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Sample records for bovis meront i-carrying

  1. Viability, infectivity and fatty acid synthetic activity of Perkinsus marinus meront cells incubated in estuarine and artificial seawater.

    PubMed

    Chu, Fu-Lin E; Lund, Eric D

    2006-07-25

    We investigated the viability and fatty acid synthetic activity of in vitro cultured Perkinsus marinus (Dermo) in lipid-free medium and estuarine water, and the infectivity of P. marinus maintained in artificial seawater (ASW). Viability and fatty acid synthetic activity in 7 d old P. marinus meronts maintained in lipid-free medium and estuarine water were tested. The infectivity of meronts incubated in ASW was examined by first incubating P. marinus meronts in ASW for 2, 3 or 7 d, and then inoculating viable ASW-incubated meronts into the shell cavity of individual oysters Crassostrea virginica. P. marinus infection prevalence and intensity in oysters were determined 9 wk post-inoculation. Heavy mortality occurred in meronts maintained in estuarine water, a drop from an initial value of 100% viable to 7.8 and 6.1% after 3 and 14 d incubation, respectively. Viability was 85 and 67% in meronts maintained in lipid-free medium for 3 and 24 d, respectively. Meronts kept in lipid-free medium for 14 d retained their ability to synthesize fatty acids. Viable meronts incubated in ASW remained infective for up to 7 d. The infection prevalences were 85, 48 and 100%, in the treatments inoculated with viable meronts that were incubated in ASW for 2, 3 and 7 d, respectively. Infection prevalence in the group inoculated with viable meronts immediately after they were transferred to ASW ranged from 61 to 85%. Our results suggest that in nature meronts can survive for at least 14 d outside the host. Viable meronts are not only infective, but are also able to replicate and retain their fatty acid synthetic ability for 7 d. PMID:16956060

  2. Mycoplasma bovis research update

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mycoplasma bovis in bison is a newly emerging and potentially devastating threat to the bison industry. This bacterium is increasingly being identified, both in the United States and Canada, as the cause of severe respiratory disease outbreaks with devastating consequences for the health of the ani...

  3. Mycoplasma bovis research update

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Research conducted at the USDA/ARS/National Animal Disease Center in Ames, Iowa, reveals that ELISAs designed for detection of M. bovis-specific serum IgG in cattle may not be optimal for identification of seropositive bison, particularly those with low to moderate levels of antibody. In a study so...

  4. Transient transfection of purified Babesia bovis merozoites

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Transient transfection of intraerythrocytic Babesia bovis parasites has been previously reported. In this study, we describe the development and optimization of methods for transfection of purified B. bovis merozoites using either nucleofection (Amaxa) or conventional electroporation (Gene Pulser II...

  5. Mycobacterium bovis (Bovine Tuberculosis) in Humans

    MedlinePlus

    ... such as what might occur during slaughter or hunting, or by inhaling the bacteria in air exhaled by animals infected with M. bovis. Direct transmission from animals to humans through the air is thought to be rare, but M. bovis can be spread directly from ...

  6. Mycobacterium bovis: Wildlife reservoirs and spillover hosts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mycobacterium bovis is the cause of tuberculosis in animals and sometimes humans. Many countries have long standing programs to eradicate tuberculosis in livestock, principally cattle. As disease prevalence in cattle decreases, eradication efforts are impeded by passage of M. bovis from wildlife res...

  7. Mycobacterium bovis: Characteristics of wildlife reservoir hosts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mycobacterium bovis is the cause of tuberculosis in animals and sometimes humans. Many countries have long-standing programs to eradicate tuberculosis in livestock, principally cattle. As disease prevalence in cattle decreases, eradication efforts are impeded by passage of M. bovis from wildlife to ...

  8. [Pharmacological action of cultured calculus bovis].

    PubMed

    Yuan, H

    1991-02-01

    By means of comparative pharmacological study, the main pharmacodynamics and toxicity of cultured calculus bovis and natural calculus bovis were compared under the same conditions. The results show that both drugs possess sedative, antispasmodic, antipyretic, antiinflammatory, cardiotonic and hypotensive effects, the strength of effect and toxicity being similar. PMID:1872960

  9. Optimizacion of Babesia bovis transfection methods

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The tick borne Babesia parasites remain an important limitation for development of cattle industries worldwide. A stable transfection of Babesia bovis will be useful for functional analysis of the recently sequenced B. bovis genome and to design improved methods to control Babesia infections. In thi...

  10. A TRANSGLUCOSYLASE OF STREPTOCOCCUS BOVIS.

    PubMed

    WALKER, G J

    1965-02-01

    1. A transglucosylase has been separated from the alpha-amylase of Streptococcus bovis by chromatography of the cell extract on DEAE-cellulose. 2. The transglucosylase can synthesize higher maltodextrins from maltotriose, but maltose, isomaltose and panose do not function as donors. 3. Iodine-staining polysaccharide may be synthesized from maltotriose provided that glucose is removed. Synthesis from maltohexaose results in dextrins of sufficient chain length to stain with iodine, but again maltodextrins of longer chain length are formed when glucose is removed from the system. 4. The transglucosylase degrades amylose in the presence of a suitable acceptor, transferring one or more glucosyl residues from the non-reducing end of the donor to the non-reducing end of the acceptor. With [(14)C]glucose as acceptor the maltodextrins produced were labelled in the reducing glucose unit only. 5. The acceptor activities of 25 sugars have been compared with that of glucose. Maltose has 50%, methyl alpha-glucoside has 15%, isomaltose and panose each has 8% and sucrose has 6% of the accepting efficiency of glucose. Mannose and sorbose also had detectable activity. With the exception of maltose all these sugars produced a different series of dextrins from that obtained with glucose. 6. It was concluded that S. bovis transglucosylase transfers alpha-(1-->4)-glucosidic linkages in the same manner as D-enzyme, but some differences in specificity distinguish the two enzymes. Unlike D-enzyme, S. bovis transglucosylase can transfer glucosyl units, producing appreciable amounts of maltose both during synthesis from maltotriose and during transfer from amylose to glucose. 7. No evidence was found that the transglucosylase was extracellular. The enzyme is cell-bound, and is released by treatment of the cells with lysozyme and by suspension of the spheroplasts in dilute buffer. 8. The transglucosylase may be responsible for the storage of intracellular iodophilic polysaccharide that occurs

  11. Mycobacterium bovis: characteristics of wildlife reservoir hosts.

    PubMed

    Palmer, M V

    2013-11-01

    Mycobacterium bovis is the cause of tuberculosis in animals and sometimes humans. Many developed nations have long-standing programmes to eradicate tuberculosis in livestock, principally cattle. As disease prevalence in cattle decreases these efforts are sometimes impeded by passage of M. bovis from wildlife to cattle. In epidemiological terms, disease can persist in some wildlife species, creating disease reservoirs, if the basic reproduction rate (R0) and critical community size (CCS) thresholds are achieved. Recognized wildlife reservoir hosts of M. bovis include the brushtail possum (Trichosurus vulpecula) in New Zealand, European badger (Meles meles) in Great Britain and Ireland, African buffalo (Syncerus caffer) in South Africa, wild boar (Sus scrofa) in the Iberian Peninsula and white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in Michigan, USA. The epidemiological concepts of R0 and CCS are related to more tangible disease/pathogen characteristics such as prevalence, pathogen-induced pathology, host behaviour and ecology. An understanding of both epidemiological and disease/pathogen characteristics is necessary to identify wildlife reservoirs of M. bovis. In some cases, there is a single wildlife reservoir host involved in transmission of M. bovis to cattle. Complexity increases, however, in multihost systems where multiple potential reservoir hosts exist. Bovine tuberculosis eradication efforts require elimination of M. bovis transmission between wildlife reservoirs and cattle. For successful eradication identification of true wildlife reservoirs is critical, as disease control efforts are most effective when directed towards true reservoirs. PMID:24171844

  12. Abortion associated with Mycoplasma bovis (M. bovis) in a bison (Bison bison) herd

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mycoplasma bovis (M. bovis) has recently emerged as a significant health threat in bison and is an increasing concern and source of economic loss for producers. Clinical manifestations of infection documented in bison include pneumonia, respiratory distress and polyarthritis. The current study des...

  13. Identification of Streptococcus bovis and Streptococcus salivarius in clinical laboratories.

    PubMed Central

    Ruoff, K L; Ferraro, M J; Holden, J; Kunz, L J

    1984-01-01

    Streptococci identified as Streptococcus bovis, S. bovis variant, and Streptococcus salivarius were examined with respect to physiological and serological characteristics and cellular fatty acid content. Similarities in physiological reactions and problems encountered in serological analysis were noted, suggesting that an expanded battery of physiological tests is needed to definitively identify these streptococci. Cellular fatty acid analysis provided an accurate method for distinguishing S. salivarius from S. bovis and S. bovis variant. PMID:6490816

  14. Mycoplasam Bovis - an emerging pathogen of ranched bison

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mycoplasma bovis (M. bovis) is an emerging bacterial pathogen that has caused severe disease among ranched bison (Bison bison) herds in North America. Unlike cattle, M. bovis in bison seems to be a primary pathogen, affecting animals in feedlots as well as breeding-age cows on pasture. Mortality r...

  15. Transcriptome analysis of stimulated PBMC from Mycobacterium bovis infected cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Immunological responses of cattle to Mycobacterium bovis (M. bovis) infection are of interest in terms of understanding the biology of M. bovis infection and for the development of improved diagnostic techniques. Although considerable time and resources have been invested in understanding immune re...

  16. Efficacy and Immunogenicity of Mycobacterium bovis Delta RD1 against Aerosol M. bovis Infection in Neonatal Calves

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An attenuated Mycobacterium bovis RD1 knockout (Delta RD1) vaccine administered to calves at 2 weeks of age provided similar efficacy as M. bovis bacille Calmette Guerin (BCG) against low dose, aerosol challenge with virulent M. bovis at 3.5m of age. Approximately 4.5 months after challenge, both De...

  17. PCR identification of Mycobacterium bovis BCG.

    PubMed Central

    Talbot, E A; Williams, D L; Frothingham, R

    1997-01-01

    The attenuated bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine strain is derived from a virulent strain of Mycobacterium bovis. BCG is difficult to differentiate from other strains of M. bovis and other members of the M. tuberculosis complex by conventional methods. Recently, a genomic region designated RD1 was found to be present in all virulent M. bovis and M. tuberculosis strains tested but deleted from all BCG strains tested. With this information, a multiplex PCR method was developed to detect the RD1 deletion. A large collection of BCG and other M. tuberculosis complex strains from diverse host and geographic origins was tested. RD1 was deleted in 23 of 23 BCG strains. RD1 was present in 129 of 129 other M. tuberculosis complex strains. This multiplex PCR method can be used as a tool for the rapid and specific identification of BCG. PMID:9041390

  18. Virulence, persistence and dissemination of Mycoplasma bovis.

    PubMed

    Bürki, Sibylle; Frey, Joachim; Pilo, Paola

    2015-08-31

    Bovine mycoplasmosis due to Mycoplasma bovis causes several important bovine diseases such as pneumonia, mastitis, arthritis, otitis, genital disorders or keratoconjunctivitis. Variable surface lipoproteins, adhesion, invasion of host cells, modulation of the host immune system, biofilm formation and the release of secondary metabolites like hydrogen peroxide, as well as synergistic infections with other bacterial or viral pathogens are among the more significantly studied characteristics of the bacterium. The aim of this review is to summarize the current knowledge regarding the virulence of M. bovis and additionally, factors contributing to the dissemination and persistence of this pathogen in the bovine host will be discussed. PMID:25824130

  19. Experimental Babesia bovis infection in Holstein calves.

    PubMed

    Everitt, J I; Shadduck, J A; Steinkamp, C; Clabaugh, G

    1986-09-01

    One intact and two splenectomized Holstein calves were infected intravenously with a Mexican strain of Babesia bovis and killed following the onset of severe clinical disease. A light and electron microscopic study was conducted on selected tissues to examine the relationship between parasitized erythrocytes and microvascular endothelial cells. The pattern and degree of specific organ sequestration of parasitized erythrocytes was assessed and correlated to lesions. Red blood cells infected with Babesia bovis exhibited stellate membrane protrusions. This morphological change appeared to mediate erythrocyte sequestration in the microvascular and capillary beds of the brain, kidney, and adrenal gland by an as yet unknown mechanism(s). PMID:3776013

  20. Mycobacterium bovis infection in human beings.

    PubMed

    Grange, J M

    2001-01-01

    The causative agent of bovine tuberculosis, Mycobacterium bovis, is also responsible for some cases of tuberculosis in human beings. Although recognized for over a century, this form of human tuberculosis has been a source of considerable misunderstanding and controversy. Questions still remain concerning the relative virulence of M. tuberculosis and M. bovis in human beings, the risk of human disease after infection, the immunological consequences of infection that does not proceed to disease, the occurrence of human-to-human transmission of M. bovis and the health risk of diseased human beings to cattle. The advent of the HIV/AIDS pandemic raises new questions of the epidemiological impact of immunosuppression on the transmission of M. bovis to and between human beings. Although largely eradicated in the developed nations, bovine tuberculosis still occurs in many developing nations and epidemiological data on the impact of this on human health is scanty but, in the light of the increasing incidence of tuberculosis worldwide, it is urgently needed. PMID:11463226

  1. Search for Babesia bovis vaccine candidates

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Babesia bovis is a tick borne apicomplexan pathogen that remains an important constrain for the development of cattle industries worldwide. Effective control can be achieved by vaccination with attenuated forms of the parasite, but they have several drawbacks and thus the development of alternative...

  2. Diagnosis of Mycobacterium bovis infection in cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bovine tuberculosis (TB) caused by Mycobacterium bovis continues to be a major animal health problem, having adverse impacts on socioeconomic conditions, public health and trade of animals and animal products. Worldwide it has been estimated that approximately 50 million cattle are infected with M. ...

  3. Immunopathogenesis of Mycobacterium bovis infection of cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aerosol and intratracheal inoculation routes are commonly used for experimental biology purposes to infect cattle with virulent Mycobacterium bovis, each resulting primarily in a respiratory tract infection including lungs and lung-associated lymph nodes. Disease severity is dose and time dependent...

  4. Ecology and pathogenicity of gastrointestinal Streptococcus bovis.

    PubMed

    Herrera, Paul; Kwon, Young Min; Ricke, Steven C

    2009-01-01

    Streptococcus bovis is an indigenous resident in the gastrointestinal tracts of both humans and animals. S. bovis is one of the major causes of bacterial endocarditis and has been implicated in the incidence of human colon cancer, possibly due to chronic inflammatory response at the site of intestinal colonization. Certain feeding regimens in ruminants can lead to overgrowth of S. bovis in the rumen, resulting in the over-production of lactate and capsular polysaccharide causing acute ruminal acidosis and bloat, respectively. There are multiple strategies in controlling acute lactic acidosis and bloat. The incidence of the two diseases may be controlled by strict dietary management. Gradual introduction of grain-based diets and the feeding of coarsely chopped roughage decrease the incidence of the two disease entities. Ionophores, which have been used to enhance feed conversion and growth rate in cattle, have been shown to inhibit the growth of lactic acid bacteria in the rumen. Other methods of controlling lactic acid bacteria in the ruminal environment (dietary supplementation of long-chain fatty acids, induction of passive and active immune responses to the bacteria, and the use of lytic bacteriophages) have also been investigated. It is anticipated that through continued in-depth ecological analysis of S. bovis the characteristics responsible for human and animal pathogenesis would be sufficiently identified to a point where more effective control strategies for the control of this bacteria can be developed. PMID:19100852

  5. Babesia bovis clones: biochemical and enzymatic characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Rodriguez Camarillo, S.D.

    1985-01-01

    Studies were undertaken to generate additional knowledge of the biochemistry of Babesia bovis. A modified in vitro culture technique used for cloning B. bovis. This technique included a low oxygen concentration atmosphere (2%, O/sub 2/, 5% CO/sub 2/, 93% N/sub 2/) and 4 mm fluid level. Cultures initiated with one infected erythrocyte were maintained until parasitemias of positive wells reached 2% parasitemia. Primary clones were obtained and from these, nine clones were recloned twice and used for subsequent studies. A procedure was developed to concentrate and separate B. bovis merozoites and infected erythrocytes by Percoll density gradients. Merozoites separated at 1.087 g/ml specific density, whereas infected erythrocytes separated at 1.121 g/ml. Viability of purified parasites was not affected. Agarose gel electrophoresis was used to identify metabolic enzyme in B. bovis and B. bigemina. The enzymes LDH, GDH, GPI and HK were detected in both species. Molecular analysis by one and two-dimensional gel electrophoresis of proteins metabolically labeled with /sup 35/S-methionine indicated that two clones, derived from the same field strain, were similar but not identical to the parent. Fewer proteins were observed in the parental strain. Growth of two 60-Co irradiated B. bovis clones indicated a dose-effect relationship. Growth of parasites exposed for the longest period was initially retarded but returned to normal growth after two or three subcultures. Cultures exposed for shorter periods were unaffected with respect to the rate of growth. Analysis of electrophoretic mobility of metabolic enzyme showed a change in migration pattern.

  6. Mycoplasma bovis: Mechanisms of Resistance and Trends in Antimicrobial Susceptibility.

    PubMed

    Lysnyansky, Inna; Ayling, Roger D

    2016-01-01

    Mycoplasma bovis is a cell-wall-less bacterium and belongs to the class Mollicutes. It is the most important etiological agent of bovine mycoplasmoses in North America and Europe, causing respiratory disease, mastitis, otitis media, arthritis, and reproductive disease. Clinical disease associated with M. bovis is often chronic, debilitating, and poorly responsive to antimicrobial therapy, resulting in significant economic loss, the full extent of which is difficult to estimate. Until M. bovis vaccines are universally available, sanitary control measures and antimicrobial treatment are the only approaches that can be used in attempts to control M. bovis infections. However, in vitro studies show that many of the current M. bovis isolates circulating in Europe have high minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) for many of the commercially available antimicrobials. In this review we summarize the current MIC trends indicating the development of antimicrobial resistance in M. bovis as well as the known molecular mechanisms by which resistance is acquired. PMID:27199926

  7. Mycoplasma bovis: Mechanisms of Resistance and Trends in Antimicrobial Susceptibility

    PubMed Central

    Lysnyansky, Inna; Ayling, Roger D.

    2016-01-01

    Mycoplasma bovis is a cell-wall-less bacterium and belongs to the class Mollicutes. It is the most important etiological agent of bovine mycoplasmoses in North America and Europe, causing respiratory disease, mastitis, otitis media, arthritis, and reproductive disease. Clinical disease associated with M. bovis is often chronic, debilitating, and poorly responsive to antimicrobial therapy, resulting in significant economic loss, the full extent of which is difficult to estimate. Until M. bovis vaccines are universally available, sanitary control measures and antimicrobial treatment are the only approaches that can be used in attempts to control M. bovis infections. However, in vitro studies show that many of the current M. bovis isolates circulating in Europe have high minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) for many of the commercially available antimicrobials. In this review we summarize the current MIC trends indicating the development of antimicrobial resistance in M. bovis as well as the known molecular mechanisms by which resistance is acquired. PMID:27199926

  8. Survival rate of airborne Mycobacterium bovis.

    PubMed

    Gannon, B W; Hayes, C M; Roe, J M

    2007-04-01

    Despite years of study the principle transmission route of bovine tuberculosis to cattle remains unresolved. The distribution of pathological lesions, which are concentrated in the respiratory system, and the very low dose of Mycobacterium bovis needed to initiate infection from a respiratory tract challenge suggest that the disease is spread by airborne transmission. Critical to the airborne transmission of a pathogenic microorganism is its ability to survive the stresses incurred whilst airborne. This study demonstrates that M. bovis is resistant to the stresses imposed immediately after becoming airborne, 94% surviving the first 10 min after aerosolisation. Once airborne the organism is robust, its viability decreasing with a half-life of approximately 1.5 hours. These findings support the hypothesis that airborne transmission is the principle route of infection for bovine tuberculosis. PMID:17045316

  9. Advances in molecular diagnostics for Mycobacterium bovis.

    PubMed

    Collins, Desmond M

    2011-07-01

    The two most important molecular diagnostic techniques for bovine tuberculosis are the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) because of its rapid determination of infection, and DNA strain typing because of its ability to answer important epidemiological questions. PCR tests for Mycobacterium bovis have been improved through recent advances in PCR technology, but still lack the sensitivity of good culture methods, and in some situations are susceptible to giving both false negative and false positive results. Therefore, PCR does not usually replace the need for culture, but is used to provide fast preliminary results. DNA typing of M. bovis isolates by restriction endonuclease analysis (REA) was developed 25 years ago in New Zealand, and remains an important tool in the New Zealand control scheme, where the typing results are combined with other information to determine large and expensive possum poisoning operations. A range of other DNA typing systems developed for M. bovis in the 1990 s have assisted epidemiological investigations in some countries but are now less commonly used. Variable number tandem repeat (VNTR) typing and spoligotyping, either alone or together, have now become the preferred approaches as they are robust and amenable to electronic analysis and comparison. Spoligotyping gives only moderate discrimination but can be easily applied to large numbers of isolates, and VNTR typing provides better discrimination than all other methods except for REA. While the current typing techniques are sufficient for most epidemiological purposes, more discriminating methods are likely to become available in the near future. PMID:21420257

  10. Pulmonary Tuberculosis Caused by Mycobacterium bovis in China

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Guanglu; Wang, Guirong; Chen, Suting; Yu, Xia; Wang, Xiaobo; Zhao, Liping; Ma, Yifeng; Dong, Lingling; Huang, Hairong

    2015-01-01

    The epidemiology of Mycobacterium bovis infection in humans in China is unknown. In this study, pulmonary tuberculosis caused by M. bovis in China was studied. A total of 4069 clinical strains isolated from sputa during the 2007–2009 nationwide surveillance of drug-resistant tuberculosis in China were analyzed. M. bovis was identified by para-nitrobenzoic acid and thiophen-2-carboxylic acid hydrazide growth tests, spoligotyping and multiplex PCR amplification. In addition, a total of 1828 clinical specimens were recruited from Beijing Chest Hospital (Beijing, China) for Löwenstein-Jensen (LJ) culture, both on standard LJ medium and LJ medium containing 4.5 mg/ml(W/V) sodium pyruvate, the latter being the preferred medium for M. bovis growth. The isolates which demonstrated more vigorous on pyruvate containing medium than on standard LJ medium were then identified by multiplex PCR amplification. Only 1 isolate from the nationwide surveillance was confirmed as M. bovis-BCG. The isolate belonged to a predominant spoligotype SB0120 (ST482). In addition, no M. bovis isolate was acquired by the continuous screening step in Beijing Chest Hospital. M. bovis has a negligible contribution to pulmonary tuberculosis in China, so neither laboratory identification nor clinical treatment of M. bovis infection need be considered in routine work. PMID:25736338

  11. Mycobacterium bovis Shuttles between Domestic Animals and Wildlife

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the early 20th century there were large numbers of tuberculous cattle in many countries. An association was made between the number of M. bovis infected humans and the prevalence of tuberculosis in cattle. Mandatory pasteurization of milk caused the prevalence of human tuberculosis due to M. bovi...

  12. Whole-Genome Sequence of Mycobacterium bovis BCG-1 (Russia)

    PubMed Central

    Alvarez Figueroa, M.; Levi, D.; Markelov, M.; Dedkov, V.; Aleksandrova, N.; Shipulin, G.

    2015-01-01

    BCG vaccine (Mycobacterium bovis BCG-1 [Russia]) is the most important component of tuberculosis prophylaxis in Russia. This study represents the complete genome sequence and genetic characteristics of M. bovis BCG-1 (Russia), which has been used to manufacture BCG vaccine in Russia and in some other countries. PMID:26564042

  13. Innate Immune Response to Intramammary Mycoplasma bovis Infection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mastitis caused by Mycoplasma bovis is a growing concern for the dairy industry. M. bovis intramammary infection commonly results in an untreatable case of chronic mastitis. The innate immune system is responsible for initial recognition of, and immediate host responses to, infectious pathogens. ...

  14. 9 CFR 113.409 - Tuberculin-PPD Bovis, Intradermic.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Tuberculin-PPD Bovis, Intradermic. 113.409 Section 113.409 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT..., Intradermic is a purified protein derivative produced from cultures of Mycobacterium bovis Strain...

  15. 9 CFR 113.409 - Tuberculin-PPD Bovis, Intradermic.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Tuberculin-PPD Bovis, Intradermic. 113.409 Section 113.409 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT..., Intradermic is a purified protein derivative produced from cultures of Mycobacterium bovis Strain...

  16. 9 CFR 113.409 - Tuberculin-PPD Bovis, Intradermic.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Tuberculin-PPD Bovis, Intradermic. 113.409 Section 113.409 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT..., Intradermic is a purified protein derivative produced from cultures of Mycobacterium bovis Strain...

  17. 9 CFR 113.409 - Tuberculin-PPD Bovis, Intradermic.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Tuberculin-PPD Bovis, Intradermic. 113.409 Section 113.409 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT..., Intradermic is a purified protein derivative produced from cultures of Mycobacterium bovis Strain...

  18. 9 CFR 113.409 - Tuberculin-PPD Bovis, Intradermic.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Tuberculin-PPD Bovis, Intradermic. 113.409 Section 113.409 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT..., Intradermic is a purified protein derivative produced from cultures of Mycobacterium bovis Strain...

  19. Sensitivity of Mycobacterium bovis to common beef processing interventions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Objective. Mycobacterium bovis is the causative agent of bovine tuberculosis, a relevant zoonosis that can spread to humans through inhalation or by ingestion. M. bovis multiplies slowly, so infected animals may be sent to slaughter during the early stages of the disease before diagnosis and when ...

  20. Streptococcus bovis as a Silage Inoculant, a Second Chance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Previous research indicated that Streptococcus bovis, a lactate producing ruminal bacterium, was similar or better than commercial silage inoculants. This study assessed the potential of two S. bovis strains, JB1 (a bacteriocin negative strain) and HC5 (a bacteriocin producing strain). Four treatmen...

  1. Streptococcus bovis septicemia and meningitis associated with chronic radiation enterocolitis

    SciTech Connect

    Jadeja, L.; Kantarjian, H.; Bolivar, R.

    1983-12-01

    We describe the first patient with simultaneous S bovis septicemia and meningitis associated with chronic radiation enterocolitis. This case underlines the value of a thorough gastrointestinal evaluation of all patients with S bovis infection, and the need for a neurologic investigation even with minor neurologic manifestations.

  2. Cytokine Responses of Cattle to Experimental M. bovis Infection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An impediment to the development of efficacious vaccines for bovine tuberculosis has been the failure to demonstrate strong associations between immune function and protective immunity. Cytokine gene expression in response to Mycobacterium bovis (M. bovis) infection was evaluated to identify correla...

  3. Mycobacterium bovis hip bursitis in a lung transplant recipient.

    PubMed

    Dan, J M; Crespo, M; Silveira, F P; Kaplan, R; Aslam, S

    2016-02-01

    We present a report of extrapulmonary Mycobacterium bovis infection in a lung transplant recipient. M. bovis is acquired predominantly by zoonotic transmission, particularly from consumption of unpasteurized foods. We discuss epidemiologic exposure, especially as relates to the Mexico-US border, clinical characteristics, resistance profile, and treatment. PMID:26671334

  4. Complete Genome Sequence of Mycobacterium bovis Strain BCG-1 (Russia)

    PubMed Central

    Shitikov, Egor A.; Malakhova, Maja V.; Kostryukova, Elena S.; Ilina, Elena N.; Atrasheuskaya, Alena V.; Ignatyev, Georgy M.; Vinokurova, Nataliya V.; Gorbachyov, Vyacheslav Y.

    2016-01-01

    Mycobacterium bovis BCG (Bacille Calmette-Guérin) is a vaccine strain used for protection against tuberculosis. Here, we announce the complete genome sequence of M. bovis strain BCG-1 (Russia). Extensive use of this strain necessitates the study of its genome stability by comparative analysis. PMID:27034492

  5. Mycoplasma bovis: An emerging pathogen of ranched bison

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mycoplasma bovis (M. bovis) is an emerging, primary pathogen of ranched bison (Bison bison) in North America. It causes severe disease among animals in feedlots as well as breeding-age cows and bulls on pasture. Mortality in adult bison is as high as 25 percent, resulting in significant economic l...

  6. Molecular typing of Mycobacterium bovis isolates: A review

    PubMed Central

    Ramos, Daniela Fernandes; Tavares, Lucas; da Silva, Pedro Eduardo Almeida; Dellagostin, Odir Antônio

    2014-01-01

    Mycobacterium bovis is the main causative agent of animal tuberculosis (TB) and it may cause TB in humans. Molecular typing of M. bovis isolates provides precise epidemiological data on issues of inter- or intra-herd transmission and wildlife reservoirs. Techniques used for typing M. bovis have evolved over the last 2 decades, and PCR-based methods such as spoligotyping and mycobacterial interspersed repetitive unit-variable number tandem repeat (MIRU-VNTR) have been extensively used. These techniques can provide epidemiological information about isolates of M. Bovis that may help control bovine TB by indicating possible links between diseased animals, detecting and sampling outbreaks, and even demonstrating cases of laboratory cross-contamination between samples. This review will focus on techniques used for the molecular typing of M. bovis and discuss their general aspects and applications. PMID:25242917

  7. Anatomical distribution of Mycobacterium bovis genotypes in experimentally infected white-tailed deer

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mycobacterium bovis (M. bovis) causes tuberculosis in white-tailed deer (WTD). Natural infection of WTD with M. bovis is most closely mimicked by instilling inoculum into palatine tonsilar crypts. One hundred fifty days after intratonsilar inoculation, M. bovis was cultured from 30 tissues originati...

