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Sample records for bovine roots restored

  1. FRACTURE STRENGTH OF FLARED BOVINE ROOTS RESTORED WITH DIFFERENT INTRARADICULAR POSTS

    PubMed Central

    Clavijo, Victor Grover Rene; Reis, José Maurício dos Santos Nunes; Kabbach, William; Silva, André Luis Faria e; de Oliveira, Osmir Batista; de Andrade, Marcelo Ferrarezi

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the fracture strength and failure mode of flared bovine roots restored with different intraradicular posts. Material and Methods: Fifty bovine incisors with similar dimensions were selected and their roots were flared until 1.0 mm of dentin wall remained. Next, the roots were allocated into five groups (n=10): GI-cast metal post-and-core; GII-fiber posts plus accessory fiber posts; GIII- direct anatomic post; GIV- indirect anatomic post and GV- control (specimens without intraradicular post). A polyether impression material was used to simulate the periodontal ligament. After periodontal ligament simulation, the specimens were subjected to a compressive load at a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/min in a servo-hydraulic testing machine (MTS 810) applied at 135° to the long axis of the tooth until failure. The data (N) were subjected to ANOVA and Tukey's post-hoc test (α=0.05). Results: GI and GIV presented higher fracture strength (p<0.05) than GII. GIII presented intermediate values without statistically significant differences (p>0.05) from GI, GII and GIV. Control specimens (GV) produced the lowest fracture strength mean values (p<0.05). Despite obtaining the highest mean value, GI presented 100% of unfavorable failures. GII presented 20% of unfavorable failures. GIII, GIV and GV presented only favorable failures. Conclusions: Although further in vitro and in vivo studies are necessary, the results of this study showed that the use of direct and indirect anatomic posts in flared roots could be an alternative to cast metal post-and-core. PMID:20027429

  2. Root canal retained restorations: 3. Root-face attachments.

    PubMed

    Dummer, P M; Edmunds, D H; Gidden, J R

    1990-10-01

    It has been common practice for many years to use retained roots to provide support and stability for partial or full dentures. The retention of such overdentures is greatly enhanced if the remaining roots are modified and restored with posts and root-face attachments. The final article in this series on root canal retained restorations classifies and describes some of the root-face attachments currently available, and also describes a number of prefabricated post systems with integral overdenture attachments. Guidelines for clinical and laboratory procedures are given. PMID:2097234

  3. Effect of post type and restorative techniques on the strain and fracture resistance of flared incisor roots.

    PubMed

    Silva, Gisele Rodrigues da; Santos-Filho, Paulo César de Freitas; Simamoto-Júnior, Paulo Cézar; Martins, Luis Roberto Marcondes; Mota, Adérito Soares da; Soares, Carlos José

    2011-01-01

    Restoring flared endodontically treated teeth continues to be a challenge for clinicians. This study evaluated the effect of post types and restorative techniques on the strain, fracture resistance, and fracture mode of incisors with weakened roots. One hundred five endodontically treated bovine incisors roots (15 mm) were divided into 7 groups (n=15). The two control groups were (C) intact roots restored with Cpc (cast posts and core) or Gfp (glass fiber posts). The five experimental groups were (F) flared roots restored with GfpAp (Gfp associated with accessory glass fiber posts), GfpRc (anatomic Gfp, relined with composite resin), and GfpRcAp (anatomized Gfp with resin and accessory glass fiber posts). All teeth were restored with metal crowns. Mechanical fatigue was performed with 3x10(5)/50 N. Specimens were loaded at 45º, and the strain values (μS) were obtained on root buccal and proximal surfaces. Following that, the fracture resistance (N) was measured. One-way ANOVA and Tukey's HSD tests (α=0.05) were applied, and failure mode was checked. No significant difference in strain values among the groups was found. Cpc presented lower fracture resistance and more catastrophic failures in flared roots. Gfp associated with composite resin or accessory glass fiber posts seems to be an effective method to improve the biomechanical behavior of flared roots. PMID:21915521

  4. Cariostatic effect of fluoride-containing restorative materials associated with fluoride gels on root dentin

    PubMed Central

    BORGES, Fernanda Tavares; CAMPOS, Wagner Reis da Costa; MUNARI, Lais Sant'ana; MOREIRA, Allyson Nogueira; PAIVA, Saul Martins; MAGALHÃES, Claudia Silami

    2010-01-01

    Secondary caries is still the main cause of restoration replacement, especially on the root surface Objective This in vitro study evaluated the cariostatic effects of fluoride-containing restorative materials associated with fluoride gels, on root dentin. Materials and Methods A randomized complete block design was used to test the effects of the restorative systems, fluoride regimes and the interactions among them at different distances from restoration margins. Standardized cavities were prepared on 240 bovine root specimens and randomly assigned to 15 groups of treatments (n=16). Cavities were filled with the following restorative materials: Ketac-Fil (3M-ESPE); Vitremer (3M-ESPE); Dyract/Prime & Bond NT (Dentsply); Charisma/Gluma One Bond (Heraeus Kulzer) and the control, Z250/Single Bond (3M-ESPE). The specimens were subjected to a pH-cycling model designed to simulate highcaries activity. During the cycles, 1.23% acidulated phosphate fluoride, 2.0% neutral sodium fluoride or deionized/distilled water (control) was applied to the specimens for 4 min. The surface Knoop microhardness test was performed before (KHNi) and after (KHNf) the pH cycles at 100, 200 and 300 mm from the margins. Dentin microhardness loss was represented by the difference in initial and final values (KHNi - KHNf). Data were analyzed by Friedman's and Wilcoxon's tests, ANOVA and Tukey's test (α=5%). Results The interaction of restorative systems and topical treatments was not significant (p=0.102). Dentin microhardness loss was lowest closer to the restoration. Ketac-fil presented the highest cariostatic effect. Vitremer presented a moderate effect, while Dyract and Charisma did not differ from the control, Z250. The effects of neutral and acidulated fluoride gels were similar to each other and higher than the control. Conclusion Conventional and resin-modified glass ionomer cements as well as neutral and acidulated fluoride gels inhibit the progression of artificial caries adjacent to

  5. Accessing and restoring root caries: a case report.

    PubMed

    Turner, E W; Shook, Larry W; Lackey, Mark

    2007-01-01

    Adequate access to root caries can be problematic. The inability to view, isolate, and access the entire lesion may result in residual caries, poor adaptation of the restoration, and defective margins. Minor periodontal procedures, ranging from a mini-flap involving only one tooth, to conventional flap surgery can provide increased visibility and access to these troublesome areas. Through utilization of this technique, excellent preparations and restorations can be achieved. Restorative materials with a high potential for fluoride release as well as uptake should be highly considered in cases of root caries. The selection of a conventional or resin-modified glass ionomer provides several advantages. Most notably are the ability of these restoratives to chemically bond to tooth structure, and to provide significant fluoride release and uptake. These properties are not present in amalgam, composites, or compomers. Additionally, the material itself is relatively easy to use and provides an effective zone of caries inhibition around the margins of the restoration. Glass ionomers are not as sensitive to moisture as conventional resin composites or compomers, and, as a result, may provide a better bond to tooth structure and margination in areas where moisture control is troublesome. Finally, the polymerization shrinkage of these materials is not as great as resin composites, which should also improve marginal integrity. Clinical studies have demonstrated longevity of ten years or greater as well as success in xerostomic patients. Management of xerostomic patients should be directed toward finding satisfactory methods to relieve dryness. Some prescription medications are available, but should only be recommended after consultation with the primary care physician. Oral moisturizers are also available as are saliva substitutes. Caution should be used when recommending saliva substitutes due to the fact that some commercial products have been demonstrated to have a pH below

  6. Influence of Different Restorative Techniques on the Strength of Endodontically Treated Weakened Roots

    PubMed Central

    Alsamadani, Khalid H.; Abdaziz, El-Sayed Mohammed; Gad, El-Sayed

    2012-01-01

    Objective. Comparing effect of different restoration techniques on fracture resistance of compromised roots. Methods. Crowns of 100 single-rooted teeth were sectioned and 10 roots were kept as negative control group (Group 1). Remaining roots were instrumented and divided into one and positive control group of 10 samples (Group 2) and 4 experimental groups of 20 samples each. Group 3: roots were obturated with gutta-percha; Group 4: roots were restored with gutta-percha, composite, and glass fiber post; Group 5: roots were obturated with Resilon; Group 6: Roots were restored with Resilon, composite, and glass fiber post. Roots were weakened before obturation in groups 2, 3, and 5 and after obturation in groups 4 and 6. Fracture strengths were measured using Dartec testing machine and fracture load was recorded in kilo-Newton. Statistical analysis was done using ANOVA and Tukeys test. Results. The fractures resistance of restored roots was significantly higher in groups 4, 5, and 6 than in Groups 2 and 3. There were no significant differences between groups 1, 4, 5, and 6. Conclusions. Restoration of weakened roots with Resilon or bonding an intermediate composite resin to coronal radicular dentin and to glass fiber post increased their fracture resistance. PMID:22666251

  7. Radiopacity of different shades of resin-based restorative materials compared to human and bovine teeth.

    PubMed

    Pekkan, Gurel; Ozcan, Mutlu

    2012-01-01

    This study evaluated the radiopacity of different shades of resin-based restorative materials and compared the results to human and bovine dental hard tissues. Disk specimens 6 mm in diameter and 1 mm thick (N = 220, n = 10) were prepared from the following restorative materials: · eight shades of nanofilled composite (Aelite Aesthetic Enamel), · seven shades of nanohybrid composite (Grandio Universal), · six shades of photopolymerized polyacid modified compomer (Glasiosite), and · one shade of hybrid composite (X-tra fil U). Human canine dentin (n = 10), bovine enamel (n = 10), and an aluminum (Al) step wedge were used as references. The optical density values of each material were measured from radiographic images using a transmission densitometer. Al step wedge thickness and optical density values were plotted, and equivalent Al thickness (eq Al) values were determined for radiopacity measurements of each material. The data were analyzed using a non-parametric one-way ANOVA (Kruskal-Wallis), and multiple comparisons were made with a Student-Newman-Keuls post hoc test (a = 0.05). Different shades of resin-based restorative materials tested did not reveal statistically significant differences within each material group (p > 0.05). Radiopacity values of the resin-based restorative materials investigated varied depending on their types; however, within different shades of one material type, radiopacity values were comparable. Every shade of nanocomposite material other than Aelite Aesthetic Enamel Incisal LT Gray showed comparable radiopacity to human dentin. Other materials tested demonstrated higher radiopacity compared to human dentin and bovine enamel. PMID:22782058

  8. Bio-Root and Implant-Based Restoration as a Tooth Replacement Alternative.

    PubMed

    Gao, Z H; Hu, L; Liu, G L; Wei, F L; Liu, Y; Liu, Z H; Fan, Z P; Zhang, C M; Wang, J S; Wang, S L

    2016-06-01

    We previously reported that dental stem cell-mediated bioengineered tooth root (bio-root) regeneration could restore tooth loss in a miniature pig model. As a potential new method for tooth restoration, it is essential to compare this method with the widely used commercial dental implant-based method of tooth restoration. Tooth loss models were created by extracting mandibular incisors from miniature pigs. Allogeneic periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSCs) and dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) were isolated and cultured. A PDLSC sheet was prepared by adding 20.0 µg/mL vitamin C to the culture medium; in addition, a hydroxyapatite tricalcium phosphate (HA/TCP)/DPSC graft was fabricated and cultured in a 3-dimensional culture system. A total of 46 bio-root implantations and 9 dental implants were inserted, and crown restorations were performed 6 mo after implantation. Histological, radiological, biomechanical, and elemental analyses were used to evaluate and compare tissue-engineered bio-roots and dental implants to the natural tooth roots. After 6 mo, both computed tomography scans and histological examinations showed that root-like structures and dentin-like tissues had formed. Three months after crown restoration, clinical assessments revealed that tooth function was equivalent in the regenerated bio-root and the dental implant. Biomechanical testing showed that the bio-roots were similar to natural tooth roots in compressive strength, modulus of elasticity, and torsional force; however, these properties were significantly higher in the dental implants. Elemental analysis revealed a higher similarity in elemental composition between bio-roots and natural tooth roots than between bio-roots and dental implants. However, the dental implant success rate was 100% (9 of 9) and the bio-root success rate was only 22% (10 of 46). Taken together, we showed that an allogeneic HA/TCP/DPSC/PDLSC sheet could successfully build a bio-root with structure and function similar to

  9. Root canal filling: fracture strength of fiber-reinforced composite-restored roots and finite element analysis.

    PubMed

    Rippe, Marília Pivetta; Santini, Manuela Favarin; Bier, Carlos Alexandre Souza; Borges, Alexandre Luiz Souto; Valandro, Luiz Felipe

    2013-01-01

    The aims of this study were to evaluate the effect of root canal filling techniques on root fracture resistance and to analyze, by finite element analysis (FEA), the expansion of the endodontic sealer in two different root canal techniques. Thirty single-rooted human teeth were instrumented with rotary files to a standardized working length of 14 mm. The specimens were embedded in acrylic resin using plastic cylinders as molds, and allocated into 3 groups (n=10): G(lateral) - lateral condensation; G(single-cone) - single cone; G(tagger) - Tagger's hybrid technique. The root canals were prepared to a length of 11 mm with the #3 preparation bur of a tapered glass fiber-reinforced composite post system. All roots received glass fiber posts, which were adhesively cemented and a composite resin core was built. All groups were subjected to a fracture strength test (1 mm/min, 45°). Data were analyzed statistically by one-way ANOVA with a significance level of 5%. FEA was performed using two models: one simulated lateral condensation and Tagger's hybrid technique, and the other one simulated the single-cone technique. The second model was designed with an amount of gutta-percha two times smaller and a sealer layer two times thicker than the first model. The results were analyzed using von Mises stress criteria. One-way ANOVA indicated that the root canal filling technique affected the fracture strength (p=0.004). The G(lateral) and G(tagger) produced similar fracture strength values, while G(single-cone) showed the lowest values. The FEA showed that the single-cone model generated higher stress in the root canal walls. Sealer thickness seems to influence the fracture strength of restored endodontically treated teeth. PMID:24474359

  10. Restoration of root surface caries in vulnerable elderly patients: a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Amer, R S; Kolker, J L

    2013-01-01

    The authors conducted a review to evaluate the current literature addressing root surface caries treatment in the vulnerable elderly, to identify any gaps in the literature that will need to be addressed in the future. The authors conducted a literature search of the electronic databases using MEDLINE, PubMed, to identify original clinical research articles regarding treatment of root caries lesions, with emphasis on research focused on the vulnerable elderly. Five articles were clinical studies of root caries restorations. Only one was conducted on a vulnerable elderly population. The results of the literature review show that there is a need for further studies addressing the restorative needs of the vulnerable elderly. With the aging of the American population, more research is needed to provide adequate care to this population. At this time, glass ionomers are a good treatment option. PMID:23600986

  11. Effect of CO2 laser on root caries inhibition around composite restorations: an in vitro study.

    PubMed

    de Melo, Jociana Bandeira; Hanashiro, Fernando Seishim; Steagall, Washington; Turbino, Miriam Lacalle; Nobre-dos-Santos, Marinês; Youssef, Michel Nicolau; de Souza-Zaroni, Wanessa Christine

    2014-03-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the in vitro effect of CO2 laser on the inhibition of root surface demineralization around composite resin restorations. For this purpose, 30 blocks obtained from human molar roots were divided into three groups: group 1 (negative control), cavity prepared with cylindrical diamond bur + acid etching + adhesive + composite resin restoration; group 2, cavity prepared with cylindrical diamond bur + CO2 laser (5.0 J/cm(2)) + acid etching + adhesive + composite resin; and group 3, cavity prepared with cylindrical diamond bur + CO2 laser (6.0 J/cm(2)) + acid etching + adhesive + composite resin. After this procedure, the blocks were submitted to thermal and pH cycling. Root surface demineralization around the restorations was measured by microhardness analysis. The hardness results of the longitudinally sectioned root surface were converted into percentage of mineral volume, which was used to calculate the mineral loss delta Z (ΔZ). The percentage of mineral volume, ΔZ, and the percentage of demineralization inhibition of the groups were statistically analyzed by using analysis of variance and Tukey-Kramer test. The percentage of mineral volume was higher in the irradiated groups up to 80 μm deep. The ΔZ was significantly lower in the irradiated groups than in the control group. The percentage of reduction in demineralization ranged from 19.73 to 29.21 in position 1 (50 μm), and from 24.76 to 26.73 in position 2 (100 μm), when using 6 and 5 J/cm(2), respectively. The CO2 laser was effective in inhibiting root demineralization around composite resin restorations. PMID:23291879

  12. Clinical outcome of root caries restorations using ART and rotary techniques in institutionalized elders.

    PubMed

    Cruz Gonzalez, Alberto Carlos; Marín Zuluaga, Dairo Javier

    2016-05-31

    The aim of this study was to compare the clinical performance of root caries restorations after a six-month period using two methods, a conventional technique with rotary instruments and an atraumatic restorative technique (ART), in an institutionalized elderly population in the city of Bogotá, Colombia. Root caries represents a multifactorial, progressive, chronic lesion with softened, irregular and darkened tissue involving the radicular surface; it is highly prevalent in the elderly, especially in those who are physically or cognitively impaired. A quasi-experimental, double-blind, longitudinal study was carried out after cluster randomization of the sample. Two different experienced dentists, previously trained, performed the restorations using each technique. After six months, two new investigators performed a blind evaluation of the condition of the restorations. The results showed a significantly higher rate of success (92.9%) using the conventional technique (p < 0.03). However, we concluded that ART may have been the preferred technique in the study population because 81% of those restorations survived or were successful during the observation period. PMID:27253146

  13. Treatment of an endodontic perforation with a restoration and a root coverage gingival graft.

    PubMed

    Harris, R J

    1995-07-01

    This case report describes the treatment of a perforation on the facial surface of the maxillary right central incisor made during endodontic therapy. Treatment of this highly visible area required a creative approach to therapy. The perforation was repaired with an amalgam restoration. A connective tissue with partial thickness double pedicle graft was used to replace missing periodontal structures, cover the exposed root surface, and obscure from view, as much as possible, the amalgam restoration placed in the perforation. This unconventional therapy is offered as a possible treatment option when few or no other acceptable options exist. PMID:7562357

  14. Root canal retained restorations: 1. General considerations and custom-made cast posts and cores.

    PubMed

    Edmunds, D H; Dummer, P M

    1990-06-01

    The first article in this series reviews general considerations relating to the use of root canal retained restorations. The authors discuss factors affecting retention, the arguments for cast versus wrought posts, reinforcement of the tooth, and treatment planning. Clinical procedures for constructing custom-made cast posts and cores, using direct and indirect techniques, are also described. The three subsequent articles will deal with threaded and unthreaded prefabricated post-and-core systems, and root-face attachments for the retention of complete and partial overdentures. PMID:2079151

  15. Use of an Electronic Patient Record system to evaluate restorative treatment following root canal therapy.

    PubMed

    Shelley, Peter Q; Johnson, Bradford R; BeGole, Ellen A

    2007-10-01

    Electronic Patient Record (EPR) systems are rapidly gaining acceptance as an important tool for managing patient information. The purpose of this project was to evaluate the use of an EPR system for assessment of quality of care in an academic dental institution. The primary outcome of interest was the timeliness and completeness of restorative care following completion of nonsurgical root canal therapy. An initial query of the EPR database was performed using the following inclusion criteria: root canal treatment performed in the postgraduate endodontics clinic between September 2002 and June 2004, patient age > or =18 years old, and posterior tooth (premolars and molars). A total of 925 patients with 1,014 endodontically treated teeth met the inclusion criteria. A random sample of 30 percent of the treated teeth (302 teeth on 281 patients) was selected for detailed review. This sample of 302 teeth was then screened to determine if any restorative treatment had been performed between September 2002 and November 2005. Forty-eight percent (n=146) of the 302 teeth did not receive any form of permanent restoration over the time period studied. Twenty-five percent (n=75) of the teeth received a buildup only, and 27 percent (n=82) received the recommended treatment, a full occlusal coverage restoration. This study documents the use of an EPR system to objectively and efficiently assess one aspect of quality of care in a dental school environment. PMID:17923711

  16. Restoring a maize root signal that attracts insect-killing nematodes to control a major pest

    PubMed Central

    Degenhardt, Jörg; Hiltpold, Ivan; Köllner, Tobias G.; Frey, Monika; Gierl, Alfons; Gershenzon, Jonathan; Hibbard, Bruce E.; Ellersieck, Mark R.; Turlings, Ted C. J.

    2009-01-01

    When attacked by herbivorous insects, plants emit volatile compounds that attract natural enemies of the insects. It has been proposed that these volatile signals can be manipulated to improve crop protection. Here, we demonstrate the full potential of this strategy by restoring the emission of a specific belowground signal emitted by insect-damaged maize roots. The western corn rootworm induces the roots of many maize varieties to emit (E)-β-caryophyllene, which attracts entomopathogenic nematodes that infect and kill the voracious root pest. However, most North American maize varieties have lost the ability to emit (E)-β-caryophyllene and may therefore receive little protection from the nematodes. To restore the signal, a nonemitting maize line was transformed with a (E)-β-caryophyllene synthase gene from oregano, resulting in constitutive emissions of this sesquiterpene. In rootworm-infested field plots in which nematodes were released, the (E)-β-caryophyllene-emitting plants suffered significantly less root damage and had 60% fewer adult beetles emerge than untransformed, nonemitting lines. This demonstration that plant volatile emissions can be manipulated to enhance the effectiveness of biological control agents opens the way for novel and ecologically sound strategies to fight a variety of insect pests. PMID:19666594

  17. Finite element analysis of weakened roots restored with composite resin and posts.

    PubMed

    Coelho, Carla Santina de Miranda; Biffi, João Carlos Gabrielli; Silva, Gisele Rodrigues da; Abrahão, Anthony; Campos, Roberto Elias; Soares, Carlos José

    2009-11-01

    Finite element analysis (FEA) was used to investigate the influence of different post systems on the stress distribution of weakened teeth under oblique-load application. A maxillary central incisor root obtained from a sound tooth was weakened by partial removal of dentin inside the root canal. Seven two-dimensional numerical models, one from the sound tooth and six from the weakened root restored with composite resin and post systems were created as follows - ST: sound tooth; CPC: cast CuAl post and core; SSP: stainless steel post + composite core; GP: fiberglass + composite core; CP: carbon fiber + composite core; ZP: zirconium dioxide post + composite core; TP: titanium post + composite core. The numerical models were considered to be restored with a leucite-reinforced all-ceramic crown and received a 45 masculine occlusal load (10 N) on the lingual surface.All the materials and structures were considered linear elastic, homogeneous, and isotropic, with the exception of fiberglass and carbon fiber posts which assumed orthotropic behavior. The numerical models were plotted and meshed with isoparametric elements, and the results were analyzed using von Mises and Sy stress criteria. When compared with the sound tooth, FEA revealed differences in stress distribution when post systems were used. Among the restored teeth, the use of CPC, SSP, ZP, and TP resulted in higher stress concentration in the post itself when compared to GP and CP. Therefore, results from the FEA images suggested that the use of non-metallic post systems could result in improved mechanical behavior for the weakened restored teeth. PMID:20019417

  18. Fracture resistance of endodontically treated single rooted premolars restored with Sharonlay: An in vitro study

    PubMed Central

    Sharath Chandra, S. M.; Agrawal, Nishtha; Sujatha, I.; Sivaji, K.

    2016-01-01

    Aims: The aim of this study is to compare in vitro the fracture resistance of the endodontically treated tooth restored with a novel design Sharonlay, with the two component restorative method, i.e., post with separate onlay, and onlay without post. Subjects and Methods: 45 single-rooted mandibular second premolars were taken, and root canal treatment was performed. Teeth were then randomly divided into three groups (n = 15) based on the type of restoration given: Group I - metal onlay with cast post extension (Sharonlay), Group II - metal onlay with prefabricated metal post (Mani post system), Group III - metal onlay over endodontically treated tooth obturated with Gutta-percha (control group). Fracture resistance was checked using the Instron universal testing machine and the fracture patterns were analyzed. Results: According to the values recorded, Group I showed maximum mean fracture resistance followed by Groups II and III. Statistically significant difference was found between Groups I and II and Groups I and III and statistically significant difference was found between Groups II and III. Conclusion: A single unit component Sharonlay, gives higher fracture resistance to a premolar as compared to (a) metal onlay with prefabricated metal post and (b) metal onlay over endodontically treated tooth. PMID:27217643

  19. Insufficient evidence on whether to restore root-filled teeth with single crowns or routine fillings.

    PubMed

    McReynolds, David; Duane, Brett

    2016-06-01

    Data sourcesMedline, Cochrane Oral Health Groups Trials Register, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Embase, CINAHL, LILACS.Study selectionThree authors independently assessed the abstracts of studies resulting from the above searches which compared indirect restorations of single endodontically treated teeth (ETT) to direct restoration of single ETT.Data extraction and synthesisTitles and abstracts of all reports identified through the electronic searches were assessed independently by two authors with any disagreements on eligibility resolved by a third reviewing author based on agreed upon inclusion and exclusion criteria. Study quality was assessed using the Cochrane risk of bias tool. Catastrophic failure of the restored tooth or restoration leading directly to extraction was the primary outcome measure. Secondary outcome measures included patient quality of life, incidence of recurring caries, periodontal health status and cost of the use of different interventions. Data analysis was carried out using the, 'treatment as allocated', patient population, expressing estimates of intervention effect for dichotomous data as risk ratios, with 95% confidence intervals (CI).ResultsOne trial which was judged to be at high risk of performance, detection and attrition bias was included. There was no clear difference between the crown and composite group and the composite only group for non-catastrophic failures of the restoration (1/54 versus 3/53; RR 0.33; 95% CI 0.04 to 3.05) or failures of the post (2/54 versus 1/53; RR 1.96; 95% CI 0.18 to 21.01) at three years. The quality of the evidence for these outcomes was judged to be very low. There was no evidence available for any secondary outcomes.ConclusionsInsufficient evidence exists to assess the effects of crowns compared to conventional fillings for the restoration of root-filled teeth. Until more evidence becomes available, clinicians should continue to base decisions about how to restore root

  20. Influence of endodontic sealer composition and time of fiber post cementation on sealer adhesiveness to bovine root dentin.

    PubMed

    Rosa, Ricardo Abreu da; Barreto, Mirela Sangoi; Moraes, Rafael do Amaral; Broch, Juliana; Bier, Carlos Alexandre Souza; Só, Marcus Vinícius Reis; Kaizer, Osvaldo Bazzan; Valandro, Luiz Felipe

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to assess the influence of the type of endodontic sealer (salicylate resin-based sealer vs. two endodontic sealers) and the time of fiber post cementation after root filling on the post adhesion to bovine root dentin. Sixty bovine roots were assigned to six groups (n=10), considering an experimental design with two factors (factorial 3x2): endodontic sealer factor in three levels [epoxy resin-based sealer (AH Plus), eugenol-based sealer (Endofill), and salicylate resin-based sealer plus mineral trioxide aggregate - MTA (MTA Fillapex)] and time for post cementation factor in two levels (immediate post cementation or 15 days after root canal filling). After post cementation, 2-mm-thick slices were produced and submitted to push-out test. The failure modes were analyzed under a 40× stereomicroscope and scored as: adhesive at cement/dentin interface; adhesive at cement/post interface; cement cohesive; post cohesive; dentin cohesive; or mixed. Data were analyzed using two-way ANOVA and Tukey's post-hoc tests (α=0.05). When the fiber posts were cemented immediately after the root canal filling, the bond strengths were similar, independent of the endodontic sealer type. However, after 15 days, the epoxy resin-based sealer presented higher bond strength than the other sealers (p<0.05). Comparison between each sealer in different experimental times did not reveal any differences. The main failure type was adhesive at dentin/cement interface (89.4%). The time elapsed between the root canal filling and post cementation has no influence on post/root dentin adhesion. On the contrary, the type of endodontic sealer can influence the adhesion between fiber posts and root dentin. PMID:23969913

  1. Restoration of the CEJ level and root coverage after gingival augmentation procedure on mandibular teeth: a case presentation.

    PubMed

    Allegri, Mario Alessio; Corica, Francesco; Cairo, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this article is to present a clinical case of a 54-year-old patient where the cementoenamel junction (CEJ) level was restored and a root coverage procedure carried out after gingival augmentation on the mandibular teeth. A very thin buccal keratinized tissue (KT) was detected apical to the recessions. The restorative approach consisted of identifying the lost CEJ, thus differentiating the area of restoration from the area of root coverage of the abraded teeth. Subsequently, a free gingival graft (FGG) was applied. A coronally advanced flap procedure was performed 3 months later. The clinical outcomes obtained through combined restorative/ periodontal treatment were maintained at the 4-year follow-up. PMID:27092348

  2. Influence of coronal restorations on the fracture resistance of root canal-treated premolar and molar teeth: a retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Dammaschke, Till; Nykiel, Kathrin; Sagheri, Darius; Schäfer, Edgar

    2013-08-01

    To evaluate the influence of coronal restorations on the fracture resistance of endodontically treated teeth, 676 root canal-filled and restored posterior teeth were evaluated after a mean period of 9.7 (± 2.8; minimum: 5) years. A total of 86.2% of the endodontically treated and restored teeth survived the mean observation period of 9.7 years without fracture. The overall survival period was 13.6 (± 0.2) years. All teeth with gold partial crowns survived without fractures (n = 24). Teeth with crowns and adhesively sealed access cavities showed a mean survival period of 15.3 (± 0.4) years, with crown and bridge restorations 14.0 (± 0.3), with individual metal posts 13.9 (± 0.2), with composite fillings 13.4 (± 0.5), with prefabricated metal posts 12.7 (± 0.6), with amalgam fillings 11.8 (± 0.6) and with glass ionomer cements (GIC) 6.6 (± 0.5) years. Teeth with one or two surfaces restored by amalgam, composite or GIC showed a significantly lower fracture rate than teeth with three and more restored surfaces (P < 0.05). The mean fracture rate of teeth restored with GIC was significantly higher when compared with all other groups (P < 0.001). In general, endodontically treated teeth restored with prosthetic restorations demonstrated a significantly lower mean fracture rate than teeth restored with fillings. Cavities with up to three surfaces may well be successfully restored adhesively with composite filling material. PMID:23890259

  3. Sediment budgeting and restoration planning in a heterogeneous landscape, the Root River watershed, southeastern Minnesota.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hemmis, J. M.; Souffront, M.; Stout, J. C.; Belmont, P.

    2014-12-01

    Excessive sedimentation in streams and rivers is one of the top water quality concerns in the U.S. and globally. While sediment is a natural constituent of stream ecosystems, excessive amounts cause high levels of turbidity which can reduce primary and secondary production, reduce nutrient retention, and have negative impacts on fish reproduction and physiology. Fine sediment particles adsorb pollutants such as mercury, metals, polychlorinated biphenyl compounds and bacteria. Key questions remain regarding the origin of excessive sediment as well as the transport pathways of sediment through the landscape and channel network of the 4,300 km2 Root River watershed in southeastern Minnesota. To answer these questions, we are developing a sediment budget to account for inputs, outputs, and changes in sediment storage reservoirs within the system. Because watershed sediment fluxes are determined as the sum of many small changes (erosion and deposition) across a vast area, multiple, redundant techniques are required to adequately constrain all parts of the sediment budget. Specifically, this budget utilizes four years of field research and surveys, an extensive set of sediment fingerprinting data, watershed-wide measurements of channel widening and meander migration, and watershed modeling, all evaluated and extrapolated in a geomorphically sensitive manner. Analyses of sediment deposition within channel cutoffs throughout the watershed help constrain sediment storage. These overlapping methods, reconciled within the hard constraint of direct measurements of water and sediment fluxes, improve the reliability of the budget. The sediment budget highlights important sources and sinks and identifies locations that are likely to be more, or less, sensitive to changes in land and water management to support watershed-wide prioritization of conservation and restoration actions.

  4. The tomato res mutant which accumulates JA in roots in non-stressed conditions restores cell structure alterations under salinity.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Abellan, José O; Fernandez-Garcia, Nieves; Lopez-Berenguer, Carmen; Egea, Isabel; Flores, Francisco B; Angosto, Trinidad; Capel, Juan; Lozano, Rafael; Pineda, Benito; Moreno, Vicente; Olmos, Enrique; Bolarin, Maria C

    2015-11-01

    Jasmonic acid (JA) regulates a wide spectrum of plant biological processes, from plant development to stress defense responses. The role of JA in plant response to salt stress is scarcely known, and even less known is the specific response in root, the main plant organ responsible for ionic uptake and transport to the shoot. Here we report the characterization of the first tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) mutant, named res (restored cell structure by salinity), that accumulates JA in roots prior to exposure to stress. The res tomato mutant presented remarkable growth inhibition and displayed important morphological alterations and cellular disorganization in roots and leaves under control conditions, while these alterations disappeared when the res mutant plants were grown under salt stress. Reciprocal grafting between res and wild type (WT) (tomato cv. Moneymaker) indicated that the main organ responsible for the development of alterations was the root. The JA-signaling pathway is activated in res roots prior to stress, with transcripts levels being even higher in control condition than in salinity. Future studies on this mutant will provide significant advances in the knowledge of JA role in root in salt-stress tolerance response, as well as in the energy trade-off between plant growth and response to stress. PMID:25582191

  5. Fracture resistance of structurally compromised premolar roots restored with single and accessory glass or quartz fiber posts

    PubMed Central

    Sharafeddin, Farahnaz; Alavi, Ali Asghar; Zare, Samira

    2014-01-01

    Background: Glass and quartz fiber posts are used in restoration of structurally compromised roots. Accessory fiber posts are recently introduced to enhance the fiber post adaptation. This study evaluated the effectiveness of glass versus quartz accessory fiber posts. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, 40 mandibular premolar roots with similar dimension (radius of 3.5 ± 0.2 mm and length of 13 ± 0.5 mm) were selected and their root canals were flared until 1.5 mm of dentin wall remained. They were randomly assigned to four groups (n = 10) and restored as follows: Exacto glass fiber post (EX), Exacto glass fiber post + 2 Reforpin accessories (EXR), D. T. Light quartz fiber post (DT), and D. T. Light quartz fiber post + 2 Fibercone accessories (DTF). All posts were cemented with Duo-Link resin cement and the cores were built with the particulate filler composite. Following 1-week water storage, specimens were subjected to fracture loads in a universal testing machine. The maximum loads and failure modes were recorded and analyzed with the two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Fisher's exact tests (α = 0.05). Results: The mean fracture resistance values (N) were 402.8 (EX), 378.4 (EXR), 400.1 (DT), and 348.5 (DTF). Two-way ANOVA test showed neither reinforcing method (P = 0.094), nor post composition (P = 0.462) had statistically significant differences on fracture resistance of the structurally compromised premolar teeth. Fisher's exact test also demonstrated no statistically significant difference regarding two variables (P = 0.695). Core fracture was the most common failure mode (62.5%). Conclusion: Glass and quartz fiber posts with or without accessories restored the weakened premolar roots equally. PMID:24932200

  6. Biodentine versus Mineral Trioxide Aggregate versus Intermediate Restorative Material for Retrograde Root End Filling: An Invitro Study

    PubMed Central

    Soundappan, Saravanapriyan; Sundaramurthy, Jothi Latha; Raghu, Sandhya; Natanasabapathy, Velmurugan

    2014-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate the marginal adaptation of Biodentine in comparison with Mineral Trioxide Aggregate (MTA) and Intermediate Restorative Material (IRM), as a root end filling material, using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Materials and Methods: Thirty permanent maxillary central incisors were chemo-mechanically prepared and obturated. Three millimetres of the root end were resected and 3mm retro cavity preparation was done using ultrasonic retrotips. The samples were randomly divided into three groups (n=10) and were restored with root end filling materials: Group I – MTA, Group II – Biodentine, Group III – IRM. The root ends were sectioned transversely at 1mm and 2mm levels and evaluated for marginal adaptation using SEM. The gap between dentin and retro filling material was measured at four quadrants. The mean gap at 1mm level and 2mm level from the resected root tip and combined mean were calculated. The data were statistically analyzed, using one-way ANOVA and Tukey’s HSD post hoc test for intergroup analysis and paired t-test for intragroup analysis. Results: The overall results showed no statistically significant difference between MTA and IRM but both were superior when compared to Biodentine. At 1mm level there was no statistically significant difference among any of the tested materials. At 2mm level MTA was superior to both IRM and Biodentine. Conclusion: In overall comparison, MTA and IRM were significantly superior when compared to Biodentine in terms of marginal adaptation, when used as retrograde filling material. PMID:24910689

  7. Biofilm Formation within the Interface of Bovine Root Dentin Treated with Conjugated Chitosan and Sealer Containing Chitosan Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    DaSilva, Luis; Finer, Yoav; Friedman, Shimon; Basrani, Bettina; Kishen, Anil

    2013-01-01

    Objective To assess biofilm formation within sealer-dentin interfaces of root segments filled with gutta-percha and sealer incorporated with chitosan (CS) nanoparticles, without and with canal surface treatment with different formulations of CS. Methods Standardized canals of 4 mm bovine root segments (n=35) were filled with gutta-percha and Pulp Canal Sealer incorporated with CS nanoparticles without surface treatment (group CS), or after surface treatment with phosphorylated CS (group PHCS), CS-conjugated Rose Bengal and photodynamic irradiation (group CSRB) and a combination of both PHCS and CSRB (group RBPH). The control group was filled with gutta-percha and unmodified sealer. After 7 d of setting, specimens were aged in buffered solution at 37° C for 1 or 4 wks. Monospecies biofilms of Enterococcus faecalis were grown on specimens for 7 d in a chemostat-based biofilm fermentor. Biofilm formation within the sealer-dentin interface was assessed with confocal laser scanning microscopy. Results In the 4-wk aged specimens only, the mean biofilm areas were significantly smaller than in the control for CS (p=0.008), PHCS (p=0.012) and RBPH (p=0.034). Percentage of biofilm-covered interface also was significantly lower than in the control for CS (p=0.024) and PHCS (p=0.003). CS, PHCS and RBPH did not differ significantly. Conclusions Incorporating CS nanoparticles into the zinc-oxide eugenol sealer inhibited biofilm formation within the sealer-dentin interface. This effect was maintained when canals were treated with phosphorylated CS, and it was moderated by canal treatment with chitosan-conjugated Rose Bengal and irradiation. PMID:23321239

  8. Management of external perforating root resorption by intentional replantation followed by Biodentine restoration

    PubMed Central

    Pruthi, Preeti Jain; Dharmani, Umesh; Roongta, Ruchika; Talwar, Sangeeta

    2015-01-01

    Resorption of tooth structures can occur as a result of physiological, pathological, and idiopathic factors. Early diagnosis and appropriate treatment can prevent its serious complications. This case report presents surgical endodontic management of a trauma-induced perforating external root resorption, which was diagnosed with the help of cone beam computed tomography. Following root canal treatment, intentional replantation of the tooth was performed so as to expose the opening of the resorption defect to allow for complete debridement and closure. Eighteen months follow-up showed arrest of root resorption, and progressive healing of the defect. PMID:26604965

  9. Management of external perforating root resorption by intentional replantation followed by Biodentine restoration.

    PubMed

    Pruthi, Preeti Jain; Dharmani, Umesh; Roongta, Ruchika; Talwar, Sangeeta

    2015-01-01

    Resorption of tooth structures can occur as a result of physiological, pathological, and idiopathic factors. Early diagnosis and appropriate treatment can prevent its serious complications. This case report presents surgical endodontic management of a trauma-induced perforating external root resorption, which was diagnosed with the help of cone beam computed tomography. Following root canal treatment, intentional replantation of the tooth was performed so as to expose the opening of the resorption defect to allow for complete debridement and closure. Eighteen months follow-up showed arrest of root resorption, and progressive healing of the defect. PMID:26604965

  10. Crystallographic Texture and Elemental Composition Mapped in Bovine Root Dentin at the 200 nm Level

    PubMed Central

    Deymier-Black, A. C.; Veis, A.; Cai, Z.; Stock, S. R.

    2015-01-01

    Summary The relationship between the mineralization of peritubular dentin (PTD) and intertubular dentin (ITD) is not well understood. Tubules are quite small, diameter ~2 μm, and this makes the near-tubule region of dentin difficult to study. Here, advanced characterization techniques are applied in a novel way to examine what organic or nanostructural signatures may indicate the end of ITD or the beginning of PTD mineralization. X-ray fluorescence intensity (Ca, P, and Zn) and X-ray diffraction patterns from carbonated apatite (cAp) were mapped around dentintubules at resolutions ten times smaller than the feature size (200 nm pixels), representing a 36% increase in resolution over earlier work. In the near tubule volumes of near-pulp, root dentin, Zn intensity was higher than in ITD remote from the tubules. This increase in Zn2+, as determined by X-ray absorption near edge structure analysis, may indicate the presence of metalloenzymes or transcription factors important to ITD or PTD mineralization. The profiles of the cAp 00.2 X-ray diffraction rings were fitted with a pseudo-Voigt function, and the spatial and azimuthal distribution of these rings’ integrated intensities indicated that the cAp platelets were arranged with their c-axes aligned tangential to the edge of the tubule lumen. This texture was continuous throughout the dentin indicating a lack of structural difference between in the Zn rich near-tubular region and the remote ITD. PMID:23630059

  11. Influence of periodontal ligament simulation on bond strength and fracture resistance of roots restored with fiber posts

    PubMed Central

    MARCHIONATTI, Ana Maria Estivalete; WANDSCHER, Vinícius Felipe; BROCH, Juliana; BERGOLI, César Dalmolin; MAIER, Juliana; VALANDRO, Luiz Felipe; KAIZER, Osvaldo Bazzan

    2014-01-01

    Objective Considering that periodontal ligament simulation may influence the stress distribution over teeth restored with intraradicular retainers, this study aimed to assess the combined effect of mechanical cycling and periodontal ligament simulation on both the bond strength between fiber posts and root dentin and the fracture resistance of teeth restored using glass fiber posts. Material and Methods Ninety roots were randomly distributed into 3 groups (n=10) (C-MC: control; P-MC: polyether; AS-MC: addition silicone) to test bond strength and 6 groups (n=10) (C: control; P: polyether; AS: addition silicone, without mechanical cycling, and C-MC, P-MC and AS-MC with mechanical cycling) to test fracture strength, according to the material used to simulate the periodontal ligament. For the bond strength test, fiber posts were cemented, cores were built, mechanical cycling was applied (2×106 cycles, 88 N, 2.2 Hz, and 45º incline), and the teeth cut into 3 slices (2 mm), which were then subjected to the push-out test at 1 mm/min. For the fracture strength test, fiber posts were cemented, cores were built, and half of the groups received mechanical cycling, followed by the compressive strength (45° to the long axis and 1 mm/min) performed on all groups. Results Periodontal ligament simulation did not affect the bond strength (p=0.244) between post and dentin. Simulation of periodontal ligament (p=0.153) and application of mechanical cycling (p=0.97) did not affect fracture resistance. Conclusions The materials used to simulate the periodontal ligament did not affect fracture or bond strength, therefore periodontal ligament simulation using the tested materials could be considered optional in the conditions of the study. PMID:25466478

  12. WETLAND RESTORATION AND REMEDIATION IN SOUTHWEST LOUISIANA MARSHES: A STUDY OF SOIL ELEVATION, VERTICAL ACCRETION, SHALLOW SUBSIDENCE AND ROOT ZONE INFLUENCES IN MARSHES RESTORED USING A VARIETY OF TECHNIQUES

    EPA Science Inventory

    For Project 1, we will continue sampling of all restoration sites on a quarterly basis. We also will present findings at the 2003 Society of Wetland Scientists Meeting. We will prepare a final data set for a peer-reviewed journal publication. Below-ground root zone...

  13. Evaluation of the antimicrobial effect of super-oxidized water (Sterilox®) and sodium hypochlorite against Enterococcus faecalis in a bovine root canal model

    PubMed Central

    ROSSI-FEDELE, Giampiero; de FIGUEIREDO, José Antonio Poli; STEIER, Liviu; CANULLO, Luigi; STEIER, Gabriela; ROBERTS, Adam P.

    2010-01-01

    Ideally root canal irrigants should have, amongst other properties, antimicrobial action associated with a lack of toxicity against periapical tissues. Sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) is a widely used root canal irrigant, however it has been shown to have a cytotoxic effect on vital tissue and therefore it is prudent to investigate alternative irrigants. Sterilox's Aquatine Alpha Electrolyte® belongs to the group of the super-oxidized waters; it consists of a mixture of oxidizing substances, and has been suggested to be used as root canal irrigant. Super-oxidized waters have been shown to provide efficient cleaning of root canal walls, and have been proposed to be used for the disinfection of medical equipment. Objective To compare the antimicrobial action against Enterococcus faecalis of NaOCl, Optident Sterilox Electrolyte Solution® and Sterilox's Aquatine Alpha Electrolyte® when used as irrigating solutions in a bovine root canal model. Methodology Root sections were prepared and inoculated with E. faecalis JH2-2. After 10 days of incubation the root canals were irrigated using one of three solutions (NaOCl, Optident Sterilox Electrolyte Solution® and Sterilox's Aquatine Alpha Electrolyte®) and subsequently sampled by grinding dentin using drills. The debris was placed in BHI broth and dilutions were plated onto fresh agar plates to quantify growth. Results Sodium hypochlorite was the only irrigant to eliminate all bacteria. When the dilutions were made, although NaOCl was still statistically superior, Sterilox's Aquatine Alpha Electrolyte® solution was superior to Optident Sterilox Electrolyte Solution®. Conclusion Under the conditions of this study Sterilox's Aquatine Alpha Electrolyte® appeared to have significantly more antimicrobial action compared to the Optident Sterilox Electrolyte Solution® alone, however NaOCl was the only solution able to consistently eradicate E. faecalis in the model. PMID:21085808

  14. Effect of a CO2 Laser on the Inhibition of Root Surface Caries Adjacent to Restorations of Glass Ionomer Cement or Composite Resin: An In Vitro Study

    PubMed Central

    Daniel, L. C.; Araújo, F. C.; Zancopé, B. R.; Hanashiro, F. S.; Nobre-dos-Santos, M.; Youssef, M. N.; Souza-Zaroni, W. C.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of CO2 laser irradiation on the inhibition of secondary caries on root surfaces adjacent to glass ionomer cement (GIC) or composite resin (CR) restorations. 40 dental blocks were divided into 4 groups: G1 (negative control): cavity preparation + adhesive restoration with CR; G2: (positive control) cavity preparation + GIC restoration; G3: equal to group 1 + CO2 laser with 6 J/cm2; G4: equal to group 2 + CO2 laser. The blocks were submitted to thermal and pH cycling. Dental demineralization around restorations was quantified using microhardness analyses and Light-Induced Fluorescence (QLF). The groups showed no significant differences in mineral loss at depths between 20 μm and 40 μm. At 60 μm, G2 and G3 ≠ G1, but G4 = G1, G2 and G3. At 80 μm, G4 ≠ G1, and at 100 μm, G4 = G2 = G1. At 140 and 220 μm, G2, G3, and G4 = G1. The averages obtained using QFL in groups 1, 2, 3, and 4 were 0.637, 0.162, 0.095, and 0.048, respectively. QLF and microhardness analyses showed that CO2 laser irradiation reduced mineral loss around the CR restorations but that it did not increase the anticariogenic effect of GIC restorations. PMID:26347900

  15. Bacterial leakage of mineral trioxide aggregate as compared with zinc-free amalgam, intermediate restorative material, and Super-EBA as a root-end filling material.

    PubMed

    Fischer, E J; Arens, D E; Miller, C H

    1998-03-01

    Several dye leakage studies have demonstrated the fact that mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) leaks significantly less than other root-end filling materials. The purpose of this study was to determine the time needed for Serratia marcescens to penetrate a 3 mm thickness of zinc-free amalgam, Intermediate Restorative Material (IRM), Super-EBA, and MTA when these materials were used as root-end filling materials. Fifty-six, single-rooted extracted human teeth were cleaned and shaped with a series of .04 Taper rotary instruments (Pro-series 29 files). Once the canals were prepared in a crown down approach, the ends were resected and 48 root-end cavities were ultrasonically prepared to a 3 mm depth. The teeth were then steam sterilized. Using an aseptic technique, under a laminar air flow hood, the root-end cavities were filled with amalgam, IRM, Super-EBA, and MTA. Four root-end cavities were filled with thermoplasticized gutta-percha without a root canal sealer and served as positive controls. Another four root-end cavities were filled with sticky wax covered with two layers of nail polish and served as negative controls. The teeth were attached to presterilized (ethylene oxide gas) plastic caps, and the root ends were placed into 12-ml vials of phenol red broth. Using a micropipette, a tenth of a milliliter of S. marcescens was placed into the root canal of each tooth. To test the sterility of the apparatus set-up, the root canals of two teeth with test root-end filling materials and one tooth from the positive and negative control groups were filled with sterile saline. The number of days required for S. marcescens to penetrate the four root-end filling materials and grow in the phenol red broth was recorded and analyzed. Most of the samples filled with zinc-free amalgam leaked bacteria in 10 to 63 days. IRM began leaking 28 to 91 days. Super-EBA began leaking 42 to 101 days. MTA did not begin leaking until day 49. At the end of the study, four of the MTA samples

  16. The effect of CO2 laser irradiation plus fluoride dentifrice on the inhibition of secondary caries on root surfaces adjacent to glass ionomer cement or composite resin restorations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodrigues, S. R.; Moraes, M.; Hanashiro, F. S.; Youssef, M. N.; Brugnera Junior, A.; Nobre-dos-Santos, M.; de Souza-Zaroni, W. C.

    2016-02-01

    Although the cariostatic effects of CO2 laser on the root surface have been shown, there is scarce information regarding its effects on root secondary caries. The objective of this research was to investigate the effect of the association of CO2 laser and a fluoride dentifrice on the inhibition of secondary caries on root surfaces adjacent to composite-resin or glass-ionomer-cement restorations. Dental blocks of human roots were divided into two groups: composite resin (CR) or glass ionomer cement (GIC). Subsequently, the blocks were divided into four subgroups (n  =  10): C, non-fluoride dentifrice; FD, fluoride dentifrice; L, CO2 laser with an energy density of 6.0 J cm-2  +  non-fluoride dentifrice; and L  +  FD, CO2 laser  +  fluoride dentifrice. The blocks were subjected to pH cycling to simulate a high cariogenic challenge. Dental demineralization around the restorations was quantified by microhardness analysis. The results were subjected to analysis of variance (ANOVA) and the Tukey-Kramer test (p  ⩽  0.05). As for mineral loss, it can be observed that all the groups that were treated with a fluoride dentifrice and laser, used alone or not, were statistically similar and superior to the RC-C group. It was concluded that CO2 laser irradiation and a fluoride dentifrice used alone or combined with each other are efficient surface treatments for preventing secondary root caries, regardless of the restorative material used.

  17. The influence of the root cross-section on the stress distribution in teeth restored with a positive-locking post and core design: a finite element study.

    PubMed

    Schilling, Kai-Uwe; Rottner, Kurt; Boldt, Julian; Proff, Peter; Gredes, Tomasz; Richter, Ernst-Jürgen; Reicheneder, Claudia

    2008-10-01

    Human teeth with substantial coronal defects are subject to reconstruction by means of post and core restorations. Typically, such a restoration comprises a slightly cylindrical post onto which an abutment of varying shape, depending on the designated restoration, is attached. As clinical results are not satisfactory to date, we proposed a new proprietary post and core design which makes use of positive locking. As this prefabricated system is not customised to an individual root's cross-sectional geometry (usually oval), a varying amount of radicular dentin is left in periphery of the core's outer edge. The aim of this study was to assess the implications of this fact, i.e., whether the root has to endure higher overall stress levels which ultimately may lead to failure of one of the components involved. A series of finite element simulations were performed to evaluate stress and strain on the system, in which the proposed post and core was embedded into a virtual dentin cylinder of different diameters, ranging from flush mounting of the restoration to a dentin excess of 4 mm, and subsequently loaded with forces with two angles of attack (90 degrees and 130 degrees ). The results show that flush mounting yields an agreeable stress and strain distribution within the radicular dentin, but overall stress levels drop significantly with an excess of 0.5 mm of surrounding dentin. More than 1 mm excess was not found to have profound positive effects. PMID:18803526

  18. [C-ring cleavage of liquiritigenin extracted from licorice roots by an oxygen-tolerant bovine rumen bacterium strain Aeroto-Niu-O16].

    PubMed

    Wang, Ming; Zhao, Hui; Wang, Xiu-Ling; Zhang, Hong-Lei; Hao, Qing-Hong

    2012-05-01

    Aeroto-Niu-O16, an oxygen-tolerant bovine rumen bacterium, is capable of aerobically reducing isoflavones daidzein and genistein to dihydrodaidzein and dihydrogenistein through catalytic hydrogenation. In this study, it was found that bacterium strain Aeroto-Niu-O16 was able to cleavage the C-ring of liquiritigenin (LG), which is one of the main biologically active components of licorice roots, in the presence of atmospheric oxygen. LG was prepared by acid hydrolysis of the crude extract of licorice roots. The metabolite of LG obtained in strain Aeroto-Niu-O16 was identified as davidigenin (DG) based on the data of UV, MS, 1H and 13C NMR. The maximal concentration of LG that the strain Aeroto-Niu-O16 was able to transform effectively was 0.8 mmol x L(-1) and the average productivity of the metabolite DG was 71.7%. Furthermore, when 0.1% (m/v) of L-cysteine or sodium thiosulfate was added in the cultural medium, the average bioconversion rate of LG was increased from 71.7% to 78.3% and 77.2%, respectively. The in vitro antioxidant investigation showed that 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical-scavenging activity of DG was significantly or extremely significantly higher than that of LG at the concentrations from 0.2 mmol x L(-1) to 1.6 mmol x L(-1). We discoverd for the first time that LG can be converted to DG, which has stronger and wider biological activities, through microbial biotransformation method. PMID:22812014

  19. Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium and Escherichia coli Contamination of Root and Leaf Vegetables Grown in Soils with Incorporated Bovine Manure

    PubMed Central

    Natvig, Erin E.; Ingham, Steven C.; Ingham, Barbara H.; Cooperband, Leslie R.; Roper, Teryl R.

