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Sample records for brachial ejection time

  1. Fluid overload, pulse wave velocity, and ratio of brachial pre-ejection period to ejection time in diabetic and non-diabetic chronic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Yi-Chun; Chiu, Yi-Wen; Kuo, Hung-Tien; Chen, Szu-Chia; Hwang, Shang-Jyh; Chen, Tzu-Hui; Kuo, Mei-Chuan; Chen, Hung-Chun

    2014-01-01

    Fluid overload is one of the characteristics in chronic kidney disease (CKD). Changes in extracellular fluid volume are associated with progression of diabetic nephropathy. Not only diabetes but also fluid overload is associated with cardiovascular risk factors The aim of the study was to assess the interaction between fluid overload, diabetes, and cardiovascular risk factors, including arterial stiffness and left ventricular function in 480 patients with stages 4-5 CKD. Fluid status was determined by bioimpedance spectroscopy method, Body Composition Monitor. Brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV), as a good parameter of arterial stiffness, and brachial pre-ejection period (bPEP)/brachial ejection time (bET), correlated with impaired left ventricular function were measured by ankle-brachial index (ABI)-form device. Of all patients, 207 (43.9%) were diabetic and 240 (50%) had fluid overload. For non-diabetic CKD, fluid overload was associated with being female (β = -2.87, P = 0.003), heart disease (β = 2.69, P = 0.04), high baPWV (β = 0.27, P = 0.04), low hemoglobin (β = -1.10, P < 0.001), and low serum albumin (β = -5.21, P < 0.001) in multivariate analysis. For diabetic CKD, fluid overload was associated with diuretics use (β = 3.69, P = 0.003), high mean arterial pressure (β = 0.14, P = 0.01), low bPEP/ET (β = -0.19, P = 0.03), low hemoglobin (β = -1.55, P = 0.001), and low serum albumin (β = -9.46, P < 0.001). In conclusion, baPWV is associated with fluid overload in non-diabetic CKD and bPEP/bET is associated with fluid overload in diabetic CKD. Early and accurate assessment of these associated cardiovascular risk factors may improve the effects of entire care in late CKD. PMID:25386836

  2. Relation of Ankle Brachial Index to Left Ventricular Ejection Fraction in Non-Diabetic Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Abbasnezhad, Mohsen; Aliasgarzadeh, Akbar; Aslanabadi, Hasan; Habibzadeh, Afshin; Zamani, Bejan

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Peripheral arterial disease is associated with an excessive risk for cardi-ovascular events and mortality. Peripheral arterial disease is usually measured with ankle brachial index (ABI). It is previously shown that the ABI would reflect LV systolic func-tion, as well as atherosclerosis; however, these results are not shown in non-diabetic indi-viduals. In this study, we aim to evaluate this relation in non-diabetic individuals. Methods In a prospective study, 73 non-diabetic individuals (38.4% male with mean age of 59.20±14.42 years) referred for ABI determination who had had the left ventricular ejection fraction determined using trans-thoracic echocardiography were studied. Participants were compared in normal and low ABI groups. Results The mean left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) was 52.34±7.69, mean ankle brachial index for the right leg was 1.08±0.13, and the mean ankle brachial index for the left leg was 1.07±0.12. Low ABI incidence was 12.32%. Individuals with low ABI significantly were older (p<0.001) and had lower left ventricular ejection fraction (p<0.001). ABI had significantly inverse corre-lation with LVEF (r=-0.53, p<0.001) and positive correlation with age (r=0.43, p<0.001). The ABI correlated inversely with LVEF in the patients with (r =-0.52, p=0.008) and without (r=-0.55, p<0.001) IHD. Conclusion Results showed that ankle brachial index would be influenced by left ventricular ejection fraction in non-diabetics and to evaluate and monitor cardiovascular risk in patients these should be considered together. PMID:24250966

  3. Birth brachial plexus palsy: a race against time.

    PubMed

    Patra, Sambeet; Narayana Kurup, Jayakrishnan K; Acharya, Ashwath M; Bhat, Anil K

    2016-01-01

    A 5-year-old child presented to us with weakness of the left upper limb since birth. With the given history of obstetric trauma and limb examination, a diagnosis of birth brachial plexus palsy was made. Brachial plexus exploration along with microsurgery was performed at the same time which included extrinsic neurolysis of the roots and trunks and nerve transfer for better shoulder external rotation and elbow flexion. Both the movements were severely restricted previously due to co-contractures with the shoulder internal rotators and triceps. The problem of birth brachial plexus palsy is proving to be a global health burden both in developed countries and in developing countries such as India. The lack of awareness among the general public and primary healthcare providers and inadequate orthopaedic and neurosurgeons trained to treat the condition have worsened the prognosis. This case lays stress on the delayed complications in birth brachial palsy and its effective management. PMID:27402656

  4. Brachial plexopathy

    MedlinePlus

    Neuropathy - brachial plexus; Brachial plexus dysfunction; Parsonage Turner syndrome; Pancoast syndrome ... dysfunction (brachial plexopathy) is a form of peripheral neuropathy . It occurs when there is damage to the ...

  5. Brachial plexopathy

    MedlinePlus

    Neuropathy - brachial plexus; Brachial plexus dysfunction; Parsonage Turner syndrome; Pancoast syndrome ... or post-viral brachial plexus disease called Parsonage Turner syndrome. Tests that may be done to diagnose ...

  6. Detection of systolic ejection click using time growing neural network.

    PubMed

    Gharehbaghi, Arash; Dutoit, Thierry; Ask, Per; Sörnmo, Leif

    2014-04-01

    In this paper, we present a novel neural network for classification of short-duration heart sounds: the time growing neural network (TGNN). The input to the network is the spectral power in adjacent frequency bands as computed in time windows of growing length. Children with heart systolic ejection click (SEC) and normal children are the two groups subjected to analysis. The performance of the TGNN is compared to that of a time delay neural network (TDNN) and a multi-layer perceptron (MLP), using training and test datasets of similar sizes with a total of 614 normal and abnormal cardiac cycles. From the test dataset, the classification rate/sensitivity is found to be 97.0%/98.1% for the TGNN, 85.1%/76.4% for the TDNN, and 92.7%/85.7% for the MLP. The results show that the TGNN performs better than do TDNN and MLP when frequency band power is used as classifier input. The performance of TGNN is also found to exhibit better immunity to noise. PMID:24613501

  7. Ejection time by ear densitogram and its derivative - Clinical and physiologic applications.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quarry-Pigott, V.; Chirife, R.; Spodick, D. H.

    1973-01-01

    Ear densitographic ejection times (EDET) and first derivative ear densitogram ejection times (dEDET) were studied to determine whether their reliability and validity justify their substitution for ejection times derived from the far less stable carotid pulse tracing. Inter- and intra-subject comparisons were made on thirty individuals under a wide variety of disease and challenge states. Statistical analysis of the data - which had been obtained through a blinded procedure - showed an overall correlation (r) of .98 for carotid vs EDET and .99 for carotid vs dEDET. The t-test demonstrated no significant differences among ejection times derived from the three methods. Moreover, the close tracking at rest and during challenges of ejection times derived from these curves with those from the carotid indicate that either method may be substituted for standard carotid curves without sacrificing reliability or validity of the measure.

  8. Space-time evolution of ejected plasma for the triggering of gas switch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Shanhong; Liu, Xuandong; Shen, Xi; Feng, Lei; Tie, Weihao; Zhang, Qiaogen

    2016-06-01

    Ejected plasma has been widely applied to the discharge process of gas spark switches as a trigger technology, and the development process of ejected plasma has a direct and important effect on the discharge characteristics of gas switches. In this paper, both the injection characteristics and space-time evolution of ejected plasma for the triggering of gas spark switch with different stored energies, pulse polarities, and pressures are studied. The discharge characteristics and breakdown process of a gas switch ignited by ejected plasma under different working coefficients are also discussed briefly. The results show that stored energy has significant influence on the characteristics of ejected plasma. With the increase of stored energy, the propulsion mode of ejected plasma in the axial direction transforms from "plasmoid" to "plasma flow," and the distribution of the ejected plasma goes through "cloud," "core-cloud," and "branch" in sequence. The velocity of ejected plasma under negative pulse polarity is obviously higher than that under positive pulse polarity, especially at the very beginning time. The radial dimensions of ejected plasma under two kinds of pulse polarities follow the similar varying pattern over time, which increase first and then decrease, assuming an inverted "U"-shaped curve. With the increase of pressure, the velocity of ejected plasma significantly decreases and the "branch" channels droop earlier. Applying the ejected plasma to the triggering of a gas switch, the switch can be triggered reliably in a much wide working coefficient range of 10%-90%. With the increase of working coefficient, the breakdown process of the switch translates from slow working mode to fast working mode, and the delay time reduces from tens of μs to hundreds of ns.

  9. Radionuclide analysis of ejection time, peak ejection rate, and time to peak ejection rate: response to supine bicycle exercise in normal subjects and in patients with coronary heart disease

    SciTech Connect

    Slutsky, R.A.; Mancini, G.B.; Gerber, K.H.; Carey, P.H.; Ashburn, W.L.; Higgins, C.B.

    1983-05-01

    Using equilibrium radionuclide angiography, we evaluated the ejection time (ET), peak ejection rate (PER), and time to peak ejection rate (TTp) at test and during supine bicycle exercise in 39 subjects, divided into three groups: group 1 . 13 normal subjects; group 2 . 10 patients with a previous infarction (MI); and group 3 . 16 patients with coronary disease without a previous MI. Normal subjects had greater ejection fractions and PERs than the other two groups at rest or peak exercise (p less than 0.05). PER was no more useful than ejection fraction in identifying cardiac dysfunction at either rest or exercise. The time of its occurrence varied with the group studied, and was slightly but significantly later in systole in groups 2 and 3 when compared to normals (p less than 0.05), though substantial overlap between groups occurred. During exercise, absolute ET shortened in all groups, but actually increased as a function of the R-R interval. The time to peak ejection rate (normalized for the R-R interval) was greater in the noninfarct group (group 3) patients (p less than 0.05) when compared to the group 1 or group 2 individuals at peak exercise. In conclusion, equilibrium radionuclide angiography is a useful technique for the quantification and characterization of events during systole, and is capable of providing information on the timing of events during ejection. Tardokinesis, or the delay of ventricular ejection, is not seen in the response of global indices of left ventricular function to exercise stress. While global early systolic indexes may not detect regional dyssynchrony, their timing during stress may occasionally aid in discerning the presence of cardiac dysfunction.

  10. Brachial plexus

    MedlinePlus

    The brachial plexus is a group of nerves that run from the lower neck through the upper shoulder area. These ... Damage to the brachial plexus nerves can cause muscle and sensation problems that are often associated with pain in the same area. Symptoms may ...

  11. Brachial plexopathy.

    PubMed

    Khadilkar, Satish V; Khade, Snehaldatta S

    2013-01-01

    Brachial plexus injury can occur as a result of trauma, inflammation or malignancies, and associated complications. The current topic is concerned with various forms of brachial plexopathy, its clinical features, pathophysiology, imaging findings, and management. Idiopathic brachial neuritis (IBN), often preceded with antecedent events such as infection, commonly present with abruptonset painful asymmetric upper limb weakness with associated wasting around the shoulder girdle and arm muscles. Idiopathic hypertrophic brachial neuritis, a rare condition, is usually painless to begin with, unlike IBN. Hereditary neuralgic amyotrophy is an autosomal-dominant disorder characterized by repeated episodes of paralysis and sensory disturbances in an affected limb, which is preceded by severe pain. While the frequency of the episodes tends to decrease with age, affected individuals suffer from residual deficits. Neurogenic thoracic outlet syndrome affects the lower trunk of the brachial plexus. It is diagnosed on the basis of electrophysiology and is amenable to surgical intervention. Cancer-related brachial plexopathy may occur secondary to metastatic infiltration or radiation therapy. Traumatic brachial plexus injury is commonly encountered in neurology, orthopedic, and plastic surgery set-ups. Trauma may be a direct blow or traction or stretch injury. The prognosis depends on the extent and site of injury as well as the surgical expertise. PMID:23661957

  12. Brachial plexopathy

    PubMed Central

    Khadilkar, Satish V.; Khade, Snehaldatta S.

    2013-01-01

    Brachial plexus injury can occur as a result of trauma, inflammation or malignancies, and associated complications. The current topic is concerned with various forms of brachial plexopathy, its clinical features, pathophysiology, imaging findings, and management. Idiopathic brachial neuritis (IBN), often preceded with antecedent events such as infection, commonly present with abruptonset painful asymmetric upper limb weakness with associated wasting around the shoulder girdle and arm muscles. Idiopathic hypertrophic brachial neuritis, a rare condition, is usually painless to begin with, unlike IBN. Hereditary neuralgic amyotrophy is an autosomal-dominant disorder characterized by repeated episodes of paralysis and sensory disturbances in an affected limb, which is preceded by severe pain. While the frequency of the episodes tends to decrease with age, affected individuals suffer from residual deficits. Neurogenic thoracic outlet syndrome affects the lower trunk of the brachial plexus. It is diagnosed on the basis of electrophysiology and is amenable to surgical intervention. Cancer-related brachial plexopathy may occur secondary to metastatic infiltration or radiation therapy. Traumatic brachial plexus injury is commonly encountered in neurology, orthopedic, and plastic surgery set-ups. Trauma may be a direct blow or traction or stretch injury. The prognosis depends on the extent and site of injury as well as the surgical expertise. PMID:23661957

  13. THE NATURE OF HYPERVELOCITY STARS AND THE TIME BETWEEN THEIR FORMATION AND EJECTION

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Warren R.; Geller, Margaret J.; Kenyon, Scott J.; Cohen, Judith G. E-mail: mgeller@cfa.harvard.edu E-mail: jlc@astro.caltech.edu

    2012-07-20

    We obtain Keck HIRES spectroscopy of HVS5, one of the fastest unbound stars in the Milky Way halo. We show that HVS5 is a 3.62 {+-} 0.11 M{sub Sun} main-sequence B star at a distance of 50 {+-} 5 kpc. The difference between its age and its flight time from the Galactic center is 105 {+-} 18 (stat) {+-}30 (sys) Myr; flight times from locations elsewhere in the Galactic disk are similar. This 10{sup 8} yr 'arrival time' between formation and ejection is difficult to reconcile with any ejection scenario involving massive stars that live for only 10{sup 7} yr. For comparison, we derive arrival times of 10{sup 7} yr for two unbound runaway B stars, consistent with their disk origin where ejection results from a supernova in a binary system or dynamical interactions between massive stars in a dense star cluster. For HVS5, ejection during the first 10{sup 7} yr of its lifetime is ruled out at the 3{sigma} level. Together with the 10{sup 8} yr arrival times inferred for three other well-studied hypervelocity stars (HVSs), these results are consistent with a Galactic center origin for the HVSs. If the HVSs were indeed ejected by the central black hole, then the Galactic center was forming stars {approx_equal}200 Myr ago, and the progenitors of the HVSs took {approx_equal}100 Myr to enter the black hole's loss cone.

  14. Brachial Plexus Injuries

    MedlinePlus

    ... Diversity Find People About NINDS NINDS Brachial Plexus Injuries Information Page Synonym(s): Erb's Palsy Table of Contents ( ... done? Clinical Trials Organizations What are Brachial Plexus Injuries? The brachial plexus is a network of nerves ...

  15. Heart rate-left ventricular ejection time relations - Variations during postural change and cardiovascular challenges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lance, V. Q.; Spodick, D. H.

    1976-01-01

    Experiments were conducted on healthy human subjects to determine HR-LVET (Heart Rate-Left Ventricular Ejection Time) regression relations in different postures, including tilt, and during isometric exercise. The subjects were tested in the resting state in supine and sitting positions, during isometric handgrip in supine and sitting positions and during 70 deg headup tilt. The recordings included a bipolar electrocardiogram and a right external carotid pulse curve. Comparison of the HR-LVET relation for the conditions under analysis revealed differences among the respective regression equations, which can be explained by the well-established differences in stroke volume and ejection rate among these states. These differences appear to account for the fact that under conditions in which stroke volume variations should be the major determinant, slopes will be similar but intercepts will vary. Since substantial differences among intercepts are observed, caution should be exercised whenever the intercept factor is used to predict LVET for HR.

  16. User-guided automated segmentation of time-series ultrasound images for measuring vasoreactivity of the brachial artery induced by flow mediation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sehgal, Chandra M.; Kao, Yen H.; Cary, Ted W.; Arger, Peter H.; Mohler, Emile R.

    2005-04-01

    Endothelial dysfunction in response to vasoactive stimuli is closely associated with diseases such as atherosclerosis, hypertension and congestive heart failure. The current method of using ultrasound to image the brachial artery along the longitudinal axis is insensitive for measuring the small vasodilatation that occurs in response to flow mediation. The goal of this study is to overcome this limitation by using cross-sectional imaging of the brachial artery in conjunction with the User-Guided Automated Boundary Detection (UGABD) algorithm for extracting arterial boundaries. High-resolution ultrasound imaging was performed on rigid plastic tubing, on elastic rubber tubing phantoms with steady and pulsatile flow, and on the brachial artery of a healthy volunteer undergoing reactive hyperemia. The area of cross section of time-series images was analyzed by UGABD by propagating the boundary from one frame to the next. The UGABD results were compared by linear correlation with those obtained by manual tracing. UGABD measured the cross-sectional area of the phantom tubing to within 5% of the true area. The algorithm correctly detected pulsatile vasomotion in phantoms and in the brachial artery. A comparison of area measurements made using UGABD with those made by manual tracings yielded a correlation of 0.9 and 0.8 for phantoms and arteries, respectively. The peak vasodilatation due to reactive hyperemia was two orders of magnitude greater in pixel count than that measured by longitudinal imaging. Cross-sectional imaging is more sensitive than longitudinal imaging for measuring flow-mediated dilatation of brachial artery, and thus may be more suitable for evaluating endothelial dysfunction.

  17. To determine block establishment time of supraclavicular brachial plexus block using blunt versus short bevel needle: A prospective randomized trial

    PubMed Central

    Ahuja, V; Thapa, D; Gombar, S; Dhiman, D

    2016-01-01

    Background: Unintentional intraneural injection under ultrasound guidance (USG) with fine caliber needles and lower success rate with large caliber Tuohy needles in supraclavicular brachial plexus block (SCB) have been reported. Materials and Methods: We undertook study to standardize the use of 20-gauge short versus blunt bevel needle for SCB. After approval of Institutional Ethics Committee and written informed consent, patients were randomized using computer-generated random number table to either of the two groups; blunt bevel needle group (n = 30): SCB under USG using 20-gauge Tuohy needle or short bevel needle group (n = 30): SCB under USG using 20-gauge short bevel needle. The primary outcome of the study was time to establishment of sensory and motor block of individual nerves, and secondary outcome was tolerability and any adverse effects. Results: The time to establishment of sensory and motor block in individual nerve territory was similar in both the groups. The complete sensory and motor anesthesia was achieved in 78.3% patients and complete sensory and motor anesthesia after supplementary block was achieved in 86.6% patients. Paresthesias during SCB were recorded in 15 patients. Out of these eight patients were of blunt bevel group and seven patients were of short bevel group. None of the patients experienced any neurological adverse effects. Conclusion: The establishment of sensory and motor blockade of individual nerves was similar to 20-gauge short and blunt bevel needle under ultrasound guide with no neurological adverse events. PMID:27375378

  18. Time-Dependent Regional Myocardial Strains in Patients with Heart Failure with a Preserved Ejection Fraction

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Shane P.; Secomb, Timothy W.; Hong, Brian D.; Moulton, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. To better understand the etiology of HFpEF in a controlled human population, regional time-varying strains were computed using echocardiography speckle tracking in patients with heart failure with a preserved ejection fraction and normal subjects. Methods. Eleven normal volunteers and ten patients with echo-graded diastolic dysfunction and symptoms of heart failure were imaged with echocardiography and longitudinal, circumferential, and rotational strains were determined using speckle-tracking. Diastolic strain rate was also determined. Patient demographics and echo-derived flows, volumes, and pressures were recorded. Results. Peak longitudinal and circumferential strain was globally reduced in patients (p < 0.001), when compared to controls. The patients attained peak longitudinal and circumferential strain at a consistently later point in systole than controls. Rotational strains were not different in most LV regions. Early diastolic strain rate was significantly reduced in the patients (p < 0.001). LV mass and wall thickness were significantly increased in the patients; however ejection fraction was preserved and stroke volume was diminished (p < 0.001). Conclusions. This study shows that patients with HFpEF have reduced early diastolic strain rate and reduced peak strain that is regionally homogeneous and that they also utilize a longer fraction of systole to achieve peak axial strains. PMID:27042673

  19. Brachial plexus (image)

    MedlinePlus

    The brachial plexus is a group of nerves that originate from the neck region and branch off to give rise ... movement in the upper limb. Injuries to the brachial plexus are common and can be debilitating. If the ...

  20. Brachial Plexus Injuries

    MedlinePlus

    ... to the shoulder, arm, and hand. Brachial plexus injuries are caused by damage to those nerves. Symptoms ... sensation in the arm or hand Brachial plexus injuries can occur as a result of shoulder trauma, ...

  1. Flow-mediated dilatation, using time course data, shows maturation of the brachial artery from young children to mid-adolescents.

    PubMed

    Kontos, Anna; Pamula, Yvonne; Martin, James; Gent, Roger; Lushington, Kurt; Baumert, Mathias; Willoughby, Scott; Richardson, Malcolm; Couper, Jennifer; Kennedy, Declan

    2015-03-01

    Flow-mediated dilatation (FMD) is a tool widely used to measure arterial responsiveness to sheer stress. However, there is scant literature to show how the peripheral arterial response changes as the vascular system matures. One reason for this is that the feasibility of measuring FMD in younger children has not been established. The aim of the present study was to assess brachial artery function at rest and during the FMD response after 4 min ischaemia of the forearm in children aged 6-15 years. Time to reach maximum FMD (FMDmax ) was found to be correlated with age (r = 0.4, P < 0.05), resting brachial artery diameter (r = 0.4, P < 0.05), height (r = 0.4, P < 0.05), body mass index (BMI; r = 0.45, P < 0.05), body surface area (r = 0.44, P < 0.05) and resting blood flow (r = 0.37, P < 0.05). However, there was no correlation between the traditional FMD response at 60 s or FMD maximal dilation and age, resting brachial artery diameter, height, weight, BMI, body surface area and resting blood flow. In conclusion, the time taken to reach the maximal dilation response is related to age, brachial artery luminal diameter and body habitus, but not the traditional measure of FMD response at 60 s or the maximal dilatation percentage. PMID:25491271

  2. WAITING TIMES OF QUASI-HOMOLOGOUS CORONAL MASS EJECTIONS FROM SUPER ACTIVE REGIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Yuming; Liu Lijuan; Shen Chenglong; Liu Rui; Ye Pinzhong; Wang, S.

    2013-02-01

    Why and how do some active regions (ARs) frequently produce coronal mass ejections (CMEs)? These are key questions for deepening our understanding of the mechanisms and processes of energy accumulation and sudden release in ARs and for improving our space weather prediction capability. Although some case studies have been performed, these questions are still far from fully answered. These issues are now being addressed statistically through an investigation of the waiting times of quasi-homologous CMEs from super ARs in solar cycle 23. It is found that the waiting times of quasi-homologous CMEs have a two-component distribution with a separation at about 18 hr. The first component is a Gaussian-like distribution with a peak at about 7 hr, which indicates a tight physical connection between these quasi-homologous CMEs. The likelihood of two or more occurrences of CMEs faster than 1200 km s{sup -1} from the same AR within 18 hr is about 20%. Furthermore, the correlation analysis among CME waiting times, CME speeds, and CME occurrence rates reveals that these quantities are independent of each other, suggesting that the perturbation by preceding CMEs rather than free energy input is the direct cause of quasi-homologous CMEs. The peak waiting time of 7 hr probably characterizes the timescale of the growth of the instabilities triggered by preceding CMEs. This study uncovers some clues from a statistical perspective for us to understand quasi-homologous CMEs as well as CME-rich ARs.

  3. Toward an Accurate Prediction of the Arrival Time of Geomagnetic-Effective Coronal Mass Ejections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, T.; Wang, Y.; Wan, L.; Cheng, X.; Ding, M.; Zhang, J.

    2015-12-01

    Accurately predicting the arrival of coronal mass ejections (CMEs) to the Earth based on remote images is of critical significance for the study of space weather. Here we make a statistical study of 21 Earth-directed CMEs, specifically exploring the relationship between CME initial speeds and transit times. The initial speed of a CME is obtained by fitting the CME with the Graduated Cylindrical Shell model and is thus free of projection effects. We then use the drag force model to fit results of the transit time versus the initial speed. By adopting different drag regimes, i.e., the viscous, aerodynamics, and hybrid regimes, we get similar results, with a least mean estimation error of the hybrid model of 12.9 hr. CMEs with a propagation angle (the angle between the propagation direction and the Sun-Earth line) larger than their half-angular widths arrive at the Earth with an angular deviation caused by factors other than the radial solar wind drag. The drag force model cannot be reliably applied to such events. If we exclude these events in the sample, the prediction accuracy can be improved, i.e., the estimation error reduces to 6.8 hr. This work suggests that it is viable to predict the arrival time of CMEs to the Earth based on the initial parameters with fairly good accuracy. Thus, it provides a method of forecasting space weather 1-5 days following the occurrence of CMEs.

  4. Different effects of abnormal activation and myocardial disease on left ventricular ejection and filling times

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Q; Henein, M; Coats, A; Gibson, D

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND—Ventricular activation is often abnormal in patients with dilated cardiomyopathy, but its specific effects on timing remain undetermined.
OBJECTIVE—To investigate the use of the ratio of the sum of left ventricular ejection and filling times to the total RR interval (Z ratio) to dissociate the effects of abnormal activation from those of cavity dilatation.
METHODS—Subjects were 20 normal individuals, 11 patients with isolated left bundle branch block (LBBB, QRS duration > 120 ms), 17 with dilated cardiomyopathy and normal activation, and 23 with dilated cardiomyopathy and LBBB. An additional 30 patients (nine with normal ventricular systolic function and 21 with dilated cardiomyopathy) were studied before and after right ventricular pacing. Left ventricular ejection and filling times were measured by pulsed wave Doppler and cavity size by M mode echocardiography.
RESULTS—Z ratio was independent of RR interval in all groups. Mean (SD) Z ratio was 82 (10)% for normal subjects, 66 (10)% for isolated LBBB (p < 0.01 v normal), 77 (7)% for dilated cardiomyopathy without LBBB (NS v normal), and 61 (7)% for dilated cardiomyopathy with LBBB (p < 0.01 v normal). In the nine patients with normal left ventricular size and QRS duration, Z ratio fell from 88 (6)% in sinus rhythm to 77 (10)% with right ventricular pacing (p = 0.26). In the 21 patients with dilated cardiomyopathy and LBBB, Z ratio rose from 59 (10)% in sinus rhythm to 74 (9)% with right ventricular DDD pacing (p < 0.001).
CONCLUSIONS—Z ratio dissociates the effects of abnormal ventricular activation and systolic disease. It also clearly differentiates right ventricular pacing from LBBB. It may thus be useful in comparing the haemodynamic effects of different pacing modes in patients with or without left ventricular disease.


Keywords: dilated cardiomyopathy; pacemaker; left bundle branch block; echocardiography. PMID:10956289

  5. Predicting coronal mass ejections transit times to Earth with neural network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sudar, D.; Vršnak, B.; Dumbović, M.

    2016-02-01

    Predicting transit times (TT) of coronal mass ejections (CMEs) from their initial parameters is a very important subject, not only from the scientific perspective, but also because CMEs represent a hazard for human technology. We used a neural network (NN) to analyse TT for 153 events with only two input parameters: initial velocity of the CME, v, and central meridian distance, CMD, of its associated flare. We found that transit time dependence on v is showing a typical drag-like pattern in the solar wind. The results show that the speed at which acceleration by drag changes to deceleration is v ≈ 500 km s-1. TT are also found to be shorter for CMEs associated with flares on the western hemisphere than those originating on the eastern side of the Sun. We attribute this difference to the eastward deflection of CMEs on their path to 1 AU. The average error of the NN prediction in comparison to observations is ≈12 h which is comparable to other studies on the same subject.

  6. Cardiac systolic time intervals in fetal monkeys: pre-ejection period.

    PubMed

    Murata, Y; Martin, C B; Ikenoue, T; Petrie, R H

    1978-10-01

    The systolic time intervals of the fetal cardiac cycle were studied by means of simultaneous recordings of electrocardiogram (ECG) and ultrasound Doppler cardiogram (DCG) in chronic preparations of fetal rhesus monkeys. Recordings were made under physiologic conditions as well as during various experimental stresses. The pre-ejection period (PEP) showed no significant relationship with heart rate in the unstressed fetuses, but the acceleration of heart rate induced by epinephrine was accompanied by shortening of PEP. The PEP increased with advancing fetal age. The PEP was inversely correlated with left ventricular end-diastolic pressure and arterial pulse pressure, but showed a positive correlation with both systolic and diastolic arterial blood pressure. The PEP also exhibited strong negative correlation with arterial blood pH. the prolongation was essentially the same whether acidosis was of respiratory or metabolic origin. The PEP increased slightly but significantly during nonacidemic hypoxemia; however, there was no correlation between Pao2 and PEP Epinephrine shortened the PEP significantly, whereas the effect of atropine was inconsistent. Alteration of the plasma glucose level by injection of insulin or glucose did not affect PEP. These findings demonstrate that the PEP may be a useful indicator of fetal cardiac performance, reflecting both myocardial contractility and the hemodynamic state of the cardiovascular system. PMID:30282

  7. Knot structures in jets formed by a two-mode ejection velocity time-variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raga, A. C.; Rodríguez-Ramírez, J. C.; Cantó, J.; Velázquez, P. F.

    2015-11-01

    We present a 1D analytic model for the formation of working surfaces along a jet produced by an outflow source with a double-sinusoidal mode ejection velocity variability. We succeed in obtaining simple expressions for the distance of formation and for the initial velocity jump across the `fast-mode' working surfaces, which are modulated by the phase of the `slow mode'. These results can be straightforwardly applied to interpret observations of Herbig-Haro jets showing a chain of aligned knots close to the source, and large `heads' at greater distances, for which a two-mode ejection variability is likely to be applicable. We use our new analytic model to interpret observations of the externally photoionized HH 333 jet.

  8. Determination of left ventricular volume, ejection fraction, and myocardial mass by real-time three-dimensional echocardiography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Qin, J. X.; Shiota, T.; Thomas, J. D.

    2000-01-01

    Reconstructed three-dimensional (3-D) echocardiography is an accurate and reproducible method of assessing left ventricular (LV) functions. However, it has limitations for clinical study due to the requirement of complex computer and echocardiographic analysis systems, electrocardiographic/respiratory gating, and prolonged imaging times. Real-time 3-D echocardiography has a major advantage of conveniently visualizing the entire cardiac anatomy in three dimensions and of potentially accurately quantifying LV volumes, ejection fractions, and myocardial mass in patients even in the presence of an LV aneurysm. Although the image quality of the current real-time 3-D echocardiographic methods is not optimal, its widespread clinical application is possible because of the convenient and fast image acquisition. We review real-time 3-D echocardiographic image acquisition and quantitative analysis for the evaluation of LV function and LV mass.

  9. Connecting speeds, directions and arrival times of 22 coronal mass ejections from the sun to 1 AU

    SciTech Connect

    Möstl, C.; Veronig, A. M.; Rollett, T.; Temmer, M.; Peinhart, V.; Amla, K.; Hall, J. R.; Liewer, P. C.; De Jong, E. M.; Colaninno, R. C.; Davies, J. A.; Harrison, R. A.; Lugaz, N.; Farrugia, C. J.; Galvin, A. B.; Liu, Y. D.; Luhmann, J. G.; Vršnak, B.

    2014-06-01

    Forecasting the in situ properties of coronal mass ejections (CMEs) from remote images is expected to strongly enhance predictions of space weather and is of general interest for studying the interaction of CMEs with planetary environments. We study the feasibility of using a single heliospheric imager (HI) instrument, imaging the solar wind density from the Sun to 1 AU, for connecting remote images to in situ observations of CMEs. We compare the predictions of speed and arrival time for 22 CMEs (in 2008-2012) to the corresponding interplanetary coronal mass ejection (ICME) parameters at in situ observatories (STEREO PLASTIC/IMPACT, Wind SWE/MFI). The list consists of front- and backsided, slow and fast CMEs (up to 2700 km s{sup –1}). We track the CMEs to 34.9 ± 7.1 deg elongation from the Sun with J maps constructed using the SATPLOT tool, resulting in prediction lead times of –26.4 ± 15.3 hr. The geometrical models we use assume different CME front shapes (fixed-Φ, harmonic mean, self-similar expansion) and constant CME speed and direction. We find no significant superiority in the predictive capability of any of the three methods. The absolute difference between predicted and observed ICME arrival times is 8.1 ± 6.3 hr (rms value of 10.9 hr). Speeds are consistent to within 284 ± 288 km s{sup –1}. Empirical corrections to the predictions enhance their performance for the arrival times to 6.1 ± 5.0 hr (rms value of 7.9 hr), and for the speeds to 53 ± 50 km s{sup –1}. These results are important for Solar Orbiter and a space weather mission positioned away from the Sun-Earth line.

  10. Connecting Speeds, Directions and Arrival Times of 22 Coronal Mass Ejections from the Sun to 1 AU

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Möstl, C.; Amla, K.; Hall, J. R.; Liewer, P. C.; De Jong, E. M.; Colaninno, R. C.; Veronig, A. M.; Rollett, T.; Temmer, M.; Peinhart, V.; Davies, J. A.; Lugaz, N.; Liu, Y. D.; Farrugia, C. J.; Luhmann, J. G.; Vršnak, B.; Harrison, R. A.; Galvin, A. B.

    2014-06-01

    Forecasting the in situ properties of coronal mass ejections (CMEs) from remote images is expected to strongly enhance predictions of space weather and is of general interest for studying the interaction of CMEs with planetary environments. We study the feasibility of using a single heliospheric imager (HI) instrument, imaging the solar wind density from the Sun to 1 AU, for connecting remote images to in situ observations of CMEs. We compare the predictions of speed and arrival time for 22 CMEs (in 2008-2012) to the corresponding interplanetary coronal mass ejection (ICME) parameters at in situ observatories (STEREO PLASTIC/IMPACT, Wind SWE/MFI). The list consists of front- and backsided, slow and fast CMEs (up to 2700 km s-1). We track the CMEs to 34.9 ± 7.1 deg elongation from the Sun with J maps constructed using the SATPLOT tool, resulting in prediction lead times of -26.4 ± 15.3 hr. The geometrical models we use assume different CME front shapes (fixed-Φ, harmonic mean, self-similar expansion) and constant CME speed and direction. We find no significant superiority in the predictive capability of any of the three methods. The absolute difference between predicted and observed ICME arrival times is 8.1 ± 6.3 hr (rms value of 10.9 hr). Speeds are consistent to within 284 ± 288 km s-1. Empirical corrections to the predictions enhance their performance for the arrival times to 6.1 ± 5.0 hr (rms value of 7.9 hr), and for the speeds to 53 ± 50 km s-1. These results are important for Solar Orbiter and a space weather mission positioned away from the Sun-Earth line.

  11. Characteristic Times of Gradual Solar Energetic Particle Events and Their Dependence on Associated Coronal Mass Ejection Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kahler, S. W.

    2005-08-01

    We use 20 MeV proton intensities from the EPACT instrument on Wind and coronal mass ejections (CMEs) from the LASCO coronagraph on SOHO observed during 1998-2002 to statistically determine three characteristic times of gradual solar energetic particle (SEP) events as functions of solar source longitude: (1) TO, the time from associated CME launch to SEP onset at 1 AU, (2) TR, the rise time from SEP onset to the time when the SEP intensity is a factor of 2 below peak intensity, and (3) TD, the duration over which the SEP intensity is within a factor of 2 of the peak intensity. Those SEP event times are compared with associated CME speeds, accelerations, and widths to determine whether and how the SEP event times may depend on the formation and dynamics of coronal/interplanetary shocks driven by the CMEs. Solar source longitudinal variations are clearly present in the SEP times, but TR and TD are significantly correlated with CME speeds only for SEP events in the best-connected longitude range. No significant correlations between the SEP times and CME accelerations are found except for TD in one longitude range, but there is a weak correlation of TR and TD with CME widths. We also find no correlation of any SEP times with the solar wind O+7/O+6 values, suggesting no dependence on solar wind stream type. The SEP times of the small subset of events occurring in interplanetary CMEs may be slightly shorter than those of all events.

  12. Material ejection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Webb, David F.; Forbes, Terry G.; Aurass, Henry; Chen, James; Martens, Piet; Rompolt, Bogdan; Rusin, Vojtech; Martin, Sara F.

    1994-01-01

    This paper reviews the major discussions and conclusions of the Flares 22 Workshop concerning the physical processes involved in mass ejecta events, with an emphasis on large-scale phenomena, especially Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs). New insights have been gained from recent data obtained from the Solar Maximum Mission (SMM) and Yohkoh spacecraft and from several new ground-based radio and optical instruments, as well as from theoretical advances concerning the origins, driving mechanisms and long-term evolution of CMEs.

  13. Correlation Analyses Between the Characteristic Times of Gradual Solar Energetic Particle Events and the Properties of Associated Coronal Mass Ejections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Z. H.; Wang, C. B.; Wang, Yuming; Xue, X. H.

    2011-06-01

    It is generally believed that gradual solar energetic particles (SEPs) are accelerated by shocks associated with coronal mass ejections (CMEs). Using an ice-cream cone model, the radial speed and angular width of 95 CMEs associated with SEP events during 1998 - 2002 are calculated from SOHO/LASCO observations. Then, we investigate the relationships between the kinematic properties of these CMEs and the characteristic times of the intensity-time profile of their accompanied SEP events observed at 1 AU. These characteristic times of SEP are i) the onset time from the accompanying CME eruption at the Sun to the SEP arrival at 1 AU, ii) the rise time from the SEP onset to the time when the SEP intensity is one-half of peak intensity, and iii) the duration over which the SEP intensity is within a factor of two of the peak intensity. It is found that the onset time has neither significant correlation with the radial speed nor with the angular width of the accompanying CME. For events that are poorly connected to the Earth, the SEP rise time and duration have no significant correlation with the radial speed and angular width of the associated CMEs. However, for events that are magnetically well connected to the Earth, the SEP rise time and duration have significantly positive correlations with the radial speed and angular width of the associated CMEs. This indicates that a CME event with wider angular width and higher speed may more easily drive a strong and wide shock near to the Earth-connected interplanetary magnetic field lines, may trap and accelerate particles for a longer time, and may lead to longer rise time and duration of the ensuing SEP event.

  14. Connecting speeds, directions and arrival times of 22 coronal mass ejections from the Sun to 1 AU

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Möstl, Christian; Amla, Keshav; Hall, Jeff R.; Liewer, Paulett C.; DeJong, Eric M.; Colaninno, Robin C.; Veronig, Astrid M.; Rollett, Tanja; Temmer, Manuela; Peinhart, Vanessa; Davies, Jackie A.; Lugaz, Noé; Liu, Ying; Farrugia, Charles J.; Luhmann, Janet G.; Vrsnak, Bojan; Harrison, Richard A.; Galvin, Antoinette B.

    2014-05-01

    Forecasting in situ properties of coronal mass ejections (CMEs) from remote images is expected to strongly enhance predictions of space weather, and is of general interest for studying the interaction of the solar wind with planetary environments. We study the feasibility of using a heliospheric imager (HI) instrument, which is able to image the solar wind density along the full Sun to 1 AU distance, for connecting remote images to in situ observations of CMEs. Such an instrument is currently in operation on each of the two STEREO spacecraft. We compare the predictions for speed and arrival time for 22 different CME events (between 2008-2012), each observed remotely by one STEREO spacecraft, to the interplanetary coronal mass ejection (ICME) speed and arrival time observed at in situ observatories (STEREO PLASTIC/IMPACT, Wind SWE/MFI). We use croissant modeling for STEREO/COR2, and with a single-spacecraft STEREO/HI instrument, we track each CME to 34.9 ± 7.1 degree elongation from the Sun with J-maps constructed with the SATPLOT tool. We then fit geometrical models to each track, assuming different CME front shapes (Fixed-Φ, Harmonic Mean, Self-Similar Expansion), and constant CME speed and direction. We find no significant preference in the predictive capability for any of the three geometrical modeling methods used on the full event list, consisting of front- and backsided, slow and fast CMEs (up to 2700 km s-1). The absolute difference between predicted and observed ICME arrival times is 8.1 ± 6.4 hours (rms value of 10.9h), and speeds are consistent within 284 ± 291 km s-1, including the geometric effects of CME apex or flank encounters. We derive new empirical corrections to the imaging results, enhancing the performance of the arrival time predictions to 6.1 ± 5.0 hours (rms value of 7.9h), and the speed predictions to 53 ± 50 km s-1, for this particular set of events. The prediction lead time is around 1 day (-26.4 ± 15.3h). CME directions given by

  15. Brachial artery pseudoaneurysm

    PubMed Central

    Kemp, Katie; Radwan, Rami; Shingler, Guy; Davies, Chris

    2014-01-01

    We describe a case of an elderly man who presented with an upper arm swelling that had developed following a humeral fracture 8 months previously. The swelling was painless but associated with significantly diminished motor function of his right hand and concurrent paraesthaesia. On examination, a large pulsatile mass was identified and CT angiography confirmed the presence of an 11×7 cm brachial artery pseudoaneurysm. The patient underwent surgical repair in which a fragment of the humerus was found to have punctured the brachial artery resulting in a pseudoaneurysm. The patient had an uncomplicated postoperative period and was discharged 2 days later having regained some motor function in his right hand. PMID:24859555

  16. Predicting the Arrival Time of Coronal Mass Ejections with the Graduated Cylindrical Shell and Drag Force Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Tong; Wang, Yikang; Wan, Linfeng; Cheng, Xin; Ding, Mingde; Zhang, Jie

    2015-06-01

    Accurately predicting the arrival of coronal mass ejections (CMEs) to the Earth based on remote images is of critical significance for the study of space weather. In this paper, we make a statistical study of 21 Earth-directed CMEs, specifically exploring the relationship between CME initial speeds and transit times. The initial speed of a CME is obtained by fitting the CME with the Graduated Cylindrical Shell model and is thus free of projection effects. We then use the drag force model to fit results of the transit time versus the initial speed. By adopting different drag regimes, i.e., the viscous, aerodynamics, and hybrid regimes, we get similar results, with a least mean estimation error of the hybrid model of 12.9 hr. CMEs with a propagation angle (the angle between the propagation direction and the Sun–Earth line) larger than their half-angular widths arrive at the Earth with an angular deviation caused by factors other than the radial solar wind drag. The drag force model cannot be reliably applied to such events. If we exclude these events in the sample, the prediction accuracy can be improved, i.e., the estimation error reduces to 6.8 hr. This work suggests that it is viable to predict the arrival time of CMEs to the Earth based on the initial parameters with fairly good accuracy. Thus, it provides a method of forecasting space weather 1–5 days following the occurrence of CMEs.

  17. Determination of left ventricular ejection fraction by visual estimation during real-time two-dimensional echocardiography

    SciTech Connect

    Rich, S.; Sheikh, A.; Gallastegui, J.; Kondos, G.T.; Mason, T.; Lam, W.

    1982-09-01

    It has been shown that the measured reduction in the cross-sectional area of the left ventricle (LV), as viewed in the short axis, closely approximates its ejection fraction (EF). We assessed the reliability of using two-dimensional echocardiography (2DE) to visually estimate the EF during real-time viewing, without the need of digitizers, planimetry, or calculations. Twenty-five adult hospitalized patients with either suspected or known cardiac disease were evaluated prospectively. Each patient also had gated nuclear angiography during the same admission, and 14 had cardiac catheterization with left ventriculography. The EF was determined by 2DE using a visual estimate of the percent area reduction of the LV cavity in the short-axis view at the level of the papillary muscles. All 2 DE studies were read by two or more blinded reviewers, with a value for the EF to the nearest 2.5% determined by consensus. These values correlated closely to the values determined in all 25 patients with gated nuclear angiography (r . 0.927) and the 14 patients who had left ventriculography (r . 0.935). We believe that this method of visually estimating the LVEF will enable echocardiographers to easily use 2 DE for a reliable and instantaneous assessment of ventricular function, without the need of sophisticated analytical equipment.

  18. Brachial plexus injury in newborns

    MedlinePlus

    ... and vascular disorders. In: Fenichel GM, ed. Neonatal Neurology . 4th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Churchill Livingstone; 2006: ... CB, Kratz JR, Jelin AC, Gelfand AA. Child neurology: brachial plexus birth injury: what every neurologist needs ...

  19. Uncovering heart failure with preserved ejection fraction in patients with type 2 diabetes in primary care: time for a change.

    PubMed

    Boonman-de Winter, L J M; Cramer, M J; Hoes, A W; Rutten, F H

    2016-04-01

    Undetected heart failure appears to be an important health problem in patients with type 2 diabetes and aged ≥ 60 years. The prevalence of previously unknown heart failure in these patients is high, steeply rises with age, and is overall higher in women than in men. The majority of the patients with newly detected heart failure have a preserved ejection fraction. A diagnostic algorithm to detect or exclude heart failure in these patients with variables from the medical files combined with items from history taking and physical examination provides a good to excellent accuracy. Annual screening appears to be cost-effective. Both unrecognised heart failure with reduced and with preserved ejection fraction were associated with a clinically relevant lower health status in patients with type 2 diabetes. Also the prognosis of these patients was worse than of those without heart failure. Existing disease-management programs for type 2 diabetes pay insufficient attention to early detection of cardiovascular diseases, including heart failure. We conclude that more attention is needed for detection of heart failure in older patients with type 2 diabetes. PMID:26905581

  20. True aneurysm of brachial artery.

    PubMed

    Hudorović, Narcis; Lovričević, Ivo; Franjić, Dario Bjorn; Brkić, Petar; Tomas, Davor

    2010-10-01

    True upper extremity peripheral artery aneurysms are a rarely encountered arterial disorder. Following computer-tomography angiographic (CT-a) imaging examination, true saccular aneurysm, originating from the left brachial artery was diagnosed in the 77-year-old female without history of trauma. The aneurysm was resected by surgical intervention, and primary repair of the brachial artery was performed by interposition of a part of great saphenous vein harvested from the left groin and creation of two end-to-end anastomoses between interposition graft and previously resected part of brachial artery. No complication was observed during the follow-up. Surgical intervention for upper extremity aneurysms should be initiated without delay. Factors combined with minimal morbidity associated with repair suggest that surgical repair should be performed routinely for true upper extremity arterial aneurysms. PMID:20865459

  1. Ankle-Brachial Index, Toe-Brachial Index, and Pulse Volume Recording in Healthy Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Masaki, Hisao; Yunoki, Yasuhiro; Tabuchi, Atushi; Morita, Ichiro; Mohri, Satoshi; Tanemoto, Kazuo

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To clarify the characteristics of ankle-brachial index (ABI), toe-brachial index (TBI), and pulse volume recording (PVR) of the ankle with brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV) in healthy young adults. Material and Methods: We analyzed ABI, TBI, baPWV, and PVR in the ankle of healthy adults aged 20 to 25 years (median, 20 years) using an automatic oscillometric device between 2002 and 2013. The ABI, baPWV, and PVR in 1282 legs of 641 subjects (301 men and 340 women) and the TBI in 474 toes of 237 subjects (117 men and 120 women) were evaluated. Results: The measured values showed no bilateral differences. ABI and baPWV were higher in men than in women, but TBI was similar in both sexes. ABI <1.0 was observed in 18.1% of the legs in men and in 25.6% in women. TBI <0.7 was observed in 16.2% of the toes in men and 19.1% in women. For ankle PVR, the % mean arterial pressure was higher in women than in men. The upstroke time was <180 ms in most subjects. Conclusions: For young people, ABI <1.0 or TBI <0.7 may not always indicate vascular abnormalities. When evaluating circulatory indexes, age and sex should be considered. PMID:26421072

  2. [Ipsilateral brachial plexus C7 root transfer. Presentation of a case and a literature review].

    PubMed

    Vergara-Amador, Enrique; Ramírez, Alejandro

    2014-01-01

    The C7 root in brachial plexus injuries has been used since 1986, since the first description by Gu at that time. This root can be used completely or partially in ipsilateral or contralateral lesions of the brachial plexus. A review of the literature and the case report of a 21-month-old girl with stab wounds to the neck and section of the C5 root of the right brachial plexus are presented. A transfer of the anterior fibres of the ipsilateral C7 root was performed. At 9 months there was complete recovery of abduction and external rotation of the shoulder. PMID:23474130

  3. ESTIMATING THE ARRIVAL TIME OF EARTH-DIRECTED CORONAL MASS EJECTIONS AT IN SITU SPACECRAFT USING COR AND HI OBSERVATIONS FROM STEREO

    SciTech Connect

    Mishra, Wageesh; Srivastava, Nandita

    2013-07-20

    Predicting the arrival time and transit speed of coronal mass ejections (CMEs) near the Earth is critical to understanding the solar-terrestrial relationship. Even though STEREO observations now provide multiple views of CMEs in the heliosphere, the true speeds derived from stereoscopic reconstruction of SECCHI coronagraph data are not quite sufficient for accurate forecasting of the arrival time at Earth of a majority of CMEs. This uncertainty is due to many factors that change CME kinematics, such as the interaction of two or more CMEs or the interaction of CMEs with the pervading solar wind. In order to understand the propagation of CMEs, we have used the three-dimensional triangulation method on SECCHI coronagraph (COR2) images and geometric triangulation on the J-maps constructed from Heliospheric Imagers HI1 and HI2 data for eight Earth-directed CMEs observed during 2008-2010. Based on the reconstruction, and implementing the drag-based model for the distance where the CMEs could not be tracked unambiguously in the interplanetary (IP) medium, the arrival time of these CMEs have been estimated. These arrival times have also been compared with the actual arrival times as observed by in situ instruments. The analysis reveals the importance of heliospheric imaging for improved forecasting of the arrival time and direction of propagation of CMEs in the IP medium.

  4. Brachial neuritis following a corticosteroid injection.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Matthew; Fulcher, Mark

    2014-01-01

    This report presents a case of brachial neuritis following a subacromial corticosteroid injection. The patient developed an anterior interosseous neuropathy shortly after the injection, with no other trigger being identified. This neuropathy has unfortunately not shown any sign of recovery at 2 years. The authors propose that corticosteroid injection be added to the list of possible triggering events of brachial neuritis and highlight the frequent use of oral corticosteroids in its treatment. (1) The injection of local anaesthetic and corticosteroid should be considered as a potential trigger for brachial neuritis. (2) Brachial neuritis should be considered in the differential diagnosis for patients presenting with severe arm pain and weakness. (3) The nerves originating from the upper trunk of the brachial plexus are most commonly affected. (4) The anterior interosseous nerve is involved in one-third of cases. PMID:24596414

  5. A linear relationship between crystal size and fragment binding time observed crystallographically: implications for fragment library screening using acoustic droplet ejection.

    PubMed

    Cole, Krystal; Roessler, Christian G; Mulé, Elizabeth A; Benson-Xu, Emma J; Mullen, Jeffrey D; Le, Benjamin A; Tieman, Alanna M; Birone, Claire; Brown, Maria; Hernandez, Jesus; Neff, Sherry; Williams, Daniel; Allaire, Marc; Orville, Allen M; Sweet, Robert M; Soares, Alexei S

    2014-01-01

    High throughput screening technologies such as acoustic droplet ejection (ADE) greatly increase the rate at which X-ray diffraction data can be acquired from crystals. One promising high throughput screening application of ADE is to rapidly combine protein crystals with fragment libraries. In this approach, each fragment soaks into a protein crystal either directly on data collection media or on a moving conveyor belt which then delivers the crystals to the X-ray beam. By simultaneously handling multiple crystals combined with fragment specimens, these techniques relax the automounter duty-cycle bottleneck that currently prevents optimal exploitation of third generation synchrotrons. Two factors limit the speed and scope of projects that are suitable for fragment screening using techniques such as ADE. Firstly, in applications where the high throughput screening apparatus is located inside the X-ray station (such as the conveyor belt system described above), the speed of data acquisition is limited by the time required for each fragment to soak into its protein crystal. Secondly, in applications where crystals are combined with fragments directly on data acquisition media (including both of the ADE methods described above), the maximum time that fragments have to soak into crystals is limited by evaporative dehydration of the protein crystals during the fragment soak. Here we demonstrate that both of these problems can be minimized by using small crystals, because the soak time required for a fragment hit to attain high occupancy depends approximately linearly on crystal size. PMID:24988328

  6. A Linear Relationship between Crystal Size and Fragment Binding Time Observed Crystallographically: Implications for Fragment Library Screening Using Acoustic Droplet Ejection

    PubMed Central

    Birone, Claire; Brown, Maria; Hernandez, Jesus; Neff, Sherry; Williams, Daniel; Allaire, Marc; Orville, Allen M.; Sweet, Robert M.; Soares, Alexei S.

    2014-01-01

    High throughput screening technologies such as acoustic droplet ejection (ADE) greatly increase the rate at which X-ray diffraction data can be acquired from crystals. One promising high throughput screening application of ADE is to rapidly combine protein crystals with fragment libraries. In this approach, each fragment soaks into a protein crystal either directly on data collection media or on a moving conveyor belt which then delivers the crystals to the X-ray beam. By simultaneously handling multiple crystals combined with fragment specimens, these techniques relax the automounter duty-cycle bottleneck that currently prevents optimal exploitation of third generation synchrotrons. Two factors limit the speed and scope of projects that are suitable for fragment screening using techniques such as ADE. Firstly, in applications where the high throughput screening apparatus is located inside the X-ray station (such as the conveyor belt system described above), the speed of data acquisition is limited by the time required for each fragment to soak into its protein crystal. Secondly, in applications where crystals are combined with fragments directly on data acquisition media (including both of the ADE methods described above), the maximum time that fragments have to soak into crystals is limited by evaporative dehydration of the protein crystals during the fragment soak. Here we demonstrate that both of these problems can be minimized by using small crystals, because the soak time required for a fragment hit to attain high occupancy depends approximately linearly on crystal size. PMID:24988328

  7. ARRIVAL TIME CALCULATION FOR INTERPLANETARY CORONAL MASS EJECTIONS WITH CIRCULAR FRONTS AND APPLICATION TO STEREO OBSERVATIONS OF THE 2009 FEBRUARY 13 ERUPTION

    SciTech Connect

    Moestl, C.; Rollett, T.; Temmer, M.; Veronig, A. M.; Biernat, H. K.; Lugaz, N.; Farrugia, C. J.; Galvin, A. B.; Davies, J. A.; Harrison, R. A.; Crothers, S.; Luhmann, J. G.; Zhang, T. L.; Baumjohann, W.

    2011-11-01

    One of the goals of the NASA Solar TErestrial RElations Observatory (STEREO) mission is to study the feasibility of forecasting the direction, arrival time, and internal structure of solar coronal mass ejections (CMEs) from a vantage point outside the Sun-Earth line. Through a case study, we discuss the arrival time calculation of interplanetary CMEs (ICMEs) in the ecliptic plane using data from STEREO/SECCHI at large elongations from the Sun in combination with different geometric assumptions about the ICME front shape [fixed-{Phi} (FP): a point and harmonic mean (HM): a circle]. These forecasting techniques use single-spacecraft imaging data and are based on the assumption of constant velocity and direction. We show that for the slow (350 km s{sup -1}) ICME on 2009 February 13-18, observed at quadrature by the two STEREO spacecraft, the results for the arrival time given by the HM approximation are more accurate by 12 hr than those for FP in comparison to in situ observations of solar wind plasma and magnetic field parameters by STEREO/IMPACT/PLASTIC, and by 6 hr for the arrival time at Venus Express (MAG). We propose that the improvement is directly related to the ICME front shape being more accurately described by HM for an ICME with a low inclination of its symmetry axis to the ecliptic. In this case, the ICME has to be tracked to >30{sup 0} elongation to obtain arrival time errors < {+-} 5 hr. A newly derived formula for calculating arrival times with the HM method is also useful for a triangulation technique assuming the same geometry.

  8. Liquid metal drop ejection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khuri-Yakub, B. T.

    1993-01-01

    The aim of this project was to demonstrate the possibility of ejecting liquid metals using drop on demand printing technology. The plan was to make transducers for operation in the 100 MHz frequency range and to use these transducers to demonstrate the ability to eject drops of liquid metals such as gallium. Two transducers were made by indium bonding piezoelectric lithium niobate to quartz buffer rods. The lithium niobate plates were thinned by mechanical polishing to a thickness of 37 microns for operation at 100 MHz. Hemispherical lenses were polished in the opposite ends of the buffer rods. The lenses, which focus the sound waves in the liquid metal, had an F-number equals 1. A mechanical housing was made to hold the transducers and to allow precise control over the liquid level above the lens. We started by demonstrating the ability to eject drops of water on demand. The drops of water had a diameter of 15 microns which corresponds to the wavelength of the sound wave in the water. A videotape of this ejection was made. We then used a mixture of Gallium and Indium (used to lower the melting temperature of the Gallium) to demonstrate the ejection of liquid metal drops. This proved to be difficult because of the oxide skin which forms on the surface of the liquid. In some instances, we were able to eject metal drops, however, this was not consistent and reproducible. An experiment was set up at NASA-Lewis to stabilize the process of drop on demand liquid metal ejection. The object was to place the transducer and liquid metal in a vacuum station so that no oxide would form on the surface. We were successful in demonstrating that liquid metals could be ejected on demand and that this technology could be used for making sheet metal in space.

  9. Stereoscopic Study of the Kinematic Evolution of a Coronal Mass Ejection and Its Driven Shock from the Sun to the Earth and the Prediction of Their Arrival Times

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hess, Phillip; Zhang, Jie

    2014-09-01

    We present a detailed study of the complete evolution of a coronal mass ejection (CME). We have tracked the evolution of both the ejecta and its shock, and further fit the evolution of the fronts to a simple but physics-based analytical model. This study focuses on the CME initiated on the Sun on 2012 July 12 and arriving at the Earth on 2012 July 14. Shock and ejecta fronts were observed by white light images, as well as in situ by the Advanced Composition Explorer satellite. We find that the propagation of the two fronts is not completely dependent upon one another, but can each be modeled in the heliosphere with a drag model that assumes the dominant force of affecting CME evolution to be the aerodynamic drag force of the ambient solar wind. Results indicate that the CME ejecta front undergoes a more rapid deceleration than the shock front within 50 R ⊙ and therefore the propagation of the two fronts is not completely coupled in the heliosphere. Using the graduated cylindrical shell model, as well as data from time-elongation stack plots and in situ signatures, we show that the drag model can accurately describe the behavior of each front, but is more effective with the ejecta. We also show that without the in situ data, based on measurements out to 80 R ⊙ combined with the general values for drag model parameters, the arrival of both the shock and ejecta can be predicted within four hours of arrival.

  10. Stereoscopic study of the kinematic evolution of a coronal mass ejection and its driven shock from the sun to the earth and the prediction of their arrival times

    SciTech Connect

    Hess, Phillip; Zhang, Jie

    2014-09-01

    We present a detailed study of the complete evolution of a coronal mass ejection (CME). We have tracked the evolution of both the ejecta and its shock, and further fit the evolution of the fronts to a simple but physics-based analytical model. This study focuses on the CME initiated on the Sun on 2012 July 12 and arriving at the Earth on 2012 July 14. Shock and ejecta fronts were observed by white light images, as well as in situ by the Advanced Composition Explorer satellite. We find that the propagation of the two fronts is not completely dependent upon one another, but can each be modeled in the heliosphere with a drag model that assumes the dominant force of affecting CME evolution to be the aerodynamic drag force of the ambient solar wind. Results indicate that the CME ejecta front undergoes a more rapid deceleration than the shock front within 50 R {sub ☉} and therefore the propagation of the two fronts is not completely coupled in the heliosphere. Using the graduated cylindrical shell model, as well as data from time-elongation stack plots and in situ signatures, we show that the drag model can accurately describe the behavior of each front, but is more effective with the ejecta. We also show that without the in situ data, based on measurements out to 80 R {sub ☉} combined with the general values for drag model parameters, the arrival of both the shock and ejecta can be predicted within four hours of arrival.

  11. Neurinomas of the brachial plexus: case report.

    PubMed

    Forte, A; Gallinaro, L S; Bertagni, A; Montesano, G; Prece, V; Illuminati, G

    1999-01-01

    Neurinomas, also referred to as neurilemmomas and schwannomas, are rare benign tumours of the peripheral nerves, a low proportion of which arise from the brachial plexus. Authors report a case of an ancient schwannoma arising from the brachial plexus. The tumour, usually asymptomatic, may cause sensory radicular symptoms, or rarely motor deficits in the involved arm. Enucleation of the tumour from the nerve without damage to any of the fascicles is the correct treatment. PMID:10710825

  12. Composition of Coronal Mass Ejections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zurbuchen, T. H.; Weberg, M.; von Steiger, R.; Mewaldt, R. A.; Lepri, S. T.; Antiochos, S. K.

    2016-07-01

    We analyze the physical origin of plasmas that are ejected from the solar corona. To address this issue, we perform a comprehensive analysis of the elemental composition of interplanetary coronal mass ejections (ICMEs) using recently released elemental composition data for Fe, Mg, Si, S, C, N, Ne, and He as compared to O and H. We find that ICMEs exhibit a systematic abundance increase of elements with first ionization potential (FIP) < 10 eV, as well as a significant increase of Ne as compared to quasi-stationary solar wind. ICME plasmas have a stronger FIP effect than slow wind, which indicates either that an FIP process is active during the ICME ejection or that a different type of solar plasma is injected into ICMEs. The observed FIP fractionation is largest during times when the Fe ionic charge states are elevated above Q Fe > 12.0. For ICMEs with elevated charge states, the FIP effect is enhanced by 70% over that of the slow wind. We argue that the compositionally hot parts of ICMEs are active region loops that do not normally have access to the heliosphere through the processes that give rise to solar wind. We also discuss the implications of this result for solar energetic particles accelerated during solar eruptions and for the origin of the slow wind itself.

  13. Heliocentric Distance of Coronal Mass Ejections at the Time of Energetic Particle Release: Revisiting the Ground Level Enhancement Events of Solar Cycle 23

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gopalswamy, Natchimuthuk

    2011-01-01

    Using the kinematics of coronal mass ejections (CMEs), onset time of soft X-ray flares, and the finite size of the pre-eruption CME structure, we derive the heliocentric distane at which the energetic particles during the ground level enhancement (GLE) events of Solar Cycle 23. We find that the GLE particles are released when the CMEs reach an average heliocentric distance of approx.3.25 solar radii (Rs). From this we infer that the shocks accelerating the particles are located at similar heights. Type II radio burst observations indicate that the CMEs are at much lower distances (average approx.1.4 Rs) when the CME-driven shock first forms. The shock seems to travel approx.1.8 Rs over a period of approox.30 min on the average before releasing the GLE particles. In deriving these results, we made three assumptions that have observational support: (i) the CME lift off occurs from an initial distance of about 1.25 Rs; (ii) the flare onset and CME onset are one and the same because these are two different manifestations of the same eruption; and (iii) the CME has positive acceleration from the onset to the first appearance in the coronagraphic field of view (2.5 to 6 Rs). Observations of coronal cavities in eclipse pictures and in coronagraphic images justify the assumption (i). The close relationship between the flare reconnection magnetic flux and the azimuthal flux of interplanetary magnetic clouds justify assumption (ii) consistent with the standard model (CSHKP) of solar eruption. Coronagraphic observations made close to the solar surface indicate a large positive acceleration of CMEs to a heliocentric distance of approx.3 Rs before they start slowing down due to the drag force. The inferred acceleration (approx.1.5 km/s/s) is consistent with reported values in the literature.

  14. True Aneurysm of the Proximal Brachial Artery

    PubMed Central

    Ramakrishna, Pinjala; Mahapatra, Sandeep; Rajesh, Ratna

    2013-01-01

    A 35-year-old farmer presented with complaints of pain in the right upper limb for 1 month and bluish discoloration of the right-hand finger tips with tingling and numbness. He sustained injury to the right upper limb while lifting a heavy object 1 mo previously. There was an ovoid swelling of 4 × 2 cm on the medial aspect of the right arm, 12 cm above the medial epicondyle at the level of the armpit with visible pulsations. There was distal neurovascular deficit. Duplex scan of the right upper limb arterial system revealed a pseudoaneurysm of the proximal right brachial artery, with dampened monophasic flow in the ulnar artery and no flow in the radial artery. Spiral computed tomography angiogram showed the presence of an echogenic periarterial lesion in the proximal brachial artery suggestive of pseudoaneurysm or an extrinsic compression by hematoma. Distal brachial artery was found to have filled with thrombus, with non-opacification of the radial and the distal ulnar artery. The patient was posted for excision of the aneurysmal arterial segment. A 5-cm-long reversed segment of vein graft was interposed in between the cut ends of the brachial artery. Histopathology: Specimen shows a part of the vessel wall composed of intimal, medial, and adventitial layers with intraluminal thrombus showing evidence of recanalization suggestive of true aneurysm of the brachial artery. PMID:26798692

  15. Coronal mass ejections

    SciTech Connect

    Steinolfson, R.S.

    1990-01-01

    Coronal mass ejections (CMEs) are now recognized as an important component of the large-scale evolution of the solar corona. Some representative observations of CMEs are reviewed with emphasis on more recent results. Recent observations and theory are examined as they relate to the following aspects of CMEs: (1) the role of waves in determining the white-light signature; and (2) the mechanism by which the CME is driven (or launched) into the corona.

  16. Polymer ejection from strong spherical confinement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piili, J.; Linna, R. P.

    2015-12-01

    We examine the ejection of an initially strongly confined flexible polymer from a spherical capsid through a nanoscale pore. We use molecular dynamics for unprecedentedly high initial monomer densities. We show that the time for an individual monomer to eject grows exponentially with the number of ejected monomers. By measurements of the force at the pore we show this dependence to be a consequence of the excess free energy of the polymer due to confinement growing exponentially with the number of monomers initially inside the capsid. This growth relates closely to the divergence of mixing energy in the Flory-Huggins theory at large concentration. We show that the pressure inside the capsid driving the ejection dominates the process that is characterized by the ejection time growing linearly with the lengths of different polymers. Waiting time profiles would indicate that the superlinear dependence obtained for polymers amenable to computer simulations results from a finite-size effect due to the final retraction of polymers' tails from capsids.