  8. Mycobacterium bovis infection in domestic pigs in Great Britain.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Suzanne S; Crawshaw, Timothy R; Smith, Noel H; Palgrave, Christopher J

    2013-11-01

    Mycobacterium bovis, the causative agent of bovine tuberculosis (TB), infects a wide range of wild and domestic mammals. Despite a control programme spanning decades, M. bovis infection levels in cattle in Great Britain (GB) have continued to rise over recent years. As the incidence of infection in cattle and wildlife may be linked to that in swine, data relating to infection of pigs identified at slaughter were examined in this study. Between 2007 and 2011, almost all M. bovis-infected pigs originated from farms in the South-West and West-Midland regions of England. The data suggest that pigs raised outdoors or on holdings with poor biosecurity may be more vulnerable to infection with M. bovis. In the majority of cases, the same strains of M. bovis were found in pigs and cattle, despite that fact that direct contact between these species was rarely observed. Genotyping and geographical mapping data indicated that some strains found in pigs may correlate better with those present in badgers, rather than cattle. In consequence, it is proposed that pigs may represent a useful sentinel for M. bovis infection in wildlife in GB. Given the potential implications of this infection for the pig industry, and for the on-going effort to control bovine TB, the importance of understanding the epidemiology and pathogenesis of M. bovis infection, as well as monitoring its prevalence, in pigs should not be underestimated. PMID:24095608

  9. A Comprehensive Survey of Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) across Mycobacterium bovis Strains and M. bovis BCG Vaccine Strains Refines the Genealogy and Defines a Minimal Set of SNPs That Separate Virulent M. bovis Strains and M. bovis BCG Strains▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Garcia Pelayo, M. Carmen; Uplekar, Swapna; Keniry, Andrew; Mendoza Lopez, Pablo; Garnier, Thierry; Nunez Garcia, Javier; Boschiroli, Laura; Zhou, Xiangmei; Parkhill, Julian; Smith, Noel; Hewinson, R. Glyn; Cole, Stewart T.; Gordon, Stephen V.

    2009-01-01

    To further unravel the mechanisms responsible for attenuation of the tuberculosis vaccine Mycobacterium bovis BCG, comparative genomics was used to identify single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that differed between sequenced strains of Mycobacterium bovis and M. bovis BCG. SNPs were assayed in M. bovis isolates from France and the United Kingdom and from different BCG vaccines in order to identify those that arose during the attenuation process which gave rise to BCG. Informative data sets were obtained for 658 SNPs from 21 virulent M. bovis strains and 13 BCG strains; these SNPs showed phylogenetic clustering that was consistent with the geographical origin of the strains and previous schemes for BCG genealogies. The data revealed a closer relationship between BCG Tice and BCG Pasteur than was previously appreciated, while we were able to position BCG Beijing within a grouping of BCG Denmark-derived strains. Only 186 SNPs were identified between virulent M. bovis strains and all BCG strains, with 115 nonsynonymous SNPs affecting important functions such as global regulators, transcriptional factors, and central metabolism, which might impact on virulence. We therefore refine previous genealogies of BCG vaccines and define a minimal set of SNPs between virulent M. bovis strains and the attenuated BCG strain that will underpin future functional analyses. PMID:19289514

  10. Severe Mycoplasma bovis outbreak in an Austrian dairy herd.

    PubMed

    Pothmann, Harald; Spergser, Joachim; Elmer, Josef; Prunner, Isabella; Iwersen, Michael; Klein-Jöbstl, Daniela; Drillich, Marc

    2015-11-01

    A conventional dairy farm, housing 19 Austrian Simmental cows, experienced a spontaneous outbreak of a Mycoplasma bovis infection, showing severe clinical signs of respiratory tract disease, clinical mastitis, and tremendous drop in milk production. Despite intensive therapy, 5 cows died within 2 weeks or were euthanized. From the remaining cows, bacteriological culture and polymerase chain reaction revealed M. bovis in 10 of 14 milk samples. Mycoplasma bovis was found in 1 of 5 randomly collected nasal swabs. Autopsy of 1 cow revealed infection of the lungs and the udder with M. bovis. The 13 M. bovis isolates from milk samples, nasal swabs, lungs, and udder were genotyped by multilocus variable number of tandem-repeat analysis, and indicated that described infections were caused by a single M. bovis strain. The virulent M. bovis strain resulted in dramatic economic loss to the farmer. To control the disease, culling of all animals, including heifers and calves, was recommended, and strict hygienic measures were implemented before introducing new animals to the farm. PMID:26450838

  11. The epidemiology of Mycobacterium bovis infections.

    PubMed

    Morris, R S; Pfeiffer, D U; Jackson, R

    1994-05-01

    Mycobacterium bovis has an exceptionally wide host range, but until recent years there was little concern about infection in species other than cattle and man. Diversification of farming enterprises has led to cognizance of the need for control in other domestic animals, notably deer. There has also been recognition that self-maintaining infection is present in wildlife hosts in some countries--notably the European badger in the United Kingdom and Ireland, the Australian brush-tailed possum in New Zealand, and various species of ungulates in limited areas of a number of countries. Although transmission of M. bovis can occur by a number of different routes, control measures imposed on cattle and to a lesser extent on other species have reduced a number of the routes to insignificance. Hence the vast preponderance of transmission within host species is now by the airborne route, and predominantly between species as well. Transmission of infection from badgers to cattle may be an exception, with evidence remaining equivocal about the relative importance of pasture contamination by excretion in badger urine and airborne transmission. In general, contamination of feed and pasture appears to be unimportant in transmission of the disease, because survival times of infective doses of organisms on fomites are relatively short under realistic conditions and because animals are not commonly exposed to a dose high enough to be infective by the alimentary route. Infection through the oro-pharyngeal mucous membrane may be significant, although the infective dose for this route is not known. While many species of animals can become infected with M. bovis, only a few act as maintenance hosts and the rest are spillover hosts in which infection is not self-maintaining. With the exception of cattle and deer, other species have become maintenance hosts only within part of their ecological range. For both badgers and possums, maintenance of infection within a local population is due to

  12. Immune Responses in Cattle Inoculated with Mycobacterium bovis, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, or Mycobacterium kansasii

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cattle were inoculated with Mycobacterium bovis, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, or Mycobacterium kansasii to compare antigen-specific immune responses to varied patterns of mycobacterial disease. Disease expression ranged from colonization with associated pathology (M. bovis), colonization without path...

  13. An impedance spectroscopy method for the detection and evaluation of Babesia bovis antibodies in cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An immunosensor method for diagnosis of Babesia bovis in cattle based on impedance measurement is presented in this study. The method probes the interaction between serum antibodies against B. bovis infected cattle and recombinant protein, RAP-1, with C-terminal obtained from a Portuguese B. bovis s...

  14. 9 CFR 311.23 - Tapeworm cysts (cysticercus bovis) in cattle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Tapeworm cysts (cysticercus bovis) in... PARTS § 311.23 Tapeworm cysts (cysticercus bovis) in cattle. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of... humerus. (2) Carcasses of cattle showing one or more tapeworm lesions of cysticercus bovis but not...

  15. 9 CFR 311.23 - Tapeworm cysts (cysticercus bovis) in cattle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Tapeworm cysts (cysticercus bovis) in... PARTS § 311.23 Tapeworm cysts (cysticercus bovis) in cattle. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of... humerus. (2) Carcasses of cattle showing one or more tapeworm lesions of cysticercus bovis but not...

  16. 9 CFR 311.23 - Tapeworm cysts (cysticercus bovis) in cattle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Tapeworm cysts (cysticercus bovis) in... PARTS § 311.23 Tapeworm cysts (cysticercus bovis) in cattle. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of... humerus. (2) Carcasses of cattle showing one or more tapeworm lesions of cysticercus bovis but not...

  17. Mycobacterium bovis infection in humans and cats in same household, Texas, USA, 2012

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mycobacterium bovis infection of cats is exceedingly rare in non-endemic regions for bovine tuberculosis. This case study describes the diagnosis and clinical management of pulmonary M. bovis infection in two indoor-housed cats and their association with at least one M. bovis-infected human in Texas...

  18. Targeted surface expression of an exogenous antigen in stably transfected babesia bovis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Babesia bovis is a tick-borne intraerythocytic protozoan responsible for acute disease in cattle which can be controlled by vaccination with attenuated B. bovis strains. Emerging B. bovis transfection technologies may increase the usefulness of these live vaccines. Here we propose using transfected ...

  19. Necrotic pharyngitis associated with Mycoplasma bovis infections in American bison (Bison bison)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mycoplasma bovis (M. bovis) has recently emerged as a significant and costly infectious disease problem in bison, generally presenting as severe, caseonecrotic pneumonia. Here we describe three diagnostic cases in which M. bovis is strongly implicated as a causative agent of necrotic pharyngitis. ...

  20. Babesia bovis infection in cattle in the southwestern Brazilian Amazon.

    PubMed

    Brito, Luciana G; Rocha, Rodrigo B; Barbieri, Fábio da S; Ribeiro, Elisana S; Vendrami, Fabiano B; Souza, Gislaine C R; Giglioti, Rodrigo; Regitano, Luciana C A; Falcoski, Thaís O R S; Tizioto, Polyana C; Oliveira, Márcia C S

    2013-02-01

    The present study provides the first epidemiological data on infection with Babesia bovis in cattle raised in the southwestern Brazilian Amazon. Blood clot samples were filtered through nylon cloth before being submitted to DNA extraction. PCR and nested-PCR were applied to assess the frequency of infection with B. bovis in calves with ages from 4 to 12 months bred in 4 microregions each in the states of Rondônia and Acre. After the DNA was extracted from the samples, the infection in cattle was investigated by amplification of the "rap1" gene from B. bovis. The DNA amplification results revealed a frequency of infection with B. bovis of 95.1% (272/286) in the samples from Rondônia and 96.1% (195/203) in those from Acre. The high frequency of B. bovis infection in the animals with ages from 4 to 12 months indicates a situation of enzootic stability in the regions studied. The infection rates are comparable to those detected by immunodiagnostic techniques in other endemic regions of Brazil. PMID:23312480

  1. Mycobacterium bovis infection and control in domestic livestock.

    PubMed

    Cousins, D V

    2001-04-01

    Bovine tuberculosis, caused by Mycobacterium bovis, is a well-known zoonotic disease which affects cattle world-wide. The public health risk has been alleviated in many countries by the introduction of pasteurisation, but the disease continues to cause production losses when poorly controlled. The Office International des Epizooties classifies bovine tuberculosis as a List B disease, a disease which is considered to be of socio-economic or public health importance within countries and of significance to the international trade of animals and animal products. Consequently, most developed nations have embarked on campaigns to eradicate M. bovis from the cattle population or at least to control the spread of infection. The success of these eradication and control programmes has been mixed. Mycobacterium bovis infects other animal species, both domesticated and wild, and this range of hosts may complicate attempts to control or eradicate the disease in cattle. PMID:11288521

  2. Blocking Babesia bovis vaccine reactions of dairy cattle in milk.

    PubMed

    Combrink, Michael P; Carr, Graham; Mans, Ben J; Marais, Frances

    2012-01-01

    The use of 1.16 mg/kg (one third) of the recommended dose of diminazene aceturate, administered indiscriminately to cattle on day seven of the unfrozen Babesia bovis and Babesia bigemina bivalent live blood vaccine reaction, was an infection and block treatment method of immunisation used successfully with no known adverse effect on the parasites or the development of protective immunity. Continuing with this practice after replacement of the unfrozen vaccine with deep-frozen monovalent B. bovis and B. bigemina live blood vaccines resulted in reports of vaccine failure. Laboratory investigation indicated the harmful effect of block treatment in preventing the development of durable immunity against B. bigemina as opposed to the much lesser effect it had on B. bovis. Consequently the practice was no longer recommended. A B. bovis vaccination attempt aimed at controlling the disease of dairy cows in milk (n = 30) resulted in 20% fatalities during the expected vaccine reaction period. The practice of block treating B. bovis was therefore reinvestigated, this time in a field trial using dairy cattle in milk (n = 11). Using 0.88 mg/kg (one quarter) of the recommended dose of diminazene administered on day 12 of the B. bovis vaccine reaction resulted in only two animals (n = 5) testing ≥ 1/80 positive with the indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT) although parasites could be demonstrated in three. In the untreated control group, by contrast, five of the vaccinated animals (n = 6) tested ≥ 1/80 positive with IFAT and parasites could be demonstrated in all. The unsatisfactory outcome obtained in this study, combined with that of the earlier investigation, indicated that there are more factors that influence successful vaccination than previously considered. It is therefore concluded that block treatment of the live frozen South African cattle babesiosis vaccines reactions is not recommended. PMID:23327323

  3. Molecular Epidemiology of Mycobacterium bovis in Humans and Cattle.

    PubMed

    El-Sayed, A; El-Shannat, S; Kamel, M; Castañeda-Vazquez, M A; Castañeda-Vazquez, H

    2016-06-01

    Bovine tuberculosis (bTB), caused by Mycobacterium bovis (M. bovis), is a serious re-emerging disease in both animals and humans. The evolution of the Multi- and Extensively drug-resistant M. bovis strains (MDR-TB and XDR-TB) represents a global threat to public health. Worldwide, the disease is responsible for great economic losses in the veterinary field, serious threat to the ecosystem, and about 3.1% of human TB cases, up to 16% in Tanzania. Only thorough investigation to understand the pathogen's epidemiology can help in controlling the disease and minimizing its threat. For this purpose, various tools have been developed for use in advanced molecular epidemiological studies of bTB, either alone or in combination with standard conventional epidemiological approaches. These techniques enable the analysis of the intra- and inter-species transmission dynamics of bTB. The delivered data can reveal detailed insights into the source of infection, correlations among human and bovine isolates, strain diversity and evolution, spread, geographical localization, host preference, tracing of certain virulence factors such as antibiotic resistance genes, and finally the risk factors for the maintenance and spread of M. bovis. They also allow for the determination of epidemic and endemic strains. This, in turn, has a significant diagnostic impact and helps in vaccine development for bTB eradication programs. The present review discusses many topics including the aetiology, epidemiology and importance of M. bovis, the prevalence of bTB in humans and animals in various countries, the molecular epidemiology of M. bovis, and finally applied molecular epidemiological techniques. PMID:26684712

  4. Human multidrug-resistant Mycobacterium bovis infection in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Vazquez-Chacon, Carlos A; Martínez-Guarneros, Armando; Couvin, David; González-Y-Merchand, Jorge A; Rivera-Gutierrez, Sandra; Escobar-Gutierrez, Alejandro; De-la-Cruz López, Juan J; Gomez-Bustamante, Adriana; Gonzalez-Macal, Gabriela A; Gonçalves Rossi, Livia Maria; Muñiz-Salazar, Raquel; Rastogi, Nalin; Vaughan, Gilberto

    2015-12-01

    Here, we describe the molecular characterization of six human Mycobacterium bovis clinical isolates, including three multidrug resistant (MDR) strains, collected in Mexico through the National Survey on Tuberculosis Drug Resistance (ENTB-2008), a nationally representative survey conducted during 2008-2009 in nine states with a stratified cluster sampling design. The genetic background of bovine M. bovis strains identified in three different states of Mexico was studied in parallel to assess molecular relatedness of bovine and human strains. Additionally, resistance to first and second line anti-tuberculosis (TB) drugs and molecular identification of mutations conferring drug resistance was also performed. All strains were characterized by spoligotyping and 24-loci MIRU-VNTRs, and analyzed using the SITVIT2 (n = 112,000 strains) and SITVITBovis (n = 25,000 strains) proprietary databases of Institut Pasteur de la Guadeloupe. Furthermore, data from this study (n = 55 isolates), were also compared with genotypes recorded for M. bovis from USA (n = 203), Argentina (n = 726), as well as other isolates from Mexico (independent from the present study; n = 147), to determine any evidence for genetic relatedness between circulating M. bovis strains. The results showed that all human M. bovis cases were not genetically related between them or to any bovine strain. Interestingly, a high degree of genetic variability was observed among bovine strains. Several autochthonous and presumably imported strains were identified. The emergence of drug-resistant M. bovis is an important public health problem that jeopardizes the success of TB control programs in the region. PMID:26299906

  5. Molecular characterization of Mycobacterium bovis isolates from Ethiopian cattle

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Bovine Tuberculosis (BTB) is a widespread and endemic disease of cattle in Ethiopia. Information relating to genotypic characteristics of Mycobacterium bovis strains affecting the cattle population in Ethiopia is limited. We carried out molecular characterization of M. bovis strains isolated from BTB infected cattle using the spoligotyping technique. The relationship between distribution of spoligotypes and recorded variables was also investigated. A new approach that can numerically reflect the degree of genetic polymorphism in a M. bovis population was also developed. The study was conducted from July 2006 to January 2007 in cattle slaughtered at five representative abattoirs in Ethiopia. Results Forty-five M. bovis isolates were obtained from 406 pathologic tissue specimens collected from 337 carcasses with lesions compatible with BTB. Twelve spoligotypes were identified from 34 distinct strains; with SB1176 as a dominant spoligotype (41.2% of the isolates) followed by SB0133 (14.7%). Comparison of spoligotypes with an M. bovis global database http://www.mbovis.org revealed six new spoligotypes which were subsequently registered in the database with international identification codes of SB1517, SB1518, SB1519, SB1520, SB1521 and SB1522. The majority of strains were obtained from cattle slaughtered at Addis Ababa abattoir. On the basis of the Spoligotype Evolutionary Index, SEI (a numeric expression approach to make standardized comparison of spoligotype evolution), M. bovis isolates from Ethiopia were relatively more heterogeneous (SEI = 3.2) compared to isolates from other countries. This might be attributed to extensive livestock movement linked to trading or seasonal migration, high degree of livestock mingling, and also diversities of the country's agricultural and livestock ecosystems, in addition to lack of disease control measures that led to high infection prevalence. Multiple spoligotype infection was recorded in nine (50%) of infected

  6. Bacteremia with Streptococcus bovis and Streptococcus salivarius: clinical correlates of more accurate identification of isolates.

    PubMed Central

    Ruoff, K L; Miller, S I; Garner, C V; Ferraro, M J; Calderwood, S B

    1989-01-01

    Two biotypes of Streptococcus bovis can be identified by laboratory testing and can be distinguished from the phenotypically similar organism Streptococcus salivarius. We assessed the clinical relevance of careful identification of these organisms in 68 patients with streptococcal bacteremia caused by these similar species. S. bovis was more likely to be clinically significant when isolated from blood (89%) than was S. salivarius (23%). There was a striking association between S. bovis I bacteremia and underlying endocarditis (94%) compared with that of S. bovis II bacteremia (18%). Bacteremia with S. bovis I was also highly correlated with an underlying colonic neoplasm (71% of patients overall, 100% of those with thorough colonic examinations) compared with bacteremia due to S. bovis II or S. salivarius (17% overall, 25% of patients with thorough colonic examinations). We conclude that careful identification of streptococcal bacteremic isolates as S. bovis biotype I provides clinically important information and should be more widely applied. PMID:2915024

  7. Pathology of Mycobacterium bovis infection in wild meerkats (Suricata suricatta).

    PubMed

    Drewe, J A; Foote, A K; Sutcliffe, R L; Pearce, G P

    2009-01-01

    Pathological lesions associated with Mycobacterium bovis infection (bovine tuberculosis; bTB) in free-living meerkats (Suricata suricatta) in the Kalahari Desert of South Africa are described. The pathology of bTB in meerkats was determined through detailed post-mortem examinations of 57 animals (52 meerkats showing clinical signs of bTB, and five not showing signs of disease). Lymph nodes and tissue lesions thought to be associated with bTB were cultured for mycobacteria. All 52 bTB-infected meerkats showed gross or microscopical granulomatous lesions, but M. bovis was cultured from only 42% (22/52) of these animals. The majority (96%, 50/52) of diseased meerkats had lesions in multiple sites, the pattern of which suggested haematogenous spread of M. bovis infection in this species. The histological characteristics of the tuberculous lesions, together with the gross pathology and the wide range of body systems affected, indicate that infection in meerkats is acquired principally via the respiratory and oral routes, whereas excretion is most likely via the respiratory tract and suppurating skin wounds. Urine and faeces appear to be unlikely sources of infection. The findings of this study provide information on the transmission, pathogenesis and epidemiology of bTB in meerkats that is likely to be relevant to the understanding of M. bovis infection in other social mammal species such as the European badger (Meles meles). PMID:19070868

  8. Sensitivity of Mycobacterium bovis to common beef processing interventions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Introduction. Cattle infected with Mycobacterium bovis, the causative agent of bovine tuberculosis and a relevant zoonosis to humans, may be sent to slaughter before diagnosis of infection because of slow multiplication of the pathogen. Purpose. This study evaluates multiple processing interventi...

  9. Tick passage results in enhanced attenuation of babesia bovis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Serial blood passage of virulent Babesia bovis in splenectomized cattle results in attenuated derivatives that do not cause neurologic disease. Tick transmissibility can be lost with attenuation, and has been reported to result in a reversion to virulence following tick passage. This study provides ...

  10. Tick Passage Results in Enhanced Attenuation of Babesia bovis

    PubMed Central

    McElwain, Terry F.; Ueti, Massaro W.; Scoles, Glen A.; Reif, Kathryn E.; Lau, Audrey O. T.

    2014-01-01

    Serial blood passage of virulent Babesia bovis in splenectomized cattle results in attenuated derivatives that do not cause neurologic disease. Tick transmissibility can be lost with attenuation, but when retained, attenuated B. bovis can revert to virulence following tick passage. This study provides data showing that tick passage of the partially attenuated B. bovis T2Bo derivative strain further decreased virulence compared with intravenous inoculation of the same strain in infected animals. Ticks that acquired virulent or attenuated parasites by feeding on infected cattle were transmission fed on naive, splenectomized animals. While there was no significant difference between groups in the number of parasites in the midgut, hemolymph, or eggs of replete female ticks after acquisition feeding, animals infected with the attenuated parasites after tick transmission showed no clinical signs of babesiosis, unlike those receiving intravenous challenge with the same attenuated strain prior to tick passage. Additionally, there were significantly fewer parasites in blood and tissues of animals infected with tick-passaged attenuated parasites. Sequencing analysis of select B. bovis genes before and after tick passage showed significant differences in parasite genotypes in both peripheral blood and cerebral samples. These results provide evidence that not only is tick transmissibility retained by the attenuated T2Bo strain, but also it results in enhanced attenuation and is accompanied by expansion of parasite subpopulations during tick passage that may be associated with the change in disease phenotype. PMID:25114111

  11. Outbreak of Mycobacterium bovis infection in a wild animal park.

    PubMed

    Schmidbauer, S-M; Wohlsein, P; Kirpal, G; Beineke, A; Müller, G; Müller, H; Moser, I; Baumgartner, W

    2007-09-01

    An outbreak of tuberculosis due to Mycobacterium bovis occurred in a wild animal park. Three pot-bellied pigs (Sus scrofa vittatus), one red deer (Cervus elaphus), one buffalo (Bison bonasus) and two European lynxes (Lynx lynx) were affected and showed clinical signs including weight loss, enlarged lymph nodes and paralysis of the hindlimbs. Postmortem examinations revealed multifocal granulomatous lesions in various organs, including the lymph nodes, lungs, intestines, kidneys and the central nervous system. Acid-fast organisms were demonstrated in various organs histologically and bacteriologically. Spoligotyping of 17 isolates from various organs of the affected animals confirmed an infection by M bovis and revealed an identical pattern indicating a common origin. The spoligotype was different from the pattern of M bovis recorded in the cattle population in Germany between 2000 and 2006. Investigations of sentinel animals such as an aged silver fox (Vulpes vulpes), a badger (Meles meles), a ferret (Mustela putorius) and rodents, and tuberculin skin tests of the animal attendants and randomly collected faecal samples from the enclosures were all negative for M bovis. PMID:17766809

  12. Nosocomial spread of Mycobacterium bovis in domestic cats.

    PubMed

    Murray, Aisling; Dineen, Andrea; Kelly, Pamela; McGoey, Karen; Madigan, Gillian; NiGhallchoir, Eadaoin; Gunn-Moore, Danièlle A

    2015-02-01

    Five domestic cats were euthanased owing to confirmed or suspected Mycobacterium bovis infection. The initial source of infection remains unclear. Cat A was presented to a veterinary clinic in County Kildare, Ireland, with a discharging submandibular lesion. The infection appears to have been transmitted to four other cats through direct (cats B and C living in the same household as cat A) and non-direct (nosocomial spread during routine operations; cats D and E) contact over a 13.5-week period. Of the five cases, two (B and D) had post-mortem examinations in which gross changes consistent with tuberculosis were seen, moderate numbers of acid-fast bacteria (AFB) were seen on microscopy and M bovis (spoligotype SB0978) was confirmed on culture. Of the remaining three cats, one had a swab taken from its draining ovariohysterectomy wound, which revealed large numbers of AFB with morphology consistent with M bovis (cat E). Two cases were euthanased without diagnostic tests; however, their history and clinical presentations were highly suggestive of tuberculosis (cats A and C). To our knowledge, this is the first documented case of nosocomial spread of M bovis in cats. PMID:24710594

  13. Complete Genome Sequence of Mycobacterium bovis Strain BCG-1 (Russia).

    PubMed

    Sotnikova, Evgeniya A; Shitikov, Egor A; Malakhova, Maja V; Kostryukova, Elena S; Ilina, Elena N; Atrasheuskaya, Alena V; Ignatyev, Georgy M; Vinokurova, Nataliya V; Gorbachyov, Vyacheslav Y

    2016-01-01

    Mycobacterium bovisBCG (Bacille Calmette-Guérin) is a vaccine strain used for protection against tuberculosis. Here, we announce the complete genome sequence ofM. bovisstrain BCG-1 (Russia). Extensive use of this strain necessitates the study of its genome stability by comparative analysis. PMID:27034492

  14. Mycoplasma bovis infections in Swiss dairy cattle: a clinical investigation.

    PubMed

    Aebi, Marlis; van den Borne, Bart H P; Raemy, Andreas; Steiner, Adrian; Pilo, Paola; Bodmer, Michèle

    2015-01-01

    Mycoplasma bovis causes mastitis in dairy cows and is associated with pneumonia and polyarthritis in cattle. The present investigation included a retrospective case-control study to identify potential herd-level risk factors for M. bovis associated disease, and a prospective cohort study to evaluate the course of clinical disease in M. bovis infected dairy cattle herds in Switzerland. Eighteen herds with confirmed M. bovis cases were visited twice within an average interval of 75 d. One control herd with no history of clinical mycoplasmosis, matched for herd size, was randomly selected within a 10 km range for each case herd. Animal health data, production data, information on milking and feeding-management, housing and presence of potential stress- factors were collected. Composite quarter milk samples were aseptically collected from all lactating cows and 5% of all animals within each herd were sampled by nasal swabs. Organ samples of culled diseased cows were collected when logistically possible. All samples were analyzed by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). In case herds, incidence risk of pneumonia, arthritis and clinical mastitis prior to the first visit and incidence rates of clinical mastitis and clinical pneumonia between the two visits was estimated. Logistic regression was used to identify potential herd-level risk factors for M. bovis infection. In case herds, incidence risk of M. bovis mastitis prior to the first visit ranged from 2 to 15%, whereas 2 to 35% of the cows suffered from clinical pneumonia within the 12 months prior to the first herd visit. The incidence rates of mycoplasmal mastitis and clinical pneumonia between the two herd visits were low in case herds (0-0.1 per animal year at risk and 0.1-0.6 per animal year at risk, respectively). In the retrospective-case-control study high mean milk production, appropriate stimulation until milk-let-down, fore-stripping, animal movements (cattle shows and trade), presence of stress

  15. Antibody responses in reindeer (Rangifer tarandus) infected with Mycobacterium bovis.

    PubMed

    Waters, W R; Palmer, M V; Bannantine, J P; Greenwald, R; Esfandiari, J; Andersen, P; McNair, J; Pollock, J M; Lyashchenko, K P

    2005-06-01

    Despite having a very low incidence of disease, reindeer (Rangifer tarandus) are subject to tuberculosis (TB) testing requirements for interstate shipment and herd accreditation in the United States. Improved TB tests are desperately needed, as many reindeer are falsely classified as reactors by current testing procedures. Sera collected sequentially from 11 (experimentally) Mycobacterium bovis-infected reindeer and 4 noninfected reindeer were evaluated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), immunoblotting, and multiantigen print immunoassay (MAPIA) for antibody specific to M. bovis antigens. Specific antibody was detected as early as 4 weeks after challenge with M. bovis. By MAPIA, sera were tested with 12 native and recombinant antigens, which were used to coat nitrocellulose. All M. bovis-infected reindeer developed responses to MPB83 and a fusion protein, Acr1/MPB83, and 9/11 had responses to MPB70. Other antigens less commonly recognized included MPB59, ESAT-6, and CFP10. Administration of purified protein derivatives for skin testing boosted serum antibody responses, as detected by each of the assays. Of the noninfected reindeer, 2/4 had responses that were detectable immediately following skin testing, which correlated with pathological findings (i.e., presence of granulomatous lesions yet the absence of acid-fast bacteria). The levels of specific antibody produced by infected reindeer appeared to be associated with disease progression but not with cell-mediated immunity. These findings indicate that M. bovis infection of reindeer elicits an antibody response to multiple antigens that can be boosted by skin testing. Serological tests using carefully selected specific antigens have potential for early detection of infections in reindeer. PMID:15939747

  16. First description of Bartonella bovis in cattle herds in Israel.

    PubMed

    Rudoler, Nir; Rasis, Michal; Sharir, Benny; Novikov, Anna; Shapira, Gregory; Giladi, Michael

    2014-09-17

    Bartonella bovis has been described in beef and dairy cattle worldwide, however the reported prevalence rates are inconsistent, with large variability across studies (0-89%). This study describes the first isolation and characterization of B. bovis among cattle herds in the Middle East. Blood samples from two beef cattle herds (each sampled thrice) and one dairy herd (sampled twice) in Israel were collected during a 16-months period. Overall, 71 of 95 blood samples (75%) grew Bartonella sp., with prevalence of 78% and 59% in beef and dairy cattle, respectively. High level bacteremia (≥100,000 colony forming units/mL) was detected in 25 specimens (26%). Such high-level bacteremia has never been reported in cattle. Two dairy cows and one beef cow remained bacteremic when tested 60 or 120 days apart, respectively, suggesting that cattle may have persistent bacteremia. One third of animals were infested with ticks. Sequence analysis of a gltA fragment of 32 bacterial isolates from 32 animals revealed 100% homology to B. bovis. Species identification was confirmed by sequence analysis of the rpoB gene. Phylogenetic analysis based on the concatenated sequences of gltA and rpoB demonstrated that the isolates described herein form a monophyletic group with B. bovis strains originating from cattle worldwide. Taken together, the high prevalence of bacteremia, including high-level bacteremia, in beef and dairy cattle, the potential to develop prolonged bacteremia, the exposure of cattle to arthropod vectors, and proximity of infected animals to humans, make B. bovis a potential zoonotic agent. PMID:25096531

  17. Taurine as a marker for the identification of natural Calculus Bovis and its substitutes.

    PubMed

    Shimada, Kayoko; Azuma, Yuko; Kawase, Masaya; Takahashi, Toshiharu; Schaffer, Stephen W; Takahashi, Kyoko

    2013-01-01

    Calculus Bovis (C. Bovis) is a commonly used animal-derived therapeutic preparation. To meet the increasing clinical demand for the preparation, two artificial substitutes for Bos Taurus have been introduced in China: artificial C. Bovis and in vitro cultured C. Bovis. However, information on their efficacy and safety is inadequate. Therefore, we investigated the biological differences between the commonly used natural preparation and its two substitutes, with the aim of not only identifying the differences but also providing a procedure to distinguish between the different preparations.In the study, we prepared 9 natural C. Bovis, 2 artificial C. Bovis, and 2 in vitro cultured C. Bovis preparations for evaluation. Differences were noted between the three preparations relative to their effect on viability of cardiac fibroblasts from 1-day-old Wistar rats. Although natural C. Bovis had no effect on cell viability, 1-h treatment of the cells with 0.25 mg/ml of the substitutes significantly reduced cell viability, as detected by the MTS assay. Based on liquid chromatography and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, the preparations also differed in composition. Indeed, the substitutes contained more taurine, cholic acid, iron, magnesium, and calcium than the natural preparations. They also differed spectroscopically.The present results reveal significant biological differences between natural C. Bovis and two of its substitutes. Since the substitutes appear to contain more taurine, cholic acid, and elements, these constituents may serve as markers to distinguish between natural C. Bovis and its substitutes. PMID:23392879

  18. Circulating Mycobacterium bovis Peptides and Host Response Proteins as Biomarkers for Unambiguous Detection of Subclinical Infection

    PubMed Central

    Lamont, Elise A.; Janagama, Harish K.; Ribeiro-Lima, Joao; Vulchanova, Lucy; Seth, Meetu; Yang, My; Kurmi, Kiran; Waters, W. Ray; Thacker, Tyler

    2014-01-01

    Bovine tuberculosis remains one of the most damaging diseases to agriculture, and there is also a concern for human spillover. A critical need exists for rapid, thorough, and inexpensive diagnostic methods capable of detecting and differentiating Mycobacterium bovis infection from other pathogenic and environmental mycobacteria at multiple surveillance levels. In a previous study, Seth et al. (PLoS One 4:e5478, 2009, doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0005478) identified 32 host peptides that specifically increased in the blood serum of M. bovis-infected animals). In the current study, 16 M. bovis proteins were discovered in the blood serum proteomics data sets. A large-scale validation analysis was undertaken for selected host and M. bovis proteins using a cattle serum repository containing M. bovis (n = 128), Mycobacterium kansasii (n = 10), and Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (n = 10), cases exposed to M. bovis (n = 424), and negative controls (n = 38). Of the host biomarkers, vitamin D binding protein (VDBP) showed the greatest sensitivity and specificity for M. bovis detection. Circulating M. bovis proteins, specifically polyketide synthetase 5, detected M. bovis-infected cattle with little to no seroreactivity against M. kansasii- and M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis-infected animals. These data indicate that host and pathogen serum proteins can serve as reliable biomarkers for tracking M. bovis infection in animal populations. PMID:24478485

  19. Vaccination with Mycobacterium bovis BCG Strains Danish and Pasteur in White-tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus) Experimentally Challenged with Mycobacterium bovis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wildlife reservoirs of Mycobacterium bovis represent serious obstacles to the eradication of tuberculosis in domestic livestock. The cause for many faltering eradication programs is the presence of wildlife reservoirs of M. bovis. One approach in dealing with this wildlife reservoir is to vaccinate ...