    2002-01-01

    Bovine manure, with or without added Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (three strains), was incorporated into silty clay loam (SCL) and loamy sand (LS) soil beds (53- by 114-cm surface area, 17.5 cm deep) and maintained in two controlled-environment chambers. The S. enterica serovar Typhimurium inoculum was 4 to 5 log CFU/g in manure-fertilized soil. The conditions in the two environmental chambers, each containing inoculated and uninoculated beds of manure-fertilized soil, simulated daily average Madison, Wis., weather conditions (hourly temperatures, rainfall, daylight, and humidity) for a 1 March or a 1 June manure application and subsequent vegetable growing seasons ending 9 August or 28 September, respectively. Core soil samples were taken biweekly from both inoculated and uninoculated soil beds in each chamber. Radishes, arugula, and carrots were planted in soil beds, thinned, and harvested. Soils, thinned vegetables, and harvested vegetables were analyzed for S. enterica serovar Typhimurium and Escherichia coli (indigenous in manure). After the 1 March manure application, S. enterica serovar Typhimurium was detected at low levels in both soils on 31 May, but not on vegetables planted 1 May and harvested 12 July from either soil. After the 1 June manure application, S. enterica serovar Typhimurium was detected in SCL soil on 7 September and on radishes and arugula planted in SCL soil on 15 August and harvested on 27 September. In LS soil, S. enterica serovar Typhimurium died at a similar rate (P ≥ 0.05) after the 1 June manure application and was less often detected on arugula and radishes harvested from this soil compared to the SCL soil. Pathogen levels on vegetables were decreased by washing. Manure application in cool (daily average maximum temperature of <10°C) spring conditions is recommended to ensure that harvested vegetables are not contaminated with S. enterica serovar Typhimurium. Manure application under warmer (daily average maximum

  20. Stress Distribution in Roots Restored with Fiber Posts and An Experimental Dentin Post: 3D-FEA.

    PubMed

    Diana, Hugo Henrique; Oliveira, Juliana Santos; Ferro, Mariana Carolina de Lara; Silva-Sousa, Yara T Corrêa; Gomes, Érica Alves

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the stress distribution in radicular dentin of a maxillary canine restored with either a glass fiber post, carbon fiber post or an experimental dentin post using finite element analysis (3D-FEA). Three 3D virtual models of a maxillary canine restored with a metal-ceramic crown and glass fiber post (GFP), carbon fiber post (CFP), and experimental dentin post (DP) were obtained based on micro-CT images. A total of 180 N was applied on the lingual surface of the incisal third of each tooth at 45 degrees. The models were supported by the periodontal ligament fixed in three axes (x=y=z=0). The von Mises stress (VMS) of radicular dentin and the intracanal posts was calculated. The structures of all groups showed similar values (MPa) and distribution of maximum von Mises stress. Higher stress was found in the apical third of dentin while the posts presented homogeneous stress distribution along the axis. The fiber and dentin posts exhibited similar stress values and distribution. Thus, the experimental dentin post is a promising restorative material. PMID:27058388

  1. A system for the diagnosis, placement, and prosthetic restoration of root form implants (U.S. Patent #5,769,636).

    PubMed

    Di Sario, Francesco

    2003-03-01

    It is difficult to achieve a high degree of reproducibility when using a diagnostic wax-up as the template for fabrication of a definitive implant restoration. Here a method for implant prosthesis treatment planning is described that allows fabrication of the provisional restoration before surgical placement of the implant. The method involves 6 steps: (1) determining the mesiodistal inclination of the implant, (2) determining the buccolingual dimension of the alveolar ridge, (3) determining the proper position of the implant, (4) fabricating the surgical guide, (5) fabricating the provisional restoration, and (6) performing surgical placement of the implant followed by immediate placement of the provisional restoration. PMID:12677604

  2. Comparison of marginal adaptation of mineral trioxide aggregate, glass ionomer cement and intermediate restorative material as root-end filling materials, using scanning electron microscope: An in vitro study

    PubMed Central

    Gundam, Sirisha; Patil, Jayaprakash; Venigalla, Bhuvan Shome; Yadanaparti, Sravanthi; Maddu, Radhika; Gurram, Sindhura Reddy

    2014-01-01

    Aim: The present study compares the marginal adaption of Mineral Trioxide Aggregate (MTA), Glass Ionomer Cement (GIC) and Intermediate Restorative Material (IRM) as root-end filling materials in extracted human teeth using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). Materials and Methods: Thirty single rooted human teeth were obturated with Gutta-percha after cleaning and shaping. Apical 3 mm of roots were resected and retrofilled with MTA, GIC and IRM. One millimeter transverse section of the retrofilled area was used to study the marginal adaptation of the restorative material with the dentin. Mounted specimens were examined using SEM at approximately 15 Kv and 10-6 Torr under high vacuum condition. At 2000 X magnification, the gap size at the material-tooth interface was recorded at 2 points in microns. Statistical Analysis: One way ANOVA Analysis of the data from the experimental group was carried out with gap size as the dependent variable, and material as independent variable. Results: The lowest mean value of gap size was recorded in MTA group (0.722 ± 0.438 μm) and the largest mean gap in GIC group (1.778 ± 0.697 μm). Conclusion: MTA showed least gap size when compared to IRM and GIC suggesting a better marginal adaptation. PMID:25506146

  3. Belowground-system development of VA mycorrhiza in a restored tallgrass prairie community

    SciTech Connect

    Cook, B.D.; Jastrow, J.D.; Miller, R.M.; McGraw, A.C.

    1987-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the relationship between root and VA mycorrhizal fungus development in a tallgrass prairie restoration chronosequence. Emphasis is placed on characterizing the relationship of root length, colonized root length, and percentage of root length occupied by the mycorrhizal fungus by differing root size classes. Mycorrhizal fungus composition and populations along the restoration chronosequence was determined. 3 refs., 1 fig.

  4. Phoneme Restoration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samuel, Arthur

    1996-01-01

    Notes that phonemic restoration is a powerful auditory illusion. Points out that when part of an utterance is replaced by another sound, listeners perceptually restore the missing speech. Several paradigms measure this illusion and explore its bottom-up and top-down bases. Findings reveal that acoustic properties of the replacement sound strongly…

  5. Fracture resistance of weakened teeth restored using accessory glass fiber posts.

    PubMed

    da Rosa, Ricardo Abreu; Barreto, Mirela Sangoi; da Rosa, Tiago Abreu; Reis, Katia Rodrigues; Kaizer, Osvaldo Bazzan

    2013-01-01

    This study used differential root weakening to evaluate the fracture resistance of bovine teeth restored using glass fiber posts (with or without accessory glass fiber posts). Fifty bovine mandibular incisors were sectioned 14 mm from the apex, fixed in acrylic resin blocks, and divided into 5 groups: healthy roots with a glass fiber post (Group 1), partially weakened teeth with a glass fiber post (Group 2), partially weakened teeth with a glass fiber post and 2 accessory glass fiber posts (Group 3), extensively weakened teeth with a glass fiber post (Group 4), and extensively weakened teeth with a glass fiber post and 5 accessory glass fiber posts (Group 5). Posts were luted with resin cement, cores were prepared using composite resin, and metallic crowns were cemented. The specimens were stored in distilled water at 37°C for more than 72 hours until the fracture resistance test. Specimens were loaded at 135 degrees relative to the long axis of the tooth at a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/minute in a universal testing machine. All groups predominantly exhibited favorable failure patterns and there were no statistically significant differences between groups (two-way ANOVA, α = 0.05). PMID:23454321

  6. Roots Revisited.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Barnabas

    1998-01-01

    Offers historical information about square roots. Presents three different methods--Hero's method, visual method, and remainder method--which can be used to teach the finding of square roots and one method for determining cube roots. (ASK)

  7. Neural reconstruction methods of restoring bladder function

    PubMed Central

    Gomez-Amaya, Sandra M.; Barbe, Mary F.; de Groat, William C.; Brown, Justin M.; Tuite, Gerald F.; Corcos, Jacques; Fecho, Susan B.; Braverman, Alan S.; Ruggieri, Michael R.

    2015-01-01

    During the past century, diverse studies have focused on the development of surgical strategies to restore function of a decentralized bladder after spinal cord or spinal root injury via repair of the original roots or by transferring new axonal sources. The techniques included end-to-end sacral root repairs, transfer of roots from other spinal segments to sacral roots, transfer of intercostal nerves to sacral roots, transfer of various somatic nerves to the pelvic or pudendal nerve, direct reinnervation of the detrusor muscle, or creation of an artificial reflex pathway between the skin and the bladder via the central nervous system. All of these surgical techniques have demonstrated specific strengths and limitations. The findings made to date already indicate appropriate patient populations for each procedure, but a comprehensive assessment of the effectiveness of each technique to restore urinary function after bladder decentralization is required to guide future research and potential clinical application. PMID:25666987

  8. Natural restoration

    SciTech Connect

    Kamlet, K.S.

    1993-02-01

    After a company pays millions of dollars to clean up contaminated site, its liability may not be over. It may have to spend tens of millions more to restore damaged natural resources under an oft-overlooked Superfund program. Examples of liability are cited in this report from the Exxon Valdez oil spill and a pcb leak which contaminated a harbor.

  9. Restoring Ancestral Language, Restoring Identity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bannon, Kay T.

    1999-01-01

    Describes the Cherokee Language Renewal Program that was designed to help Cherokee elementary school children learn to function in the dominant culture without sacrificing their own cultural heritage. Explains how the program got started, and reports on how it helps restore a cultural identify to a people who are at risk of losing their identity.…

  10. 77 FR 20319 - Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy; Importation of Bovines and Bovine Products

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-04

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service 9 CFR Part 93 RIN 0579-AC68 Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy; Importation of Bovines and Bovine Products Correction In proposed rule...

  11. 78 FR 73993 - Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy; Importation of Bovines and Bovine Products

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-10

    ... Health Inspection Service 9 CFR Parts 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, and 98 RIN 0579-AC68 Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy; Importation of Bovines and Bovine Products Corrections In rule document 2013-28228 appearing...

  12. Restoration Process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    In the accompanying photos, a laboratory technician is restoring the once-obliterated serial number of a revolver. The four-photo sequence shows the gradual progression from total invisibility to clear readability. The technician is using a new process developed in an applications engineering project conducted by NASA's Lewis Research Center in conjunction with Chicago State University. Serial numbers and other markings are frequently eliminated from metal objects to prevent tracing ownership of guns, motor vehicles, bicycles, cameras, appliances and jewelry. To restore obliterated numbers, crime laboratory investigators most often employ a chemical etching technique. It is effective, but it may cause metal corrosion and it requires extensive preparatory grinding and polishing. The NASA-Chicago State process is advantageous because it can be applied without variation to any kind of metal, it needs no preparatory work and number recovery can be accomplished without corrosive chemicals; the liquid used is water.

  13. Square Root +

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frederiksen, John G.

    1969-01-01

    A rational presentation of the so-called long division method for extracting the square root of a number. Diagrams are used to show relationship of this technique to the binomial theorem. Presentation exposes student to many facets of mathematics in addition to the mechanics of funding square root and cube root. Geometry, algebraic statements,…

  14. Unlocking the bovine genome

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The draft genome sequence of cattle (Bos taurus) has now been analyzed by the Bovine Genome Sequencing and Analysis Consortium and the Bovine HapMap Consortium, which together represent an extensive collaboration involving more than 300 scientists from 25 different countries. ...

  15. Bovine viral diarrhea viruses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Infections with bovine viral diarrhea viruses (BVDV) result in significant economic losses for beef and dairy producers worldwide. BVDV is actually an umbrella term for two species of viruses, BVDV1 and BVDV2, within the Pestivirus genus of the Flavivirus family. While denoted as a bovine pathogen...

  16. Root Hairs

    PubMed Central

    Grierson, Claire; Nielsen, Erik; Ketelaarc, Tijs; Schiefelbein, John

    2014-01-01

    Roots hairs are cylindrical extensions of root epidermal cells that are important for acquisition of nutrients, microbe interactions, and plant anchorage. The molecular mechanisms involved in the specification, differentiation, and physiology of root hairs in Arabidopsis are reviewed here. Root hair specification in Arabidopsis is determined by position-dependent signaling and molecular feedback loops causing differential accumulation of a WD-bHLH-Myb transcriptional complex. The initiation of root hairs is dependent on the RHD6 bHLH gene family and auxin to define the site of outgrowth. Root hair elongation relies on polarized cell expansion at the growing tip, which involves multiple integrated processes including cell secretion, endomembrane trafficking, cytoskeletal organization, and cell wall modifications. The study of root hair biology in Arabidopsis has provided a model cell type for insights into many aspects of plant development and cell biology. PMID:24982600

  17. Morphometric data of canine sacral nerve roots with reference to electrical sacral root stimulation.

    PubMed

    Rijkhoff, N J; Koldewijn, E L; d'Hollosy, W; Debruyne, F M; Wijkstra, H

    1996-01-01

    Experiments to investigate restoration of lower urinary tract control by electrical stimulation of the sacral nerve roots are mostly performed on dogs, yet little morphometric data (such as canine root and fiber diameter distributions) are available. The aim of this study was to acquire morphometric data of the intradural canine sacral dorsal and ventral roots (S1-S3). Cross-sections of sacral roots of two beagle dogs were analyzed using a light microscope and image processing software. The cross-sectional area of each root was measured. The diameters of the fibers and the axons in the cross-sections of the S2 and S3 roots were measured and used to construct nerve fiber diameter frequency distribution histograms. The results show a unimodal diameter distribution for the dorsal roots and a bimodal distribution for the ventral roots. In addition the average ratio g of the axon diameter to fiber diameter was calculated for each root. PMID:8732990

  18. Roots and Root Function: Introduction

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A number of current issues related to water management, ecohydrology, and climate change are giving impetus to new research aimed at understanding roots and their functioning. Current areas of research include: use of advanced imaging technologies such as Magnetic Resonance Imaging to observe roots...

  19. Relational Restorative Justice Pedagogy in Educator Professional Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaandering, Dorothy

    2014-01-01

    What would a professional development experience rooted in the philosophy, principles, and practices of restorative justice look and feel like? This article describes how such a professional development project was designed to implement restorative justice principles and practices into schools in a proactive, relational and sustainable manner by…

  20. Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Restorative Justice: Developing Insights for Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cremin, Hilary; Sellman, Edward; McCluskey, Gillean

    2012-01-01

    This article takes restorative justice as an example of an initiative that crosses disciplinary boundaries, and that has been usefully applied within educational contexts. Grounded in criminology, restorative justice also has roots in psychology, education, sociology, peace studies, philosophy and law. The article draws on an ESRC funded seminar…

  1. Inhibition of auxin movement from the shoot into the root inhibits lateral root development in Arabidopsis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reed, R. C.; Brady, S. R.; Muday, G. K.

    1998-01-01

    In roots two distinct polar movements of auxin have been reported that may control different developmental and growth events. To test the hypothesis that auxin derived from the shoot and transported toward the root controls lateral root development, the two polarities of auxin transport were uncoupled in Arabidopsis. Local application of the auxin-transport inhibitor naphthylphthalamic acid (NPA) at the root-shoot junction decreased the number and density of lateral roots and reduced the free indoleacetic acid (IAA) levels in the root and [3H]IAA transport into the root. Application of NPA to the basal half of or at several positions along the root only reduced lateral root density in regions that were in contact with NPA or in regions apical to the site of application. Lateral root development was restored by application of IAA apical to NPA application. Lateral root development in Arabidopsis roots was also inhibited by excision of the shoot or dark growth and this inhibition was reversible by IAA. Together, these results are consistent with auxin transport from the shoot into the root controlling lateral root development.

  2. How to bond to root canal dentin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nica, Luminita; Todea, Carmen; Furtos, Gabriel; Baldea, Bogdan

    2014-01-01

    Bonding to root canal dentin may be difficult due to various factors: the structural characteristic of the root canal dentin, which is different from that of the coronal dentin; the presence of the organic tissue of the dental pulp inside the root canal, which has to be removed during the cleaning-shaping of the root canal system; the smear-layer resulted after mechanical instrumentation, which may interfere with the adhesion of the filling materials; the type of the irrigants used in the cleaning protocol; the type of the sealer and core material used in the obturation of the endodontic space; the type of the materials used for the restoration of the endodontically treated teeth. The influence of the cleaning protocol, of the root canal filling material, of the type of the adhesive system used in the restoration of the treated teeth and of the region of the root canal, on the adhesion of several filling and restorative materials to root canal dentin was evaluated in the push-out bond strength test on 1-mm thick slices of endodontically treated human teeth. The results showed that all these factors have a statistically significant influence on the push-out bond strength. Formation of resin tags between radicular dentin and the investigated materials was observed in some of the samples at SEM analysis.

  3. The solvent action of sodium hypochlorite on bovine tendon collagen, bovine pulp, and bovine gingiva.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, H; Asai, K; Fujita, H; Nakazato, H; Nishimura, Y; Furuse, Y; Sahashi, E

    1985-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the optimum temperature and concentration of sodium hypochlorite solution required to dissolve bovine tendon collagen, pulp, and gingiva. The 10% concentration of sodium hypochlorite solution at 37 degrees C was found to be most effective in dissolving bovine tendon collagen, pulp, and gingiva. Sodium hypochlorite solution was more effective in dissolving bovine pulp or tendon collagen than in dissolving bovine gingiva. PMID:3862046

  4. Current opinions concerning the restoration of endodontically treated teeth: basic principles

    PubMed Central

    VȦrlan, C; VȦrlan, V; Bodnar, D; Suciu, I

    2009-01-01

    The goal of this general article is to present a survey of the current knowledge about the clinical approach of restoring endodontically treated teeth. The best way to restore teeth after root canal treatment has long been and still is a controversial subject of debate to this day. The clinical approach of restoring endodontically treated teeth needs taking into consideration several issues: aims of coronal restoration, criteria for establishing the various modalities of coronal restoration, clinical solutions of restoring teeth after endodontic treatment, guidelines regarding restorative materials and techniques, possibilities and limits of restoration using direct adhesive materials and techniques. The aims of coronal restoration of endodontically treated teeth are generally considered to be the following ones: to prevent recontamination of the root canal system and / or periapical space, to replace missing hard dental tissues and to restore coronal morphology and functions, to provide the necessary strength for the restoration/tooth complex in order to withstand functional stress and prevent crown and/or root fracture. The criteria for establishing the modalities of coronal restoration for endodontically treated teeth are: amount and quality of remaining hard dental tissues, topography and coronal morphology of the tooth, functional occlusal forces that the restoration/tooth complex has to withstand, restoring requirements in order to include the treated tooth in a comprehensive oral rehabilitation treatment plan, esthetic requirements. PMID:20108535

  5. Protein Crystal Bovine Insulin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The comparison of protein crystal, Bovine Insulin space-grown (left) and earth-grown (right). Facilitates the incorporation of glucose into cells. In diabetics, there is either a decrease in or complete lack of insulin, thereby leading to several harmful complications. Principal Investigator is Larry DeLucas.

  6. Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE), also referred to as “mad cow disease” is a chronic, non-febrile, neuro-degenerative disease affecting the central nervous system. The transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) of domestic animals, of which BSE is a member includes scrapie of sheep...

  7. [Bovine spongiform encephalopathy].

    PubMed

    Suárez Fernández, G

    2001-01-01

    An histórical and conceptual review is made about Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy or mad cows disease and an epidemiological analysis as a present and future health problem. This analysis of BSE should not be negative, considering the truths that we know today. PMID:11783042

  8. BOVINE VIRAL DIARRHEA VIRUSES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is an umbrella term for two species of viruses, BVDV1 and BVDV2, within the Pestivirus genus of the Flavivirus family. BVDV viruses are further subclassified as cytopathic and noncytopathic based on their activity in cultured epithelial cells. Noncytopathic BVDV p...

  9. Bovine milk exosome proteome

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Exosomes are 40-100 nm membrane vesicles of endocytic origin and are found in blood, urine, amniotic fluid, bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid, as well as human and bovine milk. Exosomes are extracellular organelles important in intracellular communication/signaling, immune function, and biomarkers ...

  10. Genotyping bovine coronaviruses.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bovine coronaviruses (BoCV) are enveloped, single-stranded, positive-sense RNA viruses of the Coronaviridae family. Infection is associated with enteritis and pneumonia in calves and Winter Dysentery in adult cattle. Strains, isolated more than 50 years ago, are used in vaccines and as laboratory ...

  11. Combined therapy for teeth with furcation involvement used as abutments for fixed restorations.

    PubMed

    Hürzeler, M B; Strub, J R

    1990-01-01

    Preprosthodontic and prosthodontic procedures for preparing molars with degree 3 furcation involvement for use as abutments for a fixed prosthesis are described. Periodontal surgery precedes endodontic and restorative pretreatment of the abutments, and the required root resection, root separation, or hemisection is performed. A long-term, provisional resin-veneered metal framework restoration is placed for 9 to 12 months. If neither biological nor technical failure occurs, the final metal ceramic fixed restoration may then be fabricated. PMID:2088385

  12. Principles of restorative dentistry.

    PubMed

    Banker, T

    1993-08-01

    A great deal of information regarding materials, instrumentation, and techniques used for restorative dentistry can be borrowed from the human dental field. Veterinary restorative dentistry is in its infancy. A thorough knowledge of the commonly used materials and how they can be effectively applied is important. Treatment planning is probably one of the most critical phases of restorative dentistry as is painstaking attention to detail. If the guidelines for restorative dental techniques are followed, failures will be minimal. However, one of the most important points to remember is that the success of a restoration is not determined at the completion of the procedure. A restoration, if properly planned and performed, should last the lifetime of the animal patient. It is very important that veterinary dentists continue to evaluate and assess their restorative work at regular intervals so that restorative failures can be detected early, and so that restorative techniques and materials can be critically evaluated in veterinary patients. PMID:8210800

  13. Automated Root Tracking with "Root System Analyzer"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schnepf, Andrea; Jin, Meina; Ockert, Charlotte; Bol, Roland; Leitner, Daniel

    2015-04-01

    Crucial factors for plant development are water and nutrient availability in soils. Thus, root architecture is a main aspect of plant productivity and needs to be accurately considered when describing root processes. Images of root architecture contain a huge amount of information, and image analysis helps to recover parameters describing certain root architectural and morphological traits. The majority of imaging systems for root systems are designed for two-dimensional images, such as RootReader2, GiA Roots, SmartRoot, EZ-Rhizo, and Growscreen, but most of them are semi-automated and involve mouse-clicks in each root by the user. "Root System Analyzer" is a new, fully automated approach for recovering root architectural parameters from two-dimensional images of root systems. Individual roots can still be corrected manually in a user interface if required. The algorithm starts with a sequence of segmented two-dimensional images showing the dynamic development of a root system. For each image, morphological operators are used for skeletonization. Based on this, a graph representation of the root system is created. A dynamic root architecture model helps to determine which edges of the graph belong to an individual root. The algorithm elongates each root at the root tip and simulates growth confined within the already existing graph representation. The increment of root elongation is calculated assuming constant growth. For each root, the algorithm finds all possible paths and elongates the root in the direction of the optimal path. In this way, each edge of the graph is assigned to one or more coherent roots. Image sequences of root systems are handled in such a way that the previous image is used as a starting point for the current image. The algorithm is implemented in a set of Matlab m-files. Output of Root System Analyzer is a data structure that includes for each root an identification number, the branching order, the time of emergence, the parent

  14. Root gravitropism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Masson, P. H.

    1995-01-01

    When a plant root is reoriented within the gravity field, it responds by initiating a curvature which eventually results in vertical growth. Gravity sensing occurs primarily in the root tip. It may involve amyloplast sedimentation in the columella cells of the root cap, or the detection of forces exerted by the mass of the protoplast on opposite sides of its cell wall. Gravisensing activates a signal transduction cascade which results in the asymmetric redistribution of auxin and apoplastic Ca2+ across the root tip, with accumulation at the bottom side. The resulting lateral asymmetry in Ca2+ and auxin concentration is probably transmitted to the elongation zone where differential cellular elongation occurs until the tip resumes vertical growth. The Cholodny-Went theory proposes that gravity-induced auxin redistribution across a gravistimulated plant organ is responsible for the gravitropic response. However, recent data indicate that the gravity-induced reorientation is more complex, involving both auxin gradient-dependent and auxin gradient-independent events.

  15. Root canal

    MedlinePlus

    Endodontic therapy ... the root of a tooth. Generally, there is pain and swelling in the area. The infection can ... You may have some pain or soreness after the procedure. An over-the-counter anti-inflammatory drug, such as ibuprofen or naproxen, can help relieve ...

  16. Clinical technique for invasive cervical root resorption

    PubMed Central

    Silveira, Luiz Fernando Machado; Silveira, Carina Folgearini; Martos, Josué; Piovesan, Edno Moacir; César Neto, João Batista

    2011-01-01

    This clinical case report describes the diagnosis and treatment of an external invasive cervical resorption. A 17-year-old female patient had a confirmed diagnosis of invasive cervical resorption class 4 by cone beam computerized tomography. Although, there was no communication with the root canal, the invasive resorption process was extending into the cervical and middle third of the root. The treatment of the cervical resorption of the lateral incisor interrupted the resorptive process and restored the damaged root surface and the dental functions without any esthetic sequelae. Both the radiographic examination and computed tomography are imperative to reveal the extent of the defect in the differential diagnosis. PMID:22144822

  17. Linking restoration ecology with coastal dune restoration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lithgow, D.; Martínez, M. L.; Gallego-Fernández, J. B.; Hesp, P. A.; Flores, P.; Gachuz, S.; Rodríguez-Revelo, N.; Jiménez-Orocio, O.; Mendoza-González, G.; Álvarez-Molina, L. L.

    2013-10-01

    Restoration and preservation of coastal dunes is urgently needed because of the increasingly rapid loss and degradation of these ecosystems because of many human activities. These activities alter natural processes and coastal dynamics, eliminate topographic variability, fragment, degrade or eliminate habitats, reduce diversity and threaten endemic species. The actions of coastal dune restoration that are already taking place span contrasting activities that range from revegetating and stabilizing the mobile substrate, to removing plant cover and increasing substrate mobility. Our goal was to review how the relative progress of the actions of coastal dune restoration has been assessed, according to the ecosystem attributes outlined by the Society of Ecological Restoration: namely, integrity, health and sustainability and that are derived from the ecological theory of succession. We reviewed the peer reviewed literature published since 1988 that is listed in the ISI Web of Science journals as well as additional references, such as key books. We exclusively focused on large coastal dune systems (such as transgressive and parabolic dunefields) located on natural or seminatural coasts. We found 150 articles that included "coastal dune", "restoration" and "revegetation" in areas such as title, keywords and abstract. From these, 67 dealt specifically with coastal dune restoration. Most of the studies were performed in the USA, The Netherlands and South Africa, during the last two decades. Restoration success has been assessed directly and indirectly by measuring one or a few ecosystem variables. Some ecosystem attributes have been monitored more frequently (ecosystem integrity) than others (ecosystem health and sustainability). Finally, it is important to consider that ecological succession is a desirable approach in restoration actions. Natural dynamics and disturbances should be considered as part of the restored system, to improve ecosystem integrity, health and

  18. Effects of cavity configuration on composite restoration.

    PubMed

    Choi, Kyoung-Kyu; Ryu, Gil-Joo; Choi, Seung-Mo; Lee, Min-Jo; Park, Sang-Jin; Ferracane, Jack L

    2004-01-01

    This study evaluated the effects of various cavity configurations on the bond strength, microleakage, flexural strength and elastic modulus of a hybrid (Clearfil AP-X) and a microhybrid (Esthet-X) composite restorative. After the specimens were made with C-factors of less than 1, 2.4 and 3.4, flexural strength and elastic modulus were evaluated in three-point bending using a mechanical testing machine. Fragments of the fractured specimens were selected randomly and the fracture surfaces were examined in SEM. To evaluate the microtensile bond strength and microleakage of composite restorations in bovine cavities, C-factors (ratio of bonded to non-bonded cavity surface) were controlled as 1.0, 2.3, 3.0 and 3.7. All specimens were stored in distilled water at 37 degrees C for 24 hours and tested in a universal testing machine (EZ Test, Shimadzu, Japan). For the microleakage test, teeth with restorations were stained with silver nitrate and examined by two examiners under a stereomicroscope at 40x magnification. The hybrid composite showed higher mechanical properties than the microhybrid composite. The flexural strength and elastic modulus of both composites decreased when polymerized under greater constraint, that is, with increasing C-factor. Mean microtensile bond strength to dentin was also decreased with increasing C-factor for both types of composites. Microleakage scores for the hybrid composite restorations were generally higher than the microhybrid composite. PMID:15279488

  19. Fracture strength and stress distributions of pulpless premolars restored with fiber posts.

    PubMed

    Furuya, Yu; Huang, Shih-Hao; Takeda, Yuko; Fok, Alex; Hayashi, Mikako

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the effect of glass fiber posts on increasing the fracture resistance of endodontically treated teeth. Extracted upper premolars with two canals in a root were divided into three groups according to the number of posts they were restored with: none, one, or two. All teeth were endodontically treated, crown-sectioned, and restored with a composite core and a metallic crown. A static oblique load was applied to the restored tooth until fracture, and the fracture pattern was recorded. Stress distributions were examined by finite element analysis (FEA). Teeth with glass fiber post(s) showed significantly higher fracture loads compared with those without posts. In the premolars without posts, von Mises and maximum principal stresses were found on the root surface alone; in premolars restored with posts, stresses were distributed on both root and post surfaces. Risk of root dentin fracture was significantly lowest in teeth restored with two posts. PMID:25483385

  20. Biocompatibility of root-end filling materials: recent update

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Saurabh Kumar; Newaskar, Vilas

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of a root-end filling is to establish a seal between the root canal space and the periradicular tissues. As root-end filling materials come into contact with periradicular tissues, knowledge of the tissue response is crucial. Almost every available dental restorative material has been suggested as the root-end material of choice at a certain point in the past. This literature review on root-end filling materials will evaluate and comparatively analyse the biocompatibility and tissue response to these products, with primary focus on newly introduced materials. PMID:24010077

  1. Biocompatibility of root-end filling materials: recent update.

    PubMed

    Saxena, Payal; Gupta, Saurabh Kumar; Newaskar, Vilas

    2013-08-01

    The purpose of a root-end filling is to establish a seal between the root canal space and the periradicular tissues. As root-end filling materials come into contact with periradicular tissues, knowledge of the tissue response is crucial. Almost every available dental restorative material has been suggested as the root-end material of choice at a certain point in the past. This literature review on root-end filling materials will evaluate and comparatively analyse the biocompatibility and tissue response to these products, with primary focus on newly introduced materials. PMID:24010077

  2. Root hair-specific expansins modulate root hair elongation in rice.

    PubMed

    ZhiMing, Yu; Bo, Kang; XiaoWei, He; ShaoLei, Lv; YouHuang, Bai; WoNa, Ding; Ming, Chen; Hyung-Taeg, Cho; Ping, Wu

    2011-06-01

    Root hair growth requires intensive cell-wall modification. This study demonstrates that root hair-specific expansin As, a sub-clade of the cell wall-loosening expansin proteins, are required for root hair elongation in rice (Oryza sativa L.). We identified a gene encoding EXPA17 (OsEXPA17) from a rice mutant with short root hairs. Promoter::reporter transgenic lines exhibited exclusive OsEXPA17 expression in root hair cells. The OsEXPA17 mutant protein (OsexpA17) contained a point mutation, causing a change in the amino acid sequence (Gly104→Arg). This amino acid alteration is predicted to disrupt a highly conserved disulfide bond in the mutant. Suppression of OsEXPA17 by RNA interference further confirmed requirement for the gene in root hair elongation. Complementation of the OsEXPA17 mutant with other root hair EXPAs (OsEXPA30 and Arabidopsis EXPA7) can restore root hair elongation, indicating functional conservation of these root hair EXPAs in monocots and dicots. These results demonstrate that members of the root hair EXPA sub-clade play a crucial role in root hair cell elongation in Graminaceae. PMID:21309868

  3. Resistance to compression of weakened roots subjected to different root reconstruction protocols

    PubMed Central

    ZOGHEIB, Lucas Villaça; SAAVEDRA, Guilherme de Siqueira Ferreira Anzaloni; CARDOSO, Paula Elaine; VALERA, Márcia Carneiro; de ARAÚJO, Maria Amélia Máximo

    2011-01-01

    Objective This study evaluated, in vitro, the fracture resistance of human non-vital teeth restored with different reconstruction protocols. Material and methods Forty human anterior roots of similar shape and dimensions were assigned to four groups (n=10), according to the root reconstruction protocol: Group I (control): non-weakened roots with glass fiber post; Group II: roots with composite resin by incremental technique and glass fiber post; Group III: roots with accessory glass fiber posts and glass fiber post; and Group IV: roots with anatomic glass fiber post technique. Following post cementation and core reconstruction, the roots were embedded in chemically activated acrylic resin and submitted to fracture resistance testing, with a compressive load at an angle of 45º in relation to the long axis of the root at a speed of 0.5 mm/min until fracture. All data were statistically analyzed with bilateral Dunnett's test (α=0.05). Results Group I presented higher mean values of fracture resistance when compared with the three experimental groups, which, in turn, presented similar resistance to fracture among each other. None of the techniques of root reconstruction with intraradicular posts improved root strength, and the incremental technique was suggested as being the most recommendable, since the type of fracture that occurred allowed the remaining dental structure to be repaired. Conclusion The results of this in vitro study suggest that the healthy remaining radicular dentin is more important to increase fracture resistance than the root reconstruction protocol. PMID:22231002

  4. Periodontal restorative interrelationships: the isolated restoration.

    PubMed

    Fugazzotto, P A

    1985-06-01

    Only by controlling plaque early and consistently, before periodontal and restorative problems require intervention in the form of a full prosthetic and periodontal reconstruction, the continued maintenance of a full dentition is assured. Plaque control is not merely continued prophylaxes, but a striving for a healthy biologic situation with the placement of every restoration. This is attainable only through ensuring a normal attachment apparatus and establishing that all restorative margins be accessible to plaque control measures. Deep, subgingival restorations are not only difficult to place and finish correctly, but, by providing an environment conducive to microbial plaque retention and proliferation, also lead to inflammatory periodontal destruction and recurrent carious lesions. Early detection, although difficult, is essential to avoid excessive destruction of the tooth and its supporting structures. A deterrent to early detection may be the response of the patient's tissue. Paradoxically, if the patient's periodontal tissues respond in a fibrotic manner to early gingival inflammation, rather than in a dramatic, edematous manner, the situation may appear clinically healthy. Waerhaug discussed "submarginal gingivitis," a situation in which the tissue will appear pink and firm, elicit to exudate or bleeding on probing, and mimic healthy to the casual examiner. When this is coupled with the difficulty inherent in detecting early recurrent carious lesions, resulting from the radiographic superimposition of the existing restoration or the deep subgingival extent of the restoration, the situation becomes all the more demanding of the practitioner's efforts. PMID:3860551

  5. The effect of base/liner use on restoration leakage.

    PubMed

    von Fraunhofer, J A; Marshall, K R; Holman, B G

    2006-01-01

    Central to the success of a restoration is the quality of the restoration-dentin interfacial seal; any compromise of the seal can lead to secondary or recurrent decay. Class V restorations have a high leakage propensity and this study evaluates the effect of base/liner placement on leakage behavior. Class V intracoronal half enamel/half dentin preparations (3.0 x 2.0 x 2.0 mm) were cut in four groups (n = 10) of extracted human teeth with a new bur used for each cavity preparation. All teeth were single-rooted, single-canal anterior teeth. Base/liner usage differed between each group. The first group of teeth had no liner or base, while a liner was placed in the second group of teeth prior to conditioning and restoration. A base was placed in the third group of cavity preparations and both the base and liner were placed in the fourth group. After preparation, a small diameter bare-end PVC-insulated copper wire was inserted within the root canal of each tooth from the apex to firm contact with the pulp chamber roof. The tooth-wire interface and root surface was sealed and leakage was followed electrochemically for 35 days in 0.9% NaCl solution. All of the teeth leaked to some degree; however, teeth that were restored without liner or base demonstrated the smallest amount of leakage. The greatest leakage was noted in teeth restored with both a base and a liner; teeth restored with only a base showed greater leakage than those restored with only a liner. The findings indicate that the presence of a base and/or a liner results in greater leakage compared with intracoronal Class V preparations that were conditioned and restored only. The data suggest that placing both a base and a liner increases restoration leakage significantly. PMID:16689065

  6. Pythium Root Rot (and Feeder Root Necrosis)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pythium species cause a number of diseases on corn. Among the Pythium diseases, root rot presents the least conspicuous aboveground symptoms. Broadly defined, root rot also includes feeder root necrosis. At least 16 species of Pythium are known to cause root rot of corn. These include P. acanthicu...

  7. Tear and decohesion of bovine pericardial tissue.

    PubMed

    Tobaruela, Almudena; Elices, Manuel; Bourges, Jean Yves; Rojo, Francisco Javier; Atienza, José Miguel; Guinea, Gustavo

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate quantitatively the fracture-by tear and delamination-of bovine pericardium tissues which are usually employed for the manufacture of bioprosthetic valves. A large number of samples (77) were tested in root-to-apex and circumferential directions, according to a standardised tear test (ASTM D 1938). Before performing the tear test, some samples were subjected to 1000 cycles of fatigue to a maximum stress of 3MPa. Fracture toughness of tearing and delamination were computed by following a simple fracture model. The study showed significantly lower values of delamination toughness compared with tear delamination. Moreover, tear forces were different in each test direction, revealing a clear orthotropic behaviour. All these results, as well as the testing procedure, could be of value for future research in the physiological function of pericardium tissues and clinical applications. PMID:27337412

  8. Bovine myocardial epithelial inclusions.

    PubMed

    Baker, D C; Schmidt, S P; Langheinrich, K A; Cannon, L; Smart, R A

    1993-01-01

    Light microscopic, histochemical, immunohistochemical, and ultrastructural methods were used to examine myocardial epithelial masses in the hearts of ten cattle. The tissues consisted of paraffin-embedded or formalin-fixed samples from eight hearts that were being inspected in slaughter houses and from two hearts from calves that died of septicemia. The ages of the cattle ranged from 4 days to 12 years; the breeds were unspecified for all but one Hereford female and the two Holstein calves; and there were three males, four females, and three steers. The masses in these cases were compared with similar appearing lesions found in other animal species. The lesions in the bovine hearts were single to multiple, well circumscribed, found in the left ventricle wall, and composed of squamous to cuboidal epithelial cells that formed tubular, ductular, and acinar structures with lumens that were void or filled with amorphous protein globules. Electron microscopic examination revealed epithelial cells that had sparse apical microvilli, tight apical intercellular junctions, perinuclear bundles of filaments, and rare cilia. Almost half of the bovine epithelial masses (4/9) had occasional diastase-resistant periodic acid-Schiff-positive granules in their cytoplasm, and few had hyaluronidase-resistant alcian blue-positive granules (2/9) or colloidal iron-positive granules (1/9). All myocardial masses had abundant collagen surrounding the tubular and acinar structures, and 2/9 had elastin fibers as well. None of the myocardial masses had Churukian-Schenk or Fontana Masson's silver staining granules in epithelial cells. Immunohistochemically, all bovine myocardial tumors stained positively for cytokeratin (8/8), and occasional masses stained positively for vimentin (3/8) or carcinoembryonic antigen (3/8). None of the masses stained positively for desmin. The myocardial epithelial tumors most likely represent endodermal rests of tissue misplaced during organogenesis. PMID:7680178

  9. Enzootic Bovine Leukosis

    PubMed Central

    Reed, V. Ivan

    1981-01-01

    The author emphasizes the significance of enzootic bovine leukosis in Canada. He describes in detail diagnostic methods, various types of the disease and methods of transmission. Various aspects of the disease in Canada are compared with those in other countries. Prevention and control are discussed in a Canadian context and include the current policies of the Government of Canada in relationship to this disease. The possibility of developing a certification program for herds free of the disease is also discussed. The paper includes incidence in various parts of Canada. PMID:6265053

  10. The synergistic necrohemorrhagic action of Clostridium perfringens perfringolysin and alpha toxin in the bovine intestine and against bovine endothelial cells

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Bovine necrohemorrhagic enteritis is a major cause of mortality in veal calves. Clostridium perfringens is considered as the causative agent, but there has been controversy on the toxins responsible for the disease. Recently, it has been demonstrated that a variety of C. perfringens type A strains can induce necrohemorrhagic lesions in a calf intestinal loop assay. These results put forward alpha toxin and perfringolysin as potential causative toxins, since both are produced by all C. perfringens type A strains. The importance of perfringolysin in the pathogenesis of bovine necrohemorrhagic enteritis has not been studied before. Therefore, the objective of the current study was to evaluate the role of perfringolysin in the development of necrohemorrhagic enteritis lesions in calves and its synergism with alpha toxin. A perfringolysin-deficient mutant, an alpha toxin-deficient mutant and a perfringolysin alpha toxin double mutant were less able to induce necrosis in a calf intestinal loop assay as compared to the wild-type strain. Only complementation with both toxins could restore the activity to that of the wild-type. In addition, perfringolysin and alpha toxin had a synergistic cytotoxic effect on bovine endothelial cells. This endothelial cell damage potentially explains why capillary hemorrhages are an initial step in the development of bovine necrohemorrhagic enteritis. Taken together, our results show that perfringolysin acts synergistically with alpha toxin in the development of necrohemorrhagic enteritis in a calf intestinal loop model and we hypothesize that both toxins act by targeting the endothelial cells. PMID:23782465

  11. Atraumatic surgical extrusion to improve tooth restorability: A clinical report.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Robert D; Addison, Owen; Tomson, Phillip L; Krastl, Gabriel; Dietrich, Thomas

    2016-06-01

    This clinical report describes the use of an "atraumatic" vertical extraction system to facilitate the restorative treatment of a tooth that would otherwise be considered unrestorable because of subgingival caries. Minimally invasive surgical root extrusion was undertaken using the Benex extraction system, which can provide controlled tooth extrusion with minimal deformation of the bone socket. A carious endodontically treated mandibular premolar was extruded to provide routine restorative treatment and endodontic retreatment. PMID:26803176

  12. Watershed Restoration Project

    SciTech Connect

    Julie Thompson; Betsy Macfarlan

    2007-09-27

    In 2003, the U.S. Department of Energy issued the Eastern Nevada Landscape Coalition (ENLC) funding to implement ecological restoration in Gleason Creek and Smith Valley Watersheds. This project was made possible by congressionally directed funding that was provided through the US Department of Energy, Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Office of the Biomass Program. The Ely District Bureau of Land Management (Ely BLM) manages these watersheds and considers them priority areas within the Ely BLM district. These three entities collaborated to address the issues and concerns of Gleason Creek and Smith Valley and prepared a restoration plan to improve the watersheds’ ecological health and resiliency. The restoration process began with watershed-scale vegetation assessments and state and transition models to focus on restoration sites. Design and implementation of restoration treatments ensued and were completed in January 2007. This report describes the restoration process ENLC undertook from planning to implementation of two watersheds in semi-arid Eastern Nevada.

  13. Neighbor influences on root morphology and mycorrhizal fungus colonization in tallgrass prairie plants

    SciTech Connect

    Jastrow, J.D. Univ. of Illinois, Chicago ); Miller, R.M. )

    1993-03-01

    A field study was conducted across a chronosequence of tallgrass prairie restorations to investigate the influence a plant's neighbor may have on its gross root morphology and association with mycorrhizal fungi. The root systems of a warm-season grass, Andropogon gerardii, and two perennial forbs, Coreopsis tripteris and Solidago altissima, were sampled by excavating soil blocks representing all pairwise inter- and intra-specific combinations of these species. With forb neighbors, Andropogon had higher percentages of its firbrous roots colonized by mycorrhizal fungi than with conspecific neighbors. Andropogon root morphology (as measured by average root radius, specific root length, and root branching) did not vary with neighbor growth form; however, Andropogon roots did become finer as restoration age and root densities increased. For Coreopsis and Solidago, colonization of fibrous roots did not vary with neighbor species, but both forbs had coarser roots with interspecific neighbors than with conspecifics. With interspecific neighbors, Coreopsis almost doubled the number of branches per centimetre of root observed in conspecific pairs. Although some of the variations in colonization and root morphology may be attributable specifically to neighbor root mass, others were related to the overall root mass of the target-neighbor pair. The observed variations in mycorrhizal colonization may be related to increased opportunities for colonization by the fungus that are due not only to higher root densities but also to some sort of interaction between the root systems of Andropogon and the forbs. 44 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  14. Inhibition of Auxin Movement from the Shoot into the Root Inhibits Lateral Root Development in Arabidopsis1

    PubMed Central

    Reed, Robyn C.; Brady, Shari R.; Muday, Gloria K.

    1998-01-01

    In roots two distinct polar movements of auxin have been reported that may control different developmental and growth events. To test the hypothesis that auxin derived from the shoot and transported toward the root controls lateral root development, the two polarities of auxin transport were uncoupled in Arabidopsis. Local application of the auxin-transport inhibitor naphthylphthalamic acid (NPA) at the root-shoot junction decreased the number and density of lateral roots and reduced the free indoleacetic acid (IAA) levels in the root and [3H]IAA transport into the root. Application of NPA to the basal half of or at several positions along the root only reduced lateral root density in regions that were in contact with NPA or in regions apical to the site of application. Lateral root development was restored by application of IAA apical to NPA application. Lateral root development in Arabidopsis roots was also inhibited by excision of the shoot or dark growth and this inhibition was reversible by IAA. Together, these results are consistent with auxin transport from the shoot into the root controlling lateral root development. PMID:9847111

  15. [Bovine immunodeficiency virus: short review].

    PubMed

    Bouillant, A M; Archambault, D

    1990-01-01

    A bovine visna-like virus was isolated by Van Der Maaten et al (1972) but it did not draw attention since, at that time, most efforts were directed towards research on bovine leukemia virus. However, new interest was shown on the bovine visna-like virus after the isolation of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), because of the urgent need for developing animal models for the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). The purpose of this paper is to describe the different stages of the identification of the bovine virus and to up-date knowledge about it. The bovine visna-like virus has recently been named the bovine immuno-deficiency-like virus (BIV) and is the sole bovine lentivirus known to-date. BIV shares morphologic, antigenic and genomic characteristics with other lentiviruses. It grows and induces large syncytia in vitro and generates virus-productive and latent infections in cell culture. It causes persistent infection and slow progressive disease in cattle and probably in sheep. As target cells of the virus are leukocytes, the type of which is unknown, perturbations of the immune system are expected. Consequently, BIV may potentiate the occurrence of secondary infections and play a role in retroviral, multiple infections. It is not oncogenic. Transmission appears to occur in cattle by contact, but evidence of transmission in human beings has not been shown. Finally, BIV may be a potential model in vitro and in vivo for HIV and AIDS. PMID:1963056

  16. Restoring the smile: Inexpensive biologic restorations

    PubMed Central

    Mittal, Neeti P.

    2014-01-01

    Extensive breakdown of primary teeth to the cervical level and their loss in very young children is not uncommon. Owing to increasing concerns over self-appearance, due considerations to esthetic aspects in addition to restoring function are necessary aspects of rehabilitation of mutilated teeth to help children grow into a psychologically balanced personality. The present article describes rehabilitation of grossly decayed teeth with biologic restorations such as dentine posts, dentine post and core and biologic shell crown. This treatment modality provided a cost-effective esthetic solution. PMID:25097656

  17. Radiopacity of different resin-based and conventional luting cements compared to human and bovine teeth.

    PubMed

    Pekkan, Gürel; Ozcan, Mutlu

    2012-02-01

    This study evaluated the radiopacity of different resin-based luting materials and compared the results to human and bovine dental hard tissues. Disc specimens (N=130, n=10 per group) (diameter: 6 mm, thickness: 1 mm) were prepared from 10 resin-based and 3 conventional luting cements. Human canine dentin (n=10), bovine enamel (n=10), bovine dentin (n=10) and Aluminium (Al) step wedge were used as references. The optical density values of each material were measured from radiographic images using a transmission densitometer. Al step wedge thickness and optical density values were plotted and equivalent Al thickness values were determined for radiopacity measurements of each material. The radiopacity values of conventional cements and two resin luting materials (Rely X Unicem and Variolink II), were significantly higher than that of bovine enamel that could be preferred for restorations cemented on enamel. Since all examined resin-based luting materials showed radiopacity values equivalent to or greater than that of human and bovine dentin, they could be considered suitable for the restorations cemented on dentin. PMID:22277608

  18. Wiener-matrix image restoration beyond the sampling passband

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahman, Zia-ur; Alter-Gartenberg, Rachel; Fales, Carl L.; Huck, Friedrich O.

    1991-09-01

    A finer-than-sampling-lattice resolution image can be obtained using multiresponse image gathering and Wiener-matrix restoration. The multiresponse image gathering weighs the within-passband and aliased signal components differently, allowing the Wiener-matrix restoration filter to unscramble these signal components and restore spatial frequencies beyond the sampling passband of the photodetector array. Thus, A multiresponse images can be reassembled into a single minimum mean square error image with a resolution that is (root)A times finer than the photodetector-array sampling lattice.

  19. Utah Paiute Tribal Restoration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Allen C.

    The Paiute Indian Tribe of Utah Restoration Act (1980) restored federal recognition of the tribe after a quarter century of ambiguous political status, and resulted in significant improvements of educational status of tribal members and intensification of the political presence of Southern Paiutes. Following the Paiute Indian Termination Act…

  20. Restoration of bearings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, R. J.; Zaretsky, E. V.; Hanau, H.

    1977-01-01

    Process consisting of grinding raceways to oversize but original quality condition and installing new oversize balls or bearings restores wornout ball and roller bearings to original quality, thereby doubling their operating life. Evaluations reveal process results in restoration of 90% of replaced bearings at less than 50% of new-bearing costs.

  1. Gill's 'History' restored

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hurn, Mark

    2009-06-01

    Note about the restoration of the copy of Sir David Gill's 'A History and Description of the Royal Observatory, Cape of Good Hope' in the Library of the Institute of Astronomy, Cambridge. The book was restored with funds provided by the SHA in thanks for facilities for meetings provided to the Institute.

  2. Power system restoration issues

    SciTech Connect

    Adibi, M.M. ); Kafka, R.J. )

    1991-04-01

    This article describes some of the problems encountered in the three phases of power system restoration (PSR). The three phases of PSR are: Planning for restart and reintegration of the bulk power supply; Actions during system degradation for saving and retaining critical sources of power; Restoration when the power system has stabilized at some degraded level.

  3. Retributive and restorative justice.

    PubMed

    Wenzel, Michael; Okimoto, Tyler G; Feather, Norman T; Platow, Michael J

    2008-10-01

    The emergence of restorative justice as an alternative model to Western, court-based criminal justice may have important implications for the psychology of justice. It is proposed that two different notions of justice affect responses to rule-breaking: restorative and retributive justice. Retributive justice essentially refers to the repair of justice through unilateral imposition of punishment, whereas restorative justice means the repair of justice through reaffirming a shared value-consensus in a bilateral process. Among the symbolic implications of transgressions, concerns about status and power are primarily related to retributive justice and concerns about shared values are primarily related to restorative justice. At the core of these processes, however, lies the parties' construal of their identity relation, specifically whether or not respondents perceive to share an identity with the offender. The specific case of intergroup transgressions is discussed, as are implications for future research on restoring a sense of justice after rule-breaking. PMID:17957457

  4. INFLUENCE OF THERMAL STRESS ON MARGINAL INTEGRITY OF RESTORATIVE MATERIALS

    PubMed Central

    Cenci, Maximiliano Sérgio; Pereira-Cenci, Tatiana; Donassollo, Tiago Aurélio; Sommer, Leandro; Strapasson, André; Demarco, Flávio Fernando

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of thermal stress on the marginal integrity of restorative materials with different adhesive and thermal properties. Three hundred and sixty Class V cavities were prepared in buccal and lingual surfaces of 180 bovine incisors. Cervical and incisal walls were located in dentin and enamel, respectively. Specimens were restored with resin composite (RC); glass ionomer (GI) or amalgam (AM), and randomly assigned to 18 groups (n=20) according to the material, number of cycles (500 or 1,000 cycles) and dwell time (30 s or 60 s). Dry and wet specimens served as controls Specimens were immersed in 1% basic fuchsine solution (24 h), sectioned, and microleakage was evaluated under x40 magnification. Data were analyzed by Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney tests: Thermal cycling regimens increased leakage in all AM restorations (p<0.05) and its effect on RC and GI restorations was only significant when a 60-s dwell time was used (p<0.05). Marginal integrity was more affected in AM restorations under thermal cycling stress, whereas RC and GI ionomer restoration margins were only significantly affected only under longer dwell times. PMID:19089200

  5. Bearing restoration by grinding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanau, H.; Parker, R. J.; Zaretsky, E. V.; Chen, S. M.; Bull, H. L.

    1976-01-01

    A joint program was undertaken by the NASA Lewis Research Center and the Army Aviation Systems Command to restore by grinding those rolling-element bearings which are currently being discarded at aircraft engine and transmission overhaul. Three bearing types were selected from the UH-1 helicopter engine (T-53) and transmission for the pilot program. No bearing failures occurred related to the restoration by grinding process. The risk and cost of a bearing restoration by grinding programs was analyzed. A microeconomic impact analysis was performed.

  6. THE ROLE OF THERMAL REGIMEN IN TUNDRA PLANT COMMUNITY RESTORATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Mineral extraction activities in the Arctic regions of the world produce long-lasting ecological disturbances. Assisted recovery from such disturbances may require restoration of the tundra thermal regime. We transplanted plugs of entire root zone and live tundra plants to a dist...

  7. Fracture resistance of posterior teeth restored with modern restorative materials

    PubMed Central

    Hamouda, Ibrahim M.; Shehata, Salah H.

    2011-01-01

    We studied the fracture resistance of maxillary premolars restored with recent restorative materials. Fifty maxillary premolars were divided into five groups: Group 1 were unprepared teeth; Group 2 were teeth prepared without restoration; Group 3 were teeth restored with tetric ceram HB; Group 4 were teeth restored with InTen S; and Group 5 were teeth restored with Admira. The samples were tested using a universal testing machine. Peak loads at fracture were recorded. The teeth restored with Admira had the highest fracture resistance followed by those restored with InTen-S and tetric ceram HB. Prepared, unrestored teeth were the weakest group. There was a significant difference between the fracture resistance of intact teeth and the prepared, unrestored teeth. There was also a significant difference among the tested restorative materials. Teeth restored with Admira showed no significant difference when compared with the unprepared teeth. It was concluded that the teeth restored with Admira exhibited the highest fracture resistance. PMID:23554719

  8. Restoration of Ailing Wetlands

    PubMed Central

    Schmitz, Oswald J.

