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Sample records for bovine plasma thrombin-activatable

  1. Activity of thrombin-activatable fibrinolysis inhibitor in the plasma of patients with abdominal aortic aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Dubis, Joanna; Zuk, Natalia; Grendziak, Ryszard; Zapotoczny, Norbert; Pfanhauser, Monika; Witkiewicz, Wojciech

    2014-04-01

    Patients with abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) experience impaired balance between fibrinolysis and coagulation, manifested by increased prothrombotic tendency and intensified inflammatory processes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the TAFI activity level (thrombin activatable fibrinolysis inhibitor) in the plasma of AAA patients. Plasma levels of PAI-1 (plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1), urokinase-type plasminogen activator and uPAR (urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor) were measured as markers of fibrinolytic activity. The study showed that the activity of the thrombin-activatable fibrinolysis inhibitor in the plasma of AAA patients was significantly lower than in the plasma of the control individuals (64.6 ± 10.1 vs. 54.2 ± 10.9%, P < 0.0001). TAFI activity positively correlated with the white blood cell count (r = 0.486, P < 0.005). The uPAR concentration in the AAA patients was statistically significantly higher than in the control group and positively correlated with TAFI activity (r = 0.409, P = 0.02). The levels of PAI-1 and D-dimers (fibrin fragments) were significantly higher in patients with AAA than in the control group (44.3 ± 17.5 vs. 21.7 ± 8.7 ng/ml and 1869.6 ± 1490.1 vs. 181.5 ± 188.6 ng/ml, respectively). Lowered activity of the fibrinolysis inhibitor TAFI may heighten the blood fibrinolytic potential in AAA patients and contribute to the development of comorbidities. Therefore, TAFI participation in AAA pathogenesis cannot be excluded. PMID:24378973

  2. Thrombin-activatable fibrinolysis inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Marx, Pauline F

    2004-09-01

    The coagulation system is a potent mechanism that prevents blood loss after vascular injury. It consists of a number of linked enzymatic reactions resulting in thrombin generation. Thrombin converts soluble fibrinogen into a fibrin clot. The clot is subsequently removed by the fibrinolytic system upon wound healing. Thrombin-activatable fibrinolysis inhibitor (TAFI), which is identical to the previously identified proteins procarboxypeptidase B, R, and U, forms a link between blood coagulation and fibrinolysis. TAFI circulates as an inactive proenzyme in the bloodstream, and becomes activated during blood clotting. The active form, TAFIa, inhibits fibrinolysis by cleaving off C-terminal lysine residues from partially degraded fibrin that stimulates the tissue-type plasminogen activator-mediated conversion of plasminogen to plasmin. Consequently, removal of these lysines leads to less plasmin formation and subsequently to protection of the fibrin clot from break down. Moreover, TAFI may also play a role in other processes such as, inflammation and tissue repair. In this review, recent developments in TAFI research are discussed. PMID:15379716

  3. Thrombin-activatable fibrinolysis inhibitor activity and global fibrinolytic capacity in Type 1 diabetes: evidence for normal fibrinolytic state.

    PubMed

    Harmanci, Ayla; Kandemir, Nurgun; Dagdelen, Selcuk; Gonc, Nazli; Buyukasik, Yahya; Alikasifoglu, Ayfer; Kirazli, Serafettin; Ozon, Alev; Gurlek, Alper

    2006-01-01

    Hypofibrinolysis is a state that is commonly observed in type 2 diabetic patients, a finding also possibly related to obesity and insulin resistance. There is little information, however, regarding the status of fibrinolytic system in Type 1 diabetes, in particular as reflected by thrombin-activatable fibrinolysis inhibitor (TAFI) activity and global fibrinolytic capacity (GFC). To provide information in this respect, 30 Type 1 diabetic patients (median age=16) and 28 healthy controls (median age=14) were enrolled in this study. The median duration of diabetes was 7 years, and median HbA(1c) was 8.85% (range: 5.5-11.9%) in the diabetic group. None of the patients had macrovascular complications. Microvascular complications were present in a total of eight patients (nephropathy: n=5; retinopathy: n=3). A comparison of the TAFI activity between the patient (median 84.9, range: 71.5-103.3%) and the control groups (median=83.3, range: 63.7-97.4%) yielded no statistically significant difference (P=.950). Similarly, GFC was comparable between the two groups (median=8.22, range: 0.72-22.38 microg/ml, and median=13.32, range: 3.0-23.22 microg/ml, respectively, in the diabetic and control groups, P=.086). TAFI activity did not significantly correlate with age, albumin excretion, fasting plasma glucose, HbA(1c), D-dimer, and fibrinogen by Spearman rank correlation test. There was as a significant inverse correlation between GFC and TAFI activity (r=-.414, P=.006). Contrary to the previous observations in Type 2 diabetes, our data suggest that fibrinolytic activity is not adversely affected by Type 1 diabetes, and it has no relationship with the degree of metabolic control. PMID:16389166

  4. Association between thrombin-activatable fibrinolysis inhibitor gene polymorphisms and venous thrombosis risk: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei; Ma, He; Lu, Lili; Sun, Guixiang; Liu, Dang; Zhou, Yunti; Tong, Yue; Lu, Zhaojun

    2016-06-01

    Thrombin-activatable fibrinolysis inhibitor (TAFI) is an important antifibrinolytic factor that has been shown in increased concentrations to be associated with an increased risk for venous thrombosis. However, the effect of TAFI gene polymorphisms on the risk of venous thrombosis remains debatable. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the association of three single nucleotide polymorphisms: 505G>A (rs3742264), 1040 C>T (rs1926447) and -438G>A (rs2146881) with venous thrombosis risk using a meta-analysis. A systematic literature search for eligible studies published before 20 January 2015 was conducted in PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, WanFang database and Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure. We assessed the possible association by pooled odds ratio and its 95% confidence interval. A total of 14 independent case-control studies including 2970 cases and 3049 controls were enrolled in the final meta-analysis. A significant reduction of venous thrombosis risk in the 505G>A polymorphism was observed under allele comparison, homozygote comparison and recessive models, but opposite results were seen in Asians. Likewise, there was a significant decreased susceptibility to venous thrombosis in the 1040C>T polymorphism in homozygote comparison and recessive models. In the subgroup analysis, the nonvenous thromboembolism disease group showed a significantly increased venous thrombosis risk. Pooled estimates did not show evidence of association between -438G>A and venous thrombosis risk in any genetic model. This meta-analysis suggested that although the -438G>T polymorphism is not correlated with venous thrombosis risk in all models, a trend toward reduced risk still could be observed. The A allele and AA genotype of 505G>A in whites and the TT genotype of 1040C>T were significantly associated with a decreased risk of venous thrombosis, except in the non-venous thromboembolism group. PMID:26656901

  5. Isolation, Co-Crystallization and Structure-Based Characterization of Anabaenopeptins as Highly Potent Inhibitors of Activated Thrombin Activatable Fibrinolysis Inhibitor (TAFIa).

    PubMed

    Schreuder, Herman; Liesum, Alexander; Lönze, Petra; Stump, Heike; Hoffmann, Holger; Schiell, Matthias; Kurz, Michael; Toti, Luigi; Bauer, Armin; Kallus, Christopher; Klemke-Jahn, Christine; Czech, Jörg; Kramer, Dan; Enke, Heike; Niedermeyer, Timo H J; Morrison, Vincent; Kumar, Vasant; Brönstrup, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Mature thrombin activatable fibrinolysis inhibitor (TAFIa) is a carboxypeptidase that stabilizes fibrin clots by removing C-terminal arginines and lysines from partially degraded fibrin. Inhibition of TAFIa stimulates the degradation of fibrin clots and may help to prevent thrombosis. Applying a lead finding approach based on literature-mining, we discovered that anabaenopeptins, cyclic peptides produced by cyanobacteria, were potent inhibitors of TAFIa with IC50 values as low as 1.5 nM. We describe the isolation and structure elucidation of 20 anabaenopeptins, including 13 novel congeners, as well as their pronounced structure-activity relationships (SAR) with respect to inhibition of TAFIa. Crystal structures of the anabaenopeptins B, C and F bound to the surrogate protease carboxypeptidase B revealed the binding modes of these large (~850 Da) compounds in detail and explained the observed SAR, i.e. the strong dependence of the potency on a basic (Arg, Lys) exocyclic residue that addressed the S1' binding pocket, and a broad tolerance towards substitutions in the pentacyclic ring that acted as a plug of the active site. PMID:27604544

  6. Isolation, Co-Crystallization and Structure-Based Characterization of Anabaenopeptins as Highly Potent Inhibitors of Activated Thrombin Activatable Fibrinolysis Inhibitor (TAFIa)

    PubMed Central

    Schreuder, Herman; Liesum, Alexander; Lönze, Petra; Stump, Heike; Hoffmann, Holger; Schiell, Matthias; Kurz, Michael; Toti, Luigi; Bauer, Armin; Kallus, Christopher; Klemke-Jahn, Christine; Czech, Jörg; Kramer, Dan; Enke, Heike; Niedermeyer, Timo H. J.; Morrison, Vincent; Kumar, Vasant; Brönstrup, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Mature thrombin activatable fibrinolysis inhibitor (TAFIa) is a carboxypeptidase that stabilizes fibrin clots by removing C-terminal arginines and lysines from partially degraded fibrin. Inhibition of TAFIa stimulates the degradation of fibrin clots and may help to prevent thrombosis. Applying a lead finding approach based on literature-mining, we discovered that anabaenopeptins, cyclic peptides produced by cyanobacteria, were potent inhibitors of TAFIa with IC50 values as low as 1.5 nM. We describe the isolation and structure elucidation of 20 anabaenopeptins, including 13 novel congeners, as well as their pronounced structure-activity relationships (SAR) with respect to inhibition of TAFIa. Crystal structures of the anabaenopeptins B, C and F bound to the surrogate protease carboxypeptidase B revealed the binding modes of these large (~850 Da) compounds in detail and explained the observed SAR, i.e. the strong dependence of the potency on a basic (Arg, Lys) exocyclic residue that addressed the S1’ binding pocket, and a broad tolerance towards substitutions in the pentacyclic ring that acted as a plug of the active site. PMID:27604544

  7. Bovine plasma proteins increase virulence of Haemophilus somnus in mice.

    PubMed

    Geertsema, Roger S; Kimball, Richard A; Corbeil, Lynette B

    2007-01-01

    The role of bovine serum or plasma proteins in Haemophilus somnus virulence was investigated in a mouse model of septicemia. An increase in virulence was detected when the organism was pre-incubated for 5 min and inoculated with fetal calf serum. When purified bovine serum or plasma proteins were pre-incubated with H. somnus before inoculating into mice, transferrin was found to increase virulence. Bovine lactoferrin was also noted to increase virulence, but to a lesser extent and had a delayed time course when compared with transferrin. Using an ELISA assay, an increased amount of H. somnus whole cells and culture supernatant bound to bovine transferrin when the organism was grown in iron-restricted media. Lactoferrin also bound to H. somnus, but binding was not affected by growth in iron-restricted media and it was eliminated with 2M NaCl, which reversed charge mediated binding. Transferrin, but not lactoferrin, supported growth of H. somnus on iron-depleted agar based media using a disk assay. Therefore, lactoferrin increased virulence by an undetermined mechanism whereas transferrin increased virulence of H. somnus by binding to iron-regulated outer-membrane proteins (IROMPs) and providing iron to the pathogen. PMID:17125964

  8. Isolation and characterization of bovine factor XI (plasma thromboplastin antecedent).

    PubMed

    Koide, T; Kato, H; Davie, E W

    1977-05-17

    Factor XI (plasma thromboplastic antecedent) has been purified approximately 28 000-fold from bovine plasma with an overall yield of about 30%. The isolation procedure involves barium sulfate adsorption of contaminants, ammonium sulfate precipitation, and chromatography on heparin-agarose, CM-Sephadex, and DEAE-Sephadex. The final product was homogeneous when examined by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and immunoelectrophoresis. A minimal mol wt of 124 000 was determined by sedimentation equilibrium. Factor XI is composed of two similar or identical polypeptide chain (mol wt of approximately 55 000), and these two chains are held together by a disulfide bond(s). Factor XI is a glycoprotein which contains approximately 11% carbohydrate including 5.4% heose, 4.7% N-acetylhexosamine, and 1.0% N-acetylneuraminic acid. Other properties of this coagulation factor including its amino acid composition and inhibition by antibodies prepared in rabbits are also reported. PMID:861211

  9. Reductive trapping of substrate to bovine plasma amine oxidase

    SciTech Connect

    Hartmann, C.; Klinman, J.P.

    1987-01-25

    Plasma amine oxidases catalyze the oxidative deamination of amines to aldehydes, followed by a 2e- reduction of O/sub 2/ to H/sub 2/O/sub 2/. Pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ), previously believed to be restricted to prokaryotes, has recently been proposed to be the cofactor undergoing reduction in the first half-reaction of bovine plasma amine oxidase (Ameyama, M., Hayashi, U., Matsushita, K., Shinagawa, E., and Adachi, O. (1984) Agric. Biol. Chem. 48, 561-565; Lobenstein-Verbeek, C. L., Jongejan, J. A., Frank, J., and Duine, J. A. (1984) FEBS Lett. 170, 305-309). This result is unexpected, since model studies with PQQ implicate Schiff's base formation between a reactive carbonyl and substrates, whereas experiments with bovine plasma amine oxidase have failed to provide evidence for a carbonyl cofactor. We have, therefore, re-examined putative adducts between substrate and enzyme-bound cofactor, employing a combination of (/sup 14/C)benzylamine and (/sup 3/H)NaCNBH/sub 3/. The use of the relatively weak reductant, NaCNBH/sub 3/, affords Schiff's base specificity and permits the study of enzyme below pH 7.0. As we show, enzyme can only be inactivated by NaCNBH/sub 3/ in the presence of substrate, leading to the incorporation of 1 mol of (/sup 14/C)benzylamine/mol of enzyme subunit at complete inactivation. By contrast, we are unable to detect any labeling with (/sup 3/H)NaCNBH/sub 3/, analogous to an earlier study with (/sup 3/H)NaCNBH/sub 4/ (Suva, R. H., and Abeles, R. H. (1978) Biochemistry 17, 3538-3545). We conclude, first, that our inability to obtain adducts containing both carbon 14 and tritium rules out the reductive trapping either of amine substrate with pyridoxal phosphate or of aldehyde product with a lysyl side chain and, second, that the observed pattern of labeling is fully consistent with the presence of PQQ at the active site of bovine plasma amine oxidase.

  10. Optimization of hydrolysis conditions for bovine plasma protein using response surface methodology.

    PubMed

    Seo, Hyun-Woo; Jung, Eun-Young; Go, Gwang-Woong; Kim, Gap-Don; Joo, Seon-Tea; Yang, Han-Sul

    2015-10-15

    The purpose of this study was to establish optimal conditions for the hydrolysis of bovine plasma protein. Response surface methodology was used to model and optimize responses [degree of hydrolysis (DH), 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrydrazyl (DPPH) radical-scavenging activity and Fe(2+)-chelating activity]. Hydrolysis conditions, such as hydrolysis temperature (46.6-63.4 °C), hydrolysis time (98-502 min), and hydrolysis pH (6.32-9.68) were selected as the main processing conditions in the hydrolysis of bovine plasma protein. Optimal conditions for maximum DH (%), DPPH radical-scavenging activity (%) and Fe(2+)-chelating activity (%) of the hydrolyzed bovine plasma protein, were respectively established. We discovered the following three conditions for optimal hydrolysis of bovine plasma: pH of 7.82-8.32, temperature of 54.1 °C, and time of 338.4-398.4 min. We consequently succeeded in hydrolyzing bovine plasma protein under these conditions and confirmed the various desirable properties of optimal hydrolysis. PMID:25952847

  11. Impact of Seminal Chemical Elements on the Oxidative Balance in Bovine Seminal Plasma and Spermatozoa

    PubMed Central

    Tvrdá, Eva; Lukáč, Norbert; Schneidgenová, Monika; Lukáčová, Jana; Szabó, Csaba; Goc, Zofia; Greń, Agnieszka; Massányi, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Mutual relationships between selected chemical elements (Na, K, Fe, Cu, Mg, and Zn), basic motility characteristics (motility and progressive motility), and markers of the oxidative balance (superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione, albumin, and malondialdehyde) were investigated in bovine seminal plasma and spermatozoa. Computer assisted sperm analysis was used to assess the motility parameters; mineral concentrations were determined by the voltammetric method and flame absorption spectrophotometry; antioxidants and malondialdehyde were evaluated by UV/VIS spectrophotometry. Concentrations of chemical elements in both seminal fractions were in the following descending order: Na > K > Zn > Mg > Fe > Cu. Higher amounts of all minerals and nonenzymatic antioxidants were detected in the seminal plasma (P < 0.01; P < 0.001), while higher MDA concentration and activity of enzymatic antioxidants were recorded in the cell lysates (P < 0.01; P < 0.001). Na, Fe, Cu, Mg, and Zn were positively correlated with the motility and antioxidant parameters (P < 0.05; P < 0.01; P < 0.001). Inversely, K exhibited the positive associations with malondialdehyde (P < 0.05). This study demonstrates that most chemical elements are integral components of bovine semen and are needed for the protection against oxidative stress development. PMID:26464901

  12. Impact of Seminal Chemical Elements on the Oxidative Balance in Bovine Seminal Plasma and Spermatozoa.

    PubMed

    Tvrdá, Eva; Lukáč, Norbert; Schneidgenová, Monika; Lukáčová, Jana; Szabó, Csaba; Goc, Zofia; Greń, Agnieszka; Massányi, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Mutual relationships between selected chemical elements (Na, K, Fe, Cu, Mg, and Zn), basic motility characteristics (motility and progressive motility), and markers of the oxidative balance (superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione, albumin, and malondialdehyde) were investigated in bovine seminal plasma and spermatozoa. Computer assisted sperm analysis was used to assess the motility parameters; mineral concentrations were determined by the voltammetric method and flame absorption spectrophotometry; antioxidants and malondialdehyde were evaluated by UV/VIS spectrophotometry. Concentrations of chemical elements in both seminal fractions were in the following descending order: Na > K > Zn > Mg > Fe > Cu. Higher amounts of all minerals and nonenzymatic antioxidants were detected in the seminal plasma (P < 0.01; P < 0.001), while higher MDA concentration and activity of enzymatic antioxidants were recorded in the cell lysates (P < 0.01; P < 0.001). Na, Fe, Cu, Mg, and Zn were positively correlated with the motility and antioxidant parameters (P < 0.05; P < 0.01; P < 0.001). Inversely, K exhibited the positive associations with malondialdehyde (P < 0.05). This study demonstrates that most chemical elements are integral components of bovine semen and are needed for the protection against oxidative stress development. PMID:26464901

  13. Supplementation of Pork Patties with Bovine Plasma Protein Hydrolysates Augments Antioxidant Properties and Improves Quality.

    PubMed

    Seo, Hyun-Woo; Seo, Jin-Kyu; Yang, Han-Sul

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of bovine plasma protein (PP) hydrolysates on the antioxidant and quality properties of pork patties during storage. Pork patties were divided into 4 groups: without butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) and PP hydrolysates (control), 0.02% BHT (T1), 1% PP hydrolysates (T2), and 2% PP hydrolysates (T3). Pork patty supplemented with PP hydrolysates had higher pH values and lower weight loss during cooking than the control patties. Results showed that lightness and hardness both decreased upon the addition of PP hydrolysates. All samples containing BHT and PP hydrolysates had reduced TBARS and peroxide values during storage. In particular, 2% PP hydrolysates were more effective in delaying lipid oxidation than were the other treatments. It was concluded that treatment with 2% PP hydrolysates can enhance the acceptance of pork patty. PMID:27194928

  14. A factor in human seminal plasma which affects carnitine accumulation in bovine epididymal sperm.

    PubMed

    Carter, A L; Cho, S H; Bishop, E R; Boldt, J

    1988-05-01

    This study was initiated to determine whether factors are present in human sperm-free seminal plasma (HSP) that regulate the uptake and release of carnitine from sperm. Bovine caput epididymal sperm cells accumulated more carnitine than caudal sperm cells. A significant reduction in carnitine uptake by caput sperm was observed in the presence of HSP from normal subjects, but not from three subjects with reduced motility. A factor has been isolated from HSP that inhibits carnitine uptake by caput sperm and has the following properties: it is nondialyzable, stable to freeze-thawing, soluble in 60% ammonium sulfate, and has an approximate molecular weight of 158 kd. These data are consistent with the existence of a relatively high molecular weight protein in HSP responsible for the preservation of carnitine concentrations in sperm. PMID:3360180

  15. Supplementation of Pork Patties with Bovine Plasma Protein Hydrolysates Augments Antioxidant Properties and Improves Quality

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Hyun-Woo

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of bovine plasma protein (PP) hydrolysates on the antioxidant and quality properties of pork patties during storage. Pork patties were divided into 4 groups: without butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) and PP hydrolysates (control), 0.02% BHT (T1), 1% PP hydrolysates (T2), and 2% PP hydrolysates (T3). Pork patty supplemented with PP hydrolysates had higher pH values and lower weight loss during cooking than the control patties. Results showed that lightness and hardness both decreased upon the addition of PP hydrolysates. All samples containing BHT and PP hydrolysates had reduced TBARS and peroxide values during storage. In particular, 2% PP hydrolysates were more effective in delaying lipid oxidation than were the other treatments. It was concluded that treatment with 2% PP hydrolysates can enhance the acceptance of pork patty. PMID:27194928

  16. Altered plasma fibrin clot properties in essential thrombocythemia.

    PubMed

    Małecki, Rafał; Gacka, Małgorzata; Kuliszkiewicz-Janus, Małgorzata; Jakobsche-Policht, Urszula; Kwiatkowski, Jacek; Adamiec, Rajmund; Undas, Anetta

    2016-03-01

    Patients with increased thromboembolic risk tend to form denser fibrin clots which are relatively resistant to lysis. We sought to investigate whether essential thrombocythemia (ET) is associated with altered fibrin clot properties in plasma. Ex vivo plasma fibrin clot permeability coefficient (Ks), turbidimetry and clot lysis time (CLT) were measured in 43 consecutive patients with ET (platelet count from 245 to 991 × 10(3)/µL) and 50 control subjects matched for age, sex and comorbidities. Fibrinolysis proteins and inhibitors together with platelet activation markers were determined. Reduced Ks (-38%, p < 0.0001) and prolonged CLT (+34%, p < 0.0001) were observed in ET. The differences remained significant after adjustment for fibrinogen and platelet count. ET was associated with a slightly shorter lag phase (-5%, p = 0.01) and higher maximum absorbency of the turbidimetric curve (+6%, p < 0.001). The ET patients had higher plasma P-selectin by 193% (p < 0.00001) and platelet factor 4 (PF4) by 173% (p < 0.00001), with higher P-selectin observed in 19 (44%) patients with JAK-2 gene V617F mutation. Higher t-PA (+20%, p < 0.001), 23% higher plasminogen activator inhibitor-1, PAI-1 (+23%, p < 0.01) and unaltered thrombin-activatable fibrinolysis inhibitor, plasminogen and α2-antiplasmin activity were found in the ET group. Ks inversely correlated with fibrinogen, PF4 and C-reactive protein. CLT positively correlated only with PAI-1. Patients with ET display prothrombotic plasma fibrin clot phenotype including impaired fibrinolysis, which represents a new prothrombotic mechanism in this disease. PMID:25989112

  17. Development of reduced fat minced meats using inulin and bovine plasma proteins as fat replacers.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez Furlán, Laura T; Padilla, Antonio Pérez; Campderrós, Mercedes E

    2014-02-01

    This work deals with the effect of the addition of inulin and bovine plasma proteins as fat replacers, on the quality of minced meat. The proteins are obtained by ultrafiltration and freeze-drying. The following determinations were carried out: chemical composition, sensorial analysis (color, flavor, taste and consistency), emulsion stability and instrumental texture analysis of samples. The resulting formulations were compared with full-fat minced meat, as control. The results showed an increase of protein contents after fat replacement, while a fat reduction of 20-35% produced light products enriched with proteins and inulin as the functional ingredient. No change was observed in color, flavor, or taste among the samples. However, the sensory analysis showed that the combination of plasma protein (2.5%w/w) and inulin (2%w/w) had the best acceptability with respect to consistency, and had a lower fat drain from the emulsion. Texture profile analysis revealed that this formulation assimilated the control texture properties, being that this result is required for adequate consumer acceptance. PMID:24200568

  18. Bioactivity of thermal plasma synthesized bovine hydroxyapatite/glass ceramic composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoganand, C. P.; Selvarajan, V.; Rouabhia, Mahmoud; Cannillo, Valeria; Sola, Antonella

    2010-02-01

    Bone injuries and failures often require the inception of implant biomaterials. Research in this area is receiving increasing attention worldwide. A variety of artificial bone materials, such as metals, polymeric materials, composites and ceramics, are being explored to replace diseased bones. Calcium phosphate ceramics are currently used as biomaterials for many applications in both dentistry and orthopedics. Bioactive silicate-based glasses show a higher bioactive behaviour than calcium phosphate materials. It is very interesting to study the mixtures of HA and silicate-based glasses. In the present study; natural bovine hydroxyapatite / SiO2-CaO-MgO glass composites were produced using the Transferred arc plasma (TAP) melting method. TAP melting route is a brisk process of preparation of glass-ceramics in which the raw materials are melted in the plasma and crystallization of the melt occurs while cooling down at a much faster rate in relatively short processing times compared to the conventional methods of manufacture of glass ceramics/composites. It is well known that; one essential step to the understanding of the biological events occurring at the bone tissue/material interface is the biological investigation by in vitro tests. Cell lines are commonly used for biocompatibility tests, and are very efficient because of their reproducibility and culture facility. In this study, we report the results of a study on the response of primary cultures of human fibroblast cells to TAP melted bioactive glass ceramics.

  19. Grafting of bovine serum albumin proteins on plasma-modified polymers for potential application in tissue engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasálková, Nikola Slepičková; Slepička, Petr; Kolská, Zdeňka; Hodačová, Petra; Kučková, Štěpánka; Švorčík, Václav

    2014-04-01

    In this work, an influence of bovine serum albumin proteins grafting on the surface properties of plasma-treated polyethylene and poly- l-lactic acid was studied. The interaction of the vascular smooth muscle cells with the modified polymer surface was determined. The surface properties were characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy, nano-LC-ESI-Q-TOF mass spectrometry, electrokinetic analysis, and goniometry. One of the motivations for this work is the idea that by the interaction of the cell with substrate surface, the proteins will form an interlayer between the cell and the substrate. It was proven that when interacting with the plasma-treated high-density polyethylene and poly- l-lactic acid, the bovine serum albumin protein is grafted on the polymer surface. Since the proteins are bonded to the substrate surface, they can stimulate cell adhesion and proliferation.

  20. Sequestration of bovine seminal plasma proteins by different assemblies of phosphatidylcholine: A new technical approach.

    PubMed

    Le Guillou, J; Ropers, M-H; Gaillard, C; David-Briand, E; van Leeuwen-Ibarrola, J; Desherces, S; Schmitt, E; Bencharif, D; Amirat-Briand, L; Anton, M; Tainturier, D

    2016-04-01

    Binder of SPerm (BSP) proteins, the main proteins from bovine seminal plasma, are known to partially intercalate into the outer leaflet of the spermatozoa membrane and bind to choline-containing lipids being present therein. This insertion generates a negative effect on semen quality after cryopreservation by inducing an early-stage capacitation of spermatozoa. The assumption of surface properties exhibited by BSP proteins was checked by tensiometry measurements: BSP proteins are highly surface active. This suggests that BSP proteins can reach the interface covered by phospholipids not only by interactions between one and each other but also due to their own surface activity. The insertion of BSP proteins into the lipid domains outer leaflet of spermatozoa was reproduced on a biomimetic system such as Langmuir monolayers. The insertion of BSP proteins can be performed in the compressible fluid domains which contain choline-bearing lipids. Monolayer films were used as well to study the complexation of BSP proteins by two phospholipid assemblies: low density lipoprotein (LDLs) from egg yolk or liposomes produced from egg phospholipids. Irrespective of the phospholipid structure (lipoprotein or liposome), BSP was hindered to alter the structure of the membrane. Only the overall ratio BSP proteins:phosphatidylcholine was important. The difference between the two sequestering agents lies on their surface properties: LDL have a strong tendency to merge with the outer layer whereas liposomes mainly remain in the bulk on the same time scale. PMID:26628332

  1. Sinus grafting with autogenous platelet-rich plasma and bovine hydroxyapatite. A histomorphometric study in minipigs.

    PubMed

    Fürst, Gabor; Gruber, Reinhard; Tangl, Stefan; Zechner, Werner; Haas, Robert; Mailath, Georg; Sanroman, Fidel; Watzek, Georg

    2003-08-01

    In this study, bovine hydroxyapatite (HA) alone or in combination with activated platelet-rich plasma (PRP) was examined for its usefulness for single-stage sinus grafting in minipigs. In 12 adult minipigs, Schneider's membrane of 24 sinuses was elevated bilaterally through an extra-oral approach. The material was divided into two groups of 12 sinuses. In one of these groups, the space between Schneider's membrane and the sinus wall was grafted with activated autogenous PRP and HA (PRP side). In the other, HA alone was used for grafting (control side). At the same time two dental implants with a machined surface were inserted into the grafting material through the facial sinus wall. Four animals of each group were sacrificed at 3, 6 and 12 weeks, and undecalcified thin-cut and ground sections (Donath 1988) stained with toluidine blue were prepared. In the facial sinus wall, fewer bone-to-implant contacts were present on the PRP side at 3 and 6 weeks than on the control side. At 12 weeks, the PRP side had caught up with the control side. In grafted bone, contacts on the PRP side were more extensive than on the control side at 3 weeks, had dropped below control side levels at 6 weeks and surpassed these at 12 weeks. This study showed that PRP has a differential effect on osseointegration in grafted bone and local host bone. Combined with HA it was not demonstrably superior to HA alone. PMID:12869013

  2. Discovery of a sensitive, selective, and tight binding fluorogenic substrate of bovine plasma amine oxidase

    PubMed Central

    Ling, Ke-Qing; Sayre, Lawrence M.

    2008-01-01

    We report a novel fluorogenic substrate of bovine plasma amine oxidase (BPAO), namely (2-(6-(aminomethyl)naphthalen-2-yloxy)ethyl)trimethylammonium (ANETA), which displays extremely tight binding to BPAO (Km 183±14 nM), and yet is metabolized fairly quickly (kcat 0.690±0.010 s−1), with the aldehyde turnover product (2-(6-formylnaphthalen-2-yloxy)ethyl)trimethylammonium serving as a real time reporting fluorophore of the enzyme activity. This allowed for the development of a fluorometric non-coupled assay that is two orders of magnitude more sensitive than the spectrophotometric benzylamine assay. The discovery of ANETA involved elaboration of the lead compound 6-methoxy-2-naphthalenemethaneamine by structure-based design, which recognized the ancillary cation binding site of BPAO as the most significant structural features controlling binding affinity. Structure-based design further ensured a high level of selectivity: ANETA is a good substrate of BPAO, but is not a substrate of either porcine kidney diamine oxidase (pkDAO) or rat liver monoamine oxidase (MAO-B). ANETA represents the first highly sensitive, selective, and tight binding fluorogenic substrate of a copper amine oxidase that is able to respond directly to the enzyme activity in real time. PMID:19053593

  3. Stimulation of catecholamine synthesis through unique estrogen receptors in the bovine adrenomedullary plasma membrane by 17{beta}-estradiol

    SciTech Connect

    Yanagihara, Nobuyuki . E-mail: yanagin@med.uoeh-u.ac.jp; Liu, Minhui; Toyohira, Yumiko; Tsutsui, Masato; Ueno, Susumu; Shinohara, Yuko; Takahashi, Kojiro; Tanaka, Kazumi

    2006-01-13

    Incubation of cultured bovine adrenal medullary cells with 17{beta}-estradiol (E{sub 2}) (0.3-100 nM) or membrane-impermeable E{sub 2}-bovine serum albumin (100 nM) acutely increased {sup 14}C-catecholamine synthesis from [{sup 14}C]tyrosine. The stimulatory effect of E{sub 2} was not inhibited by ICI182,780, a nuclear estrogen receptor inhibitor. E{sub 2} also increased tyrosine hydroxylase activity and p44/42MAPK phosphorylation, the former of which was attenuated by U0126, an inhibitor of p44/42MAPK kinase. The plasma membrane isolated from the gland showed two classes of specific binding sites of [{sup 3}H]E{sub 2} with apparent K {sub d}s of 3.2 and 106 nM, and B {sub max}s of 0.44 and 8.5 pmol/mg protein, respectively. The high-affinity binding of [{sup 3}H]E{sub 2} was most strongly inhibited by E{sub 2} and phytoestrogens, and to lesser extents by other steroid hormones, while it was enhanced by ICI182,780 and environmental estrogenic pollutants. These findings suggest that E{sub 2} acutely stimulates catecholamine synthesis via activation of p44/42MAPK through unique estrogen receptors in the plasma membrane of bovine adrenal medulla.

  4. Electrophoretic and aggregation behavior of bovine, horse and human red blood cells in plasma and in polymer solutions.

    PubMed

    Bäumler, H; Neu, B; Mitlöhner, R; Georgieva, R; Meiselman, H J; Kiesewetter, H

    2001-01-01

    The electrophoretic mobility of native and glutaraldehyde-fixed bovine, human, and horse red blood cells (RBC) was investigated as a function of ionic strength (5-150 mM) and concentration of 464 kDa dextran (2 and 3 g/dl); RBC aggregation in autologous plasma and in dextran solutions was also measured. In agreement with previous observations, human and horse RBC form stable rouleaux whereas bovine RBC do not aggregate in either plasma or in dextran 464 kDa solutions. Electrophoretic measurements showed a species-dependent adsorption and depletion of dextran that can be theoretically evaluated. Adsorption of polymer is not a prerequisite for RBC aggregation (bovine RBC show the highest amount of adsorbed dextran yet do not aggregate). Aggregate formation thus occurs as long as the Gibbs free energy difference, given by the osmotic pressure difference between the bulk phase and the polymer-depleted region between two RBC, is larger than the steric and electrostatic repulsive energy contributed by the macromolecules present on the RBC surface. With increasing bulk-phase polymer concentration the depletion layer thickness decreases and the amount of adsorbed macromolecules increases, thereby resulting in an increase of the repulsive component of the interaction energy and decreased aggregation. We thus view electrophoretic measurements of RBC in various media as an important tool for understanding polymer behavior near the red cell surface and hence the mechanisms involved in RBC aggregation. PMID:11381164

  5. Bioactivity of ovulation inducing factor (or nerve growth factor) in bovine seminal plasma and its effects on ovarian function in cattle.