  20. Fecal volatile organic compound profiles from white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) as indicators of Mycobacterium bovis exposure or Mycobacterium bovis bacille Calmette-Guerin (BCG) vaccination

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    White-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) serve as a reservoir for bovine tuberculosis, caused by Mycobacterium bovis, and can be a source of infection in cattle. Vaccination with M. bovis bacille Calmette-Guerin (BCG) is being considered for management of bovine tuberculosis in deer. Presently, no...

  1. A NOVEL 78-KDA FATTY ACYL-COA SYNTHETASE (ACS1) OF BABESIA BOVIS STIMULATES MEMORY CD4+ T LYMPHOCYTE RESPONSES IN B. BOVIS-IMMUNE CATTLE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Antigen-specific CD4+ T lymphocyte responses contribute to protective immunity against Babesia bovis, however the antigens that induce these responses remain largely unknown. A proteomic approach was used to identify novel B. bovis antigens recognized by memory CD4+ T cells from immune cattle. Fract...

  2. Characterization of exochelins of the Mycobacterium bovis type strain and BCG substrains.

    PubMed

    Gobin, J; Wong, D K; Gibson, B W; Horwitz, M A

    1999-04-01

    Pathogenic mycobacteria must acquire iron in the host in order to multiply and cause disease. To do so, they release abundant quantities of siderophores called exochelins, which have the capacity to scavenge iron from host iron-binding proteins and deliver it to the mycobacteria. In this study, we have characterized the exochelins of Mycobacterium bovis, the causative agent of bovine and occasionally of human tuberculosis, and the highly attenuated descendant of M. bovis, bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG), widely used as a vaccine against human tuberculosis. The M. bovis type strain, five substrains of M. bovis BCG (Copenhagen, Glaxo, Japanese, Pasteur, and Tice), and two strains of virulent Mycobacterium tuberculosis all produce the same set of exochelins, although the relative amounts of individual exochelins may differ. Among these mycobacteria, the total amount of exochelins produced is greatest in M. tuberculosis, intermediate in M. bovis, and smallest in M. bovis BCG. PMID:10085056

  3. First molecular survey of Anaplasma bovis in small ruminants from Tunisia.

    PubMed

    Ben Said, Mourad; Belkahia, Hanène; Karaoud, Maroua; Bousrih, Maha; Yahiaoui, Mouna; Daaloul-Jedidi, Monia; Messadi, Lilia

    2015-09-30

    To date, no information is available regarding the presence of Anaplasma bovis in the South Mediterranean area. In this study, prevalence, risk factors, and genetic diversity of A. bovis were assessed in small ruminants. A total of 563 healthy small ruminants (260 sheep and 303 goats), from 25 randomly selected flocks located in 5 localities from two bioclimatic areas in Tunisia, were investigated for the detection of A. bovis in blood by nested polymerase chain reaction (nPCR) assay. The overall infection rates of A. bovis were 42.7 and 23.8% in sheep and goats, respectively. Goats located in a sub-humid area were statistically more infected than those located in a humid area. A. bovis prevalence rate varied significantly according to sheep and goat flocks, and to the sheep breed. Infection with A. bovis was validated by sequencing. Sequence analysis based on the 16S rRNA gene showed that A. bovis from Tunisian goats and sheep clustered with other strain sequences detected from wild and domestic animals and published in GenBank. This study gives the first insight of presence of A. bovis DNA in small ruminants in Tunisia and suggests that these animal species may be playing an important role in the bovine anaplasmosis natural cycle caused by A. bovis in the South Mediterranean ecosystem. PMID:26088935

  4. Membrane proteins of Mycoplasma bovis and their role in pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Adamu, James Y; Wawegama, Nadeeka K; Browning, Glenn F; Markham, Philip F

    2013-10-01

    Mycoplasma membrane proteins influence cell shape, cell division, motility and adhesion to host cells, and are thought to be integrally involved in the pathogenesis of mycoplasmoses. Many of the membrane proteins predicted from mycoplasma genome sequences remain hypothetical, as their presence in cellular protein preparations is yet to be established experimentally. Recent genome sequences of several strains of Mycoplasma bovis have provided further insight into the potential role of the membrane proteins of this pathogen in colonisation and infection. This review highlights recent advances in knowledge about the influence of M. bovis membrane proteins on the pathogenesis of infection with this species and identifies future research directions for enhancing our understanding of the role of these proteins. PMID:23810376

  5. Structural definition of arabinomannans from Mycobacterium bovis BCG.

    PubMed

    Nigou, J; Gilleron, M; Brando, T; Vercellone, A; Puzo, G

    1999-06-01

    The structures of the hydrophilic parietal and cellular arabinomannans isolated from Mycobacterium bovis BCG cell wall [Nigou et al. (1997) J Biol Chem 272: 23094-103] were investigated. Their molecular mass as determined by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry was around 16 kDa. Concerning cap structure, capillary electrophoresis analysis demonstrated that dimannoside (Manpalpha1-->2Manp) was the most abundant motif (65-75%). Using two-dimensional 1H-13C NMR spectroscopy, the mannan core was unambiguously demonstrated to be composed of -->6Manpalpha1--> backbone substituted at some O-2 by a single Manp unit. The branching degree was determined as 84%. Finally, arabinomannans were found to be devoid of the phosphatidyl-myo-inositol anchor and, by aminonaphthalene disulfonate tagging, the mannan core was shown to contain a reducing end. This constitutes the main difference between arabinomannans and lipoarabinomannans from Mycobacterium bovis BCG. PMID:10579694

  6. BOVIS, the visible eye of Bootes-IR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riva, A.; Jelínek, M.; Cunniffe, R.; Vítek, S.; Castro-Tirado, A. J.; Riva, M.; Zerbi, F. M.

    This paper describes the design of a visible camera (BOVIS - BOotes VISible camera) to be installed at the Nasmyth focus of the BOOTES-IR telescope, operating at OSN, Granada, Spain. BOVIS will be fed by the visible light produced by means of a dichroic that splits the light coming from the telescope into two channels. Visible channel ranges from 400 nm to 850 nm, while the existing infrared channel (covered by the BIRCAM camera) ranges from 900 nm to 2300 nm. The instrument is compared to the REM-ROSS2 facility (La Silla, Chile) currently in refurbishing phase. An adaptive optics option is also proposed as a possible technique to increase performance beyond the seeing limitations of the Sierra Nevada site.

  7. Tuberculous pleuritis secondary to Mycobacterium bovis in a veterinarian.

    PubMed

    Corcoran, John P; Hallifax, Robert J; Bettinson, Henry V; Psallidas, Ioannis; Rahman, Najib M

    2016-07-01

    Mycobacterium bovis is a rare cause of tuberculosis in humans, but should be considered in individuals at risk secondary to medical comorbidities (notably immunocompromise) or occupational exposure. Most cases are secondary to reactivation of latent infection in elderly individuals although cases of primary infection still occur, usually involving animal-to-human transmission. Pleural fluid culture in the context of suspected tuberculous pleuritis is frequently negative and pleural biopsy significantly increases the likelihood of confirming the diagnosis histologically and microbiologically. Although thoracoscopic biopsies are the reference standard, closed pleural biopsies are an appropriate and more accessible alternative in the majority of cases - these should be done under direct ultrasound guidance to maximise diagnostic yield. Treatment for M. bovis infection is with prolonged combination anti-tuberculous therapy, using an alternative to pyrazinamide as the organism is inherently resistant to this drug. PMID:25335782

  8. Mycoplasma bovis mastitis and arthritis in a dairy heifer.

    PubMed

    2015-12-19

    Mycoplasma bovis causing mastitis and arthritis in a dairy heifer. Nutritional myopathy in a three-month-old suckler calf. Acute fasciolosis in ewes in Ayrshire. Cardiomyopathy of unknown aetiology causing death of a three-year-old Suffolk ram. Spinal aspergillosis in a seven-week-old pheasant poult These are among matters discussed in the disease surveillance report for August from SAC Consulting: Veterinary Services (SAC C VS). PMID:26679914

  9. [Investigation of Mycobacterium bovis subsp. bovis among the strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex isolated in Düzce Province, Turkey].

    PubMed

    Öztürk, Cihadiye Elif; Şahin, İdris; Öksüz, Şükrü; Kılıç, Nida; Kılınçel, Özge; Aydın, Leyla; Atik, Dursun; Afşin, Emine

    2016-07-01

    Throughout the history of mankind, tuberculosis (TB) has caused serious illness and still continues to do so. Archaeobiological studies indicated that TB in humans dates back to 4000-8000 BC, and cases were shown to be due to Mycobacterium bovis subsp.bovis rather than Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Moreover, this situation was thought to begin with domestication of animals, consumption of their milk, and living together in the same environment with them. Over time, with the consumption of boiled milk and with the establishment of separate animal shelters, M.bovis subsp. bovis infection began to be seen rarely. Today, M.bovis infection is mostly transmitted from animals to humans and very rarely from humans to other humans. The most significant means of transmission of the infection are to the gastrointestinal tract via consumption of raw milk and to the respiratory system via droplet infection from the animals with disease. In this study, it was planned to investigate the cause of occurrence of TB in cattles in Düzce in the past few years along with the presence of bovine type TB in cases of human tuberculosis. We aimed to carry out subtype determination of the M.tuberculosis complex (MTBC) strains isolated in our mycobacteriology laboratory between the years 2004-2014, and evaluate the clinical and sociodemographic data of patients in whom M.bovis subsp. bovis was detected. The strains that were selected for the study have been isolated from radiometric BACTEC™ 12B broth and/or Löwenstein-Jensen (LJ) media between 2004-2009, and BACTEC™ MGIT™ (Mycobacteria Growth Indicator Tube) and/or LJ media between 2009-2014 periods. The GenoType MTBC Kit (Hain-Lifescience GmbH, Germany) was used in the study for determination of the subspecies. Extraction and amplification of DNA and hybridizations were performed according to test procedure in order to investigate the presence of subtypes of the MTBC species in skimmed milk from collections stored at -20°C. In the

  10. [Infection due to Mycobacterium bovis in common variable immunodeficiency].

    PubMed

    Herrera-Sánchez, Diana Andrea; Castilla-Rodríguez, Jaisel Luz; Castrejón-Vázquez, María Isabel; Vargas-Camaño, María Eugenia; Medina-Torres, Edgar Alejandro; Blancas-Galicia, Lizbeth; Espinosa-Padilla, Sara Elva

    2015-01-01

    Common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) is an heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by impaired antibody production. It shows a wide spectrum of manifestations including severe and recurrent respiratory infections (Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus) and gastrointestinal (Campylobacter jejuni, rotavirus and Giardia lamblia). Viral infections caused by herpes zoster, cytomegalovirus (CMV) and hepatitis C are rare. The opportunistic agents such as CMV, Pneumocystis jirovecii, cryptococcus and atypical mycobacteria have been reported as isolated cases. This paper reports the case of a 38-year-old female patient, who began six years before with weight loss of 7 kg in six months, fatigue, weakness, sweating, fever and abdominal pain. Furthermore, patient had intestinal obstruction and abdominal CT showed mesenteric lymph growth. The mesenteric lymph node biopsy revealed positives Mycobacterium PCR, Ziehl-Neelsen staining and culture for M. bovis. In the laparotomy postoperative period was complicated with nosocomial pneumonia, requiring mechanical ventilation and tracheostomy. Two years later, she developed right renal abscess that required surgical drainage, once again with a positive culture for Mycobacterium bovis. She was referred to highly specialized hospital and we documented panhypogammaglobulinemia and lymphopenia. Secondary causes of hypogammaglobulinemia were ruled out and common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) was confirmed, we started IVIG replacement. Four years later she developed mixed cellularity Hodgkin's lymphoma. Until today she continues with IVIG and chemotherapy. This report of a patient with CVID and Mycobacterium bovis infection, a unusual association, shows the cellular immunity susceptibility in this immunodeficiency, additional to the humoral defect. PMID:25758115

  11. Bovine Tuberculosis (Mycobacterium bovis) in Wildlife in Spain

    PubMed Central

    Aranaz, Alicia; de Juan, Lucía; Montero, Natalia; Sánchez, Celia; Galka, Margarita; Delso, Consuelo; Álvarez, Julio; Romero, Beatriz; Bezos, Javier; Vela, Ana I.; Briones, Victor; Mateos, Ana; Domínguez, Lucas

    2004-01-01

    Mycobacterium bovis infection in wildlife and feral species is a potential source of infection for livestock and a threat to protected and endangered species. The aim of this study was to identify Spanish wild animal species infected with M. bovis through bacteriological culture and spacer oligonucleotide typing (spoligotyping) of isolates for epidemiological purposes. This study included samples from red deer (Cervus elaphus), fallow deer (Dama dama), wild boar (Sus scrofa), Iberian lynx (Lynx pardina), hare (Lepus europaeus), and cattle (Bos taurus). They were collected in several geographical areas that were selected for their unique ecological value and/or known relationships between wildlife and livestock. In the areas included in this survey, M. bovis strains with the same spoligotyping pattern were found infecting several wild species and livestock, which indicates an epidemiological link. A locally predominant spoligotype was found in these areas. Better understanding of the transmission and distribution of disease in these populations will permit more precise targeting of control measures. PMID:15184440

  12. Stable expression of a GFP-BSD fusion protein in transfected and blasticidin-selected B. bovis merozoites

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Babesia bovis is a tick-borne apicomplexan parasite that causes an acute disease in cattle. This study describes stable expression of an exogenous gfp-bsd gene in B. bovis transformed parasites. Cultured B. bovis infected erythrocytes of the biologically cloned Mo7 strain were transfected by electro...

  13. Improved Specificity for Detection of Mycobacterium bovis in Fresh Tissue Using IS6110 Real-Time PCR

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Introduction: Current accepted methods of detecting Mycobacterium bovis (M. bovis) in fresh tissues requires months for definitive culture results. It has been proposed that direct detection of M. bovis DNA in fresh tissues could provide more rapid results. These data would complement the current me...

  14. In situ cytokine expression in pulmonary granulomas of cattle experimentally infected by aerosolized Mycobacterium bovis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mycobacterium bovis is the cause of tuberculosis in most animal species, including cattle and is a serious zoonotic pathogen. In humans, M. bovis infection can result in disease clinically indistinguishable from that caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the cause of most tuberculosis in humans. Reg...

  15. Multilocus sequence typing of Mycoplasma bovis reveals host-specific genotypes in cattle versus bison

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mycoplasma bovis is a primary agent of mastitis, pneumonia and arthritis in cattle and is the bacterium isolated most frequently from the polymicrobial syndrome known as bovine respiratory disease complex (BRDC). Recently, M. bovis has emerged as a significant health problem in bison, causing necro...

  16. Intrafamilial cluster of pulmonary tuberculosis due to Mycobacterium bovis of the African 1 clonal complex.

    PubMed

    Godreuil, S; Jeziorski, E; Bañuls, A L; Fraisse, T; Van de Perre, P; Boschiroli, M L

    2010-12-01

    A new clonal complex of Mycobacterium bovis present at high frequency in cattle from west central African countries has been described as the African 1 (Af1) clonal complex. Here, the first intrafamilial cluster of human tuberculosis cases due to M. bovis Af1 clonal complex strains is reported. We discuss hypotheses regarding modes of transmission. PMID:20980573

  17. Rapid dissemination of Mycobacterium bovis from cattle dung to soil by the earthworm Lumbricus terrestris.

    PubMed

    Barbier, Elodie; Chantemesse, Benoit; Rochelet, Murielle; Fayolle, Léon; Bollache, Loïc; Boschiroli, Maria Laura; Hartmann, Alain

    2016-04-15

    Indirect transmission of Mycobacterium bovis, the causative agent of bovine tuberculosis (bTB), between wildlife and livestock is thought to occur by inhalation or ingestion of environmental substrates contaminated through animal shedding. The role of the soil fauna, such as earthworms, in the circulation of M. bovis from contaminated animal feces is of interest in the epidemiology of bTB. The objective of this study was to assess the impact of earthworm activity on M. bovis transfer from animal dung to castings and the surrounding soil. For this purpose, microcosms of soil containing the anecic earthworms Lumbricus terrestris were prepared and covered with cattle feces spiked with the M. bovis BCG strain Pasteur to carry out two separate experiments. The dissemination, the gut carriage and the excretion of M. bovis were all monitored using a specific qPCR-based assay. Our results showed that the earthworm L. terrestris was able to rapidly disseminate M. bovis from the contaminated cattle feces to the surrounding soil through casting egestion. Moreover, contaminated earthworms were shown to shed the bacteria for 4 days when transferred to a M. bovis-free soil. This study highlights for the first time the possible role of earthworms in the dissemination and the persistence of M. bovis in soils within bTB endemic areas. PMID:27016750

  18. A multilocus sequence typing method and curated database for Mycoplasma bovis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mycoplasma bovis is a primary agent of mastitis, pneumonia and arthritis in cattle and is the bacterium isolated most frequently from the polymicrobial syndrome known as bovine respiratory disease complex (BRDC). Recently, M. bovis has emerged as a significant problem in bison, causing necrotic pha...

  19. VACCINATION OF WHITE-TAILED DEER WITH MYCOBACTERIUM BOVIS BACILLUS CALMETTE GUERIN (BCG)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In 1994, a focus of M. bovis infection in white-tailed deer was identified in Michigan. This represents the first known reservoir of M. bovis in free-ranging wildlife in the United. Current control measures include decreasing deer density and limitations on feeding and baiting of deer. Another possi...

  20. VACINATION OF WHITE-TAILED DEER WITH MYCOBACTERIUM BOVIS BACILLUS CALMETTE GUERIN (BCG)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In 1994, a focus of M. bovis infection in white-tailed deer was identified in Michigan. This represents the first known reservoir of M. bovis in free-ranging wildlife in the United. Current control measures include decreasing deer density and limitations on feeding and baiting of deer. Another possi...

  1. Mycobacterium bovis Infection in Humans and Cats in Same Household, Texas, USA, 2012

    PubMed Central

    Lyashchenko, Konstantin P.; Greenwald, Rena; Robbe-Austerman, Suelee; McManis, Cynthia; Waters, W. Ray

    2015-01-01

    Mycobacterium bovis infection of cats is exceedingly rare in regions where bovine tuberculosis is not endemic. We describe the diagnosis and clinical management of pulmonary M. bovis infection in 2 indoor-housed cats and their association with at least 1 M. bovis–infected human in Texas, USA, in September 2012. PMID:25695666

  2. Vaccination of White-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) with Mycobacterium bovis BCG

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wildlife reservoirs of Mycobacterium bovis represent serious obstacles to the eradication of tuberculosis in domestic livestock. In Michigan, USA tuberculous white-tailed deer transmit M. bovis to cattle. One approach in dealing with this wildlife reservoir is to vaccinate deer in order to interrupt...

  3. Lesion Development and Immunohistochemical Changes in Granulomas from Cattle Experimentally Infected with Mycobacterium bovis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mycobacterium bovis, the causative agent of bovine tuberculosis is known to persist within granulomas. To examine temporal changes in granulomas, 32 cattle were inoculated with M. bovis. Tissues from four calves each were examined at various time-points after inoculation. Granulomas in the retrophar...

  4. Vaccination of White-tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus) with Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette Guerin

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wildlife reservoirs of Mycobacterium bovis represent serious obstacles to the eradication of tuberculosis in domestic livestock. In Michigan, USA tuberculous white-tailed deer transmit M. bovis to cattle. One approach in dealing with this wildlife reservoir is to vaccinate deer in order to interrupt...

  5. Effect of skin test on serum antibody responses to Mycobacterium bovis infection in cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recently, several serologic tests designed to detect immunodominant antibodies to M. bovis antigens (e.g., MPB83, MPB70, ESAT-6, and CFP10) have emerged for potential use with samples from cattle. Of these, a commercial ELISA to MPB83/MPB70 (M. bovis antibody ELISA) has gained approval for use in ca...

  6. Streptococcus bovis endocarditis and colon cancer: myth or reality? A case report and literature review

    PubMed Central

    Galdy, Salvatore; Nastasi, Giuseppe

    2012-01-01

    A relationship between infective endocarditis and colon cancer was established in 1950, and Streptococcus bovis was successfully isolated in 1970. However, this association and its pathogenesis still remain unclear. In this paper, we describe the clinical case of a patient with a history of colon cancer and infective endocarditis caused by Streptococcus bovis. The role of S bovis as an aetiological agent in the development of colon cancer is intriguing but uncertain. S bovis infection should be considered a silent sign of gastrointestinal malignancy or hepatic disease. We believe that in order to demonstrate the presence of colon cancer, all patients with S bovis infection require an endoscopic investigation of the colon. PMID:23220436

  7. An observational study of Corynebacterium bovis in selected Ontario dairy herds.

    PubMed Central

    Brooks, B W; Barnum, D A; Meek, A H

    1983-01-01

    An observational study of Corynebacterium bovis was conducted in 74 Ontario dairy herds. The levels of infection with C. bovis were 19.9, 36.2 and 85.6% at the quarter, cow and herd level, respectively. Teat disinfection was found to be the variable best able to distinguish between herds with a high or low C. bovis quarter infection rate. Mean total milk somatic cell counts for 1103 quarters and 107 cows infected with only C. bovis ranged between 150,000 and 200,000/mL and were significantly higher than for uninfected quarters or cows. The rate of infection with mastitis pathogens was not significantly different in quarters previously colonized with only C. bovis compared to previously uninfected quarters. PMID:6831308

  8. Use of Antigen-Specific Interleukin-2 To Differentiate between Cattle Vaccinated with Mycobacterium bovis BCG and Cattle Infected with M. bovis

    PubMed Central

    McKinna, Lucy C.; Steinbach, Sabine; Dean, Gilly S.; Villarreal-Ramos, Bernardo; Whelan, Adam O.; Pirson, C.; Jones, Gareth J.; Clifford, Derek; Vordermeier, H. Martin

    2014-01-01

    We describe here the application of a novel bovine interleukin-2 (IL-2) enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the measurement of antigen-specific IL-2 in cattle naturally infected with Mycobacterium bovis and in cattle vaccinated with Mycobacterium bovis BCG and then experimentally challenged with pathogenic M. bovis. Supernatants from whole-blood cultures stimulated with mycobacterial antigen (bovine purified protein derivative [PPDB] or the peptide cocktail ESAT6-CFP10) were assessed using a sandwich ELISA consisting of a new recombinant monoclonal fragment capture antibody and a commercially available polyclonal anti-bovine-IL-2. The production of IL-2 was compared to the production of gamma interferon (IFN-γ) in the same antigen-stimulated whole-blood supernatants. The data show that cattle infected with M. bovis produced quantifiable levels of antigen-specific IL-2, while IL-2 levels in cattle vaccinated with M. bovis BCG did not. Furthermore, cattle vaccinated with M. bovis BCG and then challenged with pathogenic M. bovis displayed a more rapid induction of IL-2 but ultimately had lower levels of infection-induced IL-2 than did unvaccinated challenge control cattle. These data suggest that IL-2 responses are not detectable post-BCG vaccination and that these responses may require infection with virulent M. bovis to develop. This may be useful to differentiate infected cattle from uninfected or BCG-vaccinated cattle, although the overall sensitivity is relatively low, particularly in single intradermal comparative cervical tuberculin (SICCT)-negative infected animals. Furthermore, the strength of the IL-2 response may correlate with pathology, which poses interesting questions on the immunobiology of bovine tuberculosis in contrast to human tuberculosis, which is discussed. PMID:24173026

  9. Targeted Surface Expression of an Exogenous Antigen in Stably Transfected Babesia bovis

    PubMed Central

    Laughery, Jacob M.; Knowles, Donald P.; Schneider, David A.; Bastos, Reginaldo G.; McElwain, Terry F.; Suarez, Carlos E.

    2014-01-01

    Babesia bovis is a tick-borne intraerythocytic protozoan responsible for acute disease in cattle which can be controlled by vaccination with attenuated B. bovis strains. Emerging B. bovis transfection technologies may increase the usefulness of these live vaccines. One use of transfected B. bovis parasites may be as a vaccine delivery platform. Previous transfection methods for B. bovis were limited by single expression sites and intracellular expression of transfected antigens. This study describes a novel transfection system in which two exogenous genes are expressed: one for selection and the other for a selected antigen designed to be delivered to the surface of the parasites. The strategy for duplicating the number of transfected genes was based on the use of the putative bidirectional promoter of the B. bovis 1.4 Kb ef-1α intergenic region. The ability of this region to regulate two independent expression sites was demonstrated using a luciferase assay on transiently transfected B. bovis parasites and then incorporated into a stable transfection plasmid to control independent expression of the selectable marker GFP-BSD and another gene of interest. A chimeric gene was synthetized using sequences from the protective B-cell epitopes of Rhipicephalus microplus tick antigen Bm86 along with sequences from the surface exposed B. bovis major surface antigen-1. This chimeric gene was then cloned into the additional expression site of the transfection plasmid. Transfection of the B. bovis Mo7 strain with this plasmid resulted in stable insertion into the ef-1α locus and simultaneous expression of both exogenous genes. Expression of the Bm86 epitopes on the surface of transfected merozoites was demonstrated using immunofluorescence analyses. The ability to independently express multiple genes by the inclusion of a bidirectional promoter and the achievement of surface expression of foreign epitopes advances the potential of transfected B. bovis as a future vaccine

  10. Targeted surface expression of an exogenous antigen in stably transfected Babesia bovis.

    PubMed

    Laughery, Jacob M; Knowles, Donald P; Schneider, David A; Bastos, Reginaldo G; McElwain, Terry F; Suarez, Carlos E

    2014-01-01

    Babesia bovis is a tick-borne intraerythocytic protozoan responsible for acute disease in cattle which can be controlled by vaccination with attenuated B. bovis strains. Emerging B. bovis transfection technologies may increase the usefulness of these live vaccines. One use of transfected B. bovis parasites may be as a vaccine delivery platform. Previous transfection methods for B. bovis were limited by single expression sites and intracellular expression of transfected antigens. This study describes a novel transfection system in which two exogenous genes are expressed: one for selection and the other for a selected antigen designed to be delivered to the surface of the parasites. The strategy for duplicating the number of transfected genes was based on the use of the putative bidirectional promoter of the B. bovis 1.4 Kb ef-1α intergenic region. The ability of this region to regulate two independent expression sites was demonstrated using a luciferase assay on transiently transfected B. bovis parasites and then incorporated into a stable transfection plasmid to control independent expression of the selectable marker GFP-BSD and another gene of interest. A chimeric gene was synthetized using sequences from the protective B-cell epitopes of Rhipicephalus microplus tick antigen Bm86 along with sequences from the surface exposed B. bovis major surface antigen-1. This chimeric gene was then cloned into the additional expression site of the transfection plasmid. Transfection of the B. bovis Mo7 strain with this plasmid resulted in stable insertion into the ef-1α locus and simultaneous expression of both exogenous genes. Expression of the Bm86 epitopes on the surface of transfected merozoites was demonstrated using immunofluorescence analyses. The ability to independently express multiple genes by the inclusion of a bidirectional promoter and the achievement of surface expression of foreign epitopes advances the potential of transfected B. bovis as a future vaccine

  11. Oral vaccination of guinea pigs with a Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette-Guerin vaccine in a lipid matrix protects against aerosol infection with virulent M. bovis.