    2012-01-01

    It is widely held that humankind's destructive tendencies when exploiting natural resources leads to irreparable harm to the environment. Yet, this thinking runs counter to evidence that many ecological systems damaged by severe natural environmental disturbances (e.g., hurricanes) can restore themselves via processes of natural recovery. The emerging field of restoration ecology is capitalizing on the natural restorative tendencies of ecological systems to build a science of repairing the harm inflicted by humans on natural environment. Evidence for this, for example, comes from a new meta-analysis of 124 studies that synthesizes recovery of impacted wetlands worldwide. While it may take up to two human generations to see full recovery, there is promise, given human will, to restore many damaged wetlands worldwide. PMID:22291573

  9. Left ventricular restoration devices.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Guilherme H; Al-Kindi, Sadeer G; Bezerra, Hiram G; Costa, Marco A

    2014-04-01

    Left ventricular (LV) remodeling results in continuous cardiac chamber enlargement and contractile dysfunction, perpetuating the syndrome of heart failure. With current exhaustion of the neurohormonal medical paradigm, surgical and device-based therapies have been increasingly investigated as a way to restore LV chamber architecture and function. Left ventricular restoration has been attempted with surgical procedures, such as partial left ventriculectomy, surgical ventricular restoration with or without revascularization, and devices, such as the Acorn CorCap, the Paracor HeartNet, and the Myocor Myosplint. Whereas all these techniques require surgical access, with or without cardiopulmonary bypass, a newer ventricular partitioning device (VPD) called Parachute, can be delivered percutaneously through the aortic valve. Designed to achieve LV restoration from within the ventricle, this VPD partitions the LV by isolating aneurysmal from normal myocardium thereby diminishing the functioning cavity. This review aims to critically appraise the above methods, with particular attention to device-based therapies. PMID:24574107

  10. Restoring primary anterior teeth.

    PubMed

    Waggoner, William F

    2002-01-01

    A variety of esthetic restorative materials are available for restoring primary incisors. Knowledge of the specific strengths, weakness, and properties of each material will enhance the clinician's ability to make the best choice of selection for each individual situation. Intracoronal restorations of primary teeth may utilize resin composites, glass ionomer cements, resin-modified ionomers, or polyacid-modified resins. Each has distinct advantages and disadvantages and the clinical conditions of placement may be a strong determining factor as to which material is utilized. Full coronal restoration of primary incisors may be indicated for a number of reasons. Crowns available for restoration of primary incisors include those that are directly bonded onto the tooth, which generally are a resin material, and those crowns that are luted onto the tooth and are some type of stainless steel crown. However, due to lack of supporting clinical data, none of the crowns can be said to be superior to the others under all circumstances. Though caries in the mandibular region is rare, restorative solutions for mandibular incisors are needed. Neither stainless steel crowns nor celluloid crown forms are made specifically for mandibular incisors. Many options exist to repair carious primary incisors, but there is insufficient controlled, clinical data to suggest that one type of restoration is superior to another. This does not discount the fact that dentists have been using many of these crowns for years with much success. Operator preferences, esthetic demands by parents, the child's behavior, and moisture and hemorrhage control are all variables which affect the decision and ultimate outcome of whatever restorative treatment is chosen. PMID:12412967

  11. A Metagenomics and Case-Control Study To Identify Viruses Associated with Bovine Respiratory Disease

    PubMed Central

    Kondov, Nikola O.; Deng, Xutao; Van Eenennaam, Alison; Neibergs, Holly L.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Bovine respiratory disease (BRD) is a common health problem for both dairy and beef cattle, resulting in significant economic loses. In order to identify viruses associated with BRD, we used a metagenomics approach to enrich and sequence viral nucleic acids in the nasal swabs of 50 young dairy cattle with symptoms of BRD. Following deep sequencing, de novo assembly, and translated protein sequence similarity searches, numerous known and previously uncharacterized viruses were identified. Bovine adenovirus 3, bovine adeno-associated virus, bovine influenza D virus, bovine parvovirus 2, bovine herpesvirus 6, bovine rhinitis A virus, and multiple genotypes of bovine rhinitis B virus were identified. The genomes of a previously uncharacterized astrovirus and picobirnaviruses were also partially or fully sequenced. Using real-time PCR, the rates of detection of the eight viruses that generated the most reads were compared for the nasal secretions of 50 animals with BRD versus 50 location-matched healthy control animals. Viruses were detected in 68% of BRD-affected animals versus 16% of healthy control animals. Thirty-eight percent of sick animals versus 8% of controls were infected with multiple respiratory viruses. Significantly associated with BRD were bovine adenovirus 3 (P < 0.0001), bovine rhinitis A virus (P = 0.005), and the recently described bovine influenza D virus (P = 0.006), which were detected either alone or in combination in 62% of animals with BRD. A metagenomics and real-time PCR detection approach in carefully matched cases and controls can provide a rapid means to identify viruses associated with a complex disease, paving the way for further confirmatory tests and ultimately to effective intervention strategies. IMPORTANCE Bovine respiratory disease is the most economically important disease affecting the cattle industry, whose complex root causes include environmental, genetics, and infectious factors. Using an unbiased metagenomics

  12. Applying geomorphologic principles to restore streams impacted by surface mining

    SciTech Connect

    Ellison, M.S.

    1996-12-31

    The combination of geomorphic principles and native material restoration techniques provides a viable alternative to traditional engineering approaches to restore rivers and streams affected by surface mining. Channels can be designed to reflect ranges of stability known to occur in natural streams for measurable parameters such as bankfull width, depth, gradient, meander radius, sinuosity and entrenchment. Stable channel geometry reduces stresses on the stream bed and banks and eliminate the need for channel lining. Methods to utilize native materials have been developed and refined to stabilize stream channels constructed to appropriate dimensions until planted riparian vegetation develops mature root systems. These native materials include root wads, willow bundles, and boulders. These methods result in improved wildlife habitat in and around channels that maintain equilibria between sediment supply and sediment transport, and between erosional and depositional rates and patterns. Two streams in Baltimore County, Maryland were disturbed during mining operations and are being restored using this approach. Goodwin Run had been channelized to allow quarrying of the Cockeysville Marble. Approximately 1100 feet of stream were restored in the fall of 1992. White Marsh Run has been channelized and relocated several times to facilitate sand and gravel mining between an urbanized area and sensitive habitats of the Chesapeake Bay. The design of the White Marsh Run Restoration Project incorporated refinements to techniques used at Goodwin Run, and entails the restoration of over 5000 feet of stream and adjacent wetland habitat.

  13. Bovine respiratory disease model based on dual infections with infection with bovine viral diarrhea virus and bovine corona virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bovine respiratory disease complex (BRDC) is the leading cause of economic loss in the U.S. cattle industry. BRDC likely results from simultaneous or sequential infections with multiple pathogens including both viruses and bacteria. Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) and bovine corona virus (BoCV...

  14. Effect of root canal preparation, type of endodontic post and mechanical cycling on root fracture strength

    PubMed Central

    RIPPE, Marília Pivetta; SANTINI, Manuela Favarin; BIER, Carlos Alexandre Souza; BALDISSARA, Paolo; VALANDRO, Luiz Felipe

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the impact of the type of root canal preparation, intraradicular post and mechanical cycling on the fracture strength of roots. Material and Methods eighty human single rooted teeth were divided into 8 groups according to the instruments used for root canal preparation (manual or rotary instruments), the type of intraradicular post (fiber posts- FRC and cast post and core- CPC) and the use of mechanical cycling (MC) as follows: Manual and FRC; Manual, FRC and MC; Manual and CPC; Manual, CPC and MC; Rotary and FRC; Rotary, FRC and MC; Rotary and CPC; Rotary, CPC and MC. The filling was performed by lateral compactation. All root canals were prepared for a post with a 10 mm length, using the custom #2 bur of the glass fiber post system. For mechanical cycling, the protocol was applied as follows: an angle of incidence of 45°, 37°C, 88 N, 4 Hz, 2 million pulses. All groups were submitted to fracture strength test in a 45° device with 1 mm/ min cross-head speed until failure occurred. Results The 3-way ANOVA showed that the root canal preparation strategy (p<0.03) and post type (p<0.0001) affected the fracture strength results, while mechanical cycling (p=0.29) did not. Conclusion The root canal preparation strategy only influenced the root fracture strength when restoring with a fiber post and mechanical cycling, so it does not seem to be an important factor in this scenario. PMID:25025556

  15. Role of provisional restorations in endodontic therapy

    PubMed Central

    Sivakumar, Jambai Sampathkumar; Suresh Kumar, Beri Narasimiah; Shyamala, Palaniyandi Vadivel

    2013-01-01

    Root-canal treatment can be carried out in single visit in vital, non-infected teeth, eliminating the need for dressing and provisionalization. Many clinical cases with infected canals require dressing with antibacterial medicaments in a multivisit treatment in which effective provisionalization for different periods of time becomes mandatory. Successful root-canal treatment requires effective mechanical and chemical debridement, elimination of bacteria and pulp tissue remnants and proper canal shaping to facilitate effective obturation. Lack of satisfactory temporary restorations during endodontic therapy ranked second amongst the contributing factors in continuing pain after the commencement of treatment. This review aims to provide an overview of the materials used for provisionalization during and immediately after endodontic treatment. PMID:23946564

  16. Aesthetic posts and cores for metal-free restoration of endodontically treated teeth.

    PubMed

    Quintas, A F; Dinato, J C; Bottino, M A

    2000-01-01

    Utilization of contemporary post and core systems has facilitated the aesthetic restoration of endodontically treated teeth. Light transmission and biocompatibility have been enhanced by the introduction of metal-free post systems. The periodontal and endodontic status, root length, and histological structure of the devitalized teeth must be considered in order to achieve successful restoration following endodontic treatment. This article presents various restorative criteria for the aesthetic placement and buildup of post and core materials, as well as the preservation of maximum coronal and root structure. PMID:11405025

  17. ROOT HAIR DEFECTIVE SIX-LIKE Class I Genes Promote Root Hair Development in the Grass Brachypodium distachyon.

    PubMed

    Kim, Chul Min; Dolan, Liam

    2016-08-01

    Genes encoding ROOT HAIR DEFECTIVE SIX-LIKE (RSL) class I basic helix loop helix proteins are expressed in future root hair cells of the Arabidopsis thaliana root meristem where they positively regulate root hair cell development. Here we show that there are three RSL class I protein coding genes in the Brachypodium distachyon genome, BdRSL1, BdRSL2 and BdRSL3, and each is expressed in developing root hair cells after the asymmetric cell division that forms root hair cells and hairless epidermal cells. Expression of BdRSL class I genes is sufficient for root hair cell development: ectopic overexpression of any of the three RSL class I genes induces the development of root hairs in every cell of the root epidermis. Expression of BdRSL class I genes in root hairless Arabidopsis thaliana root hair defective 6 (Atrhd6) Atrsl1 double mutants, devoid of RSL class I function, restores root hair development indicating that the function of these proteins has been conserved. However, neither AtRSL nor BdRSL class I genes is sufficient for root hair development in A. thaliana. These data demonstrate that the spatial pattern of class I RSL activity can account for the pattern of root hair cell differentiation in B. distachyon. However, the spatial pattern of class I RSL activity cannot account for the spatial pattern of root hair cells in A. thaliana. Taken together these data indicate that that the functions of RSL class I proteins have been conserved among most angiosperms-monocots and eudicots-despite the dramatically different patterns of root hair cell development. PMID:27494519

  18. ROOT HAIR DEFECTIVE SIX-LIKE Class I Genes Promote Root Hair Development in the Grass Brachypodium distachyon

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Chul Min

    2016-01-01

    Genes encoding ROOT HAIR DEFECTIVE SIX-LIKE (RSL) class I basic helix loop helix proteins are expressed in future root hair cells of the Arabidopsis thaliana root meristem where they positively regulate root hair cell development. Here we show that there are three RSL class I protein coding genes in the Brachypodium distachyon genome, BdRSL1, BdRSL2 and BdRSL3, and each is expressed in developing root hair cells after the asymmetric cell division that forms root hair cells and hairless epidermal cells. Expression of BdRSL class I genes is sufficient for root hair cell development: ectopic overexpression of any of the three RSL class I genes induces the development of root hairs in every cell of the root epidermis. Expression of BdRSL class I genes in root hairless Arabidopsis thaliana root hair defective 6 (Atrhd6) Atrsl1 double mutants, devoid of RSL class I function, restores root hair development indicating that the function of these proteins has been conserved. However, neither AtRSL nor BdRSL class I genes is sufficient for root hair development in A. thaliana. These data demonstrate that the spatial pattern of class I RSL activity can account for the pattern of root hair cell differentiation in B. distachyon. However, the spatial pattern of class I RSL activity cannot account for the spatial pattern of root hair cells in A. thaliana. Taken together these data indicate that that the functions of RSL class I proteins have been conserved among most angiosperms—monocots and eudicots—despite the dramatically different patterns of root hair cell development. PMID:27494519

  19. Fatigue of restorative materials.

    PubMed

    Baran, G; Boberick, K; McCool, J

    2001-01-01

    Failure due to fatigue manifests itself in dental prostheses and restorations as wear, fractured margins, delaminated coatings, and bulk fracture. Mechanisms responsible for fatigue-induced failure depend on material ductility: Brittle materials are susceptible to catastrophic failure, while ductile materials utilize their plasticity to reduce stress concentrations at the crack tip. Because of the expense associated with the replacement of failed restorations, there is a strong desire on the part of basic scientists and clinicians to evaluate the resistance of materials to fatigue in laboratory tests. Test variables include fatigue-loading mode and test environment, such as soaking in water. The outcome variable is typically fracture strength, and these data typically fit the Weibull distribution. Analysis of fatigue data permits predictive inferences to be made concerning the survival of structures fabricated from restorative materials under specified loading conditions. Although many dental-restorative materials are routinely evaluated, only limited use has been made of fatigue data collected in vitro: Wear of materials and the survival of porcelain restorations has been modeled by both fracture mechanics and probabilistic approaches. A need still exists for a clinical failure database and for the development of valid test methods for the evaluation of composite materials. PMID:11603506

  20. Technical framework for groundwater restoration

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-04-01

    This document provides the technical framework for groundwater restoration under Phase II of the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. A preliminary management plan for Phase II has been set forth in a companion document titled ``Preplanning Guidance Document for Groundwater Restoration``. General principles of site characterization for groundwater restoration, restoration methods, and treatment are discussed in this document to provide an overview of standard technical approaches to groundwater restoration.

  1. Material Properties of Inorganic Bovine Cancellous Bovine: Nukbone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piña, Cristina; Palma, Benito; Munguía, Nadia

    2006-09-01

    In this work, inorganic cancellous bovine bone implants prepared in the Instituto de Investigaciones en Materiales — UNAM were characterized. Elementary chemical analysis was made, toxic elements concentration were measured and the content of organic matter also. These implants fulfill all the requirements of the ASTM standards, and therefore it is possible their use in medical applications.

  2. Restoring the prairie

    SciTech Connect

    Mlot, C.

    1990-12-01

    The US DOE at the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory in Batavia, Illinois, prairie restoration is taking place in order to conserve the rich topsoil. This is the largest of many prairie restoration experiments. Big bluestem grass (Andropogon gerardi), blue grama (Bouteloua gracilis), and buffalo grass (Buchloe dactyloides) are the main initial grasses grown. After their growth reaches enough biomass to sustain a fire, other prairie plants such as purple prairie clover and dropseed grass appear. The goal of this is to provide a generous refuge for disappearing native plants and animals, a site for scientific research, and a storehouse of genes adapted to a region that produces much of the worlds food. Plans for restoring the marsh and oak savanna, also native to the Fermilab site are also in the works.

  3. Earthquake funding restored

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bush, Susan

    Funding levels for the U.S. Geological Survey's part of the National Earthquake Hazards Reduction Program for FY92 have been restored by the House and a Senate subcommittee. The president's budget request for FY92 was only $37.3 million, lower than the $54.5 million authorized by Congress for FY91. Earlier this year the House agreed on restoring $10 million to the program. Some AGU members have been trying to see the full $17.2 million difference restored. It is reported that the Senate will agree to give $15 million to the program.When Congress reconvenes in September the full Senate will vote on the Department of Interior and Related Agencies appropriations bill (HR2686). After that, the bill will go to a joint conference committee, where differences between the House and Senate will be resolved before the bill is passed along to the president.

  4. Experiences in reconciling risk management and restorative justice: how circles of support and accountability work restoratively in the risk society.

    PubMed

    Hannem, Stacey

    2013-03-01

    Circles of Support and Accountability (COSA) is a restorative justice-based model that originated in Canada in the mid-1990s for the postincarceration reintegration of those who have offended sexually. Although the roots of COSA are in restorative justice philosophy, the program has also found favour, to some degree, with organisations such as police services and corrections that are traditionally concerned more with protecting community safety than with the ideals of restorative justice. Informed by the author's research and personal experience as a COSA volunteer, and analysis of recent and historical representations of COSA, this article explores theoretically how the development of the COSA initiative has been influenced by the seemingly disparate concerns of both the restorative justice and community protection movements, and examines the importance of balancing these paradigms in the everyday practices of circles. PMID:22200602

  5. Restoration of Shoulder Function.

    PubMed

    Boe, Chelsea C; Elhassan, Bassem T

    2016-08-01

    Restoration of shoulder function in patients with brachial plexus injury can be challenging. Initial reported efforts were focused on stabilizing the shoulder, improving inferior subluxation and restoring abduction and flexion of the joint. Recent advancements and improved understanding of coordinated shoulder motion and the biomechanical properties of the muscles around the shoulder applicable to tendon transfer have expanded available surgical options to improve shoulder function, specifically external rotation. Despite the advances in reconstructive options, brachial plexus injury remains a serious problem that requires complex surgical solutions, prolonged recovery, and acceptance of functional loss. PMID:27387074

  6. Microgaps and Demineralization Progress around Composite Restorations.

    PubMed

    Turkistani, A; Nakashima, S; Shimada, Y; Tagami, J; Sadr, A

    2015-08-01

    This study investigated the influence of adhesives and marginal sealing on demineralization progress using optical coherence tomography (OCT). Cavities (4 × 2 mm) were prepared in bovine incisors and restored using Clearfil SE Protect (SP), Bond Force (BF), Scotchbond Universal (SB), or G-Bond Plus (GB), followed by Estelite Flow Quick flowable composite. The control group received no adhesive (n = 10). After 3-d incubation in artificial saliva and 10,000 thermal cycles, gaps at enamel and dentin margins were measured at 8 locations on cross-sectional images obtained from each restoration using swept-source OCT at 1310-nm wavelength. Specimens were demineralized using acidified gel (pH = 4.5) for 5 wk and scanned every week to monitor the lesion progress at the same marginal locations. Repeated-measures analysis of variance showed that demineralization period and adhesive type and their interaction had a significant effect on the lesion size in both substrates (P < 0.001). SP, BF, and SB had significantly lower enamel and dentin initial gaps than the control and GB (P < 0.05). Enamel lesion progress was slower in the fluoride-releasing adhesives SP and BF and significantly different from SB, GB, and the control (P < 0.001). SP and BF dentin lesions were significantly different from GB and the control (P < 0.001), but not from SB (P > 0.05). A significant positive correlation (P < 0.05) was found between initial gap length and formed lesion size in both substrates, which was stronger in enamel (r = 0.63) than dentin (r = 0.35). Microgaps forming at the margins of restorations depend on adhesives and significantly contribute to the progress of demineralization around the margins, while fluoride release may decrease the rate of progression. PMID:26082389

  7. Using Square Roots

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, William Wynne

    1976-01-01

    This article describes techniques which enable the user of a comparatively simple calculator to perform calculations of cube roots, nth roots, trigonometric, and inverse trigonometric functions, logarithms, and exponentials. (DT)

  8. The Root Pressure Phenomenon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marsh, A. R.

    1972-01-01

    Describes experiments demonstrating that root pressure in plants is probably controlled by a circadian rhythm (biological clock). Root pressure phenomenon plays significant part in water transport in contradiction with prevalent belief. (PS)

  9. [Retrograde root filling utilizing resin and a dentin bonding agent: indication and applications].

    PubMed

    Rud, J; Rud, V; Munksgaard, E C

    1989-05-01

    With Gluma a methacrylate-based resin may be chemically bonded to dentin with considerable strength. Resin may therefore be used for retrograde root fillings. Whereas a retrograde amalgam filling demands a box-like preparation, retroplast (Gluma and resin) may be applied to a slightly concave root surface. It may therefore be employed in areas normally inaccessible with amalgam technique. Retroplast can thus be used on roots of all molars and to restore root perforations, root resorptions, cracks, grooves and defects of the root. In addition on lateral canals, on extremely thin roots and to cover perforating root canal posts, this technique can also be used. Dentin/root-cement transplantation may be performed for the purpose of reattachment. The article discusses the technique and its applications with examples showing that it may result in satisfactory healing. PMID:2696126

  10. Inevitability of Balance Restoration

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Prolonged imbalance between input and output of any element in a living organism is incompatible with life. The duration of imbalance varies, but eventually balance is achieved. This rule applies to any quantifiable element in a compartment of finite capacity. Transient discrepancies occur regularly, but given sufficient time, balance is always achieved, because permanent imbalance is impossible, and the mechanism for eventual restoration of balance is foolproof. The kidney is a central player for balance restoration of fluid and electrolytes, but the smartness of the kidney is not the reason for perfect balance. The kidney merely accelerates the process. The most crucial element of the control system is that discrepancy between intake and output inevitably leads to a change in total content of the element in the system, and uncorrected balance has a cumulative effect on the overall content of the element. In a living organism, the speed of restoration of balance depends on the permissible duration of imbalance without death or severe disability. The three main factors that influence the speed of balance restoration are: magnitude of flux, basal store, and capacity for additional storage. For most electrolytes, total capacity is such that a substantial discrepancy is not possible for more than a week or two. Most control mechanisms correct abnormality partially. The infinite gain control mechanism is unique in that abnormality is completely corrected upon completion of compensation. PMID:21468193

  11. BALTIMORE STREAM RESTORATION PROJECT

    EPA Science Inventory

    26 Feb 2003



    Approach - We will employ a 4-tiered research approach to investigate restoration effects on hydrology and stream water quality: 1) monitoring ground water and surface water, 2) quantifying denitrification activity, 3) measuring carbon supply and rete...

  12. Restoration of face images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srinivasan, Aparna

    2012-01-01

    Restoration techniques are applied to degraded face samples. The techniques considered are those of Wiener Filtering, Lucy Richardson deconvolution, Blind deconvolution and Constrained least squares filtering (CLSF). Images degraded by low blur, high blur and low blur with noise are experimented with and the results are expounded.

  13. Restoration of face images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srinivasan, Aparna

    2011-12-01

    Restoration techniques are applied to degraded face samples. The techniques considered are those of Wiener Filtering, Lucy Richardson deconvolution, Blind deconvolution and Constrained least squares filtering (CLSF). Images degraded by low blur, high blur and low blur with noise are experimented with and the results are expounded.

  14. ECOLOGICAL PROTECTION AND RESTORATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    To carry out this mission, GLNPO established its Ecological Protection and Restoration Team (the E Team), consisting of a staff plus extended team members from EPA Regions 2, 3, and 5, other federal and state agencies, and non-governmental organizations. GLNPO expect...

  15. Restoring Fossil Creek

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flaccus, Kathleen; Vlieg, Julie; Marks, Jane C.; LeRoy, Carri J.

    2004-01-01

    Fossil Creek had been dammed for the past 90 years, and plans were underway to restore the stream. The creek runs through Central Arizona and flows from the high plateaus to the desert, cutting through the same formations that form the Grand Canyon. This article discusses the Fossil Creek monitoring project. In this project, students and teachers…

  16. Model for Coastal Restoration

    SciTech Connect

    Thom, Ronald M.; Judd, Chaeli

    2007-07-27

    Successful restoration of wetland habitats depends on both our understanding of our system and our ability to characterize it. By developing a conceptual model, looking at different spatial scales and integrating diverse data streams: GIS datasets and NASA products, we were able to develop a dynamic model for site prioritization based on both qualitative and quantitative relationships found in the coastal environment.

  17. Corky root rot

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Corky root rot (corchosis) was first reported in Argentina in 1985, but the disease was presumably present long before that. The disease occurs in most alfalfa-growing areas of Argentina but is more common in older stands. In space-planted alfalfa trials scored for root problems, corky root rot was ...

  18. WHY ROOTING FAILS.

    SciTech Connect

    CREUTZ,M.

    2007-07-30

    I explore the origins of the unphysical predictions from rooted staggered fermion algorithms. Before rooting, the exact chiral symmetry of staggered fermions is a flavored symmetry among the four 'tastes.' The rooting procedure averages over tastes of different chiralities. This averaging forbids the appearance of the correct 't Hooft vertex for the target theory.

  19. Armillaria root rot

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    First described on grapevines in California in the 1880s, Armillaria root rot occurs in all major grape-growing regions of the state. The causal fungus, Armillaria mellea, infects woody grapevine roots and the base of the trunk (the root collar), resulting in a slow decline and eventual death of the...

  20. BLACK ROOT ROT

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Black Root Rot Prepared by G. S. Abawi, Revised by L.E. Hanson Black root rot is caused by Thielaviopsis basicola (syn. Chalara elegans). The pathogen is widely distributed, can infect more than 130 plant species in 15 families, and causes severe black root rot diseases in ornamentals and crops suc...

  1. Modelling hydrological management for the restoration of acidified floating fens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dekker, Stefan C.; Barendregt, Aat; Bootsma, Margien C.; Schot, Paul P.

    2005-12-01

    Wetlands show a large decline in biodiversity. To protect and restore this biodiversity, many restoration projects are carried out. Hydrology in wetlands controls the chemical and biological processes and may be the most important factor regulating wetland function and development. Hydrological models may be used to simulate these processes and to evaluate management scenarios for restoration. HYDRUS2D, a combined saturated-unsaturated groundwater flow and transport model, is presented. This simulates near-surface hydrological processes in an acidified floating fen, with the aim to evaluate the effect of hydrological restoration in terms of conditions for biodiversity. In the acidified floating fen in the nature reserve Ilperveld (The Netherlands), a trench system was dug for the purpose of creating a runoff channel for acid rainwater in wet periods and to enable circum-neutral surface water to enter the fen in dry periods. The model is calibrated against measured conductivity values for a 5 year period. From the model simulations, it was found that lateral flow in the floating raft is limited. Furthermore, the model shows that the best management option is a combination of trenches and inundation, which gave the best soil water quality in the root zone. It is concluded that hydrological models can be used for the calculation of management scenarios in restoration projects. The combined saturated-unsaturated model concept used in this paper is able to incorporate the governing hydrological processes in the wetland root zones. Copyright

  2. An Nfic-hedgehog signaling cascade regulates tooth root development.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yang; Feng, Jifan; Li, Jingyuan; Zhao, Hu; Ho, Thach-Vu; Chai, Yang

    2015-10-01

    Coordination between the Hertwig's epithelial root sheath (HERS) and apical papilla (AP) is crucial for proper tooth root development. The hedgehog (Hh) signaling pathway and Nfic are both involved in tooth root development; however, their relationship has yet to be elucidated. Here, we establish a timecourse of mouse molar root development by histological staining of sections, and we demonstrate that Hh signaling is active before and during root development in the AP and HERS using Gli1 reporter mice. The proper pattern of Hh signaling activity in the AP is crucial for the proliferation of dental mesenchymal cells, because either inhibition with Hh inhibitors or constitutive activation of Hh signaling activity in transgenic mice leads to decreased proliferation in the AP and shorter roots. Moreover, Hh activity is elevated in Nfic(-/-) mice, a root defect model, whereas RNA sequencing and in situ hybridization show that the Hh attenuator Hhip is downregulated. ChIP and RNAscope analyses suggest that Nfic binds to the promoter region of Hhip. Treatment of Nfic(-/-) mice with Hh inhibitor partially restores cell proliferation, AP growth and root development. Taken together, our results demonstrate that an Nfic-Hhip-Hh signaling pathway is crucial for apical papilla growth and proper root formation. This discovery provides insight into the molecular mechanisms regulating tooth root development. PMID:26293299

  3. The Deep Roots of the Fairness Committee in Kohlberg's Moral Development Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Christine

    2011-01-01

    Earlier essays in this symposium describe Restorative Justice processes in schools, referred to in our school as a Fairness Committee. Implementing these collaborative, restorative processes does not come without challenges. This essay will explore some of the historical and theoretical roots of the Fairness Committee in Lawrence Kohlberg's work…

  4. 14. EAST ELEVATION, COTTAGE. EXTERIOR NEARLY RESTORED. INTERIOR UNDERGOING RESTORATION. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. EAST ELEVATION, COTTAGE. EXTERIOR NEARLY RESTORED. INTERIOR UNDERGOING RESTORATION. EUCALYPTUS TREE PLANTED BY GERTRUDE KEIL PLANNED FOR REMOVAL. - Gold Ridge Farm, 7777 Bodega Avenue, Sebastopol, Sonoma County, CA

  5. 78 FR 72979 - Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy; Importation of Bovines and Bovine Products

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-04

    ..., 2012, we published in the Federal Register (77 FR 15848-15913, Docket No. APHIS-2008-0010) a proposal... January 4, 2005 (70 FR 460-553, Docket No. 03-080-3). The delay of applicability was removed in a final... Products Derived from Bovines,'' published in the Federal Register on September 18, 2007 (72 FR...

  6. Digital restoration of multichannel images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Galatsanos, Nikolas P.; Chin, Roland T.

    1989-01-01

    The Wiener solution of a multichannel restoration scheme is presented. Using matrix diagonalization and block-Toeplitz to block-circulant approximation, the inversion of the multichannel, linear space-invariant imaging system becomes feasible by utilizing a fast iterative matrix inversion procedure. The restoration uses both the within-channel (spatial) and between-channel (spectral) correlation; hence, the restored result is a better estimate than that produced by independent channel restoration. Simulations are also presented.

  7. Prairie Restoration for Wisconsin Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murray, Molly Fifield; Greenler, Robin McC.

    This packet is composed of several resources for teachers interested in prairie ecology and restoration. "A Guide to Restoration from Site Analysis to Management" focuses on the Prairie/Oak Savanna communities of Wisconsin and takes teachers through the planning and design process for a restoration project on school grounds including site…

  8. Adaptive wiener image restoration kernel

    DOEpatents

    Yuan, Ding

    2007-06-05

    A method and device for restoration of electro-optical image data using an adaptive Wiener filter begins with constructing imaging system Optical Transfer Function, and the Fourier Transformations of the noise and the image. A spatial representation of the imaged object is restored by spatial convolution of the image using a Wiener restoration kernel.

  9. Engineering approaches to ecosystem restoration

    SciTech Connect

    Hayes, D.F.

    1998-07-01

    This proceedings CD ROM contains 127 papers on developing and evaluating engineering approaches to wetlands and river restoration. The latest engineering developments are discussed, providing valuable insights to successful approaches for river restoration, wetlands restoration, watershed management, and constructed wetlands for stormwater and wastewater treatment. Potential solutions to a wide variety of ecosystem concerns in urban, suburban, and coastal environments are presented.

  10. Restoration of longitudinal images.

    PubMed

    Hu, Y; Frieden, B R

    1988-01-15

    In this paper, a method of restoring longitudinal images is developed. By using the transfer function for longitudinal objects, and inverse filtering, a longitudinal image may be restored. The Fourier theory and sampling theorems for transverse images cannot be used directly in the longitudinal case. A modification and reasonable approximation are introduced. We have numerically established a necessary relationship between just-resolved longitudinal separation (after inverse filtering), noise level, and the taking conditions of object distance and lens diameter. An empirical formula is also found to well-fit the computed results. This formula may be of use for designing optical systems which are to image longitudinal details, such as in robotics or microscopy. PMID:20523607

  11. Relativistic Linear Restoring Force

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, D.; Franklin, J.; Mann, N.

    2012-01-01

    We consider two different forms for a relativistic version of a linear restoring force. The pair comes from taking Hooke's law to be the force appearing on the right-hand side of the relativistic expressions: d"p"/d"t" or d"p"/d["tau"]. Either formulation recovers Hooke's law in the non-relativistic limit. In addition to these two forces, we…

  12. Restoration of Elbow Flexion.

    PubMed

    Loeffler, Bryan J; Lewis, Daniel R

    2016-08-01

    Active elbow flexion is required to position the hand in space, and loss of this function is debilitating. Nerve transfers or nerve grafts to restore elbow flexion may be options when the target muscle is viable, but in delayed reconstruction when the biceps and brachialis are atrophied or damaged, muscle transfer options should be considered. Muscle transfer options are discussed with attention to the advantages and disadvantages of each transfer option. PMID:27387075

  13. How can science education foster students' rooting?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Østergaard, Edvin

    2015-06-01

    The question of how to foster rooting in science education points towards a double challenge; efforts to prevent (further) uprooting and efforts to promote rooting/re-rooting. Wolff-Michael Roth's paper discusses the uprooting/rooting pair of concepts, students' feeling of alienation and loss of fundamental sense of the earth as ground, and potential consequences for teaching science in a rooted manner. However, the argumentation raises a number of questions which I try to answer. My argumentation rests on Husserl's critique of science and the "ontological reversal", an ontological position where abstract models from science are considered as more real than the everyday reality itself, where abstract, often mathematical, models are taken to be the real causes behind everyday experiences. In this paper, measures towards an "ontological re-reversal" are discussed by drawing on experiences from phenomenon-based science education. I argue that perhaps the most direct and productive way of promoting rooting in science class is by intentionally cultivating the competencies of sensing and aesthetic experience. An aesthetic experience is defined as a precognitive, sensuous experience, an experience that is opened up for through sensuous perception. Conditions for rooting in science education is discussed against three challenges: Restoring the value of aesthetic experience, allowing time for open inquiry and coping with curriculum. Finally, I raise the question whether dimensions like "reality" or "nature" are self-evident for students. In the era of constructivism, with its focus on cognition and knowledge building, the inquiry process itself has become more important than the object of inquiry. I argue that as educators of science teachers we have to emphasize more explicitly "the nature of nature" as a field of exploration.

  14. Valve-sparing aortic root replacement in the presence of coronary anomalies.

    PubMed

    Mazzitelli, Domenico; Nöbauer, Christian; Rankin, J Scott; Schreiber, Christian; Lange, Rüdiger

    2014-11-01

    Aortic root replacement in the presence of coronary anomalies can be challenging. Because the anomalous coronary often arises close to a commissure, reconstruction with traditional buttons can be technically difficult without compromising either the leaflets or the coronary artery. A method of valve sparing root surgery termed "aortic valve and root restoration," using aortic ring annuloplasty and formal valve repair, and then incorporating the anomalous coronary into the commissural suture line, may offer a simple solution to this problem. PMID:25441812

  15. Actin Turnover-Mediated Gravity Response in Maize Root Apices

    PubMed Central

    Mancuso, Stefano; Barlow, Peter W; Volkmann, Dieter

    2006-01-01

    The dynamic actin cytoskeleton has been proposed to be linked to gravity sensing in plants but the mechanistic understanding of these processes remains unknown. We have performed detailed pharmacological analyses of the role of the dynamic actin cytoskeleton in gravibending of maize (Zea mays) root apices. Depolymerization of actin filaments with two drugs having different mode of their actions, cytochalasin D and latrunculin B, stimulated root gravibending. By contrast, drug-induced stimulation of actin polymerization and inhibition of actin turnover, using two different agents phalloidin and jasplakinolide, compromised the root gravibending. Importantly, all these actin drugs inhibited root growth to similar extents suggesting that high actin turnover is essential for the gravity-related growth responses rather than for the general growth process. Both latrunculin B and cytochalasin D treatments inhibited root growth but restored gravibending of the decapped root apices, indicating that there is a strong potential for effective actin-mediated gravity sensing outside the cap. This elusive gravity sensing outside the root cap is dependent not only on the high rate of actin turnover but also on weakening of myosin activities, as general inhibition of myosin ATPases induced stimulation of gravibending of the decapped root apices. Collectively, these data provide evidence for the actin turnover-mediated gravity sensing outside the root cap. PMID:19521476

  16. Bovine ephemeral fever: a review.

    PubMed

    Nandi, S; Negi, B S

    1999-04-01

    Bovine ephemeral fever is a viral disease of cattle and buffaloes besides subclinical involvement of a variety of ruminant species. The subtropical and temperate regions of Africa, Asia and Australia have experienced the major epidemic of the bovine ephemeral fever but the occurrence in the tropics can not be overlooked. Although the substantial role played by the vectors viz., mosquitoes and culicoides in bovine ephemeral fever perpetuation and dissemination, other vector involvement if any should be extensively studied. The clinical severity of the disease is not apparent and the mortality is low. However, high morbidity, enormous economic losses in terms of significant reduction in production, disruption of national and international trade and finally a variety of complications resulting from the disease have drawn appreciable attention from the researchers around the world to resolve the unsolved questions in this area. In this review, detailed informations of all the aspects of the disease has been provided in a simple, lucid and easily understandable manner. PMID:10051179

  17. Filling cavities or restoring teeth?

    PubMed

    Versluis, Antheunis; Versluis-Tantbirojn, Daranee

    2011-01-01

    Teeth seldom fracture under normal functional loading. This indicates that the natural tooth design is optimized for the distribution of regular masticatory forces by means of its properties and structure. When a tooth is restored with an intracoronal restoration, however, the incidence of tooth fracture increases. Since remaining tissues do not change, the restorative actions apparently alter the original stress distributions. In this study, the effect of different restoration types (unbonded amalgam and bonded composite restorations) were compared with the original stress conditions of the intact tooth, using finite element analysis. It was shown that an unbonded amalgam restoration did not restore the original stress conditions but led to much higher stresses in the buccal and lingual enamel and to higher tensile stresses in the cavity floor. The unbonded amalgam thus filled the cavity but did not restore the tooth. In contrast, a bonded composite restoration restored the original stress pattern in the tooth if there was no polymerization shrinkage. Polymerization shrinkage causes residual tensile stresses in the dentin around the cavity and in the buccal and lingual enamel. Residual tensile stresses in the buccal and lingual enamel are momentary compensated by compressive stress components during occlusal loading. It was concluded that bonding and elimination of residual stresses are prerequisites for restoring the original tooth integrity. PMID:21748978

  18. Root canal irrigants

    PubMed Central

    Kandaswamy, Deivanayagam; Venkateshbabu, Nagendrababu

    2010-01-01

    Successful root canal therapy relies on the combination of proper instrumentation, irrigation, and obturation of the root canal. Of these three essential steps of root canal therapy, irrigation of the root canal is the most important determinant in the healing of the periapical tissues. The primary endodontic treatment goal must thus be to optimize root canal disinfection and to prevent reinfection. In this review of the literature, various irrigants and the interactions between irrigants are discussed. We performed a Medline search for English-language papers published untill July 2010. The keywords used were ‘root canal irrigants’ and ‘endodontic irrigants.’ The reference lists of each article were manually checked for additional articles of relevance. PMID:21217955

  19. Effect of Lesion Baseline Severity and Mineral Distribution on Remineralization and Progression of Human and Bovine Dentin Caries Lesions.

    PubMed

    Lippert, Frank; Churchley, David; Lynch, Richard J

    2015-01-01

    The aims of this laboratory study were to compare the effects of lesion baseline severity, mineral distribution and substrate on remineralization and progression of caries lesions created in root dentin. Lesions were formed in dentin specimens prepared from human and bovine dentin using three protocols, each utilizing three demineralization periods to create lesions of different mineral distributions (subsurface, moderate softening, extreme softening) and severity within each lesion type. Lesions were then either remineralized or demineralized further and analyzed using transverse microradiography. At lesion baseline, no differences were found between human and bovine dentin for integrated mineral loss (x0394;Z). Differences in mineral distribution between lesion types were apparent. Human dentin lesions were more prone to secondary demineralization (x0394;x0394;Z) than bovine dentin lesions, although there were no differences in x0394;L. Likewise, smaller lesions were more susceptible to secondary demineralization than larger ones. Subsurface lesions were more acid-resistant than moderately and extremely softened lesions. After remineralization, differences between human and bovine dentin lesions were not apparent for x0394;x0394;Z although bovine dentin lesions showed greater reduction in lesion depth L. For lesion types, responsiveness to remineralization (x0394;x0394;Z) was in the order extremely softened>moderately softened>subsurface. More demineralized lesions exhibited greater remineralization than shallower ones. In summary, some differences exist between human and bovine dentin and their relative responsiveness to de- and remineralization. These differences, however, were overshadowed by the effects of lesion baseline mineral distribution and severity. Thus, bovine dentin appears to be a suitable substitute for human dentin in mechanistic root caries studies. PMID:26228732

  20. Image restoration, uncertainty, and information.

    PubMed

    Yu, F T

    1969-01-01

    Some of the physical interpretations about image restoration are discussed. From the theory of information the unrealizability of an inverse filter can be explained by degradation of information, which is due to distortion on the recorded image. The image restoration is a time and space problem, which can be recognized from the theory of relativity (the problem of image restoration is related to Heisenberg's uncertainty principle in quantum mechanics). A detailed discussion of the relationship between information and energy is given. Two general results may be stated: (1) the restoration of the image from the distorted signal is possible only if it satisfies the detectability condition. However, the restored image, at the best, can only approach to the maximum allowable time criterion. (2) The restoration of an image by superimposing the distorted signal (due to smearing) is a physically unrealizable method. However, this restoration procedure may be achieved by the expenditure of an infinite amount of energy. PMID:20072171

  1. Restoring proximal caries lesions conservatively with tunnel restorations

    PubMed Central

    Chu, Chun-Hung; Mei, May L; Cheung, Chloe; Nalliah, Romesh P

    2013-01-01

    The tunnel restoration has been suggested as a conservative alternative to the conventional box preparation for treating proximal caries. The main advantage of tunnel restoration over the conventional box or slot preparation includes being more conservative and increasing tooth integrity and strength by preserving the marginal ridge. However, tunnel restoration is technique-sensitive and can be particularly challenging for inexperienced restorative dentists. Recent advances in technology, such as the contemporary design of dental handpieces with advanced light-emitting diode (LED) and handheld comfort, offer operative dentists better vision, illumination, and maneuverability. The use of magnifying loupes also enhances the visibility of the preparation. The advent of digital radiographic imaging has improved dental imaging and reduced radiation. The new generation of restorative materials has improved mechanical properties. Tunnel restoration can be an option to restore proximal caries if the dentist performs proper case selection and pays attention to the details of the restorative procedures. This paper describes the clinical technique of tunnel restoration and reviews the studies of tunnel restorations. PMID:24019754

  2. Effect of light-curing units on push-out fiber post bond strength in root canal dentin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calixto, L. R.; Bandéca, M. C.; Silva, F. B.; Rastelli, A. N. S.; Porto-Neto, S. T.; Andrade, M. F.

    2009-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of different light-curing units on the bond strength (push-out) of glass fiber posts in the different thirds of the root (cervical, middle and apical) with different adhesive luting resin systems (dual-cure total-etch; dual-cured and self-etch bonding system; and dual-cure self-adhesive cements), Disks of the samples ( n = 144) were used, with approximately 1 mm of thickness of 48 bovine roots restored with glass fiber posts, that were luted with resin cements photo-activated by halogen LCU (QTH, Optilux 501) and blue LED (Ultraled), with power densities of 600 and 550 mW/cm2, respectively. A universal testing machine (MTS 810 Material Test System) was used with a 1 mm diameter steel rod at cross-head speed of 0.5 mm/min until post extrusion, with load cell of 50 kg, for evaluation of the push-out strength in the different thirds of each sample. The push-out strength values in kgf were converted to MPa and analyzed through Analysis of Variance and Tukey’s test, at significance level of 5%. The results showed that there were no statistical differences between the QTH and LED LCUs. The self-adhesive resin cement had lower values of retention. The total-etch and self-adhesive system resin cements seem to be a possible alternative for glass fiber posts cementation into the radicular canal and the LED LCU can be applied as an alternative to halogen light on photo-activation of dual-cured resin cements.

  3. Fiber post techniques for anatomical root variations.

    PubMed

    Boksman, Leendert; Hepburn, Alejandro Bertoldi; Kogan, Enrique; Friedman, Manny; de Rijk, Waldemar

    2011-05-01

    In contemporary dental practice, there is no remaining reason to use metallic posts, custom or prefabricated. Many cases that several years ago would have required a retentive post will not require that post today, because of the many improvements in bonding agents and composite resin restoratives. However, in cases where less than 50% of coronal tooth structure remains--or in other cases wherein the judgment of the clinician a post is indicated--there are now aesthetic, non-corrosive, fracture resistant and radiopaque alternatives for all varieties that save time and money without compromise. Their most compelling advantage, regardless of the geometry or amount of residual tooth structure, is the protection from root fracture that a low modulus restoration provides. In selecting the materials (posts, resins) for these techniques, the dentist is advised not to cut corners, and to seek the strongest and most radiopaque products available. PMID:21650123

  4. Complications in hair restoration.

    PubMed

    Lam, Samuel M

    2013-11-01

    Hair restoration requires a high level of specialized skill on the part of both the surgeon and the assistant team. Recipient-site problems can manifest from either surgeon or assistant error. The surgeon can create an unnatural hairline due to lack of knowledge of natural hair-loss patterns or badly executed recipient sites. He must also be cognizant of how hairs naturally are angled on the scalp to re-create a pattern that appears natural when making recipient sites. Assistants can also greatly contribute to the success or failure of surgery in their task of graft dissection and graft placement. PMID:24200385

  5. Robotic hair restoration.

    PubMed

    Rose, Paul T; Nusbaum, Bernard

    2014-01-01

    The latest innovation to hair restoration surgery has been the introduction of a robotic system for harvesting grafts. This system uses the follicular unit extraction/follicular isolation technique method for harvesting follicular units, which is particularly well suited to the abilities of a robotic technology. The ARTAS system analyzes images of the donor area and then a dual-chamber needle and blunt dissecting punch are used to harvest the follicular units. The robotic technology is now being used in various locations around the world. This article discusses the use of the robotic system, its capabilities, and the advantages and disadvantages of the system. PMID:24267426

  6. Percutaneous left ventricular restoration.

    PubMed

    Ige, Mobolaji; Al-Kindi, Sadeer G; Attizzani, Guilherme; Costa, Marco; Oliveira, Guilherme H

    2015-04-01

    The ventricular partitioning device known as Parachute is the first and only percutaneously implantable device aimed at restoration of normal left ventricular geometry in humans. Since its conception, this technology has undergone extensive animal and human testing, with proved feasibility and safety, and is currently being studied in a pivotal randomized clinical trial. This article discusses ventricular remodeling and therapies attempted in the past, details the components of the ventricular partitioning device, describes the implanting technique, and reviews the most current experience of this device in humans. PMID:25834974

  7. Relative contribution of restorative treatment to tooth extraction in a teaching institution.

    PubMed

    Alomari, Q D; Khalaf, M E; Al-Shawaf, N M

    2013-06-01

    Teeth can be extracted due to multiple factors. The aim of this retrospective cross-sectional study was to identify the relative contribution of restorative treatments to tooth loss. The study reviewed records of 826 patients (1102 teeth). Patient's gender, age and education were obtained. In addition to the main reason for extraction (caries, periodontal disease, pre-prosthetic extraction, restorative failure and remaining root), the following information was collected about each extracted tooth: type, the status of caries if any (primary or secondary) and pulpal status (normal or reversible pulpitis, irreversible pulpitis, necrotic or root canal treated) and type and size of restoration, if present. Following data collection, descriptive analysis was performed. A log-linear model was used to examine the association between restorative treatment and tooth loss and between reasons for tooth loss and type of tooth. Lower molars followed by upper molars were the most commonly extracted teeth. Teeth with no restorations or with crowns were less likely to be extracted (P < 0·001). Lower and upper molars and lower premolars were more likely to be extracted due to restorative failure, while lower anterior teeth were more likely to be extracted due to periodontal disease (P < 0·05). Twenty two per cent of the extractions was due to restorative failure, and at least 65·9% of these teeth had secondary caries. Gender, age and educational level were factors that affect tooth loss. In conclusion, teeth receiving multiple restorative therapies were more likely to be extracted. PMID:23600993

  8. Improvement of bovine in vitro embryo production by vitamin K₂ supplementation.

    PubMed

    Baldoceda-Baldeon, Luis Manuel; Gagné, Dominic; Vigneault, Christian; Blondin, Patrick; Robert, Claude

    2014-11-01

    Mitochondria play an important role during early development in mammalian embryos. It has been shown that properly controlled follicular preparation increases the likelihood of in-vitro-produced bovine embryos reaching the blastocyst stage and that competent embryos exhibit heightened expression of genes associated with mitochondrial function. We hypothesized that apparently incompetent embryos could be rescued by restoring mitochondrial function. It has been shown that vitamin K2 (a membrane-bound electron carrier similar to ubiquinone) can restore mitochondrial dysfunction in eukaryotic cells. The aim of this study was therefore to investigate the effects of vitamin K2 on bovine embryonic development in vitro. The vitamin was found most effective when added 72 h after fertilization. It produced a significant (P<0.05) increase in the percentage of blastocysts (+8.6%), more expanded blastocysts (+7.8%), and embryos of better morphological quality. It improved the mitochondrial activity significantly and had a measurable impact on gene expression. This is the first demonstration that current standard conditions of in vitro production of bovine embryos may be inadequate due to the lack of support for mitochondrial function and may be improved significantly by supplementing the culture medium with vitamin K2. PMID:25161289

  9. The Roots of Literacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodman, Yetta M.

    This review of research with children aged two to six on their reading, writing, and oral language development speaks of five roots of a tree of literate life that require nourishment in the soil of a written language environment. The roots discussed are the development of print awareness in situational contexts, the development of print awareness…

  10. Cylindrocarpon root rot

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cylindrocarpon root rot of alfalfa has been found sporadically in Canada and the northern United States. The etiology of this disease is not fully understood, but the priority for research has not been high because of its infrequent occurrence. The infected area of the root initially has a water-soa...

  11. Irrational Square Roots

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Misiurewicz, Michal

    2013-01-01

    If students are presented the standard proof of irrationality of [square root]2, can they generalize it to a proof of the irrationality of "[square root]p", "p" a prime if, instead of considering divisibility by "p", they cling to the notions of even and odd used in the standard proof?

  12. Pythium Root Rot

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pythium root rot is a disease that is found in agricultural and nursery soils throughout the United States and Canada. It is caused by several Pythium species, and the symptoms are typified by leaf or needle chlorosis, stunting, root rot, and plant death. The disease is favored by wet soils, overc...

  13. Root-knot nematodes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Although root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne species) can reduce crop yields worldwide, methods for their identification are often difficult to implement. This review summarizes the diagnostic morphological and molecular features for distinguishing the ten major previously described root-knot nematode ...

  14. Trees and Roots.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Lethonee A.

    Constructing a family history can be significant in helping persons understand and appreciate the root system that supports and sustains them. Oral history can be a valuable resource in family research as Alex Haley demonstrated in writing "Roots." The major difficulty of using oral tradition in tracing a family history is that family members with…

  15. Sugarbeet root aphid on postharvest root storage

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The sugarbeet root aphid (SBRA), Pemphigus betae Doane, is a serious insect pest of sugarbeet in several North American sugarbeet production areas; however, it is rarely an economic pest in the Red River Valley (RRV). In 2012 and 2013, all RRV factory districts were impacted by SBRA outbreaks, and ...

  16. Root Nutrient Foraging1

    PubMed Central

    Giehl, Ricardo F.H.; von Wirén, Nicolaus

    2014-01-01

    During a plant's lifecycle, the availability of nutrients in the soil is mostly heterogeneous in space and time. Plants are able to adapt to nutrient shortage or localized nutrient availability by altering their root system architecture to efficiently explore soil zones containing the limited nutrient. It has been shown that the deficiency of different nutrients induces root architectural and morphological changes that are, at least to some extent, nutrient specific. Here, we highlight what is known about the importance of individual root system components for nutrient acquisition and how developmental and physiological responses can be coupled to increase nutrient foraging by roots. In addition, we review prominent molecular mechanisms involved in altering the root system in response to local nutrient availability or to the plant's nutritional status. PMID:25082891

  17. Reparative dentistry or restorative dentistry?

    PubMed

    Small, Bruce W

    2008-01-01

    The real definition of restorative dentistry is found in the heart and hands of each individual restorative dentist. His or her training, continuing dental education, mentors, needs (financial and emotional), and style of practice all help to develop a philosophy of dental practice that affects daily restorative decisions. Depending on the factors described above, the decision to repair a tooth or change the environment and restore the tooth to a different shape, size, or color also may change. In recent years, patients' esthetic desires have become more of a factor than they were in previous decades. There are no exact written-tn-stone definitions of restorative dentistry, since the answers are operator-dependent and can vary. This column is meant to be food for thought and perhaps inspire discussion when dentists assemble for meetings or study clubs with the goal of delivering longer-lasting dentistry through a restorative dental practice. PMID:18348367

  18. Abscisic Acid and LATERAL ROOT ORGAN DEFECTIVE/NUMEROUS INFECTIONS AND POLYPHENOLICS Modulate Root Elongation via Reactive Oxygen Species in Medicago truncatula1[W][OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Chang; Bousquet, Amanda; Harris, Jeanne M.