    PubMed

    Tribulo, P; Bogle, O; Mapletoft, R J; Adams, G P

    2015-06-01

    To understand the role of ovulation-inducing factor (or nerve growth factor) (OIF [NGF]) in bovine seminal plasma, we (1) used an in vivo llama bioassay to test the hypothesis that bovine seminal plasma induces ovulation and CL development in llamas similar to that of llama seminal plasma when the dose of seminal plasma is adjusted to ovulation-inducing factor content (experiment 1) and (2) determined the effect of bovine seminal plasma on the interval to ovulation and luteal development in heifers (experiment 2). Within species, seminal plasma was pooled (n = 160 bulls, n = 4 llamas), and the volume of seminal plasma used for treatment was adjusted to a total dose of 250 μg of ovulation-inducing factor. In experiment 1, mature female llamas were assigned randomly to four groups and treated intramuscularly with either 10 mL of PBS (negative control, n = 5), 50-μg GnRH (positive control, n = 5), 6-mL of llama seminal plasma (n = 6), or 12 mL of bull seminal plasma (n = 6). Ovulation and CL development were monitored by transrectal ultrasonography. In experiment 2, beef heifers were given a luteolytic dose of prostaglandin followed by 25-mg porcine LH (pLH) 12 hours later to induce ovulation. Heifers were assigned randomly to three groups and given 12 mL bovine seminal plasma intramuscularly 12 hours after pLH treatment (n = 10), within 4 hours after ovulation (n = 9), or no treatment (control, n = 10). Ovulation was monitored by ultrasonography every 4 hours, and the CL development was monitored daily until the next ovulation. In experiment 1, ovulation was detected in 0/5, 4/5, 4/6, 4/6 llamas in the PBS, GnRH, llama seminal plasma, and bovine seminal plasma groups, respectively (P < 0.05). Luteal development was not different among groups. In experiment 2, the interval to ovulation was more synchronous (range: 4 vs. 22 hours; P < 0.0001) in heifers treated with seminal plasma before ovulation compared with the other groups. Luteal development was not different

  6. Bidirectional functions of thrombin on fibrinolysis: Evidence of thrombin-dependent enhancement of fibrinolysis provided by spontaneous plasma clot lysis.

    PubMed

    Tomczyk, Martyna; Suzuki, Yuko; Sano, Hideto; Brzoska, Tomasz; Tanaka, Hiroki; Urano, Tetsumei

    2016-07-01

    Besides procoagulant activity, thrombin exhibits anticoagulant and profibrinolytic activities. We demonstrated that the euglobulin clot lysis time (ECLT) was shortened by endogenously generated thrombin as a result of the inactivation of plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 (PAI-1). In contrast, thrombin suppressed fibrinolytic activity through the activation of thrombin activatable fibrinolysis inhibitor (TAFI). Here, using three different clot lysis assays of the ECLT, the tissue plasminogen activator supplemented plasma clot lysis time (tPA-PCLT) and the spontaneous plasma clot lysis time (s-PCLT), we analyzed how the coagulation process modifies fibrinolysis. The ECLT was shortened by exogenously supplemented thrombin in a dose-dependent manner in the absence of calcium ion (Ca(++)), whereas this shortening was not observed in the presence of Ca(++) where endogenous prothrombin was effectively activated to thrombin. This shortening was also not observed for the tPA-PCLT, in which tPA is supplemented in excess and PAI-1 activity is mostly lost. On the contrary, thrombin dose-dependently prolonged the tPA-PCLT, which was mostly abolished by inhibitors of carboxypeptidase and activated FXIII, suggesting that the prolongation is TAFI- and Factor XIII-dependent. The s-PCLT was shortened when thrombin generation was boosted by supplementing tissue factor and phosphatidylserine together with Ca(++), which was more apparent in the presence of inhibitors of activated FXIII and activated TAFI. Thus, thrombin appeared to express its enhancing effect on fibrinolysis even in plasma, in addition to its inhibiting effect. These bidirectional functions of thrombin on fibrinolysis seem to take place on demand under different environments to maintain adequate vascular blood flow. PMID:27179129

  7. Simultaneous evaluation of plasma membrane integrity, acrosomal integrity, and mitochondrial membrane potential in bovine spermatozoa by flow cytometry.

    PubMed

    Kanno, Chihiro; Kang, Sung-Sik; Kitade, Yasuyuki; Yanagawa, Yojiro; Takahashi, Yoshiyuki; Nagano, Masashi

    2016-08-01

    The present study aimed to develop an objective evaluation procedure to estimate the plasma membrane integrity, acrosomal integrity, and mitochondrial membrane potential of bull spermatozoa simultaneously by flow cytometry. Firstly, we used frozen-thawed semen mixed with 0, 25, 50, 75 or 100% dead spermatozoa. Semen was stained using three staining solutions: SYBR-14, propidium iodide (PI), and phycoerythrin-conjugated peanut agglutinin (PE-PNA), for the evaluation of plasma membrane integrity and acrosomal integrity. Then, characteristics evaluated by flow cytometry and by fluorescence microscopy were compared. Characteristics of spermatozoa (viability and acrosomal integrity) evaluated by flow cytometry and by fluorescence microscopy were found to be similar. Secondly, we attempted to evaluate the plasma membrane integrity, acrosomal integrity, and also mitochondrial membrane potential of spermatozoa by flow cytometry using conventional staining with three dyes (SYBR-14, PI, and PE-PNA) combined with MitoTracker Deep Red (MTDR) staining (quadruple staining). The spermatozoon characteristics evaluated by flow cytometry using quadruple staining were then compared with those of staining using SYBR-14, PI, and PE-PNA and staining using SYBR-14 and MTDR. There were no significant differences in all characteristics (viability, acrosomal integrity, and mitochondrial membrane potential) evaluated by quadruple staining and the other procedures. In conclusion, quadruple staining using SYBR-14, PI, PE-PNA, and MTDR for flow cytometry can be used to evaluate the plasma membrane integrity, acrosomal integrity, and mitochondrial membrane potential of bovine spermatozoa simultaneously. PMID:26369275

  8. Determination of plasma kisspeptin concentrations during reproductive cycle and different phases of pregnancy in crossbred cows using bovine specific enzyme immunoassay.

    PubMed

    Mondal, Mohan; Baruah, Kishore Kumar; Prakash, Bukkaraya Samudram

    2015-12-01

    Kisspeptin, a decapeptide and potent secretagogue of GnRH has been emerged recently as a master player in the regulation of reproduction in animals. Determination of kisspeptin in peripheral circulation is, therefore, very important for studying the control of its secretion and its role on reproduction in bovine species, the information on which is not available during any physiological state in this species, may probably be due to non-availability of simple assay procedure to measure the hormone. Therefore, the objective of this study was to develop and validate a simple and sufficiently sensitive enzyme immunoassay (EIA) for kisspeptin determination in bovine plasma using the biotin-streptavidin amplification system and second antibody coating technique. Biotin was coupled to kisspeptin and used to bridge between streptavidin-peroxidase and the immobilized kisspeptin antiserum in the competitive assay. The EIA was conducted directly in 100 μl of unknown bovine plasma. Kisspeptin standards ranging from 0.01 to 25.6 ng/100 μl/well were prepared in hormone-free plasma. The lowest detection limit was 0.1 ng/ml plasma. Plasma volumes for the EIA, viz., 50, 100 and 200 μl did not influence the shape of standard curve even though a drop in OD450 was seen with higher plasma volumes. A parallelism test was carried out to compare the endogenous bovine kisspeptin with kisspeptin standard used. It showed good parallelism with the kisspeptin standard curve. For the biological validation of the assay, plasma kisspeptin was measured in blood samples collected from six non-lactating cyclic cows during entire estrous cycle and from 18 pregnant cows during different stages of pregnancy. The mean plasma kisspeptin concentration during different days of the estrous cycle was different (P<0.001). Three peaks of kisspeptin were recorded, one on a day before appearance of preovulatory LH surge, second at day 6 and third one at day 18 of the estrous cycle. Plasma kisspeptin

  9. A Low-Cost Efficient Multiplex PCR for Prenatal Sex Determination in Bovine Fetus Using Free Fetal DNA in Maternal Plasma

    PubMed Central

    Davoudi, Arash; Seighalani, Ramin; Aleyasin, Seyed Ahmad; Tarang, Alireza; Salehi, Abdolreza Salehi; Tahmoressi, Farideh

    2012-01-01

    Background In order to establish a reliable non-invasive method for sex determination in a bovine fetus in a routine setting, the possibility of identifying specific sequence in the fetal X and Y-chromosomes has been evaluated in maternal plasma using conventional multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis. The aim of this study was to provide a rapid and reliable method for sexing bovine fetuses. Materials and Methods In this experimental study, peripheral blood samples were taken from 38 pregnant heifers with 8 to 38 weeks of gestation. DNA template was extracted by phenol-chloroform method from 350 µl maternal plasma. Two primer pairs for bovine amelogenin gene (bAML) and BC1.2 were used to amplify fragments from X and Y chromosomes. A multiplex PCR reaction has been optimized for amplification of 467 bp and 341 bp fragments from X and Y bAML gene and a 190 bp fragment from BC1.2 related to Y chromosome. Results The 467 bp fragment was observed in all 38 samples. Both 341 and 190 bp fragments were detected only in 24 plasma samples from male calves. The sensitivity and specificity of test were 100% with no false negative or false positive results. Conclusion The results showed that phenol-chloroform method is a simple and suitable method for isolation of fetal DNA in maternal plasma. The multiplex PCR method is an available non-invasive approach which is cost efficient and reliable for sexing bovine fetuses. PMID:25505511

  10. Characterization of a 60-kDa Thermally Stable Antigenic Protein as a Marker for the Immunodetection of Bovine Plasma-Derived Food Ingredients.

    PubMed

    Ofori, Jack A; Hsieh, Yun-Hwa P

    2015-08-01

    A sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (sELISA) based on 2 monoclonal antibodies (Bb3D6 and Bb6G12) that recognize a 60-kDa antigenic protein in bovine blood was previously developed for detecting bovine blood in animal feed for the prevention of mad cow disease. This study sought to establish the identity of this 60-kDa antigenic protein and consequently determine the suitability of the sELISA for detecting bovine plasma-derived food ingredients (BPFIs), which are widely used in dietary products without explicit labeling. Results from western blot confirmed the 60-kDa protein to be present in the plasma fraction of bovine blood. Further proteomic analyses involving 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-D GE) and amino acid sequencing revealed the 60-kDa protein to be bovine serum albumin (BSA). The sELISA proved capable of detecting BPFIs in all the commercial dietary supplements tested, including those that were formulated with hydrolyzed BPFIs. The assay could also detect 0.01% and 0.5% of different BPFIs in spiked raw and cooked ground beef, respectively. This assay based on the detection of BSA therefore has the potential to become a valuable analytical tool to protect consumers who avoid consuming BPFIs for religious, health, or ethical reasons. PMID:26172875

  11. Preparation and in vivo evaluation of two bovine hemoglobin-based plasma expanders

    SciTech Connect

    Sheffield, C.L.; DeLoach, J.R. )

    1990-12-01

    A hemoglobin (Hb)-based oxygen carrier was successfully transfused into rats. An ultrapure lipid-free bovine Hb was prepared by hypotonic dialysis and ultrafiltration. The Hb was polymerized with glutaraldehyde and the P50 was 24.3 mm Hg. On the basis of immunological analysis, immuno-dot blot, the Hb preparations were not antigenic. A second transfusion produced no adverse immunological side effects. A right shift in P50 was obtained by further treatment of polymerized Hb with inositol hexaphosphate; however, this Hb preparation was unsuitable for transfusion as all animals died within a few minutes. A 30% exchange transfusion in rats with the polymerized bovine Hb resulted in a 100% survival of all animals. P50 values of treated animals were reduced by about 2 mm Hg for 14 days. The Hb product circulated for 14 days as determined by {sup 51}Cr labeling. Ultrapure bovine Hb has the potential to circulate and carry oxygen in rats and causes no immunological side effects.

  12. Conformational changes of bovine plasma albumin prior to the salting-out of protein in concentrated salt solution.

    PubMed

    Sogami, M; Inouye, H; Nagaoka, S; Era, S

    1982-09-01

    By working at very low protein concentration (ca. 0.003%), it is possible to measure tryptophyl fluorescence intensity at 350 nm (F350) of bovine plasma albumin (BPA) as a function of pH under precipitating conditions (acidic concentrated salt solutions). Under such conditions, distinct changes in F350 were seen before the starting of precipitation of BPA and no further changes in F350 over the precipitating pH range. Comparison of pH-profiles monitored by F350 with those by solubility in the presence of various salts at various concentrations indicated that the change of solubility is observed after definite changes in conformation of the protein. PMID:7129758

  13. Correlation between catecholamine secretion from bovine isolated chromaffin cells and [3H]-ouabain binding to plasma membranes

    PubMed Central

    Aunis, Dominique; García, Antonio G.

    1981-01-01

    1 Secretion of catecholamines (CA) evoked by ouabain, chlormadinone acetate (CMA), phenoxybenzamine (Pbz) and vanadate, four agents known to inhibit Na+, K+-dependent Mg2+-activated adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase) activity has been studied in suspensions of bovine isolated adrenal medullary cells. 2 Acetylcholine (ACh) evoked a 5 fold increase of the basal CA secretion from isolated cells suspended in oxygenated Krebs-bicarbonate solution kept at 27°C. Secretion was antagonized by Ca2+-deprivation or hexamethonium, indicating good functional viability of the cells. 3 Ouabain (10-7 to 10-4 M) evoked a progressive, dose-dependent release of CA from cell suspensions. Study of the time course of the secretory response for 2 h allowed the separation of two components in the secretory response at all doses studied: a slow initial component (0.011 pg/min CA) and a second faster component (0.032 pg/min CA). 4 CMA evoked a clear-cut CA secretory response. The ED50 for CMA was 10-4 M, as compared to 3 × 10-6 M for ouabain. Pbz and vanadate did not induce CA release. 5 [3H]-ouabain was taken up and bound to intact isolated cells by a non-saturable binding process. However, in semi-purified plasma membranes from bovine adrenal medulla a saturable specific [3H]-ouabain binding process was observed with a KD of 8.1 nM. Binding to the membranes was ATP-dependent and antagonized by K+. 6 [3H]-ouabain specific binding to membranes was antagonized by ouabain and CMA, but not by Pbz or vanadate; the ID50 for ouabain and CMA were 10-6 and 10-5 M respectively. 7 Ouabain partially inhibited, in a dose-dependent manner, Na+, K+-Mg2+ ATPase activity of the semi-purified plasma membranes. 8 The results demonstrate a good correlation between the ability of different drugs, known to inhibit ATPase activity, to displace [3H]-ouabain binding to adreno—medullary plasma membranes and their capacity to evoke a CA secretory response from isolated chromaffin cells. The data also suggest that

  14. Development and validation of an HPLC method for the determination of seven penicillin antibiotics in veterinary drugs and bovine blood plasma.

    PubMed

    Samanidou, Victoria F; Giannakis, Dimitrios E; Papadaki, Antonia

    2009-05-01

    Herein a quantitative method for the determination of seven penicillins in bovine plasma and veterinary drugs has been developed. Amoxicillin (AMO), ampicillin (AMP), penicillin G (PENG), penicillin V (PENV), oxacillin (OXA), cloxacillin (CLO) and dicloxacillin (DICLO) were separated on a Perfectsil ODS-2 (250 x 4 mm, 5 microm) column, using gradient elution, with a mobile phase of 0.1% v/v TFA and ACN-methanol (90:10 v/v). PDA detection was used at 240 nm. Penicillins were isolated from bovine plasma by SPE on Lichrolut RP-18 cartridges with mean recoveries from 85.7 to 113.5%. Colchicine (3 ng/microL) was used as an internal standard. The developed method was validated in terms of selectivity, linearity, accuracy, precision, stability and sensitivity. Repeatability (n = 5) and between-day precision (n = 5) revealed RSD < 12%. The detection limits in the bovine plasma were estimated as 18 ng for AMO and AMP, 25 for PENG, PENV and OXA, 3 ng for CLO and 12 ng for DICLO. Spiked plasma samples were stable for 1 wk, except for AMP and CLO, which were stable for 3 wk and OXA for 4 wk. AMO, PENG and PENV were stable for two freeze-thaw cycles, OXA, CLO and DICLO for four, while AMP only for one. PMID:19330789

  15. Plasma metabolites of receiving heifers and the relationship between apparent bovine respiratory disease, body weight gain, and carcass characteristics.

    PubMed

    Montgomery, S P; Sindt, J J; Greenquist, M A; Miller, W F; Pike, J N; Loe, E R; Sulpizio, M J; Drouillard, J S

    2009-01-01

    Six hundred sixty-five crossbred beef heifers initially weighing 225 kg were used in a completely randomized design to measure plasma glucose, lactate, and urea N concentrations at time of initial processing, determine the incidence of apparent bovine respiratory disease (BRD) in receiving cattle, and evaluate the effect of apparent BRD on subsequent cattle growth and carcass characteristics. Heifers were processed within 24 h of arrival, and processing included vaccination against common viral and clostridial diseases, recording rectal temperature, and sampling whole blood for subsequent measurement of plasma glucose, lactate, and urea concentrations. Heifers were monitored for clinical signs of apparent BRD, including depression, lethargy, anorexia, coughing, rapid breathing, and nasal or ocular discharge. Heifers exhibiting signs of apparent BRD received antibiotic therapy, and the number of times a heifer was treated for apparent BRD was recorded. Following the 36-d receiving period, heifers were transported to native grass pastures and allowed to graze for 136 d. At the end of the grazing season, heifers were transported to a commercial feedlot where they were adapted to a common finishing diet offered for ad libitum consumption. Following the 124-d finishing period, heifers were slaughtered and carcass data were collected. Heifers treated for apparent BRD had decreased plasma glucose (linear, P < 0.01), lactate (linear, P < 0.01), and urea N concentrations (linear, P < 0.06) measured at time of initial processing. Rectal temperature measured at time of initial processing tended to be greater (linear, P < 0.11) for heifers treated for apparent BRD. Heifers treated for apparent BRD during the receiving period had decreased overall ADG (linear, P < 0.10), final BW (linear, P < 0.01), HCW (linear, P < 0.01), fat thickness (linear, P < 0.01), and marbling score (linear, P < 0.03). These data suggest that initial plasma glucose and lactate concentrations might be

  16. Liver condition affects bovine oocyte qualities by changing the characteristics of follicular fluid and plasma.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, H; Shibano, K; Monji, Y; Kuwayama, T; Iwata, H

    2013-08-01

    The liver is an important organ that contributes to milk production in dairy cows. The aim of this study was to examine whether liver conditions affect the characteristics of blood plasma and follicular fluid (FF) and whether supplementing in vitro maturation medium with FF from either cows with damaged livers (DL) or those with healthy livers (HL) affects oocyte developmental competence. Biochemical characteristics of FF were significantly correlated with those in plasma. As such, the characteristics of both plasma and FF were similarly affected by liver conditions in that the concentrations of total protein and inorganic phosphorus were higher for the DL cow group than for the HL cow group, whereas the concentrations of albumin, lactate dehydrogenase and calcium were lower for DL cows than for HL cows. In addition, supplementing the medium with DL-FF retarded the progression of the nuclear maturation of oocytes collected from the HL cows. On culturing oocytes in maturation medium containing HL-FF, DL-FF or foetal calf serum, the highest developmental rate to the blastocyst stage was observed in the HL-FF group, while the lowest developmental ratio was observed in the DL-FF group. The growth factor array of the FFs revealed that 10 growth factors were significantly downregulated in the DL-FF compared with those in HL-FF. In conclusion, the characteristics of plasma and FF are affected by liver conditions in a similar way. Concentrations of several growth factors were low in DL-FF, as was the ability of DL-FF to support oocyte maturation compared with that of HL-FF. PMID:23281835

  17. The glycemic, insulinemic and plasma amino acid responses to equi-carbohydrate milk meals, a pilot- study of bovine and human milk

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Dairy proteins, in particular the whey fraction, exert insulinogenic properties and facilitate glycemic regulation through a mechanism involving elevation of certain plasma amino acids, and stimulation of incretins. Human milk is rich in whey protein and has not been investigated in this respect. Method Nine healthy volunteers were served test meals consisting of human milk, bovine milk, reconstituted bovine whey- or casein protein in random order. All test meals contributed with 25g intrinsic or added lactose, and a white wheat bread (WWB) meal was used as reference, providing 25g starch. Post-prandial levels in plasma of glucose, insulin, incretins and amino acids were investigated at time intervals for up to 2 h. Results All test meals elicited lower postprandial blood glucose responses, expressed as iAUC 0–120 min compared with the WWB (P < 0.05). The insulin response was increased following all test meals, although only significantly higher after whey. Plasma amino acids were correlated to insulin and incretin secretion (iAUC 0–60 min) (P ≤ 0.05). The lowered glycemia with the test meals (iAUC 0–90 min) was inversely correlated to GLP-1 (iAUC 0–30 min) (P ≤ 0.05). Conclusion This study shows that the glycemic response was significantly lower following all milk/milk protein based test meals, in comparison with WWB. The effect appears to originate from the protein fraction and early phase plasma amino acids and incretins were involved in the insulin secretion. Despite its lower protein content, the human milk was a potent GLP-1 secretagogue and showed insulinogenic properties similar to that seen with reconstituted bovine whey-protein, possibly due to the comparatively high proportion of whey in human milk. PMID:23057765

  18. Quality of ham pâté containing bovine globin and plasma as fat replacers.

    PubMed

    Viana, F R; Silva, V D M; Delvivo, F M; Bizzotto, C S; Silvestre, M P C

    2005-05-01

    The effect of the incorporation of globin (10%), plasma (10%) and both combined (5% each) as fat replacers on the quality of ham paté was investigated. The chemical composition, the sensorial analysis (color, flavor and consistency) and the instrumental analysis of the texture (hardness, adhesiveness, elasticity, cohesiveness and tackiness) were evaluated. The results showed an increase of moisture and protein contents after the fat replacement, while the fat reduction of 25-35% led to the preparation of light products. No change was observed for the aroma, taste and the consistency of fat replacing products, but an intensification of the cohesivity and a reduction of color, hardness and tackiness were detected in some samples. PMID:22063291

  19. Different affinity states of alpha-1 adrenergic receptors defined by agonists and antagonists in bovine aorta plasma membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Jagadeesh, G.; Deth, R.C.

    1987-11-01

    Evidence for a nonlinear relationship between alpha-1 adrenergic receptor occupancy and tissue responses, together with the finding of different affinity states for agonist binding, has raised the possibility of functional heterogeneity of alpha-1 adrenergic receptors. We have conducted studies to examine: 1) binding characteristics of (/sup 3/H)prazosin, 2) competition of antagonists at these sites and 3) different affinity states of the receptor for agonists and modulation of these states by 5'-guanylylimidodiphosphate (Gpp(NH)p). A plasma membrane-enriched vesicular fraction (F2; 15%/33% sucrose interphase) was prepared from the muscular medial layer of bovine thoracic aorta. (/sup 3/H)Prazosin binding was characterized by a monophasic saturation isotherm (KD = 0.116 nM, Bmax = 112 fmol/mg of protein). Antagonist displacement studies yielded a relative potency order of prazosin greater than or equal to WB4104 much greater than phentolamine greater than corynanthine greater than yohimbine greater than or equal to idazoxan greater than rauwolscine. Competition curves for unlabeled prazosin, WB4101 (2-(2,6-dimethoxyphenoxyethyl)-aminomethyl-1,4 benzodioxane) and phentolamine were shallow and were best modeled to two binding sites with picomolar and nanomolar KD values. Gpp(NH)p was without effect on antagonist affinity. Agonist (epinephrine, norepinephrine and phenylephrine) competition with (/sup 3/H)prazosin binding was biphasic with pseudo-Hill slopes less than 1.0. Binding was best described by a two-site model in which the average contribution of high affinity sites was 23% of total binding. KD values for the high affinity site ranged from 2.9 to 18 nM, and 3.9 to 5.0 microM for the low affinity site.

  20. Multiresidue determination of quinolones regulated by the European Union in bovine and porcine plasma. Application of chromatographic and capillary electrophoretic methodologies.

    PubMed

    Hermo, M P; Nemutlu, E; Barbosa, J; Barrón, D

    2011-05-01

    This paper presents the multiresidue determination of the series of quinolones regulated by the European Union (marbofloxacin, ciprofloxacin, danofloxacin, enrofloxacin, sarafloxacin, difloxacin, oxolinic acid and flumequine) in bovine and porcine plasma using capillary electrophoresis and liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection (CE-UV, LC-UV), liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry and -tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS, LC-MS/MS) methods. These procedures involve a sample preparation by solid-phase extraction for clean-up and preconcentration of the analytes before their injection into the separation system. All methods give satisfactory results in terms of linearity, precision, accuracy and limits of quantification. The suitability of the methods to determine quinolones was evaluated by determining the concentration of enrofloxacin and ciprofloxacin in real samples from pig plasma and cow plasma. PMID:20641008

  1. Effects of Different Maturation Systems on Bovine Oocyte Quality, Plasma Membrane Phospholipid Composition and Resistance to Vitrification and Warming

    PubMed Central

    Sprícigo, José F. W.; Diógenes, Mateus N.; Leme, Ligiane O.; Guimarães, Ana L.; Muterlle, Carolle V.; Silva, Bianca Damiani Marques; Solà-Oriol, David; Pivato, Ivo; Silva, Luciano Paulino; Dode, Margot A. N.

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of different maturation systems on oocyte resistance after vitrification and on the phospholipid profile of the oocyte plasma membrane (PM). Four different maturation systems were tested: 1) in vitro maturation using immature oocytes aspirated from slaughterhouse ovaries (CONT; n = 136); 2) in vitro maturation using immature oocytes obtained by ovum pick-up (OPU) from unstimulated heifers (IMA; n = 433); 3) in vitro maturation using immature oocytes obtained by OPU from stimulated heifers (FSH; n = 444); and 4) in vivo maturation using oocytes obtained from heifers stimulated 24 hours prior by an injection of GnRH (MII; n = 658). A sample of matured oocytes from each fresh group was analyzed by matrix associated laser desorption-ionization (MALDI-TOF) to determine their PM composition. Then, half of the matured oocytes from each group were vitrified/warmed (CONT VIT, IMA VIT, FSH VIT and MII VIT), while the other half were used as fresh controls. Afterwards, the eight groups underwent IVF and IVC, and blastocyst development was assessed at D2, D7 and D8. A chi-square test was used to compare embryo development between the groups. Corresponding phospholipid ion intensity was expressed in arbitrary units, and following principal components analyses (PCA) the data were distributed on a 3D graph. Oocytes obtained from superstimulated animals showed a greater rate of developmental (P<0.05) at D7 (MII = 62.4±17.5% and FSH = 58.8±16.1%) compared to those obtained from unstimulated animals (CONT = 37.9±8.5% and IMA = 50.6±14.4%). However, the maturation system did not affect the resistance of oocytes to vitrification because the blastocyst rate at D7 was similar (P>0.05) for all groups (CONT VIT = 2.8±3.5%, IMA VIT = 2.9±4.0%, FSH VIT = 4.3±7.2% and MII VIT = 3.6±7.2%). MALDI-TOF revealed that oocytes from all maturation groups had similar phospholipid contents, except for 760.6 ([PC (34:1) + H]+), which was

  2. Analysis of the bovine plasma proteome by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Henning, Ann-Kristin; Groschup, Martin H; Mettenleiter, Thomas C; Karger, Axel

    2014-01-01

    In this study, the bovine plasma proteome was analysed using a three step protocol: (1) plasma was treated with a combinatorial peptide ligand library (CPLL) to assimilate the differences in concentrations of different proteins in raw plasma; (2) CPLL-treated material was fractionated by three standard electrophoretic separation techniques, and (3) samples were analysed by nano-liquid chromatography (nLC) matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation (MALDI) time-of-flight tandem (TOF/TOF) mass spectrometry. The efficiencies of three fractionation protocols for plasma proteome analysis were compared. After size fractionation by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), resolution of proteins was better and yields of identified proteins were higher than after charge-based fractionation by preparative gel-free isoelectric focussing. For proteins with isoelectric points >6 and molecular weights ⩾ 63 kDa, the best results were obtained with a 'shotgun' approach, in which the CPLL-treated plasma was digested and the peptides, rather than the proteins, were fractionated by gel-free isoelectric focussing. However, the three fractionation techniques were largely complementary, since only about one-third of the proteome was identified by each approach. PMID:24268478

  3. Effect of recombinant bovine somatotropin on plasma concentrations of insulin-like growth factor I, insulin and membrane integrity of bull spermatozoa.

    PubMed

    Vieira, M B; Bianchi, I; Madeira, E M; Roll, V F B; Oliveira, C A; Viau, P; Pivato, I; Severo, N C; Del Pino, F A B; Schneider, A; Corrêa, M N

    2010-12-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effect of the exogenous recombinant bovine somatotropin (rbST) on plasma concentrations of insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I), insulin and semen quality of bulls. Twenty bulls (Aberdeen Angus and Brangus) were divided by breed into two groups. Placebo group was injected with NaCl 0.9% (s.c.) and treatment group with rbST (s.c., 500 mg) at days 0 and 14 of the experiment. Immediately after semen collection, blood samples were taken on days 0, 14, 28, 42 and 56 of the experiment. Semen was also collected on day 70 of the experiment. Evaluation of sperm motility was performed at pre-freezing and post-thawing stage, whereas assessment of sperm membrane integrity was performed after freezing and thawing. Analysis of data revealed that the effect of treatment and treatment-by-collection day on plasma concentrations of IGF-I and insulin was not significant. However, mean plasma concentrations of IGF-I and insulin were affected (p < 0.0001) by days of blood sampling. Effect of treatment and treatment-by-collection day on motility of spermatozoa was similar (p > 0.05) at pre-freezing and post-thawing stage. Intactness of plasmalemma and tail membrane of spermatozoa at post-thawing stage was higher (p < 0.05) in rbST-treated group than in control. In conclusion, rbST did not affect plasma concentrations of IGF-I and insulin, however, it did improve post-thaw sperm membrane integrity. PMID:19663813

  4. Effect of intravenous bovine growth hormone or human pancreatic growth hormone-releasing factor on milk production and plasma hormones and metabolites in sheep.

    PubMed

    Hart, I C; Chadwick, P M; James, S; Simmonds, A D

    1985-05-01

    Although it is well known that exogenous bovine GH (bGH) increases milk yield in ruminants it has not been possible to determine whether an increase in endogenous GH secretion has the same effect. The recent isolation of human pancreatic GH-releasing factor (hpGRF-44) has enabled this comparison of the effects of bGH and hpGRF-44 on milk production in sheep. Three pairs of Dorset ewes underwent three 4-day treatments according to a Latin square design. Treatment 1 involved: 2-hourly i.v. injections (approximately 3.0 ml) of bGH (15 micrograms/kg; 1.8 units/mg); treatment 2: 2-hourly i.v. injections (approximately 3.0 ml) of hpGRF-44 (0.6 microgram/kg); treatment 3: 2-hourly i.v. injections (3.0 ml) of the vehicle. Treatment periods were separated by 10 days. Sheep were milked twice daily and the milk was analysed for fat, protein and lactose. Blood samples (5.0 ml) were taken before and at 15, 45, 75 and 100 min after every third injection throughout the 4 days. Plasma was analysed for insulin, glucose, urea and non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA). The changes in plasma GH stimulated by hpGRF-44 were consistent and repeatable throughout the 4 days of treatment.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3921646

  5. Prediction of pregnancy viability in bovine in vitro-produced embryos and recipient plasma with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Muñoz, M; Uyar, A; Correia, E; Díez, C; Fernandez-Gonzalez, A; Caamaño, J N; Martínez-Bello, D; Trigal, B; Humblot, P; Ponsart, C; Guyader-Joly, C; Carrocera, S; Martin, D; Marquant Le Guienne, B; Seli, E; Gomez, E

    2014-09-01

    We analyzed embryo culture medium (CM) and recipient blood plasma using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) metabolomics to predict pregnancy outcome. Individually cultured, in vitro-produced (IVP) blastocysts were transferred to recipients as fresh and vitrified-warmed. Spent CM and plasma samples were evaluated using FTIR. The discrimination capability of the classifiers was assessed for accuracy, sensitivity (pregnancy), specificity (nonpregnancy), and area under the receiver operator characteristic curve (AUC). Within all IVP fresh embryos (birth rate=52%), high AUC were obtained at birth, especially with expanded blastocysts (CM: 0.80±0.053; plasma: 0.89±0.034). The AUC of vitrified IVP embryos (birth rate = 31%) were 0.607±0.038 (CM, expanded blastocysts) and 0.672±0.023 (plasma, all stages). Recipient plasma generally predicted pregnancy outcome better than did embryo CM. Embryos and recipients with improved pregnancy viability were identified, which could increase the economic benefit to the breeding industry. PMID:24997663

  6. Prediction of pregnancy viability in bovine in vitro-produced embryos and recipient plasma with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Muñoz, M.; Uyar, A.; Correia, E.; Díez, C.; Fernandez-Gonzalez, A.; Caamaño, J. N.; Martínez-Bello, D.; Trigal, B.; Humblot, P.; Ponsart, C.; Guyader-Joly, C.; Carrocera, S.; Martin, D.; Marquant Le Guienne, B.; Seli, E.; Gomez, E.

    2014-01-01

    We analyzed embryo culture medium (CM) and recipient blood plasma using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) metabolomics to predict pregnancy outcome. Individually cultured, in vitro-produced (IVP) blastocysts were transferred to recipients as fresh and vitrified-warmed. Spent CM and plasma samples were evaluated using FTIR. The discrimination capability of the classifiers was assessed for accuracy, sensitivity (pregnancy), specificity (nonpregnancy), and area under the receiver operator characteristic curve (AUC). Within all IVP fresh embryos (birth rate = 52%), high AUC were obtained at birth, especially with expanded blastocysts (CM: 0.80 ± 0.053; plasma: 0.89 ± 0.034). The AUC of vitrified IVP embryos (birth rate = 31%) were 0.607 ± 0.038 (CM, expanded blastocysts) and 0.672 ± 0.023 (plasma, all stages). Recipient plasma generally predicted pregnancy outcome better than did embryo CM. Embryos and recipients with improved pregnancy viability were identified, which could increase the economic benefit to the breeding industry. PMID:24997663

  7. Dietary conjugated linoleic acid supplementation alters the expression of genes involved in the endocannabinoid system in the bovine endometrium and increases plasma progesterone concentrations.

    PubMed

    Abolghasemi, A; Dirandeh, E; Ansari Pirsaraei, Z; Shohreh, B

    2016-10-01

    Endocannabinoids are derived from phospholipids and reduce fertility by interfering with implantation. Identification of changes in the expression of genes of the endocannabinoid system as a result of dietary inclusion of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) is critical to the advancement of our understanding of the nutritional regulation of uterine function. An experiment was conducted on transition cows to evaluate the expression of key endocannabinoid genes in bovine endometrium in response to dietary supplementation with CLA. A total of 16 cows were randomly assigned to two treatments: (1) control (75 g/day palm oil) and (2) CLA (75 g/day CLA) from 21 days prepartum to Day 42 postpartum. Cows underwent uterine biopsy on days 21 and 42 postpartum. The abundance of mRNA encoding endocannabinoid receptor (CNR2), N-acyl phosphatidylethanolamine phospholipase D (NAPEPLD), fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH), N-acylethanolamine acid amidase (NAAA), and monoglyceride lipase (MGLL) was measured by real-time PCR. Results reported that relative levels of mRNA encoding CNR2 and NAPEPLD were decreased (P < 0.05) compared with control cows between Days 21 and 42 postpartum. Relative levels of mRNA coding for NAAA and MGLL were not different (P > 0.05) in the same situation. Mean plasma progesterone concentrations were higher in CLA-fed cows compared with control cows at Day 42 postpartum (3.51 and 1.42 ng/mL, respectively, P < 0.05). In conclusion, we suggest that the beneficial effects of a diet enriched with CLA are the result of a decrease in relative gene expression of the endocannabinoid receptor (CNR2) and enzymes that synthesize fatty acid amides (NAPEPLD) and of an increase in the expression of PTGS2 that in turn can oxidate endocannabinoids and consequently resulted in increased plasma progesterone concentrations during early lactation. PMID:27262886

  8. Concentration of steroids in bovine peripheral plasma during the oestrous cycle and the effect of betamethasone treatment.