    PubMed

    Clark, Simon; Cross, Martin L; Nadian, Allan; Vipond, Julia; Court, Pinar; Williams, Ann; Hewinson, R Glyn; Aldwell, Frank E; Chambers, Mark A

    2008-08-01

    Increased incidence of bovine tuberculosis (TB) in the United Kingdom caused by infection with Mycobacterium bovis is a cause of considerable economic loss to farmers and the government. The Eurasian badger (Meles meles) represents a wildlife source of recurrent M. bovis infections of cattle in the United Kingdom, and its vaccination against TB with M. bovis bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) is an attractive disease control option. Delivery of BCG in oral bait holds the best prospect for vaccinating badgers over a wide geographical area. Using a guinea pig pulmonary challenge model, we evaluated the protective efficacy of candidate badger oral vaccines, based on broth-grown or ball-milled BCG, delivered either as aqueous suspensions or formulated in two lipids with differing fatty acid profiles (one being animal derived and the other being vegetable derived). Protection was determined in terms of increasing body weight after aerosol challenge with virulent M. bovis, reduced dissemination of M. bovis to the spleen, and, in the case of one oral formulation, restricted growth of M. bovis in the lungs. Only oral BCG formulated in lipid gave significant protection. These data point to the potential of the BCG-lipid formulation for further development as a tool for controlling tuberculosis in badgers. PMID:18519560

  12. Zoonotic tuberculosis due to Mycobacterium bovis in developing countries.

    PubMed Central

    Cosivi, O.; Grange, J. M.; Daborn, C. J.; Raviglione, M. C.; Fujikura, T.; Cousins, D.; Robinson, R. A.; Huchzermeyer, H. F.; de Kantor, I.; Meslin, F. X.

    1998-01-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that human tuberculosis (TB) incidence and deaths for 1990 to 1999 will be 88 million and 30 million, respectively, with most cases in developing countries. Zoonotic TB (caused by Mycobacterium bovis) is present in animals in most developing countries where surveillance and control activities are often inadequate or unavailable; therefore, many epidemiologic and public health aspects of infection remain largely unknown. We review available information on zoonotic TB in developing countries, analyze risk factors that may play a role in the disease, review recent WHO activities, and recommend actions to assess the magnitude of the problem and control the disease in humans and animals. PMID:9452399

  13. African 2, a Clonal Complex of Mycobacterium bovis Epidemiologically Important in East Africa▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Berg, Stefan; Garcia-Pelayo, M. Carmen; Müller, Borna; Hailu, Elena; Asiimwe, Benon; Kremer, Kristin; Dale, James; Boniotti, M. Beatrice; Rodriguez, Sabrina; Hilty, Markus; Rigouts, Leen; Firdessa, Rebuma; Machado, Adelina; Mucavele, Custodia; Ngandolo, Bongo Nare Richard; Bruchfeld, Judith; Boschiroli, Laura; Müller, Annélle; Sahraoui, Naima; Pacciarini, Maria; Cadmus, Simeon; Joloba, Moses; van Soolingen, Dick; Michel, Anita L.; Djønne, Berit; Aranaz, Alicia; Zinsstag, Jakob; van Helden, Paul; Portaels, Françoise; Kazwala, Rudovick; Källenius, Gunilla; Hewinson, R. Glyn; Aseffa, Abraham; Gordon, Stephen V.; Smith, Noel H.

    2011-01-01

    We have identified a clonal complex of Mycobacterium bovis isolated at high frequency from cattle in Uganda, Burundi, Tanzania, and Ethiopia. We have named this related group of M. bovis strains the African 2 (Af2) clonal complex of M. bovis. Af2 strains are defined by a specific chromosomal deletion (RDAf2) and can be identified by the absence of spacers 3 to 7 in their spoligotype patterns. Deletion analysis of M. bovis isolates from Algeria, Mali, Chad, Nigeria, Cameroon, South Africa, and Mozambique did not identify any strains of the Af2 clonal complex, suggesting that this clonal complex of M. bovis is localized in East Africa. The specific spoligotype pattern of the Af2 clonal complex was rarely identified among isolates from outside Africa, and the few isolates that were found and tested were intact at the RDAf2 locus. We conclude that the Af2 clonal complex is localized to cattle in East Africa. We found that strains of the Af2 clonal complex of M. bovis have, in general, four or more copies of the insertion sequence IS6110, in contrast to the majority of M. bovis strains isolated from cattle, which are thought to carry only one or a few copies. PMID:21097608

  14. In vitro gene expression profile of bovine peripheral blood mononuclear cells in early Mycobacterium bovis infection

    PubMed Central

    CHENG, YAFEN; CHOU, CHUNG-HSI; TSAI, HSIANG-JUNG

    2015-01-01

    The intracellular parasite Mycobacterium bovis (M. bovis) causes tuberculosis in cattle and humans. Understanding the interactions between M. bovis and host cells is essential in developing tools for the prevention, detection, and treatment of M. bovis infection. Gene expression profiles provide a large amount of information regarding the molecular mechanisms underlying these interactions. The present study analyzed changes in gene expression in bovine peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) at 0, 4 and 24 h following exposure to M. bovis. Using bovine whole-genome microarrays, a total of 420 genes were identified that exhibited significant alterations in expression (≥2-fold). Significantly enriched genes were identified using the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes database, of which the highest differentially expressed genes were associated with the immune system, signal transduction, endocytosis, cellular transport, inflammation, and apoptosis. Of the genes associated with the immune system, 84.85% displayed downregulation. These findings support the view that M. bovis inhibits signaling pathways of antimycobacterial host defense in bovine PBMCs. These in vitro data demonstrated that molecular alterations underlying the pathogenesis of tuberculosis begin early, during the initial 24 h following M. bovis infection. PMID:26668602

  15. Immune responses to Mycoplasma bovis proteins formulated with different adjuvants.

    PubMed

    Prysliak, Tracy; Perez-Casal, Jose

    2016-06-01

    Most vaccines for protection against Mycoplasma bovis disease are made of bacterins, and they offer varying degrees of protection. Our focus is on the development of a subunit-based protective vaccine, and to that end, we have identified 10 novel vaccine candidates. After formulation of these candidates with TriAdj, an experimental tri-component novel vaccine adjuvant developed at VIDO-InterVac, we measured humoral and cell-mediated immune responses in vaccinated animals. In addition, we compared the immune responses after formulation with TriAdj with the responses measured in animals vaccinated with a mix of a commercial adjuvant (Emulsigen™) and 2 of the components of the TriAdj, namely polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid (poly I:C) and the cationic innate defense regulator (IDR) peptide 1002 (VQRWLIVWRIRK). In this latter trial, we detected significant IgG1 humoral immune responses to 8 out of 10 M. bovis proteins, and IgG2 responses to 7 out of 10 proteins. Thus, we concluded that the commercial adjuvant formulated with poly I:C and the IDR peptide 1002 is the best formulation for the experimental vaccine. PMID:27105454

  16. Morphogenetic expression of Moraxella bovis fimbriae (pili) in Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed Central

    Beard, M K; Mattick, J S; Moore, L J; Mott, M R; Marrs, C F; Egerton, J R

    1990-01-01

    Type 4 fimbriae (pili) are found in a wide variety of gram-negative bacteria and are composed of small structural subunits which share significant sequence homology among different species, especially at their amino-terminal ends. Previous studies demonstrating morphogenetic expression of Bacteroides nodosus fimbriae from cloned subunit genes in Pseudomonas aeruginosa suggested that there is a common mechanism for type 4 fimbriae assembly and that the structural subunits are interchangeable (J. S. Mattick et al., J. Bacteriol. 169:33-41, 1987). Here we have examined the expression of Moraxella bovis fimbrial subunits in P. aeruginosa. M. bovis subunits were assembled into extracellular fimbriae in this host, in some cases as a homopolymer but in others as a mosaic with the indigenous subunit, indicating structural equivalence. This result contrasts with other studies in which recombinant P. aeruginosa expressing different subunits produced fimbriae composed almost exclusively of one subunit or the other (T. C. Elleman and J. E. Peterson, Mol. Microbiol. 1:377-380, 1987). Both observations can be explained by reversibility of subunit-subunit interactions at the site of assembly, with the forward equilibrium favoring chain extension between compatible subunits. Images PMID:1970564

  17. Bumped kinase inhibitor prohibits egression in Babesia bovis.

    PubMed

    Pedroni, Monica J; Vidadala, Rama Subba Rao; Choi, Ryan; Keyloun, Katelyn R; Reid, Molly C; Murphy, Ryan C; Barrett, Lynn K; Van Voorhis, Wesley C; Maly, Dustin J; Ojo, Kayode K; Lau, Audrey O T

    2016-01-15

    Babesiosis is a global zoonotic disease acquired by the bite of a Babesia-infected Ixodes tick or through blood transfusion with clinical relevance affecting humans and animals. In this study, we evaluated a series of small molecule compounds that have previously been shown to target specific apicomplexan enzymes in Plasmodium, Toxoplasma and Cryptosporidium. The compounds, bumped kinase inhibitors (BKIs), have strong therapeutic potential targeting apicomplexa-specific calcium dependent protein kinases (CDPKs). We investigated if BKIs also show inhibitory activities against piroplasms such as Babesia. Using a subset of BKIs that have promising inhibitory activities to Plasmodium and Toxoplasma, we determined that their actions ranged from 100% and no inhibition against Babesia bovis blood stages. One specific BKI, RM-1-152, showed complete inhibition against B. bovis within 48h and was the only BKI that showed noticeable phenotypic changes to the parasites. Focusing our study on this BKI, we further demonstrated that RM-1-152 has Babesia-static activity and involves the prohibition of merozoite egress while replication and re-invasion of host cells are unaffected. The distinct, abnormal phenotype induced by RM-1-152 suggests that this BKI can be used to investigate less studied cellular processes such as egression in piroplasm. PMID:26790733

  18. THE CELL-BOUND ALPHA-AMYLASES OF STREPTOCOCCUS BOVIS.

    PubMed

    WALKER, G J

    1965-02-01

    1. The cell-bound alpha-amylase of Streptococcus bovis has been isolated from other carbohydrases in the cell extract by chromatography on DEAE-cellulose. The enzyme has been compared with the extracellular alpha-amylase produced by this organism. 2. The two amylases had similar action patterns on amylose, the main product being maltotriose with smaller amounts of maltose and a little glucose. 3. The cell-bound amylase hydrolysed maltopentaose and maltohexaose at a similar rate to the hydrolysis of amylose. Maltotetraose was hydrolysed six times more slowly, and maltotriose 280 times more slowly, than amylose. 4. Studies with end-labelled maltodextrins revealed that the cell-bound alpha-amylase preferentially hydrolysed the third linkage from the non-reducing end, liberating maltotriose. The linkage at the reducing end of maltotriose was more easily hydrolysed than the other. 5. Egg-white lysozyme and the extracellular enzymes of Streptomyces albus lysed the cell walls of Streptococcus bovis, releasing amylase into the medium. In the presence of 0.6 m-sucrose 10% of the maximal amylase activity was released by lysozyme. Suspension of the spheroplasts in dilute buffer caused the rupture of the cytoplasmic membrane and the liberation of amylase. 6. A sensitive method for determining the ability of amylases to degrade starch granules is described. PMID:14346085

  19. Mycobacterium bovis in Burkina Faso: Epidemiologic and Genetic Links between Human and Cattle Isolates

    PubMed Central

    Sanou, Adama; Tarnagda, Zekiba; Kanyala, Estelle; Zingué, Dezemon; Nouctara, Moumini; Ganamé, Zakaria; Combary, Adjima; Hien, Hervé; Dembele, Mathurin; Kabore, Antoinette; Meda, Nicolas; Van de Perre, Philippe; Neveu, Dorine

    2014-01-01

    Background In sub-Saharan Africa, bovine tuberculosis (bTB) is a potential hazard for animals and humans health. The goal of this study was to improve our understanding of bTB epidemiology in Burkina Faso and especially Mycobacterium bovis transmission within and between the bovine and human populations. Methodology/principal findings Twenty six M. bovis strains were isolated from 101 cattle carcasses with suspected bTB lesions during routine meat inspections at the Bobo Dioulasso and Ouagadougou slaughterhouses. In addition, 7 M. bovis strains were isolated from 576 patients with pulmonary tuberculosis. Spoligotyping, RDAf1 deletion and MIRU-VNTR typing were used for strains genotyping. The isolation of M. bovis strains was confirmed by spoligotyping and 12 spoligotype signatures were detected. Together, the spoligotyping and MIRU-VNTR data allowed grouping the 33 M. bovis isolates in seven clusters including isolates exclusively from cattle (5) or humans (1) or from both (1). Moreover, these data (genetic analyses and phenetic tree) showed that the M. bovis isolates belonged to the African 1 (Af1) clonal complex (81.8%) and the putative African 5 (Af5) clonal complex (18.2%), in agreement with the results of RDAf1 deletion typing. Conclusions/Significance This is the first detailed molecular characterization of M. bovis strains from humans and cattle in Burkina Faso. The distribution of the two Af1 and putative Af5 clonal complexes is comparable to what has been reported in neighbouring countries. Furthermore, the strain genetic profiles suggest that M. bovis circulates across the borders and that the Burkina Faso strains originate from different countries, but have a country-specific evolution. The genetic characterization suggests that, currently, M. bovis transmission occurs mainly between cattle, occasionally between cattle and humans and potentially between humans. This study emphasizes the bTB risk in cattle but also in humans and the difficulty to set up

  20. Surveillance of a Ventilated Rack System for Corynebacterium bovis by Sampling Exhaust-Air Manifolds.

    PubMed

    Manuel, Christopher A; Pugazhenthi, Umarani; Leszczynski, Jori K

    2016-01-01

    Corynebacterium bovis causes an opportunistic infection of nude (Foxn1, nu/nu) mice, leading to nude mouse hyperkeratotic dermatitis (scaly skin disease). Enzootic in many nude mouse colonies, C. bovis spreads rapidly to naive nude mice, despite modern husbandry practices, and is very difficult to eradicate. To facilitate rapid detection in support of eradication efforts, we investigated a surveillance method based on quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) evaluation of swabs collected from the horizontal exhaust manifold (HEM) of an IVC rack system. We first evaluated the efficacy of rack sanitation methods for removing C. bovis DNA from the HEM of racks housing endemic colonies of infected nude mice. Pressurized water used to flush the racks' air exhaust system followed by a standard rack-washer cycle was ineffective in eliminating C. bovis DNA. Only after autoclaving did all sanitized racks test negative for C. bovis DNA. We then measured the effects of stage of infection (early or established), cage density, and cage location on the rack on time-to-detection at the HEM. Stage of infection significantly affected time-to-detection, independent of cage location. Early infections required 7.3 ± 1.2 d whereas established infections required 1 ± 0 d for detection of C. bovis at the HEM. Cage density influenced the quantity of C. bovis DNA detected but not time-to-detection. The location of the cage on the rack affected the time-to-detection only during early C. bovis infections. We suggest that qPCR swabs of HEM are useful during the routine surveillance of nude mouse colonies for C. bovis infection. PMID:26817981

  1. Surveillance of a Ventilated Rack System for Corynebacterium bovis by Sampling Exhaust-Air Manifolds

    PubMed Central

    Manuel, Christopher A; Pugazhenthi, Umarani; Leszczynski, Jori K

    2016-01-01

    Corynebacterium bovis causes an opportunistic infection of nude (Foxn1, nu/nu) mice, leading to nude mouse hyperkeratotic dermatitis (scaly skin disease). Enzootic in many nude mouse colonies, C. bovis spreads rapidly to naive nude mice, despite modern husbandry practices, and is very difficult to eradicate. To facilitate rapid detection in support of eradication efforts, we investigated a surveillance method based on quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) evaluation of swabs collected from the horizontal exhaust manifold (HEM) of an IVC rack system. We first evaluated the efficacy of rack sanitation methods for removing C. bovis DNA from the HEM of racks housing endemic colonies of infected nude mice. Pressurized water used to flush the racks’ air exhaust system followed by a standard rack-washer cycle was ineffective in eliminating C. bovis DNA. Only after autoclaving did all sanitized racks test negative for C. bovis DNA. We then measured the effects of stage of infection (early or established), cage density, and cage location on the rack on time-to-detection at the HEM. Stage of infection significantly affected time-to-detection, independent of cage location. Early infections required 7.3 ± 1.2 d whereas established infections required 1 ± 0 d for detection of C. bovis at the HEM. Cage density influenced the quantity of C. bovis DNA detected but not time-to-detection. The location of the cage on the rack affected the time-to-detection only during early C. bovis infections. We suggest that qPCR swabs of HEM are useful during the routine surveillance of nude mouse colonies for C. bovis infection. PMID:26817981

  2. Effect of interaction of vitamin C on macrophage immune response to infection with Mycobacterium bovis.

    PubMed

    Wang, J; Zhou, X; Zhang, Z; Xu, L; Yin, X; Yang, L; Zhao, D

    2012-01-01

    Bovine tuberculosis is a chronic infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium bovis affecting humans and livestock. Like Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb), M. bovis can persist in cattle without causing overt symptoms after entering a non-replicating persistent (NRP) state. Given that M.tb enters NRP under stress conditions, we sought to find the effects of vitamin C (VC) on M. bovis in vitro and in vivo (VC could mimic stresses like hypoxia by O2 scavenging and acidic conditions in phagosome). M. bovis was cultured in a medium with VC for 48 h. The differential expression of five genes (dosR, dosS, dosT, icl, and hspX of M. bovis) implicated in the M. bovis NRP state was measured with real-time quantitative PCR. Expression of all five genes was increased by VC. Relative to the control, VC-exposed bacteria appeared smaller and more rounded in shape with a much thicker inner envelope. A lower number of viable bacteria were found in comparison with those of the control. We infected macrophage cell line ANA-1 with M. bovis and cultured it in VC-added medium (MC group) for 24h and 48 h. Expression of il-10, il-6, tnf-α, and il-β was examined and compared with expression by cells infected by M. bovis only without VC treatment (MB group), uninfected cells in the medium treated with VC (VC group), and cells in the medium only without VC. Il-1β, tnf-α, and il-6 transcription were up-regulated significantly in MC group. IL-10 gene expression in MB and MC groups was less than in the control at 24h, but that of MC group increased more than the MB group at 48 h. The numbers of intracellular M. bovis in the MC group were lower than that in the other groups. Slower growth was found in VC-treated M. bovis, and macrophages were more bactericidal for intracellular VC-stimulated M. bovis than for M. bovis with no VC treatment. PMID:22762523

  3. Optimization of modified Middlebrook 7H11 agar for isolation of Mycobacterium bovis from raw milk cheese.

    PubMed

    Forgrave, R; Donaghy, J A; Fisher, A; Rowe, M T

    2014-10-01

    Reports have highlighted the absence of contemporary peer reviewed publications pertaining to Mycobacterium bovis culture from raw milk and cheese. By replicating traditional methods, cheese-making methodology and equipment were devised to produce Cheddar (n = 6) and Caerphilly (n = 3) artificially contaminated with M. bovis (three genotypes) under stringent laboratory-containment guidelines for handling hazardous microbiological material. Middlebrook 7H11, modified for M. bovis isolation, was assessed for capacity to enumerate M. bovis despite changing cheese microflora and prolonged M. bovis exposure to the cheese matrix using maturing cheese test portions (n = 63; up to 16 weeks). Malachite green (MG) containing media isolated M. bovis at significantly (P < 0·05) lower levels than unmodified Middlebrook 7H11 agar despite MG being a common adjunct of Middlebrook 7H11 agar modified for M. bovis growth. Subsequently, a selective MG-free Middlebrook 7H11 agar modified using haemolysed red cells and calf serum was demonstrated as the best performing (P < 0·05) medium for recovery of M. bovis from typical UK cheese types, Cheddar and Caerphilly. Significance and impact of the study: Following increased M. bovis infection of UK cattle, the risk posed to consumers from consumption of unpasteurized milk and dairy products has changed. Furthermore, published methods for the culture and molecular detection of M. bovis in raw milk products are limited. Cheese-making protocols and M. bovis culture media reported here provide tools for further investigation of M. bovis survival during all stages of cheese manufacture and could inform future assessment of the risk to consumers from M. bovis contamination of unpasteurized dairy products. PMID:24888395

  4. Single nucleotide polymorphisms in the Mycobacterium bovis genome resolve phylogenetic relationships

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mycobacterium bovis isolates carry restricted allelic variation yet exhibit a range of disease phenotypes and host preferences. Conventional genotyping methods target small hyper-variable regions of their genome and provide anonymous biallelic information insufficient to develop phylogeny. To resolv...

  5. [Interlaboratory test: Isolation of Mycobacterium bovis from granulomatous lesions in bovine].

    PubMed

    Garbaccio, Sergio; Barandiaran, Soledad; Fernandez, Analía; Macias, Analía; Magnano, Gabriel; Martinez Vivot, Marcela; Peyrú, Maite; Cataldi, Angel

    2016-01-01

    Mycobacterium bovis is the causative agent of bovine tuberculosis. The diagnostic laboratory confirmation is made through bacterial isolation. The aim of interlaboratory tests is to assess the performance of each participant in comparison with other of similar capacities. The test objective was to determine the efficiency of isolation of M. bovis. Four laboratories were part of the test and processed 25 blind tissue samples from granulomatous lesions and with previous M. bovis isolation. The laboratory that had the highest proportion of isolates was A (68%), followed by C (60%) and then B and D (both with 52%). The greatest concordance was observed between B-D and B-C laboratories (68%). The differences could be due to specific factors in each laboratory procedures. This type of interlaboratory tests highlights errors in the bacteriology and identifies critical points in the process to detect M. bovis accurately. PMID:27237425

  6. Proteomic profiling of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus midgut responses to infection with Babesia bovis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Differences in protein expression in midgut tissue of uninfected and Babesia bovis-infected southern cattle ticks, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, were investigated in an effort to establish a proteome database containing proteins involved in successful pathogen transmission. The electrophoreti...

  7. Phenolic glycolipids of Mycobacterium bovis: new structures and synthesis of a corresponding seroreactive neoglycoprotein.

    PubMed Central

    Chatterjee, D; Bozic, C M; Knisley, C; Cho, S N; Brennan, P J

    1989-01-01

    The glycolipid that characterizes the majority of isolates of Mycobacterium bovis and that has come to be known as M. bovis-identifying lipid is the phenolic glycolipid mycoside B described in the literature by others. However, when mycoside B obtained from M. bovis BCG, field isolates, and infected tissues was examined in detail, it was shown to be different from that described in the literature in some important respects. In particular, the glycosyl substituent is 2-O-methyl-alpha-L-rhamnopyranose rather than 2-O-methyl-beta-D-rhamnopyranose. With this information, a seroreactive neoglycoprotein (neoantigen) containing the 2-O-methyl-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl substituent suitable for the serodiagnosis of bovine tuberculosis was synthesized. M. bovis also contains other minor seroreactive phenolic glycolipids, one of which is a deacylated form of mycoside B and another of which contains an alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl unit rather than 2-O-methyl-alpha-L-rhamnopyranose. Images PMID:2643563

  8. Amplification of a 500-Base-Pair Fragment from Cultured Isolates of Mycobacterium bovis

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez, Juan Germán; Fissanoti, Juan Carlos; Del Portillo, Patricia; Patarroyo, Manuel Elkin; Romano, María Isabel; Cataldi, Angel

    1999-01-01

    The presence of a 500-bp fragment which amplifies a region from the genome of Mycobacterium bovis (J. G. Rodriguez, G. A. Meija, P. Del Portillo, M. E. Patarroyo, and L. A. Murillo, Microbiology 141:2131–2138, 1995) was evaluated by carrying out PCR on 121 M. bovis isolates. The M. bovis strains, previously characterized by culture and biochemical tests, were isolated from cattle in different regions of Argentina, Mexico, and Colombia. Four additional strains isolated from sea lions that belong to the M. tuberculosis complex were also included in the study. All of the isolates tested were PCR positive, rendering the expected 500-bp band and giving a correlation of 100% with previous microbiological characterization. Southern blot analysis revealed a common band of 1,800 bp and a polymorphic high-molecular-mass hybridization pattern. The results show that this assay may be useful for diagnosis and identification of M. bovis in cattle. PMID:10364607

  9. Circulating Mycobacterium bovis peptides and host response proteins as biomarkers for unambiguous detection of subclinical infection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Bovine tuberculosis remains one of the most damaging zoonotic diseases. A critical need exists for rapid and inexpensive diagnostics capable of detecting and differentiating M. bovis infection from other pathogenic and environmental mycobacteria at multiple surveillance levels. Method...

  10. A Virulent Babesia bovis Strain Failed to Infect White-Tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus).

    PubMed

    Ueti, Massaro W; Olafson, Pia U; Freeman, Jeanne M; Johnson, Wendell C; Scoles, Glen A

    2015-01-01

    Wildlife are an important component in the vector-host-pathogen triangle of livestock diseases, as they maintain biological vectors that transmit pathogens and can serve as reservoirs for such infectious pathogens. Babesia bovis is a tick-borne pathogen, vectored by cattle fever ticks, Rhipicephalus spp., that can cause up to 90% mortality in naive adult cattle. While cattle are the primary host for cattle fever ticks, wild and exotic ungulates, including white-tailed deer (WTD), are known to be viable alternative hosts. The presence of cattle fever tick populations resistant to acaricides raises concerns regarding the possibility of these alternative hosts introducing tick-borne babesial parasites into areas free of infection. Understanding the B. bovis reservoir competence of these alternative hosts is critical to mitigating the risk of introduction. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that WTD are susceptible to infection with a B. bovis strain lethal to cattle. Two groups of deer were inoculated intravenously with either B. bovis blood stabilate or a larval extract supernatant containing sporozoites from infected R. microplus larvae. The collective data demonstrated that WTD are neither a transient host nor reservoir of B. bovis. This conclusion is supported by the failure of B. bovis to establish an infection in deer regardless of inoculum. Although specific antibody was detected for a short period in the WTD, the PCR results were consistently negative at multiple time points throughout the experiment and blood from WTD that had been exposed to parasite, transferred into naïve recipient susceptible calves, failed to establish infection. In contrast, naïve steers inoculated intravenously with either B. bovis blood stabilate or the larval extract supernatant containing sporozoites rapidly succumbed to disease. These findings provide evidence that WTD are not an epidemiological component in the maintenance of B. bovis infectivity to livestock. PMID:26083429

  11. Molecular epidemiological analysis of Mycoplasma bovis isolates from the Pennsylvania Animal Diagnostic Laboratory showing genetic diversity.

    PubMed

    Soehnlen, M K; Kariyawasam, S; Lumadue, J A; Pierre, T A; Wolfgang, D R; Jayarao, B M

    2011-04-01

    We have examined the genetic variability of Mycoplasma bovis strains submitted to the Pennsylvania Animal Diagnostics Laboratory, University Park (PA-ADL), between December 2007 and December 2008. Of 4,868 total samples submitted for Mycoplasma testing, 302 were determined to be culture positive. Mycoplasma bovis (63.6%), Mycoplasma californicum (7.3%), Mycoplasma bovirhinis (2.7%), Mycoplasma bovigenitalium (0.7%), Mycoplasma alkalescens (4.9%), Mycoplasma putrefaciens (0.3%), and Mycoplasma dispar (1.3%) and unidentified Mycoplasma sp. (19.2%) were identified using PCR. Mycoplasma bovis represented the largest portion of the positive samples submitted. Each of the 192 M. bovis isolates was examined for variations in the BglII and MfeI restriction sites of the DNA using amplified fragment length polymorphism fingerprinting and subsequently compared with the M. bovis type strain PG45 (ATCC 25523). Similarity between strains was calculated using the Dice similarity coefficient, which ranged from approximately 0.7 to 1.0. When clustering the isolates at greater than 95% similarity, it was determined that 11 distinct clusters were present. The results are consistent with the existence of at least 2 clonally distinct groups. No clear geographical, month of isolation, or source origination relationship was identified, indicating that a currently unclassified characteristic is responsible for the strain heterogeneity. These data indicate strong heterogeneity of M. bovis isolates submitted to PA-ADL. Additionally, multiple sites throughout Pennsylvania had isolates of separate clonal lineages present concomitantly, indicating the ability of multiple overlapping outbreaks to occur at a single location. Mycoplasma bovis represents the largest portion of Mycoplasma species isolated from PA-ADL samples. We propose that amplified fragment length polymorphism may serve as a valuable tool for molecular characterization of M. bovis strains from the United States. PMID:21426978

  12. A Virulent Babesia bovis Strain Failed to Infect White-Tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus)

    PubMed Central

    Freeman, Jeanne M.; Johnson, Wendell C.; Scoles, Glen A.

