dimensional laser scanner device. Sequential images of the occlusal surfaces were digitized and superimposed (occlusal matching). Statistical analysis was performed by the use of mixed regression models, with the patient being a random effect. Mean wear (median, interquartile range; micrometer) of the entire occlusal surface was 8 (19) at t(1), 18 (34) at t(2), and 40 (61) at t(3). Maximum vertical loss (median, interquartile range; micrometer) was 92 (112) at t(1), 146 (148) at t(2), and 226 (184) at t(3). The dental status of the opposing jaw and the nature of the opposing material significantly affected the wear of denture teeth at t (3). Gender, daily wearing time, jaw, and type of tooth had no significant effects on the extent of wear. Clinically relevant vertical loss of composite resin denture teeth occurs after 24 months. Considering the limitations of this study, wear of denture teeth was affected by dental status and opposing material. The results suggest that wear of composite resin denture teeth exceeds that of enamel. PMID:21384126

  14. Accuracy of Demirjian's 8 teeth method for age prediction in South Indian children: A comparative study

    PubMed Central

    Mohammed, Rezwana Begum; Srinivas, Baratam; Sanghvi, Praveen; Satyanarayana, Gajjarapu; Gopalakrishnan, Meera; Pavani, B. Vamsi

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Demirjian's method of tooth development is most commonly used to assess age in individuals with emerging teeth. However, its application on numerous populations has resulted in wide variations in age estimates and consequent suggestions for the method's adaptation to the local sample. Original Demirjian's method utilized seven mandibular teeth, to which recently third molar is added so that the method can be applied on a wider age group. Furthermore, the revised method developed regression formulas for assessing age. In Indians, as these formulas resulted in underestimation, India-specific regression formulas were developed recently. The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to evaluate the accuracy and applicability of original regression formulas (Chaillet and Demirjian 2004) and India-specific regression formulas (Acharya 2010) using Demirjian's 8 teeth method in South Indian children of age groups 9–20 years. Methods: The present study consisted of 660 randomly selected subjects (330 males and 330 females) were in the aged ranging from 9 to 20 years divided into 11 groups according to their age. Demirjian's 8 teeth method was used for staging of teeth. Results: Demirjian's method underestimated the dental age (DA) by 1.66 years for boys and 1.55 years for girls and 1.61 years in total. Acharya's method over estimated DA by 0.21 years for boys and 0.85 years for girls and 0.53 years in total. The absolute accuracy was better for Acharya's method compared with Demirjian method. Conclusion: This study concluded that both the Demirjian and Indian regression formulas were reliable in assessing age making Demirjian's 8 teeth method applicable for South Indians. PMID:25684903

  15. TRANSLATION OF BOVINE LEUKEMIA VIRUS GENOME INFORMATION IN HETEROLOGOUS PROTEIN SYNTHESIZING SYSTEMS

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    TRANSLATION OF BOVINE LEUKEMIA VIRUS GENOME INFORMATION IN HETEROLOGOUS PROTEIN SYNTHESIZING, probablement situé du côté 3' du génome viral. Introduction. Bovine leukemia is a lymphoproliferative disease whose etiological agent is a retrovirus called Bovine Leukemia Virus (BLV). The cha- racteristics

  16. Multiple idiopathic cervical root resorptions: report of one case with 8 teeth involved successively

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Yin-Hua; Lin, Yan; Ge, Jing; Zheng, Jia-Wei; Zhang, Ling; Zhang, Chun-Ye

    2014-01-01

    Multiple idiopathic cervical root resorptions is a rare condition which is usually detected as an incidental radiographic finding. It involves more than 3 teeth in the same patient and the etiology remains elusive. Diagnosis and treatment of the defect is still challenging. The present report describes a case with progressive multiple external cervical resorption involving 8 teeth, including the history, clinical and radiographic findings. Treatment included surgical intervention and restoration of the defect. A 3-month reevaluation of the case confirmed a stable, uneventful clinical recovery. PMID:24955199