    PubMed

    Kanchev, L N; Dobson, H; Ward, W R; Fitzpatrick, R J

    1976-11-01

    Testosterone, oestradiol and progesterone were measured in peripheral plasma during the oestrous cycle of 6 heifers. Oestradiol and progesterone results confirmed earlier reports. Concentration of testosterone on the day of oestrus was 40+/-3 pg/ml (mean+/-S.E.M.), and two peaks were detected during the cycle, one 7 days before oestrus (1809+/-603 pg/ml) and the other (78+/- 7 pg/ml) on the day before the onset of oestrus. The concentration of progesterone declined in most cases 1 day after the maximum concentration of testosterone. Betamethasone treatment in 5 heifers extended luteal function by an average of 10 days: plasma androstenedione and oestradiol concentrations were unaltered; cortisol values were depressed for at least 16 days after treatment; testosterone concentrations were lowered by 13+/-2-4% during treatment, and except in one heifer the peak on Day -7 was abolished. PMID:1033280

  9. Angiogenic tube formation of bovine aortic endothelial cells grown on patterns formed by H2/He plasma treatment of the plasma polymerized hexamethyldisiloxane film.

    PubMed

    Park, Jisoo; Ha, Myunghoon; Lee, Hye-Rim; Park, Heonyong; Yu, Jung-Hoon; Boo, Jin-Hyo; Jung, Donggeun

    2015-01-01

    Angiogenesis, the process to generate new vessels, is necessary for normal development in children as well as the wound healing and the tumor growth in adults. Therefore, it is physiologically and/or pathophysiologically significant to monitor angiogenesis. However, classical in vitro methods to evaluate angiogenesis take a long time and are expensive. Here, the authors developed a novel method to analyze the angiogenesis in a simple and economical way, using patterned films. In this study, the authors fabricated a plasma polymerized hexamethyldisiloxane (PPHMDSO) thin film deposited by capacitively coupled plasma chemical vapor deposition system with various plasma powers. The patterned PPHMDSO film was plasma treated by 10:90 H2/He mixture gas through a metal shadow mask. The films were characterized by water contact angle, atomic force microscopy, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy analyses. Our results show that the PPHMDSO film suppresses the cell adhesion, whereas surface modified PPHMDSO film enhances the cell adhesion and proliferation. From cell culture experiments, the authors found that the patterned film with 300 μm line interval was most efficient to evaluate the tube formation, a sapient angiogenic indicator. This patterned film will provide an effective and promising method for evaluating angiogenesis. PMID:25724221

  10. Bovine serum albumin as the dominant form of dietary protein reduces subcutaneous fat mass, plasma leptin and plasma corticosterone in high fat-fed C57/BL6J mice.

    PubMed

    McManus, Bettina L; Korpela, Riitta; Speakman, John R; Cryan, John F; Cotter, Paul D; Nilaweera, Kanishka N

    2015-08-28

    Increasing evidence suggests that the source of dietary protein can have an impact on weight gain and fat mass during high-fat feeding in both humans and rodents. The present study examined whether dietary bovine serum albumin (BSA) as the dominant source of protein alters energy balance and adiposity associated with high-fat feeding. C57/BL6J mice were given a diet with 10 % of energy from fat and 20 % of energy from casein or a diet with 45 % of energy from fat and either 20 % of energy from casein (HFD) or BSA (HFD+BSA) for 13 weeks. The HFD+BSA diet did not significantly alter daily energy expenditure, locomotor activity and RER, but did increase cumulative energy intake and percentage of lean mass while reducing feed efficiency and percentage of fat mass when compared with the HFD (P< 0·05). In subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT), the HFD+BSA diet increased the mRNA levels of PPARα (PPARA), carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1b (CPT1b) and uncoupling protein 3 (UCP3), but reduced the mRNA level of leptin when compared with the HFD (P< 0·05). The SAT mRNA levels of PPARA, CPT1b and UCP3 were negatively correlated (P< 0·05) with SAT mass, which was reduced in HFD+BSA mice compared with HFD controls (P< 0·01). No differences in epididymal fat mass existed between the groups. The HFD+BSA diet normalised plasma leptin and corticosterone levels compared with the HFD (P< 0·05). While differences in leptin levels were associated with the percentage of fat mass (P< 0·01), changes in corticosterone concentrations were independent of the percentage of fat mass (P< 0·05). The data suggest that the HFD+BSA diet influences plasma leptin levels via SAT mass reduction where mRNA levels of genes linked to β-oxidation were increased, whereas differences in plasma corticosterone levels were not related to fat mass reduction. PMID:26189974

  11. The Effect of Low-Level Laser Irradiation on Sperm Motility, and Integrity of the Plasma Membrane and Acrosome in Cryopreserved Bovine Sperm

    PubMed Central

    Fernandes, Guilherme Henrique C.; de Carvalho, Paulo de Tarso Camillo; Serra, Andrey Jorge; Crespilho, André Maciel; Peron, Jean Pierre Schatzman; Rossato, Cristiano; Leal-Junior, Ernesto Cesar Pinto; Albertini, Regiane

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objective Freezing changes sperm integrity remarkably. Cryopreservation involves cooling, freezing, and thawing and all these contribute to structural damage in sperm, resulting in reduced fertility potential. Low-level laser irradiation (LLLI) could increase energy supply to the cell and cause reactive oxygen species reduction (ROS), contributing to the restoration of oxygen consumption and adenosine triphosphate synthesis (ATP) in the mitochondria. Our goal was to analyze the effects of low-level laser irradiation on sperm motility and integrity of the plasma membrane and acrosome in cryopreserved bovine sperm. Study Design/Materials and Methods We analyzed 09 samples of bull semen (Bos taurus indicus), divided into three groups: a control group without laser irradiation, a 4J group subjected to a laser irradiation dose of 4 joules, and a 6J group subjected to dose of 6 joules. Samples were divided for the analysis of cell viability and acrosomal membrane integrity using flow cytometry; another portion was used for motion analysis. Irradiation was performed in petri dishes of 30 mm containing 3 ml of semen by an aluminum gallium indium phosphide laser diode with a wavelength of 660 nm, 30 mW power, and energy of 4 and 6 joules for 80 and 120 seconds respectively. Subsequently, the irradiated and control semen samples were subjected to cryopreservation and analyzed by flow cytometry (7AAD and FITC-PSA) using the ISAS - Integrated Semen Analysis System. Results Flow cytometry showed an increase in the percentage of live sperm cells and acrosome integrity in relation to control cells when subjected to irradiation of low-power laser in two different doses of 4 and 6 joules (p < 0.05). In the analysis of straightness, percentage of cell movement, and motility, a dose of 4 joules was more effective (p < 0.05). Conclusion We conclude that LLLI may exert beneficial effects in the preservation of live sperm. A dose of 4 joules prior to cryopreservation was

  12. Identification of highly active flocculant proteins in bovine blood

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bovine blood is an excellent flocculating agent, faster acting and as effective on a mass basis as polyacrylamide, the most widely utilized polymeric flocculant. To determine the molecular basis of flocculation activity, whole bovine blood (BB) and BB plasma were fractionated by size exclusion chro...

  13. Dendrotoxin acceptor from bovine synaptic plasma membranes. Binding properties, purification and subunit composition of a putative constituent of certain voltage-activated K+ channels.

    PubMed Central

    Parcej, D N; Dolly, J O

    1989-01-01

    Dendrotoxin is a snake polypeptide that blocks selectively and potently certain voltage-sensitive, fast-activating K+ channels in the nervous system, where it binds with high affinity to membranous acceptors. Herein, the acceptor protein for dendrotoxin in bovine synaptic membranes is solubilized in active form and its complete purification achieved by affinity chromatography, involving a novel elution procedure. This putative K+-channel constituent is shown to be a large oligomeric glycoprotein containing two major subunits, with Mr values of 75,000 and 37,000. Images Fig. 2. PMID:2930493

  14. Use of 1 alpha-hydroxyvitamin D3 in prevention of bovine parturient paresis. 8. Maternal and neonatal plasma calcium, parathyroid hormone, and vitamin D metabolites concentrations.

    PubMed

    Bar, A; Striem, S; Perlman, R; Sachs, M

    1988-10-01

    Thirteen Israeli Friesian cows (3.71 average calvings) in the second or later lactation, fed a daily diet containing 90 g of Ca and 50 g of P, were injected once intramuscularly with 700 micrograms 1 alpha-hydroxy-vitamin D3 in order to investigate its placental transfer and its subsequent metabolism in the neonate. The injection of the vitamin 96 to 24 h before calving slightly increased plasma Ca at parturition, whereas uninjected controls displayed a prominent hypo-calcemia. On the 10th and 20th d after calving, difference in the plasma Ca concentration of the two groups was not significant. At parturition, plasma parathyroid hormone concentration was significantly higher and plasma 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D lower in the control than in the treated cows. At parturition the plasma concentrations of Ca, parathyroid hormone, hydroxyproline, and 24,25-hydroxyvitamin D were higher in the calves than in their dams. Plasma concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D were markedly higher and 1,25-hydroxyvitamin D was slightly higher in cows than in their offsprings. PMID:3204189

  15. 77 FR 20319 - Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy; Importation of Bovines and Bovine Products

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-04

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service 9 CFR Part 93 RIN 0579-AC68 Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy; Importation of Bovines and Bovine Products Correction In proposed rule...

  16. 78 FR 73993 - Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy; Importation of Bovines and Bovine Products

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-10

    ... Health Inspection Service 9 CFR Parts 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, and 98 RIN 0579-AC68 Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy; Importation of Bovines and Bovine Products Corrections In rule document 2013-28228 appearing...

  17. Molecular Aspects of the Interaction of Iminium and Alkanolamine Forms of the Anticancer Alkaloid Chelerythrine with Plasma Protein Bovine Serum Albumin.

    PubMed

    Bhuiya, Sutanwi; Pradhan, Ankur Bikash; Haque, Lucy; Das, Suman

    2016-01-14

    The interaction between a quaternary benzophenanthridine alkaloid chelerythrine (herein after, CHL) and bovine serum albumin (herein after, BSA) was probed by employing various spectroscopic tools and isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC). Fluorescence studies revealed that the binding affinity of the alkanolamine form of the CHL is higher compared to the iminium counterpart. This was further established by fluorescence polarization anisotropy measurement and ITC. Fluorescence quenching study along with time-resolved fluorescence measurements establish that both forms of CHL quenched the fluorescence intensity of BSA through the mechanism of static quenching. Site selective binding and molecular modeling studies revealed that the alkaloid binds predominantly in the BSA subdomain IIA by electrostatic and hydrophobic forces. From Forster resonance energy transfer (FRET) studies, the average distances between the protein donor and the alkaloid acceptor were found to be 2.71 and 2.30 nm between tryptophan (Trp) 212 (donor) and iminium and alkanolamine forms (acceptor), respectively. Circular dichroism (CD) study demonstrated that the α-helical organization of the protein is reduced due to binding with CHL along with an increase in the coiled structure. This is indicative of a small but definitive partial unfolding of the protein. Thermodynamic parameters obtained from ITC experiments revealed that the interaction is favored by negative enthalpy change and positive entropy change. PMID:26653994

  18. Unlocking the bovine genome

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The draft genome sequence of cattle (Bos taurus) has now been analyzed by the Bovine Genome Sequencing and Analysis Consortium and the Bovine HapMap Consortium, which together represent an extensive collaboration involving more than 300 scientists from 25 different countries. ...

  19. Bovine viral diarrhea viruses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Infections with bovine viral diarrhea viruses (BVDV) result in significant economic losses for beef and dairy producers worldwide. BVDV is actually an umbrella term for two species of viruses, BVDV1 and BVDV2, within the Pestivirus genus of the Flavivirus family. While denoted as a bovine pathogen...

  20. Effect of bovine colostrum, cheese whey, and spray-dried porcine plasma on the in vitro growth of probiotic bacteria and Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Champagne, Claude P; Raymond, Yves; Pouliot, Yves; Gauthier, Sylvie F; Lessard, Martin

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the effects of defatted colostrum (Col), defatted decaseinated colostrum whey, cheese whey, and spray-dried porcine plasma (SDPP) as supplements of a growth medium (de Man - Rogosa - Sharpe (MRS) broth) on the multiplication of lactic acid bacteria, probiotic bacteria, and potentially pathogenic Escherichia coli. Using automated spectrophotometry (in vitro system), we evaluated the effect of the 4 supplements on maximum growth rate (μ(max)), lag time (LagT), and biomass (OD(max)) of 12 lactic acid bacteria and probiotic bacteria and of an E. coli culture. Enrichment of MRS broth with a Col concentration of 10 g/L increased the μ(max) of 5 of the 12 strains by up to 55%. Negative effects of Col or SDPP on growth rates were also observed with 3 probiotic strains; in one instance μ(max) was reduced by 40%. The most effective inhibitor of E. coli growth was SDPP, and this effect was not linked to its lysozyme content. The positive effect of enrichment with the dairy-based ingredient might be linked to enrichment in sugars and increased buffering power of the medium. These in vitro data suggest that both Col and SDPP could be considered as supplements to animal feeds to improve intestinal health because of their potential to promote growth of probiotic bacteria and to inhibit growth of pathogenic bacteria such as E. coli. PMID:24773334

  1. Binding patterns of bovine seminal plasma proteins A1/A2, 30 kDa and osteopontin on ejaculated sperm before and after incubation with isthmic and ampullary oviductal fluid.

    PubMed

    Souza, Carlos Eduardo A; Moura, Arlindo A; Monaco, Elisa; Killian, Gary J

    2008-04-01

    Previous studies from our laboratory have reported empirical associations between bovine seminal plasma protein(s) (BSP) A1/A2 and 30 kDa and osteopontin (OPN) in accessory sex gland fluid and bull fertility. These BSP and OPN are believed to bind to sperm at ejaculation and to remain bound until sperm reach the oviduct. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the topographical distribution of BSP A1/A2, 30 kDa and OPN binding on: (1) bovine ejaculated sperm; (2) ejaculated sperm incubated with isthmic oviductal fluid (ODF); (3) ejaculated sperm+isthmic ODF incubated in ampullary ODF. From each of these media, aliquots of sperm for BSP and OPN were processed for immunocytochemistry and analysis by laser scanning confocal microscopy. Isthmic and ampullary ODF was collected from indwelling catheters and used as pools from three cows in the non-luteal phase of the estrous cycle. Anti-BSP A1/A2 was detected bound to the midpiece, post-equatorial and equatorial segments and acrosome of sperm after ejaculation and after incubation with isthmic and ampullary ODF. The BSP A1/A2 fluorescence was more concentrated on the midpiece and increased as acrosome-intact sperm came in contact with ODF. As compared with acrosome-intact sperm, non-intact acrosome intact sperm had 39 and 68% reductions of acrosome fluorescence and 36% and 90% increases of post-equatorial fluorescence after contact with isthmic and ampullary ODF (P<0.05). Anti-BSP 30 kDa was more intense on the midpiece than on post-equatorial, equatorial and acrosome regions of sperm after ejaculation and contact with ODF. However, equatorial fluorescence was 141% and 89% more intense and acrosome stainning was 80% and 76% less (P<0.05) in non-intact acrosome sperm than in acrosome intact cells, during all ODF incubations. Anti-OPN was identified on the acrosome of ejaculated sperm, but with less fluorescence (P<0.05) on the post-equatorial segment and midpiece. Incubation of sperm with isthmic ODF increased

  2. The solvent action of sodium hypochlorite on bovine tendon collagen, bovine pulp, and bovine gingiva.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, H; Asai, K; Fujita, H; Nakazato, H; Nishimura, Y; Furuse, Y; Sahashi, E

    1985-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the optimum temperature and concentration of sodium hypochlorite solution required to dissolve bovine tendon collagen, pulp, and gingiva. The 10% concentration of sodium hypochlorite solution at 37 degrees C was found to be most effective in dissolving bovine tendon collagen, pulp, and gingiva. Sodium hypochlorite solution was more effective in dissolving bovine pulp or tendon collagen than in dissolving bovine gingiva. PMID:3862046

  3. BOVINE VIRAL DIARRHEA VIRUSES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is an umbrella term for two species of viruses, BVDV1 and BVDV2, within the Pestivirus genus of the Flavivirus family. BVDV viruses are further subclassified as cytopathic and noncytopathic based on their activity in cultured epithelial cells. Noncytopathic BVDV p...

  4. Bovine milk exosome proteome

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Exosomes are 40-100 nm membrane vesicles of endocytic origin and are found in blood, urine, amniotic fluid, bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid, as well as human and bovine milk. Exosomes are extracellular organelles important in intracellular communication/signaling, immune function, and biomarkers ...

  5. Protein Crystal Bovine Insulin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The comparison of protein crystal, Bovine Insulin space-grown (left) and earth-grown (right). Facilitates the incorporation of glucose into cells. In diabetics, there is either a decrease in or complete lack of insulin, thereby leading to several harmful complications. Principal Investigator is Larry DeLucas.

  6. Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE), also referred to as “mad cow disease” is a chronic, non-febrile, neuro-degenerative disease affecting the central nervous system. The transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) of domestic animals, of which BSE is a member includes scrapie of sheep...

  7. [Bovine spongiform encephalopathy].

    PubMed

    Suárez Fernández, G

    2001-01-01

    An histórical and conceptual review is made about Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy or mad cows disease and an epidemiological analysis as a present and future health problem. This analysis of BSE should not be negative, considering the truths that we know today. PMID:11783042

  8. Genotyping bovine coronaviruses.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bovine coronaviruses (BoCV) are enveloped, single-stranded, positive-sense RNA viruses of the Coronaviridae family. Infection is associated with enteritis and pneumonia in calves and Winter Dysentery in adult cattle. Strains, isolated more than 50 years ago, are used in vaccines and as laboratory ...

  9. Ontogeny of the Bovine Immune Response 1

    PubMed Central

    Schultz, R. D.; Dunne, H. W.; Heist, C. E.

    1973-01-01

    The ontogenesis of the bovine immune response was studied in three embryos (<40 days) and 106 fetuses of various ages. In the absence of overt antigenic stimulation, fetuses had lymphoid development of the thymus at 42 days of gestation, the spleen was structurally present at 55 days, and certain peripheral lymph nodes were present at 60 days. Mesenteric lymph nodes were structurally present by 100 days of gestation, and lymphoid tissue of the gastrointestinal tract, particularly the lower ileum, was observed in histologic sections of a 175-day fetus with a bacterial infection. Pyroninophilic cells, plasma cells, and germinal centers were present in lymph node sections of antigenically stimulated fetuses. Lymphoid tissue developed more rapidly in fetuses with bacteria, viral antigens, or apparent maternal red-blood-cell antigens than in the normal fetus. Thymic and splenic indices reached maximal values in the 205- to 220-day fetal age group. Immunoglobulin M (IgM)-containing cells were first observed, by immunofluorescence, in a single fetus at 59 days of gestation. Immunoglobulin G (IgG)-containing cells were observed at 145 days of gestation in one fetus with a bacterial and viral infection. IgM-containing cells were observed in 36 fetuses and IgM and IgG cells were present in seven fetuses. Spleen, lymph nodes, thymus, bone marrow, and liver of one fetus from a dam with lymphosarcoma had immunoglobulin-containing cells. Hemal lymph nodes, blood (buffy coat), Peyer patches, and heart and lung sections from fetuses with immunoglobulin-containing cells in spleen or lymph node did not have immunoglobulin-containing cells. Antigens of the virus of bovine virus diarrhea-mucosal disease (BVD) were detected in one fetus, and antigens of infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (IBR) virus were detected in three fetuses; however, viruses were not isolated in primary bovine embryonic kidney cells. Two of the three fetuses with IBR virus antigens had neutralizing serum antibody

  10. Data supporting the structural and functional characterization of Thrombin‐Activatable Fibrinolysis Inhibitor in breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Fawzy, Manal S.; Toraih, Eman A.

    2015-01-01

    The data in this paper is related to the research article entitled “Thrombin-activatable fibrinolysis inhibitor Thr325Ile polymorphism and plasma level in breast cancer: A pilot study” (Fawzy et al., 2015) [1]. Many emerging studies have begun to unravel the pathophysiologic role of the fibrinolytic system in breast cancer (BC) progression (Zorio et al., 2008) [2]. Activation of the fibrinolytic plasminogen/plasmin system results in degradation of protein barriers, thereby mediating cell migration essential for tumor growth, angiogenesis, and dissemination (Castellino and Ploplis, 2005) [3]. In the current study, in silico data analysis of Thrombin-Activatable Fibrinolysis Inhibitor (TAFI) gene and protein has been done. Data have been retrieved from several databases mentioned in details in the text. Determination and analysis of the structural and functional impact of TAFI and its expression could help elucidate the contribution of the TAFI pathway to acquired hemostatic dysfunction and will form the basis of potential therapeutic strategies to manipulate this pathway. An inhibition of TAFI (e.g. by FXI inhibitors) will offer the therapeutic possibilities to improve the decreased fibrinolysis and increase the efficiency of fibrinolytic therapy in thrombotic disorders including cancer. PMID:26740968

  11. Bovine myocardial epithelial inclusions.

    PubMed

    Baker, D C; Schmidt, S P; Langheinrich, K A; Cannon, L; Smart, R A

    1993-01-01

    Light microscopic, histochemical, immunohistochemical, and ultrastructural methods were used to examine myocardial epithelial masses in the hearts of ten cattle. The tissues consisted of paraffin-embedded or formalin-fixed samples from eight hearts that were being inspected in slaughter houses and from two hearts from calves that died of septicemia. The ages of the cattle ranged from 4 days to 12 years; the breeds were unspecified for all but one Hereford female and the two Holstein calves; and there were three males, four females, and three steers. The masses in these cases were compared with similar appearing lesions found in other animal species. The lesions in the bovine hearts were single to multiple, well circumscribed, found in the left ventricle wall, and composed of squamous to cuboidal epithelial cells that formed tubular, ductular, and acinar structures with lumens that were void or filled with amorphous protein globules. Electron microscopic examination revealed epithelial cells that had sparse apical microvilli, tight apical intercellular junctions, perinuclear bundles of filaments, and rare cilia. Almost half of the bovine epithelial masses (4/9) had occasional diastase-resistant periodic acid-Schiff-positive granules in their cytoplasm, and few had hyaluronidase-resistant alcian blue-positive granules (2/9) or colloidal iron-positive granules (1/9). All myocardial masses had abundant collagen surrounding the tubular and acinar structures, and 2/9 had elastin fibers as well. None of the myocardial masses had Churukian-Schenk or Fontana Masson's silver staining granules in epithelial cells. Immunohistochemically, all bovine myocardial tumors stained positively for cytokeratin (8/8), and occasional masses stained positively for vimentin (3/8) or carcinoembryonic antigen (3/8). None of the masses stained positively for desmin. The myocardial epithelial tumors most likely represent endodermal rests of tissue misplaced during organogenesis. PMID:7680178

  12. Enzootic Bovine Leukosis

    PubMed Central

    Reed, V. Ivan

    1981-01-01

    The author emphasizes the significance of enzootic bovine leukosis in Canada. He describes in detail diagnostic methods, various types of the disease and methods of transmission. Various aspects of the disease in Canada are compared with those in other countries. Prevention and control are discussed in a Canadian context and include the current policies of the Government of Canada in relationship to this disease. The possibility of developing a certification program for herds free of the disease is also discussed. The paper includes incidence in various parts of Canada. PMID:6265053

  13. [Bovine immunodeficiency virus: short review].

    PubMed

    Bouillant, A M; Archambault, D

    1990-01-01

    A bovine visna-like virus was isolated by Van Der Maaten et al (1972) but it did not draw attention since, at that time, most efforts were directed towards research on bovine leukemia virus. However, new interest was shown on the bovine visna-like virus after the isolation of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), because of the urgent need for developing animal models for the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). The purpose of this paper is to describe the different stages of the identification of the bovine virus and to up-date knowledge about it. The bovine visna-like virus has recently been named the bovine immuno-deficiency-like virus (BIV) and is the sole bovine lentivirus known to-date. BIV shares morphologic, antigenic and genomic characteristics with other lentiviruses. It grows and induces large syncytia in vitro and generates virus-productive and latent infections in cell culture. It causes persistent infection and slow progressive disease in cattle and probably in sheep. As target cells of the virus are leukocytes, the type of which is unknown, perturbations of the immune system are expected. Consequently, BIV may potentiate the occurrence of secondary infections and play a role in retroviral, multiple infections. It is not oncogenic. Transmission appears to occur in cattle by contact, but evidence of transmission in human beings has not been shown. Finally, BIV may be a potential model in vitro and in vivo for HIV and AIDS. PMID:1963056

  14. Bovine respiratory disease model based on dual infections with infection with bovine viral diarrhea virus and bovine corona virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bovine respiratory disease complex (BRDC) is the leading cause of economic loss in the U.S. cattle industry. BRDC likely results from simultaneous or sequential infections with multiple pathogens including both viruses and bacteria. Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) and bovine corona virus (BoCV...

  15. Identification and Characterization of TEX101 in Bovine Epididymal Spermatozoa

    PubMed Central

    Nagdas, Subir K.; McLean, Eric L.; Richardson, Leeá P.; Raychoudhury, Samir

    2014-01-01

    Several studies exhibit the presence of Ricinus Communis Agglutinin I (RCA) binding glycocalyx in mammalian spermatozoa. However, the molecular characterization of RCA binding glycocalyx in sperm membranes and its mechanism of action are poorly understood. The objective of the study was to identify and to characterize RCA binding glycoprotein of the bovine sperm plasma membranes (PM). Lectin blots of caput and cauda sperm PM revealed a 38 kDa polypeptide exhibiting the highest affinity to RCA among the several major RCA binding polypeptides. The 38 kDa RCA binding polypeptide of cauda sperm PM was purified and exhibited a charge train of three distinct spots with isoelectric points (pH 5.3 and 5.8). Proteomic identification yielded ten peptides that matched the sequence of Testis Expressed 101 protein (TEX101). Western blots data revealed that bovine sperm TEX101 is present in both testicular and epididymal sperm PM fractions. The native TEX101 polypeptide contains ~17 kDa N-linked oligosaccharides and the polypeptide is anchored to sperm membrane via a glycosylphosphatidylinositol lipid linkage. Immunofluorescence staining of sperm with anti-TEX101 demonstrated that the polypeptide is localized at the head of cauda sperm. Our biochemical results provide evidence on the presence of TEX101 in bovine epididymal sperm plasma membranes and may have a potential role in sperm-egg interaction. PMID:24818024

  16. Critical role of cellular cholesterol in bovine rotavirus infection

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Bovine rotavirus (BRV) is a non-enveloped dsRNA virus that cause neonatal calf diarrhea. Lipid rafts are cholesterol-enrich membrane mircodomains that play a vital role in many cellular processes. In this study, the effect of cellular cholesterol depletion on infection of MA-104 cells with bovine rotavirus was investigated. Results We demonstrated that cholesterol depletion of the plasma membrane by MβCD had no effect on BRV binding to cells but significantly impaired BRV entry in a dose-dependent manner and the effect was partially reversed by addition of exogenous cholesterol, suggesting the reduction of BRV infection by MβCD was specifically due to cholesterol depletion. Cholesterol depletion after virus entry did not reduce BRV replication, whereas affected virus assembly. Conclusions Taken together, our results demonstrate that cell membrane cholesterol is essential to BRV infectivity. PMID:24884772

  17. Material Properties of Inorganic Bovine Cancellous Bovine: Nukbone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piña, Cristina; Palma, Benito; Munguía, Nadia

    2006-09-01

    In this work, inorganic cancellous bovine bone implants prepared in the Instituto de Investigaciones en Materiales — UNAM were characterized. Elementary chemical analysis was made, toxic elements concentration were measured and the content of organic matter also. These implants fulfill all the requirements of the ASTM standards, and therefore it is possible their use in medical applications.

  18. Evaluation of a rapid method of determination of plasma fibrinogen.

    PubMed

    Thomson, G W; McSherry, B J; Valli, V E

    1974-07-01

    An evaluation was made of a rapid semiautomated method of determining fibrinogen levels in bovine plasma. This method, the fibrometer method of Morse, Panek and Menga (8), is based on the principle that when thrombin is added to suitably diluted plasma the time of clotting is linearly related to the fibrinogen concentration. A standard curve prepared using bovine plasma had an r value of .9987 and analysis of variance showed there was no significant deviation from regression. A comparison of the fibrometer method and the biuret method of Ware, Guest and Seegers done on 158 bovine plasma samples showed good correlation between the two methods. It was concluded that the fibrometer method does measure bovine fibrinogen and has considerable merit for use in clinical diseases of cattle. PMID:4277474

  19. 78 FR 72979 - Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy; Importation of Bovines and Bovine Products

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-04

    ..., 2012, we published in the Federal Register (77 FR 15848-15913, Docket No. APHIS-2008-0010) a proposal... January 4, 2005 (70 FR 460-553, Docket No. 03-080-3). The delay of applicability was removed in a final... Products Derived from Bovines,'' published in the Federal Register on September 18, 2007 (72 FR...

  20. Vitamin D and its metabolites in human and bovine milk.

    PubMed

    Hollis, B W; Roos, B A; Draper, H H; Lambert, P W

    1981-07-01

    Human and bovine milk were analyzed for vitamin D, 25-hydroxyvitamin D, 24,25-dihydroxyvitamin D, 25,26-dihydroxyvitamin D and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D using exhaustive chromatographic purification procedures coupled with ligand binding assays. Human milk contained the following amounts of antirachitic sterols (pg/ml, mean +/- SD, n = 5): 39 +/- 9 vitamin D; 311 +/- 31 25-hydroxyvitamin D; 52 +/- 8 24,25-hydroxyvitamin D; 32 +/- 9 25,26-dihydroxyvitamin D; 5.1 +/- 0.3 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D. Normal bovine milk contained levels of these sterols comparable to those found in human milk. Increasing the oral dose of vitamin D to the cows was reflected by an increase of the parent vitamin and 25-hydroxyvitamin D in the milk. Vitamin D-binding protein concentration in human milk whey, determined by Ouchterlony immunodiffusion and radioimmunoassay, was 1--2% of the levels observed in the plasma and was dependent on the stage of lactation. Vitamin D and its metabolites were shown initially to be present in the whey portion but with time migrated into the fat portion of milk. The antirachitic sterols detected account for approximately 25 IU/liter and 27 IU/liter of antirachitic activity in human and bovine milk, respectively. In both species 25-hydroxyvitamin D comprised the majority of the antirachitic sterols detected in normal milk. PMID:6788913

  1. Increased fibrin formation and impaired fibrinolytic capacity in severe chronic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Mörtberg, Josefin; Blombäck, Margareta; Wallén, Åkan; He, Shu; Jacobson, Stefan H; Spaak, Jonas

    2016-06-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is associated with a concurrent increased risk of thrombosis and bleeding. We aimed to investigate whether CKD is associated with increased fibrin formation, impaired fibrin degradation, or both. Twenty-one patients with CKD stage 4 (CKD 4), 15 haemodialysis patients, and 13 controls (C) without kidney disease were studied. We used a global assay to determine fibrin formation and degradation in plasma. Fibrin turbidity was measured over time to obtain a value of the coagulation activation profile (Cp) and the fibrinolysis activation profile (Fp), and the amount of fibrin formed, termed fibrin optical density sum (fibrin OD-sum). We used scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to visualize the fibrin network. Plasminogen activator inhibitor type-1 antigen, thrombin-activatable fibrinolysis inhibitor activity, fibrinogen, von Willebrand factor, antithrombin, albumin, and C-reactive protein were measured in plasma. Fibrin OD-sum was significantly elevated in haemodialysis patients [312 a.u.; 278-435 (median; interquartile range); P < 0.0013] and in CKD 4 (293 a.u.; 169-434; P = 0.0119) compared with controls (115 a.u.; 82-234). SEM showed a tight fibrin network in haemodialysis and CKD 4 patients. Fp was lower in the haemodialysis group than in controls (P = 0.030). Plasminogen activator inhibitor type-1 was lower in haemodialysis patients (P = 0.034). Thrombin-activatable fibrinolysis inhibitor activity, Cp, antithrombin, and C-reactive protein did not differ between groups. Fibrinogen was significantly elevated and albumin decreased in both haemodialysis and CKD 4 patients compared with controls. Von Willebrand factor was elevated in haemodialysis patients compared with controls (P = 0.010). The prothrombotic state in severe CKD is characterized by impaired fibrinolysis in association with increased fibrin formation despite normal levels of endogenous fibrinolysis inhibitors. PMID:26650459

  2. Bovine ephemeral fever: a review.

    PubMed

    Nandi, S; Negi, B S

    1999-04-01

    Bovine ephemeral fever is a viral disease of cattle and buffaloes besides subclinical involvement of a variety of ruminant species. The subtropical and temperate regions of Africa, Asia and Australia have experienced the major epidemic of the bovine ephemeral fever but the occurrence in the tropics can not be overlooked. Although the substantial role played by the vectors viz., mosquitoes and culicoides in bovine ephemeral fever perpetuation and dissemination, other vector involvement if any should be extensively studied. The clinical severity of the disease is not apparent and the mortality is low. However, high morbidity, enormous economic losses in terms of significant reduction in production, disruption of national and international trade and finally a variety of complications resulting from the disease have drawn appreciable attention from the researchers around the world to resolve the unsolved questions in this area. In this review, detailed informations of all the aspects of the disease has been provided in a simple, lucid and easily understandable manner. PMID:10051179

  3. Cloning and characterization of bovine low molecular weight GTPases (Rac1 and Rac2) and rho GDP-dissociation inhibitor 2 (D4-GDI).