    2014-01-01

    Abscisic acid (ABA) modulates root growth in plants grown under normal and stress conditions and can rescue the root growth defects of the Medicago truncatula lateral root-organ defective (latd) mutant. Here, we demonstrate that reactive oxygen species (ROS) function downstream of ABA in the regulation of root growth by controlling cell elongation. We also show that the MtLATD/NUMEROUS INFECTIONS AND POLYPHENOLICS (NIP) nitrate transporter is required for ROS homeostasis and cell elongation in roots and that this balance is perturbed in latd mutants, leading to an excess of superoxide and hydrogen peroxide and a corresponding decrease in cell elongation. We found that expression of the superoxide-generating NADPH oxidase genes, MtRbohA and MtRbohC (for respiratory burst oxidase homologs), is increased in latd roots and that inhibition of NADPH oxidase activity pharmacologically can both reduce latd root ROS levels and increase cell length, implicating NADPH oxidase function in latd root growth defects. Finally, we demonstrate that ABA treatment alleviates ectopic ROS accumulation in latd roots, restores MtRbohC expression to wild-type levels, and promotes an increase in cell length. Reducing the expression of MtRbohC using RNA interference leads to increased root elongation in both wild-type and latd roots. These results reveal a mechanism by which the MtLATD/NIP nitrate transporter and ABA modulate root elongation via superoxide generation by the MtRbohC NADPH oxidase. PMID:25192698

  19. Serum susceptibility of bovine pasteurellas.

    PubMed Central

    Blau, K A; Ward, A C; Prieur, D J; Corbeil, L B

    1987-01-01

    In this study, the serum sensitivity of 23 P. haemolytica isolates and 18 P. multocida isolates was determined by incubating dilutions of bacteria with equal volumes of fresh or heat-inactivated bovine serum for one, two, or three hours. Clinical isolates of both Pasteurella species were resistant to serum, whereas isolates from asymptomatic cattle varied in serum susceptibility. The classical pathway of complement appeared to be the principal means of complement mediated killing as detected by incubation in the presence or absence of EGTA-MgCl2. Lyzozyme and iron saturation of serum did not greatly affect serum susceptibility with either of the Pasteurella species. PMID:3300919

  20. Longevity of Posterior Composite Restorations

    PubMed Central

    Opdam, N.J.M.; van de Sande, F.H.; Bronkhorst, E.; Cenci, M.S.; Bottenberg, P.; Pallesen, U.; Gaengler, P.; Lindberg, A.; Huysmans, M.C.D.N.J.M.; van Dijken, J.W.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this meta-analysis, based on individual participant data from several studies, was to investigate the influence of patient-, materials-, and tooth-related variables on the survival of posterior resin composite restorations. Following Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines, we conducted a search resulting in 12 longitudinal studies of direct posterior resin composite restorations with at least 5 years’ follow-up. Original datasets were still available, including placement/failure/censoring of restorations, restored surfaces, materials used, reasons for clinical failure, and caries-risk status. A database including all restorations was constructed, and a multivariate Cox regression method was used to analyze variables of interest [patient (age; gender; caries-risk status), jaw (upper; lower), number of restored surfaces, resin composite and adhesive materials, and use of glass-ionomer cement as base/liner (present or absent)]. The hazard ratios with respective 95% confidence intervals were determined, and annual failure rates were calculated for subgroups. Of all restorations, 2,816 (2,585 Class II and 231 Class I) were included in the analysis, of which 569 failed during the observation period. Main reasons for failure were caries and fracture. The regression analyses showed a significantly higher risk of failure for restorations in high-caries-risk individuals and those with a higher number of restored surfaces. PMID:25048250

  1. Eight-year results of site retention of anorganic bovine bone and anorganic bovine matrix.

    PubMed

    Degidi, Marco; Perrotti, Vittoria; Piattelli, Adriano; Iezzi, Giovanna

    2013-12-01

    The long-term fate of some biomaterials is still unknown, and the reports present in the literature are not conclusive as to whether these biomaterials are resorbed over time or not. Different reports can be found with regard to the resorption behavior of anorganic bovine bone (ABB). The aim of the present study was to provide a comparative histological and histomorphometrical evaluation, in the same patient, of 2 specimens retrieved from a sinus augmented with ABB and with anorganic bovine matrix added to a cell-binding peptide (PepGen P-15), respectively, after a healing period of 6 months and after 8 years of implant loading, to evaluate the resorption of both biomaterials. A unilateral sinus augmentation procedure with ABB (50%) and with PepGen P-15 (50%) was performed in a 54-year-old male patient. Two titanium dental implants with a sandblasted and acid-etched surface were inserted after 6 months. During this procedure, 2 tissue cores were retrieved from the sinus with a trephine, before implant insertion. After an additional 6 months, a fixed prosthetic restoration was fabricated. One of these implants, after a loading period of 8 years, fractured in the coronal portion and was removed. Both specimens, one retrieved after a 6-month healing period and the other after an 8-year loading period, were treated to obtain thin ground sections. In the 6-month specimen, the histomorphometry showed that the percentage of newly formed bone was 27.2% ± 3.6%, marrow spaces 35.6% ± 2.3%, residual ABB particles 25.1% ± 1.2%, and residual PepGen P-15 particles 12.1% ± 2.2%. In the 8-year specimen, the histomorphometry showed that the percentage of newly formed bone was 51.4% ± 4.8%, marrow spaces 40% ± 7.1%, residual ABB particles 6.2% ± 0.7%, and residual PepGen P-15 particles 2.4% ± 0.5%. Both biomaterials underwent significant resorption over the course of this study. PMID:22103882

  2. Self-sealing ability of OCP-mediated cement as a deciduous root canal filling materia.

    PubMed

    Imamura, Yuki; Tanaka, Yumi; Nagai, Akiko; Yamashita, Kimihiro; Takagi, Yuzo

    2010-10-01

    The densification process and canal sealing ability of octacalcium phosphate (OCP)-mediated cement were investigated for developing biocompatible and biodegradable root canal filling material for deciduous root. The results of the characterization revealed that the starting paste, which consisted of monocalcium phosphate monohydrate, calcium carbonate, and α-tricalcium phosphate, gradually transformed into carbonate apatite for 6 weeks of immersion in medium with 30% fetal bovine serum (MEM30). The canal sealing ability was estimated by dye penetration test. Three kinds of conditions were chosen for the test: one was the cement just after filling the single-rooted extracted human roots; the others were the cement aged in MEM30 for 1 and 6 weeks after filling, respectively. All roots were then immersed in India ink for 3 days. The penetration depth of OCP-mediated cement decreased significantly with time. This demonstrates that OCP-mediated cement has self-sealing ability. PMID:20733262

  3. Periodontal healing after bonding treatment of vertical root fracture.

    PubMed

    Sugaya, T; Kawanami, M; Noguchi, H; Kato, H; Masaka, N

    2001-08-01

    Vertical root fractures lead to advanced periodontal breakdown with deep periodontal pockets and vertical bone defects. The purpose of this study is to evaluate clinically the periodontal healing of root fracture treatment using adhesive resin cement. In 22 patients, 23 teeth with vertical root fractures were treated with 4-META/MMA-TBB resin cement. Eleven fractured roots were bonded through the root canal (group A) and 12 fractured roots were bonded extra-orally and replanted (group B). All teeth were then restored with full cast crowns (n=20) or coping (n=3). Mean probing depth was 6.6 mm at pre-treatment and 4.4 mm 6 months after the treatment in group A, and 7.4 mm and 4.6 mm, respectively, in group B. Bleeding scores were 100% at pre-treatment and 36.4% after 6 months in group A and 91.7% and 8.3%, respectively in group B. Radiographic bone level was 56.8% at pretreatment and 59.1% after 6 months in group A, and 18.8% and 29.2%, respectively, in group B. Two roots of group A and three roots of group B were extracted due to refracture, deterioration of periodontal inflammation, mobility, and luxation. The remaining roots (n=18) presented no discomfort to the patients and there was no deterioration of periodontal conditions over a mean period of 33 months (range 14-74 months) in group A and over a mean period of 22 months (range 6-48 months) in group B. There was no ankylosed teeth nor was any root resorption detected. The results suggested that the treatment of vertical root fracture using 4-META/MMA-TBB resin has good prognostic possibilities. PMID:11585144

  4. Restoring medical professionalism.

    PubMed

    Bernat, James L

    2012-08-21

    The essence of medical professionalism is placing dedication to the welfare of patients above physicians' personal or proprietary interests. Medicine has become deprofessionalized as a consequence of socioeconomic factors leading to increasing commercialization and perverse financial incentives converting it into a business, the presence of unmanaged conflicts of interest, challenges to medical authority by insurance companies and the consumerism movement, and by gradual changes in the attitudes of physicians. Organized medicine has responded by making explicit its standards of professionalism and its dedication to preserving them. Medical educators have studied the means to develop professional attitudes and behaviors among medical students and residents. Modeling the characteristics of professional behavior by virtuous physicians remains the most effective method to instill professional behaviors in trainees. Restoring professionalism may be abetted by changes in physicians' financial incentives through innovative models of health care delivery, by physicians reducing their conflicts of interest, and by medical societies rejecting a guild identity. PMID:22915177

  5. Optical characterization of one dental composite resin using bovine enamel as reinforcing filler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tribioli, J. T.; Jacomassi, D.; Rastelli, A. N. S.; Pratavieira, S.; Bagnato, V. S.; Kurachi, C.

    2012-01-01

    The use of composite resins for restorative procedure in anterior and posterior cavities is highly common in Dentistry due to its mechanical and aesthetic properties that are compatible with the remaining dental structure. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the optical characterization of one dental composite resin using bovine enamel as reinforcing filler. The same organic matrix of the commercially available resins was used for this experimental resin. The reinforcing filler was obtained after the gridding of bovine enamel fragments and a superficial treatment was performed to allow the adhesion of the filler particles with the organic matrix. Different optical images as fluorescence and reflectance were performed to compare the experimental composite with the human teeth. The present experimental resin shows similar optical properties compared with human teeth.

  6. Restorative Justice in Children.

    PubMed

    Riedl, Katrin; Jensen, Keith; Call, Josep; Tomasello, Michael

    2015-06-29

    An important, and perhaps uniquely human, mechanism for maintaining cooperation against free riders is third-party punishment. Our closest living relatives, chimpanzees, will not punish third parties even though they will do so when personally affected. Until recently, little attention has been paid to how punishment and a sense of justice develop in children. Children respond to norm violations. They are more likely to share with a puppet that helped another individual as opposed to one who behaved harmfully, and they show a preference for seeing a harmful doll rather than a victim punished. By 6 years of age, children will pay a cost to punish fictional and real peers, and the threat of punishment will lead preschoolers to behave more generously. However, little is known about what motivates a sense of justice in children. We gave 3- and 5-year-old children--the youngest ages yet tested--the opportunity to remove items and prevent a puppet from gaining a reward for second- and third-party violations (experiment 1), and we gave 3-year-olds the opportunity to restore items (experiment 2). Children were as likely to engage in third-party interventions as they were when personally affected, yet they did not discriminate among the different sources of harm for the victim. When given a range of options, 3-year-olds chose restoration over removal. It appears that a sense of justice centered on harm caused to victims emerges early in childhood and highlights the value of third-party interventions for human cooperation. PMID:26096976

  7. [Toxinology of bovine paraplegic syndrome].

    PubMed

    Sevcik, C; Brito, J C; D'Suze, G; Mijares, A J; Domínguez, M G

    1993-01-01

    A clinical entity named "Bovine Paraplegic Syndrome" ("Síndrome Parapléjico de los Bovinos") has spread alarmingly, in the cattle growing areas of the central and eastern plains of Venezuela. Approximately four million cattle are bread in the area were the disease occurs. The mortality index due to the disease ranges 5 to 25% of the animals at risk, mostly cows, pregnant or lactating. The principal characteristic of the bovine paraplegic syndrome is decubitus, ventral or sternal, in animals that make vane efforts to stand when stimulated. The diagnosis is established ruling out, clinically and with laboratory findings, that the animals are suffering known diseases with similar symptoms such as paralytic rabies, botulism and blood parasites such Trypanosoma sp., Babesia sp., and Anaplasma sp.. Death occurs always, usually after few days, and to this date there is no known treatment able to save the sick cows. In this work, we describe results that suggest the presence of a toxin in the cattle suffering and prone to suffer the syndrome; it is a natural toxin produced by ruminal bacteria. In squid giant axons under voltage clamp conditions, this toxin is very specific to block sodium current during nerve electrical activity. PMID:8085407

  8. Adipogenesis of bovine perimuscular preadipocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Taniguchi, Masaaki; Le Luo Guan; Zhang Bing; Dodson, Michael V.; Okine, Erasmus; Moore, Stephen S.

    2008-02-01

    In this study, non-transformed progeny adipofibroblasts, derived from mature adipocyte dedifferentiation, was used as a novel in vitro model to study adipogenic gene expression in cattle. Adipofibroblasts from dedifferentiated mature perimuscular fat (PMF) tissue were cultured with differentiation stimulants until the cells exhibited morphological differentiation. Treated cells were harvested from day 2 to 16 for RNA extraction, whereas control cells were cultured without addition of stimulants. Results from time course gene expression assays by quantitative real-time PCR revealed that peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR-{gamma}), sterol regulatory element binding protein 1 (SREBP-1) and their six down-stream genes were co-expressed at day 2 post-differentiation induction. When compared to other adipogenesis culture systems, the adipogenic gene expression of bovine PMF adipofibroblasts culture was different, especially to the rodent model. Collectively, these results demonstrated PPAR-{gamma} and SREBP-1 cooperatively play a key role to regulate the re-differentiation of bovine adipofibroblasts, during early conversion stages in vitro.

  9. Bovine somatic cell nuclear transfer.

    PubMed

    Ross, Pablo J; Cibelli, Jose B

    2010-01-01

    Somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) is a technique by which the nucleus of a differentiated cell is introduced into an oocyte from which its genetic material has been removed by a process called enucleation. In mammals, the reconstructed embryo is artificially induced to initiate embryonic development (activation). The oocyte turns the somatic cell nucleus into an embryonic nucleus. This process is called nuclear reprogramming and involves an important change of cell fate, by which the somatic cell nucleus becomes capable of generating all the cell types required for the formation of a new individual, including extraembryonic tissues. Therefore, after transfer of a cloned embryo to a surrogate mother, an offspring genetically identical to the animal from which the somatic cells where isolated, is born. Cloning by nuclear transfer has potential applications in agriculture and biomedicine, but is limited by low efficiency. Cattle were the second mammalian species to be cloned after Dolly the sheep, and it is probably the most widely used species for SCNT experiments. This is, in part due to the high availability of bovine oocytes and the relatively higher efficiency levels usually obtained in cattle. Given the wide utilization of this species for cloning, several alternatives to this basic protocol can be found in the literature. Here we describe a basic protocol for bovine SCNT currently being used in our laboratory, which is amenable for the use of the nuclear transplantation technique for research or commercial purposes. PMID:20336522

  10. Rigidity and retention of carbon fibre versus stainless steel root canal posts.

    PubMed

    Purton, D G; Love, R M

    1996-07-01

    Two of the main requirements of a root canal post are that it is rigid so as to resist flexing under functional load, and that it is well retained in the root. This study compared these properties in two different 1-mm diameter root canal posts--smooth carbon fibre posts (Endopost) and serrated stainless steel posts (Parapost). Ten posts of each type were tested for rigidity in a three-point bend test. Ten posts of each type were cemented with resin cement into the roots of endodontically treated, extracted teeth. The tensile force required to remove the posts was recorded. The Paraposts proved to be significantly more rigid under load (P < 0.001) and significantly more strongly retained in the tooth roots (P < 0.005). The Parapost appears to be a mechanically superior post for the restoration of root-filled teeth with narrow diameter root canals. PMID:9206443

  11. 15 CFR 990.56 - Restoration selection-use of a Regional Restoration Plan or existing restoration project.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Restoration selection-use of a..., DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE OIL POLLUTION ACT REGULATIONS NATURAL RESOURCE DAMAGE ASSESSMENTS Restoration Planning Phase § 990.56 Restoration selection—use of a Regional Restoration Plan or existing restoration...

  12. 15 CFR 990.56 - Restoration selection-use of a Regional Restoration Plan or existing restoration project.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Restoration selection-use of a..., DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE OIL POLLUTION ACT REGULATIONS NATURAL RESOURCE DAMAGE ASSESSMENTS Restoration Planning Phase § 990.56 Restoration selection—use of a Regional Restoration Plan or existing restoration...

  13. 15 CFR 990.56 - Restoration selection-use of a Regional Restoration Plan or existing restoration project.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Restoration selection-use of a..., DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE OIL POLLUTION ACT REGULATIONS NATURAL RESOURCE DAMAGE ASSESSMENTS Restoration Planning Phase § 990.56 Restoration selection—use of a Regional Restoration Plan or existing restoration...

  14. 15 CFR 990.56 - Restoration selection-use of a Regional Restoration Plan or existing restoration project.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Restoration selection-use of a..., DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE OIL POLLUTION ACT REGULATIONS NATURAL RESOURCE DAMAGE ASSESSMENTS Restoration Planning Phase § 990.56 Restoration selection—use of a Regional Restoration Plan or existing restoration...

  15. 15 CFR 990.56 - Restoration selection-use of a Regional Restoration Plan or existing restoration project.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Restoration selection-use of a..., DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE OIL POLLUTION ACT REGULATIONS NATURAL RESOURCE DAMAGE ASSESSMENTS Restoration Planning Phase § 990.56 Restoration selection—use of a Regional Restoration Plan or existing restoration...

  16. Economic strategies of plant absorptive roots vary with root diameter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, D. L.; Wang, J. J.; Kardol, P.; Wu, H. F.; Zeng, H.; Deng, X. B.; Deng, Y.

    2016-01-01

    Plant roots typically vary along a dominant ecological axis, the root economics spectrum, depicting a tradeoff between resource acquisition and conservation. For absorptive roots, which are mainly responsible for resource acquisition, we hypothesized that root economic strategies differ with increasing root diameter. To test this hypothesis, we used seven plant species (a fern, a conifer, and five angiosperms from south China) for which we separated absorptive roots into two categories: thin roots (thickness of root cortex plus epidermis < 247 µm) and thick roots. For each category, we analyzed a range of root traits related to resource acquisition and conservation, including root tissue density, different carbon (C), and nitrogen (N) fractions (i.e., extractive, acid-soluble, and acid-insoluble fractions) as well as root anatomical traits. The results showed significant relationships among root traits indicating an acquisition-conservation tradeoff for thin absorptive roots while no such trait relationships were found for thick absorptive roots. Similar results were found when reanalyzing data of a previous study including 96 plant species. The contrasting economic strategies between thin and thick absorptive roots, as revealed here, may provide a new perspective on our understanding of the root economics spectrum.

  17. Quantitative measurements of root water uptake and root hydraulic conductivities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zarebanadkouki, Mohsen; Javaux, Mathieu; Meunier, Felicien; Couvreur, Valentin; Carminati, Andrea

    2016-04-01

    How is root water uptake distributed along the root system and what root properties control this distribution? Here we present a method to: 1) measure root water uptake and 2) inversely estimate the root hydraulic conductivities. The experimental method consists in using neutron radiography to trace deuterated water (D2O) in soil and roots. The method was applied to lupines grown aluminium containers filled with a sandy soil. When the lupines were 4 weeks old, D2O was locally injected in a selected soil regions and its transport was monitored in soil and roots using time-series neutron radiography. By image processing, we quantified the concentration of D2O in soil and roots. We simulated the transport of D2O into roots using a diffusion-convection numerical model. The diffusivity of the roots tissue was inversely estimated by simulating the transport of D2O into the roots during night. The convective fluxes (i.e. root water uptake) were inversely estimating by fitting the experiments during day, when plants were transpiring, and assuming that root diffusivity did not change. The results showed that root water uptake was not uniform along the roots. Water uptake was higher at the proximal parts of the lateral roots and it decreased by a factor of 10 towards the distal parts. We used the data of water fluxes to inversely estimate the profile of hydraulic conductivities along the roots of transpiring plants growing in soil. The water fluxes in the lupine roots were simulated using the Hydraulic Tree Model by Doussan et al. (1998). The fitting parameters to be adjusted were the radial and axial hydraulic conductivities of the roots. The results showed that by using the root architectural model of Doussan et al. (1998) and detailed information of water fluxes into different root segments we could estimate the profile of hydraulic conductivities along the roots. We also found that: 1) in a tap-rooted plant like lupine water is mostly taken up by lateral roots; (2) water

  18. Restorative Justice in School Communities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karp, David R.; Breslin, Beau

    2001-01-01

    Explores the recent implementation of restorative justice practices in Minnesota, Colorado, and Pennsylvania school communities, examining how their approaches can address substance abuse problems and offer alternatives to zero-tolerance policies. The three programs are committed to the idea that restoration is a more appropriate educational tool…

  19. Restorative Nurse Assistant. Instructor Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Missouri Univ., Columbia. Instructional Materials Lab.

    This curriculum material covers the basic orientation and necessary skills which would enable the practicing Certified Nurse Assistant to be trained as a Restorative Nurse Assistant. The shift in emphasis from maintenance care to restorative care in the long-term care setting has created a need for trained paraprofessionals who are competent in…

  20. Roots in plant ecology.

    PubMed

    Cody, M L

    1986-09-01

    In 1727 the pioneer vegetation scientist Stephen Hales realized that I much that was of importance to his subject material took place below on ground. A good deal of descriptive work on plant roots and root systems was done in the subsequent two centuries; in crop plants especially, the gross morphology of root systems was well known by the early 20th century. These descriptive studies were extended to natural grasslands by Weaver and his associates and to deserts by Cannon by the second decade of this century, but since that time the study of subterranean growth form appears to have lapsed, as a recent review by Kummerow indicates. Nevertheless, growth form is an important aspect of plant ecology, and subterranean growth form is especially relevant to the study of vegetation in and areas (which is the main subject of this commentary). Moreover, there is a real need for more research to be directed towards understanding plant root systems in general. PMID:21227785

  1. Grass Rooting the System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perlman, Janice E.

    1976-01-01

    Suggests a taxonomy of the grass roots movement and gives a general descriptive over view of the 60 groups studied with respect to origin, constituency, size, funding, issues, and ideology. (Author/AM)

  2. Reading with Roots

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibson, Margaret I.

    1986-01-01

    Recommends a method of teaching Russian vocabulary that focuses on new words in context and on their structure: root, prefix, suffix, sound changes, and borrowings. Sources for teachers are given in the bibliography. (LMO)

  3. Restorative biological processes and health

    PubMed Central

    Robles, Theodore F.; Carroll, Judith E.

    2011-01-01

    Research on psychological influences on physiology primarily focuses on biological responses during stressful challenges, and how those responses can become dysregulated with prolonged or repeated exposure to stressful circumstances. At the same time, humans spend considerable time recovering from those challenges, and a host of biological processes involved in restoration and repair take place during normal, non-stressed activities. We review restorative biological processes and evidence for links between psychosocial factors and several restorative processes including sleep, wound healing, antioxidant production, DNA repair, and telomerase function. Across these biological processes, a growing body of evidence suggests that experiencing negative emotional states, including acute and chronic stress, depressive symptoms, and individual differences in negative affectivity and hostility, can influence these restorative processes. This review calls attention to restorative processes as fruitful mechanisms and outcomes for future biobehavioral research. PMID:21927619

  4. The phenomenology of rooting.

    PubMed

    Kerievsky, Bruce Stephen

    2010-09-01

    This paper examines the attractions of passionate involvement in wanting particular outcomes, which is popularly known as rooting. The author's lifelong personal experience is the source of his analysis, along with the insights provided by spiritual literature and especially the work of Dr. Thomas Hora, with whom the author studied for 30 years. The phrase "choiceless awareness," utilized by J. Krishnamurti, and attained via meditation, is seen as the means of transcending a rooting mode of being in the world. PMID:20165983

  5. Dorsal root ganglion-derived Schwann cells combined with poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid)/chitosan conduits for the repair of sciatic nerve defects in rats

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Li; Qu, Wei; Wu, Yuxuan; Ma, Hao; Jiang, Huajun

    2014-01-01

    Schwann cells, nerve regeneration promoters in peripheral nerve tissue engineering, can be used to repair both the peripheral and central nervous systems. However, isolation and purification of Schwann cells are complicated by contamination with fibroblasts. Current reported measures are mainly limited by either high cost or complicated procedures with low cell yields or purity. In this study, we collected dorsal root ganglia from neonatal rats from which we obtained highly purified Schwann cells using serum-free melanocyte culture medium. The purity of Schwann cells (> 95%) using our method was higher than that using standard medium containing fetal bovine serum. The obtained Schwann cells were implanted into poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid)/chitosan conduits to repair 10-mm sciatic nerve defects in rats. Results showed that axonal diameter and area were significantly increased and motor functions were obviously improved in the rat sciatic nerve tissue. Experimental findings suggest that serum-free melanocyte culture medium is conducive to purify Schwann cells and poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid)/chitosan nerve conduits combined with Schwann cells contribute to restore sciatic nerve defects. PMID:25598778

  6. Muscarine binding sites in bovine adrenal medulla.

    PubMed

    Barron, B A; Murrin, L C; Hexum, T D

    1986-03-18

    The presence of muscarinic binding sites in the bovine adrenal medulla was investigated using [3H]QNB and the bovine adrenal medulla. Scatchard analysis combined with computer analysis yielded data consistent with a two binding site configuration. KDs of 0.15 and 14 nM and Bmax s of 29 and 210 fmol/mg protein, respectively, were observed. Displacement of [3H]QNB by various cholinergic agents is, in order of decreasing potency: QNB, dexetimide, atropine, scopolamine, imipramine, desipramine, oxotremorine, pilocarpine, acetylcholine, methacholine and carbachol. These results demonstrate the presence of more than one muscarine binding site in the bovine adrenal gland. PMID:3709656

  7. Modeling root reinforcement using root-failure Weibull survival function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwarz, M.; Giadrossich, F.; Cohen, D.

    2013-03-01

    Root networks contribute to slope stability through complicated interactions that include mechanical compression and tension. Due to the spatial heterogeneity of root distribution and the dynamic of root turnover, the quantification of root reinforcement on steep slope is challenging and consequently the calculation of slope stability as well. Although the considerable advances in root reinforcement modeling, some important aspect remain neglected. In this study we address in particular to the role of root strength variability on the mechanical behaviors of a root bundle. Many factors may contribute to the variability of root mechanical properties even considering a single class of diameter. This work presents a new approach for quantifying root reinforcement that considers the variability of mechanical properties of each root diameter class. Using the data of laboratory tensile tests and field pullout tests, we calibrate the parameters of the Weibull survival function to implement the variability of root strength in a numerical model for the calculation of root reinforcement (RBMw). The results show that, for both laboratory and field datasets, the parameters of the Weibull distribution may be considered constant with the exponent equal to 2 and the normalized failure displacement equal to 1. Moreover, the results show that the variability of root strength in each root diameter class has a major influence on the behavior of a root bundle with important implications when considering different approaches in slope stability calculation. Sensitivity analysis shows that the calibration of the tensile force and the elasticity of the roots are the most important equations, as well as the root distribution. The new model allows the characterization of root reinforcement in terms of maximum pullout force, stiffness, and energy. Moreover, it simplifies the implementation of root reinforcement in slope stability models. The realistic quantification of root reinforcement for

  8. "I Was Dead Restorative Today": From Restorative Justice to Restorative Approaches in School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCluskey, G.; Lloyd, G.; Stead, J.; Kane, J.; Riddell, S.; Weedon, E.

    2008-01-01

    This paper explores definitions and understandings of restorative practices in education. It offers a critique of current theoretical models of restorative justice originally derived from the criminal justice system and now becoming popular in educational settings. It questions the appropriateness of these concepts as they are being introduced to…

  9. Growth and metabolism of murine and bovine embryos in bovine uterine flushing-supplemented culture media.

    PubMed Central

    Rondeau, M; Guay, P; Goff, A K; Cooke, G M

    1996-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the development and metabolic activity of cultured murine and bovine embryos in 2 standard media (HAM F-10 and RPMI) in the presence or absence of bovine uterine flushings. Murine morulae (n = 653) and day 7 bovine embryos (n = 273) were cultured for 18 h or 36 h in either HAM F-10 or RPMI in the presence or absence of bovine uterine flushings. After culture, the development, quality, and metabolic activity (glucose utilization or methionine uptake and incorporation) of embryos was assessed. It was found that HAM F-10 (without uterine flushings) was a more suitable medium than RPMI for optimal development and metabolism of murine and bovine embryos. Poor quality and development, as well as decreased metabolism, were evident after culture of murine embryos in RPMI; in contrast, this medium had no adverse effects on bovine embryos in culture. Supplementation of HAM F-10 with bovine uterine flushings improved the growth of murine embryos and the protein synthesis (as measured by an increased methionine incorporation) for both murine and bovine embryos. However, supplementation with bovine uterine flushings could not overcome deficiencies of an inappropriate medium (RPMI) for murine embryos. Supplementation of a well-defined culture medium with uterine flushings increased metabolism of embryos in culture, and thus might help to increase pregnancy rates after transfer of such embryos to recipient cows. PMID:8825988

  10. Elastomechanical properties of bovine veins.

    PubMed

    Rossmann, Jenn Stroud

    2010-02-01

    Veins have historically been discussed in qualitative, relative terms: "more compliant" than arteries, subject to "lower pressures". The structural and compositional differences between arteries and veins are directly related to the different functions of these vessels. Veins are often used as grafts to reroute flow from atherosclerotic arteries, and venous elasticity plays a role in the development of conditions such as varicose veins and valvular insufficiency. It is therefore of clinical interest to determine the elastomechanical properties of veins. In the current study, both tensile and vibration testing are used to obtain elastic moduli of bovine veins. Representative stress-strain data are shown, and the mechanical and failure properties reported. Nonlinear and viscoelastic behavior is observed, though most properties show little strain rate dependence. These data suggest parameters for constitutive modeling of veins and may inform the design and testing of prosthetic venous valves as well as vein grafts. PMID:20129420

  11. Pins for direct restorations.

    PubMed

    Papa, J; Wilson, P R; Tyas, M J

    1993-10-01

    Self-threading dentine pins permit the retention of large complex direct restorations but there are problems associated with their placement. Strain and crazing of dentine following pin insertion and pulpal and lateral perforations are common. Perforations can be avoided by operator awareness of tooth morphology. Strain and crazing has been found to be minimized by unscrewing the pin slightly after insertion, by using pins with a tap thread, and by using the smallest pin possible. Twist drill form and dulling affects the pin channel shape which in turn influences pin seating. A lack of standardization of pin and twist drill diameter and length has been implicated as the cause of poor pin retention. Manufacturers, in an attempt to standardize the depth of penetration of pins, have incorporated shoulders at the midpoint of the pin, which has met with varying success. More research in the area of limiting pin penetration is necessary, as well as attempts to improve the quality control of pin and twist drill manufacture. PMID:8227686

  12. Bovine Mastitis: Frontiers in Immunogenetics

    PubMed Central

    Thompson-Crispi, Kathleen; Atalla, Heba; Miglior, Filippo; Mallard, Bonnie A.

    2014-01-01

    Mastitis is one of the most prevalent and costly diseases in the dairy industry with losses attributable to reduced milk production, discarded milk, early culling, veterinary services, and labor costs. Typically, mastitis is an inflammation of the mammary gland most often, but not limited to, bacterial infection, and is characterized by the movement of leukocytes and serum proteins from the blood to the site of infection. It contributes to compromised milk quality and the potential spread of antimicrobial resistance if antibiotic treatment is not astutely applied. Despite the implementation of management practises and genetic selection approaches, bovine mastitis control continues to be inadequate. However, some novel genetic strategies have recently been demonstrated to reduce mastitis incidence by taking advantage of a cow’s natural ability to make appropriate immune responses against invading pathogens. Specifically, dairy cattle with enhanced and balanced immune responses have a lower occurrence of disease, including mastitis, and they can be identified and selected for using the high immune response (HIR) technology. Enhanced immune responsiveness is also associated with improved response to vaccination, increased milk, and colostrum quality. Since immunity is an important fitness trait, beneficial associations with longevity and reproduction are also often noted. This review highlights the genetic regulation of the bovine immune system and its vital contributions to disease resistance. Genetic selection approaches currently used in the dairy industry to reduce the incidence of disease are reviewed, including the HIR technology, genomics to improve disease resistance or immune response, as well as the Immunity+™ sire line. Improving the overall immune responsiveness of cattle is expected to provide superior disease resistance, increasing animal welfare and food quality while maintaining favorable production levels to feed a growing population. PMID

  13. Bovine mastitis: frontiers in immunogenetics.

    PubMed

    Thompson-Crispi, Kathleen; Atalla, Heba; Miglior, Filippo; Mallard, Bonnie A

    2014-01-01

    Mastitis is one of the most prevalent and costly diseases in the dairy industry with losses attributable to reduced milk production, discarded milk, early culling, veterinary services, and labor costs. Typically, mastitis is an inflammation of the mammary gland most often, but not limited to, bacterial infection, and is characterized by the movement of leukocytes and serum proteins from the blood to the site of infection. It contributes to compromised milk quality and the potential spread of antimicrobial resistance if antibiotic treatment is not astutely applied. Despite the implementation of management practises and genetic selection approaches, bovine mastitis control continues to be inadequate. However, some novel genetic strategies have recently been demonstrated to reduce mastitis incidence by taking advantage of a cow's natural ability to make appropriate immune responses against invading pathogens. Specifically, dairy cattle with enhanced and balanced immune responses have a lower occurrence of disease, including mastitis, and they can be identified and selected for using the high immune response (HIR) technology. Enhanced immune responsiveness is also associated with improved response to vaccination, increased milk, and colostrum quality. Since immunity is an important fitness trait, beneficial associations with longevity and reproduction are also often noted. This review highlights the genetic regulation of the bovine immune system and its vital contributions to disease resistance. Genetic selection approaches currently used in the dairy industry to reduce the incidence of disease are reviewed, including the HIR technology, genomics to improve disease resistance or immune response, as well as the Immunity(+)™ sire line. Improving the overall immune responsiveness of cattle is expected to provide superior disease resistance, increasing animal welfare and food quality while maintaining favorable production levels to feed a growing population. PMID

  14. Calcium enriched mixture cement for primary molars exhibiting root perforations and extensive root resorption: report of three cases.

    PubMed

    Tavassoli-Hojjati, Sara; Kameli, Somayeh; Rahimian-Emam, Sara; Ahmadyar, Maryam; Asgary, Saeed

    2014-01-01

    In primary molars with root perforations of endodontic origin, tooth extraction and space maintainer are recommended. Calcium-enriched mixture (CEM) cement is a new biomaterial demonstrating favorable sealability/biocompatibility. This report presents a novel treatment modality for cases of primary molar teeth with root perforations associated with a periodontal lesion due to extensive inflammatory root resorption, whereby CEM was used as a perforation repair/pulpotomy biomaterial. Three cases of primary molar root perforations due to inflammatory resorption were selected; all cases were associated with furcal lesions of endodontic origin. Pulp chambers were accessed/irrigated with NaOCl; the root canal orifices were filled with CEM and restored with stainless steel crowns. Clinical/radiographic examinations up to 17 months revealed that all teeth were functional and free of signs/symptoms of infection and all had complete bone healing. Further trials are suggested to confirm CEM use for management of root perforations in primary molars exhibiting root perforation. PMID:24717704

  15. CRITERIA FOR PRIORITIZATION OF ECOSYSTEM RESTORATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Prioritization of ecosystem restoration measures is important for state and federal agencies, watershed coalitions, science advisory boards and other groups responsible for decision-making regarding restoration activities. Although widely utilized, the term "restoration prioriti...

  16. The "Green" Root Beer Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clary, Renee; Wandersee, James

    2010-01-01

    No, your students will not be drinking green root beer for St. Patrick's Day--this "green" root beer laboratory promotes environmental awareness in the science classroom, and provides a venue for some very sound science content! While many science classrooms incorporate root beer-brewing activities, the root beer lab presented in this article has…

  17. Aerosol stability of bovine adenovirus type 3.

    PubMed Central

    Elazhary, M A; Derbyshire, J B

    1979-01-01

    The WBR-1 strain of bovine adenovirus type 3 was suspended in Eagle's medium or bovine nasal secretion and atomized into a rotating drum at temperatures of 6 degrees C or 32 degrees C and relative humidities of 30% or 90%. Impinger samples of the aerosols were collected seven minutes, one, two and three hours postgeneration, and titrated for infectivity in embryonic bovine kidney cell cultures. Under certain conditions of temperature and relative humidity, the virus was more stable in aerosols of Eagle's medium than in nasal secretion. The bovine adenovirus was usually inactivated more rapidly at 30% relative humidity than at 90% relative humidity and during aging of the aerosols the virus was inactivated more rapidly at 32 degrees C than at 6 degrees C. PMID:226247

  18. Fernald restoration: ecologists and engineers integrate restoration and cleanup

    SciTech Connect

    Woods, Eric; Homer, John

    2002-07-15

    As cleanup workers excavate pits and tear down buildings at the Fernald site in southwest Ohio, site ecologists are working side-by-side to create thriving wetlands and develop the early stages of forest, prairie, and savanna ecosystems to restore natural resources that were impacted by years of site operations. In 1998, the U.S. Department of Energy-Fernald Office (DOE-FN) and its cleanup contractor, Fluor Fernald, Inc., initiated several ecological restoration projects in perimeter areas of the site (e.g., areas not used for or impacted by uranium processing or waste management). The projects are part of Fernald's final land use plan to restore natural resources over 904 acres of the 1,050-acre site. Pete Yerace, the DOE-FN Natural Resource Trustee representative is working with the Fernald Natural Resource Trustees in an oversight role to resolve the state of Ohio's 1986 claim against DOE for injuries to natural resources. Fluor Fernald, Inc., and DOE-FN developed the ''Natural Resource Restoration Plan'', which outlines 15 major restoration projects for the site and will restore injured natural resources at the site. In general, Fernald's plan includes grading to maximize the formation of wetlands or expanded floodplain, amending soil where topsoil has been removed during excavation, and establishing native vegetation throughout the site. Today, with cleanup over 35 percent complete and site closure targeted for 2006, Fernald is entering a new phase of restoration that involves heavily remediated areas. By working closely with engineers and cleanup crews, site ecologists can take advantage of remediation fieldwork (e.g., convert an excavated depression into a wetland) and avoid unnecessary costs and duplication. This collaboration has also created opportunities for relatively simple and inexpensive restoration of areas that were discovered during ongoing remediation. To ensure the survival of the plant material in heavily disturbed soils, Fernald will use

  19. Biological restorations using tooth fragments.

    PubMed

    Busato, A L; Loguercio, A D; Barbosa, A N; Sanseverino, M do C; Macedo, R P; Baldissera, R A

    1998-02-01

    A "biological" restoration technique using dental fragments and adhesive materials is described. These fragments were obtained from extracted human teeth which had been previously sterilized and stored in a tooth bank. The advantages are: the use of extracted teeth as restorative material, esthetics, and treatment cost. The positive sensation of having back the missing tooth was the most mentioned comment among patients. The disadvantages are: the difficulty of obtaining teeth with the needed characteristics, problems of making an indirect restoration, matching the original color, and the non-acceptance by some patients who consider it strange to have other people's teeth placed in their mouths. PMID:9823086

  20. Lumbar disk. Surgical tricks for safeguarding the "root's ecology".

    PubMed

    de Divitiis, E; Spaziante, R; Cappabianca, P; Donzelli, R

    1984-07-01

    Restoration of a physiologic periradicular environment is a fundamental step toward improving the results of surgical procedures on the herniated lumbar disk. Combined with the preservation of periradicular fat (or free transplant of subcutaneous fat), reconstruction of the yellow ligament, recreating the interlaminar plane, may act as a barrier against postoperative adhesions. An operative technique is described that is aimed toward preserving the yellow ligament with the purpose of reconstructing it at the end of the surgical procedure on the root. PMID:6729694

  1. Restorative Justice as Social Justice for Victims of Gendered Violence: A Standpoint Feminist Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Wormer, Katherine

    2009-01-01

    This article provides an overview of restorative justice as a process and examines its relevance to women who have been victimized by physical and sexual abuse. The starting point is the justice system with its roots in adversarial, offender-oriented practices of obtaining justice. The widespread dissatisfaction by battered women and rape victims…

  2. Bovine TLR2 and TLR4 mediate Cryptosporidium parvum recognition in bovine intestinal epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhengtao; Fu, Yunhe; Gong, Pengtao; Zheng, Jingtong; Liu, Li; Yu, Yuqiang; Li, Jianhua; Li, He; Yang, Ju; Zhang, Xichen

    2015-08-01

    Cryptosporidium parvum (C. parvum) is an intestinal parasite that causes diarrhea in neonatal calves. It results in significant morbidity of neonatal calves and economic losses for producers worldwide. Innate resistance against C. parvum is thought to depend on engagement of pattern recognition receptors. However, the role of innate responses to C. parvum has not been elucidated in bovine. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of TLRs in host-cell responses during C. parvum infection of cultured bovine intestinal epithelial cells. The expressions of TLRs in bovine intestinal epithelial cells were detected by qRT-PCR. To determine which, if any, TLRs may play a role in the response of bovine intestinal epithelial cells to C. parvum, the cells were stimulated with C. parvum and the expression of TLRs were tested by qRT-PCR. The expression of NF-κB was detected by western blotting. Further analyses were carried out in bovine TLRs transfected HEK293 cells and by TLRs-DN transfected bovine intestinal epithelial cells. The results showed that bovine intestinal epithelial cells expressed all known TLRs. The expression of TLR2 and TLR4 were up-regulated when bovine intestinal epithelial cells were treated with C. parvum. Meanwhile, C. parvum induced IL-8 production in TLR2 or TLR4/MD-2 transfected HEK293 cells. Moreover, C. parvum induced NF-κB activation and cytokine expression in bovine intestinal epithelial cells. The induction of NF-κB activation and cytokine expression by C. parvum were reduced in TLR2-DN and TLR4-DN transfected cells. The results showed that bovine intestinal epithelial cells expressed all known TLRs, and bovine intestinal epithelial cells recognized and responded to C. parvum via TLR2 and TLR4. PMID:26048276

  3. Activation of bovine neutrophils by Brucella spp.

    PubMed

    Keleher, Lauren L; Skyberg, Jerod A

    2016-09-01

    Brucellosis is a globally important zoonotic infectious disease caused by gram negative bacteria of the genus Brucella. While many species of Brucella exist, Brucella melitensis, Brucella abortus, and Brucella suis are the most common pathogens of humans and livestock. The virulence of Brucella is largely influenced by its ability to evade host factors, including phagocytic killing mechanisms, which are critical for the host response to infection. The aim of this study was to characterize the bovine neutrophil response to virulent Brucella spp. Here, we found that virulent strains of smooth B. abortus, B. melitensis, B. suis, and virulent, rough, strains of Brucella canis possess similar abilities to resist killing by resting, or IFN-γ-activated, bovine neutrophils. Bovine neutrophils responded to infection with a time-dependent oxidative burst that varied little between Brucella spp. Inhibition of TAK1, or SYK kinase blunted the oxidative burst of neutrophils in response to Brucella infection. Interestingly, Brucella spp. did not induce robust death of bovine neutrophils. These results indicate that bovine neutrophils respond similarly to virulent Brucella spp. In addition, virulent Brucella spp., including naturally rough strains of B. canis, have a conserved ability to resist killing by bovine neutrophils. PMID:27436438

  4. Stem Cell Research: A Novel Boulevard towards Improved Bovine Mastitis Management

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Neelesh; Jeong, Dong Kee

    2013-01-01

    The dairy industry is a multi-billion dollar industry catering the nutritional needs of all age groups globally through the supply of milk. Clinical mastitis has a severe impact on udder tissue and is also an animal welfare issue. Moreover, it significantly reduces animal value and milk production. Mammary tissue damage reduces the number and activity of epithelial cells and consequently contributes to decreased milk production. The high incidence, low cure rate of this highly economic and sometimes deadly disease is an alarming for dairy sector as well as policy makers. Bovine mammary epithelial cells (MECs) and their stem cells are very important in milk production and bioengineering. The adult mammary epithelium consists of two main cell types; an inner layer of luminal epithelial cells, which produce the milk during lactation, and an outer layer of myoepithelial cells resting on a basement membrane, which are responsible for pushing the milk through the ductal network to the teat cistern. Inner layer of columner/luminal cells of bovine MECs, is characterized by cytokeratin18, 19 (CK18, CK19) and outer layer such as myoepithelial cells which are characterized by CK14, α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) and p63. Much work has been done in mouse and human, on mammary gland stem cell research, particularly in cancer therapy, but stem cell research in bovine is still in its infancy. Such stem/progenitor cell discoveries in human and mouse mammary gland bring some hope for application in bovines. These progenitors may be therapeutically adopted to correct the structural/cytological defects in the bovine udder due to mastitis. In the present review we focused on various kinds of stem/progenitor cells which can have therapeutic utility and their possibilities to use as a potential stem cell therapy in the management of bovine post-mastitis damage in orders to restore milk production. The possibilities of bovine mammary stem cell therapy offers significant potential for

  5. The cyclophilin A DIAGEOTROPICA gene affects auxin transport in both root and shoot to control lateral root formation.

    PubMed

    Ivanchenko, Maria G; Zhu, Jinsheng; Wang, Bangjun; Medvecká, Eva; Du, Yunlong; Azzarello, Elisa; Mancuso, Stefano; Megraw, Molly; Filichkin, Sergei; Dubrovsky, Joseph G; Friml, Jiří; Geisler, Markus

    2015-02-15

    Cyclophilin A is a conserved peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase (PPIase) best known as the cellular receptor of the immunosuppressant cyclosporine A. Despite significant effort, evidence of developmental functions of cyclophilin A in non-plant systems has remained obscure. Mutations in a tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) cyclophilin A ortholog, DIAGEOTROPICA (DGT), have been shown to abolish the organogenesis of lateral roots; however, a mechanistic explanation of the phenotype is lacking. Here, we show that the dgt mutant lacks auxin maxima relevant to priming and specification of lateral root founder cells. DGT is expressed in shoot and root, and localizes to both the nucleus and cytoplasm during lateral root organogenesis. Mutation of ENTIRE/IAA9, a member of the auxin-responsive Aux/IAA protein family of transcriptional repressors, partially restores the inability of dgt to initiate lateral root primordia but not the primordia outgrowth. By comparison, grafting of a wild-type scion restores the process of lateral root formation, consistent with participation of a mobile signal. Antibodies do not detect movement of the DGT protein into the dgt rootstock; however, experiments with radiolabeled auxin and an auxin-specific microelectrode demonstrate abnormal auxin fluxes. Functional studies of DGT in heterologous yeast and tobacco-leaf auxin-transport systems demonstrate that DGT negatively regulates PIN-FORMED (PIN) auxin efflux transporters by affecting their plasma membrane localization. Studies in tomato support complex effects of the dgt mutation on PIN expression level, expression domain and plasma membrane localization. Our data demonstrate that DGT regulates auxin transport in lateral root formation. PMID:25617431

  6. The root economics spectrum: divergence of absorptive root strategies with root diameter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, D.; Wang, J.; Kardol, P.; Wu, H.; Zeng, H.; Deng, X.; Deng, Y.

    2015-08-01

    Plant roots usually vary along a dominant ecological axis, the root economics spectrum (RES), depicting a tradeoff between resource acquisition and conservation. For absorptive roots, which are mainly responsible for resource acquisition, we hypothesized that root strategies as predicted from the RES shift with increasing root diameter. To test this hypothesis, we used seven contrasting plant species for which we separated absorptive roots into two categories: thin roots (< 247 μm diameter) and thick roots. For each category, we analyzed a~range of root traits closely related to resource acquisition and conservation, including root tissue density, carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) fractions as well as root anatomical traits. The results showed that trait relationships for thin absorptive roots followed the expectations from the RES while no clear trait relationships were found in support of the RES for thick absorptive roots. Our results suggest divergence of absorptive root strategies in relation to root diameter, which runs against a single economics spectrum for absorptive roots.

  7. Root architecture and root and tuber crop productivity.

    PubMed

    Villordon, Arthur Q; Ginzberg, Idit; Firon, Nurit

    2014-07-01

    It is becoming increasingly evident that optimization of root architecture for resource capture is vital for enabling the next green revolution. Although cereals provide half of the calories consumed by humans, root and tuber crops are the second major source of carbohydrates globally. Yet, knowledge of root architecture in root and tuber species is limited. In this opinion article, we highlight what is known about the root system in root and tuber crops, and mark new research directions towards a better understanding of the relation between root architecture and yield. We believe that unraveling the role of root architecture in root and tuber crop productivity will improve global food security, especially in regions with marginal soil fertility and low-input agricultural systems. PMID:24630073

  8. Ventral root re-implantation is better than peripheral nerve transplantation for motoneuron survival and regeneration after spinal root avulsion injury

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Peripheral nerve (PN) transplantation and ventral root implantation are the two common types of recovery operations to restore the connection between motoneurons and their target muscles after brachial plexus injury. Despite experience accumulated over the past decade, fundamental knowledge is still lacking concerning the efficacy of the two microsurgical interventions. Methods Thirty-eight adult female Sprague–Dawley rats were divided into 5 groups. Immediately following root avulsion, animals in the first group (n = 8) and the second group (n = 8) received PN graft and ventral root implantation respectively. The third group (n = 8) and the fourth group (n = 8) received PN graft and ventral root implantation respectively at one week after root avulsion. The fifth group received root avulsion only as control (n = 6). The survival and axonal regeneration of severed motoneurons were investigated at 6 weeks post-implantation. Results Re-implantation of ventral roots, both immediately after root avulsion and in delay, significantly increased the survival and regeneration of motoneurons in the avulsed segment of the spinal cord as compared with PN graft transplantation. Conclusions The ventral root re-implantation is a better surgical repairing procedure than PN graft transplantation for brachial plexus injury because of its easier manipulation for re-implanting avulsed ventral roots to the preferred site, less possibility of causing additional damage and better effects on motoneuron survival and axonal regeneration. PMID:23799915

  9. Penetration of 38% hydrogen peroxide into the pulp chamber in bovine and human teeth submitted to office bleach technique.

    PubMed

    Camargo, Samira Esteves Afonso; Valera, Marcia Carneiro; Camargo, Carlos Henrique Ribeiro; Gasparoto Mancini, Maria Nadir; Menezes, Marcia Maciel

    2007-09-01

    This study evaluated the pulp chamber penetration of peroxide bleaching agent in human and bovine teeth after office bleach technique. All the teeth were sectioned 3 mm apical of the cement-enamel junction and were divided into 2 groups, A (70 third human molars) and B (70 bovine lateral incisors), that were subdivided into A1 and B1 restored by using composite resin, A2 and B2 by using glass ionomer cement, and A3 and B3 by using resin-modified glass ionomer cement; A4, A5, B4, and B5 were not restored. Acetate buffer was placed in the pulp chamber, and the bleaching agent was applied for 40 minutes as follows: A1-A4 and B1-B4, 38% hydrogen peroxide exposure and A5 and B5, immersion into distilled water. The buffer solution was transferred to a glass tube in which leuco crystal violet and horseradish peroxidase were added, producing a blue solution. The optical density of the blue solution was determined by spectrophotometer and converted into microgram equivalents of hydrogen peroxide. Data were submitted to analysis of variance and Dunnett, Kruskal-Wallis, and Tukey tests (5%). A higher level of hydrogen peroxide penetrated into the pulp chamber in resin-modified glass ionomer cements in bovine (0.79 +/- 0.61 microg) and human (2.27 +/- 0.41 microg) groups. The bleaching agent penetration into the pulp chamber was higher in human teeth for any experimental situation. The penetration of the hydrogen peroxide depends on restorative materials, and under the conditions of this study human teeth are more susceptible to penetration of bleaching agent into the pulp chamber than bovine teeth. PMID:17931936

  10. Before and After (Dental Restorations)

    MedlinePlus

    FAQs | Common Questions Why see a prosthodontist? Dentures Dental Implants Board Certification Improving Your Smile Conditions & Symptoms | ... of Care in the Restoration and Replacement of Teeth This site brought to you by: American College ...

  11. [Combined orthodontic and restorative treatment].

    PubMed

    Kuijpers, M A R; Loomans, B

    2015-11-01

    In patients with agenesis or enamel anomalies in anterior teeth combined orthodontic and restorative treatment is often necessary to achieve an optimal aesthetic result. How both can best be achieved, but also how to maintain the result, requires communication between the dentist and the orthodontist. The orthodontic treatment plan needs to be established in cooperation with the dentist who will carry out the restorative treatment while the patient is at a young age. Since with these young patients, who are still growing craniofacially and whose teeth are still developing, possible future restorative and/or orthodontic treatment, as well as the means of orthodontic retention, need to be included in the treatment plan. In cleft palate patients, it is also important that methods of orthodontic retention of maxillary arch width are given timely attention in the restorative treatment plan because it is especially vulnerable to relapse. PMID:26568998

  12. Kondolf Diagram for River Restoration

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rehabilitation, protection, and management of riverine backwaters (floodplain aquatic habitats that are seasonally or periodically connected to the main channel) are becoming increasingly common. General criteria for selecting restoration goals and evaluating alternative designs are lacking. An app...

  13. Esthetic restoration of primary incisors.

    PubMed

    Carranza, F; García-Godoy, F

    1999-04-01

    A simple and esthetic technique for restoring cariously involved primary maxillary incisors is described. The technique includes mini-pins, a preformed celluloid crown and resin-based composite. PMID:10477982

  14. Basic research for environmental restoration

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-12-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) is in the midst of a major environmental restoration effort to reduce the health and environmental risks resulting from past waste management and disposal practices at DOE sites. This report describes research needs in environmental restoration and complements a previously published document, DOE/ER-0419, Evaluation of Mid-to-Long Term Basic Research for Environmental Restoration. Basic research needs have been grouped into five major categories patterned after those identified in DOE/ER-0419: (1) environmental transport and transformations; (2) advanced sampling, characterization, and monitoring methods; (3) new remediation technologies; (4) performance assessment; and (5) health and environmental effects. In addition to basic research, this document deals with education and training needs for environmental restoration. 2 figs., 6 tabs.

  15. Optimum constrained image restoration filters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riemer, T. E.; Mcgillem, C. D.

    1974-01-01

    The filter was developed in Hilbert space by minimizing the radius of gyration of the overall or composite system point-spread function subject to constraints on the radius of gyration of the restoration filter point-spread function, the total noise power in the restored image, and the shape of the composite system frequency spectrum. An iterative technique is introduced which alters the shape of the optimum composite system point-spread function, producing a suboptimal restoration filter which suppresses undesirable secondary oscillations. Finally this technique is applied to multispectral scanner data obtained from the Earth Resources Technology Satellite to provide resolution enhancement. An experimental approach to the problems involving estimation of the effective scanner aperture and matching the ERTS data to available restoration functions is presented.

  16. Temperature-compensating dc restorer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, H. M.

    1980-01-01

    Circuit provides stable references restoration in addition to temperature compensation. Possible TV monitor applications include traffic and security surveillance systems, where cameras are subject to environmental extremes, as in unheated warehouses or outdoors.

  17. Outcomes of root canal treatment in Dental PBRN practices

    PubMed Central

    Gilbert, Gregg H.; Tilashalski, Ken R.; Litaker, Mark S.; McNeal, Sandre F.; Boykin, Michael J.; Kessler, Allen W.

    2010-01-01

    Our purpose was to quantify the incidence of root canal treatment (RCT) failure and identify its predictors in root canals done in or referred from general dentistry practices in a practice-based research network (PBRN). A retrospective cohort study of 174 endodontically-treated teeth was conducted. Mean duration of follow-up was 8.6 years. Permanent restorations were ultimately placed in 89% of teeth; mean (S.D.) number of days to permanent restoration was 215.4 (609.1). Although RCT had been completed, 18% of teeth were ultimately extracted anyway. Receipt of a permanent restoration was a significant predictor of treatment failure, whether it was determined clinically or radiographically. This study of PBRN practices suggests a higher failure rate than reported from studies in highly-controlled environments or populations with high levels of dental insurance. Also, the probability of receipt of a permanent restoration is not optimal -- and strongly predicts RCT failure. Appropriately, no RCT was done on teeth with severe periodontal bone loss. PMID:20129890

  18. Stepwise Excavation Allows Apexogenesis in Permanent Molars with Deep Carious Lesions and Incomplete Root Formation.

    PubMed

    Hernandéz-Gatón, Patrícia; Serrano, César Ruiz; Nelson Filho, Paulo; De Castañeda, Esther Ruiz; Lucisano, Marília P; Silva, Raquel A B da; Silva, Léa A B da

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated the stepwise excavation technique in 138 permanent molars with deep carious lesions and incomplete root formation within a 24-month clinical and radiographic follow-up period. In 96.7% of the cases, success was observed (no pain, integrity of restoration margins, absence of radiographic alterations and apexogenesis). The cases of failure (3.3%) were due to the loss of the temporary restoration. In conclusion, the stepwise excavation is a promising technique for permanent teeth with deep carious lesions and incomplete root formation as a minimally invasive approach because it allows the preservation of pulp vitality and occurrence of apexogenesis. PMID:26655853

  19. Intraoral repair of cosmetic restorations.

    PubMed

    Denehy, G; Bouschlicher, M; Vargas, M

    1998-10-01

    The longevity of porcelain and composite resin restorations can often be prolonged by using sound principles, up-to-date materials, and judicious attention to repair when fracture problems arise. Careful case selection and correct usage of surface treatment agents, followed by the use of a quality bonding system and restorative materials, can result in a repair that exhibits excellent retention and natural color blending. This article outlines procedures and materials to repair both resin composite and porcelain intraorally. PMID:9891653

  20. Management of Horizontal Root Fracture in the Middle Third via Intraradicular Splinting Using a Fiber Post.

    PubMed

    Karhade, Ishani; Gulve, Meenal N

    2016-01-01

    Radicular fractures in permanent teeth are uncommon injuries and account for only 0.5-7% of dental traumas. These fractures commonly result from a horizontal impact and are transverse to oblique in direction. Their incidence is more in the middle third of the root than at the apical and cervical thirds. This paper describes a case of complicated crown fracture of maxillary incisors along with horizontal root fracture at the middle third of maxillary right central and lateral incisor. The fractured root fragments of the upper right central and lateral incisor were united with the help of a glass fiber post after receiving an endodontic treatment. The other two incisors were treated endodontically followed by post endodontic restorations. Eventually the four incisors were restored with porcelain fused to metal crowns. A one-year follow-up revealed a well stabilized assembly of the root fragments and the post. PMID:26904313

  1. Management of Horizontal Root Fracture in the Middle Third via Intraradicular Splinting Using a Fiber Post

    PubMed Central

    Gulve, Meenal N.