  17. Esthetic Smile Design: Limited Orthodontic Therapy to Position Teeth for Minimally Invasive Veneer Preparation.

    PubMed

    Miro, Andi-Jean; Shalman, Alex; Morales, Ramiro; Giannuzzi, Nicholas J

    2015-07-01

    The standards of dentistry are being elevated, with a greater emphasis being placed on esthetics along with functionality. Minimally invasive dentistry has become an essential component in creating restorations that are functional and have increased longevity. In the case discussed in this article, the patient underwent 9 months of orthodontic therapy to correct her improper overbite and overjet, and the spacing of her dentition so the teeth could be positioned for future minimally invasive restorations. Orthodontic therapy was paramount in positioning the teeth so that the future restorations would have ideal axial inclinations and be as minimally invasive as possible. PMID:26140974

  18. An overview of permanent and semipermanent fillers.

    PubMed

    Broder, Kevin W; Cohen, Steven R

    2006-09-01

    The demand for safe, effective, long-lasting, biocompatible dermal filler materials is increasing. Many products that include synthetic polymers and autologous tissue have emerged that attempt to meet these criteria. An overview of injectable permanent fillers, including ArteFill, Aquamid, and silicone, and semipermanent fillers, including Radiesse, Sculptra, and autologous fat, is presented. A discussion of their composition, histologic characteristics, antigenicity, U.S. Food and Drug Administration approval status, indications for use, efficacy, injection technique, and adverse effects is provided. PMID:16936539

  19. Permanent-magnet-less synchronous reluctance system

    DOEpatents

    Hsu, John S

    2012-09-11

    A permanent magnet-less synchronous system includes a stator that generates a magnetic revolving field when sourced by an alternating current. An uncluttered rotor is disposed within the magnetic revolving field and spaced apart from the stator to form an air gap relative to an axis of rotation. The rotor includes a plurality of rotor pole stacks having an inner periphery biased by single polarity of a north-pole field and a south-pole field, respectively. The outer periphery of each of the rotor pole stacks are biased by an alternating polarity.

  20. Batch fabrication of precision miniature permanent magnets

    DOEpatents

    Christenson, Todd R. (Albuquerque, NM); Garino, Terry J. (Albuquerque, NM); Venturini, Eugene L. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2002-01-01

    A new class of processes for fabrication of precision miniature rare earth permanent magnets is disclosed. Such magnets typically have sizes in the range 0.1 to 10 millimeters, and dimensional tolerances as small as one micron. Very large magnetic fields can be produced by such magnets, lending to their potential application in MEMS and related electromechanical applications, and in miniature millimeter-wave vacuum tubes. This abstract contains simplifications, and is supplied only for purposes of searching, not to limit or alter the scope or meaning of any claims herein.

  1. Planar permanent magnet multipoles: Measurements and configurations

    SciTech Connect

    Cremer, T.; Tatchyn, R. [Stanford Univ., Stanford, CA (United States)

    1995-05-01

    Biplanar arrays of N rectangular permanent magnet (PM) blocks can be used to generate high quality N-pole fields in close proximity to the array axis. In applications featuring small-diameter charged particle beams, N-poles of adequate quality can be realized at relatively low cost using small volumes of PM material. In this paper we report on recent measurements performed on planar PM multipoles, and discuss techniques for improving the field quality of such devices at distances appreciably far away from the axis. Applications to hybrid/PM insertion device designs for linac-driven Free Electron Laser (FEL) operation in the x-ray range are described.

  2. Tuning permanent magnets with adjustable field clamps

    SciTech Connect

    Schermer, R.I.

    1987-01-01

    The effective length of a permanent-magnet assembly can be varied by adjusting the geometrical parameters of a field clamp. This paper presents measurements on a representative dipole and quadrupole as the field clamp is withdrawn axially or radially. The detailed behavior depends upon the magnet multipolarity and geometry. As a rule-of-thumb, a 3-mm-thick iron plate placed at one end plane of the magnet will shorten the length by one-third of the magnet bore radius.

  3. HIGH DENSITY ESTS BASED BOVINE PHYSICAL MAPS AND THEIR USE TO CONSTRUCT COMPARATIVE MAPS AND INFORM THE BOVINE GENOME SEQUENCE ASSEMBLY

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The 3000 rad bovine whole genome radiation hybrid panel and bovine BAC libraries have been used to construct an integrated physical map of the bovine genome, which will contribute to the final assembly of the bovine genome sequence. The RH map now contains more than 4000 markers, the majority of whi...