    PubMed

    Davis, A R; Clements, M K; Bunger, P L; Siemsen, D W; Quinn, M T

    2000-05-23

    GTPases of the Rho family play important roles in human leukocyte signal transduction pathways; however, little is known about the function of these proteins in bovine cells. In the present studies, we isolated molecular clones of bovine Rac1, Rac2, and the Rac/Rho GTPase regulatory protein D4-GDP dissociation inhibitor (D4-GDI) from a bovine bone marrow cDNA library. These clones contained complete open reading frames, encoding 192, 192, and 200 amino acids, respectively. Comparison of the bovine amino acid sequences with those of other species demonstrated a high degree of identity of these proteins across all species, suggesting that these proteins likely play conserved functional roles in bovine leukocyte signal transduction pathways. Comparative Western blotting of these proteins in human and bovine neutrophil cytosol demonstrated that Rac2 was the predominant Rac species and that D4-GDI was the predominant GDI species in bovine neutrophil cytosol. Despite the high degree of homology between human and bovine Rac2, some of the anti-peptide antibody probes prepared against human Rac2 failed to recognize the bovine homologue. We also showed by subcellular fractionation techniques that Rac2 is localized primarily to the cytosolic compartment of resting bovine neutrophils, but is translocated to the plasma membrane after stimulation with PMA. These findings suggest that Rac2 does play a role in bovine neutrophil activation. In addition, these data will be helpful in developing more specific probes for investigating the role of these proteins in bovine leukocyte signal transduction pathways and for studying various inflammatory diseases in cattle. PMID:10802295

  4. Preparation of Monoclonal Antibodies Against Bovine Haptoglobin

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Caihong; Gu, Cheng; Guo, Donghua; Gao, Jing; Li, Chunqiu; Liu, Na; Geng, Yufei; Su, Mingjun; Wang, Xinyu

    2014-01-01

    Female, 8-week-old BALB/c mice were immunized with purified recombinant proteins of the predicted immunodominant region of bovine haptoglobin (pirBoHp). Two monoclonal antibodies (MAbs), named 1B3 and 6D6, were prepared by conventional B lymphocyte hybridoma technique. Titers of ascitic fluid and cell culture supernatant of MAb 1B3 were 1:9.6×108 and 1:8.2×104, respectively, and that of MAb 6D6 were 1:4.4×105 and 1:1.0×104, respectively. The subtype of MAbs 1B3 and 6D6 was IgG1κ. In Western blot analysis, MAbs 1B3 and 6D6 could recognize the α-chain of native BoHp from plasma of dairy cows. These data indicated that MAbs 1B3 and 6D6 have a potential use for developing diagnostic reagents of BoHp. PMID:25358005

  5. Identification of Peroxiredoxin-5 in Bovine Cauda Epididymal Sperm

    PubMed Central

    Nagdas, Subir K; Buchanan, Teresa; Raychoudhury, Samir

    2013-01-01

    Developing spermatozoa require a series of post-testicular modifications within the luminal environment of the epididymis to achieve maturation; this involves several surface modifications including changes in plasma membrane lipids, proteins, carbohydrates, and alterations in the outer acrosomal membrane. Epididymal maturation can therefore allow sperm to gain forward motility and fertilization capabilities. The objective of this study was to identify maturation dependent protein(s) and to investigate their role with the production of functionally competent spermatozoa. Lectin blot analyses of caput and cauda sperm plasma membrane fractions identified a 17.5kDa Wheat Germ Agglutinin (WGA) binding polypeptide present in the cauda sperm plasma membrane not in the caput sperm plasma membrane. Among the several WGA stained bands, the presence of a 17.5kDa WGA binding polypeptide band was detected only in cauda epididymal fluid not in caput epididymal fluid suggesting that the 17.5kDa WGA-binding polypeptide is secreted from the cauda epididymis and binds to the cauda sperm plasma membrane during epididymal transit. Proteomic identification of the 17.5kDa polypeptide yielded 13 peptides that matched the sequence of peroxiredoxin-5 (PRDX5) protein (Bos Taurus). We propose that bovine cauda sperm PRDX5 acts as an antioxidant enzyme in the epididymal environment, which is crucial in protecting the viable sperm population against the damage caused by endogeneous or exogeneous peroxide. PMID:24186847

  6. Transdermal iontophoretic delivery of bovine insulin and monomeric human insulin analogue.

    PubMed

    Kanikkannan, N; Singh, J; Ramarao, P

    1999-05-01

    The present study was undertaken to explore the possibility of delivering bovine insulin in streptozocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats by iontophoresis. Further, the effect of iontophoresis of monomeric human insulin analogue (r-DNA origin) on the plasma glucose level (PGL) of diabetic rats was studied. Iontophoresis of bovine insulin (10-200 IU/ml) was not effective in decreasing the PGL in untreated diabetic rats. Pretreatment of skin with oleic acid or menthol for 3 h followed by iontophoresis of bovine insulin also failed to produce a fall in PGL. Application of a depilatory cream for hair removal (24 h before the experiment), followed by iontophoresis of bovine insulin (10, 30 and 100 IU/ml) produced a concentration-dependent fall in PGL. Further, application of depilatory cream immediately before the experiment produced a substantial fall in PGL both by passive diffusion and iontophoresis. Depilatory cream might have drastically reduced the barrier function of skin such that conventional bovine insulin (dimer and hexamer) penetrates through the intact skin by iontophoresis and even by passive diffusion. Depilatory cream or the active components of depilatory cream may be useful as penetration enhancers for transdermal delivery of drugs especially macromolecules such as insulin. Iontophoresis of monomeric human insulin analogue (B9 Asp, B27 Glu) through intact skin (untreated) produced a significant fall in PGL in diabetic rats. Monomeric human insulin analogues which have low tendency to self aggregation may be promising candidates for the transdermal iontophoretic delivery of insulin. PMID:10210726

  7. Serum susceptibility of bovine pasteurellas.

    PubMed Central

    Blau, K A; Ward, A C; Prieur, D J; Corbeil, L B

    1987-01-01

    In this study, the serum sensitivity of 23 P. haemolytica isolates and 18 P. multocida isolates was determined by incubating dilutions of bacteria with equal volumes of fresh or heat-inactivated bovine serum for one, two, or three hours. Clinical isolates of both Pasteurella species were resistant to serum, whereas isolates from asymptomatic cattle varied in serum susceptibility. The classical pathway of complement appeared to be the principal means of complement mediated killing as detected by incubation in the presence or absence of EGTA-MgCl2. Lyzozyme and iron saturation of serum did not greatly affect serum susceptibility with either of the Pasteurella species. PMID:3300919

  8. Bovine somatic cell nuclear transfer.

    PubMed

    Ross, Pablo J; Cibelli, Jose B

    2010-01-01

    Somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) is a technique by which the nucleus of a differentiated cell is introduced into an oocyte from which its genetic material has been removed by a process called enucleation. In mammals, the reconstructed embryo is artificially induced to initiate embryonic development (activation). The oocyte turns the somatic cell nucleus into an embryonic nucleus. This process is called nuclear reprogramming and involves an important change of cell fate, by which the somatic cell nucleus becomes capable of generating all the cell types required for the formation of a new individual, including extraembryonic tissues. Therefore, after transfer of a cloned embryo to a surrogate mother, an offspring genetically identical to the animal from which the somatic cells where isolated, is born. Cloning by nuclear transfer has potential applications in agriculture and biomedicine, but is limited by low efficiency. Cattle were the second mammalian species to be cloned after Dolly the sheep, and it is probably the most widely used species for SCNT experiments. This is, in part due to the high availability of bovine oocytes and the relatively higher efficiency levels usually obtained in cattle. Given the wide utilization of this species for cloning, several alternatives to this basic protocol can be found in the literature. Here we describe a basic protocol for bovine SCNT currently being used in our laboratory, which is amenable for the use of the nuclear transplantation technique for research or commercial purposes. PMID:20336522

  9. [Toxinology of bovine paraplegic syndrome].

    PubMed

    Sevcik, C; Brito, J C; D'Suze, G; Mijares, A J; Domínguez, M G

    1993-01-01

    A clinical entity named "Bovine Paraplegic Syndrome" ("Síndrome Parapléjico de los Bovinos") has spread alarmingly, in the cattle growing areas of the central and eastern plains of Venezuela. Approximately four million cattle are bread in the area were the disease occurs. The mortality index due to the disease ranges 5 to 25% of the animals at risk, mostly cows, pregnant or lactating. The principal characteristic of the bovine paraplegic syndrome is decubitus, ventral or sternal, in animals that make vane efforts to stand when stimulated. The diagnosis is established ruling out, clinically and with laboratory findings, that the animals are suffering known diseases with similar symptoms such as paralytic rabies, botulism and blood parasites such Trypanosoma sp., Babesia sp., and Anaplasma sp.. Death occurs always, usually after few days, and to this date there is no known treatment able to save the sick cows. In this work, we describe results that suggest the presence of a toxin in the cattle suffering and prone to suffer the syndrome; it is a natural toxin produced by ruminal bacteria. In squid giant axons under voltage clamp conditions, this toxin is very specific to block sodium current during nerve electrical activity. PMID:8085407

  10. Adipogenesis of bovine perimuscular preadipocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Taniguchi, Masaaki; Le Luo Guan; Zhang Bing; Dodson, Michael V.; Okine, Erasmus; Moore, Stephen S.

    2008-02-01

    In this study, non-transformed progeny adipofibroblasts, derived from mature adipocyte dedifferentiation, was used as a novel in vitro model to study adipogenic gene expression in cattle. Adipofibroblasts from dedifferentiated mature perimuscular fat (PMF) tissue were cultured with differentiation stimulants until the cells exhibited morphological differentiation. Treated cells were harvested from day 2 to 16 for RNA extraction, whereas control cells were cultured without addition of stimulants. Results from time course gene expression assays by quantitative real-time PCR revealed that peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR-{gamma}), sterol regulatory element binding protein 1 (SREBP-1) and their six down-stream genes were co-expressed at day 2 post-differentiation induction. When compared to other adipogenesis culture systems, the adipogenic gene expression of bovine PMF adipofibroblasts culture was different, especially to the rodent model. Collectively, these results demonstrated PPAR-{gamma} and SREBP-1 cooperatively play a key role to regulate the re-differentiation of bovine adipofibroblasts, during early conversion stages in vitro.

  11. Are there two functionally distinguished Neu5Gc pools with respect to rouleau formation on the bovine red blood cell?

    PubMed

    Musielak, Malgorzata

    2004-01-01

    Bovine red blood cells (RBCs) do not exhibit any aggregation tendency in autologous plasma and, therefore, all bovine rouleaux obtained in vitro are regarded as artificial. The present study reports the bovine RBC rouleau formation by either bovine or human fibrinogen and Ca2+ ions. The phenomenon was induced through two-step cell incubation: in 0.9% NaCl and 1% bovine albumin at 37 degrees C for 30 min followed by 20 hrs incubation at 30 degrees C in the fresh solution supplemented with 10 mM glucose. Its mechanism is unknown. During the incubation the number of N-glycolylneuraminic acid molecules per cell decreased from 48.1 to 44.9 amoles, which accounted for 7%. The treatment of RBCs with V. cholerae sialidase under the same conditions resulted in a 94% drop in the Neu5Gc quantity and did not induce the rouleau formation in the same fibrinogen preparation. The preliminary results rise a question whether the bulk of sialic acid is required in the aggregation of bovine erythrocytes under static conditions. Only a minor pool of Neu5Gc seems to be responsible for suppression of the phenomenon. PMID:15258381

  12. Environmental Levels Of 129I Present In Bovine Thyroid And Fresh Water In Argentina

    SciTech Connect

    Negri, A. E.; Arazi, A.; Carnellia, P. F. F.; Barbara, E. de; Figueira, J. M.; Fimiani, L.; Heimanna, D. M.; Zalazara, L.; Fernandez Niello, J.; La Gamma, A. M.; Wallner, A.

    2010-08-04

    Concentrations of {sup 129}I in bovine thyroid and fresh water samples coming from all over Argentina were analyzed by Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) and total iodine present in samples by Gas Chromatography (GC) and Inductive Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS), respectively. Once we complete this study, it will be the first set of data of this kind from an extended region of the south American subcontinent.

  13. Muscarine binding sites in bovine adrenal medulla.

    PubMed

    Barron, B A; Murrin, L C; Hexum, T D

    1986-03-18

    The presence of muscarinic binding sites in the bovine adrenal medulla was investigated using [3H]QNB and the bovine adrenal medulla. Scatchard analysis combined with computer analysis yielded data consistent with a two binding site configuration. KDs of 0.15 and 14 nM and Bmax s of 29 and 210 fmol/mg protein, respectively, were observed. Displacement of [3H]QNB by various cholinergic agents is, in order of decreasing potency: QNB, dexetimide, atropine, scopolamine, imipramine, desipramine, oxotremorine, pilocarpine, acetylcholine, methacholine and carbachol. These results demonstrate the presence of more than one muscarine binding site in the bovine adrenal gland. PMID:3709656

  14. Growth and metabolism of murine and bovine embryos in bovine uterine flushing-supplemented culture media.

    PubMed Central

    Rondeau, M; Guay, P; Goff, A K; Cooke, G M

    1996-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the development and metabolic activity of cultured murine and bovine embryos in 2 standard media (HAM F-10 and RPMI) in the presence or absence of bovine uterine flushings. Murine morulae (n = 653) and day 7 bovine embryos (n = 273) were cultured for 18 h or 36 h in either HAM F-10 or RPMI in the presence or absence of bovine uterine flushings. After culture, the development, quality, and metabolic activity (glucose utilization or methionine uptake and incorporation) of embryos was assessed. It was found that HAM F-10 (without uterine flushings) was a more suitable medium than RPMI for optimal development and metabolism of murine and bovine embryos. Poor quality and development, as well as decreased metabolism, were evident after culture of murine embryos in RPMI; in contrast, this medium had no adverse effects on bovine embryos in culture. Supplementation of HAM F-10 with bovine uterine flushings improved the growth of murine embryos and the protein synthesis (as measured by an increased methionine incorporation) for both murine and bovine embryos. However, supplementation with bovine uterine flushings could not overcome deficiencies of an inappropriate medium (RPMI) for murine embryos. Supplementation of a well-defined culture medium with uterine flushings increased metabolism of embryos in culture, and thus might help to increase pregnancy rates after transfer of such embryos to recipient cows. PMID:8825988

  15. Elastomechanical properties of bovine veins.

    PubMed

    Rossmann, Jenn Stroud

    2010-02-01

    Veins have historically been discussed in qualitative, relative terms: "more compliant" than arteries, subject to "lower pressures". The structural and compositional differences between arteries and veins are directly related to the different functions of these vessels. Veins are often used as grafts to reroute flow from atherosclerotic arteries, and venous elasticity plays a role in the development of conditions such as varicose veins and valvular insufficiency. It is therefore of clinical interest to determine the elastomechanical properties of veins. In the current study, both tensile and vibration testing are used to obtain elastic moduli of bovine veins. Representative stress-strain data are shown, and the mechanical and failure properties reported. Nonlinear and viscoelastic behavior is observed, though most properties show little strain rate dependence. These data suggest parameters for constitutive modeling of veins and may inform the design and testing of prosthetic venous valves as well as vein grafts. PMID:20129420

  16. Bovine mastitis: frontiers in immunogenetics.

    PubMed

    Thompson-Crispi, Kathleen; Atalla, Heba; Miglior, Filippo; Mallard, Bonnie A

    2014-01-01

    Mastitis is one of the most prevalent and costly diseases in the dairy industry with losses attributable to reduced milk production, discarded milk, early culling, veterinary services, and labor costs. Typically, mastitis is an inflammation of the mammary gland most often, but not limited to, bacterial infection, and is characterized by the movement of leukocytes and serum proteins from the blood to the site of infection. It contributes to compromised milk quality and the potential spread of antimicrobial resistance if antibiotic treatment is not astutely applied. Despite the implementation of management practises and genetic selection approaches, bovine mastitis control continues to be inadequate. However, some novel genetic strategies have recently been demonstrated to reduce mastitis incidence by taking advantage of a cow's natural ability to make appropriate immune responses against invading pathogens. Specifically, dairy cattle with enhanced and balanced immune responses have a lower occurrence of disease, including mastitis, and they can be identified and selected for using the high immune response (HIR) technology. Enhanced immune responsiveness is also associated with improved response to vaccination, increased milk, and colostrum quality. Since immunity is an important fitness trait, beneficial associations with longevity and reproduction are also often noted. This review highlights the genetic regulation of the bovine immune system and its vital contributions to disease resistance. Genetic selection approaches currently used in the dairy industry to reduce the incidence of disease are reviewed, including the HIR technology, genomics to improve disease resistance or immune response, as well as the Immunity(+)™ sire line. Improving the overall immune responsiveness of cattle is expected to provide superior disease resistance, increasing animal welfare and food quality while maintaining favorable production levels to feed a growing population. PMID

  17. Bovine Mastitis: Frontiers in Immunogenetics

    PubMed Central

    Thompson-Crispi, Kathleen; Atalla, Heba; Miglior, Filippo; Mallard, Bonnie A.

    2014-01-01

    Mastitis is one of the most prevalent and costly diseases in the dairy industry with losses attributable to reduced milk production, discarded milk, early culling, veterinary services, and labor costs. Typically, mastitis is an inflammation of the mammary gland most often, but not limited to, bacterial infection, and is characterized by the movement of leukocytes and serum proteins from the blood to the site of infection. It contributes to compromised milk quality and the potential spread of antimicrobial resistance if antibiotic treatment is not astutely applied. Despite the implementation of management practises and genetic selection approaches, bovine mastitis control continues to be inadequate. However, some novel genetic strategies have recently been demonstrated to reduce mastitis incidence by taking advantage of a cow’s natural ability to make appropriate immune responses against invading pathogens. Specifically, dairy cattle with enhanced and balanced immune responses have a lower occurrence of disease, including mastitis, and they can be identified and selected for using the high immune response (HIR) technology. Enhanced immune responsiveness is also associated with improved response to vaccination, increased milk, and colostrum quality. Since immunity is an important fitness trait, beneficial associations with longevity and reproduction are also often noted. This review highlights the genetic regulation of the bovine immune system and its vital contributions to disease resistance. Genetic selection approaches currently used in the dairy industry to reduce the incidence of disease are reviewed, including the HIR technology, genomics to improve disease resistance or immune response, as well as the Immunity+™ sire line. Improving the overall immune responsiveness of cattle is expected to provide superior disease resistance, increasing animal welfare and food quality while maintaining favorable production levels to feed a growing population. PMID

  18. Aerosol stability of bovine adenovirus type 3.

    PubMed Central

    Elazhary, M A; Derbyshire, J B

    1979-01-01

    The WBR-1 strain of bovine adenovirus type 3 was suspended in Eagle's medium or bovine nasal secretion and atomized into a rotating drum at temperatures of 6 degrees C or 32 degrees C and relative humidities of 30% or 90%. Impinger samples of the aerosols were collected seven minutes, one, two and three hours postgeneration, and titrated for infectivity in embryonic bovine kidney cell cultures. Under certain conditions of temperature and relative humidity, the virus was more stable in aerosols of Eagle's medium than in nasal secretion. The bovine adenovirus was usually inactivated more rapidly at 30% relative humidity than at 90% relative humidity and during aging of the aerosols the virus was inactivated more rapidly at 32 degrees C than at 6 degrees C. PMID:226247

  19. Bovine TLR2 and TLR4 mediate Cryptosporidium parvum recognition in bovine intestinal epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhengtao; Fu, Yunhe; Gong, Pengtao; Zheng, Jingtong; Liu, Li; Yu, Yuqiang; Li, Jianhua; Li, He; Yang, Ju; Zhang, Xichen

    2015-08-01

    Cryptosporidium parvum (C. parvum) is an intestinal parasite that causes diarrhea in neonatal calves. It results in significant morbidity of neonatal calves and economic losses for producers worldwide. Innate resistance against C. parvum is thought to depend on engagement of pattern recognition receptors. However, the role of innate responses to C. parvum has not been elucidated in bovine. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of TLRs in host-cell responses during C. parvum infection of cultured bovine intestinal epithelial cells. The expressions of TLRs in bovine intestinal epithelial cells were detected by qRT-PCR. To determine which, if any, TLRs may play a role in the response of bovine intestinal epithelial cells to C. parvum, the cells were stimulated with C. parvum and the expression of TLRs were tested by qRT-PCR. The expression of NF-κB was detected by western blotting. Further analyses were carried out in bovine TLRs transfected HEK293 cells and by TLRs-DN transfected bovine intestinal epithelial cells. The results showed that bovine intestinal epithelial cells expressed all known TLRs. The expression of TLR2 and TLR4 were up-regulated when bovine intestinal epithelial cells were treated with C. parvum. Meanwhile, C. parvum induced IL-8 production in TLR2 or TLR4/MD-2 transfected HEK293 cells. Moreover, C. parvum induced NF-κB activation and cytokine expression in bovine intestinal epithelial cells. The induction of NF-κB activation and cytokine expression by C. parvum were reduced in TLR2-DN and TLR4-DN transfected cells. The results showed that bovine intestinal epithelial cells expressed all known TLRs, and bovine intestinal epithelial cells recognized and responded to C. parvum via TLR2 and TLR4. PMID:26048276

  20. Activation of bovine neutrophils by Brucella spp.

    PubMed

    Keleher, Lauren L; Skyberg, Jerod A

    2016-09-01

    Brucellosis is a globally important zoonotic infectious disease caused by gram negative bacteria of the genus Brucella. While many species of Brucella exist, Brucella melitensis, Brucella abortus, and Brucella suis are the most common pathogens of humans and livestock. The virulence of Brucella is largely influenced by its ability to evade host factors, including phagocytic killing mechanisms, which are critical for the host response to infection. The aim of this study was to characterize the bovine neutrophil response to virulent Brucella spp. Here, we found that virulent strains of smooth B. abortus, B. melitensis, B. suis, and virulent, rough, strains of Brucella canis possess similar abilities to resist killing by resting, or IFN-γ-activated, bovine neutrophils. Bovine neutrophils responded to infection with a time-dependent oxidative burst that varied little between Brucella spp. Inhibition of TAK1, or SYK kinase blunted the oxidative burst of neutrophils in response to Brucella infection. Interestingly, Brucella spp. did not induce robust death of bovine neutrophils. These results indicate that bovine neutrophils respond similarly to virulent Brucella spp. In addition, virulent Brucella spp., including naturally rough strains of B. canis, have a conserved ability to resist killing by bovine neutrophils. PMID:27436438

  1. Complete genome sequence of a bovine viral diarrhea virus 2 from commercial fetal bovine serum.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hua; Li, Yan; Gao, Mingchun; Wen, Kai; Jia, Ying; Liu, Xiaomei; Zhang, Wenlong; Ma, Bo; Wang, Junwei

    2012-09-01

    We isolated a bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) from commercial fetal bovine serum and designated it HLJ-10. The complete genome is 12,284 nucleotides (nt); the open reading frame is 11,694 nt, coding 3,898 amino acids. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that this strain belongs to BVDV group 2. PMID:22923795

  2. Bovine viral diarrhea virus: involvement in bovine respiratory disease and diagnostic challenges

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This paper reviews the contribution of bovine viral diarrhea viruses (BVDV) to the development of Bovine Respiratory Disease (BRD). Veterinarians and producers generally consider BRD as one of the most significant diseases affecting production in the cattle industry. BRD can affect the performance (...

  3. The Contribution of Infections with Bovine Viral Diarrhea Viruses to Bovine Respiratory Disease

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The contribution of bovine viral diarrhea viruses (BVDV) to the development of bovine respiratory disease is the sum of a number of different factors. These factors include the contribution of acute uncomplicated BVDV infections, the high incidence of respiratory disease in animals persistently inf...

  4. Prevalence of bovine virus diarrhoea and infectious bovine rhinotracheitis antibodies in Nigerian sheep and goats.

    PubMed

    Taylor, W P; Okeke, A N; Shidali, N N

    1977-08-01

    Neutralising antibodies to bovine virus diarrhoea virus were commoner in Nigerian sheep than goats while precipitating antibodies offered an alternative but less reliable indicator of previous infection. In contrast, neutralising antibodies to infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus were more common in goats than sheep. These findings are discussed in relation to infectivity rates in cattle and general husbandry practices. PMID:410130

  5. beta-Hydroxyaspartic acid or beta-hydroxyasparagine in bovine low density lipoprotein receptor and in bovine thrombomodulin.

    PubMed

    Stenflo, J; Ohlin, A K; Owen, W G; Schneider, W J

    1988-01-01

    All of the vitamin K-dependent plasma proteins with domains that are homologous to the epidermal growth factor (EGF) precursor have 1 hydroxylated aspartic acid residue in the NH2-terminal EGF-homology region. In addition, protein S has 1 hydroxylated asparagine residue in each of the three COOH-terminal EGF-homology regions. All of these proteins have been found to have the amino acid sequence, CX(D or N)XXXX(F or Y)XCXC (corresponding to residues 20 to 33 in EGF), where the Asp or Asn residue is hydroxylated. This sequence also appears in two of the three EGF-homology regions of the human low density lipoprotein receptor and in two of the six EGF-homology regions of bovine thrombomodulin so far identified, suggesting that they may have the modified amino acid. We have now identified beta-hydroxyaspartic acid in acid hydrolysates of both these proteins. PMID:2826439

  6. Ultrastructure of bovine sperm chromatin.

    PubMed

    Filho, Romualdo Morandi; Beletti, Marcelo Emilio; de Oliveira, Fabio

    2015-12-01

    Mammalian semen chromatin comprises DNA, protamine, and, at lower levels, other proteins. This constitution confers intense compaction to the chromatin, helping to protect the DNA and causing the head of the sperm to be very small, facilitating the safe transport of its genetic contents. It is known that changes in the sperm chromatin compaction lead to fertility problems in bulls, justifying studies of this structure. Although there are theoretical models of sperm chromatin because of its high compaction, there is no morphological evidence of such models. The aim of this study was to demonstrate the ultrastructure of bovine sperm chromatin in an attempt to corroborate the theoretical chromatin models existing today. The isolated bull sperm heads had their chromatin partially unpacked by chemical treatment using sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and dithiothreitol (DTT) and were then embedded in Epon resin. Using an ultramicrotome, ultrathin sections were obtained, which were contrasted with uranyl acetate and lead citrate, and then viewed under transmission electron microscopy. The methodology used allowed the visualization of toroidal structures interconnected by a filamentous nuclear matrix, which is entirely consistent with the most current theoretical models. PMID:26515508

  7. Genetics of bovine abomasal displacement.

    PubMed

    Zerbin, Ina; Lehner, Stefanie; Distl, Ottmar

    2015-04-01

    Displacement of the abomasum (DA) is a common inherited condition in Holstein cows. This article reviews the genetics of DA including risk factors, genetic parameters and molecular genetic results. Breeds other than Holsteins affected by DA include Guernseys, Jerseys, Brown Swiss, Ayrshires and Simmental-Red Holsteins. In most DA cases, left displacements of the abomasum (LDA) are seen. Lactation incidence rates are higher for DA in first lactation Holsteins compared to later lactations. For Holstein cows, heritability estimates for DA are between 0.03 and 0.53. Genetic correlation estimates among DA and milk production traits range from positive to negative. Genome-wide significant genomic regions associated with LDA are located on bovine chromosomes (BTA) 1, 3, 11, 20 and 23. Motilin-associated single nucleotide polymorphisms on BTA23 exhibit a functional relationship with LDA. Pathways for deposition of calcium, insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus and synaptic transmission are significantly related to LDA in Holsteins. Deciphering the DA-associated genomic regions and genes may be an important step in the quest to understand the underlying disease-causing mechanisms and in unravelling mutations with a causal relationship to DA. PMID:25840863

  8. Bovine colostrum: an emerging nutraceutical.

    PubMed

    Bagwe, Siddhi; Tharappel, Leo J P; Kaur, Ginpreet; Buttar, Harpal S

    2015-09-01

    Nutraceutical, a term combining the words "nutrition" and "pharmaceuticals", is a food or food product that provides health benefits as an adjuvant or alternative therapy, including the treatment and prevention of infectious diseases in children and adults. There is emerging evidence that bovine colostrum (BC) may be one of the promising nutraceuticals which can prevent or mitigate various diseases in newborns and adults. Immunity-related disorders are one of the leading causes of mortality in the world. BC is rich in immunity, growth and antimicrobial factors, which promote tissue growth and the maturation of digestive tract and immune function in neonatal animals and humans. The immunoglobulins and lactoferrin present in colostrum are known to build natural immunity in newborns which helps to reduce the mortality rate in this population. Also, the side-effect profile of colostrum proteins and possible lactose intolerance is relatively less in comparison with milk. In general, BC is considered safe and well tolerated. Since colostrum has several important nutritional constituents, well-designed, double-blind, placebo-controlled studies with colostrum products should be conducted to widen its therapeutic use. The objectives of this review are to create awareness about the nutraceutical properties of colostrum and to discuss the various ongoing alternative treatments of colostrum and its active ingredients as well as to address colostrum's future nutraceutical and therapeutic implications in humans. PMID:25781716

  9. Ruminant alphaherpesviruses related to bovine herpesvirus 1.

    PubMed

    Thiry, Julien; Keuser, Véronique; Muylkens, Benoît; Meurens, François; Gogev, Sacha; Vanderplasschen, Alain; Thiry, Etienne

    2006-01-01

    Herpesviruses have mainly co-evolved with their hosts for millions of years. Consequently, different related host species may have been infected by various genetically related herpesviruses. Illustrating this concept, several ruminant alphaherpesviruses have been shown to form a cluster of viruses closely related to bovine herpesvirus 1 (BoHV-1): namely bovine herpesvirus 5, bubaline herpesvirus 1, caprine herpesvirus 1, cervid herpesviruses 1 and 2 and elk herpesvirus 1. These viruses share common antigenic properties and the serological relationships between them can be considered as a threat to BoHV-1 eradication programmes. BoHV-1 is a herpesvirus responsible for infectious bovine rhinotracheitis, which is a disease of major economic concern. In this article, the genetic properties of these ruminant alphaherpesviruses are reviewed on a comparative basis and the issue of interspecific recombination is assessed. The pathogenesis of these infections is described with emphasis on the host range and crossing of the host species barrier. Indeed, the non bovine ruminant species susceptible to these ruminant alphaherpesviruses may be potential BoHV-1 reservoirs. The differential diagnosis of these related infections is also discussed. In addition, available epidemiological data are used to assess the potential of cross-infection in ruminant populations. A better knowledge of these ruminant alphaherpesvirus infections is essential to successfully control infectious bovine rhinotracheitis. PMID:16472518

  10. Bovine Fetal Inoculations with Calf Rotavirus

    PubMed Central

    Schlafer, D. H.; Schultz, R. D.; Scott, F. W.; Duncan, J. R.

    1979-01-01

    The serological and histopathological responses of bovine fetuses to in utero inoculation with virulent and attenuated strains of the calf rotavirus (reovirus-like agent of neonatal calf diarrhea) are described. Thirteen bovine fetuses, 63 to 190 days of gestation, were inoculated in utero with attenuated (three fetuses) or field strain virus (nine fetuses) or both (one fetus). Serum-neutralizing antibody titers ranging from 1:16 to > 1:256 were detected in six of eight fetuses tested, demonstrating the ability of the bovine fetus to respond immunologically to this agent. The youngest fetus in the series was inoculated at 63 days of gestation and developed a titer of 128 in 64 days. This represents the earliest stage of gestation at which a bovine fetus has been inoculated with a bovine virus and found to produce antibody to it. Serum neutralizing titers in six of the eight dams tested increased significantly following the inoculations of their fetuses in utero. Histological changes associated with viral replication and antigenic stimulation of the lymphoreticular system were observed. Pneumonic lesions consisting of both local and diffuse lymphoreticular proliferation were present in five of the nine fetuses that were alive at slaughter. Gliosis and perivascular cuffing were noted in the brains of two of these fetuses and meningitis was seen in one. No evidence of teratogenic change was found. ImagesFig. 2.Fig. 3.Fig. 4.Fig. 5.Fig. 6.Fig. 7. PMID:232853

  11. Recent Progress in Cryopreservation of Bovine Oocytes

    PubMed Central

    Hochi, Shinichi

    2014-01-01

    Principle of oocyte cryoinjury is first overviewed and then research history of cryopreservation using bovine oocytes is summarized for the last two decades with a few special references to recent progresses. Various types of cryodevices have been developed to accelerate the cooling rate and applied to the oocytes from large domestic species enriched with cytoplasmic lipid droplets. Two recent approaches include the qualitative improvement of IVM oocytes prior to the vitrification and the short-term recovery culture of vitrified-warmed oocytes prior to the subsequent IVF. Supplementation of L-carnitine to IVM medium of bovine oocytes has been reported to reduce the amount of cytoplasmic lipid droplets and improve the cryotolerance of the oocytes, but it is still controversial whether the positive effect of L-carnitine is reproducible. Incidence of multiple aster formation, a possible cause for low developmental potential of vitrified-warmed bovine oocytes, was inhibited by a short-term culture of the postwarm oocytes in the presence of Rho-associated coiled-coil kinase (ROCK) inhibitor. Use of an antioxidant α-tocopherol, instead of the ROCK inhibitor, also supported the revivability of the postwarm bovine oocytes. Further improvements of the vitrification procedure, combined with pre- and postvitrification chemical treatment, would overcome the high sensitivity of bovine oocytes to cryopreservation. PMID:24738063

  12. Cloning, Identification and Functional Characterization of Bovine Free Fatty Acid Receptor-1 (FFAR1/GPR40) in Neutrophils

    PubMed Central

    Manosalva, Carolina; Mena, Jaqueline; Velasquez, Zahady; Colenso, Charlotte K.; Brauchi, Sebastian; Burgos, Rafael A.; Hidalgo, Maria A.