    2015-01-01

    Wildlife are an important component in the vector-host-pathogen triangle of livestock diseases, as they maintain biological vectors that transmit pathogens and can serve as reservoirs for such infectious pathogens. Babesia bovis is a tick-borne pathogen, vectored by cattle fever ticks, Rhipicephalus spp., that can cause up to 90% mortality in naive adult cattle. While cattle are the primary host for cattle fever ticks, wild and exotic ungulates, including white-tailed deer (WTD), are known to be viable alternative hosts. The presence of cattle fever tick populations resistant to acaricides raises concerns regarding the possibility of these alternative hosts introducing tick-borne babesial parasites into areas free of infection. Understanding the B. bovis reservoir competence of these alternative hosts is critical to mitigating the risk of introduction. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that WTD are susceptible to infection with a B. bovis strain lethal to cattle. Two groups of deer were inoculated intravenously with either B. bovis blood stabilate or a larval extract supernatant containing sporozoites from infected R. microplus larvae. The collective data demonstrated that WTD are neither a transient host nor reservoir of B. bovis. This conclusion is supported by the failure of B. bovis to establish an infection in deer regardless of inoculum. Although specific antibody was detected for a short period in the WTD, the PCR results were consistently negative at multiple time points throughout the experiment and blood from WTD that had been exposed to parasite, transferred into naïve recipient susceptible calves, failed to establish infection. In contrast, naïve steers inoculated intravenously with either B. bovis blood stabilate or the larval extract supernatant containing sporozoites rapidly succumbed to disease. These findings provide evidence that WTD are not an epidemiological component in the maintenance of B. bovis infectivity to livestock. PMID:26083429

  13. Protection against Tuberculosis in Eurasian Wild Boar Vaccinated with Heat-Inactivated Mycobacterium bovis

    PubMed Central

    Garrido, Joseba M.; Sevilla, Iker A.; Beltrán-Beck, Beatriz; Minguijón, Esmeralda; Ballesteros, Cristina; Galindo, Ruth C.; Boadella, Mariana; Lyashchenko, Konstantin P.; Romero, Beatriz; Geijo, Maria Victoria; Ruiz-Fons, Francisco; Aranaz, Alicia; Juste, Ramón A.; Vicente, Joaquín; de la Fuente, José; Gortázar, Christian

    2011-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) caused by Mycobacterium bovis and closely related members of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex continues to affect humans and animals worldwide and its control requires vaccination of wildlife reservoir species such as Eurasian wild boar (Sus scrofa). Vaccination efforts for TB control in wildlife have been based primarily on oral live BCG formulations. However, this is the first report of the use of oral inactivated vaccines for controlling TB in wildlife. In this study, four groups of 5 wild boar each were vaccinated with inactivated M. bovis by the oral and intramuscular routes, vaccinated with oral BCG or left unvaccinated as controls. All groups were later challenged with a field strain of M. bovis. The results of the IFN-gamma response, serum antibody levels, M. bovis culture, TB lesion scores, and the expression of C3 and MUT genes were compared between these four groups. The results suggested that vaccination with heat-inactivated M. bovis or BCG protect wild boar from TB. These results also encouraged testing combinations of BCG and inactivated M. bovis to vaccinate wild boar against TB. Vaccine formulations using heat-inactivated M. bovis for TB control in wildlife would have the advantage of being environmentally safe and more stable under field conditions when compared to live BCG vaccines. The antibody response and MUT expression levels can help differentiating between vaccinated and infected wild boar and as correlates of protective response in vaccinated animals. These results suggest that vaccine studies in free-living wild boar are now possible to reveal the full potential of protecting against TB using oral M. bovis inactivated and BCG vaccines. PMID:21935486

  14. Recombinant Mycobacterium bovis BCG as an HIV vaccine vector.

    PubMed

    Chapman, Rosamund; Chege, Gerald; Shephard, Enid; Stutz, Helen; Williamson, Anna-Lise

    2010-06-01

    HIV-1 has resulted in a devastating AIDS pandemic. An effective HIV/AIDS vaccine that can be used to either, prevent HIV infection, control infection or prevent progression of the disease to AIDS is needed. In this review we discuss the use of Mycobacterium bovis BCG, the tuberculosis vaccine, as a vaccine vector for an HIV vaccine. Numerous features make BCG an attractive vehicle to deliver HIV antigens. It has a good safety profile, elicits long-lasting cellular immune responses and in addition manufacturing costs are affordable, a necessary consideration for developing countries. In this review we discuss the numerous factors that influence generation of a genetically stable recombinant BCG vaccine for HIV. PMID:20353397

  15. Acute Babesia bovis infections: renal involvement in the hypotensive syndrome.

    PubMed

    Wright, I G; Goodger, B V

    1979-08-01

    Splenectomised calves in metabolism cages were infected with Babesia bovis. During the infection, urine samples were collected and analysed for electrolytes, proteins, kinin, and urinary kallikrein. During the later stages of the infection there were significant reductions in urinary volume, water intake, urinary kinin, kallikrein, and electrolytes. Proteinuria was detected from 3--8 days postinfection of which 15--20% was haemoglobin and most of the remainder was albumin (70--75%). Fibrin degradation products, fibrinogen-like products, and haptoglobin were not detected. Degeneration of cortical tubules was detected by histological studies. As these tubules produce urinary kallikrein it seems probable that diminished glomerular blood flow and hence glomerular filtration rate are due to decreased production of this enzyme. PMID:494708

  16. [Cutaneous infection with Orthopoxvirus bovis in a German Spaniel].

    PubMed

    Jäger, Kathrin; Steinborn, Päivi; Weider, Karola; Wohlsein, Peter

    2016-08-17

    A 4-year-old female German Spaniel was presented with anorexia. Clinically, the dog showed papular to ulcerative lesions on the nasal planum and on the tongue. Hematological, bacteriological and mycological examinations did not contribute any evidence for the etiology of the lesions. Histopathological examination of skin biopsies revealed a proliferative dermatitis and folliculitis with hydropic degeneration of keratinocytes and cytoplasmatic inclusion bodies. Cowpox virus antigen was detected by immunohistochemistry, and electron microscopy showed pox virus particles in the cytoplasm of the epithelial cells. DNA of Orthopoxvirus bovis was identified by polymerase chain reaction. Consequently, in dogs with papular to ulcerative lesions in the face or on the tongue, infection with cowpoxvirus should be considered as an etiological differential diagnosis. Infected dogs represent a potential risk of infection for humans and other animals with close contact. PMID:27300695

  17. Study on bioactive compounds of in vitro cultured Calculus Suis and natural Calculus Bovis.

    PubMed

    Wan, Tien-Chun; Cheng, Fu-Yuan; Liu, Yu-Tse; Lin, Liang-Chuan; Sakata, Ryoichi

    2009-12-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate bioactive compounds of in vitro cultured Calculus Suis and natural Calculus Bovis obtained as valuable by-products from animals used for meat production. The results showed that the components of natural Calculus Bovis were rich in bilirubin and biliverdin and had higher content of essential amino acids. The major amino acids of in vitro cultured Calculus Suis were identified as glycine, alanine, glutamic acid and aspartic acid, and those for natural Calculus Bovis were found to be glutamic acid, aspartic acid, proline, and arginine. The methionine and cysteine contents of precursors for glutathione in natural Calculus Bovis were significantly higher than those of in vitro cultured Calculus Suis. The mineral contents of zinc, iron and manganese of natural Calculus Bovis were significantly higher than those of in vitro cultured Calculus Suis. The major bile acids in both products were cholic acid and dehydrocholic acid, respectively. The chenodeoxycholic and ursodeoxycholic acid content of in vitro cultured Calculus Suis was significantly higher than that of natural Calculus Bovis. PMID:20163661

  18. An overview of Mycoplasma bovis mastitis in Israel (2004-2014).

    PubMed

    Lysnyansky, Inna; Freed, Mor; Rosales, Ruben S; Mikula, Inna; Khateb, Nihaya; Gerchman, Irena; van Straten, Michael; Levisohn, Sharon

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of Mycoplasma bovis in milk samples submitted to the Israeli National Service for Udder Health and Milk Quality was determined during the period 2004-2014 and the genetic pattern of the obtained isolates was assessed by multilocus sequence typing (MLST). Mycoplasma spp. were identified in 66 herds including M. bovis (n = 60), M. cottewii (n = 3), M. bovigenitalium (n = 2), M. alkalescens (n = 2) and M. yeatsii (n = 1). The proportion of M. bovis infected herds was relatively low (0-0.68%) in 2004-2007, increased to 3.77% during the 2008 outbreak, and ranged from 0.77 to 2.77% during the 2009-2014 period. Since 2008, about eight M. bovis positive dairy herds have been identified in Israel annually, with six of which on average being newly infected. MLST of 57 M. bovis isolates revealed that sequence type 10 was the dominant genotype identified in 60% of the herds. In conclusion, these data show that M. bovis is the main mycoplasmal mastitic pathogen in Israel. PMID:26626090

  19. Mycobacterium bovis in free-living and captive wildlife, including farmed deer.

    PubMed

    de Lisle, G W; Mackintosh, C G; Bengis, R G

    2001-04-01

    Mycobacterium bovis has been isolated from a wide range of wildlife species, in addition to domestic animals. This review examines the role played by various species in the maintenance of M. bovis in wildlife communities and the spread to domestic animals. Badgers (Meles meles), brushtail possums (Trichosurus vulpecula), deer (Odocoileus virginianus), bison (Bison bison) and African buffalo (Syncerus caffer) are examples of wildlife that are maintenance hosts of M. bovis. The importance of these hosts has been highlighted by the growing realisation that these animals can represent the principal source of infection for both domestic animals and protected wildlife species. The range of methods for controlling M. bovis in wildlife is limited. While population control has been used in some countries, this approach is not applicable in many situations where protected wildlife species are concerned. Vaccination is a potential alternative control method, although as yet, no practical, effective system has been developed for vaccinating wildlife against bovine tuberculosis. Tuberculosis caused by M. bovis has also been a problem in captive wildlife and in recently domesticated animals such as farmed deer. Control of M. bovis in this group of animals is dependent on the judicious use of diagnostic tests and the application of sound disease control principles. The advances in the development of bovine tuberculosis vaccines for cattle and farmed deer may offer valuable insights into the use of vaccination for the control of tuberculosis in a range of captive wildlife species. PMID:11288522

  20. Comparative study on major bioactive components in natural, artificial and in-vitro cultured Calculus Bovis.

    PubMed

    Yan, Shi-Kai; Wu, Yan-Wen; Liu, Run-Hui; Zhang, Wei-Dong

    2007-01-01

    Major bioactive components in various Calculus Bovis, including natural, artificial and in-vitro cultured Calculus Bovis, were comparatively studied. An approach of high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with ultraviolet and evaporative light scattering detections (HPLC/UV/ELSD) was established to simultaneously determinate six bioactive components thereof, including five bile acids (cholic acid, deoxycholic acid, ursodeoxycholic, chenodeoxycholic acid, hyodeoxycholic acid) and bilirubin. ELSD and UV detector were applied to detect bile acids and bilirubin respectively. The assay was performed on a C(18) column with water-acetonitrile gradient elution and the investigated constituents were authenticated by comparing retention times and mass spectra with those of reference compounds. The proposed method was applied to analyze twenty-one Calculus Bovis extraction samples, and produced data with acceptable linearity, precision, repeatability and accuracy. The result indicated the variations among Calculus Bovis samples under different developmental conditions. Artificial and in-vitro cultured Calculus Bovis, especially in-vitro cultured ones, which contain total bioactive constituents no less than natural products and have the best batch-to-batch uniformity, suffice to be used as substitutes of natural Calculus Bovis. PMID:17202716

  1. Antimicrobial susceptibility of Mycoplasma bovis isolates from veal calves and dairy cattle in the Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Heuvelink, Annet; Reugebrink, Constance; Mars, Jet

    2016-06-30

    Control of Mycoplasma bovis infections depends on good husbandry practices and antibiotic treatment. To allow more prudent use of antimicrobial drugs, there is a need for information on the susceptibility profile of this pathogen. The objective of the present study was to analyse the in vitro antimicrobial susceptibility of clinical M. bovis isolates in the Netherlands. The collection comprised 95 bovine isolates, originating from lungs (n=56), mastitis milk (n=27), and synovial fluid (n=12), collected between 2008 and 2014. Minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were assessed by broth microdilution, both by using in-house prepared MIC plates and by using commercially available MIC plates. For each antimicrobial agent, the range of MIC results, the MIC50, and MIC90 values were calculated. M. bovis strains recently isolated in the Netherlands appeared to be characterized by relatively high MIC values for antimicrobial agents that, until now, have been recommended by the Dutch Association of Veterinarians for treating pneumonia caused by Mycoplasma species. Fluoroquinolones appeared to be the most efficacious in inhibiting M. bovis growth, followed by tulathromycin and oxytetracycline. The highest MIC values were obtained for erythromycin, tilmicosin, and tylosin. Future studies should be done on determining M. bovis specific clinical breakpoints, standardization of methods to determine MIC values as well as molecular studies on detection of antimicrobial resistance mechanisms of M. bovis isolates to develop PCR assays for determining resistance. PMID:27259820

  2. Newly attenuated Mycobacterium bovis mutants as vaccines against bovine tuberculosis, particularly for possums.

    PubMed

    Collins, D M; Buddle, B M; Kawakami, R P; Hotter, G; Mildenhall, N; Mouat, P; Murney, R; Ataera, H; Price-Carter, M; Bruere, P; Wards, B J; de Lisle, G W

    2011-07-01

    Bovine tuberculosis costs New Zealand more than $80 million per year, mostly because extensive areas of the country are occupied by brushtail possums infected with Mycobacterium bovis. AgResearch has a major programme to produce new live tuberculosis vaccines that can be delivered to possums. Primary work involved development of molecular biological methods to enable genetic manipulation of M. bovis, including the production of random and specific mutants. Many avirulent mutants of M. bovis have been produced and their vaccine efficacy has been compared to BCG in guinea pigs. Selected mutants that perform at least as well as BCG are retested in guinea pigs using an extended vaccination protocol in which animals are pre-sensitized to environmental mycobacteria to mimic natural exposure. Ten candidate vaccines that have induced good protection in guinea pigs have been subsequently tested as vaccines in possums. While the protective efficacy of an M. bovis mutant inoculated into guinea pigs reliably indicated that some protection would be induced in possums, the most protective mutant in guinea pigs was different from that in possums. This illustrates the importance of testing in the target species as part of new vaccine development. An important outcome of this work was the identification of an operon in M. bovis whose inactivation produced an avirulent M. bovis vaccine candidate that was better than BCG in protecting possums from experimental tuberculosis. Allelic exchange methods are now being used to produce vaccine strains with multiple specific mutations to improve safety and immunological characteristics. PMID:21420259

  3. Fecal Volatile Organic Ccompound Profiles from White-Tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus) as Indicators of Mycobacterium bovis Exposure or Mycobacterium bovis Bacille Calmette-Guerin (BCG) Vaccination

    PubMed Central

    Stahl, Randal S.; Ellis, Christine K.; Nol, Pauline; Waters, W. Ray; Palmer, Mitchell; VerCauteren, Kurt C.

    2015-01-01

    White-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) serve as a reservoir for bovine tuberculosis, caused by Mycobacterium bovis, and can be a source of infection in cattle. Vaccination with M. bovis Bacille Calmette Guerin (BCG) is being considered for management of bovine tuberculosis in deer. Presently, no method exists to non-invasively monitor the presence of bovine tuberculosis in deer. In this study, volatile organic compound profiles of BCG-vaccinated and non-vaccinated deer, before and after experimental challenge with M. bovis strain 95–1315, were generated using solid phase microextraction fiber head-space sampling over suspended fecal pellets with analysis by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Chromatograms were processed using XCMS Online to characterize ion variation among treatment groups. The principal component scores resulting from significant (α = 0.05) ion responses were used to build linear discriminant analysis models. The sensitivity and specificity of these models were used to evaluate the feasibility of using this analytical approach to distinguish within group comparisons between pre- and post-M. bovis challenge: non-vaccinated male or female deer, BCG-vaccinated male deer, and the mixed gender non-vaccinated deer data. Seventeen compounds were identified in this analysis. The peak areas for these compounds were used to build a linear discriminant classification model based on principal component analysis scores to evaluate the feasibility of discriminating between fecal samples from M. bovis challenged deer, irrespective of vaccination status. The model best representing the data had a sensitivity of 78.6% and a specificity of 91.4%. The fecal head-space sampling approach presented in this pilot study provides a non-invasive method to discriminate between M. bovis challenged deer and BCG-vaccinated deer. Additionally, the technique may prove invaluable for BCG efficacy studies with free-ranging deer as well as for use as a non

  4. The immune response of bovine mammary epithelial cells to live or heat-inactivated Mycoplasma bovis.

    PubMed

    Zbinden, Christina; Pilo, Paola; Frey, Joachim; Bruckmaier, Rupert M; Wellnitz, Olga

    2015-09-30

    Mycoplasma bovis is an emerging bacterial agent causing bovine mastitis. Although these cell wall-free bacteria lack classical virulence factors, they are able to activate the immune system of the host. However, effects on the bovine mammary immune system are not yet well characterized and detailed knowledge would improve the prevention and therapy of mycoplasmal mastitis. The aim of this study was to investigate the immunogenic effects of M. bovis on the mammary gland in an established primary bovine mammary epithelial cell (bMEC) culture system. Primary bMEC of four different cows were challenged with live and heat-inactivated M. bovis strain JF4278 isolated from acute bovine mastitis, as well as with the type strain PG45. The immune response was evaluated 6 and 24h after mycoplasmal challenge by measuring the relative mRNA expression of selected immune factors by quantitative PCR. M. bovis triggered an immune response in bMEC, reflected by the upregulation of tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin(IL)-1β, IL-6, IL-8, lactoferrin, Toll-like receptor-2, RANTES, and serum amyloid A mRNA. Interestingly, this cellular reaction was only observed in response to live, but not to heat-inactivated M. bovis, in contrast to other bacterial pathogens of mastitis such as Staphylococcus aureus. This study provides evidence that bMEC exhibit a strong inflammatory reaction in response to live M. bovis. The lack of a cellular response to heat-inactivated M. bovis supports the current hypothesis that mycoplasmas activate the immune system through secreted secondary metabolites. PMID:26211967

  5. Development and Host Compatibility of Plasmids for Two Important Ruminant Pathogens, Mycoplasma bovis and Mycoplasma agalactiae

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Shukriti; Citti, Chistine; Sagné, Eveline; Marenda, Marc S.

    2015-01-01

    Mycoplasma bovis is a cause of pneumonia, mastitis, arthritis and otitis media in cattle throughout the world. However, despite its clinical significance, there is a paucity of tools to genetically manipulate it, impeding our capacity to further explore the molecular basis of its virulence. To address this limitation, we developed a series of homologous and heterologous replicable plasmids from M. bovis and M. agalactiae. The shortest replicable oriC plasmid based on the region downstream of dnaA in M. bovis was 247 bp and contained two DnaA boxes, while oriC plasmids based on the region downstream of dnaA in M. agalactiae strains 5632 and PG2 were 219 bp and 217 bp in length, respectively, and contained only a single DnaA box. The efficiency of transformation in M. bovis and M. agalactiae was inversely correlated with the size of the oriC region in the construct, and, in general, homologous oriC plasmids had a higher transformation efficiency than heterologous oriC plasmids. The larger pWholeoriC45 and pMM21-7 plasmids integrated into the genomic oriC region of M. bovis, while the smaller oriC plasmids remained extrachromosomal for up to 20 serial passages in selective media. Although specific gene disruptions were not be achieved in M. bovis in this study, the oriC plasmids developed here could still be useful as tools in complementation studies and for expression of exogenous genes in both M. bovis and M. agalactiae. PMID:25746296

  6. Susceptibilities of Mycoplasma bovis, Mycoplasma dispar, and Ureaplasma diversum strains to antimicrobial agents in vitro.

    PubMed Central

    ter Laak, E A; Noordergraaf, J H; Verschure, M H

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the susceptibility of various strains of Mycoplasma bovis, Mycoplasma dispar, and Ureaplasma diversum, which are prevalent causes of pneumonia in calves, to 16 antimicrobial agents in vitro. The MICs of the antimicrobial agents were determined by a serial broth dilution method for 16 field strains and the type strain of M. bovis, for 19 field strains and the type strain of M. dispar, and for 17 field strains of U. diversum. Final MICs for M. bovis and M. dispar were read after 7 days and final MICs for U. diversum after 1 to 2 days. All strains tested were susceptible to tylosin, kitasamycin, and tiamulin but were resistant to nifuroquine and streptomycin. Most strains of U. diversum were intermediately susceptible to oxytetracycline but fully susceptible to chlortetracycline; most strains of M. bovis and M. dispar, however, were resistant to both agents. Strains of M. dispar and U. diversum were susceptible to doxycycline and minocycline, but strains of M. bovis were only intermediately susceptible. Susceptibility or resistance to chloramphenicol, spiramycin, spectinomycin, lincomycin, or enrofloxacin depended on the species but was not equal for the three species. The type strains of M. bovis and M. dispar were more susceptible to various antimicrobial agents, including tetracyclines, than the field strains. This finding might indicate that M. bovis and M. dispar strains are becoming resistant to these agents. Antimicrobial agents that are effective in vitro against all three mycoplasma species can be considered for treating mycoplasma infections in pneumonic calves. Therefore, tylosin, kitasamycin, and tiamulin may be preferred over oxytetracycline and chlortetracycline. PMID:8452363

  7. Mycobacterium bovis DNA detection in colostrum as a potential indicator of vaccination effectiveness against bovine tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Herrera-Rodríguez, Sara E; Gordiano-Hidalgo, María Alejandra; López-Rincón, Gonzálo; Bojorquez-Narváez, Luis; Padilla-Ramírez, Francisco Javier; Pereira-Suárez, Ana Laura; Flores-Valdez, Mario Alberto; Estrada-Chávez, Ciro

    2013-04-01

    Bovine tuberculosis (bTB) remains a problem on many dairy farms in Mexico, as well as a public health risk. We previously found a high frequency of Mycobacterium bovis DNA in colostrum from dairy cows using a nested PCR to detect mpb70. Since there are no reliable in vivo tests to determine the effectiveness of booster Mycobacterium bovis BCG vaccination against bTB, in this work we monitored M. bovis DNA in colostrum by using this nested PCR. In order to decrease the risk of adverse reactions in animals likely containing viable M. bovis, a single application of BCG and a subunit vaccine (EEP-1) formulated with M. bovis culture filtrate proteins (CFP) and a copolymer as the adjuvant was performed in tuberculin skin test-negative cattle (TST(-)), while TST reactor animals (TST(+)) received EEP-1 only. Booster immunization using EEP-1 was applied to both groups, 2 months after primary vaccination to whole herds and 12 months later to lactating cows. Colostrum samples were collected from 6 farms where the cows were vaccinated over a 12-month period postvaccination and, for comparison, from one control farm where the cows were not vaccinated with comparable bTB prevalence. We observed an inverse relationship between the frequency of M. bovis DNA detection and time postvaccination at the first (P < 0.001) and second (P < 0.0001) 6-month periods. Additionally, the concentration of gamma interferon (IFN-γ) was higher in mpb70 PCR-positive colostrum samples (P = 0.0003). These results suggest that M. bovis DNA frequency in colostrum could be a potentially useful biomarker for bTB vaccine efficacy on commercial dairy farms. PMID:23425597

  8. Toxicogenomic response of Mycobacterium bovis BCG to peracetic acid and a comparative analysis of the M. bovis BCG response to three oxidative disinfectants.

    PubMed

    Nde, Chantal W; Toghrol, Freshteh; Jang, Hyeung-Jin; Bentley, William E

    2011-04-01

    Tuberculosis is a leading cause of death worldwide and infects thousands of Americans annually. Mycobacterium bovis causes tuberculosis in humans and several animal species. Peracetic acid is an approved tuberculocide in hospital and domestic environments. This study presents for the first time the transcriptomic changes in M. bovis BCG after treatment with 0.1 mM peracetic acid for 10 and 20 min. This study also presents for the first time a comparison among the transcriptomic responses of M. bovis BCG to three oxidative disinfectants: peracetic acid, sodium hypochlorite, and hydrogen peroxide after 10 min of treatment. Results indicate that arginine biosynthesis, virulence, and oxidative stress response genes were upregulated after both peracetic acid treatment times. Three DNA repair genes were downregulated after 10 and 20 min and cell wall component genes were upregulated after 20 min. The devR-devS signal transduction system was upregulated after 10 min, suggesting a role in the protection against peracetic acid treatment. Results also suggest that peracetic acid and sodium hypochlorite both induce the expression of the ctpF gene which is upregulated in hypoxic environments. Further, this study reveals that in M. bovis BCG, hydrogen peroxide and peracetic acid both induce the expression of katG involved in oxidative stress response and the mbtD and mbtI genes involved in iron regulation/virulence. PMID:21152916

  9. Humoral Immune Responses of White-tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus) to Mycobacterium bovis BCG Vaccination and Experimental Challenge with M. bovis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Monitoring serum antibody production kinetics to multiple mycobacterial antigens can be useful as a diagnostic tool for the detection of Mycobacterium bovis infection as well as for the characterization of disease progression and efficacy of intervention strategies in several species. Humoral immun...

  10. T-cell mRNA Expression in Response to Mycobacterium bovis BCG Vaccination and Mycobacterium bovis Infection of White-tailed deer

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Understanding immune responses of white-tailed deer (WTD) to infection with Mycobacterium bovis provides insight into mechanisms of pathogen control and may provide clues to development of effective vaccine strategies. WTD were vaccinated with either BCG strain Pasteur or BCG Danish. Both vaccinates...

  11. Humoral Immune Responses of White-tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus) to Mycobacterium bovis BCG Vaccination and Experimental Challenge with M. bovis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Monitoring serum antibody production kinetics to multiple mycobacterial antigens can be useful as a diagnostic tool for the detection of Mycobacterium bovis infection as well as for the characterization of disease progression and efficacy of intervention strategies in several species. In the presen...

  12. Failure of a Mycobacterium tuberculosis DeltaRD1 DeltapanCD Double Deletion Mutant in a Neonatal Calf Aerosol M. bovis Challenge model: Comparisons to Responses Elicited by M. bovis bacille Calmette Guerin

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An attenuated Mycobacterium tuberculosis RD1 knockout x pantothenate auxotroph (mc**2 6030) vaccine failed to protect neonatal calves from a low dose, aerosol M. bovis challenge. In contrast, M. bovis bacille Calmette Guerin (BCG)-vaccinates had reduced tuberculosis-associated pathology as compared ...

  13. IMMUNODOMINANT EPITOPES IN BABESIA BOVIS RHOPTRY ASSOCIATED PROTEIN-1 THAT ELICIT MEMORY CD4+-T-LYMPHOCYTE RESPONSES IN B. BOVIS IMMUNE INDIVIDUALS ARE LOCATED IN THE AMINO-TERMINAL DOMAIN

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Babesia bovis rhoptry-associated protein 1 (RAP-1), which confers partial protection against B. bovis challenge, is recognized by antibodies and T lymphocytes from cattle that have recovered from infection and are immune to subsequent challenge. RAP-1 is a 60-kDa protein with an N-terminal (NT) regi...

  14. Association of Streptococcus bovis presence in colonic content with advanced colonic lesion

    PubMed Central

    Paritsky, Maya; Pastukh, Nina; Brodsky, Diana; Isakovich, Natalya; Peretz, Avi

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To prospectively examine the association between presence of Streptococcus bovis (S. bovis) in colonic suction fluid and the endoscopic findings on colonoscopy. METHODS: From May 2012 to March 2013, 203 consecutive patients who underwent colonoscopy for any reason were enrolled in the study. Exclusion criteria included: antibiotic use in the previous month, age younger than 18 years, and inadequate preparation for colonoscopy. The colonoscopy was performed for the total length of the colon or to the occluding tumor. The endoscopic findings were registered. Samples were obtained proximal to the colonoscopic part of the suction tube from each patient and sent to the clinical microbiology laboratory for isolation and identification of S. bovis. Samples were incubated in enrichment media with addition of antibiotic disks for inhibition of growth of Gram-negative rods. The samples were seeded on differential growth media; suspected positive colonies were isolated and identified with Gram staining, catalase, and pyrrolidonyl arylamidase tests, and further identified using a VITEK2 system. Statistical analyses were performed using the Student’s t and χ2 tests. RESULTS: Of the 203 patients recruited, 49 (24%) patients were found to be S. bovis carriers; of them, the endoscopic findings included: 17 (34.7%) cases with malignant tumors, 11 (22.4%) with large polyps, 5 (10.2%) with medium-sized polyps, 6 (12.2%) with small polyps, 4 (8.1%) with colitis, and 6 (12.2%) normal colonoscopies. Of 154 patients found negative for S. bovis, the endoscopic findings included: none with malignant tumors, 9 (5.8%) cases with large polyps, 11 (7.1%) with medium-sized polyps, 26 (16.9%) with small polyps, 7 (4.5%) with colitis, and 101 (65.6%) normal colonoscopies. S. bovis (Gram-positive coccus) is considered part of the normal intestinal flora. There is an association between S. bovis bacteremia and colonic neoplasia. It is not well understood whether the bacterium has a

  15. Epidemiology of human Mycobacterium bovis disease, California, USA, 2003-2011.

    PubMed

    Gallivan, Mark; Shah, Neha; Flood, Jennifer

    2015-03-01

    We conducted a retrospective review of California tuberculosis (TB) registry and genotyping data to evaluate trends, analyze epidemiologic differences between adult and child case-patients with Mycobacterium bovis disease, and identify risk factors for M. bovis disease. The percentage of TB cases attributable to M. bovis increased from 3.4% (80/2,384) in 2003 to 5.4% (98/1,808) in 2011 (p = 0.002). All (6/6) child case-patients with M. bovis disease during 2010-2011 had >1 parent/guardian who was born in Mexico, compared with 38% (22/58) of child case-patients with M. tuberculosis disease (p = 0.005). Multivariate analysis of TB case-patients showed Hispanic ethnicity, extrapulmonary disease, diabetes, and immunosuppressive conditions, excluding HIV co-infection, were independently associated with M. bovis disease. Prevention efforts should focus on Hispanic binational families and adults with immunosuppressive conditions. Collection of additional risk factors in the national TB surveillance system and expansion of whole-genome sequencing should be considered. PMID:25693687

  16. [Mycobacterium bovis in wildlife of the dairy regions of Santa Fe (Argentina)].