  4. Bovine besnoitiosis: epidemiological and clinical aspects.

    PubMed

    Jacquiet, P; Liénard, E; Franc, M

    2010-11-24

    Bovine besnoitiosis, due to the cyst-forming apicomplexan Besnoitia besnoiti, is widespread in Africa, in Asia and in the south of Europe. This infection leads to major economic losses in cattle production with a decrease in milk production, transient of definitive sterility of bulls and mortality. Since its emergence in Europe (Germany, Spain and Centre of France), more attention has been given to this infection during the last 10 years, including the recent development of serological methods for diagnosis. The life cycle of B. besnoiti remains a mystery: the definitive host is unknown and the transmission routes are poorly understood. B. besnoiti is thought to be transmitted mainly by hematophagous insects. This paper presents a review of what is currently known of the epidemiology of bovine besnoitiosis and the key manifestations of the disease. It highlights the urgent need for research programs to improve efficient and sustainable control methods. PMID:20850933

  5. Bovine experimental paracoccidioidomycosis intradermic test standardization.

    PubMed

    Da Costa, E O; Netto, C F; Rodrigues, A; Brito, T

    1978-06-01

    Three intratesticulary inoculated bovines revealed to be susceptible to experimental paracoccidioidomycosis. The experimental infection was self limited with no tendency to dissemination during a follow up period of five months. The histopathologic lesions characterized by granulomatous inflammatory foci, associated or not to necrosis, were found in the testicles, spermatic cords and testicular tunicae. In some of both lesions types the yeast cells of P. brasiliensis were present. The experimental infection did not cure in a follow up period of five months. The immunological response either cellular or humoral were delayed in relation to what happens in other animal species. The three experimentally infected bovines were utilized for some standardization of the paracoccidioidin intradermic test. A type and dose of an antigen which gives a clear reading for the positive tests was determined. The humoral responses were detected mainly by the complement fixation reaction. It was not possible to demonstrate humoral antibodies by the agar immunodiffusion test. PMID:567851

  6. Causal agents of bovine theileriosis in southern Africa

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Uilenberg; N. M. Perié; J. A. Lawrence; A. J. DE VOS; R. W. Paling; A. A. M. Spanjer

    1982-01-01

    One pathogenic and 4 mild bovineTheileria strains from southern Africa, all transmitted byRhipicephalus appendiculatus, were compared amongst themselves as well as to bovine and buffalo strains of theT. parva complex from eastern and southern Africa and to bovine strains ofT. taurotragi from Tanzania considered to be derived from eland antelope. Criteria used were parasitological, clinical, serological and cross-immunity characters.

  7. Detection of cytokines in bovine colostrum

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Katsuro Hagiwara; Satoshi Kataoka; Hitoki Yamanaka; Rikio Kirisawa; Hiroshi Iwai

    2000-01-01

    Colostrum contains factors that are protective for the neonate and may be a source of immunomodulary molecules that positively influence the immune status of the neonate. To confirm that colostrum contains a variety of cytokines with immunomodulatory properties, we established a bovine cytokine specific ELISA and five cytokines (IL-1?, IL-6, TNF-?, INF-? or IL-1 receptor antagonist, IL-1ra) in the whey

  8. Preparation of bovine lipid-free hemoglobin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dong-Xu Zhao; Xin-Gui Wei; Zhenyu Gu; Gui-Feng Zhang; Zhi-Guo Su

    2003-01-01

    A new method for preparation of Hb solution free of stromal lipid was described. Almost all the lipid in fresh hemolysate of bovine red blood was removed with hydrophobic interaction chromatography (HIC) in the presence of 2% PEG4000, 5% PEG4000, 2%PEG10000 or 5%PEG10000. With the adding of 5%PEG4000, the 80% of recovery of Hb in HIC was obtained and the