    2016-01-01

    Radicular fractures in permanent teeth are uncommon injuries and account for only 0.5–7% of dental traumas. These fractures commonly result from a horizontal impact and are transverse to oblique in direction. Their incidence is more in the middle third of the root than at the apical and cervical thirds. This paper describes a case of complicated crown fracture of maxillary incisors along with horizontal root fracture at the middle third of maxillary right central and lateral incisor. The fractured root fragments of the upper right central and lateral incisor were united with the help of a glass fiber post after receiving an endodontic treatment. The other two incisors were treated endodontically followed by post endodontic restorations. Eventually the four incisors were restored with porcelain fused to metal crowns. A one-year follow-up revealed a well stabilized assembly of the root fragments and the post. PMID:26904313

  2. Prevalence of bovine virus diarrhoea and infectious bovine rhinotracheitis antibodies in Nigerian sheep and goats.

    PubMed

    Taylor, W P; Okeke, A N; Shidali, N N

    1977-08-01

    Neutralising antibodies to bovine virus diarrhoea virus were commoner in Nigerian sheep than goats while precipitating antibodies offered an alternative but less reliable indicator of previous infection. In contrast, neutralising antibodies to infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus were more common in goats than sheep. These findings are discussed in relation to infectivity rates in cattle and general husbandry practices. PMID:410130

  3. Complete genome sequence of a bovine viral diarrhea virus 2 from commercial fetal bovine serum.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hua; Li, Yan; Gao, Mingchun; Wen, Kai; Jia, Ying; Liu, Xiaomei; Zhang, Wenlong; Ma, Bo; Wang, Junwei

    2012-09-01

    We isolated a bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) from commercial fetal bovine serum and designated it HLJ-10. The complete genome is 12,284 nucleotides (nt); the open reading frame is 11,694 nt, coding 3,898 amino acids. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that this strain belongs to BVDV group 2. PMID:22923795

  4. Bovine viral diarrhea virus: involvement in bovine respiratory disease and diagnostic challenges

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This paper reviews the contribution of bovine viral diarrhea viruses (BVDV) to the development of Bovine Respiratory Disease (BRD). Veterinarians and producers generally consider BRD as one of the most significant diseases affecting production in the cattle industry. BRD can affect the performance (...

  5. The Contribution of Infections with Bovine Viral Diarrhea Viruses to Bovine Respiratory Disease

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The contribution of bovine viral diarrhea viruses (BVDV) to the development of bovine respiratory disease is the sum of a number of different factors. These factors include the contribution of acute uncomplicated BVDV infections, the high incidence of respiratory disease in animals persistently inf...

  6. Plant and Soil Responses to High and Low Diversity Grassland Restoration Practices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bach, Elizabeth M.; Baer, Sara G.; Six, Johan

    2012-02-01

    The USDA's Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) has predominantly used only a few species of dominant prairie grasses (CP2 practice) to reduce soil erosion, but recently has offered a higher diversity planting practice (CP25) to increase grassland habitat quality. We quantified plant community composition in CP25 and CP2 plantings restored for 4 or 8 years and compared belowground properties and processes among restorations and continuously cultivated soils in southeastern Nebraska, USA. Relative to cultivated soils, restoration increased soil microbial biomass ( P = 0.033), specifically fungi ( P < 0.001), and restored soils exhibited higher rates of carbon (C) mineralization ( P = 0.010). High and low diversity plantings had equally diverse plant communities; however, CP25 plantings had greater frequency of cool-season (C3) grasses ( P = 0.007). Older (8 year) high diversity restorations contained lower microbial biomass ( P = 0.026), arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) biomass ( P = 0.003), and C mineralization rates ( P = 0.028) relative to 8 year low diversity restorations; older plantings had greater root biomass than 4 year plantings in all restorations ( P = 0.001). Low diversity 8 year plantings contained wider root C:N ratios, and higher soil microbial biomass, microbial community richness, AMF biomass, and C mineralization rate relative to 4 year restorations ( P < 0.050). Net N mineralization and nitrification rates were lower in 8 year than 4 year high diversity plantings ( P = 0.005). We attributed changes in soil C and N pools and fluxes to increased AMF associated with C4 grasses in low diversity plantings. Thus, reduced recovery of AMF in high diversity plantings restricted restoration of belowground microbial diversity and microbially-mediated soil processes over time.

  7. Calcium and protein phosphorylation in the transduction of gravity signal in corn roots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friedmann, M.; Poovaiah, B. W.

    1991-01-01

    The involvement of calcium and protein phosphorylation in the transduction of gravity signal was studied using corn roots of a light-insensitive variety (Zea mays L., cv. Patriot). The gravitropic response was calcium-dependent. Horizontal placement of roots preloaded with 32P for three minutes resulted in changes in protein phosphorylation of polypeptides of 32 and 35 kD. Calcium depletion resulted in decreased phosphorylation of these phosphoproteins and replenishment of calcium restored the phosphorylation.

  8. Mycorrhizal colonization across hydrologic gradients in restored and reference freshwater wetlands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bauer, C.R.; Kellogg, C.H.; Bridgham, S.D.; Lamberti, G.A.

    2003-01-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizae, which are plant root-fungal symbioses, are common associates of vascular plants. Such relationships, however, are thought to be rare in wetland plant roots, although several recent studies suggest that arbuscular mycorrhizae may be important in wetland ecosystems. Our objectives were to determine (1) the level of arbuscular mycorrhizal colonization of plant roots in three freshwater marshes and (2) the effect of restoration status, hydrologic zone, and plant species identity on mycorrhizal colonization. We quantified the percentage of plant roots colonized by mycorrhizal fungi in one reference and two restored freshwater marshes in northern Indiana, USA during summer 1999. Roots were collected from soil cores taken around dominant plant species present in each of three hydrologic zones and then stained for microscopic examination of mycorrhizal colonization. Mycorrhizae were present in each wetland, in all hydrologic zones and in all sampled plants, including Carex and Scirpus species previously thought to be non-mycorrhizal. Both restored and reference wetlands had moderate levels of mycorrhizal colonization, but no clear trends in colonization were seen with hydrologic zone, which has been hypothesized to regulate the formation of mycorrhizae in wetlands. Mycorrhizal colonization levels in the roots of individual species ranged from 3 to 90% and were particularly large in members of the Poaceae (grass) family. Our results suggest that arbuscular mycorrhizae may be widely distributed across plant species and hydrologic zones in both restored and reference freshwater marshes. Thus, future research should examine the functional role of mycorrhizal fungi in freshwater wetlands. ?? 2003, The Society of Wetland Scientists.

  9. Environmental Restoration Quality Program Plan. Environmental Restoration Program

    SciTech Connect

    Colley, J.S.

    1992-08-01

    The Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., Environmental Restoration (ER) Program was initially chartered on October 1, 1989, as a ``entral Environmental Restoration Division`` to manage the investigation and remediation of inactive sites and facilities that have been declared surplus and have no further programmatic use. The Energy Systems ER Division was established to support the DOE Oak Ridge Field Office (DOE-OR) consolidated ER Program. The DOE-OR Assistant Manager for Environmental Restoration and Waste Management provides program and budget direction to the Energy Systems ER Program for environmental restoration activities at the sites operated by Energy Systems (Oak Ridge K-25 Site, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant, Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant) and at the off-site locations. The Energy Systems ER Division is specifically charged with assessing these sites for potential contamination and managing the cleanup processes. The Energy Systems Environmental Restoration Division was chartered on October 1, 1989, as a central organization to manage the Remedial Action (RA) Program. The purpose of this document is to ensure that: senior ER management provides planning, organization, direction, control, and support to achieve the organization`s objectives; the line organization achieves quality; and overall performance is reviewed and evaluated using a rigorous assessment process.

  10. Abrasion of eroded root dentine brushed with different toothpastes.

    PubMed

    De Menezes, Márcio; Turssi, Cecilia Pedroso; Hara, Anderson Takeo; Messias, Danielle Cristine Furtado; Serra, Mônica Campos

    2004-09-01

    This study evaluated the surface roughness change and wear provided by different dentifrices on root dentine previously exposed to erosive challenges. According to a randomized complete block design, 150 slabs of bovine root dentine (6 x 3 x 2 mm) were ground flat and polished. In an area of 4 x 3 mm on the dentine surface, specimens were submitted to five erosive/abrasive events, each one composed by: exposure to Sprite Diet or distilled water for 5 min, then to a remineralizing solution for 1 min, and simulation of 5,000 brushing strokes. Four dentifrices--regular (RE), baking soda (BS), whitening (WT) and tartar control (TC)--and distilled water (CO), used as control, were compared. Final texture and the wear depth were evaluated using a profilometer. ANOVA did not show significant interaction, indicating that the effect of dentifrices on both surface roughness change and wear did not depend on whether or not the dentine was eroded ( p>0.05). There was no difference between abrasion of eroded and sound dentine. The Tukey's test revealed that WT, BS and TC provided the highest increase in surface roughness differing from RE and CO. TC yielded the deepest wear of root dentine, whereas RE and CO, the shallowest. No significant difference in wear among BS, TC and WT were observed. Within the limitations of this study, the data showed that abrasion of both eroded and sound root dentine was dependent on the dentifrice used. PMID:15146320

  11. Stachbotrys Root Rot

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Stachybotrys root rot is caused by Stachybotrys chartarum, a cellulytic saprophytic hyphomycete fungus. The pathogen produces mycotoxins including a host of immunosupressant compounds for human and is one of the causes of the "sick building syndrome." Although S. chartarum is rarely known as a plan...

  12. Violet root rot

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The fungus causing violet root rot, Helicobasidium brebissonii (anamorph Rhizoctonia crocorum), is widely distributed in Europe and North America but is rarely of much economic importance on alfalfa. The disease has also been reported in Australia, Argentina, and Iran. The disease is characterized b...

  13. "Roots": Medium and Message.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kinnamon, Keneth

    A national telephone survey indicated that audiences rated the television production of "Roots" positively in terms of the following: realistic portrayal of the people and the times; relevance for contemporary race relations; perceived emotional effect; and increased understanding of the psychology of black people. However, a comparison of the…

  14. Great Plains Roots.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frey, Jennifer

    2001-01-01

    Sandy White Hawk, Sicangu Lakota, was adopted by white missionaries as an infant and suffered child abuse. After 33 years, she found her birth family and formed First Nations Orphans Association, which uses songs and ceremonies to help adoptees return to their roots. Until the 1970s, federal agencies and welfare organizations facilitated removal…

  15. The Roots of Reading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montoya, Colleen, Ed.

    2002-01-01

    This newsletter covers educational issues affecting schools in the Western Regional Educational Laboratory's 4-state region (Arizona, California, Nevada, and Utah) and nationwide. The following articles appear in the Volume 4, Number 1 issue: (1) "The Roots of Reading"; (2) "Breaking the Code: Reading Literacy in K-3"; (3) "Improving Secondary…

  16. Ultrastructure of bovine sperm chromatin.

    PubMed

    Filho, Romualdo Morandi; Beletti, Marcelo Emilio; de Oliveira, Fabio

    2015-12-01

    Mammalian semen chromatin comprises DNA, protamine, and, at lower levels, other proteins. This constitution confers intense compaction to the chromatin, helping to protect the DNA and causing the head of the sperm to be very small, facilitating the safe transport of its genetic contents. It is known that changes in the sperm chromatin compaction lead to fertility problems in bulls, justifying studies of this structure. Although there are theoretical models of sperm chromatin because of its high compaction, there is no morphological evidence of such models. The aim of this study was to demonstrate the ultrastructure of bovine sperm chromatin in an attempt to corroborate the theoretical chromatin models existing today. The isolated bull sperm heads had their chromatin partially unpacked by chemical treatment using sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and dithiothreitol (DTT) and were then embedded in Epon resin. Using an ultramicrotome, ultrathin sections were obtained, which were contrasted with uranyl acetate and lead citrate, and then viewed under transmission electron microscopy. The methodology used allowed the visualization of toroidal structures interconnected by a filamentous nuclear matrix, which is entirely consistent with the most current theoretical models. PMID:26515508

  17. Bovine colostrum: an emerging nutraceutical.

    PubMed

    Bagwe, Siddhi; Tharappel, Leo J P; Kaur, Ginpreet; Buttar, Harpal S

    2015-09-01

    Nutraceutical, a term combining the words "nutrition" and "pharmaceuticals", is a food or food product that provides health benefits as an adjuvant or alternative therapy, including the treatment and prevention of infectious diseases in children and adults. There is emerging evidence that bovine colostrum (BC) may be one of the promising nutraceuticals which can prevent or mitigate various diseases in newborns and adults. Immunity-related disorders are one of the leading causes of mortality in the world. BC is rich in immunity, growth and antimicrobial factors, which promote tissue growth and the maturation of digestive tract and immune function in neonatal animals and humans. The immunoglobulins and lactoferrin present in colostrum are known to build natural immunity in newborns which helps to reduce the mortality rate in this population. Also, the side-effect profile of colostrum proteins and possible lactose intolerance is relatively less in comparison with milk. In general, BC is considered safe and well tolerated. Since colostrum has several important nutritional constituents, well-designed, double-blind, placebo-controlled studies with colostrum products should be conducted to widen its therapeutic use. The objectives of this review are to create awareness about the nutraceutical properties of colostrum and to discuss the various ongoing alternative treatments of colostrum and its active ingredients as well as to address colostrum's future nutraceutical and therapeutic implications in humans. PMID:25781716

  18. Genetics of bovine abomasal displacement.

    PubMed

    Zerbin, Ina; Lehner, Stefanie; Distl, Ottmar

    2015-04-01

    Displacement of the abomasum (DA) is a common inherited condition in Holstein cows. This article reviews the genetics of DA including risk factors, genetic parameters and molecular genetic results. Breeds other than Holsteins affected by DA include Guernseys, Jerseys, Brown Swiss, Ayrshires and Simmental-Red Holsteins. In most DA cases, left displacements of the abomasum (LDA) are seen. Lactation incidence rates are higher for DA in first lactation Holsteins compared to later lactations. For Holstein cows, heritability estimates for DA are between 0.03 and 0.53. Genetic correlation estimates among DA and milk production traits range from positive to negative. Genome-wide significant genomic regions associated with LDA are located on bovine chromosomes (BTA) 1, 3, 11, 20 and 23. Motilin-associated single nucleotide polymorphisms on BTA23 exhibit a functional relationship with LDA. Pathways for deposition of calcium, insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus and synaptic transmission are significantly related to LDA in Holsteins. Deciphering the DA-associated genomic regions and genes may be an important step in the quest to understand the underlying disease-causing mechanisms and in unravelling mutations with a causal relationship to DA. PMID:25840863

  19. 7 CFR 1415.11 - Restoration agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... required, NRCS will set the terms of the restoration agreement. The restoration plan component of the... to determine the terms of the restoration plan. The conservation district may assist NRCS with... specifications. (j) Conservation practices and activities identified in the restoration plan may be...

  20. 7 CFR 1415.11 - Restoration agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... required, NRCS will set the terms of the restoration agreement. The restoration plan component of the... to determine the terms of the restoration plan. The conservation district may assist NRCS with... specifications. (j) Conservation practices and activities identified in the restoration plan may be...

  1. 7 CFR 1415.11 - Restoration agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... required, NRCS will set the terms of the restoration agreement. The restoration plan component of the... to determine the terms of the restoration plan. The conservation district may assist NRCS with... restoration plan may be implemented by the participant or other designee. (j) Cost-share payments will not...

  2. 7 CFR 1415.11 - Restoration agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... required, NRCS will set the terms of the restoration agreement. The restoration plan component of the... to determine the terms of the restoration plan. The conservation district may assist NRCS with... specifications. (j) Conservation practices and activities identified in the restoration plan may be...

  3. Monitoring Ecological Processes for Restoration Projects

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Restoration of ecological processes is key to restoring the capacity of ecosystems to support social, economic, cultural and aesthetic values. The sustainability of the restored system also depends on processes associated with carbon, nutrient and hydrologic cycles, yet most restoration monitoring i...

  4. The Mechanics and Energetics of Soil Bioturbation by Plant Roots and Earthworms - Plastic Deformation Considerations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz, Siul; Or, Dani; Schymanski, Stanislaus

    2014-05-01

    Soil structure plays a critical factor in the agricultural, hydrological and ecological functions of soils. These services are adversely impacted by soil compaction, a damage that could last for many years until functional structure is restored. An important class of soil structural restoration processes are related to biomechanical activity associated with burrowing of earthworms and root proliferation in impacted soil volumes. We study details of the mechanical processes and energetics associated with quantifying the rates and mechanical energy required for soil structural restoration. We first consider plastic cavity expansion to describe earthworm and plant root radial expansion under various conditions. We then use cone penetration models as analogues to wedging induced by root tip growth and worm locomotion. The associated mechanical stresses and strains determine the mechanical energy associated with bioturbation for different hydration conditions and root/earthworm geometries. Results illustrate a reduction in strain energy with increasing water content and trade-offs between pressure and energy investment for various root and earthworm geometries. The study provides the basic building blocks for estimating rates of soil structural alteration, the associated energetic requirements (soil carbon, plant assimilates) needed to sustain structure regeneration by earthworms and roots, and highlights potential mechanical cut-offs for such activities.

  5. Fine root turnover: a story of root production and root phenology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCormack, M. L.; Adams, T. S.; Smithwick, E. A.; Eissenstat, D. M.

    2012-12-01

    Fine root turnover in terrestrial ecosystems partially controls carbon flow from plants into soils as well the amount of roots available for nutrient and water uptake. However, we have poor understanding of basic patterns and variability in fine root turnover. We address this shortfall through the use of a heuristic model and analysis of a multi-year minirhizotron dataset exploring the impacts of fine root phenology and production on fine root turnover rates across 12 temperate tree species in a common garden experiment. The heuristic model allowed us to calculate fine root turnover given different patterns of root production and different fine root lifespans. Using the model we found that patterns of phenology characterized by a single, concentrated peak resulted in slower calculated root turnover rates while broader and bi-modal production patterns resulted in faster turnover rates. For example, for roots with median lifespans of 91 days, estimates of root turnover increased from 1.5 yr-1 to 4.0 yr-1 between the pattern of concentrated root production and the pattern with root production spread equally throughout the year. Turnover rates observed in the common garden ranged from 0.75 yr-1 to 1.33 yr-1 and 0.93 yr-1 to 2.14 yr-1 when calculated as annual production divided by maximum standing root crop or average standing root crop, respectively. Turnover varied significantly across species and interannual variability in root production and turnover was high. Patterns of root phenology observed at the common garden included concentrated root production in late spring as well as several examples of bi-modal and broader patterns of root production with roots produced across spring, summer and fall. Overall, both phenology and total root production impacted estimates of root turnover, particularly for short-lived fine roots with median lifespans of less than one year. Our results suggest that better understanding fine root phenology and production will improve our

  6. Native Plants for Effective Coastal Wetland Restoration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Howard, Rebecca J.

    2003-01-01

    Plant communities, along with soils and appropriate water regimes, are essential components of healthy wetland systems. In Louisiana, the loss of wetland habitat continues to be an issue of major concern. Wetland loss is caused by several interacting factors, both natural and human-induced (e.g., erosion and saltwater intrusion from the construction of canals and levees). Recent estimates of annual coastal land loss rates of about 62 km2 (24 mi2) over the past decade emphasize the magnitude of this problem. In an attempt to slow the rate of loss and perhaps halt the overall trend, resource managers in Louisiana apply various techniques to restore damaged or degraded habitats to functioning wetland systems. Researchers at the U.S. Geological Survey's National Wetlands Research Center (NWRC) have cooperated with the Louisiana Department of Natural Resources in studies that address effective restoration strategies for coastal wetlands. The studies have identified differences in growth that naturally exist in native Louisiana wetland plant species and genetic varieties (i.e., clones) within species. Clones of a species have a distinctive genetic identity, and some clones may also have distinctive growth responses under various environmental conditions (i.e., preferences). Indeed, large areas of coastal marsh are typically populated by several clones of a plant species, each growing in a microenvironment suited to its preferences. These studies will provide information that will assist resource managers in selecting plant species and clones of species with known growth characteristics that can be matched to environmental conditions at potential restoration sites. Before the studies began, a collection of several clones from four plant species native to coastal Louisiana was established. The species collected included saltgrass (Distichlis spicata), common reed (Phragmites australis), giant bulrush (Schoenoplectus californicus), and saltmarsh bulrush (Schoenoplectus

  7. Dietary requirement for serum-derived bovine immunoglobulins in the clinical management of patients with enteropathy.

    PubMed

    Petschow, Bryon W; Burnett, Bruce P; Shaw, Audrey L; Weaver, Eric M; Klein, Gerald L

    2015-01-01

    A variety of human disease conditions are associated with chronic intestinal disorders or enteropathies that are characterized by intestinal inflammation, increased gut permeability, and reduced capacity to absorb nutrients. Such disruptions in the homeostasis of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract can lead to symptoms of abdominal pain and discomfort, bloating, abnormal bowel function, and malabsorption of nutrients. While significant advances have been made in understanding the factors that influence the complex and fragile balance between the gut microbiota, intestinal epithelial cell integrity, and the underlying immune system, effective therapies for restoring intestinal balance during enteropathy are still not available. Numerous studies have demonstrated the ability of oral immunoglobulins to improve weight gain, support gut barrier function, and reduce the severity of enteropathy in animals. More recently, studies in humans provide evidence that serum-derived bovine immunoglobulin/protein isolate is safe and improves nutritional status and GI symptoms in patients with enteropathy associated with irritable bowel syndrome or infection with the human immunodeficiency virus. This review summarizes studies showing the impact of enteropathy on nutritional status and how specially formulated bovine immunoglobulins may help restore intestinal homeostasis and nutritional status in patients with specific enteropathies. Such protein preparations may provide distinct nutritional support required for the dietary management of patients who, because of therapeutic or chronic medical needs, have limited or impaired capacity to digest, absorb, or metabolize ordinary foodstuffs or certain nutrients, or other special medically determined nutrient requirements that cannot be satisfied by changes to the normal diet alone. PMID:25142170

  8. Ruminant alphaherpesviruses related to bovine herpesvirus 1.

    PubMed

    Thiry, Julien; Keuser, Véronique; Muylkens, Benoît; Meurens, François; Gogev, Sacha; Vanderplasschen, Alain; Thiry, Etienne

    2006-01-01

    Herpesviruses have mainly co-evolved with their hosts for millions of years. Consequently, different related host species may have been infected by various genetically related herpesviruses. Illustrating this concept, several ruminant alphaherpesviruses have been shown to form a cluster of viruses closely related to bovine herpesvirus 1 (BoHV-1): namely bovine herpesvirus 5, bubaline herpesvirus 1, caprine herpesvirus 1, cervid herpesviruses 1 and 2 and elk herpesvirus 1. These viruses share common antigenic properties and the serological relationships between them can be considered as a threat to BoHV-1 eradication programmes. BoHV-1 is a herpesvirus responsible for infectious bovine rhinotracheitis, which is a disease of major economic concern. In this article, the genetic properties of these ruminant alphaherpesviruses are reviewed on a comparative basis and the issue of interspecific recombination is assessed. The pathogenesis of these infections is described with emphasis on the host range and crossing of the host species barrier. Indeed, the non bovine ruminant species susceptible to these ruminant alphaherpesviruses may be potential BoHV-1 reservoirs. The differential diagnosis of these related infections is also discussed. In addition, available epidemiological data are used to assess the potential of cross-infection in ruminant populations. A better knowledge of these ruminant alphaherpesvirus infections is essential to successfully control infectious bovine rhinotracheitis. PMID:16472518

  9. Bovine Fetal Inoculations with Calf Rotavirus

    PubMed Central

    Schlafer, D. H.; Schultz, R. D.; Scott, F. W.; Duncan, J. R.

    1979-01-01

    The serological and histopathological responses of bovine fetuses to in utero inoculation with virulent and attenuated strains of the calf rotavirus (reovirus-like agent of neonatal calf diarrhea) are described. Thirteen bovine fetuses, 63 to 190 days of gestation, were inoculated in utero with attenuated (three fetuses) or field strain virus (nine fetuses) or both (one fetus). Serum-neutralizing antibody titers ranging from 1:16 to > 1:256 were detected in six of eight fetuses tested, demonstrating the ability of the bovine fetus to respond immunologically to this agent. The youngest fetus in the series was inoculated at 63 days of gestation and developed a titer of 128 in 64 days. This represents the earliest stage of gestation at which a bovine fetus has been inoculated with a bovine virus and found to produce antibody to it. Serum neutralizing titers in six of the eight dams tested increased significantly following the inoculations of their fetuses in utero. Histological changes associated with viral replication and antigenic stimulation of the lymphoreticular system were observed. Pneumonic lesions consisting of both local and diffuse lymphoreticular proliferation were present in five of the nine fetuses that were alive at slaughter. Gliosis and perivascular cuffing were noted in the brains of two of these fetuses and meningitis was seen in one. No evidence of teratogenic change was found. ImagesFig. 2.Fig. 3.Fig. 4.Fig. 5.Fig. 6.Fig. 7. PMID:232853

  10. Recent Progress in Cryopreservation of Bovine Oocytes

    PubMed Central

    Hochi, Shinichi

    2014-01-01

    Principle of oocyte cryoinjury is first overviewed and then research history of cryopreservation using bovine oocytes is summarized for the last two decades with a few special references to recent progresses. Various types of cryodevices have been developed to accelerate the cooling rate and applied to the oocytes from large domestic species enriched with cytoplasmic lipid droplets. Two recent approaches include the qualitative improvement of IVM oocytes prior to the vitrification and the short-term recovery culture of vitrified-warmed oocytes prior to the subsequent IVF. Supplementation of L-carnitine to IVM medium of bovine oocytes has been reported to reduce the amount of cytoplasmic lipid droplets and improve the cryotolerance of the oocytes, but it is still controversial whether the positive effect of L-carnitine is reproducible. Incidence of multiple aster formation, a possible cause for low developmental potential of vitrified-warmed bovine oocytes, was inhibited by a short-term culture of the postwarm oocytes in the presence of Rho-associated coiled-coil kinase (ROCK) inhibitor. Use of an antioxidant α-tocopherol, instead of the ROCK inhibitor, also supported the revivability of the postwarm bovine oocytes. Further improvements of the vitrification procedure, combined with pre- and postvitrification chemical treatment, would overcome the high sensitivity of bovine oocytes to cryopreservation. PMID:24738063

  11. Cuspal deflection of maxillary premolars restored with bonded amalgam.

    PubMed

    el-Badrawy, W A

    1999-01-01

    The aims of this study were to measure cuspal deflection of premolars restored with bonded amalgam and to investigate bond resistance to thermo-cycling and cyclic loading. Strain gauges were used to measure cuspal deflection of maxillary premolars restored with MOD bonded amalgam restorations. A nondestructive method was used in which teeth were loaded repeatedly to record cuspal deflection following different restorative procedures. Ten extracted premolars with similar dimensions were selected and their roots mounted in resin bases 2 mm below the CEJ. Two single-element strain gauges were bonded to the buccal and lingual surfaces of the cusps of each tooth at a level that corresponded to the pulpal floor of MOD cavities. These were connected to a strain indicator with a built-in wheat-stone bridge. An Instron machine was used to apply a 100 N compressive load. Micro-strain readings were recorded with each loading at the following stages: (1) sound unprepared teeth (baseline reading), (2) following preparation of a medium-size MOD cavity, (3) 24 hours following restoration with amalgam, (4) following amalgam removal, (5) 24 hours following restoration with bonded amalgam. Durability of the bond was further tested by cyclic loading of 2000, 4000, 6000, and 8000 load cycles. Mean micro-strain values recorded at the buccal cusp were: 48.0 (21.6), 126.8(57.2), 121.4(53.3), 120.8(56.1), and 65.2(36.5) for test stages 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 respectively. Cuspal deflections following cyclic loading recorded at the buccal cusp were: 60.0(41.0), 63.6(51.9), 59.6(36.3), and 61.6(36.8) at the above four cyclic loading stages respectively. A similar trend was also observed for measurements of the lingual cusp. It was concluded that bonding amalgam restorations decreases cuspal deflection and consequently may assist in restoring tooth strength under conditions of the oral environment. PMID:10823082

  12. Environmental Restoration Quality Program Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Colley, J.S.

    1992-08-01

    The Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., Environmental Restoration (ER) Program was initially chartered on October 1, 1989, as a entral Environmental Restoration Division'' to manage the investigation and remediation of inactive sites and facilities that have been declared surplus and have no further programmatic use. The Energy Systems ER Division was established to support the DOE Oak Ridge Field Office (DOE-OR) consolidated ER Program. The DOE-OR Assistant Manager for Environmental Restoration and Waste Management provides program and budget direction to the Energy Systems ER Program for environmental restoration activities at the sites operated by Energy Systems (Oak Ridge K-25 Site, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant, Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant) and at the off-site locations. The Energy Systems ER Division is specifically charged with assessing these sites for potential contamination and managing the cleanup processes. The Energy Systems Environmental Restoration Division was chartered on October 1, 1989, as a central organization to manage the Remedial Action (RA) Program. The purpose of this document is to ensure that: senior ER management provides planning, organization, direction, control, and support to achieve the organization's objectives; the line organization achieves quality; and overall performance is reviewed and evaluated using a rigorous assessment process.

  13. Bovine immunoglobulin protein isolates for the nutritional management of enteropathy

    PubMed Central

    Petschow, Bryon W; Blikslager, Anthony T; Weaver, Eric M; Campbell, Joy M; Polo, Javier; Shaw, Audrey L; Burnett, Bruce P; Klein, Gerald L; Rhoads, J Marc

    2014-01-01

    The gastrointestinal tract is responsible for a multitude of digestive and immune functions which depend upon the balanced interaction of the intestinal microbiota, diet, gut barrier function, and mucosal immune response. Disruptions in one or more of these factors can lead to intestinal disorders or enteropathies which are characterized by intestinal inflammation, increased gut permeability, and reduced capacity to absorb nutrients. Enteropathy is frequently associated with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, inflammatory bowel disease, autoimmune enteropathy, radiation enteritis, and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), where pathologic changes in the intestinal tract lead to abdominal discomfort, bloating, abnormal bowel function (e.g., diarrhea, urgency, constipation and malabsorption). Unfortunately, effective therapies for the management of enteropathy and restoring intestinal health are still not available. An accumulating body of preclinical studies has demonstrated that oral administration of plasma- or serum-derived protein concentrates containing high levels of immunoglobulins can improve weight, normalize gut barrier function, and reduce the severity of enteropathy in animal models. Recent studies in humans, using serum-derived bovine immunoglobulin/protein isolate, demonstrate that such protein preparations are safe and improve symptoms, nutritional status, and various biomarkers associated with enteropathy. Benefits have been shown in patients with HIV infection or diarrhea-predominant IBS. This review summarizes preclinical and clinical studies with plasma/serum protein concentrates and describes the effects on host nutrition, intestinal function, and markers of intestinal inflammation. It supports the concept that immunoglobulin-containing protein preparations may offer a new strategy for restoring functional homeostasis in the intestinal tract of patients with enteropathy. PMID:25206275

  14. Bovine immunoglobulin protein isolates for the nutritional management of enteropathy.

    PubMed

    Petschow, Bryon W; Blikslager, Anthony T; Weaver, Eric M; Campbell, Joy M; Polo, Javier; Shaw, Audrey L; Burnett, Bruce P; Klein, Gerald L; Rhoads, J Marc

    2014-09-01

    The gastrointestinal tract is responsible for a multitude of digestive and immune functions which depend upon the balanced interaction of the intestinal microbiota, diet, gut barrier function, and mucosal immune response. Disruptions in one or more of these factors can lead to intestinal disorders or enteropathies which are characterized by intestinal inflammation, increased gut permeability, and reduced capacity to absorb nutrients. Enteropathy is frequently associated with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, inflammatory bowel disease, autoimmune enteropathy, radiation enteritis, and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), where pathologic changes in the intestinal tract lead to abdominal discomfort, bloating, abnormal bowel function (e.g., diarrhea, urgency, constipation and malabsorption). Unfortunately, effective therapies for the management of enteropathy and restoring intestinal health are still not available. An accumulating body of preclinical studies has demonstrated that oral administration of plasma- or serum-derived protein concentrates containing high levels of immunoglobulins can improve weight, normalize gut barrier function, and reduce the severity of enteropathy in animal models. Recent studies in humans, using serum-derived bovine immunoglobulin/protein isolate, demonstrate that such protein preparations are safe and improve symptoms, nutritional status, and various biomarkers associated with enteropathy. Benefits have been shown in patients with HIV infection or diarrhea-predominant IBS. This review summarizes preclinical and clinical studies with plasma/serum protein concentrates and describes the effects on host nutrition, intestinal function, and markers of intestinal inflammation. It supports the concept that immunoglobulin-containing protein preparations may offer a new strategy for restoring functional homeostasis in the intestinal tract of patients with enteropathy. PMID:25206275

  15. The Physiology of Adventitious Roots.

    PubMed

    Steffens, Bianka; Rasmussen, Amanda

    2016-02-01

    Adventitious roots are plant roots that form from any nonroot tissue and are produced both during normal development (crown roots on cereals and nodal roots on strawberry [Fragaria spp.]) and in response to stress conditions, such as flooding, nutrient deprivation, and wounding. They are important economically (for cuttings and food production), ecologically (environmental stress response), and for human existence (food production). To improve sustainable food production under environmentally extreme conditions, it is important to understand the adventitious root development of crops both in normal and stressed conditions. Therefore, understanding the regulation and physiology of adventitious root formation is critical for breeding programs. Recent work shows that different adventitious root types are regulated differently, and here, we propose clear definitions of these classes. We use three case studies to summarize the physiology of adventitious root development in response to flooding (case study 1), nutrient deficiency (case study 2), and wounding (case study 3). PMID:26697895

  16. Evaluation of experimental vaccines for bovine viral diarrhea in bovines, ovines and guinea pigs.

    PubMed

    Fernández, F; Costantini, V; Barrandeguy, M; Parreño, V; Schiappacassi, G; Maliandi, F; Leunda, M; Odeón, A

    2009-01-01

    The bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) infection control should be based on elimination of persistently infected animals and on immunization through vaccination, to prevent fetal infection. However, the efficacy of inactivated BVDV vaccines is variable due to its low immunogenicity. This study evaluated the humoral immune response against homologous and heterologous strains of 7 inactivated BVDV vaccines, in bovines and two experimental models (ovine and guinea pig) which might be used to test candidate vaccines. Vaccines formulated with BVDV Singer, Oregon, NADL, and multivalent, induced seroconversion in the three animal models studied, reaching antibody titres higher than 2. Vaccine containing 125C -genotype 2- only induced a low antibody response in ovine, while VS-115 NCP vaccine was not immunogenic. Furthermore, bovine sera at 60 dpv presented homologous as well as heterologous antibody response, indicating a high degree of cross-reactivity among the strains studied. However, when bovine sera were tested against the Argentine field strain 00-693, they showed the lowest levels of cross-reactivity, suggesting the need of continued surveillance to identify and characterize emerging field BVDV strains. Finally, optimal correlations between bovine-ovine and bovine-guinea pig models were observed, indicating that two alternative species could replace bovines when testing the immunogenicity of BVDV candidate vaccines. PMID:19623897

  17. Functional reconstitution of prostaglandin E receptor from bovine adrenal medulla with guanine nucleotide binding proteins

    SciTech Connect

    Negishi, M.; Ito, S.; Yokohama, H.; Hayashi, H.; Katada, T.; Ui, M.; Hayaishi, O.

    1988-05-15

    Prostaglandin E/sub 2/ (PEG/sub 2/) was found to bind specifically to a 100,000 x g pellet prepared from bovine adrenal medulla. The PGE receptor was associated with a GTP-binding protein (G-protein) and could be covalently cross-linked with this G-protein by dithiobis(succinimidyl propionate) in the 100,000 x g pellet. In order to characterize the G-protein associated with the PGE receptor and reconstitute these proteins in phospholipid vesicles, the authors purified the G-protein to apparent homogeneity from the 100,000 x g pellet. The G-protein served as a substrate of pertussis toxin but differed in its ..cap alpha.. subunit from two known pertussis toxin substrate G-proteins (G/sub i/ and G/sub 0/) purified from bovine brain. The molecular weight of the ..cap alpha.. subunit was 40,000, which is between those of G/sub i/ and G/sub 0/. The purified protein was also distinguished immunologically from G/sub i/ and G/sub 0/ and was referred to as G/sub am/. Reconstitution of the PGE receptor with pure C/sub am/, G/sub i/, or G/sub 0/ in phospholipid vesicles resulted in a remarkable restoration of (/sup 3/H)PGE/sub 2/ binding activity in a GTP-dependent manner. The efficiency of these three G-proteins in this capacity was roughly equal. When pertussis toxin- or N-ethylmaleimide-treated G-proteins, instead of the native ones, were reconstituted into vesicles, the restoration of binding activity was no longer observed. These results indicate that the PGE receptor can couple functionally with G/sub am/, G/sub i/, or G/sub 0/ in phospholipid vesicles and suggest that G/sub am/ may be involved in signal transduction of the PGE receptor in bovine adrenal medulla.

  18. Parthenogenetic activation of bovine oocytes using bovine and murine phospholipase C zeta

    PubMed Central

    Ross, Pablo J; Beyhan, Zeki; Iager, Amy E; Yoon, Sook-Young; Malcuit, Christopher; Schellander, Karl; Fissore, Rafael A; Cibelli, Jose B

    2008-01-01

    Background During natural fertilization, sperm fusion with the oocyte induces long lasting intracellular calcium oscillations which in turn are responsible for oocyte activation. PLCZ1 has been identified as the factor that the sperm delivers into the egg to induce such a response. We tested the hypothesis that PLCZ1 cRNA injection can be used to activate bovine oocytes. Results Mouse and bovine PLCZ1 cRNAs were injected into matured bovine oocytes at different concentrations. Within the concentrations tested, mouse PLCZ1 injection activated bovine oocytes at a maximum rate when the pipette concentration of cRNA ranged from 0.25 to 1 μg/μL, while bovine PLCZ1 was optimal at 0.1 μg/μL. At their most effective concentrations, PLCZ1 induced parthenogenetic development at rates similar to those observed using other activation stimuli such as Ionomycin/CHX and Ionomycin/DMAP. Injection of mouse and bovine PLCZ1 cRNA induced dose-dependent sperm-like calcium oscillations whose frequency increased over time. Injection of bovine and mouse PLCZ1 cRNA also induced IP3R-1 degradation, although bovine PLCZ1 cRNA evoked greater receptor degradation than its mouse counterpart. Conclusion Injection of PLCZ1 cRNA efficiently activated bovine oocytes by inducing a sperm-like calcium oscillatory pattern. Importantly, the high rate of aneuploidy encountered in parthenogenetic embryos activated by certain chemical means was not observed in PLCZ1 activated embryos. PMID:18284699

  19. Understanding and evaluating bovine testes.

    PubMed

    Kastelic, John P

    2014-01-01

    The objective is to briefly review bovine testes and how they are assessed, with an emphasis on articles from Theriogenology. Scrotal circumference (SC) is the most common method to assess testicular size; it varies among individual bulls and breeds and is highly heritable. In general, a large SC is associated with early puberty, more sperm, a higher percentage of morphologically normal sperm, and better reproductive performance in closely related females. Consequently, there are minimum requirements for SC for breeding soundness. In prepubertal bull calves, there is an early rise (10-20 weeks of age) in LH, which is critically related to onset of puberty and testicular development. Feeding bulls approximately 130% of maintenance requirements of energy and protein from approximately 8 to 30 weeks of age increased LH release during the early rise, hastened puberty (approximately 1 month), and increased mature testis size and sperm production (approximately 20%-30%). However, high-energy diets after weaning (>200 days) often reduced sperm production and semen quality. A bull's testes and scrotum have opposing (complementary) temperature gradients, which keep the testicular temperature 2 °C to 6 °C cooler than core body temperature for production of fertile sperm (increased testicular temperature reduces semen quality). Infrared thermography, a quick and noninvasive method of assessing scrotal surface temperature, may be beneficial for evaluations of breeding soundness. The primary clinical use of ultrasonography in assessment of reproductive function in the bull is characterization of grossly detectable lesions in the testes and scrotum. In conclusion, testis size and function are critical for bull fertility, affected by nutrition, and readily assessed clinically. PMID:24274406

  20. Sound strategies for hearing restoration.

    PubMed

    Géléoc, Gwenaëlle S G; Holt, Jeffrey R

    2014-05-01

    Hearing loss is the most common sensory deficit in humans, with some estimates suggesting up to 300 million affected individuals worldwide. Both environmental and genetic factors contribute to hearing loss and can cause death of sensory cells and neurons. Because these cells do not regenerate, the damage tends to accumulate, leading to profound deafness. Several biological strategies to restore auditory function are currently under investigation. Owing to the success of cochlear implants, which offer partial recovery of auditory function for some profoundly deaf patients, potential biological therapies must extend hearing restoration to include greater auditory acuity and larger patient populations. Here, we review the latest gene, stem-cell, and molecular strategies for restoring auditory function in animal models and the prospects for translating these approaches into viable clinical therapies. PMID:24812404

  1. Sound Strategies for Hearing Restoration

    PubMed Central

    Géléoc, Gwenaëlle S.G.; Holt, Jeffrey R.

    2014-01-01

    Hearing loss is the most common sensory deficit in humans with some estimates suggesting up to 300 million affected individuals worldwide. Both environmental and genetic factors contribute to hearing loss and can cause death of sensory cells and neurons. Since these cells do not regenerate, the damage tends to accumulate leading to profound deafness. Several biological strategies to restore auditory function are currently under investigation. Due to the success of cochlear implants, which offer partial recovery of auditory function for some profoundly deaf patients, potential biological therapies must extend hearing restoration to include greater auditory acuity and larger patient populations. Here we review the latest gene, stem-cell, and molecular strategies for restoring auditory function in animal models and the prospects for translating these approaches into viable clinical therapies. PMID:24812404

  2. New antibacterial peptide derived from bovine hemoglobin.

    PubMed

    Daoud, Rachid; Dubois, Veronique; Bors-Dodita, Loredana; Nedjar-Arroume, Naima; Krier, Francois; Chihib, Nour-Eddine; Mary, Patrice; Kouach, Mostafa; Briand, Gilbert; Guillochon, Didier

    2005-05-01

    Peptic digestion of bovine hemoglobin at low degree of hydrolysis yields an intermediate peptide fraction exhibiting antibacterial activity against Micrococcus luteus A270, Listeria innocua, Escherichia coli and Salmonella enteritidis after separation by reversed-phase HPLC. From this fraction a pure peptide was isolated and analyzed by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS) and electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-MS/MS). This peptide correspond to the 107-136 fragment of the alpha chain of bovine hemoglobin. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) towards the four strains and its hemolytic activity towards bovine erythrocytes were determined. A MIC of 38 microM was reported against L. innocua and 76 microM for other various bacterial species. This peptide had no hemolytic activity up to 380 microM concentration. PMID:15808900

  3. Arachidonate metabolism in bovine gallbladder muscle

    SciTech Connect

    Nakano, M.; Hidaka, T.; Ueta, T.; Ogura, R.

    1983-04-01

    Incubation of (1-/sup 14/C)arachidonic acid (AA) with homogenates of bovine gallbladder muscle generated a large amount of radioactive material having the chromatographic mobility of 6-keto-PGF1 alpha (stable product of PGI2) and smaller amounts of products that comigrated with PGF2 alpha PGE2. Formation of these products was inhibited by the cyclooxygenase inhibitor indomethacin. The major radioactive product identified by thin-layer chromatographic mobility and by gas chromatography - mass spectrometric analysis was found to be 6-keto-PGF1 alpha. The quantitative metabolic pattern of (1-/sup 14/C)PGH2 was virtually identical to that of (1-/sup 14/C)AA. Incubation of arachidonic acid with slices of bovine gallbladder muscle released labile anti-aggregatory material in the medium, which was inhibited by aspirin or 15-hydroperoxy-AA. These results indicate that bovine gallbladder muscle has a considerable enzymatic capacity to produce PGI2 from arachidonic acid.

  4. Comparison of human and bovine protoporphyria.

    PubMed

    Brenner, D A; Bloomer, J R

    1979-01-01

    Protoporphyria (PP) is an inherited disorder of porphyrin metabolism in man in which there is excessive accumulation and excretion of protoporphyrin. Recently, a similar disorder has been described in cattle. In this report, the clinical, biochemical, and genetic features of bovine and human PP are compared. Human and bovine PP are characterized by photosensitivity and elevation of erythrocyte and fecal protoporphyrin levels. In both disorders, a deficiency of heme synthase activity is present in all tissues which have been examined. The diseases differ clinically in that hepatobiliary disease has been found thus far only in human PP. They also have different inheritance patterns. Human PP is an autosomal dominant disease, while initial studies strongly suggest that there is an autosomal recessive pattern of inheritance in bovine PP. PMID:392959

  5. Hairy roots are more sensitive to auxin than normal roots

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Wen Hui; Petit, Annik; Guern, Jean; Tempé, Jacques

    1988-01-01

    Responses to auxin of Lotus corniculatus root tips or protoplasts transformed by Agrobacterium rhizogenes strains 15834 and 8196 were compared to those of their normal counterparts. Three different types of experiments were performed, involving long-term, medium-term, or short-term responses to a synthetic auxin, 1-naphthaleneacetic acid. Root tip elongation, proton excretion by root tips, and transmembrane electrical potential difference of root protoplasts were measured as a function of exogenous auxin concentration. The sensitivity of hairy root tips or protoplasts to exogenous auxin was found to be 100-1000 times higher than that of untransformed material. PMID:16593928

  6. Hairy roots are more sensitive to auxin than normal roots.

    PubMed

    Shen, W H; Petit, A; Guern, J; Tempé, J

    1988-05-01

    Responses to auxin of Lotus corniculatus root tips or protoplasts transformed by Agrobacterium rhizogenes strains 15834 and 8196 were compared to those of their normal counterparts. Three different types of experiments were performed, involving long-term, medium-term, or short-term responses to a synthetic auxin, 1-naphthaleneacetic acid. Root tip elongation, proton excretion by root tips, and transmembrane electrical potential difference of root protoplasts were measured as a function of exogenous auxin concentration. The sensitivity of hairy root tips or protoplasts to exogenous auxin was found to be 100-1000 times higher than that of untransformed material. PMID:16593928

  7. 21 CFR 522.1125 - Hemoglobin glutamer-200 (bovine).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Hemoglobin glutamer-200 (bovine). 522.1125 Section... § 522.1125 Hemoglobin glutamer-200 (bovine). (a) Specifications. Each 125 milliliter bag contains 13 grams per deciliter of polymerized hemoglobin of bovine origin in modified Lactated Ringer's...

  8. 21 CFR 522.1125 - Hemoglobin glutamer-200 (bovine).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Hemoglobin glutamer-200 (bovine). 522.1125 Section... § 522.1125 Hemoglobin glutamer-200 (bovine). (a) Specifications. Each 125 milliliter bag contains 13 grams per deciliter of polymerized hemoglobin of bovine origin in modified Lactated Ringer's...

  9. 21 CFR 522.1125 - Hemoglobin glutamer-200 (bovine).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Hemoglobin glutamer-200 (bovine). 522.1125 Section... § 522.1125 Hemoglobin glutamer-200 (bovine). (a) Specifications. Each 125 milliliter bag contains 13 grams per deciliter of polymerized hemoglobin of bovine origin in modified Lactated Ringer's...

  10. 21 CFR 522.1125 - Hemoglobin glutamer-200 (bovine).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Hemoglobin glutamer-200 (bovine). 522.1125 Section... § 522.1125 Hemoglobin glutamer-200 (bovine). (a) Specifications. Each 125 milliliter bag contains 13 grams per deciliter of polymerized hemoglobin of bovine origin in modified Lactated Ringer's...

  11. 76 FR 26239 - Bovine Tuberculosis and Brucellosis; Public Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-06

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Bovine Tuberculosis and Brucellosis... framework being developed for the bovine tuberculosis and brucellosis programs in the United States. The... tuberculosis (TB) and bovine brucellosis in the United States. In keeping with its commitment to...

  12. Effect of filling technique on the bond strength of methacrylate and silorane-based composite restorations.

    PubMed

    Machado, Fernanda Weingartner; Borges, Fernanda Blos; Cenci, Maximiliano Sérgio; Moraes, Rafael Ratto de; Boscato, Noéli

    2016-01-01

    The bond strength of methacrylate (Z350, 3M ESPE) and silorane (P90, 3M ESPE) restorations, using different cavity filling techniques, was investigated. Cavities (6 × 3 × 3) in bovine teeth were filled using bulk, oblique, or horizontal increments. A push-out test was carried out after 24 h. Data were statistically analyzed (α = 5%). Methacrylate-based composites and the horizontal filling technique showed the highest bond strength values (10.2 ± 3.9, p < 0.05). Silorane-based composites showed no statistically significant differences regarding the filling techniques (p > 0.05). PMID:27050940

  13. Strigolactones Effects on Root Growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koltai, Hinanit

    2012-07-01

    Strigolactones (SLs) were defined as a new group of plant hormones that suppress lateral shoot branching. Our previous studies suggested SLs to be regulators of root development. SLs were shown to alter root architecture by regulating lateral root formation and to affect root hair elongation in Arabidopsis. Another important effect of SLs on root growth was shown to be associated with root directional growth. Supplementation of SLs to roots led to alterations in root directional growth, whereas associated mutants showed asymmetrical root growth, which was influenced by environmental factors. The regulation by SLs of root development was shown to be conducted via a cross talk of SLs with other plant hormones, including auxin. SLs were shown to regulate auxin transport, and to interfere with the activity of auxin-efflux carriers. Therefore, it might be that SLs are regulators of root directional growth as a result of their ability to regulated auxin transport. However, other evidences suggest a localized effect of SLs on cell division, which may not necessarily be associated with auxin efflux. These and other, recent hypothesis as to the SLs mode of action and the associated root perception and response to environmental factors will be discussed.

  14. Aquaporins and root water relations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Water is one of the most critical resources limiting plant growth and crop productivity, and root water uptake is an important aspect of plant physiology governing plant water use and stress tolerance. Pathways of root water uptake are complex and are affected by root structure and physiological res...

  15. Phonemic restoration in developmental dyslexia.

    PubMed

    Del Tufo, Stephanie N; Myers, Emily B

    2014-01-01

    The comprehension of fluent speech in one's native language requires that listeners integrate the detailed acoustic-phonetic information available in the sound signal with linguistic knowledge. This interplay is especially apparent in the phoneme restoration effect, a phenomenon in which a missing phoneme is "restored" via the influence of top-down information from the lexicon and through bottom-up acoustic processing. Developmental dyslexia is a disorder characterized by an inability to read at the level of one's peers without any clear failure due to environmental influences. In the current study we utilized the phonemic restoration illusion paradigm to examine individual differences in phonemic restoration across a range of reading ability, from very good to dyslexic readers. Results demonstrate that restoration occurs less in those who have high scores on measures of phonological processing. Based on these results, we suggest that the processing or representation of acoustic detail may not be as reliable in poor and dyslexic readers, with the result that lexical information is more likely to override acoustic properties of the stimuli. This pattern of increased restoration could result from a failure of perceptual tuning, in which unstable representations of speech sounds result in the acceptance of non-speech sounds as speech. An additional or alternative theory is that degraded or impaired phonological processing at the speech sound level may reflect architecture that is overly plastic and consequently fails to stabilize appropriately for speech sound representations. Therefore, the inability to separate speech and noise may result as a deficit in separating noise from the acoustic signal. PMID:24926230

  16. Springback in root gravitropism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leopold, A. C.; Wettlaufer, S. H.

    1989-01-01

    Conditions under which a gravistimulus of Merit corn roots (Zea mays L.) is withdrawn result in a subsequent loss of gravitropic curvature, an effect which we refer to as springback.' This loss of curvature begins within 1 to 10 minutes after removal of the gravistimulus. It occurs regardless of the presence or absence of the root cap. It is insensitive to inhibitors of auxin transport (2,3,5-triiodobenzoic acid, naphthylphthalamic [correction of naphthylphthalmaic] acid) or to added auxin (2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid). Springback is prevented if a clinostat treatment is interjected to neutralize gravistimulation during germination, which suggests that the change in curvature is a response to a memory' effect carried over from a prior gravistimulation.

  17. Springback in root gravitropism.

    PubMed

    Leopold, A C; Wettlaufer, S H

    1989-01-01

    Conditions under which a gravistimulus of Merit corn roots (Zea mays L.) is withdrawn result in a subsequent loss of gravitropic curvature, an effect which we refer to as springback.' This loss of curvature begins within 1 to 10 minutes after removal of the gravistimulus. It occurs regardless of the presence or absence of the root cap. It is insensitive to inhibitors of auxin transport (2,3,5-triiodobenzoic acid, naphthylphthalamic [correction of naphthylphthalmaic] acid) or to added auxin (2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid). Springback is prevented if a clinostat treatment is interjected to neutralize gravistimulation during germination, which suggests that the change in curvature is a response to a memory' effect carried over from a prior gravistimulation. PMID:11537456

  18. Diagravitropism in corn roots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leopold, A. C.; Wettlaufer, S. H.

    1988-01-01

    The diagravitropic behavior of Merit corn (Zea mays L.) roots grown in darkness provides an opportunity for comparison of two qualitatively different gravitropic systems. As with positive gravitropism, diagravitropism is shown to require the presence of the root cap, have a similar time course for the onset of curvature, and a similar presentation time. In contrast with positive gravitropism, diagravitropism appears to have a more limited requirement for calcium, for it is insensitive to the elution of calcium by EGTA and insensitive to the subsequent addition of a calcium/EGTA complex. These results are interpreted as indicating that whereas the same sensing system is shared by the two types of gravitropism, separate transductive systems are involved, one for diagravitropism, which is relatively independent of calcium, and one for positive gravitropism, which is markedly dependent on calcium.

  19. INFLUENCE OF HUMAN AND BOVINE SUBSTRATE ON THE MICROLEAKAGE OF TWO ADHESIVE SYSTEMS

    PubMed Central

    Almeida, Karoline Guará Brusaca; Scheibe, Kristine Guará Brusaca Almeida; Oliveira, Ana Emília Figuerêdo; Alves, Cláudia Maria Coêlho; Costa, José Ferreira

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate in vitro the marginal sealing of two adhesive systems and to analyze the influence of human and bovine substrates on marginal microleakage in enamel. Rectangular-shaped class V cavities (4 mm wide × 2 mm high × 2 mm deep) were made as follows: 8 cavities were prepared on the buccal and lingual surfaces of the human teeth with margins located on enamel and 16 cavities were prepared on the buccal surfaces of the bovine teeth. The cavities were randomly assigned to 4 groups of 8 cavities according to the adhesive system and substrate: G1 - Prime & Bond 2.1 (Dentsply)/human substrate; G2 - Adhese (Ivoclar/Vivadent)/human substrate; G3 - Prime & Bond 2.1 (Dentsply)/bovine substrate; G4 - Adhese (Ivoclar/Vivadent)/bovine substrate. The cavities were filled with microhybrid composite resin (Fillmagic) and after polishing/finishing procedures, the teeth were subjected to a thermocycling regimen of 500 cycles with 1-min immersions in water at 55° ±2°C and 5° ± 2°C. Next, the teeth were coated with two layers of nail polish to within 1 mm of the margin, submerged in a 50% silver nitrate solution for 2 h, rinsed thoroughly in running tap and immersed in developing solution for 8 h. The restorations were bisected resulting in 16 specimens. Microleakage was observed under a stereomicroscope at x25 and recorded using four-point (0-3) scoring system. The data were analyzed statistically by the Mann Whitney U-test at 5% significance level. Leakage was present in all specimens and there was statistically significant difference between the adhesive systems. Adhese self-etching system showed significantly more leakage in both substrates (human - p= 0.0001 and bovine - p= 0.0031). There was no statistically significant difference between human and bovine substrates for either of the adhesive systems based on different bonding mechanisms (Prime & Bond 2.1 - p= 0.6923 and Adhese - p= 0.6109). Neither of the adhesive systems was capable to

  20. Characterization of the bovine C alpha gene.

    PubMed Central

    Brown, W R; Rabbani, H; Butler, J E; Hammarström, L

    1997-01-01

    The complete genomic sequence of a bovine C alpha gene is reported here. The genomic sequence was obtained from a C alpha phage clone that had been cloned from a genomic EMBL4 phage vector library. The C alpha sequence had previously been expressed as a chimeric antibody and identified as IgA using IgA-specific antibodies. Intron/exon boundaries were determined by comparison of the genomic sequence with an expressed bovine C alpha sequence obtained from spleen by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Analysis of 50 Swedish bovine genomic DNA samples using genomic blots and five different restriction enzymes failed to detect evidence of polymorphism. However, PstI digests of Brown Swiss DNA showed a restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP), suggesting that at least two allelic variants of bovine IgA exist. Comparison of the deduced amino acid sequence of bovine IgA with sequences available for other species indicated that the highest homology was with that of swine, another artiodactyl. This was the highest homology observed for all mammalian IgA compared except for that between IgA1 and IgA2 in humans. Bovine IgA shares with rabbit IgA3 and IgA4, an additional N-linked glycosylation site at position 282. However, the collective data indicate that cattle are like swine and rodents and unlike rabbits in having a single locus of the gene encoding IgA of this species. Images Figure 4 PMID:9203958

  1. Minimizing waste in environmental restoration

    SciTech Connect

    Moos, L.; Thuot, J.R.