  17. Early transient radiation-induced brachial plexopathy in locally advanced head and neck cancer

    PubMed Central

    Etiz, Durmus

    2016-01-01

    Aim of the study Early transient brachial plexopathy following radiotherapy (RT) in patients with head and neck cancer may be underreported and associated with a dose-response. Our purpose was to determine the incidence of early transient radiation-ınduced brachial plexopathy (RIBP) in patients receiving primary RT (± chemotherapy) for locally advanced head and neck cancer (HNC). Material and methods Twenty-seven locally advanced HNC patients who have no finding of brachial plexopathy at the diagnosis were evaluated 3 times by a specifically developed 13-item questionnaire for determining early transient RIBP. The 54 brachial plexus in 27 patients were delineated and dose volume histograms were calculated. Results Median follow-up period was 28 (range: 15–40) months. The mean BP volume was 7.9 ±3.6 cm3, and the mean and maximum doses to the BP were 45.3 (range: 32.3–59.3) Gy, and 59.4 (range: 41.4–70.3) Gy, respectively. Maximum dose to the BP was ≥ 70 Gy only in 2 nasopharyngeal cancer patients. Two (7%) early transient RIBP were reported at 7th and 8th month after RT under maximum 67.17 and 55.37 Gy, and mean 52.95 and 38.60 Gy RT doses. Conclusions Two (7%) early RIBP were seen in the patient group, although brachial plexus maximum doses were ≥ 66 Gy in 75% of patients. PMID:27095943

  18. Herpetic Brachial Plexopathy: Application of Brachial Plexus Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Ultrasound-Guided Corticosteroid Injection.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jeong-Gil; Chung, Sun G

    2016-05-01

    Herpes zoster, commonly known as shingles, is an infectious viral disease characterized by painful, unilateral skin blisters occurring in specific sensory dermatomes. Motor paresis is reported in 0.5% to 5% of patients. Although the mechanism of zoster paresis is still unclear, the virus can spread from the dorsal root ganglia to the anterior horn cell or anterior spinal nerve roots. It rarely involves the brachial plexus. We report a case of brachial plexitis following herpes zoster infection in which pathological lesions were diagnosed using brachial plexus magnetic resonance imaging and treated with ultrasound-guided perineural corticosteroid injection. PMID:26829085

  19. Brachial Artery Injury Accompanying Closed Elbow Dislocations

    PubMed Central

    Harnarayan, Patrick; Cawich, Shamir O.; Harnanan, Dave; Budhooram, Steve

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Brachial artery injuries from elbow dislocations are uncommon, but they may lead to disastrous consequences if the diagnosis is delayed. Presentation of case We report a case of a patient who sustained a fall onto the elbow, with dislocation and brachial artery injury, despite an ipsilateral radial pulse being palpable. Discussion Clinicians should maintain a high index of suspicion for brachial injury when patients present with a fall onto the elbow coupled with signs suggestive of fracture-dislocation, nerve injury and/or signs of limb ischemia. Frank ischamia, however, is uncommon as there is a rich collateral anastomosis in the upper limb. Conclusion A high index of suspicion should be maintained in order to make the diagnosis early. Exploration with excision of the injured segment and reverse vein interposition grafting is the treatment of choice in these cases. PMID:25644552

  20. Brachial plexus variations during the fetal period.

    PubMed

    Woźniak, Jowita; Kędzia, Alicja; Dudek, Krzysztof

    2012-12-01

    The brachial plexus is an important nervous system structure. It can be injured during the perinatal period and by postnatal damage. The goal of this study was to assess human fetal brachial plexus variability. A total of 220 brachial plexuses were surgically prepared from 110 human fetuses aged 14-32 weeks of fetal life (50 females and 60 males) ranging in CRL from 80 to 233 mm. The study incorporated the following methods: dissectional and anthropological, digital image acquisition, digital image processing using Image J and GIMP software, and statistical methods (Statistica 9.0). Symmetry and sexual dimorphism were examined. Anomalies of the brachial plexuses were observed in 117 (53.18 %) cases. No sexual dimorphism was found. It was observed that cord variations occurred more often on the left side. Division variants (33.64 %) occurred most often, but also cords (18.18 %) as well as root nerves and terminal ramifications (15.90 %) were found. Trunk anomalies were rare and occurred in only 5.45 % of plexuses. Three height types of median nerve roots in combination with the nerve were distinguished. In one-third of cases, median nerve root connections were found below the axillary fossa and even half in the proximal part of the humerus. In conclusion, the brachial plexus was characterized for anatomical structural variability. Most often division and cord variations were observed. Anomalies occurred regardless of sex or body side except for cord variants. Brachial plexus variation recognition is significant from the neurosurgical and traumatological point of view. PMID:22945314

  1. Magnetic resonance neurography of the brachial plexus

    PubMed Central

    Upadhyaya, Vaishali; Upadhyaya, Divya Narain; Kumar, Adarsh; Pandey, Ashok Kumar; Gujral, Ratni; Singh, Arun Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is being increasingly recognised all over the world as the imaging modality of choice for brachial plexus and peripheral nerve lesions. Recent refinements in MRI protocols have helped in imaging nerve tissue with greater clarity thereby helping in the identification, localisation and classification of nerve lesions with greater confidence than was possible till now. This article on Magnetic Resonance Neurography (MRN) is based on the authors’ experience of imaging the brachial plexus and peripheral nerves using these protocols over the last several years. PMID:26424974

  2. Time to retrieve the best benefits from renin angiotensin aldosterone system (RAAS) inhibition in heart failure patients with reduced ejection fraction: lessons from randomized controlled trials and registries.

    PubMed

    Rossignol, Patrick; Zannad, Faiez; Pitt, Bertram

    2014-12-20

    Numerous registries, including the most recent ESC Euro-observational registry, have reported a large and persistent gap between real-life practice in the use of life-saving evidence-based therapies (such as renin angiotensin antagonists, beta-blockers, mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists) and recommended practices in international guidelines. Although the use of multiple renin angiotensin aldosterone system-inhibitors is associated with the development of worsening renal function and hyperkalemia in patients with heart failure and reduced ejection fraction, increased efforts should be expended to initiate and maintain target doses of these agents so as to provide their benefits on mortality and hospitalizations for heart failure. PMID:25465821

  3. What has changed in brachial plexus surgery?

    PubMed Central

    de Rezende, Marcelo Rosa; Silva, Gustavo Bersani; de Paula, Emygdio José Leomil; Junior, Rames Mattar; de Camargo, Olavo Pires

    2013-01-01

    Brachial plexus injuries, in all their severity and complexity, have been extensively studied. Although brachial plexus injuries are associated with serious and often definitive sequelae, many concepts have changed since the 1950s, when this pathological condition began to be treated more aggressively. Looking back over the last 20 years, it can be seen that the entire approach, from diagnosis to treatment, has changed significantly. Some concepts have become better established, while others have been introduced; thus, it can be said that currently, something can always be offered in terms of functional recovery, regardless of the degree of injury. Advances in microsurgical techniques have enabled improved results after neurolysis and have made it possible to perform neurotization, which has undoubtedly become the greatest differential in treating brachial plexus injuries. Improvements in imaging devices and electrical studies have allowed quick decisions that are reflected in better surgical outcomes. In this review, we intend to show the many developments in brachial plexus surgery that have significantly changed the results and have provided hope to the victims of this serious injury. PMID:23644864

  4. Magnetic resonance imaging in brachial plexus injury.

    PubMed

    Caranci, F; Briganti, F; La Porta, M; Antinolfi, G; Cesarano, E; Fonio, P; Brunese, L; Coppolino, F

    2013-08-01

    Brachial plexus injury represents the most severe nerve injury of the extremities. While obstetric brachial plexus injury has showed a reduction in the number of cases due to the improvements in obstetric care, brachial plexus injury in the adult is an increasingly common clinical problem. The therapeutic measures depend on the pathologic condition and the location of the injury: Preganglionic avulsions are usually not amenable to surgical repair; function of some denervated muscles can be restored with nerve transfers from intercostals or accessory nerves and contralateral C7 transfer. Postganglionic avulsions are repaired with excision of the damaged segment and nerve autograft between nerve ends or followed up conservatively. Magnetic resonance imaging is the modality of choice for depicting the anatomy and pathology of the brachial plexus: It demonstrates the location of the nerve damage (crucial for optimal treatment planning), depicts the nerve continuity (with or without neuroma formation), or may show a completely disrupted/avulsed nerve, thereby aiding in nerve-injury grading for preoperative planning. Computed tomography myelography has the advantage of a higher spatial resolution in demonstration of nerve roots compared with MR myelography; however, it is invasive and shows some difficulties in the depiction of some pseudomeningoceles with little or no communication with the dural sac. PMID:23949940

  5. Driving mechanisms for coronal mass ejections.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinolfson, R. S.

    Mass ejections are new bright features observed in white-light that give the appearance of outward moving material. An acknowledged key ingredient in both the ejection and its progenitor is the magnetic field, although the precise nature of its role, particularily in the driving mechanism, remains unclear. The author begins by reviewing analyses of coordinated data sets that establish the relative time sequence and spatial location of individually identified phenomena (such as the flare impulsive phase, eruptive prominence, CME trajectory, etc.) that better define potential drivers. Some of the models and numerical simulations that have been developed with the intent of determining the physical interactions in the driving mechanism and coronal mass ejection are then considered.

  6. Whipple's ejection model and the Geminid stream

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, J.; Poole, L. M. G.; Webster, A. R.

    2016-02-01

    Many attempts to model the Geminid meteor stream have been based on Whipple's model for the ejection of meteoroids from comets. Using the most accurate data available from the IAU photographic meteor data base and by considering the scatter of the secularly near-invariant quantities of the simulated ejected test particles predicted by applying Whipple's model to the asteroid Phaethon - the prime candidate for the progenitor of the Geminid stream - we show that the model predicts ejection speeds that are about a factor of at least 3 too low. We have considered the other candidate progenitors: the asteroids 2005 UD and 1999 YC, and find neither of these to be credible candidates although we find that 2005 is the likely parent of the day-time Sextantid stream.

  7. Different associations between beta-blockers and other antihypertensive medication combinations with brachial blood pressure and aortic waveform parameters

    PubMed Central

    Sluyter, John D.; Hughes, Alun D.; Lowe, Andrew; Parker, Kim H.; Camargo, Carlos A.; Hametner, Bernhard; Wassertheurer, Siegfried; Scragg, Robert K.R.

    2016-01-01

    Background Comparing the relationships of antihypertensive medications with brachial blood pressure (BP) and aortic waveform parameters may help clinicians to predict the effect on the latter in brachial BP-based antihypertensive therapy. We aimed to make such comparisons with new waveform measures and a wider range of antihypertensive regimens than examined previously. Methods Cross-sectional analysis of 2933 adults (61% male; aged 50–84 years): 1637 on antihypertensive treatment and 1296 untreated hypertensives. Sixteen medicine regimens of up to 4 combinations of drugs from 6 antihypertensive classes were analysed. Aortic systolic BP, augmentation index (AIx), excess pressure integral (EPI), backward pressure amplitude (Pb), reflection index (RI) and pulse wave velocity (PWV) were calculated from aortic pressure waveforms derived from suprasystolic brachial measurement. Results Forest plots of single-drug class comparisons across regimens with the same number of drugs (for between 1- and 3-drug regimens) revealed that AIx, Pb, RI and/or loge(EPI) were higher (maximum difference = 5.6%, 2.2 mm Hg, 0.0192 and 0.13 loge(mm Hg · s), respectively) with the use of a beta-blocker compared with vasodilators and diuretics, despite no brachial systolic and diastolic BP differences. These differences were reduced (by 34–57%) or eliminated after adjustment for heart rate, and similar effects occurred when controlling for systolic ejection period or diastolic duration. Conclusions Beta-blocker effects on brachial BP may overestimate effects on aortic waveform parameters. Compared to other antihypertensives, beta-blockers have weaker associations with wave reflection measures and EPI; this is predominantly due to influences on heart rate. PMID:27340919

  8. Axillary brachial plexus blockade in moyamoya disease?

    PubMed Central

    Yalcin, Saban; Cece, Hasan; Nacar, Halil; Karahan, Mahmut Alp

    2011-01-01

    Moyamoya disease is characterized by steno-occlusive changes of the intracranial internal carotid arteries. Cerebral blood flow and metabolism are strictly impaired. The goal in perioperative anaesthetic management is to preserve the stability between oxygen supply and demand in the brain. Peripheral nerve blockade allows excellent neurological status monitoring and maintains haemodynamic stability which is very important in this patient group. Herein, we present an axillary brachial plexus blockade in a moyamoya patient operated for radius fracture. PMID:21712873

  9. Axillary brachial plexus blockade in moyamoya disease?

    PubMed

    Yalcin, Saban; Cece, Hasan; Nacar, Halil; Karahan, Mahmut Alp

    2011-03-01

    Moyamoya disease is characterized by steno-occlusive changes of the intracranial internal carotid arteries. Cerebral blood flow and metabolism are strictly impaired. The goal in perioperative anaesthetic management is to preserve the stability between oxygen supply and demand in the brain. Peripheral nerve blockade allows excellent neurological status monitoring and maintains haemodynamic stability which is very important in this patient group. Herein, we present an axillary brachial plexus blockade in a moyamoya patient operated for radius fracture. PMID:21712873

  10. Ejection Fraction Heart Failure Measurement

    MedlinePlus

    ... 70. You can have a normal ejection fraction reading and still have heart failure (called HFpEF or ... to be made. Here we delve into the importance of shared decision making. HF Resources For Life ...

  11. Supraclavicular Brachial Plexus Block for Arteriovenous Hemodialysis Access Procedures.

    PubMed

    Hull, Jeffrey; Heath, Jean; Bishop, Wendy

    2016-05-01

    Ultrasound-guided supraclavicular brachial plexus block using 1% and 2% lidocaine in 21 procedures is reported. Average procedure time was 5.1 minutes (± 1.2 min; range, 2-8 min). Average time of onset and duration were 4.8 minutes (± 3.7 min; range, 0-10 min) and 77.9 minutes (± 26.7 min; range, 44-133 min), respectively, for sensory block and 8.4 minutes (± 5.7 min; range, 3-23 min) and 99 minutes (± 40.5 min; range, 45-171 min), respectively, for motor block. The pain scale assessment averaged 0.4 (± 1.1; range, 0-4). There were no complications. PMID:27106648

  12. Portal Stability Controls Dynamics of DNA Ejection from Phage.

    PubMed

    Freeman, Krista G; Behrens, Manja A; Streletzky, Kiril A; Olsson, Ulf; Evilevitch, Alex

    2016-07-01

    Through a unique combination of time-resolved single-molecule (cryo-TEM) and bulk measurements (light scattering and small-angle X-ray scattering), we provide a detailed study of the dynamics of stochastic DNA ejection events from phage λ. We reveal that both binding with the specific phage receptor, LamB, and thermo-mechanical destabilization of the portal vertex on the capsid are required for initiation of ejection of the pressurized λ-DNA from the phage. Specifically, we found that a measurable activation energy barrier for initiation of DNA ejection with LamB present, Ea = (1.2 ± 0.1) × 10(-19) J/phage (corresponding to ∼28 kTbody/phage at Tbody = 37 °C), results in 15 times increased rate of ejection event dynamics when the temperature is raised from 15 to 45 °C (7.5 min versus 30 s average lag time for initiation of ejection). This suggests that phages have a double fail-safe mechanism for ejection-in addition to receptor binding, phage must also overcome (through thermal energy and internal DNA pressure) an energy barrier for DNA ejection. This energy barrier ensures that viral genome ejection into cells occurs with high efficiency only when the temperature conditions are favorable for genome replication. At lower suboptimal temperatures, the infectious phage titer is preserved over much longer times, since DNA ejection dynamics is strongly inhibited even in the presence of solubilized receptor or susceptible cells. This work also establishes a light scattering based approach to investigate the influence of external solution conditions, mimicking those of the bacterial cytoplasm, on the stability of the viral capsid portal, which is directly linked to dynamics of virion deactivation. PMID:27176921

  13. Combined Spinal Cord Stimulation and Peripheral Nerve Stimulation for Brachial Plexopathy: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Choi, Ji Hye; Choi, Shu Chung; Kim, Dong Kyu; Sung, Choon Ho; Chon, Jin Young; Hong, Sung Jin; Lee, Ji Young; Moon, Ho Sik

    2016-03-01

    Brachial plexopathy usually results from an iatrogenic brachial plexus injury and can sometimes cause severe chronic pain and disability. There are a number of possible treatments for this condition, including medication, physical therapy, nerve blocks, and neuromodulation, but they are not always successful. Recently, combined spinal cord stimulation (SCS) and peripheral nerve stimulation (PNS) have been tried for various chronic pain diseases because of their different mechanisms of action.Here, we describe the case of a 54-year-old man who was diagnosed with brachial plexopathy 8 years ago. He underwent video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery to remove a superior mediastinal mass. However, his brachial plexus was damaged during the surgery. Although he had received various treatments, the pain did not improve. For the management of intractable severe pain, he underwent SCS 2 years ago, which initially reduced his pain from numeric rating scale (NRS) 10/10 to NRS 4 - 5/10, but the pain then gradually increased, reaching NRS 8/10, 6 months ago. At that time, he was refractory to other treatments, and we therefore applied PNS in combination with SCS. The PNS electrode was positioned on the radial nerve under ultrasound guidance. After combined PNS and SCS, his background pain disappeared, although a breakthrough pain (NRS 3 - 4/10) was caused intermittently by light touch. Furthermore, the patient's need for analgesics decreased, and he was satisfied with the outcome of this combined treatment. We concluded that combined SCS and PNS is a very useful treatment modality, which can stimulate the target nerve both directly and indirectly, and hence, relieve pain from brachial plexopathy. PMID:27008302

  14. The Accretion Flow–Discrete Ejection Connection in GRS 1915+105

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Punsly, Brian; Rodriguez, Jérôme; Trushkin, Sergei A.

    2016-07-01

    The microquasar GRS 1915+105 is known for its spectacular discrete ejections. They occur unexpectedly, thus their inception has escaped direct observation. It has been shown that the X-ray flux increases in the hours leading up to a major ejection. In this article, we consider the serendipitous interferometric monitoring of a modest version of a discrete ejection described in Reid et al. that would have otherwise escaped detection in daily radio light curves. The observation begins ˜1 hr after the onset of the ejection, providing unprecedented accuracy on the estimate of the ejection time. The astrometric measurements allow us to determine the time of ejection as {{MJD}} {56436.274}-0.013+0.016, i.e., within a precision of 41 minutes (95% confidence). Just like larger flares, we find that the X-ray luminosity increases in last 2–4 hr preceding ejection. Our finite temporal resolution indicates that this elevated X-ray flux persists within {21.8}-19.1+22.6 minutes of the ejection with 95% confidence, the highest temporal precision of the X-ray–superluminal ejection connection to date. This observation provides direct evidence that the physics that launches major flares occurs on smaller scales as well (lower radio flux and shorter ejection episodes). The observation of a X-ray spike prior to a discrete ejection, although of very modest amplitude, suggests that the process linking accretion behavior to ejection is general from the smallest scales to high luminosity major superluminal flares.

  15. Idiopathic brachial plexus neuritis after laparoscopic treatment of endometriosis: a complication that may mimic position-related brachial plexus injury.

    PubMed

    Minas, Vasileios; Aust, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    We report the case of a 37-year-old woman who developed idiopathic brachial plexus neuritis, also referred to as Parsonage-Turner syndrome, after laparoscopic excision of endometriosis. The differential diagnosis between this non-position-related neuritis and brachial plexus injury is discussed. The aim of this report was to raise awareness on this distressing postoperative complication. PMID:24183278

  16. Lightning strike-induced brachial plexopathy

    PubMed Central

    Bhargava, Amita N.; Kasundra, Gaurav M.; Khichar, Subhakaran; Bhushan, Bharat S. K.

    2014-01-01

    We describe a patient who presented with a history of lightning strike injury. Following the injury, he sustained acute right upper limb weakness with pain. Clinically, the lesion was located to the upper and middle trunk of the right brachial plexus, and the same confirmed with electrophysiological studies. Nerve damage due to lightning injuries is considered very rare, and a plexus damage has been described infrequently, if ever. Thus, the proposed hypothesis that lightning rarely causes neuropathy, as against high-voltage electric current, due to its shorter duration of exposure not causing severe burns which lead to nerve damage, needs to be reconsidered. PMID:25288846

  17. Central Adaptation following Brachial Plexus Injury.

    PubMed

    Simon, Neil G; Franz, Colin K; Gupta, Nalin; Alden, Tord; Kliot, Michel

    2016-01-01

    Brachial plexus trauma (BPT) often affects young patients and may result in lasting functional deficits. Standard care following BPT involves monitoring for clinical and electrophysiological evidence of muscle reinnervation, with surgical treatment decisions based on the presence or absence of spontaneous recovery. Data are emerging to suggest that central and peripheral adaptation may play a role in recovery following BPT. The present review highlights adaptive and maladaptive mechanisms of central and peripheral nervous system changes following BPT that may contribute to functional outcomes. Rehabilitation and other treatment strategies that harness or modulate these intrinsic adaptive mechanisms may improve functional outcomes following BPT. PMID:26409073

  18. MHD shocks in coronal mass ejections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steinolfson, R. S.

    1991-01-01

    The primary objective of this research program is the study of the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) shocks and nonlinear simple waves produced as a result of the interaction of ejected lower coronal plasma with the ambient corona. The types of shocks and nonlinear simple waves produced for representative coronal conditions and disturbance velocities were determined. The wave system and the interactions between the ejecta and ambient corona were studied using both analytic theory and numerical solutions of the time-dependent, nonlinear MHD equations. Observations from the SMM coronagraph/polarimeter provided both guidance and motivation and are used extensively in evaluating the results. As a natural consequence of the comparisons with the data, the simulations assisted in better understanding the physical interactions in coronal mass ejections (CME's).

  19. Evidence linking coronal mass ejections with interplanetary magnetic clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, R. M.; Hildner, E.

    1983-01-01

    Using proxy data for the occurrence of those mass ejections from the solar corona which are directed earthward, we investigate the association between the post-1970 interplanetary magnetic clouds of Klein and Burlaga and coronal mass ejections. The evidence linking magnetic clouds following shocks with coronal mass ejections is striking; six of nine clouds observed at Earth were preceded an appropriate time earlier by meter-wave type II radio bursts indicative of coronal shock waves and coronal mass ejections occurring near central meridian. During the selected periods when no clouds were detected near Earth, the only type II bursts reported were associated with solar activity near the limbs. Where the proxy solar data to be sought are not so clearly suggested, that is, for clouds preceding interaction regions and clouds within cold magnetic enhancements, the evidence linking the clouds and coronal mass ejections is not as clear; proxy data usually suggest many candidate mass-ejection events for each cloud. Overall, the data are consistent with and support the hypothesis suggested by Klein and Burlaga that magnetic clouds observed with spacecraft at 1 AU are manifestations of solar coronal mass ejection transients.

  20. Transient ion ejection during nanocomposite thermite reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Lei; Piekiel, Nicholas; Chowdhury, Snehaunshu; Lee, Donggeun; Zachariah, Michael R.

    2009-10-01

    We observe an intense ion pulse from nanocomposite thermite reactions, which we temporally probe using a recently developed temperature jump/time of flight mass spectrometer. These ion pulses are observed to be much shorter in duration than the overall thermite reaction time. Ion ejection appears in stages as positive ions are ejected prior to nanocomposite thermite ignition, and ignition of the thermite mixtures leads to a second ionization step which is primarily dominated by negative species. The positive species are identified from mass spectrometric measurements and the results show that the positive ion species are comprised of Na ions with minor species of Al and K ions. This observation can be explained by a diffusion based ion-current mechanism, in which strong Al ion diffusion flux formed through the oxide shell, and the surface Na and K ions from salt contaminations are ejected by the strong electrostatic repulsion. The fact that the negative ionization step occurs during the ignition event suggests a strong relation between the nanocomposite thermite reaction and the negative ionization process.

  1. Dose–Volume Modeling of Brachial Plexus-Associated Neuropathy After Radiation Therapy for Head-and-Neck Cancer: Findings From a Prospective Screening Protocol

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Allen M.; Wang, Pin-Chieh; Daly, Megan E.; Cui, Jing; Hall, William H.; Vijayakumar, Srinivasan; Phillips, Theodore L.; Farwell, D. Gregory; Purdy, James A.

    2014-03-15

    Purpose: Data from a prospective screening protocol administered for patients previously irradiated for head-and-neck cancer was analyzed to identify dosimetric predictors of brachial plexus-associated neuropathy. Methods and Materials: Three hundred fifty-two patients who had previously completed radiation therapy for squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck were prospectively screened from August 2007 to April 2013 using a standardized self-administered instrument for symptoms of neuropathy thought to be related to brachial plexus injury. All patients were disease-free at the time of screening. The median time from radiation therapy was 40 months (range, 6-111 months). A total of 177 patients (50%) underwent neck dissection. Two hundred twenty-one patients (63%) received concurrent chemotherapy. Results: Fifty-one patients (14%) reported brachial plexus-related neuropathic symptoms with the most common being ipsilateral pain (50%), numbness/tingling (40%), and motor weakness and/or muscle atrophy (25%). The 3- and 5-year estimates of freedom from brachial plexus-associated neuropathy were 86% and 81%, respectively. Clinical/pathological N3 disease (P<.001) and maximum radiation dose to the ipsilateral brachial plexus (P=.01) were significantly associated with neuropathic symptoms. Cox regression analysis revealed significant dose–volume effects for brachial plexus-associated neuropathy. The volume of the ipsilateral brachial plexus receiving >70 Gy (V70) predicted for symptoms, with the incidence increasing with V70 >10% (P<.001). A correlation was also observed for the volume receiving >74 Gy (V74) among patients treated without neck dissection, with a cutoff of 4% predictive of symptoms (P=.038). Conclusions: Dose–volume guidelines were developed for radiation planning that may limit brachial plexus-related neuropathies.

  2. Shoulder pain and isolated brachial plexopathy.

    PubMed

    Kishan, Amar U; Syed, Sana; Fiorito-Torres, Franchesca; Thakore-James, Manisha

    2012-01-01

    Pancoast syndrome, classically considered as a constellation of (1) pain along the C8-T2 dermatomes, (2) weakness and atrophy of the hand and (3) Horner's syndrome, often presents a diagnostic challenge. In fact, it may manifest as a singular orthopaedic complaint, prompting a futile barrage of tests and referrals. The authors present the case of an elderly man who initially presented with severe shoulder pain. Due to progressive pain and weakness, he was referred to rheumatology and was treated with corticosteroid injections for a presumed musculoskeletal lesion. Ultimately, he manifested gross muscular atrophy and worsening pain, prompting a referral to neurology. An electromyogram (EMG) suggested a lower brachial plexopathy, and a follow-up brachial plexus MRI identified a large Pancoast tumour. Unfortunately, his disease was rapidly progressive, and he passed away within 2 months. While the MRI remains the gold standard for diagnosing Pancoast syndrome, an EMG can facilitate diagnosis in difficult cases such as this one. PMID:22744250

  3. Mist Ejection of Silicon Microparticle Using a Silicon Nozzle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yokoyama, Yoshinori; Murakami, Takaaki; Yoshida, Yukihisa; Itoh, Toshihiro

    The novel mist-jet technology using a silicon nozzle and a silicon reflector has been developed. Ejection of water mist containing the silicon microparticles is demonstrated. Impurities of the silicon microparticles ejected on the substrate are analyzed. It has been verified for the first time that the contamination is reduced by the silicon head. The silicon pattern drawn by the head is successfully formed.

  4. Brachial plexus injuries in neonates: an osteopathic approach.

    PubMed

    Mason, David C; Ciervo, Carman A

    2009-02-01

    Neonates and infants with brachial plexus injuries are typically treated using splinting, range-of-motion exercise, and, in more severe cases, nerve reconstruction. However, myofascial release--a common osteopathic manipulative treatment technique that has been used to manage thoracic outlet syndrome in adults--may provide effective, noninvasive management of brachial plexus injuries in neonates and infants. While emphasizing the importance of good communication with parents of affected patients, the authors review brachial plexus anatomy, describe diagnostic examinations, and outline a comprehensive treatment strategy. PMID:19269939

  5. [Measurement ofthe ankle-brachial pressure index (ABPI)].

    PubMed

    Kulisić, Sandra Marinović

    2012-10-01

    Measurement of the ankle-brachial pressure index, also known as ankle-brachial index or ankle-arm index is a ratio of the ankle blood pressure and brachial blood pressure. It is easy to perform and allows for diagnosis and further definition of the severity of peripheral arterial disease with sensitivity 90% and specificity 98%. The test is not appropriate for mild arterial changes as in case of comorbidity. Its further objectives are to identify patients at an higher risk of cardiovascular events. PMID:23193828

  6. Brachial Plexopathy in Apical Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Treated With Definitive Radiation: Dosimetric Analysis and Clinical Implications

    SciTech Connect

    Eblan, Michael J.; Corradetti, Michael N.; Lukens, J. Nicholas; Xanthopoulos, Eric; Mitra, Nandita; Christodouleas, John P.; Grover, Surbhi; Fernandes, Annemarie T.; Langer, Corey J.; Evans, Tracey L.; Stevenson, James; Rengan, Ramesh; Apisarnthanarax, Smith

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Data are limited on the clinical significance of brachial plexopathy in patients with apical non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLC) treated with definitive radiation therapy. We report the rates of radiation-induced brachial plexopathy (RIBP) and tumor-related brachial plexopathy (TRBP) and associated dosimetric parameters in apical NSCLC patients. Methods and Materials: Charts of NSCLC patients with primary upper lobe or superiorly located nodal disease who received {>=}50 Gy of definitive conventionally fractionated radiation or chemoradiation were retrospectively reviewed for evidence of brachial plexopathy and categorized as RIBP, TRBP, or trauma-related. Dosimetric data were gathered on ipsilateral brachial plexuses (IBP) contoured according to Radiation Therapy Oncology Group atlas guidelines. Results: Eighty patients were identified with a median follow-up and survival time of 17.2 and 17.7 months, respectively. The median prescribed dose was 66.6 Gy (range, 50.4-84.0), and 71% of patients received concurrent chemotherapy. RIBP occurred in 5 patients with an estimated 3-year rate of 12% when accounting for competing risk of death. Seven patients developed TRBP (estimated 3-year rate of 13%), comprising 24% of patients who developed locoregional failures. Grade 3 brachial plexopathy was more common in patients who experienced TRBP than RIBP (57% vs 20%). No patient who received {<=}78 Gy to the IBP developed RIBP. On multivariable competing risk analysis, IBP V76 receiving {>=}1 cc, and primary tumor failure had the highest hazard ratios for developing RIBP and TRBP, respectively. Conclusions: RIBP is a relatively uncommon complication in patients with apical NSCLC tumors receiving definitive doses of radiation, while patients who develop primary tumor failures are at high risk for developing morbid TRBP. These findings suggest that the importance of primary tumor control with adequate doses of radiation outweigh the risk of RIBP in this population of

  7. Comparison of the Supraclavicular, Infraclavicular and Axillary Approaches for Ultrasound-Guided Brachial Plexus Block for Surgical Anesthesia

    PubMed Central

    Stav, Anatoli; Reytman, Leonid; Stav, Michael-Yohay; Portnoy, Isaak; Kantarovsky, Alexander; Galili, Offer; Luboshitz, Shmuel; Sevi, Roger; Sternberg, Ahud

    2016-01-01

    Objective We hypothesized that ultrasound (US)-guided technique of the supra- and infraclavicular and axillary approaches of brachial plexus block (BPB) will produce a high quality of surgical anesthesia for operations below the shoulder independently of the approach and body mass index (BMI). Intercostobrachial and medial brachial cutaneous nerves will be blocked separately because they are not a part of the brachial plexus. Methods This is a prospective randomized observer-blinded study. The three approaches of the US-guided BPB without neurostimulation were compared for quality, performance time, and correlation between performance time and BMI. Intercostobrachial and medial brachial cutaneous nerve blocks were used in all patients. Results A total of 101 patients were randomized into three groups: SCL (supraclavicular), ICL (infraclavicular), and AX (axillary). Seven patients were excluded due to various factors. All three groups were similar in demographic data, M:F proportion, preoperative diagnosis and type of surgery, anesthesiologists who performed the block, and surgical staff that performed the surgical intervention. The time between the end of the block performance and the start of the operation was also similar. The quality of the surgical anesthesia and discomfort during the operation were identical following comparison between groups. No direct positive correlation was observed between BMI and the block performance time. The time for the axillary block was slightly longer than the time for the supra- and infraclavicular approaches, but it had no practical clinical significance. Transient Horner syndrome was observed in three patients in the SCL group. No other adverse effects or complications were observed. Conclusions All three approaches can be used for US-guided BPB with similar quality of surgical anesthesia for operations of below the shoulder. A block of the intercostobrachial and medial brachial cutaneous nerves is recommended. Obesity is not

  8. [Myxoid/round cell liposarcoma of the brachial plexus].

    PubMed

    Giner, Javier; Isla, Alberto; Hernández, Borja; Nistal, Manuel

    2014-01-01

    Myxoid/round cell liposarcoma is a soft tissue sarcoma that is extremely rare in the brachial plexus. We report a case of a myxoid/round cell liposarcoma originating in the brachial plexus that was surgically resected and evolved well, with no deficit or recurrence after 2 years of follow-up. To date, there has been no other case of this sarcoma in the literature. PMID:25126709

  9. Limb preference in children with obstetric brachial plexus palsy.

    PubMed

    Yang, Lynda J-S; Anand, Praveen; Birch, Rolfe

    2005-07-01

    Brachial plexus palsy affects children differently than adults. In children with obstetric brachial plexus palsy, motor development must depend on nervous system adaptation. Previous studies report sensory plasticity in these children. This noninvasive study provides support for neural plasticity (the general ability of the brain to reorganize neural pathways based on new experiences) in children with obstetric brachial plexus palsy by considering upper limb preference. As in the general population, we expect that 90% of children would prefer their right upper limb. However, only 17% of children affected by right obstetric brachial plexus palsy prefer the right upper limb for overall movement; children with left obstetric brachial plexus palsy did not significantly differ from the general population in upper limb preference. This study also provides the first evidence of a significant correlation between actual task performance and select obstetric brachial plexus palsy outcome measurement systems, thereby justifying the routine use of these outcome measurement systems as a reflection of the practical utility of the affected limb to the patient. PMID:15876521

  10. Drop Ejection From an Oscillating Rod

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilkes, E. D.; Basaran, O. A.

    1999-01-01

    The dynamics of a drop of a Newtonian liquid that is pendant from or sessile on a solid rod that is forced to undergo time-periodic oscillations along its axis is studied theoretically. The free boundary problem governing the time evolution of the shape of the drop and the flow field inside it is solved by a method of lines using a finite element algorithm incorporating an adaptive mesh. When the forcing amplitude is small, the drop approaches a limit cycle at large times and undergoes steady oscillations thereafter. However, drop breakup is the consequence if the forcing amplitude exceeds a critical value. Over a wide range of amplitudes above this critical value, drop ejection from the rod occurs during the second oscillation period from the commencement of rod motion. Remarkably, the shape of the interface at breakup and the volume of the primary drop formed are insensitive to changes in forcing amplitude. The interface shape at times close to and at breakup is a multi-valued function of distance measured along the rod axis and hence cannot be described by recently popularized one-dimensional approximations. The computations show that drop ejection occurs without the formation of a long neck. Therefore, this method of drop formation holds promise of preventing formation of undesirable satellite droplets.

  11. Does retraction of the sternum during median sternotomy result in brachial plexus injuries?

    PubMed Central

    Healey, Scott; O'Neill, Bridie; Bilal, Haris; Waterworth, Paul

    2013-01-01

    A best evidence topic in cardiac surgery was written according to a structured protocol. The question addressed was ‘does retraction of the sternum during median sternotomy result in brachial plexus injuries or peripheral neuropathies?’ Altogether 58 papers were found using the reported search, of which 12 represented the best evidence to answer the question. The authors, date, journal and country of publication, patient group studied, study type, relevant outcomes and results of these papers were tabulated. Caudal placement of the retractor or relieving the pressure superiorly by removing the upper blades of a retractor (P = 0.02) and use of a caudally placed symmetrical retractor has been shown to reduce neuropathy. Positioning of the patient with ‘hands up’ positioning showed significant reduction in the incidence of brachial plexus injuries. Furthermore, how wide the retractor is opened and use of an asymmetrical retractor for internal mammary artery (IMA) harvesting are also important factors in quantifying risk of postoperative neuropathy. Wider sternal retraction and longer bypass time did increase the risk of developing postoperative neuropathy. Three asymmetrical retractors were looked at that demonstrates the Delacroix–Chevalier to be the safest (P < 0.05). We conclude that median sternotomy risks brachial plexus injury and where possible the sternum should be opened as small a distance as possible with symmetrical retractor and using a caudally placed retractor. PMID:23513004

  12. Influence of contralateral homologous cortices on motor cortical reorganization after brachial plexus injuries in rats.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jie; Chen, Liang; Gu, Yu-dong

    2015-10-01

    Brachial plexus injuries induce corresponding cortical representations to be occupied by adjacent cortices. The purpose of this study was to clarify if contralateral homologous motor regions of adjacent cortices influence occupation of deafferented motor cortex. 36 rats were divided into 3 groups of 12 each. In group 1, total brachial plexus root avulsion (tBPRA) was made on the left side. In group 2, rats underwent left tBPRA combined with corpus callosum transection (CCX). In group 3, only CCX was performed. 6 rats in each group were used for intracortical microstimulation (ICMS) to map representations of motor cortex in the right hemisphere at 7 days and the other 6 rats, at 3 months. 18 more rats without any operation underwent ICMS, with 6 each taken to serve as normal control for motor cortical representations' changes caused by different surgery. Results showed that in groups 1 and 2, sites for motor cortical representations of vibrissae, of neck and of the hindlimb was statistically more than that of control, respectively, and statistically more sites were found at 3 months than at 7 days, respectively. At the two time points, sites for vibrissa cortices and that for the hindlimb were statistically more in group 2 than in group 1, respectively. CCX alone did not induce change of site number for motor cortical representations. We conclude that after tBPRA, contralateral homologous motor cortices may, to some extent, prevent neighboring cortices from encroachment on motor cortical representations of the brachial plexus. PMID:26314511

  13. Central hemodynamics in risk assessment strategies: additive value over and above brachial blood pressure.

    PubMed

    Yannoutsos, Alexandra; Rinaldi, Elisa R; Zhang, Yi; Protogerou, Athanassios D; Safar, Michel E; Blacher, Jacques

    2015-01-01

    Although the clinical relevance of brachial blood pressure (BP) measurement for cardiovascular (CV) risk stratification is nowadays widely accepted, this approach can nevertheless present several limitations. Pulse pressure (PP) amplification accounts for the notable increase in PP from central to peripheral arterial sites. Target organs are more greatly exposed to central hemodynamic changes than peripheral organs. The pathophysiological significance of local BP pulsatility, which has a role in the pathogenesis of target organ damage in both the macro- and the microcirculation, may therefore not be accurately captured by brachial BP as traditionally evaluated with cuff measurements. The predictive value of central systolic BP and PP over brachial BP for major clinical outcomes has been demonstrated in the general population, in elderly adults and in patients at high CV risk, irrespective of the invasive or non-invasive methods used to assess central BP. Aortic stiffness, timing and intensity of wave reflections, and cardiac performance appear as major factors influencing central PP. Great emphasis has been placed on the role of aortic stiffness, disturbed arterial wave reflections and their intercorrelation in the pathophysiological mechanisms of CV diseases as well as on their capacity to predict target organ damage and clinical events. Comorbidities and age-related changes, together with gender-related specificities of arterial and cardiac parameters, are known to affect the predictive ability of central hemodynamics on individual CV risk. PMID:25341861

  14. What triggers coronal mass ejections ?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aulanier, Guillaume

    Coronal mass ejections (CMEs) are large clouds of highly magnetized plasma. They are ac-celerated from the solar atmosphere into interplanetary space by the Lorentz force, which is associated to their strong current-carrying magnetic fields. Both theory and observations lead to the inevitable conclusion that the launch of a CME must result from the sudden release of free magnetic energy, which has slowly been accumulated in the corona for a long time before the eruption. Since the incomplete, but seminal, loss-of-equilibrium model was proposed by van Tend and Kuperus (1978), a large variety of analytical and numerical storage-and-release MHD models has been put forward in the past 20 years or so. All these models rely on the slow increase of currents and/or the slow decrease of the restraining magnetic tension preceding the eruption. But they all put the emphazis on different physical mechanisms to achieve this preeruptive evolution, and to suddenly trigger and later drive a CME. Nevertheless, all these models actually share many common features, which all describe many individual observed aspects of solar eruptions. It is therefore not always clear which of all the suggested mecha-nisms do really account for the triggering of observed CMEs in general. Also, these mechanisms should arguably not be as numerous as the models themselves, owing to the common occurence of CMEs. In order to shed some light on this challenging, but unripe, topic, I will attempt to rediscuss the applicability of the models to the Sun, and to rethink the most sensitive ones in a common frame, so as to find their common denominator. I will elaborate on the idea that many of the proposed triggering mechanisms may actually only be considered as different ways to apply a "last push", which puts the system beyond its eruptive threshold. I will argue that, in most cases, the eruptive threshold is determined by the vertical gradient of the magnetic field in the low-β corona, just like the usual

  15. Angular Momentum Ejection and Recoil*

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohia, O.; Coppi, B.

    2009-11-01

    The spontaneous rotation phenomenon observed in axisymmetric magnetically confined plasmas has been explained by the ``accretion theory'' [1] that considers the plasma angular momentum as gained from its interaction with the magnetic field and the surrounding material wall. The ejection of angular momentum to the wall, and the consequent recoil are attributed to modes excited at the edge while the transport of the (recoil) angular momentum from the edge toward the center is attributed to a different kind of mode. The toroidal phase velocity of the edge mode, to which the sign of the ejected angular momentum is related, is considered to change its direction in the transition from the H-regime to the L-regime. For the latter case, edge modes with phase velocity in the direction of vdi are driven by the temperature gradient of a cold ion population at the edge and damped on the ``hot'' ion population. The ``balanced'' double interaction [2] of the mode with the two populations, corresponding to a condition of marginal stability, leads to ejection of hot ions and loss of angular momentum in the direction of vdi while the cold population acquires angular momentum in the opposite direction. In the H-regime resistive ballooning modes with phase velocities in the direction of vde are viewed as the best candidates for the excited edge modes. *Sponsored in part by the U.S. DOE. [1] B. Coppi, Nucl. Fusion 42, 1 (2002) [2] B. Coppi and F. Pegoraro, Nucl. Fusion 17, 969 (1977)

  16. Ejecting Phage DNA against Cellular Turgor Pressure

    PubMed Central

    Marion, Sanjin; Šiber, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    We examine in vivo ejection of noncondensed DNA from tailed bacteriophages into bacteria. The ejection is dominantly governed by the physical conditions in the bacteria. The confinement of the DNA in the virus capsid only slightly helps the ejection, becoming completely irrelevant during its last stages. A simple calculation based on the premise of condensed DNA in the cell enables us to estimate the maximal bacterial turgor pressure against which the ejection can still be fully realized. The calculated pressure (∼5 atm) shows that the ejection of DNA into Gram-negative bacteria could proceed spontaneously, i.e., without the need to invoke active mechanisms. PMID:25418173

  17. F-16 pilot experience with combat ejections during the Persian Gulf War.

    PubMed

    Williams, C S

    1993-09-01

    Most experience with ejections from modern fighter aircraft has occurred outside of true combat operations. During Operation Desert Storm, the 401st Fighter Wing, Torrejon Air Base, Spain, lost four F-16C aircraft while on combat missions, with all four pilots ejecting safely. Since the circumstances of a combat vs. peacetime ejection are likely different and many combat mishaps and ejections cannot be extensively investigated (three out of these four), a questionnaire was developed to recall and review pilot ejection experiences. Questions ranged from recalling the parameters of egress to conscious recollections of the event and assessment of how well the system worked. Each of the four ejections occurred under different parameters, and no one suffered significant injury. Two of the ejections occurred at high altitude, previously rare in the F-16. This was one of the first times that experience was obtained with the F-16's ACES-II egress system under combat operations and, in the experience of these four pilots, the system was life-saving in combat. Finally, the overall ejection survival rate for U.S. Air Force fighter/attack combat ejections during Operation Desert Storm was similar to the peacetime rate. It is the author's hypothesis that the reason for this may correlate with a quicker, more predetermined decision to eject from an aircraft disabled by combat fire. PMID:8216147

  18. [Differential diagnostic criteria in cervico-brachial psychalgia].

    PubMed

    Tröltzsch, M; Fischer, P

    1979-11-15

    In 100 patients with only for a short time existing pains in the region of neck, shoulder and arm and inconspicuous laboratory and X-ray findings by means of the galvanic test of the muscular function and Janda's test of the muscular function a vastly intact nerve-muscle-apparatus was proved. In the ENR-test after Brengelmann and Brengelmann clear introversion values, significantly high neurodizism values and slightly increased rigidity values were shown. Also the VELA-values were significantly higher than in the normal comparative group. In an additional inquiry predisposing biographical references for the existence of actual conflicts were found. As to the inclusion of further biographical data, 68% of intense affect reactions, 16% of functionally fixed neurotic reactions, 9% of primary and 7% of secondary neurotic maldevelopments are concerned. After a 4-week- hard-and-fast date (15 mg/a day) the complaints improved without a clear retrogression of the neurotic constellations. At the same time a change of the initially slightly increased conducting values of the skin and of the vegetative complaints appeared. A cervico-brachial psychalgia is present, when an organic muscle disease was excluded, when in the ENR-test high values to neuroticism, to introversion and rigidity are found and when a temporary connection to actual conflicts are the result. PMID:549300

  19. Analysis of melt ejection during long pulsed laser drilling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ting-Zhong, Zhang; Zhi-Chao, Jia; Hai-Chao, Cui; De-Hua, Zhu; Xiao-Wu, Ni; Jian, Lu

    2016-05-01

    In pulsed laser drilling, melt ejection greatly influences the keyhole shape and its quality as well, but its mechanism has not been well understood. In this paper, numerical simulation and experimental investigations based on 304 stainless steel and aluminum targets are performed to study the effects of material parameters on melt ejection. The numerical method is employed to predict the temperatures, velocity fields in the solid, liquid, and vapour front, and melt pool dynamics of targets as well. The experimental methods include the shadow-graphic technique, weight method, and optical microscope imaging, which are applied to real-time observations of melt ejection phenomena, measurements of collected melt and changes of target mass, observations of surface morphology and the cross-section of the keyhole, respectively. Numerical and experimental results show that the metallic material with high thermal diffusivity like aluminum is prone to have a thick liquid zone and a large quantity of melt ejection. Additionally, to the best of our knowledge, the liquid zone is used to illustrate the relations between melt ejection and material thermal diffusivity for the first time. The research result in this paper is useful for manufacturing optimization and quality control in laser-material interaction. Project supported by the Natural Science Foundation of Jiangsu Province, China (Grant No. KYLX_0341) and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 61405147).

  20. Brachial Plexus-Associated Neuropathy After High-Dose Radiation Therapy for Head-and-Neck Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Allen M.; Hall, William H.; Li, Judy; Beckett, Laurel; Farwell, D. Gregory; Lau, Derick H.; Purdy, James A.

    2012-09-01

    Purpose: To identify clinical and treatment-related predictors of brachial plexus-associated neuropathies after radiation therapy for head-and-neck cancer. Methods and Materials: Three hundred thirty patients who had previously completed radiation therapy for head-and-neck cancer were prospectively screened using a standardized instrument for symptoms of neuropathy thought to be related to brachial plexus injury. All patients were disease-free at the time of screening. The median time from completion of radiation therapy was 56 months (range, 6-135 months). One-hundred fifty-five patients (47%) were treated by definitive radiation therapy, and 175 (53%) were treated postoperatively. Radiation doses ranged from 50 to 74 Gy (median, 66 Gy). Intensity-modulated radiation therapy was used in 62% of cases, and 133 patients (40%) received concurrent chemotherapy. Results: Forty patients (12%) reported neuropathic symptoms, with the most common being ipsilateral pain (50%), numbness/tingling (40%), motor weakness, and/or muscle atrophy (25%). When patients with <5 years of follow-up were excluded, the rate of positive symptoms increased to 22%. On univariate analysis, the following factors were significantly associated with brachial plexus symptoms: prior neck dissection (p = 0.01), concurrent chemotherapy (p = 0.01), and radiation maximum dose (p < 0.001). Cox regression analysis confirmed that both neck dissection (p < 0.001) and radiation maximum dose (p < 0.001) were independently predictive of symptoms. Conclusion: The incidence of brachial plexus-associated neuropathies after radiation therapy for head-and-neck cancer may be underreported. In view of the dose-response relationship identified, limiting radiation dose to the brachial plexus should be considered when possible.

  1. MEMEX: Mechanisms of Energetic Mass Ejection Explorer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, T. E.; Chappell, C. R.; Clemmons, J. H.; Cully, C. M.; Donovan, E.; Earle, G. D.; Heelis, R. A.; Kistler, L. M.; Kepko, L.; Khazanov, G. V.; Knudsen, D. J.; Lessard, M.; McFadden, J. P.; Nicolls, M. J.; Pollock, C. J.; Pfaff, R. F.; Rankin, R.; Rowland, D. E.; Semeter, J. L.; Thayer, J. P.; Winglee, R.

    2013-12-01

    MEMEX is designed to find out how gravitationally-trapped volatile matter is being lost from atmospheres by energetic processes, depleting them of key constituents, as has occurred most dramatically at Mars. This process is exemplified in geospace by the dissipation of solar energy to produce ionospheric outflows that feed back on dynamics of the solar wind interaction with Earth's magnetosphere. Kinetic and electromagnetic energy flow from the Sun into the coupled (auroral) ionosphere, where resultant electron, ion, and gas heating give rise to upwelling, ionization, and mass ejection. Proposed mechanisms involve wave-particle heating interactions, upward ambipolar electric fields, or ponderomotive forces. A large number of free energy sources have been identified, but empirical guidance remains weak concerning their relative importance. Moreover, it is unclear if the waves interact with particles primarily in a cyclotron resonant mode, or in a lower hybrid exchange of electron (parallel) and ion (perpendicular) energy, or in a bulk ponderomotive mode. MEMEX will answer the questions raised by these issues: Where do the waves that produce mass ejection grow? How do they propagate and transport energy? How can wave amplitudes, heating, and escape rates be derived from solar wind conditions? Is the heating a cyclotron resonant process or a bulk ponderomotive forcing process? To obtain answers, MEMEX will for the first time simultaneously observe the magnetospheric and atmospheric boundary conditions applied to the topside or exobase layer, and the response of ions and electrons to the ensuing battle between electrodynamic forcing and collisional damping.

  2. Fractionation of hydrogen and deuterium on Venus due to collisional ejection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gurwell, Mark A.; Yung, Yuk L.

    1993-01-01

    The collisional ejection process for hydrogen on Venus is reanalyzed. Improved values for the efficiency of H and D escape as a function of the ionospheric temperature are reported. It is proposed that the reduction of the hydrogen flux for collisional ejection be reduced from 8 to 3.5 x 10 exp 6/sq cm/s, and a revised D/H fractional factor of 0.47 due to collisional ejection is suggested. The resulting deuterium flux is 3.1 x 10 exp 4/sq cm/s, roughly six times the flux due to charge exchange, making collisional ejection the dominant escape mechanism for deuterium on Venus.

  3. Fractionation of hydrogen and deuterium on Venus due to collisional ejection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gurwell, M. A.; Yung, Y. L.

    1993-02-01

    The collisional ejection process for hydrogen on Venus is reanalyzed. Improved values for the efficiency of H and D escape as a function of the ionospheric temperature are reported. It is proposed that the reduction of the hydrogen flux for collisional ejection be reduced from 8 to 3.5 x 10 exp 6/sq cm/s, and a revised D/H fractional factor of 0.47 due to collisional ejection is suggested. The resulting deuterium flux is 3.1 x 10 exp 4/sq cm/s, roughly six times the flux due to charge exchange, making collisional ejection the dominant escape mechanism for deuterium on Venus.

  4. Respiratory arrest in patients undergoing arteriovenous graft placement with supraclavicular brachial plexus block: a case series.

    PubMed

    Afonso, Anoushka; Beilin, Yaakov

    2013-06-01

    Supraclavicular brachial plexus block is commonly used for upper extremity surgery. Respiratory arrest in three patients with end-stage renal disease after ultrasound-guided supraclavicular brachial plexus block for creation of an arteriovenous graft over a 6-month period is presented. Patients with renal failure may represent a group at particular risk for respiratory failure following supraclavicular brachial plexus block. PMID:23830847

  5. Global Acceleration of Coronal Mass Ejections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gopalswamy, Nat; Lara, Alejandro; Lepping, Ronald; Kaiser, Michael; Berdichevsky, Daniel; St. Cyr, O. Chris; Lazarus, Al

    1999-01-01

    Using the observed relation between speeds of coronal mass ejections (CMEs) near the Sun and in the solar wind, we estimate a global acceleration acting on the CMEs. Our study quantifies the qualitative results of Gosling [1997] and numerical simulations that CMEs at 1 AU with speeds closer to the solar wind. We found a linear relation between the global acceleration and the initial speed of the CMEs and the absolute value of the acceleration is similar to the slow solar wind acceleration. Our study naturally divides CMEs into fast and slow ones, the dividing line being the solar wind speed. Our results have important implications to space weather prediction models which need to incorporate this effect in estimating the CME arrival time at 1 AU. We show that the arrival times of CMEs at 1 AU are drastically different from the zero acceleration case.

  6. Fluctuation Pressure Assisted Ejection of DNA From Bacteriophage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrison, Michael J.

    2011-03-01

    The role of thermal pressure fluctuations excited within tightly packaged DNA while it is ejected from protein capsid shells is discussed in a model calculation. At equilibrium before ejection we assume the DNA is folded many times into a bundle of parallel segments that forms an equilibrium conformation at minimum free energy, which presses tightly against capsid walls. Using a canonical ensemble at temperature T we calculate internal pressure fluctuations against a slowly moving or static capsid mantle for an elastic continuum model of the folded DNA bundle. It is found that fluctuating pressures on the capsid from thermal excitation of longitudinal acoustic vibrations in the bundle whose wavelengths are exceeded by the bend persistence length may have root-mean-square values that are several tens of atmospheres for typically small phage dimensions. Comparisons are given with measured data on three mutants of lambda phage with different base pair lengths and total genome ejection pressures.

  7. Permanent upper trunk plexopathy after interscalene brachial plexus block.

    PubMed

    Avellanet, Merce; Sala-Blanch, Xavier; Rodrigo, Lidia; Gonzalez-Viejo, Miguel A

    2016-02-01

    Interscalene brachial plexus block (IBPB) has been widely used in shoulder surgical procedures. The incidence of postoperative neural injury has been estimated to be as high as 3 %. We report a long-term neurologic deficit after a nerve stimulator assisted brachial plexus block. A 55 year-old male, with right shoulder impingement syndrome was scheduled for elective surgery. The patient was given an oral dose of 10 mg of diazepam prior to the nerve stimulator assisted brachial plexus block. The patient immediately complained, as soon as the needle was placed in the interscalene area, of a sharp pain in his right arm and he was sedated further. Twenty-four hours later, the patient complained of severe shoulder and arm pain that required an increased dose of analgesics. Severe peri-scapular atrophy developed over the following days. Electromyography studies revealed an upper trunk plexus injury with severe denervation of the supraspinatus, infraspinatus and deltoid muscles together with a moderate denervation of the biceps brachii muscle. Chest X-rays showed a diaphragmatic palsy which was not present post operatively. Pulmonary function tests were also affected. Phrenic nerve paralysis was still present 18 months after the block as was dysfunction of the brachial plexus resulting in an inability to perform flexion, abduction and external rotation of the right shoulder. Severe brachial plexopathy was probably due to a local anesthetic having been administrated through the perineurium and into the nerve fascicles. Severe brachial plexopathy is an uncommon but catastrophic complication of IBPB. We propose a clinical algorithm using ultrasound guidance during nerve blocks as a safer technique of regional anesthesia. PMID:25744163

  8. Retinal Vascular Caliber and Brachial Flow-Mediated Dilation

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Thanh T.; Islam, F.M. Amirul; Farouque, H.M. Omar; Klein, Ronald; Klein, Barbara E.K.; Cotch, Mary Frances; Herrington, David M.; Wong, Tien Yin

    2010-01-01

    Background and Purpose Retinal vascular caliber changes have been shown to predict stroke, but the underlying mechanism of this association is unknown. We examined the relationship between retinal vascular caliber with brachial flow-mediated dilation (FMD), a measure of systemic endothelial function. Methods The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) is a population-based study of persons 45 to 84 years of age residing in 6 US communities free of clinical cardiovascular disease at baseline. Brachial FMD data were collected at baseline (July 2000 to June 2002), and retinal vascular caliber was measured from digital retinal photographs at the second examination, immediately after the first (August 2002 to January 2004). Data were available for 2851 participants for analysis. Results The mean brachial FMD was 4.39±2.79%. After adjusting for age and gender, brachial FMD was reduced in persons with wider retinal venular caliber (changes in FMD −0.25, 95% CI, −0.36, − 0.13; P<0.001, per SD increase in venular caliber). This relationship persists after adjusting for systolic blood pressure, serum total cholesterol, use of lipid-lowering and antihypertensive medication, body mass index, current smoking status, and hemoglobinA1C (−0.18; 95% CI −0.30, − 0.06; P=0.004, per SD increase in venular caliber). Brachial FMD was not associated with retinal arteriolar caliber. Conclusions Persons with wider retinal venules have reduced brachial FMD, independent of other vascular risk factors. This suggests that retinal venular caliber, previously shown to predict stroke, may be a marker of underlying systemic endothelial dysfunction. PMID:20508189

  9. Factors Affecting Ejection Risk in Rollover Crashes

    PubMed Central

    Funk, James R.; Cormier, Joseph M.; Bain, Charles E.; Wirth, Jeffrey L.; Bonugli, Enrique B.; Watson, Richard A.

    2012-01-01

    Ejection greatly increases the risk of injury and fatality in a rollover crash. The purpose of this study was to determine the crash, vehicle, and occupant characteristics that affect the risk of ejection in rollovers. Information from real world rollover crashes occurring from 2000 – 2010 was obtained from the National Automotive Sampling System (NASS) in order to analyze the effect of the following parameters on ejection risk: seatbelt use, rollover severity, vehicle type, seating position, roof crush, side curtain airbag deployment, glazing type, and occupant age, gender, and size. Seatbelt use was found to reduce the risk of partial ejection and virtually eliminate the risk of complete ejection. For belted occupants, the risk of partial ejection risk was significantly increased in rollover crashes involving more roof inversions, light trucks and vans (LTVs), and larger occupants. For unbelted occupants, the risk of complete ejection was significantly increased in rollover crashes involving more roof inversions, LTVs, far side occupants, and higher levels of roof crush. Roof crush was not a significant predictor of ejection after normalizing for rollover severity. Curtain airbag deployment was associated with reduced rates of partial and complete ejection, but the effect was not statistically significant, perhaps due to the small sample size (n = 89 raw cases with curtain deployments). A much greater proportion of occupants who were ejected in spite of curtain airbag deployment passed through the sunroof and other portals as opposed to the adjacent side window compared to occupants who were ejected in rollovers without a curtain airbag deployment. The primary factors that reduce ejection risk in rollover crashes are, in generally decreasing order of importance: seatbelt use, fewer roof inversions, passenger car body type, curtain airbag deployment, near side seating position, and small occupant size. PMID:23169130

  10. Factors affecting ejection risk in rollover crashes.

    PubMed

    Funk, James R; Cormier, Joseph M; Bain, Charles E; Wirth, Jeffrey L; Bonugli, Enrique B; Watson, Richard A

    2012-01-01

    Ejection greatly increases the risk of injury and fatality in a rollover crash. The purpose of this study was to determine the crash, vehicle, and occupant characteristics that affect the risk of ejection in rollovers. Information from real world rollover crashes occurring from 2000 - 2010 was obtained from the National Automotive Sampling System (NASS) in order to analyze the effect of the following parameters on ejection risk: seatbelt use, rollover severity, vehicle type, seating position, roof crush, side curtain airbag deployment, glazing type, and occupant age, gender, and size. Seatbelt use was found to reduce the risk of partial ejection and virtually eliminate the risk of complete ejection. For belted occupants, the risk of partial ejection risk was significantly increased in rollover crashes involving more roof inversions, light trucks and vans (LTVs), and larger occupants. For unbelted occupants, the risk of complete ejection was significantly increased in rollover crashes involving more roof inversions, LTVs, far side occupants, and higher levels of roof crush. Roof crush was not a significant predictor of ejection after normalizing for rollover severity. Curtain airbag deployment was associated with reduced rates of partial and complete ejection, but the effect was not statistically significant, perhaps due to the small sample size (n = 89 raw cases with curtain deployments). A much greater proportion of occupants who were ejected in spite of curtain airbag deployment passed through the sunroof and other portals as opposed to the adjacent side window compared to occupants who were ejected in rollovers without a curtain airbag deployment. The primary factors that reduce ejection risk in rollover crashes are, in generally decreasing order of importance: seatbelt use, fewer roof inversions, passenger car body type, curtain airbag deployment, near side seating position, and small occupant size. PMID:23169130

  11. Electrodiagnosis of brachial plexopathies and proximal upper extremity neuropathies.

    PubMed

    Simmons, Zachary

    2013-02-01

    This article describes the normal anatomy of the brachial plexus and its major terminal branches, as well as the major causes and clinical presentations of lesions of these structures. An approach to electrodiagnosis of brachial plexopathies and proximal upper extremity neuropathies is provided, with an emphasis on those nerve conduction studies and portions of the needle examination, which permit localization of lesions to specific trunks, cords, and terminal branches. The importance of specific sensory nerve conduction studies for differentiating plexopathies from radiculopathies and mononeuropathies is emphasized. PMID:23177028

  12. Pediatric Stinger Syndrome: Acute Brachial Plexopathy After Minor Trauma.

    PubMed

    Quong, Whitney L; Hynes, Sally L; Arneja, Jugpal S

    2015-11-01

    The "stinger" or "burner" is a form of transient brachial plexopathy termed for its characteristic knife-like pain extending from the neck to the fingertips. Muscle weakness and paresthesia are oftentimes associated symptoms and are similarly temporary. Commonly observed in athletes of contact sports, the stinger results from high force trauma causing either traction/direct compression to the brachial plexus or extension/compression of the cervical nerve roots. We describe a pediatric case of a stinger in a 14-year-old boy, which was caused by a relatively low force trauma accident. Our management strategy and recommendations are discussed. PMID:26893985

  13. Ejection of cool plasma into the hot corona

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zacharias, P.; Peter, H.; Bingert, S.

    2011-08-01

    Context. The corona is highly dynamic and shows transient events on various scales in space and time. Most of these features are related to changes in the magnetic field structure or impulsive heating caused by the conversion of magnetic to thermal energy. Aims: We investigate the processes that lead to the formation, ejection and fall of a confined plasma ejection that was observed in a numerical experiment of the solar corona. By quantifying physical parameters such as mass, velocity, and orientation of the plasma ejection relative to the magnetic field, we provide a description of the nature of this particular plasma ejection. Methods: The time-dependent three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic (3D MHD) equations are solved in a box extending from the chromosphere, which serves as a reservoir for mass and energy, to the lower corona. The plasma is heated by currents that are induced through field line braiding as a consequence of photospheric motions included in the model. Spectra of optically thin emission lines in the extreme ultraviolet range are synthesized, and magnetic field lines are traced over time. We determine the trajectory of the plasma ejection and identify anomalies in the profiles of the plasma parameters. Results: Following strong heating just above the chromosphere, the pressure rapidly increases, leading to a hydrodynamic explosion above the upper chromosphere in the low transition region. The explosion drives the plasma, which needs to follow the magnetic field lines. The ejection is then moving more or less ballistically along the loop-like field lines and eventually drops down onto the surface of the Sun. The speed of the ejection is in the range of the sound speed, well below the Alfvén velocity. Conclusions: The plasma ejection observed in a numerical experiment of the solar corona is basically a hydrodynamic phenomenon, whereas the rise of the heating rate is of magnetic nature. The granular motions in the photosphere lead (by chance) to a

  14. Electronic circuit detects left ventricular ejection events in cardiovascular system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gebben, V. D.; Webb, J. A., Jr.

    1972-01-01

    Electronic circuit processes arterial blood pressure waveform to produce discrete signals that coincide with beginning and end of left ventricular ejection. Output signals provide timing signals for computers that monitor cardiovascular systems. Circuit operates reliably for heart rates between 50 and 200 beats per minute.

  15. [Brachial plexus. Long lasting neurological deficit following interscalene blockade of the brachial plexus].

    PubMed

    Funk, W; Angerer, M; Sauer, K; Altmeppen, J

    2000-07-01

    An interscalene block of the brachial plexus was combined with general anaesthesia for repair of a complex chronic lesion of the shoulder. The localisation of the plexus with electro-stimulation and the injection of Bupivacain 0.5% were accomplished easily and without painful sensations. 48 hours later the block was still partially present. Paraesthesia and a sensory and motor innervation deficit affected mainly the dorsal fascicle, but also areas innervated by the median and lateral fascicles. The deficit did not completely disappear for 18 month. The cause could have been due to direct traumatisation during blockade or operation, toxic action of the injected substance (Bupivacain 0.5%, 30 ml), distension of the plexus, a cervical syndrome or an aseptic plexitis, although a definite determination is not possible. However, the pattern of the lesion and the lack of pain during localisation of the plexus and injection favour traumatisation during the acromioplasty. PMID:10969388

  16. MAGNETOHYDRODYNAMIC SIMULATIONS OF INTERPLANETARY CORONAL MASS EJECTIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Lionello, Roberto; Downs, Cooper; Linker, Jon A.; Török, Tibor; Riley, Pete; Mikić, Zoran E-mail: cdowns@predsci.com E-mail: tibor@predsci.com E-mail: mikic@predsci.com

    2013-11-01

    We describe a new MHD model for the propagation of interplanetary coronal mass ejections (ICMEs) in the solar wind. Accurately following the propagation of ICMEs is important for determining space weather conditions. Our model solves the MHD equations in spherical coordinates from a lower boundary above the critical point to Earth and beyond. On this spherical surface, we prescribe the magnetic field, velocity, density, and temperature calculated typically directly from a coronal MHD model as time-dependent boundary conditions. However, any model that can provide such quantities either in the inertial or rotating frame of the Sun is suitable. We present two validations of the technique employed in our new model and a more realistic simulation of the propagation of an ICME from the Sun to Earth.

  17. Safety of brachial arteriogram using a 3-French dilator to evaluate nonmaturing arteriovenous fistulae.

    PubMed

    Vachharajani, Tushar J; Asif, Arif

    2014-01-01

    Nonmaturing arteriovenous fistula remains a hurdle in improving the fistula rate in the hemodialysis population. Timely referral can assist in salvaging fistula with endovascular interventions. Pathology at the inflow segment is frequently encountered as a primary reason for maturation failure. Conventional retrograde angiography can result in poor delineation of the inflow segment and may not be an ideal method for evaluating nonmaturing fistulae. Moreover, the risk of vascular rupture and overzealous diagnosis of accessory veins often result in additional unnecessary therapeutic interventions. Alternatively, a direct brachial arteriogram can provide complete anatomic delineation to perform appropriate endovascular interventions. PMID:24118439

  18. Magnetic Reconnection in Interplanetary Coronal Mass Ejections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fermo, R. L.; Opher, M.; Drake, J. F.

    2014-12-01

    Magnetic reconnection is a ubiquitous phenomenon in many varied space and astrophysical plasmas, and as such plays an important role in the dynamics of interplanetary coronal mass ejections (ICMEs). It is widely regarded that reconnection is instrumental in the formation and ejection of the initial CME flux rope, but reconnection also continues to affect the dynamics as it propagates through the interplanetary medium. For example, reconnection on the leading edge of the ICME, by which it interacts with the interplanetary medium, leads to flux erosion. However, recent in situ observations by Gosling et al. found signatures of reconnection exhausts in the interior. In light of this data, we consider the stability properties of systems with this flux rope geometry with regard to their minimum energy Taylor state. Variations from this state will result in the magnetic field relaxing back towards the minimum energy state, subject to the constraints that the toroidal flux and magnetic helicity remain invariant. In reversed field pinches, this relaxation is mediated by reconnection in the interior of the system, as has been shown theoretically and experimentally. By treating the ICME flux rope in a similar fashion, we show analytically that the the elongation of the flux tube cross section in the latitudinal direction will result in a departure from the Taylor state. The resulting relaxation of the magnetic field causes reconnection to commence in the interior of the ICME, in agreement with the observations of Gosling et al. We present MHD simulations in which reconnection initiates at a number of rational surfaces, and ultimately produces a stochastic magnetic field. If the time scales for this process are shorter than the propagation time to 1 AU, this result explains why many ICME flux ropes no longer exhibit the smooth, helical flux structure characteristic of a magnetic cloud.

  19. Axillary Brachial Plexus Blockade for the Reflex Sympathetic Dystrophy Syndrome.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ribbers, G. M.; Geurts, A. C. H.; Rijken, R. A. J.; Kerkkamp, H. E. M.