  9. Sodium transport inhibitor from bovine hypothalamus.

    PubMed Central

    Haupert, G T; Sancho, J M

    1979-01-01

    A low molecular weight, basic, nonpeptidic factor that possesses sodium transport inhibitory properties has been prepared from bovine hypothalamus by acid/acetone extraction and gel filtration. Concentration and partial purification was achieved by ion-exchange chromatography. This substance inhibits active Na+ transport across anuran membranes, inhibits ouabain binding to frog urinary bladder, and directly inhibits renal Na+,K+-ATPase. This substance thus possesses the putative characteristics of a natriuretic factor of hypothalamic origin. PMID:228304

  10. ENDOGENOUS ESTROGENS IN BOVINE TISSUES 1 '2

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. M. Henricks; A. K. Torrence

    2010-01-01

    SUMMARY The purpose of this study was to develop a method of extraction, purification and assay for estrogens in bovine muscle, kidney, liver and uterine endometrium. Assays were devel- oped to obtain two estrogen concentrations for a tissue: one for estradiol-17fl(E2\\/3) + estrone (E 1)s and one for E:\\/3. Homogenization of the tissue was followed by extraction with ethyl ether,

  11. Prespermatogenesis and spermatogoniogenesis in the bovine testis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Karl-Heinz Wrobel

    2000-01-01

    The bovine male germ cell population was studied over the entire period from testicular differentiation in the embryo through\\u000a onset of spermatogenesis in the pubertal calf. Germ cells were identified by protein gene product 9.5 immunohistochemistry\\u000a and characterized by their ultrastructure. The proliferation pattern of germ cells was studied with immunohistochemical anti-Ki\\u000a 67 and anti-proliferating cell nuclear antigen reactions. Germ

  12. Structural analysis of bovine pancreatic thread protein.

    PubMed

    Cai, L; Harris, W R; Marshak, D R; Gross, J; Crabb, J W

    1990-10-01

    Pancreatic thread protein (PTP) forms double helical threads in the neutral pH range after purification, undergoing freely reversible, pH-dependent globule-fibril transformation. The purified bovine PTP consists on SDS gels of two carbohydrate-free polypeptide chains (Gross et al., 1985). Plasma desorption mass spectrometry and amino acid sequence analysis now confirm that bovine PTP contains two disulfide-bonded polypeptides, an A chain of 101 amino acid residues with a molecular weight of 11,073 and a B chain of 35 residues with a molecular weight of 3970. The intact protein exhibits a molecular weight of 15,036, agreeing greater than 99.9% with the molecular weight calculated from the sequence. The B chain sequence was determined by gas-phase Edman degradation of the intact polypeptide. The A chain sequence was determined from overlapping peptides generated by cleavage at lysyl, tryptophanyl, and aspartyl-prolyl residues. Based upon the bovine PTP cDNA structure, the two chains of the protein result from cleavage of a single polypeptide with removal of a dipeptide between the NH2-terminal A chain and COOH-terminal B chain. Comparison of bovine PTP with other proteins reveals significant structural relatedness with the single-chain homologues from human and rat pancreas and with the motif associated with Ca2(+)-dependent carbohydrate recognition domains. The physiological role of PTP has not yet been resolved. The protein is present in very high concentration in pancreatic secretion and it has been detected in brain lesions in Alzheimer's disease and Down syndrome and in regenerating rat pancreatic islets. The present results provide a firm protein base for ongoing molecular, physical-chemical, and structure-function studies of this unusual protein. PMID:2085387