    1996-07-01

    Environmental restoration, decontamination and decommissioning and facility dismantelment projects are not typically known for their waste minimization and pollution prevention efforts. Typical projects are driven by schedules and milestones with little attention given to cost or waste minimization. Conventional wisdom in these projects is that the waste already exists and cannot be reduced or minimized. In fact, however, there are three significant areas where waste and cost can be reduced. Waste reduction can occur in three ways: beneficial reuse or recycling; segregation of waste types; and reducing generation of secondary waste. This paper will discuss several examples of reuse, recycle, segregation, and secondary waste reduction at ANL restoration programs.

  2. Restoring Detroit's Street Lighting System

    SciTech Connect

    Kinzey, Bruce R.

    2015-10-21

    The City of Detroit is undertaking a comprehensive restoration of its street lighting system that includes transitioning the existing high-pressure sodium (HPS) sources to light-emitting diode (LED). Detroit’s well-publicized financial troubles over the last several years have added many hurdles and constraints to this process. Strategies to overcome these issues have largely been successful, but have also brought some mixed results. This document provides an objective review of the circumstances surrounding the system restoration, the processes undertaken and decisions made, and the results so far.

  3. Treatment planning for restorative implantology.

    PubMed

    Boyce, Ricardo A; Klemons, Gary

    2015-04-01

    In this article, current literature on fixed and removable prosthodontics is reviewed along with evidence-based systematic reviews, including advice from those in the dental profession with years of experience, which help restorative dentists manage and treat their cases successfully. Treatment planning for restorative implantology should be looked at in 4 sections: (1) review of past medical history, (2) oral examination and occlusion, (3) dental imaging (ie, cone-beam computed tomography), and (4) fixed versus removable prosthodontics. These 4 concepts of treatment planning, along with proper surgical placements of the implant(s), result in successful cases. PMID:25835794

  4. Call to Restore Mesopotamian Marshlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    Call to restore Mesopotamian marshlands When the current military conflict in Iraq has concluded, a rehabilitation of that country should include a full assessment and action plan for restoring the marshlands of Mesopotamia, the United Nations Environment Programme said on 22 March. The marshlands, also known as the Fertile Crescent, could disappear within three to five years, according to UNEP. UNEP Executive Director Klaus Toepfer said the loss of the marshlands ``is an environmental catastrophe for this region and underscores the huge pressures facing wetlands and freshwater ecosystems across the world.''

  5. Land Retirement as a Habitat Restoration Tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, P. N.; Wallender, W. W.

    2007-12-01

    the root zone. Salt on the surface may then be wind blown to adjacent areas creating a potential environmental hazard. Using field results from the U.S. Department of the Interior Land Retirement Demonstration Project at the Tranquillity site located in western Fresno County, principles of mass balance in a fixed control volume, the HYDRUS-1D Software Package for Simulating the One-Dimensional Movement of Water, Heat, and Multiple Solutes in Variably-Saturated Media, and PEST, a model-independent parameter optimizer, we have investigated the processes of soil water and salinity movement in the root zone and the deep vadose zone. Various combinations of evapotranspiration, soil water retention properties, water table condition and top and bottom boundary condition were tested. We show that certain Land Retirement scenarios decrease shallow water table and soil water salinity and enhance development of native plants as a means to facilitate habitat restoration for certain combination of soil and bottom boundary condition. Other combinations are not sustainable.

  6. Transosseous Medial Meniscal Root Repair Using a Modified Mason-Allen Suture Configuration.

    PubMed

    Lavender, Chad D; Hanzlik, Shane R; Caldwell, Paul E; Pearson, Sara E

    2015-12-01

    Medial meniscal tears are among the most common injuries to the knee joint. Loss of the meniscus has been linked to increased contact pressures on the adjacent articular cartilage and progression of degenerative changes in the knee. A subset of tears known as "root tears" involves the insertion of the posterior horn of the meniscus to the bone. Arthroscopic partial meniscectomy for root tears led to undesirable outcomes, which prompted surgeons to explore restorative procedures. Multiple repair techniques have been presented with an emphasis placed on initial secure fixation and stimulation of potential healing. We present an arthroscopic-assisted technique for medial meniscal root repair with these goals in mind. PMID:27284511

  7. Hypertrophy of cultured bovine aortic endothelium following irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Rosen, E.M.; Vinter, D.W.; Goldberg, I.D.

    1989-03-01

    The vascular endothelium is a vital multifunctional tissue which covers the entire luminal surface of the circulatory system. Loss of continuity of the endothelial lining normally results in cell migration and proliferation to make up for cell loss and to ensure that exposure of the thrombogenic subendothelium to platelets and clotting factors is minimized. We showed that ionizing radiation (400-3000 cGy) causes dose-dependent cell loss from confluent monolayer cultures of bovine aortic endothelium, which cannot immediately be compensated by cell proliferation. Within 24 h, the remaining attached cells undergo substantial somatic hypertrophy (evidenced by increased protein content, cell volume, and attachment area) but remain diploid. If cell loss is not excessive, monolayer continuity is restored within several days. Although reduced protein degradation may contribute, most of the protein accumulation is due to synthesis of new protein. Unlike endothelium, irradiation of smooth muscle cultures causes neither cell loss nor increased protein synthesis. Hypertrophy of irradiated endothelial cells appears to be a consequence of a proliferative stimulus (cell loss) in a population of cells which is unable to divide. It can be modulated by replating irradiated cells at different densities. We suggest that endothelial hypertrophy is an early vascular homeostatic response before clonal proliferation of surviving cells or repopulation by cells from outside of the irradiated field can compensate for cell loss.

  8. [Investigation on bovine leukocyte adhesion deficiency].

    PubMed

    Ma, Jin-Zhu; Cui, Yu-Dong; Zhu, Zhan-Bo; Cao, Hong-Wei; Piao, Fan-Ze

    2006-10-01

    Bovine leukocyte adhesion deficiency (BLAD) is autosomal recessive disease. The pathogeny of BLAD is genic mutation of CD18-integrins on the leukocyte. In order to know the carrier and occurrence of bovine leukocyte adhesion deficiency (BLAD) among cows age from one to six years old in China, 1,000 cows were investigated by means of amplifying a CD18 gene fragment via reverse transcriptase-PCR followed by restriction digestion with Taq I. Results showed that 19 cows were BLAD carriers, indicating that the BLAD carrier rate was 1.9 percent. In addition, one cow was found to have BLAD. PMID:17035180

  9. Economics of bovine leukemia virus infection.

    PubMed

    Pelzer, K D

    1997-03-01

    A herd infected with bovine leukemia virus suffers a direct economic loss due to clinical lymphosarcoma. A major indirect cost associated with infection is restriction of the sale of animals and germplasma to foreign markets. Reports on the economic effects of infection on production have been variable and are reviewed in this article. In order to develop cost-effective bovine leukemia virus control programs, costs associated with the disease, the cost of prevention, and expected economic returns from a program need to be considered. PMID:9071750

  10. The effect of baking soda when applied to bleached enamel prior to restorative treatment.

    PubMed

    Tostes, Bhenya Ottoni; Mondelli, Rafael Francisco Lia; Lima-Arsati, Ynara Bosco de Oliveira; Rodrigues, Jose Augusto; Costa, Leonardo Cesar

    2013-08-01

    This in vitro study evaluated the effect of 10% baking soda solution and sodium bicarbonate powder (applied with jets) when applied to bleached enamel prior to restorative treatment. The surfaces of 40 bovine incisors were flattened and divided into 5 groups (n = 8): Group B (bleached and restored, negative control), Group W (bleached, stored in distilled water for 7 days, and restored), Group BSJ (bleached, abraded with baking soda jet for 1 min, and restored), Group BSS (bleached, application of 10% baking soda solution for 5 min, and restored), and Group R (restored, without bleaching, positive control). The samples were bleached in 1 session with 3 applications of 35% HP-based gel and activated with a LED appliance for 9 min each. Resin composite cylinders (2 mm height and 0.8 mm diameter) were made on the enamel surface after the acid etching and a conventional 1-step single vial adhesive application was performed. After storage in distilled water (37 ± 1°C, 24 hr), the microshear bond test was performed (1 mm/min). ANOVA and Tukey tests were applied to compare the results. The mean results of these tests showed that Groups W, BBS, and R were not statistically different. These groups also indicated a higher bond strength when compared with Groups B and BSJ. The application of 10% baking soda solution for 5 min may be an alternative pre-restorative treatment for bleached enamel, but further studies are needed to consider whether or not this treatment may be effectively used in clinical practice. PMID:23928450

  11. Comparison of the Root End Sealing Ability of Four Different Retrograde Filling Materials in Teeth with Root Apices Resected at Different Angles – An Invitro Study

    PubMed Central

    Ponnappa, K.C.; Yadav, Pankaj; Rao, Yogesh; Relhan, Nikhil; Gupta, Priyanka; Choubey, Ashish; Bhardwaj, Shivanshu

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Insufficient apical seal is the significant reason for surgical endodontic disappointment. The root-end filling material utilized should avoid egress of potential contaminants into periapical tissue. Aim The aim of this study was to compare the sealing ability of four root-end filling materials MTA, Portland cement, IRM, RMGIC in teeth with root apices resected at 0 and 45 angle using dye penetration method under fluorescent microscope. Materials and Methods Hundred extracted human maxillary anterior teeth were sectioned horizontally at the cement-enamel junction. After cleaning, shaping and obturation with gutta-percha and AH Plus sealer, the tooth samples were randomly divided in two groups (the root apices resected at 0° and 45° to the long axis of the root). The root resections were carried out by removing 2 mm and 1 mm in both the groups. Following which 3 mm deep root-end cavities were prepared at the apices and the root were coated with nail varnish except the tip. The teeth in both the group were randomly divided into four subgroups each (Pro root MTA, Portland cement, IRM and Light cure nano GIC Ketac N-100). All the retrofilled samples were stored in acrydine orange for 24 hours after which they were cleaned and vertically sectioned buccolingually. The sectioned root samples were observed under fluorescent microscope. Results The root apex sealing ability of Mineral Trioxide Aggregate (MTA) was superior to Portland cement, Intermediate Restorative Material (IRM) and LC GIC. IRM demonstrated the maximum apical leakage value among all the materials. Portland cement and LC GIC showed comparable sealing ability. Conclusion The angulation whether 0° or 45° angle did not affect the sealing ability of all the four materials used, MTA proved to be one of the superior materials for root-end filling. PMID:26894168

  12. Control of Arabidopsis Root Development

    PubMed Central

    Petricka, Jalean J.; Winter, Cara M.; Benfey, Philip N.

    2013-01-01

    The Arabidopsis root has been the subject of intense research over the past decades. This research has led to significantly improved understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying root development. Key insights into the specification of individual cell types, cell patterning, growth and differentiation, branching of the primary root, and responses of the root to the environment have been achieved. Transcription factors and plant hormones play key regulatory roles. Recently, mechanisms involving protein movement and the oscillation of gene expression have also been uncovered. Root gene regulatory networks controlling root development have been reconstructed from genome-wide profiling experiments, revealing novel molecular connections and models. Future refinement of these models will lead to a more complete description of the complex molecular interactions that give rise to a simple growing root. PMID:22404466

  13. PERFORMANCE CRITERIA FOR WETLAND RESTORATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    A new publication from EPA Wetland Research Program called An Approach to Improving Decision Making in Wetland Restoration and Creation is a synthesis of five years of research done under the program. ach book chapter takes an aspect of the approach and develops it. undamentally,...

  14. Service Lives Of Restored Bearings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zaretsky, Erwin V.

    1988-01-01

    Rebuilt units last almost as long as new ones. Report describes theoretical and experiemental studies of lifetimes of restored ball and cylindrical-roller bearings. Results of this and related studies have implications of economy and safety in modern high-speed machinery, especially in aircraft industry, where inspection and rejection or replacing of bearings are new standard practice.

  15. The restorative management of microdontia.

    PubMed

    Laverty, D P; Thomas, M B M

    2016-08-26

    Microdontia is a dental abnormality that will often present to the dental practitioner due to the aesthetic concerns of the patient. Treatment is therefore aimed at addressing the aesthetics issue of the patient and this can present a number of challenges which may require a multidisciplinary approach in its management. This article presents the restorative management of localised and generalised microdontia. PMID:27561572

  16. Recent advances in hearing restoration.

    PubMed

    Kulkarni, Kunal; Hartley, Douglas Eh

    2008-03-01

    This review is based on Pubmed, Medline and Internet literature searches, supplemented by knowledge from textbooks, conference presentations, and personal communications with experts in the field of hearing restoration and patients. We have not specifically selected a time limit for our literature searches; however, the majority are articles from the past 5 years. PMID:18344468

  17. Weed Biocontrol in Landscape Restoration

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Weed biological control programs in natural areas are often undertaken with the goal of restoring native plant communities and/or ecosystem services to a pre-invasion level. These objectives may be achieved in some areas with biological control alone; however, in other sites integration of biologica...

  18. Speech Restoration: An Interactive Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grataloup, Claire; Hoen, Michael; Veuillet, Evelyne; Collet, Lionel; Pellegrino, Francois; Meunier, Fanny

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: This study investigates the ability to understand degraded speech signals and explores the correlation between this capacity and the functional characteristics of the peripheral auditory system. Method: The authors evaluated the capability of 50 normal-hearing native French speakers to restore time-reversed speech. The task required them…

  19. Origins of the Restoration Playhouse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Dennis D.

    Contrary to the popular theory that the proscenium type of playhouse was imported from France by the Court of Charles II in 1660, the Restoration playhouse in fact developed from Elizabethan theatres and court masques. These Elizabethan theatres were the private theatres, and were generally small, rectangular, roofed structures where aristocratic…

  20. Weed biocontrol in landscape restoration

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Weed biological control programs in natural areas are often undertaken with the goal of restoring native plant communities and/or ecosystem services to a pre-invasion level. These objectives may be achieved in some areas with biological control alone; however, in other sites integration of biologica...

  1. The interaction between bovine herpesvirus type 1 and activated bovine T lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Griebel, P J; Ohmann, H B; Lawman, M J; Babiuk, L A

    1990-02-01

    The interaction between activated bovine T lymphocytes (BTLs) and bovine herpesvirus type 1 (BHV-1) was investigated. BHV-1 infection of BTLs reduced the amplitude of recombinant bovine interleukin 2-induced proliferative responses. This decreased proliferation was caused by a virus-induced lymphocytolysis which was dependent on viable virus and was not inhibited by recombinant bovine interferon-alpha I1. Furthermore, lymphocytolysis was not associated with virus replication or with the synthesis of detectable levels of viral proteins. Electron microscopic examination of virus-infected cells revealed that lymphocytolysis was characterized by early nuclear disintegration resembling apoptosis. These observations suggest that activated T cells, localized at the site of BHV-1 infection, may be susceptible to virus-induced cytolysis. PMID:2155290

  2. Multidisciplinary approach to the management of complicated crown-root fracture: a case report.

    PubMed

    Bajaj, Pavan; Chordiya, Rashmi; Rudagi, Kavitarani; Patil, Nitin

    2015-04-01

    Oblique crown-root fracture in the cervical third of the root is a common event following trauma to the anterior region of the mouth. As a result, sound tooth structure coronal to the attachment apparatus may not be available for restorative needs. Invasion of biological width by fracture line presents a clinical challenge in restorative planning. Placing a restoration margin on sound tooth structure within the dentogingival biological width might result in violation of biological width and should be considered a restorative failure. Maintaining a healthy periodontal attachment apparatus is crucial for long term prognosis and esthetics of the restored tooth. Surgical crown lengthening, surgical extrusion or orthodontic extrusions are the few alternative modalities to expose the fracture line. This case presentation demonstrates a predictable solution in overcoming an oblique crown-root fracture caused by trauma during a road accident. Orthodontic extrusion was used to elevate the fractured tooth from within the alveolar socket to allow the placement of crown margins on sound tooth structure without harming the biologic width. Combining fiberotomy with the extrusion procedure in this case eliminated the need for the surgical procedure. This allowed proper fabrication of post and core and the placement of the crown on sound tooth structure, fulfilling the biological and mechanical principles including obligatory ferrule effect. PMID:25954080

  3. Does MTA affect fiber post retention in repaired cervical root canal perforations?

    PubMed

    Pereira, Rodrigo Dantas; Brito-Júnior, Manoel; Faria-E-Silva, André Luis; Guimarães, Karine Rodrigues; Mendes, Laís de Oliveira; Soares, Carlos José; Sousa-Neto, Manoel Damião

    2016-06-14

    This study evaluated the effect of mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) on the retention of fiber posts in repaired root canal perforations. Ten-millimeter post spaces were prepared in 60 endodontically treated bovine incisors. Root perforations were created in half of the root canals in the cervical area prior to being filled with white MTA-Angelus. Fiber posts were luted into the root canals with two self-adhesive (RelyX Unicem or Set) or self-etching (Panavia F) resin cements. The posts were submitted to a pull-out test, and the data were submitted to two-way ANOVA and Tukey's post hoc tests (α = 0.05). The fiber posts exhibited reduced retention in MTA-repaired root canal perforations, regardless of the type of resin cement that was used (p < 0.001). Self-adhesive resin cements provided higher bond strength values than Panavia F, while no difference was observed between RelyX Unicem and Set (p > 0.05). The presence of MTA in repaired root perforations negatively affected post retention. In addition, self-adhesive cements seemed to be the best option to lute fiber posts within a root canal in these cases. PMID:27305516

  4. Effects of externally supplied protein on root morphology and biomass allocation in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Lonhienne, Thierry G. A.; Trusov, Yuri; Young, Anthony; Rentsch, Doris; Näsholm, Torgny; Schmidt, Susanne; Paungfoo-Lonhienne, Chanyarat

    2014-01-01

    Growth, morphogenesis and function of roots are influenced by the concentration and form of nutrients present in soils, including low molecular mass inorganic N (IN, ammonium, nitrate) and organic N (ON, e.g. amino acids). Proteins, ON of high molecular mass, are prevalent in soils but their possible effects on roots have received little attention. Here, we investigated how externally supplied protein of a size typical of soluble soil proteins influences root development of axenically grown Arabidopsis. Addition of low to intermediate concentrations of protein (bovine serum albumen, BSA) to IN-replete growth medium increased root dry weight, root length and thickness, and root hair length. Supply of higher BSA concentrations inhibited root development. These effects were independent of total N concentrations in the growth medium. The possible involvement of phytohormones was investigated using Arabidopsis with defective auxin (tir1-1 and axr2-1) and ethylene (ein2-1) responses. That no phenotype was observed suggests a signalling pathway is operating independent of auxin and ethylene responses. This study expands the knowledge on N form-explicit responses to demonstrate that ON of high molecular mass elicits specific responses. PMID:24852366

  5. Molecular differentiation of bovine sarcocysts.

    PubMed

    Akhlaghi, Majedeh; Razavi, Mostafa; Hosseini, Arsalan

    2016-07-01

    Cattle are common intermediate hosts of Sarcocystis, and the prevalence in adult bovine muscle is close to 100 % in most regions of the world. Three Sarcocystis spp. are known to infect cattle as intermediate hosts, namely, S. cruzi, S. hirsuta, and S. hominis. The aim of the present study was the molecular identification and differentiation of these three species, Neospora caninum and Besnoitia by PCR and RFLP methods. Tissue samples were obtained from diaphragmatic muscle of 101 cattle slaughtered in Shiraz, Fars Province, Iran, for both smear preparation and DNA extraction. The samples were digested by Pepsin, washed three times with PBS solution before taking smears, fixed in absolute methanol and stained with 10 % Giemsa. The slides were examined microscopically for Sarcocystis bradyzoites and DNA was extracted from 100 mg of Sarcocystis-infected meat samples. Since the primers also bind to 18S rRNA gene of some tissue cyst-forming coccidian protozoa, DNA was also extracted from 100 μl of tachyzoite-containing suspension of N. caninum and Besnoitia isolated from goat to compare RFLP pattern. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was performed on DNA of samples which were microscopically positive for Sarcocystis. Five restriction enzymes Dra1, EcoRV, RsaI, AvaI, and SspI were used for RFLP and DNA of one sample from protozoa was sequenced. Based on the RFLP results, 87 (98.9 %) DNA samples were cut with DraI, indicating infection by S. cruzi. One sample (1.1 %) of PCR products of infected samples was cut only with EcoRV which showed S. hominis infection. Forty-eight samples (53.3 %) of PCR products were cut with both DraI, EcoRV, or with DraI, EcoRV, and RsaI while none of them was cut with SspI, which shows the mixed infection of both S. cruzi and S. hominis and no infection with S. hirsuta. It seems by utilizing these restriction enzymes, RLFP could be a suitable method not only for identification of Sarcocystis species but also for differentiating them

  6. Combined periodontal and restorative approach to the treatment of gingival recessions with noncarious cervical lesions: a case treated with acellular dermal matrix allograft and compomer restorations.

    PubMed

    Efeoğlu, Ahmet; Hanzade, Mete; Sari, Esra; Alpay, Hande; Karakaş, Ozan; Koray, Fatma

    2012-08-01

    Treatment of gingival recessions has become one of the most challenging procedures in periodontal plastic surgery. Various surgical options with predictable outcomes are available, but in cases with cervical lesions or restorations, optimal functional and esthetic results may require the combination of periodontal and restorative procedures. In this case report, one patient treated with acellular dermal matrix allograft and a coronally positioned flap in combination with compomer cervical restorations is presented. Clinical parameters were recorded immediately prior to surgery and after 12 months. Postoperatively, significant root coverage, reductions in probing depths, and gains in clinical attachment were observed. The final clinical results, esthetics, color match, and tissue contours were acceptable to both the patient and clinicians. PMID:22577650

  7. Management of progressive apical root resorption 13 years after dental trauma and primary endodontic treatment.

    PubMed

    Machado, Ricardo; Tomazinho, Luiz Fernando; Magagnin, Roseani; Leal Silva, Emmanuel João Nogueira; Vansan, Luiz Pascoal

    2016-01-01

    Many studies have focused on the search for a restorative material with good sealing properties and biocompatibility for treatment of teeth with open apices and necrotic pulps, which can result from periradicular disease and root resorption. Mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) has exhibited promising clinical results in retrograde fillings and pulpotomies as well as for treatment of root perforations, root resorptions, incomplete root formations, and pulpal necrosis. This case report describes the management of a progressive apical root resorption in a previously traumatized tooth that had been endodontically treated. Five years of clinical and radiographic follow-up demonstrated the clinical efficacy of MTA in limiting the inflammatory resorptive process and promoting apexification and regeneration of periradicular tissue. PMID:27367638

  8. Concurrent Bovine Virus Diarrhea and Bovine Papular Stomatitis Infection in a Calf

    PubMed Central

    Bohac, J. G.; Yates, W. D. G.

    1980-01-01

    A case of concurrent infection with the viruses of bovine virus diarrhea and papular stomatitis in a calf is reported. The difficulties posed by such situations are described and the criteria used for diagnosis outlined. The two diseases are reviewed briefly and the possible mechanisms whereby bovine virus diarrhea virus is suspected of facilitating infection by other agents are discussed. ImagesFigure 1.Figure 2.Figure 3.Figure 4. PMID:7459795

  9. Phonemic restoration in developmental dyslexia

    PubMed Central

    Del Tufo, Stephanie N.; Myers, Emily B.

    2014-01-01

    The comprehension of fluent speech in one's native language requires that listeners integrate the detailed acoustic-phonetic information available in the sound signal with linguistic knowledge. This interplay is especially apparent in the phoneme restoration effect, a phenomenon in which a missing phoneme is “restored” via the influence of top-down information from the lexicon and through bottom-up acoustic processing. Developmental dyslexia is a disorder characterized by an inability to read at the level of one's peers without any clear failure due to environmental influences. In the current study we utilized the phonemic restoration illusion paradigm to examine individual differences in phonemic restoration across a range of reading ability, from very good to dyslexic readers. Results demonstrate that restoration occurs less in those who have high scores on measures of phonological processing. Based on these results, we suggest that the processing or representation of acoustic detail may not be as reliable in poor and dyslexic readers, with the result that lexical information is more likely to override acoustic properties of the stimuli. This pattern of increased restoration could result from a failure of perceptual tuning, in which unstable representations of speech sounds result in the acceptance of non-speech sounds as speech. An additional or alternative theory is that degraded or impaired phonological processing at the speech sound level may reflect architecture that is overly plastic and consequently fails to stabilize appropriately for speech sound representations. Therefore, the inability to separate speech and noise may result as a deficit in separating noise from the acoustic signal. PMID:24926230

  10. Phenotypic rescue by a bovine transgene in a Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase-null mutant of Drosophila melanogaster

    SciTech Connect

    Reveillaud, I.; Kongpachith, A.; Fleming, J.E.

    1994-02-01

    Null mutants for Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (CuZnSOD) in Drosophila melanogaster are male sterile, have a greatly reduced adult life span, and are hypersensitive to paraquat. We have introduced a synthetic bovine CuZnSOD transgene under the transcriptional control of the D. melanogaster 5C actin promoter into a CuZnSOD-null mutant of D. melanogaster. This was carried out by P-element-mediated transformation of the Drosophila-bovine CuZnSOD transgene into a CuZnSOD{sup +} recipient strain followed by genetic crossing of the transgene into a strain carrying the CuZnSOD-null mutation, cSOD{sup n108}. The resulting transformants express bovine CuZnSOD exclusively to about 30% of normal Drosophila CuZnSOD levels. Expression of the Drosophila-bovine CuZnSOD transgene in the CuZnSOD-null mutant rescues male fertility and resistance to paraquat to apparently normal levels. However, adult life span is restored to only 30% of normal, and resistance to hyperoxia is 90% of that found in control flies. This striking differential restoration of pleiotropic phenotypes could be the result of a threshold of CuZnSOD expression necessary for normal male fertility and resistance to the toxicity of paraquat or hyperoxia which is lower than the threshold required to sustain a normal adult life span. Alternatively, the differential rescue of fertility, resistance to active oxygen, and life span might indicate different cell-specific transcriptional requirements for these functions which are normally provided by the control elements of the native CuZnSOD gene but are only partly compensated for by the transcriptional control elements of the actin 5C promoter. 29 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  11. The influence of coronoradicular amputation on the shape of the subsequent prosthetic restoration.

    PubMed

    Andrei, Oana Cella; Dăguci, C; Maliţa, Mădălina Adriana

    2010-01-01

    The patient's desire to preserve their natural dentition is increasing constantly; therefore, nowadays dentists have to treat teeth that once would have been extracted. Using endodontics, periodontics and restorative dentistry techniques, we can maintain these teeth on the arches in whole or in part and they can be used as independent units of mastication or as abutments in simple fixed bridges. This article describes a procedure of modifying the form and shape of the prosthetic restoration of a maxillar molar after a crown and root amputation. PMID:21103642

  12. Recombinant Bovine Growth Hormone Criticism Grows.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaard, Greta

    1995-01-01

    Discusses concerns related to the use of recombinant bovine growth hormone in the United States and other countries. Analyses the issue from the perspectives of animal rights, human health, world hunger, concerns of small and organic farmers, costs to the taxpayer, and environmental questions. A sidebar discusses Canadian review of the hormone.…

  13. Unraveling bovin phylogeny: accomplishments and challenges.

    PubMed

    Bibi, Faysal; Vrba, Elisabeth S

    2010-01-01

    The phylogenetic systematics of bovin species forms a common basis for studies at multiple scales, from the level of domestication in populations to major cladogenesis. The main big-picture accomplishments of this productive field, including two recent works, one in BMC Genomics, are reviewed with an eye for some of the limitations and challenges impeding progress. PMID:20525112

  14. Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus: Global Status

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Despite the success of regional bovine viral diarrhea viruses (BVDV) eradication programs, infections with this diverse group of viruses remain a source of economic loss for producers worldwide. There is a wide range of variation among BVDV results in differences in genotype (BVDV1 and BVDV2), biot...

  15. Epidemiology and control of bovine ephemeral fever.

    PubMed

    Walker, Peter J; Klement, Eyal

    2015-01-01

    Bovine ephemeral fever (or 3-day sickness) is an acute febrile illness of cattle and water buffaloes. Caused by an arthropod-borne rhabdovirus, bovine ephemeral fever virus (BEFV), the disease occurs seasonally over a vast expanse of the globe encompassing much of Africa, the Middle East, Asia and Australia. Although mortality rates are typically low, infection prevalence and morbidity rates during outbreaks are often very high, causing serious economic impacts through loss of milk production, poor cattle condition at sale and loss of traction power at harvest. There are also significant impacts on trade to regions in which the disease does not occur, including the Americas and most of Europe. In recent years, unusually severe outbreaks of bovine ephemeral fever have been reported from several regions in Asia and the Middle East, with mortality rates through disease or culling in excess of 10-20%. There are also concerns that, like other vector-borne diseases of livestock, the geographic distribution of bovine ephemeral fever could expand into regions that have historically been free of the disease. Here, we review current knowledge of the virus, including its molecular and antigenic structure, and the epidemiology of the disease across its entire geographic range. We also discuss the effectiveness of vaccination and other strategies to prevent or control infection. PMID:26511615

  16. Bovine respiratory disease research (1983-2009).

    PubMed

    Fulton, Robert W

    2009-12-01

    Bovine respiratory disease (BRD) research has provided significant understanding of the disease over the past 26 years. Modern research tools that have been used include monoclonal antibodies, genomics, polymerase chain reaction, immunohistochemistry (IHC), DNA vaccines and viral vectors coding for immunogens. Emerging/reemerging viruses and new antigenic strains of viruses and bacteria have been identified. Methods of detection and the role for cattle persistently infected bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) were identified; viral subunits, cellular components and bacterial products have been characterized. Product advances have included vaccines for bovine respiratory syncytial virus, Mannheimia haemolytica and Pasteurella multocida; the addition of BVDV2 to the existing vaccines and new antibiotics. The role of Mycoplasma spp., particularly Mycoplasma bovis in BRD, has been more extensively studied. Bovine immunology research has provided more specific information on immune responses, T cell subsets and cytokines. The molecular and genetic basis for viral-bacterial synergy in BRD has been described. Attempts have been made to document how prevention of BRD by proper vaccination and management prior to exposure to infectious agents can minimize disease and serve as economic incentives for certified health programs. PMID:20003649

  17. Bovine viral diarrhea virus: biosecurity and control

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This paper discusses the recommended procedures involved in setting up biosecurity and control programs designed to limit bovine viral diarrhea virus infections in beef cattle operations. For the purpose of these discussions, a working definition of a biosecurity plan was considered to be an organiz...

  18. Molecular biology of bovine viral diarrhea virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bovine viral diarrhea viruses (BVDV) are arguably the most important viral pathogen of ruminants worldwide and can cause severe economic loss. Clinical symptoms of the disease caused by BVDV range from subclinical to severe acute hemorrhagic syndrome, with the severity of disease being strain depend...

  19. A physical map of the bovine genome

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background Cattle are important agriculturally and relevant as a model organism. Previously described genetic and radiation hybrid (RH) maps of the bovine genome have been used to identify genomic regions and genes affecting specific traits. Application of these maps to identify influential geneti...

  20. NUTRIENTS AND EPIGENETICS IN BOVINE CELLS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This is a chapter for a book titled “Livestock Epigenetics” edited by Dr. Hasan Khatib and published by Wiley-Blackwell. This chapter is focused on the research development in our laboratory in the area of interaction of nutrients and genomic phonotype in bovine cells. Briefly, the Research on nutri...

  1. Linkage mapping bovine EST-based SNP

    PubMed Central

    Snelling, Warren M; Casas, Eduardo; Stone, Roger T; Keele, John W; Harhay, Gregory P; Bennett, Gary L; Smith, Timothy PL

    2005-01-01

    Background Existing linkage maps of the bovine genome primarily contain anonymous microsatellite markers. These maps have proved valuable for mapping quantitative trait loci (QTL) to broad regions of the genome, but more closely spaced markers are needed to fine-map QTL, and markers associated with genes and annotated sequence are needed to identify genes and sequence variation that may explain QTL. Results Bovine expressed sequence tag (EST) and bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC)sequence data were used to develop 918 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers to map genes on the bovine linkage map. DNA of sires from the MARC reference population was used to detect SNPs, and progeny and mates of heterozygous sires were genotyped. Chromosome assignments for 861 SNPs were determined by twopoint analysis, and positions for 735 SNPs were established by multipoint analyses. Linkage maps of bovine autosomes with these SNPs represent 4585 markers in 2475 positions spanning 3058 cM . Markers include 3612 microsatellites, 913 SNPs and 60 other markers. Mean separation between marker positions is 1.2 cM. New SNP markers appear in 511 positions, with mean separation of 4.7 cM. Multi-allelic markers, mostly microsatellites, had a mean (maximum) of 216 (366) informative meioses, and a mean 3-lod confidence interval of 3.6 cM Bi-allelic markers, including SNP and other marker types, had a mean (maximum) of 55 (191) informative meioses, and were placed within a mean 8.5 cM 3-lod confidence interval. Homologous human sequences were identified for 1159 markers, including 582 newly developed and mapped SNP. Conclusion Addition of these EST- and BAC-based SNPs to the bovine linkage map not only increases marker density, but provides connections to gene-rich physical maps, including annotated human sequence. The map provides a resource for fine-mapping quantitative trait loci and identification of positional candidate genes, and can be integrated with other data to guide and

  2. Medial Meniscus Posterior Root Tear: A Comprehensive Review

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Dhong Won; Ha, Jeong Ku

    2014-01-01

    Damage to the medial meniscus root, for example by a complete radial tear, destroys the ability of the knee to withstand hoop strain, resulting in contact pressure increases and kinematic alterations. For these reasons, several techniques have been developed to repair the medial meniscus posterior root tear (MMPRT), many of which have shown complete healing of the repaired MMPRT. However, efforts to standardize or optimize the treatment for MMPRT are much needed. When planning a surgical intervention for an MMPRT, strict surgical indications regarding the effect of pullout strength on the refixed root, bony degenerative changes, mechanical alignment, and the Kellgren-Lawrence grade should be considered. Although there are several treatment options and controversies, the current trend is to repair the MMPRT using various techniques including suture anchors and pullout sutures if the patient meets the indications. However, there are still debates on the restoration of hoop tension and prevention of arthritis after repair and further biomechanical and clinical studies should be conducted in the future. The aim of this article was to review and summarize the recent literature regarding various diagnosis and treatment strategies of MMPRT, especially focusing on conflict issues including whether repair techniques can restore the main function of normal meniscus and which is the best suture technique to repair the MMPRT. The authors attempted to provide a comprehensive review of previous studies ranging from basic science to current surgical techniques. PMID:25229041

  3. The Roots of Beowulf

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fischer, James R.

    2014-01-01

    The first Beowulf Linux commodity cluster was constructed at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center in 1994 and its origins are a part of the folklore of high-end computing. In fact, the conditions within Goddard that brought the idea into being were shaped by rich historical roots, strategic pressures brought on by the ramp up of the Federal High-Performance Computing and Communications Program, growth of the open software movement, microprocessor performance trends, and the vision of key technologists. This multifaceted story is told here for the first time from the point of view of NASA project management.

  4. Philosophical Roots of Cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanovic, M.

    2008-10-01

    We shall consider the philosophical roots of cosmology in the earlier Greek philosophy. Our goal is to answer the question: Are earlier Greek theories of pure philosophical-mythological character, as often philosophers cited it, or they have scientific character. On the bases of methodological criteria, we shall contend that the latter is the case. In order to answer the question about contemporary situation of the relation philosophy-cosmology, we shall consider the next question: Is contemporary cosmology completely independent of philosophical conjectures? The answer demands consideration of methodological character about scientific status of contemporary cosmology. We also consider some aspects of the relation contemporary philosophy-cosmology.

  5. Environmental Restoration Quality Program Implementation Plan. Environmental Restoration Program

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-08-01

    The Environmental Restoration (ER) Program requirements for implementation of DOE Order 5700.6C are identified in the Environmental Restoration Quality Program Plan, (QPP). Management systems necessary to implement the ER QPP consist of the necessary standards and procedures required to be developed to adequately control ER processes. To the extent possible, Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., standards and procedures will be utilized at the ER Program level, and requirements will not be repeated. The quality management systems identified for enhancement or development are identified in the section on Procedure Development Strategy and directly relate to unique ER Program activities. Procedures and standards that currently exist in the ER Program will be validated for compliance with ER QPP requirements.

  6. Technology needs for environmental restoration remedial action. Environmental Restoration Program

    SciTech Connect

    Watson, J.S.

    1992-11-01

    This report summarizes the current view of the most important technology needs for the US Department of Energy (DOE) facilities operated by Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. These facilities are the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, the Oak Ridge K-25 Site, the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant, and the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant. The sources of information used in this assessment were a survey of selected representatives of the Environmental Restoration (ER) programs at each facility, results from a questionnaire distributed by Geotech CWM, Inc., for DOE, and associated discussions with individuals from each facility. This is not a final assessment, but a brief look at an ongoing assessment; the needs will change as the plans for restoration change and, it is hoped, as some technical problems are solved through successful development programs.

  7. Matching roots to their environment

    PubMed Central

    White, Philip J.; George, Timothy S.; Gregory, Peter J.; Bengough, A. Glyn; Hallett, Paul D.; McKenzie, Blair M.

    2013-01-01

    Background Plants form the base of the terrestrial food chain and provide medicines, fuel, fibre and industrial materials to humans. Vascular land plants rely on their roots to acquire the water and mineral elements necessary for their survival in nature or their yield and nutritional quality in agriculture. Major biogeochemical fluxes of all elements occur through plant roots, and the roots of agricultural crops have a significant role to play in soil sustainability, carbon sequestration, reducing emissions of greenhouse gasses, and in preventing the eutrophication of water bodies associated with the application of mineral fertilizers. Scope This article provides the context for a Special Issue of Annals of Botany on ‘Matching Roots to Their Environment’. It first examines how land plants and their roots evolved, describes how the ecology of roots and their rhizospheres contributes to the acquisition of soil resources, and discusses the influence of plant roots on biogeochemical cycles. It then describes the role of roots in overcoming the constraints to crop production imposed by hostile or infertile soils, illustrates root phenotypes that improve the acquisition of mineral elements and water, and discusses high-throughput methods to screen for these traits in the laboratory, glasshouse and field. Finally, it considers whether knowledge of adaptations improving the acquisition of resources in natural environments can be used to develop root systems for sustainable agriculture in the future. PMID:23821619

  8. Leakage of four root canal sealers at different thickness.

    PubMed

    Wu, M K; De Gee, A J; Wesselink, P R

    1994-11-01

    Sealers play a key role in sealing the root canal system. Fluid transport under a headspace pressure of 50 kPa (0.5 atm) through four sealers, AH26, Ketac-Endo, Sealapex and Tubli-Seal at a thickness of 0.05, 0.25 or 3 mm, was determined using 240 standard bovine root sections which were obturated with either sealer only or sealer combined with standard gutta-percha cylinders. AH26 and Sealapex sealed more tightly than Ketac-Endo or Tubli-Seal when used without gutta-percha; AH26, Ketac-Endo, and Sealapex sealed more tightly than Tubli-Seal when the sealer layer was 0.25 mm thick, while Ketac-Endo sealed more tightly than the other three sealers when the sealer layer was 0.05 mm thick. These findings indicate that the thickness of the sealer layer influences the sealing ability of a root canal filling. PMID:7751063

  9. Molecular definition of bovine argininosuccinate synthetase deficiency.

    PubMed Central

    Dennis, J A; Healy, P J; Beaudet, A L; O'Brien, W E

    1989-01-01

    Citrullinemia is an inborn error of metabolism due to deficiency of the urea cycle enzyme, argininosuccinate synthetase [L-citrulline:L-aspartate ligase (AMP-forming), EC 6.3.4.5]. The disease was first described in humans but was recently reported in dairy cattle in Australia. Here we report the nucleotide sequence of the normal bovine cDNA for argininosuccinate synthetase and the mutation present in animals with citrullinemia. Analysis of DNA from affected animals by Southern blotting did not readily identify the mutation in the bovine gene. RNA (Northern) blotting revealed a major reduction in the steady-state amount of mRNA in the liver of affected animals to less than 5% of controls. The bovine cDNA was cloned and sequenced and revealed 96% identity with the deduced human sequence at the amino acid level. Starting with mutant bovine liver, the mRNA was reverse-transcribed; the cDNA product was amplified with the polymerase chain reaction, cloned, and sequenced. The sequence revealed a C----T transition converting arginine-86 (CGA) to a nonsense codon (TGA). A second C----T transition represented a polymorphism in proline-175 (CCC----CCT). The mutation and the polymorphism were confirmed by amplification of genomic DNA and demonstration with restriction endonuclease enzymes of both the loss of an Ava II site in DNA from mutant animals at codon 86 and the presence or absence of a Dde I site at codon 175. The loss of the Ava II site can be used for rapid, economical, nonradioactive detection of heterozygotes for bovine citrullinemia. Images PMID:2813370

  10. A physical map of the bovine genome

    PubMed Central

    Snelling, Warren M; Chiu, Readman; Schein, Jacqueline E; Hobbs, Matthew; Abbey, Colette A; Adelson, David L; Aerts, Jan; Bennett, Gary L; Bosdet, Ian E; Boussaha, Mekki; Brauning, Rudiger; Caetano, Alexandre R; Costa, Marcos M; Crawford, Allan M; Dalrymple, Brian P; Eggen, André; Everts-van der Wind, Annelie; Floriot, Sandrine; Gautier, Mathieu; Gill, Clare A; Green, Ronnie D; Holt, Robert; Jann, Oliver; Jones, Steven JM; Kappes, Steven M; Keele, John W; de Jong, Pieter J; Larkin, Denis M; Lewin, Harris A; McEwan, John C; McKay, Stephanie; Marra, Marco A; Mathewson, Carrie A; Matukumalli, Lakshmi K; Moore, Stephen S; Murdoch, Brenda; Nicholas, Frank W; Osoegawa, Kazutoyo; Roy, Alice; Salih, Hanni; Schibler, Laurent; Schnabel, Robert D; Silveri, Licia; Skow, Loren C; Smith, Timothy PL; Sonstegard, Tad S; Taylor, Jeremy F; Tellam, Ross; Van Tassell, Curtis P; Williams, John L; Womack, James E; Wye, Natasja H; Yang, George; Zhao, Shaying

    2007-01-01

    Background Cattle are important agriculturally and relevant as a model organism. Previously described genetic and radiation hybrid (RH) maps of the bovine genome have been used to identify genomic regions and genes affecting specific traits. Application of these maps to identify influential genetic polymorphisms will be enhanced by integration with each other and with bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) libraries. The BAC libraries and clone maps are essential for the hybrid clone-by-clone/whole-genome shotgun sequencing approach taken by the bovine genome sequencing project. Results A bovine BAC map was constructed with HindIII restriction digest fragments of 290,797 BAC clones from animals of three different breeds. Comparative mapping of 422,522 BAC end sequences assisted with BAC map ordering and assembly. Genotypes and pedigree from two genetic maps and marker scores from three whole-genome RH panels were consolidated on a 17,254-marker composite map. Sequence similarity allowed integrating the BAC and composite maps with the bovine draft assembly (Btau3.1), establishing a comprehensive resource describing the bovine genome. Agreement between the marker and BAC maps and the draft assembly is high, although discrepancies exist. The composite and BAC maps are more similar than either is to the draft assembly. Conclusion Further refinement of the maps and greater integration into the genome assembly process may contribute to a high quality assembly. The maps provide resources to associate phenotypic variation with underlying genomic variation, and are crucial resources for understanding the biology underpinning this important ruminant species so closely associated with humans. PMID:17697342

  11. Delta Revival: Restoring a California Ecosystem

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey; California Bay Delta Authority

    2003-01-01

    'Delta Revival: Restoring a California Ecosystem' shows scientists from many disciplines working together to guide the unprecendented restoration of the Sacramento- San Joaquin Delta east of San Francisco Bay.

  12. The plant pathology of native plant restoration

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Restoration of ecologically degraded sites will benefit from the convergence of knowledge drawn from such disparate and often compartmentalized (and heretofore not widely considered) areas of research as soil microbial ecology, plant pathology and agronomy. Restoration following biological control w...

  13. Geophysical Imaging of Root Architecture and Root-soil Interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Y.; Dafflon, B.; Hubbard, S. S.

    2015-12-01

    Roots play a critical role in controlling water and nutrient uptake, soil biogeochemical processes, as well as the physical anchorage for plants. While important processes, such as root hydraulic redistribution for optimal growth and survival have been recognized, representation of roots in climate models, e.g. its carbon storage, carbon resilience, root biomass, and role in regulating water and carbon fluxes across the rhizosphere and atmosphere interface is still challenging. Such a challenge is exacerbated because of the large variations of root architecture and function across species and locations due to both genetic and environmental controls and the lack of methods for quantifying root mass, distribution, dynamics and interaction with soils at field scales. The scale, complexity and the dynamic nature of plant roots call for minimally invasive methods capable of providing quantitative estimation of root architecture, dynamics over time and interactions with the soils. We present a study on root architecture and root-soil interactions using geophysical methods. Parameters and processes of interests include (1) moisture dynamics around root zone and its interaction with plant transpiration and environmental controls and (2) estimation of root structure and properties based on geophysical signals. Both pot and field scale studies were conducted. The pot scale experiments were conducted under controlled conditions and were monitored with cross-well electrical resistivity tomography (ERT), TDR moisture sensors and temperature probes. Pots with and without a tree were compared and the moisture conditions were controlled via a self regulated pumping system. Geophysical monitoring revealed interactions between roots and soils under dynamic soil moisture conditions and the role of roots in regulating the response of the soil system to changes of environmental conditions, e.g. drought and precipitation events. Field scale studies were conducted on natural trees using

  14. Exxon Valdez oil spill restoration plan

    SciTech Connect

    1994-11-01

    In 1989, the Exxon Valdez oil spill contaminated about 1,500 miles of Alaska`s coastline. It killed birds, mammals, and fish, and disrupted the ecosystem in the path of the oil. The Exxon Valdez Restoration Plan provides long-term guidance for restoring the resources and services injured by the oil spill. It contains policies for making restoration decisions and describes how restoration activities will be implemented.

  15. Perennial roots to immortality.

    PubMed

    Munné-Bosch, Sergi

    2014-10-01

    Maximum lifespan greatly varies among species, and it is not strictly determined; it can change with species evolution. Clonal growth is a major factor governing maximum lifespan. In the plant kingdom, the maximum lifespans described for clonal and nonclonal plants vary by an order of magnitude, with 43,600 and 5,062 years for Lomatia tasmanica and Pinus longaeva, respectively. Nonclonal perennial plants (those plants exclusively using sexual reproduction) also present a huge diversity in maximum lifespans (from a few to thousands of years) and even more interestingly, contrasting differences in aging patterns. Some plants show a clear physiological deterioration with aging, whereas others do not. Indeed, some plants can even improve their physiological performance as they age (a phenomenon called negative senescence). This diversity in aging patterns responds to species-specific life history traits and mechanisms evolved by each species to adapt to its habitat. Particularities of roots in perennial plants, such as meristem indeterminacy, modular growth, stress resistance, and patterns of senescence, are crucial in establishing perenniality and understanding adaptation of perennial plants to their habitats. Here, the key role of roots for perennial plant longevity will be discussed, taking into account current knowledge and highlighting additional aspects that still require investigation. PMID:24563283

  16. Acclimation of fine root respiration to soil warming involves starch deposition in very fine and fine roots: a case study in Fagus sylvatica saplings.

    PubMed

    Di Iorio, Antonino; Giacomuzzi, Valentino; Chiatante, Donato

    2016-03-01

    Root activities in terms of respiration and non-structural carbohydrates (NSC) storage and mobilization have been suggested as major physiological roles in fine root lifespan. As more frequent heat waves and drought periods within the next decades are expected, to what extent does thermal acclimation in fine roots represent a mechanism to cope with such upcoming climatic conditions? In this study, the possible changes in very fine (diameter < 0.5 mm) and fine (0.5-1 mm) root morphology and physiology in terms of respiration rate and NSC [soluble sugars (SS) and starch] concentrations, were investigated on 2-year-old Fagus sylvatica saplings subjected to a simulated long-lasting heat wave event and to co-occurring soil drying. For both very fine and fine roots, soil temperature (ST) resulted inversely correlated with specific root length, respiration rates and SSs concentration, but directly correlated with root mass, root tissue density and starch concentration. In particular, starch concentration increased under 28 °C for successively decreasing under 21 °C ST. These findings showed that thermal acclimation in very fine and fine roots due to 24 days exposure to high ST (∼ 28 °C), induced starch accumulation. Such 'carbon-savings strategy' should bear the maintenance costs associated to the recovery process in case of restored favorable environmental conditions, such as those occurring at the end of a heat wave event. Drought condition seems to affect the fine root vitality much more under moderate than high temperature condition, making the temporary exposure to high ST less threatening to root vitality than expected. PMID:26263877

  17. ECOSYSTEM EFFECTS OF URBAN STREAM RESTORATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    In general, the ecosystem function of a restored site will depend upon how degraded the site was prior to restoration and to what extent this was addressed in the restoration design. A stream whose primary impairment is severe water quality problems due to non-point source po...

  18. "Re-story-ing" Our Restorative Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rundell, Frida

    2007-01-01

    A metaphor for crossing a frontier into a new territory is explored. The restorative justice principles as used by the United Nations and the International Institute for Restorative Practices (IIRP) help to translate into restorative practice principles. An action research project in South Africa provides the background to an evaluation process.…

  19. 15 CFR 990.26 - Emergency restoration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Emergency restoration. 990.26 Section... NATURAL RESOURCE DAMAGE ASSESSMENTS Authorities § 990.26 Emergency restoration. (a) Trustees may take emergency restoration action before completing the process established under this part, provided that:...

  20. 15 CFR 990.26 - Emergency restoration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Emergency restoration. 990.26 Section... NATURAL RESOURCE DAMAGE ASSESSMENTS Authorities § 990.26 Emergency restoration. (a) Trustees may take emergency restoration action before completing the process established under this part, provided that:...

  1. 15 CFR 990.26 - Emergency restoration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Emergency restoration. 990.26 Section... NATURAL RESOURCE DAMAGE ASSESSMENTS Authorities § 990.26 Emergency restoration. (a) Trustees may take emergency restoration action before completing the process established under this part, provided that:...

  2. 15 CFR 990.26 - Emergency restoration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Emergency restoration. 990.26 Section... NATURAL RESOURCE DAMAGE ASSESSMENTS Authorities § 990.26 Emergency restoration. (a) Trustees may take emergency restoration action before completing the process established under this part, provided that:...

  3. 5 CFR 353.301 - Restoration rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Restoration rights. 353.301 Section 353.301 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS RESTORATION TO DUTY FROM UNIFORMED SERVICE OR COMPENSABLE INJURY Compensable Injury § 353.301 Restoration rights....

  4. 43 CFR 11.21 - Emergency restorations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Emergency restorations. 11.21 Section 11... Preassessment Phase § 11.21 Emergency restorations. (a) Reporting requirements and definition. (1) In the event... limited off-site restoration action consistent with its existing authority to the extent necessary...

  5. 5 CFR 353.301 - Restoration rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Restoration rights. 353.301 Section 353.301 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS RESTORATION TO DUTY FROM UNIFORMED SERVICE OR COMPENSABLE INJURY Compensable Injury § 353.301 Restoration rights....

  6. 43 CFR 11.21 - Emergency restorations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Emergency restorations. 11.21 Section 11.21... Preassessment Phase § 11.21 Emergency restorations. (a) Reporting requirements and definition. (1) In the event... limited off-site restoration action consistent with its existing authority to the extent necessary...

  7. 5 CFR 353.301 - Restoration rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Restoration rights. 353.301 Section 353.301 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS RESTORATION TO DUTY FROM UNIFORMED SERVICE OR COMPENSABLE INJURY Compensable Injury § 353.301 Restoration rights....

  8. 15 CFR 990.26 - Emergency restoration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Emergency restoration. 990.26 Section... NATURAL RESOURCE DAMAGE ASSESSMENTS Authorities § 990.26 Emergency restoration. (a) Trustees may take emergency restoration action before completing the process established under this part, provided that:...

  9. 43 CFR 11.21 - Emergency restorations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Emergency restorations. 11.21 Section 11... Preassessment Phase § 11.21 Emergency restorations. (a) Reporting requirements and definition. (1) In the event... limited off-site restoration action consistent with its existing authority to the extent necessary...

  10. 43 CFR 11.21 - Emergency restorations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Emergency restorations. 11.21 Section 11... Preassessment Phase § 11.21 Emergency restorations. (a) Reporting requirements and definition. (1) In the event... limited off-site restoration action consistent with its existing authority to the extent necessary...

  11. 43 CFR 11.21 - Emergency restorations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Emergency restorations. 11.21 Section 11... Preassessment Phase § 11.21 Emergency restorations. (a) Reporting requirements and definition. (1) In the event... limited off-site restoration action consistent with its existing authority to the extent necessary...

  12. 5 CFR 353.301 - Restoration rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Restoration rights. 353.301 Section 353... DUTY FROM UNIFORMED SERVICE OR COMPENSABLE INJURY Compensable Injury § 353.301 Restoration rights. (a.... Although these restoration rights are agencywide, the employee's basic entitlement is to the...

  13. RESEARCH NEEDS IN RIPARIAN BUFFER RESTORATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Riparian buffer restorations are used as management tools to produce favorable water quality impacts; moreover, the basis for riparian buffers as an instrument of water quality restoration rests on a relatively firm foundation. However, the extent to which buffers can restore rip...

  14. Restorative Justice as Strength-Based Accountability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ball, Robert

    2003-01-01

    This article compares strength-based and restorative justice philosophies for young people and their families. Restorative justice provides ways to respond to crime and harm that establish accountability while seeking to reconcile members of a community. Restorative approaches are an important subset of strength-based interventions.