    PubMed

    Abdala, Alejandro A; Garbaccio, Sergio; Zumárraga, Martín; Tarabla, Héctor D

    2015-01-01

    Control eradication campaigns of bovine tuberculosis based on the «test and slaughter» approach were successful in many countries and regions; however, in some areas the infection persists and one of the main reasons is Mycobacterium bovis infection in wild life species. Argentina has applied the same approach since 1999, achieving progress in dairy cattle herds. Nonetheless, the wildlife role has never been investigated. The objective of this study was to determine if wildlife from the Santa Fe dairy area is infected with M. bovis. Wildlife species having a positive tuberculin skin test were captured in five dairy farms. Ninety five wildlife mammals were captured; M. bovis was recovered from 7 possums (Didelphys albiventris), from one fox (Lycolapex gimnocercus) and from one rat (Rattus norvegicus). None of the animals exhibited macroscopic lesions. The most frequently isolated M. bovis spoligotypes were types 34 (4 isolates) and 12 (3 isolates). Spoligotype 34 is the most frequently isolated type in Argentine cattle. The role of D. albiventris as spillover host of M. bovis is discussed in this study. PMID:26376835

  17. Epidemiology of Human Mycobacterium bovis Disease, California, USA, 2003–2011

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Neha; Flood, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    We conducted a retrospective review of California tuberculosis (TB) registry and genotyping data to evaluate trends, analyze epidemiologic differences between adult and child case-patients with Mycobacterium bovis disease, and identify risk factors for M. bovis disease. The percentage of TB cases attributable to M. bovis increased from 3.4% (80/2,384) in 2003 to 5.4% (98/1,808) in 2011 (p = 0.002). All (6/6) child case-patients with M. bovis disease during 2010–2011 had >1 parent/guardian who was born in Mexico, compared with 38% (22/58) of child case-patients with M. tuberculosis disease (p = 0.005). Multivariate analysis of TB case-patients showed Hispanic ethnicity, extrapulmonary disease, diabetes, and immunosuppressive conditions, excluding HIV co-infection, were independently associated with M. bovis disease. Prevention efforts should focus on Hispanic binational families and adults with immunosuppressive conditions. Collection of additional risk factors in the national TB surveillance system and expansion of whole-genome sequencing should be considered. PMID:25693687

  18. In vitro antimicrobial susceptibility of Mycoplasma bovis clinical isolates recovered from bison (Bison bison).

    PubMed

    Suleman, Muhammad; Prysliak, Tracy; Windeyer, Claire; Perez-Casal, Jose

    2016-03-01

    Mycoplasma bovis is a pathogen globally affecting cattle and bison herds, causing pneumonia, arthritis, mastitis, abortions, and other symptoms, leading to huge economic losses. Many studies have been done regarding the antimicrobial susceptibility of M. bovis isolated from cattle, but no such study is available for isolates recovered from bison. For the first time, in vitro susceptibilities of 40 M. bovis clinical isolates collected from bison herds in Canada are reported here. Minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) values were determined using Sensititre® plates. The most effective MIC50 and MIC90 were for spectinomycin (1 and >64 μg/mL), tiamulin (1 and >32 μg/mL), and tulathromycin (16 and 64 μg/mL), whereas tetracyclines, fluoroquinolones, and florfenicol failed to inhibit growth of M. bovis bison isolates. Isolates were nonsusceptible to tetracyclines (100%), fluoroquinolones (97.5%), and tilmicosin (100%), whereas the highest susceptibility of bison clinical isolates was seen with spectinomycin (95%) and tulathromycin (67.5%). Two lung isolates (Mb283 and 348) were found resistant to both spectinomycin and tulathromycin. These results show a marked difference in antimicrobial susceptibility of bison isolates as compared with previously reported and laboratory reference cattle isolates, emphasizing the necessity of testing antimicrobial susceptibility of M. bovis bison isolates and to generate better therapeutic regime for improved recovery chances for infected bison herds across North America. PMID:26854525

  19. An experimental vaccine composed of two adjuvants gives protection against Mycoplasma bovis in calves.

    PubMed

    Dudek, Katarzyna; Bednarek, Dariusz; Ayling, Roger D; Kycko, Anna; Szacawa, Ewelina; Karpińska, Teresa A

    2016-06-01

    Mycoplasma bovis is a major pathogen affecting cattle causing bronchopneumonia, mastitis, and other disorders. Only autogenous vaccines made specifically for individual farms are available in parts of Europe and the United States. A novel experimental vaccine composed of a field M. bovis isolate combined with saponin and Emulsigen(®) adjuvants was evaluated. Eighteen 3-4 week old calves were placed in three equal groups: vaccinated (Vac), positive control (PC) and negative control (NC). The Vac calves were subcutaneously injected with 8ml of the vaccine; the PC and NC calves received phosphate buffered saline (PBS). Three weeks later the Vac and PC calves were challenged with a virulent M. bovis strain, the NC group received PBS. Throughout the study clinical observations, microbiology and immunological tests were carried out. Three weeks post challenge two calves from each group were euthanased for necropsy and histopathological examination. The vaccine effectively stimulated the humoral immune response, with high titres of anti-M. bovis specific antibodies and total Ig concentration. This vaccine also intensified the IgA response. A clinically protective effect of the vaccine was demonstrated as it also reduced the gross pathological lung lesions and nasal shedding of M. bovis. PMID:27156637

  20. Characterization of Mycobacterium bovis from Humans and Cattle in Namwala District, Zambia

    PubMed Central

    Johansen, Tone Bjordal; Muma, John Bwalya; Munyeme, Musso; Mbulo, Grace; Muwonge, Adrian; Djønne, Berit

    2014-01-01

    Tuberculosis remains a major public health problem in Zambia. While human to human transmission of Mycobacterium tuberculosis is of major importance in driving the tuberculosis epidemic, the impact of Mycobacterium bovis transmission from infected cattle is largely unknown. This cross-sectional study aimed at molecular characterization of M. bovis in humans and cattle. A total of 100 human sputum samples and 67 bovine tissues were collected and analyzed for the presence of mycobacteria. Of 65 human samples that harbored acid fast bacteria (AFB), 55 isolates were obtained of which 34 were identified as M. tuberculosis and 2 as M. bovis. AFB-positive bovine samples (n = 67) yielded 47 mycobacterial isolates among which 25 were identified as M. bovis and no M. tuberculosis was found. Among the M. bovis isolates, spoligotyping revealed a high homogeneity in genotypes circulating in Namwala district. Human and cattle isolates shared identical MIRU-VNTR genotypes, suggesting that transmission between the two hosts may occur. Therefore, this study has documented zoonotic TB in human patients in Namwala district of Zambia. However, further molecular epidemiological studies in the study area are recommended. PMID:24847441

  1. Molecular epidemiology of Mycobacterium bovis isolates from free-ranging wildlife in South African game reserves.

    PubMed

    Michel, A L; Coetzee, M L; Keet, D F; Maré, L; Warren, R; Cooper, D; Bengis, R G; Kremer, K; van Helden, P

    2009-02-01

    Bovine tuberculosis is endemic in African buffalo and a number of other wildlife species in the Kruger National Park (KNP) and Hluhluwe-iMfolozi Park (HiP) in South Africa. It was thought that the infection had been introduced into the KNP ecosystem through direct contact between cattle and buffalo, a hypothesis which was confirmed in this study by IS6110 and PGRS restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) typing. The molecular characterisation of 189 Mycobacterium bovis isolates from nine wildlife species in the HiP, including three smaller associated parks, and the Kruger National Park with adjacent areas showed that the respective epidemics were each caused by an infiltration of a single M. bovis genotype. The two M. bovis strains had different genetic profiles, as demonstrated by hybridisation with the IS6110 and PGRS RFLP probes, as well as with regard to evidence of evolutionary changes to the IS profile. While the M. bovis type in HiP was transmitted between buffaloes and to at least baboon, bushpig and lion without obvious genetic changes in the RFLP patterns, in the KNP a dominant strain was represented in 73% of the M. bovis isolates, whilst the remaining 27% were variants of this strain. No species-specific variants were observed, except for one IS6110 type which was found only in a group of five epidemiologically related greater kudu. This finding was attributed to species-specific behaviour patterns rather than an advanced host-pathogen interaction. PMID:18786785

  2. Multilocus sequence typing of Mycoplasma bovis reveals host-specific genotypes in cattle versus bison.

    PubMed

    Register, Karen B; Thole, Luke; Rosenbush, Ricardo F; Minion, F Chris

    2015-01-30

    Mycoplasma bovis is a primary agent of mastitis, pneumonia and arthritis in cattle and the bacterium most frequently isolated from the polymicrobial syndrome known as bovine respiratory disease complex. Recently, M. bovis has emerged as a significant health problem in bison, causing necrotic pharyngitis, pneumonia, dystocia and abortion. Whether isolates from cattle and bison comprise genetically distinct populations is unknown. This study describes the development of a highly discriminatory multilocus sequencing typing (MLST) method for M. bovis and its use to investigate the population structure of the bacterium. Genome sequences from six M. bovis isolates were used for selection of gene targets. Seven of 44 housekeeping genes initially evaluated were selected as targets on the basis of sequence variability and distribution within the genome. For each gene target sequence, four to seven alleles could be distinguished that collectively define 32 sequence types (STs) from a collection of 94 cattle isolates and 42 bison isolates. A phylogeny based on concatenated target gene sequences of each isolate revealed that bison isolates are genetically distinct from strains that infect cattle, suggesting recent disease outbreaks in bison may be due to the emergence of unique genetic variants. No correlation was found between ST and disease presentation or geographic origin. MLST data reported here were used to populate a newly created and publicly available, curated database to which researchers can contribute. The MLST scheme and database provide novel tools for exploring the population structure of M. bovis and tracking the evolution and spread of strains. PMID:25433454

  3. A Babesia bovis gene syntenic to Theileria parva p67 is expressed in blood and tick stage parasites

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Completion of the Babesia bovis (T2Bo strain) genome provides detailed data concerning the predicted proteome of this parasite, and allows for a bioinformatics approach to gene discovery. Comparative genomics of the hemoprotozoan parasites B. bovis and Theileria parva revealed a highly conserved syn...

  4. Animal-side Serologic Assay for Rapid Detection of Mycobacterium bovis Infection in Multiple Species of Free-ranging Wildlife

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Numerous species of wild mammals are susceptible to Mycobacterium bovis, a cause of bovine tuberculosis (TB). Eurasian badgers, white-tailed deer, brushtail possums, and wild boar are implicated in the maintenance of wildlife reservoirs of M. bovis infection in different countries, fueling bovine TB...

  5. Evaluation of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays for detection of Mycoplasma bovis-Specific antibody in bison sera

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mycoplasma bovis has recently emerged as a significant and costly infectious disease problem in bison. This report demonstrates that ELISAs for detection of M. bovis-specific antibody in cattle are not optimal for identification of seropositive bison. An ELISA optimized for use with bison sera is ...

  6. Improved Specificity for Detection of Mycobacterium bovis in Fresh Tissues Using IS6110 Real-time PCR

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Culture of M. bovis from diagnostic specimens is the gold standard for bovine tuberculosis diagnostics in the US. Detection of M. bovis by PCR in tissue homogenates may provide a simple, rapid method to complement diagnostic culture. A significant impediment to PCR based assays on tissue...

  7. Transfection systems for Babesia bovis: a review of methods for the transient and stable expression of exogenous genes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    With the recently sequenced B. bovis genome, a large pool of genes with unknown function was identified. The ability to complement and knock out both unknown and previously identified genes would be a valuable tool to better understand gene function in B. bovis parasites. This review describes recen...

  8. In-depth analysis of the genome sequence of a clinical, extensively drug-resistant Mycobacterium bovis strain.

    PubMed

    Sagasti, Sara; Millán-Lou, María Isabel; Soledad Jiménez, María; Martín, Carlos; Samper, Sofía

    2016-09-01

    Although human-to-human transmission of Mycobacterium bovis strains and other members of the animal lineage of the tubercle bacilli is a rare event, an extensively drug resistant (XDR) strain, named M. bovis B strain, caused a lethal outbreak in the nineties in Spain. The genome of M. bovis B strain was re-sequenced by SOLiD platform and mapped to the reference M. bovis AF2122/97. The genetic polymorphisms detected have been analysed in depth. One hundred and fifty-eight specific non-synonymous SNPs were detected; ninety-two of these were non-conservative. In addition, one specific 3195-bp insertion could be identified as an ABC transporter gene by homology with tbd2 gene, which was found to be present in other clinical M. bovis strains. Its peculiar phenotype profile of resistance was explained by molecular characteristics, including a 5685-bp specific deletion that revealed a novel polymorphism associated with resistance to paraminosalicilic acid. From a phylogenetical point of view, according to the SNPs detected, M. bovis B could be included into the clonal complex M. bovis European 2. This is the first time that a deep analysis of the whole-genome sequencing of an extensively drug-resistant M. bovis strain is detailed. It offers the explanation for the resistance and found several data to be incorporated for future research. PMID:27553409

  9. Oral vaccination of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) with Mycobacterium bovis Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wildlife reservoirs of Mycobacterium bovis represent serious obstacles to the eradication of tuberculosis from livestock, particularly cattle. In Michigan, USA tuberculous white-tailed deer transmit M. bovis to other deer and cattle. One approach in dealing with this wildlife reservoir is to vaccina...

  10. Bovicin HC5, a lantibiotic produced by Streptococcus bovis HC5, catalyzed the efflux of intracellular potassium but not ATP

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bovicin HC5, a broad spectrum lantibiotic produced by Streptococcus bovis HC5, catalyzed the efflux of intracellular potassium from Streptococcus bovis JB1, a sensitive strain. ATP also decreased, but this decline appeared to be caused by the activity of the F1FO ATPase rather than efflux per se....

  11. Molecular characteristics of phosphoenolpyruvate: mannose phosphotransferase system in Streptococcus bovis.

    PubMed

    Asanuma, Narito; Yoshii, Takahiro; Hino, Tsuneo

    2004-07-01

    To elucidate the regulatory mechanism of catabolite control in Streptococcus bovis, we investigated the molecular properties and gene expression of the mannose-specific phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP)-dependent sugar: phosphotransferase system (PTS). The mannose PTS gene cluster (man) was found to comprise a gene encoding enzyme (E) II AB (manL) and genes encoding EIIC (manM), EIID (manN), and a putative regulator (manO). The gene cluster (man operon) was transcribed from one transcriptional start site, which was located 40 bp upstream of the manL start codon. However, two transcriptional start sites were found between manN and manO in primer extension analysis, and the manO may be transcribed independently from the man operon. The man operon and manO were constitutively transcribed without being affected by culture conditions, such as the sugar supplied (glucose, galactose, fructose, maltose, lactose, sucrose, or mannose), growth rate, or pH. PMID:15297922

  12. Preparation and properties of antigen 60 from Mycobacterium bovis BCG.

    PubMed Central

    Cocito, C; Vanlinden, F

    1986-01-01

    Antigen 60 (A60) is the main thermostable immunogen of both 'old tuberculin' (OT) and 'purified protein derivative' (PPD), known reagents for cutaneous tests in tuberculosis. It is recognized by bidimensional immunoelectrophoresis with anti-BCG antiserum, where it appears as the less mobile component. A60 was prepared from the cytoplasm of Mycobacterium bovis BCG, and purified by exclusion gel chromatography and lectin affinity chromatography. Labelled A60 was obtained by radioiodination and used for a radioimmunoassay. Composition of A60 was explored by use of organic solvents, chemicals and enzymes. It contained two fractions of free and bound lipids, as well as protein and polysaccharide moieties. After removal of both free and bound lipid fractions, the core still retained the ability to form immunoprecipitinogen lines with anti-BCG antiserum. The lipopolysaccharide and lipo-protein moieties of A60, as well as the free lipid fraction, were also complexed by antibodies. It is concluded that A60 is a lipopolysaccharide-protein complex of 10(6) to 10(7) daltons, which is a major immunogenic component of mycobacterial cytoplasm. The detailed structure of this antigen, its immunological properties, and its use for an ELISA type immunoassay for tuberculosis are described in two other publications. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 3 Fig. 6 PMID:3545572

  13. [Tuberculosis cutis luposa gigantea with Mycobacterium bovis detection].

    PubMed

    Bonnekoh, B; Schütt-Gerowitt, H; Thiele, B; Mahrle, G

    1990-10-01

    In an 80-year-old woman, retired farmworker, we observed lupus vulgaris extending over more than half of her leg. The extreme size of the affected area made us talk of a giant form in this case. Bacteriological investigation revealed Mycobacterium bovis. The minimal amount of tuberculin required to induce a positive intradermal reaction was 10 IU (GT Behring). Another case with similar dimensions (reported by Christiansen in 1967) had been caused by Mycobacterium avium and developed over a period of at least 5 years. The vast cutaneous affection of our patient, in contrast, had developed within only one year, starting from a brownish macula of the size of a palm on her upper leg. This macula - presumably the manifestation of quiescent lupus vulgaris - had not changed for more than 40 years. This late exacerbation of post-primary tuberculosis might have been favored by the patient's reduced immunologic resistance on account of her advanced age. In addition, local cofactors - namely ankylosis of her knee and contact eczematous dermatitis - have to be considered. In accordance with the resistogram, the disease responded to monotherapy with isoniazide. PMID:2291294

  14. Antibiotic sensitivity of an Argentine strain collection of Moraxella bovis.

    PubMed

    Zielinski, G; Piscitelli, H; Perez-Monti, H; Stobbs, L A

    2000-01-01

    The antimicrobial susceptibility of 88 isolates of Moraxella bovis of Argentine origin was evaluated for 12 antimicrobials by broth microdilution procedures. The isolates had a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC90) of < or = 0.06 microg/mL to enrofloxacin; < or = 0.12 microg/mL to ceftiofur; < or = 0.25 microg/mL to ampicillin; < or = 0.5 microg/mL to florfenicol and gentamicin; < or = 1.0 microg/mL to tilmicosin, erythromycin, and oxytetracycline; < or = 4.0 microg/mL to tylosin; < or = 8.0 microg/mL to spectinomycin; < or = 0.25/4.75 microg/mL to trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole; and > or = 32 microg/mL to lincomycin. Modal MIC values for these antimicrobials were as follows: enrofloxacin, 0.03 microg/mL; ceftiofur, 0.06 pg/mL; ampicillin, 0.25 microg/mL; florfenicol, gentamicin, erythromycin, and oxytetracycline, 0.5 microg/mL; tilmicosin, 1.0 microg/mL; tylosin and spectinomycin, 4.0 microg/mL; lincomycin and erythromycin, 16 microg/mL; and trimethoprim/ sulfamethoxazole, < or = 0.25/4.75 microg/mL. These data show that all antimicrobials except lincomycin have MICs suggestive of sensitivity in vitro, though confirmation of clinical efficacy can only be properly assessed based on pharmacologic and/or clinical data to support the MIC values. PMID:19757583

  15. Molecular and biochemical characterization of methionine aminopeptidase of Babesia bovis as a potent drug target.

    PubMed

    Munkhjargal, Tserendorj; Ishizaki, Takahiro; Guswanto, Azirwan; Takemae, Hitoshi; Yokoyama, Naoaki; Igarashi, Ikuo

    2016-05-15

    Aminopeptidases are increasingly being investigated as therapeutic targets in various diseases. In this study, we cloned, expressed, and biochemically characterized a member of the methionine aminopeptidase (MAP) family from Babesia bovis (B. bovis) to develop a potential molecular drug target. Recombinant B. bovis MAP (rBvMAP) was expressed in Escherichia coli (E. coli) as a glutathione S-transferase (GST)-fusion protein, and we found that it was antigenic. An antiserum against the rBvMAP protein was generated in mice, and then a native B. bovis MAP was identified in B. bovis by Western blot assay. Further, an immunolocalization assay showed that MAP is present in the cytoplasm of the B. bovis merozoite. Analysis of the biochemical properties of rBvMAP revealed that it was enzymatically active, with optimum activity at pH 7.5. Enhanced enzymatic activity was observed in the presence of divalent manganese cations and was effectively inhibited by a metal chelator, ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA). Moreover, the enzymatic activity of BvMAP was inhibited by amastatin and bestatin as inhibitors of MAP (MAPi) in a dose-dependent manner. Importantly, MAPi was also found to significantly inhibit the growth of Babesia parasites both in vitro and in vivo; additionally, they induced high levels of cytokines and immunoglobulin (IgG) titers in the host. Therefore, our results suggest that BvMAP is a molecular target of amastatin and bestatin, and those inhibitors may be drug candidates for the treatment of babesiosis, though more studies are required to confirm this. PMID:27084466

  16. The epidemiology of Mycobacterium bovis infections in animals and man: a review.

    PubMed

    O'Reilly, L M; Daborn, C J

    1995-08-01

    Tuberculosis is primarily a respiratory disease and transmission of infection within and between species is mainly by the airborne route. Mycobacterium bovis, the cause of bovine-type tuberculosis, has an exceptionally wide host range. Susceptible species include cattle, humans, non-human primates, goats, cats dogs, pigs, buffalo, badgers, possums, deer and bison. Many susceptible species, including man, are spillover hosts in which infection is not self-maintaining. In countries where there is transmission of infection from endemically infected wildlife populations to cattle or other farmed animals, eradication is not feasible and control measures must be applied indefinitely. Possible methods of limiting spread of infection from wildlife to cattle including the use of vaccines are outlined. The usefulness of DNA fingerprinting of M. bovis strains as an epidemiological tool and of BCG vaccination of humans and cattle as a control measure are reviewed. The factors determining susceptibility to infection and clinical disease, and the infectiousness of infected hosts and transmission of infection, are detailed. Reports of the epidemiology of M. bovis infections in man and a variety of animal species are reviewed. M. bovis infection was recognised as a major public health problem when this organism was transmitted to man via milk from infected cows. The introduction of pasteurization helped eliminate this problem. Those occupational groups working with M. bovis infected cattle or deer, on the farm or in the slaughter house, are more likely to develop pulmonary disease than alimentary disease. In recent years, tuberculosis in farmed cervidae has become a disease of economic as well as public health importance in several countries. Nowadays, the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is associated with a greatly increased risk of overt disease in humans infected with Myobacterium tuberculosis. It is believed this increased risk also occurs in the case of M. bovis infections

  17. Genetic diversity and antigenicity variation of Babesia bovis merozoite surface antigen-1 (MSA-1) in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Tattiyapong, Muncharee; Sivakumar, Thillaiampalam; Takemae, Hitoshi; Simking, Pacharathon; Jittapalapong, Sathaporn; Igarashi, Ikuo; Yokoyama, Naoaki

    2016-07-01

    Babesia bovis, an intraerythrocytic protozoan parasite, causes severe clinical disease in cattle worldwide. The genetic diversity of parasite antigens often results in different immune profiles in infected animals, hindering efforts to develop immune control methodologies against the B. bovis infection. In this study, we analyzed the genetic diversity of the merozoite surface antigen-1 (msa-1) gene using 162 B. bovis-positive blood DNA samples sourced from cattle populations reared in different geographical regions of Thailand. The identity scores shared among 93 msa-1 gene sequences isolated by PCR amplification were 43.5-100%, and the similarity values among the translated amino acid sequences were 42.8-100%. Of 23 total clades detected in our phylogenetic analysis, Thai msa-1 gene sequences occurred in 18 clades; seven among them were composed of sequences exclusively from Thailand. To investigate differential antigenicity of isolated MSA-1 proteins, we expressed and purified eight recombinant MSA-1 (rMSA-1) proteins, including an rMSA-1 from B. bovis Texas (T2Bo) strain and seven rMSA-1 proteins based on the Thai msa-1 sequences. When these antigens were analyzed in a western blot assay, anti-T2Bo cattle serum strongly reacted with the rMSA-1 from T2Bo, as well as with three other rMSA-1 proteins that shared 54.9-68.4% sequence similarity with T2Bo MSA-1. In contrast, no or weak reactivity was observed for the remaining rMSA-1 proteins, which shared low sequence similarity (35.0-39.7%) with T2Bo MSA-1. While demonstrating the high genetic diversity of the B. bovis msa-1 gene in Thailand, the present findings suggest that the genetic diversity results in antigenicity variations among the MSA-1 antigens of B. bovis in Thailand. PMID:27101782

  18. [Rifampicin-resistant Mycobacterium bovis BCG strain isolated from an infant with NEMO mutation].

    PubMed

    Çavuşoğlu, Cengiz; Edeer Karaca, Neslihan; Azarsız, Elif; Ulusoy, Ezgi; Kütükçüler, Necil

    2015-04-01

    It is well known that disseminated Mycobacterium bovis BCG infection is developed after BCG vaccination in infants with congenital cellular immune deficiencies such as mutations in genes along the interleukin (IL)-12/interferon (IFN)-γ pathway and mutations in nuclear factor-kB essential modulator (NEMO). In this report, a rifampicin-resistant M.bovis BCG strain isolated from an infant with NEMO defect was presented. An 8-month-old male infant with NEMO defect admitted to the pediatric outpatient clinic of our hospital with fever, generalized lymphadenopathy and hepatosplenomegaly. Microscopic examination of the smears prepared from lymph node and liver biopsy specimens revealed abundant amount (3+) of acid-fast bacilli (AFB). Rifampicin-susceptible Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTC) was detected by real-time PCR (GeneXpert MTB/RIF; Cepheid, USA) in the samples. The growth of mycobacteria was determined on the 20th day of culture performed in MGIT960 system (Becton Dickinson, USA). The isolate was identified as M.bovis BCG by GenoType MTBC kit (Hain Lifescience, Germany) and defined as M.bovis BCG [SIT 482 (BOV_1)] by spoligotyping. In the primary anti-tuberculosis drug susceptibility test performed by MGIT960 system, the isolate was found susceptible to rifampicin (RIF), isoniazid (INH), streptomycin (STM) and ethambutol (EMB). Then anti-tuberculosis treatment was started to the patient. However, the patient at the age of 2 years, re-admitted to the hospital with the complaint of hepatosplenomegaly. Smear of spontaneously draining abscess material obtained from subcutaneous nodules revealed intensive AFB positivity (3+) once again. In the present instance RIF-resistant MTC was detected with GeneXpert system in the specimen. The growth of mycobacteria was determined on the 13th day of culture and isolate was identified as M.bovis BCG. The present isolate was found susceptible to INH, STM and EMB but resistant to RIF. A mutation in the rpoB gene (codon 531, S

  19. Differences in the antimicrobial susceptibility profiles of Moraxella bovis, M. bovoculi and M. ovis

    PubMed Central

    Maboni, Grazieli; Gressler, Leticia T.; Espindola, Julia P.; Schwab, Marcelo; Tasca, Caiane; Potter, Luciana; de Vargas, Agueda Castagna

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the differences in the antimicrobial susceptibility profiles of Moraxella bovis, M. bovoculi and M. ovis. Thirty-two strains of Moraxella spp. isolated from cattle and sheep with infectious keratoconjunctivitis were tested via broth microdilution method to determine their susceptibility to ampicillin, cefoperazone, ceftiofur, cloxacillin, enrofloxacin, florfenicol, gentamicin, neomycin, oxytetracycline and penicillin. The results demonstrated that Moraxella spp. strains could be considered sensitive for most of the antimicrobials tested in this study, but differences between the antimicrobial susceptibility profiles of these three Moraxella species were found. M. bovis might differ from other species due to the higher MIC and MBC values it presented. PMID:26273272

  20. Chemical Studies on the Structure of Mucopeptide Isolated from Streptococcus bovis

    PubMed Central

    Kane, Judith; Lackland, Henry; Karakawa, W. W.; Krause, R. M.

    1969-01-01

    Mucopeptides isolated from Streptococcus bovis cell walls were found to be composed of alanine, glutamic acid, lysine, and threonine in a mole ratio of 3:1:1:1. A dipeptide, Nε-lysylthreonine, was isolated from S. bovis mucopeptide by ion-exchange chromatography. This finding suggests that threonine is associated with the bridge which cross-links adjacent tetrapeptides by connecting the ε-amino group of lysine of one tetrapeptide to the carboxyl group of d-alanine of another to form the mucopeptide matrix. PMID:5802603

  1. Catalase-peroxidase of Mycobacterium bovis BCG converts isoniazid to isonicotinamide, but not to isonicotinic acid: differentiation parameter between enzymes of Mycobacterium bovis BCG and Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Kang, Sung-Koo; Lee, Jong-Ho; Lee, Young-Choon; Kim, Cheorl-Ho

    2006-05-01

    Isonicotinic acid hydrazide (Isoniazid, INH) is one of the major drugs worldwide used in the chemotherapy of tuberculosis. Many investigators have emphasized that INH activation is associated with mycobacterial catalase-peroxidase (katG). However, INH activation mechanism is not completely understood. In this study, katG of M. bovis BCG was separated and purified into two katGs, katG I (named as relatively higher molecular weight than katG II) and katG II, indicating that there is some difference in protein structure between two katGs. The molecular weight of the enzymes of katG I and katG II was estimated to be approximately 150,000 Da by gel filtration, and its subunit was 75,000 Da as determined by SDS-PAGE, indicating that purified enzyme was composed of two identical subunits. The specific activity of the purified enzyme katG I was 991.1 (units/mg). The enzymes were then investigated in INH activation by using gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The analysis of GC-MS showed that the katG I from M. bovis BCG directly converted INH (Mr, 137) to isonicotinamide (Mr, 122), not to isonicotinic acid (Mr, 123), in the presence or absence of H2O2. Therefore, this is the first report that katG I, one of two katGs with almost same molecular weight existed in M. bovis BCG, converts INH to isonicotinamide and this study may give us important new light on the activation mechanism of INH by KatG between M. bovis BCG and M. tuberculosis. PMID:16563633

  2. The association of Streptococcus bovis/gallolyticus with colorectal tumors: The nature and the underlying mechanisms of its etiological role

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Streptococcus bovis (S. bovis) bacteria are associated with colorectal cancer and adenoma. S. bovis is currently named S. gallolyticus. 25 to 80% of patients with S. bovis/gallolyticus bacteremia have concomitant colorectal tumors. Colonic neoplasia may arise years after the presentation of bacteremia or infectious endocarditis of S. bovis/gallolyticus. The presence of S. bovis/gallolyticus bacteremia and/or endocarditis is also related to the presence of villous or tubular-villous adenomas in the large intestine. In addition, serological relationship of S. gallolyticus with colorectal tumors and direct colonization of S. gallolyticus in tissues of colorectal tumors were found. However, this association is still under controversy and has long been underestimated. Moreover, the etiological versus non-etiological nature of this associationis not settled yet. Therefore, by covering the most of up to date studies, this review attempts to clarify the nature and the core of S. bovis/gallolyicus association with colorectal tumors and analyze the possible underlying mechanisms. PMID:21247505

  3. Restriction fragment length polymorphisms distinguish Leptospira borgpetersenii serovar hardjo type hardjo-bovis isolates from different geographical locations.