    2015-01-01

    Long chain fatty acids (LCFAs), which are ligands for the G-protein coupled receptor FFAR1 (GPR40), are increased in cow plasma after parturition, a period in which they are highly susceptible to infectious diseases. This study identified and analyzed the functional role of the FFAR1 receptor in bovine neutrophils, the first line of host defense against infectious agents. We cloned the putative FFAR1 receptor from bovine neutrophils and analyzed the sequence to construct a homology model. Our results revealed that the sequence of bovine FFAR1 shares 84% identity with human FFAR1 and 31% with human FFAR3/GPR41. Therefore, we constructed a homology model of bovine FFAR1 using human as the template. Expression of the bovine FFAR1 receptor in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO)-K1 cells increased the levels of intracellular calcium induced by the LCFAs, oleic acid (OA) and linoleic acid (LA); no increase in calcium mobilization was observed in the presence of the short chain fatty acid propionic acid. Additionally, the synthetic agonist GW9508 increased intracellular calcium in CHO-K1/bFFAR1 cells. OA and LA increased intracellular calcium in bovine neutrophils. Furthermore, GW1100 (antagonist of FFAR1) and U73122 (phospholipase C (PLC) inhibitor) reduced FFAR1 ligand-induced intracellular calcium in CHO-K1/bFFAR1 cells and neutrophils. Additionally, inhibition of FFAR1, PLC and PKC reduced the FFAR1 ligand-induced release of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 granules and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. Thus, we identified the bovine FFAR1 receptor and demonstrate a functional role for this receptor in neutrophils activated with oleic or linoleic acid. PMID:25790461

  13. Evaluation of experimental vaccines for bovine viral diarrhea in bovines, ovines and guinea pigs.

    PubMed

    Fernández, F; Costantini, V; Barrandeguy, M; Parreño, V; Schiappacassi, G; Maliandi, F; Leunda, M; Odeón, A

    2009-01-01

    The bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) infection control should be based on elimination of persistently infected animals and on immunization through vaccination, to prevent fetal infection. However, the efficacy of inactivated BVDV vaccines is variable due to its low immunogenicity. This study evaluated the humoral immune response against homologous and heterologous strains of 7 inactivated BVDV vaccines, in bovines and two experimental models (ovine and guinea pig) which might be used to test candidate vaccines. Vaccines formulated with BVDV Singer, Oregon, NADL, and multivalent, induced seroconversion in the three animal models studied, reaching antibody titres higher than 2. Vaccine containing 125C -genotype 2- only induced a low antibody response in ovine, while VS-115 NCP vaccine was not immunogenic. Furthermore, bovine sera at 60 dpv presented homologous as well as heterologous antibody response, indicating a high degree of cross-reactivity among the strains studied. However, when bovine sera were tested against the Argentine field strain 00-693, they showed the lowest levels of cross-reactivity, suggesting the need of continued surveillance to identify and characterize emerging field BVDV strains. Finally, optimal correlations between bovine-ovine and bovine-guinea pig models were observed, indicating that two alternative species could replace bovines when testing the immunogenicity of BVDV candidate vaccines. PMID:19623897

  14. Parthenogenetic activation of bovine oocytes using bovine and murine phospholipase C zeta

    PubMed Central

    Ross, Pablo J; Beyhan, Zeki; Iager, Amy E; Yoon, Sook-Young; Malcuit, Christopher; Schellander, Karl; Fissore, Rafael A; Cibelli, Jose B

    2008-01-01

    Background During natural fertilization, sperm fusion with the oocyte induces long lasting intracellular calcium oscillations which in turn are responsible for oocyte activation. PLCZ1 has been identified as the factor that the sperm delivers into the egg to induce such a response. We tested the hypothesis that PLCZ1 cRNA injection can be used to activate bovine oocytes. Results Mouse and bovine PLCZ1 cRNAs were injected into matured bovine oocytes at different concentrations. Within the concentrations tested, mouse PLCZ1 injection activated bovine oocytes at a maximum rate when the pipette concentration of cRNA ranged from 0.25 to 1 μg/μL, while bovine PLCZ1 was optimal at 0.1 μg/μL. At their most effective concentrations, PLCZ1 induced parthenogenetic development at rates similar to those observed using other activation stimuli such as Ionomycin/CHX and Ionomycin/DMAP. Injection of mouse and bovine PLCZ1 cRNA induced dose-dependent sperm-like calcium oscillations whose frequency increased over time. Injection of bovine and mouse PLCZ1 cRNA also induced IP3R-1 degradation, although bovine PLCZ1 cRNA evoked greater receptor degradation than its mouse counterpart. Conclusion Injection of PLCZ1 cRNA efficiently activated bovine oocytes by inducing a sperm-like calcium oscillatory pattern. Importantly, the high rate of aneuploidy encountered in parthenogenetic embryos activated by certain chemical means was not observed in PLCZ1 activated embryos. PMID:18284699

  15. Understanding and evaluating bovine testes.

    PubMed

    Kastelic, John P

    2014-01-01

    The objective is to briefly review bovine testes and how they are assessed, with an emphasis on articles from Theriogenology. Scrotal circumference (SC) is the most common method to assess testicular size; it varies among individual bulls and breeds and is highly heritable. In general, a large SC is associated with early puberty, more sperm, a higher percentage of morphologically normal sperm, and better reproductive performance in closely related females. Consequently, there are minimum requirements for SC for breeding soundness. In prepubertal bull calves, there is an early rise (10-20 weeks of age) in LH, which is critically related to onset of puberty and testicular development. Feeding bulls approximately 130% of maintenance requirements of energy and protein from approximately 8 to 30 weeks of age increased LH release during the early rise, hastened puberty (approximately 1 month), and increased mature testis size and sperm production (approximately 20%-30%). However, high-energy diets after weaning (>200 days) often reduced sperm production and semen quality. A bull's testes and scrotum have opposing (complementary) temperature gradients, which keep the testicular temperature 2 °C to 6 °C cooler than core body temperature for production of fertile sperm (increased testicular temperature reduces semen quality). Infrared thermography, a quick and noninvasive method of assessing scrotal surface temperature, may be beneficial for evaluations of breeding soundness. The primary clinical use of ultrasonography in assessment of reproductive function in the bull is characterization of grossly detectable lesions in the testes and scrotum. In conclusion, testis size and function are critical for bull fertility, affected by nutrition, and readily assessed clinically. PMID:24274406

  16. Raw bovine milk improves gut responses to feeding relative to infant formula in preterm piglets.

    PubMed

    Li, Yanqi; Jensen, Mikkel L; Chatterton, Dereck E W; Jensen, Bent B; Thymann, Thomas; Kvistgaard, Anne S; Sangild, Per T

    2014-01-01

    For preterm neonates, the quality of the first milk is crucial for intestinal maturation and resistance to necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC). Among other factors, milk quality is determined by the stage of lactation and processing. We hypothesized that unprocessed mature bovine milk (BM; raw bovine milk) would have less bioactivity than corresponding bovine colostrum (BC) in a preterm pig model, but have improved bioactivity relative to its homogenized, pasteurized, spray-dried equivalent, whole milk powder (WMP), or a bovine milk protein-based infant formula (IF). For 5 days, newborn preterm pigs received parenteral and enteral nutrition consisting of IF (n = 13), BM (n = 13), or BC (n = 14). In a second study, WMP (n = 15) was compared with IF (n = 10) and BM (n = 9). Compared with pigs fed IF, pigs that were fed BM had significantly improved intestinal structure (mucosal weight, villus height) and function (increased nutrient absorption and enzyme activities, decreased gut permeability, nutrient fermentation, and NEC severity). BC further improved these effects relative to BM (lactase activity, lactose absorption, plasma citrulline, and tissue interleukin-8). WMP induced similar effects as BM, except for lactase activity and lactose absorption. In conclusion, the maturational and protective effects on the immature intestine decreased in the order BC>BM>WMP, but all three intact bovine milk diets were markedly better than IF. The stage of lactation (colostrum vs. mature milk) and milk processing (e.g., homogenization, fractionation, pasteurization, spray-drying) are important factors in determining milk quality during the early postnatal period of preterm neonates. PMID:24157971

  17. New antibacterial peptide derived from bovine hemoglobin.

    PubMed

    Daoud, Rachid; Dubois, Veronique; Bors-Dodita, Loredana; Nedjar-Arroume, Naima; Krier, Francois; Chihib, Nour-Eddine; Mary, Patrice; Kouach, Mostafa; Briand, Gilbert; Guillochon, Didier

    2005-05-01

    Peptic digestion of bovine hemoglobin at low degree of hydrolysis yields an intermediate peptide fraction exhibiting antibacterial activity against Micrococcus luteus A270, Listeria innocua, Escherichia coli and Salmonella enteritidis after separation by reversed-phase HPLC. From this fraction a pure peptide was isolated and analyzed by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS) and electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-MS/MS). This peptide correspond to the 107-136 fragment of the alpha chain of bovine hemoglobin. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) towards the four strains and its hemolytic activity towards bovine erythrocytes were determined. A MIC of 38 microM was reported against L. innocua and 76 microM for other various bacterial species. This peptide had no hemolytic activity up to 380 microM concentration. PMID:15808900

  18. Comparison of human and bovine protoporphyria.

    PubMed

    Brenner, D A; Bloomer, J R

    1979-01-01

    Protoporphyria (PP) is an inherited disorder of porphyrin metabolism in man in which there is excessive accumulation and excretion of protoporphyrin. Recently, a similar disorder has been described in cattle. In this report, the clinical, biochemical, and genetic features of bovine and human PP are compared. Human and bovine PP are characterized by photosensitivity and elevation of erythrocyte and fecal protoporphyrin levels. In both disorders, a deficiency of heme synthase activity is present in all tissues which have been examined. The diseases differ clinically in that hepatobiliary disease has been found thus far only in human PP. They also have different inheritance patterns. Human PP is an autosomal dominant disease, while initial studies strongly suggest that there is an autosomal recessive pattern of inheritance in bovine PP. PMID:392959

  19. Arachidonate metabolism in bovine gallbladder muscle

    SciTech Connect

    Nakano, M.; Hidaka, T.; Ueta, T.; Ogura, R.

    1983-04-01

    Incubation of (1-/sup 14/C)arachidonic acid (AA) with homogenates of bovine gallbladder muscle generated a large amount of radioactive material having the chromatographic mobility of 6-keto-PGF1 alpha (stable product of PGI2) and smaller amounts of products that comigrated with PGF2 alpha PGE2. Formation of these products was inhibited by the cyclooxygenase inhibitor indomethacin. The major radioactive product identified by thin-layer chromatographic mobility and by gas chromatography - mass spectrometric analysis was found to be 6-keto-PGF1 alpha. The quantitative metabolic pattern of (1-/sup 14/C)PGH2 was virtually identical to that of (1-/sup 14/C)AA. Incubation of arachidonic acid with slices of bovine gallbladder muscle released labile anti-aggregatory material in the medium, which was inhibited by aspirin or 15-hydroperoxy-AA. These results indicate that bovine gallbladder muscle has a considerable enzymatic capacity to produce PGI2 from arachidonic acid.

  20. 21 CFR 522.1125 - Hemoglobin glutamer-200 (bovine).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Hemoglobin glutamer-200 (bovine). 522.1125 Section... § 522.1125 Hemoglobin glutamer-200 (bovine). (a) Specifications. Each 125 milliliter bag contains 13 grams per deciliter of polymerized hemoglobin of bovine origin in modified Lactated Ringer's...

  1. 21 CFR 522.1125 - Hemoglobin glutamer-200 (bovine).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Hemoglobin glutamer-200 (bovine). 522.1125 Section... § 522.1125 Hemoglobin glutamer-200 (bovine). (a) Specifications. Each 125 milliliter bag contains 13 grams per deciliter of polymerized hemoglobin of bovine origin in modified Lactated Ringer's...

  2. 21 CFR 522.1125 - Hemoglobin glutamer-200 (bovine).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Hemoglobin glutamer-200 (bovine). 522.1125 Section... § 522.1125 Hemoglobin glutamer-200 (bovine). (a) Specifications. Each 125 milliliter bag contains 13 grams per deciliter of polymerized hemoglobin of bovine origin in modified Lactated Ringer's...

  3. 21 CFR 522.1125 - Hemoglobin glutamer-200 (bovine).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Hemoglobin glutamer-200 (bovine). 522.1125 Section... § 522.1125 Hemoglobin glutamer-200 (bovine). (a) Specifications. Each 125 milliliter bag contains 13 grams per deciliter of polymerized hemoglobin of bovine origin in modified Lactated Ringer's...

  4. 76 FR 26239 - Bovine Tuberculosis and Brucellosis; Public Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-06

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Bovine Tuberculosis and Brucellosis... framework being developed for the bovine tuberculosis and brucellosis programs in the United States. The... tuberculosis (TB) and bovine brucellosis in the United States. In keeping with its commitment to...

  5. Circulating microRNA Profiles during the Bovine Oestrous Cycle

    PubMed Central

    Ioannidis, Jason; Donadeu, F. Xavier

    2016-01-01

    Up to 50% of ovulations go undetected in modern dairy herds due to attenuated oestrus behavior and a lack of high-accuracy methods for detection of fertile oestrus. This significantly reduces overall herd productivity and constitutes a high economic burden to the dairy industry. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are ubiquitous regulators of gene expression during both health and disease and they have been shown to regulate different reproductive processes. Extracellular miRNAs are stable and can provide useful biomarkers of tissue function; changes in circulating miRNA profiles have been reported during menstrual cycles. This study sought to establish the potential of circulating miRNAs as biomarkers of oestrus in cattle. We collected plasma samples from 8 Holstein-Friesian heifers on days Days 0, 8 and 16 of an oestrous cycle and analysed small RNA populations on each Day using two independent high-throughput approaches, namely, Illumina sequencing (n = 24 samples) and Qiagen PCR arrays (n = 9 sample pools, 3–4 samples / pool). Subsequently, we used RT-qPCR (n = 24 samples) to validate the results of high-throughput analyses, as well as to establish the expression profiles of additional miRNAs previously reported to be differentially expressed during reproductive cycles. Overall, we identified four miRNAs (let-7f, miR-125b, miR-145 and miR-99a-5p), the plasma levels of which distinctly increased (up to 2.2-fold, P < 0.05) during oestrus (Day 0) relative to other stages of the cycle (Days 8 and 16). Moreover, we identified several hundred different isomiRs and established their relative abundance in bovine plasma. In summary, our results reveal the dynamic nature of plasma miRNAs during the oestrous cycle and provide evidence of the feasibility of using circulating miRNAs as biomarkers of reproductive function in livestock in the future. PMID:27340826

  6. A Polyclonal Antibody Against Recombinant Bovine Haptoglobin Expressed in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Donghua; Zhang, Hong; Li, Chunqiu

    2013-01-01

    The nucleotide sequence of the predicted immunodominant region of bovine haptoglobin (pirBoHp), without the signal peptide sequence, was synthesized based on the codon usage bias of Escherichia coli. The synthesized pirBoHp gene was cloned into the prokaryotic expression vector pET-32a (+), which contains a His-tag. The recombinant pirBoHp protein was successfully expressed in E. coli BL21 (DE3) cells. Western blot analysis showed that the purified recombinant pirBoHp protein could be recognized by an anti-His-tag monoclonal antibody. Further investigations indicated that a polyclonal antibody against the recombinant pirBoHp protein could recognize the α and β chains of native bovine haptoglobin in a pooled plasma sample from dairy cattle suffering from foot rot. PMID:24328747

  7. Characterization of the bovine C alpha gene.

    PubMed Central

    Brown, W R; Rabbani, H; Butler, J E; Hammarström, L

    1997-01-01

    The complete genomic sequence of a bovine C alpha gene is reported here. The genomic sequence was obtained from a C alpha phage clone that had been cloned from a genomic EMBL4 phage vector library. The C alpha sequence had previously been expressed as a chimeric antibody and identified as IgA using IgA-specific antibodies. Intron/exon boundaries were determined by comparison of the genomic sequence with an expressed bovine C alpha sequence obtained from spleen by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Analysis of 50 Swedish bovine genomic DNA samples using genomic blots and five different restriction enzymes failed to detect evidence of polymorphism. However, PstI digests of Brown Swiss DNA showed a restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP), suggesting that at least two allelic variants of bovine IgA exist. Comparison of the deduced amino acid sequence of bovine IgA with sequences available for other species indicated that the highest homology was with that of swine, another artiodactyl. This was the highest homology observed for all mammalian IgA compared except for that between IgA1 and IgA2 in humans. Bovine IgA shares with rabbit IgA3 and IgA4, an additional N-linked glycosylation site at position 282. However, the collective data indicate that cattle are like swine and rodents and unlike rabbits in having a single locus of the gene encoding IgA of this species. Images Figure 4 PMID:9203958

  8. [Investigation on bovine leukocyte adhesion deficiency].

    PubMed

    Ma, Jin-Zhu; Cui, Yu-Dong; Zhu, Zhan-Bo; Cao, Hong-Wei; Piao, Fan-Ze

    2006-10-01

    Bovine leukocyte adhesion deficiency (BLAD) is autosomal recessive disease. The pathogeny of BLAD is genic mutation of CD18-integrins on the leukocyte. In order to know the carrier and occurrence of bovine leukocyte adhesion deficiency (BLAD) among cows age from one to six years old in China, 1,000 cows were investigated by means of amplifying a CD18 gene fragment via reverse transcriptase-PCR followed by restriction digestion with Taq I. Results showed that 19 cows were BLAD carriers, indicating that the BLAD carrier rate was 1.9 percent. In addition, one cow was found to have BLAD. PMID:17035180

  9. Economics of bovine leukemia virus infection.

    PubMed

    Pelzer, K D

    1997-03-01

    A herd infected with bovine leukemia virus suffers a direct economic loss due to clinical lymphosarcoma. A major indirect cost associated with infection is restriction of the sale of animals and germplasma to foreign markets. Reports on the economic effects of infection on production have been variable and are reviewed in this article. In order to develop cost-effective bovine leukemia virus control programs, costs associated with the disease, the cost of prevention, and expected economic returns from a program need to be considered. PMID:9071750

  10. Purification and characterization of membrane-bound semicarbazide-sensitive amine oxidase (SSAO) from bovine lung.

    PubMed Central

    Lizcano, J M; Tipton, K F; Unzeta, M

    1998-01-01

    Semicarbazide-sensitive amine oxidase (SSAO) has been purified from bovine lung microsomes in a form which is catalytically active and stable to storage. The enzyme, an integral membrane protein, was solubilized with Triton X-100 and purification was achieved, in the presence of detergent, by chromatography with Cibacron Blue 3GA-agarose, hydroxylapatite, Lens culinaris-agarose, Resource Q-FPLC and gel filtration on Superdex 200 HR-FPLC. This is the first reported procedure for the extensive purification of a membrane-bound SSAO. The purified enzyme had an apparent Mr of 400000 but exhibited microheterogeneity with SDS/PAGE and isoelectric focusing, probably as a result of its glycoprotein nature. It behaved as a tetramer with subunits with apparent Mr values of 100. Antibodies raised towards the purified enzyme cross-reacted with the enzymes from human lung and bovine plasma. Redox-cycling staining and reaction with carbonyl reagents were consistent with the presence of a quinone cofactor, possibly topa quinone. The enzyme was also shown to contain two mol of Cu/mol of enzyme and removal of half of this bound copper resulted essentially in complete inhibition of enzyme activity. In contrast to the reported behaviour of the SSAO enzymes from plasma, the bovine lung enzyme was relatively insensitive to inhibition by cyanide, copper-chelating agents and amiloride. The specificity of the bovine lung enzyme was also narrower than reported for soluble SSAO. It catalysed the oxidative deamination of benzylamine, methylamine, 2-phenylethylamine and histamine but had no significant activity towards dopamine, 5-hydroxytryptamine, tryptamine or tyramine. PMID:9512463

  11. Properties of follicle-stimulating-hormone receptor in cell membranes of bovine testis.

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, K W

    1975-01-01

    A simple method for preparing plasma membranes from bovine testes is described. Bovine testicular receptor has a high affinity and specificity for 125I-labelled human FSH (follicle-stimulating hormone). The specific binding of 125I-labelled human FSH to the plasma membranes is a saturable process with respect to the amounts of receptor protein and FSH added. The association and dissociation of 125I-labelled human FSH are time- and temperature-dependent, and the binding of labelled human FSH to bovine testicular receptor is strong and not readily reversible. Scatchard [Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. (1949) 51, 660-672] analysis indicates a dissociation constant, Kd, of 9.8 X10(-11)M, and 5.9 X 10(-14)mol of binding sites/mg of membrane protein. The testicular membrane receptor is heat-labile. Preheating at 40 degrees C for 15 min destroyed 30% of the binding activity. Specific binding is pH-dependent, with an optimum between pH 7.0 and 7.5. Brief exposure to extremes of pH caused irreversible damage to the receptors. The ionic strength of the incubation medium markedly affects the association of 125I-labelled human FSH with its testicular receptor. Various cations at concentrations of 0.1M inhibit almost completely the binding of 125I-labelled human FSH. Nuclectides and steroid hormones at concentrations of 1mM and 5mu/ml respectively have no effect on the binding of FSH to its receptor. Incubation of membranes with and chymotrypsin resulted in an almost complete loss of binding activity, suggesting that protein moieties are essential for the binding of 125I-labelled human FSH. Binding of 125I-labelled human FSH to bovine testicular receptor does not result in destruction or degradation of the hormone. PMID:242318

  12. Phenotypic, Ultra-Structural, and Functional Characterization of Bovine Peripheral Blood Dendritic Cell Subsets

    PubMed Central

    Sei, Janet J.; Ochoa, Amanda S.; Bishop, Elizabeth; Barlow, John W.; Golde, William T.

    2014-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DC) are multi-functional cells that bridge the gap between innate and adaptive immune systems. In bovine, significant information is lacking on the precise identity and role of peripheral blood DC subsets. In this study, we identify and characterize bovine peripheral blood DC subsets directly ex vivo, without further in vitro manipulation. Multi-color flow cytometric analysis revealed that three DC subsets could be identified. Bovine plasmacytoid DC were phenotypically identified by a unique pattern of cell surface protein expression including CD4, exhibited an extensive endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi apparatus, efficiently internalized and degraded exogenous antigen, and were the only peripheral blood cells specialized in the production of type I IFN following activation with Toll-like receptor (TLR) agonists. Conventional DC were identified by expression of a different pattern of cell surface proteins including CD11c, MHC class II, and CD80, among others, the display of extensive dendritic protrusions on their plasma membrane, expression of very high levels of MHC class II and co-stimulatory molecules, efficient internalization and degradation of exogenous antigen, and ready production of detectable levels of TNF-alpha in response to TLR activation. Our investigations also revealed a third novel DC subset that may be a precursor of conventional DC that were MHC class II+ and CD11c−. These cells exhibited a smooth plasma membrane with a rounded nucleus, produced TNF-alpha in response to TLR-activation (albeit lower than CD11c+ DC), and were the least efficient in internalization/degradation of exogenous antigen. These studies define three bovine blood DC subsets with distinct phenotypic and functional characteristics which can be analyzed during immune responses to pathogens and vaccinations of cattle. PMID:25295753

  13. The interaction between bovine herpesvirus type 1 and activated bovine T lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Griebel, P J; Ohmann, H B; Lawman, M J; Babiuk, L A

    1990-02-01

    The interaction between activated bovine T lymphocytes (BTLs) and bovine herpesvirus type 1 (BHV-1) was investigated. BHV-1 infection of BTLs reduced the amplitude of recombinant bovine interleukin 2-induced proliferative responses. This decreased proliferation was caused by a virus-induced lymphocytolysis which was dependent on viable virus and was not inhibited by recombinant bovine interferon-alpha I1. Furthermore, lymphocytolysis was not associated with virus replication or with the synthesis of detectable levels of viral proteins. Electron microscopic examination of virus-infected cells revealed that lymphocytolysis was characterized by early nuclear disintegration resembling apoptosis. These observations suggest that activated T cells, localized at the site of BHV-1 infection, may be susceptible to virus-induced cytolysis. PMID:2155290

  14. Molecular differentiation of bovine sarcocysts.

    PubMed

    Akhlaghi, Majedeh; Razavi, Mostafa; Hosseini, Arsalan

    2016-07-01

    Cattle are common intermediate hosts of Sarcocystis, and the prevalence in adult bovine muscle is close to 100 % in most regions of the world. Three Sarcocystis spp. are known to infect cattle as intermediate hosts, namely, S. cruzi, S. hirsuta, and S. hominis. The aim of the present study was the molecular identification and differentiation of these three species, Neospora caninum and Besnoitia by PCR and RFLP methods. Tissue samples were obtained from diaphragmatic muscle of 101 cattle slaughtered in Shiraz, Fars Province, Iran, for both smear preparation and DNA extraction. The samples were digested by Pepsin, washed three times with PBS solution before taking smears, fixed in absolute methanol and stained with 10 % Giemsa. The slides were examined microscopically for Sarcocystis bradyzoites and DNA was extracted from 100 mg of Sarcocystis-infected meat samples. Since the primers also bind to 18S rRNA gene of some tissue cyst-forming coccidian protozoa, DNA was also extracted from 100 μl of tachyzoite-containing suspension of N. caninum and Besnoitia isolated from goat to compare RFLP pattern. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was performed on DNA of samples which were microscopically positive for Sarcocystis. Five restriction enzymes Dra1, EcoRV, RsaI, AvaI, and SspI were used for RFLP and DNA of one sample from protozoa was sequenced. Based on the RFLP results, 87 (98.9 %) DNA samples were cut with DraI, indicating infection by S. cruzi. One sample (1.1 %) of PCR products of infected samples was cut only with EcoRV which showed S. hominis infection. Forty-eight samples (53.3 %) of PCR products were cut with both DraI, EcoRV, or with DraI, EcoRV, and RsaI while none of them was cut with SspI, which shows the mixed infection of both S. cruzi and S. hominis and no infection with S. hirsuta. It seems by utilizing these restriction enzymes, RLFP could be a suitable method not only for identification of Sarcocystis species but also for differentiating them

  15. Concurrent Bovine Virus Diarrhea and Bovine Papular Stomatitis Infection in a Calf

    PubMed Central

    Bohac, J. G.; Yates, W. D. G.

    1980-01-01

    A case of concurrent infection with the viruses of bovine virus diarrhea and papular stomatitis in a calf is reported. The difficulties posed by such situations are described and the criteria used for diagnosis outlined. The two diseases are reviewed briefly and the possible mechanisms whereby bovine virus diarrhea virus is suspected of facilitating infection by other agents are discussed. ImagesFigure 1.Figure 2.Figure 3.Figure 4. PMID:7459795

  16. Investigating the use of protein saver cards for storage and subsequent detection of bovine anti-Brucella abortus smooth lipopolysaccharide antibodies and gamma interferon.

    PubMed

    Duncombe, Lucy; Commander, Nicola J; Erdenlig, Sevil; McGiven, John A; Stack, Judy

    2013-11-01

    Brucella abortus, a smooth strain of the genus Brucella, is the causative agent of bovine brucellosis. To support the ongoing development of diagnostic tests for bovine brucellosis, the use of Protein Saver cards (Whatman) for bovine blood serum and plasma sample collection has been evaluated. These cards offer significant logistical and safety alternatives to transporting and storing liquid samples and may aid in diagnostic programs and validation studies. To evaluate the utility of these cards, 204 bovine blood serum samples from Brucella-infected and noninfected animals were stored on and eluted from the Protein Saver cards. Anti-Brucella smooth lipopolysaccharide (sLPS) antibody titers for the serum eluates were compared to those of the unprocessed original serum samples by indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The results showed a highly significant correlation between titers from the serum eluates and the unprocessed sera. Therefore, under these circumstances, serum eluates and unprocessed serum samples may be used interchangeably. Blood plasma from 113 mitogen-stimulated whole-blood samples was added to and eluted from the Protein Saver cards. The gamma interferon (IFN-γ) titers in the plasma eluates were compared to those of the unprocessed plasma samples obtained by IFN-γ ELISA. The results showed a significant correlation between the plasma eluates and the unprocessed plasma samples. To derive a signal in the plasma eluate, it was necessary to develop a novel and highly sensitive ELISA for the detection of IFN-γ. The serum samples stored on cards at room temperature over a 10-day period showed little variation in antibody titers. However, the plasma eluates showed a progressive loss of IFN-γ recovery over 10 days when stored at room temperature. PMID:23986318

  17. Investigating the Use of Protein Saver Cards for Storage and Subsequent Detection of Bovine Anti-Brucella abortus Smooth Lipopolysaccharide Antibodies and Gamma Interferon

    PubMed Central

    Commander, Nicola J.; Erdenlig, Sevil; McGiven, John A.; Stack, Judy

    2013-01-01

    Brucella abortus, a smooth strain of the genus Brucella, is the causative agent of bovine brucellosis. To support the ongoing development of diagnostic tests for bovine brucellosis, the use of Protein Saver cards (Whatman) for bovine blood serum and plasma sample collection has been evaluated. These cards offer significant logistical and safety alternatives to transporting and storing liquid samples and may aid in diagnostic programs and validation studies. To evaluate the utility of these cards, 204 bovine blood serum samples from Brucella-infected and noninfected animals were stored on and eluted from the Protein Saver cards. Anti-Brucella smooth lipopolysaccharide (sLPS) antibody titers for the serum eluates were compared to those of the unprocessed original serum samples by indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The results showed a highly significant correlation between titers from the serum eluates and the unprocessed sera. Therefore, under these circumstances, serum eluates and unprocessed serum samples may be used interchangeably. Blood plasma from 113 mitogen-stimulated whole-blood samples was added to and eluted from the Protein Saver cards. The gamma interferon (IFN-γ) titers in the plasma eluates were compared to those of the unprocessed plasma samples obtained by IFN-γ ELISA. The results showed a significant correlation between the plasma eluates and the unprocessed plasma samples. To derive a signal in the plasma eluate, it was necessary to develop a novel and highly sensitive ELISA for the detection of IFN-γ. The serum samples stored on cards at room temperature over a 10-day period showed little variation in antibody titers. However, the plasma eluates showed a progressive loss of IFN-γ recovery over 10 days when stored at room temperature. PMID:23986318

  18. Molecular biology of bovine viral diarrhea virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bovine viral diarrhea viruses (BVDV) are arguably the most important viral pathogen of ruminants worldwide and can cause severe economic loss. Clinical symptoms of the disease caused by BVDV range from subclinical to severe acute hemorrhagic syndrome, with the severity of disease being strain depend...

  19. NUTRIENTS AND EPIGENETICS IN BOVINE CELLS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This is a chapter for a book titled “Livestock Epigenetics” edited by Dr. Hasan Khatib and published by Wiley-Blackwell. This chapter is focused on the research development in our laboratory in the area of interaction of nutrients and genomic phonotype in bovine cells. Briefly, the Research on nutri...

  20. Recombinant Bovine Growth Hormone Criticism Grows.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaard, Greta

    1995-01-01

    Discusses concerns related to the use of recombinant bovine growth hormone in the United States and other countries. Analyses the issue from the perspectives of animal rights, human health, world hunger, concerns of small and organic farmers, costs to the taxpayer, and environmental questions. A sidebar discusses Canadian review of the hormone.…

  1. Unraveling bovin phylogeny: accomplishments and challenges.

    PubMed

    Bibi, Faysal; Vrba, Elisabeth S

    2010-01-01

    The phylogenetic systematics of bovin species forms a common basis for studies at multiple scales, from the level of domestication in populations to major cladogenesis. The main big-picture accomplishments of this productive field, including two recent works, one in BMC Genomics, are reviewed with an eye for some of the limitations and challenges impeding progress. PMID:20525112

  2. Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus: Global Status

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Despite the success of regional bovine viral diarrhea viruses (BVDV) eradication programs, infections with this diverse group of viruses remain a source of economic loss for producers worldwide. There is a wide range of variation among BVDV results in differences in genotype (BVDV1 and BVDV2), biot...

  3. Epidemiology and control of bovine ephemeral fever.

    PubMed

    Walker, Peter J; Klement, Eyal

    2015-01-01

    Bovine ephemeral fever (or 3-day sickness) is an acute febrile illness of cattle and water buffaloes. Caused by an arthropod-borne rhabdovirus, bovine ephemeral fever virus (BEFV), the disease occurs seasonally over a vast expanse of the globe encompassing much of Africa, the Middle East, Asia and Australia. Although mortality rates are typically low, infection prevalence and morbidity rates during outbreaks are often very high, causing serious economic impacts through loss of milk production, poor cattle condition at sale and loss of traction power at harvest. There are also significant impacts on trade to regions in which the disease does not occur, including the Americas and most of Europe. In recent years, unusually severe outbreaks of bovine ephemeral fever have been reported from several regions in Asia and the Middle East, with mortality rates through disease or culling in excess of 10-20%. There are also concerns that, like other vector-borne diseases of livestock, the geographic distribution of bovine ephemeral fever could expand into regions that have historically been free of the disease. Here, we review current knowledge of the virus, including its molecular and antigenic structure, and the epidemiology of the disease across its entire geographic range. We also discuss the effectiveness of vaccination and other strategies to prevent or control infection. PMID:26511615

  4. Bovine respiratory disease research (1983-2009).

    PubMed

    Fulton, Robert W

    2009-12-01

    Bovine respiratory disease (BRD) research has provided significant understanding of the disease over the past 26 years. Modern research tools that have been used include monoclonal antibodies, genomics, polymerase chain reaction, immunohistochemistry (IHC), DNA vaccines and viral vectors coding for immunogens. Emerging/reemerging viruses and new antigenic strains of viruses and bacteria have been identified. Methods of detection and the role for cattle persistently infected bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) were identified; viral subunits, cellular components and bacterial products have been characterized. Product advances have included vaccines for bovine respiratory syncytial virus, Mannheimia haemolytica and Pasteurella multocida; the addition of BVDV2 to the existing vaccines and new antibiotics. The role of Mycoplasma spp., particularly Mycoplasma bovis in BRD, has been more extensively studied. Bovine immunology research has provided more specific information on immune responses, T cell subsets and cytokines. The molecular and genetic basis for viral-bacterial synergy in BRD has been described. Attempts have been made to document how prevention of BRD by proper vaccination and management prior to exposure to infectious agents can minimize disease and serve as economic incentives for certified health programs. PMID:20003649

  5. Bovine viral diarrhea virus: biosecurity and control

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This paper discusses the recommended procedures involved in setting up biosecurity and control programs designed to limit bovine viral diarrhea virus infections in beef cattle operations. For the purpose of these discussions, a working definition of a biosecurity plan was considered to be an organiz...

  6. A physical map of the bovine genome

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background Cattle are important agriculturally and relevant as a model organism. Previously described genetic and radiation hybrid (RH) maps of the bovine genome have been used to identify genomic regions and genes affecting specific traits. Application of these maps to identify influential geneti...

  7. Linkage mapping bovine EST-based SNP

    PubMed Central

    Snelling, Warren M; Casas, Eduardo; Stone, Roger T; Keele, John W; Harhay, Gregory P; Bennett, Gary L; Smith, Timothy PL

    2005-01-01

    Background Existing linkage maps of the bovine genome primarily contain anonymous microsatellite markers. These maps have proved valuable for mapping quantitative trait loci (QTL) to broad regions of the genome, but more closely spaced markers are needed to fine-map QTL, and markers associated with genes and annotated sequence are needed to identify genes and sequence variation that may explain QTL. Results Bovine expressed sequence tag (EST) and bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC)sequence data were used to develop 918 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers to map genes on the bovine linkage map. DNA of sires from the MARC reference population was used to detect SNPs, and progeny and mates of heterozygous sires were genotyped. Chromosome assignments for 861 SNPs were determined by twopoint analysis, and positions for 735 SNPs were established by multipoint analyses. Linkage maps of bovine autosomes with these SNPs represent 4585 markers in 2475 positions spanning 3058 cM . Markers include 3612 microsatellites, 913 SNPs and 60 other markers. Mean separation between marker positions is 1.2 cM. New SNP markers appear in 511 positions, with mean separation of 4.7 cM. Multi-allelic markers, mostly microsatellites, had a mean (maximum) of 216 (366) informative meioses, and a mean 3-lod confidence interval of 3.6 cM Bi-allelic markers, including SNP and other marker types, had a mean (maximum) of 55 (191) informative meioses, and were placed within a mean 8.5 cM 3-lod confidence interval. Homologous human sequences were identified for 1159 markers, including 582 newly developed and mapped SNP. Conclusion Addition of these EST- and BAC-based SNPs to the bovine linkage map not only increases marker density, but provides connections to gene-rich physical maps, including annotated human sequence. The map provides a resource for fine-mapping quantitative trait loci and identification of positional candidate genes, and can be integrated with other data to guide and

  8. Molecular definition of bovine argininosuccinate synthetase deficiency.

    PubMed Central

    Dennis, J A; Healy, P J; Beaudet, A L; O'Brien, W E

    1989-01-01

    Citrullinemia is an inborn error of metabolism due to deficiency of the urea cycle enzyme, argininosuccinate synthetase [L-citrulline:L-aspartate ligase (AMP-forming), EC 6.3.4.5]. The disease was first described in humans but was recently reported in dairy cattle in Australia. Here we report the nucleotide sequence of the normal bovine cDNA for argininosuccinate synthetase and the mutation present in animals with citrullinemia. Analysis of DNA from affected animals by Southern blotting did not readily identify the mutation in the bovine gene. RNA (Northern) blotting revealed a major reduction in the steady-state amount of mRNA in the liver of affected animals to less than 5% of controls. The bovine cDNA was cloned and sequenced and revealed 96% identity with the deduced human sequence at the amino acid level. Starting with mutant bovine liver, the mRNA was reverse-transcribed; the cDNA product was amplified with the polymerase chain reaction, cloned, and sequenced. The sequence revealed a C----T transition converting arginine-86 (CGA) to a nonsense codon (TGA). A second C----T transition represented a polymorphism in proline-175 (CCC----CCT). The mutation and the polymorphism were confirmed by amplification of genomic DNA and demonstration with restriction endonuclease enzymes of both the loss of an Ava II site in DNA from mutant animals at codon 86 and the presence or absence of a Dde I site at codon 175. The loss of the Ava II site can be used for rapid, economical, nonradioactive detection of heterozygotes for bovine citrullinemia. Images PMID:2813370

  9. A physical map of the bovine genome

    PubMed Central

    Snelling, Warren M; Chiu, Readman; Schein, Jacqueline E; Hobbs, Matthew; Abbey, Colette A; Adelson, David L; Aerts, Jan; Bennett, Gary L; Bosdet, Ian E; Boussaha, Mekki; Brauning, Rudiger; Caetano, Alexandre R; Costa, Marcos M; Crawford, Allan M; Dalrymple, Brian P; Eggen, André; Everts-van der Wind, Annelie; Floriot, Sandrine; Gautier, Mathieu; Gill, Clare A; Green, Ronnie D; Holt, Robert; Jann, Oliver; Jones, Steven JM; Kappes, Steven M; Keele, John W; de Jong, Pieter J; Larkin, Denis M; Lewin, Harris A; McEwan, John C; McKay, Stephanie; Marra, Marco A; Mathewson, Carrie A; Matukumalli, Lakshmi K; Moore, Stephen S; Murdoch, Brenda; Nicholas, Frank W; Osoegawa, Kazutoyo; Roy, Alice; Salih, Hanni; Schibler, Laurent; Schnabel, Robert D; Silveri, Licia; Skow, Loren C; Smith, Timothy PL; Sonstegard, Tad S; Taylor, Jeremy F; Tellam, Ross; Van Tassell, Curtis P; Williams, John L; Womack, James E; Wye, Natasja H; Yang, George; Zhao, Shaying

    2007-01-01

    Background Cattle are important agriculturally and relevant as a model organism. Previously described genetic and radiation hybrid (RH) maps of the bovine genome have been used to identify genomic regions and genes affecting specific traits. Application of these maps to identify influential genetic polymorphisms will be enhanced by integration with each other and with bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) libraries. The BAC libraries and clone maps are essential for the hybrid clone-by-clone/whole-genome shotgun sequencing approach taken by the bovine genome sequencing project. Results A bovine BAC map was constructed with HindIII restriction digest fragments of 290,797 BAC clones from animals of three different breeds. Comparative mapping of 422,522 BAC end sequences assisted with BAC map ordering and assembly. Genotypes and pedigree from two genetic maps and marker scores from three whole-genome RH panels were consolidated on a 17,254-marker composite map. Sequence similarity allowed integrating the BAC and composite maps with the bovine draft assembly (Btau3.1), establishing a comprehensive resource describing the bovine genome. Agreement between the marker and BAC maps and the draft assembly is high, although discrepancies exist. The composite and BAC maps are more similar than either is to the draft assembly. Conclusion Further refinement of the maps and greater integration into the genome assembly process may contribute to a high quality assembly. The maps provide resources to associate phenotypic variation with underlying genomic variation, and are crucial resources for understanding the biology underpinning this important ruminant species so closely associated with humans. PMID:17697342

  10. Biosynthesis of proteokeratan sulfate in the bovine cornea. 2) Isolation of subcellular membrane fragments from bovine cornea cells with keratan sulfate synthesizing activity.