    1997-01-01

    Reflex sympathetic dystrophy syndrome (RSD) is a neurogenic pain syndrome characterized by pain, vasomotor and dystrophic changes, and often motor impairments. This study evaluated the effectiveness of brachial plexus blockade with local anaesthetic drugs as a treatment for this condition. Three patients responded well; three did not. (DB)

  20. General intravenous anesthesia for brachial plexus surgery in the rabbit.

    PubMed

    Reichert, P; Rutowski, R; Kielbowicz, Z; Kuryszko, J; Kielbowicz, M

    2013-01-01

    The rabbit is a good experimental model for brachial plexus surgery. The risks of death during anesthesia were significantly greater in rabbits than cats or dogs. This article presents the protocol of injectable anesthesia for a short surgical procedure, safe for the rabbit patient and convenient for the surgeon. PMID:24597314

  1. A smart pinless ejection mechanism using dual-resonance excitation Langevin piezoelectric transducers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yu-Jen; Fu, Kuo-Chieh; Wang, Chun-Chieh

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated a smart pinless ejection mechanism comprising two dual-resonance excitation Langevin piezoelectric transducers (DRELPTs) for keeping the injection parts intact and protecting their top and bottom surfaces from scarring during plastic injection molding. The dimensions of each DRELPT were determined using longitudinal vibration models, and an optimization method was used to set the frequency ratio of the first to the second longitudinal mode to 1:2. This concept enables the driving of DRELPT in its two longitudinal modes consistent with the ejection direction in resonant-type smooth impact drive mechanisms. During the ejection process, DRELPT provides an ejection force, which is applied on the sidewalls of the injection parts to protect their top and bottom surfaces from scarring. Considering individual differences in the resonance frequencies of DRELPTs, a resonance frequency tracking circuit based on a phase-locked loop was designed to keep DRELPT actuating in resonance. The ejection velocity of the injection part was estimated using the kinetic models derived from the dynamic behavior of the mold cavity and injection parameters. A characteristic number S was defined to evaluate the average velocity of the injection part during ejection. Proof-of-concept experimental results of the pinless ejection mechanism are presented. The ejection time, that is, the time from triggering the composite wave to the full departure of the injection part from the mold cavity, was 72 ms.

  2. Hoxa5 gene regulation: A gradient of binding activity to a brachial spinal cord element.

    PubMed

    Nowling, T; Zhou, W; Krieger, K E; Larochelle, C; Nguyen-Huu, M C; Jeannotte, L; Tuggle, C K

    1999-04-01

    The Hox genes cooperate in providing positional information needed for spatial and temporal patterning of the vertebrate body axis. However, the biological mechanisms behind spatial Hox expression are largely unknown. In transgenic mice, gene fusions between Hoxa5 (previously called Hox-1.3) 5' flanking regions and the lacZ reporter gene show tissue- and time-specific expression in the brachial spinal cord in day 11-13 embryos. A 604-bp regulatory region with enhancer properties directs this spatially specific expression. Fine-detail mapping of the enhancer has identified several elements involved in region-specific expression, including an element required for expression in the brachial spinal cord. Factors in embryonic day 12.5 nuclear extracts bind this element in electrophoretic mobility shift assays (EMSA) and protect three regions from DNase digestion. All three sites contain an AAATAA sequence and mutations at these sites reduce or abolish binding. Furthermore, this element binds specific individual embryonic proteins on a protein blot. The binding activity appears as a gradient along the anterior-posterior axis with two- to threefold higher levels observed in extracts from anterior regions than from posterior regions. In parallel with the EMSA, the proteins on the protein blot also show reduced binding to probes with mutations at the AAATAA sites. Most importantly, transgenic mice carrying Hoxa5/lacZ fusions with the three AAATAA sites mutated either do not express the transgene or have altered transgene expression. The brachial spinal cord element and its binding proteins are likely to be involved in spatial expression of Hoxa5 during development. PMID:10075847

  3. Post-Exercise Ankle-Brachial Pressure Index Demonstrates Altered Endothelial Function in the Elderly

    PubMed Central

    Sato, Shinji; Masami, Kozue; Otsuki, Shingo; Tanaka, Shiro; Nakayama, Noriko; Makita, Shigeru; Koshiyama, Hiroyuki; Nohara, Ryuji

    2011-01-01

    Background: The ankle-brachial pressure index (ABI), the ratio of the systolic blood pressure of the ankle to the systolic brachial pressure, is commonly measured at rest, but ABI values post-exercise enhance the sensitivity of the test and can be used to identify atherosclerotic vascular damage. However, it has not been established whether or not enhanced post-exercise ABI is also associated with endothelial dysfunction. We hypothesized that a decrease in post-exercise ABI is related to impaired endothelial function. Purpose: To investigate alterations in post-exercise ABI values and endothelial dysfunction in the elderly. Methods: The study population comprised 35 men and women aged 51–77 years (mean age: 66 years). Patients with peripheral arterial disease or a history of heart failure were excluded. The ABI was estimated at rest and immediately after exercise. The exercise protocol comprised 2.5 min of active pedal flexion exercises at a speed of 60 times/min. Endothelial function was assessed by measuring flow-mediated vasodilation (FMD) in the brachial artery using ultrasound imaging. Results: No correlation was found between FMD and the ABI at rest. However, a weak correlation was found between FMD and post-exercise ABI (r = 0.46, P = 0.06). A strong correlation was observed between FMD and a decrease in post-exercise ABI compared to baseline readings (r = −0.52, P = 0.01). Multiple linear regression analysis was used to generate a prediction equation for FMD using the percentage decrease in post-exercise ABI. Significant correlations were observed between the ultrasound imaging-measured FMD and the predicted FMD (R2 = 0.27, P = 0.001). Conclusions: Post-exercise ABI appears to be a simple surrogate marker for endothelial function in the elderly, although larger studies are required for validation. PMID:23885186

  4. Difference in carotid artery elasticity in subjects with different brachial artery kinetic of vasodilatation.

    PubMed

    Tripolino, C; Gnasso, A; Carallo, C; Scavelli, F B; Irace, C

    2016-08-01

    Increased carotid stiffness and impaired brachial artery flow-mediated dilatation (FMD) associate with cardiovascular events. We have previously reported three FMD patterns based on the time of maximal dilatation. The aim of the present study was to verify whether different FMD patterns associate with carotid artery stiffness. In all, 133 subjects were enrolled. All participants underwent complete clinical examination, blood sampling and ultrasound study. FMD was used as a measure of endothelial function. Based on the maximal brachial artery FMD, subjects were divided into Early dilators (peak FMD at 50 s), Late dilators (peak FMD over 50 s) and No dilators. Echo-Doppler evaluation of carotid arteries was performed in order to calculate elastic indexes (strain, β-stiffness index and distensibility). In all, 64 subjects were classified as Early FMD, 36 as Late FMD and 33 as No dilators. Age, gender and cardiovascular risk factors were comparable among three groups. Early FMD had higher values of strain compared with both Late and no Dilators (P<0.001). Furthermore, Early dilators showed a significantly lower stiffness and higher distensibility compared with Late and No dilators. No significant differences between Late FMD and No Dilators were detected. Our results demonstrate that common carotid artery elasticity indexes significantly differ among Early, Late and No dilators. Subjects with delayed or absent brachial artery dilatation have stiffer common carotid arteries compared with subjects with early dilatation. In conclusion, our research suggests that the assessment of the kinetics of FMD in a clinical setting might represent a useful screening tool to improve the cardiovascular risk stratification. PMID:26467820

  5. Initiation of Coronal Mass Ejections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Ronald L.; Sterling, Alphonse C.

    2005-01-01

    This paper is a synopsis of the initiation of the strong-field magnetic explosions that produce large, fast coronal mass ejections. Cartoons based on observations are used to describe the inferred basic physical processes and sequences that trigger and drive the explosion. The magnetic field that explodes is a sheared-core bipole that may or may not be embedded in surrounding strong magnetic field, and may or may not contain a flux rope before it starts to explode. We describe three different mechanisms that singly or in combination trigger the explosion: (1) runaway internal tether-cutting reconnection, (2) runaway external tether-cutting reconnection, and (3) ideal MHD instability or loss or equilibrium. For most eruptions, high-resolution, high-cadence magnetograms and chromospheric and coronal movies (such as from TRACE and/or Solar-B) of the pre-eruption region and of the onset of the eruption and flare are needed to tell which one or which combination of these mechanisms is the trigger. Whatever the trigger, it leads to the production of an erupting flux rope. Using a simple model flux rope, we demonstrate that the explosion can be driven by the magnetic pressure of the expanding flux rope, provided the shape of the expansion is "fat" enough.

  6. Characteristics of Coronal Mass Ejections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Talukder, F.; Marchese, A. K.; Tulsee, T.

    2014-12-01

    A coronal mass ejection (CME) is a release of charged particles resulting from solar activity. These charged particles can affect electronics on spacecraft, airplanes, global positioning systems, and communication satellites. The purpose of this research was to study CME data from satellites and correlate these to other properties. Solar wind data collected by STEREO A/B and ACE satellites were analyzed. The data consisted of solar wind flux for various elements (helium through iron), as well as the components of the interplanetary magnetic field. CME events are known to cause a surge in the helium flux, as well as other particles. It is hypothesized that a CME event will cause an increase in the number of lighter elements relative to heavier particles. This is because for a given input of energy, lighter elements are expected to be accelerated to a greater extent than heavier elements. A significant increase was observed in the ratio between helium to oxygen (He/O) prior to intense CMEs. A CME event on November 4, 2003 caused an eleven-fold increase in the He/O ratio, while for another event on April 2, 2001 the He/O ratio increased from 80 to 700. A significant increase in He/O ratio is not observed during weaker CMEs. Furthermore, it was also observed that not all increases in the ratio were accompanied by CMEs. The increase in He/O ratio prior to the CME arrival might be used as a way to predict future events.

  7. Novel description of the 24-hour circadian rhythms of brachial versus central aortic blood pressure and the impact of blood pressure treatment in a randomized controlled clinical trial: The Ambulatory Central Aortic Pressure (AmCAP) Study.

    PubMed

    Williams, Bryan; Lacy, Peter S; Baschiera, Fabio; Brunel, Patrick; Düsing, Rainer

    2013-06-01

    Elevated brachial blood pressure (BP) is associated with increased cardiovascular risk and predicts morbidity and mortality in humans. Recently, 24-hour ambulatory BP monitoring and assessment of central aortic BP have been introduced to improve BP phenotyping. The Ambulatory Central Aortic Pressure (AmCAP) study combines these approaches and describes, for the first time, the diurnal patterns of simultaneously measured 24-hour ambulatory brachial and central pressures in a prespecified substudy embedded within a clinical trial of BP lowering in patients with hypertension. Twenty-four-hour ambulatory brachial and central pressure measurements were acquired using a tonometer mounted into the articulating strap of a wristwatch-like device (BPro) in 171 participants with hypertension recruited into the ASSERTIVE (AliSkiren Study of profound antihypERtensive efficacy in hyperTensIVE patients) trial. Participants were randomly assigned to BP lowering with either aliskiren 300 mg QD or telmisartan 80 mg QD for 12 weeks. Ambulatory brachial and central BP was measured in all participants both at baseline and at study end. Brachial and central BP both demonstrated typical diurnal patterns with lower pressures at night. However, night time was associated with smaller reductions in central relative to brachial pressure and decreased pulse pressure amplification (P<0.0001 for both). These effects were not modulated after BP lowering and were maintained after adjustment for day and night-time BP and heart rate (P=0.02). This study demonstrates that brachial and central pressure show different diurnal patterns, which are not modulated by BP-lowering therapy, with relatively higher night-time central pressures. These novel data indicate that night-time central BP may provide prognostic importance and warrants further investigation. Clinical Trial Registration- URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT00865020. PMID:23630950

  8. Discovery of collimated ejection from the symbiotic binary BF Cygni

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skopal, A.; Tomov, N. A.; Tomova, M. T.

    2013-03-01

    Context. Detection of collimated ejection from white dwarfs (WD) in symbiotic binaries is very rare and has employed a variety of methods in X-ray, radio, optical imagery, and spectroscopy. To date, its signature in the optical spectra has only been recorded for four objects (MWC 560, Hen 3-1341, StHα 190, and Z And). Aims: We present the first observational evidence of highly-collimated bipolar ejection from the symbiotic binary BF Cyg, which developed during its current (2006-12) active phase, and determine their physical parameters. Methods: We monitored the outburst with the optical high-resolution spectroscopy and multicolour UBVRCIC photometry. Results: During 2009, three years after the 2006-eruption of BF Cyg, satellite components to Hα and Hβ lines emerged in the spectrum. During 2012, they became stable and were located symmetrically with respect to the main emission core of the line. Spectral properties of these components suggest bipolar ejection collimated within an opening angle of ≲15°, whose radiation is produced by an optically thin medium with the emission measure of 1-2 × 1059 (d/3.8 kpc)2 cm-3. Conclusions: Formation of the collimated ejection a few years after the eruption and its evolution on a time scale of years at a constant optical brightness can aid us in better understanding the accretion process during the active phases of symbiotic stars. Based on data collected with 2-m telescope at the Rozhen National Astronomical Observatory and the David Dunlap Observatory.

  9. Constraints on the original ejection velocity fields of asteroid families

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carruba, V.; Nesvorný, D.

    2016-04-01

    Asteroid families form as a result of large-scale collisions among main belt asteroids. The orbital distribution of fragments after a family-forming impact could inform us about their ejection velocities. Unfortunately, however, orbits dynamically evolve by a number of effects, including the Yarkovsky drift, chaotic diffusion, and gravitational encounters with massive asteroids, such that it is difficult to infer the ejection velocities eons after each family's formation. Here, we analyse the inclination distribution of asteroid families, because proper inclination can remain constant over long time intervals, and could help us to understand the distribution of the component of the ejection velocity that is perpendicular to the orbital plane (vW). From modelling the initial break up, we find that the distribution of vW of the fragments, which manage to escape the parent body's gravity, should be more peaked than a Gaussian distribution (i.e. be leptokurtic) even if the initial distribution was Gaussian. We surveyed known asteroid families for signs of a peaked distribution of vW using a statistical measure of the distribution peakedness or flatness known as kurtosis. We identified eight families whose vW distribution is significantly leptokurtic. These cases (e.g. the Koronis family) are located in dynamically quiet regions of the main belt, where, presumably, the initial distribution of vW was not modified by subsequent orbital evolution. We suggest that, in these cases, the inclination distribution can be used to obtain interesting information about the original ejection velocity field.

  10. Non-invasive model-based estimation of aortic pulse pressure using suprasystolic brachial pressure waveforms.

    PubMed

    Lowe, A; Harrison, W; El-Aklouk, E; Ruygrok, P; Al-Jumaily, A M

    2009-09-18

    Elevated central arterial (aortic) blood pressure is related to increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Methods of non-invasively estimating this pressure would therefore be helpful in clinical practice. To achieve this goal, a physics-based model is derived to correlate the arterial pressure under a suprasystolic upper-arm cuff to the aortic pressure. The model assumptions are particularly applicable to the measurement method and result in a time-domain relation with two parameters, namely, the wave propagation transit time and the reflection coefficient at the cuff. Central pressures estimated by the model were derived from completely automatic, non-invasive measurement of brachial blood pressure and suprasystolic waveform and were compared to simultaneous invasive catheter measurements in 16 subjects. Systolic blood pressure agreement, mean (standard deviation) of difference was -1 (7)mmHg. Diastolic blood pressure agreement was 4 (4)mmHg. Correlation between estimated and actual central waveforms was greater than 90%. Individualization of model parameters did not significantly improve systolic and diastolic pressure agreement, but increased waveform correlation. Further research is necessary to confirm that more accurate brachial pressure measurement improves central pressure estimation. PMID:19665136

  11. Young Star Probably Ejected From Triple System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2003-01-01

    Astronomers analyzing nearly 20 years of data from the National Science Foundation's Very Large Array radio telescope have discovered that a small star in a multiple-star system in the constellation Taurus probably has been ejected from the system after a close encounter with one of the system's more-massive components, presumed to be a compact double star. This is the first time any such event has been observed. Path of Small Star, 1983-2001 "Our analysis shows a drastic change in the orbit of this young star after it made a close approach to another object in the system," said Luis Rodriguez of the Institute of Astronomy of the National Autonomous University of Mexico (UNAM). "The young star was accelerated to a large velocity by the close approach, and certainly now is in a very different, more remote orbit, and may even completely escape its companions," said Laurent Loinard, leader of the research team that also included Monica Rodriguez in addition to Luis Rodriguez. The UNAM astronomers presented their findings at the American Astronomical Society's meeting in Seattle, WA. The discovery of this chaotic event will be important for advancing our understanding of classical dynamic astronomy and of how stars evolve, including possibly providing an explanation for the production of the mysterious "brown dwarfs," the astronomers said. The scientists analyzed VLA observations of T Tauri, a multiple system of young stars some 450 light-years from Earth. The observations were made from 1983 to 2001. The T Tauri system includes a "Northern" star, the famous star that gives its name to the class of young visible stars, and a "Southern" system of stars, all orbiting each other. The VLA data were used to track the orbit of the smaller Southern star around the larger Southern object, presumed to be a pair of stars orbiting each other closely. The astronomers' plot of the smaller star's orbit shows that it followed an apparently elliptical orbit around its twin companions

  12. Transplantation of human amniotic epithelial cells repairs brachial plexus injury: pathological and biomechanical analyses

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Qi; Luo, Min; Li, Peng; Jin, Hai

    2014-01-01

    A brachial plexus injury model was established in rabbits by stretching the C6 nerve root. Immediately after the stretching, a suspension of human amniotic epithelial cells was injected into the injured brachial plexus. The results of tensile mechanical testing of the brachial plexus showed that the tensile elastic limit strain, elastic limit stress, maximum stress, and maximum strain of the injured brachial plexuses were significantly increased at 24 weeks after the injection. The treatment clearly improved the pathological morphology of the injured brachial plexus nerve, as seen by hematoxylin eosin staining, and the functions of the rabbit forepaw were restored. These data indicate that the injection of human amniotic epithelial cells contributed to the repair of brachial plexus injury, and that this technique may transform into current clinical treatment strategies. PMID:25657737

  13. Supraclavicular Brachial Plexus Block With or Without Dexamethasone as an Adjuvant to 0.5% Levobupivacaine: A Comparative Study

    PubMed Central

    Bhupal, Jatinder Paul Singh; Kumar, Parmod; Gandhi, Gurjit Singh

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Brachial plexus block is an excellent method for attaining optimal operating conditions by producing complete muscular relaxation, maintaining stable intraoperative haemodynamics and the associated sympathetic block. In addition, they provide extended postoperative analgesia with minimal side effects. Different adjuvants have been described in literature to hasten the onset and prolong the duration of block. The present study was conducted to study the effect of adding dexamethasone to levobupivacaine in supraclavicular brachial plexus block. Aim To observe the effect of dexamethasone on onset and duration of anaesthesia, when used as an adjuvant to levobupivacaine in supraclavicular brachial plexus block. Materials and Methods A total of 60 patients in the age group of 18-65 years belonging to ASA physical status I or II were included in the study. They are randomly allocated in two groups and each group included 30 patients. In group 1, patients received 30ml of 0.5% isobaric levobupivacaine with 2ml of isotonic sodium chloride. In group 2 patients received 8mg (2ml) dexamethasone in addition to 30ml of 0.5% isobaric levobupivacaine. Results The results showed that the onset of sensory and motor block were faster in group 2(p<0.05). The duration of sensory and motor block were significantly longer in group 2 (p<0.05). VAS score at 12 hours were significantly lower in group 2 (p<0.05). None of the patients had bradycardia, hypotension or any other side effects. Conclusion Dexamethasone added to levobupivacaine for supraclavicular brachial plexus block reduces the time to onset of sensory and motor blockage and prolongs the duration of analgesia. PMID:27504384

  14. Sept. 28, 2012 Coronal Mass Ejection

    NASA Video Gallery

    This Sept. 28 coronal mass ejection (CME) from the sun, captured by NASA’s Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO), is the event which caused the near total annihilation of the new radiation belt and sl...

  15. Aug. 31, 2012 Coronal Mass Ejection

    NASA Video Gallery

    This two part movie shows an Aug. 31 coronal mass ejection (CME) from the sun , the same event that caused depletion and refilling of the radiation belts just after the Relativistic Electron-Proton...

  16. Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction

    PubMed Central

    Gladden, James D.; Linke, Wolfgang A.

    2014-01-01

    As part of this series devoted to heart failure (HF), we review the epidemiology, diagnosis, pathophysiology, and treatment of HF with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF). Gaps in knowledge and needed future research are discussed. PMID:24663384

  17. Brachial plexus birth palsy: Management during the first year of life.

    PubMed

    Abid, A

    2016-02-01

    Brachial plexus birth palsy (BPBP) is defined as an injury to any nerve root of the brachial plexus during difficult delivery. BPBP is relatively rare; its incidence has remained constant over the last few decades, mostly due to unpredictable risk factors, such as shoulder dystocia. Both diagnosis and assessment of spontaneous recovery is based on clinical examination. Electromyography is difficult to interpret in the newborn and is therefore not meaningful. MRI of the cervical spine requires sedation or general anesthesia. Searching for a pre-ganglion tear prior to surgery is indicted. Prognosis depends on the level of the injury (pre- or post-ganglion), size and severity of the post-ganglion tears, speed of recovery, and quality of initial management. Although spontaneous recovery is frequent, some children suffer various degrees of sequelae, up to complete loss of function of the affected upper limb. Recent publications have improved general knowledge and indications for surgery. However, some aspects, such as indication and timing of nerve repair continue to be debated. PMID:26774906

  18. Pulse Ejection Presentation System Synchronized with Breathing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kadowaki, Ami; Sato, Junta; Ohtsu, Kaori; Bannai, Yuichi; Okada, Kenichi

    Trials on transmission of olfactory information together with audio/visual information are currently being conducted in the field of multimedia. However, continuous emission of scents in high concentration creates problems of human adaptation and remnant odors in air. To overcome such problems we developed an olfactory display in conjunction with Canon Inc. This display has high emission control in the ink-jet so that it can provide stable pulse emission of scents. Humans catch a scent when they breathe in and inhale smell molecules in air. Therefore, it is important that the timing of scent presentation is synchronized with human breathing. We also developed a breath sensor which detects human inspiration. In this study, we combined the olfactory display with the breath sensor to make a pulse ejection presentation system synchronized the breath. The experimental evaluation showed that the system had more than 90 percent of detection rate. Another evaluation was held at KEIO TECHNO-MALL 2007. From questionnaire results of the participants, we found that the system made the user feel continuous sense of smell avoiding adaptation. It is expected that our system enables olfactory information to be synchronized with audio/visual information in arbitrary duration at any time.

  19. Solar origins of coronal mass ejections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kahler, Stephen

    1987-01-01

    The large scale properties of coronal mass ejections (CMEs), such as morphology, leading edge speed, and angular width and position, have been cataloged for many events observed with coronagraphs on the Skylab, P-78, and SMM spacecraft. While considerable study has been devoted to the characteristics of the SMEs, their solar origins are still only poorly understood. Recent observational work has involved statistical associations of CMEs with flares and filament eruptions, and some evidence exists that the flare and eruptive-filament associated CMEs define two classes of events, with the former being generally more energetic. Nevertheless, it is found that eruptive-filament CMEs can at times be very energetic, giving rise to interplanetary shocks and energetic particle events. The size of the impulsive phase in a flare-associated CME seems to play no significant role in the size or speed of the CME, but the angular sizes of CMEs may correlate with the scale sizes of the 1-8 angstrom x-ray flares. At the present time, He 10830 angstrom observations should be useful in studying the late development of double-ribbon flares and transient coronal holes to yield insights into the CME aftermath. The recently available white-light synoptic maps may also prove fruitful in defining the coronal conditions giving rise to CMEs.

  20. CFD Simulations of Vibration Induced Droplet Ejection.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    James, Ashley; Smith, Marc K.; Glezer, Ari

    1998-11-01

    Vibration-induced droplet ejection is a process that occurs when a liquid droplet is placed on a vibrating membrane. Above a critical value of the excitation amplitude, Faraday waves form on the surface of the drop. As the amplitude is increased secondary drops are ejected from the wave crests. A Navier-Stokes solver designed to simulate the transient fluid mechanics of the process is presented. The solver is based on a MAC method on a staggered grid. A volume of fluid method is implemented to track the free surface. The volume fraction is advected via a second-order, unsplit method that minimizes numerical diffusion of the interface. Surface tension is incorporated as a continuum surface force. This work is intended to provide a comprehensive description of the fluid dynamics involved in vibration-induced droplet ejection, with the aim of understanding the mechanism behind the ejection process. The evolution of the interface through droplet ejection will be simulated. The dependence of the ejection process on the driving parameters will be evaluated and the resonance characteristics of the drop will be determined. The results of the computations will be compared with experimental results.

  1. Low speed vehicle passenger ejection restraint effectiveness.

    PubMed

    Seluga, Kristopher J; Ojalvo, Irving U; Obert, Richard M

    2005-07-01

    Current golf carts and LSV's (Low Speed Vehicles) produce a significant number of passenger ejections during sharp turns. These LSV's do not typically possess seatbelts, but do provide outboard bench seat hip restraints that also serve as handholds. However, many current restraint designs appear incapable of preventing passenger ejections due to their low height and inefficient handhold position. Alternative handhold and hip restraint designs may improve passenger safety. Accordingly, this paper examines minimum size requirements for hip restraints to prevent passenger ejection during sharp turns and evaluates the effectiveness of a handhold mounted at the center of the bench seat. In this study, a simulation of a turning cart supplies the dynamic input to a biomechanical model of an adult male seated in a golf cart. Various restraint combinations are considered, both with and without the central handhold, to determine the likelihood of passenger ejection. It is shown that only the largest restraint geometries prevent passenger ejection. Adequate hip restraints should be much larger than current designs and a central handhold should be provided. In this way, golf cart and LSV manufacturers could reduce passenger ejections and improve fleet safety by incorporating recommendations provided herein. PMID:15893288

  2. Idiopathic brachial neuritis in a child: A case report and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Shikha; Bhatt, Girish Chandra; Rai, Nirendra; Bhan, Bhavna Dhingra

    2014-01-01

    Brachial neuritis is a rare disease in children, affecting mainly the lower motor neurons of the brachial plexus and/or individual nerves or nerve branches. We report a case of idiopathic brachial plexus neuritis in a 2½-year-old female child admitted with acute respiratory distress and given antibiotic therapy following which she developed weakness of the left hand. She was diagnosed as a case of idiopathic brachial plexus neuritis and was given supportive care. Although, the association with antibiotic therapy in this case could be incidental, indeed it is intriguing and requires further studies. PMID:25624937

  3. Idiopathic brachial neuritis in a child: A case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Jain, Shikha; Bhatt, Girish Chandra; Rai, Nirendra; Bhan, Bhavna Dhingra

    2014-01-01

    Brachial neuritis is a rare disease in children, affecting mainly the lower motor neurons of the brachial plexus and/or individual nerves or nerve branches. We report a case of idiopathic brachial plexus neuritis in a 2½-year-old female child admitted with acute respiratory distress and given antibiotic therapy following which she developed weakness of the left hand. She was diagnosed as a case of idiopathic brachial plexus neuritis and was given supportive care. Although, the association with antibiotic therapy in this case could be incidental, indeed it is intriguing and requires further studies. PMID:25624937

  4. Post-operative brachial plexus neuropraxia: A less recognised complication of combined plastic and laparoscopic surgeries

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Jimmy

    2014-01-01

    This presentation is to increase awareness of the potential for brachial plexus injury during prolonged combined plastic surgery procedures. A case of brachial plexus neuropraxia in a 26-year-old obese patient following a prolonged combined plastic surgery procedure was encountered. Nerve palsy due to faulty positioning on the operating table is commonly seen over the elbow and popliteal fossa. However, injury to the brachial plexus has been a recently reported phenomenon due to the increasing number of laparoscopic and robotic procedures. Brachial plexus injury needs to be recognised as a potential complication of prolonged combined plastic surgery. Preventive measures are discussed. PMID:25593443

  5. Continuous shoulder analgesia via an indwelling axillary brachial plexus catheter.

    PubMed

    Reuben, S S; Steinberg, R B

    2000-09-01

    Continuous interscalene brachial plexus blockade can provide anesthesia and analgesia in the shoulder region. Difficulty accessing the interscalene space and premature displacement of interscalene catheters may preclude their use in certain situations. We present two case reports in which a catheter was advanced from the axilla along the brachial plexus sheath to the interscalene space to provide continuous cervicobrachial plexus analgesia. In the first case report, previous neck surgery made the anatomic landmarks for performing an interscalene block very difficult. An epidural catheter was advanced from the axillary brachial plexus sheath to the interscalene space under fluoroscopic guidance. This technique provided both intraoperative analgesia for shoulder surgery as well as 24-hour postoperative analgesia by an infusion of 0.125% bupivacaine. In the second case report, a catheter was inserted in a similar fashion from the axillary to the interscalene space to provide 14 days of continuous analgesia in the management of complex regional pain syndrome. We have found that this technique allows us to secure the catheter more easily than with the traditional interscalene approach and thus prevents premature dislodgment. This approach may be a suitable alternative when either an interscalene or an infraclavicular catheter may not be inserted. PMID:11090734

  6. Effects of the driving mechanism in MHD simulations of coronal mass ejections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linker, J. A.; van Hoven, G.; Schnack, D. D.

    Results of time-dependent MHD simulations of mass ejections in the solar coronal are presented. Previous authors have shown that results from simulations using a thermal driving mechanism are consistent with the observations only if an elaborate model of the initial corona is used. The first simulation effort, using a simple model of a plasmoid as the driving mechanism and a simple model of the initial corona, produces results that are also consistent with many observational features, suggesting that the nature of the driving mechanism plays an important role in determining the subsequent evolution of mass ejections. First simulations are based on the assumption that mass ejections are driven by magnetic forces.

  7. Effects of the driving mechanism in MHD simulations of coronal mass ejections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Linker, J. A.; Van Hoven, G.; Schnack, D. D.

    1990-01-01

    Results of time-dependent MHD simulations of mass ejections in the solar coronal are presented. Previous authors have shown that results from simulations using a thermal driving mechanism are consistent with the observations only if an elaborate model of the initial corona is used. The first simulation effort, using a simple model of a plasmoid as the driving mechanism and a simple model of the initial corona, produces results that are also consistent with many observational features, suggesting that the nature of the driving mechanism plays an important role in determining the subsequent evolution of mass ejections. First simulations are based on the assumption that mass ejections are driven by magnetic forces.

  8. Coronal Mass Ejections and Solar Radio Emissions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gopalswamy, Nat

    2010-01-01

    Coronal mass ejections (CMEs) have important connections to various types of radio emissions from the Sun. The persistent noise storm radiation (type I storm at metric wavelengths, type III storms at longer wavelengths) can be clearly interrupted by the occurrence of a CME in the active region that produces the storm. Sometimes the noise storm completely disappears and other times, it reappears in the active region. Long-lasting type III bursts are associated with CME eruption, thought to be due to the reconnection process taking place beneath the erupting CME. Type II bursts are indicative of electron acceleration in the CME-driven shocks and hence considered to be the direct response of the CME propagation in the corona and interplanetary medium. Finally type IV bursts indicate large-scale post-eruption arcades containing trapped electrons that produce radio emission. This paper summarizes some key results that connect CMEs to various types of radio emission and what we can learn about particle acceleration in the corona) and interplanetary medium. Particular emphasis will be placed on type If bursts because of their connection to interplanetary shocks detected in situ.

  9. Particle Heating Resulting from Coronal Mass Ejection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paul, Suman; Sundar De, Syam; Guha, Gautam

    2016-07-01

    Coronal Mass Ejection (CME) is a continuous phenomena occurring from the entire solar coronal zone responsible for the outflow of solar masses, viz., protons, electrons, neutrons and solar wind in the form of plasma. These perturb the Earth's atmosphere via magnetopause. Very high temperature plasma generator in the solar atmosphere produces huge magnetic dipoles with intense magnetic field. It traps the energetic charged particles released from the solar corona. These particles gyrate along the magnetic field lines and are gradually elongated outwards from the Sun. Due to this, the field lines get detached at some critical limit thereby enhancing the magnetic reconnection with the interplanetary magnetic field releasing huge energy in the form of X-rays and γ-rays. This perturbs the Earth's atmosphere. In this work, the situation has been investigated by momentum balance equation, energy balance equation along with the equations of continuity and states. From the analyses, the dispersive nature of the thermospheric medium is studied. Variation of normalized electron temperature with dimensionless time has been critically contemplated. The altitude dependent electric field in the medium is also investigated.

  10. Dynamic simulation of coronal mass ejections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steinolfson, R. S.; Wu, S. T.

    1980-01-01

    A model is developed for the formation and propagation through the lower corona of the loop-like coronal transients in which mass is ejected from near the solar surface to the outer corona. It is assumed that the initial state for the transient is a coronal streamer. The initial state for the streamer is a polytropic, hydrodynamic solution to the steady-state radial equation of motion coupled with a force-free dipole magnetic field. The numerical solution of the complete time-dependent equations then gradually approaches a stationary coronal streamer configuration. The streamer configuration becomes the initial state for the coronal transient. The streamer and transient simulations are performed completely independent of each other. The transient is created by a sudden increase in the pressure at the base of the closed-field region in the streamer configuration. Both coronal streamers and coronal transients are calculated for values of the plasma beta (the ratio of thermal to magnetic pressure) varying from 0.1 to 100.

  11. Interplanetary Propagation of Coronal Mass Ejections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gopalswamy, Nat

    2011-01-01

    Although more than ten thousand coronal mass ejections (CMEs) are produced during each solar cycle at the Sun, only a small fraction hits the Earth. Only a small fraction of the Earth-directed CMEs ultimately arrive at Earth depending on their interaction with the solar wind and other large-scale structures such as coronal holes and CMEs. The interplanetary propagation is essentially controlled by the drag force because the propelling force and the solar gravity are significant only near the Sun. Combined remote-sensing and in situ observations have helped us estimate the influence of the solar wind on the propagation of CMEs. However, these measurements have severe limitations because the remote-sensed and in-situ observations correspond to different portions of the CME. Attempts to overcome this problem are made in two ways: the first is to model the CME and get the space speed of the CME, which can be compared with the in situ speed. The second method is to use stereoscopic observation so that the remote-sensed and in-situ observations make measurements on the Earth-arriving part of CMEs. The Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory (STEREO) mission observed several such CMEs, which helped understand the interplanetary evolution of these CMEs and to test earlier model results. This paper discusses some of these issues and updates the CME/shock travel time estimates for a number of CMEs.

  12. EIT Observations of Coronal Mass Ejections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gurman, J. B.; Fisher, Richard B. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Before the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO), we had only the sketchiest of clues as to the nature and topology of coronal mass ejections (CMEs) below 1.1 - 1.2 solar radii. Occasionally, dimmings (or 'transient coronal holes') were observed in time series of soft X-ray images, but they were far less frequent than CME's. Simply by imaging the Sun frequently and continually at temperatures of 0.9 - 2.5 MK we have stumbled upon a zoo of CME phenomena in this previously obscured volume of the corona: (1) waves, (2) dimmings, and (3) a great variety of ejecta. In the three and a half years since our first observations of coronal waves associated with CME's, combined Large Angle Spectroscopic Coronagraph (LASCO) and extreme ultra-violet imaging telescope (EIT) synoptic observations have become a standard prediction tool for space weather forecasters, but our progress in actually understanding the CME phenomenon in the low corona has been somewhat slower. I will summarize the observations of waves, hot (> 0.9 MK) and cool ejecta, and some of the interpretations advanced to date. I will try to identify those phenomena, analysis of which could most benefit from the spectroscopic information available from ultraviolet coronograph spectrometer (UVCS) observations.

  13. Numerical Simulations of a Flux Rope Ejection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pagano, P.; Mackay, D. H.; Poedts, S.

    2015-03-01

    Coronal mass ejections (CMEs) are the most violent phenomena observed on the Sun. One of the most successful models to explain CMEs is the flux rope ejection model, where a magnetic flux rope is expelled from the solar corona after a long phase along which the flux rope stays in equilibrium while magnetic energy is being accumulated. However, still many questions are outstanding on the detailed mechanism of the ejection and observations continuously provide new data to interpret and put in the context. Currently, extreme ultraviolet (EUV) images from the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) on board the Solar Dynamic Observatory (SDO) are providing new insights into the early phase of CME evolution. In particular, observations show the ejection of magnetic flux ropes from the solar corona and how they evolve into CMEs. However, these observations are difficult to interpret in terms of basic physical mechanisms and quantities, thus, we need to compare equivalent quantities to test and improve our models. In our work, we intend to bridge the gap between models and observations with our model of flux rope ejection where we consistently describe the full life span of a flux rope from its formation to ejection. This is done by coupling the global non-linear force-free model (GNLFFF) built to describe the slow low- β formation phase, with a full MHD simulation run with the software MPI-AMRVAC, suitable to describe the fast MHD evolution of the flux rope ejection that happens in a heterogeneous β regime. We also explore the parameter space to identify the conditions upon which the ejection is favoured (gravity stratification and magnetic field intensity) and we produce synthesised AIA observations (171 Å and 211 Å). To carry this out, we run 3D MHD simulation in spherical coordinates where we include the role of thermal conduction and radiative losses, both of which are important for determining the temperature distribution of the solar corona during a CME. Our model of

  14. Computational fluid dynamics of left ventricular ejection.

    PubMed

    Georgiadis, J G; Wang, M; Pasipoularides, A

    1992-01-01

    The present investigation addresses the effects of simple geometric variations on intraventricular ejection dynamics, by methods from computational fluid dynamics. It is an early step in incorporating more and more relevant characteristics of the ejection process, such as a continuously changing irregular geometry, in numerical simulations. We consider the effects of varying chamber eccentricities and outflow valve orifice-to-inner surface area ratios on instantaneous ejection gradients along the axis of symmetry of the left ventricle. The equation of motion for the streamfunction was discretized and solved iteratively with specified boundary conditions on a boundary-fitted adaptive grid, using an alternating-direction-implicit (ADI) algorithm. The unsteady aspects of the ejection process were subsequently introduced into the numerical simulation. It was shown that for given chamber volume and outflow orifice area, higher chamber eccentricities require higher ejection pressure gradients for the same velocity and local acceleration values at the aortic anulus than more spherical shapes. This finding is referable to the rise in local acceleration effects across the outflow axis. This is to be contrasted with the case of outflow orifice stenosis, in which it was shown that it is the convective acceleration effects that are intensified strongly. PMID:1562106

  15. SIMION analysis of a high performance linear accumulation octopole with enhanced ejection capabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taban, Ioana M.; McDonnell, Liam A.; Römpp, Andreas; Cerjak, Iliya; Heeren, Ron M. A.

    2005-07-01

    Here, we present the results of extensive SIMION 7.0 modelling of a new linear octopole ion trap. The octopole was designed to increase the efficiency of an electrospray ion source coupled to a Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance (FTICR) mass spectrometer. This improvement was achieved by applying a pulsed axial field to the octopole to eject the ion packet with a time and energy distribution that better match the acceptance criteria of the FTICR cell, thus increasing the trapping efficiency and sensitivity. The axial field was produced by applying a pulsed dc potential to the custom-designed ejection electrodes located between the octopole rods. The time and energy profiles of the ejected ion packets for several electrode shapes were calculated and are discussed in terms of their compatibility with efficient trapping of the ion packet in the FTICR cell. Preliminary experimental results show increased signal using the dc ejection electrodes of approximately 100%.

  16. Sedentary Behavior and Light Physical Activity Are Associated with Brachial and Central Blood Pressure in Hypertensive Patients

    PubMed Central

    Gerage, Aline M.; Benedetti, Tania R. B.; Farah, Breno Q.; Santana, Fábio da S.; Ohara, David; Andersen, Lars B.; Ritti-Dias, Raphael M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Physical activity is recommended as a part of a comprehensive lifestyle approach in the treatment of hypertension, but there is a lack of data about the relationship between different intensities of physical activity and cardiovascular parameters in hypertensive patients. The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between the time spent in physical activities of different intensities and blood pressure levels, arterial stiffness and autonomic modulation in hypertensive patients. Methods In this cross-sectional study, 87 hypertensive patients (57.5 ± 9.9 years of age) had their physical activity assessed over a 7 day period using an accelerometer and the time spent in sedentary activities, light physical activities, moderate physical activities and moderate-to-vigorous physical activities was obtained. The primary outcomes were brachial and central blood pressure. Arterial stiffness parameters (augmentation index and pulse wave velocity) and cardiac autonomic modulation (sympathetic and parasympathetic modulation in the heart) were also obtained as secondary outcomes. Results Sedentary activities and light physical activities were positively and inversely associated, respectively, with brachial systolic (r = 0.56; P < 0.01), central systolic (r = 0.51; P < 0.05), brachial diastolic (r = 0.45; P < 0.01) and central diastolic (r = 0.42; P < 0.05) blood pressures, after adjustment for sex, age, trunk fat, number of antihypertensive drugs, accelerometer wear time and moderate-to-vigorous physical activities. Arterial stiffness parameters and cardiac autonomic modulation were not associated with the time spent in sedentary activities and in light physical activities (P > 0.05). Conclusion Lower time spent in sedentary activities and higher time spent in light physical activities are associated with lower blood pressure, without affecting arterial stiffness and cardiac autonomic modulation in hypertensive patients. PMID:26717310

  17. Coronal mass ejections and coronal structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hildner, E.; Bassi, J.; Bougeret, J. L.; Duncan, R. A.; Gary, D. E.; Gergely, T. E.; Harrison, R. A.; Howard, R. A.; Illing, R. M. E.; Jackson, B. V.

    1986-01-01

    Research on coronal mass ejections (CMF) took a variety of forms, both observational and theoretical. On the observational side there were: case studies of individual events, in which it was attempted to provide the most complete descriptions possible, using correlative observations in diverse wavelengths; statistical studies of the properties CMEs and their associated activity; observations which may tell us about the initiation of mass ejections; interplanetary observations of associated shocks and energetic particles even observations of CMEs traversing interplanetary space; and the beautiful synoptic charts which show to what degree mass ejections affect the background corona and how rapidly (if at all) the corona recovers its pre-disturbance form. These efforts are described in capsule form with an emphasis on presenting pictures, graphs, and tables so that the reader can form a personal appreciation of the work and its results.

  18. Visualization of the air ejected from the temporary cavity in brain and tissue simulants during gunshot wounding.

    PubMed

    Lazarjan, M S; Geoghegan, P H; Taylor, M C; Jermy, M C

    2015-01-01

    One hypothesis for the physical mechanism responsible for backspatter during cranial gunshot wounding is that air is ejected by the collapse of the temporary cavity formed around the bullet path. Using bovine and ovine heads and simulant materials, evidence of this ejection was sought by measuring the velocity of the air that was drawn in and ejected from the cavity in front of the wound channel after bullet impact. A laminar flow of fog-laden air was arranged in front of the wound channel and two high speed cameras recording at 30,000 frames/second captured the air motion. All samples were shot with standard 9 mm × 19 mm FMJ ammunition. Different concentrations of ballistic gelatine were used to characterize the effect of elasticity of the material on the velocity of the air. Fresh bovine and ovine heads were shot with the same experimental set up to investigate if there was induction of air into, and ejection of air from the entrance wounds. The results show, for the first time, that the temporary cavity does eject air in gelatine. The velocity of in-drawn air for 3, 5 and 10% concentration of gelatine was 81, 76 and 65 m/s respectively and the velocity of ejected air for 5 and 10% concentration of gelatine were 43 and 72 m/s respectively. The results show that when the concentration of gelatine is increased, the velocity of the air drawn into the cavity decreases and the velocity of the ejected air increases. However, no ejection was observed in 3% gelatine, ovine or bovine heads. Although ejection of air was not observed, ejection of brain from the wound channel was seen. Using the velocity of the ejected brain, the minimum intracranial pressure required to eject the brain tissue was estimated to be 712 kPa and 468 kPa for the sheep and bovine heads respectively. PMID:25485950

  19. Penile erectile dysfunction after brachial plexus root avulsion injury in rats

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Guo; Qin, Bengang; Jiang, Li; Huang, Xijun; Lu, Qinsen; Zhang, Dechun; Liu, Xiaolin; Zhu, Jiakai; Zheng, Jianwen; Li, Xuejia; Gu, Liqiang

    2014-01-01

    Our previous studies have demonstrated that some male patients suffering from brachial plexus injury, particularly brachial plexus root avulsion, show erectile dysfunction to varying degrees. However, the underlying mechanism remains poorly understood. In this study, we evaluated the erectile function after establishing brachial plexus root avulsion models with or without spinal cord injury in rats. After these models were established, we administered apomorphine (via a subcutaneous injection in the neck) to observe changes in erectile function. Rats subjected to simple brachial plexus root avulsion or those subjected to brachial plexus root avulsion combined with spinal cord injury had significantly fewer erections than those subjected to the sham operation. Expression of neuronal nitric oxide synthase did not change in brachial plexus root avulsion rats. However, neuronal nitric oxide synthase expression was significantly decreased in brachial plexus root avulsion + spinal cord injury rats. These findings suggest that a decrease in neuronal nitric oxide synthase expression in the penis may play a role in erectile dysfunction caused by the combination of brachial plexus root avulsion and spinal cord injury. PMID:25422647

  20. 3T MR tomography of the brachial plexus: structural and microstructural evaluation.

    PubMed

    Mallouhi, Ammar; Marik, Wolfgang; Prayer, Daniela; Kainberger, Franz; Bodner, Gerd; Kasprian, Gregor

    2012-09-01

    Magnetic resonance (MR) neurography comprises an evolving group of techniques with the potential to allow optimal noninvasive evaluation of many abnormalities of the brachial plexus. MR neurography is clinically useful in the evaluation of suspected brachial plexus traumatic injuries, intrinsic and extrinsic tumors, and post-radiogenic inflammation, and can be particularly beneficial in pediatric patients with obstetric trauma to the brachial plexus. The most common MR neurographic techniques for displaying the brachial plexus can be divided into two categories: structural MR neurography; and microstructural MR neurography. Structural MR neurography uses mainly the STIR sequence to image the nerves of the brachial plexus, can be performed in 2D or 3D mode, and the 2D sequence can be repeated in different planes. Microstructural MR neurography depends on the diffusion tensor imaging that provides quantitative information about the degree and direction of water diffusion within the nerves of the brachial plexus, as well as on tractography to visualize the white matter tracts and to characterize their integrity. The successful evaluation of the brachial plexus requires the implementation of appropriate techniques and familiarity with the pathologies that might involve the brachial plexus. PMID:21763092

  1. Falls and ejections from pickup trucks.

    PubMed

    Bucklew, P A; Osler, T M; Eidson, J J; Clevenger, F W; Olson, S E; Demarest, G B

    1992-04-01

    The medical records of 50 patients who sustained injuries during falls or ejections from pickup truck beds and were admitted to the University of New Mexico Level I Trauma Center between January 1985 and December 1989 were retrospectively examined. Falls and ejections commonly involve young adults, and usually occur in the summer months during the afternoon or evening. Twenty-three individuals were thrown from the pickup truck bed during a motor vehicle collision and 27 simply fell out, and this distinction was not related to age or ethanol use. Although those thrown from the pickup truck bed during a crash were less severely injured (average ISS 15.4) than those who simply fell from the bed (average ISS 17.4), this difference was not statistically significant. Mortality was equal in these two groups, with three deaths occurring in each group. Overall, injuries incurred during falls and ejections were more serious than those incurred in MVCs (average ISS 16.5 vs. 14.5, p = 0.06). The head was the most frequently injured body region following falls or ejections (68%), followed by the extremities (46%), the face (28%), the thorax (22%), and the abdomen (10%). Every death in this series was attributed to a head injury. The overall mortality for the series was 12%. Sixteen additional fatalities from falls and ejections during the study period were discovered in a review of the records of the State Medical Examiner. The average age of this cohort was 24 years. Fifteen of these deaths were the result of falls rather than ejections (94%), and 13 were attributed to head injuries (81%).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1569621

  2. Autogenous side-to-side brachial-basilic fistulas without vein transposition: a valuable option?

    PubMed

    Lomonte, Carlo; Casucci, Francesco; Antonelli, Maurizio; Losurdo, Nicola; Marchio, Giovanni; Teutonico, Annalisa; Libutti, Pasquale; Basile, Carlo

    2009-01-01

    An autogenous brachial-basilic arteriovenous fistula (BBAVF) in the upper arm must be considered before placing prosthetic grafts in hemodialysis patients with multiple failures of forearm AVFs. The aim of this observational study was to compare technical and clinical outcomes of a new construction technique for BBAVF (n-BBAVF) with that of the standard one-stage side-artery to end-vein transposed BBAVF (t-BBAVF). A n-BBAVF is constructed in the following way: basilic vein and brachial artery are isolated. Patency of the proximal and distal vein is verified by injecting warmed (37 degrees C) saline solution. A venotomy and an arterotomy of 4-5 mm are performed. The two vessels are prepared for a side-to-side anastomosis without transposition of the vein. The latter allows both an antegrade and retrograde flow along the basilic vein, both proximally and distally to the anastomosis with more sites available for the venipunctures of the dialysis. Thirty BBAVFs were constructed as the secondary or tertiary vascular access in 30 patients over a 4-year period: 17 patients with adequate forearm basilic vein underwent the construction of a n-BBAVF; 13 underwent the construction of a t-BBAVF. The construction of a n-BBAVF requires a significantly lesser surgical time (55.0 +/- 9.0 minutes vs. 115.0 +/- 18.0, p < 0.0001), has fewer surgical complications (5.9% vs. 46.2%, p < 0.0001), and a reduced time to first use (24.5 +/- 6.3 vs. 37.7 +/- 9.1 days, p < 0.0001) than that of a t-BBAVF. n-BBAVFs showed a relatively low rate of thrombosis per patient-year at risk (0.067 at 1 year and 0.099 at 2 years). The latter was significantly lower at 1 year when compared with t-BBAVFs (0.067 vs. 0.285; p < 0.004). Our policy of "all AVFs should be autogenous" led us to the construction of a vascular access which is based on a side-to-side anastomosis between the brachial artery and the basilic vein without transposition of the vein allowing both antegrade and retrograde flow into the

  3. Halo Coronal Mass Ejections and Geomagnetic Storms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gopalswamy, Nat

    2009-01-01

    In this letter, I show that the discrepancies in the geoeffectiveness of halo coronal mass ejections (CMEs) reported in the literature arise due to the varied definitions of halo CMEs used by different authors. In particular, I show that the low geoeffectiveness rate is a direct consequence of including partial halo CMEs. The geoeffectiveness of partial halo CMEs is lower because they are of low speed and likely to make a glancing impact on Earth. Key words: Coronal mass ejections, geomagnetic storms, geoeffectiveness, halo CMEs.

  4. IR Variability During a Shell Ejection of Eta Carinae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Nathan

    2006-02-01

    Every 5.5 years, η Carinae experiences a dramatic ``spectroscopic event'' when high-excitation lines in its UV, optical, and IR spectrum disappear, and its hard X-ray and radio continuum flux crash. This periodicity has been attributed to a very eccentric binary system with a shell ejection occurring at periastron. Mid-IR images and spectra with T-ReCS are needed to measure changes in the current bolometric luminosity and to trace dust formation episodes. This will provide a direct estimate of the mass ejected. Near-IR emission lines trace related changes in the post-event wind and ionization changes in the circumstellar environment needed to test specific models for the cause of η Car's variability as it recovers from its recent ``event''. High resolution near-IR spectra with GNIRS will continue the important work of HST/STIS, investigating changes in the direct and reflected spectrum of the stellar wind, and ionization changes in the nebula. The complex kinematic structure of η Car's ejecta also holds important clues to its mass ejection history, and is essential for interpreting other data. Phoenix can provide a unique kinematic map of the complex density and time-variable ionization structure of η Car's nebula, which is our best example of the pre-explosion environment of very massive stars.

  5. Effects of Slag Ejection on Solid Rocket Motor Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitesides, R. Harold; Purinton, David C.; Hengel, John E.; Skelley, Stephen E.

    1995-01-01

    In past firings of the Reusable Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM) both static test and flight motors have shown small pressure perturbations occurring primarily between 65 and 80 seconds. A joint NASA/Thiokol team investigation concluded that the cause of the pressure perturbations was the periodic ingestion and ejection of molten aluminum oxide slag from the cavity around the submerged nozzle nose which tends to trap and collect individual aluminum oxide droplets from the approach flow. The conclusions of the team were supported by numerous data and observations from special tests including high speed photographic films, real time radiography, plume calorimeters, accelerometers, strain gauges, nozzle TVC system force gauges, and motor pressure and thrust data. A simplistic slag ballistics model was formulated to relate a given pressure perturbation to a required slag quantity. Also, a cold flow model using air and water was developed to provide data on the relationship between the slag flow rate and the chamber pressure increase. Both the motor and the cold flow model exhibited low frequency oscillations in conjunction with periods of slag ejection. Motor and model frequencies were related to scaling parameters. The data indicate that there is a periodicity to the slag entrainment and ejection phenomena which is possibly related to organized oscillations from instabilities in the dividing streamline shear layer which impinges on the underneath surface of the nozzle.

  6. Mergers and ejections of black holes in globular clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aarseth, Sverre J.

    2012-05-01

    We report on results of fully consistent N-body simulations of globular cluster models with N= 100 000 members containing neutron stars and black holes (BHs). Using the improved 'algorithmic regularization' method of Hellström & Mikkola for compact subsystems, the new code NBODY7 enables for the first time general relativistic coalescence to be achieved for post-Newtonian terms and realistic parameters. Following an early stage of mass segregation, a few BHs form a small dense core which usually leads to the formation of one dominant binary. The subsequent evolution by dynamical shrinkage involves the competing processes of ejection and mergers by radiation energy loss. Unless the binary is ejected, long-lived triple systems often exhibit Kozai cycles with extremely high inner eccentricity (e > 0.999) which may terminate in coalescence at a few Schwarzschild radii. A characteristic feature is that ordinary stars as well as BHs and even BH binaries are ejected with high velocities. On the basis of the models studied so far, the results suggest a limited growth of a few remaining stellar mass BHs in globular clusters.

  7. Active space debris removal using capture and ejection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Missel, Jonathan William

    2013-03-01

    Low Earth Orbit is over-cluttered with rogue objects that threaten existing technological assets and interfere with allocating new ones. Traditional satellite missions are not efficient enough to collect an appreciable amount of debris due to the high cost of orbit transfers. Many alternate proposals are politically controversial, costly, or dependent on undeveloped technology. This dissertation attempts to solve the problem by introducing a new mission architecture, Space Sweeper, and bespoke hardware, Sling-Sat, that sequentially captures and ejects debris plastically. Resulting momentum exchanges are exploited to aid in subsequent orbit transfers, thus saving fuel. Sling-Sat is a spinning satellite that captures debris at the ends of adjustable-length arms. Arm length controls the angular rate to achieve a desired tangential ejection speed. Timing the release exacts the ejection angle. This process redirects debris to burn up in the atmosphere, or reduce its lifetime, by lowering its perigee. This dissertation establishes feasibility of principles fundamental to the proposed concept. Hardware is conceptualized to accommodate Space Sweeper's specialized needs. Mathematical models are built for the purpose of analysis and simulation. A kinematic analysis investigates system demands and long-term behavior resulting from repeated debris interaction. A successful approach to enforce debris capture is established through optimal control techniques. A study of orbital parameters and their response to debris interactions builds an intuition for missions of this nature. Finally, a J2-compliant technique for path optimization is demonstrated. The results strongly support feasibility of the proposed mission.

  8. Measurements of ejection velocities in collisional disruption of ice spheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arakawa, Masahiko; Higa, Michiya

    1996-09-01

    Impact experiments are performed on ice spheres to measure the velocity field of ejected ice fragments and the conditions under which the fragments would reaccumulate during accretion in the outer solar system are considered. A single-stage light gas gun set in a cold room at -18°C and an image-converter camera running at 2 × 10 5-1 × 10 4 frames per second with a xenon flash lamp are used for observing the collisional phenomena. Spherical projectiles of ice ( mp = 1.5 g) collide head-on with spherical targets ( Mt = 1.5, 12, 172 g) at 150-690 m s -1. The ejection velocity is observed to vary with the initial position and ranges from 3 to 1/10 of the impact velocity ( Vi). The ejection velocity of fragments at the rear side of the target ( Ve) varies with distance from the impact point according to a power law relation, V e = V a( 1/D) -n, where Va is the antipodal velocity, l and D are the distance and the target diameter, and n = 1.5-2.0. Va depends on the specific energy ( Q) at a constant mass ratio ( m p/M t = 0.13 ) and the empirical dependence is written as Va = 0.35 × Q0.52. The ejection velocity of fine fragments formed by the jetting process near the impact point is determined to be 1.7-2.9 times as large as the impact velocity irrespective of the target size and the impact velocity.

  9. The effects of intraventricular gradients on left ventricular ejection dynamics.

    PubMed

    Murgo, J P; Alter, B R; Dorethy, J F; Altobelli, S A; Craig, W E; McGranahan, G M

    1983-11-01

    The generation of abnormal gradients between the apical cavity and the subaortic valvular region of the left ventricle in patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) has traditionally been equated to a dynamic obstruction to left ventricular outflow. To examine this concept in more detail, left ventricular ejection dynamics were studied during cardiac catheterization in 30 patients with HCM and 29 patients with no evidence of cardiovascular disease. Using multisensor catheterization techniques, ascending aortic flow velocity and micromanometer left ventricular and aortic pressures were simultaneously recorded during rest (n = 47). Dynamic left ventricular emptying was also analyzed with frame-by-frame angiography (n = 46). The temporal distribution of left ventricular outflow was independently derived from both flow velocity and angiographic techniques. The HCM patients were subdivided into three groups: I, intraventricular gradients at rest (n = 9); II, intraventricular gradients only with provocation (n = 12); III, no intraventricular gradients despite provocation (n = 9). Expressed as a precentage of the available systolic ejection period (%SEP), the time required for ejection of the total stroke volume was (mean +/- 1 S.D.): Group I, 69 +/- 17% (flow), 64 +/- 6% (angio); Group II, 63 +/- 14% (flow), 65 +/- 6% (angio); Group III, 61 +/- 16% (flow), 62 +/- 4% (angio); control group, 90 +/- 5% (flow) 86 +/- 10% (angio). No significant difference was observed between any of the three HCM subgroups, but, compared with the control group, ejection was completed much earlier in systole independent of the presence or absence of intraventricular gradients. The presence of coexisting mitral regurgitation in 12 of the HCM patients did not alter these results. This study demonstrates that 'outflow obstruction', as traditionally defined by the presence of an abnormal intraventricular pressure gradient and systolic anterior motion of the mitral valve, does not impede left

  10. A new noninvasive device for measuring central ejection dP/dt mathematical foundation of cardiac dP/dt measurement using a model for a collapsible artery.

    PubMed

    Gorenberg, Miguel; Rotztein, Hector; Marmor, Alon

    2009-03-01

    We have developed a novel non-invasive device for the measurement of one of the most sensitive indices of myocardial contractility as represented by the rate of increase of intraventricular pressure (left ventricular dP/dt and arterial dP/dt performance index (dP/dt(ejc)). Up till now, these parameters could be obtained only by invasive catheterization methods. The new technique is based on the concept of applying multiple successive occlusive pressures on the brachial artery from peak systole to diastole using a inflatable cuff and plotting the values against time intervals that leads to the reconstruction of the central aortic pressure noninvasively. The following describes the computer simulator developed for providing a mathematical foundation of the new sensor. At the core of the simulator lies a hemodynamic model of the blood flow on an artery under externally applied pressure. The purpose of the model is to reproduce the experimental results obtained in studies on patients (Gorenberg et al. in Cardiovasc Eng: 305-311, 2004; Gorenberg et al. in Emerg med J 22 (7): 486-489, 2005) and a animal model where ischemia resulted from balloon inflation during coronary catheterization (Gorenberg and Marmor in J Med Eng Technol, 2006) and to describe correlations between the dP/dt(ejc) and other hemodynamic variables. The model has successfully reproduced the trends observed experimentally, providing a solid in-depth understanding of the hemodynamics involved in the new measurement. A high correlation between the dP/dt(ejc) and the rate of pressure rise in the aorta during the ejection phase was observed. dP/dt(ejc) dependence on other hemodynamic parameters was also investigated. PMID:19259812

  11. Brachial Plexus Involvement of Myeloid Sarcoma Detected by Reconstruction Magnetic Resonance Neurography.

    PubMed

    Sugiyama, Atsuhiko; Ito, Shoichi; Sugita, Yasumasa; Shimada, Jun-Ichiro; Takeuchi, Masahiro; Hirano, Shigeki; Kuwabara, Satoshi

    2015-01-01

    Myeloid sarcoma is a rare hematological disorder that presents as an extramedullary mass of immature myeloid precursors. We herein present the case of a 57-year-old man with a seven-month history of progressive weakness in the right upper extremity. Reconstruction magnetic resonance neurography showed a marked enlargement of the right brachial plexus. Fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography revealed a radioactive lesion in the sacrum, in addition to the right brachial plexus, and a biopsy of the sacrum revealed myeloid sarcoma. The brachial plexus lesion was also regarded as myeloid sarcoma because of the treatment response. Isolated myeloid sarcoma involving the brachial plexus is very rare and its diagnosis is difficult as there was neither a history of leukemia nor bone marrow involvement in this patient. In this case, reconstructed magnetic resonance neurography was useful for detecting the brachial plexus mass lesion which led to an early diagnosis and good recovery. PMID:26328656

  12. High resolution neurography of the brachial plexus by 3 Tesla magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Cejas, C; Rollán, C; Michelin, G; Nogués, M

    2016-01-01

    The study of the structures that make up the brachial plexus has benefited particularly from the high resolution images provided by 3T magnetic resonance scanners. The brachial plexus can have mononeuropathies or polyneuropathies. The mononeuropathies include traumatic injuries and trapping, such as occurs in thoracic outlet syndrome due to cervical ribs, prominent transverse apophyses, or tumors. The polyneuropathies include inflammatory processes, in particular chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy, Parsonage-Turner syndrome, granulomatous diseases, and radiation neuropathy. Vascular processes affecting the brachial plexus include diabetic polyneuropathy and the vasculitides. This article reviews the anatomy of the brachial plexus and describes the technique for magnetic resonance neurography and the most common pathologic conditions that can affect the brachial plexus. PMID:26860655

  13. Dynamical ejections of massive stars from young star clusters under diverse initial conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, Seungkyung; Kroupa, Pavel

    2016-05-01

    We study the effects that initial conditions of star clusters and their massive star population have on dynamical ejections of massive stars from star clusters up to an age of 3 Myr. We use a large set of direct N-body calculations for moderately massive star clusters (Mecl ≈ 103.5 M⊙). We vary the initial conditions of the calculations, such as the initial half-mass radius of the clusters, initial binary populations for massive stars and initial mass segregation. We find that the initial density is the most influential parameter for the ejection fraction of the massive systems. The clusters with an initial half-mass radius rh(0) of 0.1 (0.3) pc can eject up to 50% (30)% of their O-star systems on average, while initially larger (rh(0) = 0.8 pc) clusters, that is, lower density clusters, eject hardly any OB stars (at most ≈ 4.5%). When the binaries are composed of two stars of similar mass, the ejections are most effective. Most of the models show that the average ejection fraction decreases with decreasing stellar mass. For clusters that are efficient at ejecting O stars, the mass function of the ejected stars is top-heavy compared to the given initial mass function (IMF), while the mass function of stars that remain in the cluster becomes slightly steeper (top-light) than the IMF. The top-light mass functions of stars in 3 Myr old clusters in our N-body models agree well with the mean mass function of young intermediate-mass clusters in M 31, as reported previously. This implies that the IMF of the observed young clusters is the canonical IMF. We show that the multiplicity fraction of the ejected massive stars can be as high as ≈ 60%, that massive high-order multiple systems can be dynamically ejected, and that high-order multiples become common especially in the cluster. We also discuss binary populations of the ejected massive systems. Clusters that are initially not mass-segregated begin ejecting massive stars after a time delay that is caused by mass

  14. Evidence of elevated X-ray absorption before and during major flare ejections in GRS 1915+105

    SciTech Connect

    Punsly, Brian; Rodriguez, Jérôme

    2014-03-10

    We present time-resolved X-ray spectroscopy of the microquasar GRS 1915+105 with the MAXI observatory in order to study the accretion state just before and during the ejections associated with its major flares. Radio monitoring with the RATAN-600 radio telescope from 4.8-11.2 GHz has revealed two large, steep-spectrum major flares in the first eight months of 2013. Since the RATAN has received one measurement per day, we cannot determine the jet-forming time without more information. Fortunately, this is possible since a distinct X-ray light curve signature that occurs preceding and during major ejections has been determined in an earlier study. The X-ray luminosity spikes to very high levels in the hours before ejection, then becomes variable (with a nearly equal X-ray luminosity when averaged over the duration of the ejection) during a brief 3-8 hr ejection process. By comparing this X-ray behavior with MAXI light curves, we can estimate the beginning and end of the ejection episode of the strong 2013 flares to within ∼3 hr. Using this estimate in conjunction with time-resolved spectroscopy from the data in the MAXI archives allows us to deduce that the X-ray absorbing hydrogen column density increases significantly in the hours preceding the ejections and remains elevated during the ejections responsible for the major flares. This finding is consistent with an outflowing wind or enhanced accretion at high latitudes.

  15. Management of Shoulder Problems Following Obstetric Brachial Plexus Injury

    PubMed Central

    Nixon, Matthew; Trail, Ian

    2013-01-01

    Obstetric brachial plexus injuries are common, with an incidence of 0.42 per 1000 live births in the UK, and with 25% of patients being left with permanent disability without intervention. The shoulder is the most commonly affected joint and, as a result of the subsequent imbalance of musculature, the abnormal deforming forces cause dysplasia of the glenohumeral joint. In the growing child, this presents with changing pattern of pathology, which requires a multidisciplinary approach and a broad range of treatment modalities to optimize function.

  16. Boston Children's Hospital approach to brachial plexus birth palsy.

    PubMed

    Vuillermin, Carley; Bauer, Andrea S

    2016-07-01

    The treatment of infants with brachial plexus birth palsy (BPBP) continues to be a focus at Boston Children's Hospital. Over the last 15 years, there have been many developments in the treatment of infants with BPBP. Some of the greatest changes have emerged through technical advances such as the advent of distal nerve transfers to allow targeted reinnervation as well as through research to understand the pathoanatomical changes that lead to glenohumeral dysplasia and how this dysplasia can be remodeled. This review will discuss our current practice of evaluation of the infant with BPBP, techniques for microsurgical reconstruction, and prevention and treatment of secondary glenohumeral dysplasia. PMID:27137763

  17. Obesity in children with brachial plexus birth palsy.

    PubMed

    Singh, Avreeta K; Mills, Janith; Bauer, Andrea S; Ezaki, Marybeth

    2015-11-01

    Fetal macrosomia is associated with a 14-fold increased risk of brachial plexus birth palsy (BPBP), and is a predictor of childhood obesity. The purpose of this study was to identify the relationships between BPBP, fetal macrosomia, and childhood obesity. We retrospectively reviewed 214 children with BPBP. The average age was 8 years and 53% had a Narakas 1 grade BPBP. Overall, 49% of children were normal weight, 22% overweight, and 29% obese. Of the children with a history of fetal macrosomia, 41% were obese; a statistically significant difference. Overall quality of life scores, however, were not correlated with obesity. PMID:26163865

  18. Forces during Bacteriophage DNA Packaging and Ejection

    PubMed Central

    Purohit, Prashant K.; Inamdar, Mandar M.; Grayson, Paul D.; Squires, Todd M.; Kondev, Jané; Phillips, Rob

    2005-01-01

    The conjunction of insights from structural biology, solution biochemistry, genetics, and single-molecule biophysics has provided a renewed impetus for the construction of quantitative models of biological processes. One area that has been a beneficiary of these experimental techniques is the study of viruses. In this article we describe how the insights obtained from such experiments can be utilized to construct physical models of processes in the viral life cycle. We focus on dsDNA bacteriophages and show that the bending elasticity of DNA and its electrostatics in solution can be combined to determine the forces experienced during packaging and ejection of the viral genome. Furthermore, we quantitatively analyze the effect of fluid viscosity and capsid expansion on the forces experienced during packaging. Finally, we present a model for DNA ejection from bacteriophages based on the hypothesis that the energy stored in the tightly packed genome within the capsid leads to its forceful ejection. The predictions of our model can be tested through experiments in vitro where DNA ejection is inhibited by the application of external osmotic pressure. PMID:15556983

  19. The DNA ejection process in bacteriophage lambda

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grayson, Paul

    Bacteriophages have long served as model systems through which the nature of life may be explored. From a physical or mechanical point of view, phages are excellent examples of natural nanotechnology: they are nanometer-scale systems which depend critically on forces, pressures, velocities, and other fundamentally physical quantities for their biological functions. The study of the physical properties of phages has therefore provided an arena for application of physics to biology. In particular, recent studies of the motor responsible for packaging a phage gnome into a capsid showed a buildup of pressure within the capsid of tens of atmospheres. This thesis reports a combined theoretical and experimental study on various aspects of the genome ejection process, so that a comparison may be drawn with the packaging experiments. In particular, we examine various theoretical models of the forces within a phage capsid, deriving formulas both for the force driving genome ejection and for the velocity at which the genome is translocated into a host cell. We describe an experiment in which the force was measured as a function of the amount of genome within the phage capsid, and another where the genome ejection velocity was measured for single phages under the microscope. We make direct quantitative comparisons between the theory and experiments, stringently testing the extent to which we are able to model the genome ejection process.