  15. Ultraviolet completion without symmetry restoration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Endlich, Solomon; Nicolis, Alberto; Penco, Riccardo

    2014-03-01

    We show that it is not possible to UV complete certain low-energy effective theories with spontaneously broken spacetime symmetries by embedding them into linear sigma models, that is, by adding "radial" modes and restoring the broken symmetries. When such a UV completion is not possible, one can still raise the cutoff up to arbitrarily higher energies by adding fields that transform nonlinearly under the broken symmetries, that is, new Goldstone bosons. However, this (partial) UV completion does not necessarily restore any of the broken symmetries. We illustrate this point by considering a concrete example in which a combination of spacetime and internal symmetries is broken down to a diagonal subgroup. Along the way, we clarify a recently proposed interpretation of inverse Higgs constraints as gauge-fixing conditions.

  16. Lake restoration technology transfer assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Daschbach, M.H.; Roe, E.M.; Sharpe, W.E.

    1982-06-01

    Based upon a review of the eutrophication problem and its impact on lake restoration (LR) programs, treatment of the relatively new problem of acid deposition and its impact on LR activities, consideration of the LR programs of the Environmental Protection Agency and several states, and a review of individual LR technology transfer publications, it is recommended that new LR technology transfer programs be given a low priority until more new information is available on the restoration of acidified lakes. Both primary and secondary users of LR research, technology transfer documents, and public awareness documents were considered in this assessment. Primary users included the general public and recreationists, lakeshore property owners, lake/homeowner associations, lake/sanitary districts, and research and environmental organizations; secondary users included state/county/local officials who administer/manage water-related regulations/activities. 4 tables.

  17. Optimal focal-plane restoration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reichenbach, Stephen E.; Park, Stephen K.

    1989-01-01

    Image restoration can be implemented efficiently by calculating the convolution of the digital image and a small kernel during image acquisition. Processing the image in the focal-plane in this way requires less computation than traditional Fourier-transform-based techniques such as the Wiener filter and constrained least-squares filter. Here, the values of the convolution kernel that yield the restoration with minimum expected mean-square error are determined using a frequency analysis of the end-to-end imaging system. This development accounts for constraints on the size and shape of the spatial kernel and all the components of the imaging system. Simulation results indicate the technique is effective and efficient.

  18. [Changes of root biomass, root surface area, and root length density in a Populus cathayana plantation].

    PubMed

    Yan, Hui; Liu, Guang-quan; Li, Hong-sheng

    2010-11-01

    By using soil core method, the biomass, surface area, and length density of roots < or =2 mm and 2-5 mm in diameter in a 50-year-old Populus cathayana plantation on the northern slope of Qinling Mountains were determined during growth season. Among the roots <5 mm in diameter, those < or =2 mm and 2-5 mm in diameter accounted for 77.8% and 22.2% of the total root biomass, respectively. The surface area and length density of the roots < or =2 mm in diameter accounted for more than 97% of the total, and those of the roots 2-5 mm in diameter only occupied less than 3%. The biomass, surface area, and root length density of roots < or =2 mm in diameter decreased with soil depth, while those of the roots 2-5 mm in diameter were the least in 20-30 cm soil layer. The biomass, surface area, and length density of roots < or =2 mm in diameter were significantly correlated with soil organic matter and available nitrogen, but no significant correlations were found for the roots 2-5 mm in diameter. PMID:21360997

  19. [Conservative restoration of pulpectomized teeth].

    PubMed

    Lasfargues, J J

    1990-04-01

    In endodontic treatment of teeth, partial or "conservative" crown reconstructions are clinically acceptable where loss of substance is limited and recourse to radicular pivots is contraindicated. Such reconstructions bring into play a variety of currently available biomaterials, including those inserted in the plastic phase. They make it possible to delay a prosthetic solution (full crown restoration) without impinging on the conservation of the devitalized tooth. PMID:2135781

  20. Transgene expression in regenerated roots.

    PubMed

    Malamy, Jocelyn

    2007-01-01

    INTRODUCTIONThis procedure, which uses a root transformation protocol, provides a rapid method for assessing gene expression in Arabidopsis roots. It is useful for testing promoter:reporter gene constructs, for expressing genes, the overexpression of which is lethal in whole plants, and for transforming the roots of plants that are recalcitrant to conventional transformation techniques. The protocol has been used successfully with Ws, No-0, and RLD ecotypes. PMID:21357026

  1. Antibacterial Effect and Physical-Mechanical Properties of Temporary Restorative Material Containing Antibacterial Agents

    PubMed Central

    Mushashe, Amanda Mahammad; Gonzaga, Carla Castiglia; Tomazinho, Paulo Henrique; da Cunha, Leonardo Fernandes; Leonardi, Denise Piotto; Pissaia, Janes Francio; Correr, Gisele Maria

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. For the maintenance of the aseptic chain created during the treatment the coronal sealing becomes paramount. Aim. Evaluating the antibacterial effect and the physical-mechanical properties of a temporary restorative material containing different antibacterial agents. Material and Methods. Two antibacterial agents (triclosan and chloramine T) were manually added to a temporary restorative material used as base (Coltosol). The antibacterial action of the material was analyzed using the agar diffusion method, in pure cultures of Escherichia coli (ATCC BAA-2336) and Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 11632) and mixed culture of saliva collection. The microleakage rate was analyzed using bovine teeth, previously restored with the materials, and submitted to thermocycling, in a solution of 0.5% methylene blue, for a period of 24 hours. The physical and mechanical properties of the materials analyzed were setting time, water sorption, solubility, and compression strength. Results. No marginal leakage was observed for all groups. There was no statistical significant difference in antimicrobial activity, setting time, water sorption, solubility, and compression strength among the materials. Conclusion. The addition of antibacterial agents on a temporary restorative material did not optimize the antibacterial ability of the material and also did not change its physical-mechanical properties. PMID:27347539

  2. Bovine Rhinitis Viruses Are Common in U.S. Cattle with Bovine Respiratory Disease

    PubMed Central

    Hause, Ben M.; Collin, Emily A.; Anderson, Joe; Hesse, Richard A.; Anderson, Gary

    2015-01-01

    Bovine rhinitis viruses (BRV) are established etiological agents of bovine respiratory disease complex however little research into their epidemiology and ecology has been published for several decades. In the U.S., only bovine rhinitis A virus 1 (BRAV1) has been identified while bovine rhinitis A virus 2 (BRAV2) and bovine rhinitis B virus (BRBV) were previously only identified in England and Japan, respectively. Metagenomic sequencing of a nasal swab from a bovine respiratory disease (BRD) diagnostic submission from Kansas identified contigs with approximately 90% nucleotide similarity to BRAV2 and BRBV. A combination of de novo and templated assemblies using reference genomes yielded near complete BRAV2 and BRBV genomes. The near complete genome of bovine rhinitis A virus 1 (BRAV1) was also determined from a historical isolate to enable further molecular epidemiological studies. A 5’-nuclease reverse transcription PCR assay targeting the 3D polymerase gene was designed and used to screen 204 archived BRD clinical specimens. Thirteen (6.4%) were positive. Metagenomic sequencing of six positive samples identified mixed BRAV1/BRAV2, BRAV1/BRBV and BRAV2/BRBV infections for five samples. One sample showed infection only with BRAV1. Seroprevalence studies using a cell culture adapted BRBV found immunofluorescence assay-reactive antibodies were common in the herds analyzed. Altogether, these results demonstrate that BRV infections are common in cattle with respiratory disease and that BRAV1, BRAV2 and BRBV co-circulate in U.S. cattle and have high similarity to viruses isolated more than 30 years ago from diverse locations. PMID:25789939

  3. Bovine rhinitis viruses are common in U.S. cattle with bovine respiratory disease.

    PubMed

    Hause, Ben M; Collin, Emily A; Anderson, Joe; Hesse, Richard A; Anderson, Gary

    2015-01-01

    Bovine rhinitis viruses (BRV) are established etiological agents of bovine respiratory disease complex however little research into their epidemiology and ecology has been published for several decades. In the U.S., only bovine rhinitis A virus 1 (BRAV1) has been identified while bovine rhinitis A virus 2 (BRAV2) and bovine rhinitis B virus (BRBV) were previously only identified in England and Japan, respectively. Metagenomic sequencing of a nasal swab from a bovine respiratory disease (BRD) diagnostic submission from Kansas identified contigs with approximately 90% nucleotide similarity to BRAV2 and BRBV. A combination of de novo and templated assemblies using reference genomes yielded near complete BRAV2 and BRBV genomes. The near complete genome of bovine rhinitis A virus 1 (BRAV1) was also determined from a historical isolate to enable further molecular epidemiological studies. A 5'-nuclease reverse transcription PCR assay targeting the 3D polymerase gene was designed and used to screen 204 archived BRD clinical specimens. Thirteen (6.4%) were positive. Metagenomic sequencing of six positive samples identified mixed BRAV1/BRAV2, BRAV1/BRBV and BRAV2/BRBV infections for five samples. One sample showed infection only with BRAV1. Seroprevalence studies using a cell culture adapted BRBV found immunofluorescence assay-reactive antibodies were common in the herds analyzed. Altogether, these results demonstrate that BRV infections are common in cattle with respiratory disease and that BRAV1, BRAV2 and BRBV co-circulate in U.S. cattle and have high similarity to viruses isolated more than 30 years ago from diverse locations. PMID:25789939

  4. 32 CFR 644.453 - Major restoration cases-determining extent of restoration required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Major restoration cases-determining extent of restoration required. 644.453 Section 644.453 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF... Improvements § 644.453 Major restoration cases—determining extent of restoration required. (a)...

  5. 32 CFR 644.452 - Minor restoration cases-determining extent of restoration required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Minor restoration cases-determining extent of restoration required. 644.452 Section 644.452 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF... Improvements § 644.452 Minor restoration cases—determining extent of restoration required. (a) In...

  6. 32 CFR 644.453 - Major restoration cases-determining extent of restoration required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Major restoration cases-determining extent of restoration required. 644.453 Section 644.453 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF... Improvements § 644.453 Major restoration cases—determining extent of restoration required. (a)...

  7. 32 CFR 644.453 - Major restoration cases-determining extent of restoration required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Major restoration cases-determining extent of restoration required. 644.453 Section 644.453 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF... Improvements § 644.453 Major restoration cases—determining extent of restoration required. (a)...

  8. 32 CFR 644.461 - Payment for restoration or settlement in lieu of restoration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Payment for restoration or settlement in lieu of restoration. 644.461 Section 644.461 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY... § 644.461 Payment for restoration or settlement in lieu of restoration. Voucher forms, appropriate...

  9. 32 CFR 644.461 - Payment for restoration or settlement in lieu of restoration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Payment for restoration or settlement in lieu of restoration. 644.461 Section 644.461 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY... § 644.461 Payment for restoration or settlement in lieu of restoration. Voucher forms, appropriate...

  10. 32 CFR 644.452 - Minor restoration cases-determining extent of restoration required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Minor restoration cases-determining extent of restoration required. 644.452 Section 644.452 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF... Improvements § 644.452 Minor restoration cases—determining extent of restoration required. (a) In...

  11. 32 CFR 644.461 - Payment for restoration or settlement in lieu of restoration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Payment for restoration or settlement in lieu of restoration. 644.461 Section 644.461 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY... § 644.461 Payment for restoration or settlement in lieu of restoration. Voucher forms, appropriate...

  12. 32 CFR 644.453 - Major restoration cases-determining extent of restoration required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Major restoration cases-determining extent of restoration required. 644.453 Section 644.453 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF... Improvements § 644.453 Major restoration cases—determining extent of restoration required. (a)...

  13. 32 CFR 644.461 - Payment for restoration or settlement in lieu of restoration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Payment for restoration or settlement in lieu of restoration. 644.461 Section 644.461 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY... § 644.461 Payment for restoration or settlement in lieu of restoration. Voucher forms, appropriate...

  14. 32 CFR 644.452 - Minor restoration cases-determining extent of restoration required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Minor restoration cases-determining extent of restoration required. 644.452 Section 644.452 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF... Improvements § 644.452 Minor restoration cases—determining extent of restoration required. (a) In...

  15. 32 CFR 644.452 - Minor restoration cases-determining extent of restoration required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Minor restoration cases-determining extent of restoration required. 644.452 Section 644.452 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF... Improvements § 644.452 Minor restoration cases—determining extent of restoration required. (a) In...

  16. 32 CFR 644.453 - Major restoration cases-determining extent of restoration required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Major restoration cases-determining extent of restoration required. 644.453 Section 644.453 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF... Improvements § 644.453 Major restoration cases—determining extent of restoration required. (a)...

  17. 32 CFR 644.452 - Minor restoration cases-determining extent of restoration required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Minor restoration cases-determining extent of restoration required. 644.452 Section 644.452 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF... Improvements § 644.452 Minor restoration cases—determining extent of restoration required. (a) In...

  18. 32 CFR 644.461 - Payment for restoration or settlement in lieu of restoration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Payment for restoration or settlement in lieu of restoration. 644.461 Section 644.461 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY... § 644.461 Payment for restoration or settlement in lieu of restoration. Voucher forms, appropriate...

  19. 15 CFR 990.53 - Restoration selection-developing restoration alternatives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Restoration selection-developing... OIL POLLUTION ACT REGULATIONS NATURAL RESOURCE DAMAGE ASSESSMENTS Restoration Planning Phase § 990.53 Restoration selection—developing restoration alternatives. (a) General. (1) If the information on...

  20. 15 CFR 990.55 - Restoration selection-developing restoration plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Restoration selection-developing... POLLUTION ACT REGULATIONS NATURAL RESOURCE DAMAGE ASSESSMENTS Restoration Planning Phase § 990.55 Restoration selection—developing restoration plans. (a) General. OPA requires that damages be based upon...

  1. 15 CFR 990.53 - Restoration selection-developing restoration alternatives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Restoration selection-developing... OIL POLLUTION ACT REGULATIONS NATURAL RESOURCE DAMAGE ASSESSMENTS Restoration Planning Phase § 990.53 Restoration selection—developing restoration alternatives. (a) General. (1) If the information on...

  2. 15 CFR 990.53 - Restoration selection-developing restoration alternatives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Restoration selection-developing... OIL POLLUTION ACT REGULATIONS NATURAL RESOURCE DAMAGE ASSESSMENTS Restoration Planning Phase § 990.53 Restoration selection—developing restoration alternatives. (a) General. (1) If the information on...

  3. 15 CFR 990.53 - Restoration selection-developing restoration alternatives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Restoration selection-developing... OIL POLLUTION ACT REGULATIONS NATURAL RESOURCE DAMAGE ASSESSMENTS Restoration Planning Phase § 990.53 Restoration selection—developing restoration alternatives. (a) General. (1) If the information on...

  4. 15 CFR 990.55 - Restoration selection-developing restoration plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Restoration selection-developing... POLLUTION ACT REGULATIONS NATURAL RESOURCE DAMAGE ASSESSMENTS Restoration Planning Phase § 990.55 Restoration selection—developing restoration plans. (a) General. OPA requires that damages be based upon...

  5. 15 CFR 990.55 - Restoration selection-developing restoration plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Restoration selection-developing... POLLUTION ACT REGULATIONS NATURAL RESOURCE DAMAGE ASSESSMENTS Restoration Planning Phase § 990.55 Restoration selection—developing restoration plans. (a) General. OPA requires that damages be based upon...

  6. 15 CFR 990.55 - Restoration selection-developing restoration plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Restoration selection-developing... POLLUTION ACT REGULATIONS NATURAL RESOURCE DAMAGE ASSESSMENTS Restoration Planning Phase § 990.55 Restoration selection—developing restoration plans. (a) General. OPA requires that damages be based upon...

  7. 15 CFR 990.55 - Restoration selection-developing restoration plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Restoration selection-developing... POLLUTION ACT REGULATIONS NATURAL RESOURCE DAMAGE ASSESSMENTS Restoration Planning Phase § 990.55 Restoration selection—developing restoration plans. (a) General. OPA requires that damages be based upon...

  8. 15 CFR 990.53 - Restoration selection-developing restoration alternatives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Restoration selection-developing... OIL POLLUTION ACT REGULATIONS NATURAL RESOURCE DAMAGE ASSESSMENTS Restoration Planning Phase § 990.53 Restoration selection—developing restoration alternatives. (a) General. (1) If the information on...

  9. Environmental Restoration 1997 annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Cosper, M.B.

    1997-11-01

    During 1997, the Environmental Restoration Program at the Savannah River Site achieved all of the ``Breakthrough Goals`` that were established with the regulatory agencies in 1995 to advance their cleanup efforts. Effective focus on field remediation was demonstrated by the allocation of 75% of program funding to remediation activities. The Remediation Phase is complete or has begun on sixty-nine waste sites that represent approximately 80% of the known environmental and health risk. The average time required for the assessment phase of active projects was reduced by 50%, from 49 to less than 24 months, which allows cleanup actions to start twice as fast as before. Breakthrough performance has tangible results. During 1997, all of the funding allocation was used effectively to accomplish environmental restoration scope worth over $123 million. That represents a validated cost efficiency of over 20% for the third straight year. Over half of the 500 contaminated acres at SRS have been cleaned up or are currently in the remediation phase. Almost 3 billion gallons of groundwater have been restored by removing over half a million pounds of organic solvents.

  10. Africa's Great Green Wall Initiative: a model for restoration success

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berrahmouni, Nora; Sacande, Moctar

    2014-05-01

    The Great Green Wall for the Sahara and the Sahel Initiative was launched to address the increasing challenges of land degradation, desertification and drought, climate change, food insecurity and poverty in more than 20 countries. Restoration of agro-sylvo-pastoral landscapes and degraded lands is one of the priority interventions initiated, enabling the springing up of green nests of life. When complete, the Great Green Wall of Africa will reverse the seemingly unstoppable desertification and address the development of its drylands' inhabitant rural communities. Today's planting of modest seedlings will grow into vast mosaics of forest and agroforestry landscapes and grasslands, which will provide essential ecosystem goods and services, restore lost livelihoods and create new wealth. The ambition of reforestation efforts within this initiative - the like of which the world has never seen before - sounds like an impossible dream. However, learning from past mistakes and capitalising on current advancement in science and technology, it is a reality that is taking root. Following a successful restoration model that RBG Kew experts have devised, we are helping to mobilise, train and support communities in four border regions in Burkina Faso, Mali and Niger. In collaboration with FAO, the Millennium Seed Bank Partnership is using its unique expertise to ensure that seeds of environmentally well-adapted and economically useful local species are collected and planted in communal gardens and village agroforestry systems managed by the communities themselves. In our first year, an estimated total of 162,000 seedlings and 61 kg of seeds from 40 useful native species, including grasses for livestock, have been planted to cover 237 ha of farmer-managed land in 19 villages. The keen interest it has created has indicated that these figures will rise five-fold in the second year. These green bricks are the foundations of the living wall that will eventually reach across the

  11. Randomized clinical comparison of endodontically treated teeth restored with amalgam or with fiber posts and resin composite: five-year results.

    PubMed

    Mannocci, Francesco; Qualtrough, Alison J E; Worthington, Helen V; Watson, Timothy F; Pitt Ford, Thomas R

    2005-01-01

    Prospective clinical studies comparing the results of different types of restorations of endodontically treated teeth are lacking. This study compared the clinical success rate of endodontically treated premolars restored with fiber posts and direct composite to the restorations of premolars using amalgam. Premolars with Class II carious lesions were selected and randomly assigned to one of two experimental groups: (1) restoration with amalgam or (2) restoration with fiber posts and composite. One hundred and nine teeth were included in Group 1 and 110 in Group 2. Patients were recalled after 1, 3 and 5 years. No statistically significant difference was found between the proportion of failed teeth in the two experimental groups. Significant differences were observed between the proportion of root fractures (p=0.029) and caries (p=0.047), with more root fractures and less caries observed in the teeth restored with amalgam at the five-year recall. Within the limits of this study, it can be concluded that restorations with fiber posts and composite were found to be more effective than amalgam in preventing root fractures but less effective in preventing secondary caries. PMID:15765952

  12. Ontogeny of the Bovine Immune Response 1

    PubMed Central

    Schultz, R. D.; Dunne, H. W.; Heist, C. E.

    1973-01-01

    The ontogenesis of the bovine immune response was studied in three embryos (<40 days) and 106 fetuses of various ages. In the absence of overt antigenic stimulation, fetuses had lymphoid development of the thymus at 42 days of gestation, the spleen was structurally present at 55 days, and certain peripheral lymph nodes were present at 60 days. Mesenteric lymph nodes were structurally present by 100 days of gestation, and lymphoid tissue of the gastrointestinal tract, particularly the lower ileum, was observed in histologic sections of a 175-day fetus with a bacterial infection. Pyroninophilic cells, plasma cells, and germinal centers were present in lymph node sections of antigenically stimulated fetuses. Lymphoid tissue developed more rapidly in fetuses with bacteria, viral antigens, or apparent maternal red-blood-cell antigens than in the normal fetus. Thymic and splenic indices reached maximal values in the 205- to 220-day fetal age group. Immunoglobulin M (IgM)-containing cells were first observed, by immunofluorescence, in a single fetus at 59 days of gestation. Immunoglobulin G (IgG)-containing cells were observed at 145 days of gestation in one fetus with a bacterial and viral infection. IgM-containing cells were observed in 36 fetuses and IgM and IgG cells were present in seven fetuses. Spleen, lymph nodes, thymus, bone marrow, and liver of one fetus from a dam with lymphosarcoma had immunoglobulin-containing cells. Hemal lymph nodes, blood (buffy coat), Peyer patches, and heart and lung sections from fetuses with immunoglobulin-containing cells in spleen or lymph node did not have immunoglobulin-containing cells. Antigens of the virus of bovine virus diarrhea-mucosal disease (BVD) were detected in one fetus, and antigens of infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (IBR) virus were detected in three fetuses; however, viruses were not isolated in primary bovine embryonic kidney cells. Two of the three fetuses with IBR virus antigens had neutralizing serum antibody

  13. A Split-Root Technique for Measuring Root Water Potential

    PubMed Central

    Adeoye, Kingsley B.; Rawlins, Stephen L.

    1981-01-01

    Water encounters various resistances in moving along a path of decreasing potential energy from the soil through the plant to the atmosphere. The reported relative magnitudes of these pathway resistances vary widely and often these results are conflicting. One reason for such inconsistency is the difficulty in measuring the potential drop across various segments of the soil-plant-atmosphere continuum. The measurement of water potentials at the soil-root interface and in the root xylem of a transpiring plant remains a challenging problem. In the divided root experiment reported here, the measured water potential of an enclosed, nonabsorbing branch of the root system of young corn (Bonanza) plants to infer the water potential of the remaining roots growing in soil was used. The selected root branch of the seedling was grown in a specially constructed Teflon test tube into which a screen-enclosed thermocouple psychrometer was inserted and sealed to monitor the root's water potential. The root and its surrounding atmosphere were assumed to be in vapor equilibrium. Images PMID:16661886

  14. [A case of appendicular supplementary root with external root resorption].

    PubMed

    González Bahillo, J; Martínez Insua, A; Varela Patiño, P; Rivas Lombardero, P; Paz Pumpido, F

    1991-01-01

    The case of a lateral maxillary incisor with a supplementary root fractured by external root resorption, is presented. The role played for the periodontal disease is shown in the clinical and radiographic achievements, and their implications in the pulpal disease. Endodontic therapy was performed and the diagnosis confirmed in the specimen histological research. PMID:1858059

  15. Class II Resin Composites: Restorative Options.

    PubMed

    Patel, Minesh; Mehta, Shamir B; Banerji, Subir

    2015-10-01

    Tooth-coloured, resin composite restorations are amongst the most frequently prescribed forms of dental restoration to manage defects in posterior teeth. The attainment of a desirable outcome when placing posterior resin composite restorations requires the clinician to have a good understanding of the benefits (as well as the limitations) posed by this material, together with a sound knowledge of placement technique. Numerous protocols and materials have evolved to assist the dental operator with this type of demanding posterior restoration. With the use of case examples, four techniques available are reported here. CPD/Clinical Relevance: This article explores varying techniques for the restoration of Class II cavities using resin composite. PMID:26685471

  16. More than carbon sequestration: Biophysical climate benefits of restored savanna woodlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Syktus, Jozef I.; McAlpine, Clive A.

    2016-07-01

    Deforestation and climate change are interconnected and represent major environmental challenges. Here, we explore the capacity of regional-scale restoration of marginal agricultural lands to savanna woodlands in Australia to reduce warming and drying resulting from increased concentration of greenhouse gases. We show that restoration triggers a positive feedback loop between the land surface and the atmosphere, characterised by increased evaporative fraction, eddy dissipation and turbulent mixing in the boundary-layer resulting in enhanced cloud formation and precipitation over the restored regions. The increased evapotranspiration results from the capacity deep-rooted woody vegetation to access soil moisture. As a consequence, the increase in precipitation provides additional moisture to soil and trees, thus reinforcing the positive feedback loop. Restoration reduced the rate of warming and drying under the transient increase in the radiative forcing of greenhouse gas emissions (RCP8.5). At the continental scale, average summer warming for all land areas was reduced by 0.18 oC from 4.1 oC for the period 2056–2075 compared to 1986–2005. For the restored regions (representing 20% of Australia), the averaged surface temperature increase was 3.2 °C which is 0.82 °C cooler compared to agricultural landscapes. Further, there was reduction of 12% in the summer drying of the near-surface soil for the restored regions.

  17. More than carbon sequestration: Biophysical climate benefits of restored savanna woodlands.

    PubMed

    Syktus, Jozef I; McAlpine, Clive A

    2016-01-01

    Deforestation and climate change are interconnected and represent major environmental challenges. Here, we explore the capacity of regional-scale restoration of marginal agricultural lands to savanna woodlands in Australia to reduce warming and drying resulting from increased concentration of greenhouse gases. We show that restoration triggers a positive feedback loop between the land surface and the atmosphere, characterised by increased evaporative fraction, eddy dissipation and turbulent mixing in the boundary-layer resulting in enhanced cloud formation and precipitation over the restored regions. The increased evapotranspiration results from the capacity deep-rooted woody vegetation to access soil moisture. As a consequence, the increase in precipitation provides additional moisture to soil and trees, thus reinforcing the positive feedback loop. Restoration reduced the rate of warming and drying under the transient increase in the radiative forcing of greenhouse gas emissions (RCP8.5). At the continental scale, average summer warming for all land areas was reduced by 0.18 (o)C from 4.1 (o)C for the period 2056-2075 compared to 1986-2005. For the restored regions (representing 20% of Australia), the averaged surface temperature increase was 3.2 °C which is 0.82 °C cooler compared to agricultural landscapes. Further, there was reduction of 12% in the summer drying of the near-surface soil for the restored regions. PMID:27373738

  18. More than carbon sequestration: Biophysical climate benefits of restored savanna woodlands

    PubMed Central

    Syktus, Jozef I.; McAlpine, Clive A.

    2016-01-01

    Deforestation and climate change are interconnected and represent major environmental challenges. Here, we explore the capacity of regional-scale restoration of marginal agricultural lands to savanna woodlands in Australia to reduce warming and drying resulting from increased concentration of greenhouse gases. We show that restoration triggers a positive feedback loop between the land surface and the atmosphere, characterised by increased evaporative fraction, eddy dissipation and turbulent mixing in the boundary-layer resulting in enhanced cloud formation and precipitation over the restored regions. The increased evapotranspiration results from the capacity deep-rooted woody vegetation to access soil moisture. As a consequence, the increase in precipitation provides additional moisture to soil and trees, thus reinforcing the positive feedback loop. Restoration reduced the rate of warming and drying under the transient increase in the radiative forcing of greenhouse gas emissions (RCP8.5). At the continental scale, average summer warming for all land areas was reduced by 0.18 oC from 4.1 oC for the period 2056–2075 compared to 1986–2005. For the restored regions (representing 20% of Australia), the averaged surface temperature increase was 3.2 °C which is 0.82 °C cooler compared to agricultural landscapes. Further, there was reduction of 12% in the summer drying of the near-surface soil for the restored regions. PMID:27373738

  19. The roots of predictivism.

    PubMed

    Barnes, Eric Christian

    2014-03-01

    In The Paradox of Predictivism (2008, Cambridge University Press) I tried to demonstrate that there is an intimate relationship between predictivism (the thesis that novel predictions sometimes carry more weight than accommodations) and epistemic pluralism (the thesis that one important form of evidence in science is the judgments of other scientists). Here I respond to various published criticisms of some of the key points from Paradox from David Harker, Jarret Leplin, and Clark Glymour. Foci include my account of predictive novelty (endorsement novelty), the claim that predictivism has two roots, the prediction per se and predictive success, and my account of why Mendeleev's predictions carried special weight in confirming the Periodic Law of the Elements. PMID:24984449

  20. New roots for agriculture: exploiting the root phenome

    PubMed Central

    Lynch, Jonathan P.; Brown, Kathleen M.

    2012-01-01

    Recent advances in root biology are making it possible to genetically design root systems with enhanced soil exploration and resource capture. These cultivars would have substantial value for improving food security in developing nations, where yields are limited by drought and low soil fertility, and would enhance the sustainability of intensive agriculture. Many of the phenes controlling soil resource capture are related to root architecture. We propose that a better understanding of the root phenome is needed to effectively translate genetic advances into improved crop cultivars. Elementary, unique root phenes need to be identified. We need to understand the ‘fitness landscape’ for these phenes: how they affect crop performance in an array of environments and phenotypes. Finally, we need to develop methods to measure phene expression rapidly and economically without artefacts. These challenges, especially mapping the fitness landscape, are non-trivial, and may warrant new research and training modalities. PMID:22527403

  1. The effect of thermocycling on the bonding of different restorative materials to access opening through porcelain fused to metal restorations

    PubMed Central

    AL-Moaleem, Mohammed M.; Shah, Farhan Khalid; Khan, Nausheen Saied

    2011-01-01

    PURPOSE Porcelain fused to metal (PFM) crowns provide the best treatment option for teeth that have a large or defective restoration. More than 20% of teeth with PFM crowns or bridges require non-surgical root canal treatment (NSRCT). This may be due to the effect of restorative procedures and the possible leakage of bacteria and or their by-products, which leads to the demise of the tooth pulp. Thus, this study was planned to compare the ability of the restorative materials to seal perforated PFM specimens. MATERIALS AND METHODS The study evaluates the ability of amalgam, composite or compomer restorative materials to close perforated PFM specimen's in-vitro. Ninety PFM specimens were constructed using Ni-Cr alloys and feldspathic porcelain, and then they were divided into 3 groups: amalgam (A), composite + Exite adhesive bond (B) and compomer + Syntac adhesive bond (C). All the PFM samples were embedded in an acrylic block to provide complete sealing of the hole from the bottom side. After the aging period, each group was further divided into 3 equal subgroups according to the thermocycling period (one week for 70 cycles, one month for 300 cycles and three months for 900 cycles). Each subgroup was put into containers containing dye (Pelikan INK), one maintained at 5℃ and the other at 55℃, each cycle for 30 sec time. The data obtained was analyzed by SPSS, 2006 using one way ANOVA test and student t-test and significant difference level at (P<.01). RESULTS The depth of dye penetration was measured at the interfaces of PFM and filling materials using Co-ordinate Vernier Microscope. The lowest levels of the dye penetration for the three groups, as well as subgroups were during the first week. The values of dye leakage had significantly increased by time intervals in subgroups A and C. CONCLUSION It was seen that amalgam showed higher leakage than composite while compomer showed the lowest level of leakage. PMID:22259701

  2. The science and practice of river restoration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wohl, Ellen; Lane, Stuart N.; Wilcox, Andrew C.

    2015-08-01

    River restoration is one of the most prominent areas of applied water-resources science. From an initial focus on enhancing fish habitat or river appearance, primarily through structural modification of channel form, restoration has expanded to incorporate a wide variety of management activities designed to enhance river process and form. Restoration is conducted on headwater streams, large lowland rivers, and entire river networks in urban, agricultural, and less intensively human-altered environments. We critically examine how contemporary practitioners approach river restoration and challenges for implementing restoration, which include clearly identified objectives, holistic understanding of rivers as ecosystems, and the role of restoration as a social process. We also examine challenges for scientific understanding in river restoration. These include: how physical complexity supports biogeochemical function, stream metabolism, and stream ecosystem productivity; characterizing response curves of different river components; understanding sediment dynamics; and increasing appreciation of the importance of incorporating climate change considerations and resiliency into restoration planning. Finally, we examine changes in river restoration within the past decade, such as increasing use of stream mitigation banking; development of new tools and technologies; different types of process-based restoration; growing recognition of the importance of biological-physical feedbacks in rivers; increasing expectations of water quality improvements from restoration; and more effective communication between practitioners and river scientists.

  3. Single-Rooted Extraction Sockets: Classification and Treatment Protocol.

    PubMed

    El Chaar, Edgar; Oshman, Sarah; Fallah Abed, Pooria

    2016-09-01

    Clinicians have many treatment techniques from which to choose when extracting a failing tooth and replacing it with an implant-supported restoration and when successful management of an extraction socket during the course of tooth replacement is necessary to achieve predictable and esthetic outcomes. This article presents a straightforward, yet thorough, classification for extraction sockets of single-rooted teeth and provides guidance to clinicians in the selection of appropriate and predictable treatment. The presented classification of extraction sockets for single-rooted teeth focuses on the topography of the extraction socket, while the protocol for treatment of each socket type factors in the shape of the remaining bone, the biotype, and the location of the socket whether it be in the mandible or maxilla. This system is based on the biologic foundations of wound healing and can help guide clinicians to successful treatment outcomes. PMID:27608197

  4. Invasive cervical root resorption: Engineering the lost tissue by regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Johns, Dexton Antony; Shivashankar, Vasundara Yayathi; Maroli, Ramesh Kumar; Joseph, Rosamma

    2013-01-01

    Invasive cervical resorption (ICR) is a localized resorptive process that commences on the surface of the root below the epithelial attachment and the coronal aspect of the supporting alveolar process, namely the zone of the connective tissue attachment’ early diagnosis, elimination of the resorption and restorative management are the keys to a successful outcome. Treatment done was a combined non-surgical root canal therapy, surgical treatment to expose the resorptive defect and the resorptive defect was filled up with reverse sandwich technique and finally the bony defect filled with platelet rich fibrin (PRF), hydroxylapatite and PRF membrane. Significant bone fill was obtained in our case after a 2 year follow-up period. This case report presents a treatment strategy that might improve the healing outcomes for patients with ICR. PMID:24403805

  5. Compensatory Root Water Uptake of Overlapping Root Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agee, E.; Ivanov, V. Y.; He, L.; Bisht, G.; Shahbaz, P.; Fatichi, S.; Gough, C. M.; Couvreur, V.; Matheny, A. M.; Bohrer, G.

    2015-12-01

    Land-surface models use simplified representations of root water uptake based on biomass distributions and empirical functions that constrain water uptake during unfavorable soil moisture conditions. These models fail to capture the observed hydraulic plasticity that allows plants to regulate root hydraulic conductivity and zones of active uptake based on local gradients. Recent developments in root water uptake modeling have sought to increase its mechanistic representation by bridging the gap between physically based microscopic models and computationally feasible macroscopic approaches. It remains to be demonstrated whether bulk parameterization of microscale characteristics (e.g., root system morphology and root conductivity) can improve process representation at the ecosystem scale. We employ the Couvreur method of microscopic uptake to yield macroscopic representation in a coupled soil-root model. Using a modified version of the PFLOTRAN model, which represents the 3-D physics of variably saturated soil, we model a one-hectare temperate forest stand under natural and synthetic climatic forcing. Our results show that as shallow soil layers dry, uptake at the tree and stand level shift to deeper soil layers, allowing the transpiration stream demanded by the atmosphere. We assess the potential capacity of the model to capture compensatory root water uptake. Further, the hydraulic plasticity of the root system is demonstrated by the quick response of uptake to rainfall pulses. These initial results indicate a promising direction for land surface models in which significant three-dimensional information from large root systems can be feasibly integrated into the forest scale simulations of root water uptake.

  6. Correlation between calmodulin activity and gravitropic sensitivity in primary roots of maize

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stinemetz, C. L.; Kuzmanoff, K. M.; Evans, M. L.; Jarrett, H. W.

    1987-01-01

    Recent evidence indicates a role for calcium and calmodulin in the gravitropic response of primary roots of maize (Zea mays, L.). We examined this possibility by testing the relationship between calmodulin activity and gravitropic sensitivity in roots of the maize cultivars Merit and B73 x Missouri 17. Roots of the Merit cultivar require light to the gravitropically competent. The gravitropic response of the Missouri cultivar is independent of light. The occurrence of calmodulin in primary roots of these maize cultivars was tested by affinity gel chromatography followed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis with bovine brain calmodulin as standard. The distribution of calmodulin activity was measured using both the phosphodiesterase and NAD kinase assays for calmodulin. These assays were performed on whole tissue segments, crude extracts, and purified extracts. In light-grown seedlings of the Merit cultivar or in either dark- or light-grown seedlings of the Missouri cultivar, calmodulin activity per millimeter of root tissue was about 4-fold higher in the apical millimeter than in the subtending 3 millimeters. Calmodulin activity was very low in the apical millimeter of roots of dark-grown (gravitropically nonresponsive) seedlings of the Merit cultivar. Upon illumination, the calmodulin activity in the apical millimeter increased to a level comparable to that of light-grown seedlings and the roots became gravitropically competent. The time course of the development of gravitropic sensitivity following illumination paralleled the time course of the increase in calmodulin activity in the apical millimeter of the root. The results are consistent with the suggestion that calmodulin plays an important role in the gravitropic response of roots.

  7. Cloning, sequence, and expression of bovine interleukin 2.

    PubMed Central

    Cerretti, D P; McKereghan, K; Larsen, A; Cantrell, M A; Anderson, D; Gillis, S; Cosman, D; Baker, P E

    1986-01-01

    Interleukin 2 (IL-2) cDNA clones have been isolated from both human and murine sources. We report here the isolation of a cDNA clone encoding bovine IL-2. This was accomplished by screening a cDNA library constructed from lectin-stimulated bovine lymph node cells, using a human IL-2 probe. Bovine IL-2 is composed of 155 amino acids and has a predicted molecular weight of 19,555. Alignment of the amino acid sequence with human IL-2 indicates that mature bovine IL-2 is composed of 135 amino acids and has a predicted molecular weight of 15,452. It has an amino acid homology of 65% with human IL-2 and 50% with murine IL-2. Bovine IL-2 is unique among IL-2 homologs in that it has a single N-linked glycosylation site. Biologically active bovine IL-2 was synthesized in an Escherichia coli expression system. Images PMID:3517854

  8. Killing of Brucella abortus by bovine serum.

    PubMed Central

    Corbeil, L B; Blau, K; Inzana, T J; Nielsen, K H; Jacobson, R H; Corbeil, R R; Winter, A J

    1988-01-01

    Studies of the serum bactericidal system in bovine brucellosis were undertaken to investigate the role of the humoral immune response in protection of cattle against the facultative intracellular parasite Brucella abortus. Fresh sera from normal control cattle, infected cattle, and cattle immunized with B. abortus cell envelopes were collected before treatment and during the course of immunization or infection. Normal fresh bovine serum or fresh agammaglobulinemic serum from colostrum-deprived calves was effective in killing smooth virulent B. abortus 2308, but rough strains RB51 (a rough mutant of strain 2308) and 45/20 were much more sensitive to serum. The difference in susceptibility to serum was shown to be correlated with differences in lipopolysaccharide chemotype, with the more resistant strain 2308 having O polysaccharide and the more susceptible strains 45/20 and RB51 lacking O side chains. By treatment of fresh serum with MgCl2 and EGTA [ethylene glycol-bis(beta-aminoethyl ether)-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid] killing was shown to occur via the classical pathway of complement activation. When antibody to B. abortus was present, killing of strain RB51 increased but killing of smooth strain 2308 decreased. The earliest antibody response in serum from infected animals did not interfere with killing. When affinity-purified bovine immunoglobulins specific for B. abortus smooth lipopolysaccharide were added to fresh normal bovine serum, immunoglobulin G1 (IgG1) and IgG2 isotypes blocked killing but IgM and IgA isotypes did not. Thus, it appears that serum from previously unexposed animals or animals early during infection can kill smooth B. abortus, an appropriate defense mechanism before the organism becomes intracellular. At later stages of infection, blocking antibodies predominate. Images PMID:3141287

  9. Random laser action in bovine semen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smuk, Andrei; Lazaro, Edgar; Olson, Leif P.; Lawandy, N. M.

    2011-03-01

    Experiments using bovine semen reveal that the addition of a high-gain water soluble dye results in random laser action when excited by a Q-switched, frequency doubled, Nd:Yag laser. The data shows that the linewidth collapse of the emission is correlated to the sperm count of the individual samples, potentially making this a rapid, low sample volume approach to count determination.

  10. Unraveling bovin phylogeny: accomplishments and challenges

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    The phylogenetic systematics of bovin species forms a common basis for studies at multiple scales, from the level of domestication in populations to major cladogenesis. The main big-picture accomplishments of this productive field, including two recent works, one in BMC Genomics, are reviewed with an eye for some of the limitations and challenges impeding progress. See Research article http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2164/10/177 PMID:20525112

  11. Scanning ablation of root caries with acoustic feedback control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Kenneth; Fried, Daniel

    2007-02-01

    It has been previously demonstrated that short λ=355-nm laser pulses can be used for the selective removal of caries lesions and composite restorative materials from occlusal surfaces with minimal damage to the peripheral sound tooth structure. One advantage of laser-systems is they can be integrated with acoustic and optical feedback systems for the automated discrimination of dental caries and restorative materials. The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that root caries could be selectively removed from tooth surfaces using a computer controlled laserscanning system coupled with an acoustic feedback system. Dental root caries surfaces on extracted teeth were scanned with λ=355-nm laser pulses at irradiation intensities ranging from 0.6 to 0.8 J/cm2. Acoustic feedback signals were acquired and used to control the laser output and scanning stages were used to position the laser over carious dentin until all the caries were removed to a fixed depth. Polarization optical coherence tomography (PSOCT) was used to acquire images of the root caries lesions before and after removal by the laser in order to assess if ablation was selective. The amplitude of the acoustic waves generated during the ablation of carious dentin was higher than for sound dentin allowing the acoustic feedback system to discriminate between sound and carious dentin. PS-OCT showed that caries were removed to a depth of up to 1.5-mm with minimal peripheral damage to peripheral sound dentin. The acoustic feedback was successfully used to distinguish between root caries and sound dentin, enabling the selective removal of caries from dentin surfaces using a λ=355-nm, Nd:YAG Q-switched laser system.

  12. Soil Quality in Mining Areas Undergoing Ecological Restoration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dinarowski, Marcela; Casagrande, José Carlos; Bizuti, Denise T. G.; Silva, Luiz Gabriel; Soares, Marcio Roberto; Brancalion, Pedro H. S.

    2014-05-01

    Mining is one of the anthropogenic activities most impactful to natural resources, and can profoundly affect the resilience of ecosystems depending on the level of soil degradation. Ecological restoration has generated promising results even in situations of degradation as intense as those of mining. The aim of this study was to evaluate the quality of the soil in areas explored by the bauxite extraction undergoing restoration: recently mined, seven years, 20 years and native forest. The studied areas are located in the municipality of Poços de Caldas-MG, belonging to ALCOA Alumínio. The mined-out areas for seven and twenty years were uncompressed and received topsoil, liming and fertilization with nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium. Samples for chemical analyses of soil fertility were carried out at depths of 0-5, 5-10, 10-20, 20-40 and 40-60 cm. Soil quality was evaluated by pondered additive model. The parameters were considered organic matter (0.6) and bases saturation (0.4) for soil fertility function (0.6) and calcium (0.5) and aluminum saturation (0.5) for the function root development (0.4) - (the numbers in parentheses represent the weights attributed). Despite the high content, only the organic matter was not a parameter enough to classify the soil quality, once the native forest has very low base saturation (7%). The soil quality index(SQI) obtained allowed to classify the areas, being the first restored 20 years ago with SQI equal to 0.7 followed of the restored 7 years ago, native forest and newly mined with SQIs equal to 0.6, 04 and 0.3, respectively. The native tropical forests have low soil fertility, keeping by the cycling of nutrients. This demonstrates the need for the degraded areas, especially the mined, are uncompressed to allow storage of water and root development, in addition to the replacement of nutrients and soil acidity correction, especially high levels of aluminum saturation (66%) and low calcium (3 mmolcdm-3).

  13. Determinants and Polynomial Root Structure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Pillis, L. G.

    2005-01-01

    A little known property of determinants is developed in a manner accessible to beginning undergraduates in linear algebra. Using the language of matrix theory, a classical result by Sylvester that describes when two polynomials have a common root is recaptured. Among results concerning the structure of polynomial roots, polynomials with pairs of…

  14. PHYSICOCHEMICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF LYOPHILIZED BOVINE BONE GRAFTS

    PubMed Central

    Galia, Carlos Roberto; Lourenço, André Luis; Rosito, Ricardo; Souza Macedo, Carlos Alberto; Camargo, Lourdes Maria Araujo Quaresma

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the physicochemical characteristics of lyophilized bovine grafts manufactured on a semi-industrial scale (Orthogen; Baumer S/A*) in accordance with a protocol previously developed by the authors. Methods: The lyophilized bovine bone grafts were characterized by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), X-ray diffractometry (XRD), thermogravimetric (TG) analysis, differential exploratory scanning calorimetry (DSC) and Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. Results: Ca was the main component (60%) found in the samples, followed by P (28%) and O (5%). The mean (sd) pore size was 316 μm (146.7), ranging from 91.2 to 497.8 μm, and 333.5 μm (304.8), ranging from 87.2 to 963.9 μm, at 50x and 150x magnification, respectively. The hydroxyapatite peaks were at 26°C and 32°C, and mass losses were observed between 250°C and 640°C, corresponding to organic material and water. Two temperature transitions (45.67°C and 91.89°C) showed denaturation of type 1 collagen and dehydration of hydroxyapatite. Conclusion: The physicochemical assessment of lyophilized bovine bone grafts in accordance with the protocol developed at semi-industrial scale confirmed that this product presents excellent biocompatibility, with characteristics similar to natural bone. PMID:27027036

  15. Oxytocin binding sites in bovine mammary tissue

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, Xin.

    1989-01-01

    Oxytocin binding sites were identified and characterized in bovine mammary tissue. ({sup 3}H)-oxytocin binding reached equilibrium by 50 min at 20{degree}C and by 8 hr at 4{degree}C. The half-time of displacement at 20{degree}C was approximately 1 hr. Thyrotropin releasing hormone, adrenocorticotropin, angiotensin I, angiotensin II, pentagastrin, bradykinin, xenopsin and L-valyl-histidyl-L-leucyl-L-threonyl-L-prolyl-L-valyl-L-glutamyl-L-lysine were not competitive. In the presence of 10 nM LiCl, addition of oxytocin to dispersed bovine mammary cells, in which phosphatidylinositol was pre-labelled, caused a time and dose-dependent increase in radioactive inositiol monophosphate incorporation. The possibility that there are distinct vasopressin receptors in bovine mammary tissue was investigated. ({sup 3}H)-vasopressin binding reached equilibrium by 40 min at 20{degree}. The half-time of displacement at 20{degree}C was approximately 1 hr. The ability of the peptides to inhibit ({sup 3}H)-vasopressin binding was: (Thr{sup 4},Gly{sup 7})-oxytocin > Arg{sup 8}-vasopressin > (lys{sup 8})-vasopressin > (Deamino{sup 1},D-arg{sup 8})-vasopressin > oxytocin > d (CH{sub 2}){sub 5}Tyr(Me)AVP.

  16. Hormonal control of root development on epiphyllous plantlets of Bryophyllum (Kalanchoe) marnierianum: role of auxin and ethylene.

    PubMed

    Kulka, Richard G

    2008-01-01

    Epiphyllous plantlets develop on leaves of Bryophyllum marnierianum when they are excised from the plant. Shortly after leaf excision, plantlet shoots develop from primordia located near the leaf margin. After the shoots have enlarged for several days, roots appear at their base. In this investigation, factors regulating plantlet root development were studied. The auxin transport inhibitor 2,3,5-triiodobenzoic acid (TIBA) abolished root formation without markedly affecting shoot growth. This suggested that auxin transport from the plantlet shoot induces root development. Excision of plantlet apical buds inhibits root development. Application of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) in lanolin at the site of the apical buds restores root outgrowth. Naphthalene acetic acid (NAA), a synthetic auxin, reverses TIBA inhibition of plantlet root emergence on leaf explants. Both of these observations support the hypothesis that auxin, produced by the plantlet, induces root development. Exogenous ethylene causes precocious root development several days before that of a control without hormone. Ethylene treatment cannot bypass the TIBA block of root formation. Therefore, ethylene does not act downstream of auxin in root induction. However, ethylene amplifies the effects of low concentrations of NAA, which in the absence of ethylene do not induce roots. Ag(2)S(2)O(3), an ethylene blocker, and CoCl(2), an ethylene synthesis inhibitor, do not abolish plantlet root development. It is therefore unlikely that ethylene is essential for root formation. Taken together, the experiments suggest that roots develop when auxin transport from the shoot reaches a certain threshold. Ethylene may augment this effect by lowering the threshold and may come into play when the parent leaf senesces. PMID:18544609

  17. Restoration of gravitropic sensitivity in starch-deficient mutants of Arabidopsis by hypergravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fitzelle, K. J.; Kiss, J. Z.

    2001-01-01

    Despite the extensive study of plant gravitropism, there have been few experiments which have utilized hypergravity as a tool to investigate gravisensitivity in flowering plants. Previous studies have shown that starch-deficient mutants of Arabidopsis are less sensitive to gravity compared to the wild-type (WT). In this report, the question addressed was whether hypergravity could restore the sensitivity of starch-deficient mutants of Arabidopsis. The strains examined include a WT, a starchless mutant and a reduced-starch mutant. Vertical orientation studies with dark-grown seedlings indicate that increased centrifugal acceleration improves orientation relative to the acceleration vector for all strains, even the WT. For starchless roots, growth of seedlings under constant 5 g acceleration was required to restore orientation to the level of the WT at 1 g. In contrast, approximately 10 g was required to restore the orientation of the starchless mutant hypocotyls to a WT level at 1 g. Examination of plastid position in root cap columella cells of the starchless mutant revealed that the restoration of gravitropic sensitivity was correlated with the sedimentation of plastids toward the distal cell wall. Even in WT plants, hypergravity caused greater sedimentation of plastids and improved gravitropic capability. Collectively, these experiments support the hypothesis of a statolith-based system of gravity perception in plants. As far as is known, this is the first report to use hypergravity to study the mechanisms of gravitropism in Arabidopsis.

  18. Cassava root membrane proteome reveals activities during storage root maturation.

    PubMed

    Naconsie, Maliwan; Lertpanyasampatha, Manassawe; Viboonjun, Unchera; Netrphan, Supatcharee; Kuwano, Masayoshi; Ogasawara, Naotake; Narangajavana, Jarunya

    2016-01-01

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is one of the most important crops of Thailand. Its storage roots are used as food, feed, starch production, and be the important source for biofuel and biodegradable plastic production. Despite the importance of cassava storage roots, little is known about the mechanisms involved in their formation. This present study has focused on comparison of the expression profiles of cassava root proteome at various developmental stages using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and LC-MS/MS. Based on an anatomical study using Toluidine Blue, the secondary growth was confirmed to be essential during the development of cassava storage root. To investigate biochemical processes occurring during storage root maturation, soluble and membrane proteins were isolated from storage roots harvested from 3-, 6-, 9-, and 12-month-old cassava plants. The proteins with differential expression pattern were analysed and identified to be associated with 8 functional groups: protein folding and degradation, energy, metabolism, secondary metabolism, stress response, transport facilitation, cytoskeleton, and unclassified function. The expression profiling of membrane proteins revealed the proteins involved in protein folding and degradation, energy, and cell structure were highly expressed during early stages of development. Integration of these data along with the information available in genome and transcriptome databases is critical to expand knowledge obtained solely from the field of proteomics. Possible role of identified proteins were discussed in relation with the activities during storage root maturation in cassava. PMID:26547558

  19. Bovine Postparturient Hemoglobinuria: A Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Macwilliams, P. S.; Searcy, G. P.; Bellamy, J. E. C.

    1982-01-01

    Predisposing causes of bovine post-parturient hemoglobinuria are summarized along with suspected pathogeneses, clinical signs, laboratory findings, clinical management and early experimentation. PMID:17422195

  20. Approaches to biosecurity in bovine embryo transfer programs.

    PubMed

    Givens, M D; Marley, S D

    2008-01-01

    Although transfer of bovine embryos is much less likely to result in transmission of pathogens than transport of postnatal cattle, the epidemiologic risk associated with bovine embryo transfer merits examination. Much research has validated the efficacy of internationally approved processing protocols to render bovine in vivo-derived embryos free of specified pathogens. The purpose of this review is to summarize current sanitary recommendations for bovine embryo transfer, while emphasizing recent research to develop and validate novel approaches to biosecurity. Continued research will enable the development and validation of novel embryo treatments and culture reagents to minimize requirements for testing of embryo or oocyte donors, and testing of embryo recipients. PMID:18028999

  1. The bovine patella as a model of early osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Hargrave-Thomas, E J; Thambyah, A; McGlashan, S R; Broom, N D

    2013-01-01

    The bovine patella model has been used extensively for studying important structure–function aspects of articular cartilage, including its degeneration. However, the degeneration seen in this model has, to our knowledge, never been adequately compared with human osteoarthritis (OA). In this study, bovine patellae displaying normal to severely degenerate states were compared with human tissue displaying intact cartilage to severe OA. Comparisons of normal and OA features were made with histological scoring, morphometric measurements, and qualitative observations. Differential interference contrast microscopy was used to image early OA changes in the articular cartilage matrix and to investigate whether this method provided comparable quality of visualisation of key structural features with standard histology. The intact bovine cartilage was found to be similar to healthy human cartilage and the degenerate bovine cartilage resembled the human OA tissues with regard to structural disruption, cellularity changes, and staining loss. The extent of degeneration in the bovine tissues matched the mild to moderate range of human OA tissues; however, no bovine samples exhibited late-stage OA. Additionally, in both bovine and human tissues, cartilage degeneration was accompanied by calcified cartilage thickening, tidemark duplication, and the advancement of the cement line by protrusions of bony spicules into the calcified cartilage. This comparison of degeneration in the bovine and human tissues suggests a common pathway for the progression of OA and thus the bovine patella is proposed to be an appropriate model for investigating the structural changes associated with early OA. PMID:24111904

  2. Bovine besnoitiosis emerging in Central-Eastern Europe, Hungary

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Besnoitia besnoiti, the cause of bovine besnoitiosis, is a cyst-forming coccidian parasite that has recently been shown to be spreading in several Western and Southern European countries. Findings Clinical cases of bovine besnoitiosis were confirmed for the first time in Hungary, by histological, serological and PCR analyses. Conclusions This is the first report of autochthonous bovine besnoitiosis in Central-Eastern Europe. The emergence of bovine besnoitiosis in this region represents a further example, when human activity (i.e. cattle trading) is the main factor involved in the geographical spread of an infectious disease. PMID:24410743

  3. Multiresolution image gathering and restoration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fales, Carl L.; Huck, Friedrich O.; Alter-Gartenberg, Rachel; Rahman, Zia-Ur

    1992-01-01

    In this paper we integrate multiresolution decomposition with image gathering and restoration. This integration leads to a Wiener-matrix filter that accounts for the aliasing, blurring, and noise in image gathering, together with the digital filtering and decimation in signal decomposition. Moreover, as implemented here, the Wiener-matrix filter completely suppresses the blurring and raster effects of the image-display device. We demonstrate that this filter can significantly improve the fidelity and visual quality produced by conventional image reconstruction. The extent of this improvement, in turn, depends on the design of the image-gathering device.