    PubMed

    Keller, R; Stein, T; Weber, W; Kehrer, T; Stuhlsatz, H W; Greiling, H; Keyserlingk, D G

    1983-03-01

    Cornea cells were isolated from bovine corneae after collagenase treatment. Subcellular fragments were fractionated by density gradient centrifugation. The density gradient run was monitored by determination of the marker enzyme activities for mitochondria, plasma membranes, lysosomes and endoplasmatic reticulum, of the enzyme activities involved in keratan sulfate synthesis and of the protein content. The fractions were further investigated by electron microscopy. Two membrane fractions with keratan sulfate-synthesizing activity (UDP-N-acetylglucosamine:keratan-N-acetylglucosaminyl-transferase, UDPgalactose:keratan galactosyltransferase and keratan sulfotransferase) were detected: a heavy fraction separated from the other organells investigated and a light fraction exhibiting the same density as plasma membranes. The activities of the three enzymes were found in the same density gradient fractions with a similar distribution pattern between the fractions, which suggests a joint localization of these 3 enzymes at the same intracellular sites. PMID:6222957

  11. Plasma turbulence

    SciTech Connect

    Horton, W.; Hu, G.

    1998-07-01

    The origin of plasma turbulence from currents and spatial gradients in plasmas is described and shown to lead to the dominant transport mechanism in many plasma regimes. A wide variety of turbulent transport mechanism exists in plasmas. In this survey the authors summarize some of the universally observed plasma transport rates.

  12. Bovine Rhinitis Viruses Are Common in U.S. Cattle with Bovine Respiratory Disease

    PubMed Central

    Hause, Ben M.; Collin, Emily A.; Anderson, Joe; Hesse, Richard A.; Anderson, Gary

    2015-01-01

    Bovine rhinitis viruses (BRV) are established etiological agents of bovine respiratory disease complex however little research into their epidemiology and ecology has been published for several decades. In the U.S., only bovine rhinitis A virus 1 (BRAV1) has been identified while bovine rhinitis A virus 2 (BRAV2) and bovine rhinitis B virus (BRBV) were previously only identified in England and Japan, respectively. Metagenomic sequencing of a nasal swab from a bovine respiratory disease (BRD) diagnostic submission from Kansas identified contigs with approximately 90% nucleotide similarity to BRAV2 and BRBV. A combination of de novo and templated assemblies using reference genomes yielded near complete BRAV2 and BRBV genomes. The near complete genome of bovine rhinitis A virus 1 (BRAV1) was also determined from a historical isolate to enable further molecular epidemiological studies. A 5’-nuclease reverse transcription PCR assay targeting the 3D polymerase gene was designed and used to screen 204 archived BRD clinical specimens. Thirteen (6.4%) were positive. Metagenomic sequencing of six positive samples identified mixed BRAV1/BRAV2, BRAV1/BRBV and BRAV2/BRBV infections for five samples. One sample showed infection only with BRAV1. Seroprevalence studies using a cell culture adapted BRBV found immunofluorescence assay-reactive antibodies were common in the herds analyzed. Altogether, these results demonstrate that BRV infections are common in cattle with respiratory disease and that BRAV1, BRAV2 and BRBV co-circulate in U.S. cattle and have high similarity to viruses isolated more than 30 years ago from diverse locations. PMID:25789939

  13. Bovine rhinitis viruses are common in U.S. cattle with bovine respiratory disease.

    PubMed

    Hause, Ben M; Collin, Emily A; Anderson, Joe; Hesse, Richard A; Anderson, Gary

    2015-01-01

    Bovine rhinitis viruses (BRV) are established etiological agents of bovine respiratory disease complex however little research into their epidemiology and ecology has been published for several decades. In the U.S., only bovine rhinitis A virus 1 (BRAV1) has been identified while bovine rhinitis A virus 2 (BRAV2) and bovine rhinitis B virus (BRBV) were previously only identified in England and Japan, respectively. Metagenomic sequencing of a nasal swab from a bovine respiratory disease (BRD) diagnostic submission from Kansas identified contigs with approximately 90% nucleotide similarity to BRAV2 and BRBV. A combination of de novo and templated assemblies using reference genomes yielded near complete BRAV2 and BRBV genomes. The near complete genome of bovine rhinitis A virus 1 (BRAV1) was also determined from a historical isolate to enable further molecular epidemiological studies. A 5'-nuclease reverse transcription PCR assay targeting the 3D polymerase gene was designed and used to screen 204 archived BRD clinical specimens. Thirteen (6.4%) were positive. Metagenomic sequencing of six positive samples identified mixed BRAV1/BRAV2, BRAV1/BRBV and BRAV2/BRBV infections for five samples. One sample showed infection only with BRAV1. Seroprevalence studies using a cell culture adapted BRBV found immunofluorescence assay-reactive antibodies were common in the herds analyzed. Altogether, these results demonstrate that BRV infections are common in cattle with respiratory disease and that BRAV1, BRAV2 and BRBV co-circulate in U.S. cattle and have high similarity to viruses isolated more than 30 years ago from diverse locations. PMID:25789939

  14. Effects of thermocycling and light source on the bond strength of metallic brackets to bovine teeth.

    PubMed

    Costa, Ana Rosa; Correr, Américo Bortolazzo; Puppin-Rontani, Regina Maria; Vedovello, Silvia Amélia Scudeler; Valdrighi, Heloísa Cristina; Correr-Sobrinho, Lourenço; Vedovello Filho, Mário

    2011-01-01

    This study evaluated the effects of thermocycling and different light sources on the bond strength of metallic brackets to bovine tooth enamel using an adhesive resin. Bovine teeth were etched with 35% phosphoric acid gel for 20 s. After application of primer, metallic brackets were bonded to the buccal surface using Transbond XT, forming 8 groups (n = 20), depending on the light source used for photoactivation (AccuCure 3000 argon laser--20 s, Apollo 95E plasma arc--12 s, UltraLume 5 LED--40 s and XL2500 halogen light--40 s) and experimental conditions without (Groups 1 to 4) or with thermocycling (Groups 5 to 8). Shear bond testing was carried out after 24 h of distilled water storage (Groups 1 to 4) or storage and thermocycling in distilled water (groups 5 to 8; 1,500 cycles--5°/55 °C). Data were subjected to two-way ANOVA and Tukey's test (α = 0.05). The Adhesive Remnant Index (ARI) was evaluated at ×8 magnification. No significant differences (p>0.05) in bond strength were found when the conditions without and with thermocycling were compared for any of the light sources. No significant differences (p>0.05) in bond strength were found among the light sources, irrespective of performing or not thermocycling. There was a predominance of ARI scores 1 in all groups. In conclusion, light sources and thermocycling had no influence on the bond strength of brackets to bovine enamel. PMID:22189644

  15. Tetrodotoxin-insensitive Na+ channel activator palytoxin inhibits tyrosine uptake into cultured bovine adrenal chromaffin cells

    SciTech Connect

    Morita, K.; Teraoka, K.; Azuma, M.; Oka, M.; Hamano, S. )

    1991-07-01

    The effects of the tetrodotoxin-insensitive Na+ channel activator palytoxin on both the secretion of endogenous catecholamines and the formation of 14C-catecholamines from (14C)tyrosine were examined using cultured bovine adrenal chromaffin cells. Palytoxin was shown to cause the stimulation of catecholamine secretion in a concentration-dependent manner. However, this toxin caused the reduction rather than the stimulation of 14C-catecholamine formation at the same concentrations. Palytoxin failed to cause any alteration in the activity of tyrosine hydroxylase prepared from bovine adrenal medulla. Furthermore, the uptake of (14C)tyrosine into the cells was shown to be inhibited by this toxin under the conditions in which the suppression of 14C-catecholamine formation was observed, and this inhibitory action on tyrosine uptake was closely correlated with that on catecholamine formation. The inhibitory action of palytoxin on tyrosine uptake into the cells was observed to be noncompetitive, and this effect was not altered by the removal of Na+ from the incubation mixture. These results suggest that palytoxin may be able to inhibit the uptake of (14C)tyrosine into the cells, resulting in the suppression of 14C-catecholamine formation, probably through its direct action on the plasma membranes of bovine adrenal chromaffin cells.

  16. Tetraspanin CD9 in bovine oocytes and its role in fertilization.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Guang-Bin; Liu, Guo-Shi; Meng, Qing-Gang; Liu, Ying; Hou, Yun-Peng; Wang, Xiao-Xu; Li, Ning; Zhu, Shi-En

    2009-06-01

    This study was conducted in bovine to investigate whether CD9 (a member of the tetraspanin superfamily of proteins) is present on oocytes and whether it functions in sperm-oocyte binding and fusion. First, the presence of CD9 in bovine matured oocytes was examined by immunofluorescence with the anti-CD9 monoclonal antibody (mAb) and fluorescein isothiocyanate-conjugated goat anti-mouse antibody, and the results showed that CD9 was expressed on the plasma membrane of matured oocytes. Sperm binding and fusion with oocytes was then examined by in vitro fertilization. When the zona pellucida-free matured oocytes were fertilized, both sperm binding to ooplasma and sperm penetrating into oocytes were significantly (P<0.01) reduced in anti-CD9 antibody-treated oocytes (6.3 +/- 0.7 per oocyte and 41.6%, respectively) compared with untreated control oocytes (19.0 +/- 0.7 per oocyte and 81.3%, respectively), indicating that the anti-CD9 mAb potentially inhibits sperm-oocyte binding and fusion. These results demonstrated that the CD9 present on bovine matured oocytes is involved in sperm-oocyte interaction during fertilization. PMID:19293563

  17. The effects of dexamethasone, betamethasone, flunixin and phenylbutazone on bovine natural-killer-cell cytotoxicity.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, M A; Duffus, W P

    1990-09-01

    A series of in-vitro experiments was performed utilizing the ability of bovine peripheral-blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) to induce lysis of Madin-Darby bovine kidney (MDBK) cells infected with bovine herpesvirus 1 (BHV1), in an antibody-independent natural-killer(NK)-cell cytotoxic assay. The effects of dexamethasone (dexamethasone sodium phosphate), betamethasone (betamethasone sodium phosphate), flunixin (flunixin meglumine) and phenylbutazone on this NK cytolysis were studied using concentrations of the drugs ranging from well below to well above those normally attained in plasma at recommended therapeutic doses. All four drugs inhibited NK activity. For each agent a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC50) required to inhibit NK activity by approximately 50% was calculated. For dexamethasone, betamethasone and flunixin the MIC50 was lower after a 24-h pre-incubation of PBMC with each drug, although a marked inhibition was seen when the drug was only present during the 5-h NK assay itself. In contrast the MIC50 for phenylbutazone rose after a 24-h pre-incubation with PBMC. PMID:2231870

  18. PLASMA GENERATOR

    DOEpatents

    Foster, J.S. Jr.

    1958-03-11

    This patent describes apparatus for producing an electricity neutral ionized gas discharge, termed a plasma, substantially free from contamination with neutral gas particles. The plasma generator of the present invention comprises a plasma chamber wherein gas introduced into the chamber is ionized by a radiofrequency source. A magnetic field is used to focus the plasma in line with an exit. This magnetic field cooperates with a differential pressure created across the exit to draw a uniform and uncontaminated plasma from the plasma chamber.

  19. Cloning, sequence, and expression of bovine interleukin 2.

    PubMed Central

    Cerretti, D P; McKereghan, K; Larsen, A; Cantrell, M A; Anderson, D; Gillis, S; Cosman, D; Baker, P E

    1986-01-01

    Interleukin 2 (IL-2) cDNA clones have been isolated from both human and murine sources. We report here the isolation of a cDNA clone encoding bovine IL-2. This was accomplished by screening a cDNA library constructed from lectin-stimulated bovine lymph node cells, using a human IL-2 probe. Bovine IL-2 is composed of 155 amino acids and has a predicted molecular weight of 19,555. Alignment of the amino acid sequence with human IL-2 indicates that mature bovine IL-2 is composed of 135 amino acids and has a predicted molecular weight of 15,452. It has an amino acid homology of 65% with human IL-2 and 50% with murine IL-2. Bovine IL-2 is unique among IL-2 homologs in that it has a single N-linked glycosylation site. Biologically active bovine IL-2 was synthesized in an Escherichia coli expression system. Images PMID:3517854

  20. Unraveling bovin phylogeny: accomplishments and challenges

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    The phylogenetic systematics of bovin species forms a common basis for studies at multiple scales, from the level of domestication in populations to major cladogenesis. The main big-picture accomplishments of this productive field, including two recent works, one in BMC Genomics, are reviewed with an eye for some of the limitations and challenges impeding progress. See Research article http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2164/10/177 PMID:20525112

  1. Killing of Brucella abortus by bovine serum.

    PubMed Central

    Corbeil, L B; Blau, K; Inzana, T J; Nielsen, K H; Jacobson, R H; Corbeil, R R; Winter, A J

    1988-01-01

    Studies of the serum bactericidal system in bovine brucellosis were undertaken to investigate the role of the humoral immune response in protection of cattle against the facultative intracellular parasite Brucella abortus. Fresh sera from normal control cattle, infected cattle, and cattle immunized with B. abortus cell envelopes were collected before treatment and during the course of immunization or infection. Normal fresh bovine serum or fresh agammaglobulinemic serum from colostrum-deprived calves was effective in killing smooth virulent B. abortus 2308, but rough strains RB51 (a rough mutant of strain 2308) and 45/20 were much more sensitive to serum. The difference in susceptibility to serum was shown to be correlated with differences in lipopolysaccharide chemotype, with the more resistant strain 2308 having O polysaccharide and the more susceptible strains 45/20 and RB51 lacking O side chains. By treatment of fresh serum with MgCl2 and EGTA [ethylene glycol-bis(beta-aminoethyl ether)-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid] killing was shown to occur via the classical pathway of complement activation. When antibody to B. abortus was present, killing of strain RB51 increased but killing of smooth strain 2308 decreased. The earliest antibody response in serum from infected animals did not interfere with killing. When affinity-purified bovine immunoglobulins specific for B. abortus smooth lipopolysaccharide were added to fresh normal bovine serum, immunoglobulin G1 (IgG1) and IgG2 isotypes blocked killing but IgM and IgA isotypes did not. Thus, it appears that serum from previously unexposed animals or animals early during infection can kill smooth B. abortus, an appropriate defense mechanism before the organism becomes intracellular. At later stages of infection, blocking antibodies predominate. Images PMID:3141287

  2. Random laser action in bovine semen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smuk, Andrei; Lazaro, Edgar; Olson, Leif P.; Lawandy, N. M.

    2011-03-01

    Experiments using bovine semen reveal that the addition of a high-gain water soluble dye results in random laser action when excited by a Q-switched, frequency doubled, Nd:Yag laser. The data shows that the linewidth collapse of the emission is correlated to the sperm count of the individual samples, potentially making this a rapid, low sample volume approach to count determination.

  3. Oxytocin binding sites in bovine mammary tissue

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, Xin.

    1989-01-01

    Oxytocin binding sites were identified and characterized in bovine mammary tissue. ({sup 3}H)-oxytocin binding reached equilibrium by 50 min at 20{degree}C and by 8 hr at 4{degree}C. The half-time of displacement at 20{degree}C was approximately 1 hr. Thyrotropin releasing hormone, adrenocorticotropin, angiotensin I, angiotensin II, pentagastrin, bradykinin, xenopsin and L-valyl-histidyl-L-leucyl-L-threonyl-L-prolyl-L-valyl-L-glutamyl-L-lysine were not competitive. In the presence of 10 nM LiCl, addition of oxytocin to dispersed bovine mammary cells, in which phosphatidylinositol was pre-labelled, caused a time and dose-dependent increase in radioactive inositiol monophosphate incorporation. The possibility that there are distinct vasopressin receptors in bovine mammary tissue was investigated. ({sup 3}H)-vasopressin binding reached equilibrium by 40 min at 20{degree}. The half-time of displacement at 20{degree}C was approximately 1 hr. The ability of the peptides to inhibit ({sup 3}H)-vasopressin binding was: (Thr{sup 4},Gly{sup 7})-oxytocin > Arg{sup 8}-vasopressin > (lys{sup 8})-vasopressin > (Deamino{sup 1},D-arg{sup 8})-vasopressin > oxytocin > d (CH{sub 2}){sub 5}Tyr(Me)AVP.

  4. PHYSICOCHEMICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF LYOPHILIZED BOVINE BONE GRAFTS

    PubMed Central

    Galia, Carlos Roberto; Lourenço, André Luis; Rosito, Ricardo; Souza Macedo, Carlos Alberto; Camargo, Lourdes Maria Araujo Quaresma

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the physicochemical characteristics of lyophilized bovine grafts manufactured on a semi-industrial scale (Orthogen; Baumer S/A*) in accordance with a protocol previously developed by the authors. Methods: The lyophilized bovine bone grafts were characterized by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), X-ray diffractometry (XRD), thermogravimetric (TG) analysis, differential exploratory scanning calorimetry (DSC) and Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. Results: Ca was the main component (60%) found in the samples, followed by P (28%) and O (5%). The mean (sd) pore size was 316 μm (146.7), ranging from 91.2 to 497.8 μm, and 333.5 μm (304.8), ranging from 87.2 to 963.9 μm, at 50x and 150x magnification, respectively. The hydroxyapatite peaks were at 26°C and 32°C, and mass losses were observed between 250°C and 640°C, corresponding to organic material and water. Two temperature transitions (45.67°C and 91.89°C) showed denaturation of type 1 collagen and dehydration of hydroxyapatite. Conclusion: The physicochemical assessment of lyophilized bovine bone grafts in accordance with the protocol developed at semi-industrial scale confirmed that this product presents excellent biocompatibility, with characteristics similar to natural bone. PMID:27027036

  5. Identification of specific bovine blood biomarkers with a non-targeted approach using HPLC ESI tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Lecrenier, M C; Marbaix, H; Dieu, M; Veys, P; Saegerman, C; Raes, M; Baeten, V

    2016-12-15

    Animal by-products are valuable protein sources in animal nutrition. Among them are blood products and blood meal, which are used as high-quality material for their beneficial effects on growth and health. Within the framework of the feed ban relaxation, the development of complementary methods in order to refine the identification of processed animal proteins remains challenging. The aim of this study was to identify specific biomarkers that would allow the detection of bovine blood products and processed animal proteins using tandem mass spectrometry. Seventeen biomarkers were identified: nine peptides for bovine plasma powder; seven peptides for bovine haemoglobin powder, including six peptides for bovine blood meal; and one peptide for porcine blood. They were not detected in several commercial compound feed or feed materials, such as blood by-products of other animal origins, milk-derived products and fish meal. These biomarkers could be used for developing a species-specific and blood-specific detection method. PMID:27451199

  6. Plasma Medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laroussi, M.; Kong, M. G.; Morfill, G.; Stolz, W.

    2012-05-01

    Foreword R. Satava and R. J. Barker; Part I. Introduction to Non-equilibrium Plasma, Cell Biology, and Contamination: 1. Introduction M. Laroussi; 2. Fundamentals of non-equilibrium plasmas M. Kushner and M. Kong; 3. Non-equilibrium plasma sources M. Laroussi and M. Kong; 4. Basic cell biology L. Greene and G. Shama; 5. Contamination G. Shama and B. Ahlfeld; Part II. Plasma Biology and Plasma Medicine: 6. Common healthcare challenges G. Isbary and W. Stolz; 7. Plasma decontamination of surfaces M. Kong and M. Laroussi; 8. Plasma decontamination of gases and liquids A. Fridman; 9. Plasma-cell interaction: prokaryotes M. Laroussi and M. Kong; 10. Plasma-cell interaction: eukaryotes G. Isbary, G. Morfill and W. Stolz; 11. Plasma based wound healing G. Isbary, G. Morfill and W. Stolz; 12. Plasma ablation, surgery, and dental applications K. Stalder, J. Woloszko, S. Kalghatgi, G. McCombs, M. Darby and M. Laroussi; Index.

  7. Approaches to biosecurity in bovine embryo transfer programs.

    PubMed

    Givens, M D; Marley, S D

    2008-01-01

    Although transfer of bovine embryos is much less likely to result in transmission of pathogens than transport of postnatal cattle, the epidemiologic risk associated with bovine embryo transfer merits examination. Much research has validated the efficacy of internationally approved processing protocols to render bovine in vivo-derived embryos free of specified pathogens. The purpose of this review is to summarize current sanitary recommendations for bovine embryo transfer, while emphasizing recent research to develop and validate novel approaches to biosecurity. Continued research will enable the development and validation of novel embryo treatments and culture reagents to minimize requirements for testing of embryo or oocyte donors, and testing of embryo recipients. PMID:18028999

  8. The bovine patella as a model of early osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Hargrave-Thomas, E J; Thambyah, A; McGlashan, S R; Broom, N D

    2013-01-01

    The bovine patella model has been used extensively for studying important structure–function aspects of articular cartilage, including its degeneration. However, the degeneration seen in this model has, to our knowledge, never been adequately compared with human osteoarthritis (OA). In this study, bovine patellae displaying normal to severely degenerate states were compared with human tissue displaying intact cartilage to severe OA. Comparisons of normal and OA features were made with histological scoring, morphometric measurements, and qualitative observations. Differential interference contrast microscopy was used to image early OA changes in the articular cartilage matrix and to investigate whether this method provided comparable quality of visualisation of key structural features with standard histology. The intact bovine cartilage was found to be similar to healthy human cartilage and the degenerate bovine cartilage resembled the human OA tissues with regard to structural disruption, cellularity changes, and staining loss. The extent of degeneration in the bovine tissues matched the mild to moderate range of human OA tissues; however, no bovine samples exhibited late-stage OA. Additionally, in both bovine and human tissues, cartilage degeneration was accompanied by calcified cartilage thickening, tidemark duplication, and the advancement of the cement line by protrusions of bony spicules into the calcified cartilage. This comparison of degeneration in the bovine and human tissues suggests a common pathway for the progression of OA and thus the bovine patella is proposed to be an appropriate model for investigating the structural changes associated with early OA. PMID:24111904

  9. Bovine Postparturient Hemoglobinuria: A Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Macwilliams, P. S.; Searcy, G. P.; Bellamy, J. E. C.

    1982-01-01

    Predisposing causes of bovine post-parturient hemoglobinuria are summarized along with suspected pathogeneses, clinical signs, laboratory findings, clinical management and early experimentation. PMID:17422195

  10. Bovine besnoitiosis emerging in Central-Eastern Europe, Hungary

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Besnoitia besnoiti, the cause of bovine besnoitiosis, is a cyst-forming coccidian parasite that has recently been shown to be spreading in several Western and Southern European countries. Findings Clinical cases of bovine besnoitiosis were confirmed for the first time in Hungary, by histological, serological and PCR analyses. Conclusions This is the first report of autochthonous bovine besnoitiosis in Central-Eastern Europe. The emergence of bovine besnoitiosis in this region represents a further example, when human activity (i.e. cattle trading) is the main factor involved in the geographical spread of an infectious disease. PMID:24410743

  11. Lactic Acid Bacteria Isolated from Bovine Mammary Microbiota: Potential Allies against Bovine Mastitis

    PubMed Central

    Saraoui, Taous; Rault, Lucie; Germon, Pierre; Gonzalez-Moreno, Candelaria; Nader-Macias, Fatima M. E.; Baud, Damien; François, Patrice; Chuat, Victoria; Chain, Florian; Langella, Philippe; Nicoli, Jacques; Le Loir, Yves; Even, Sergine

    2015-01-01

    Bovine mastitis is a costly disease in dairy cattle worldwide. As of yet, the control of bovine mastitis is mostly based on prevention by thorough hygienic procedures during milking. Additional strategies include vaccination and utilization of antibiotics. Despite these measures, mastitis is not fully under control, thus prompting the need for alternative strategies. The goal of this study was to isolate autochthonous lactic acid bacteria (LAB) from bovine mammary microbiota that exhibit beneficial properties that could be used for mastitis prevention and/or treatment. Sampling of the teat canal led to the isolation of 165 isolates, among which a selection of ten non-redundant LAB strains belonging to the genera Lactobacillus and Lactococcus were further characterized with regard to several properties: surface properties (hydrophobicity, autoaggregation); inhibition potential of three main mastitis pathogens, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Streptococcus uberis; colonization capacities of bovine mammary epithelial cells (bMEC); and immunomodulation properties. Three strains, Lactobacillus brevis 1595 and 1597 and Lactobacillus plantarum 1610, showed high colonization capacities and a medium surface hydrophobicity. These strains are good candidates to compete with pathogens for mammary gland colonization. Moreover, nine strains exhibited anti-inflammatory properties, as illustrated by the lower IL-8 secretion by E. coli-stimulated bMEC in the presence of these LAB. Full genome sequencing of five candidate strains allowed to check for undesirable genetic elements such as antibiotic resistance genes and to identify potential bacterial determinants involved in the beneficial properties. This large screening of beneficial properties while checking for undesirable genetic markers allowed the selection of promising candidate LAB strains from bovine mammary microbiota for the prevention and/or treatment of bovine mastitis. PMID:26713450

  12. Binding of cobalamin and cobinamide to transcobalamin from bovine milk.

    PubMed

    Fedosov, S N; Petersen, T E; Nexø, E

    1995-12-12

    We have studied the interaction between transcobalamin (TC) and the ligands cobalamin (Cbl) and cobinamide (Cbi). Partially purified TC from bovine milk was depleted of endogenous Cbl by 8 M urea treatment. Unsaturated TC was adsorbed on CM-Sepharose in order to ensure fast separation of the matrix-bound protein from the reaction medium. The forward reaction TC+Cbl-->TC-Cbl (rate constant k+Cbl) and the backward reaction TC-Cbl-->TC+Cbl (k-Cbl) were followed in time. A single-step binding model (with no intermediate protein-ligand complex) was sufficient to fit the data. The calculated rate constants were k+Cbl = 0.6 nM-1 min-1 and k-Cbl = 1.3 x 10(-4) min-1, which corresponded to the TC-Cbl dissociation constant KDCbl = 0.2 pM. Reaction between TC and Cbl developed against electrostatic forces, and the effective charges of the interacting species were estimated as both +1 or both -1. The competition between Cbl and Cbi for TC was studied, which resulted in determination of the relevant rate constants for Cbi: k+Cbi = 0.03 nM-1 min-1, k-Cbi = 0.03 min-1, and KDCbi = 1 nM. Slow dissociation of TC-Cbl guarantees its stability in plasma for 5-10 h, while Cbi bound to TC would be transferred to haptocorrin in less than 1 h. PMID:8519765

  13. Dynamic and static fluorescence quenching of bovine serum albumin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friday, Jacob; Babcock, Jeremiah; Brancaleon, Lorenzo

    2010-10-01

    Protein folding dynamics studies can benefit from the knowledge of specific binding-site availabilities, which aid the detection of protein structural changes and, possibly, protein structure. Fluorescence quenching (FQ) spectroscopy can be used to detect binding site variations arising from evolving protein conformational changes over time. Use of the Stern-Volmer and modified Stern-Volmer equations shows the divergence of the bimolecular quenching constant from the diffusion-limited constant, which can be indicative of bimolecular binding. The study is part of a larger effort to understand early structural events that lead to the aggregation of partly unfolded proteins. In this study, bovine serum albumin (BSA), a globular alpha-helix plasma transport protein, was complexed with the fluorescent ligand fluorescein in phosphate buffer at pH 7.4 and subjected to FQ spectroscopy. Stern-Volmer plots demonstrated an upward quadratic relationship, indicating the presence of dynamic and static quenching factors. Data-fitting showed that multiple binding sites were available. With these results, further studies will be undertaken, where BSA will be subjected to varied denaturing conditions, including pH changes and urea solvent addition. The change of available binding sites could reveal BSA structural patterns.

  14. Diagnosis and Control of Viral Diseases of Reproductive Importance: Infectious Bovine Rhinotracheitis and Bovine Viral Diarrhea.

    PubMed

    Newcomer, Benjamin W; Givens, Daniel

    2016-07-01

    Both bovine viral diarrhea virus and bovine herpesvirus 1 can have significant negative reproductive impacts on cattle health. Vaccination is the primary control method for the viral pathogens in US cattle herds. Polyvalent, modified-live vaccines are recommended to provide optimal protection against various viral field strains. Of particular importance to bovine viral diarrhea control is the limitation of contact of pregnant cattle with potential viral reservoirs during the critical first 125 days of gestation. PMID:27140298

  15. Bovine immunoglobulin protein isolates for the nutritional management of enteropathy

    PubMed Central

    Petschow, Bryon W; Blikslager, Anthony T; Weaver, Eric M; Campbell, Joy M; Polo, Javier; Shaw, Audrey L; Burnett, Bruce P; Klein, Gerald L; Rhoads, J Marc

    2014-01-01

    The gastrointestinal tract is responsible for a multitude of digestive and immune functions which depend upon the balanced interaction of the intestinal microbiota, diet, gut barrier function, and mucosal immune response. Disruptions in one or more of these factors can lead to intestinal disorders or enteropathies which are characterized by intestinal inflammation, increased gut permeability, and reduced capacity to absorb nutrients. Enteropathy is frequently associated with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, inflammatory bowel disease, autoimmune enteropathy, radiation enteritis, and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), where pathologic changes in the intestinal tract lead to abdominal discomfort, bloating, abnormal bowel function (e.g., diarrhea, urgency, constipation and malabsorption). Unfortunately, effective therapies for the management of enteropathy and restoring intestinal health are still not available. An accumulating body of preclinical studies has demonstrated that oral administration of plasma- or serum-derived protein concentrates containing high levels of immunoglobulins can improve weight, normalize gut barrier function, and reduce the severity of enteropathy in animal models. Recent studies in humans, using serum-derived bovine immunoglobulin/protein isolate, demonstrate that such protein preparations are safe and improve symptoms, nutritional status, and various biomarkers associated with enteropathy. Benefits have been shown in patients with HIV infection or diarrhea-predominant IBS. This review summarizes preclinical and clinical studies with plasma/serum protein concentrates and describes the effects on host nutrition, intestinal function, and markers of intestinal inflammation. It supports the concept that immunoglobulin-containing protein preparations may offer a new strategy for restoring functional homeostasis in the intestinal tract of patients with enteropathy. PMID:25206275

  16. Bovine immunoglobulin protein isolates for the nutritional management of enteropathy.

    PubMed

    Petschow, Bryon W; Blikslager, Anthony T; Weaver, Eric M; Campbell, Joy M; Polo, Javier; Shaw, Audrey L; Burnett, Bruce P; Klein, Gerald L; Rhoads, J Marc

    2014-09-01

    The gastrointestinal tract is responsible for a multitude of digestive and immune functions which depend upon the balanced interaction of the intestinal microbiota, diet, gut barrier function, and mucosal immune response. Disruptions in one or more of these factors can lead to intestinal disorders or enteropathies which are characterized by intestinal inflammation, increased gut permeability, and reduced capacity to absorb nutrients. Enteropathy is frequently associated with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, inflammatory bowel disease, autoimmune enteropathy, radiation enteritis, and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), where pathologic changes in the intestinal tract lead to abdominal discomfort, bloating, abnormal bowel function (e.g., diarrhea, urgency, constipation and malabsorption). Unfortunately, effective therapies for the management of enteropathy and restoring intestinal health are still not available. An accumulating body of preclinical studies has demonstrated that oral administration of plasma- or serum-derived protein concentrates containing high levels of immunoglobulins can improve weight, normalize gut barrier function, and reduce the severity of enteropathy in animal models. Recent studies in humans, using serum-derived bovine immunoglobulin/protein isolate, demonstrate that such protein preparations are safe and improve symptoms, nutritional status, and various biomarkers associated with enteropathy. Benefits have been shown in patients with HIV infection or diarrhea-predominant IBS. This review summarizes preclinical and clinical studies with plasma/serum protein concentrates and describes the effects on host nutrition, intestinal function, and markers of intestinal inflammation. It supports the concept that immunoglobulin-containing protein preparations may offer a new strategy for restoring functional homeostasis in the intestinal tract of patients with enteropathy. PMID:25206275

  17. The use of bovine anti-PMSG serum in beef cattle after PMSG-superovulation.

    PubMed

    Nakajima, A; Hiraizumi, S; Onodera, K; Suzuki, H; Kudo, Y; Domeki, I

    1992-02-01

    Thirteen beef cows were superovulated using 4,000 i.u. of pregnant mare serum gonadotrophin (PMSG) on days 9 to 14 of the estrous cycle, followed by two injections of 500 micrograms prostaglandin F2 alpha analogue (PGF2 alpha) 48 and 55 hrs later. Seven of them were injected intramuscularly with bovine anti-PMSG serum 12 hrs after the first signs of estrus. The remaining 6 cows were served as controls and received no antiserum. Peripheral blood concentrations of progesterone (P) and estradiol-17 beta (E2) were compared in relation to the superovulatory responses. The injection of anti-PMSG serum did not significantly affect the numbers of the corpora lutea (CL), the anovulatory follicles and the transferable embryos at 7 to 8 days after superovulatory estrus, but increased the ratio of embryos classified as excellent or good quality. Although the plasma P concentration showed no significant differences between the anti-PMSG-treated and control cows, the plasma E2 concentration displayed a characteristic difference, suppressing the second E2 peak in the anti-PMSG-treated cows. It is concluded that the use of bovine anti-PMSG serum for PMSG/PGF2 alpha-treated cows at 12 hrs after the beginning of the estrus improves the quality of embryos recovered, probably due to inhibition of high estrogenic environment following ovulation. PMID:1558896

  18. Bovine central memory T cells are highly proliferative in response to bovine tuberculosis infection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Long-term (i.e., 14 days) cultured IFN-gamma ELISPOT assays measure central memory T cell (Tcm) responses in both humans and cattle. With bovine tuberculosis, vaccine-elicited long-term IFN-gamma ELISPOT responses correlate with protection. In other species, Tcm’s pose low activation threshold and a...