  20. Do centrioles generate a polar ejection force?

    PubMed

    Wells, Jonathan

    2005-01-01

    A microtubule-dependent polar ejection force that pushes chromosomes away from spindle poles during prometaphase is observed in animal cells but not in the cells of higher plants. Elongating microtubules and kinesin-like motor molecules have been proposed as possible causes, but neither accounts for all the data. In the hypothesis proposed here a polar ejection force is generated by centrioles, which are found in animals but not in higher plants. Centrioles consist of nine microtubule triplets arranged like the blades of a tiny turbine. Instead of viewing centrioles through the spectacles of molecular reductionism and neo-Darwinism, this hypothesis assumes that they are holistically designed to be turbines. Orthogonally oriented centriolar turbines could generate oscillations in spindle microtubules that resemble the motion produced by a laboratory vortexer. The result would be a microtubule-mediated ejection force tending to move chromosomes away from the spindle axis and the poles. A rise in intracellular calcium at the onset of anaphase could regulate the polar ejection force by shutting down the centriolar turbines, but defective regulation could result in an excessive force that contributes to the chromosomal instability characteristic of most cancer cells. PMID:15889341

  1. How much dust does Enceladus eject?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kempf, Sascha; Southworth, Benjamin; Schmidt, Juergen; Srama, Ralf; Postberg, Frank

    2016-04-01

    There is an ongoing argument how much dust per second the ice volcanoes on Saturn's ice moon eject. By adjusting their plume model to the dust flux measured by the Cassini dust detector during the close Enceladus flyby in 2005, Schmidt et al. (2008) obtained a total dust production rate in the plumes of about

  2. How much dust does Enceladus eject?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kempf, Sascha; Srama, Ralf; Postberg, Frank; Schmidt, Juergen

    2016-07-01

    There is an ongoing argument how much dust per second the ice volcanoes on Saturn's ice moon eject. By adjusting their plume model to the dust flux measured by the Cassini dust detector during the close Enceladus flyby in 2005, Schmidt et al. (2008) obtained a total dust production rate in the plumes of about

  3. Dynamic and static light scattering analysis of DNA ejection from the phage λ

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Löf, David; Schillén, Karin; Jönsson, Bengt; Evilevitch, Alex

    2007-07-01

    With the aid of time-resolved dynamic light scattering (DLS) and static light scattering (SLS), we have analyzed the ejection kinetics from the bacterial virus bacteriophage (or phage) λ , triggered in vitro by its receptor. We have used DLS to investigate the kinetics in such a system. Furthermore, we have shown that both SLS and DLS can be interchangeably used to study the process of phage DNA release. DLS is superior to SLS in that it also allows the change in the light scattering arising from each of the components in the system to be monitored under conditions such that the relaxation times are separable. With help of these two methods we present a model explaining the reason for the observed decrease in the scattering intensity accompanying DNA ejection from phage. We emphasize that ejection from phage capsid occurs through a very long tail (which is nearly three times longer than the capsid diameter), which significantly separates ejected DNA from the scattering volume of the capsid. The scattering intensity recorded during the DNA ejection process is the result of a change in the form factor of the phage particle, i.e., the change in the interference effects between the phage capsid and the DNA confined in the phage particle. When the DNA molecule is completely ejected it remains in the proximity of the phage for some time, thus contributing to the scattering signal as it diffuses away from the phage capsid, into the scattering volume and returns to its unperturbed chain conformation in bulk solution. The free DNA chain does not contribute to the scattered intensity, when measured at a large angle, due to the DNA form factor and the low concentration. Although the final diffusion-controlled step can lead to overestimation of the real ejection time, we can still use both scattering methods to estimate the initial DNA ejection rates, which are mainly dependent on the pressure-driven DNA ejection from the phage, allowing studies of the effects of various

  4. Injury mechanisms in supraclavicular stretch injuries of the brachial plexus.

    PubMed

    Soldado, Francisco; Ghizoni, Marcos F; Bertelli, Jayme

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the mechanisms involved in stretch injuries of the brachial plexus. One hundred and fifty consecutive patients with supraclavicular brachial plexus injuries (BPI) were asked about the mechanism of injury during the actual injury event, particularly about the type of trauma to their shoulder, shoulder girdle and head. Fifty-seven of the patients provided enough information about their accident to allow for analysis of the shoulder trauma. The injury mechanism for all patients having upper root or total palsy (n=46) was described as a direct vertical impact to the shoulder. In 44 of these patients, the trauma followed a motorcycle accident and, in most of them, the patient hit a fixed vertical structure before falling to the ground. The injury mechanism for the lower root palsy cases (n=11) was variable. The most frequent mechanism was forceful anterior shoulder compression by a car seat belt. We found that injury mechanisms differed significantly from the ones commonly discussed in published studies. PMID:27117025

  5. The Impact of Pediatric Brachial Plexus Injury on Families

    PubMed Central

    Allgier, Allison; Overton, Myra; Welge, Jeffrey; Mehlman, Charles T.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To determine the impact on families of children with brachial plexus injuries in order to best meet their clinical and social needs. Methods Our cross-sectional study included families with children between the ages of 1 and 18 with birth or non-neonatal brachial plexus injuries (BPI). The consenting parent or guardian completed a demographic questionnaire and the validated Impact on Family Scale during a single assessment. Total scores can range from 0-100, with the higher the score indicating a higher impact on the family. Factor analysis and item-total correlations were used to examine structure, individual items, and dimensions of family impact. Results One hundred two caregivers participated. Overall, families perceived various dimensions of impact on having a child with a BPI. Total family impact was 43. The 2 individual items correlating most strongly with the overall total score were from the financial dimension of the Impact on Family Scale. The strongest demographic relationship was traveling nationally for care and treatment of the BPI. Severity of injury was marginally correlated with impact on the family. Parent-child agreement about the severity of the illness was relatively high. Conclusion Caretakers of children with a BPI perceived impact on their families in the form of personal strain, family/social factors, financial stress, and mastery. A multidisciplinary clinical care team should address the various realms of impact on family throughout the course of treatment. Level of Evidence II Prognostic PMID:25936738

  6. Acromioclavicular joint dislocation with associated brachial plexus injury

    PubMed Central

    Gallagher, Charles Alexander; Blakeney, William; Zellweger, René

    2014-01-01

    We present the case of a 32-year-old female who sustained a left acromioclavicular (AC) joint type V injury and brachial plexus injury. The patient's AC joint injury was identified 6 days after she was involved in a motorbike accident where she sustained multiple other injuries. She required operative fixation of the AC joint using a locking compression medial proximal tibial plate. At 3 months post operatively, the patient was found to have a subluxed left shoulder as a result of an axonal injury to the upper trunk of the brachial plexus. In addition, the tibial plate had cut out. The plate was subsequently removed. At 8 months the glenohumeral articulation had been restored and the patient had clinically regained significant shoulder function. After 15 months the patient was pain free and could complete all her activities of daily living without impediment. She returned to playing competitive pool after 24 months. PMID:24855076

  7. Traumatic Pseudoaneurysm of Axillary Artery Combined with Brachial Plexus Injury

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Lin; Peng, Feng; Wang, Tao; Chen, Desong; Yang, Jianyun

    2014-01-01

    Traumatic pseudoaneurysm of the axillary artery combined with brachial plexus injury is extremely rare. The factors that influence the symptoms and functional recovery related to this condition are unclear. Nine patients who had sustained this trauma were surgically treated at our unit between June 1999 and November 2010. The cause of trauma, symptoms, signs and examinations of neurological and vascular deficits, and the surgical findings of the involved nerves and vessels were recorded in detail. The functional recovery of vessels and nerves, as well as the extent of pain, were evaluated, respectively. The average length of patient follow-up was 4.5 years (range, 24 months to 11.3 years). After vessel repair, whether by endovascular or operative treatment, the distending, constant, and pulsating pain was relieved in all patients. Furthermore, examination of the radial artery pulse on the repaired side appeared normal at last follow-up. All patients showed satisfactory sensory recovery, with motor recovery rated as good in five patients and fair in four patients. The symptom characteristics varied with the location of the damage to the axillary artery. Ultrasound examination and computed tomography angiography are useful to evaluate vascular injury and provide valuable information for operative planning. Surgical exploration is an effective therapy with results related to the nerve injury condition of the brachial plexus. PMID:25412426

  8. Interactive visualization of solar mass ejection imager (SMEI) volumetric data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Yang; Hick, P. P.; Jackson, Bernard V.

    2005-08-01

    We present a volume rendering system developed for the real time visualization and manipulation of 3D heliospheric volumetric solar wind density and velocity data obtained from the Solar Mass Ejection Imager (SMEI) and interplanetary scintillation (IPS) velocities over the same time period. Our system exploits the capabilities of the VolumePro 1000 board from TeraRecon, Inc., a low-cost 64-bit PCI board capable of rendering up to a 512-cubed array of volume data in real time at up to 30 frames per second on a standard PC. Many volume-rendering operations have been implemented with this system such as stereo/perspective views, animations of time-sequences, and determination of coronal mass ejection (CME) volumes and masses. In these visualizations we highlight one time period where a halo CMEs was observed by SMEI to engulf Earth on October 29, 2003. We demonstrate how this system is used to measure the distribution of structure and provide 3D mass for individual CME features, including the ejecta associated with the large prominence viewed moving to the south of Earth following the late October CME. Comparisons with the IPS velocity volumetric data give pixel by pixel and total kinetic energies for these events.

  9. Ejection associated injuries within the German Air Force from 1981-1997.

    PubMed

    Werner, U

    1999-12-01

    From 1981-1997 there were 86 ejections from 56 aircraft within the German Air Force. Of these, 24 accidents were associated with the F-104 Starfighter, 14 with the PA 200 Tornado, 12 from the F-4 Phantom, 5 from the Alpha Jet and 1 from a MiG 29 Fulcrum. One case involved a front seat pilot, who had already sustained fatal injuries from midair collision, being command ejected by the rear seat pilot. The remaining 85 ejections are the basis of this study. One weapons system officer died from hypothermia after landing in the sea and another from bleeding into the medulla oblongata after flailing; all other participants survived. This is an overall success rate of 97.6%. Of all 85 participants, 12 (14%) were uninjured, 41 (48.2%) were slightly injured, and 30 (35.3%) were severely injured. Typical injuries were those of the spine and lower limbs. The most common severe injury was a vertebral fracture caused by ejection acceleration. This is followed by lower limb injuries received during the parachute landing fall. At the time of ejection, all uninjured crews were flying below 3500 ft altitude and below 260 kn airspeed. Of all ejections from each aircraft type, the percentage of vertebral fractures is highest with the F-4 Phantom (31.8%), followed by the F-104 (16.6%) and the PA 200 Tornado with only 14.8%. The PA 200 is equipped with the most modern type of ejection seat of these aircraft. A conclusion of the gained data is that more modern ejection seat types provide lower injury severity but not fewer total injury numbers, and that the medical data taken during accident investigation should be taken more accurately and in a more standarized fashion to be comparable. PMID:10596782

  10. Brachial artery vasomotion and transducer pressure effect on measurements by active contour segmentation on ultrasound

    SciTech Connect

    Cary, Theodore W.; Sultan, Laith R.; Sehgal, Chandra M.; Reamer, Courtney B.; Mohler, Emile R.

    2014-02-15

    Purpose: To use feed-forward active contours (snakes) to track and measure brachial artery vasomotion on ultrasound images recorded in both transverse and longitudinal views; and to compare the algorithm's performance in each view. Methods: Longitudinal and transverse view ultrasound image sequences of 45 brachial arteries were segmented by feed-forward active contour (FFAC). The segmented regions were used to measure vasomotion artery diameter, cross-sectional area, and distention both as peak-to-peak diameter and as area. ECG waveforms were also simultaneously extracted frame-by-frame by thresholding a running finite-difference image between consecutive images. The arterial and ECG waveforms were compared as they traced each phase of the cardiac cycle. Results: FFAC successfully segmented arteries in longitudinal and transverse views in all 45 cases. The automated analysis took significantly less time than manual tracing, but produced superior, well-behaved arterial waveforms. Automated arterial measurements also had lower interobserver variability as measured by correlation, difference in mean values, and coefficient of variation. Although FFAC successfully segmented both the longitudinal and transverse images, transverse measurements were less variable. The cross-sectional area computed from the longitudinal images was 27% lower than the area measured from transverse images, possibly due to the compression of the artery along the image depth by transducer pressure. Conclusions: FFAC is a robust and sensitive vasomotion segmentation algorithm in both transverse and longitudinal views. Transverse imaging may offer advantages over longitudinal imaging: transverse measurements are more consistent, possibly because the method is less sensitive to variations in transducer pressure during imaging.

  11. Brachial Neuritis With Phrenic Nerve Involvement in a Patient With a Possible Connective Tissue Disease

    PubMed Central

    Subash, Meera; Patel, Gaurav; Welker, John

    2014-01-01

    Background. Brachial neuritis (BN) is a rare inflammatory condition of peripheral nerves, usually involving the cervicobrachial plexus. These patients present with sudden onset of shoulder and arm pain that evolves into muscle weakness and atrophy.. Case Report. A 33-year-old woman presented with a 1-month history of diffuse pain in her thorax. She had no trauma or inciting incident prior to the onset of this pain and was initially treated for muscle spasms. The patient was seen in the emergency room multiple times and was treated with several courses of antibiotics for pneumonia on the basis of clinical symptoms and abnormal x-rays. The pleuritic chest pain persisted for at least 4 months, and the patient was eventually admitted for worsening pain and dyspnea. On physical examination, crackles were heard at both lung bases, and chest inspection revealed increased expansion in the upper thorax but poor expansion of the lower thorax and mild paradoxical respiration. “Sniff” test revealed no motion of the left hemidiaphragm and reduced motion on the right hemidiaphragm. Her computed tomography scan revealed bilateral atelectasis, more severe at the left base. She reported no symptoms involving her joints or skin or abdomen. Her presentation and clinical course are best explained by BN with a bilateral diaphragmatic weakness. However, she had a positive ANA, RF, anti-RNP antibody, and anti SS-A. Conclusion. Patients with BN can present with diffuse thoracic pain, pleuritic chest pain, and diaphragmatic weakness. Our patient may represent a case of connective tissue disease presenting with brachial plexus neuritis. PMID:26425609

  12. Reproducibility of Brachial Vascular Changes with Alterations in End-Tidal Carbon Dioxide.

    PubMed

    Geijer, Justin R; Evanoff, Nicholas G; Kelly, Aaron S; Chernin, Michael A; Stoltman, Matthew G; Dengel, Donald R

    2016-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the reproducibility of the peripheral vascular response to hypercapnia. Healthy college-aged men (n = 7) and women (n = 10) underwent an iso-oxic 10-mm Hg increase in PetCO2 for 12 min. Brachial artery diameter changes were measured using ultrasound imaging. Two tests were completed on day 1 with 15 min of rest between tests. Tests were repeated on day 2. Paired t-tests, Bland-Altman plots and intra-class correlations (ICCs) determined reproducibility. There were no significant differences in peak dilation within day (5.33 ± 3.73% vs. 4.52 ± 2.49%, p = 0.378). The within-day ICC was poor (0.213). Within-day time-to-peak dilation did not significantly differ (660.0 ± 231.8 s vs. 602.7 ± 259.9 s, p = 0.379), and the ICC was fair (0.416, p = 0.113). Between-day peak dilation did not significantly differ (5.24 ± 3.84% vs. 4.71 ± 3.17%, p = 0.123), and the ICC was fair (0.419). Hypercapnia-induced brachial artery dilation is similar within day and between days. The ICC for peak dilation suggests the methodology is not reproducible. PMID:27061149

  13. Brachial Neuritis With Phrenic Nerve Involvement in a Patient With a Possible Connective Tissue Disease.

    PubMed

    Subash, Meera; Patel, Gaurav; Welker, John; Nugent, Kenneth

    2014-01-01

    Background. Brachial neuritis (BN) is a rare inflammatory condition of peripheral nerves, usually involving the cervicobrachial plexus. These patients present with sudden onset of shoulder and arm pain that evolves into muscle weakness and atrophy.. Case Report. A 33-year-old woman presented with a 1-month history of diffuse pain in her thorax. She had no trauma or inciting incident prior to the onset of this pain and was initially treated for muscle spasms. The patient was seen in the emergency room multiple times and was treated with several courses of antibiotics for pneumonia on the basis of clinical symptoms and abnormal x-rays. The pleuritic chest pain persisted for at least 4 months, and the patient was eventually admitted for worsening pain and dyspnea. On physical examination, crackles were heard at both lung bases, and chest inspection revealed increased expansion in the upper thorax but poor expansion of the lower thorax and mild paradoxical respiration. "Sniff" test revealed no motion of the left hemidiaphragm and reduced motion on the right hemidiaphragm. Her computed tomography scan revealed bilateral atelectasis, more severe at the left base. She reported no symptoms involving her joints or skin or abdomen. Her presentation and clinical course are best explained by BN with a bilateral diaphragmatic weakness. However, she had a positive ANA, RF, anti-RNP antibody, and anti SS-A. Conclusion. Patients with BN can present with diffuse thoracic pain, pleuritic chest pain, and diaphragmatic weakness. Our patient may represent a case of connective tissue disease presenting with brachial plexus neuritis. PMID:26425609

  14. Observable signatures of a black hole ejected by gravitational-radiation recoil in a galaxy merger.

    PubMed

    Loeb, Abraham

    2007-07-27

    According to recent simulations, the coalescence of two spinning black holes (BHs) could lead to a BH remnant with recoil speeds of up to thousands of km s(-1). Here we examine the circumstances resulting from a gas-rich galaxy merger under which the ejected BH would carry an accretion disk and be observable. As the initial BH binary emits gravitational radiation and its orbit tightens, a hole is opened in the disk which delays the consumption of gas prior to the eventual BH ejection. The punctured disk remains bound to the ejected BH within the region where the gas orbital velocity is larger than the ejection speed. For a approximately 10(7) M[middle dot in circle] BH the ejected disk has a characteristic size of tens of thousands of Schwarzschild radii and an accretion lifetime of approximately 10(7) yr. During that time, the ejected BH could traverse a considerable distance and appear as an off-center quasar with a feedback trail along the path it left behind. PMID:17678347

  15. Pyroclast Tracking Velocimetry illuminates bomb ejection and explosion dynamics at Stromboli (Italy) and Yasur (Vanuatu) volcanoes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaudin, Damien; Taddeucci, Jacopo; Scarlato, Piergiorgio; Moroni, Monica; Freda, Carmela; Gaeta, Mario; Palladino, Danilo Mauro

    2014-07-01

    A new image processing technique—Pyroclast Tracking Velocimetry—was used to analyze a set of 30 high-speed videos of Strombolian explosions from different vents at Stromboli (Italy) and Yasur (Vanuatu) volcanoes. The studied explosions invariably appear to result from the concatenation of up to a hundred individual pyroclast ejection pulses. All these pulses share a common evolution over time, including (1) a non-linear decrease of the pyroclast ejection velocity, (2) an increasing spread of ejection angle, and (3) an increasing size of the ejected pyroclasts. These features reflect the dynamic burst of short-lived gas pockets, in which the rupture area enlarges while pressure differential decreases. We estimated depth of pyroclast release to be approximately 1 and 8 m below the surface at Stromboli and Yasur, respectively. In addition, explosions featuring more frequent pulses also have higher average ejection velocities and larger total masses of pyroclasts. These explosions release a larger overall amount of energy stored in the pressurized gas by a combination of more frequent and stronger ejection pulses. In this context, the associated kinetic energy per explosion, ranging 103-109 J appears to be a good proxy for the explosion magnitude. Differences in the pulse-defining parameters among the different vents suggest that this general process is modulated by geometrical factors in the shallow conduit, as well as magma-specific rheology. Indeed, the more viscous melt of Yasur, compared to Stromboli, is associated with larger vents producing fewer pulses but larger pyroclasts.

  16. Complications of Lower-Extremity Outpatient Arteriography via Low Brachial Artery

    SciTech Connect

    Chatziioannou, A.; Ladopoulos, C.; Mourikis, D.; Katsenis, K.; Spanomihos, G.; Vlachos, L.

    2004-01-15

    We retrospectively evaluated low brachial artery puncture for arteriography and its complications as an alternative approach route for bilateral lower extremity run-off. Using the Seldinger technique and catheterization with a sheathless 4-F multiple side-hole pigtail catheter, we performed 2250 low brachial artery punctures in outpatients.The right brachial artery (RBA) was successfully punctured in 2039 patients; the left brachial artery (LBA) in 200. The transfemoral approach was used in 11 patients when catheterizing either of brachial arteries failed. Ten major or moderate complications (2 pseudoaneurysms, 2 thrombosis, 1 dissection and 5 hematomas) were encountered. Surgical intervention was necessary in three cases. There were no transient ischemic attacks. Twenty-one patients suffered temporary loss of radial pulse which returned spontaneously in less than 1 hour. One patient demonstrated prolonged loss of pulse which required heparin. Low brachial artery puncture and catheterization at the antecubital fossa is a very safe and cost-effective alternative to the femoral artery approach for lower extremity intra-arterial arteriography in the hands of experienced operators. The success rate in catheterizing one of the brachial arteries was 99.52% with a low significant complications rate of 0.44%. The transbrachial approach should be used as a standard method for lower extremity IA - DSA in an outpatient setting.

  17. Electrostatic Droplet Ejection Using Planar Needle Inkjet Head

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hakiai, Kazunori; Ishida, Yuji; Baba, Akiyoshi; Asano, Tanemasa

    2005-07-01

    For the purpose of investigating the electrostatic droplet ejection event, a planar needle inkjet head with a projected cone-shaped needle (3-D head) was prepared to observe the phenomenon of droplet ejection. As the initial approach to developing a liquid ejection monitoring method, electric current was also measured. The ejection was found to take place as a series of single events that are composed of fine droplet ejections forming the Taylor cone and the subsequent swing back of the liquid front owing to the relationship between surface tension and electrostatic force. The critical factors for ejecting fine droplets in the case of using the inkjet head having a protruding needle were back pressure from the reservoir and the wetting control of the structures. The fast Fourier transform of electric current revealed the appearance of periodic signals during ejection, which may be used in developing a technique of sensing droplet ejection.

  18. Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction - unwinding the diagnosis mystique

    PubMed Central

    Asrar ul Haq, Muhammad; Mutha, Vivek; Rudd, Nima; Hare, David L; Wong, Chiew

    2014-01-01

    A precise diagnosis of diastolic dysfunction is often difficult and requires invasive techniques to determine left ventricular volume, relaxation, and compliance properties. At this current point of time there is no single non-invasive index available to adequately reflect diastolic function, perhaps because of the numerous factors that can alter diastolic function. In most clinical settings, diastolic function is estimated using Doppler echocardiography. Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMRI) is yet another emerging modality for diastolic function analysis. Here we present a comprehensive review of the various parameters used to assess diastolic function as part of diagnosis of clinical syndrome “Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFPEF)”. PMID:25360388

  19. From SOHO to STEREO: Understanding Propagation of Coronal Mass Ejections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gopalswamy, N.

    2011-12-01

    Direct comparison between coronal mass ejections (CMEs) from near the Sun and their solar wind counterparts became possible roughly a decade after the discovery of CMEs (Lindsay et al. 1999). This comparison revealed that fast CMEs decelerate and slow CMEs accelerate due to the interaction with the solar wind. Gopalswamy et al. (2000) quantified this interaction as an interplanetary acceleration which is useful in predicting the arrival time and speed of CMEs at 1 AU. The interplanetary acceleration is essentially due to the aerodynamic drag between the CME and the solar wind because the propelling force and the solar gravity are effective only near the Sun. Combined remote-sensing and in situ observations from SOHO and Wind/ACE have helped us estimate the influence of the solar wind on the propagation of CMEs. However, these measurements have severe limitations because the remote-sensed and in-situ observations correspond to different portions of the CME. Furthermore, the true speeds of Earth-directed CMEs cannot be measured accurately from a spacecraft located along the Sun-Earth line. There have been attempts to model the CME as a cone and get the space speed of the CME, which did improve the travel time predictions. Instruments on board the Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory (STEREO) mission were able to provide observations of Earth-arriving CMEs without projection effects, while the same CMEs were observed at Sun-Earth L1 by Wind and ACE spacecraft. The quadrature between STEREO and L1 spacecraft presented an ideal situation to study the interplanetary evolution of CMEs and test earlier model results. The quadrature observations did improve the CME travel time predictions, but additional factors such as the unusually slow solar wind, CME cannibalism, and coronal-hole deflection need to be considered to reconcile the difference between observed and predicted travel times. This point is illustrated using the 2011 February 15 CME. References Gopalswamy, N

  20. Avulsion of the brachial plexus in a great horned owl (Bubo virginaus)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moore, M.P.; Stauber, E.; Thomas, N.J.

    1989-01-01

    Avulsion of the brachial plexus was documented in a Great Horned Owl (Bubo virginianus). A fractured scapula was also present. Cause of these injuries was not known but was thought to be due to trauma. Differentiation of musculoskeletal injury from peripheral nerve damage can be difficult in raptors. Use of electromyography and motor nerve conduction velocity was helpful in demonstrating peripheral nerve involvement. A brachial plexus avulsion was suspected on the basis of clinical signs, presence of electromyographic abnormalities in all muscles supplied by the nerves of the brachial plexus and absence of median-ulnar motor nerve conduction velocities.

  1. Light vehicle occupant ejections--a comprehensive investigation.

    PubMed

    Malliaris, A C; DeBlois, J H; Digges, K H

    1996-01-01

    Occupant ejections, about 1.5% of all crash-involved occupant events, are relatively infrequent but very harmful events in highway crashes of light vehicles, including cars, pickup trucks, vans, and multipurpose vehicles (utility vehicles, jeeps, etc.). The disparity between frequency of harm to ejectees and ejection frequency is at least one order of magnitude. Partial ejections, although less frequent, have an incidence that is comparable to that of complete ejections, except for restrained occupants, where complete ejections are very infrequent. Notwithstanding the high effectiveness of safety belts in preventing ejections, and the multifold growth of safety belt use in the last 10 years, there is no detectable reduction in the ejection rate in the same period. Ejections per se and not other pre-ejection occupant impacts are responsible for the bulk of the harm to ejectees. Furthermore, ejected occupants sustain harm much larger than that which would have occurred, had these occupants not been ejected. "Closed glazing" is the leading ejection path. "Doors" and "windshield" are distant seconds. All glazing except the windshield fail overwhelmingly by disintegration. Latch failure is the primary mode of failure in opening doors. Hinges and other modes of failure are relatively minor concerns. The sources of data in this investigation are: the National Accident Sampling System for the years 1988 to 1991, and the Fatal Accident Reporting System for 1982 to 1992. PMID:8924175

  2. Clonidine as an adjuvant for ultrasound guided supraclavicular brachial plexus block for upper extremity surgeries under tourniquet: A clinical study

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Kumkum; Tiwari, Vaibhav; Gupta, Prashant K; Pandey, Mahesh Narayan; Singhal, Apoorva B; Shubham, Garg

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aims: Clonidine has been used as an adjuvant to local anesthetic to extend the duration of block. The present study was aimed to compare the onset and duration of sensory and motor blockade of 0.75% ropivacaine alone or in combination with clonidine during ultrasound guided supraclavicular brachial plexus block for upper extremity surgeries under tourniquet. Materials and Methods: Sixty four adult American Society of Anesthesiologist grade 1 and 2 patients, scheduled for upper extremity surgeries were randomized to receive either 19.8 mL of 0.75% ropivacaine with 0.2 mL of normal saline (Group R) or 0.2 mL (30 μg) of clonidine (Group RC) in supraclavicular block. Onset and duration of sensory and motor blockade was compared. The hemodynamic variability, sedation, respiratory adequacy and any other adverse effects were also recorded. Result: Ultrasound helped to visualize the nerves, needle and spread of local anesthetic at the brachial plexus block site. There was no statistically significant difference in the onset of sensory and motor blockade between the groups. Surgical anesthesia was achieved at the mean time of 20 min in all patients. Prolonged post-operative analgesia (mean duration 956 min) was observed in RC group as compared with R group (736 min). No complication of technique or adverse effect of ropivacaine and clonidine was reported. Conclusion: Clonidine as an adjuvant to ropivacaine for ultrasound guided supraclavicular brachial plexus enhanced duration of post-operative analgesia. There was no incidence of vessel puncture or pneumothorax. PMID:25425780

  3. Real barchan dune collisions and ejections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hugenholtz, Chris H.; Barchyn, Thomas E.

    2012-01-01

    From high-resolution satellite imagery of barchan sand dunes, we provide geomorphological evidence of collisions that result in the ejection of a barchan from the wake of another barchan dune. Previous interpretations suggest this outcome is evidence of soliton or solitary wave behaviour; however, the physical mechanisms for mass exchange are not fully understood, resulting in debate. Our evidence and interpretation indicates that mass is transferred to the upwind barchan by shadowing a portion of downwind barchan's stoss slope. Turbulent, unsaturated airflow erodes the surface between the dunes, creating a smaller dune that ejects from the wake region. Previous observations lacked the spatial resolution required to document this process; therefore, our observations clarify the collision dynamics of barchans. A broader implication of our observations is the role of collisions in maintaining an “equilibrium” size distribution in barchan swarms.

  4. Interplanetary Coronal Mass Ejections detected by HAWC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lara, Alejandro

    The High Altitude Water Cherenkov (HAWC) observatory is being constructed at the volcano Sierra Negra (4100 m a.s.l.) in Mexico. HAWC’s primary purpose is the study of both: galactic and extra-galactic sources of high energy gamma rays. HAWC will consist of 300 large water Cherenkov detectors (WCD), instrumented with 1200 photo-multipliers. The Data taking has already started while construction continues, with the completion projected for late 2014. The HAWC counting rate will be sensitive to cosmic rays with energies above the geomagnetic cutoff of the site (˜ 8 GV). In particular, HAWC will detect solar energetic particles known as Ground Level Enhancements (GLEs), and the effects of Coronal Mass Ejections on the galactic cosmic ray flux, known as Forbush Decreases. In this paper, we present a description of the instrument and its response to interplanetary coronal mass ejections, and other solar wind large scale structures, observed during the August-December 2013 period.

  5. Interplanetary Coronal Mass Ejections During 1996 - 2007

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richardson, I. G.; Cane, H. V.

    2007-01-01

    Interplanetary coronal mass ejections, the interplanetary counterparts of coronal mass ejections at the Sun, are the major drivers of interplanetary shocks in the heliosphere, and are associated with modulations of the galactic cosmic ray intensity, both short term (Forbush decreases caused by the passage of the shock, post-shock sheath, and ICME), and possibly with longer term modulation. Using several in-situ signatures of ICMEs, including plasma temperature, and composition, magnetic fields, and cosmic ray modulations, made by near-Earth spacecraft, we have compiled a "comprehensive" list of ICMEs passing the Earth since 1996, encompassing solar cycle 23. We summarize the properties of these ICMEs, such as their occurrence rate, speeds and other parameters, the fraction of ICMEs that are classic magnetic clouds, and their association with solar energetic particle events, halo CMEs, interplanetary shocks, geomagnetic storms, shocks and cosmic ray decreases.

  6. Pilot ejection, parachute, and helicopter crash injuries.

    PubMed

    McBratney, Colleen M; Rush, Stephen; Kharod, Chetan U

    2014-01-01

    USAF Pararescuemen (PJs) respond to downed aircrew as a fundamental mission for personnel recovery (PR), one of the Air Force's core functions. In addition to responding to these in Military settings, the PJs from the 212 Rescue Squadron routinely respond to small plane crashes in remote regions of Alaska. While there is a paucity of information on the latter, there have been articles detailing injuries sustained from helicopter crashes and while ejecting or parachuting from fixed wing aircraft. The following represents a new chapter added to the Pararescue Medical Operations Handbook, Sixth Edition (2014, editors Matt Wolf, MD, and Stephen Rush, MD, in press). It was designed to be a quick reference for PJs and their Special Operations flight surgeons to help with understanding of mechanism of injury with regard to pilot ejection, parachute, and helicopter accident injuries. It outlines the nature of the injuries sustained in such mishaps and provides an epidemiologic framework from which to approach the problem. PMID:25399374

  7. EPISODIC EJECTION FROM ACTIVE ASTEROID 311P/PANSTARRS

    SciTech Connect

    Jewitt, David; Agarwal, Jessica; Weaver, Harold; Mutchler, Max; Larson, Stephen

    2015-01-10

    We examine the development of the active asteroid 311P/PANSTARRS (formerly, 2013 P5) in the period from 2013 September to 2014 February using high resolution images from the Hubble Space Telescope. This multi-tailed object is characterized by a single, reddish nucleus of absolute magnitude H ≥ 18.98 ± 0.10, corresponding to an equal-area sphere of radius ≤200 ± 20 m (for assumed geometric albedo 0.29 ± 0.09). We set an upper limit to the radii of possible companion nuclei at ∼10 m. The nucleus ejected debris in nine discrete episodes, spread irregularly over a nine month interval, each time forming a distinct tail. Particles in the tails range from about 10 μm to at least 80 mm in radius, and were ejected at speeds <1 m s{sup –1}. The ratio of the total ejected dust mass to the nucleus mass is ∼3×10{sup –5}, corresponding to a global surface layer ∼2 mm thick, or to a deeper layer covering a smaller fraction of the surface. The observations are incompatible with an origin of the activity by impact or by the sublimation of entrapped ice. This object appears to be shedding its regolith by rotational (presumably YORP-driven) instability. Long-term fading of the photometry (months) is attributed to gradual dissipation of near-nucleus dust. Photometric variations on short timescales (<0.7 hr) are probably caused by fast rotation of the nucleus. However, because of limited time coverage and dilution of the nucleus signal by near-nucleus dust, we have not been able to determine the rotation period.

  8. IMPULSIVE ACCELERATION OF CORONAL MASS EJECTIONS. I. STATISTICS AND CORONAL MASS EJECTION SOURCE REGION CHARACTERISTICS

    SciTech Connect

    Bein, B. M.; Berkebile-Stoiser, S.; Veronig, A. M.; Temmer, M.; Muhr, N.; Kienreich, I.; Utz, D.

    2011-09-10

    We use high time cadence images acquired by the STEREO EUVI and COR instruments to study the evolution of coronal mass ejections (CMEs) from their initiation through impulsive acceleration to the propagation phase. For a set of 95 CMEs we derived detailed height, velocity, and acceleration profiles and statistically analyzed characteristic CME parameters: peak acceleration, peak velocity, acceleration duration, initiation height, height at peak velocity, height at peak acceleration, and size of the CME source region. The CME peak accelerations we derived range from 20 to 6800 m s{sup -2} and are inversely correlated with the acceleration duration and the height at peak acceleration. Seventy-four percent of the events reach their peak acceleration at heights below 0.5 R{sub sun}. CMEs that originate from compact sources low in the corona are more impulsive and reach higher peak accelerations at smaller heights. These findings can be explained by the Lorentz force, which drives the CME accelerations and decreases with height and CME size.

  9. Ejectable underwater sound source recovery assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Irick, S. C. (Inventor)

    1974-01-01

    An underwater sound source is described that may be ejectably mounted on any mobile device that travels over water, to facilitate in the location and recovery of the device when submerged. A length of flexible line maintains a connection between the mobile device and the sound source. During recovery, the sound source is located be particularly useful in the recovery of spent rocket motors that bury in the ocean floor upon impact.

  10. Dexamethasone or Dexmedetomidine as Local Anesthetic Adjuvants for Ultrasound-guided Axillary Brachial Plexus Blocks with Nerve Stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Myeong Jong; Koo, Dae Jeong; Choi, Yu Sun; Lee, Kyu Chang

    2016-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of dexamethasone or dexmedetomidine added to ropivacaine on the onset and duration of ultrasound-guided axillary brachial plexus blocks (BPB). Methods Fifty-one ASA physical status I-II patients with elective forearm and hand surgery under axillary brachial plexus blocks were randomly allocated to receive 20 ml of 0.5% ropivacaine with 2 ml of isotonic saline (C group, n = 17), 20 ml of 0.5% ropivacaine with 2 ml (10 mg) of dexamethasone (D group, n = 17) or 20 ml of 0.5% ropivacaine with 2 ml (100 µg) of dexmedetomidine (DM group, n = 17). A nerve stimulation technique with ultrasound was used in all patients. The onset time and duration of sensory blocks were assessed. Results The duration of the sensory block was extended in group D and group DX compared with group C (P < 0.05), but there was no significant difference between group D and group DX. However, there were no significant differences in onset time in all three groups. Conclusions Dexamethasone 10 mg and dexmedetomidine 100 µg were equally effective in extending the duration of ropivacaine in ultrasound-guided axillary BPB with nerve stimulation. However, neither drug has significantly effects the onset time. PMID:26839668

  11. Effect of ketamine as an adjuvant in ultrasound-guided supraclavicular brachial plexus block: A double-blind randomized clinical trial study

    PubMed Central

    Lashgarinia, Mohammadreza; Naghibi, Khosro; Honarmand, Azim; Safavi, Mohammadreza; Khazaei, Mehdi

    2014-01-01

    Background: Supraclavicular brachial plexus block is one of the most effective anesthetic procedures in operations for the upper extremity. Ketamine has been reported to enhance the analgesic effects of local anesthetics. We have conducted this study to assess whether coadministration of ketamine can prolong the local analgesic effect of lidocaine in the supraclavicular brachial plexus block for patients undergoing elective upper extremity surgery. Materials and Methods: Sixty adult patients undergoing elective surgery of the elbow, forearm, wrist or hand were randomly allocated in two groups of 30 patients each. Group 1 (ketamine group) received 5 mg/kg lidocaine 1.5% plus 2 mg/kg ketamine, Group 2 (control group) received 5 mg/kg lidocaine 1.5% and saline. The outcome measures included severity of pain by using visual analog scale (VAS, 0 = no pain 10 cm = the most severe pain), time of first request for analgesia, and total dose of postoperative opioid administration. The data was analyzed using the χ2 test, student's t-test, Kaplan-Meier survival analysis, and Multivariate analysis tests. Results: Patients in the control group had a higher VAS than patients who received ketamine, at all time points during the first 24 hours after surgery (all P < 0.05). The time of first request for analgesia in the ketamine group was significantly more than in the control group (8.93 ± 1.0 vs. 7.30 ± 1.9, respectively, P < 0.001). Conclusion: The addition of ketamine to lidocaine in the ultrasound-guided brachial plexus block could decrease the postoperative pain and need for analgesic. Therefore, it could be considered as an option in the brachial plexus block to enhance the analgesic action of lidocaine. PMID:25538918

  12. Sputter ejection of matter from Io

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haff, P. K.; Watson, C. C.; Yung, Y. L.

    1981-01-01

    Direct collisional interaction of magnetospheric particles, particularly 520-eV S ions, with Io, cause sputter removal of matter. It is estimated that direct sputtering of a full-disk S-containing atmosphere with an exobase at a few hundred km, can provide up to 5 x 10 to the tenth S atoms per sq cm-s. Supplies of S and O required to stabilize the torus are estimated to be from 10 to the 10th to 10 to the 12th per sq cm-s. Sputtering rates are calculated for an atmosphere containing a one percent concentration of Na and K, and are found to be large enough to supply the fluxes required to maintain the Na and K clouds. Sputtering is found to remove heavy molecules from the atmosphere, and the rate of direct sputtering of unprotected surfaces is calculated for ejections of S and Na. Atomic species on the surface are ejected at a rate proportional to the surface abundance; and plume sputtering, avalanche cascading, and ionic saltation which lead to spatial and temporal variations in the number of ejected particles are observed.

  13. Potential Method of Predicting Coronal Mass Ejection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imholt, Timothy

    2001-10-01

    Coronal Mass Ejections (CME) may be described as a blast of gas and highly charged solar mass fragments ejected into space. These ejections, when directed toward Earth, have many different effects on terrestrial systems ranging from the Aurora Borealis to changes in wireless communication. The early prediction of these solar events cannot be overlooked. There are several models currently accepted and utilized to predict these events, however, with earlier prediction of both the event and the location on the sun where the event occurs allows us to have earlier warnings as to when they will affect man-made systems. A better prediction could perhaps be achieved by utilizing low angular resolution radio telescope arrays to catalog data from the sun at different radio frequencies on a regular basis. Once this data is cataloged a better predictor for these CME’s could be found. We propose a model that allows a prediction to be made that appears to be longer than 24 hours.

  14. Potential Method of Predicting Coronal Mass Ejection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imholt, Timothy; Roberts, J. A.; Scott, J. B.; University Of North Texas Team

    2000-10-01

    Coronal Mass Ejections (CME) may be described as a blast of gas and highly charged solar mass fragments ejected into space. These ejections, when directed toward Earth, have many different effects on terrestrial systems ranging from the Aurora Borealis to changes in wireless communications. The importance of an early prediction of these solar events cannot be overlooked. There are several models currently accepted and utilized to predict these events, however, with earlier prediction of both the event and the location on the sun where the event occur allows us to have earlier warnings as to when they will effect man-made systems. A better prediction could perhaps be achieved by utilizing low angular resolution radio telescope arrays to catalog data from the sun at different radio frequencies on a regular basis. Once this data is cataloged a better predictor for these CME's could be found. We propose a model that allows a prediction to be made that appears to be longer than 24 hours.

  15. Analysis of bolus formation in micropipette ejection systems.

    PubMed

    Mirbod, Parisa; Meng, Diwen

    2015-06-01

    The ejection of drugs from micropipettes is practiced frequently in biomedical research and clinical studies however, little is known about the dynamics of this process. The fundamentals of disperse fluid injection via a capillary into an ambient immiscible fluid have been investigated extensively. Here, we experimentally investigate the bolus formation in micropipette ejection systems, where the injection and ambient fluid are the same. We experimentally measure the temporal evolution of the bolus formation in the same fluid. There are three different bolus formation mechanisms that arise from different Re t regimes: a) a nearly spherical bolus, b) a pear-like bolus, and c) a large distortion or axial jet. We examine the scaled dimensions of the bolus, R b/D t, L b/D t, H/D t, and α, as a function of the dimensionless parameters such as tip Reynolds number, Re t, dimensionless value of g/(D t (.) V t), the dimensionless time, tV t/D t, and the distance between the edge of the micropipette and the free surface, D/D t. The bolus radius for 0.2 < Re t < 30 grows according to t (1/2) in the entire time range, which allows us to estimate the time for complete bolus formation. PMID:26100535

  16. Interscalenic approach to the cervico-brachial plexus.

    PubMed

    Evenepoel, M C; Blomme, A

    1981-12-01

    The concept of a closed peri-neurovascular space surrounding the cervicobrachial plexus, introduced by A. Winnie, allows the blockade of the cervical and brachial plexuses by means of a single puncture technique. The single puncture has positive advantages: 1. The rapidity of the blockade; 2. The simplicity of the blockade; 3. Comfort for the patient. The landmarks are easy to make. As with epidural blockade, the injection level and the volume of local anesthetic determine the quality and extent of the block. The traditional indication is surgery of the shoulder and of the supraclavicular area. A new indication seems to be the implantation of a cardiac pacemaker. Complications often quoted in literature are Horner syndrome-a minor complication-and blockade of the ascending branches of the recurrent laryngeal nerve and of the phrenic nerve. The risk of a pneumothorax is almost nil. PMID:7324853

  17. Brachial-Ankle Pulse Wave Velocity: Myths, Misconceptions, and Realities

    PubMed Central

    Sugawara, Jun; Tanaka, Hirofumi

    2015-01-01

    A variety of techniques to evaluate central arterial stiffness have been developed and introduced. None of these techniques, however, have been implemented widely in regular clinical settings, except for brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV). The most prominent procedural advantage of baPWV is its ease of use, since it only requires the wrapping of blood pressure cuffs on the 4 extremities. There is mounting evidence indicating the ability of baPWV to predict the risk of future cardiovascular events and total mortality. Additionally, the guidelines for the management of hypertension in Japan recommended the measurement of baPWV be included in the assessment of subclinical target organ damage. However, baPWV has not been fully accepted worldwide due to perceived theoretical and methodological issues. In this review, we address the most frequently mentioned questions and concerns regarding baPWV to shed some light on this simple and easy arterial stiffness measurement. PMID:26587459

  18. Temporal pattern of pulse wave velocity during brachial hyperemia reactivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graf, S.; Valero, M. J.; Craiem, D.; Torrado, J.; Farro, I.; Zócalo, Y.; Valls, G.; Bía, D.; Armentano, R. L.

    2011-09-01

    Endothelial function can be assessed non-invasively with ultrasound, analyzing the change of brachial diameter in response to transient forearm ischemia. We propose a new technique based in the same principle, but analyzing a continuous recording of carotid-radial pulse wave velocity (PWV) instead of diameter. PWV was measured on 10 healthy subjects of 22±2 years before and after 5 minutes forearm occlusion. After 59 ± 31 seconds of cuff release PWV decreased 21 ± 9% compared to baseline, reestablishing the same after 533 ± 65 seconds. There were no significant changes observed in blood pressure. When repeating the study one hour later in 5 subjects, we obtained a coefficient of repeatability of 4.8%. In conclusion, through analysis of beat to beat carotid-radial PWV it was possible to characterize the temporal profiles and analyze the acute changes in response to a reactive hyperemia. The results show that the technique has a high sensitivity and repeatability.

  19. Resting Doppler ankle brachial pressure index measurement: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Sihlangu, Dorcus; Bliss, Julie

    2012-07-01

    Peripheral vascular disease (PVD) is under-diagnosed in primary and acute settings. The use of Doppler ankle brachial pressure index (ABPI) is effective in diagnosing PVD , aid in determining aetiology of leg ulcers and is cost efficient in reducing the effects of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular events. The aim of this literature review was to review practitioners' experience in using Doppler ABPI, different skills used to measure ABPI and to examine practitioners' confidence in ABPI. The findings identified variation in method for Doppler measurement: including position of the artery, arm measurement, resting period and type of equipment for measuring blood pressure, variations in practitioners' training and experience have demonstrated variability in ABPI results. Although limited in number, the studies have demonstrated knowledge gap, and the need for training among health professionals. PMID:22875182

  20. Ankle brachial pressure index of normal, healthy, younger adults.

    PubMed

    Niblo, Jane; Coull, Alison

    Doppler ultrasound and ankle brachial pressure index (ABPI) calculations are used in the assessment of lower limb vascularity, specifically to determine arterial deficiency. ABPI is important as it is used as an indicator when deciding management options for the treatment of leg ulceration. This study aimed to investigate the range of ABPI measurement, using Doppler ultrasound and sphygmomanometry in 36 young healthy adults aged 18-55 years. The findings show a mean ABPI in the left leg of 1.19 and a mean ABPI of 1.17 in the right leg which, while within the normal range, are consistently in the upper range and significantly higher than the acknowledged 'normal' midpoint of 1.0. It would appear that younger people will have ABPIs within the upper aspect of the normal range and well above the established norm of 1.0. PMID:24151719

  1. Brachial artery waveforms for automatic blood pressure measurement.

    PubMed

    Al-Jumaily, A M; Lan, H; Stergiopulos, N

    2013-02-01

    Theoretically the auscultatory method using Korotkoff sounds is more related to the maximum artery closure status, while the oscillometric method is more related to the overall artery closure status under the cuff. Therefore, the latter is less accurate than the former. This work introduces a new method, which is more accurate than the oscillometric method and suitable for automatic devices. To monitor the maximum artery closure status, a piezoelectric film sensor is attached to the skin just above the brachial artery and under the central section of the cuff where maximum cuff pressure is transferred to the arm. Using the waveform features obtained by this sensor, measurement errors of 0.7±2.5 and 1.27±4.53 mmHg were obtained for the systolic and diastolic pressure, respectively. These reflect small deviations from auscultatory clinical data. PMID:23149078

  2. Ultrasonography of the brachial plexus, normal appearance and practical applications.

    PubMed

    Lapegue, F; Faruch-Bilfeld, M; Demondion, X; Apredoaei, C; Bayol, M A; Artico, H; Chiavassa-Gandois, H; Railhac, J-J; Sans, N

    2014-03-01

    Ultrasound examination of the brachial plexus, although at first sight difficult, is perfectly feasible with fairly rapid practical and theoretical training. The roots are accurately identified due to the shape (a single tubercle) of the transverse process of C7 in the paravertebral space, and the superficial position of C5 in the interscalene groove. The téléphérique technique allows the roots, trunks and cords to be followed easily into the supraclavicular fossa. In just a few years, ultrasound imaging of the plexus has become a routine anesthesia examination for guiding nerve blocks. In trained hands, it also provides information in thoracic outlet syndromes, traumatic conditions (particularly for postganglionic lesions) and tumoral diseases. Even if MRI remains the standard examination in these indications, ultrasound, with its higher definition and dynamic character, is an excellent additional method which is still under-exploited. PMID:24603038

  3. Modeling MHD accretion-ejection: episodic ejections of jets triggered by a mean-field disk dynamo

    SciTech Connect

    Stepanovs, Deniss; Fendt, Christian; Sheikhnezami, Somayeh E-mail: fendt@mpia.de

    2014-11-20

    We present MHD simulations exploring the launching, acceleration, and collimation of jets and disk winds. The evolution of the disk structure is consistently taken into account. Extending our earlier studies, we now consider the self-generation of the magnetic field by an α{sup 2}Ω mean-field dynamo. The disk magnetization remains on a rather low level, which helps to evolve the simulations for T > 10, 000 dynamical time steps on a domain extending 1500 inner disk radii. We find the magnetic field of the inner disk to be similar to the commonly found open field structure, favoring magneto-centrifugal launching. The outer disk field is highly inclined and predominantly radial. Here, differential rotation induces a strong toroidal component, which plays a key role in outflow launching. These outflows from the outer disk are slower, denser, and less collimated. If the dynamo action is not quenched, magnetic flux is continuously generated, diffuses outward through the disk, and fills the entire disk. We have invented a toy model triggering a time-dependent mean-field dynamo. The duty cycles of this dynamo lead to episodic ejections on similar timescales. When the dynamo is suppressed as the magnetization falls below a critical value, the generation of the outflows and also accretion is inhibited. The general result is that we can steer episodic ejection and large-scale jet knots by a disk-intrinsic dynamo that is time-dependent and regenerates the jet-launching magnetic field.

  4. Large cervicothoracic myxoinflammatory fibroblastic sarcoma with brachial plexus invasion: A case report and literature review

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Xiaotian; Yang, Jianyun; Chen, Lin; Yu, Cong

    2016-01-01

    Myxoinflammatory fibroblastic sarcoma is a rare sarcoma that develops in patients of all ages, which usually presents as a slow-growing painless mass in the distal extremities. To date, myxoinflammatory fibroblastic sarcoma with invasion of the brachial plexus has rarely been reported in the literature. In this study, a case of large cervicothoracic sarcoma, which invaded the brachial plexus, is presented. The patient reported no sensory disturbance or dyskinesia. The tumor was completely resected without injury of the brachial plexus. The postoperative histological diagnosis was myxoinflammatory fibroblastic sarcoma. Follow-up examination performed 24 months after surgery revealed no tumor recurrence and no sensory disturbance or dyskinesia was reported. This study presents a rare case of large myxoinflammatory fibroblastic sarcoma with brachial plexus invasion that was successfully managed by surgery. PMID:27588121

  5. Brachial Plexus Neuritis Associated With Streptococcus agalactiae Infection: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Seo, Yu Jung; Lee, Yu Jin; Kim, Joon Sung; Lim, Seong Hoon; Hong, Bo Young

    2014-08-01

    Brachial plexus neuritis is reportedly caused by various factors; however, it has not been described in association with Streptococcus agalactiae. This is a case report of a patient diagnosed with brachial plexus neuritis associated with pyogenic arthritis of the shoulder. A 57-year-old man visited the hospital complaining of sudden weakness and painful swelling of the left arm. The diagnosis was pyogenic arthritis of the left shoulder, and the patient was treated with open irrigation and debridement accompanied by intravenous antibiotic therapy. S. agalactiae was isolated from a wound culture, and an electrodiagnostic study showed brachial plexopathy involving the left upper and middle trunk. Nine weeks after onset, muscle strength improved in most of the affected muscles, and an electrodiagnostic study showed signs of reinnervation. In conclusion, S. agalactiae infection can lead to various complications including brachial plexus neuritis. PMID:25229037

  6. Brachial Plexus Neuritis Associated With Streptococcus agalactiae Infection: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Yu Jung; Lee, Yu Jin; Kim, Joon Sung; Lim, Seong Hoon

    2014-01-01

    Brachial plexus neuritis is reportedly caused by various factors; however, it has not been described in association with Streptococcus agalactiae. This is a case report of a patient diagnosed with brachial plexus neuritis associated with pyogenic arthritis of the shoulder. A 57-year-old man visited the hospital complaining of sudden weakness and painful swelling of the left arm. The diagnosis was pyogenic arthritis of the left shoulder, and the patient was treated with open irrigation and debridement accompanied by intravenous antibiotic therapy. S. agalactiae was isolated from a wound culture, and an electrodiagnostic study showed brachial plexopathy involving the left upper and middle trunk. Nine weeks after onset, muscle strength improved in most of the affected muscles, and an electrodiagnostic study showed signs of reinnervation. In conclusion, S. agalactiae infection can lead to various complications including brachial plexus neuritis. PMID:25229037

  7. Brachial Plexus Injury from CT-Guided RF Ablation Under General Anesthesia

    SciTech Connect

    Shankar, Sridhar Sonnenberg, Eric van; Silverman, Stuart G.; Tuncali, Kemal; Flanagan, Hugh L.; Whang, Edward E.

    2005-06-15

    Brachial plexus injury in a patient under general anesthesia (GA) is not uncommon, despite careful positioning and, particularly, awareness of the possibility. The mechanism of injury is stretching and compression of the brachial plexus over a prolonged period. Positioning the patient within the computed tomography (CT) gantry for abdominal or chest procedures can simulate a surgical procedure, particularly when GA is used. The potential for brachial plexus injury is increased if the case is prolonged and the patient's arms are raised above the head to avoid CT image degradation from streak artifacts. We report a case of profound brachial plexus palsy following a CT-guided radiofrequency ablation procedure under GA. Fortunately, the patient recovered completely. We emphasize the mechanism of injury and detail measures to combat this problem, such that radiologists are aware of this potentially serious complication.

  8. Pulsed radiofrequency treatment within brachial plexus for the management of intractable neoplastic plexopathic pain.

    PubMed

    Arai, Young-Chang P; Nishihara, Makoto; Aono, Shuichi; Ikemoto, Tatsunori; Suzuki, Chiharu; Kinoshita, Akiko; Ushida, Takahiro

    2013-04-01

    We report on the use of pulsed radiofrequency (RF) within the plexus for the management of intractable pain in three patients with metastatic or invasive plexopathy. The patients were a 38-year-old woman with a history of breast cancer 6 years earlier whose computed tomography (CT) scans revealed a mass lesion at the infraclavicular part of the right brachial plexus, a 68-year-old man diagnosed with advanced lung cancer whose CT scans revealed a bone metastasis in the right humerus invading the axillary region of the right brachial plexus, and a 67-year-old woman diagnosed with advanced lung cancer whose CT scans revealed a bone metastasis in the left humerus invading the axillary region of the left brachial plexus. Ultrasound-guided pulsed RF was performed within the interscalene brachial plexus. During the follow-up period, their intractable pain was moderately controlled. PMID:23070568

  9. The distribution of ejected brown dwarfs in clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodwin, S. P.; Hubber, D. A.; Moraux, E.; Whitworth, A. P.

    2005-12-01

    We examine the spatial distribution of brown dwarfs produced by the decay of small-N stellar systems as expected from the embryo ejection scenario. We model a cluster of several hundred stars grouped into 'cores' of a few stars/brown dwarfs. These cores decay, preferentially ejecting their lowest-mass members. Brown dwarfs are found to have a wider spatial distribution than stars, however once the effects of limited survey areas and unresolved binaries are taken into account it can be difficult to distinguish between clusters with many or no ejections. A large difference between the distributions probably indicates that ejections have occurred, however similar distributions sometimes arise even with ejections. Thus the spatial distribution of brown dwarfs is not necessarily a good discriminator between ejection and non-ejection scenarios.

  10. Role of osmotic and hydrostatic pressures in bacteriophage genome ejection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemay, Serge G.; Panja, Debabrata; Molineux, Ian J.

    2013-02-01

    A critical step in the bacteriophage life cycle is genome ejection into host bacteria. The ejection process for double-stranded DNA phages has been studied thoroughly in vitro, where after triggering with the cellular receptor the genome ejects into a buffer. The experimental data have been interpreted in terms of the decrease in free energy of the densely packed DNA associated with genome ejection. Here we detail a simple model of genome ejection in terms of the hydrostatic and osmotic pressures inside the phage, a bacterium, and a buffer solution or culture medium. We argue that the hydrodynamic flow associated with the water movement from the buffer solution into the phage capsid and further drainage into the bacterial cytoplasm, driven by the osmotic gradient between the bacterial cytoplasm and culture medium, provides an alternative mechanism for phage genome ejection in vivo; the mechanism is perfectly consistent with phage genome ejection in vitro.

  11. OCT/PS-OCT imaging of brachial plexus neurovascular structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raphael, David T.; Zhang, Jun; Zhang, Yaoping; Chen, Zhongping; Miller, Carol; Zhou, Li

    2004-07-01

    Introduction: Optical coherence tomography (OCT) allows high-resolution imaging (less than 10 microns) of tissue structures. A pilot study with OCT and polarization-sensitive OCT (PS-OCT) was undertaken to image ex-vivo neurovascular structures (vessels, nerves) of the canine brachial plexus. Methods: OCT is an interferometry-based optical analog of B-mode ultrasound, which can image through non-transparent biological tissues. With approval of the USC Animal Care and Use Committee, segments of the supra- and infraclavicular brachial plexus were excised from euthanized adult dogs, and the ex-vivo specimens were placed in cold pH-buffered physiologic solution. An OCT beam, in micrometer translational steps, scanned the fixed-position bisected specimens in transverse and longitudinal views. Two-dimensional images were obtained from identified arteries and nerves, with specific sections of interest stained with hematoxylin-eosin for later imaging through a surgical microscope. Results: with the beam scan direction transverse to arteries, the resulting OCT images showed an identifiable arterial lumen and arterial wall tissue layers. By comparison, transverse beam OCT images of nerves revealed a multitude of smaller nerve bundles contained within larger circular-shaped fascicles. PS-OCT imaging was helpful in showing the characteristic birefringence exhibited by arrayed neural structures. Discussion: High-resolution OCT imaging may be useful in the optical identification of neurovascular structures during attempted regional nerve blockade. If incorporated into a needle-shaped catheter endoscope, such a technology could prevent intraneural and intravascular injections immediately prior to local anesthetic injection. The major limitation of OCT is that it can form a coherent image of tissue structures only to a depth of 1.5 - 2 mm.

  12. Morphometric Atlas Selection for Automatic Brachial Plexus Segmentation

    SciTech Connect

    Van de Velde, Joris; Wouters, Johan; Vercauteren, Tom; De Gersem, Werner; Duprez, Fréderic; De Neve, Wilfried; Van Hoof, Tom

    2015-07-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of atlas selection based on different morphometric parameters, on the accuracy of automatic brachial plexus (BP) segmentation for radiation therapy planning. The segmentation accuracy was measured by comparing all of the generated automatic segmentations with anatomically validated gold standard atlases developed using cadavers. Methods and Materials: Twelve cadaver computed tomography (CT) atlases (3 males, 9 females; mean age: 73 years) were included in the study. One atlas was selected to serve as a patient, and the other 11 atlases were registered separately onto this “patient” using deformable image registration. This procedure was repeated for every atlas as a patient. Next, the Dice and Jaccard similarity indices and inclusion index were calculated for every registered BP with the original gold standard BP. In parallel, differences in several morphometric parameters that may influence the BP segmentation accuracy were measured for the different atlases. Specific brachial plexus-related CT-visible bony points were used to define the morphometric parameters. Subsequently, correlations between the similarity indices and morphometric parameters were calculated. Results: A clear negative correlation between difference in protraction-retraction distance and the similarity indices was observed (mean Pearson correlation coefficient = −0.546). All of the other investigated Pearson correlation coefficients were weak. Conclusions: Differences in the shoulder protraction-retraction position between the atlas and the patient during planning CT influence the BP autosegmentation accuracy. A greater difference in the protraction-retraction distance between the atlas and the patient reduces the accuracy of the BP automatic segmentation result.

  13. Upright MRI of glenohumeral dysplasia following obstetric brachial plexus injury.

    PubMed

    Nath, Rahul K; Paizi, Melia; Melcher, Sonya E; Farina, Kim L

    2007-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the role of upright magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) shoulder scanning in the diagnosis of glenohumeral deformity following obstetric brachial plexus injury (OBPI). Eighty-nine children (ages 0.4 to 17.9 years) with OBPI who have medial rotation contracture and reduced passive and active lateral rotation of the shoulder were evaluated via upright MRI of the affected glenohumeral joint. Qualitative impressions of glenoid form were recorded, and quantitative measurements were made of glenoid version and posterior subluxation. Glenoid version of the affected shoulder averaged -16.8 +/- 11.0 degrees (range, -55 degrees to 1 degrees ), and percentage of the humeral head anterior to the glenoid fossa (PHHA) averaged 32.6 +/- 16.5% (range, -17.8% to 52.4%). The glenoid form was normal in 43 children, convex in 19 children and biconcave in 27 children. Standard MRI protocols were used to obtain bilateral images from 14 of these patients. Among the patients with bilateral MR images, glenoid version and PHHA were significantly different between the involved and uninvolved shoulders (P<.000). Glenoid version in the involved shoulder averaged -19.0 +/- 13.1 degrees (range, -52 degrees to -3 degrees ), and PHHA averaged 29.7 +/- 18.4% (range, -16.2% to 48.7%). In the uninvolved shoulder, the average glenoid version and PHHA were -5.2 +/- 3.7 degrees (range, -12 degrees to -1 degrees ) and 47.7 +/- 3.0% (range, 43% to 54%), respectively. The relative beneficial aspects of upright MRI include lack of need for sedation, low claustrophobic potential and, most important, natural, gravity-influenced position, enabling the surgeon to visualize the true preoperative picture of the shoulder. It is an effective tool for demonstrating glenohumeral abnormalities resulting from brachial plexus injury worthy of surgical exploration. PMID:17448618

  14. The fluid mechanics of bolus ejection from the oral cavity.

    PubMed

    Nicosia, M A; Robbins, J A

    2001-12-01

    The squeezing action of the tongue against the palate provides driving forces to propel swallowed material out of the mouth and through the pharynx. Transport in response to these driving forces, however, is dependent on the material properties of the swallowed bolus. Given the complex geometry of the oral cavity and the unsteady nature of this process, the mechanics governing the oral phase of swallowing are not well understood. In the current work, the squeezing flow between two approaching parallel plates is used as a simplified mathematical model to study the fluid mechanics of bolus ejection from the oral cavity. Driving forces generated by the contraction of intrinsic and extrinsic lingual muscles are modeled as a spatially uniform pressure applied to the tongue. Approximating the tongue as a rigid body, the motion of tongue and fluid are then computed simultaneously as a function of time. Bolus ejection is parameterized by the time taken to clear half the bolus from the oral cavity, t(1/2). We find that t(1/2) increases with increased viscosity and density and decreases with increased applied pressure. In addition, for low viscosity boluses (mu approximately 100 cP), density variations dominate the fluid mechanics while for high viscosity boluses (mu approximately 1000 cP), viscosity dominates. A transition region between these two regimes is found in which both properties affect the solution characteristics. The relationship of these results to the assessment and treatment of swallowing disorders is discussed. PMID:11716855

  15. Brachial plexus injury as an unusual complication of coronary artery bypass graft surgery

    PubMed Central

    Chong, A; Clarke, C; Dimitri, W; Lip, G

    2003-01-01

    Brachial plexus injury is an unusual and under-recognised complication of coronary artery bypass grafting especially when internal mammary artery harvesting takes place. It is believed to be due to sternal retraction resulting in compression of the brachial plexus. Although the majority of cases are transient, there are cases where the injury is permanent and may have severe implications as illustrated in the accompanying case history. PMID:12612322

  16. Nerve Transfers in Birth Related Brachial Plexus Injuries: Where Do We Stand?

    PubMed

    Davidge, Kristen M; Clarke, Howard M; Borschel, Gregory H

    2016-05-01

    This article reviews the assessment and management of obstetrical brachial plexus palsy. The potential role of distal nerve transfers in the treatment of infants with Erb's palsy is discussed. Current evidence for motor outcomes after traditional reconstruction via interpositional nerve grafting and extraplexal nerve transfers is reviewed and compared with the recent literature on intraplexal distal nerve transfers in obstetrical brachial plexus injury. PMID:27094890

  17. Association of hemoglobin with ankle-brachial index in general population

    PubMed Central

    Chenglong, Zhang; Jing, Lei; Xia, Ke; Yang, Tianlun

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Previous studies have demonstrated that both low and high hemoglobin concentrations are predictive of adverse cardiovascular outcomes in various populations. However, an association of hemoglobin with the ankle-brachial index, which is widely used as a screening test for peripheral arterial disease, has not yet been identified. METHODS: We examined 786 subjects (236 women and 550 men) who received routine physical check-ups. The ankle-brachial index and several hematological parameters, including the hemoglobin level, hematocrit and red blood cell count and other demographic and biochemical characteristics were collected. Univariate and multivariate linear regression analyses were performed to assess the relationships between the ankle-brachial index and the independent determinants. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis was conducted to calculate the cut-off level of hemoglobin for a relatively low ankle-brachial index (less than 20% of all subjects, which was 1.02). RESULTS: The hemoglobin level, hematocrit and red blood cell count were correlated with the ankle-brachial index in the males (r=-0.274, r=-0.224 and r=-0.273, respectively, p<0.001 for all), but these associations were not significant in the females. Multivariate linear regression analysis revealed that the independent determinants of the ankle-brachial index included age, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and the white blood cell count for the females and age, hypertension, total cholesterol and hemoglobin (β=-0.001, p<0.001) for the males after adjusting for confounding factors. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis revealed that the cut-off level of hemoglobin for predicting a low ankle-brachial index was 156.5 g/L in the males. CONCLUSIONS: A high hemoglobin concentration was independently correlated with a low ankle-brachial index in the healthy males, indicating that an elevation in this level may be associated with an increased

  18. Activity associated with coronal mass ejections at solar minimum - SMM observations from 1984-1986

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    St. Cyr, O. C.; Webb, D. F.

    1991-01-01

    Seventy-three coronal mass ejections (CMEs) observed by the coronagraph aboard SMM between 1984 and 1986 were examined in order to determine the distribution of various forms of solar activity that were spatially and temporally associated with mass ejections during solar minimum phase. For each coronal mass ejection a speed was measured, and the departure time of the transient from the lower corona estimated. Other forms of solar activity that appeared within 45 deg longitude and 30 deg latitude of the mass ejection and within +/-90 min of its extrapolated departure time were explored. The statistical results of the analysis of these 73 CMEs are presented, and it is found that slightly less than half of them were infrequently associated with other forms of solar activity. It is suggested that the distribution of the various forms of activity related to CMEs does not change at different phases of the solar cycle. For those CMEs with associations, it is found that eruptive prominences and soft X-rays were the most likely forms of activity to accompany the appearance of mass ejections.