    PubMed Central

    Zuerner, R L; Ellis, W A; Bolin, C A; Montgomery, J M

    1993-01-01

    Genetic variability among Leptospira borgpetersenii serovar hardjo type hardjo-bovis isolates representing several geographical regions was determined by restriction endonuclease analysis. Five previously unidentified EcoRI digestion patterns and one previously unidentified HhaI digestion pattern were seen with the various isolates. The copy number and genomic distribution of an L. borgpetersenii insertion sequence (IS1533) was determined. Hardjo-bovis isolate 033 (the type strain for hardjo-bovis) contained 40 well dispersed copies of IS1533. IS1533 probes were used to compare hardjo-bovis isolates by DNA blot hybridization analysis. Use of these probes showed the presence of additional genetic heterogeneity among hardjo-bovis isolates, which restriction endonuclease analysis did not show. Pulsed-field gel electrophoretic analysis of DNAs from several isolates suggested that some polymorphisms arose by genomic rearrangements. All hardjo-bovis isolates were categorized into 14 distinct groups on the basis of common hybridization and endonuclease digestion patterns. Most of these groups were isolated from distinct geographical regions, suggesting that several different clonal populations of hardjo-bovis exist. Images PMID:7681437

  4. Evaluation of Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assays for Detection of Mycoplasma bovis-Specific Antibody in Bison Sera

    PubMed Central

    Sacco, Randy E.; Olsen, Steven C.

    2013-01-01

    Mycoplasma bovis has recently emerged as a significant and costly infectious disease problem in bison. A method for the detection of M. bovis-specific serum antibodies is needed in order to establish prevalence and transmission patterns. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) validated for the detection of M. bovis-specific serum IgG in cattle are commercially available, but their suitability for bison sera has not been determined. A collection of bison sera, most from animals with a known history of infection or vaccination with M. bovis, was tested for M. bovis-specific IgG using commercially available kits as well as an in-house ELISA in which either cattle or bison M. bovis isolates were used as a source of antigen. Comparison of the results demonstrates that ELISAs optimized for cattle sera may not be optimal for the identification of bison seropositive for M. bovis, particularly those with low to moderate antibody levels. The reagent used for the detection of bison IgG and the source of the antigen affect the sensitivity of the assay. Optimal performance was obtained when the capture antigen was derived from bison isolates rather than cattle isolates and when a protein G conjugate rather than an anti-bovine IgG conjugate was used for the detection of bison IgG. PMID:23843427

  5. Clinical characteristics and significance of Streptococcus salivarius bacteremia and Streptococcus bovis bacteremia: a prospective 16-year study.

    PubMed

    Corredoira, J C; Alonso, M P; García, J F; Casariego, E; Coira, A; Rodriguez, A; Pita, J; Louzao, C; Pombo, B; López, M J; Varela, J

    2005-04-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the clinical significance of Streptococcus salivarius isolates recovered from blood cultures and compare them with isolates of Streptococcus bovis biotypes I and II. Seventeen of the 52 (32%) S. salivarius isolates recovered were considered clinically significant, compared with 62 of the 64 (97%) S. bovis isolates (p<0.0001). Bacteremia caused by S. salivarius occurred mostly in patients who showed relevant disruption of the mucous membranes and/or serious underlying diseases. Patients with S. salivarius bacteremia were younger than those with S. bovis bacteremia (57 vs. 67 years; p<0.01). Patients with S. salivarius bacteremia and patients with S. bovis II bacteremia had similar rates of endocarditis, colon tumors, and non-colon cancer. On the other hand, when compared with S. bovis I bacteremia, S. salivarius bacteremia was associated with lower rates of endocarditis (18% vs. 74%, respectively) (p<0.01) and colon tumors (0% vs. 57%, respectively) (p<0.005) and higher rates of non-colon cancer (53% vs. 9.5%, respectively) (p<0.01). Bacteremia caused by S. bovis II had a hepatobiliary origin in 50% of the patients, while, in contrast, that due to S. salivarius or S. bovis I was less frequently associated with a hepatobiliary origin (12% and 5%, respectively) (p<0.00001). The rate of penicillin resistance was 31% among S. salivarius isolates and 0% among S. bovis isolates (p<0.0001). In conclusion, the clinical characteristics of S. salivarius bacteremia and S. bovis II bacteremia are similar, and the isolation of S. salivarius in blood should not be systematically regarded as contamination. PMID:15902530

  6. Production and Evaluation of Antibodies and Phage Display-Derived Peptide Ligands for Immunomagnetic Separation of Mycobacterium bovis

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, Linda D.; McNair, James; McCallan, Lyanne; Thompson, Suzan; Kulakov, Leonid A.

    2012-01-01

    This study describes the development and optimization of an immunomagnetic separation (IMS) method to isolate Mycobacterium bovis cells from lymph node tissues. Gamma-irradiated whole M. bovis AF2122/97 cells and ethanol-extracted surface antigens of such cells were used to produce M. bovis-specific polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies in rabbits and mice. They were also used to generate M. bovis-specific peptide ligands by phage display biopanning. The various antibodies and peptide ligands obtained were used to coat MyOne tosyl-activated Dynabeads (Life Technologies), singly or in combination, and evaluated for IMS. Initially, M. bovis capture from Middlebrook 7H9 broth suspensions (concentration range, 10 to 105 CFU/ml) was evaluated by IMS combined with an M. bovis-specific touchdown PCR. IMS-PCR results and, subsequently, IMS-culture results indicated that the beads with greatest immunocapture capability for M. bovis in broth were those coated simultaneously with a monoclonal antibody and a biotinylated 12-mer peptide. These dually coated beads exhibited minimal capture (mean of 0.36% recovery) of 12 other Mycobacterium spp. occasionally encountered in veterinary tuberculosis (TB) diagnostic laboratories. When the optimized IMS method was applied to various M. bovis-spiked lymph node matrices, it demonstrated excellent detection sensitivities (50% limits of detection of 3.16 and 57.7 CFU/ml of lymph node tissue homogenate for IMS-PCR and IMS-culture, respectively). The optimized IMS method therefore has the potential to improve isolation of M. bovis from lymph nodes and hence the diagnosis of bovine tuberculosis. PMID:22322353

  7. A virulent babesia bovis strain failed to infect white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wildlife are an important component in the vector-host-pathogen triangle of livestock diseases, as they maintain biological vectors that transmit pathogens and can serve as reservoirs for such infectious pathogens. Babesia bovis is a tick-borne pathogen, vectored by cattle fever ticks, Rhipicephalus...

  8. A new predilection site of Mycoplasma bovis: Postsurgical seromas in beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Gille, L; Pilo, P; Valgaeren, B R; Van Driessche, L; Van Loo, H; Bodmer, M; Bürki, S; Boyen, F; Haesebrouck, F; Deprez, P; Pardon, B

    2016-04-15

    Mycoplasma bovis is a highly contagious bacterium, which predominantly causes chronic pneumonia, otitis and arthritis in calves and mastitis in adult cattle. In humans, Mycoplasma species have been associated with post-surgical infections. The present study aimed to identify the bacteria associated with three outbreaks of infected seromas after caesarian section in Belgian Blue beef cattle. A total of 10 cases occurred in three herds which were in close proximity of each other and shared the same veterinary practice. M. bovis could be cultured from seroma fluid in five of the six referred animals, mostly in pure culture and was isolated from multiple chronic sites of infection (arthritis and mastitis) as well. DNA fingerprinting of the isolates targeting two insertion sequence elements suggested spread of M. bovis from chronic sites of infection (udder and joints) to the postsurgical seromas. Identical genetic profiles were demonstrated in two animals from two separate farms, suggesting spread between farms. Mortality rate in the referred animals positive for M. bovis in a seroma was 80% (4/5), despite intensive treatment. A massive increase in antimicrobial use was observed in every affected farm. These observations demonstrate involvement of mycoplasmas in outbreaks of postsurgical seromas in cattle. PMID:27016759

  9. Wide distribution of Cryptosporidium bovis and the deer-like genotype in bovines

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We recently reported that on 14 dairy farms from Vermont to Florida ~85% of pre-weaned dairy calves were infected with zoonotic Cryptosporidium parvum whereas only 1-2% of post-weaned calves and 1-2 year-old heifers were infected with this species. Cryptosporidium bovis and the deer-like genotype w...

  10. Update on vaccination of white-tailed deer with Mycobacterium bovis BCG: Safety and Efficacy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In 1994, white-tailed deer in northeast Michigan were found to be harboring Mycobacterium bovis, the causative agent of tuberculosis in most animals including humans. Although deer likely contracted tuberculosis from cattle in the early 20th century, when the disease was present in Michigan cattle, ...

  11. 16S rRNA gene mutations associated with decreased susceptibility to tetracycline in Mycoplasma bovis.

    PubMed

    Amram, E; Mikula, I; Schnee, C; Ayling, R D; Nicholas, R A J; Rosales, R S; Harrus, S; Lysnyansky, I

    2015-02-01

    Mycoplasma bovis isolates with decreased susceptibilities to tetracyclines are increasingly reported worldwide. The acquired molecular mechanisms associated with this phenomenon were investigated in 70 clinical isolates of M. bovis. Sequence analysis of the two 16S rRNA-encoding genes (rrs3 and rrs4 alleles) containing the primary binding pocket for tetracycline (Tet-1 site) was performed on isolates with tetracycline hydrochloride MICs of 0.125 to 16 μg/ml. Mutations at positions A965T, A967T/C (Escherichia coli numbering) of helix 31, U1199C of helix 34, and G1058A/C were identified. Decreased susceptibilities to tetracycline (MICs, ≥2 μg/ml) were associated with mutations present at two (A965 and A967) or three positions (A965, A967, and G1058) of the two rrs alleles. No tet(M), tet(O), or tet(L) determinants were found in the genome of any of the 70 M. bovis isolates. The data presented correlate (P<0.0001) the mutations identified in the Tet-1 site of clinical isolates of M. bovis with decreased susceptibility to tetracycline. PMID:25403668

  12. Virulent Mycobacterium bovis Beijing Strain Activates the NLRP7 Inflammasome in THP-1 Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Yang; Shah, Syed Zahid Ali; Yang, Lifeng; Zhang, Zhongqiu; Zhou, Xiangmei; Zhao, Deming

    2016-01-01

    Mycobacterium bovis is the causative agent of tuberculosis in a wide range of mammals, including humans. Macrophages are the first line of host defense. They secrete proinflammatory cytokines, such as interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β), in response to mycobacterial infection, but the underlying mechanisms by which human macrophages are activated and release IL-1β following M. bovis infection are poorly understood. Here we show that the ‘nucleotide binding and oligomerization of domain-like receptor (NLR) family pyrin domain containing 7 protein’ (NLRP7) inflammasome is involved in IL-1β secretion and caspase-1 activation induced by M. bovis infection in THP-1 macrophages. NLRP7 inflammasome activation promotes the induction of pyroptosis as well as the expression of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), Chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 3 (CCL3) and IL-1β mRNAs. Thus, the NLRP7 inflammasome contributes to IL-1β secretion and induction of pyroptosis in response to M. bovis infection in THP-1 macrophages. PMID:27043315

  13. Relative virulence in bison and cattle of bison-associated genotypes of Mycoplasma bovis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background. Mycoplasma bovis is a cause of respiratory disease in cattle and the bacterium most frequently isolated from bovine respiratory disease complex. It has recently emerged as a major health problem in bison, causing pharyngitis, pneumonia, arthritis, dystocia and abortion. In cattle, M. b...

  14. Virulence of two strains of Mycobacterium bovis in cattle following aerosol infection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background Over the past two decades, highly virulent strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis have emerged and spread rapidly in humans, suggesting a selective advantage based upon virulence. A similar scenario has not been described for Mycobacterium bovis infection in cattle (i.e., Bovine Tuberculos...

  15. Serial analysis of gene expression associated with Babesoa bovis infection of Rhipecephalus (Boophilus) microplus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Boophilus ticks are vectors of Babesia bovis, the protozoan causative agent of cattle fever, a disease which is responsible for significant production losses to cattle producers in much of Africa, Central and South America and Australia. We utilized Serial Analysis of Gene Expression (SAGE) to quant...

  16. Genome Sequence of Babesia bovis and Camparative Analysis of Apicomplexan Hemoprotozoa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Babesia bovis is an apicomplexan tick-transmitted pathogen of cattle imposing a global risk and severe constraints to livestock health and economic development. The complete genome sequence was undertaken to facilitate vaccine antigen discovery, and to allow for comparative analysis with the related...

  17. Association of microRNAs with antibody response to mycoplasma bovis in beef cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to identify microRNAs associated with a serum antibody response to Mycoplasma bovis in beef cattle. Serum from sixteen beef calves was collected at three points: in summer after calves were born, in fall at weaning, and in the following spring. All sera collected in t...

  18. Association of microRNAs with Antibody Response to Mycoplasma bovis in Beef Cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to identify microRNAs associated with a serum antibody response to Mycoplasma bovis in beef cattle. Serum from sixteen beef calves was collected at three points: in summer after calves were born, in fall at weaning, and in the following spring. All sera collected in t...

  19. THE WIDE GEOGRAPHIC RANGE OF CRYPTOSPORIDIUM BOVIS AND THE DEER-LIKE GENOTYPE IN BOVINES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recent studies in the United States reported that of preweaned dairy calves infected with Cryptosporidium ~85% were infected with zoonotic C. parvum whereas of postweaned calves infected with Cryptosporidium, only 1% were infected with C. parvum. Cryptosporidium bovis (syn. Cryptosporidium bovine ...

  20. The glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored protein repertoire of babesia bovis and its significance for erythrocyte invasion

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Glycosylphosphatidyl-anchored proteins are particularly abundant on the surface of pathogenic protozoans and might play an important role for parasite survival. In the present work the relevance of GPI-anchored proteins for erythrocyte invasion of Babesia bovis, one of the tick-transmitted causative...

  1. Development of a tandem repeat-based multilocus typing system distinguishing Babesia bovis geographic isolates

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mini and microsatellite sequences have proven to be excellent tools for the differentiation of strains and populations in several protozoan parasites due to their high variability. In the present work we have searched the genome of the tick-transmitted bovine hemoprotozoon Babesia bovis for tandem r...

  2. Viral Booster Vaccines Improve Mycobacterium bovis BCG-Induced Protection Against Bovine Tuberculosis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Previous work in small animal laboratory models of tuberculosis have shown that vaccination strategies based on heterologous prime-boost protocols using Mycobacterium bovis bacille Calmette-Guerin (BCG) to prime and Modified Vaccinia Ankara strain (MVA85A) or recombinant attenuated adenoviruses (Ad8...

  3. Vaccination of White-tailed Deer with Mycobacterium bovis Bacillus Calmette Guerin (BCG)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The presence of tuberculosis due to Mycobacterium bovis in captive and free-ranging wildlife remains one of the greatest challenges to eradication of tuberculosis in the United States. A possible addition to current control measures could be vaccination of deer to prevent infection, disease, or tran...

  4. Resolution of M. bovis phylogeny using genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphisms

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Piecemeal analysis of Mycobacterium bovis (MBO) genomes and conventional genotyping methods have not lent to a comprehensive resolution of its genetic diversity to explain the wide range of disease phenotypes caused by this zoonotic pathogen. Conventional genotyping methods like spoligotyping and V...

  5. Associations between Cytokine Gene Expression and Pathology in Cattle infected with Mycobacterium bovis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An impediment to the development of effective vaccines for bovine tuberculosis is the failure to demonstrate associations between immune function and protection. To investigate correlates of immunity, cytokine gene expression in response to Mycobacterium bovis infection (n = 10) were compared to res...

  6. Analysis of Babesia bovis-induced gene expression changes in the cattle tick, Rhipcephalus (Boophilus) microplus.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Boophilus ticks are vectors of Babesia bovis, the protozoan causative agent of cattle fever, a disease which is responsible for significant production losses to cattle producers in much of Africa, Central and South America and Australia. We utilized subtractive cDNA library synthesis techniques to o...

  7. Transovarial Transmission Efficiency of Babesia bovis Tick Stages Acquired by Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus during Acute Infection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The protozoan parasite Babesia bovis, a reemerging threat to U.S. cattle, is acquired by adult female ticks of the subgenus Boophilus, and is transovarially transmitted as the kinete stage to developing larval offspring. Sporozoites develop within larvae and are transmitted during larval feeding on ...

  8. Validation of a Competitive Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay for Detection of Antibodies against Babesia bovis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A previously developed competitive ELISA (cELISA) based on a species-specific, broadly conserved, and tandemly repeated B-cell epitope within the C-terminus of the rhoptry-associated protein-1 of Babesia bovis was refined and validated for use internationally. Receiver Operator Characteristic (ROC) ...

  9. DNA probe for detection of the Leptospira interrogans serovar hardjo genotype hardjo-bovis.

    PubMed Central

    LeFebvre, R B

    1987-01-01

    A DNA probe is described for the diagnostic and taxonomic identification of the North American cattle pathogen Leptospira interrogans genotype hardjo-bovis. The probe is specific for this genotype and does not hybridize to genomic DNA of any other leptospire pathogen commonly found in North America. Images PMID:2826538

  10. Identification of Mycobacterium bovis in bovine clinical samples by PCR species-specific primers.

    PubMed Central

    Romero, R E; Garzón, D L; Mejía, G A; Monroy, W; Patarroyo, M E; Murillo, L A

    1999-01-01

    Tuberculosis, caused by Mycobacterium bovis is emerging as the most important disease affecting cattle. Furthermore, it results in a major public health problem when transmitted to humans. Due to its difficult and non-specific diagnosis, M. bovis has been declared to be one of the etiologic agents causing significant economic loss in the cattle industry. Our group evaluated a more rapid and specific method, based on a new polymerase chain reaction species-specific primers, which amplifies a 470-base pair fragment of the M. bovis genome. A total of 275 milk-producing cows were studied by intradermal tuberculin test (ITT) which gave 184 positive and 91 negative cases. From them, 50 animals were taken from a cattle ranch free of tuberculosis. Three different samples were collected from each animal (blood, nasal mucus, and milk). Positive results were obtained from 26 animals by PCR (11.4%), 1 by bacteriological culturing (0.4%) and 1 by bacilloscopy (0.4%). This finding suggests, as in previous reports, that ITT, normally used for bovine tuberculosis detection, has the inconvenience of having a broad range of specificity and sensitivity, and the PCR technique is a more specific and sensitive test to detect infection associated with M. bovis. Therefore, we propose this PCR assay as a useful tool in the epidemiological characterization of infected animals in areas considered to be at high risk of transmission. Images Figure 1. PMID:10369566

  11. Babesia bovis: Transcriptional analysis of rRNA gene unit expression

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The complex life cycle of Babesia bovis includes erythrocytic stages in the bovine host and other stages occurring inside its common tick vector Rhipicephalus microplus. In related apicomplexa, changing environmental conditions affect the expression of ribosomal RNA, but it remained unknown whether ...

  12. Draft genome sequences of Streptococcus bovis strains ATCC 33317 and JB1

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We report the draft genome sequences of Streptococcus bovis type strain ATTC 33317 (CVM42251) isolated from cow dung and strain JB1 (CVM42252) isolated from a cow rumen in 1977. Strains were subjected to Next Generation sequencing and the genome sizes are approximately 2 MB and 2.2 MB, respectively....

  13. Spillover of Mycobacterium bovis from Wildlife to Livestock, South 
Africa

    PubMed Central

    Hlokwe, Tiny; Marcotty, Tanguy; du Plessis, Ben J.A.; Michel, Anita L.

    2015-01-01

    During August 2012–February 2013, bovine tuberculosis was detected in communal livestock bordering the Greater Kruger National Park Complex (GKNPC) in South Africa. Using spacer oligonucleotide and variable number tandem repeat typing, we identified the Mycobacterium bovis strain endemic in GKNPC wildlife. Our findings indicate bovine tuberculosis spillover from GKNPC wildlife to neighboring livestock. PMID:25695846

  14. Acute and persistent infection by a transfected Mo7 strain of Babesia bovis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Stable transfection of the Mo7 strain of Babesia bovis and expression of an exogenous gene has been demonstrated in long term culture. However, the use of transfected parasites as marker vaccines or vehicles for expressing exogenous antigens in vivo requires demonstration of acute and persistent inf...

  15. Associations Between Cytokine Gene Expression and Pathology in Mycobacterium bovis Infected Cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mycobacterium bovis infection results in the development of tuberculosis in many mammalian species including humans. In the US, infected white-tailed deer (WTD) represent a reservoir of infection that threatens cattle in endemic areas. This continued threat to herd health emphasizes the need for the...

  16. Taking advantage of the polymorphism of the MSA-2 family for Babesia bovis strain characterization

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Merozoite Surface Antigen-2 (MSA-2) family of Babesia bovis is a group of variable genes which share conserved 5' and 3' conserved ends. These genes encode membrane anchored glycoproteins, named MSA-2a1, a2, b and c, which are immunodominant antigens located on the surface of sporozoites and mer...

  17. Microarray analysis of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus gene expression associated with Babesia bovis infection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The ability of the southern cattle tick, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, to vector pathogens such as Babesia bovis has serious consequences for cattle producers throughout the world. Using the BmiGI genomic sequence database and R. microplus microarrays, we have examined the transcriptional res...

  18. Analysis of Babesia bovis-induced gene expression changes in the cattle tick, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Cattle babesiosis is a tick-borne disease of cattle that has severe economic impact on cattle producers throughout the world's tropical and subtropical countries. The most severe form of the disease is caused by the apicomplexan, Babesia bovis, and transmitted to cattle through the bite ...

  19. Babesia bovis expresses a neutralization-sensitive antigen that contains a microneme adhesive repeat (MAR) domain

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A gene coding for a protein with sequence similarity to the Toxoplasma gondii micronemal 1 (MIC1) protein that contains a copy of a domain described as a sialic acid-binding micronemal adhesive repeat was identified in the Babesia bovis genome. The single copy gene, located in chromosome 3, contains...

  20. Key Hub and Bottleneck Genes Differentiate the Macrophage Response to Virulent and Attenuated Mycobacterium bovis

    PubMed Central

    Killick, Kate E.; Magee, David A.; Park, Stephen D. E.; Taraktsoglou, Maria; Browne, John A.; Conlon, Kevin M.; Nalpas, Nicolas C.; Gormley, Eamonn; Gordon, Stephen V.; MacHugh, David E.; Hokamp, Karsten

    2014-01-01

    Mycobacterium bovis is an intracellular pathogen that causes tuberculosis in cattle. Following infection, the pathogen resides and persists inside host macrophages by subverting host immune responses via a diverse range of mechanisms. Here, a high-density bovine microarray platform was used to examine the bovine monocyte-derived macrophage transcriptome response to M. bovis infection relative to infection with the attenuated vaccine strain, M. bovis Bacille Calmette–Guérin. Differentially expressed genes were identified (adjusted P-value ≤0.01) and interaction networks generated across an infection time course of 2, 6, and 24 h. The largest number of biological interactions was observed in the 24-h network, which exhibited scale-free network properties. The 24-h network featured a small number of key hub and bottleneck gene nodes, including IKBKE, MYC, NFKB1, and EGR1 that differentiated the macrophage response to virulent and attenuated M. bovis strains, possibly via the modulation of host cell death mechanisms. These hub and bottleneck genes represent possible targets for immuno-modulation of host macrophages by virulent mycobacterial species that enable their survival within a hostile environment. PMID:25324841

  1. 16S rRNA Gene Mutations Associated with Decreased Susceptibility to Tetracycline in Mycoplasma bovis

    PubMed Central

    Amram, E.; Mikula, I.; Schnee, C.; Ayling, R. D.; Nicholas, R. A. J.; Rosales, R. S.; Harrus, S.

    2014-01-01

    Mycoplasma bovis isolates with decreased susceptibilities to tetracyclines are increasingly reported worldwide. The acquired molecular mechanisms associated with this phenomenon were investigated in 70 clinical isolates of M. bovis. Sequence analysis of the two 16S rRNA-encoding genes (rrs3 and rrs4 alleles) containing the primary binding pocket for tetracycline (Tet-1 site) was performed on isolates with tetracycline hydrochloride MICs of 0.125 to 16 μg/ml. Mutations at positions A965T, A967T/C (Escherichia coli numbering) of helix 31, U1199C of helix 34, and G1058A/C were identified. Decreased susceptibilities to tetracycline (MICs, ≥2 μg/ml) were associated with mutations present at two (A965 and A967) or three positions (A965, A967, and G1058) of the two rrs alleles. No tet(M), tet(O), or tet(L) determinants were found in the genome of any of the 70 M. bovis isolates. The data presented correlate (P < 0.0001) the mutations identified in the Tet-1 site of clinical isolates of M. bovis with decreased susceptibility to tetracycline. PMID:25403668

  2. Antigen-Specific IP-10 Release Is a Sensitive Biomarker of Mycobacterium bovis Infection in Cattle.

    PubMed

    Parsons, Sven D C; McGill, Kevina; Doyle, Mairead B; Goosen, Wynand J; van Helden, Paul D; Gormley, Eamonn

    2016-01-01

    The most widely used ante-mortem diagnostic tests for tuberculosis in cattle are the tuberculin skin test and the interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) release assay, both of which measure cell-mediated immune responses to Mycobacterium bovis infection. However, limitations in the performance of these tests results in a failure to identify all infected animals. In attempting to increase the range of diagnostic tests for tuberculosis, measurement of the cytokine IP-10 in antigen-stimulated blood has previously been shown to improve the detection of M. tuberculosis and M. bovis infection, in humans and African buffaloes (Syncerus caffer), respectively. In the present study, 60 cattle were identified by the single intradermal comparative tuberculin test as tuberculosis reactors (n = 24) or non-reactors (n = 36) and the release of IFN-γ and IP-10 in antigen-stimulated whole blood from these animals was measured using bovine specific ELISAs. There was a strong correlation between IP-10 and IFN-γ production in these samples. Moreover, measurement of the differential release of IP-10 in response to stimulation with M. bovis purified protein derivative (PPD) and M. avium PPD distinguished between reactor and non-reactor cattle with a sensitivity of 100% (95% CI, 86%-100%) and a specificity of 97% (95% CI, 85%-100%). These results suggest that IP-10 might prove valuable as a diagnostic biomarker of M. bovis infection in cattle. PMID:27167122

  3. Antigen-Specific IP-10 Release Is a Sensitive Biomarker of Mycobacterium bovis Infection in Cattle

    PubMed Central

    McGill, Kevina; Doyle, Mairead B.; Goosen, Wynand J.; van Helden, Paul D.; Gormley, Eamonn

    2016-01-01

    The most widely used ante-mortem diagnostic tests for tuberculosis in cattle are the tuberculin skin test and the interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) release assay, both of which measure cell-mediated immune responses to Mycobacterium bovis infection. However, limitations in the performance of these tests results in a failure to identify all infected animals. In attempting to increase the range of diagnostic tests for tuberculosis, measurement of the cytokine IP-10 in antigen-stimulated blood has previously been shown to improve the detection of M. tuberculosis and M. bovis infection, in humans and African buffaloes (Syncerus caffer), respectively. In the present study, 60 cattle were identified by the single intradermal comparative tuberculin test as tuberculosis reactors (n = 24) or non-reactors (n = 36) and the release of IFN-γ and IP-10 in antigen-stimulated whole blood from these animals was measured using bovine specific ELISAs. There was a strong correlation between IP-10 and IFN-γ production in these samples. Moreover, measurement of the differential release of IP-10 in response to stimulation with M. bovis purified protein derivative (PPD) and M. avium PPD distinguished between reactor and non-reactor cattle with a sensitivity of 100% (95% CI, 86%–100%) and a specificity of 97% (95% CI, 85%–100%). These results suggest that IP-10 might prove valuable as a diagnostic biomarker of M. bovis infection in cattle. PMID:27167122

  4. The phylogeny and population structure of Mycobacterium bovis in the British Isles.

    PubMed

    Allen, A R; Dale, J; McCormick, C; Mallon, T R; Costello, E; Gordon, S V; Hewinson, R G; Skuce, R A; Smith, N H

    2013-12-01

    To further understand the epidemic of bovine tuberculosis in Great Britain, Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland, we identified 16 mutations that are phylogenetically informative for Mycobacterium bovis strains from these regions. We determined the status of these mutations among a collection of 501 strains representing the molecular diversity found in these three regions of the British Isles. The resulting linear phylogenies from each region were concordant, showing that the same lineage of M. bovis was present. The dominance of this lineage is unique within Europe, and suggests that in the past the populations were homogenous. Comparison of approximately 500 strains isolated in 2005 from each region by spoligotype and 5 locus VNTR profiling, revealed distinct differences in the genotype frequencies and sub-lineage makeup between each region. We concluded that whilst each region shared the same major phylogenetic lineage of M. bovis, more recent evolution had resulted in the development of region-specific populations. Regional differences in the M. bovis populations suggest that it may be possible to identify the movement of strains from one region to another. PMID:23933404

  5. Effects of inulin chain length on fermentation by equine fecal bacteria and Streptococcus bovis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fructans from pasture can be fermented by Gram-positive bacteria (e.g., Streptococcus bovis) in the equine hindgut, increasing production of lactic acid and decreasing pH. The degree of polymerization (DP) of fructans has been suggested to influence fermentation rates. The objective of the current ...

  6. Mycobacterium bovis: a model pathogen at the interface of domestic livestock, wildlife, and humans

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Complex and dynamic interactions involving domestic animals, wildlife and humans create environments favorable to the emergence of new diseases, or re-emergence of diseases in new host species. Today, reservoirs of Mycobacterium bovis, the causative agent of tuberculosis in animals and a serious zoo...

  7. Global multilocus sequence typing analysis of Mycoplasma bovis isolates reveals two main population clusters.

    PubMed

    Rosales, R S; Churchward, C P; Schnee, C; Sachse, K; Lysnyansky, I; Catania, S; Iob, L; Ayling, R D; Nicholas, R A J

    2015-03-01

    Mycoplasma bovis is a major bovine pathogen associated with bovine respiratory disease complex and is responsible for substantial economic losses worldwide. M. bovis is also associated with other clinical presentations in cattle, including mastitis, otitis, arthritis, and reproductive disorders. To gain a better understanding of the genetic diversity of this pathogen, a multilocus sequence typing (MLST) scheme was developed and applied to the characterization of 137 M. bovis isolates from diverse geographical origins, obtained from healthy or clinically infected cattle. After in silico analysis, a final set of 7 housekeeping genes was selected (dnaA, metS, recA, tufA, atpA, rpoD, and tkt). MLST analysis demonstrated the presence of 35 different sequence types (STs) distributed in two main clonal complexes (CCs), defined at the double-locus variant level, namely, CC1, which included most of the British and German isolates, and CC2, which was a more heterogeneous and geographically distant group of isolates, including European, Asian, and Australian samples. Index of association analysis confirmed the clonal nature of the investigated M. bovis population, based on MLST data. This scheme has demonstrated high discriminatory power, with the analysis showing the presence of genetically distant and divergent clusters of isolates predominantly associated with geographical origins. PMID:25540400

  8. INHIBITION OF LISTERIA MONOCYTOGENES BY BOVICIN HC5, A BACTERIOCIN PRODUCED BY STREPTOCOCCUS BOVIS HC5

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A bacteriocin from Streptococcus bovis HC5 (bovicin HC5) inhibited ten strains of Listeria monocytogenes that had been isolated from plant materials, soil, contaminated silage and infected cattle. Growth experiments indicated that all of the L. monocytogenes strains were inhibited by 100 AU of bovic...