  19. Bovine viral diarrhea virus infection alters global transcription profiles in bovine endothelial cells

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bovine viral diarrhea viruses (BVDV) are significant pathogens of cattle worldwide. These viruses exist in both non-cytopathic and cytopathic biotypes. Non-cytopathic BVDV can establish persistent lifelong infections in cattle and are a frequent contaminant of biological reagents such as cell cultur...

  20. Description and analysis of the Bovine Gene Atlas - An extensive compendium of bovine transcript profiles

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Bovine Gene Atlas (BGA) is a compendium of over 7.2 million unique 20-base transcript tags profiled from 81 tissues acquired from the cow “L1 Dominette 01449” (L1D), her male fetus, her 255-day-old heifer calf, and her father. The BGA tags were generated on a next-generation massively parallel ...

  1. Bovine central memory T cells are highly proliferative in response to bovine tuberculosis infection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Long-term (i.e., 14 days) cultured IFN-gamma responses of peripheral blood mononuclear cells are used as a correlate of T cell central memory (Tcm) responses in both humans and cattle. With bovine tuberculosis, vaccine-elicited long-term IFN-gamma ELISPOT assays are a correlate of protection. Recent...

  2. 9 CFR 113.68 - Pasteurella Haemolytica Vaccine, Bovine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Pasteurella Haemolytica Vaccine... REQUIREMENTS Live Bacterial Vaccines § 113.68 Pasteurella Haemolytica Vaccine, Bovine. Pasteurella Haemolytica Vaccine, Bovine, shall be prepared as a desiccated live culture bacterial vaccine of an avirulent...

  3. 9 CFR 113.68 - Pasteurella Haemolytica Vaccine, Bovine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Pasteurella Haemolytica Vaccine... REQUIREMENTS Live Bacterial Vaccines § 113.68 Pasteurella Haemolytica Vaccine, Bovine. Pasteurella Haemolytica Vaccine, Bovine, shall be prepared as a desiccated live culture bacterial vaccine of an avirulent...

  4. 9 CFR 113.68 - Pasteurella Haemolytica Vaccine, Bovine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Pasteurella Haemolytica Vaccine... REQUIREMENTS Live Bacterial Vaccines § 113.68 Pasteurella Haemolytica Vaccine, Bovine. Pasteurella Haemolytica Vaccine, Bovine, shall be prepared as a desiccated live culture bacterial vaccine of an avirulent...

  5. 9 CFR 113.68 - Pasteurella Haemolytica Vaccine, Bovine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Pasteurella Haemolytica Vaccine... REQUIREMENTS Live Bacterial Vaccines § 113.68 Pasteurella Haemolytica Vaccine, Bovine. Pasteurella Haemolytica Vaccine, Bovine, shall be prepared as a desiccated live culture bacterial vaccine of an avirulent...

  6. Bovine viral diarrhea virus modulations of monocyte derived macrophages

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is a single stranded, positive sense RNA virus and is the causative agent of bovine viral diarrhea (BVD). Disease can range from persistently infected (PI) animals displaying no clinical symptoms of disease to an acute, severe disease. Presently, limited studies ha...

  7. Bovine tuberculosis: Immune response and vaccine efficacy studies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bovine tuberculosis (TB) is a re-emerging disease of cattle within the United States, primarily due to importation of infected cattle from Mexico and the emergence of a wildlife reservoir (white-tailed deer) in Michigan. While the mainstay of bovine TB control has been abattoir inspection plus targe...

  8. Diagnosis of enzootic bovine leucosis in single and pooled samples.

    PubMed

    Hoff-Jørgensen, R

    1990-12-01

    Diagnosis of enzootic bovine leucosis is based on detection of antibodies against bovine leukemia virus, BLV. Some ELISA modifications have proved sensitive enough for use in the examination of pooled blood samples from slaughterhouses, milk and pooled milk samples. Suggestions for the standardisation of different ELISA modifications using a common reference serum are presented. PMID:1966753

  9. Bovine Genetic Diversity Revealed By mtDNA Sequence Variation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mitochondrial DNA single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) data were used to determine genetic distance, nucleotide diversity, construction of haplotypes, estimation of information contents, and phylogenic relationships in bovine HapMap breeds. The Bovine International HapMap panel consists of 720 anima...

  10. Prevalence, transmission and impact of bovine leukosis in Michigan dairies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bovine leukosis, caused by infection with the retrovirus bovine leukemia virus (BLV), has been characterized as a contagious, but practically benign disease of the immune system. National Animal Health Monitoring Surveys in 1996 and 2007 indicate complacency has resulted in high prevalence of infect...

  11. Comparative molecular analysis of ovine and bovine Streptococcus uberis isolates.

    PubMed

    Gilchrist, T L; Smith, D G E; Fitzpatrick, J L; Zadoks, R N; Fontaine, M C

    2013-02-01

    Streptococcus uberis causes clinical and subclinical mastitis in cattle and sheep, but it is unknown whether the composition of Strep. uberis populations differs between host species. To address this, we characterized a collection of bovine and ovine Strep. uberis isolates with shared geographical and temporal origins by means of an expanded multilocus sequence typing scheme. Among 14 ovine and 35 bovine isolates, 35 allelic profiles were detected. Each allelic profile was associated with a single host species and all but one were new to the multilocus sequence typing database. The median number of new alleles per isolate was higher for ovine isolates than for bovine isolates. None of the ovine isolates belonged to the global clonal complexes 5 or 143, which are commonly associated with bovine mastitis and which have a wide geographical distribution. Ovine isolates also differed from bovine isolates in carriage of plasminogen activator genes, with significantly higher prevalence of pauB in ovine isolates. Isolates that were negative for yqiL, one of the targets of multilocus sequence typing, were found among ovine and bovine isolates and were not associated with a specific sequence type or global clonal complex. One bovine isolate carried a gapC allele that was probably acquired through lateral gene transfer, most likely from Streptococcus salivarius. We conclude that ovine isolates are distinct from bovine isolates of Strep. uberis, and that recombination between isolates from different host species or bacterial species could contribute to changes in virulence gene profiles with relevance for vaccine development. PMID:23200465

  12. 9 CFR 113.311 - Bovine Virus Diarrhea Vaccine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... serum dilution in a varying serum-constant virus neutralization test with less than 500 TCID50 of bovine...-neutralization tests from each of the vaccinates. The test virus shall be less than 500 TCID50 of bovine virus... as prescribed in paragraph (c)(3) of this section, show neutralization in all tubes of the...

  13. 9 CFR 113.311 - Bovine Virus Diarrhea Vaccine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... serum dilution in a varying serum-constant virus neutralization test with less than 500 TCID50 of bovine...-neutralization tests from each of the vaccinates. The test virus shall be less than 500 TCID50 of bovine virus... as prescribed in paragraph (c)(3) of this section, show neutralization in all tubes of the...

  14. 9 CFR 113.311 - Bovine Virus Diarrhea Vaccine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... serum dilution in a varying serum-constant virus neutralization test with less than 500 TCID50 of bovine...-neutralization tests from each of the vaccinates. The test virus shall be less than 500 TCID50 of bovine virus... as prescribed in paragraph (c)(3) of this section, show neutralization in all tubes of the...

  15. 9 CFR 113.311 - Bovine Virus Diarrhea Vaccine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... serum dilution in a varying serum-constant virus neutralization test with less than 500 TCID50 of bovine...-neutralization tests from each of the vaccinates. The test virus shall be less than 500 TCID50 of bovine virus... as prescribed in paragraph (c)(3) of this section, show neutralization in all tubes of the...

  16. 9 CFR 113.311 - Bovine Virus Diarrhea Vaccine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... serum dilution in a varying serum-constant virus neutralization test with less than 500 TCID50 of bovine...-neutralization tests from each of the vaccinates. The test virus shall be less than 500 TCID50 of bovine virus... as prescribed in paragraph (c)(3) of this section, show neutralization in all tubes of the...

  17. Bovine Papillomavirus Type 13 DNA in Equine Sarcoids

    PubMed Central

    Lunardi, Michele; de Alcântara, Brígida Kussumoto; Otonel, Rodrigo Alejandro Arellano; Rodrigues, Wagner Borges; Alfieri, Alice Fernandes

    2013-01-01

    Equine sarcoids are locally aggressive fibroblastic neoplasms considered to be the most common skin tumors of horses worldwide. Bovine papillomavirus types 1 and 2 have typically been associated with sarcoids in equids. Investigations aiming to identify papillomavirus strains, aside from bovine papillomaviruses 1 and 2, which might be associated with sarcoid lesions, have been lacking. The aim of this article is to report the identification of a third bovine papillomavirus type, bovine papillomavirus 13, associated with equine sarcoids. Six sarcoid lesions were collected from diverse anatomical sites on two horses from southern Brazil. To detect a broad spectrum of papillomavirus strains, eight degenerate primer pairs designed to detect conserved regions on the L1 and E1 genes were tested on the DNA samples. Direct sequencing was then performed on the obtained amplicons, and sequence identities were compared with sequences from all bovine papillomavirus types. The FAP59/FAP64, MY09/MY11, and AR-E1F2/AR-E1R4 sequences generated from the sarcoids were shown to present 99 to 100% identity with bovine papillomavirus 13, a new bovine papillomavirus type previously described in cattle. The results from this study suggest that there is a need to identify bovine papillomavirus type 13 and other papillomavirus strains that might be associated with sarcoids in diverse geographical areas; such investigations might establish the frequency of occurrence of this viral type in these common tumors of equids. PMID:23637294

  18. 21 CFR 184.1034 - Catalase (bovine liver).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies are available from the National Academy Press, 2101... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Catalase (bovine liver). 184.1034 Section 184.1034... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1034 Catalase (bovine liver). (a) Catalase...

  19. Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus Modulation of Monocyte Derived Macrophage

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus (BVDV) is a single stranded, positive sense virus of the Flaviviridae family and is the causative agent of the disease known as Bovine Viral Diarrhea (BVD). Disease can range from persistently infected (PI) animals displaying no clinical symptoms of disease to an acute, s...

  20. Polymorphisms and haplotype structure of bovine PRND (doppel) and PRNT

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) is a fatal neurological disorder characterized by abnormal deposits of a protease-resistant isoform of the prion protein. In previous studies, we have characterized linkage disequilibrium (LD) and haplotype networks within the bovine prion gene (PRNP). Other ...

  1. Rosette nanotubes inhibit bovine neutrophil chemotaxis

    PubMed Central

    Le, Minh Hong Anh; Suri, Sarabjeet Singh; Rakotondradany, Felaniaina; Fenniri, Hicham; Singh, Baljit

    2010-01-01

    Migration of activated neutrophils that have prolonged lifespan into inflamed organs is an important component of host defense but also contributes to tissue damage and mortality. In this report, we used biologically-inspired RGD-tagged rosette nanotubes (RNT) to inhibit neutrophil chemotaxis. We hypothesize that RGD-RNT will block neutrophil migration through inhibition of MAPK. In this report, RNT conjugated to lysine (K–RNT) and arginine-glycine-aspartic acid-serine-lysine (RGDSK-RNT) were co-assembled in a molar ratio of 95/5. The effect of the resulting composite RNT (RGDSK/K–RNT) on neutrophil chemotaxis, cell signaling and apoptosis was then investigated. Exposure to RGDSK/K–RNT reduced bovine neutrophil migration when compared to the non-treated group (p < 0.001). Similar effect was seen following treatment with ERK1/2 or p38 MAPK inhibitors. Phosphorylation of the ERK1/2 and p38 MAPK was inhibited at 5 min by RGDSK/K–RNT (p < 0.05). The RGDSD/K-RNT did not affect the migration of neutrophils pre-treated with αvβ3 integrin antibody suggesting that both bind to the same receptor. RGDSK/K–RNT did not induce apoptosis in bovine neutrophils, which was suppressed by pre-exposing them to LPS (p < 0.001). We conclude that RGDSK/K–RNT inhibit phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and p38 MAPK and inhibit chemotaxis of bovine neutrophils. PMID:20663476

  2. Discovery of a Bovine Enterovirus in Alpaca

    PubMed Central

    McClenahan, Shasta D.; Scherba, Gail; Borst, Luke; Fredrickson, Richard L.; Krause, Philip R.; Uhlenhaut, Christine

    2013-01-01

    A cytopathic virus was isolated using Madin-Darby bovine kidney (MDBK) cells from lung tissue of alpaca that died of a severe respiratory infection. To identify the virus, the infected cell culture supernatant was enriched for virus particles and a generic, PCR-based method was used to amplify potential viral sequences. Genomic sequence data of the alpaca isolate was obtained and compared with sequences of known viruses. The new alpaca virus sequence was most similar to recently designated Enterovirus species F, previously bovine enterovirus (BEVs), viruses that are globally prevalent in cattle, although they appear not to cause significant disease. Because bovine enteroviruses have not been previously reported in U.S. alpaca, we suspect that this type of infection is fairly rare, and in this case appeared not to spread beyond the original outbreak. The capsid sequence of the detected virus had greatest homology to Enterovirus F type 1 (indicating that the virus should be considered a member of serotype 1), but the virus had greater homology in 2A protease sequence to type 3, suggesting that it may have been a recombinant. Identifying pathogens that infect a new host species for the first time can be challenging. As the disease in a new host species may be quite different from that in the original or natural host, the pathogen may not be suspected based on the clinical presentation, delaying diagnosis. Although this virus replicated in MDBK cells, existing standard culture and molecular methods could not identify it. In this case, a highly sensitive generic PCR-based pathogen-detection method was used to identify this pathogen. PMID:23950875

  3. Bovine and equine peritubular and intertubular dentin.

    PubMed

    Stock, S R; Deymier-Black, A C; Veis, A; Telser, A; Lux, E; Cai, Z

    2014-09-01

    Dentin contains 1-2μm diameter tubules extending from the pulp cavity to near the junction with enamel. Peritubular dentin (PTD) borders the tubule lumens and is surrounded by intertubular dentin (ITD). Differences in PTD and ITD composition and microstructure remain poorly understood. Here, a (∼200nm)(2), 10.1keV synchrotron X-ray beam maps X-ray fluorescence and X-ray diffraction simultaneously around tubules in 15-30μm thick bovine and equine specimens. Increased Ca fluorescence surrounding tubule lumens confirms that PTD is present, and the relative intensities in PTD and ITD correspond to carbonated apatite (cAp) volume fraction of ∼0.8 in PTD vs. 0.65 assumed for ITD. In the PTD near the lumen edges, Zn intensity is strongly peaked, corresponding to a Zn content of ∼0.9mgg(-1) for an assumed concentration of ∼0.4mgg(-1) for ITD. In the equine specimen, the Zn K-edge position indicates that Zn(2+) is present, similar to bovine dentin (Deymier-Black et al., 2013), and the above edge structure is consistent with spectra from macromolecules related to biomineralization. Transmission X-ray diffraction shows only cAp, and the 00.2 diffraction peak (Miller-Bravais indices) width is constant from ITD to the lumen edge. The cAp 00.2 average preferred orientation is axisymmetric (about the tubule axis) in both bovine and equine dentin, and the axisymmetric preferred orientation continues from ITD through the PTD to the tubule lumen. These data indicate that cAp structure does not vary from PTD to ITD. PMID:24911530

  4. Bovine viral diarrhea virus: global status.

    PubMed

    Ridpath, Julia F

    2010-03-01

    Despite the success of regional bovine viral diarrhea viruses (BVDV) eradication programs, infections remain a source of economic loss for producers. The wide variation among BVDV results in differences in genotype, biotype, virulence, and types of infections. BVDV infect a range of domestic and wild ruminants. Clinical presentation varies depending on strain of virus, species of host, immune status of host, reproductive status of host, age of host, and concurrent infections. Recent advances in BVDV research and diagnostics have led to the development of regional eradication/control programs, the most efficacious of which focus on biosecurity, surveillance, and control. PMID:20117546

  5. Bovine neonatal pancytopenia in calves in Poland.

    PubMed

    Jaśkowski, J M; Polak, M P; Marszałek, A; Nowak, K; Frackowiak, H; Olechnowicz, J

    2012-01-01

    Bovine neonatal pancytopenia (BNP), a newly emerged syndrome of discussed etiology in calves, has been diagnosed since 2006. Here we describe first cases of BNP in Poland. Between September 2008 and April 2011, 62 cases of BNP were diagnosed in dairy calves. Bleeding skin lesions were mostly pronounced in summer and early autumn. Severe thrombocytopenia was observed in all sick animals. All calves came from herds vaccinated against BVDV infection with PregSure BVD vaccine (Pfizer). Substitution of colostrum from dams of BNP positive calves with colostrum from dams from herds free of BNP was the only effective measure to avoid new cases in affected herds. PMID:23214380

  6. Transcriptional organization of bovine papillomavirus type 1.

    PubMed

    Engel, L W; Heilman, C A; Howley, P M

    1983-09-01

    Multiple bovine papillomavirus type 1 (BPV-1)-specific polyadenylated RNA species in a BPV-1-infected bovine fibropapilloma were identified and mapped. All of the RNA species were transcribed from the same DNA strand of the BPV-1 genome. Five RNA species previously identified in BPV-1-transformed mouse cells were also present in the bovine fibropapilloma. These five species measured 1,050, 1,150, 1,700, 3,800, and 4,050 bases, mapped within the 69% transforming segment of the BPV-1 genome, and shared a 3' coterminus at 0.53 map units (m.u.). The 5' ends of the bodies of these distinct transcripts were located at ca. 0.03, 0.09, 0.34, 0.39, and 0.41 m.u. Additional polyadenylated RNA species not present in BPV-1-transformed mouse cells were specific for the BPV-1-infected bovine fibropapilloma and measured 1,700, 3,700, 3,800, 6,700, and 8,000 bases. These wart-specific species shared a 3' coterminus at 0.90 m.u. The 5' termini of the bodies of the 1,700- and 3,800-base species mapped at 0.71 and 0.42 m.u., respectively. Exonuclease VII analysis failed to reveal any internal splicing in these two species; however, the presence of small remote 5' leader sequences could not be ruled out. The 3,700-base species hybridized to DNA fragments from the 69% transforming segment as well as from the 31% nontransforming segment of the BPV-1 genome; however, this species was not precisely mapped. The 5' termini of the two largest RNA species (6,700 and 8,000 bases in size) were located at ca. 0.01 and 0.90 m.u., respectively. Since the 5' ends of these mapped adjacent to a TATAAA sequence which could possibly serve as an element of a transcriptional promoter, it is possible that one or both of these species represent nonspliced precursor RNA molecules. PMID:6137574

  7. Markers on Bovine Chromosome 20 Associated with Carcass Quality and Composition Traits and Incidence of Contracting Infectious Bovine Keratoconjunctivitis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to evaluate single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) on bovine chromosome 20 to fine map a previously identified QTL associated with the incidence of infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis (IBK). Crossbred steers (GPE7; n = 539) derived from sires of 7 Bos taurus breeds...

  8. Markers on bovine chromosome 20 associated with carcass quality and composition traits and incidence of contracting infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to use single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) on bovine chromosome 20 to fine map a previously identified QTL associated with the incidence of infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis (IBK). Crossbred steers (GPE7; n = 539) derived from sires of 7 Bos Taurus breeds and h...

  9. Tensile strength and durability of bovine dentin.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Toshiko; Miyazaki, Takashi; Nishimura, Fumio

    2007-05-01

    This study investigated the effects of thermal cycling on the tensile strength of dentin. Bovine dentin were divided into 10 groups, which were then subjected to various conditions: intact after preparation, thereby serving as a control; heating in boiling water for 45 minutes; 10,000 thermal cycles in water; 10,000 thermal cycles in PBS; storage in water at 5, 23, or 55 degrees C for two weeks; and storage in PBS at 5, 23, or 55 degrees C for two weeks. Subsequently, bovine dentin were trimmed into dumbbell-shaped specimens and the tensile test performed in distilled water at 37 degrees C. Mean tensile strengths were compared statistically by one-way ANOVA and Fisher's PLTD test (p<0.05). Fracture surfaces were observed by scanning electron microscopy, and reliability of the results was analyzed with Weibull distribution. Tensile strength did not significantly change after thermal cycling or storage in water and PBS at all temperatures tested (71.2-77.0 MPa) but decreased after treatment with boiling water (65.5 MPa). PMID:17694743

  10. Tensile strength of bovine trabecular bone.

    PubMed

    Kaplan, S J; Hayes, W C; Stone, J L; Beaupré, G S

    1985-01-01

    Data on the tensile and compressive properties of trabecular bone are needed to define input parameters and failure criteria for modeling total joint replacements. To help resolve differences in reports comparing tensile and compressive properties of trabecular bone, we have developed new methods, based on porous foam technology, for tensile testing of fresh/frozen trabecular bone specimens. Using bovine trabecular bone from an isotropic region from the proximal humerus as a model material, we measured ultimate strengths in tension and compression for two groups of 24 specimens each. The average ultimate strength in tension was 7.6 +/- 2.2 (95% C.I.) MPa and in compression was 12.4 +/- 3.2 MPa. This difference was statistically significant (p = 0.013) and was not related to density differences between the test groups (p = 0.28). Strength was related by a power-law function of the local apparent density, but, even accounting for density influences, isotropic bovine trabecular bone exhibits significantly lower strengths in tension than in compression. PMID:4077868

  11. Toxicology of a bovine paraplegic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Sevcik, C; Brito, J C; D'Suze, G; Domínguez-Bello, M G; Lovera, M; Mijares, A J; Bónoli, S

    1993-12-01

    A clinical entity named 'bovine paraplegic syndrome' ('síndrome parapléjico de los bovinos') has spread alarmingly in the cattle-growing areas of the central and eastern plains of Venezuela. It is estimated that four million cattle are bred in the area where the disease occurs. The mortality ranges from 5 to 25% of the animals at risk, mostly pregnant or lactating cows. The principal characteristic of the bovine paraplegic syndrome is ventral or sternal decubitus, in animals that make vain efforts to stand when stimulated. The diagnosis is established when all other possible causes (e.g. paralytic rabies, botulism and blood parasites such as Anaplasma marginal, Babesia bovis, B. bigemina, and Trypanosoma vivax) have been ruled out clinically and by laboratory tests. Death always occurs, usually after a few days, and there is no known treatment. In this work, we describe results that show the presence of a toxin in the cattle suffering from, or liable to suffer from the syndrome. The toxin is produced by ruminal bacteria. In squid giant axons under voltage clamp conditions, the toxin blocks the sodium current. We detected the toxin analytically by absorbance measurements at 340 nm after reacting with picrylsulfonic acid. We obtained a good separation of the toxin with isocratic high pressure liquid chromatography, using 40% methanol in water on phenylborasil columns. PMID:8146871

  12. [Serological study of bovine leptospirosis in Mexico].

    PubMed

    Moles Cervantes, Luis Pedro; Cisneros Puebla, Miguel Angel; Rosas, Dolores Gavaldón; Serranía, Nora Rojas; Torres Barranca, Jorge Isaac

    2002-01-01

    The results of 4 043 bovine sera samples from various Mexican regions, which were sent to a diagnosis lab, were analyzed. The method was the agglutination technique, taking the dilution rate 1:1000 or higher as positive. The analysis revealed 31,1% of seroprevalence and the most frequent serovarietes were hardjo (strain H 89 isolated in Mexico), wolffi and tarassovi. There is coincidence with early data obtained in Mexico on a 34% of prevalence found in a similar study performed in 1994, and with the scientific literature from other countries. The former study also indicated that tarassovi and wolffi were the most common leptospira, so there is coincidence with the figures in the reviewed literature. It was concluded that there was no significant variation in the prevalence rate between the 1994 study and the present one; therefore, it is recommended that this study be promoted so as to increase the bovine vaccination and achieve a reduction in leptospirosis in Mexico. PMID:15846936

  13. Epidemiological Modeling of Bovine Brucellosis in India

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Gloria J.; Gunaseelan, L.; Abbas, Kaja M.

    2015-01-01

    The study objective is to develop an epidemiological model of brucellosis transmission dynamics among cattle in India and to estimate the impact of different prevention and control strategies. The prevention and control strategies are test-and-slaughter, transmission rate reduction, and mass vaccination. We developed a mathematical model based on the susceptible-infectious-recovered epidemic model to simulate brucellosis transmission dynamics, calibrated to the endemically stable levels of bovine brucellosis prevalence of cattle in India. We analyzed the epidemiological benefit of different rates of reduced transmission and vaccination. Test-and-slaughter is an effective strategy for elimination and eradication of brucellosis, but socio-cultural constraints forbid culling of cattle in India. Reducing transmission rates lowered the endemically stable levels of brucellosis prevalence correspondingly. One-time vaccination lowered prevalence initially but increased with influx of new susceptible births. While this epidemiological model is a basic representation of brucellosis transmission dynamics in India and constrained by limitations in surveillance data, this study illustrates the comparative epidemiological impact of different bovine brucellosis prevention and control strategies. PMID:26280026

  14. Affinity purification of aprotinin from bovine lung.

    PubMed

    Xin, Yu; Liu, Lanhua; Chen, Beizhan; Zhang, Ling; Tong, Yanjun

    2015-05-01

    An affinity protocol for the purification of aprotinin from bovine lung was developed. To simulate the structure of sucrose octasulfate, a natural specific probe for aprotinin, the affinity ligand was composed of an acidic head and a hydrophobic stick, and was then linked with Sepharose. The sorbent was then subjected to adsorption analysis with pure aprotinin. The purification process consisted of one step of affinity chromatography and another step of ultrafiltration. Then purified aprotinin was subjected to sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, trypsin inhibitor activity, gel-filtration, and thin-layer chromatography analysis. As calculated, the theoretical maximum adsorption (Qmax ) of the affinity sorbent was 25,476.0 ± 184.8 kallikrein inactivator unit/g wet gel; the dissociation constant of the complex "immobilized ligand-aprotinin" (Kd ) was 4.6 ± 0.1 kallikrein inactivator unit/mL. After the affinity separation of bovine lung aprotinin, reducing sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analysis and gel-filtration chromatography revealed that the protein was a single polypeptide, and the purities were ∼ 97 and 100%, respectively; the purified peptide was also confirmed with aprotinin standard by gel-filtration chromatography and thin-layer chromatography. After the whole purification process, protein, and bioactivity recoveries were 2.2 and 92.6%, respectively; and the specific activity was up to 15,907.1 ± 10.2 kallikrein inactivator unit/mg. PMID:25677462

  15. PCR detection of bovine herpesviruses from nonbovine ruminants in Hungary.

    PubMed

    Kálmán, Dóra; Egyed, László

    2005-07-01

    Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to test six different nonbovine ruminant species for five bovine herpesviruses including infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus (BoHV-1), bovine herpes mammillitis virus (BoHV-2), Movar-type herpesvirus (BoHV-4), bovine herpesvirus type 5 (BoHV-5), and alcelaphine herpesvirus 1 (AlHV-1). Species tested included 56 roe deer (Capreolus capreolus), 66 red deer (Cervus elaphus), 20 fallow deer (Dama dama), 16 mouflon (Ovis musimon), 34 domestic sheep, and 44 domestic goats, which were sampled in Hungary in 2003. Tracheal and popliteal lymph nodes collected from these animals were tested for the presence of the five bovine herpesviruses using three nested (two of which were duplex) PCR assays. Three bovine herpesviruses (BoHV-1, -2, and -4) were detected, whereas no evidence of AlHV-1 or BoHV-5 was observed. Prevalence of BoHV-1 ranged from 12% to 47%, and PCR-positive results were observed in all species tested. BoHV-2 was detected from roe deer, red deer, fallow deer, mouflon, and domestic sheep, and the prevalence in these species ranged from 3% to 50%. BoHV-4 was detected in all species, with prevalence ranging from 12% to 69%. Sequenced PCR products were 99-100% identical to bovine herpesviral sequences deposited in the GenBank. PMID:16244057

  16. Characterization of the Nanog 5'-flanking Region in Bovine.

    PubMed

    Choi, Don-Ho; Kim, Duk-Jung; Song, Ki-Duk; Park, Hwan-Hee; Ko, Tae Hyun; Pyao, Yuliya; Chung, Ku-Min; Cha, Seok Ho; Sin, Young-Su; Kim, Nam-Hyung; Lee, Woon-Kyu

    2016-10-01

    Bovine embryonic stem cells have potential for use in research, such as transgenic cattle generation and the study of developmental gene regulation. The Nanog may play a critical role in maintenance of the undifferentiated state of embryonic stem cells in the bovine, as in murine and human. Nevertheless, efforts to study the bovine Nanog for pluripotency-maintaining factors have been insufficient. In this study, in order to understand the mechanisms of transcriptional regulation of the bovine Nanog, the 5'-flanking region of the Nanog was isolated from ear cells of Hanwoo. Results of transient transfection using a luciferase reporter gene under the control of serially deleted 5'-flanking sequences revealed that the -134 to -19 region contained the positive regulatory sequences for the transcription of the bovine Nanog. Results from mutagenesis studies demonstrated that the Sp1-binding site that is located in the proximal promoter region plays an important role in transcriptional activity of the bovine Nanog promoter. The electrophoretic mobility shift assay with the Sp1 specific antibody confirmed the specific binding of Sp1 transcription factor to this site. In addition, significant inhibition of Nanog promoter activity by the Sp1 mutant was observed in murine embryonic stem cells. Furthermore, chromatin-immunoprecipitation assay with the Sp1 specific antibody confirmed the specific binding of Sp1 transcription factor to this site. These results suggest that Sp1 is an essential regulatory factor for bovine Nanog transcriptional activity. PMID:27165025

  17. The Occurrence of Thrombosis in Inflammatory Bowel Disease Is Reflected in the Clot Lysis Profile

    PubMed Central

    Bollen, Lize; Vande Casteele, Niels; Peeters, Miet; Van Assche, Gert; Ferrante, Marc; Van Moerkercke, Wouter; Declerck, Paul; Vermeire, Séverine

    2015-01-01

    Background: The occurrence of thromboembolic events (TE) is an important extraintestinal manifestation in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). The aim of this study was to compare fibrinolysis and clot lysis parameters between (1) patients with IBD and healthy controls and (2) patients with IBD with TE (IBD + TE) and without TE (IBD − TE). Methods: One hundred thirteen healthy controls and 202 patients with IBD, of which 84 patients with IBD + TE and 118 patients with IBD − TE, were included in this case–control study. Three clot lysis parameters (area under the curve, 50% clot lysis time, and amplitude) were determined using a clot lysis assay. Plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1) and thrombin activatable fibrinolysis inhibitor concentrations were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results: PAI-1 antigen, active PAI-1, and intact thrombin activatable fibrinolysis inhibitor concentrations, as well as 50% clot lysis time and area under the curve, were significantly associated with the presence of IBD (all P < 0.05). The median time between TE and plasma collection was 5.0 (1.8–11.0) years. Comparing IBD + TE versus IBD − TE, active to total PAI-1 ratio (0.36 [0.24–0.61] versus 0.24 [0.13–0.40]), area under the curve (31 [24–49] versus 22 [13-31]), 50% clot lysis time (110 [64–132] versus 95 [70–126] minutes), and amplitude (0.295 [0.222–0.436] versus 0.241 [0.168–0.308]) were significantly higher in IBD + TE (all P <0.05) and remained higher after adjustment for age, gender, C-reactive protein, type of disease, presence of comorbidities, and disease activity. Conclusions: Patients with IBD have an altered clot lysis profile compared with healthy controls. Clot lysis parameters differ significantly between patients with IBD with and without a history of TE and should be included in the risk assessment. PMID:26313696

  18. Epidemiology, pathology, immunology and diagnosis of bovine farcy: a review.

    PubMed

    Hamid, Mohamed E

    2012-06-01

    Bovine farcy (which is caused by Mycobacterium farcinogenes and Mycobacterium senegalense) is a chronic suppurative granulomatous inflammation of the skin and lymphatics of cattle and is seen mostly in sub-Saharan Africa. It is not yet certain whether Nocardia farcinica causes cutaneous nocardiosis (farcy) in animals that mimics bovine farcy. Epidemiological data have steadily reported finding bovine farcy in adult cattle of the transhumance pastoralist tribes of the Sahel and the Sudanian savannah zones. M. farcinogenes and or M. senegalense do not affect other domestic or non-domestic animals; it is not known whether these bacteria are zoonotic. The disease--once widespread in many regions--has disappeared from some countries historically known to have it. Reports of bovine farcy prevalence seem to be linked to the existence of survey initiatives by governments and diagnostic capabilities in each country. Farcy causes economic loss due to damaged hides and also is a public-health burden (because the lymphadenitis due to farcy resembles the lesions of bovine tuberculosis in carcasses and the meat is considered inappropriate for human consumption). The current literature is deficient in establishing definitely the prevalence, transmission patterns, and risk factors of bovine farcy. Ixodid ticks transmit other skin diseases (such as dermatophilosis) and might play a role in bovine farcy (given the similarity in the bio-physiology and geographic distribution of the disease). In addition, the tick-resistance of cattle breeds such as the N'Dama, Fulani or the Nilotic might explain their resistance to bovine farcy. Apart from the judicious use of conventional smear-and-culture methods, few diagnostic tests have been developed; the molecular and serological tests have not been evaluated for reproducibility and accuracy. This review points out aspects of bovine farcy that need further research and updates available data on the prevalence, distribution, risk factors

  19. Mannheimia haemolytica leukotoxin binds cyclophilin D on bovine neutrophil mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Aulik, Nicole A; Hellenbrand, Katrina M; Kisiela, Dagmara; Czuprynski, Charles J

    2011-01-01

    Mannheimia haemolytica is an important member of the bovine respiratory disease (BRD) complex that causes fibrinous and necrotizing pleuropneumonia in cattle. BRD is characterized by abundant neutrophil infiltration into the alveoli and fibrin deposition. The most important virulence factor of M. haemolytica is its leukotoxin. Previous research in our laboratory has shown that the leukotoxin is able to enter into and traffic to the mitochondria of a bovine lymphoblastoid cell line (BL-3). In this study, we evaluated the ability of LKT to be internalized and travel to mitochondria in bovine neutrophils. We demonstrate that LKT binds bovine neutrophil mitochondria and co-immunoprecipitates with TOM22 and TOM40, which are members of the translocase of the outer mitochondrial (TOM) membrane family. Upon entry into mitochondria, LKT co-immunoprecipitates with cyclophilin D, a member of the mitochondria permeability transition pore. Unlike BL-3 cells, bovine neutrophil mitochondria are not protected against LKT by the membrane-stabilizing agent cyclosporin A, nor were bovine neutrophil mitochondria protected by the permeability transition pore antagonist bongkrekic acid. In addition, we found that bovine neutrophil cyclophilin D is significantly smaller than that found in BL-3 cells. Bovine neutrophils were protected against LKT by protein transfection of an anti-cyclophilin D antibody directed at the C-terminal amino acids, but not an antibody against the first 50 N-terminal amino acids. In contrast, BL-3 cells were protected by antibodies against either the C-terminus or N-terminus of cyclophilin. These data confirm that LKT binds to bovine neutrophil mitochondria, but indicate there are distinctions between neutrophil and BL-3 mitochondria that might reflect differences in cyclophilin D. PMID:21220005

  20. Survey on vertical infection of bovine viral diarrhea virus from fetal bovine sera in the field

    PubMed Central

    NAGAYAMA, Kumiko; OGUMA, Keisuke; SENTSUI, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) isolation and antibody survey were performed using 2,758 fetal bovine sera (FBS) collected from slaughterhouses in New Zealand, Australia and the Dominican Republic, and then sent to Japan to manufacture commercial serum for cell culture use. FBS in the Dominican Republic were pooled for each several individuals, and those collected in other countries were separated according to each individual and subjected to the tests. BVDV was isolated from 25 (0.91%) FBS, and the BVDV antibody was detected in 44 (1.60%) FBS. The survey on 139 sets of paired sera of a dam and her fetus revealed that neither the BVDV antibody nor BVDV was detected in all FBS from BVDV antibody-positive dams. PMID:26074250

  1. Genome analysis of an atypical bovine pestivirus from fetal bovine serum.

    PubMed

    Gao, Shandian; Du, Junzheng; Tian, Zhancheng; Xing, Shanshan; Chang, Huiyun; Liu, Guangyuan; Luo, Jianxun; Yin, Hong

    2016-08-01

    We report the complete genome sequence of a bovine pestivirus LVRI/cont-1 originated from a commercial batch of fetal bovine serum. Its complete genome consists of 12,282 nucleotides (nt), which contain an open reading frame (ORF) of 11,700 bp flanked by 5' and 3' untranslated regions (383 and 199 bp). The size of the 5'UTR and the individual protein coding region of LVRI/cont-1 are identical to those of the reference virus Th/04_KhonKaen, but it has a deletion of the first 56 nt in the 3'UTR. Alignment of the complete nucleotide sequence and phylogenetic analysis indicate that this viral isolate belongs to atypical pestiviruses. PMID:27052733

  2. Dusty plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, M.E.; Winske, D.; Keinigs, R.; Lemons, D.

    1996-05-01

    This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The objective of this project has been to develop a fundamental understanding of dusty plasmas at the Laboratory. While dusty plasmas are found in space in galactic clouds, planetary rings, and cometary tails, and as contaminants in plasma enhanced fabrication of microelectronics, many of their properties are only partially understood. Our work has involved both theoretical analysis and self-consistent plasma simulations to understand basic properties of dusty plasmas related to equilibrium, stability, and transport. Such an understanding can improve the control and elimination of plasma dust in industrial applications and may be important in the study of planetary rings and comet dust tails. We have applied our techniques to the study of charging, dynamics, and coagulation of contaminants in plasma processing reactors for industrial etching and deposition processes and to instabilities in planetary rings and other space plasma environments. The work performed in this project has application to plasma kinetics, transport, and other classical elementary processes in plasmas as well as to plasma waves, oscillations, and instabilities.