  19. Axillary nerve neurotization with the anterior deltopectoral approach in brachial plexus injuries.

    PubMed

    Jerome, J Terrence Jose; Rajmohan, Bennet

    2012-09-01

    Combined neurotization of both axillary and suprascapular nerves in shoulder reanimation has been widely accepted in brachial plexus injuries, and the functional outcome is much superior to single nerve transfer. This study describes the surgical anatomy for axillary nerve relative to the available donor nerves and emphasize the salient technical aspects of anterior deltopectoral approach in brachial plexus injuries. Fifteen patients with brachial plexus injury who had axillary nerve neurotizations were evaluated. Five patients had complete avulsion, 9 patients had C5, six patients had brachial plexus injury pattern, and one patient had combined axillary and suprascapular nerve injury. The long head of triceps branch was the donor in C5,6 injuries; nerve to brachialis in combined nerve injury and intercostals for C5-T1 avulsion injuries. All these donors were identified through the anterior approach, and the nerve transfer was done. The recovery of deltoid was found excellent (M5) in C5,6 brachial plexus injuries with an average of 134.4° abduction at follow up of average 34.6 months. The shoulder recovery was good with 130° abduction in a case of combined axillary and suprascapular nerve injury. The deltoid recovery was good (M3) in C5-T1 avulsion injuries patients with an average of 64° shoulder abduction at follow up of 35 months. We believe that anterior approach is simple and easy for all axillary nerve transfers in brachial plexus injuries. PMID:22434572

  20. Ultraviolet Spectroscopy of Narrow Coronal Mass Ejections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobrzycka, D.; Raymond, J. C.; Biesecker, D. A.; Li, J.; Ciaravella, A.

    2003-05-01

    We present Ultraviolet Coronagraph Spectrometer (UVCS) observations of five narrow coronal mass ejections (CMEs) that were among 15 narrow CMEs originally selected by Gilbert and coworkers. Two events (1999 March 27, April 15) were ``structured,'' i.e., in white-light data they exhibited well-defined interior features, and three (1999 May 9, May 21, June 3) were ``unstructured,'' i.e., appeared featureless. In UVCS data the events were seen as 4°-13° wide enhancements of the strongest coronal lines H I Lyα and O VI λλ1032, 1037. We derived electron densities for several of the events from the Large Angle and Spectrometric Coronagraph Experiment (LASCO) C2 white-light observations. They are comparable to or smaller than densities inferred for other CMEs. We modeled the observable properties of examples of the structured (1999 April 15) and unstructured (1999 May 9) narrow CMEs at different heights in the corona between 1.5 and 2 Rsolar. The derived electron temperatures, densities, and outflow speeds are similar for those two types of ejections. They were compared with properties of polar coronal jets and other CMEs. We discuss different scenarios of narrow CME formation as either a jet formed by reconnection onto open field lines or a CME ejected by expansion of closed field structures. Overall, we conclude that the existing observations do not definitively place the narrow CMEs into the jet or the CME picture, but the acceleration of the 1999 April 15 event resembles acceleration seen in many CMEs, rather than constant speeds or deceleration observed in jets.

  1. Functioning free gracilis transfer to reconstruct elbow flexion and quality of life in global brachial plexus injured patients

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yi; Yang, Jian-Tao; Fu, Guo; Li, Xiang-Ming; Qin, Ben-Gang; Hou, Yi; Qi, Jian; Li, Ping; Liu, Xiao-Lin; Gu, Li-Qiang

    2016-01-01

    In the study, the functional recovery and relative comprehensive quality of life of cases of global brachial plexus treated with free functioning muscle transfers were investigated. Patients who received functioning gracilis muscle transfer between August 1999 and October 2014 to reconstruct elbow flexion, wrist and fingers extension were recruited. The mean age of the patients was 26.36 (range, 16–42) years. The mean period of time from gracilis transfer to the last follow-up was 54.5 months (range, 12–185 months). Muscle power, active range of motion of the elbow flexion, wrist extension, and total active fingers extension were recorded. SDS, SAS and DASH questionnaires were given to estimate patients’ quality of life. 35.71% reported good elbow flexion and 50.00% reported excellent elbow flexion. The average ROM of the elbow flexion was 106.5° (range, 0–142°) and was 17.00° (range, 0–72°) for wrist extension. The average DASH score was 51.14 (range, 17.5–90.8). The prevalence of anxiety and depression were 42.86% and 45.24%. Thrombosis and bowstringing were the most common short and long-term complications. Based on these findings, free gracilis transfer using accessory nerve as donor nerve is a satisfactory treatment to reconstruct the elbow flexion and wrist extension in global-brachial-plexus-injured patients. PMID:26935173

  2. Models for grains and gas ejection dynamics from a silo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Yixian; Aussillous, Pascale; Ruyer, Pierre; Iusti/Gep Team; Semia/Limar Team

    2015-11-01

    In the hypothetical conditions of a reactivity initiated accident in a nuclear power plant, some of the fuel rods could break. If fuel fragmentation occurs, hot fuel particles and pressurized gas could interact with the surrounding fluid. The violence of this interaction depends on the discharge rate toward the fluid. In the present work, we study the discharge dynamics and identify the parameters governing this flow. In this paper, we focus on the experimental study of the discharge of a silo composed of spherical glass beads, with an orifice either lateral or at the bottom, with or without air flow. The measured parameters are the mass flow rate and the pressure along the silo, whereas the controlled parameters are the size of particles, the size of orifices, and the flow rate of air. For the case without air flow we found that the flow rate of particles ejected from the bottom orifice is 3 times greater than from the lateral orifice. For the case of a lateral orifice, when the form of the orifice is rectangular with width W and height D, we identify two regimes which depend on the ratio of width to height W / D . For the case with air flow, we found that the flow rate increases with the air flow. A simple physical model is proposed to describe the grains and gas ejection.

  3. Spontaneous Aerosol Ejection: Origin of Inorganic Particles in Biomass Pyrolysis.

    PubMed

    Teixeira, Andrew R; Gantt, Rachel; Joseph, Kristeen E; Maduskar, Saurabh; Paulsen, Alex D; Krumm, Christoph; Zhu, Cheng; Dauenhauer, Paul J

    2016-06-01

    At high thermal flux and temperatures of approximately 500 °C, lignocellulosic biomass transforms to a reactive liquid intermediate before evaporating to condensable bio-oil for downstream upgrading to renewable fuels and chemicals. However, the existence of a fraction of nonvolatile compounds in condensed bio-oil diminishes the product quality and, in the case of inorganic materials, catalyzes undesirable aging reactions within bio-oil. In this study, ablative pyrolysis of crystalline cellulose was evaluated, with and without doped calcium, for the generation of inorganic-transporting aerosols by reactive boiling ejection from liquid intermediate cellulose. Aerosols were characterized by laser diffraction light scattering, inductively coupled plasma spectroscopy, and high-speed photography. Pyrolysis product fractionation revealed that approximately 3 % of the initial feed (both organic and inorganic) was transported to the gas phase as aerosols. Large bubble-to-aerosol size ratios and visualization of significant late-time ejections in the pyrolyzing cellulose suggest the formation of film bubbles in addition to the previously discovered jet formation mechanism. PMID:27125341

  4. High-resolution imaging of ejection dynamics in laser-induced forward transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pohl, R.; Visser, C. W.; Römer, G. R. B. E.; Sun, C.; Huis in't Veld, A. J.; Lohse, D.

    2014-03-01

    Laser-induced Forward Transfer (LIFT) is a 3D direct-write method suitable for precision printing of various materials. As the ejection mechanism of picosecond LIFT has not been visualized in detail, the governing physics are not fully understood yet. Therefore, this article presents an experimental imaging study on the ejection process of gold-based LIFT. The LIFT experiments were performed using a 6.7 picosecond Yb:YAG laser source equipped with a SHG. The beam was focused onto a 200 nm thick gold donor layer. The high magnification images were obtained using bright field illumination by a 6 ns pulsed Nd:YAG laser source and a 50× long-distance microscope objective that was combined with a 200 mm tube lens. For laser fluence levels up to two times the donor-transfer-threshold, the ejection of a single droplet was observed. The typical droplet radius was estimated to be less than 3 μm. A transition of ejection features towards higher fluence, indicates a second fluence-regime in the ejection process. For higher laser fluence, the formation of an elongated gold jet was observed. This jet fragments into multiple relatively small droplets, resulting in a spray of particles on the receiving substrate.

  5. Particle Ejection and Levitation Technology (PELT)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    Each of the six Apollo landers touched down at unique sites on the lunar surface. Aside from the Apollo 12 landing site located 180 meters from the Surveyor III lander, plume impingement effects on ground hardware during the landings were not a problem. The planned return to the Moon requires numerous landings at the same site. Since the top few centimeters of lunar soil are loosely packed regolith, plume impingement from the lander will eject the granular material at high velocities. A picture shows what the astronauts viewed from the window of the Apollo 14 lander. There was tremendous dust excavation beneath the vehicle. With high-vacuum conditions on the Moon (10 (exp -14) to 10 (exp -12) torr), motion of all particles is completely ballistic. Estimates derived from damage to Surveyor III caused by the Apollo 12 lander show that the speed of the ejected regolith particles varies from 100 m/s to 2,000 m/s. It is imperative to understand the physics of plume impingement to safely design landing sites for future Moon missions. Aerospace scientists and engineers have examined and analyzed images from Apollo video extensively in an effort to determine the theoretical effects of rocket exhaust impingement. KSC has joined the University of Central Florida (UCF) to develop an instrument that will measure the 3-D vector of dust flow caused by plume impingement during descent of landers. The data collected from the instrument will augment the theoretical studies and analysis of the Apollo videos.

  6. Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction

    PubMed Central

    ElGuindy, Ahmed; Yacoub, Magdi H

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) has recently emerged as a major cause of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Contrary to initial beliefs, HFpEF is now known to be as common as heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) and carries an unacceptably high mortality rate. With a prevalence that has been steadily rising over the past two decades, it is very likely that HFpEF will represent the dominant heart failure phenotype over the coming few years. The scarcity of trials in this semi-discrete form of heart failure and lack of unified enrolment criteria in the studies conducted to date might have contributed to the current absence of specific therapies. Understanding the epidemiological, pathophysiological and molecular differences (and similarities) between these two forms of heart failure is cornerstone to the development of targeted therapies. Carefully designed studies that adhere to unified diagnostic criteria with the recruitment of appropriate controls and adoption of practical end-points are urgently needed to help identify effective treatment strategies. PMID:25610841

  7. Solar Mass Ejection Imager (SMEI) space experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radick, Richard R.

    2001-12-01

    The Solar Mass Ejection Imager (SMEI) is a proof-of-concept space experiment designed to observe solar coronal mass ejections (CMEs) and forecast their arrival at Earth. SMEI will image CMEs by sensing sunlight scattered from the free electrons in these ejecta (i.e., Thomson scattering). SMEI will be launched by a Titan II rocket into a circular, 830-km, sun-synchronous orbit in mid-2002 as part of the Space Test Program's CORIOLIS mission. SMEI will image nearly the entire sky once per spacecraft orbit over a mission lifetime of three years. Successful operation of SMEI will represent a major step in improving space weather forecasts by providing one- to three-day predictions of geomagnetic storms at the Earth. The SMEI experiment is being designed and constructed by a team of scientists and engineers from the Air Force Research Laboratory, the University of Birmingham (UB) in the United Kingdom, the University of California at San Diego (UCSD), and Boston University. The Air Force, NASA, and UB are providing financial support.

  8. Electrically induced drop detachment and ejection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cavalli, Andrea; Preston, Daniel J.; Tio, Evelyn; Martin, David W.; Miljkovic, Nenad; Wang, Evelyn N.; Blanchette, Francois; Bush, John W. M.

    2016-02-01

    A deformed droplet may leap from a solid substrate, impelled to detach through the conversion of surface energy into kinetic energy that arises as it relaxes to a sphere. Electrowetting provides a means of preparing a droplet on a substrate for lift-off. When a voltage is applied between a water droplet and a dielectric-coated electrode, the wettability of the substrate increases in a controlled way, leading to the spreading of the droplet. Once the voltage is released, the droplet recoils, due to a sudden excess in surface energy, and droplet detachment may follow. The process of drop detachment and lift-off, prevalent in both biology and micro-engineering, has to date been considered primarily in terms of qualitative scaling arguments for idealized superhydrophobic substrates. We here consider the eletrically-induced ejection of droplets from substrates of finite wettability and analyze the process quantitatively. We compare experiments to numerical simulations and analyze how the energy conversion efficiency is affected by the applied voltage and the intrinsic contact angle of the droplet on the substrate. Our results indicate that the finite wettability of the substrate significantly affects the detachment dynamics, and so provide new rationale for the previously reported large critical radius for drop ejection from micro-textured substrates.

  9. Global Response to Local Ionospheric Mass Ejection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, T. E.; Fok, M.-C.; Delcourt, D. C.; Slinker, S. P.; Fedder, J. A.

    2010-01-01

    We revisit a reported "Ionospheric Mass Ejection" using prior event observations to guide a global simulation of local ionospheric outflows, global magnetospheric circulation, and plasma sheet pressurization, and comparing our results with the observed global response. Our simulation framework is based on test particle motions in the Lyon-Fedder-Mobarry (LFM) global circulation model electromagnetic fields. The inner magnetosphere is simulated with the Comprehensive Ring Current Model (CRCM) of Fok and Wolf, driven by the transpolar potential developed by the LFM magnetosphere, and includes an embedded plasmaspheric simulation. Global circulation is stimulated using the observed solar wind conditions for the period 24-25 Sept 1998. This period begins with the arrival of a Coronal Mass Ejection, initially with northward, but later with southward interplanetary magnetic field. Test particles are launched from the ionosphere with fluxes specified by local empirical relationships of outflow to electrodynamic and particle precipitation imposed by the MIlD simulation. Particles are tracked until they are lost from the system downstream or into the atmosphere, using the full equations of motion. Results are compared with the observed ring current and a simulation of polar and auroral wind outflows driven globally by solar wind dynamic pressure. We find good quantitative agreement with the observed ring current, and reasonable qualitative agreement with earlier simulation results, suggesting that the solar wind driven global simulation generates realistic energy dissipation in the ionosphere and that the Strangeway relations provide a realistic local outflow description.

  10. Density and white light brightness in looplike coronal mass ejections - Temporal evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steinolfson, R. S.; Hundhausen, A. J.

    1988-01-01

    Three ambient coronal models suitable for studies of time-dependent phenomena were used to investigate the propagation of coronal mass ejections initiated in each atmosphere by an identical energy source. These models included those of a static corona with a dipole magnetic field, developed by Dryer et al. (1979); a steady polytropic corona with an equatorial coronal streamer, developed by Steinolfson et al. (1982); and Steinolfson's (1988) model of heated corona with an equatorial coronal streamer. The results indicated that the first model does not adequately represent the general characteristics of observed looplike mass ejections, and the second model simulated only some of the observed features. Only the third model, which included a heating term and a streamer, was found to yield accurate simulation of the mess ejection observations.

  11. Dipole Field Effects on Ion Ejections from a Paul Ion Trap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    MacAskill, J. A.; Chutjian, A.

    2011-01-01

    Attempts at improving the quality of mass spectra obtained from a Paul trap mass spectrometer prompted an investigation of the effects of additional fields to supplement the primary rf quadrupole trapping field. Reported here are the results of the first in a series of tests that focuses on the application of a single dipole field to augment the trapping and subsequent ejections of ions stored within a Paul trap. Measurements are presented for a fixed quadrupole frequency with varying dipole frequencies. The presence of the dipole field during the quadrupole trapping phase causes ion ejections of single m/z species at discrete dipole frequencies. During the mass analysis phase, the varying dipole frequency produces a complex set of resonant structures that impact ejection time (mass range), as well as mass spectral peak intensity and width

  12. Impact ejection, spallation, and the origin of meteorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Melosh, H. J.

    1984-01-01

    A model for the ejection of material from an impact crater which links ejection velocity, fragment size, and shock pressure through a simplified stress-wave propagation and reflection scheme is presented. It is shown that a small amount of material (0.01 to 0.05 projectile mass) may be ejected at high velocity without suffering petrologically detectable shock pressures. The largest fragments ejected at any velocity are spalls that originate from the target planet's surface. The spall size is proportional to the radius of the primary impactor and the target tensile strength and inversely proportional to ejection velocity. The shock level in the spalls is low, typically half of the dynamic crushing strength of the rock. The model also predicts the aspect ratio of the spalled fragments, the angle of ejection, and the sizes and shock level of other fragments originating deeper in the target. Comparison with observational and experimental data shows generally good agreement.

  13. Radio Emmision during the interaction of two Interplanetary Coronal Mass Ejections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lara, Alejandro; Niembro, Tatiana; González, Ricardo

    2016-07-01

    We show that some sporadic radio emission observed by the WIND/WAVES experiment in the decametric/kilometric bands are due to the interaction of two interplanetary Coronal Mass Ejections. We have performed hydrodynamic simulations of the evolution of two consecutive Coronal Mass ejections in the interplanetary medium. With these simulations it is possible to follow the density evolution of the merged structure, and therefore, compute the frequency limits of the possible plasma emission. We study four well documented ICME interaction events, and found radio emission at the time and frequencies predicted by the simulations. This emission may help to anticipate the complexity of the merged region before it reaches one AU.

  14. Compromising abnormalities of the brachial plexus as displayed by magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Collins, J D; Shaver, M L; Disher, A C; Miller, T Q

    1995-01-01

    Magnetic resonance images (MRI) of brachial plexus anatomy bilaterally, not possible by plain radiographs or CT, were presented to the Vascular Surgery, Neurology, and the Neurosurgery departments. Patients were requested for MRI of their brachial plexus. They were referred for imaging and the imaging results were presented to the faculty and housestaff. Our technique was accepted and adopted to begin referrals for MRI evaluation of brachial plexopathy. Over 175 patients have been studied. Eighty-five patients were imaged with the 1.5 Tesla magnet (Signa; General Electric Medical Systems, Milwaukee, WI) 3-D reconstruction MRI. Coronal, transverse (axial), oblique transverse, and sagittal plane T1-weighted and selected T2-weighted pulse sequences were obtained at 4-5 mm slice thickness, 40-45 full field of view, and a 512 x 256 size matrix. Saline water bags were used to enhance the signal between the neck and the thorax. Sites of brachial plexus compromise were demonstrated. Our technique with 3-D reconstruction increased the definition of brachial plexus pathology. The increased anatomical definition enabled the vascular surgeons and neurosurgeons to improve patient care. Brachial plexus in vivo anatomy as displayed by MRI, magnetic resonance angiography (MRA), and 3-D reconstruction offered an opportunity to augment the teaching of clinical anatomy to medical students and health professionals. Selected case presentations (bodybuilder, anomalous muscle, fractured clavicle, thyroid goiter, silicone breast implant rupture, and cervical rib) demonstrated compromise of the brachial plexus displayed by MRI. The MRI and 3-D reconstruction techniques, demonstrating the bilateral landmark anatomy, increased the definition of the clinical anatomy and resulted in greater knowledge of patient care management. PMID:7697507

  15. Postfixed Brachial Plexus Radiculopathy Due to Thoracic Disc Herniation in a Collegiate Wrestler: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Kuzma, Scott A.; Doberstein, Scott T.; Rushlow, David R.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To present the unique case of a collegiate wrestler with C7 neurologic symptoms due to T1–T2 disc herniation. Background: A 23-year-old male collegiate wrestler injured his neck in a wrestling tournament match and experienced pain, weakness, and numbness in his left upper extremity. He completed that match and 1 additional match that day with mild symptoms. Evaluation by a certified athletic trainer 6 days postinjury showed radiculopathy in the C7 distribution of his left upper extremity. He was evaluated further by the team physician, a primary care physician, and a neurosurgeon. Differential Diagnosis: Cervical spine injury, stinger/burner, peripheral nerve injury, spinal cord injury, thoracic outlet syndrome, brachial plexus radiculopathy. Treatment: The patient initially underwent nonoperative management with ice, heat, massage, electrical stimulation, shortwave diathermy, and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs without symptom resolution. Cervical spine radiographs were negative for bony pathologic conditions. Magnetic resonance imaging showed evidence of T1–T2 disc herniation. The patient underwent surgery to resolve the symptoms and enable him to participate for the remainder of the wrestling season. Uniqueness: Whereas brachial plexus radiculopathy commonly is seen in collision sports, a postfixed brachial plexus in which the T2 nerve root has substantial contribution to the innervation of the upper extremity is a rare anatomic variation with which many health care providers are unfamiliar. Conclusions: The injury sustained by the wrestler appeared to be C7 radiculopathy due to a brachial plexus traction injury. However, it ultimately was diagnosed as radiculopathy due to a T1–T2 thoracic intervertebral disc herniation causing impingement of a postfixed brachial plexus and required surgical intervention. Athletic trainers and physicians need to be aware of the anatomic variations of the brachial plexus when evaluating and caring for

  16. Echocardiographic assessment of ejection fraction in left ventricular hypertrophy

    PubMed Central

    Wandt, B; Bojo, L; Tolagen, K; Wranne, B

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To investigate the value of Simpson's rule, Teichholz's formula, and recording of mitral ring motion in assessing left ventricular ejection fraction (EF) in patients with left ventricular hypertrophy.
DESIGN—Left ventricular ejection fraction calculated by Simpson's rule and by Techholz's formula and estimated by mitral ring motion was compared with values obtained by radionuclide angiography.
SETTING—Secondary referral centre.
PATIENTS—16 patients with left ventricular hypertrophy and a clinical diagnosis of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy or hypertension.
RESULTS—Calculation by Teichholz's formula overestimated left ventricular ejection fraction by 10% (p = 0.002) and estimation based on mitral ring motion—that is, long axis measurements—underestimated ejection fraction by 19% (p = 0.002), without significant correlation between ring motion and ejection fraction. There was no significant difference between mean values of ejection fraction calculated by Simpson's rule and measured by the reference method, but a considerable scatter about the regression line with a standard error of the estimate of 9.3 EF%.
CONCLUSIONS—In patients with left ventricular hypertrophy the ejection fraction, calculated by Teichholz's formula or Simpson's rule, is a poor measure of left ventricular function. When mitral ring motion is used for the assessment in these patients the function should be expressed in ways other than by the ejection fraction.


Keywords: left ventricular hypertrophy; ejection fraction; mitral ring motion; atrioventricular plane displacement PMID:10409535

  17. Space probe/satellite ejection apparatus for spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smyly, H. M.; Miller, C. D.; Cloyd, R. A.; Heller, C. (Inventor)

    1985-01-01

    An ejection apparatus for spinning and propelling objects for ejection from a spacecraft at a desired velocity and rotational speed is discussed. The apparatus includes a launch cradle on which the space object to be ejected rests. The cradle is rotatably supported by a central hub secured to the upper end of the pneumatic cylinder piston shaft. Release mechanisms consisting of a retractable pin and locking lug is utilized to hold the cradle and object to be ejected. The release mechanism has a fixed barrier member which holds the retractable pin in engagement with the locking lug until release by upward movement of the launch cradle beyond the barrier height.

  18. Space probe/satellite ejection apparatus for spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smyly, H. M.; Miller, C. D.; Cloyd, R. A.; Heller, C. (Inventor)

    1984-01-01

    An ejection apparatus for spinning and propelling objects for ejection from a spacecraft at a desired velocity and rotational speed is discussed. The apparatus includes a launch cradle on which the space object to be ejected rests. The cradle is rotatably supported by a central hub secured to the upper end of the pneumatic cylinder piston shaft. Release mechanisms consisting of a retractable pin and locking lug is utilized to hold the cradle and object to be ejected. The release mechanism has a fixed barrier member which holds the retractable pin in engagement with the locking lug until release by upward movement of the launch cradle beyond the barrier height.

  19. Clinical aspects of patients with traumatic lesions of the brachial plexus following surgical treatment☆

    PubMed Central

    de Moraes, Frederico Barra; Kwae, Mário Yoshihide; da Silva, Ricardo Pereira; Porto, Celmo Celeno; Magalhães, Daniel de Paiva; Paulino, Matheus Veloso

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate sociodemographic and clinical aspects of patients undergoing operations due to traumatic lesions of the brachial plexus. Method This was a retrospective study in which the medical files of a convenience sample of 48 patients operated between 2000 and 2010 were reviewed. The following were evaluated: (1) range of motion (ROM) of the shoulder, elbow and wrist/hand, in degrees; (2) grade of strength of the shoulder, elbow and wrist/hand; (3) sensitivity; and (4) visual analogue scale (VAS) (from 0 to 10). The Student's t, chi-square, Friedman, Wilcoxon and Kruskal–Wallis tests were used (p < 0.05). Results The patients’ mean age was 30.6 years; 60.4% of them had suffered motorcycle accidents and 52.1%, multiple trauma. The mean length of time until surgery was 8.7 months (range: 2–48). Thirty-one patients (64.6%) presented complete rupture of the plexus. The frequent operation was neurosurgery in 39 cases (81.3%). The ROM achieved was ≥30° in 20 patients (41.6%), with a range from 30° to 90° and mean of 73° (p = 0.001). Thirteen (27.1%) already had shoulder strength ≥M3 (p = 0.001). Twenty-seven patients (56.2%) had elbow flexion ≥80°, with a range from 30° to 160° and mean of 80.6° (p < 0.001). Twenty-two had strength ≥M3 (p < 0.001). Twenty-two patients (45.8%) had wrist extension ≥30° starting from flexion of 45°, with a range from 30° to 90° and mean of 70° (p = 0.003). Twenty-seven (56.3%) presented wrist/hand extension strength ≥M3 (p = 0.002). Forty-five (93.8%) had hypoesthesia and three (6.2%) had anesthesia (p = 0.006). The initial VAS was 4.5 (range: 1.0–9.0) and the final VAS was 3.0 (range: 1.0–7.0) (p < 0.001). Conclusion Traumatic lesions of the brachial plexus were more prevalent among young adults (21–40 years), men, people living in urban areas, manual workers and motorcycle accidents, with multiple trauma and total rupture of the plexus. Neurosurgery, with a second

  20. The effect of exercise training on ankle-brachial index in type 2 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Barone Gibbs, Bethany; Dobrosielski, Devon A.; Althouse, Andrew D.; Stewart, Kerry J.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Though being physically active has associated with a healthier ankle-brachial index (ABI) in observational studies, ABI usually does not change with exercise training in patients with peripheral artery disease (PAD). Less is known about the effect of exercise training on ABI in patients without PAD but at high risk due to the presence of type 2 diabetes (T2DM). Methods Participants (n=140) with uncomplicated T2DM, and without known cardiovascular disease or PAD, aged 40–65 years, were randomized to supervised aerobic and resistance training 3 times per week for 6 months or to a usual care control group. ABI was measured before and after the intervention. Results Baseline ABI was 1.02±0.02 in exercisers and 1.03±0.01 in controls (p=0.57). At 6 months, exercisers vs. controls improved ABI by 0.04±0.02 vs. −0.03±0.02 (p=0.001). This change was driven by an increase in ankle pressures (p<0.01) with no change in brachial pressures (p=0.747). In subgroup analysis, ABI increased in exercisers vs. controls among those with baseline ABI<1.0 (0.14±0.03 vs. 0.02±0.02, p=0.004), but not in those with a baseline ABI≥1.0 (p=0.085). The prevalence of ABI between 1.0–1.3 increased from 63% to 78% in exercisers and decreased from 62% to 53% in controls. Increased ABI correlated with decreased HbA1c, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, but the effect of exercise on ABI change remained significant after adjustment for these changes (β=0.061, p=0.004). Conclusion These data suggest a possible role for exercise training in the prevention or delay of PAD in T2DM, particularly among those starting with an ABI <1.0. PMID:23958264

  1. Pharyngeal-cervical-brachial variant of Guillain-Barre syndrome.

    PubMed

    Wakerley, Benjamin R; Yuki, Nobuhiro

    2014-03-01

    The pharyngeal-cervical-brachial (PCB) variant of Guillain-Barré syndrome is defined by rapidly progressive oropharyngeal and cervicobrachial weakness associated with areflexia in the upper limbs. Serial nerve conduction studies suggest that PCB represents a localised subtype of Guillain-Barré syndrome characterised by axonal rather than demyelinating neuropathy. Many neurologists are unfamiliar with PCB, which is often misdiagnosed as brainstem stroke, myasthenia gravis or botulism. The presence of additional ophthalmoplegia and ataxia indicates overlap with Fisher syndrome. Half of patients with PCB carry IgG anti-GT1a antibodies which often cross-react with GQ1b, whereas most patients with Fisher syndrome carry IgG anti-GQ1b antibodies which always cross-react with GT1a. Significant overlap between the clinical and serological profiles of these patients supports the view that PCB and Fisher syndrome form a continuous spectrum. In this review, we highlight the clinical features of PCB and outline new diagnostic criteria. PMID:23804237

  2. Arterial function of carotid and brachial arteries in postmenopausal vegetarians

    PubMed Central

    Su, Ta-Chen; Torng, Pao-Ling; Jeng, Jiann-Shing; Chen, Ming-Fong; Liau, Chiau-Suong

    2011-01-01

    Background: Vegetarianism is associated with a lower risk of cardiovascular disease. However, studies of arterial function in vegetarians are limited. Methods: This study investigated arterial function in vegetarianism by comparing 49 healthy postmenopausal vegetarians with 41 age-matched omnivores. The arterial function of the common carotid artery was assessed by carotid duplex, while the pulse dynamics method was used to measure brachial artery distensibility (BAD), compliance (BAC), and resistance (BAR). Fasting blood levels of glucose, lipids, lipoprotein (a), high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, homocysteine, and vitamin B12 were also measured. Results: Vegetarians had significantly lower serum cholesterol, high-density and low-density lipoprotein, and glucose compared with omnivores. They also had lower vitamin B12 but higher homocysteine levels. Serum levels of lipoprotein (a) and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein were no different between the two groups. There were no significant differences in carotid beta stiffness index, BAC, and BAD between the two groups even after adjustment for associated covariates. However, BAR was significantly lower in vegetarians than in omnivores. Multiple linear regression analysis revealed that age and pulse pressure were two important determinants of carotid beta stiffness index and BAD. Vegetarianism is not associated with better arterial elasticity. Conclusion: Apparently healthy postmenopausal vegetarians are not significantly better in terms of carotid beta stiffness index, BAC, and BAD, but have significantly decreased BAR than omnivores. Prevention of vitamin B12 deficiency might be beneficial for cardiovascular health in vegetarians. PMID:21915169

  3. Clinical usefulness of ankle brachial index and brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity in patients with ischemic stroke

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hyung-Suk; Lee, Hye Lim; Han, Ho-seong; Yeo, Minju; Kim, Ji Seon; Lee, Sung-Hyun; Lee, Sang-Soo; Shin, Dong-Ick

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Ankle brachial index (ABI) and brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV) are widely used noninvasive modalities to evaluate atherosclerosis. Recently, evidence has increased supporting the use of ABI and baPWV as markers of cerebrovascular disease. This study sought to examine the relationship between ABI and baPWV with ischemic stroke. This study also aimed to determine which pathogenic mechanism, large artery disease (LAD) or small vessel disease (SVD), is related to ABI or baPWV. Retrospectively, 121 patients with ischemic stroke and 38 subjects with no obvious ischemic stroke history were recruited. First, ABI and baPWV were compared between the groups. Then, within the stroke group, the relevance of ABI and baPWV with regard to SVD and LAD, which were classified by brain magnetic resonance image (MRI) and magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) or computed tomography angiography (CTA) findings, was assessed. The baPWV was higher in the stroke group than non-stroke group (1,944.18±416.6 cm/s vs. 1,749.76±669.6 cm/s, P<0.01). Regarding LAD, we found that mean ABI value was lower in the group with extracranial large artery stenosis (P<0.01), and there was an inverse linear correlation between ABI and the grade of extracranial large artery stenosis (P<0.01). For SVD, there was a significant correlation between SVD and baPWV (2,057.6±456.57 cm/s in the SVD (+) group vs. 1,491±271.62 cm/s in the SVD (-) group; P<0.01). However, the grade of abnormalities detected in SVD did not correlate linearly with baPWV. These findings show that baPWV is a reliable surrogate marker of ischemic stroke. Furthermore, baPWV and ABI can be used to indicate the presence of small vessel disease and large arterial disease, respectively. PMID:27533937

  4. Geometrical Properties of Coronal Mass Ejections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cremades, Hebe; Bothmer, Volker

    Based on the SOHO/LASCO dataset, a collection of "structured" coronal mass ejections (CMEs) has been compiled within the period 1996-2002, in order to analyze their three-dimensional configuration. These CME events exhibit white-light fine structures, likely indicative of their possible 3D topology. From a detailed investigation of the associated low coronal and photospheric source regions, a generic scheme has been deduced, which considers the white-light topology of a CME projected in the plane of the sky as being primarily dependent on the orientation and position of the source region's neutral line on the solar disk. The obtained results imply that structured CMEs are essentially organized along a symmetry axis, in a cylindrical manner. The measured dimensions of the cylinder's base and length yield a ratio of 1.6. These CMEs seem to be better approximated by elliptic cones, rather than by the classical ice cream cone, characterized by a circular cross section.

  5. Solar Eruptions: Coronal Mass Ejections and Flares

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gopalswamy, Nat

    2012-01-01

    This lecture introduces the topic of Coronal mass ejections (CMEs) and solar flares, collectively known as solar eruptions. During solar eruptions, the released energy flows out from the Sun in the form of magnetized plasma and electromagnetic radiation. The electromagnetic radiation suddenly increases the ionization content of the ionosphere, thus impacting communication and navigation systems. Flares can be eruptive or confined. Eruptive flares accompany CMEs, while confined flares hav only electromagnetic signature. CMEs can drive MHD shocks that accelerate charged particles to very high energies in the interplanetary space, which pose radiation hazard to astronauts and space systems. CMEs heading in the direction of Earth arrive in about two days and impact Earth's magnetosphere, producing geomagnetic storms. The magnetic storms result in a number of effects including induced currnts that can disrupt power grids, railroads, and underground pipelines

  6. Coronal Mass Ejections: From Sun to Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patsourakos, S.

    2016-06-01

    Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs) are gigantic expulsions of magnetized plasmas from the solar corona into the interplanetary (IP) space. CMEs spawn ~ 1015 gr of mass and reach speeds ranging between several hundred to a few thousand km/s (e.g., Gopalswamy et al. 2009; Vourlidas et al. 2010). It takes 1-5 days for a CME to reach Earth. CMEs are one of the most energetic eruptive manifestations in the solar system and are major drivers of space weather via their magnetic fields and energetic particles, which are accelerated by CME-driven shocks. In this review we give a short account of recent, mainly observational, results on CMEs from the STEREO and SDO missions which include the nature of their pre-eruptive and eruptive configurations and the CME propagation from Sun to Earth. We conclude with a discussion of the exciting capabilities in CME studies that will soon become available from new solar and heliospheric instrumentation.

  7. A catastrophe mechanism for coronal mass ejections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Forbes, T. G.; Isenberg, P. A.

    1991-01-01

    The ideal-MHD equations are used to show that a coronal current filament can suddenly lose equilibrium if its magnetic energy exceeds a critical value. The loss of equilibrium in the configuration results from an imbalance between magnetic tension and compression, and this imbalance ejects the filament upwards. Near the critical value, the equilibrium configuration develops a vertical current sheet attached to the photosphere at the point directly below the filament. When equilibrium is lost, field lines anchored to the photosphere are stretched upwards, and the current sheet rapidly grows longer. Without reconnection in the current sheet, the filament travels only a short distance before reaching a new equilibrium, and the net magnetic energy released is less than 1 percent of the stored magnetic energy. However, with reconnection, the filament travels upwards indefinitely, and all of the stored energy is released.

  8. Brachial-to-radial systolic blood pressure amplification in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Climie, R E D; Picone, D S; Keske, M A; Sharman, J E

    2016-06-01

    Brachial-to-radial-systolic blood pressure amplification (Bra-Rad-SBPAmp) can affect central SBP estimated by radial tonometry. Patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) have vascular irregularities that may alter Bra-Rad-SBPAmp. By comparing T2DM with non-diabetic controls, we aimed to determine the (1) magnitude of Bra-Rad-SBPAmp; (2) haemodynamic factors related to Bra-Rad-SBPAmp; and (3) effect of Bra-Rad-SBPAmp on estimated central SBP. Twenty T2DM (64±8 years) and 20 non-diabetic controls (60±8 years; 50% male both) underwent simultaneous cuff deflation and two-dimensional ultrasound imaging of the brachial and radial arteries. The first Korotkoff sound (denoting SBP) was identified from the first inflection point of Doppler flow during cuff deflation. Bra-Rad-SBPAmp was calculated by radial minus brachial SBP. Upper limb and systemic haemodynamics were recorded by tonometry and ultrasound. Radial SBP was higher than brachial SBP for T2DM (136±19 vs 127±17 mm Hg; P<0.001) and non-diabetic controls (135±12 vs 121±11 mm Hg; P<0.001), but Bra-Rad-SBPAmp was significantly lower in T2DM (9±8 vs 14±7 mm Hg; P=0.042). The product of brachial mean flow velocity × brachial diameter was inversely and independently correlated with Bra-Rad-SBPAmp in T2DM (β=-0.033 95% confidence interval -0.063 to -0.004, P=0.030). When radial waveforms were calibrated using radial, compared with brachial SBP, central SBP was significantly higher in both groups (T2DM, 116±13 vs 125±15 mm Hg; and controls, 112±10 vs 124±11 mm Hg; P<0.001 both) and there was a significant increase in the number of participants classified with 'central hypertension' (SBP⩾130 mm Hg; P=0.004). Compared with non-diabetic controls, Bra-Rad-SBPAmp is significantly lower in T2DM. Regardless of disease status, radial SBP is higher than brachial SBP and this results in underestimation of central SBP using brachial-BP-calibrated radial tonometry. PMID:26446391

  9. Induction of milk ejection and milk removal in different production systems.

    PubMed

    Bruckmaier, R M; Wellnitz, O

    2008-03-01

    Milk ejection is important during milking or suckling to obtain the alveolar milk fraction, which can represent more than 80% of the milk stored in the udder of dairy cows. In response to tactile teat stimulation, either manually or by the milking machine, milk ejection is induced by the release of oxytocin and resultant myoepithelial contraction. The time from the start of tactile stimulation until the occurrence of milk ejection spans 40 s to > 2 min and increases with a decreasing degree of udder filling. Therefore, cows need a longer prestimulation in the late stages of lactation or if the milking is performed shortly after the previous milking, whereas in full udders prestimulation is less important. Milk ejection is disturbed under several conditions, such as during milking in unfamiliar surroundings (i.e., a novel milking environment) or for several weeks immediately after parturition in primiparous cows. Disturbed milk ejection is due to a reduction of or absence of oxytocin release from the pituitary. The severity of disturbed milk ejection and the coping capacity toward a novel milking environment is related to cortisol release in response to ACTH (i.e., adrenal cortex activity). Therefore, susceptibility of individual cows to the inhibition of oxytocin release and milk ejection can be predicted by an ACTH challenge test. Comfortable surroundings, such as feeding in and lighting of the milking parlor, can increase the secretion of oxytocin. Overcoming the lack of oxytocin release by injection of exogenous oxytocin for an extended time results in a reduction of the mammary response to endogenous oxytocin. In different production systems, it has to be verified that udder stimulation is sufficient to prevent disturbed milk ejection. Different brands of automatic milking systems induce a sufficient prestimulation of the udder, even if a few minutes are needed for a successful onset of the teat clusters. Specific breeds used for less intense milk production

  10. Probing Coronal Mass Ejections with Faraday Rotation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spangler, Steven R.; Fischer, P. D.; Kooi, J. E.; Buffo, J. J.

    2013-07-01

    Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs) are one of the most important solar phenomena in affecting conditions on Earth. There is not a consensus as to the physical mechanisms responsible for ejecting CME material from the solar atmosphere. Measurements that specify basic physical properties close to the Sun, when the CME is still evolving, should be useful in determining the correct theoretical model. One of the best observational techniques is that of Faraday rotation, a rotation in the plane of polarization of radio waves when propagating through a magnetized medium like the corona. The importance of Faraday rotation in determining the structure and evolutionary history of CMEs was discussed in Liu et al (ApJ 665, 1439, 2007). In this paper, we report Faraday rotation observations of ``constellations'' of background extragalactic radio sources near the Sun on three days in August, 2012, with the intention of observing a source occulted by a CME. Observations were made with the Jansky Very Large Array (VLA) of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory. We made polarization measurements at 6 frequencies between 1.31 and 1.94 GHz. On August 2, 2012, a CME clearly visible on the LASCO C3 coronagraph occulted a radio source from our sample, 0843+1547. Preliminary data analysis shows a Faraday rotation transient for 0843+1547 which appears to be associated with the CME. The Faraday rotation measure changes from nearly 0 before CME passage, to a value of about -12 radians/square-meter before declining after CME passage. We will discuss the interpretation of these data in terms of models for CME structure, as well as the status of our observations of other sources on August 2, and on other days. This work was supported at the University of Iowa by grant ATM09-56901.

  11. An ice-cream cone model for coronal mass ejections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, X. H.; Wang, C. B.; Dou, X. K.

    2005-08-01

    In this study, we use an ice-cream cone model to analyze the geometrical and kinematical properties of the coronal mass ejections (CMEs). Assuming that in the early phase CMEs propagate with near-constant speed and angular width, some useful properties of CMEs, namely the radial speed (v), the angular width (α), and the location at the heliosphere, can be obtained considering the geometrical shapes of a CME as an ice-cream cone. This model is improved by (1) using an ice-cream cone to show the near real configuration of a CME, (2) determining the radial speed via fitting the projected speeds calculated from the height-time relation in different azimuthal angles, (3) not only applying to halo CMEs but also applying to nonhalo CMEs.

  12. A case of relapsing-remitting facial palsy and ipsilateral brachial plexopathy caused by HSV-1.

    PubMed

    Alstadhaug, Karl B; Kvarenes, Hanne W; Prytz, Jan; Vedeler, Christian

    2016-05-01

    The etiologies of Bell's palsy and brachial neuritis remain uncertain, and the conditions rarely co-occur or reoccur. Here we present a woman in her twenties who had several relapsing-remitting episodes with left-sided facial palsy and brachial neuropathy. The episodes always started with painful left-sided oral blisters. Repeat PCRs HSV-1 DNA from oral vesicular lesions were positive. Extensive screening did not reveal any other underlying cause. Findings on MRI T2-weighted brachial plexus STIR images, using a 3.0-Tesla scanner during an episode, were compatible with brachial plexus neuritis. Except a mannose-binding lectin deficiency, a congenital complement deficiency that is frequently found in the general Caucasian population, no other immunodeficiency was demonstrated in our patient. In vitro resistance to acyclovir was tested negative, but despite prophylactic treatment with the drug in high doses, relapses recurred. To our knowledge, this is the first ever reported documentation of relapsing-remitting facial and brachial plexus neuritis caused by HSV-1. PMID:26991053

  13. The Extent of Blockade Following Axillary and Infraclavicular Approaches of Brachial Plexus Block in Uremic Patients

    PubMed Central

    Sariguney, Damla; Mahli, Ahmet; Coskun, Demet

    2012-01-01

    Introduction This study was aimed to compare the axillary approach performed through multiple injection method and vertical infraclavicular approach performed through single injection method in terms of the sensory and motor block onset, quality, and extent of blocks of brachial plexus in uremic patients who underwent arteriovenous fistula surgery. Methods Forty patients scheduled for creation of arteriovenous fistula with axillary brachial plexus block (group AX, n = 20) or infraclavicular brachial plexus block (IC group, n = 20) were examined. The median, radial, ulnar, and musculocutaneous nerves were selectively localized by nerve stimulation. The volume of the local anesthetics was calculated based on the height of each patient, and the volume determined was prepared by mixing 2% lidocaine and 0.5% bupivacaine in equal proportions. Sensory and motor block were assessed at 3, 6, 9, 12, 15, 18, and 30th min and their durations were measured. Results While the adequate sensory and motor block rate with axillary approach was 100% in musculocutaneous, median, radial, ulnar and medial antebrachial cutaneous nerves, it was 65% in axillary nerve, 80% in intercostobrachial nerve and 95% in medial brachial cutaneous nerve. This rate was found to be 100% for all the nerves with infraclavicular approach. Conclusion For arteriovenous fistula surgeries in uremic patients, both axillary approach performed through multiple injection method and vertical infraclavicular approach performed through single injection method can be used successfully; however, for the short performance of the procedure, infraclavicular block may be preferred. Keywords Brachial plexus block; Axillary; Infraclavicular; Uremic patients PMID:22383924

  14. Use of a Collagen-Based Device for Closure of Low Brachial Artery Punctures

    SciTech Connect

    Belenky, A. Aranovich, D.; Greif, F.; Bachar, G.; Bartal, G.; Atar, E.

    2007-04-15

    Purpose. To report our experience with the Angioseal vascular closure device for hemostasis of distal brachial artery puncture. Methods. Between September 2003 and August 2005, 64 Angioseal vascular closure devices were inserted in 64 patients (40 men, 24 women; mean age 65 years) immediately after diagnostic or therapeutic arterial angiographies performed through a 5 Fr to 7 Fr sheath via the distal brachial artery. Ultrasound examination of the brachial artery preceded the angiography in all cases and only arteries wider than 4 mm were closed by the Angioseal. In cases of a sonographically evident thin subcutaneous space of the cubital fossa, tissue tumescence, using 1% Lidocaine, was performed prior to the arterial closure. Results. The deployment success rate was 100%. No major complications were encountered; only 2 patients developed puncture site hematoma, and these were followed conservatively. Conclusions. Closure of low brachial artery punctures with the Angioseal is simple and safe. No additional manual compression is required. We recommend its use after brachial artery access interventions, through appropriately wide arteries, to improve early patient ambulation and potentially reduce possible puncture site complications.

  15. Above Elbow Amputation Under Brachial Plexus Block at Supraclavicular and Interscalene Levels

    PubMed Central

    Ahmad, Hassan; Yadagiri, Manjula; Macrosson, Duncan; Majeed, Amer

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The brachial plexus block is a commonly performed procedure in the anesthetic practice today. It is performed for analgesia as well as anesthesia for upper limb procedures. It has been used for amputation and replantation surgeries of the upper limb. Case presentation: We present the case of a 68-year-old gentleman who had brachial plexus block at supraclavicular and interscalene levels as the sole anesthetic for undergoing above elbow amputation. He was deemed to be very high risk for a general anesthetic as he suffered from severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and a very poor exercise tolerance (NYHA Class III). The supraclavicular brachial plexus block was supplemented with an interscalene brachial plexus block due to inadequate surgical anesthesia encountered with the former. The procedure was successfully completed under regional anesthesia. Conclusions: The brachial plexus block can be performed at different levels in the same patient to achieve desired results, while employing sound anatomical knowledge and adhering to the maximum safe dose limit of the local anesthetic. PMID:26705518

  16. ISAAC: A REXUS Student Experiment to Demonstrate an Ejection System with Predefined Direction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balmer, G.; Berquand, A.; Company-Vallet, E.; Granberg, V.; Grigore, V.; Ivchenko, N.; Kevorkov, R.; Lundkvist, E.; Olentsenko, G.; Pacheco-Labrador, J.; Tibert, G.; Yuan, Y.

    2015-09-01

    ISAAC Infrared Spectroscopy to Analyse the middle Atmosphere Composition — was a student experiment launched from SSC's Esrange Space Centre, Sweden, on 29th May 2014, on board the sounding rocket REXUS 15 in the frame of the REXUS/BEXUS programme. The main focus of the experiment was to implement an ejection system for two large Free Falling Units (FFUs) (240 mm x 80 mm) to be ejected from a spinning rocket into a predefined direction. The system design relied on a spring-based ejection system. Sun and angular rate sensors were used to control and time the ejection. The flight data includes telemetry from the Rocket Mounted Unit (RMU), received and saved during flight, as well as video footage from the GoPro camera mounted inside the RMU and recovered after the flight. The FFUs' direction, speed and spin frequency as well as the rocket spin frequency were determined by analyzing the video footage. The FFU-Rocket-Sun angles were 64.3° and 104.3°, within the required margins of 90°+45°. The FFU speeds were 3.98 mIs and 3.74 mIs, lower than the expected 5± 1 mIs. The FFUs' spin frequencies were 1 .38 Hz and 1 .60 Hz, approximately half the rocket's spin frequency. The rocket spin rate slightly changed from 3. 163 Hz before the ejection to 3.1 17 Hz after the ejection of the two FFUs. The angular rate, sun sensor data and temperature on the inside of the rocket module skin were also recorded. The experiment design and results of the data analysis are presented in this paper.

  17. Full-halo coronal mass ejections: Arrival at the Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Chenglong; Wang, Yuming; Pan, Zonghao; Miao, Bin; Ye, Pinzhong; Wang, S.

    2014-07-01

    A geomagnetic storm is mainly caused by a frontside coronal mass ejection (CME) hitting the Earth and then interacting with the magnetosphere. However, not all frontside CMEs can hit the Earth. Thus, which CMEs hit the Earth and when they do so are important issues in the study and forecasting of space weather. In our previous work, the deprojected parameters of the full-halo coronal mass ejections (FHCMEs) that occurred from 1 March 2007 to 31 May 2012 were estimated, and there are 39 frontside events that could be fitted by the Graduated Cylindrical Shell model. In this work, we continue to study whether and when these frontside FHCMEs (FFHCMEs) hit the Earth. It is found that 59% of these FFHCMEs hit the Earth, and for central events, whose deviation angles ɛ, which are the angles between the propagation direction and the Sun-Earth line, are smaller than 45°, the fraction increases to 75%. After checking the deprojected angular widths of the CMEs, we found that all of the Earth-encountered CMEs satisfy a simple criterion that the angular width (ω) is larger than twice the deviation angle (ɛ). This result suggests that some simple criteria can be used to forecast whether a CME could hit the Earth. Furthermore, for Earth-encountered CMEs, the transit time is found to be roughly anticorrelated with the deprojected velocity, but some events significantly deviate from the linearity. For CMEs with similar velocities, the differences of their transit times can be up to several days. Such deviation is further demonstrated to be mainly caused by the CME geometry and propagation direction, which are essential in the forecasting of CME arrival.

  18. High prevalence of early language delay exists among toddlers with neonatal brachial plexus palsy

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Kate Wan-Chu; Yang, Lynda J-S.; Driver, Lynn; Nelson, Virginia S.

    2016-01-01

    AIM Association of language impairment with neonatal brachial plexus palsy (NBPP) has not been reported in the literature. The current treatment paradigm for NBPP focuses on upper extremity motor recovery with little formal assessment of other aspects of development, such as language. We performed a cross-sectional pilot study to investigate early language delay prevalence in toddlers with NBPP and potential NBPP-related factors involved. METHOD Twenty toddlers with NBPP were consecutively recruited (12 males, 8 females; mean age 30 mos). Preschool Language Scale Score (4th edition), demographics, and socioeconomic status were collected. NBPP-related factors such as palsy side, treatment type, Narakas grade, muscle MRC score, and Raimondi hand score were reported. Student t test, chi-square, or Fisher exact test were applied. Statistical significance level was established at p<0.05. RESULTS Of study participants, 30% were diagnosed with language delay, while the prevalence of language delay in the population with normal development in this age range was approximately 5-15%. INTERPRETATION We observed high language delay prevalence among toddlers with NBPP. Although our subject sample is small, our findings warrant further study of this phenomenon. Early identification and timely intervention based on type of language impairment may be critical for improving communication outcome in this population. PMID:25160543

  19. Pulsed Doppler: determination of diameter, blood flow velocity, and volumic flow of brachial artery in man.

    PubMed

    Levenson, J A; Peronneau, P A; Simon, A; Safar, M E

    1981-03-01

    A pulsed Doppler velocimeter suitable for the determination of blood flow velocity and volumic flow in peripheral arteries is described. The apparatus has two main characteristics: an adjustable range-gated time system and a double transducer probe. The error in the determination of the angle between the ultrasound beam and flow of blood with this apparatus was less than 2%, and overestimation of the arterial diameter due to the sample volume size did not exceed 0.035 +/- 0.015 cm. The apparatus was used to determine diameter, blood flow velocity and volumic flow of the brachial artery of 22 healthy men. The values were respectively 0.440 +/- 0.010 cm, 9.15 +/- 1.01 cm.s-1 and 85 +/- 10 cm3.min-1. Administration of intravenous nitroglycerin significantly increased the arterial diameter (p less than 0.001) without any significant change in volumic flow. The described pulsed Doppler velocimeter provides an accurate noninvasive method for determining volumic flow in peripheral arteries in clinical investigation and cardiovascular pharmacology. PMID:6455197

  20. Electrostimulation with or without ultrasound-guidance in interscalene brachial plexus block for shoulder surgery.

    PubMed

    Salem, Mohamed H; Winckelmann, Jörg; Geiger, Peter; Mehrkens, Hans-Hinrich; Salem, Khaled H

    2012-08-01

    In a prospective controlled trial to compare conventional interscalene brachial plexus block (ISBPB) using anatomic landmarks and electro-stimulation with a combined technique of ultrasound guidance followed by nerve stimulation, 60 patients were randomized into 2 matched equal groups: Group A using nerve stimulation (NS) alone and Group B using the combination of ultrasound and NS. The time to detect the plexus (3.9 ± 4 min in Group A and 3.3 ± 1.4 min in Group B) was not significantly different. We needed to reposition the needle once (n = 13) or twice (n = 4) in Group B. First-shot motor response was achieved in all but one patient in Group A; here we were only able to locate the plexus by use of ultrasound. None of the patients needed general anaesthesia. There were no significant differences between postoperative pain, motor power, or patient's satisfaction. ISBPB seems similarly effective using electro-stimulation and ultrasound if performed by experienced anesthesiologists. PMID:22391670

  1. Characteristic features of hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsy (HNPP) presenting with brachial plexopathy in soldiers.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kyoung-Eun

    2014-11-15

    A brachial plexus lesion is not common in hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsy (HNPP). We report the clinical and electrodiagnostic features of young soldiers with HNPP presenting with brachial plexopathy. By reviewing 2year medical records from Korean military hospitals, we identified soldiers with brachial plexus lesions. Among them, patients diagnosed with HNPP were determined and clinical and electrophysiological findings were compared between HNPP and non-HNPP patients with a brachial plexus lesion. Thirteen patients (6.8%) were diagnosed with HNPP among 189 patients with a brachial plexus lesion. Push-ups, as either a punishment or an exercise, was the most frequent preceding event in HNPP patients (76.9%), whereas it was rare in non-HNPP patients. The distal motor latency of the median nerve showed the highest sensitivity (90.9%) and specificity (100%) for HNPP in patients with a brachial plexus lesion. In conclusion, HNPP should be suspected in patients with brachial plexopathy if brachial plexopathy develops after push-ups or if the distal motor latency of median nerves is prolonged. PMID:25175852

  2. Constraint-Induced Movement Therapy for Children with Obstetric Brachial Plexus Palsy: Two Single-Case Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buesch, Francisca Eugster

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this pilot study was to investigate the feasibility of constraint-induced movement therapy (CIMT) in children with obstetric brachial plexus palsy and receive preliminary information about functional improvements. Two patients (age 12 years) with obstetric brachial plexus palsy were included for a 126-h home-based CIMT…

  3. Hand Function in Children with an Upper Brachial Plexus Birth Injury: Results of the Nine-Hole Peg Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Immerman, Igor; Alfonso, Daniel T.; Ramos, Lorna E.; Grossman, Leslie A.; Alfonso, Israel; Ditaranto, Patricia; Grossman, John A. I.

    2012-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate hand function in children with Erb upper brachial plexus palsy. Method: Hand function was evaluated in 25 children (eight males; 17 females) with a diagnosed upper (C5/C6) brachial plexus birth injury. Of these children, 22 had undergone primary nerve reconstruction and 13 of the 25 had undergone…

  4. Fighter Pilot Ejection Study as an Educational Tool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Garry; Jovanoski, Zlatko

    2010-01-01

    In this article, we apply the well-known equations of projectile motion to the case of a fighter pilot ejecting from an aircraft, the aim being to establish under what conditions there is danger of impact with the rear vertical stabilizer. The drag force on the pilot after ejection is assumed to vary as the velocity squared and the aircraft motion…

  5. A simultaneous spin/eject mechanism for aerospace payloads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palmer, G. D.; Banks, T. N.

    1976-01-01

    A simultaneous spin/eject mechanism was developed for aerospace applications requiring a compact, passive device which would accommodate payload support and controlled-release functions, and which would provide a highly accurate spin-ejection motion to the payload. The mechanism satisfied the requirements and is adaptable to other deployment applications.

  6. On Modeling of Ejection Process in a Training Combat Aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Głowiński, Sebastian; Krzyżyński, Tomasz

    2011-09-01

    The paper deals with modeling and simulation of motion trajectory of an ejection seat in the training-combat aircraft TS-11 "Iskra". The ejection seat and its operation are characterized. Mathematical and computer models are elaborated with the help of MATLAB-Simulink applications. Additionally, simulations are conducted for various velocities of the aircraft.

  7. Automatic analysis of double coronal mass ejections from coronagraph images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobs, Matthew; Chang, Lin-Ching; Pulkkinen, Antti; Romano, Michelangelo

    2015-11-01

    Coronal mass ejections (CMEs) can have major impacts on man-made technology and humans, both in space and on Earth. These impacts have created a high interest in the study of CMEs in an effort to detect and track events and forecast the CME arrival time to provide time for proper mitigation. A robust automatic real-time CME processing pipeline is greatly desired to avoid laborious and subjective manual processing. Automatic methods have been proposed to segment CMEs from coronagraph images and estimate CME parameters such as their heliocentric location and velocity. However, existing methods suffered from several shortcomings such as the use of hard thresholding and an inability to handle two or more CMEs occurring within the same coronagraph image. Double-CME analysis is a necessity for forecasting the many CME events that occur within short time frames. Robust forecasts for all CME events are required to fully understand space weather impacts. This paper presents a new method to segment CME masses and pattern recognition approaches to differentiate two CMEs in a single coronagraph image. The proposed method is validated on a data set of 30 halo CMEs, with results showing comparable ability in transient arrival time prediction accuracy and the new ability to automatically predict the arrival time of a double-CME event. The proposed method is the first automatic method to successfully calculate CME parameters from double-CME events, making this automatic method applicable to a wider range of CME events.

  8. Effect of adding tetracaine to bupivacaine on duration of analgesia in supraclavicular brachial plexus nerve blocks for ambulatory shoulder surgery

    PubMed Central

    Pearson, Linda T.; Lowry, Benjamin P.; Culp, William C.; Kitchings, Olen E.; Meyer, Tricia A.; McAllister, Russell K.; Roberson, Charles R.

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine if the addition of 1% tetracaine to 0.25% bupivacaine prolonged the duration of postoperative analgesia of supraclavicular brachial plexus nerve blockade for patients undergoing ambulatory shoulder surgery. We conducted a prospective, double-blinded, randomized controlled clinical study at an ambulatory surgery center utilizing ultrasound- and nerve stimulation-guided supraclavicular nerve blockade for postoperative analgesia. The control group received 30 mL of 0.25% bupivacaine plus 4 mL preservative-free saline. The study group received 30 mL of 0.25% bupivacaine plus 4 mL of 1% tetracaine. Patients documented their visual analog scale scores and intake of pain medications for 3 days. Primary outcomes included time of first postoperative pain, time of first postoperative pain pill, and time of return of motor and sensory function. Secondary outcomes included pain score and pain medication intake trends and adverse events secondary to the nerve block. A total of 84 patients completed the study, 42 patients in each group. The study group was statistically significantly older than the control group (mean age, 54 vs 48 years; P = 0.04). The mean duration of analgesia was 16.6 ± 8.3 h for the control group and 17.1 ± 7.3 h for the study group (P = 0.69). No outcomes were statistically different. In conclusion, there was no significant difference in duration of postoperative analgesia with the addition of 1% tetracaine to 0.25% bupivacaine in supraclavicular brachial plexus nerve blockade. No differences were identified in postoperative pain medications, pain scores, or complications. PMID:26130874

  9. Does C5 or C6 Radiculopathy Affect the Signal Intensity of the Brachial Plexus on Magnetic Resonance Neurography?

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Tae Gyu; Kim, In-Soo; Son, Eun Seok

    2016-01-01

    Patients with C5 or C6 radiculopathy complain of shoulder area pain or shoulder girdle weakness. Typical idiopathic neuralgic amyotrophy (INA) is also characterized by severe shoulder pain, followed by paresis of shoulder girdle muscles. Recent studies have demonstrated that magnetic resonance neurography (MRN) of the brachial plexus and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the shoulder in patients with INA show high signal intensity (HSI) or thickening of the brachial plexus and changes in intramuscular denervation of the shoulder girdle. We evaluated the value of brachial plexus MRN and shoulder MRI in four patients with typical C5 or C6 radiculopathy. HSI of the brachial plexus was noted in all patients and intramuscular changes were observed in two patients who had symptoms over 4 weeks. Our results suggest that HSI or thickening of the brachial plexus and changes in intramuscular denervation of the shoulder girdle on MRN and MRI may not be specific for INA. PMID:27152289

  10. Does C5 or C6 Radiculopathy Affect the Signal Intensity of the Brachial Plexus on Magnetic Resonance Neurography?

    PubMed

    Seo, Tae Gyu; Kim, Du Hwan; Kim, In-Soo; Son, Eun Seok

    2016-04-01

    Patients with C5 or C6 radiculopathy complain of shoulder area pain or shoulder girdle weakness. Typical idiopathic neuralgic amyotrophy (INA) is also characterized by severe shoulder pain, followed by paresis of shoulder girdle muscles. Recent studies have demonstrated that magnetic resonance neurography (MRN) of the brachial plexus and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the shoulder in patients with INA show high signal intensity (HSI) or thickening of the brachial plexus and changes in intramuscular denervation of the shoulder girdle. We evaluated the value of brachial plexus MRN and shoulder MRI in four patients with typical C5 or C6 radiculopathy. HSI of the brachial plexus was noted in all patients and intramuscular changes were observed in two patients who had symptoms over 4 weeks. Our results suggest that HSI or thickening of the brachial plexus and changes in intramuscular denervation of the shoulder girdle on MRN and MRI may not be specific for INA. PMID:27152289

  11. Primary brachial vein transposition for hemodialysis access: report of a case and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Lambidis, Constantinos; Galanopoulos, Georgios

    2013-07-01

    The superiority of autogenous fistulae in patients with end-stage renal disease, performing hemodialysis, is well established and largely accepted. However, in case that superficial veins in the upper arm are not available for fistula construction, brachial vein transposition may be a viable alternative prior to graft placement. This transposition could be done as a primary or staged procedure, depending on the vein size. We present the case of a 63-year-old male patient with a thrombosed arteriovenous graft in the forearm and a large brachial vein in the ipsilateral upper arm. A one-stage (primary) brachial vein transposition was performed. The fistula, 10 months after its construction, is still patent. No complications have occurred. PMID:23134151

  12. A novel technique of ultrasound-guided brachial plexus block in calves.

    PubMed

    Iwamoto, Jiro; Yamagishi, Norio; Sasaki, Kouya; Kim, Danil; Devkota, Bhuminand; Furuhama, Kazuhisa

    2012-12-01

    An interventional ultrasound technique to increase the safety of surgical treatment of the calf forelimb was tested. First, the brachial plexus was evaluated using ultrasonography and then 2% lidocaine was injected under ultrasound guidance. Ultrasonically, the brachial plexus appeared as multiple hypoechoic areas surrounded by a hyperechoic rim or a hyperechoic structure characterised by multiple discontinuous lines. It was located between the omotransverse muscle and axillary artery and vein. The sensitive effect in the forelimb was seen mainly in the area supplied by the musculocutaneous nerve, indicating successful blockage in the nerve plexus. Out of the eight forelimbs, the motor effect was observed in seven forelimbs. These results suggest the clinical feasibility of ultrasound-guided brachial plexus block in bovine medicine, although further studies are needed to examine various approaches, including the sites of needle insertion and the appropriate volume and dosage of anaesthetic. PMID:22682007

  13. Double free gracilis muscle transfer after complete brachial plexus injury: First Canadian experience

    PubMed Central

    Elzinga, Kate; Zuo, Kevin J; Olson, Jaret L; Morhart, Michael; Babicki, Sasha; Chan, K Ming

    2014-01-01

    Traumatic brachial plexus root avulsions are devastating injuries, and are complex and challenging to reconstruct. Double free muscle transfer using the gracilis muscles is a potentially effective method of restoring upper extremity function. The authors report on the first two patients treated using this technique in Canada. Both sustained traumatic brachial plexus root avulsion injuries resulting in a flail arm. In the first step of this two-stage procedure, a gracilis muscle was transferred to restore elbow flexion, and wrist and digit extension. Months later, the transfer of the second gracilis muscle was performed to enhance elbow flexion and to enable wrist and digit flexion. Postoperatively, both patients achieved Medical Research Council grade 4 elbow flexion, functional handgrip and were able to return to gainful employment. Patient satisfaction was high and active range of motion improved substantially. The authors’ experience supports the use of this technique following severe brachial plexus injury. PMID:25152644

  14. Brachial Plexopathy/Nerve Root Avulsion in a Football Player: The Role of Electrodiagnostics

    PubMed Central

    Radecki, Jeffrey; Wolfe, Scott W.; Strauss, Helene L.; Mintz, Douglas N.

    2008-01-01

    Electromyography (EMG) studies are a useful tool in anatomical localization of peripheral nerve and brachial plexus injuries. They are especially helpful in distinguishing between brachial plexopathy and nerve root injuries where surgical intervention may be indicated. EMG can also assist in providing prognostic information after nerve injury as well as after nerve repair. In this case report, a football player presented with weakness in his right upper limb after a traction/traumatic injury to the right brachial plexus. EMG studies revealed evidence of both pre- and postganglionic injury to multiple cervical roots. The injury was substantial enough to cause nerve root avulsions involving the C6 and C7 levels. Surgical referral led to nerve grafts targeted at regaining function in shoulder abduction and elbow flexion. After surgery, the patient’s progress was monitored utilizing EMG to assist in identifying true axonal regeneration. PMID:18751870

  15. Air pollution and heart failure: Relationship with the ejection fraction

    PubMed Central

    Dominguez-Rodriguez, Alberto; Abreu-Afonso, Javier; Rodríguez, Sergio; Juarez-Prera, Ruben A; Arroyo-Ucar, Eduardo; Gonzalez, Yenny; Abreu-Gonzalez, Pedro; Avanzas, Pablo

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To study whether the concentrations of particulate matter in ambient air are associated with hospital admission due to heart failure in patients with heart failure with preserved ejection fraction and reduced ejection fraction. METHODS: We studied 353 consecutive patients admitted into a tertiary care hospital with a diagnosis of heart failure. Patients with ejection fraction of ≥ 45% were classified as having heart failure with preserved ejection fraction and those with an ejection fraction of < 45% were classified as having heart failure with reduced ejection fraction. We determined the average concentrations of different sizes of particulate matter (< 10, < 2.5, and < 1 μm) and the concentrations of gaseous pollutants (carbon monoxide, sulphur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide and ozone) from 1 d up to 7 d prior to admission. RESULTS: The heart failure with preserved ejection fraction population was exposed to higher nitrogen dioxide concentrations compared to the heart failure with reduced ejection fraction population (12.95 ± 8.22 μg/m3 vs 4.50 ± 2.34 μg/m3, P < 0.0001). Multivariate analysis showed that nitrogen dioxide was a significant predictor of heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (odds ratio ranging from (1.403, 95%CI: 1.003-2.007, P = 0.04) to (1.669, 95%CI: 1.043-2.671, P = 0.03). CONCLUSION: This study demonstrates that short-term nitrogen dioxide exposure is independently associated with admission in the heart failure with preserved ejection fraction population. PMID:23538391

  16. Dynamical mass ejection from binary neutron star mergers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radice, David; Galeazzi, Filippo; Lippuner, Jonas; Roberts, Luke F.; Ott, Christian D.; Rezzolla, Luciano

    2016-08-01

    We present fully general-relativistic simulations of binary neutron star mergers with a temperature and composition dependent nuclear equation of state. We study the dynamical mass ejection from both quasi-circular and dynamical-capture eccentric mergers. We systematically vary the level of our treatment of the microphysics to isolate the effects of neutrino cooling and heating and we compute the nucleosynthetic yields of the ejecta. We find that eccentric binaries can eject significantly more material than quasi-circular binaries and generate bright infrared and radio emission. In all our simulations the outflow is composed of a combination of tidally- and shock-driven ejecta, mostly distributed over a broad ˜60° angle from the orbital plane, and, to a lesser extent, by thermally driven winds at high latitudes. Ejecta from eccentric mergers are typically more neutron rich than those of quasi-circular mergers. We find neutrino cooling and heating to affect, quantitatively and qualitatively, composition, morphology, and total mass of the outflows. This is also reflected in the infrared and radio signatures of the binary. The final nucleosynthetic yields of the ejecta are robust and insensitive to input physics or merger type in the regions of the second and third r-process peaks. The yields for elements on the first peak vary between our simulations, but none of our models is able to explain the Solar abundances of first-peak elements without invoking additional first-peak contributions from either neutrino and viscously-driven winds operating on longer time-scales after the mergers, or from core-collapse supernovae.