  9. Draft Genome Sequence of the Vaccination Strain Mycobacterium bovis BCG S4-Jena.

    PubMed

    Wibberg, Daniel; Winkler, Anika; Straube, Eberhard; Karrasch, Matthias; Keller, Peter M; Kalinowski, Jörn

    2016-01-01

    Here, we present the draft genome sequence of ITALIC! Mycobacterium bovisBCG S4-Jena, a tuberculosis vaccine strain. The genome of S4-Jena is represented by 48 scaffolds, consisting of 132 scaffolded contigs and amounting to a size of about 4.2 Mb. New genes potentially encoding a phage fragment were identified in the genome. PMID:27103721

  10. The role of gamma delta T cells in immunity to Mycobacterium bovis infection in cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Accumulating evidence suggests that gamma delta (gd) T cells play a critical role in the early response to M. bovis and may be key in bridging innate and adaptive immunity following infection. In vitro, gd T cells proliferate and produce robust amounts of IFNy in response to complex, protein and no...

  11. Draft Genome Sequence of the Vaccination Strain Mycobacterium bovis BCG S4-Jena

    PubMed Central

    Wibberg, Daniel; Winkler, Anika; Straube, Eberhard; Karrasch, Matthias; Keller, Peter M.

    2016-01-01

    Here, we present the draft genome sequence of Mycobacterium bovis BCG S4-Jena, a tuberculosis vaccine strain. The genome of S4-Jena is represented by 48 scaffolds, consisting of 132 scaffolded contigs and amounting to a size of about 4.2 Mb. New genes potentially encoding a phage fragment were identified in the genome. PMID:27103721

  12. Glutamate Dehydrogenase Is Required by Mycobacterium bovis BCG for Resistance to Cellular Stress

    PubMed Central

    Gallant, James L.; Viljoen, Albertus J.; van Helden, Paul D.; Wiid, Ian J. F.

    2016-01-01

    We recently reported on our success to generate deletion mutants of the genes encoding glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) and glutamine oxoglutarate aminotransferase (GOGAT) in M. bovis BCG, despite their in vitro essentiality in M. tuberculosis. We could use these mutants to delineate the roles of GDH and GOGAT in mycobacterial nitrogen metabolism by using M. bovis BCG as a model for M. tuberculosis specifically. Here, we extended our investigation towards the involvement of GDH and GOGAT in other aspects of M. bovis BCG physiology, including the use of glutamate as a carbon source and resistance to known phagosomal stresses, as well as in survival inside macrophages. We find that gdh is indispensable for the utilization of glutamate as a major carbon source, in low pH environments and when challenged with nitric oxide. On the other hand, the gltBD mutant had increased viability under low pH conditions and was unaffected by a challenge with nitric oxide. Strikingly, GDH was required to sustain M. bovis BCG during infection of both murine RAW 264.7 and bone-marrow derived and macrophages, while GOGAT was not. We conclude that the catabolism of glutamate in slow growing mycobacteria may be a crucial function during infection of macrophage cells and demonstrate a novel requirement for M. bovis BCG GDH in the protection against acidic and nitrosative stress. These results provide strong clues on the role of GDH in intracellular survival of M. tuberculosis, in which the essentiality of the gdh gene complicates knock out studies making the study of the role of this enzyme in pathogenesis difficult. PMID:26824899

  13. Identification of common antigens in Babesia bovis, B. bigemina, and B. divergens.

    PubMed

    Figueroa, Julio V; Precigout, Eric; Carcy, Bernard; Gorenflot, André

    2006-10-01

    Bovine babesiosis, caused by Babesia bovis, B. bigemina, and B. divergens, is a significant impediment to livestock production in countries with tropical/subtropical and temperate climates. Previous studies conducted on the immunoprophylaxis against the disease and diagnosis of these parasites has demonstrated the presence of similar antigens. The objective of this article was to identify and partially characterize antigens conserved among these three species. Immunochemical analysis using sera from cattle immunized individually with antigens from these three Babesia species revealed a number of antigens recognized by heterologous antisera. Cross-reactions were more evident in sera from cattle immunized with B. bovis/B. bigemina which recognized several antigens (15 kDa to >200 kDa) in B. divergens. Immunoscreening of a B. divergens cDNA library with bovine serum to B. bigemina allowed the isolation of five clones and DNA sequencing of plasmid BdJF5 showed a 680 bp cDNA insert. Basic Local Alignment Search Tool (BLAST) analysis of the predicted amino acid sequence revealed 47% identity with a protein identified as alphaNAC. Serum from mice immunized with a recombinant Glutathione S-Transferase-BdJF5 fusion protein immunoprecipitated a 20 kDa B. bovis antigen. However, 30 kDa and 18 kDa antigens were immunoprecipitated from B. divergens and immunoblotting analysis revealed the recognition of a 35 kDa B. bigemina antigen. An indirect fluorescence antibody assay on merozoites showed strong reaction with B. divergens and weak recognition of B. bovis and B. bigemina. Despite the existent antigenic polymorphism among the Babesia spp., these results demonstrated that common antigens occur between European B. divergens and Mexican B. bovis/B. bigemina. PMID:17135542

  14. Acquired resistance to the 16-membered macrolides tylosin and tilmicosin by Mycoplasma bovis.

    PubMed

    Lerner, Uri; Amram, Eytan; Ayling, Roger D; Mikula, Inna; Gerchman, Irena; Harrus, Shimon; Teff, Dina; Yogev, David; Lysnyansky, Inna

    2014-01-31

    The molecular mechanism of acquired resistance to the 16-membered macrolides tylosin (Ty) and tilmicosin (Tm) was investigated in Mycoplasma bovis field isolates. Sequence analysis of domains II and V of the two 23S rRNA alleles and ribosomal proteins L4 and L22 was performed on 54 M. bovis isolates showing different minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC). The presence of any one of the point mutations G748A, C752T, A2058G, A2059G or A2059C (Escherichia coli numbering) in one or both alleles of the 23S rRNAs was correlated with decreased susceptibility to Ty (8-1024 μg/ml) and to Tm (32 to >256 μg/ml) in 27/27 and 27/31 M. bovis isolates, respectively. Although a single mutation in domain II or V could be sufficient to cause decreased susceptibility to Ty, our data imply that a combination of mutations in two domains is necessary to achieve higher MICs (≥ 128 μg/ml). The influence of a combination of mutations in two domains II and V on enhancement of resistance to Tm was less clear. In addition, the amino acid (aa) substitution L22-Q90H was found in 24/32 representative M. bovis isolates with different MICs, but no correlation with decreased susceptibility to Ty or Tm was identified. Multiple aa substitutions were also identified in the L4 protein, including at positions 185-186 (positions 64 and 65 in E. coli) which are adjacent to the macrolide-binding site. This is the first description of the molecular mechanism of acquired resistance to the 16-membered macrolides in M. bovis. PMID:24393633

  15. Development of a direct competitive ELISA for the detection of Mycoplasma bovis infection based on a monoclonal antibody of P48 protein

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Mycoplasma bovis (M. bovis) is a major, but often overlooked, pathogen documented to cause respiratory disease, mastitis, and arthritis in cattle throughout China since 2008. Here, we report the development of a direct competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (Dc-ELISA) to detect M. bovis antibody. Results We used a recombinant P48 protein and monoclonal antibody (mAb) 10E. MAb 10E, prepared against the recombinant P48 protein of M. bovis, identified all M. bovis strains with no cross-reactivity with other related pathogens. Coating micro plates with P48 protein instead of whole M. bovis cells as well as the use of mAb 10E produced a specific and sensitive Dc-ELISA for M. bovis antibody detection with a cut-off percent inhibition (PI) value of 32%. Compared with two commercial indirect ELISA (i-ELISA) kits, our Dc-ELISA offered a higher positive detection rate in 165 clinical bovine serum samples. Conclusions A rapid, sensitive, and reliable serological diagnosis method was developed for M. bovis, which can facilitate M. bovis surveillance, assisting researchers in understanding the ecology and epidemiology of M. bovis. PMID:24533468

  16. Longevity of Mycobacterium bovis in Raw and Traditional Souring Milk as a Function of Storage Temperature and Dose

    PubMed Central

    Hlokwe, Tiny; Raseleka, Keneilwe; Getz, Wayne M.; Marcotty, Tanguy

    2015-01-01

    Background Unpasteurised fresh and souring dairy products form an essential component of household diets throughout many rural communities in southern Africa. The presence of milk-borne zoonotic pathogens such as Mycobacterium bovis (M. bovis), the causative agent of bovine tuberculosis and zoonotic tuberculosis in humans, constitute a public health threat, especially in remote areas with poor disease surveillance in livestock and highly compromised human health due to HIV/AIDS. Methods In this study we used culture to determine the longevity of M. bovis in experimentally inoculated fresh and naturally souring milk obtained from communal cattle in the KwaZulu-Natal province of South Africa. The effect of bacterial load and storage temperature on the survival of M. bovis was evaluated by spiking mixtures of fresh milk and starter soured milk (aMasi) culture with three concentrations of bacteria (102, 104, 107 colony forming units/ml), followed by incubation under controlled laboratory conditions that mimicked ambient indoor (20°C) and outdoor (33°C) temperatures and periodic sampling and testing over time (0-56 days). Results M. bovis cultured from samples of the fresh and souring milk was identified by PCR analysis. At the highest spiking concentration (107cfu/ml), M. bovis survived for at least 2 weeks at 20°C; but, at all concentrations in the 33°C treatment, M. bovis was absent by three days after inoculation. Logistic regression analysis was used to assess the effects of bacterial concentration and time since inoculation, as well as determine the potential half-life of M. bovis in raw souring milk. Given the most favourable tested conditions for bacterial survival (20°C), approximately 25% of mycobacteria were alive after one day of storage (95% CI: 9-53%), giving an estimated half-life of M. bovis in raw souring milk of approximately 12 hours (95% CI: 7-27 hours). Conclusions This study demonstrates that M. bovis may survive in fresh and souring milk for

  17. Loss of diversity within Mycoplasma bovis isolates collected in France from bovines with respiratory diseases over the last 35 years.

    PubMed

    Becker, Claire A M; Thibault, François M; Arcangioli, Marie-Anne; Tardy, Florence

    2015-07-01

    Mycoplasma (M.) bovis has recently emerged as a major, worldwide etiological agent of bovine respiratory diseases leading to huge economic losses mainly due to high morbidity and mortality as well as poor growth rates. The spread of M. bovis infections between different animals, herds, regions or countries has been often reported to be connected to the movement of animals. However, despite recent considerable efforts, no universal subtyping method is yet available to trace M. bovis isolates circulation at an international scale. Moreover in France, the overall population diversity of M. bovis isolates has not been assessed since the early 1990s. This study was conducted to fill in these gaps. The genotypic diversity between sixty isolates collected in France over the last 35 years was assessed using two molecular subtyping methods that addressed either the long-term epidemiological relationships (Multi Locus Sequence Typing, MLST) or the genetic microvariations (Multiple Locus VNTR Analysis, MLVA) between isolates. Phenotypic diversity was also analyzed by using Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization-Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) to compare the main protein patterns of isolates. All proposed subtyping approaches were optimized and led to the same pattern in the French M. bovis population that consisted of two clusters, the first one comprising isolates collected before 2000 and the second, those collected after 2000. Recent strains were further shown to be more homogeneous than older ones, which is consistent with the spread of a single clone throughout the country. Because this spread was concomitant with the emergence of multiresistant M. bovis isolates, several hypotheses are discussed to explain the homogeneity of M. bovis isolates in France, even though the M. bovis species is fully equipped to generate diversity. PMID:25913158

  18. Improved Detection of Mycobacterium bovis Infection in Bovine Lymph Node Tissue Using Immunomagnetic Separation (IMS)-Based Methods

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, Linda D.; McNair, James; McCallan, Lyanne; Gordon, Alan; Grant, Irene R.

    2013-01-01

    Immunomagnetic separation (IMS) can selectively isolate and concentrate Mycobacterium bovis cells from lymph node tissue to facilitate subsequent detection by PCR (IMS-PCR) or culture (IMS-MGIT). This study describes application of these novel IMS-based methods to test for M. bovis in a survey of 280 bovine lymph nodes (206 visibly lesioned (VL), 74 non-visibly lesioned (NVL)) collected at slaughter as part of the Northern Ireland bovine TB eradication programme. Their performance was evaluated relative to culture. Overall, 174 (62.1%) lymph node samples tested positive by culture, 162 (57.8%) by IMS-PCR (targeting IS6110), and 191 (68.2%) by IMS-MGIT culture. Twelve (6.9%) of the 174 culture positive lymph node samples were not detected by either of the IMS-based methods. However, an additional 79 M. bovis positive lymph node samples (27 (13.1%) VL and 52 (70.3%) NVL) were detected by the IMS-based methods and not by culture. When low numbers of viable M. bovis are present in lymph nodes (e.g. in NVLs of skin test reactor cattle) decontamination prior to culture may adversely affect viability, leading to false negative culture results. In contrast, IMS specifically captures whole M. bovis cells (live, dead or potentially dormant) which are not subject to any deleterious treatment before detection by PCR or MGIT culture. During this study only 2.7% of NVL lymph nodes tested culture positive, whereas 70.3% of the same samples tested M. bovis positive by the IMS-based tests. Results clearly demonstrate that not only are the IMS-based methods more rapid but they have greater detection sensitivity than the culture approach currently used for the detection of M. bovis infection in cattle. Adoption of the IMS-based methods for lymph node testing would have the potential to improve M. bovis detection in clinical samples. PMID:23469275

  19. Percutaneous interdigital injection of Mycobacterium bovis as a model for tuberculous lesion development in wild brushtail possums (Trichosurus vulpecula).

    PubMed

    Nugent, G; Whitford, E J; Yockney, I; Perry, M; Tompkins, D M; Holtslag, N; Cross, M L

    2013-01-01

    Brushtail possums (Trichosurus vulpecula) are the major wildlife reservoir of Mycobacterium bovis, the causative agent of bovine tuberculosis (BTB), in New Zealand. Primary diagnosis of BTB in wild possums is by palpation to detect peripheral lymphadenomegaly followed by necropsy examination, which frequently identifies gross tuberculous lesions in the peripheral lymph nodes and lungs. Experimental infection studies were conducted with wild possums in an attempt to emulate field BTB, focussing on percutaneous administration of virulent M. bovis in the paws. In a preliminary study, viable M. bovis bacilli were recovered from lymph nodes draining fore- or hindlimbs 12 days after percutaneous injection. Subsequently, 21 wild possums were injected interdigitally with 500 colony forming units (cfu) of M. bovis, radio-collared and released; 17/18 possums recaptured 8 weeks later had an established M. bovis lymphatic infection, with 16 having culture-positive gross lesions in the superficial and/or deep axillary lymph nodes. A dual-site infection model was established, involving simultaneous interdigital injection of 100 cfu of M. bovis into front and rear paws of 19 wild possums; this identified that the average degree of lymphadenitis involved 30-fold enlargement of the draining lymph node by 7-8 weeks post injection (wpi). A time-course study demonstrated establishment of M. bovis infection in peripheral lymph nodes of 9/11 possums at 3-5 wpi of doses ranging from 60 to 190 cfu, but with no development of gross lesions; by 7 weeks, 8/8 animals injected similarly had both an established infection and gross lesions of peripheral lymph nodes. The incidence and progression of peripheral lesion development, together with indications of sequential infection of the lungs, liver and mesenteric lymph nodes(MLNs), indicates that a low-dose percutaneous M. bovis infection model is likely to emulate natural disease in possums. PMID:22749650

  20. Oral Vaccination of White-Tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus) with Mycobacterium bovis Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG)

    PubMed Central

    Palmer, Mitchell V.; Thacker, Tyler C.; Waters, W. Ray; Robbe-Austerman, Suelee

    2014-01-01

    Wildlife reservoirs of Mycobacterium bovis represent serious obstacles to the eradication of tuberculosis from livestock, particularly cattle. In Michigan, USA tuberculous white-tailed deer transmit M. bovis to other deer and cattle. One approach in dealing with this wildlife reservoir is to vaccinate deer, thus interfering with the intraspecies and interspecies transmission cycles. Thirty-three white-tailed deer were assigned to one of two groups; oral vaccination with 1×108 colony-forming units of M. bovis BCG Danish (n = 17); and non-vaccinated (n = 16). One hundred eleven days after vaccination deer were infected intratonsilarly with 300 colony-forming units of virulent M. bovis. At examination, 150 days after challenge, BCG vaccinated deer had fewer gross and microscopic lesions, fewer tissues from which M. bovis could be isolated, and fewer late stage granulomas with extensive liquefactive necrosis. Fewer lesions, especially those of a highly necrotic nature should decrease the potential for dissemination of M. bovis within the host and transmission to other susceptible hosts. PMID:24804678

  1. Effects of Streptococcus bovis Isolated from Bovine Rumen on the Fermentation Characteristics and Nutritive Value of Tanzania Grass Silage

    PubMed Central

    Zanine, Anderson de Moura; Bonelli, Emerson Alencar; de Souza, Alexandre Lima; Ferreira, Daniele de Jesus; Santos, Edson Mauro; Ribeiro, Marinaldo Divino; Geron, Luiz Juliano Valério; Pinho, Ricardo Martins Araujo

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effects of Streptococcus bovis on the fermentation characteristics and nutritive value of Tanzania grass silage. Tanzania grass was chopped and left untreated (U) or treated with Streptococcus bovis JB1 at 1 × 106 colony-forming units per gram (cfu/g) of fresh forage or Streptococcus bovis HC5 at 1 × 106 cfu/g of fresh forage and packed into sixtuplicate laboratory silos. The largest number of enterobacteria, molds and yeast (M&Y) occurred in untreated silages and the smallest populations of enterobacteria and M&Y and the largest numbers of lactic acid bacteria (LAB), at 9.81 and 9.87 log cfu/g, were observed in Streptococcus bovis JB1 and HC5, respectively (P < 0.05). Silages treated with JB1 and HC5 had lower (P < 0.05) silage pHs and concentrations of ammoniacal nitrogen (NH3-N) than untreated silages. The application of Streptococcus bovis JB1 and HC5 resulted in fewer losses through gases and effluents (P < 0.05), which resulted in greater dry matter recovery (DMR) and crude protein recovery (CPR) (P < 0.05). Streptococcus bovis JB1 and HC5 improved the fermentative profile and increased the concentration of crude protein and DMR and CPR in Tanzania grass silage. PMID:27073806

  2. Improved specificity for detection of Mycobacterium bovis in fresh tissues using IS6110 real-time PCR

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Culture of M. bovis from diagnostic specimens is the gold standard for bovine tuberculosis diagnostics in the USA. Detection of M. bovis by PCR in tissue homogenates may provide a simple rapid method to complement bacterial culture. A significant impediment to PCR based assays on tissue homogenates is specificity since mycobacteria other than M. bovis may be associated with the tissues. Results Previously published IS6110 based PCR diagnostic assays, along with one developed in house, were tested against environmental mycobacteria commonly isolated from diagnostic tissues submitted to the National Veterinary Services Laboratory. A real-time PCR assay was developed (IS6110_T) that had increased specificity over other IS6110 based assays. Of the 13 non-tuberculous mycobacteria tested with IS6110_T only M. wolinskyi was positive. Thirty M. bovis infected tissue homogenates and 18 control tissues were used to evaluate the potential for the assay as a diagnostic test. In this small sample, IS6110_T detected 20/30 samples from M. bovis infected animals and 0/18 control tissues. Conclusions The IS6110_T assay provides a PCR based assay system that is compatible with current diagnostic protocols for the detection of M. bovis in the USA and compliments current testing strategies. PMID:21867516

  3. Generation of transgenic cattle expressing human β-defensin 3 as an approach to reducing susceptibility to Mycobacterium bovis infection.

    PubMed

    Su, Feng; Wang, Yongsheng; Liu, Guanghui; Ru, Kun; Liu, Xin; Yu, Yuan; Liu, Jun; Wu, Yongyan; Quan, Fusheng; Guo, Zekun; Zhang, Yong

    2016-03-01

    Bovine tuberculosis results from infection with Mycobacterium bovis, a member of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis family. Worldwide, M. bovis infections result in economic losses in the livestock industry; cattle production is especially hard-hit by this disease. Generating M. bovis-resistant cattle may potentially mitigate the impact of this disease by reducing M. bovis infections. In this study, we used transgenic somatic cell nuclear transfer to generate cattle expressing the gene encoding human β-defensin 3 (HBD3), which confers resistance to mycobacteria in vitro. We first generated alveolar epithelial cells expressing HBD3 under the control of the bovine MUC1 promoter, and confirmed that these cells secreted HBD3 and possessed anti-mycobacterial capacity. We then generated and identified transgenic cattle by somatic cell nuclear transfer. The cleavage and blastocyst formation rates of genetically modified embryos provided evidence that monoclonal transgenic bovine fetal fibroblast cells have an integral reprogramming ability that is similar to that of normal cells. Five genetically modified cows were generated, and their anti-mycobacterial capacities were evaluated. Alveolar epithelial cells and macrophages from these cattle expressed higher levels of HBD3 protein compared with non-transgenic cells and possessed effective anti-mycobacterial capacity. These results suggest that the overall risk of M. bovis infection in transgenic cattle is efficiently reduced, and support the development of genetically modified animals as an effective tool to reduce M. bovis infection. PMID:26782926

  4. Effects of Streptococcus bovis Isolated from Bovine Rumen on the Fermentation Characteristics and Nutritive Value of Tanzania Grass Silage.

    PubMed

    Zanine, Anderson de Moura; Bonelli, Emerson Alencar; de Souza, Alexandre Lima; Ferreira, Daniele de Jesus; Santos, Edson Mauro; Ribeiro, Marinaldo Divino; Geron, Luiz Juliano Valério; Pinho, Ricardo Martins Araujo

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effects of Streptococcus bovis on the fermentation characteristics and nutritive value of Tanzania grass silage. Tanzania grass was chopped and left untreated (U) or treated with Streptococcus bovis JB1 at 1 × 10(6) colony-forming units per gram (cfu/g) of fresh forage or Streptococcus bovis HC5 at 1 × 10(6) cfu/g of fresh forage and packed into sixtuplicate laboratory silos. The largest number of enterobacteria, molds and yeast (M&Y) occurred in untreated silages and the smallest populations of enterobacteria and M&Y and the largest numbers of lactic acid bacteria (LAB), at 9.81 and 9.87 log cfu/g, were observed in Streptococcus bovis JB1 and HC5, respectively (P < 0.05). Silages treated with JB1 and HC5 had lower (P < 0.05) silage pHs and concentrations of ammoniacal nitrogen (NH3-N) than untreated silages. The application of Streptococcus bovis JB1 and HC5 resulted in fewer losses through gases and effluents (P < 0.05), which resulted in greater dry matter recovery (DMR) and crude protein recovery (CPR) (P < 0.05). Streptococcus bovis JB1 and HC5 improved the fermentative profile and increased the concentration of crude protein and DMR and CPR in Tanzania grass silage. PMID:27073806

  5. Experimental Aerosol Inoculation and Investigation of Potential Lateral Transmission of Mycobacterium bovis in Virginia Opossum (Didelphis virginiana)

    PubMed Central

    Fenton, Karla A.; Fitzgerald, Scott D.; Bolin, Steve; Kaneene, John; Sikarskie, James; Greenwald, Rena; Lyashchenko, Konstantin

    2012-01-01

    An endemic focus of Mycobacterium bovis (M. bovis) infection in the state of Michigan has contributed to a regional persistence in the animal population. The objective of this study was to determine if Virginia opossums (Didelphis virginiana) contribute to disease persistence by experimentally assessing intraspecies lateral transmission. One wild caught pregnant female opossum bearing 11 joeys (young opossum) and one age-matched joey were obtained for the study. Four joeys were aerosol inoculated with M. bovis (inoculated), four joeys were noninoculated (exposed), and four joeys plus the dam were controls. Four replicate groups of one inoculated and one exposed joey were housed together for 45 days commencing 7 days after experimental inoculation. At day 84 opossums were sacrificed. All four inoculated opossums had a positive test band via rapid test, culture positive, and gross/histologic lesions consistent with caseogranulomatous pneumonia. The exposed and control groups were unremarkable on gross, histology, rapid test, and culture. In conclusion, M. bovis infection within the inoculated opossums was confirmed by gross pathology, histopathology, bacterial culture, and antibody tests. However, M. bovis was not detected in the control and exposed opossums. There was no appreciable lateral transmission of M. bovis after aerosol inoculation and 45 days of cohabitation between infected and uninfected opossums. PMID:22701815

  6. A new method for identification of natural, artificial and in vitro cultured Calculus bovis using high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yonggang; Tan, Peng; Liu, Shanshan; Shi, Hang; Feng, Xin; Ma, Qun

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Calculus bovis have been widely used in Chinese herbology for the treatment of hyperpyrexia, convulsions, and epilepsy. Nowadays, due to the limited source and high market price, the substitutes, artificial and in vitro cultured Calculus bovis, are getting more and more commonly used. The adulteration phenomenon is serious. Therefore, it is crucial to establish a fast and simple method in discriminating the natural, artificial and in vitro cultured Calculus bovis. Bile acids, one of the main active constituents, are taken as an important indicator for evaluating the quality of Calculus bovis and the substitutes. Several techniques have been built to analyze bile acids in Calculus bovis. Whereas, as bile acids are with poor ultraviolet absorbance and high structural similarity, effective technology for identification and quality control is still lacking. Methods: In this study, high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) was applied in the analysis of bile acids, which effectively identified natural, artificial and in vitro cultured Calculus bovis and provide a new method for their quality control. Results: Natural, artificial and in vitro cultured Calculus bovis were differentiated by bile acids analysis. A new compound with protonated molecule at m/z 405 was found, which we called 3α, 12α-dihydroxy-7-oxo-5α-cholanic acid. This compound was discovered in in vitro cultured Calculus bovis, but almost not detected in natural and artificial Calculus bovis. A total of 13 constituents was identified. Among them, three bio-markers, including glycocholic acid, glycodeoxycholic acid and taurocholic acid (TCA) were detected in both natural and artificial Calculus bovis, but the density of TCA was different in two kinds of Calculus bovis. In addition, the characteristics of bile acids were illustrated. Conclusions: The HPLC coupled with tandem MS (LC/MS/MS) method was feasible, easy, rapid and accurate in

  7. Native Valve Streptococcus bovis Endocarditis and Refractory Transfusion Dependent Iron Deficiency Anaemia Associated with Concomitant Carcinoma of the Colon: A Case Report and Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Ahamed Riyaaz, Abdul Azeez; Samarasinghe, Randula; Sellahewa, Kolitha; Sivakumaran, Sabaratnam; Tampoe, Manjula Sri

    2016-01-01

    Streptococcus bovis is found as a commensal organism in human gut and may become opportunistically pathogenic. Infective endocarditis is one of the commonest modes of presentation of this infection. The association between Streptococcus bovis endocarditis and colorectal cancer is well recognized. We report a case of Streptococcus bovis endocarditis along with a refractory iron deficiency anaemia associated with concomitant carcinoma of ascending colon in a 63-year-old male. Cooccurrence of these two conditions may cause a challenge in the management. Considering the strong association of colon cancer with Streptococcus bovis endocarditis, a detailed screening colonoscopy is mandatory following the diagnosis of the latter. PMID:26881154

  8. Differentiation between Streptococcus gallolyticus Strains of Human Clinical and Veterinary Origins and Streptococcus bovis Strains from the Intestinal Tracts of Ruminants

    PubMed Central

    Devriese, Luc A.; Vandamme, Peter; Pot, Bruno; Vanrobaeys, Mia; Kersters, Karel; Haesebrouck, Freddy

    1998-01-01

    Strains formerly identified as Streptococcus bovis were allotted to two groups by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analysis of whole-cell proteins. Strains from humans with infections, mostly patients with endocarditis, and strains from pigeons with septicemia clustered with the recently described species Streptococcus gallolyticus. The original S. bovis type strain and strains exclusively from ruminants formed the second cluster. The findings indicate that S. gallolyticus is more likely to be involved in human and animal infections than S. bovis. Growth characteristics and several biochemical reactions were found to be useful in the differentiation of S. gallolyticus from S. bovis. PMID:9817865

  9. An Update on the Streptococcus bovis Group: Classification, Identification, and Disease Associations.

    PubMed

    Dekker, John P; Lau, Anna F

    2016-07-01

    The Streptococcus bovis group has undergone significant taxonomic changes over the past 2 decades with the advent of new identification methods with higher discriminatory power. Although the current classification system is not yet embraced by all researchers in the field and debate remains over the performance of molecular techniques for identification to the species level within the group, important disease associations for several members of the group have been clarified. Here, we provide a brief overview of the history of the S. bovis group, an outline of the currently accepted classification scheme, a review of associated clinical syndromes, and a summary of the performance and diagnostic accuracy of currently available identification methods. PMID:26912760

  10. Thin layer microcolony culture associated with PCR for early identification of Mycobacterium bovis

    PubMed Central

    do Rosário, Tatiana Reis; Dib, Cristina Corsi; Roxo, Eliana; Pinheiro, Sônia Regina; Vasconcellos, Silvio Arruda; Benites, Nilson Roberti

    2014-01-01

    The initial growth of mycobacteria from 49 samples of cattle and buffalo organs collected in commercial slaughterhouses was compared between modified Middlebrook 7H11 thin layer microcolony culture and Stonebrink medium used in the isolation of Mycobacterium bovis. Aliquots were decontaminated by Petroff’s method, processed and cultured in both media. The identity of the acid-fast bacilli stained by Ziehl-Neelsen was confirmed by PCR. Optical microscopy showed that results of the early observation of Mycobacterium bovis colonies in thin layer culture were similar to those obtained in macroscopic observation of the colonies in Stonebrink medium. However, early observation of the colonies enabled early confirmation by PCR, given the shorter time to the visualization of colonies when thin layer culture was used (between the 12nd and 25th day of culture). PMID:24948936