  3. Plasma accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Ruth, R.D.; Chen, P.

    1986-03-01

    In this paper we discuss plasma accelerators which might provide high gradient accelerating fields suitable for TeV linear colliders. In particular we discuss two types of plasma accelerators which have been proposed, the Plasma Beat Wave Accelerator and the Plasma Wake Field Accelerator. We show that the electric fields in the plasma for both schemes are very similar, and thus the dynamics of the driven beams are very similar. The differences appear in the parameters associated with the driving beams. In particular to obtain a given accelerating gradient, the Plasma Wake Field Accelerator has a higher efficiency and a lower total energy for the driving beam. Finally, we show for the Plasma Wake Field Accelerator that one can accelerate high quality low emittance beams and, in principle, obtain efficiencies and energy spreads comparable to those obtained with conventional techniques.

  4. Immunological release of histamine from bovine leucocytes. Unusual adrenergic modulation.

    PubMed Central

    Holroyde, M C; Eyre, P

    1976-01-01

    Sensitized bovine granulocytes release histamine when exposed to specific antigen. In comparison with in vitro systems in several other species, the modulation of this release by adrenergic agents is unique. Beta-Adrenoceptor stimulation potentiates (rather than inhibits), whereas alpha-adrenoceptor stimulation inhibits (rather than potentiates) histamine release. Adrenaline, which is generally considered to be a physiological antagonist of the anaphylactic reaction, potentiated histamine release in this study. Dopamine, which is present in high concentration in bovine mast cells, was without effect. The results are discussed in terms of the possible role of granulocytes in bovine hypersensitivity. PMID:60282

  5. Seroprevalence of bovine immunodeficiency virus and bovine leukemia virus in draught animals in Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Meas, S; Ohashi, K; Tum, S; Chhin, M; Te, K; Miura, K; Sugimoto, C; Onuma, M

    2000-07-01

    Since bovine immunodeficiency virus (BIV), known as bovine lentivirus, has been detected in dairy and beef cattle in various countries around the world, a prevalence study of antibodies to BIV and bovine leukemia virus (BLV) was conducted in draught animals in five provinces in Cambodia, where protozoan parasite infections were suspected in some animals. To clarify the status of draught animals including Haryana, Brahman, mixed-breed, local breed cattle and muscle water buffaloes, a total of 544 cattle and 42 buffaloes were tested, and 26.3 and 16.7%, respectively, were found positive for anti-BIV p26 antibodies determined by Western blotting. There were 5.3% positive for anti-BLV antibodies detected by immunodiffusion test among the cattle, but no reactors among buffaloes and no dual infection for both BIV and BLV was determined in this study. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells from BIV-seropositive cattle were found to have BIV-provirus DNA, as detected by polymerase chain reaction and subsequent Southern blot hybridization. This is the first evidence for the presence of BIV and BLV infections in draught animals in tropical countries such as Cambodia. This wide distribution of BIV suggests its association with problems in animal health as reported worldwide, and that a primary BIV infection can predispose death of affected animals by other aggressive pathogens or stresses. PMID:10945301

  6. Adenosine-5'-triphosphate release by Mannheimia haemolytica, lipopolysaccharide, and interleukin-1 stimulated bovine pulmonary epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Craddick, Michael; Patel, Rakhi; Lower, Amanda; Highlander, Sarah; Ackermann, Mark; McClenahan, David

    2012-09-15

    Mannheimia haemolytica, one of the agents associated with bovine respiratory disease complex, can cause severe lung pathology including the leakage of vascular products into the airways and alveoli. Previous work by this laboratory has demonstrated that bovine lung endothelial and epithelial cells undergo dramatic permeability increases when exposed to adenosine-5'-triphosphate (ATP). Therefore, we wanted to determine if ATP levels were elevated in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) samples from calves experimentally infected with M. haemolytica. In addition, cultured bovine pulmonary epithelial (BPE) cells were stimulated with heat-killed and live M. haemolytica bacteria, lipopolysaccharide (LPS), lipoteichoic acid (LTA), interleukin-1 (IL-1), and zymosan activated plasma (ZAP) to determine whether they might release extracellular ATP during in vitro infection. Calves experimentally exposed to M. haemolytica had an approximately 2-fold higher level of ATP in their BAL samples compared to control. BPE cells exposed to increasing numbers of heat-killed or live M. haemolytica had significantly increased levels of ATP release as compared to time-matched controls. Finally, BPE cells treated with several concentrations of LPS and IL-1 had increases in ATP release as compared to time-matched controls. This increase appeared to be a result of active ATP secretion by the cells, as cell viability was similar between treated and non-treated cells. Neither ZAP nor LTA induced any ATP release by the cells. In conclusion, ATP levels are elevated in lung secretions from calves infected with M. haemolytica. In addition, lung epithelial cells can actively release ATP when exposed to heat-killed or live M. haemolytica, LPS or IL-1. PMID:22771196

  7. Effect of bovine ABCG2 Y581S polymorphism on concentrations in milk of enrofloxacin and its active metabolite ciprofloxacin.

    PubMed

    Otero, J A; García-Mateos, D; de la Fuente, A; Prieto, J G; Álvarez, A I; Merino, G

    2016-07-01

    The ATP-binding cassette transporter G2 (ABCG2) is involved in the secretion of several drugs into milk. The bovine Y581S ABCG2 polymorphism increases the secretion into milk of the fluoroquinolone danofloxacin in Holstein cows. Danofloxacin and enrofloxacin are the fluoroquinolones most widely used in veterinary medicine. Both enrofloxacin (ENRO) and its active metabolite ciprofloxacin (CIPRO) reach milk at relatively high concentrations. The aim of this work was to study the effect of the bovine Y581S ABCG2 polymorphism on in vitro transport as well as on concentrations in plasma and in milk of ENRO and CIPRO. Experiments using cells overexpressing bovine ABCG2 showed the effects of ABCG2 on the transport of CIPRO, demonstrating more efficient in vitro transport of this antimicrobial by the S581 variant as compared with the Y581 variant. Animal studies administering 2.5mg/kg of ENRO subcutaneously to Y/Y 581 and Y/S 581 cows revealed that concentrations in plasma of ENRO and CIPRO were significantly lower in Y/S animals. Regardless of the genotype, the antimicrobial profile in milk after the administration of ENRO was predominantly of CIPRO. With respect to the genotype effects on the amounts of drugs present in milk, AUC0-24 values were more than 1.2 times higher in Y/S cows for ENRO and 2.2 times for CIPRO, indicating a greater capacity of Y581S to transfer these drugs into milk. These results emphasize the clinical relevance of this polymorphism as a factor affecting the concentrations in plasma and in milk of drugs of importance in veterinary medicine. PMID:27157572

  8. Tear and decohesion of bovine pericardial tissue.

    PubMed

    Tobaruela, Almudena; Elices, Manuel; Bourges, Jean Yves; Rojo, Francisco Javier; Atienza, José Miguel; Guinea, Gustavo

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate quantitatively the fracture-by tear and delamination-of bovine pericardium tissues which are usually employed for the manufacture of bioprosthetic valves. A large number of samples (77) were tested in root-to-apex and circumferential directions, according to a standardised tear test (ASTM D 1938). Before performing the tear test, some samples were subjected to 1000 cycles of fatigue to a maximum stress of 3MPa. Fracture toughness of tearing and delamination were computed by following a simple fracture model. The study showed significantly lower values of delamination toughness compared with tear delamination. Moreover, tear forces were different in each test direction, revealing a clear orthotropic behaviour. All these results, as well as the testing procedure, could be of value for future research in the physiological function of pericardium tissues and clinical applications. PMID:27337412

  9. Bovine achondrogenesis: evidence for defective chondrocyte differentiation.

    PubMed

    Horton, W A; Jayo, M J; Leipold, H W; Machado, M A; Campbell, D; Ahmed, S

    1987-01-01

    A survey study of growth cartilage abnormalities in bovine bone dysplasias revealed that a disorder in Holstein cattle called bulldog calf closely resembles human achondrogenesis Type II. Substantial amounts of Type I collagen and other non Type II collagens were detected in the bulldog cartilage which was comprised primarily of extensive vascular canals and cells having the characteristics of hypertrophic and degenerative chondrocytes normally found in the growth plate. It is proposed that chondrocytes throughout the bulldog growth cartilage prematurely differentiate into hypertrophic cells that degenerate and predispose the cartilage to vascular invasion and the formation of cartilage canals. The presence of these canals probably accounts for most of the observed collagen abnormalities. PMID:3606909

  10. Somatic Cell Counts in Bovine Milk

    PubMed Central

    Dohoo, I. R.; Meek, A. H.

    1982-01-01

    Factors which influence somatic cell counts in bovine milk are reviewed and guidelines for their interpretation are presented. It is suggested that the thresholds of 300 000 and 250 000 cells/mL be used to identify infected quarters and cows respectively. However, it is stressed that somatic cell counts are general indicators of udder health which are subject to the influence of many factors. Therefore the evaluation of several successive counts is preferable to the interpretation of an individual count. Relationships between somatic cell counts and both milk production and milk composition are discussed. Subclinical mastitis reduces milk quality and decreases yield although the relationship between production loss and somatic cell count requires clarification. Finally the availability of somatic cell counting programs in Canada is presented. PMID:17422127

  11. Diagnosis and Control of Bovine Neosporosis.

    PubMed

    McAllister, Milton M

    2016-07-01

    Neosporosis is one of the most common and widespread causes of bovine abortion. The causative parasite is transmitted in at least two ways, horizontally from canids, and by endogenous transmission within maternal lines of infected cattle. The prevalence of neosporosis is higher in the dairy industry than in the beef industry because of risk factors associated with intensive feeding. There are no vaccines, but logical management options are discussed that can lower the risk of abortion outbreaks and gradually reduce the prevalence of infection within herds. Steps should be taken to prevent total mixed rations from becoming contaminated by canine feces. If a herd has a high rate of infection that is associated with abortions in heifers, then the rate of reduction of infection prevalence can be speeded by only selecting seronegative replacement heifers to enter the breeding herd. Elimination of all infected cattle is not a recommended goal. PMID:27161392

  12. Properties of intracellular bovine papillomavirus chromatin.

    PubMed Central

    Rösl, F; Waldeck, W; Zentgraf, H; Sauer, G

    1986-01-01

    Episomal nucleoprotein complexes of bovine papillomavirus type 1 (BPV-1) in transformed cells were exposed to DNase I treatment to localize hypersensitive regions. Such regions, which are indicative for gene expression, were found within the noncoding part of the genome, coinciding with the origin of replication and the 5' ends of most of the early mRNAs. However, there were also regions of hypersensitivity within the structural genes. These intragenic perturbations of the chromatin structure coincide with regulatory sequences at the DNA level. One of these regions maps in close proximity to a Z-DNA antibody-binding site which is located near the putative BPV-1 enhancer sequence. Images PMID:3009863

  13. Diminishing returns in bovine tuberculosis control.

    PubMed

    Hone, J

    2013-07-01

    Mycobacterium bovis causes bovine tuberculosis (bTB) in many mammals including cattle, deer and brushtail possum. The aim of this study was to estimate the strength of association, using model selection (AICc) regression analyses, between the proportion of cattle and farmed deer herds with bTB in New Zealand and annual costs of TB control, namely disease control in livestock, in wildlife or in a combination of the two. There was more support for curved (concave up) than linear models which related the proportion of cattle and farmed deer herds with bTB to the annual control costs. The curved, concave-up, best-fitting relationships showed diminishing returns with no positive asymptote and implied TB eradication is feasible in New Zealand. PMID:23632097

  14. Proteomic characterization of pleural effusion, a specific host niche of Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides from cattle with contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP).

    PubMed

    Weldearegay, Yenehiwot B; Pich, Andreas; Schieck, Elise; Liljander, Anne; Gicheru, Nimmo; Wesonga, Hezron; Thiaucourt, Francois; Kiirika, Leonard M; Valentin-Weigand, Peter; Jores, Joerg; Meens, Jochen

    2016-01-10

    Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides (Mmm) is the causative agent of contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP), a severe pleuropneumonia in cattle. The abnormal accumulation of pleural fluid, called pleural effusion (PE), is one of the characteristics of this disease. We performed a proteomic analysis of seven PE samples from experimentally infected cattle and characterized their composition with respect to bovine and Mmm proteins. We detected a total of 963 different bovine proteins. Further analysis indicated a strong enrichment of proteins involved in antigen processing, platelet activation and degranulation and apoptosis and an increased abundance of acute phase proteins.With regard to the pathogen, up to 108 viable mycoplasma cells per ml were detected in the PE supernatant. The proteomic analysis revealed 350 mycoplasma proteins, including proteins involved in virulence-associated processes like hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) production and capsule synthesis. The bovine proteins detected will aid to characterize the inflammasome during an acute pleuropneumonia in cattle and the identified mycoplasma proteins will serve as baseline data to be compared with in vitro studies to improve our understanding of pathogenicity mechanisms. Based on our results, we named the pleural effusion an “in vivo niche” of Mmm during the acute phase of CBPP. Biological significance: This is the first study on bovine pleural effusions derived from an infectious disease and the first approach to characterize the proteome of Mycoplasma mycoides in vivo. This study revealed a high number of viable Mmm cells in the pleural effusion. The bovine pleural effusion proteome during Mmm infection is qualitatively similar to plasma, but differs with respect to high abundance of acute phase proteins. On the other hand,Mmm in its natural host produces proteins involved in capsule synthesis, H2O2 production and induction of inflammatory response, supporting previous knowledge on mechanisms underlying

  15. Nonenzymatic glycosylation of bovine myelin basic protein

    SciTech Connect

    Hitz, J.B.

    1987-01-01

    In the CNS myelin sheath the nonenzymatic glycosylation reaction (at the early stage of the Amadori product) occurs only with the myelin basic protein and not with the other myelin proteins. This was observed in isolated bovine myelin by in vitro incubation with (/sup 14/C)-galactose and (/sup 14/C)-glucose. The respective in-vitro incorporation rates for purified bovine myelin basic protein with D-galactose, D-glucose and D-mannose were 7.2, 2.4 and 2.4 mmoles/mole myelin basic protein per day at 37/sup 0/C. A more rapid, HPLC method was devised and characterized to specifically analyze for the Amadori product. The HPLC method was correlated to the (/sup 14/C)-sugar incorporation method for myelin basic protein under a set of standard reaction conditions using (/sup 14/C)-glucose and (/sup 14/C)-mannose with HPLC values at 1/6 and 1/5 of the (/sup 14/C)-sugar incorporation method. A novel myelin basic protein purification step has been developed that yields a relativity proteolytic free preparation that is easy to work with, being totally soluble at a neutral pH. Nine new spots appear for a trypsinized glycosylated MBP in the paper peptide map of which eight correspond to positions of the (/sup 3/H)-labeled Amadori product in affinity isolated peptides. These studies provide a general characterization of and a structural basis for investigations on nonenzymatically glycosylated MBP as well as identifying MBP as the only nonenzymatically glycosylated protein in the CNS myelin sheath which may accumulate during aging, diabetes, and demyelinating diseases in general.

  16. Lipidome signatures in early bovine embryo development.

    PubMed

    Sudano, Mateus J; Rascado, Tatiana D S; Tata, Alessandra; Belaz, Katia R A; Santos, Vanessa G; Valente, Roniele S; Mesquita, Fernando S; Ferreira, Christina R; Araújo, João P; Eberlin, Marcos N; Landim-Alvarenga, Fernanda D C

    2016-07-15

    Mammalian preimplantation embryonic development is a complex, conserved, and well-orchestrated process involving dynamic molecular and structural changes. Understanding membrane lipid profile fluctuation during this crucial period is fundamental to address mechanisms governing embryogenesis. Therefore, the aim of the present work was to perform a comprehensive assessment of stage-specific lipid profiles during early bovine embryonic development and associate with the mRNA abundance of lipid metabolism-related genes (ACSL3, ELOVL5, and ELOVL6) and with the amount of cytoplasmic lipid droplets. Immature oocytes were recovered from slaughterhouse-derived ovaries, two-cell embryos, and eight- to 16-cell embryos, morula, and blastocysts that were in vitro produced under different environmental conditions. Lipid droplets content and mRNA transcript levels for ACSL3, ELOVL5, and ELOVL6, monitored by lipid staining and quantitative polymerase chain reaction, respectively, increased at morula followed by a decrease at blastocyst stage. Relative mRNA abundance changes of ACSL3 were closely related to cytoplasmic lipid droplet accumulation. Characteristic dynamic changes of phospholipid profiles were observed during early embryo development and related to unsaturation level, acyl chain length, and class composition. ELOVL5 and ELOVL6 mRNA levels were suggestive of overexpression of membrane phospholipids containing elongated fatty acids with 16, 18, and 20 carbons. In addition, putative biomarkers of key events of embryogenesis, embryo lipid accumulation, and elongation were identified. This study provides a comprehensive description of stage-specific lipidome signatures and proposes a mechanism to explain its potential relationship with the fluctuation of both cytoplasmic lipid droplets content and mRNA levels of lipid metabolism-related genes during early bovine embryo development. PMID:27107972

  17. Tylosin susceptibility of Staphylococci from bovine mastitis.

    PubMed

    Entorf, Monika; Feßler, Andrea T; Kadlec, Kristina; Kaspar, Heike; Mankertz, Joachim; Peters, Thomas; Schwarz, Stefan

    2014-07-16

    Although the 16-membered macrolide tylosin is commonly used for the treatment of bovine mastitis, little information is currently available about the susceptibility of mastitis pathogens to tylosin. In the present study, 112 Staphylococcus aureus and 110 coagulase-negative Staphylococcus (CoNS) spp. isolates from cases of bovine mastitis were tested by broth microdilution and agar disk diffusion with 30 μg tylosin disks. Susceptibility to erythromycin was tested by broth microdilution and disk diffusion using 15 μg disks. Both test populations showed bimodal distributions of minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) and zone diameters with eleven S. aureus and eight CoNS isolates showing tylosin MICs of ≥ 256 μg/ml and no zones of growth inhibition around the tylosin 30 μg disks. All 19 isolates with tylosin MICs of ≥ 256 μg/ml were also resistant to erythromycin. For six additional erythromycin-resistant isolates, tylosin MICs of 1-8 μg/ml were observed. One S. aureus and two CoNS isolates showed inducible macrolide resistance. PCR analysis of the 25 erythromycin-resistant staphylococcal isolates identified the resistance genes erm(A), erm(B), erm(C), erm(T), mph(C) and msr(A) alone or in different combinations. An excellent correlation between the results of the different tylosin susceptibility tests (broth microdilution versus disk diffusion) was seen for S. aureus and CoNS isolates. Since tylosin does not induce the expression of the aforementioned erm genes, isolates with an inducible resistance phenotype may - if only tylosin is tested - be falsely classified as tylosin-susceptible. Thus, erythromycin should be tested in parallel and tylosin should only be used for the treatment of infections caused by erythromycin-susceptible staphylococci. PMID:24461550

  18. Detection and characterization of viruses as field and vaccine strains in feedlot cattle with bovine respiratory disease

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study investigated viruses in bovine respiratory disease (BRD) cases in feedlots, including bovine herpesvirus-1 (BoHV-1), bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV), bovine coronaviruses (BoCV) and parainfluenza-3 virus (PI3V). Nasal swabs were collected fro...

  19. Convergent evolution of human and bovine haptoglobin: partial duplication of the genes.

    PubMed

    Wicher, Krzysztof B; Fries, Erik

    2007-10-01

    Haptoglobin (Hp) is a hemoglobin-binding plasma protein consisting of two types of chains, called alpha and beta, which originate from a common polypeptide. In humans, but not in other mammals, Hp has been shown to occur in two allelic forms, Hp1 and Hp2, which differ in the length of the alpha-chain. The longer alpha-chain (in Hp2) seems to have arisen by an internal duplication of a gene segment coding for almost the entire alpha-chain of Hp1. In this article we show that Hp of cow (Bos taurus) contains an alpha-chain, the structure of which is similar to that of the human Hp2 alpha-chain. Furthermore, comparison of the structure of bovine Hp and human Hp2 suggests that the bovine gene arose by a duplication of the gene segment homologous to that duplicated in human Hp2. However, a phylogenetic analysis indicates that the two genes were formed independently. The evolutionary pressure that has led to the fixation of the Hps with a longer alpha-chain is not known. PMID:17922076

  20. Increase of bovine alveolar macrophage superoxide anion and hydrogen peroxide release by dusts of different origin.

    PubMed

    Berg, I; Schlüter, T; Gercken, G

    1993-07-01

    The release of reactive oxygen intermediates (ROI) from bovine alveolar macrophages (BAM) after stimulation with heavy metal-containing dusts was investigated. BAM were obtained by postmortem lavages of bovine lungs. The dusts were collected from waste incineration, sewage sludge incineration, an electric power station, and from two different factories. Three quartz dusts were used as heavy metal-free controls. The dusts were fractionated by sieving and sedimentation and analyzed by electron microscopy, atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS), and atomic emission spectrometry with inductively coupled plasma (AES-ICP). Incubation of BAM with the dusts (12.5-1000 micrograms/ml medium) led to concentration-dependent increases in ROI release. The secretion of ROI was already seen after 15 min and lasted throughout the experiment up to 90 min, with the exception of a waste incinerator ash, which contained the highest contents of some heavy metals and where the release of ROI ceased after 60 min. We suggest that this dust exhibits simultaneously stimulating and inhibiting effects. The ratio of the secreted O2- and H2O2 varied, depending on the dust being investigated. The release of hydrogen peroxide correlated best, in descending order, with the content of iron, manganese, chromium, vanadium, and arsenic in the dusts. PMID:8394434

  1. Effects of Ion-Releasing Tooth-Coating Material on Demineralization of Bovine Tooth Enamel

    PubMed Central

    Kawasaki, Koji; Kambara, Masaki

    2014-01-01

    We compared the effect of a novel ion-releasing tooth-coating material that contained S-PRG (surface-reaction type prereacted glass-ionomer) filler to that of non-S-PRG filler and nail varnish on the demineralization of bovine enamel subsurface lesions. The demineralization process of bovine enamel was examined using quantitative light-induced fluorescence (QLF) and electron probe microanalyzer (EPMA) measurement. Ion concentrations in demineralizing solution were measured using inductively coupled plasma atomic (ICP) emission spectrometry and an ion electrode. The nail varnish group and the non-S-PRG filler group showed linear demineralization. Although the nail varnish group and the non-S-PRG filler group showed linear demineralization, the S-PRG filler group did not. Further, plane-scanning by EPMA analysis in the S-PRG filler group showed no changes in Ca ion distribution, and F ions showed peak levels on the surface of enamel specimens. Most ions in the demineralizing solution were present at higher concentrations in the S-PRG filler group than in the other two groups. In conclusion, only the S-PRG filler-containing tooth-coating material released ions and inhibited demineralization around the coating. PMID:24578706

  2. Study of the protein-bound fraction of calcium, iron, magnesium and zinc in bovine milk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, Fernando V.; Lopes, Gisele S.; Nóbrega, Joaquim A.; Souza, Gilberto B.; Nogueira, Ana Rita A.

    2001-10-01

    Two approaches were used to study the interaction of Ca, Fe, Mg and Zn with bovine milk proteins by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICPOES). Selective separations in bovine milk samples were accomplished employing an acid protein precipitation using 100 g l -1 trichloroacetic acid (TCA), and an enzymatic protein hydrolysis using 50 g l -1 pepsin (PEP) solution, respectively. The results were compared with total mineral contents determined after microwave-assisted acid digestion. The results obtained by enzymatic and acid precipitation evidenced the different interaction forms of Ca, Fe, Mg and Zn in the system formed by milk components. Iron was not solubilized by the TCA treatment, but was recovered completely after the enzymatic treatment. Quantitative recoveries of Ca, Mg and Zn were obtained using both approaches, showing that these analytes were bound to milk compounds affected by either treatment. Calcium, Mg and Zn are mainly associated with colloidal calcium phosphate and Fe is bound to the backbone of the casein polypeptide chain, cleaved by pepsin enzyme. The proposed approaches could be used to assess the complexity of these chemical interactions.

  3. UT-B Urea Transporter Localization in the Bovine Gastrointestinal Tract.

    PubMed

    Coyle, J; McDaid, S; Walpole, C; Stewart, Gavin S

    2016-04-01

    Facilitative UT-B urea transporters play an important role in the urea nitrogen salvaging process that occurs in the gastrointestinal tract of mammals, particularly ruminants. Gastrointestinal UT-B transporters have previously been reported in various ruminant species-including cow, sheep and goat. In this present study, UT-B transporter localization was investigated in tissues throughout the bovine gastrointestinal tract. RT-PCR analysis showed that UT-B2 was the predominant UT-B mRNA transcript expressed in dorsal, ventral and cranial ruminal sacs, while alternative UT-B transcripts were present in other gastrointestinal tissues. Immunoblotting analysis detected a strong, glycosylated ~50 kDa UT-B2 protein in all three ruminal sacs. Immunolocalization studies showed that UT-B2 protein was predominantly localized to the plasma membrane of cells in the stratum basale layer of all ruminal sac papillae. In contrast, other UT-B protein staining was detected in the basolateral membranes of the surface epithelial cells lining the abomasum, colon and rectum. Overall, these findings confirm that UT-B2 cellular localization is similar in all ruminal sacs and that other UT-B proteins are located in epithelial cells lining various tissues in the bovine gastrointestinal tract. PMID:26403526

  4. Identification, characterization, and regulation of a nicotinic acetylcholine receptor on bovine adrenal chromaffin cells in culture

    SciTech Connect

    Higgins, L.S.

    1988-01-01

    Synaptic input to bovine adrenal chromaffin cells is mediated by nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (AChRs) and results in secretion of catecholamines. Three probes previously shown to recognize AChRs on neurons were used to identify the AChR on bovine adrenal chromaffin cells in culture: monoclonal antibody mAb 35, a toxin that blocks receptor function, and the agonist nicotine. Competition for {sup 3}H-nicotine binding was used to measure the affinity of cholinergic ligands, and revealed the pharmacological profile expected for a neuronal-type AChR. At steady state the rate both of receptor insertion into and loss from the plasma membrane is about 3%/hour, resulting in a half-life in the surface of about 24 hours. Exposure to the anti-AChR antibody results in a loss of AChRs from the surface of the cells through a process that has the characteristics of antigenic modulation. The number of AChRs on the surface of the chromaffin cells can also be modulated by agonists and hormones, including glucocotricoids. Catecholamines, three peptides that may be secreted by chromaffin cells, and K{sup +}-induced secretion reduce agonist-induced catecholamine release by decreasing the number of AChRs, providing a mechanism for autoregulation.

  5. Purification and characterization of bovine brain platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolase.

    PubMed

    Hattori, M; Arai, H; Inoue, K

    1993-09-01

    Platelet-activating factor (PAF) acetylhydrolase, which removes the acetyl moiety at the sn-2 position, has been found in plasma and tissue cytosol. PAF acetylhydrolase in bovine brain cytosol was chromatographically separated into three distinct fractions, all of which exhibited pH optima in the neutral to mild alkaline region and were unaffected by EDTA. We have purified the major fraction of the enzyme to near homogeneity. The purified enzyme had a molecular mass of about 100 kDa, as estimated by gel filtration chromatography, and gave three distinct bands of 45, 30, and 29 kDa, respectively, on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. These polypeptides exclusively co-migrated with the activity throughout the purification steps. These data suggest that this set of polypeptides corresponds to the subunits of bovine brain PAF acetylhydrolase. Diisopropyl fluorophosphate completely inhibited the activity at 0.1 mM. [3H]Diisopropyl fluorophosphate labeled only the 29-kDa polypeptide, suggesting that this polypeptide possesses an active serine residue(s). The purified enzyme displayed similar activity against PAF and oxidatively modified phosphatidylcholine, but did not hydrolyze phosphatidylcholine or phosphatidylethanolamine with two long chain acyl groups. Thus, the intracellular PAF acetylhydrolase is likely to be a new member of the calcium-independent phospholipases A2 in mammalian tissues. PMID:8360169

  6. Role of endothelial cells in bovine mammary gland health and disease.

    PubMed

    Ryman, Valerie E; Packiriswamy, Nandakumar; Sordillo, Lorraine M

    2015-12-01

    The bovine mammary gland is a dynamic and complex organ composed of various cell types that work together for the purpose of milk synthesis and secretion. A layer of endothelial cells establishes the blood-milk barrier, which exists to facilitate the exchange of solutes and macromolecules necessary for optimal milk production. During bacterial challenge, however, endothelial cells divert some of their lactation function to protect the underlying tissue from damage by initiating inflammation. At the onset of inflammation, endothelial cells tightly regulate the movement of plasma components and leukocytes into affected tissue. Unfortunately, endothelial dysfunction as a result of exacerbated or sustained inflammation can negatively affect both barrier integrity and the health of surrounding extravascular tissue. The objective of this review is to highlight the role of endothelial cells in supporting milk production and regulating optimal inflammatory responses. The consequences of endothelial dysfunction and sustained inflammation on milk synthesis and secretion are discussed. Given the important role of endothelial cells in orchestrating the inflammatory response, a better understanding of endothelial function during mastitis may support development of targeted therapies to protect bovine mammary tissue and mammary endothelium. PMID:26303748

  7. A comparison between the equine and bovine hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenocortical axis.

    PubMed

    van der Kolk, J H; Fouché, N; Gross, J J; Gerber, V; Bruckmaier, R M

    2016-07-01

    In this review, we address the function of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis with special emphasis on the comparison between the bovine and equine species. The pars intermedia of the pituitary gland is particularly well developed in horses and cattle. However, its function is not well appreciated in cattle yet. The Wulzen's cone of the adenohypophysis is a special feature of ruminants. Total basal cortisol concentration is much higher in horses than that in cows with similar free cortisol fractions. Corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) concentrations in equine pituitary venous blood are lower compared with other species, whereas plasma ACTH concentrations in cows are higher than those in horses. A CRF challenge test induced a more pronounced cortisol response in horses compared with cattle, whereas regarding ACTH challenge testing, the opposite seems true. Based on data from literature, the bovine species is characterized by relatively high basal blood CRF and ACTH and low cortisol and glucose concentrations. Obviously, further lowering of blood cortisol in cattle is easily prevented by the high sensitivity to ACTH, and as a consequence, subsequent increased gluconeogenesis prevents imminent hypoglycemia. Hypoglycemia is less likely in horses given their high muscle glycogen content and their relatively high cortisol concentration. When assessing HPA axis reactivity, response patterns to exogenous ACTH or CRH might be used as a reliable indicator of animal welfare status in cows and horses, respectively, although it is emphasized that considerable caution should be exercised in using measures of HPA activity solely to assess animal welfare. PMID:27345307

  8. Cartilage (Bovine and Shark) (PDQ®)—Health Professional Version

    Cancer.gov

    Expert-reviewed information summary about the use of bovine and shark cartilage as a treatment for people with cancer. Note: The information in this summary is no longer being updated and is provided for reference purposes only.

  9. Association of a bovine prion gene haplotype with atypical BSE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Atypical bovine spongiform encephalopathies (BSEs) are recently recognized prion diseases of cattle. Atypical BSEs are rare; approximately 30 cases have been identified worldwide. We tested prion gene (PRNP) haplotypes for an association with atypical BSE. Methodology/Principal Findin...

  10. Immune suppression in calves with bovine immunodeficiency virus.

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, S; Wood, C; Xue, W; Krukenberg, S M; Chen, Q; Minocha, H C

    1997-01-01

    The present study was designed to evaluate the effect of bovine immunodeficiency virus (BIV) infection on immune functions and possible interactions between BIV and other bovine viruses in calves. Ten calves were inoculated intravenously with BIV, and five served as controls. An increased lymphocyte proliferation to BIV gag protein was demonstrated 2 to 6 weeks after BIV inoculation (P < 0.05). Lymphocyte subset differentiation revealed a decreased CD4/CD8 ratio (P < 0.05) during weeks 2 to 7, suggesting a possible immune dysfunction in BIV-infected calves. When the calves were inoculated with bovine herpesvirus type 1 (BHV-1), the antibody response to BHV-1 in BIV-infected calves was delayed and the antibody titers were significantly lower (P < 0.05). Injection of bovine viral diarrhea virus vaccine also elicited a lower neutralizing antibody response in BIV-infected calves. The results indicated that immune suppression occurred in BIV-infected calves. PMID:9067663