  17. CONSEQUENCES OF THE EJECTION AND DISRUPTION OF GIANT PLANETS

    SciTech Connect

    Guillochon, James; Ramirez-Ruiz, Enrico; Lin, Douglas

    2011-05-10

    The discovery of Jupiter-mass planets in close orbits about their parent stars has challenged models of planet formation. Recent observations have shown that a number of these planets have highly inclined, sometimes retrograde orbits about their parent stars, prompting much speculation as to their origin. It is known that migration alone cannot account for the observed population of these misaligned hot Jupiters, which suggests that dynamical processes after the gas disk dissipates play a substantial role in yielding the observed inclination and eccentricity distributions. One particularly promising candidate is planet-planet scattering, which is not very well understood in the nonlinear regime of tides. Through three-dimensional hydrodynamical simulations of multi-orbit encounters, we show that planets that are scattered into an orbit about their parent stars with closest approach distance being less than approximately three times the tidal radius are either destroyed or completely ejected from the system. We find that as few as 9 and as many as 12 of the currently known hot Jupiters have a maximum initial apastron for scattering that lies well within the ice line, implying that these planets must have migrated either before or after the scattering event that brought them to their current positions. If stellar tides are unimportant (Q{sub *} {approx}> 10{sup 7}), disk migration is required to explain the existence of the hot Jupiters present in these systems. Additionally, we find that the disruption and/or ejection of Jupiter-mass planets deposits a Sun's worth of angular momentum onto the host star. For systems in which planet-planet scattering is common, we predict that planetary hosts have up to a 35% chance of possessing an obliquity relative to the invariable plane of greater than 90{sup 0}.

  18. Pain relief after ambulatory hand surgery: A comparison between dexmedetomidine and clonidine as adjuvant in axillary brachial plexus block: A prospective, double-blinded, randomized controlled study

    PubMed Central

    Das, A; Dutta, S; Chattopadhyay, S; Chhaule, S; Mitra, T; Banu, R; Mandal, P; Chandra, M

    2016-01-01

    Background: For ages various adjuvants have been tried to prolong axillary brachial plexus block. We compared the effect of adding dexmedetomidine versus clonidine to ropivacaine for axillary brachial plexus blockade. The primary endpoints were the onset and duration of sensory and motor block and duration of analgesia. Materials and Methods: A total of 90 patients (20-40 years) posted for ambulatory elective hand surgery under axillary brachial plexus block were divided into two equal groups (groups ropivacaine dexmedetomidine [RD] and ropivacaine clonidine [RC]) in a randomized, double-blind fashion. In group RD (n = 45) 30 ml 0.5% ropivacaine + 100 μg of dexmedetomidine and group RC (n = 45) 30 ml 0.5% ropivacaine + 75 μg clonidine were administered in axillary plexus block. Sensory and motor block onset times and block durations, time to first analgesic use, total analgesic need, postoperative visual analog scale (VAS), hemodynamics and side-effects were recorded for each patient. Results: Though with similar demographic profile in both groups, sensory and motor block in group RD (P < 0.05) was earlier than group RC. Sensory and motor block duration and time to first analgesic use were significantly longer and the total need for rescue analgesics was lower in group RD (P < 0.05) than group RC. Postoperative VAS value at 18 h were significantly lower in group RD (P < 0.05). Intraoperative hemodynamics were insignificantly lower in group RD (P < 0.05) without any appreciable side-effects. Conclusion: It can be concluded that adding dexmedetomidine to axillary plexus block increases the sensory and motor block duration and time to first analgesic use, and decreases total analgesic use with no side-effects. PMID:26955303

  19. A cadaveric microanatomical study of the fascicular topography of the brachial plexus.

    PubMed

    Sinha, Sumit; Prasad, G Lakshmi; Lalwani, Sanjeev

    2016-08-01

    OBJECT Mapping of the fascicular anatomy of the brachial plexus could provide the nerve surgeon with knowledge of fascicular orientation in spinal nerves of the brachial plexus. This knowledge might improve the surgical outcome of nerve grafting in brachial plexus injuries by anastomosing related fascicles and avoiding possible axonal misrouting. The objective of this study was to map the fascicular topography in the spinal nerves of the brachial plexus. METHODS The entire right-sided brachial plexus of 25 adult male cadavers was dissected, including all 5 spinal nerves (C5-T1), from approximately 5 mm distal to their exit from the intervertebral foramina, to proximal 1 cm of distal branches. All spinal nerves were tagged on the cranial aspect of their circumference using 10-0 nylon suture for orientation. The fascicular dissection of the C5-T1 spinal nerves was performed under microscopic magnification. The area occupied by different nerve fascicles was then expressed as a percentage of the total cross-sectional area of a spinal nerve. RESULTS The localization of fascicular groups was fairly consistent in all spinal nerves. Overall, 4% of the plexus supplies the suprascapular nerve, 31% supplies the medial cord (comprising the ulnar nerve and medial root of the median nerve [MN]), 27.2% supplies the lateral cord (comprising the musculocutaneous nerve and lateral root of the MN), and 37.8% supplies the posterior cord (comprising the axillary and radial nerves). CONCLUSIONS The fascicular dissection and definitive anatomical localization of fascicular groups is feasible in plexal spinal nerves. The knowledge of exact fascicular location might be translatable to the operating room and can be used to anastomose related fascicles in brachial plexus surgery, thereby avoiding the possibility of axonal misrouting and improving the results of plexal reconstruction. PMID:26654179

  20. Brachial Plexus Tumors in a Consecutive Series of Twenty One Patients

    PubMed Central

    Go, Myeong Hoon; Cho, Ki Hong

    2012-01-01

    Objective This is a retrospective review of 22 surgically treated benign and malignant tumors of brachial plexus region to describe clinical presentation, the characteristics of brachial plexus tumor and clinical outcomes with a literature review. Methods Twenty-one patients with consecutive 22 surgeries for primary brachial plexus tumors were enrolled between February 2002 and November 2011 were included in this study. The medical records of all patients were reviewed. Results Eleven male and 10 female patients were enrolled. Mean age was 39 years. Three patients had brachial plexus tumor associated with neurofibromatosis (13.6%). Presenting signs and symptoms included parenthesis and numbness (54.5%), radiating pain (22.7%), direct tenderness and pain (27.2%), palpable mass (77.3%). Twelve patients presented preoperative sensory deficit (54.5%) and 9 patients presented preoperative motor deficit (40.9%). Twenty tumors (90.9%) were benign and 2 tumors (9.1%) were malignant. Benign tumors included 15 schwannomas (68.2%), 4 neurofibromas (18.2%) and 1 granular cell tumor (4.5%). There were 1 malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor (MPNST) and 1 malignant granular cell tumor. Gross total resection was achieved in 16 patients (72.7%), including all schwannomas, 1 neurofibroma. Subtotal resection was performed in 6 tumors (27.3%), including 3 neurofibromatosis associated with brachial plexus neurofibromas, 1 MPNST and 2 granular cell tumor in one patient. Conclusion Resection of tumor is the choice of tumor in the most of benign and malignant brachial plexus tumors. Postoperative outcomes are related to grade of resection at surgery and pathological features of tumor. PMID:23091673

  1. Sudden severe postoperative dyspnea following shoulder surgery: Remember inadvertent phrenic nerve block due to interscalene brachial plexus block.

    PubMed

    Jariwala, Arpit; Kumar, B C Raju Pavan; Coventry, David M

    2014-04-01

    Advanced imaging techniques, improved operative techniques, and instrumentation combined with better patient awareness and expectations have resulted in an exponential increase in upper limb surgical procedures during recent times. Surgical teams expect superior analgesia and regional blocks have matched these expectations quite often resulting in improved patient satisfaction and early rehabilitation to achieve best results. Ultrasound-guided interscalene brachial plexus block (ISB) is commonly used to provide analgesia for procedures involving shoulder girdle. We report a case of symptomatic hemi-diaphragmatic paresis (HDP) due to the phrenic nerve block following ISB for arthroscopic sub-acromial decompression of the shoulder presenting as severe postoperative dyspnea. There is strong evidence of HDP following ISB in anesthetic literature, but not reported in related surgical specialties such as orthopedics. We wish to inform upper-limb surgeons and educate junior doctors and other ancillary staff working in upper-limb units to be aware of this serious but reversible complication. PMID:25114416

  2. Outcome in adolescence of brachial plexus birth palsy

    PubMed Central

    Hulleberg, Gunn; Elvrum, Ann-Kristin G; Brandal, Merethe; Vik, Torstein

    2014-01-01

    Background and purpose — The frequency and severity of a permanent lesion after brachial plexus birth palsy (BPBP) and its impact on activities of daily living are not well documented. We therefore investigated the outcome of BPBP in adolescents, regarding arm function and consequences for activity and participation. Participants and methods — Of 30,574 babies born at St. Olavs University Hospital in 1991–2000, 91 had BPBP (prevalence 3 per 1,000), and 69 of these individuals were examined at a median age of 14 (10–20) years. The examination included the modified Mallet classification, range of motion, shoulder rotation and grip strength, Assisting Hand Assessment, and Canadian Occupational Performance Measure. Of the 22 subjects who were not examined, 3 could not be traced and 19 reported having no problems in the affected arm. Results — At follow-up, 17 adolescents had a permanent lesion (i.e. individual Mallet subscore below 4) with a median Mallet total score of 15 (9–19), while 52 had good or normal shoulder function (median Mallet total score 25 (23–25)). All participants with a permanent lesion had reduced active shoulder rotation (≤ 15°), 16 had elbow extension deficit, and 10 had subnormal grip strength. External rotation was considerably weaker in the affected shoulder. In addition, they had ineffective use of the affected arm in bimanual activities. Even so, all except 1 were independent in activities of daily living, although 15 experienced minor difficulties. Interpretation — Every fourth to fifth child with BPBP had a permanent lesion as an adolescent. External rotation was the most impaired movement. Despite ineffective use of the affected arm in bimanual activities, all of the participants except one were independent in activities of daily living. PMID:25238434

  3. Magnetic Reconfiguration in CMEs/Ejective Flares

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Ronald L.; Sterling, A. C.; Suess, S. T.

    2008-01-01

    We present (1) the standard concept for the large transient change in field configuration in the solar magnetic explosions that produce an ejective flare and become a coronal mass ejection (CME) and (2) an observational test of this picture of CME production. In linear span, the largest change in field configuration in these events is wrought by the CME in the outer corona and solar wind. In the outer corona, the CME is essentially a magnetic bubble that transiently pushes aside the previously radial surrounding field. The source magnetic field that explodes to become the CME is initially a closed arcade enveloping sheared and twisted sigmoid field that snakes along the polarity dividing line and forms the core of the arcade. The sigmoid field has a large store of pent-up free magnetic energy. This eventually causes the sigmoid to become unstable and to begin to erupt as a flux rope. The erupting flux rope becomes the core of the CME plasmoid. The flux rope and enveloping CME plasmoid are created and built up (given more magnetic flux) and unleashed to escape by reconnection of the legs of the erupting sigmoid and arcade. Simultaneously, this tether-cutting reconnection produces beneath the escaping plasmoid a growing coronal X-ray flare arcade rooted in two separating ribbons of chromospheric flare emission. As the unleashed CME plasmoid propels itself into the outer corona, it takes with it the top of the arcade envelope field that arches over it. The continuing reconnection finally recloses the 'opened' stretched legs of the envelope, thus restoring the pre-eruption closed-arcade field configuration. This reconnection scenario for producing the CME plasmoid implies that the magnetic flux spanned by the full-grown flare arcade nearly equals the magnetic flux in the CME plasmoid in the outer corona. We have found that a wide range of exploding source regions produce CMEs that pass this test for production by tether-cutting reconnection (Moore, Sterling, &Suess

  4. Status of the Solar Mass Ejection Imager

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnston, J. C.; Radick, R. R.; Webb, D. F.

    2001-05-01

    The Solar Mass Ejection Imager (SMEI) is a proof-of-concept experiment designed to detect and track coronal mass ejections (CMEs) as they propagate from the Sun through interplanetary space to the Earth and beyond. SMEI will Image CMEs by sensing sunlight scattered from the free electrons in these structures (Thomson scattering). SMEI will be launched by a Titan II rocket into a circular, sun-synchronous (830 km) orbit in 2002 as part of the Space Test Program's CORIOLIS mission. SMEI will image the entire sky once per spacecraft orbit over a mission lifetime of three years. The major subsystems of SMEI are three electronic camera assemblies and a data-handling unit. Each camera consists of a baffle, a radiator, a bright object sensor, an electronics box, and a strongbox containing a shutter, optics and a CCD. Each camera images a 3x60 degree field. Together, they view a 180-degree slice of sky, and sweep over the entire sky once per orbit. SMEI's basic data product will be a 100-minute cadence of all-sky maps of heliospheric brightness, with stars removed, having an angular resolution of about one degree and a photometric precision of about 0.1%. Successful operation of SMEI will represent a major step in improving space weather forecasts. When combined with in-situ solar wind measurements from upstream monitors such as WIND and ACE, SMEI will provide one- to three-day predictions of impending geomagnetic storms at the Earth. SMEI will complement missions such as SoHO, GOES SXI, Solar-B, and STEREO by providing data relating solar drivers to terrestrial effects. Other benefits of SMEI will include observations of variable stars, extra-Solar planetary transits, novae and supernovae, comets and asteroids. The SMEI experiment is being designed and constructed by a team of scientists and engineers from the Air Force Research Laboratory, the University of Birmingham (UB) in the United Kingdom, the University of California at San Diego (UCSD), and Boston University. The

  5. Interactive Visualization of Solar Mass Ejection Imager (SMEI) Volumetric Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, X.; Hick, P. P.; Jackson, B. V.

    2004-12-01

    We present a volume rendering system developed for the real time visualization and manipulation of 3D heliospheric volumetric solar wind density and velocity data obtained from the Solar Mass Ejection Imager (SMEI) and interplanetary scintillation (IPS) velocities over the same time period. Our system exploits the capabilities of the VolumePro 1000 board from TeraRecon, Inc., a low-cost 64-bit PCI board capable of rendering up to a 512-cubed array of volume data in real time at up to 30 frames per second on a standard PC. Many volume-rendering operations have been implemented with this system such as stereo/perspective views, animations of time-sequences, and determination of CME volumes and masses. In these visualizations we highlight two time periods where halo CMEs were observed by SMEI to engulf Earth, on May 30, 2003 and on October 29, 2003. We demonstrate how this system is used to measure the distribution of structure and provide 3D mass for individual CME features, including the ejecta associated with the large prominence viewed moving to the south of Earth following the late October CME.

  6. Ensemble Modeling of the 23 July 2012 Coronal Mass Ejection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cash, M. D.; Biesecker, D. A.; Pizzo, V.; Koning, C. A.; Millward, G.; Arge, C. N.; Henney, C. J.; Odstrcil, D.

    2015-10-01

    On 23 July 2012 a significant and rapid coronal mass ejection (CME) was detected in situ by the Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory (STEREO) A. This CME was unusual due to its extremely brief Sun-to-1 AU transit time of less than 21 h and its exceptionally high impact speed of 2246 km/s. If this CME had been Earth directed, it would have produced a significant geomagnetic storm with potentially serious consequences. To protect our ground- and space-based assets, there is a clear need to accurately forecast the arrival times of such events using realistic input parameters and models run in near real time. Using Wang-Sheely-Arge (WSA)-Enlil, the operational model currently employed at the NOAA Space Weather Prediction Center, we investigate the sensitivity of the 23 July CME event to model input parameters. Variations in the initial CME speed, angular width, and direction, as well as the ambient solar wind background, are investigated using an ensemble approach to study the effect on the predicted arrival time of the CME at STEREO A. Factors involved in the fast transit time of this large CME are discussed, and potential improvements to modeling such events with the WSA-Enlil model are presented.

  7. Brachial Artery Aneurysm in a 7-Month-Old Infant: Case Report and Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Gangopadhyay, Noopur; Chong, Tae; Chhabra, Avneesh

    2016-01-01

    Summary: Congenital upper extremity aneurysms are very rare and can be challenging to diagnose and treat. Although they can present as an isolated finding, they are often associated with other systemic conditions. We present a rare case of brachial artery aneurysm in a 7-month-old boy. The patient was evaluated with ultrasound, magnetic resonance angiography, and vein mapping before surgical reconstruction. After excision of the aneurysm, the brachial artery was reconstructed with an interposition saphenous vein graft. Because of potentially associated diagnoses and the possibility of concurrent aneurysms, this condition requires multidisciplinary management. PMID:27014554

  8. Sup-ER orthosis: an innovative treatment for infants with birth related brachial plexus injury.

    PubMed

    Durlacher, Kim M; Bellows, Doria; Verchere, Cynthia

    2014-01-01

    Impairments in active and passive range of upper extremity supination and shoulder external rotation are common sequelae for children with delayed recovery from birth related brachial plexus injury. Orthotic intervention may complement traditional treatment strategies commonly employed in the newborn period. These authors describe their custom fabricated orthosis designed to balance shoulder growth and muscular function, and improve prognosis of long term functional outcomes for children with birth related brachial plexus injury. - Victoria Priganc, PhD, OTR, CHT, CLT, Practice Forum Editor. PMID:25042285

  9. Hereditary Neuropathy with Liability to Pressure Palsy Presenting as an Acute Brachial Plexopathy: A Lover's Palsy

    PubMed Central

    Wedderburn, Sarah; Pateria, Puraskar; Panegyres, Peter K.

    2014-01-01

    It is generally regarded that patients with hereditary neuropathy to pressure palsies, due to a deletion in the PMP22 gene, show recurrent pressure palsy and generalised peripheral neuropathy (pes cavus and hammer toes sometimes develop). Brachial plexopathy is rarely identified as a first presentation of hereditary neuropathy to pressure palsies. We describe a young man who developed a painless flail upper limb with a clinical diagnosis of a brachial plexopathy after his partner slept on his arm – a PMP22 deletion was found. His father, who had a symmetrical polyneuropathy without recurrent mononeuropathies, shared the PMP22 deletion. PMID:25685136

  10. Brachial plexus injury in two red-tailed hawks (Buteo jamaicensis).

    PubMed

    Shell, L; Richards, M; Saunders, G

    1993-01-01

    Two red-tailed hawks (Buteo jamaicensis), found near Deltaville, Virginia (USA), were evaluated because of inability to use a wing. Results of needle electromyographic studies of the affected wing muscles in both hawks were compatible with denervation. On euthanasia, one hawk had extensive axon and myelin loss with multifocal perivascular lymphocytic inflammation of its brachial plexus and radial nerve. Demyelination and axon loss in the dorsal white matter of the spinal cord on the affected side also were found at the origin of the brachial plexus. The other hawk's wing had not returned to functional status > 2 yr after injury. PMID:8383253

  11. Quality of life following traumatic brachial plexus injury: A questionnaire study.

    PubMed

    Gray, Beverley

    2016-08-01

    There is limited qualitative research available that explores the impact of a traumatic brachial plexus injury on patients and their quality of life experiences. This paper builds upon previous work on this subject by this author. Patients were selected from those who were on the database for the Scottish National Brachial Plexus Injury Service between 2011 and 2013. The World Health Organization (WHO) Quality of Life (QoL) - BREF questionnaire was used and 47 questionnaires were distributed with 22 returned. Findings included patients' ratings of their quality of life, physical and psychological health along with their perceived satisfaction with social relationships. PMID:27091305

  12. Origin of Medial and Lateral Pectoral Nerves from the Supraclavicular Part of Brachial Plexus and its Clinical Importance – A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Shetty, Prakashchandra; Nayak, Satheesha B; Kumar, Naveen; Thangarajan, Rajesh; D’Souza, Melanie Rose

    2014-01-01

    Knowledge of normal and anomalous formation of brachial plexus and its branches is of utmost importance to anatomists, clinicians, anesthesiologists and surgeons. Possibility of variations in the origin, course and distribution of branches of brachial plexus must be kept in mind during anesthetizing the brachial plexus, mastectomy and plastic surgery procedures. In the current case, the medial pectoral nerve arose directly from the middle trunk of the brachial plexus and the lateral pectoral nerve arose from the anterior division of the upper trunk of the brachial plexus. The lateral pectoral nerve supplied the pectoralis major and the medial pectoral nerve supplied pectoralis major and pectoralis minor muscles through two separate branches. PMID:24701504

  13. Coronal Mass Ejections and Their Heliospheric Consequences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gopalswamy, Nat

    2011-01-01

    Coronal mass ejections (CMEs) have been recognized as the most energetic phenomenon in the heliosphere, deriving their energy from the stressed magnetic fields on the Sun. The Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) mission has accumulated a wealth of information on CMEs with unprecedented extent, clarity, and uniformity. The CME data base has been useful in confirming results from past missions and obtaining a number of new results on the initiation, propagation, and heliospheric consequences of CMEs. This paper highlights some of the recent results on the morphological, physical, and kinematic properties of CMEs observed during solar cycle 23. White-light signatures of CMEs and their utility in inferring coronal magnetic fields near the Sun will be discussed. Presence of coronal holes near eruption regions have been shown to significantly modify the trajectories of CMEs. New results on the interaction of CMEs with large-scale structures such as coronal holes and other CMEs will be presented. Finally, the CME consequences in the heliosphere such as interplanetary shocks, type II radio bursts, energetic particles, geomagnetic storms, and cosmic ray modulation will be discussed

  14. Streamer Waves Driven by Coronal Mass Ejections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yao; Song, Hong-Qiang; Li, Bo; Xia, Li-Dong; Wu, Zhao; Fu, Hui

    Between July 5th and July 7th 2004, two intriguing fast coronal mass ejection(CME)-streamer interaction events were recorded by the Large Angle and Spectrometric Coronagraph (LASCO). At the beginning of the events, the streamer was pushed aside from their equilibrium position upon the impact of the rapidly outgoing and expanding ejecta; then, the streamer structure, mainly the bright streamer belt, exhibited elegant large scale sinusoidal wavelike motions. The motions were apparently driven by the restoring magnetic forces resulting from the CME impingement, suggestive of magnetohydrodynamic kink mode propagating outwards along the plasma sheet of the streamer. The mode is supported collectively by the streamer structure and is therefore named "streamer wave" in the present study. With the whitelight coronagraph data, we show that the streamer wave has a period of about 1 hour, a wavelength varying from 2 to 4 solar radii, an amplitude of about a few tens of solar radii, and a propagating phase speed in the range 300 to 500 km/s. We also find that there is a tendency for the phase speed to decline with increasing heliocentric distance. These observations provide good examples of large scale wave phenomena carried by corona structures, and have significance in developing seismological techniques for diagnosing plasma and magnetic parameters in the outer corona.

  15. Streamer Waves Driven by Coronal Mass Ejections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Y.; Song, H. Q.; Li, B.; Xia, L. D.; Wu, Z.; Fu, H.; Li, Xing

    2010-05-01

    Between 2004 July 5 and July 7, two intriguing fast coronal mass ejection (CME)-streamer interaction events were recorded by the Large Angle and Spectrometric Coronagraph. At the beginning of the events, the streamer was pushed aside from its equilibrium position upon the impact of the rapidly outgoing and expanding ejecta; then, the streamer structure, mainly the bright streamer belt, exhibited elegant large-scale sinusoidal wavelike motions. The motions were apparently driven by the restoring magnetic forces resulting from the CME impingement, suggestive of magnetohydrodynamic kink mode propagating outward along the plasma sheet of the streamer. The mode is supported collectively by the streamer-plasma sheet structure and is therefore named "streamer wave" in the present study. With the white light coronagraph data, we show that the streamer wave has a period of about 1 hr, a wavelength varying from 2 to 4 solar radii, an amplitude of about a few tens of solar radii, and a propagating phase speed in the range 300-500 km s-1. We also find that there is a tendency for the phase speed to decline with increasing heliocentric distance. These observations provide good examples of large-scale wave phenomena carried by coronal structures and have significance in developing seismological techniques for diagnosing plasma and magnetic parameters in the outer corona.

  16. Planet Scattering Around Binaries: Ejections, Not Collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smullen, Rachel A.; Kratter, Kaitlin M.; Shannon, Andrew

    2016-06-01

    Transiting circumbinary planets discovered by Kepler provide unique insight into binary star and planet formation. Several features of this new found population, for example the apparent pile-up of planets near the innermost stable orbit, may distinguish between formation theories. In this work, we determine how planet-planet scattering shapes planetary systems around binaries as compared to single stars. In particular, we look for signatures that arise due to differences in dynamical evolution in binary systems. We carry out a parameter study of N-body scattering simulations for four distinct planet populations around both binary and single stars. While binarity has little influence on the final system multiplicity or orbital distribution, the presence of a binary dramatically effects the means by which planets are lost from the system. Most circumbinary planets are lost due to ejections rather than planet-planet or planet-star collisions. The most massive planet in the system tends to control the evolution. Systems similar to the only observed multi-planet circumbinary system, Kepler-47, can arise from much more tightly packed, unstable systems. Only extreme initial conditions introduce differences in the final planet populations. Thus, we suggest that any intrinsic differences in the populations are imprinted by formation.

  17. Solar Sources of Coronal Mass Ejections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Y.

    2014-12-01

    Coronal mass ejections (CMEs) originate in the solar corona.Due to recent ample solar images from space missions, especially the STEREO mission, we know that CMEs initiate not only from flaring active regions of strong magnetic field, prominence (filaments) in decayed active regions, but also from coronal structures in higher coronaover regions no apparent strong magnetic fields on the solar disk. Regardless the differences of their appearances, these regionsmust all include non-potential magnetic field or free magnetic energy in order to produce CMEs. When an energized magnetic structure erupts, the free magnetic energy converts to kinetic energy and few other types ofenergy, and the magnetic structure leaves the corona and propagates into the interplanetary space. At the source regions, the initiations of CMEs often accompany with solar flares, filament eruptions, coronalEUV dimmings and waves, and post eruption loop brightennings. Studying the CME source regions and the processes is essential for the understanding of CME initiation and their interplanetary consequences.

  18. STREAMER WAVES DRIVEN BY CORONAL MASS EJECTIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Y.; Song, H. Q.; Li, B.; Xia, L. D.; Wu, Z.; Fu, H.; Li Xing

    2010-05-01

    Between 2004 July 5 and July 7, two intriguing fast coronal mass ejection (CME)-streamer interaction events were recorded by the Large Angle and Spectrometric Coronagraph. At the beginning of the events, the streamer was pushed aside from its equilibrium position upon the impact of the rapidly outgoing and expanding ejecta; then, the streamer structure, mainly the bright streamer belt, exhibited elegant large-scale sinusoidal wavelike motions. The motions were apparently driven by the restoring magnetic forces resulting from the CME impingement, suggestive of magnetohydrodynamic kink mode propagating outward along the plasma sheet of the streamer. The mode is supported collectively by the streamer-plasma sheet structure and is therefore named 'streamer wave' in the present study. With the white light coronagraph data, we show that the streamer wave has a period of about 1 hr, a wavelength varying from 2 to 4 solar radii, an amplitude of about a few tens of solar radii, and a propagating phase speed in the range 300-500 km s{sup -1}. We also find that there is a tendency for the phase speed to decline with increasing heliocentric distance. These observations provide good examples of large-scale wave phenomena carried by coronal structures and have significance in developing seismological techniques for diagnosing plasma and magnetic parameters in the outer corona.

  19. Planet scattering around binaries: ejections, not collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smullen, Rachel A.; Kratter, Kaitlin M.; Shannon, Andrew

    2016-09-01

    Transiting circumbinary planets discovered by Kepler provide unique insight into binary star and planet formation. Several features of this new found population, for example the apparent pile-up of planets near the innermost stable orbit, may distinguish between formation theories. In this work, we determine how planet-planet scattering shapes planetary systems around binaries as compared to single stars. In particular, we look for signatures that arise due to differences in dynamical evolution in binary systems. We carry out a parameter study of N-body scattering simulations for four distinct planet populations around both binary and single stars. While binarity has little influence on the final system multiplicity or orbital distribution, the presence of a binary dramatically affects the means by which planets are lost from the system. Most circumbinary planets are lost due to ejections rather than planet-planet or planet-star collisions. The most massive planet in the system tends to control the evolution. Systems similar to the only observed multiplanet circumbinary system, Kepler-47, can arise from much more tightly packed, unstable systems. Only extreme initial conditions introduce differences in the final planet populations. Thus, we suggest that any intrinsic differences in the populations are imprinted by formation.

  20. Forecasting coronal mass ejections at 1 AU using Heliospheric Imagers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Möstl, Christian; Amla, Keshav; Hall, Jeffrey R.; Liewer, Paulett C.; De Jong, Eric; Temmer, Manuela; Davies, Jackie A.; Lugaz, Noé; Rollett, Tanja; Veronig, Astrid M.; Farrugia, Charles J.; Liu, Ying; Luhmann, Janet G.; Galvin, Antoinette B.; Zhang, Tielong

    2013-04-01

    We study the feasibility of using a Heliospheric Imager (HI) instrument, such as STEREO/HI, for operational space weather forecasting of interplanetary coronal mass ejections (ICMEs) at 1 AU. We compare the predictions for speed and arrival time for about 20 ICME events, each observed remotely by one STEREO spacecraft, to the speed and arrival time observed at various in situ observatories. We use geometrical modeling, which means we approximate the ICME fronts with various shapes (Fixed-Phi, Harmonic Mean, Self-Similar Expansion). These models are applied to the time-elongation functions extracted from STEREO/SECCHI images with the SolarSoft SATPLOT package. We use these techniques for a single-spacecraft HI observer, and consequently assume constant ICME speed and direction. Partly, the configuration mimics the situation of a single HI observatory parked at the L4 or L5 point in the Sun-Earth system. For assessing the accuracy of these predictions we look at plasma and magnetic field in situ data by Wind (MFI, SWE instruments) and STEREO-A/B (IMPACT, PLASTIC) around 1 AU. Wherever possible we include ICME arrivals in the inner heliosphere (< 1 AU), from the magnetic field data by Venus Express and MESSENGER. We also look at the ratio of prediction lead time to its accuracy, and see if there is a preferred value for the ICME width.

  1. Ejection of solvated ions from electrosprayed methanol/water nanodroplets studied by molecular dynamics simulations.

    PubMed

    Ahadi, Elias; Konermann, Lars

    2011-06-22

    The ejection of solvated small ions from nanometer-sized droplets plays a central role during electrospray ionization (ESI). Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations can provide insights into the nanodroplet behavior. Earlier MD studies have largely focused on aqueous systems, whereas most practical ESI applications involve the use of organic cosolvents. We conduct simulations on mixed water/methanol droplets that carry excess NH(4)(+) ions. Methanol is found to compromise the H-bonding network, resulting in greatly increased rates of ion ejection and solvent evaporation. Considerable differences in the water and methanol escape rates cause time-dependent changes in droplet composition. Segregation occurs at low methanol concentration, such that layered droplets with a methanol-enriched periphery are formed. This phenomenon will enhance the partitioning of analyte molecules, with possible implications for their ESI efficiencies. Solvated ions are ejected from the tip of surface protrusions. Solvent bridging prior to ion secession is more extensive for methanol/water droplets than for purely aqueous systems. The ejection of solvated NH(4)(+) is visualized as diffusion-mediated escape from a metastable basin. The process involves thermally activated crossing of a ~30 kJ mol(-1) free energy barrier, in close agreement with the predictions of the classical ion evaporation model. PMID:21591733

  2. The tripole linear ion trap with highly efficient orthogonal ion ejection designed by computer simulations.

    PubMed

    Salazar, Gary A; Masujima, Tsutomu

    2008-05-01

    An ion guide, consisting of three rods carrying three alternating current (AC) voltages symmetrically delayed, called a tripole, was used as a linear ion trap (LIT) and studied by computer simulations. Radial containment of ions was also demonstrated with the pseudopotential which was calculated by approximating the tripole electric potential to the multipoles expansion. This work found a new analyte concentrator, which performs effective ion ejection, and is suitable for use with time-of-flight mass spectrometry. The efficiency of the overall process from the trapping until the ejection was higher than 90%, although some degree of ion spatial and kinetic energy spread which can be corrected with a reflectron was obtained. The reason for the ejection of this tripole linear ion trap (tLIT) lies in the high space available between the rods. The ejection is optimized with the application of focusing voltages, especially suitable for a tripole symmetry (one electrode has a pulse offset voltage and the other two have a fraction of that pulse). The beam is finally well parallelized with a rectangular Einzel lens. PMID:18384193

  3. The size distributions of fragments ejected at a given velocity from impact craters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Okeefe, J. D.; Ahrens, T. J.

    1986-01-01

    The mass distribution of fragments that are ejected at a given velocity for impact craters is modeled to allow extrapolation of laboratory, field, and numerical results to large scale planetary events. The model is semi-empirical in nature and is derived from: (1) numerical calculations of cratering and the resultant mass versus ejection velocity, (2) observed ejecta blanket particle size distributions, (3) an empirical relationship between maximum ejecta fragment size and crater diameter, (4) measurements and theory of maximum ejecta size versus ejecta velocity, and (5) an assumption on the functional form for the distribution of fragments ejected at a given velocity. This model implies that or planetary impacts into competent rock, the distribution of fragments ejected at a given velocity is broad, e.g., 68% of the mass of the ejecta at a given velocity contains fragments having a mass less than 0.1 times a mass of the largest fragment moving at that velocity. The broad distribution suggests that in impact processes, additional comminution of ejecta occurs after the upward initial shock has passed in the process of the ejecta velocity vector rotating from an initially downward orientation. This additional comminution produces the broader size distribution in impact ejecta as compared to that obtained in simple brittle failure experiments.

  4. Incidence of hemidiaphragmatic paresis after peripheral nerve stimulator versus ultrasound guided interscalene brachial plexus block

    PubMed Central

    Ghodki, Poonam Sachin; Singh, Noopur Dasmit

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims: We compared interscalene brachial plexus block (ISBPB) using peripheral nerve stimulation (PNS) and ultrasound (US) techniques. The primary outcomes were the incidence of hemidiaphragmatic paresis (HDP) and the duration of the block. Secondary outcomes were the block success rate, time to conduct the block, onset of sensory block, and dermatomal spread, postoperative pain by Numeric Rating Scale (NRS), duration of postoperative analgesia and incidence of complications. Material and Methods: We conducted a prospective, randomized, and observer-blinded study in 60 patients undergoing shoulder arthroscopy under block plus general anesthesia. ISBPB was performed with 10 ml of 0.5% bupivacaine using either PNS (Group PNS, n = 30) or US (Group US, n = 30). Hemidiaphragmatic function, the primary outcome, was assessed by ultrasonographic evaluation of diaphragmatic movement and pulmonary function tests using a bedside spirometer (forced vital capacity, forced expiratory volume in 1 s and peak expiratory flow rate). General anesthesia was administered to all the patients for surgery. P < 0.05 test was considered to be statistically significant. Results: Twelve patients in Group PNS had HDP and none in Group US (P < 0.0001). PFTs were also significantly reduced in Group PNS (P < 0.0001). The time to conduct the block and sensory onset time both were less in Group US (P < 0.05). The groups did not differ in block success rate, duration of analgesia, and NRS. Other complications like incidence of Horner's syndrome and vascular puncture were comparable in both the groups. Conclusions: PNS guided ISBPB with 10 ml of 0.5% bupivacaine is associated with a higher incidence of HDP as compared to US guided ISBPB. There is no significant difference in quality or duration of analgesia in the two groups.

  5. An electronic circuit that detects left ventricular ejection events by processing the arterial pressure waveform

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gebben, V. D.; Webb, J. A., Jr.

    1972-01-01

    An electronic circuit for processing arterial blood pressure waveform signals is described. The circuit detects blood pressure as the heart pumps blood through the aortic valve and the pressure distribution caused by aortic valve closure. From these measurements, timing signals for use in measuring the left ventricular ejection time is determined, and signals are provided for computer monitoring of the cardiovascular system. Illustrations are given of the circuit and pressure waveforms.

  6. Improved Measurement of Ejection Velocities From Craters Formed in Sand

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cintala, Mark J.; Byers, Terry; Cardenas, Francisco; Montes, Roland; Potter, Elliot E.

    2014-01-01

    A typical impact crater is formed by two major processes: compression of the target (essentially equivalent to a footprint in soil) and ejection of material. The Ejection-Velocity Measurement System (EVMS) in the Experimental Impact Laboratory has been used to study ejection velocities from impact craters formed in sand since the late 1990s. The original system used an early-generation Charge-Coupled Device (CCD) camera; custom-written software; and a complex, multicomponent optical system to direct laser light for illumination. Unfortunately, the electronic equipment was overtaken by age, and the software became obsolete in light of improved computer hardware.

  7. Assessment of variation in depth of brachial plexus using ultrasound for supraclavicular brachial plexus block in patients undergoing elective upper limb surgery

    PubMed Central

    Mistry, Tuhin; Mangal, Vandana; Sharma, Gaurav; Agrawal, Aachu

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims: Supraclavicular approach to the brachial plexus may be associated with complications such as pneumothorax, inadvertent vascular puncture, inter-scalene block and neurovascular injuries. The present study was conceived to find out the variation in depth of brachial plexus to suggest the minimum length of needle required to effectively perform the block, thus preventing possible complications. Methods: After approval from our Institutional Ethical Committee, informed and written consent was obtained from each of the ninety American Society of Anesthesiologists Physical Status I and II patients recruited, of either sex in the age group of 20–50 years. Supraclavicular fossa was scanned using a high-frequency linear probe, and the distances (shortest distance [SD] from skin to the most superficial neural element and longest distance [LD] from skin to the most deep neural element) were measured using on-screen callipers on optimal frozen image. Pearson correlation was used to find out the relation between these two distances and demographic parameters. Results: Mean SD was 0.60 ± 0.262 cm, and mean LD was found to be 1.34 ± 0.385 cm. We observed significant correlation between these two distances with weight and body mass index (BMI). Conclusion: Significant correlation was observed between SD and LD with weight and BMI. We suggest that a needle with a shaft length of 3 cm will be sufficient to reach the sheath of the brachial plexus during performance of the block. PMID:27330200

  8. Comparative evaluation of adding different opiates (morphine, meperidine, buprenorphine, or fentanyl) to lidocaine in duration and quality of axillary brachial plexus block

    PubMed Central

    Saryazdi, Hamid; Yazdani, Alireza; Sajedi, Parvin; Aghadavoudi, Omid

    2015-01-01

    Background: There is no agreement about the effect of adding opioids to local anesthetics in peripheral nerve blocks. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of adding different opioids with equipotent doses of lidocaine in axillary brachial plexus block using ultrasonography and nerve locator guidance. Materials and Methods: In a prospective, randomized, double-blind clinical trial study, 72 adult patients aged 18–65 years old scheduled for orthopedic surgery of the forearm and hand with axillary brachial plexus block were selected and randomly allocated to four groups. Meperidine (pethidine), buprenorphine, morphine, and fentanyl with equipotent doses were added in 40cc of 1% lidocaine in P, B, M, and F groups, respectively. The onset and duration of sensory and motor blocks, severity of patients’ pain, duration of analgesia, hemodynamic and respiratory parameters, and adverse events (such as nausea and pruritus) during perioperative period were recorded. Results: The onset time for the sensory block was similar in the four groups. The onset time for the motor block was significantly faster in morphine and pethidine groups (P = 0.006). The duration of sensory and motor blocks was not statistically different among the four groups. The quality of motor blockade was complete in 100% of patients receiving pethidine or morphine and 77.8% of patients receiving buprenorphine or fentanyl (P = 0.021). Conclusion: In the upper extremity surgeries performed under axillary brachial plexus block addition of morphine or pethidine to lidocaine may be superior to other opioids (i.e. fentanyl and buprenorphine) due to better quality and quantity of motor blockade and faster onset of the block. PMID:26645017

  9. Photogrammetric Trajectory Estimation of Foam Debris Ejected From an F-15 Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Mark S.

    2006-01-01

    Photogrammetric analysis of high-speed digital video data was performed to estimate trajectories of foam debris ejected from an F-15B aircraft. This work was part of a flight test effort to study the transport properties of insulating foam shed by the Space Shuttle external tank during ascent. The conical frustum-shaped pieces of debris, called "divots," were ejected from a flight test fixture mounted underneath the F-15B aircraft. Two onboard cameras gathered digital video data at two thousand frames per second. Time histories of divot positions were determined from the videos post flight using standard photogrammetry techniques. Divot velocities were estimated by differentiating these positions with respect to time. Time histories of divot rotations were estimated using four points on the divot face. Estimated divot position, rotation, and Mach number for selected cases are presented. Uncertainty in the results is discussed.

  10. QUASI-PERIODIC OSCILLATIONS IN LASCO CORONAL MASS EJECTION SPEEDS

    SciTech Connect

    Shanmugaraju, A.; Moon, Y.-J.; Cho, K.-S.; Bong, S. C.; Gopalswamy, N.; Akiyama, S.; Yashiro, S.; Umapathy, S.; Vrsnak, B. E-mail: moonyj@khu.ac.k

    2010-01-01

    Quasi-periodic oscillations in the speed profile of coronal mass ejections (CMEs) in the radial distance range 2-30 solar radii are studied. We considered the height-time data of the 307 CMEs recorded by the Large Angle and Spectrometric Coronagraph (LASCO) during 2005 January-March. In order to study the speed-distance profile of the CMEs, we have used only 116 events for which there are at least 10 height-time measurements made in the LASCO field of view. The instantaneous CME speed is estimated using a pair of height-time data points, providing the speed-distance profile. We found quasi-periodic patterns in at least 15 speed-distance profiles, where the speed amplitudes are larger than the speed errors. For these events we have determined the speed amplitude and period of oscillations. The periods of quasi-periodic oscillations are found in the range 48-240 minutes, tending to increase with height. The oscillations have similar properties as those reported by Krall et al., who interpreted them in terms of the flux-rope model. The nature of forces responsible for the motion of CMEs and their oscillations are discussed.

  11. Forecasting coronal mass ejections at 1 AU using Heliospheric Imagers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moestl, C.; Amla, K.; Temmer, M.; Hall, J. R.; Liewer, P. C.; De Jong, E. M.; Davies, J.; Lugaz, N.; Rollett, T.; Veronig, A.; Liu, Y.; Farrugia, C. J.; Luhmann, J. G.; Galvin, A. B.; Zhang, T.

    2012-12-01

    We study the feasibility of using a Heliospheric Imager (HI) instrument, such as STEREO/HI, for space weather forecasting of interplanetary coronal mass ejections (ICMEs) at 1 AU. We compare the predictions for speed and arrival time for ~15 ICME events, each observed remotely by one STEREO spacecraft, to the speed and arrival time observed at in situ observatories. We use three different models with varying ICME geometry, from point-like (Fixed-Phi) to a circle with a given width (Self-Similar-Expansion) to a very wide circle (Harmonic Mean). The models are fitted to density tracks on HI Jmaps with the SolarSoft SATPLOT tool. All these techniques assume constant ICME speed and direction. Partly, the configuration mimics the situation of a single HI observatory parked at the L4 or L5 point in the Sun-Earth system. We discuss problems associated with this study, such as CME-CME interactions leading to complicated Jmaps. For assessing the accuracy of these predictions we look at in situ data by Wind/ACE, STEREO-A/B, and Venus Express and MESSENGER. We also look at the ratio of prediction lead time to its accuracy, and see if there is a preferred value for the ICME width.

  12. POST-CORONAL MASS EJECTION PLASMA OBSERVED BY HINODE

    SciTech Connect

    Landi, E.; Raymond, J. C.; Miralles, M. P.; Hara, H.

    2012-05-20

    In the present work we study the evolution of an active region after the eruption of a coronal mass ejection (CME) using observations from the EIS and XRT instruments on board Hinode. The field of view includes a post-eruption arcade, a current sheet, and a coronal dimming. The goal of this paper is to provide a comprehensive set of measurements for all these aspects of the CME phenomenon made on the same CME event. The main physical properties of the plasma along the line of sight-electron density, thermal structure, plasma composition, size, and, when possible, mass-are measured and monitored with time for the first three hours following the CME event of 2008 April 9. We find that the loop arcade observed by EIS and XRT may not be related to the post-eruption arcade. Post-CME plasma is hotter than the surrounding corona, but its temperature never exceeds 3 MK. Both the electron density and thermal structure do not show significant evolution with time, while we found that the size of the loop arcade in the Hinode plane of the sky decreased with time. The plasma composition is the same in the current sheet, in the loop arcade, and in the ambient plasma, so all these plasmas are likely of coronal origin. No significant plasma flows were detected.

  13. Human amniotic epithelial cell transplantation for the repair of injured brachial plexus nerve: evaluation of nerve viscoelastic properties

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Hua; Yang, Qi; Ji, Feng; Zhang, Ya-jie; Zhao, Yan; Luo, Min

    2015-01-01

    The transplantation of embryonic stem cells can effectively improve the creeping strength of nerves near an injury site in animals. Amniotic epithelial cells have similar biological properties as embryonic stem cells; therefore, we hypothesized that transplantation of amniotic epithelial cells can repair peripheral nerve injury and recover the creeping strength of the brachial plexus nerve. In the present study, a brachial plexus injury model was established in rabbits using the C6 root avulsion method. A suspension of human amniotic epithelial cells was repeatedly injected over an area 4.0 mm lateral to the cephal and caudal ends of the C6 brachial plexus injury site (1 × 106 cells/mL, 3 μL/injection, 25 injections) immediately after the injury. The results showed that the decrease in stress and increase in strain at 7,200 seconds in the injured rabbit C6 brachial plexus nerve were mitigated by the cell transplantation, restoring the viscoelastic stress relaxation and creep properties of the brachial plexus nerve. The forepaw functions were also significantly improved at 26 weeks after injury. These data indicate that transplantation of human amniotic epithelial cells can effectively restore the mechanical properties of the brachial plexus nerve after injury in rabbits and that viscoelasticity may be an important index for the evaluation of brachial plexus injury in animals. PMID:25883625

  14. Radiation-induced brachial plexopathy: Neurological follow-up in 161 recurrence-free breast cancer patients

    SciTech Connect

    Olsen, N.K.; Pfeiffer, P.; Johannsen, L.; Schroder, H.; Rose, C. )

    1993-04-30

    The purpose was to assess the incidence and clinical manifestations of radiation-induced brachial plexopathy in breast cancer patients, treated according to the Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group protocols. One hundred and sixty-one recurrence-free breast cancer patients were examined for radiation-induced brachial plexopathy after a median follow-up period of 50 months (13-99 months). After total mastectomy and axillary node sampling, high-risk patients were randomized to adjuvant therapy. One hundred twenty-eight patients were treated with postoperative radiotherapy with 50 Gy in 25 daily fractions over 5 weeks. In addition, 82 of these patients received cytotoxic therapy (cyclophosphamide, methotrexate, and 5-fluorouracil) and 46 received tamoxifen. Five percent and 9% of the patients receiving radiotherapy had disabling and mild radiation-induced brachial plexopathy, respectively. Radiation-induced brachial plexopathy was more frequent in patients receiving cytotoxic therapy (p = 0.04) and in younger patients (p = 0.04). The clinical manifestations were paraesthesia (100%), hypaesthesia (74%), weakness (58%), decreased muscle stretch reflexes (47%), and pain (47%). The brachial plexus is more vulnerable to large fraction size. Fractions of 2 Gy or less are advisable. Cytotoxic therapy adds to the damaging effect of radiotherapy. Peripheral nerves in younger patients seems more vulnerable. Radiation-induced brachial plexopathy occurs mainly as diffuse damage to the brachial plexus. 24 refs., 9 tabs.

  15. Comparison of the Vertical and the Highest Point of Shoulder Methods in Brachial Plexus Block

    PubMed Central

    S, Kiritoglu; G, Basaranoglu; M, Comlekci; M, Suren; K, Erkalp; G, Teker; L, Saidoglu

    2009-01-01

    Background and Aim: Brachial plexus block by the highest point of the shoulder method may decrease the rate of complication in comparing with the vertical method because the needle is more lateral in the former. We aimed to investigate the highest point of the shoulder block technique against the vertical infraclavicular plexus method regarding the success rates and complications. Patients and Methods: Thirty patients with ASA I-III undergoing elective surgery were included in this study. Patients were divided into two groups, randomly. Group 1 was the highest point of the shoulder method (n of 15), and goup 2 was the vertical approach technique (n of 15). The extensor motor response of hand, wrist and elbow (The target nerves in the operation area: n. medianus, n. ulnaris, n. radialis and n. musculocutanaeus) was obtained by neurostimulation technique. Then, 30 ml bupivacaine (0.5%) was used for the initial block. Spread of analgesia and sensory and motor blocks were evaluated every 5 minutes by an anesthesiologist who was blind to the block techniques. Statistical Analysis: T-test and Mann-Whitney U test were used. Results: Successful block was achieved in all patients in both groups. There was no difference among the groups for the onset of block and the duration of block (both sensory and motor), the number of attempt, and the depth of the neddle. One patient developed pneumothorax in group 2. Procedure time of the block was longer in group 2 than in group 1 (p<0.05). Conclusions: The highest point of shoulder method with a less complication rate and shorter procedure time has a comparable success rate to vertical approach technique. PMID:23675114

  16. A Model for Stealth Coronal Mass Ejections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lynch, Benjamin J.; Masson, Sophie; Li, Yan; DeVore, C. Richard; Luhmann, Janet; Antiochos, Spiro K.; Fisher, George H.

    2016-05-01

    Stealth coronal mass ejections (CMEs) are events in which there are almost no observable signatures of the CME eruption in the low corona but often a well-resolved slow flux rope CME observed in the coronagraph data. We present results from a three-dimensional numerical magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) simulation of the 2008 June 1-2 slow streamer blowout CME that Robbrecht et al. [2009] called “the CME from nowhere.” We model the global coronal structure using a 1.4 MK isothermal solar wind and a low-order potential field source surface representation of the Carrington Rotation 2070 magnetogram synoptic map. The bipolar streamer belt arcade is energized by simple shearing flows applied in the vicinity of the helmet streamer’s polarity inversion line. The slow expansion of the energized helmet-streamer arcade results in the formation of a radial current sheet. The subsequent onset of expansion-driven flare reconnection initiates the stealth CME while gradually releasing ~1.5E+30 erg of stored magnetic energy over the 20+ hour eruption duration. We show the energy flux available for flare heating and flare emission during the eruption is approximately two orders of magnitude below the energy flux required to heat the ambient background corona, thus confirming the “stealth” character of the 2008 June 1-2 CME’s lack of observable on disk signatures. We also present favorable comparisons between our simulation results and the multi-viewpoint SOHO-LASCO and STEREO-SECCHI coronagraph observations of the pre-eruption streamer structure and the initiation and evolution of the stealth streamer blowout CME.

  17. ROTATION OF CORONAL MASS EJECTIONS DURING ERUPTION

    SciTech Connect

    Lynch, B. J.; Li, Y.; Luhmann, J. G.; Antiochos, S. K.; DeVore, C. R. E-mail: yanli@ssl.berkeley.edu E-mail: spiro.k.antiochos@nasa.gov

    2009-06-01

    Understanding the connection between coronal mass ejections (CMEs) and their interplanetary counterparts (ICMEs) is one of the most important problems in solar-terrestrial physics. We calculate the rotation of erupting field structures predicted by numerical simulations of CME initiation via the magnetic breakout model. In this model, the initial potential magnetic field has a multipolar topology and the system is driven by imposing a shear flow at the photospheric boundary. Our results yield insight on how to connect solar observations of the orientation of the filament or polarity inversion line (PIL) in the CME source region, the orientation of the CME axis as inferred from coronagraph images, and the ICME flux rope orientation obtained from in situ measurements. We present the results of two numerical simulations that differ only in the direction of the applied shearing motions (i.e., the handedness of the sheared-arcade systems and their resulting CME fields). In both simulations, eruptive flare reconnection occurs underneath the rapidly expanding sheared fields transforming the ejecta fields into three-dimensional flux rope structures. As the erupting flux ropes propagate through the low corona (from 2 to 4 R{sub sun}) the right-handed breakout flux rope rotates clockwise and the left-handed breakout flux rope rotates counterclockwise, in agreement with recent observations of the rotation of erupting filaments. We find that by 3.5 R {sub sun} the average rotation angle between the flux rope axes and the active region PIL is approximately 50 deg. We discuss the implications of these results for predicting, from the observed chirality of the pre-eruption filament and/or other properties of the CME source region, the direction and amount of rotation that magnetic flux rope structures will experience during eruption. We also discuss the implications of our results for CME initiation models.

  18. How much dust does Enceladus eject?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kempf, Sascha; Horanyi, Mihaly; Schmidt, Jürgen; Southworth, Ben

    2015-04-01

    There is an ongoing argument how much dust per second the ice volcanoes on Saturn's ice moon Enceladus eject. By adjusting their plume model to the dust flux measured by the Cassini dust detector during the close Enceladus flyby in 2005, as well as to the plume brightness in Cassini imaging, Schmidt et al. (2008) obtained a total dust production rate in the plumes of about 5 kg/s. On the other hand, Ingersoll and Ewald (2011) derived a dust production rate of 51 kg/s from photometry of very high phase-angle images of the plume, a method that is sensitive also to particles in the size range of microns and larger. Knowledge of the production rate is essential for estimating the dust to gas mass ratio, which in turn is an important constraint for finding the plume source mechanism. Here we report on numerical simulations of the Enceladus dust plume. We run a large number of dynamical simulations including gravity and Lorentz force to investigate the earliest phase of the ring particle life span. The magnetic field in the vicinity of Enceladus is based on the model by Simon et al. (2012). The evolution of the electrostatic charge carried by the initially uncharged grains is treated self-consistently. Our numerical simulations reproduce dust measurements by the Cassini Cosmic Dust Analyzer (CDA) during Cassini plume traversals as well as the snowfall pattern derived from ISS observations of the Enceladus surface (Schenk et al, 2011, EPSC abstract). Based on our simulation results we are able to draw conclusions about the dust production rate as well as wether the Enceladus dust plume constitutes a dusty plasma.

  19. Intraoperative brachial plexus injury during emergence following movement with arms restrained: a preventable complication?

    PubMed Central

    Chandler, Mark H; DiMatteo, Laura; Hasenboehler, Erik A; Temple, Michael

    2007-01-01

    Background Despite considerable analysis and preventive strategies, brachial plexus injuries remain fairly common in the perioperative setting. These injuries range from brief periods of numbness or discomfort in the immediate postoperative period to, in rare cases, profound, prolonged losses of sensation and function. We present a case of an orthopedic surgery patient who suffered a brachial plexus injury while under anesthesia after trying to sit upright with his arms restrained. Case presentation After the uneventful placement of an intramedullary tibial nail, an 18 year old patient tried to sit upright with his arms restrained while still under the influence of anesthesia. In the immediate postoperative period, the patient complained of a profound loss of sensation in his left arm and an inability to flex his left elbow, suppinate his arm, or abduct and rotate his shoulder. Neurological examination and subsequent studies revealed a C5-6 brachial plexus injury. The patient underwent range of motion physical therapy and, over the next three months, regained the full function and sensation of his left arm. Conclusion Restraining arms during general anesthesia to prevent injury remains a wise practice. However, to avoid injuring the brachial plexus while the arms are restrained, extra caution must be used to prevent unexpected patient movement and to ensure gentle emergence. PMID:18271944

  20. In situ cephalic vein bypasses from axillary to the brachial artery after catheterization injuries.

    PubMed

    Hudorovic, Narcis; Lovricevic, Ivo; Ahel, Zaky

    2010-07-01

    The need to bypass to the brachial artery is rare. Over a five-year period, 16 patients had suffered iatrogenic post-catheterization injuries of the upper extremity. We have performed 16 bypasses, in 16 patients, mean age was 65 years (range 47-75), to the brachial artery originating from an artery proximal to the shoulder joint. In all cases, the axillary artery was the donor artery. All bypasses were created by using the cephalic vein with the in situ technique and distal anastomoses were made to a distance-free section of brachial artery. No operative mortality, neurological complications or major upper-extremity amputation was associated with the procedure. Life-long-conduit analysis showed 75% patency in the five-year period. After iatrogenic post-catheterization trauma of arterial system of upper extremity, bypasses from axillary to brachial artery with the cephalic vein with the in situ technique is a safe operation with satisfactory long-term patency. PMID:20395248

  1. Luxation de l’épaule compliquée de paralysie du plexus brachial

    PubMed Central

    Lukulunga, Loubet Unyendje; Moussa, Abdou Kadri; Mahfoud, Mustapha; EL Bardouni, Ahmed; Berrada, Mohamed Saleh; El Yaacoubi, Moradh

    2014-01-01

    Les auteurs rapportent l'observation d'une paralysie totale du plexus brachial survenue trois mois après un épisode de luxation antéro-interne sous coracoïdienne associée à une fracture du trochiter chez une patiente âgée de 88 ans. PMID:25426187

  2. Ultrasound Guided Low Approach Interscalene Brachial Plexus Block for Upper Limb Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Park, Sun Kyung; Sung, Min Ha; Suh, Hae Jin

    2016-01-01

    Background The interscalene brachial plexus block is widely used for pain control and anesthetic purposes during shoulder arthroscopic surgeries and surgeries of the upper extremities. However, it is known that interscalene brachial plexus block is not appropriate for upper limb surgeries because it does not affect the lower trunk (C8-T1, ulnar nerve) of the brachial plexus. Methods A low approach, ultrasound-guided interscalene brachial plexus block (LISB) was performed on twenty-eight patients undergoing surgery of the upper extremities. The patients were assessed five minutes and fifteen minutes after the block for the degree of block in each nerve and muscle as well as for any complications. Results At five minutes and fifteen minutes after the performance of the block, the degree of the block in the ulnar nerve was found to be 2.8 ± 2.6 and 1.1 ± 1.8, respectively, based on a ten-point scale. Motor block occurred in the median nerve after fifteen minutes in 26 of the 28 patients (92.8%), and in all of the other three nerves in all 28 patients. None of the patients received additional analgesics, and none experienced complications. Conclusions The present study confirmed the achievement of an appropriate sensory and motor block in the upper extremities, including the ulnar nerve, fifteen minutes after LISB, with no complications. PMID:26839666

  3. Robot-assisted surgery of the shoulder girdle and brachial plexus.

    PubMed

    Facca, Sybille; Hendriks, Sarah; Mantovani, Gustavo; Selber, Jesse C; Liverneaux, Philippe

    2014-02-01

    New developments in the surgery of the brachial plexus include the use of less invasive surgical approaches and more precise techniques. The theoretical advantages of the use of robotics versus endoscopy are the disappearance of physiological tremor, three-dimensional vision, high definition, magnification, and superior ergonomics. On a fresh cadaver, a dissection space was created and maintained by insufflation of CO2. The supraclavicular brachial plexus was dissected using the da Vinci robot (Intuitive Surgical, Sunnyvale, CA). A segment of the C5 nerve root was grafted robotically. A series of eight clinical cases of nerve damage around the shoulder girdle were operated on using the da Vinci robot. The ability to perform successful microneural repair was confirmed in both the authors' clinical and experimental studies, but the entire potential of robotically assisted microneural surgery was not realized during these initial cases because an open incision was still required. Robotic-assisted surgery of the shoulder girdle and brachial plexus is still in its early stages. It would be ideal to have even finer and more suitable instruments to apply fibrin glue or electrostimulation in nerve surgery. Nevertheless, the prospects of minimally invasive techniques would allow acute and subacute surgical approach of traumatic brachial plexus palsy safely, without significant and cicatricial morbidity. PMID:24872778

  4. The Association of Homocysteine and Related Factors to Brachial Artery Diameter and Flow-Mediated Dilation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (BAFMD) has been proposed as a measurement of the degree and severity of cardiovascular disease. The purpose of this study was to (1) evaluate the associations between BAFMD and homocysteine, folate, vitamin B12, vitamin B6, (2) examine the influence of 5,10-me...

  5. Changes in Spinal Cord Architecture after Brachial Plexus Injury in the Newborn

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Korak, Klaus J.; Tam, Siu Lin; Gordon, Tessa; Frey, Manfred; Aszmann, Oskar C.

    2004-01-01

    Obstetric brachial plexus palsy is a devastating birth injury. While many children recover spontaneously, 20-25% are left with a permanent impairment of the affected limb. So far, concepts of pathology and recovery have focused on the injury of the peripheral nerve. Proximal nerve injury at birth, however, leads to massive injury-induced…

  6. Videodensitometric ejection fraction from intravenous digital subtraction right ventriculograms: correlation with first pass radionuclide ejection fraction

    SciTech Connect

    Detrano, R.; MacIntyre, W.; Salcedo, E.E.; O'Donnell, J.; Underwood, D.A.; Simpfendorfer, C.; Go, R.T.; Butters, K.; Withrow, S.

    1985-06-01

    Thirty-one consecutive patients undergoing intravenous blurred mask digital subtraction right ventriculography were submitted to first pass radionuclide angiography. Second order mask resubtraction of end-diastolic and end-systolic right ventricular digital image frames was executed using preinjection end-diastolic and end-systolic frames to rid the digital subtraction images of mis-registration artifact. End-diastolic and end-systolic perimeters were drawn manually by two independent observers with a light pen. Ejection fractions calculated from the integrated videodensitometric counts within these perimeters correlated well with those derived from the first pass radionuclide right ventriculogram (r = 0.84) and the interobserver correlation was acceptable (r = 0.91). Interobserver differences occurred more frequently in patients with atrial fibrillation and in those whose tricuspid valve planes were difficult to discern on the digital subtraction right ventriculograms. These results suggest that videodensitometric analysis of digital subtraction right ventriculograms is an accurate method of determining right ventricular ejection fraction and may find wide clinical applicability.

  7. System for measuring spatial distribution of ejected droplets, a concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ayvazian, R. A.

    1968-01-01

    System measures the spatial distribution of high-velocity droplets ejected from a nozzle or spray gun. The system employs an electrically resistive grid as the sensing screen, electrical leads, and a signal scanner such as a cathode ray tube.

  8. Particle ejection during mergers of dark matter halos

    SciTech Connect

    Carucci, Isabella P.; Sparre, Martin; Hansen, Steen H.; Joyce, Michael E-mail: sparre@dark-cosmology.dk E-mail: joyce@lpnhe.in2p3.fr

    2014-06-01

    Dark matter halos are built from accretion and merging. During merging some of the dark matter particles may be ejected with velocities higher than the escape velocity. We use both N-body simulations and single-particle smooth-field simulations to demonstrate that rapid changes to the mean field potential are responsible for such ejection, and in particular that dynamical friction plays no significant role in it. Studying a range of minor mergers, we find that typically between 5–15% of the particles from the smaller of the two merging structures are ejected. We also find that the ejected particles originate essentially from the small halo, and more specifically are particles in the small halo which pass later through the region in which the merging occurs.

  9. Classification of Contextual Use of Left Ventricular Ejection Fraction Assessments.

    PubMed

    Kim, Youngjun; Garvin, Jennifer; Goldstein, Mary K; Meystre, Stéphane M

    2015-01-01

    Knowledge of the left ventricular ejection fraction is critical for the optimal care of patients with heart failure. When a document contains multiple ejection fraction assessments, accurate classification of their contextual use is necessary to filter out historical findings or recommendations and prioritize the assessments for selection of document level ejection fraction information. We present a natural language processing system that classifies the contextual use of both quantitative and qualitative left ventricular ejection fraction assessments in clinical narrative documents. We created support vector machine classifiers with a variety of features extracted from the target assessment, associated concepts, and document section information. The experimental results showed that our classifiers achieved good performance, reaching 95.6% F1-measure for quantitative assessments and 94.2% F1-measure for qualitative assessments in a five-fold cross-validation evaluation. PMID:26262121

  10. Mass ejected by impacts with materials of various strengths

    SciTech Connect

    Canavan, G.H.

    1997-02-01

    Similarity solutions are used to discuss impacts on asteroids of various strengths, concentrating on the voids produced, the mass ejected, and its thermodynamic and mechanical state. Numerical calculations have advantages and limitations for the next step in complexity.

  11. Brachial plexus palsy after a left-side modified radical mastectomy with immediate latissimusdorsi flap reconstruction: report of a case

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Brachial plexus injury is a rare complication during operation and anesthesia; it can occur as a result of various mechanisms such as inappropriate positioning, over-abduction and stretching the upper limbs. Brachial plexus injury can cause the poor function of the upper limb before recovery, and sometimes serious injury is unable to completely recovered the function permanently. Here, we report a female breast cancer patient who sustained a left brachial plexus palsy after modified radical mastectomy with immediate breast reconstruction with latissimusdorsi flap (LDF). The patient had fully recovered with normal function of her left upper limb six months postoperation after conservative treatment. PMID:24127915

  12. Investigation on occupant ejection in high severity rear impact based on post mortem human subject sled tests.

    PubMed

    Petit, Philippe; Luet, Carole; Potier, Pascal; Vallancien, Guy

    2011-11-01

    Occupant protection in rear impact involves two competing challenges. On one hand, allowing a deformation of the seat would act as an energy absorber in low severity impacts and would consequently decrease the risk of neck injuries. However, on the other hand, large deformations of the seat may increase the likelihood of occupant ejection in high severity cases. Green et al. 1987 analyzed a total of 919 accidents in Great Britain. They found that occupant ejection resulted in a risk of severe injuries and fatalities between 3.6 and 4.5 times higher than those cases where no ejection was observed. The sample included single front, side and rear impacts as well as multiple impacts and rollover. The rate of belt use in the sample was 50%. While this analysis included all forms of impact scenarios, nevertheless, it highlights the relative injury severity of occupant ejection. Extensive literature search has found no full-scale rear impact tests involving Post Mortem Human Subjects (PMHS) conducted in a laboratory environment and resulting in ejection. This paper describes a total of 10 sled tests conducted on 3 belted PMHS using a simplified seat design composed of rigid plates assembled such that the angular and linear stiffness of the seatback (including the foam) was modeled. The initial angular position and the range of motion of the seatback, the size of the PMHS, the slack length of the seatbelt, the angular stiffness of the seatback, and the use of headrest were varied in the test matrix while the pulse was kept constant (triangular acceleration with a peak of 17 G at 30 ms and a duration of 95 ms). In the test series, the tests were not run randomly but the likelihood of occupant ejection was increased systematically until ejection occurred. PMHS seat ejection was observed only for the 95th percentile, initially positioned with a seatback angle relative to the vertical equal to 22°, a range of seatback angular motion equal to 44° and no headrest. Repeating

  13. Ejection of gaseous clumps from gravitationally unstable protostellar disks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vorobyov, E. I.

    2016-05-01

    Aims: We investigate the dynamics of gaseous clumps formed via gravitational fragmentation in young protostellar disks, focusing on the fragments that are ejected from the disk via many-body gravitational interaction. Methods: Numerical hydrodynamics simulations were employed to study the evolution of young protostellar disks that were formed from the collapse of rotating pre-stellar cores. Results: The protostellar disks that formed in our models undergo gravitational fragmentation driven by continuing mass-loading from parental collapsing cores. Several fragments can be ejected from the disk during the early evolution, but the low-mass fragments (<15 MJup) disperse, which creates spectacular bow-type structures while passing through the disk and collapsing core. The least massive fragment that survived the ejection (21 MJup) straddles the planetary-mass limit, while the most massive ejected fragments (145 MJup) can break up into several pieces, leading to the ejection of wide separation binary clumps in the brown-dwarf mass range. About half of the ejected fragments are gravitationally bound, the majority are supported by rotation against gravity, and all fragments have the specific angular momentum that is much higher than that expected for brown dwarfs. We found that the internal structure of the ejected fragments is distinct from what would be expected for gravitationally contracting clumps formed via molecular cloud fragmentation, which can help in differentiating their origin. Conclusions: The ejection of fragments is an important process, which is inherent to massive protostellar disks, and which produces freely floating pre-brown dwarf cores, regulates the disk and stellar masses and, potentially, enriches the intracluster medium with processed dust and complex organics.