  4. Call to restore Mesopotamian marshlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    When the current military conflict in Iraq has concluded, a rehabilitation of that country should include a full assessment and action plan for restoring the marshlands of Mesopotamia, the United Nations Environment Programme said on 22 March.The marshlands, also known as the Fertile Crescent, could disappear within three to five years, according to UNEP.UNEP Executive Director Klaus Toepfer said the loss of the marshlands “is an environmental catastrophe for this region and underscores the huge pressures facing wetlands and freshwater ecosystems across the world.”

  5. Current status of zirconia restoration.

    PubMed

    Miyazaki, Takashi; Nakamura, Takashi; Matsumura, Hideo; Ban, Seiji; Kobayashi, Taira

    2013-10-01

    During the past decade, zirconia-based ceramics have been successfully introduced into the clinic to fabricate fixed dental prostheses (FDPs), along with a dental computer-aided/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) system. In this article (1) development of dental ceramics, (2) the current status of dental CAD/CAM systems, (3) CAD/CAM and zirconia restoration, (4) bond between zirconia and veneering ceramics, (5) bond of zirconia with resin-based luting agents, (6) surface finish of zirconia restoration and antagonist enamel wear, and (7) clinical evaluation of zirconia restoration are reviewed. Yttria partially stabilized tetragonal zirconia polycrystalline (Y-TZP) showed better mechanical properties and superior resistance to fracture than other conventional dental ceramics. Furthermore, ceria-stabilized tetragonal zirconia polycrystalline and alumina nanocomposites (Ce-TZP/A) had the highest fracture toughness and had resistance to low-temperature aging degradation. Both zirconia-based ceramics have been clinically available as an alternative to the metal framework for fixed dental prostheses (FDPs). Marginal adaptation of zirconia-based FDPs is acceptable for clinical application. The most frequent clinical complication with zirconia-based FDPs was chipping of the veneering porcelain that was affected by many factors. The mechanism for the bonding between zirconia and veneering ceramics remains unknown. There was no clear evidence of chemical bonding and the bond strength between zirconia and porcelain was lower than that between metal and porcelain. There were two alternatives proposed that might avoid chipping of veneering porcelains. One was hybrid-structured FDPs comprising CAD/CAM-fabricated porcelain parts adhering to a CAD/CAM fabricated zirconia framework. Another option was full-contour zirconia FDPs using high translucent zirconia. Combined application of silica coating and/or silane coupler, and 10-methacryloyloxydecyl dihydrogen phosphate is

  6. Complications in hair restoration surgery.

    PubMed

    Perez-Meza, David; Niedbalski, Robert

    2009-02-01

    Hair loss affects more than 1.2 billion people worldwide. As the technology and artistry of hair restoration surgery has improved including natural results, so too has the popularity of this procedure. As with any other surgical procedure, complications may occur and this presents a major challenge for the surgeon and the patient. This article provides an overview of the complications most likely to occur during the pre, intra, and postoperative periods with modern hair transplant surgery (single follicular unit or multifollicular unit) including scalp surgery, and discusses their treatment and most importantly their prevention. PMID:19185800

  7. Lactic Acid Bacteria Isolated from Bovine Mammary Microbiota: Potential Allies against Bovine Mastitis

    PubMed Central

    Saraoui, Taous; Rault, Lucie; Germon, Pierre; Gonzalez-Moreno, Candelaria; Nader-Macias, Fatima M. E.; Baud, Damien; François, Patrice; Chuat, Victoria; Chain, Florian; Langella, Philippe; Nicoli, Jacques; Le Loir, Yves; Even, Sergine

    2015-01-01

    Bovine mastitis is a costly disease in dairy cattle worldwide. As of yet, the control of bovine mastitis is mostly based on prevention by thorough hygienic procedures during milking. Additional strategies include vaccination and utilization of antibiotics. Despite these measures, mastitis is not fully under control, thus prompting the need for alternative strategies. The goal of this study was to isolate autochthonous lactic acid bacteria (LAB) from bovine mammary microbiota that exhibit beneficial properties that could be used for mastitis prevention and/or treatment. Sampling of the teat canal led to the isolation of 165 isolates, among which a selection of ten non-redundant LAB strains belonging to the genera Lactobacillus and Lactococcus were further characterized with regard to several properties: surface properties (hydrophobicity, autoaggregation); inhibition potential of three main mastitis pathogens, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Streptococcus uberis; colonization capacities of bovine mammary epithelial cells (bMEC); and immunomodulation properties. Three strains, Lactobacillus brevis 1595 and 1597 and Lactobacillus plantarum 1610, showed high colonization capacities and a medium surface hydrophobicity. These strains are good candidates to compete with pathogens for mammary gland colonization. Moreover, nine strains exhibited anti-inflammatory properties, as illustrated by the lower IL-8 secretion by E. coli-stimulated bMEC in the presence of these LAB. Full genome sequencing of five candidate strains allowed to check for undesirable genetic elements such as antibiotic resistance genes and to identify potential bacterial determinants involved in the beneficial properties. This large screening of beneficial properties while checking for undesirable genetic markers allowed the selection of promising candidate LAB strains from bovine mammary microbiota for the prevention and/or treatment of bovine mastitis. PMID:26713450

  8. Fracture resistance of endodontically treated teeth restored with a bulkfill flowable material and a resin composite

    PubMed Central

    Isufi, Almira; Plotino, Gianluca; Grande, Nicola Maria; Ioppolo, Pietro; Testarelli, Luca; Bedini, Rossella; Al-Sudani, Dina; Gambarini, Gianluca

    2016-01-01

    Summary Aim To determine and compare the fracture resistance of endodontically treated teeth restored with a bulk fill flowable material (SDR) and a traditional resin composite. Methods Thirty maxillary and 30 mandibular first molars were selected based on similar dimensions. After cleaning, shaping and filling of the root canals and adhesive procedures, specimens were assigned to 3 subgroups for each tooth type (n=10): Group A: control group, including intact teeth; Group B: access cavities were restored with a traditional resin composite (EsthetX; Dentsply-Italy, Rome, Italy); Group C: access cavities were restored with a bulk fill flowable composite (SDR; Dentsply-Italy), except 1.5 mm layer of the occlusal surface that was restored with the same resin composite as Group B. The specimens were subjected to compressive force in a material static-testing machine until fracture occurred, the maximum fracture load of the specimens was measured (N) and the type of fracture was recorded as favorable or unfavorable. Data were statistically analyzed with one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Bonferroni tests (P<0.05). Results No statistically significant differences were found among groups (P<0.05). Fracture resistance of endodontically treated teeth restored with a traditional resin composite and with a bulk fill flowable composite (SDR) was similar in both maxillary and mandibular molars and showed no significant decrease in fracture resistance compared to intact specimens. Conclusions No significant difference was observed in the mechanical fracture resistance of endodontically treated molars restored with traditional resin composite restorations compared to bulk fill flowable composite restorations. PMID:27486505

  9. In vitro study to compare impact fracture resistance of intact root-treated teeth.

    PubMed

    McDonald, A V; King, P A; Setchell, D J

    1990-11-01

    The aim of this in vitro study was to determine the effect on impact fracture resistance of three methods for restoration of root-treated lower incisor teeth with otherwise intact natural crowns. In a control group (Group I) laterally condensed gutta-percha filled the entire root canal, whereas part of the root filling was removed to enable insertion of a 1 mm diameter post in the other two groups. Stainless steel posts were placed in Group II and experimental carbon fibre reinforced carbon (CFRC) in Group III. A composite resin luting agent was used to lute the posts, and standardized composite resin restorations were placed in each access cavity. Fifteen specimens of each group were tested to failure with a single impact force applied at 90 degrees to the mid-point inciso-cervically on the labial surface. The peak force, peak energy, and first peak total energy required to fracture each specimen were recorded. The results showed no significant difference between the three groups, nor was a difference in the mode or site of fracture observed. The results suggested that there is no advantage from the point of view of fracture mechanics in 'restoring' intact root-treated teeth with either stainless steel or carbon fibre reinforced carbon rods. PMID:2098347

  10. Flavonoids Redirect PIN-mediated Polar Auxin Fluxes during Root Gravitropic Responses*S⃞

    PubMed Central

    Santelia, Diana; Henrichs, Sina; Vincenzetti, Vincent; Sauer, Michael; Bigler, Laurent; Klein, Markus; Bailly, Aurélien; Lee, Youngsook; Friml, Jir̆í; Geisler, Markus; Martinoia, Enrico

    2008-01-01

    The rate, polarity, and symmetry of the flow of the plant hormone auxin are determined by the polar cellular localization of PIN-FORMED (PIN) auxin efflux carriers. Flavonoids, a class of secondary plant metabolites, have been suspected to modulate auxin transport and tropic responses. Nevertheless, the identity of specific flavonoid compounds involved and their molecular function and targets in vivo are essentially unknown. Here we show that the root elongation zone of agravitropic pin2/eir1/wav6/agr1 has an altered pattern and amount of flavonol glycosides. Application of nanomolar concentrations of flavonols to pin2 roots is sufficient to partially restore root gravitropism. By employing a quantitative cell biological approach, we demonstrate that flavonoids partially restore the formation of lateral auxin gradients in the absence of PIN2. Chemical complementation by flavonoids correlates with an asymmetric distribution of the PIN1 protein. pin2 complementation probably does not result from inhibition of auxin efflux, as supply of the auxin transport inhibitor N-1-naphthylphthalamic acid failed to restore pin2 gravitropism. We propose that flavonoids promote asymmetric PIN shifts during gravity stimulation, thus redirecting basipetal auxin streams necessary for root bending. PMID:18718912

  11. Flavonoids redirect PIN-mediated polar auxin fluxes during root gravitropic responses.

    PubMed

    Santelia, Diana; Henrichs, Sina; Vincenzetti, Vincent; Sauer, Michael; Bigler, Laurent; Klein, Markus; Bailly, Aurélien; Lee, Youngsook; Friml, Jirí; Geisler, Markus; Martinoia, Enrico

    2008-11-01

    The rate, polarity, and symmetry of the flow of the plant hormone auxin are determined by the polar cellular localization of PIN-FORMED (PIN) auxin efflux carriers. Flavonoids, a class of secondary plant metabolites, have been suspected to modulate auxin transport and tropic responses. Nevertheless, the identity of specific flavonoid compounds involved and their molecular function and targets in vivo are essentially unknown. Here we show that the root elongation zone of agravitropic pin2/eir1/wav6/agr1 has an altered pattern and amount of flavonol glycosides. Application of nanomolar concentrations of flavonols to pin2 roots is sufficient to partially restore root gravitropism. By employing a quantitative cell biological approach, we demonstrate that flavonoids partially restore the formation of lateral auxin gradients in the absence of PIN2. Chemical complementation by flavonoids correlates with an asymmetric distribution of the PIN1 protein. pin2 complementation probably does not result from inhibition of auxin efflux, as supply of the auxin transport inhibitor N-1-naphthylphthalamic acid failed to restore pin2 gravitropism. We propose that flavonoids promote asymmetric PIN shifts during gravity stimulation, thus redirecting basipetal auxin streams necessary for root bending. PMID:18718912

  12. Fish Community Responses to Stream Restoration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daniel, W.; Jack, J.; Kelley, R.

    2005-05-01

    Stream restoration projects are often justified based on expected improvements in habitat and ecosystem services, but few of these restorations have been systematically studied to assess their "success." A channelized section of Wilson Creek (Kentucky, USA) was relocated to a new, meandering channel using a natural channel design approach. Fish communities were sampled before and after the restoration and compared to an upstream site in Wilson and two control streams that were not restored. There were no consistent taxa changes among sites at Wilson Creek between the pre- and post restoration samples. Wilson Creek fish communities were always more diverse than either of the control streams. Kentucky Fish Index of Biotic Integrity (IBI) scores in Wilson were Excellent for the pre-restoration fish community and 4 out of 5 reaches sampled after the restoration retained that classification. The reference streams' IBIs were classified as Good and remained unchanged throughout the study period. We are also conducting a stable isotope analysis of representative trophic groups in Wilson to assess if there have been any changes in food web dynamics post- restoration. More pre- and post restoration studies are needed to help develop success criteria and incorporate "lessons learned" in stream restorations.

  13. Predicting restorability of incompetent criminal defendants.

    PubMed

    Mossman, Douglas

    2007-01-01

    U.S. courts frequently require forensic examiners to offer opinions concerning the likelihood that criminal defendants found incompetent to stand trial can have their competence "restored" through treatment. Yet no jurisdiction has established legal guidelines for testimony concerning restorability, and several authors have suggested that mental health professionals cannot accurately predict whether treatment to restore competence will succeed. This study asked whether reliable information that is consistently available at the time of examination might support empirically grounded opinions about the likelihood of restoration. Using records from all 351 inpatient pretrial defendants who underwent competence restoration at a state psychiatric hospital from 1995 through 1999, I evaluated whether several types of information that are reliable and that could consistently be made available to forensic examiners--including evaluees' demographic characteristics, diagnoses, symptom patterns, criminal charges, number of prior public sector hospitalizations, and cumulative prior length of stay (LOS)--would predict outcome of restoration efforts. I modeled the probability of successful restoration using logistic regression equations, and evaluated the equations' predictive accuracy using k-fold cross-validation and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. Lower probability of restoration was associated with having a misdemeanor charge, longer cumulative LOS, older age, and diagnoses of mental retardation, schizophrenia, and schizoaffective disorder. Although the overall rate of successful restoration for felony defendants was 75 percent, logistic equations allowed selection of subgroups with high predicted probabilities of restoration (>90%) and low probabilities of restoration (<35%). In cross-validation simulations, predictive equations had ROC areas of 0.727 for all defendants, and 0.735 for felony defendants. These findings provide scientific support for testimony

  14. Diagnosis and Control of Viral Diseases of Reproductive Importance: Infectious Bovine Rhinotracheitis and Bovine Viral Diarrhea.

    PubMed

    Newcomer, Benjamin W; Givens, Daniel

    2016-07-01

    Both bovine viral diarrhea virus and bovine herpesvirus 1 can have significant negative reproductive impacts on cattle health. Vaccination is the primary control method for the viral pathogens in US cattle herds. Polyvalent, modified-live vaccines are recommended to provide optimal protection against various viral field strains. Of particular importance to bovine viral diarrhea control is the limitation of contact of pregnant cattle with potential viral reservoirs during the critical first 125 days of gestation. PMID:27140298

  15. Gravisensing in roots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perbal, G.

    1999-01-01

    The mode of gravisensing in higher plants is not yet elucidated. Although, it is generally accepted that the amyloplasts (statoliths) in the root cap cells (statocytes) are responsible for susception of gravity. However, the hypothesis that the whole protoplast acts as gravisusceptor cannot be dismissed. The nature of the sensor that is able to transduce and amplify the mechanical energy into a biochemical factor is even more controversial. Several cell structures could potentially serve as gravireceptors: the endoplasmic reticulum, the actin network, the plasma membrane, or the cytoskeleton associated with this membrane. The nature of the gravisusceptors and gravisensors is discussed by taking into account the characteristics of the gravitropic reaction with respect to the presentation time, the threshold acceleration, the reciprocity rule, the deviation from the sine rule, the movement of the amyloplasts, the pre-inversion effect, the response of starch free and intermediate mutants and the effects of cytochalasin treatment. From this analysis, it can be concluded that both the amyloplasts and the protoplast could be the gravisusceptors, the former being more efficient than the latter since they can focus pressure on limited areas. The receptor should be located in the plasma membrane and could be a stretch-activated ion channel.

  16. Thermal measurement of root surface temperatures during application of intracanal laser energy in vitro

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodis, Harold E.; White, Joel M.; Neev, Joseph

    1993-07-01

    The use of laser energy to clean, shape, and sterilize a root canal system space involves the generation of heat due to the thermal effect of the laser on the organic tissue contents and dentin walls of that space. If heat generation is above physiologic levels, irreparable damage may occur to the periodontal ligament and surrounding bone. This study measured temperature rise on the outer root surfaces of extracted teeth during intracanal laser exposure. Thirty single rooted, recently extracted teeth free of caries and restorations were accessed pulps extirpated and divided into three groups. Each root canal system was treated with a 1.06 micrometers pulsed Nd:YAG laser with quartz contact probes. Temperatures were recorded for all surfaces (mesial distal, buccal, lingual, apical) with infrared thermography utilizing a detector response time of 1 (mu) sec, sensitivity range (infrared) of 8 to 12 micrometers and a scan rate of 30 frames/sec.

  17. SEALING ABILITY OF CEMENTS IN ROOT CANALS PREPARED FOR INTRARADICULAR POSTS

    PubMed Central

    Nakamura, Dirce Haruko; Garcia, Roberto Brandão; Bramante, Clóvis Monteiro; de Moraes, Ivaldo Gomes; Bernadineli, Norberti

    2006-01-01

    This research evaluated the sealer ability of 2 temporary filling materials (white Cimpat and IRM) and 1 restorative cement (glass ionomer), in canals prepared for root posts. Sixty human palatal roots of maxillary first molars were used. They were divided into 3 groups, according to the cements used: Group I (Cimpat), Group II (IRM) and Group III (glass ionomer). The roots were rendered impermeable, filled with the respective cements and soon after immersed into 0.2% Rhodamine B dye and maintained for 72 hours in an oven for 37°C. Microleakage was measured with a light microscope, cutting the roots longitudinally in buccolingual direction. The results showed that Group I presented significantly more leakage than Groups II and III, which were not significantly different from each other. PMID:19089266

  18. Decellularization and Delipidation Protocols of Bovine Bone and Pericardium for Bone Grafting and Guided Bone Regeneration Procedures

    PubMed Central

    Ferroni, Letizia; Guazzo, Riccardo; Sbricoli, Luca; De Benedictis, Giulia; Finotti, Luca; Isola, Maurizio; Bressan, Eriberto; Zavan, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    The combination of bone grafting materials with guided bone regeneration (GBR) membranes seems to provide promising results to restore bone defects in dental clinical practice. In the first part of this work, a novel protocol for decellularization and delipidation of bovine bone, based on multiple steps of thermal shock, washes with detergent and dehydration with alcohol, is described. This protocol is more effective in removal of cellular materials, and shows superior biocompatibility compared to other three methods tested in this study. Furthermore, histological and morphological analyses confirm the maintenance of an intact bone extracellular matrix (ECM). In vitro and in vivo experiments evidence osteoinductive and osteoconductive properties of the produced scaffold, respectively. In the second part of this study, two methods of bovine pericardium decellularization are compared. The osmotic shock-based protocol gives better results in terms of removal of cell components, biocompatibility, maintenance of native ECM structure, and host tissue reaction, in respect to the freeze/thaw method. Overall, the results of this study demonstrate the characterization of a novel protocol for the decellularization of bovine bone to be used as bone graft, and the acquisition of a method to produce a pericardium membrane suitable for GBR applications. PMID:26191793

  19. Mitochondrial DNA, restoring Beethovens music.

    PubMed

    Merheb, Maxime; Vaiedelich, Stéphane; Maniguet, Thiérry; Hänni, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    Great ancient composers have endured many obstacles and constraints which are very difficult to understand unless we perform the restoration process of ancient music. Species identification in leather used during manufacturing is the key step to start such a restoration process in order to produce a facsimile of a museum piano. Our study reveals the species identification in the leather covering the hammer head in a piano created by Erard in 1802. This is the last existing piano similar to the piano that Beethoven used with its leather preserved in its original state. The leather sample was not present in a homogeneous piece, yet combined with glue. Using a DNA extraction method that avoids PCR inhibitors; we discovered that sheep and cattle are the origin of the combination. To identify the species in the leather, we focused on the amounts of mitochondrial DNA in both leather and glue and results have led us to the conclusion that the leather used to cover the hammer head in this piano was made of cattle hide. PMID:24617463

  20. Restoration of Long Standing Traumatized Teeth: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Kadkol, Prasanna Kumar; Reddy, K. Veera Kishore Kumar; Ainapur, Raghavendra

    2015-01-01

    Children are uniquely susceptible to craniofacial trauma. Injuries to the teeth occur often as a result of falls and sport activities. The pulp often gets infected after dental trauma resulting in to numerous complications. The authors present a case report of successful restoration of traumatized teeth with open apex which were weakened due to long standing infection and internal resorption. Initially antibiotic combination of 3- mix was used to disinfect the root canals. One tooth is treated with conventional endodontic treatment and the other tooth with open apex and perforation is managed by MTA apexification followed by canal reinforcement using glass ionomer cement and fiber reinforced composite post. Core build up is done using light cure composite resin followed by aesthetic crowns. The patient also presented with the peg shaped lateral incisors, which were built to an aesthetic appearance using light cure composite resins. PMID:26436062

  1. Restoration of Long Standing Traumatized Teeth: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Battepati, Prashant Manjunath; Kadkol, Prasanna Kumar; Reddy, K Veera Kishore Kumar; Ainapur, Raghavendra

    2015-08-01

    Children are uniquely susceptible to craniofacial trauma. Injuries to the teeth occur often as a result of falls and sport activities. The pulp often gets infected after dental trauma resulting in to numerous complications. The authors present a case report of successful restoration of traumatized teeth with open apex which were weakened due to long standing infection and internal resorption. Initially antibiotic combination of 3- mix was used to disinfect the root canals. One tooth is treated with conventional endodontic treatment and the other tooth with open apex and perforation is managed by MTA apexification followed by canal reinforcement using glass ionomer cement and fiber reinforced composite post. Core build up is done using light cure composite resin followed by aesthetic crowns. The patient also presented with the peg shaped lateral incisors, which were built to an aesthetic appearance using light cure composite resins. PMID:26436062

  2. Root development during soil genesis: effects of root-root interactions, mycorrhizae, and substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salinas, A.; Zaharescu, D. G.

    2015-12-01

    A major driver of soil formation is the colonization and transformation of rock by plants and associated microbiota. In turn, substrate chemical composition can also influence the capacity for plant colonization and development. In order to better define these relationships, a mesocosm study was set up to analyze the effect mycorrhizal fungi, plant density and rock have on root development, and to determine the effect of root morphology on weathering and soil formation. We hypothesized that plant-plant and plant-fungi interactions have a stronger influence on root architecture and rock weathering than the substrate composition alone. Buffalo grass (Bouteloua dactyloides) was grown in a controlled environment in columns filled with either granular granite, schist, rhyolite or basalt. Each substrate was given two different treatments, including grass-microbes and grass-microbes-mycorrhizae and incubated for 120, 240, and 480 days. Columns were then extracted and analyzed for root morphology, fine fraction, and pore water major element content. Preliminary results showed that plants produced more biomass in rhyolite, followed by schist, basalt, and granite, indicating that substrate composition is an important driver of root development. In support of our hypothesis, mycorrhizae was a strong driver of root development by stimulating length growth, biomass production, and branching. However, average root length and branching also appeared to decrease in response to high plant density, though this trend was only present among roots with mycorrhizal fungi. Interestingly, fine fraction production was negatively correlated with average root thickness and volume. There is also slight evidence indicating that fine fraction production is more related to substrate composition than root morphology, though this data needs to be further analyzed. Our hope is that the results of this study can one day be applied to agricultural research in order to promote the production of crops

  3. Random root movements in weightlessness.

    PubMed

    Johnsson, A; Karlsson, C; Iversen, T H; Chapman, D K

    1996-02-01

    The dynamics of root growth was studied in weightlessness. In the absence of the gravitropic reference direction during weightlessness, root movements could be controlled by spontaneous growth processes, without any corrective growth induced by the gravitropic system. If truly random of nature, the bending behavior should follow so-called 'random walk' mathematics during weightlessness. Predictions from this hypothesis were critically tested. In a Spacelab ESA-experiment, denoted RANDOM and carried out during the IML-2 Shuttle flight in July 1994, the growth of garden cress (Lepidium sativum) roots was followed by time lapse photography at 1-h intervals. The growth pattern was recorded for about 20 h. Root growth was significantly smaller in weightlessness as compared to gravity (control) conditions. It was found that the roots performed spontaneous movements in weightlessness. The average direction of deviation of the plants consistently stayed equal to zero, despite these spontaneous movements. The average squared deviation increased linearly with time as predicted theoretically (but only for 8-10 h). Autocorrelation calculations showed that bendings of the roots, as determined from the 1-h photographs, were uncorrelated after about a 2-h interval. It is concluded that random processes play an important role in root growth. Predictions from a random walk hypothesis as to the growth dynamics could explain parts of the growth patterns recorded. This test of the hypothesis required microgravity conditions as provided for in a space experiment. PMID:11541141

  4. Nutritional regulation of root development.

    PubMed

    Ruiz Herrera, León Francisco; Shane, Michael W; López-Bucio, José

    2015-01-01

    Mineral nutrients such as nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), and iron (Fe) are essential for plant growth, development, and reproduction. Adequate provision of nutrients via the root system impacts greatly on shoot biomass and plant productivity and is therefore of crucial importance for agriculture. Nutrients are taken up at the root surface in ionic form, which is mediated by specific transport proteins. Noteworthy, root tips are able to sense the local and internal concentrations of nutrients to adjust growth and developmental processes, and ultimately, to increase or decrease the exploratory capacity of the root system. Recently, important progress has been achieved in identifying the mechanisms of nutrient sensing in wild- and cultivated species, including Arabidopsis, bean, maize, rice, lupin as well as in members of the Proteaceae and Cyperaceae families, which develop highly sophisticated root clusters as adaptations to survive in soils with very low fertility. Major findings include identification of transporter proteins and transcription factors regulating nutrient sensing, miRNAs as mobile signals and peptides as repressors of lateral root development under heterogeneous nutrient supply. Understanding the roles played by N, P, and Fe in gene expression and biochemical characterization of proteins involved in root developmental responses to homogeneous or heterogeneous N and P sources has gained additional interest due to its potential for improving fertilizer acquisition efficiency in crops. PMID:25760021

  5. Evaluation of resins for provisional restorations.

    PubMed

    Burgess, J O; Haveman, C W; Butzin, C

    1992-06-01

    An in vivo study of two resin materials (Barricaid and Caulk Temporary Crown and Bridge Resin) was done to determine the retention, post-operative sensitivity, and fabrication time of provisional restorations made from these materials. Following the placement of these resins in 67 intracoronal cavity preparations of 19 adult patients, a baseline evaluation was made which included a clinical examination and color slides. Twenty-four hours after the temporary restorations were placed, the patients completed evaluations of the post-operative sensitivity experienced. There was no difference in post-operative sensitivity between the teeth restored with Barricaid or Caulk Temporary Crown and Bridge Resin. At the insertion appointment of the final restoration, the interim restoration's success rate was determined. There was no difference between the retention of the two provisional materials. Fabrication time was significantly different with Barricaid restorations requiring less than one-half the fabrication time of the Caulk Temporary Crown and Bridge Resin material. PMID:1388950

  6. Saturated humidity accelerates lateral root development in rice (Oryza sativa L.) seedlings by increasing phloem-based auxin transport.

    PubMed

    Chhun, Tory; Uno, Yuichi; Taketa, Shin; Azuma, Tetsushi; Ichii, Masahiko; Okamoto, Takashi; Tsurumi, Seiji

    2007-01-01

    Auxin transport plays a significant role modifying plant growth and development in response to environmental signals such as light and gravity. However, the effect of humidity on auxin transport is rarely documented. It is shown here that the transport of labelled indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) from the shoot to the root is accelerated in rice (Oryza sativa L. ssp. indica cv. IR8) seedlings grown under saturated humidity (SH-seedlings) compared with plants grown under normal humidity (NH-seedlings). The development of lateral roots in SH-seedlings was greatly enhanced compared with NH-seedlings. Removal of the shoot from SH-seedlings reduced the density of lateral roots, and the application of IAA to the cut stem restored the lateral root density, while the decapitation of NH-seedlings did not alter lateral root development. Phloem-based auxin transport appeared responsible for enhanced lateral root formation in SH-seedlings since (i) the rate of IAA transport from the shoot to the root tip was greater than 3.5 cm h-1 and (ii) naphthylphthalamic acid (NPA)-induced reduction of polar auxin transport in the shoot did not influence the number of lateral roots in SH-seedlings. It is proposed that high humidity conditions accelerate the phloem-based transport of IAA from the leaf to the root, resulting in an increase in the number of lateral roots. PMID:17383991

  7. The compact root architecture1 gene regulates lignification, flavonoid production, and polar auxin transport in Medicago truncatula.

    PubMed

    Laffont, Carole; Blanchet, Sandrine; Lapierre, Catherine; Brocard, Lysiane; Ratet, Pascal; Crespi, Martin; Mathesius, Ulrike; Frugier, Florian

    2010-08-01

    The root system architecture is crucial to adapt plant growth to changing soil environmental conditions and consequently to maintain crop yield. In addition to root branching through lateral roots, legumes can develop another organ, the nitrogen-fixing nodule, upon a symbiotic bacterial interaction. A mutant, cra1, showing compact root architecture was identified in the model legume Medicago truncatula. cra1 roots were short and thick due to defects in cell elongation, whereas densities of lateral roots and symbiotic nodules were similar to the wild type. Grafting experiments showed that a lengthened life cycle in cra1 was due to the smaller root system and not to the pleiotropic shoot phenotypes observed in the mutant. Analysis of the cra1 transcriptome at a similar early developmental stage revealed few significant changes, mainly related to cell wall metabolism. The most down-regulated gene in the cra1 mutant encodes a Caffeic Acid O-Methyl Transferase, an enzyme involved in lignin biosynthesis; accordingly, whole lignin content was decreased in cra1 roots. This correlated with differential accumulation of specific flavonoids and decreased polar auxin transport in cra1 mutants. Exogenous application of the isoflavone formononetin to wild-type plants mimicked the cra1 root phenotype, whereas decreasing flavonoid content through silencing chalcone synthases restored the polar auxin transport capacity of the cra1 mutant. The CRA1 gene, therefore, may control legume root growth through the regulation of lignin and flavonoid profiles, leading to changes in polar auxin transport. PMID:20522723

  8. Modelling hydrological effects of wetland restoration: a differentiated view.

    PubMed

    Staes, J; Rubarenzya, M H; Meire, P; Willems, P

    2009-01-01

    The paper presents findings of a conjunctive hydrological and ecological study into habitat restoration and catchment hydrology. Physically-based, fully distributed hydrological modelling was coupled with spatial analysis and wetland scenario generation techniques to simulate potential effects of restoring lower, middle, and upper catchment wetlands. In the past, anthropogenic interference of this catchments' landscape for agriculture and settlement has left most wetland areas drained, and brought the natural functioning of the ecosystem into conflict with human needs. Many eco-hydrology studies conclude that such disturbances result in a more extreme hydrological regime. The study objectives were to develop and study innovative methods for habitat restoration, and understand the potential hydrological impacts of each approach. The study aims to analyze the scenarios and whether the hydrological response is influenced by the topological placement of the restoration sites. Land-use change scenarios are developed on the basis of physical characteristics and consider the credibility of transitions from current land-use. This study focused on the position of the wetlands in the catchment and hydrological typology. Wetland restoration scenarios are created for different geographical settings within the catchment. A distinction is made between groundwater dependent wetlands and wetlands that are influenced by in-stream water tables or surface water inundations. Results show that there is little effect on the total annual water budget. The results point to river valley rewetting as having the effect of decreasing the paved overland component of stream flow, and increasing the saturated zone flow component. It promoted groundwater recharge. There was no increase of peak flows due to headwater wetlands, contrary to some sources (Bullock & Acreman 2003). The catchments' actual evapotranspiration and root zone water responses were found to be varied over the analysis points

  9. Hypocotyl adventitious root organogenesis differs from lateral root development

    PubMed Central

    Verstraeten, Inge; Schotte, Sébastien; Geelen, Danny

    2014-01-01

    Wound-induced adventitious root (AR) formation is a requirement for plant survival upon root damage inflicted by pathogen attack, but also during the regeneration of plant stem cuttings for clonal propagation of elite plant varieties. Yet, adventitious rooting also takes place without wounding. This happens for example in etiolated Arabidopsis thaliana hypocotyls, in which AR initiate upon de-etiolation or in tomato seedlings, in which AR initiate upon flooding or high water availability. In the hypocotyl AR originate from a cell layer reminiscent to the pericycle in the primary root (PR) and the initiated AR share histological and developmental characteristics with lateral roots (LRs). In contrast to the PR however, the hypocotyl is a determinate structure with an established final number of cells. This points to differences between the induction of hypocotyl AR and LR on the PR, as the latter grows indeterminately. The induction of AR on the hypocotyl takes place in environmental conditions that differ from those that control LR formation. Hence, AR formation depends on differentially regulated gene products. Similarly to AR induction in stem cuttings, the capacity to induce hypocotyl AR is genotype-dependent and the plant growth regulator auxin is a key regulator controlling the rooting response. The hormones cytokinins, ethylene, jasmonic acid, and strigolactones in general reduce the root-inducing capacity. The involvement of this many regulators indicates that a tight control and fine-tuning of the initiation and emergence of AR exists. Recently, several genetic factors, specific to hypocotyl adventitious rooting in A. thaliana, have been uncovered. These factors reveal a dedicated signaling network that drives AR formation in the Arabidopsis hypocotyl. Here we provide an overview of the environmental and genetic factors controlling hypocotyl-born AR and we summarize how AR formation and the regulating factors of this organogenesis are distinct from LR

  10. River restoration success: a question of perception.

    PubMed

    Jähnig, S C; Lorenz, A W; Hering, D; Antons, C; Sundermann, A; Jedicke, E; Haase, P

    2011-09-01

    What defines success and failure of river restoration measures is a strongly debated topic in restoration science, but standardized approaches to evaluate either are still not available. The debate is usually centered on measurable parameters, which adhere to scientific objectivity. More subjective aspects, such as landscape aesthetics or recreational value, are usually left out, although they play an important role in the perception and communication of restoration success. In this paper, we show that different perceptions of restoration success exist by analyzing data from 26 river restoration measures in Germany. We addressed both objective parameters, such as hydromorphological changes and changes in fish and benthic invertebrate assemblages, from field investigations, and subjective parameters, such as opinions and perceptions, from water managers via an online survey. With regard to the objective hydromorphological and biotic parameters, our results agree with many studies that have reported improvements in the hydromorphology following restoration; however, there is no similar agreement between results concerning changes in the benthic invertebrate and fish assemblages. The objective results do not correspond to the subjective parameters because self-evaluation of the restoration projects by water managers was overly positive. Indeed, 40% of the respondents admitted that their evaluation was based on gut feeling, and only 45% of the restoration measures were monitored or occasionally checked. This lack of objectively recorded data meant that the water managers were not able to reasonably evaluate restoration success. In contrast, some self-evaluation responses reflected a different perception of the restoration success that was based on landscape aesthetic values or on benefit for the public; others adopted a general "condemned to success" attitude. Based on our data, we argue (1) that goals should be thoughtfully formulated prior to restoration

  11. Can Viral Videos Help Beaver Restore Streams?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castro, J. M.; Pollock, M. M.; Lewallen, G.; Jordan, C.; Woodruff, K.

    2015-12-01

    Have you watched YouTube lately? Did you notice the plethora of cute animal videos? Researchers, including members of our Beaver Restoration Research team, have been studying the restoration potential of beaver for decades, yet in the past few years, beaver have gained broad acclaim and some much deserved credit for restoration of aquatic systems in North America. Is it because people can now see these charismatic critters in action from the comfort of their laptops? While the newly released Beaver Restoration Guidebook attempts to answer many questions, sadly, this is not one of them. We do, however, address the use of beaver (Castor canadensis) in stream, wetland, and floodplain restoration and discuss the many positive effects of beaver on fluvial ecosystems. Our team, composed of researchers from NOAA National Marine Fisheries Service, US Fish and Wildlife Service, US Forest Service, and Portland State University, has developed a scientifically rigorous, yet accessible, practitioner's guide that provides a synthesis of the best available science for using beaver to improve ecosystem functions. Divided into two broad sections -- Beaver Ecology and Beaver Restoration and Management -- the guidebook focuses on the many ways in which beaver improve habitat, primarily through the construction of dams that impound water and retain sediment. In Beaver Ecology, we open with a discussion of the general effects that beaver dams have on physical and biological processes, and we close with "Frequently Asked Questions" and "Myth Busters". In Restoration and Management, we discuss common emerging restoration techniques and methods for mitigating unwanted beaver effects, followed by case studies from pioneering practitioners who have used many of these beaver restoration techniques in the field. The lessons they have learned will help guide future restoration efforts. We have also included a comprehensive beaver ecology library of over 1400 references from scientific journals

  12. IAA transport in corn roots includes the root cap

    SciTech Connect

    Hasenstein, K.H. )

    1989-04-01

    In earlier reports we concluded that auxin is the growth regulator that controls gravicurvature in roots and that the redistribution of auxin occurs within the root cap. Since other reports did not detect auxin in the root cap, we attempted to confirm the IAA does move through the cap. Agar blocks containing {sup 3}H-IAA were applied to the cut surface of 5 mm long apical segments of primary roots of corn (mo17xB73). After 30 to 120 min radioactivity (RA) of the cap and root tissue was determined. While segments suspended in water-saturated air accumulated very little RA in the cap, application of 0.5 {mu}1 of dist. water to the cap (=controls) increased RA of the cap dramatically. Application to the cap of 0.5 {mu}1 of sorbitol or the Ca{sup 2+} chelator EGTA reduced cap RA to 46% and 70% respectively compared to water, without affecting uptake. Control root segments gravireacted faster than non-treated or osmoticum or EGTA treated segments. The data indicate that both the degree of hydration and calcium control the amount of auxin moving through the cap.

  13. Towards a multidimensional root trait framework: a tree root review.

    PubMed

    Weemstra, Monique; Mommer, Liesje; Visser, Eric J W; van Ruijven, Jasper; Kuyper, Thomas W; Mohren, Godefridus M J; Sterck, Frank J

    2016-09-01

    Contents 1159 I. 1159 II. 1161 III. 1164 IV. 1166 1167 References 1167 SUMMARY: The search for a root economics spectrum (RES) has been sparked by recent interest in trait-based plant ecology. By analogy with the one-dimensional leaf economics spectrum (LES), fine-root traits are hypothesised to match leaf traits which are coordinated along one axis from resource acquisitive to conservative traits. However, our literature review and meta-level analysis reveal no consistent evidence of an RES mirroring an LES. Instead the RES appears to be multidimensional. We discuss three fundamental differences contributing to the discrepancy between these spectra. First, root traits are simultaneously constrained by various environmental drivers not necessarily related to resource uptake. Second, above- and belowground traits cannot be considered analogues, because they function differently and might not be related to resource uptake in a similar manner. Third, mycorrhizal interactions may offset selection for an RES. Understanding and explaining the belowground mechanisms and trade-offs that drive variation in root traits, resource acquisition and plant performance across species, thus requires a fundamentally different approach than applied aboveground. We therefore call for studies that can functionally incorporate the root traits involved in resource uptake, the complex soil environment and the various soil resource uptake mechanisms - particularly the mycorrhizal pathway - in a multidimensional root trait framework. PMID:27174359

  14. River Restoration for a Changing Climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beechie, T. J.; Pollock, M. M.; Pess, G. R.; Roni, P.

    2012-12-01

    Future climate scenarios suggest that riverine habitats will be significantly altered in the next few decades, forcing managers to ask whether and how river restoration activities should be altered to accommodate climate change. Obvious questions include: Will climate change alter river flow and temperature enough to reduce action effectiveness? What types of restoration actions are more likely to remain effective in a climate altered future? To help address these questions, we reviewed literature on habitat restoration actions and river processes to determine the degree to which different restoration actions are likely to either ameliorate a climate effect or increase habitat diversity and resilience. Key findings are that restoring floodplain connectivity and re-aggrading incised channels ameliorate both stream flow and temperature changes and increase lateral connectivity, whereas restoring in-stream flows can ameliorate decreases in low flows as well as stream temperature increases. Other restoration actions (e.g., reducing sediment supply, in-stream rehabilitation) are much less likely to ameliorate climate change effects. In general, actions that restore watershed and ecosystem processes are most likely to be robust to climate change effects because they allow river channels and riverine ecosystems to evolve in response to shifting stream flow and temperature regimes. We offer a decision support process to illustrate how to evaluate whether a project design should be altered to accommodate climate change effects, and show examples of restoration actions that are likely to be resilient to a changing climate.

  15. Ecological feasibility studies in restoration decision making.

    PubMed

    Hopfensperger, Kristine N; Engelhardt, Katharina A M; Seagle, Steven W

    2007-06-01

    The restoration of degraded systems is essential for maintaining the provision of valuable ecosystem services, including the maintenance of aesthetic values. However, restoration projects often fail to reach desired goals for a variety of ecologic, financial, and social reasons. Feasibility studies that evaluate whether a restoration effort should even be attempted can enhance restoration success by highlighting potential pitfalls and gaps in knowledge before the design phase of a restoration. Feasibility studies also can bring stakeholders together before a restoration project is designed to discuss potential disagreements. For these reasons, a feasibility study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of restoring a tidal freshwater marsh in the Potomac River near Alexandria, Virginia. The study focused on science rather than engineering questions, and thus differed in approach from other feasibility studies that are mostly engineering driven. The authors report the framework they used to conduct a feasibility study to inform other potential restoration projects with similar goals. The seven steps of the framework encompass (1) initiation of a feasibility study, (2) compilation of existing data, (3) collection of current site information, (4) examination of case studies, (5) synthesis of information in a handbook, (6) meeting with selected stakeholders, and (7) evaluation of meeting outcomes. By conducting a feasibility study using the seven-step framework, the authors set the stage for conducting future compliance studies and enhancing the chance of a successful restoration. PMID:17453281

  16. Expediting environmental restoration at a reduced cost

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, G.R.; Plack, D.A.

    1994-12-31

    With Congress appropriating approximately $1.0--1.5 Billion each year for Department of Defense (DOD) Environmental Restoration Program (DERP), every effort must be made to find ways to use these funds efficiently and effectively to nations hazardous waste sites. Each federal agency involved in environmental restoration is striving to find smarter, faster ways to accomplish this service. The Omaha District Corps of Engineers, Hazardous and Toxic Waste Branch (Omaha) and the Air Combat Command Installation Restoration Branch (ACC) have teamed up to develop and implement an innovative Accelerated Clean-up Program which with the President`s edict for expedited installation environmental restoration.

  17. Ecological Feasibility Studies in Restoration Decision Making

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hopfensperger, Kristine N.; Engelhardt, Katharina A. M.; Seagle, Steven W.

    2007-06-01

    The restoration of degraded systems is essential for maintaining the provision of valuable ecosystem services, including the maintenance of aesthetic values. However, restoration projects often fail to reach desired goals for a variety of ecologic, financial, and social reasons. Feasibility studies that evaluate whether a restoration effort should even be attempted can enhance restoration success by highlighting potential pitfalls and gaps in knowledge before the design phase of a restoration. Feasibility studies also can bring stakeholders together before a restoration project is designed to discuss potential disagreements. For these reasons, a feasibility study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of restoring a tidal freshwater marsh in the Potomac River near Alexandria, Virginia. The study focused on science rather than engineering questions, and thus differed in approach from other feasibility studies that are mostly engineering driven. The authors report the framework they used to conduct a feasibility study to inform other potential restoration projects with similar goals. The seven steps of the framework encompass (1) initiation of a feasibility study, (2) compilation of existing data, (3) collection of current site information, (4) examination of case studies, (5) synthesis of information in a handbook, (6) meeting with selected stakeholders, and (7) evaluation of meeting outcomes. By conducting a feasibility study using the seven-step framework, the authors set the stage for conducting future compliance studies and enhancing the chance of a successful restoration.

  18. Fast image restoration without boundary artifacts.

    PubMed

    Reeves, Stanley J

    2005-10-01

    Fast Fourier transform (FFT)-based restorations are fast, but at the expense of assuming that the blurring and deblurring are based on circular convolution. Unfortunately, when the opposite sides of the image do not match up well in intensity, this assumption can create significant artifacts across the image. If the pixels outside the measured image window are modeled as unknown values in the restored image, boundary artifacts are avoided. However, this approach destroys the structure that makes the use of the FFT directly applicable, since the unknown image is no longer the same size as the measured image. Thus, the restoration methods available for this problem no longer have the computational efficiency of the FFT. We propose a new restoration method for the unknown boundary approach that can be implemented in a fast and flexible manner. We decompose the restoration into a sum of two independent restorations. One restoration yields an image that comes directly from a modified FFT-based approach. The other restoration involves a set of unknowns whose number equals that of the unknown boundary values. By summing the two, the artifacts are canceled. Because the second restoration has a significantly reduced set of unknowns, it can be calculated very efficiently even though no circular convolution structure exists. PMID:16238051

  19. Root hairs improve root penetration, root-soil contact, and phosphorus acquisition in soils of different strength.

    PubMed

    Haling, Rebecca E; Brown, Lawrie K; Bengough, A Glyn; Young, Iain M; Hallett, Paul D; White, Philip J; George, Timothy S

    2013-09-01

    Root hairs are a key trait for improving the acquisition of phosphorus (P) by plants. However, it is not known whether root hairs provide significant advantage for plant growth under combined soil stresses, particularly under conditions that are known to restrict root hair initiation or elongation (e.g. compacted or high-strength soils). To investigate this, the root growth and P uptake of root hair genotypes of barley, Hordeum vulgare L. (i.e. genotypes with and without root hairs), were assessed under combinations of P deficiency and high soil strength. Genotypes with root hairs were found to have an advantage for root penetration into high-strength layers relative to root hairless genotypes. In P-deficient soils, despite a 20% reduction in root hair length under high-strength conditions, genotypes with root hairs were also found to have an advantage for P uptake. However, in fertilized soils, root hairs conferred an advantage for P uptake in low-strength soil but not in high-strength soil. Improved root-soil contact, coupled with an increased supply of P to the root, may decrease the value of root hairs for P acquisition in high-strength, high-P soils. Nevertheless, this work demonstrates that root hairs are a valuable trait for plant growth and nutrient acquisition under combined soil stresses. Selecting plants with superior root hair traits is important for improving P uptake efficiency and hence the sustainability of agricultural systems. PMID:23861547

  20. Bovine viral diarrhea virus infection alters global transcription profiles in bovine endothelial cells

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bovine viral diarrhea viruses (BVDV) are significant pathogens of cattle worldwide. These viruses exist in both non-cytopathic and cytopathic biotypes. Non-cytopathic BVDV can establish persistent lifelong infections in cattle and are a frequent contaminant of biological reagents such as cell cultur...

  1. Bovine central memory T cells are highly proliferative in response to bovine tuberculosis infection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Long-term (i.e., 14 days) cultured IFN-gamma ELISPOT assays measure central memory T cell (Tcm) responses in both humans and cattle. With bovine tuberculosis, vaccine-elicited long-term IFN-gamma ELISPOT responses correlate with protection. In other species, Tcm’s pose low activation threshold and a...

  2. Description and analysis of the Bovine Gene Atlas - An extensive compendium of bovine transcript profiles

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Bovine Gene Atlas (BGA) is a compendium of over 7.2 million unique 20-base transcript tags profiled from 81 tissues acquired from the cow “L1 Dominette 01449” (L1D), her male fetus, her 255-day-old heifer calf, and her father. The BGA tags were generated on a next-generation massively parallel ...

  3. Bovine central memory T cells are highly proliferative in response to bovine tuberculosis infection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Long-term (i.e., 14 days) cultured IFN-gamma responses of peripheral blood mononuclear cells are used as a correlate of T cell central memory (Tcm) responses in both humans and cattle. With bovine tuberculosis, vaccine-elicited long-term IFN-gamma ELISPOT assays are a correlate of protection. Recent...

  4. Reclaiming our roots: accomplishments and challenges.

    PubMed

    King, Janet

    2011-01-01

    Best practices for Native Americans are rooted in culture. However, reclaiming best practices is a challenge given the genocidal policies that outlawed Native culture. Despite this challenge Native people have proven resilient in restoring culture. The Native American Health Center in Oakland, California, has made cultural interventions an option for an urban, intertribal and sometimes multiracial Native American population to create and maintain their health on a spiritual, emotional, mental and physical level. Nevertheless, sustaining these cultural options to maintain health continues to be a challenge. While the passage of the Mental Health Services Act (MHSA) in 2004 in California to transform treatment of mental and behavioral health "as we know it" would seem to create a gateway for cultural options, mainstream mental health has a hard time perceiving cultural interventions as a viable means to treat mental illness and maintain wellness. Frequently, the author has attended meetings of decisionmaking bodies that oversee how MHSA money is spent and someone will blurt out after someone has described an innovative cultural intervention "What does that have to do with mental illness?" The following article discusses how the clash of the two cultures, Native and mainstream, continues to be a challenge for sustained funding to implement culturally competent programs. PMID:22400460

  5. Power and Roots by Recursion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aieta, Joseph F.

    1987-01-01

    This article illustrates how questions from elementary finance can serve as motivation for studying high order powers, roots, and exponential functions using Logo procedures. A second discussion addresses a relatively unknown algorithm for the trigonometric exponential and hyperbolic functions. (PK)

  6. Ultrasonic cleaning of root canals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verhaagen, Bram; Boutsioukis, Christos; Jiang, Lei-Meng; Macedo, Ricardo; van der Sluis, Luc; Versluis, Michel

    2011-11-01

    A crucial step during a dental root canal treatment is irrigation, where an antimicrobial fluid is injected into the root canal system to eradicate all bacteria. Agitation of the fluid using an ultrasonically vibrating miniature file has shown significant improvement in cleaning efficacy over conventional syringe irrigation. However, the physical mechanisms underlying the cleaning process, being acoustic streaming, cavitation or chemical activity, and combinations thereof, are not fully understood. High-speed imaging allows us to visualize the flow pattern and cavitation in a root canal model at microscopic scales, at timescales relevant to the cleaning processes (microseconds). MicroPIV measurements of the induced acoustic streaming are coupled to the oscillation characteristics of the file as simulated numerically and measured with a laser vibrometer. The results give new insight into the role of acoustic streaming and the importance of the confinement for the cleaning of root canals.

  7. Bovine Genetic Diversity Revealed By mtDNA Sequence Variation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mitochondrial DNA single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) data were used to determine genetic distance, nucleotide diversity, construction of haplotypes, estimation of information contents, and phylogenic relationships in bovine HapMap breeds. The Bovine International HapMap panel consists of 720 anima...

  8. Prevalence, transmission and impact of bovine leukosis in Michigan dairies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bovine leukosis, caused by infection with the retrovirus bovine leukemia virus (BLV), has been characterized as a contagious, but practically benign disease of the immune system. National Animal Health Monitoring Surveys in 1996 and 2007 indicate complacency has resulted in high prevalence of infect...

  9. Identification of highly active flocculant proteins in bovine blood

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bovine blood is an excellent flocculating agent, faster acting and as effective on a mass basis as polyacrylamide, the most widely utilized polymeric flocculant. To determine the molecular basis of flocculation activity, whole bovine blood (BB) and BB plasma were fractionated by size exclusion chro...

  10. 9 CFR 113.68 - Pasteurella Haemolytica Vaccine, Bovine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Pasteurella Haemolytica Vaccine... REQUIREMENTS Live Bacterial Vaccines § 113.68 Pasteurella Haemolytica Vaccine, Bovine. Pasteurella Haemolytica Vaccine, Bovine, shall be prepared as a desiccated live culture bacterial vaccine of an avirulent...

  11. 9 CFR 113.68 - Pasteurella Haemolytica Vaccine, Bovine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Pasteurella Haemolytica Vaccine... REQUIREMENTS Live Bacterial Vaccines § 113.68 Pasteurella Haemolytica Vaccine, Bovine. Pasteurella Haemolytica Vaccine, Bovine, shall be prepared as a desiccated live culture bacterial vaccine of an avirulent...

  12. 9 CFR 113.68 - Pasteurella Haemolytica Vaccine, Bovine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Pasteurella Haemolytica Vaccine... REQUIREMENTS Live Bacterial Vaccines § 113.68 Pasteurella Haemolytica Vaccine, Bovine. Pasteurella Haemolytica Vaccine, Bovine, shall be prepared as a desiccated live culture bacterial vaccine of an avirulent...

  13. 9 CFR 113.68 - Pasteurella Haemolytica Vaccine, Bovine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Pasteurella Haemolytica Vaccine... REQUIREMENTS Live Bacterial Vaccines § 113.68 Pasteurella Haemolytica Vaccine, Bovine. Pasteurella Haemolytica Vaccine, Bovine, shall be prepared as a desiccated live culture bacterial vaccine of an avirulent...

  14. Bovine viral diarrhea virus modulations of monocyte derived macrophages

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is a single stranded, positive sense RNA virus and is the causative agent of bovine viral diarrhea (BVD). Disease can range from persistently infected (PI) animals displaying no clinical symptoms of disease to an acute, severe disease. Presently, limited studies ha...

  15. Bovine tuberculosis: Immune response and vaccine efficacy studies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bovine tuberculosis (TB) is a re-emerging disease of cattle within the United States, primarily due to importation of infected cattle from Mexico and the emergence of a wildlife reservoir (white-tailed deer) in Michigan. While the mainstay of bovine TB control has been abattoir inspection plus targe...

  16. Diagnosis of enzootic bovine leucosis in single and pooled samples.

    PubMed

    Hoff-Jørgensen, R

    1990-12-01

    Diagnosis of enzootic bovine leucosis is based on detection of antibodies against bovine leukemia virus, BLV. Some ELISA modifications have proved sensitive enough for use in the examination of pooled blood samples from slaughterhouses, milk and pooled milk samples. Suggestions for the standardisation of different ELISA modifications using a common reference serum are presented. PMID:1966753

  17. Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus Modulation of Monocyte Derived Macrophage

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus (BVDV) is a single stranded, positive sense virus of the Flaviviridae family and is the causative agent of the disease known as Bovine Viral Diarrhea (BVD). Disease can range from persistently infected (PI) animals displaying no clinical symptoms of disease to an acute, s...

  18. Polymorphisms and haplotype structure of bovine PRND (doppel) and PRNT

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) is a fatal neurological disorder characterized by abnormal deposits of a protease-resistant isoform of the prion protein. In previous studies, we have characterized linkage disequilibrium (LD) and haplotype networks within the bovine prion gene (PRNP). Other ...

  19. 21 CFR 184.1034 - Catalase (bovine liver).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies are available from the National Academy Press, 2101... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Catalase (bovine liver). 184.1034 Section 184.1034... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1034 Catalase (bovine liver). (a) Catalase...

  20. 9 CFR 113.311 - Bovine Virus Diarrhea Vaccine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... serum dilution in a varying serum-constant virus neutralization test with less than 500 TCID50 of bovine...-neutralization tests from each of the vaccinates. The test virus shall be less than 500 TCID50 of bovine virus... as prescribed in paragraph (c)(3) of this section, show neutralization in all tubes of the...