  13. Bovine colostrum and immune function after exercise.

    PubMed

    Davison, Glen

    2012-01-01

    Strenuous and/or prolonged exercise causes transient perturbations in immune function. It is well accepted that this is one mechanism contributing to the higher occurrence of infection (e.g. upper respiratory tract infection (URTI)) in athletes, especially endurance athletes. URTI or upper respiratory tract (URT) symptoms can negatively affect training and competition performance but athletes must train intensively to be successful. Therefore, interventions that can legitimately enhance immune function and reduce URTI risk can be of benefit to athletes. Bovine colostrum supplementation has been investigated as a possible nutritional countermeasure to enhance (or maintain) immune function, and reduce URTI risk, following strenuous or prolonged exercise and during intensive training periods. There is convincing evidence that daily supplementation with bovine colostrum, for a number of weeks (and preliminary evidence for acute effects after a single dose), can maintain intestinal barrier integrity, immune function and reduce the chances of suffering URTI or URT symptoms in athletes or those undertaking heavy training. The mechanisms are not fully understood at present but there is preliminary evidence suggesting that the effects on immune function are attributable, at least in part, to small bioactive components that survive digestion and are biologically available after consumption, but further work is required. In summary, the balance of existing evidence does support the notion that bovine colostrum is beneficial for certain groups of athletes, such as those involved in strenuous training (e.g. endurance athletes), in terms of immunity and resistance to infection. PMID:23075556

  14. Bovine besnoitiosis emerging in Central-Eastern Europe, Hungary

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Besnoitia besnoiti, the cause of bovine besnoitiosis, is a cyst-forming coccidian parasite that has recently been shown to be spreading in several Western and Southern European countries. Findings Clinical cases of bovine besnoitiosis were confirmed for the first time in Hungary, by histological, serological and PCR analyses. Conclusions This is the first report of autochthonous bovine besnoitiosis in Central-Eastern Europe. The emergence of bovine besnoitiosis in this region represents a further example, when human activity (i.e. cattle trading) is the main factor involved in the geographical spread of an infectious disease. PMID:24410743

  15. Genetic detection and characterization of atypical bovine pestiviruses in foetal bovine sera claimed to be of Australian origin.

    PubMed

    Xia, H; Larska, M; Giammarioli, M; De Mia, G M; Cardeti, G; Zhou, W; Alenius, S; Belák, S; Liu, L

    2013-06-01

    Two European laboratories independently detected atypical bovine pestiviral nucleic acids in three commercial batches of foetal bovine serum (FBS) that was claimed by the producers to be of Australian origin. Additional batches of FBS were obtained directly from Australia to exclude possible contamination of the Australian FBS with that of South American origin during manufacturing/packaging in European countries. RT-PCR amplification of partial 5'untranslated region and the complete N(pro) gene yielded a specific band with expected size, which was confirmed by DNA sequencing. Bayesian analysis of sequence data demonstrated a closer phylogenetic relation of the newly detected atypical bovine pestiviruses to those of South American origin, which were related to the recognized bovine pestivirus species, bovine viral diarrhoea virus. Taken together, the results indicated the presence of atypical bovine pestiviruses in the Australian FBS, and most likely in Australian Continent. PMID:22591445

  16. Design and analysis of linear fault-tolerant permanent-magnet vernier machines.

    PubMed

    Xu, Liang; Ji, Jinghua; Liu, Guohai; Du, Yi; Liu, Hu

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes a new linear fault-tolerant permanent-magnet (PM) vernier (LFTPMV) machine, which can offer high thrust by using the magnetic gear effect. Both PMs and windings of the proposed machine are on short mover, while the long stator is only manufactured from iron. Hence, the proposed machine is very suitable for long stroke system applications. The key of this machine is that the magnetizer splits the two movers with modular and complementary structures. Hence, the proposed machine offers improved symmetrical and sinusoidal back electromotive force waveform and reduced detent force. Furthermore, owing to the complementary structure, the proposed machine possesses favorable fault-tolerant capability, namely, independent phases. In particular, differing from the existing fault-tolerant machines, the proposed machine offers fault tolerance without sacrificing thrust density. This is because neither fault-tolerant teeth nor the flux-barriers are adopted. The electromagnetic characteristics of the proposed machine are analyzed using the time-stepping finite-element method, which verifies the effectiveness of the theoretical analysis. PMID:24982959

  17. Morphological and clinical considerations of first and second permanent molar eruption disorders.

    PubMed

    Proff, Peter; Bayerlein, Thomas; Fanghänel, Jochen; Allegrini, Sergio; Gedrange, Tomas