  14. Brachial-Ankle Pulse Wave Velocity: Background, Method, and Clinical Evidence

    PubMed Central

    Munakata, Masanori

    2016-01-01

    Background The populations of many developed countries are becoming progressively older. In aged societies, assessment of total vascular risk is critically important, because old age is usually associated with multiple risks. In this regard, pulse wave velocity (PWV) could be a global cardiovascular marker, since it increases with advancing age, high blood pressure, hyperglycaemia, and other traditional risks, summating cardiovascular risks. Carotid-femoral PWV has been widely applied in Western countries and has been used as a gold-standard PWV measure. However, this measure has never been implemented by general practitioners in Japan, possibly because of methodological difficulties. The life expectancy of Japanese people is now the highest in the world, and the establishment of an adequate total vascular risk measure is an urgent need. Against this background, brachial-ankle PWV was developed at the beginning of this century. Summary Measurement of this parameter is easy, and its reproducibility is good. Moreover, the generality of the methodology is guaranteed. Brachial-ankle PWV has been reported to consistently increase with most traditional cardiovascular risk factors except dyslipidaemia. A meta-analysis of cohort studies including various levels of risk has shown that a 1 m/s increase in brachial-ankle PWV is associated with a 12% increase in the risk of cardiovascular events. Moreover, simultaneous evaluation of the ankle-brachial index could allow further risk stratification of high-risk individuals, who are common in aged societies. This unique feature is indispensable for the management of aged populations, who usually are exposed to multiple risks and have polyvascular diseases. This evidence, however, is chiefly derived from East Asian countries. The collection of data from Caucasian populations, therefore, remains a task for the future. Key Message Brachial-ankle PWV has the potential to become a measure of arterial stiffness worldwide. PMID:27195241

  15. Energetic Correlation Between Solar Flares and Coronal Mass Ejections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dennis, Brian R.; Medlin, Drew A.; Haga, Leah; Schwartz, Richard a.; Tolbert, A. Kimberly

    2007-01-01

    We find a strong correlation between the kinetic energies (KEs) of the coronal mass ejections (CMEs) and the radiated energies of the associated solar flares for the events that occurred during the period of intense solar activity between 18 October and 08 November 2003. CME start times, speeds, mass and KEs were taken from Gopalswamy et al. (2005), who used SOHO/LASCO observations. The GOES observations of the associated flares were analyzed to find the peak soft X-ray (SXR) flux, the radiated energy in SXRs (L(sub sxR)), and the radiated energy from the emitting plasma across all wavelengths (L(sub hot)). RHESSI observations were also used to find the energy in non-thermal electrons, ions, and the plasma thermal energy for some events. For two events, SORCE/TIM observations of the total solar irradiance during a flare were also available to give the total radiated flare energy (L(sub total)).W e find that the total flare energies of the larger events are of the same order of magnitude as the CME KE with a stronger correlation than has been found in the past for other time intervals.

  16. Stereoscopic Observations of Low Coronal Ejections With and Without CMEs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nitta, N. V.; Wülser, J.; Aschwanden, M. J.; Lemen, J. R.

    2007-12-01

    Yohkoh soft X-ray images of solar flares have frequently shown characteristic ejections during the impulsive phase. They are thought to be plasmoids that hold important information on magnetic reconnection. These ejections are intimately associated with coronal mass ejections (e.g., Nitta & Akiyama 1999; Kim et al. 2005). They probably represent internal structures of CMEs, i.e., high-temperature counterparts of filament eruptions. However, their relation with ejections seen at low temperatures has not been studied systematically, although TRACE has revealed many beautiful examples. In this work we study ejections observed by the SECCHI EUVI on STEREO. Some of them are associated with CMEs, and others are not. Using pairs of EUVI images from spacecraft A and B, the trajectories of ejecta in individual channels (with representative temperatures 0.1-2 MK) are reconstructed in 3D. We discuss these ejections at different temperatures in the context of CMEs. Specifically, we ask what kinetic properties are correlated with CMEs and how they are related with CME manifestations in the low corona such as dimming and waves.

  17. Multivalent counterions inhibit DNA ejection from viral capsid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Toan

    2008-03-01

    Viral DNA packaged inside a bacteriophage is tighly bent. This stored bending energy of DNA is believed to be the main driving force to eject viral DNA into host cell upon capsid binding. One can control the amount of ejected DNA by subjecting the virus to a solution of PEG8000 molecules. The molecules cannot penetrate the viral capsid, therefore, they exert an osmotic pressure on the virus preventing DNA ejection. Experiments showed that for a given osmotic pressure, the degree of ejection also depends on the concentration of small ions in solution. Interestingly, for multivalent ions (such as Mg2+, Spd3+ or HexCo3+), this dependence is non-monotonic. We propose a simple electrostatic theory to explain this non-monotonic behavior. This is based on the fact that DNA molecules can invert its net charge at high enough multivalent counterion concentration. In other words, as multivalent counterion concentration is increased from zero, charge of DNA molecules change from negative to positive. At the concentration where DNA net charge is zero, the DNA molecules experience an attraction between different segments and DNA ejected amount is reduced. At low or high counterion concentration, DNA segments are charged (negatively or positively), repel each other and DNA ejected amount is increased. Fitting the result of the theory to experimental data, we obtain a numerical value for Mg2+ mediated DNA - DNA attraction energy to be -0.008kT per base.

  18. Inter-Arm Difference in Brachial Blood Pressure in the General Population of Koreans

    PubMed Central

    Song, Bo Mi; Shim, Jee-Seon; Lee, Myung Ha; Choi, Dong Phil

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives We investigated the inter-arm difference in blood pressure of the general Korean population to identify associated factors. Subjects and Methods A total of 806 participants aged 30 to 64 years without history of major cardiovascular disease were analyzed in this cross-sectional study. They participated in the Cardiovascular and Metabolic Disease Etiology Research Center cohort study that began in 2013. Brachial blood pressure was measured simultaneously for both arms using an automated oscillometric device equipped with two cuffs in seated position. After five minutes of rest, systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) were measured three times. The average of the three measurements was used for analysis. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to identify factors associated with inter-arm differences in blood pressure. Results The mean inter-arm difference was 3.3 mmHg for SBP and 2.0 mmHg for DBP. Large inter-arm differences (≥10 mmHg) in SBP and in DBP were found in 3.7% and 0.9% of subjects, respectively. A large inter-arm difference in SBP was associated with mean SBP (p=0.002) and C-reactive protein (p=0.014) while a large inter-arm different in DBP was only associated with body mass index (p=0.015). Sex, age, and anti-hypertensive medication use were not associated with differences in inter-arm blood pressure. Conclusion Large inter-arm difference in blood pressure is only present in a small portion of healthy Korean adults. Our findings suggest that high SBP, chronic inflammation, and obesity may be associated with larger difference in inter-arm blood pressure. PMID:27275174

  19. M2-F1 ejection seat test at South Edwards

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1963-01-01

    The M2-F1 was fitted with an ejection seat before the airtow flights began. The project selected the seat used in the T-37 as modified by the Weber Company to use a rocket rather than a ballistic charge for ejection. To test the ejection seat, the Flight Research Center's Dick Klein constructed a plywood mockup of the M2-F1's top deck and canopy. On the first firings, the test was unsuccessful, but on the final test the dummy in the seat landed safely. The M2-F1 ejection seat was later used in the two Lunar Landing Research Vehicles and the three Lunar Landing Training Vehicles. Three of them crashed, but in each case the pilot ejected from the vehicle successfully. The wingless, lifting body aircraft design was initially conceived as a means of landing an aircraft horizontally after atmospheric reentry. The absence of wings would make the extreme heat of re-entry less damaging to the vehicle. In 1962, Dryden management approved a program to build a lightweight, unpowered lifting body as a prototype to flight test the wingless concept. It would look like a 'flying bathtub,' and was designated the M2-F1, the 'M' referring to 'manned' and 'F' referring to 'flight' version. It featured a plywood shell placed over a tubular steel frame crafted at Dryden. Construction was completed in 1963. The first flight tests of the M2-F1 were over Rogers Dry Lake at the end of a tow rope attached to a hopped-up Pontiac convertible driven at speeds up to about 120 mph. This vehicle needed to be able to tow the M2-F1 on the Rogers Dry Lakebed adjacent to NASA's Flight Research Center (FRC) at a minimum speed of 100 miles per hour. To do that, it had to handle the 400-pound pull of the M2-F1. Walter 'Whitey' Whiteside, who was a retired Air Force maintenance officer working in the FRC's Flight Operations Division, was a dirt-bike rider and hot-rodder. Together with Boyden 'Bud' Bearce in the Procurement and Supply Branch of the FRC, Whitey acquired a Pontiac Catalina convertible with

  20. NEAR-SIMULTANEOUS OBSERVATIONS OF X-RAY PLASMA EJECTION, CORONAL MASS EJECTION, AND TYPE II RADIO BURST

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Yeon-Han; Bong, Su-Chan; Park, Y.-D.; Cho, K.-S.; Moon, Y.-J.

    2009-11-10

    We report the first simultaneous observation of X-ray plasma ejection (XPE), coronal mass ejection (CME), and type II solar radio burst on 1999 October 26. First, an XPE was observed from 21:12 UT to 21:24 UT in the Yohkoh SXT field of view (1.1 to 1.4 R{sub sun}). The XPE was accelerated with a speed range from 190 to 410 km s{sup -1} and its average speed is about 290 km s{sup -1}. Second, the associated CME was observed by the Mauna Loa Mk4 coronameter (1.1-2.8 R{sub sun}) from 21:16 UT. The CME front was clearly identified at 21:26 UT and propagated with a deceleration of about -110 m s{sup -2}. Its average speed is about 360 km s{sup -1}. At the type II burst start time (21:25 UT), the height of the CME front is around 1.7 R{sub sun} and its speed is about 470 km s{sup -1}. Third, a type II solar radio burst was observed from 21:25 UT to 21:43 UT by the Culgoora solar radio spectrograph. The burst shows three emission patches during this observing period and the emission heights of the burst are estimated to be about 1.3 R{sub sun} (21:25 UT), 1.4 R{sub sun} (21:30 UT), and 1.8 R{sub sun} (21:40 UT). By comparing these three phenomena, we find that: (1) kinematically, while the XPE shows acceleration, the associated CME front shows deceleration; (2) there is an obvious height difference (0.3 R {sub sun}) between the CME front and the XPE front around 21:24 UT and the formation height of the type II burst is close to the trajectory extrapolated from the XPE front; (3) both speeds of the XPE and the CME are comparable with each other around the starting time of the type II burst. Considering the formation height and the speed of the type II burst, we suggest that its first emission is due to the coronal shock generated by the XPE and the other two emissions are driven by the CME flank interacting with the high-density streamer.

  1. Brachial Plexopathy due to Myeloid Sarcoma in a Patient With Acute Myeloid Leukemia After Allogenic Peripheral Blood Stem Cell Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Ha, Yumi; Sung, Duk Hyun; Park, Yoonhong; Kim, Du Hwan

    2013-04-01

    Myeloid sarcoma is a solid, extramedullary tumor comprising of immature myeloid cells. It may occur in any organ; however, the invasion of peripheral nervous system is rare. Herein, we report the case of myeloid sarcoma on the brachial plexus. A 37-year-old woman with acute myelogenous leukemia achieved complete remission after chemotherapy. One year later, she presented right shoulder pain, progressive weakness in the right upper extremity and hypesthesia. Based on magnetic resonance images (MRI) and electrophysiologic study, a provisional diagnosis of brachial plexus neuritis was done and hence steroid pulse therapy was carried out. Three months later the patient presented epigastric pain. After upper gastrointestinal endoscopy, myeloid sarcoma of gastrointestinal tract was confirmed pathologically. Moreover, 18-fluoride fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography showed a fusiform shaped mass lesion at the brachial plexus overlapping with previous high signal lesion on the MRI. Therefore, we concluded the final diagnosis as brachial plexopathy due to myeloid sarcoma. PMID:23705126

  2. MAGNETIC FIELD STRUCTURES TRIGGERING SOLAR FLARES AND CORONAL MASS EJECTIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Kusano, K.; Bamba, Y.; Yamamoto, T. T.; Iida, Y.; Toriumi, S.; Asai, A.

    2012-11-20

    Solar flares and coronal mass ejections, the most catastrophic eruptions in our solar system, have been known to affect terrestrial environments and infrastructure. However, because their triggering mechanism is still not sufficiently understood, our capacity to predict the occurrence of solar eruptions and to forecast space weather is substantially hindered. Even though various models have been proposed to determine the onset of solar eruptions, the types of magnetic structures capable of triggering these eruptions are still unclear. In this study, we solved this problem by systematically surveying the nonlinear dynamics caused by a wide variety of magnetic structures in terms of three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic simulations. As a result, we determined that two different types of small magnetic structures favor the onset of solar eruptions. These structures, which should appear near the magnetic polarity inversion line (PIL), include magnetic fluxes reversed to the potential component or the nonpotential component of major field on the PIL. In addition, we analyzed two large flares, the X-class flare on 2006 December 13 and the M-class flare on 2011 February 13, using imaging data provided by the Hinode satellite, and we demonstrated that they conform to the simulation predictions. These results suggest that forecasting of solar eruptions is possible with sophisticated observation of a solar magnetic field, although the lead time must be limited by the timescale of changes in the small magnetic structures.

  3. A Driving Mechanism for Flux-Rope Coronal Mass Ejections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krall, J.; Chen, J.

    2001-05-01

    Numerous quantitative comparisons[1-4] of observational data to a flux-rope model of coronal mass ejections (CMEs) show that flux-rope CMEs are common events with specific geometrical and dynamical properties. In the model, a CME corresponds to a flux rope with foot points that remain anchored in the photosphere as it erupts. Comparisons of model results for various drive mechanisms[5] to observed CMEs show that flux injection (an increase in poloidal flux) provides the best match. With flux-injection, the CME is driven during and after the onset of eruption. Thus, acceleration time-scales are on the order of hours in agreement with observed CMEs, many or which are neither ``quasi-static'' nor ``impulsive.'' This contrasts with the photospheric-shearing paradigm in which there is a loss of equilibrium resulting in a characteristic velocity profile that does not match the observations in detail. Photospheric signatures of eruption are also studied; the model predicts no significant ``twisting up'' of the magnetic field at the photosphere during flux injection. [1] Chen, J. et al., 1997, ApJ, 490, L191 [2] Wood, B.E. et al., 1998, ApJ, 512, 484. [3] Chen, J. et al., 2000, ApJ, 533, 481 [4] Krall, J. et al., 2001, ApJ, submitted [5] Krall, J. et al., 2000, ApJ, 539, 964 Work supported by ONR.

  4. Acceleration and Deceleration of Coronal Mass Ejection (CME) Propagation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, F.; Wu, S.; Feng, X. S.; Wu, C.

    2011-12-01

    A major challenge to the space weather forecasting community is accurate prediction of coronal mass ejections (CME) induced Shock Arrival Time (SAT) at Earth's environment. In order to improve the current accuracy, it is necessary to understand the physical processes of the acceleration and deceleration of the CME propagation in the heliosphere. We present a three-dimensional (3D) magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulation of the evolution of two interacting CMEs in a realistic ambient solar wind for the March 28-31, 2001 event. The forces which caused the acceleration and deceleration are analyzed in detail. The force which caused the acceleration are Lorenz force and pressure gradient and the forces which caused the deceleration are aerodynamic drag and the Sun's gravity. In addition the momentum exchange between the solar wind and the moving CMEs can cause acceleration and deceleration of the CME which are now analyzed. In this specific CME event (March 28-31, 2001), we also investigate the interactions of two CMEs causing the acceleration and deceleration of the CMEs.

  5. The 3D structure of Coronal Mass Ejections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patsourakos, Spiros

    2016-07-01

    Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs) represent one of the most powerful energy release phenomena in the entire solar system and are a major driver of space weather. Prior to 2006, our observational access to CMEs was limited to single viewpoint remote sensing observations in the inner/outer corona, and in-situ observations further away, e.g. at 1 AU. Taking all these factors together, turned out to be a major obstacle in our understanding and characterizing of the 3D structure and evolution of CMEs. The situation improved dramatically with the availability of multi-viewpoint imaging observations of CMEs, all way through from the Sun to 1 AU, from the STEREO mission since 2006, combined with observations from other missions (SOHO, Hinode, SDO, IRIS). With this talk we will discuss several key recent results in CME science resulting from the analysis of multi-viewpoint observations. This includes: (1) shape and structure; (2) kinematics and energetics; (3) trajectories, deflections and rotations; (4) arrival times and velocities at 1 AU; (5) magnetic field structure; (6) relationships with coronal and interplanetary shocks and solar energetic particles. The implications of these results in terms of CME theories and models will be also addressed. We will conclude with a discussion of important open issues in our understanding of CMEs and how these could be addressed with upcoming (Solar Orbiter, Solar Probe Plus) and under-study missions (e.g., L5).

  6. From SOHO to STEREO: Understanding Propagation of Coronal Mass Ejections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gopalswamy, Natchimuthuk

    2011-01-01

    Direct comparison between coronal mass ejections (CMEs) from near the Sun and their solar wind counterparts became possible roughly a decade after the discovery of CMEs (Lindsay et aL 1999). This comparison revealed that fast CMEs decelerate and slow CMEs accelerate due to the interaction with the solar wind. Gopalswamy et al (2000) quantified this interaction as an interplanetary acceleration which is useful in predicting the arrival time and speed of CMEs at 1 AU. The interplanetary acceleration is essentially due to the aerodynamic drag between the CME and the solar wind because the propelling force and the solar gravity are effective only near the Sun. Combined remote-sensing and in situ observations from SOHO and Wind/ACE have helped us estimate the influence of the solar wind on the propagation of CMEs. However, these measurements have severe limitations because the remote sensed and in-situ observations correspond to different portions of the CME. Furthermore, the true speeds of Earth-directed CMEs cannot be measured accurately from a spacecraft located along the Sun-Earth line. There have been attempts to model the CME as a cone and get the space speed of the CME, which did improve the travel time predictions. Instruments on board the Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory (STEREO) mission were able to provide observations of Earth-arriving CMEs without projection effects, while the same CMEs were observed at Sun-Earth L1 by Wind and ACE spacecraft. The quadrature between STEREO and L1 spacecraft presented an ideal situation to study the interplanetary evolution of CMEs and test earlier model results. The quadrature observations did improve the CME travel time predictions, but additional factors such as the unusually slow solar wind, CME cannibalism, and coronal-hole deflection need to be considered to reconcile the difference between observed and predicted travel times. This point is illustrated using the 2011 February 15 CME

  7. Characterizing the original ejection velocity field of the Koronis family

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carruba, V.; Nesvorný, D.; Aljbaae, S.

    2016-06-01

    An asteroid family forms as a result of a collision between an impactor and a parent body. The fragments with ejection speeds higher than the escape velocity from the parent body can escape its gravitational pull. The cloud of escaping debris can be identified by the proximity of orbits in proper element, or frequency, domains. Obtaining estimates of the original ejection speed can provide valuable constraints on the physical processes occurring during collision, and used to calibrate impact simulations. Unfortunately, proper elements of asteroids families are modified by gravitational and non-gravitational effects, such as resonant dynamics, encounters with massive bodies, and the Yarkovsky effect, such that information on the original ejection speeds is often lost, especially for older, more evolved families. It has been recently suggested that the distribution in proper inclination of the Koronis family may have not been significantly perturbed by local dynamics, and that information on the component of the ejection velocity that is perpendicular to the orbital plane (vW), may still be available, at least in part. In this work we estimate the magnitude of the original ejection velocity speeds of Koronis members using the observed distribution in proper eccentricity and inclination, and accounting for the spread caused by dynamical effects. Our results show that (i) the spread in the original ejection speeds is, to within a 15% error, inversely proportional to the fragment size, and (ii) the minimum ejection velocity is of the order of 50 m/s, with larger values possible depending on the orbital configuration at the break-up.

  8. Recurrent brachial artery embolism caused by a crutch-induced axillary artery aneurysm: report of a case.

    PubMed

    Morisaki, Koichi; Kuma, Sosei; Okazaki, Jin

    2014-07-01

    We report a case of axillary artery aneurysm with brachial artery embolism in a 60-year-old man who had walked with the assistance of axillary crutches all of his life since poliomyelitis during infancy had left him with lower limb paralysis. We performed bypass grafting from the axillary to brachial artery with exclusion of the aneurysm. An axillary artery aneurysm is rare, but potentially lethal for the upper extremity; therefore, surgical treatment should be considered. PMID:23807637

  9. Simulation of a liquid droplet ejection device using multi-actuator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ono, Yoshihiro; Yoshino, Michitaka; Yasuda, Akira; Tanuma, Chiaki

    2016-07-01

    An equivalent circuit model for a liquid droplet ejection device using a multiactuator has been developed. The equivalent circuit was simplified using a gyrator in the synthesis of the outputs of many elements. The simulation was performed for an inkjet head having three piezoelectric elements using MATLAB/Simulink. In this model, the pressure chamber is filled with a Newtonian fluid. For this reason, the model assumed only the resistance component of the pressure chamber and the nozzle as a load. Furthermore, since the resistance component of the inlet is much larger than that of the nozzle, it is not considered in this model. As a result, by providing a time difference between the driving signals of the piezoelectric elements, we found that the pressure of the ink chamber could be arbitrarily controlled. By this model, it becomes possible to control the pressure in the ink chamber of the inkjet head required for the ejection of various inks.

  10. Coupled thermal analysis applied to the study of the rod ejection accident

    SciTech Connect

    Gonnet, M.

    2012-07-01

    An advanced methodology for the assessment of fuel-rod thermal margins under RIA conditions has been developed by AREVA NP SAS. With the emergence of RIA analytical criteria, the study of the Rod Ejection Accident (REA) would normally require the analysis of each fuel rod, slice by slice, over the whole core. Up to now the strategy used to overcome this difficulty has been to perform separate analyses of sampled fuel pins with conservative hypotheses for thermal properties and boundary conditions. In the advanced methodology, the evaluation model for the Rod Ejection Accident (REA) integrates the node average fuel and coolant properties calculation for neutron feedback purpose as well as the peak fuel and coolant time-dependent properties for criteria checking. The calculation grid for peak fuel and coolant properties can be specified from the assembly pitch down to the cell pitch. The comparative analysis of methodologies shows that coupled methodology allows reducing excessive conservatism of the uncoupled approach. (authors)

  11. Three-Dimensional Structure and Energy Balance of a Coronal Mass Ejection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, J.-Y.; Raymond, J. C.; Ko, Y.-K.; Kim, K.-S.

    2009-01-01

    UVCS observed Doppler-shifted material of a partial halo coronal mass ejection (CME) on 2001 December 13. The observed ratio of [O VJ/O V] is a reliable density diagnostic important for assessing the state of the plasma. Earlier UVCS observations of CMEs found evidence that the ejected plasma is heated long after the eruption. This paper investigated the heating rates, which represent a significant fraction of the CME energy budget. The parameterized heating and radiative and adiabatic cooling have been used to evaluate the temperature evolution of the CME material with a time-dependent ionization state model. Continuous heating is required to match the UVCS observations. To match the O VI bright knots, a higher heating rate is required such that the heating energy is greater than the kinetic energy.

  12. Studies of hydrodynamic events in stellar evolution. III Ejection of planetary nebulae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kutter, G. S.; Sparks, W. M.

    1974-01-01

    Investigation of the dynamic behavior of the hydrogen-rich envelope (0.101 solar mass) of an evolved star (1.1 solar mass) as the luminosity rises to 19,000 solar luminosities during the second ascent of the red-giant branch. For luminosities in the range 3100 less than L less than 19,000 solar luminosities the H-rich envelope pulsates like a long-period variable (LPV) with periods of the order of a year. As L reaches 19,000 solar luminosities, the entire H-rich envelope is ejected as a shell with speeds of a few times 10 km sec. The ejection occurs on a time scale of a few LPV pulsation periods. This ejection is shown to be related to the formation of a planetary nebula. The computations are based on an implicit hydrodynamic computer code. Tand rho-dependent opacities and excitation and ionization energies are included. As the H-rich envelope is accelerated off the stellar core, the gap between envelope and core is approximated by a vacuum filled with radiation.

  13. Reducing Space Charge Effects in a Linear Ion Trap by Rhombic Ion Excitation and Ejection.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaohua; Wang, Yuzhuo; Hu, Lili; Guo, Dan; Fang, Xiang; Zhou, Mingfei; Xu, Wei

    2016-07-01

    Space charge effects play important roles in ion trap operations, which typically limit the ion trapping capacity, dynamic range, mass accuracy, and resolving power of a quadrupole ion trap. In this study, a rhombic ion excitation and ejection method was proposed to minimize space charge effects in a linear ion trap. Instead of applying a single dipolar AC excitation signal, two dipolar AC excitation signals with the same frequency and amplitude but 90° phase difference were applied in the x- and y-directions of the linear ion trap, respectively. As a result, mass selective excited ions would circle around the ion cloud located at the center of the ion trap, rather than go through the ion cloud. In this work, excited ions were then axially ejected and detected, but this rhombic ion excitation method could also be applied to linear ion traps with ion radial ejection capabilities. Experiments show that space charge induced mass resolution degradation and mass shift could be alleviated with this method. For the experimental conditions in this work, space charge induced mass shift could be decreased by ~50%, and the mass resolving power could be improved by ~2 times at the same time. Graphical Abstract ᅟ. PMID:27080008

  14. Reducing Space Charge Effects in a Linear Ion Trap by Rhombic Ion Excitation and Ejection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiaohua; Wang, Yuzhuo; Hu, Lili; Guo, Dan; Fang, Xiang; Zhou, Mingfei; Xu, Wei

    2016-07-01

    Space charge effects play important roles in ion trap operations, which typically limit the ion trapping capacity, dynamic range, mass accuracy, and resolving power of a quadrupole ion trap. In this study, a rhombic ion excitation and ejection method was proposed to minimize space charge effects in a linear ion trap. Instead of applying a single dipolar AC excitation signal, two dipolar AC excitation signals with the same frequency and amplitude but 90° phase difference were applied in the x- and y-directions of the linear ion trap, respectively. As a result, mass selective excited ions would circle around the ion cloud located at the center of the ion trap, rather than go through the ion cloud. In this work, excited ions were then axially ejected and detected, but this rhombic ion excitation method could also be applied to linear ion traps with ion radial ejection capabilities. Experiments show that space charge induced mass resolution degradation and mass shift could be alleviated with this method. For the experimental conditions in this work, space charge induced mass shift could be decreased by ~50%, and the mass resolving power could be improved by ~2 times at the same time.

  15. Two Solar Flares that Became X-ray Plasma Ejections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomczak, M.

    Solar flares and X-ray plasma ejections (XPEs) occur simultaneously but usually are separated spatially. We present two exceptional events observed by Yohkoh in 2001 October 2 (event 1) and 2000 October 16 (event 2), in which features of flares and XPEs are mixed. Namely, the soft and hard X-ray images show intense sources of emission that move dynamically. Both events occurred inside broad active regions showing complicated multi-level structure reaching up to 200 Mm high. Both events show also similar four-stages evolution: (1) a fast rise of a system of loops, (2) sudden changes in their emission distribution, (3) a reconfiguration leading to liberation of large amounts of plasma, (4) a small, static loop as the final remnant. Nevertheless, the events are probably caused by different physical processes: emerging magnetic flux plus reconnection (event 1) and reconnection plus ballooning instability (event 2). Different is also the final destination of the ejected plasma: in the event 1 overlying magnetic fields stop the ejection, in the event 2 the ejection destabilizes the overall magnetic structure and forms a coronal mass ejection (CME).

  16. Could Jupiter or Saturn Have Ejected a Fifth Giant Planet?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cloutier, Ryan; Tamayo, Daniel; Valencia, Diana

    2015-11-01

    Models of the dynamical evolution of the early solar system that follow the dispersal of the gaseous protoplanetary disk have been widely successful in reconstructing the current orbital configuration of the giant planets. Statistically, some of the most successful dynamical evolution simulations have initially included a hypothetical fifth giant planet, of ice giant (IG) mass, which gets ejected by a gas giant during the early solar system’s proposed instability phase. We investigate the likelihood of an IG ejection (IGE) event by either Jupiter or Saturn through constraints imposed by the current orbits of their wide-separation regular satellites Callisto and Iapetus, respectively. We show that planetary encounters that are sufficient to eject an IG often provide excessive perturbations to the orbits of Callisto and Iapetus, making it difficult to reconcile a planet ejection event with the current orbit of either satellite. Quantitatively, we compute the likelihood of reconciling a regular Jovian satellite orbit with the current orbit of Callisto following an IGE by Jupiter of ∼42%, and conclude that such a large likelihood supports the hypothesis of a fifth giant planet’s existence. A similar calculation for Iapetus reveals that it is much more difficult for Saturn to have ejected an IG and reconciled a Kronian satellite orbit with that of Iapetus (likelihood ∼1%), although uncertainties regarding the formation of Iapetus, with its unusual orbit, complicates the interpretation of this result.

  17. Inhibition of DNA ejection from bacteriophage by Mg+2 counterions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Sell; Tran, C. V.; Nguyen, T. T.

    2011-03-01

    The problem of inhibiting viral DNA ejection from bacteriophages by multivalent counterions, specifically Mg+2 counterions, is studied. Experimentally, it is known that MgSO4 salt has a strong and nonmonotonic effect on the amount of DNA ejected. There exists an optimal concentration at which the minimum amount of DNA is ejected from the virus. At lower or higher concentrations, more DNA is ejected from the capsid. We propose that this phenomenon is the result of DNA overcharging by Mg+2 multivalent counterions. As Mg+2 concentration increases from zero, the net charge of DNA changes from negative to positive. The optimal inhibition corresponds to the Mg+2 concentration where DNA is neutral. At lower/higher concentrations, DNA genome is charged. It prefers to be in solution to lower its electrostatic self-energy, which consequently leads to an increase in DNA ejection. By fitting our theory to available experimental data, the strength of DNA-DNA short range attraction energies, mediated by Mg+2, is found to be -0.004 kBT per nucleotide base. This and other fitted parameters agree well with known values from other experiments and computer simulations. The parameters are also in agreement qualitatively with values for tri- and tetravalent counterions.

  18. RAVE stars tidally stripped or ejected from the ω Centauri globular cluster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernández-Trincado, J. G.; Robin, A. C.; Vieira, K.; Moreno, E.; Bienaymé, O.; Reylé, C.; Valenzuela, O.; Pichardo, B.; Robles-Valdez, F.; Martins, A. M. M.

    2015-11-01

    Using six-dimensional phase-space information from the Fourth Data release of the RAdial Velocity Experiment (RAVE) over the range of Galactic longitude 240°time. We also ignored secular changes in the Milky Way potential over time. In a Monte Carlo scheme, and under the assumption that the stars may have been ejected with velocities greater than the escape velocity (Vrel>Vesc,0) from the cluster, we identified 15 stars as having close encounters with ω Centauri: (i) 8 stars with relative velocities Vrel< 200 km s-1 may have been ejected ~200 Myr ago from ω Centauri; (ii) another group of 7 stars were identified with high relative velocity Vrel> 200 km s-1 during close encounters, and it seems unlikely that they were ejected from ω Centauri. We also confirm the link between J131340.4-484714 as a potential member of ω Centauri, and probably ejected ~2.0 Myr ago, with a relative velocity Vrel ~ 80 km s-1. Appendix A is available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.orgFull Table A.1 is only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/583/A76

  19. Comparison of standard laminectomy with an optimized ejection method for the removal of spinal cords from rats and mice

    PubMed Central

    Kennedy, Heather S; Jones, Charles; Caplazi, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    For researchers seeking to collect spinal cord samples from mice and rats while avoiding acid decalcification, few options are available. Laminectomy is the standard method which yields high quality samples, yet is time consuming and technically difficult. Ejection of the cord from the vertebral column is another technique commonly used; however, the literature suggests that this method can damage the spinal tissues and is typically avoided when histology of samples is the desired endpoint. Here, we describe an optimized method for ejection of spinal cords from rats and mice, and compare histological quality of these samples with those collected via laminectomy. Our results show that ejection can yield high quality spinal cord samples and may be suitable for use as an alternative to laminectomy. PMID:24039319

  20. High-Speed Video for Investigating Splash Erosion Behaviour: Obtaining Initial Velocity and Angle of Ejections by Tracking Trajectories.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahn, S.; Doerr, S.; Douglas, P.; Bryant, R.; Hamlett, C.; McHale, G.; Newton, M.; Shirtcliffe, N.

    2012-04-01

    The use of high-speed videography has been shown to be very useful in some splash erosion studies. One methodological problem that arises in its application is the difficulty in tracking a large number of particles in slow motion, especially when the use of automatic tracking software is limited. With this problem, some studies simply assume a certain ejecting angle for all particles rather than actually tracking every particle. In this contribution, different combinations of variables (e.g. landing position, landing time or departing position, etc.) were compared in order to determine an efficient and sufficiently precise method for trajectory tracking when a large amount of particles are being ejected.

  1. The ejection anisotropy in the Coulomb explosion of some alkyl halide molecules under strong ps laser fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaziannis, S.; Kosmidis, C.

    2009-01-01

    The ejection anisotropy of Coulomb explosion fragments released from alkyl halide molecules (C 2H 5X, 1-C 3H 7X and 1-C 4H 9X, where X = Br, Cl) under strong 35 ps laser irradiation is studied by means of time-of-flight mass spectrometry. By comparing the angular distributions widths of the halogen fragment ions originating from multiply charged molecular ions it is concluded that the ejection anisotropy presents a weak dependence on the mass of the halogen atom, observed especially in the case of ethyl halide molecules, while a stronger dependence is found on the size of the alkyl chain.

  2. Knee megaprosthesis: a salvage solution for severe open and complex distal femoral fracture associated with an ipsilateral brachial plexus injury (a case report with literature review).

    PubMed

    Ennaciri, Badr; Vasile, Christian; Lebredonchel, Thierry; Berrada, Mohamed Saleh; Montbarbon, Eric; Beaudouin, Emmanuel

    2015-01-01

    Complex distal femoral fractures in the young patient often occur as a result of high velocity trauma. Timely recognition and treatment is everything in such a situation, and it needs a robust staged management pathway to optimize the chance of limb preservation. We report a case of a motorcyclist admitted to the department of orthopedics at Chambery hospital, France, with a complex comminuted and open distal femoral fracture of the left leg, associated with a brachial plexus injury to the ipsilateral upper limb. On arrival to the emergency department, damage control stabilization and surgery was commenced, debridement of contaminated non-viable tissue, abundant antiseptic lavage and application of external fixation coupled with the use of antibiotic spacer. Following normalization of inflammatory markers and ensuring no clinical signs of infection, subsequent management consisted of joint reconstruction to achieve a functional knee. The external fixator and femoral spacer was removed and a modular megaprosthesis was implanted with a lateral gastrocnemius flap to cover the exposed knee joint and reinforce the extensor apparatus. Nerve graft to the left brachial plexus injury was performed at University Hospital of Grenoble. Our patient entered an intensive rehabilitation program and at 1 year follow-up achieved good knee function and sensation to the left upper limb. PMID:26421102

  3. Rehabilitation Considerations of a Brachial Plexus Injury with Complete Avulsion of C5 and C6 Nerve Roots in a College Football Player

    PubMed Central

    Saliba, Susan; Saliba, Ethan N.; Pugh, Kelli F.; Chhabra, Abhinav; Diduch, David

    2009-01-01

    Severe brachial plexus injuries are rare in sports, but they have catastrophic results with a significant loss of function in the involved upper extremity. Nerve root avulsions must be timely managed with prompt evaluation, accurate diagnosis, and surgical treatment to optimize the potential for a functional outcome. This case report describes the mechanism of injury, diagnostic evolution, surgical management, and rehabilitation of a college football player who sustained a traumatic complete nerve root avulsion of C5 and C6 (upper trunk of the brachial plexus). Diagnostics included clinical evaluation, magnetic resonance imaging, computed tomography myelogram, and electromyogram. Surgical planning included nerve grafting and neurotization (nerve transfer). Rehabilitation goals were to bring the hand to the face (active biceps function), to stabilize the shoulder for abduction and flexion, and to reduce neuropathic pain. Direct current stimulation, bracing, therapeutic exercise, and biofeedback were used to maximize the use of the athlete’s upper extremity. Although the athlete could not return to sport or normal function by most standards, his results were satisfactory in that he regained an ability to perform many activities of daily living. PMID:23015895

  4. The efficacy of adding dexamethasone, midazolam, or epinephrine to 0.5% bupivacaine in supraclavicular brachial plexus block

    PubMed Central

    El-Baradey, Ghada F.; Elshmaa, Nagat S.

    2014-01-01

    Aims: The aim was to assess the effectiveness of adding either dexamethasone or midazolam in comparison with epinephrine addition to 0.5% bupivacaine in supraclavicular brachial plexus block. Settings and Design: This is a prospective randomized controlled observer-blinded study. Subjects and Methods: This study was carried out in Tanta University Hospital on 60 patients of both sexes; American Society of Anesthesiologists physical Status I and II, age range from 18 to 45 years undergo elective surgery to upper limb. All patients were anesthetized with ultrasound guided supraclavicular brachial plexus block and randomly divided into three groups (each group 20 patients) Group E (epinephrine): 30 mL bupivacaine 0.5%with 1:200,000 epinephrine (5 μg/mL). Group D (dexamethasone): 30 mL bupivacaine 0.5% and dexamethasone 8 mg. Group M (midazolam): 30 ml bupivacaine 0.5% and midazolam 50 μg/kg. The primary outcome measures were onset and duration of sensory and motor block and time to first analgesic request. Statistical Analysis Used: The windows version of SPSS 11.0.1 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA) was used for statistical analysis. Data were presented in form of mean ± standard deviation multiple analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to compare the three groups and Scheffe test was used after ANOVA. Power of significance P < 0.05 was considered to be statistically significant. Results: Onset of sensory and motor block was significantly rapid (P < 0.05) in Groups D and M in comparison with Group E. Time of administration of rescue analgesic, duration of sensory and motor block showed significant increase (P < 0.05) in Group D in comparison with Group M which showed significant increase (P < 0.05) in comparison with Group E. Conclusions: In comparison with epinephrine and midazolam addition of dexamethasone to bupivacaine had rapid onset of block and longer time to first analgesic request with fewer side-effects. PMID:25538528

  5. Complete Brachial Artery Transection following closed Posterior Elbow Dislocation: A Rare Case Report

    PubMed Central

    C, JayanthKumar B; Sampath, Deepak; N, Hanumantha Reddy; Motukuru, Vishnu

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Vascular injury associated withclosed posterior elbow dislocations is rare and it usually occurs along with open dislocation, anterior dislocation, penetrating injuries, dislocations associated with fracture. We report such a case of closed posterior elbow dislocation with complete brachial artery rupture. Case Report: A 58 years old lady sustained posterior dislocation of right elbow following a fall at home. She presented three days later with complaints of severe pain, swelling around the right elbow and numbness of fingers following a closed reduction done elsewhere. Computed graft angiography showed complete transection of brachialartery. Patient was treated with thrombectomy, right great saphenous vein graft interposition repair of brachial artery and forearm fasciotomy. Conclusion: Vascular injuries associated with posterior elbow dislocation are very rare, but high index of suspicion of arterial injury need to be thought off and repeated vascular examination during pre and post reduction stage should be done to prevent complications. PMID:27299092

  6. Prolonged hemidiaphragmatic paresis following continuous interscalene brachial plexus block: A case report.

    PubMed

    Shinn, Helen Ki; Kim, Byung-Gun; Jung, Jong Kwon; Kwon, Hee Uk; Yang, Chunwoo; Won, Jonghun

    2016-06-01

    Interscalene brachial plexus block provides effective anesthesia and analgesia for shoulder surgery. One of the disadvantages of this technique is the risk of hemidiaphragmatic paresis, which can occur as a result of phrenic nerve block and can cause a decrease in the pulmonary function, limiting the use of the block in patients with reduced functional residual capacity or a preexisting pulmonary disease. However, it is generally transient and is resolved over the duration of the local anesthetic's action.We present a case of a patient who experienced prolonged hemidiaphragmatic paresis following a continuous interscalene brachial plexus block for the postoperative pain management of shoulder surgery, and suggest a mechanism that may have led to this adverse effect.Nerve injuries associated with peripheral nerve blocks may be caused by several mechanisms. Our findings suggest that perioperative nerve injuries can occur as a result of combined mechanical and chemical injuries. PMID:27310984

  7. Ultrasound-guided central cluster approach for the supraclavicular brachial plexus block: a case series.

    PubMed

    Lee, Mi Geum; Lee, Kyung Cheon; Kim, Hong Soon; Park, Seol Ju; Suh, Young Je; Shin, Hyeon Ju

    2015-12-01

    There are many different approaches to ultrasound-guided supraclavicular brachial plexus block (US-SCBPB), and each has a different success rate and complications. The most commonly performed US-SCBPB is the corner pocket approach in which the needle is advanced very close to the subclavian artery and pleura. Therefore, it may be associated with a risk of subclavian artery puncture or pneumothorax. We advanced the needle into the central part of the neural cluster after penetrating the sheath of the brachial plexus in US-SCBPB. We refer to this new method as the "central cluster approach." In this approach, the needle does not have to advance close to the subclavian artery or pleura. The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical outcomes of the central cluster approach in US-SCBPB. PMID:26634085

  8. Ultrasound-guided central cluster approach for the supraclavicular brachial plexus block: a case series

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Mi Geum; Lee, Kyung Cheon; Kim, Hong Soon; Park, Seol Ju; Suh, Young Je

    2015-01-01

    There are many different approaches to ultrasound-guided supraclavicular brachial plexus block (US-SCBPB), and each has a different success rate and complications. The most commonly performed US-SCBPB is the corner pocket approach in which the needle is advanced very close to the subclavian artery and pleura. Therefore, it may be associated with a risk of subclavian artery puncture or pneumothorax. We advanced the needle into the central part of the neural cluster after penetrating the sheath of the brachial plexus in US-SCBPB. We refer to this new method as the "central cluster approach." In this approach, the needle does not have to advance close to the subclavian artery or pleura. The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical outcomes of the central cluster approach in US-SCBPB. PMID:26634085

  9. Iatrogenic brachial artery injury during anterolateral plating of humeral shaft fracture.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Vishal; Behera, Prateek; Aggarwal, Sameer; Meena, Umesh Kumar

    2013-01-01

    There are several well defined indications for surgical management of humeral shaft fractures. Operative procedures on the humerus are associated with their own complications. Iatrogenic brachial artery injury as a complication of humeral shaft plating has not been reported previously. We report a case of a 48 years old female, who received operation at a district hospital and was referred to us when the surgeon could not palpate the pulse. CT angiogram showed that there was segmental non-opacification of the brachial artery. There was distal reformation and the thrombosis was decided to be managed conservatively. We believe that the arterial injury was a result of improper surgical technique and the segmental block might be due to improper use of plate holding forceps. This case report makes us aware of a rare complication of operative management of humeral shaft fractures and that basic principles of surgery must be always followed to prevent such injuries. PMID:24295587

  10. Microscopic polyangiitis complicated with bilateral brachial plexopathy: a case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Naseri Alavi, Seyed Ahmad; Meshkini, Mohammad; Pourlak, Tala; Khabbazi, Alireza

    2016-07-01

    Microscopic polyangiitis is a small-vessel necrotizing vasculitis associated with anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies and presents itself with glomerulonephritis and hemorrhagic pulmonary capillaritis. Peripheral nervous system involvement is common in anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies-associated vasculitis, but brachial plexopathy is unusual. We present the case of a 22-year-old man with known microscopic polyangiitis who was under maintenance therapy with prednisolone and cyclophosphamide and developed cough, dyspnea, and hemoptysis which increased in 6 days accompanying pain and paresthesia in the upper limbs. His physical examination revealed hypoesthesia, absence of deep tendon reflexes, and decreased muscle strength in the upper limbs. His chest computed tomography scan showed ground glass pattern in the lower and middle lobes. Electromyography and nerve conduction study showed bilateral brachial plexopathy with involvement of all of the cervical roots that were more severe in the lower roots and left side. PMID:26782370

  11. Polarization instability of Raman solitons ejected during supercontinuum generation.

    PubMed

    Chao, Qing; Wagner, Kelvin H

    2015-12-28

    We numerically investigate polarization instability of soliton fission and the polarization dynamics of Raman solitons ejected during supercontinuum generation in a photonics crystal fiber using the coupled vector generalized nonlinear Schrödinger equations for both linear and circular birefringent fibers. The evolution of the state of polarizations of the ejected Raman soliton as representated on the Poincaré sphere is affected by both nonlinear and linear polarization rotations on the Poincaré sphere. The polarization dynamics reveal the presence of a polarization separatrix and the emergence of stable slow and unstable fast eigen-polarizations for the Raman solitons ejected in the supercontinuum generation process. Circularly birefringent fiber is investigated and found to simplify the nonlinear polarization dynamics. PMID:26832032

  12. Three-dimensional reconstruction of coronal mass ejections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, Bernard V.; Hick, Paul

    1994-01-01

    Computer assisted tomography (CAT) techniques are used to reconstruct the three dimensional shape of coronal mass ejections in the interplanetary medium. Both the Helios 2 spacecraft zodiacal-light photometers and the Solwind coronograph measure changes in Thomson scattering of sunlight from electrons. The technique from near-perpendicular Solwind and Helios views are applied to determine the density of a mass ejection which left the solar surface on 24 May 1979. The coronograph and the Helios perspective views are not simultaneous; the Solwind observations extend outward to sky plane distances of only 10 of the solar radius, whereas the Helios 16 photometer observes to as close as 17 of the solar radius from the sun. The solution is obtained by assuming outward radial expansion and that the coronal mass ejections (CME's) have the same speed everywhere at the same height. The analyses show that CME's are extensive three dimensional structures (the CME of 24 May appears approximately shell) like in three dimensions.

  13. Capstan Friction Model for DNA Ejection from Bacteriophages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosal, Sandip

    2012-12-01

    Bacteriophages infect cells by attaching to the outer membrane and injecting their DNA into the cell. The phage DNA is then transcribed by the cell’s transcription machinery. A number of physical mechanisms by which DNA can be translocated from the phage capsid into the cell have been identified. A fast ejection driven by the elastic and electrostatic potential energy of the compacted DNA within the viral capsid appears to be used by most phages, at least to initiate infection. In recent in vitro experiments, the speed of DNA translocation from a λ phage capsid has been measured as a function of ejected length over the entire duration of the event. Here, a mechanical model is proposed that is able to explain the observed dependence of exit velocity on ejected length, and that is also consistent with the accepted picture of the geometric arrangement of DNA within the viral capsid.

  14. Interplanetary Coronal Mass Ejections Observed by MESSENGER and Venus Express

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Good, S. W.; Forsyth, R. J.

    2016-01-01

    Interplanetary coronal mass ejections (ICMEs) observed by the MESSENGER and Venus Express spacecraft have been catalogued and analysed. The ICMEs were identified by a relatively smooth rotation of the magnetic field direction consistent with a flux rope structure, coinciding with a relatively enhanced magnetic field strength. A total of 35 ICMEs were found in the surveyed MESSENGER data (primarily from March 2007 to April 2012), and 84 ICMEs in the surveyed Venus Express data (from May 2006 to December 2013). The ICME flux rope configurations have been determined. Ropes with northward leading edges were about four times more common than ropes with southward leading edges, in agreement with a previously established solar cycle dependence. Ropes with low inclinations to the solar equatorial plane were about four times more common than ropes with high inclinations, possibly an observational effect. Left- and right-handed ropes were observed in almost equal numbers. In addition, data from MESSENGER, Venus Express, STEREO-A, STEREO-B and ACE were examined for multipoint signatures of the catalogued ICMEs. For spacecraft separations below 15° in heliocentric longitude, the second spacecraft observed the ICME flux rope in 82 % of cases; this percentage dropped to 49 % for separations between 15 and 30°, to 18 % for separations between 30 and 45°, and to 12 % for separations between 45 and 60°. As the spacecraft separation increased, it became increasingly likely that only the sheath and not the flux rope of the ICME was observed, in agreement with the notion that ICME flux ropes are smaller in longitudinal extent than the shocks or discontinuities that they often drive. Furthermore, this study has identified 23 ICMEs observed by pairs of spacecraft close to radial alignment. A detailed analysis of these events could lead to a better understanding of how ICMEs evolve during propagation.

  15. Interplanetary Coronal Mass Ejections from MESSENGER Orbital Observations at Mercury

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winslow, R. M.; Lugaz, N.; Philpott, L. C.; Schwadron, N.; Farrugia, C. J.; Anderson, B. J.; Smith, C. W.

    2015-12-01

    We use observations from the MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging (MESSENGER) spacecraft, in orbit around Mercury, to investigate interplanetary coronal mass ejections (ICMEs) near 0.3 AU. MESSENGER, the first spacecraft since the 1980s to make in-situ measurements at distances < 0.5 AU, presents a unique opportunity for observing the innermost heliosphere. It also allows studies of ICME evolution as they expand and propagate outward, interacting with the solar wind. In order to catalog ICME events observed by MESSENGER, we design a strict set of selection criteria to identify them based on magnetic field observations only, since reliable solar wind plasma observations are not available from MESSENGER. We identify 61 ICME events observed by the MESSENGER Magnetometer between 2011 and 2014, and present statistical analyses of ICME properties at Mercury. In addition, using existing datasets of ICMEs at 1 AU we investigate key ICME property changes from Mercury to 1 AU. We find good agreement with previous studies for the magnetic field strength dependence on heliospheric distance, r. We have also established three different lines of evidence that ICME deceleration continues beyond the orbit of Mercury: 1) we find a shallow decrease with distance of ˜r-0.45 for the ICME shock speed from Mercury to 1 AU, 2) the average transit speed from the Sun to Mercury for ICMEs in our catalog is ˜20% faster than the average speed from the Sun to 1 AU, 3) the ICME transit time to 1 AU has a weaker dependence on the CME initial coronagraphic speed, as compared to what we predict based on our MESSENGER ICME catalog. Based on our results, future ICME propagation studies should account for ICME speed changes beyond Mercury's heliocentric distances to improve ICME arrival time forecasting. Our ICME database will also prove particularly useful for multipoint spacecraft studies of recent ICMEs, as well as for model validation of ICME properties.

  16. Perspectives on glenohumeral joint contractures and shoulder dysfunction in children with perinatal brachial plexus palsy.

    PubMed

    Gharbaoui, Idris S; Gogola, Gloria R; Aaron, Dorit H; Kozin, Scott H

    2015-01-01

    Shoulder joint deformities continue to be a challenging aspect of treating upper plexus lesions in children with perinatal brachial plexus palsy (PBPP). It is increasingly recognized that PBPP affects the glenohumeral joint specifically, and that abnormal scapulothoracic movements are a compensatory development. The pathophysiology and assessment of glenohumeral joint contractures, the progression of scapular dyskinesia and skeletal dysplasia, and current shoulder imaging techniques are reviewed. PMID:25835253

  17. Sensory Evaluation of the Hands in Children with Brachial Plexus Birth Injury

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmgren, Tove; Peltonen, Jari; Linder, Tove; Rautakorpi, Sanna; Nietosvaara, Yrjana

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine sensory changes of the hand in brachial plexus birth injury (BPBI). Ninety-five patients (43 females, 52 males) comprising two age groups, 6 to 8 years (mean age 7y 6mo) and 12 to 14 years (mean age 13y 2mo), were included. Sixty-four had upper (cervical [C] 5-6), 19 upper and middle (C5-7), and 12 had total…

  18. Watson-Jones Lecture, 1976. Some lesions of the brachial plexus.

    PubMed Central

    Bonney, G.

    1977-01-01

    Three types of lesion of the brachial plexus are discussed: entrapment syndrome; tumours; and traumatic lesions. In the first the importance of the pathological anatomy is stressed; in the second the rewarding results of accurate diagnosis and careful treatment are noted; and in the third the expanding possibilities of neural reconstruction and of specific treatment for pain are described. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 PMID:879635

  19. Unusual association of epidemic dropsy with brachial neuritis and palatal palsy.

    PubMed

    Sahoo, Sushama; Bandyopadhyay, Arindam; Mahapatra, Nepal Chandra

    2013-05-01

    Epidemic dropsy (ED) results from accidental ingestion of adulterated mustard oil with argemone oil. Chief organs involved in this disease are heart, subcutaneous tissue, eyes and kidneys. Nervous system involvement is very rare. Objective manifestation of neurological involvement is even rarer. The authors report two cases from the same family, who were victims of epidemic dropsy along with their parents. One of them showed objective neurologic involvement in the form of brachial neuritis and another showed palatal palsy. PMID:22231775

  20. Unusual brachial plexus lesion: Hematoma masquerading as a peripheral nerve sheath tumor

    PubMed Central

    Krisht, Khaled M.; Karsy, Michael; Shah, Lubdha M.; Schmidt, Meic H.; Dailey, Andrew T.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNSTs) of the brachial plexus have unique radiographic and clinical findings. Patients often present with progressive upper extremity paresthesias, weakness, and pain. On magnetic resonance (MR) imaging, lesions are isointense on T1-weighted and hyperintense on T2-weighted sequences, while also demonstrating marked enhancement on MR studies with gadolinium diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid. On the basis of their characteristic MR imaging features and rapid clinical progression, two brachial plexus lesions proved to be organizing hematomas rather than MPNST. Methods: A 51-year-old male and a 31-year-old female were both assessed for persistent and worsened left-sided upper extremity pain, paresthesias, and weakness. In both cases, the MR imaging of the brachial plexus demonstrated an extraspinal enhancing lesion located within the left C7–T1 neuroforamina. Results: Although the clinical and radiographic MR features for these 2 patients were consistent with MPNSTs, both lesions proved to be benign organizing hematomas. Conclusions: These two case studies emphasize that brachial plexus hematomas may mimic MPNSTs on MR studies. Accurate diagnosis of these lesions is critical for determining the appropriate management options and treatment plans. Delaying the treatment of a highly aggressive nerve sheath tumor can have devastating consequences, whereas many hematomas resolve without surgery. Therefore, if the patient has stable findings on neurological examination and a history of trauma, surgical intervention may be delayed in favor of repeat MR imaging in 2–3 months to re-evaluate the size of the mass. PMID:26904368

  1. Radiation-induced brachial plexopathy in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma: a retrospective study

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Ruying; Rong, Xiaoming; Wu, Rong; Cheng, Jinping; Huang, Xiaolong; Luo, Jinjun; Tang, Yamei

    2016-01-01

    Radiation-induced brachial plexopathy (RIBP) is one of the late complications in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) patients who received radiotherapy. We conducted a retrospective study to investigate its clinical characteristics and risk factors. Thirty-onepatients with RIBP after radiotherapy for NPC were enrolled. Clinical manifestations of RIBP, electrophysiologic data, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and the correlation between irradiation strategy and incidence of RIBP were evaluated. The mean latency at the onset of RIBP was 4.26 years. Of the symptoms, paraesthesia usually presented first (51.6%), followed by pain (22.6%) and weakness (22.6%). The major symptoms included paraesthesia (90.3%), pain (54.8%), weakness (48.4%), fasciculation (19.3%) and muscle atrophy (9.7%). Nerve conduction velocity (NCV) and electromyography (EMG) disclosed that pathological changes of brachial plexus involved predominantly in the upper and middle trunks in distribution. MRI of the brachial plexus showed hyper-intensity on T1, T2, post-contrast T1 and diffusion weighted whole body imaging with background body signal suppression (DWIBS) images in lower cervical nerves. Radiotherapy with Gross Tumor volume (GTVnd) and therapeutic dose (mean 66.8±2.8Gy) for patients with lower cervical lymph node metastasis was related to a significantly higher incidence of RIBP (P<0.001). Thus, RIBP is a severe and progressive complication of NPC after radiotherapy. The clinical symptoms are predominantly involved in upper and middle trunk of the brachial plexus in distribution. Lower cervical lymph node metastasis and corresponding radiotherapy might cause a significant increase of the RIBP incidence. PMID:26934119

  2. Endovascular Treatment of Infected Brachial Pseudoaneurysm in an Intravenous Drug Abuser: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Boieru, Raluca; Georg, Yannick; Ramlugun, Dharmesh; Martinot, Martin; Camin, Amelie; Matysiak, Lucien; Kretz, Benjamin

    2015-10-01

    We report the case of a 36-year-old male, admitted in the emergency room with a nonruptured brachial pseudoaneurysm after buprenorphine injection, with no signs of distal acute ischemia. After endovascular treatment with a nitinol covered stent associated with adapted antibiotherapy and 35 days of hospitalizations, the patient was discharged with good short results but stent need to be removed at 6 months for thrombosis and partial exposure through the wound. PMID:26142880

  3. Three dimensionality of gleno-humeral deformities in obstetrical brachial plexus palsy.

    PubMed

    Brochard, Sylvain; Mozingo, Joseph D; Alter, Katharine E; Sheehan, Frances T

    2016-04-01

    The primary objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that gleno-humeral deformity in children and adolescent with obstetrical brachial plexus palsy is three-dimensional (3D). The study also compared the metrological properties of typical two-dimensional gleno-humeral measures to the newly developed 3D measures. Thirteen individuals (age = 11.8 ± 3.3 years) with obstetrical brachial plexus palsy participated in this IRB-approved study. 3D axial magnetic resonance images were acquired for both shoulders. Glenoid and humeral models were created in order to quantify 3D glenoid version, humeral head migration, and glenoid concavity. Two-dimensional (2D) measures were acquired as recommended in the literature. All measures were completed by two observers in this observer-blind study. Compared to the non-involved side, the glenoid was more retroverted (7.91°, p = 0.003) and inferiorly oriented (7.28°, p = 0.009). The humeral head was migrated more posteriorly (5.54 mm, p = 0.007), inferiorly (-3.96 mm, p = 0.013), and medially (-3.63 mm,p = 0.002). Eleven of the 13 glenoids were concave, based on the 3D glenoid models. The concurrent validity between three- and 2D measures were highly dependent of the parameter measured, the slice level used for the 2D analysis, and the presence/absence of pathology (0.63 < r < 0.91). The standard error of measurement for the 2D anterior-posterior version (>3°) was larger than that for the 3D measure of version (<1°) on the involved side. This study clearly demonstrated that the gleno-humeral deformation in obstetrical brachial plexus palsy is 3D, emphasizing the need for 3D subject specific gleno-humeral shape analysis for follow-up and treatment plans in children with obstetrical brachial plexus palsy. PMID:26363273

  4. Exercise Intolerance In Heart Failure With Preserved Ejection Fraction

    PubMed Central

    Gupte, Anisha A.; Hamilton, Dale J.

    2016-01-01

    More than 50% of Americans with heart failure have preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF). Exercise intolerance is a hallmark of HFpEF, but the pathophysiology is not well understood. Diverse etiologies and incomplete mechanistic understanding have resulted in ineffective management strategies to improve the outcomes of HFpEF. Traditional therapies that have been beneficial in the treatment of heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF), neurohormonal blockade in particular, have not been effective in treating HFpEF. In this review, we address underlying mechanisms of HFpEF and present the rationale supporting exercise as a component of comprehensive management. PMID:27486493

  5. Nanoparticle plasma ejected directly from solid copper by localized microwaves

    SciTech Connect

    Jerby, E.; Golts, A.; Shamir, Y.; Wonde, S.; Ashkenazi, D.; Eliaz, N.; Mitchell, J. B. A.; LeGarrec, J. L.; Narayanan, T.; Sztucki, M.; Barkay, Z.

    2009-11-09

    A plasma column ejected directly from solid copper by localized microwaves is studied. The effect stems from an induced hotspot that melts and emits ionized copper vapors as a confined fire column. Nanoparticles of {approx}20-120 nm size were revealed in the ejected column by in situ small-angle x-ray scattering. Optical spectroscopy confirmed the dominance of copper particles in the plasma column originating directly from the copper substrate. Nano- and macroparticles of copper were verified also by ex situ scanning electron microscopy. The direct conversion of solid metals to nanoparticles is demonstrated and various applications are proposed.

  6. Nusat I - The first gas can ejected satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Twiggs, Robert J.

    Nusat I, an 18-inch diameter satellite, made history on April 29, 1985 by being the first satellite ejected from a newly designed Get-Away-Special canister on the Challenger orbiter. This ejection marked the beginning of a new era of satellite designs which can be inexpensively placed in orbit via the Space Shuttle. This paper describes the development of that project, including the project organization and funding, satellite design evolution, final design objectives, final satellite assembly and testing, integration before launch, and operational performance.

  7. Surgical outcomes of the brachial plexus lesions caused by gunshot wounds in adults

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background The management of brachial plexus injuries due to gunshot wounds is a surgical challenge. Better surgical strategies based on clinical and electrophysiological patterns are needed. The aim of this study is to clarify the factors which may influence the surgical technique and outcome of the brachial plexus lesions caused by gunshot injuries. Methods Two hundred and sixty five patients who had brachial plexus lesions caused by gunshot injuries were included in this study. All of them were male with a mean age of 22 years. Twenty-three patients were improved with conservative treatment while the others underwent surgical treatment. The patients were classified and managed according to the locations, clinical and electrophysiological findings, and coexisting lesions. Results The wounding agent was shrapnel in 106 patients and bullet in 159 patients. Surgical procedures were performed from 6 weeks to 10 months after the injury. The majority of the lesions were repaired within 4 months were improved successfully. Good results were obtained in upper trunk and lateral cord lesions. The outcome was satisfactory if the nerve was intact and only compressed by fibrosis or the nerve was in-contunuity with neuroma or fibrosis. Conclusion Appropriate surgical techniques help the recovery from the lesions, especially in patients with complete functional loss. Intraoperative nerve status and the type of surgery significantly affect the final clinical outcome of the patients. PMID:19627573

  8. Obstetric brachial plexus palsy: reviewing the literature comparing the results of primary versus secondary surgery.

    PubMed

    Socolovsky, Mariano; Costales, Javier Robla; Paez, Miguel Domínguez; Nizzo, Gustavo; Valbuena, Sebastian; Varone, Ernesto

    2016-03-01

    Obstetric brachial plexus injuries (OBPP) are a relatively common stretch injury of the brachial plexus that occurs during delivery. Roughly 30 % of patients will not recover completely and will need a surgical repair. Two main treatment strategies have been used: primary surgery, consisting in exploring and reconstructing the affected portions of the brachial plexus within the first few months of the patient's life, and secondary procedures that include tendon or muscle transfers, osteotomies, and other orthopedic techniques. Secondary procedures can be done as the only surgical treatment of OBPP or after primary surgery, in order to minimize any residual deficits. Two things are crucial to achieving a good outcome: (1) the appropriate selection of patients, to separate those who will spontaneously recover from those who will recover only partially or not at all; and (2) a good surgical technique. The objective of the present review is to assess the published literature concerning certain controversial issues in OBPP, especially in terms of the true current state of primary and secondary procedures, their results, and the respective roles each plays in modern-day treatment of this complex pathology. Considerable published evidence compiled over decades of surgical experience favors primary nerve surgery as the initial therapeutic step in patients who do not recover spontaneously, followed by secondary surgeries for further functional improvement. As described in this review, the results of such treatment can greatly ameliorate function in affected limbs. For best results, multi-disciplinary teams should treat these patients. PMID:26615411

  9. Gross anatomy of the brachial plexus in the giant Anteater (Myrmecophaga tridactyla).

    PubMed

    Souza, P R; Cardoso, J R; Araujo, L B M; Moreira, P C; Cruz, V S; Araujo, E G

    2014-10-01

    Ten forelimbs of five Myrmecophaga tridactyla were examined to study the anatomy of the brachial plexus. The brachial plexuses of the M. tridactyla observed in the present study were formed by the ventral rami of the last four cervical spinal nerves, C5 through C8, and the first thoracic spinal nerve, T1. These primary roots joined to form two trunks: a cranial trunk comprising ventral rami from C5-C7 and a caudal trunk receiving ventral rami from C8-T1. The nerves originated from these trunks and their most constant arrangement were as follows: suprascapular (C5-C7), subscapular (C5-C7), cranial pectoral (C5-C8), caudal pectoral (C8-T1), axillary (C5-C7), musculocutaneous (C5-C7), radial (C5-T1), median (C5-T1), ulnar (C5-T1), thoracodorsal (C5-C8), lateral thoracic (C7-T1) and long thoracic (C6-C7). In general, the brachial plexus in the M. tridactyla is similar to the plexuses in mammals, but the number of rami contributing to the formation of each nerve in the M. tridactyla was found to be larger than those of most mammals. This feature may be related to the very distinctive anatomical specializations of the forelimb of the anteaters. PMID:23952693

  10. Non-union of a clavicle fracture: lateral fragment excision for brachial artery embolism

    PubMed Central

    Burgess, Elizabeth; Sangars, Bheem; Perricone, Vittorio; Charalambous, Charalambos P

    2014-01-01

    A 67-year-old motorcyslist was admitted to hospital following a high-speed road traffic collision and found to have a left midshaft clavicle fracture and multiple ipsilateral rib fractures. He was treated conservatively and went on to have non-union of the clavicle. The non-union was managed non-operatively. The patient then re-attended the hospital with an acute ischaemic left hand 3 years after the original injury date. An arterial duplex scan confirmed a embolus to the brachial artery. A brachial embolectomy was urgently performed. A computed tomography scan showed non-union of the clavicle fracture and an inflammatory mass compressing the left subclavian artery, which was the focus of the embolic event. The clavicle non-union was managed operatively with lateral half claviculectomy. Immediately after clavicle excision, the vascular team performed reconstruction of the brachial artery. At follow-up,there was normal shoulder and hand function at outpatient clinic. A duplex scan confirmed good triphasic waveforms throughout the arteries of the left upper limb.

  11. Anatomical Variations of Brachial Plexus in Adult Cadavers; A Descriptive Study

    PubMed Central

    Emamhadi, Mohammadreza; Chabok, Shahrokh Yousefzadeh; Samini, Fariborz; Alijani, Babak; Behzadnia, Hamid; Firozabadi, Fariborz Ayati; Reihanian, Zoheir

    2016-01-01

    Background: Variations of the brachial plexus are common and a better awareness of the variations is of crucial importance to achieve successful results in its surgical procedures. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the anatomical variations of the brachial plexus in adult cadavers. Methods: Bilateral upper limbs of 32 fresh cadavers (21 males and 11 females) consecutively referred to Guilan legal medicine organization from November 2011 to September 2014, were dissected and the trunks, cords and terminal nerves were evaluated. Results: Six plexuses were prefixed in origin. The long thoracic nerve pierced the middle scalene muscle in 6 cases in the supra clavicular zone. The suprascapular nerve in 7 plexuses was formed from posterior division of the superior trunk. Five cadavers showed anastomosis between medial brachial cutaneous nerve and T1 root in the infra clavicular zone. Terminal branches variations were the highest wherein the ulnar nerve received a communicating branch from the lateral cord in 3 cases. The median nerve was formed by 2 lateral roots from lateral cord and 1 medial root from the medial cord in 6 cadavers. Some fibers from C7 root came to the musculocutaneous nerve in 8 cadavers. Conclusion: The correlation analysis between the variations and the demographic features was impossible due to the small sample size. The findings of the present study suggest a meta-analysis to assess the whole reported variations to obtain a proper approach for neurosurgeons. PMID:27517072

  12. Nuclear cardiac ejection fraction and cardiac index in abdominal aortic surgery

    SciTech Connect

    Fiser, W.P.; Thompson, B.W.; Thompson, A.R.; Eason, C.; Read, R.C.