    2006-07-01

    Tooth eruption is a complex biological process which starts from the site of development in the jaw bone until the teeth reach their final functional position in the chewing plane. Various factors can disturb this process. Besides mechanical obstacles on the eruption path, a pathological position or axial orientation of the tooth germ, morphological aberrations of the tooth or pathological alterations of the periodontium, primary disorders of the eruption mechanism may lead to complete or partial retention of the tooth in the jaw bone. These morphological features bear upon the prognosis of orthodontic correction which is dependent upon the underlying cause. First and second molars are rarely affected by eruption disorders, with a prevalence of 0.01 to 0.08 per cent, however, marked consequences for function such as posterior open bite or elongation of the antagonists may result. Following an overview of pathogenetic factors of tooth eruption disorders, selected cases of impacted first and second permanent molars are presented with respect to their morphological causes. PMID:16856600

  18. Fluvial transport potential of shed and root-bearing dinosaur teeth from the late Jurassic Morrison Formation

    PubMed Central

    Coenen, Jason J.; Noto, Christopher R.

    2014-01-01

    Shed dinosaur teeth are commonly collected microvertebrate remains that have been used for interpretations of dinosaur feeding behaviors, paleoecology, and population studies. However, such interpretations may be biased by taphonomic processes such as fluvial sorting influenced by tooth shape: shed teeth, removed from the skull during life, and teeth possessing roots, removed from the skull after death. As such, teeth may behave differently in fluvial systems due to their differences in shape. In order to determine the influence of fluvial processes on the preservation and distribution of shed and root-bearing dinosaur teeth, the hydrodynamic behaviors of high-density urethane resin casts of shed and root-bearing Allosaurus and Camarasaurus teeth were experimentally tested for relative transport distances at increasing flow velocities in an artificial fluviatile environment. Results show that tooth cast specimens exhibited comparable patterns of transport at lower velocities, though the shed Camarasaurus teeth transported considerably farther in medium to higher flow velocities. Two-Way ANOVA tests indicate significant differences in the mean transport distances of tooth casts oriented perpendicular to flow (p < 0.05) with varying tooth morphologies and flow velocities. The differences exhibited in the transportability of shed and root-bearing teeth has important implications for taphonomic reconstructions, as well as future studies on dinosaur population dynamics, paleoecology, and feeding behaviors. PMID:24765581

  19. Permanent synchronization of camcorders via LANC protocol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vrancic, Damir; Smith, Steven L.

    2006-02-01

    A device, which keeps two camcorders permanently in synchronization, has been developed. The mentioned device uses LANC (CONTROL-L) camcorder's inputs for synchronization. It enables controlling of two camcorders simultaneously via built-in buttons, by using external LANC remote controller and/or by the PC via serial (RS232) communication. Since device requires LANC inputs on camcorders or ACC inputs on still cameras, it can be used on some camcorders produced by manufacturers Sony and Canon or some still cameras produced by Sony. The device initially synchronizes camcorders or still cameras by applying arbitrarily delayed power-up pulses on LANC (ACC) inputs. Then, on user demand, the camcorders can be permanently synchronized (valid only for some camcorders produced by Sony). The effectiveness of the proposed device is demonstrated by several experiments on three types of camcorders (DCR-TRV900E, HDR-HC1, HVR-Z1U) and one type of still camera (DSC-V1). The electronic schemes, PCB layouts, firmware and communication programs are freely available (under GPL licence).

  20. Counterrotating brushless dc permanent magnet motor

    SciTech Connect

    Hawsey, R.A.; Bailey, J.M.

    1990-01-01

    An brushless DC permanent magnet motor is provided for driving an autonomous underwater vehicle. In one embodiment, the motor comprises four substantially flat stators disposed in stacked relationship, with pairs of the stators being axially spaced and each of the stators comprising a tape-wound stator coil; and a first and second substantially flat rotors disposed between the spaced pairs of stators. Each of the rotors includes an annular array of permanent magnets embedded therein. A first shaft is connected to the first rotor and a second, concentric shaft is connected to the second rotor, and drive unit causes rotation of the two shafts in opposite directions. The second shaft comprises a hollow tube having a central bore therein in which the first shaft is disposed. Two different sets of bearings support the first and second shAfts. In another embodiment, the motor comprises two ironless stators and pairs and rotors mounted no opposite sides of the stators and driven by counterrotating shafts.