    1983-11-01

    Since atherosclerotic heart disease results in more than half of the perioperative deaths that follow abdominal aortic surgery, a prospective protocol was designed for preoperative evaluation and intraoperative hemodynamic monitoring. Twenty men who were prepared to undergo elective operation for aortoiliac occlusive disease (12 patients) and abdominal aortic aneurysm (eight patients) were evaluated with a cardiac scan and right heart catheterization. The night prior to operation, each patient received volume loading with crystalloid based upon ventricular performance curves. At the time of the operation, all patients were anesthetized with narcotics and nitrous oxide, and hemodynamic parameters were recorded throughout the operation. Aortic crossclamping resulted in a marked depression in CI in all patients. CI remained depressed after unclamping in the majority of patients. There were two perioperative deaths, both from myocardial infarction or failure. Both patients had ejection fractions less than 30% and initial CIs less than 2 L/M2, while the survivors' mean ejection fraction was 63% +/- 1 and their mean CI was 3.2 L/M2 +/- 0.6. The authors conclude that preoperative evaluation of ejection fraction can select those patients at a high risk of cardiac death from abdominal aortic operation. These patients should receive intensive preoperative monitoring with enhancement of ventricular performance.

  13. Characterization of the initial steps in the T7 DNA ejection process

    PubMed Central

    González-García, Verónica A; Bocanegra, Rebeca; Pulido-Cid, Mar; Martín-Benito, Jaime; Cuervo, Ana; Carrascosa, José L

    2015-01-01

    A specialized complex, the tail, is the most common strategy employed by bacterial viruses to deliver their genome without disrupting cell integrity. T7 has a short, non-contractile tail formed by a tubular structure surrounded by fibers. Recent studies showed that incubation of the virus with Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharides (LPS) resulted in complete delivery of the viral genome, demonstrating for the first time that LPS are the T7 receptor. Further screening of the bacterial envelope for proteinaceous compounds that affect T7 ejection showed that porins OmpA and OmpF affect viral particle adsorption and infection kinetics, suggesting that these proteins play a role in the first steps of virus-host interaction. Comparison of the structures before and after ejection showed the conformational changes needed in the tail for genome delivery. Structural similarities between T7 and other viruses belonging to the Podoviridae family suggests that they could also follow a similar DNA ejection mechanism. PMID:26458390

  14. Energy ejection in the collapse of a cold spherical self-gravitating cloud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joyce, M.; Marcos, B.; Sylos Labini, F.

    2009-08-01

    When an open system of classical point particles interacting by Newtonian gravity collapses and relaxes violently, an arbitrary amount of energy may, in principle, be carried away by particles which escape to infinity. We investigate here, using numerical simulations, how this released energy and other related quantities (notably the binding energy and size of the virialized structure) depend on the initial conditions, for the one-parameter family of starting configurations given by randomly distributing N cold particles in a spherical volume. Previous studies have established that the minimal size reached by the system scales approximately as N1/3, a behaviour which follows trivially when the growth of perturbations (which regularize the singularity of the cold collapse in the N -> ∞ limit) is assumed to be unaffected by the boundaries. Our study shows that the energy ejected grows approximately in proportion to N1/3, while the fraction of the initial mass ejected grows only very slowly with N, approximately logarithmically, in the range of N simulated. We examine in detail the mechanism of this mass and energy ejection, showing explicitly that it arises from the interplay of the growth of perturbations with the finite size of the system. A net lag of particles compared to their uniform spherical collapse trajectories develops first at the boundaries and then propagates into the volume during the collapse. Particles in the outer shells are then ejected as they scatter through the time-dependent potential of an already re-expanding central core. Using modified initial configurations, we explore the importance of fluctuations at different scales and discreteness (i.e. non-Vlasov) effects in the dynamics.

  15. Anatomical Advantage to Percutaneous Insertion of the Intra-Aortic Balloon through the Left Brachial Artery over the Right Brachial Artery

    PubMed Central

    Datt, Bharat; Miner, Steve

    2013-01-01

    Abstract: Off-label use of the intra-aortic balloon (IAB) is not recommended in ideal situations and certainly not a Food and Drug Administration-approved activity. The instruction-for-use manual for the IAB recommends percutaneous insertion. However, there are certain extreme situations where “thinking outside the box” appears necessary. We have successfully inserted a transthoracic IAB (TIAB) in the operating room where an open sternum is an option. This has been instituted whenever severe peripheral vascular disease (PVD) precludes a percutaneous attempt or when attempted insertion fails. An open chest is not a choice in the catheterization laboratory or the postoperative setting. We have successfully inserted the IAB through the brachial/axillary artery in a patient with bilateral aortofemoral grafts, with a history of severe PVD, in the cardiac catheterization laboratory. A left-sided approach is advisable for brachial artery insertion and an axillary approach is also possible under sedation. This case report details our experience with transbrachial insertion of the IAB and establishes counterpulsation through this route as a viable option, where an open chest is not available and a percutaneous femoral approach has failed. PMID:23691785

  16. Infusion Methods for Continuous Interscalene Brachial Plexus Block for Postoperative Pain Control after Arthroscopic Rotator Cuff Repair

    PubMed Central

    Byeon, Gyeong Jo; Yoon, Ji Uk; Kim, Eun Jung; Baek, Seung Hoon; Ri, Hyun Su

    2015-01-01

    Background Infusion methods during regional analgesia using perineural catheters may influence the quality of postoperative analgesia. This study was conducted to compare the effects of combined or bolus-only infusion of 0.2% ropivacaine on the postoperative analgesia in interscalene brachial plexus block (ISBPB) with perineural catheterization. Methods Patients scheduled for arthroscopic rotator cuff repair were divided into two groups, one that would receive a combined infusion (group C, n = 32), and one that would receive intermittent infusion (group I, n = 32). A perineural catheter was inserted into the interscalene brachial plexus (ISBP) using ultrasound (US) and nerve stimulation, and 10 ml of 0.2% ropivacaine was administered. After the operation, group C received a continuous infusion of 4 ml/h, and a 4 ml bolus with a lockout interval of 60 min. Group I received only a 4 ml bolus, and the lockout interval was 30 min. Postoperative pain by the numeric rating scale (NRS) and the forearm muscle tone by the manual muscle test (MMT) were checked and evaluated at the following timepoints: preoperative, and postoperative 1, 4, 12, 24, 36, and 48 h. Supplemental opioid requirements, total consumed dose of local anesthetic, and adverse effects were compared between the two groups. Results Sixty-four patients completed the study and the postoperative values such as operation time, time to discharge, and operation site were comparable. There were no differences in NRS scores and supplemental opioid requirements between the two groups. The MMT scores of group I at 4 and 12 h after surgery were significantly higher than those of group C (P < 0.05). The total consumed dose of local anesthetic was significantly lower in group I than in group C (P < 0.05). The adverse effects were not different between the groups. Conclusions The bolus-only administration of 0.2% ropivacaine provided a similar analgesic effect with a lower total volume of local anesthetic and decreased

  17. Facilitation of milk ejection-related activation of oxytocin-secreting neurones by osmotic stimulation in the rat.

    PubMed

    Negoro, H; Honda, K; Uchide, K; Higuchi, T

    1987-01-01

    Extracellular recordings were made from antidromically identified neurosecretory cells in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus in urethane-anesthetized lactating rats. Sixty-six percent of the rats tested (n = 80) showed reflex milk ejections during suckling. Oxytocin neurones could be distinguished from other neurosecretory neurones by a characteristic high-frequency burst of spikes displayed before a reflex milk ejection. Twenty-three of the oxytocin neurones recorded from twenty-three individual animals were tested for the effect of intraperitoneal injection of 1.5 M NaCl (1 ml), which raised the plasma osmotic pressure from 299.3 +/- 2.4 (SE) mosmole/kg to 313.0 +/- 2.4 mosmole/kg. The injection significantly increased not only the firing rate of the oxytocin neurones (from 1.7 +/- 0.3 spikes/s to 4.9 +/- 0.6 spikes/s) but also the number of spikes per burst (from 53.6 +/- 7.4 to 75.5 +/- 7.5) and burst duration (from 3.38 +/- 0.22 s to 3.80 +/- 0.18 s). The amplitude of reflex milk ejection was also increased to 1.9 times. However, the injection did not change the interval between bursts. On the other hand, intraperitoneal injection of 0.15 M NaCl affected neither these parameters of oxytocin neurones nor the amplitude of milk ejection. Some of the antidromically identified neurones recorded in the rats which showed no detectable reflex milk ejection during suckling displayed intermittent bursts of action potentials. Ten of these neurones in ten individual rats were tested for the effect of 1.5 M NaCl. The number of spikes per burst was significantly increased and reflex milk ejection was induced by the injection in eight of these rats.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3644749

  18. Effect of Basic Residue on the Kinetics of Peptide Fragmentation Examined Using Surface-Induced Dissociation Combined with Resonant Ejection

    SciTech Connect

    Laskin, Julia

    2015-11-30

    In this work, resonant ejection coupled with surface-induced dissociation (SID) in a Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometer is used to examine fragmentation kinetics of two singly protonated hexapeptides, RYGGFL and KYGGFL, containing the basic arginine residue and less basic lysine residue at the N-terminus. The kinetics of individual reaction channels at different collision energies are probed by applying a short ejection pulse (1 ms) in resonance with the cyclotron frequency of a selected fragment ion and varying the delay time between ion-surface collision and resonant ejection while keeping total reaction delay time constant. Rice-Ramsperger-Kassel-Marcus (RRKM) modeling of the experimental data provides accurate threshold energies and activation entropies of individual reaction channels. Substitution of arginine with less basic lysine has a pronounced effect on the observed fragmentation kinetics of several pathways, including the b2 ion formation, but has little or no effect on formation of the b5+H2O fragment ion. The combination of resonant ejection SID, time- and collision energy-resolved SID, and RRKM modeling of both types of experimental data provides a detailed mechanistic understanding of the primary dissociation pathways of complex gaseous ions.

  19. Central blood pressure estimation by using N-point moving average method in the brachial pulse wave.

    PubMed

    Sugawara, Rie; Horinaka, Shigeo; Yagi, Hiroshi; Ishimura, Kimihiko; Honda, Takeharu

    2015-05-01

    Recently, a method of estimating the central systolic blood pressure (C-SBP) using an N-point moving average method in the radial or brachial artery waveform has been reported. Then, we investigated the relationship between the C-SBP estimated from the brachial artery pressure waveform using the N-point moving average method and the C-SBP measured invasively using a catheter. C-SBP using a N/6 moving average method from the scaled right brachial artery pressure waveforms using VaSera VS-1500 was calculated. This estimated C-SBP was compared with the invasively measured C-SBP within a few minutes. In 41 patients who underwent cardiac catheterization (mean age: 65 years), invasively measured C-SBP was significantly lower than right cuff-based brachial BP (138.2 ± 26.3 vs 141.0 ± 24.9 mm Hg, difference -2.78 ± 1.36 mm Hg, P = 0.048). The cuff-based SBP was significantly higher than invasive measured C-SBP in subjects with younger than 60 years old. However, the estimated C-SBP using a N/6 moving average method from the scaled right brachial artery pressure waveforms and the invasively measured C-SBP did not significantly differ (137.8 ± 24.2 vs 138.2 ± 26.3 mm Hg, difference -0.49 ± 1.39, P = 0.73). N/6-point moving average method using the non-invasively acquired brachial artery waveform calibrated by the cuff-based brachial SBP was an accurate, convenient and useful method for estimating C-SBP. Thus, C-SBP can be estimated simply by applying a regular arm cuff, which is greatly feasible in the practical medicine. PMID:25693855

  20. Predicting Coronal Mass Ejections Using Machine Learning Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bobra, M. G.; Ilonidis, S.

    2016-04-01

    Of all the activity observed on the Sun, two of the most energetic events are flares and coronal mass ejections (CMEs). Usually, solar active regions that produce large flares will also produce a CME, but this is not always true. Despite advances in numerical modeling, it is still unclear which circumstances will produce a CME. Therefore, it is worthwhile to empirically determine which features distinguish flares associated with CMEs from flares that are not. At this time, no extensive study has used physically meaningful features of active regions to distinguish between these two populations. As such, we attempt to do so by using features derived from (1) photospheric vector magnetic field data taken by the Solar Dynamics Observatory’s Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager instrument and (2) X-ray flux data from the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite’s X-ray Flux instrument. We build a catalog of active regions that either produced both a flare and a CME (the positive class) or simply a flare (the negative class). We then use machine-learning algorithms to (1) determine which features distinguish these two populations, and (2) forecast whether an active region that produces an M- or X-class flare will also produce a CME. We compute the True Skill Statistic, a forecast verification metric, and find that it is a relatively high value of ∼0.8 ± 0.2. We conclude that a combination of six parameters, which are all intensive in nature, will capture most of the relevant information contained in the photospheric magnetic field.

  1. A STUDY OF FAST FLARELESS CORONAL MASS EJECTIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Song, H. Q.; Chen, Y.; Ye, D. D.; Han, G. Q.; Du, G. H.; Li, G.; Zhang, J.; Hu, Q.

    2013-08-20

    Two major processes have been proposed to convert coronal magnetic energy into the kinetic energy of a coronal mass ejection (CME): resistive magnetic reconnection and the ideal macroscopic magnetohydrodynamic instability of a magnetic flux rope. However, it remains elusive whether both processes play a comparable role or one of them prevails during a particular eruption. To shed light on this issue, we carefully studied energetic but flareless CMEs, i.e., fast CMEs not accompanied by any flares. Through searching the Coordinated Data Analysis Workshops database of CMEs observed in Solar Cycle 23, we found 13 such events with speeds larger than 1000 km s{sup -1}. Other common observational features of these events are: (1) none of them originated in active regions, they were associated with eruptions of well-developed long filaments in quiet-Sun regions; (2) no apparent enhancement of flare emissions was present in soft X-ray, EUV, and microwave data. Further studies of two events reveal that (1) the reconnection electric fields, as inferred from the product of the separation speed of post-eruption ribbons and the photospheric magnetic field measurement, were generally weak; (2) the period with a measurable reconnection electric field is considerably shorter than the total filament-CME acceleration time. These observations indicate that for these fast CMEs, the magnetic energy was released mainly via the ideal flux-rope instability through the work done by the large-scale Lorentz force acting on the rope currents rather than via magnetic reconnections. We also suggest that reconnections play a less important role in accelerating CMEs in quiet-Sun regions of weak magnetic field than those in active regions of strong magnetic field.

  2. Theoretical basis for operational ensemble forecasting of coronal mass ejections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pizzo, V. J.; Koning, C.; Cash, M.; Millward, G.; Biesecker, D. A.; Puga, L.; Codrescu, M.; Odstrcil, D.

    2015-10-01

    We lay out the theoretical underpinnings for the application of the Wang-Sheeley-Arge-Enlil modeling system to ensemble forecasting of coronal mass ejections (CMEs) in an operational environment. In such models, there is no magnetic cloud component, so our results pertain only to CME front properties, such as transit time to Earth. Within this framework, we find no evidence that the propagation is chaotic, and therefore, CME forecasting calls for different tactics than employed for terrestrial weather or hurricane forecasting. We explore a broad range of CME cone inputs and ambient states to flesh out differing CME evolutionary behavior in the various dynamical domains (e.g., large, fast CMEs launched into a slow ambient, and the converse; plus numerous permutations in between). CME propagation in both uniform and highly structured ambient flows is considered to assess how much the solar wind background affects the CME front properties at 1 AU. Graphical and analytic tools pertinent to an ensemble approach are developed to enable uncertainties in forecasting CME impact at Earth to be realistically estimated. We discuss how uncertainties in CME pointing relative to the Sun-Earth line affects the reliability of a forecast and how glancing blows become an issue for CME off-points greater than about the half width of the estimated input CME. While the basic results appear consistent with established impressions of CME behavior, the next step is to use existing records of well-observed CMEs at both Sun and Earth to verify that real events appear to follow the systematic tendencies presented in this study.

  3. EUV Coronal Dimming and its Relationship to Coronal Mass Ejections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mason, James

    2016-05-01

    As a coronal mass ejection (CME) departs from the inner solar atmosphere, it leaves behind a void. This region of depleted plasma results in a corresponding decrease in coronal emissions that can be observed by instruments tuned to measure the extreme ultraviolet (EUV) part of the electromagnetic spectrum. These coronal dimmings can be observed with EUV imagers and EUV spectral irradiance instruments. Onboard the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO), the EUV Variability Experiment (EVE) and Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) provide complementary observations; together they can be used to obtain high spatial and spectral resolution. AIA provides information about the location, extent, and spatial evolution of the dimming while EVE data are important to understand plasma temperature evolution. Concurrent processes with similar timescales to mass-loss dimming also impact the observations, which makes a deconvolution method necessary for the irradiance time series in order to have a “clean” mass-loss dimming light curve that can be parameterized and compared with CME kinematics. This presentation will first provide background on these various physical processes and the deconvolution method developed. Two case studies will then be presented, followed by a semi-statistical study (~30 events) to establish a correlation between dimming and CME parameters. In particular, the slope of the deconvolved irradiance dimming light curve is representative of the CME speed, and the irradiance dimming depth can serve as a proxy for CME mass. Finally, plans and early results from a more complete statistical study of all dimmings in the SDO era, based on an automated detection routine using EVE data, will be described and compared with independently derived dimmings automatically detected with AIA data.

  4. RECONSTRUCTING THE MORPHOLOGY OF AN EVOLVING CORONAL MASS EJECTION

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, B. E.; Howard, R. A.; Socker, D. G. E-mail: russ.howard@nrl.navy.mi

    2010-06-01

    Using imaging data from the Solar TErrestrial RElations Observatory (STEREO) mission, we empirically reconstruct the time-dependent three-dimensional morphology of a coronal mass ejection (CME) from 2008 June 1, which exhibits significant variation in shape as it travels from the Sun to 1 AU, requiring us to abandon the assumption of self-similar expansion. We model the CME as a flux rope that is rather fat relative to its longitudinal extent close to the Sun, but which becomes thinner and flatter on top as the flux rope moves outward. We find best agreement with the STEREO images when the flux rope's west leg is assumed to be rotated 35{sup 0} below the ecliptic plane. This orientation is consistent with previously published inferences about this CME's orientation from an analysis of in situ observations of the event from June 6 to June 7, when the CME hits STEREO-B. The agreement between these two very different kinds of analysis is encouraging. Close to 1 AU, the CME not only hits STEREO-B but also strikes a comet (Comet C/2007 W1 Boattini), which provides an additional constraint for our reconstruction efforts. Finally, we find that this CME is very instructive for assessing different methods of extracting kinematic information from measurements of elongation angles from the Sun, which is a complicated issue for measurements far from the Sun. The 'fixed-{phi}' assumption that we have used successfully in the past does not work well here, and we discuss the implications for extracting reliable kinematic information from heliospheric imaging.

  5. Ankle-Brachial Index and cardiovascular events in atrial fibrillation. The ARAPACIS Study.

    PubMed

    Violi, Francesco; Davì, Giovanni; Proietti, Marco; Pastori, Daniele; Hiatt, William R; Corazza, Gino Roberto; Perticone, Francesco; Pignatelli, Pasquale; Farcomeni, Alessio; Vestri, Anna Rita; Lip, Gregory Y H; Basili, Stefania

    2016-04-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) patients are at high risk for thrombotic and vascular events related to their cardiac arrhythmia and underlying systemic atherosclerosis. Ankle-Brachial Index (ABI) is a non-invasive tool in evaluating systemic atherosclerosis, useful in predicting cardiovascular events in general population; no data are available in AF patients. ARAPACIS is a prospective multicentre observational study performed by the Italian Society of Internal Medicine, analysing association between low ABI (≤ 0.90) and vascular events in NVAF out- or in-patients, enrolled in 136 Italian centres. A total of 2,027 non-valvular AF (NVAF) patients aged > 18 years from both sexes followed for a median time of 34.7 (interquartile range: 22.0-36.0) months, yielding a total of 4,614 patient-years of observation. Mean age was 73 ± 10 years old with 55 % male patients. A total of 176 patients (8.7 %) experienced a vascular event, with a cumulative incidence of 3.81 %/patient-year. ABI≤ 0.90 was more prevalent in patients with a vascular event compared with patients free of vascular events (32.2 vs 20.2 %, p< 0.05). On Cox proportional hazard analysis, ABI≤ 0.90 was an independent predictor of vascular events (hazard ratio (HR): 1.394, 95 % confidence interval (CI): 1.042-1.866; p=0.02), vascular death (HR: 2.047, 95 % CI: 1.255-3.338; p=0.004) and MI (HR: 2.709, 95 % CI: 1.485-5.083; p=0.001). This latter association was also confirmed after excluding patients with previous MI (HR: 2.901, 95 % CI: 1.408-5.990, p=0.004). No association was observed between low ABI and stroke/transient ischaemic attack (p=0.91). In conclusion, low ABI is useful to predict MI and vascular death in NVAF patients and may independently facilitate cardiovascular risk assessment in NVAF patients. PMID:26740316

  6. 49 CFR 571.226 - Standard No. 226; Ejection Mitigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... (within the meaning of 49 CFR 567.7). S3. Definitions. Ejection impactor means a device specified in S7.1... three or fewer carlines, as that term is defined in 49 CFR 583.4, in the United States during a... of 49 CFR 567.7) before September 1, 2018, after having been previously certified in accordance...

  7. 49 CFR 571.226 - Standard No. 226; Ejection Mitigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... (within the meaning of 49 CFR 567.7). S3. Definitions. Ejection impactor means a device specified in S7.1... three or fewer carlines, as that term is defined in 49 CFR 583.4, in the United States during a... of 49 CFR 567.7) before September 1, 2018, after having been previously certified in accordance...

  8. 49 CFR 571.226 - Standard No. 226; Ejection Mitigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Standard No. 226; Ejection Mitigation. 571.226 Section 571.226 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL MOTOR VEHICLE SAFETY STANDARDS Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards §...

  9. An Investigation of ejected particulate from shocked Lead (Pb) surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Routley, Nathan; Kendall, Paul; Edwards, Terry; Burns, Malcolm; Mears, Alan

    2011-06-01

    Abstract. An experimental series has been carried out to investigate the relationship between shock break out pressure, surface roughness and the quantity of ejected particulate emitted from Lead (Pb) samples. High Explosives (HE) mounted against the rear surface of the Pb samples generate an attenuating shock wave in the Pb. For each shot, the Pb sample thickness was chosen to provide a range of shock break out pressures, which spanned melt on release, ~27 GPa for Pb. For the majority of the experiments the free surface finish was manufactured to have a predefined groove depth and wavelength. The interaction of the shock wave with these surface features on the Pb / vacuum interface can lead to micro-jetting from the Pb with particulate being ejected. The ejected particulate was diagnosed using a mixture of piezoelectric probes and Asay barrier style probes. The free surface velocity history was measured with heterodyne velocimetry probes. The ejected particulate mass-velocity distributions have been correlated with the shock breakout pressure and surface roughness. The results show a transition in ejecta production at the Pb melt on release pressure.

  10. Quantification of the Interrelationship between Brachial-Ankle and Carotid-Femoral Pulse Wave Velocity in a Workplace Population

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Yi-Bang; Li, Yan; Sheng, Chang-Sheng; Huang, Qi-Fang; Wang, Ji-Guang

    2016-01-01

    Background Brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (PWV) is increasingly used for the measurement of arterial stiffness. In the present study, we quantified the interrelationship between brachial-ankle and carotid-femoral PWV in a workplace population, and investigated the associations with cardiovascular risk factors and carotid intima-media thickness (IMT). Methods Brachial-ankle and carotid-femoral PWV were measured using the Omron-Colin VP1000 and SphygmoCor devices, respectively. We investigated the interrelationship by the Pearson's correlation analysis and Bland-Altman plot, and performed sensitivity and specificity analyses. Results The 954 participants (mean ± standard deviation age 42.6 ± 14.2 years) included 630 (66.0%) men and 203 (21.3%) hypertensive patients. Brachial-ankle (13.4 ± 2.7 m/s) and carotid-femoral PWV (7.3 ± 1.6 m/s) were significantly correlated in all subjects (r = 0.75) as well as in men (r = 0.72) and women (r = 0.80) separately. For arterial stiffness defined as a carotid-femoral PWV of 10 m/s or higher, the sensitivity and specificity of brachial-ankle PWV of 16.7 m/s or higher were 72 and 94%, respectively. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.953. In multiple stepwise regression, brachial-ankle and carotid-femoral PWV were significantly (p < 0.001) associated with age (partial r = 0.33 and 0.34, respectively) and systolic blood pressure (partial r = 0.71 and 0.66, respectively). In addition, brachial-ankle and carotid-femoral PWV were significantly (p < 0.001) associated with carotid IMT (r = 0.57 and 0.55, respectively) in unadjusted analysis, but not in analysis adjusted for cardiovascular risk factors (p ≥ 0.08). Conclusions Brachial-ankle and carotid-femoral PWV were closely correlated, and had similar determinants. Brachial-ankle PWV can behave as an ease-of-use alternative measure of arterial stiffness for assessing cardiovascular risk. PMID:27195246

  11. New Publicly Available EEGGL Tool for Simulating Coronal Mass Ejections.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sokolov, I.; Manchester, W.; van der Holst, B.; Gombosi, T. I.; Jin, M.; Mullinix, R.; Taktakishvili, A.; Chulaki, A.; Toth, G.

    2015-12-01

    We present and demonstrate a new tool, EEGGL (Eruptive Event Generator using Gibson-Low configuration) for simulating CMEs (Coronal Mass Ejections). CMEs are among the most significant space weather events, producing the radiation hazards (via the diffuse shock acceleration of the Solar Energetic Particles - SEPs), the interplanetary shock waves as well as the geomagnetic activity due to the drastic changes of the interplanetary magnetic field within the "magnetic clouds" ("flux ropes"). Some of this effects may be efficiently simulated using the "cone model", which is employed in the real-time simulations of the ongoing CMEs at the NASA-Goddard Space Flight Center. The cone model provides a capability to predict the location, time, width and shape of the hydrodynamic perturbation in the upper solar corona (at ~0.1 AU), which can be used to drive the heliospheric simulation (with the ENLIL code, for example). At the same time the magnetic field orientation in this perturbation is uncertain within the cone model, which limits the capability of the geomagnetic activity forecast. The new EEGGL tool http://ccmc.gsfc.nasa.gov/analysis/EEGGL/recently developed at the Goddard Space Flight Center in collaboration with the University of Michigan provides a new capability for both evaluating the magnetic field configuration resulting from the CME and tracing the CME through the solar corona. In this way not only the capability to simulate the magnetic field evolution at 1 AU may be achieved, but also the more extensive comparison with the CME observations in the solar corona may be achieved. Based on the magnetogram and evaluation of the CME initial location and speed, the user may choose the active region from which the CME originates and then the EEGGL tools provides the parameters of the Gibson-Low magnetic configuration to parameterize the CME. The recommended parameters may be used then to drive the simulation of CME propagation from the low solar corona to 1 AU using

  12. Acquired Brachial Cutaneous Dyschromatosis in a 60-Year-Old Male: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Foering, Kristen

    2014-01-01

    Acquired brachial cutaneous dyschromatosis is an acquired pigmentary disorder that has been described in only 20 patients but likely affects many more. This case of a man with acquired brachial cutaneous dyschromatosis is unique as most reports are in women. We report the case of a 60-year-old male who presents with an asymptomatic eruption characterized by hyperpigmented and telangiectatic macules coalescing into patches on the bilateral extensor aspects of the forearms which is consistent clinically and histopathologically with acquired brachial cutaneous dyschromatosis. Given its presence in patients with clinical evidence of chronic sun exposure and its histopathological finding of solar elastosis, acquired brachial cutaneous dyschromatosis is likely a disorder caused by cumulative UV damage. However, a possible association between angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and acquired brachial cutaneous dyschromatosis exists. Further investigation is needed to elucidate both the pathogenesis of the disorder and forms of effective management. Treatment of the disorder should begin with current established treatments for disorders of dyspigmentation. PMID:25610668

  13. Blockade of the brachial plexus abolishes activation of specific brain regions by electroacupuncture at LI4: a functional MRI study

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Weidong; Jiang, Wei; He, Jingwei; Liu, Songbin; Wang, Zhaoxin

    2015-01-01

    Objective Our aim was to test the hypothesis that electroacupuncture (EA) at acupuncture point LI4 activates specific brain regions by nerve stimulation that is mediatied through a pathway involving the brachial plexus. Methods Twelve acupuncture naive right-handed volunteers were allocated to receive three sessions of EA at LI4 in a random different order (crossover): (1) EA alone (EA); EA after injection of local anaesthetics into the deltoid muscle (EA+LA); and (3) EA after blockade of the brachial plexus (EA+NB). During each session, participants were imaged in a 3 T MRI scanner. Brain regions showing change in blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) signal (activation) were identified. Subjective acupuncture sensation was quantified after functional MRI scanning was completed. Results were compared between the three sessions for each individual, and averaged. Results Blockade of the brachial plexus inhibited acupuncture sensation during EA. EA and EA+LA activated the bilateral thalamus, basal ganglia, cerebellum and left putamen, whilst no significant activation was observed during EA+NB. The BOLD signal of the thalamus correlated significantly with acupuncture sensation score during EA. Conclusions Blockade of the brachial plexus completely abolishes patterns of brain activation induced by EA at LI4. The results suggest that EA activates specific brain regions through stimulation of the local nerves supplying the tissues at LI4, which transmit sensory information via the brachial plexus. Trial registration number ChiCTR-OO-13003389. PMID:26464415

  14. Supplementation with omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids augments brachial artery dilation and blood flow during forearm contraction.

    PubMed

    Walser, Buddy; Giordano, Rose M; Stebbins, Charles L

    2006-06-01

    Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids such as docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) have beneficial effects on the heart and vasculature. We tested the hypothesis that 6 weeks of dietary supplementation with DHA (2.0 g/day) and EPA (3.0 g/day) enhances exercise-induced increases in brachial artery diameter and blood flow during rhythmic exercise. In seven healthy subjects, blood pressure, heart rate and brachial artery diameter, blood flow, and conductance were assessed before and during the last 30 s of 90 s of rhythmic handgrip exercise (30% of maximal handgrip tension). Blood pressure (MAP), heart rate (HR), and brachial artery vascular conductance were also determined. This paradigm was also performed in six other healthy subjects who received 6 weeks of placebo (safflower oil). Placebo treatment had no effect on any variable. DHA and EPA supplementation enhanced contraction-induced increases in brachial artery diameter (0.28+/-0.04 vs. 0.14+/-0.03 mm), blood flow (367+/-65 vs. 293+/-55 ml min-1) and conductance (3.86+/-0.71 vs. 2.89+/-0.61 ml min-1 mmHg-1) (P<0.05). MAP and HR were unchanged. Results indicate that treatment with DHA and EPA enhances brachial artery blood flow and conductance during exercise. These findings may have implications for individuals with cardiovascular disease and exercise intolerance (e.g., heart failure). PMID:16770472

  15. Accurate quantitative measurements of brachial artery cross-sectional vascular area and vascular volume elastic modulus using automated oscillometric measurements: comparison with brachial artery ultrasound

    PubMed Central

    Tomiyama, Yuuki; Yoshinaga, Keiichiro; Fujii, Satoshi; Ochi, Noriki; Inoue, Mamiko; Nishida, Mutumi; Aziki, Kumi; Horie, Tatsunori; Katoh, Chietsugu; Tamaki, Nagara

    2015-01-01

    Increasing vascular diameter and attenuated vascular elasticity may be reliable markers for atherosclerotic risk assessment. However, previous measurements have been complex, operator-dependent or invasive. Recently, we developed a new automated oscillometric method to measure a brachial artery's estimated area (eA) and volume elastic modulus (VE). The aim of this study was to investigate the reliability of new automated oscillometric measurement of eA and VE. Rest eA and VE were measured using the recently developed automated detector with the oscillometric method. eA was estimated using pressure/volume curves and VE was defined as follows (VE=Δ pressure/ (100 × Δ area/area) mm Hg/%). Sixteen volunteers (age 35.2±13.1 years) underwent the oscillometric measurements and brachial ultrasound at rest and under nitroglycerin (NTG) administration. Oscillometric measurement was performed twice on different days. The rest eA correlated with ultrasound-measured brachial artery area (r=0.77, P<0.001). Rest eA and VE measurement showed good reproducibility (eA: intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC)=0.88, VE: ICC=0.78). Under NTG stress, eA was significantly increased (12.3±3.0 vs. 17.1±4.6 mm2, P<0.001), and this was similar to the case with ultrasound evaluation (4.46±0.72 vs. 4.73±0.75 mm, P<0.001). VE was also decreased (0.81±0.16 vs. 0.65±0.11 mm Hg/%, P<0.001) after NTG. Cross-sectional vascular area calculated using this automated oscillometric measurement correlated with ultrasound measurement and showed good reproducibility. Therefore, this is a reliable approach and this modality may have practical application to automatically assess muscular artery diameter and elasticity in clinical or epidemiological settings. PMID:25693851

  16. The asymmetric scent: ringtailed lemurs ( Lemur catta) have distinct chemical signatures in left and right brachial glands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dapporto, Leonardo

    2008-10-01

    Distinctive cues are predicted to evolve when the benefits obtained by the recognition process overcome its costs. When individual recognition is particularly beneficial for both senders and receivers, the expression of strongly distinctive signals is predicted to evolve. On the other hand, it could be predicted that each individual should show a very stable individual signature. In the same perspective, a great stability of the individual signatures could be expected. Lemur catta is the first non-human primate in which olfactory individual recognition has been demonstrated on the basis of the specialized brachial gland secretions. In this paper, I performed gas chromatograph analyses of right and left gland samples collected in two different periods (breeding and non-breeding seasons) from seven males. The aim was to verify if a diversification in such cues, already demonstrated at the inter-individual level, also occurs at the intra-individual level between left and right glands. I verified, by discriminant analysis and chemical distance comparisons, that each gland of each lemur has its particular signature that is maintained through time. Moreover, such diversification resulted so marked to make the overall intra-individual chemical differences similar to/as strong as the inter-individual ones. Since in rodents several odors from different glands may be integrated in individual recognition, I suggest that bilateral diversification in L. catta scents may offer an enhanced distinctiveness that could provide benefits in mate choice and social relationships.

  17. Developing core sets for patients with obstetric brachial plexus injury based on the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health

    PubMed Central

    Duijnisveld, B. J.; Saraç, Ç.; Malessy, M. J. A.; Vliet Vlieland, T. P. M.; Nelissen, R. G. H. H.; Brachial Plexus Advisory Board, The ICF

    2013-01-01

    Background Symptoms of obstetric brachial plexus injury (OBPI) vary widely over the course of time and from individual to individual and can include various degrees of denervation, muscle weakness, contractures, bone deformities and functional limitations. To date, no universally accepted overall framework is available to assess the outcome of patients with OBPI. The objective of this paper is to outline the proposed process for the development of International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) Core Sets for patients with an OBPI. Methods The first step is to conduct four preparatory studies to identify ICF categories important for OBPI: a) a systematic literature review to identify outcome measures, b) a qualitative study using focus groups, c) an expert survey and d) a cross-sectional, multicentre study. A first version of ICF Core Sets will be defined at a consensus conference, which will integrate the evidence from the preparatory studies. In a second step, field-testing among patients will validate this first version of Core Sets for OBPI. Discussion The proposed method to develop ICF Core Sets for OBPI yields a practical tool for multiple purposes: for clinicians to systematically assess and evaluate the individual’s functioning, for researchers to design and compare studies, and for patients to get more insight into their health problems and their management. PMID:23836476

  18. MUSCLE TRANSFER FROM TRICEPS TO BICEPS IN PATIENTS WITH CHRONIC INJURY OF THE UPPER TRUNK OF THE BRACHIAL PLEXUS

    PubMed Central

    Souza, Fabiano Inúcio de; Saito, Mateus; Kimura, Luiz Koiti; Júnior, Rames Mattar; Zumiotti, Arnaldo Valdir

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the results from transposition of the triceps for elbow flexion in patients with chronic and complete injury to the upper trunk of the brachial plexus. Methods: This was a retrospective study, including only patients who had biceps grade 0 and triceps grade 5, who underwent anterior transfer of the triceps muscle, performed between 1998 and 2005. The affected side, sex, type of accident, strength of elbow flexion, complications and patient satisfaction were investigated in 11 cases. Results: 10 patients were male; the age range was from 24 to 49 years, with a mean of 33.7 years. The minimum time between injury and surgery was 21 months (range 21-74 months). The left side was affected in eight cases, and the right only in three. Good results were obtained in 10 patients, who acquired elbow flexion strength of grade 3 (two cases) and grade 4 (eight cases), while one evolved unfavorably with grade 2 strength. Two cases had complications (initial compartment syndrome and insufficient tensioning). All the patients said that they were satisfied with the procedure. Conclusion: Anterior transposition of the triceps muscle provided patient satisfaction in all cases except one, attaining strength grade 4 in eight cases, grade 3 in two cases and grade 2 in one case. PMID:27022572

  19. Simulation of 'pathologic' changes in ICG waveforms resulting from superposition of the 'preejection' and ejection waves induced by left ventricular contraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ermishkin, V. V.; Kolesnikov, V. A.; Lukoshkova, E. V.; Sonina, R. S.

    2013-04-01

    The impedance cardiography (ICG) is widely used for beat-to-beat noninvasive evaluation of the left ventricular stroke volume and contractility. It implies the correct determination of the ejection start and end points and the amplitudes of certain peaks in the differentiated impedance cardiogram. An accurate identification of ejection onset by ICG is often problematic, especially in the cardiologic patients, due to peculiar waveforms. Using a simple theoretical model, we tested the hypothesis that two major processes are responsible for the formation of impedance systolic wave: (1) the changes in the heart geometry and surrounding vessels produced by ventricular contraction, which occur during the isovolumic phase and precede ejection, and (2) expansion of aorta and adjacent arteries during the ejection phase. The former process initiates the preejection wave WpE and the latter triggers the ejection wave WEj. The model predicts a potential mechanism of generating the abnormal shapes of dZ/dt due to the presence of preejection waves and explains the related errors in ICG time and amplitude parameters. An appropriate decomposition method is a promising way to avoid the masking effects of these waves and a further step to correct determination of the onset of ejection and the corresponding peak amplitudes from 'pathologically shaped' ICG signals.

  20. [Estimation of left ventricular volumes and ejection fraction with acoustic quantification in myocardial infarction. Comparison with echocardiographic, angiographic and scintigraphic data].

    PubMed

    Jennesseaux, C; Metz, D; Maillier, B; Nazeyrollas, P; Maes, D; Tassan, S; Chabert, J P; Elaerts, J

    1996-07-01

    The object of this study was to assess the reliability of measurements of left ventricular volumes and ejection fraction by acoustic quantification by the method of summation of discs in acute myocardial infarction. Thirty-two patients with an average age of 55.9 +/- 12 years were studied prospectively on average 6 +/- 2 days after the onset of myocardial infarction. Within 48 hours, the patients underwent TM echocardiography (Teichholz's method) two-dimensional echocardiography (Simpson's method on freeze frames and acoustic quantification) before left ventricular angiography and isotopic ventriculography, considered as the reference methods for comparing left ventricular volumes and ejection fractions. The data displayed in real time by acoustic quantification correlated well with the results of left ventricular angiography (r = 0.77; p = 0.0001) and moderately underestimated (+4.1 +/- 11.9%) the ejection fraction, but were relatively disappointing for estimating volumes. When compared with isotopic ejection fraction, the correlation coefficient was r = 0.71 (p = 0.0004) and the values were overestimated. In this study, acoustic quantification was the most reliable echocardiographic method of assessing the left ventricular ejection fraction with reference to contrast angiography (Teichholz: r = 0.56; p = 0.0014; Simpson: r = 0.76; p = 0.001). The authors conclude that assessing the left ventricular ejection fraction with acoustic quantification is reliable in acute myocardial infarction. However, the method is not very accurate in measuring end systolic and end diastolic volumes. PMID:8869245

  1. Multiple Plasma Ejections and Intermittent Nature of Magnetic Reconnection in Solar Chromospheric Anemone Jets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, K. A. P.; Isobe, H.; Nishizuka, N.; Nishida, K.; Shibata, K.

    2012-11-01

    The recent discovery of chromospheric anemone jets with the Solar Optical Telescope (SOT) on board Hinode has shown an indirect evidence of magnetic reconnection in the solar chromosphere. However, the basic nature of magnetic reconnection in chromosphere is still unclear. We studied nine chromospheric anemone jets from SOT/Hinode using Ca II H filtergrams, and we found multiple bright, plasma ejections along the jets. In most cases, the major intensity enhancements (larger than 30% relative to the background intensity) of the loop correspond to the timing of the plasma ejections. The typical lifetime and size of the plasma ejecta are about 20-60 s and 0.3-1.5 Mm, respectively. The height-time plot of jet shows many sub-structures (or individual jets) and the typical lifetime of the individual jet is about one to five minutes. Before the onset of the jet activity, a loop appears in Ca II H and gradually increases in size, and after few minutes several jets are launched from the loop. Once the jet activity starts and several individual jets are launched, the loop starts shrinking with a speed of ~4 km s-1. In some events, a downward moving blob with a speed of ~35 km s-1 was observed, associated with the upward moving plasma along one of the legs of the loop hosting the jets. The upward moving plasma gradually developed into jets. Multiple plasma ejections in chromospheric anemone jet show the strongly time-dependent as well as intermittent nature of magnetic reconnection in the solar chromosphere.

  2. MULTIPLE PLASMA EJECTIONS AND INTERMITTENT NATURE OF MAGNETIC RECONNECTION IN SOLAR CHROMOSPHERIC ANEMONE JETS

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, K. A. P.; Nishida, K.; Shibata, K.; Isobe, H.; Nishizuka, N. E-mail: nishida@kwasan.kyoto-u.ac.jp E-mail: isobe@kwasan.kyoto-u.ac.jp

    2012-11-01

    The recent discovery of chromospheric anemone jets with the Solar Optical Telescope (SOT) on board Hinode has shown an indirect evidence of magnetic reconnection in the solar chromosphere. However, the basic nature of magnetic reconnection in chromosphere is still unclear. We studied nine chromospheric anemone jets from SOT/Hinode using Ca II H filtergrams, and we found multiple bright, plasma ejections along the jets. In most cases, the major intensity enhancements (larger than 30% relative to the background intensity) of the loop correspond to the timing of the plasma ejections. The typical lifetime and size of the plasma ejecta are about 20-60 s and 0.3-1.5 Mm, respectively. The height-time plot of jet shows many sub-structures (or individual jets) and the typical lifetime of the individual jet is about one to five minutes. Before the onset of the jet activity, a loop appears in Ca II H and gradually increases in size, and after few minutes several jets are launched from the loop. Once the jet activity starts and several individual jets are launched, the loop starts shrinking with a speed of {approx}4 km s{sup -1}. In some events, a downward moving blob with a speed of {approx}35 km s{sup -1} was observed, associated with the upward moving plasma along one of the legs of the loop hosting the jets. The upward moving plasma gradually developed into jets. Multiple plasma ejections in chromospheric anemone jet show the strongly time-dependent as well as intermittent nature of magnetic reconnection in the solar chromosphere.

  3. A demonstration experiment of steam-driven, high-pressure melt ejection

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, M.D.; Pitch, M. ); Nichols, R.T. )

    1990-08-01

    A steam blowdown test was performed at the Surtsey Direct Heating Test Facility to test the steam supply system and burst diaphragm arrangement that will be used in subsequent Surtsey Direct Containment Heating (DCH) experiments. Following successful completion of the steam blowdown test, the HIPS-10S (High-Pressure Melt Streaming) experiment was conducted to demonstrate that the technology to perform steam-driven, high-pressure melt ejection (HPME) experiments has been successfully developed. In addition, the HIPS-10S experiment was used to assess techniques and instrumentation design to create the proper timing of events in HPME experiments. This document discusses the results of this test.

  4. Impact ejection of lunar meteorites and the age of Giordano Bruno

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fritz, Jörg

    2012-11-01

    Based on literature data from lunar meteorites and orbital observations it is argued that the lunar crater Giordano Bruno (22 km ∅) formed more than 1 Ma ago and probably ejected the lunar meteorites Yamato 82192/82193/86032 at 8.5 ± 1.5 Ma ago from the Th-poor highlands of the Moon. The efficiency and time scale to deliver 3He-rich lunar material into Earth’s sediments is discussed to assess the temporal relationship between the Giordano Bruno cratering event and a 1 Ma enduring 3He-spike which is observed in 8.2 Ma old sediments on Earth.

  5. Clinical Utility of 18F-FDG PET/CT in brachial plexopathy secondary to metastatic breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Chandra, Piyush; Purandare, Nilendu; Agrawal, Archi; Shah, Sneha; Rangarajan, Venkatesh

    2016-01-01

    Role of fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) in breast cancer is rapidly evolving. Brachial plexopathy is a rare clinical entity in follow-up of operated breast cancer patients, who presents with disease recurrence in the axilla. Conventionally, magnetic resonance imaging is the imaging modality of choice for diagnostic evaluation in these cases and only few case reports/short studies have explored the utility of PET/CT in this clinical indication. We present here a short case series to demonstrate the utility of PET/CT as an important adjunctive imaging modality to magnetic resonance to supplement diagnosis of brachial plexopathy, differentiate radiation-induced brachial plexopathy from neoplastic plexopathy, accurately restage the disease and to monitor response to chemotherapy. PMID:27095861

  6. End-to-side nerve suture in traumatic injuries of brachial plexus: review of the literature and personal case series.

    PubMed

    Battiston, B; Artiaco, S; Conforti, L G; Vasario, G; Tos, P

    2009-10-01

    We used end-to-side nerve coaptation combined with standard end-to-end neurotisations to treat 11 patients who presented with complete (six cases) or incomplete (five cases) traumatic brachial plexus injuries. All patients were available for functional evaluation at a minimum of 2 years postoperatively. In three patients with shoulder abduction recovery, electromyographical studies (EMG) showed a contribution from the end-to-side neurotisation. In the remaining cases end-to-side neurotisations were unsuccessful. Our study did not demonstrate a reliable role for end-to-side nerve suture in brachial plexus surgery. We believe that at present end-to-side suture must not be a substitute for standard reconstructive techniques in brachial plexus surgery. Occasionally termino-lateral nerve sutures may represent a support to standard reconstructive procedures especially in case of severe injuries when few undamaged donor nerves are available. PMID:19587073

  7. Brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity as a predictor of mortality in elderly Chinese.

    PubMed

    Sheng, Chang-Sheng; Li, Yan; Li, Li-Hua; Huang, Qi-Fang; Zeng, Wei-Fang; Kang, Yuan-Yuan; Zhang, Lu; Liu, Ming; Wei, Fang-Fei; Li, Ge-Le; Song, Jie; Wang, Shuai; Wang, Ji-Guang

    2014-11-01

    Pulse wave velocity (PWV) is a measure of arterial stiffness and predicts cardiovascular events and mortality in the general population and various patient populations. In the present study, we investigated the predictive value of brachial-ankle PWV for mortality in an elderly Chinese population. Our study subjects were older (≥60 years) persons living in a suburban town of Shanghai. We measured brachial-ankle PWV using an automated cuff device at baseline and collected vital information till June 30, 2013, during follow-up. The 3876 participants (1713 [44.2%] men; mean [±SD] age, 68.1±7.3 years) included 2292 (59.1%) hypertensive patients. PWV was on average 17.8 (±4.0) m/s and was significantly (P<0.0001) associated with age (r=0.48) and in unadjusted analysis with all-cause (n=316), cardiovascular (n=148), stroke (n=46), and noncardiovascular mortality (n=168) during a median follow-up of 5.9 years. In further adjusted analysis, we studied the risk of mortality according to the decile distributions of PWV. Only the subjects in the top decile (23.3-39.3 m/s) had a significantly (P≤0.003) higher risk of all-cause mortality (hazard ratio relative to the whole study population, 1.56; 95% confidence interval, 1.16-2.08), especially in hypertensive patients (hazard ratio, 1.86; 95% confidence interval, 1.31-2.64; P=0.02 for the interaction between PWV and hypertension). Similar trends were observed for cardiovascular, stroke, and noncardiovascular mortality, although statistical significance was not reached (P≥0.08). In conclusion, brachial-ankle PWV predicts mortality in elderly Chinese on the conditions of markedly increased PWV and hypertension. PMID:25259749

  8. Range of motion and strength after surgery for brachial plexus birth palsy

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background There is little information about the range of motion (ROM) and strength of the affected upper limbs of patients with permanent brachial plexus birth palsy. Patients and methods 107 patients who had brachial plexus surgery in Finland between 1971 and 1998 were investigated in this population-based, cross-sectional, 12-year follow-up study. During the follow-up, 59 patients underwent secondary procedures. ROM and isometric strength of the shoulders, elbows, wrists, and thumbs were measured. Ratios for ROM and strength between the affected and unaffected sides were calculated. Results 61 patients (57%) had no active shoulder external rotation (median 0° (-75–90)). Median active abduction was 90° (1–170). Shoulder external rotation strength of the affected side was diminished (median ratio 28% (0–83)). Active elbow extension deficiency was recorded in 82 patients (median 25° (5–80)). Elbow flexion strength of the affected side was uniformly impaired (median ratio 43% (0–79)). Median active extension of the wrist was 55° (-70–90). The median ratio of grip strength for the affected side vs. the unaffected side was 68% (0–121). Patients with total injury had poorer ROM and strength than those with C5–6 injury. Incongruity of the radiohumeral joint and avulsion were associated with poor strength values. Interpretation ROM and strength of affected upper limbs of patients with surgically treated brachial plexus birth palsy were reduced. Patients with avulsion injuries and/or consequent joint deformities fared worst. PMID:21142823

  9. Décompression chirurgicale du syndrome de défilé thoraco-brachial

    PubMed Central

    Lukulunga, Loubet Unyendje; Moussa, Abdou Kadri; Mahfoud, Mustapha; Ismael, Farid; Berrada, Mohamed Saleh; El Yaacoubi, Moradh

    2014-01-01

    Le syndrome de défilé thoraco-brachial est une pathologie souvent méconnue à cause de diagnostic difficile par manque des signes pathognomoniques conduisant souvent à des errances. Les manifestations cliniques dépendent selon qu'il s'agit d'une compression nerveuse, vasculaire ou vasculo-nerveuse. Le but de cette étude est de décrire certains aspects cliniques particuliers et évaluer le résultat fonctionnel après la décompression chirurgicale du paquet vasculo-nerveux. Notre étude rétrospective a porté sur l'analyse des données cliniques, radiologiques, IRM et EMG sur les patients opérés entre janvier 2010 et juillet 2013 du syndrome de défilé thoraco-brachial dans le service de traumatologie orthopédie de l'hôpital Ibn Sina de Rabat. 15 cas ont été colligés: 12 cas post traumatiques (fracture de la clavicule) et 3 cas d'origines congénitales, dont l’âge moyen était 35 ans (20 à 50 ans) avec 9 femmes et 6 hommes. A la fin du traitement, le score de Dash est passé de 109 (46% Normal=0) à 70 (20%), et le stress test de Roos était de 70/100 à 80/100. Le résultat était excellent dans 12 cas soit (80%) et moins bon dans dans 3 cas (20%). En définitive, la résection de malformations osseuses, l'excision des brides et la neurolyse du plexus brachial suivie de la rééducation a donné une bonne évolution fonctionnelle. PMID:25709735

  10. Tracking halo coronal mass ejections from 0-1 AU and space weather forecasting using the Solar Mass Ejection Imager (SMEI)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howard, T. A.; Webb, D. F.; Tappin, S. J.; Mizuno, D. R.; Johnston, J. C.

    2006-04-01

    The Solar Mass Ejection Imager (SMEI) has been tracking coronal mass ejections (CMEs) from the Sun to the Earth and beyond since it came online in February 2003. This paper presents some results from the first 19 months of data from SMEI, when over 140 transients of many kinds were observed in SMEI's all-sky cameras. We focus specifically on 20 earthward directed transients, and compare distance-time plots obtained from the SMEI transients with those observed in halo CMEs by Large-Angle Spectrometric Coronograph (LASCO) aboard Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO), and the arrival time of the shock observed by ACE at 0.99 AU. The geometry of one particular transient is compared using both LASCO and SMEI images in a first attempt to investigate geometry evolution as the transient propagates through the interplanetary medium. For some events, the halo CME, SMEI transient, and shock at 0.99 AU do not match, suggesting that some transients may not correspond to a halo CME. Finally, an evaluation of the potential of SMEI to be used as a predictor of space weather is presented, by comparing the transients observed in SMEI with the 22 geomagnetic storms which occurred during this timeframe. A transient was observed in 14 cases, and distance-time profiles would have allowed a prediction of the arrival time at ACE within 2 hours of its actual arrival for three events, and within 10 hours for eight events. Of these eight events, seven were detected by SMEI more than 1 day before the transient's arrival at the Earth.

  11. Association of Central Versus Brachial Blood Pressure With Target-Organ Damage: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Kollias, Anastasios; Lagou, Styliani; Zeniodi, Maria Elena; Boubouchairopoulou, Nadia; Stergiou, George S

    2016-01-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that central blood pressure (BP) may reflect the hemodynamic stress on target organs more accurately than brachial BP. A systematic review assessing the relationship of central versus brachial BP with preclinical target-organ damage was performed. Meta-analysis of cross-sectional data showed that central compared with brachial systolic BP was more closely associated with (1) left ventricular mass index (12 studies, n=6431; weighted age [SD], 49.9 [13.1] years; 51% hypertensives): pooled correlation coefficients r=0.30; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.23-0.37 versus r=0.26; 95% CI, 0.19-0.33, respectively; P<0.01 for difference; (2) carotid intima-media thickness (7 studies, n=6136; weighted age, 55.6 [13.2] years; 48% hypertensives): r=0.27; 95% CI, 0.19-0.34 versus r=0.23; 95% CI, 0.16-0.30, respectively; P<0.01 for difference; (3) pulse-wave velocity (14 studies, n=3699; weighted age, 53.9 [13.3] years; 53% hypertensives): r=0.42; 95% CI, 0.37-0.47 versus r=0.39; 95% CI, 0.33-0.45, respectively; P<0.01 for difference. Four studies assessing urine albumin excretion (n=3718; weighted age, 56.4 [5] years; 69% hypertensives) reported similar correlations (P=not significant) with central (r=0.22; 95% CI, 0.14-0.29) and brachial systolic BP (r=0.22; 95% CI, 0.12-0.32). Similar findings were observed for central compared with brachial pulse pressure in terms of relationship with target-organ damage. Metaregression analyses did not reveal any significant effect of age. In conclusion, central compared with brachial BP seems to be more strongly associated with most of the investigated indices of preclinical organ damage. PMID:26597821

  12. Effect of dexamethasone in low volume supraclavicular brachial plexus block: A double-blinded randomized clinical study

    PubMed Central

    Alarasan, Arun Kumar; Agrawal, Jitendre; Choudhary, Bhanu; Melhotra, Amrita; Uike, Satyendre; Mukherji, Arghya

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims: With the use of ultrasound, a minimal effective volume of 20 ml has been described for supraclavicular brachial plexus block. However achieving a long duration of analgesia with this minimal volume remains a challenge. We aimed to determine the effect of dexamethasone on onset and duration of analgesia in low volume supraclavicular brachial plexus block. Material and Methods: Sixty patients were randomly divided into two groups of 30 each. Group C received saline (2 ml) + 20 ml of 0.5% bupivacaine and Group D received dexamethasone (8 mg) + 20 ml of 0.5% bupivacaine in supraclavicular brachial plexus block. Hemodynamic variables and visual analog scale (VAS) score were noted at regular intervals until 450 min. The onset and duration of sensory and motor block were measured. The incidence of “Halo” around brachial plexus was observed. Student's t-test and Chi-square test were used for statistical analysis. Results: The onset of sensory and motor block was significantly earlier in dexamethasone group (10.36 ± 1.99 and 12 ± 1.64) minutes compared to control group (12.9 ± 2.23 and 18.03 ± 2.41) minutes. The duration of sensory and motor block was significantly prolonged in dexamethasone group (366 ± 28.11 and 337.33 ± 28.75) minutes compared to control group (242.66 ± 26.38 and 213 ± 26.80) minutes. The VAS score was significantly lower in dexamethasone group after 210 min. “Halo” was present around the brachial plexus in all patients in both the groups. Conclusion: Dexamethasone addition significantly increases the duration of analgesia in patients receiving low volume supraclavicular brachial plexus block. No significant side-effects were seen in patients receiving dexamethasone as an adjunct. PMID:27275056

  13. Radiation dose distributions due to sudden ejection of cobalt device.

    PubMed

    Abdelhady, Amr

    2016-09-01

    The evaluation of the radiation dose during accident in a nuclear reactor is of great concern from the viewpoint of safety. One of important accident must be analyzed and may be occurred in open pool type reactor is the rejection of cobalt device. The study is evaluating the dose rate levels resulting from upset withdrawal of co device especially the radiation dose received by the operator in the control room. Study of indirect radiation exposure to the environment due to skyshine effect is also taken into consideration in order to evaluate the radiation dose levels around the reactor during the ejection trip. Microshield, SHLDUTIL, and MCSky codes were used in this study to calculate the radiation dose profiles during cobalt device ejection trip inside and outside the reactor building. PMID:27423021

  14. A Survey of Interplanetary Coronal Mass Ejections During 1996 - 2007

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richardson, Ian; Cane, Hilary

    2007-01-01

    Interplanetary coronal mass ejections, the interplanetary counterparts of coronal mass ejections at the Sun, are the major drivers of interplanetary shocks in the heliosphere, and are associated with modulations of the galactic cosmic ray intensity, both short term (Forbush decreases caused by the passage of the shock, post-shock sheath, and ICME) and possibly with longer term modulation. Using several in-situ signatures of ICMEs, including plasma temperature, and composition, magnetic fields, and cosmic ray modulations, made by near-Earth spacecraft, we have compiled a "comprehensive" list of ICMEs passing the Earth since 1996, encompassing solar cycle 23. We summarize the properties of these ICMEs, such as their occurrence rate, speeds, association with solar energetic particle events, shocks and cosmic ray decreases.

  15. Light-induced ejection of calcium atoms from polymer surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mango, F.; Maccioni, E.

    2008-12-01

    Laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) of calcium atoms at room temperature has been observed in a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) coated cell when the walls are illuminated with non resonant visible light. Ca atomic density in the gas phase, monitored by the LIF, is much higher than normal room-temperature vapour pressure of calcium. In past years photon-stimulated desorption (PSD) was observed for several alkali metals that adsorbed to solid films of PDMS polymers. High yields of photo-desorbed atoms (and molecules in the case of sodium) can be induced, at room temperature and below, by weak intensity radiation. The desorption is characterised by a frequency threshold, whereas any power threshold is undetectable. The calcium photo-ejection is characterised both by a frequency threshold (about 18 500 cm-1) and by an observable power threshold (whose value becomes lower when the photo-ejecting light wavelength decreases).

  16. r-PROCESS NUCLEOSYNTHESIS IN DYNAMICALLY EJECTED MATTER OF NEUTRON STAR MERGERS

    SciTech Connect

    Goriely, Stephane; Bauswein, Andreas; Janka, Hans-Thomas

    2011-09-10

    Although the rapid neutron-capture process, or r-process, is fundamentally important for explaining the origin of approximately half of the stable nuclei with A > 60, the astrophysical site of this process has not been identified yet. Here we study r-process nucleosynthesis in material that is dynamically ejected by tidal and pressure forces during the merging of binary neutron stars (NSs) and within milliseconds afterward. For the first time we make use of relativistic hydrodynamical simulations of such events, defining consistently the conditions that determine the nucleosynthesis, i.e., neutron enrichment, entropy, early density evolution and thus expansion timescale, and ejecta mass. We find that 10{sup -3}-10{sup -2} M{sub sun} are ejected, which is enough for mergers to be the main source of heavy (A {approx}> 140) galactic r-nuclei for merger rates of some 10{sup -5} yr{sup -1}. While asymmetric mergers eject 2-3 times more mass than symmetric ones, the exact amount depends weakly on whether the NSs have radii of {approx}15 km for a 'stiff' nuclear equation of state (EOS) or {approx}12 km for a 'soft' EOS. r-process nucleosynthesis during the decompression becomes largely insensitive to the detailed conditions because of efficient fission recycling, producing a composition that closely follows the solar r-abundance distribution for nuclei with mass numbers A > 140. Estimating the light curve powered by the radioactive decay heating of r-process nuclei with an approximative model, we expect high emission in the B-V-R bands for 1-2 days with potentially observable longer duration in the case of asymmetric mergers because of the larger ejecta mass.

  17. Successful management of complex regional pain syndrome type 1 using single injection interscalene brachial plexus block

    PubMed Central

    Fallatah, Summayah M.A.

    2014-01-01

    Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) type 1 of the upper limb is a painful and debilitating condition. Interscalene brachial plexus block (ISB) in conjugation with other modalities was shown to be a feasible therapy with variable success. We reported a case of CRPS type 1 as diagnosed by International Association for the Study of Pain criteria in which pharmacological approaches failed to achieve adequate pain relief and even were associated with progressive dysfunction of the upper extremity. Single injection ISB, in combination with physical therapy and botulinum toxin injection, was successful to alleviate pain with functional restoration. PMID:25422619

  18. Reactivity to low-flow as a potential determinant for brachial artery flow-mediated vasodilatation.

    PubMed

    Aizawa, Kunihiko; Elyas, Salim; Adingupu, Damilola D; Casanova, Francesco; Gooding, Kim M; Strain, W David; Shore, Angela C; Gates, Phillip E

    2016-06-01

    Previous studies have reported a vasoconstrictor response in the radial artery during a cuff-induced low-flow condition, but a similar low-flow condition in the brachial artery results in nonuniform reactivity. This variable reactivity to low-flow influences the subsequent flow-mediated dilatation (FMD) response following cuff-release. However, it is uncertain whether reactivity to low-flow is important in data interpretation in clinical populations and older adults. This study aimed to determine the influence of reactivity to low-flow on the magnitude of brachial artery FMD response in middle-aged and older individuals with diverse cardiovascular risk profiles. Data were analyzed from 165 individuals, divided into increased cardiovascular risk (CVR: n = 115, 85M, 67.0 ± 8.8 years) and healthy control (CTRL: n = 50, 30M, 63.2 ± 7.2 years) groups. Brachial artery diameter and blood velocity data obtained from Doppler ultrasound were used to calculate FMD, reactivity to low-flow and estimated shear rate (SR) using semiautomated edge-detection software. There was a significant association between reactivity to low-flow and FMD in overall (r = 0.261), CTRL (r = 0.410) and CVR (r = 0.189, all P < 0.05) groups. Multivariate regression analysis found that reactivity to low-flow, peak SR, and baseline diameter independently contributed to FMD along with sex, the presence of diabetes, and smoking (total R(2) = 0.450). There was a significant association between reactivity to low-flow and the subsequent FMD response in the overall dataset, and reactivity to low-flow independently contributed to FMD These findings suggest that reactivity to low-flow plays a key role in the subsequent brachial artery FMD response and is important in the interpretation of FMD data. PMID:27335431

  19. MR Imaging of Brachial Plexus and Limb-Girdle Muscles in Patients with Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Gerevini, Simonetta; Agosta, Federica; Riva, Nilo; Spinelli, Edoardo G; Pagani, Elisabetta; Caliendo, Giandomenico; Chaabane, Linda; Copetti, Massimiliano; Quattrini, Angelo; Comi, Giancarlo; Falini, Andrea; Filippi, Massimo

    2016-05-01

    Purpose To assess brachial plexus magnetic resonance (MR) imaging features and limb-girdle muscle abnormalities as signs of muscle denervation in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Materials and Methods This study was approved by the local ethical committees on human studies, and written informed consent was obtained from all subjects before enrollment. By using an optimized protocol of brachial plexus MR imaging, brachial plexus and limb-girdle muscle abnormalities were evaluated in 23 patients with ALS and clinical and neurophysiologically active involvement of the upper limbs and were compared with MR images in 12 age-matched healthy individuals. Nerve root and limb-girdle muscle abnormalities were visually evaluated by two experienced observers. A region of interest-based analysis was performed to measure nerve root volume and T2 signal intensity. Measures obtained at visual inspection were analyzed by using the Wald χ(2) test. Mean T2 signal intensity and volume values of the regions of interest were compared between groups by using a hierarchical linear model, accounting for the repeated measurement design. Results The level of interrater agreement was very strong (κ = 0.77-1). T2 hyperintensity and volume alterations of C5, C6, and C7 nerve roots were observed in patients with ALS (P < .001 to .03). Increased T2 signal intensity of nerve roots was associated with faster disease progression (upper-limb Medical Research Council scale progression rate, r = 0.40; 95% confidence interval: 0.001, 0.73). Limb-girdle muscle alterations (ie, T2 signal intensity alteration, edema, atrophy) and fat infiltration also were found, in particular, in the supraspinatus muscle, showing more frequent T2 signal intensity alterations and edema (P = .01) relative to the subscapularis and infraspinatus muscles. Conclusion Increased T2 signal intensity and volume of brachial nerve roots do not exclude a diagnosis of ALS and suggest involvement of the peripheral

  20. Brachial artery injury due to closed posterior elbow dislocation: case report☆

    PubMed Central

    Miyazaki, Alberto Naoki; Fregoneze, Marcelo; Santos, Pedro Doneux; do Val Sella, Guilherme; Checchia, Caio Santos; Checchia, Sergio Luiz

    2016-01-01

    An association between closed posterior elbow dislocation and traumatic brachial artery injury is rare. Absence of radial pulse on palpation is an important warning sign and arteriography is the gold-standard diagnostic test. Early diagnosis is essential for appropriate treatment to be provided. This consists of joint reduction and immobilization, along with urgent surgical restoration of arterial flow. Here, a case (novel to the Brazilian literature) of an association between these injuries (and the treatment implemented) in a 27-year-old male patient is reported. These injuries were sustained through physical assault. PMID:27069896

  1. Brachial artery retrograde flow increases with age: relationship to physical function

    PubMed Central

    Credeur, Daniel P.; Dobrosielski, Devon A.; Arce-Esquivel, Arturo A.; Welsch, Michael A.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the flow velocity pattern of the brachial artery and to determine its relationship to measures of physical function. Subjects from the Louisiana Healthy Aging Study (n = 95; age = 84 ± 10 years) were evaluated. Brachial artery flow velocities and dimensions were measured using high-resolution ultrasonography. The continuous scale of physical function and performance test (CS-PFP10) was used to assess physical function. This test is based on the performance of 11 activities of daily living. Total CS-PFP10 score was 39.51 ± 21.21 U. Mean antegrade and retrograde velocities at rest were 14.2 ± 4.7 and 3.6 ± 2.2 cm/s, respectively. Ante-/retrograde ratio was 5.5 ± 4.6. Brachial artery diameter was 4.3 ± 0.7 mm. Pulse pressure and vascular conductance were 66 ± 18 mmHg, and 0.9 ± 0.5 ml/min/mmHg, respectively. Vascular conductance (r = −0.34), ante-/retrograde ratio (r = −0.42) and CS-PFP10 (r = −0.65) were inversely and retrograde velocity (r = 0.40) and pulse pressure (r = 0.36), were directly associated with age. Retrograde velocity was inversely related to vascular conductance (r = −0.27) and CS-PFP10 total score (r = −0.45). A MANOVA revealed that those with the higher CS-PFP10 scores had a lower retrograde velocity (P = 0.0001), but this association was, in part, age-dependent. Among nonagenarians (n = 52), those in the lower tertiles of the CS-PFP10 scores had significantly higher retrograde velocities compared to those in the higher tertiles (P = 0.035). These data indicate an increase in brachial retrograde velocity with age. These hemodynamic changes are related to a decline in physical function. PMID:19565260

  2. Severe Outcome of Pharyngeal-Cervical-Brachial Pure Motor Axonal Neuropathy

    PubMed Central

    Bonanni, L.; Onofrj, V.; Scorrano, V.; Onofrj, M.; Thomas, A.

    2010-01-01

    We present two further cases of the pharyngeal-cervical-brachial (PCB) form of GBS, with unfavourable outcome, showing dramatic dissociation between upper and lower body Symptoms. Both patients showed rapidly progressive motor denervation with disappearance of Compound Muscle Action Potentials (CMAPs) in upper limbs muscles. Sensory Nerve Action Potentials (SNAPs) were instead normal. Normal reflexes, F waves and action potentials were elicited in lower limbs. Despite i.v. Immunoglobulin treatment no recovery was observed and both patients died within a year from onset of symptoms. PMID:20309392

  3. Determining the full halo coronal mass ejection characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fainshtein, V. G.

    2009-03-01

    In this paper we determined the parameters of 45 full halo coronal mass ejections (HCMEs) for various modifications of their cone forms (“ice cream cone models”). We show that the CME determined characteristics depend significantly on the CME chosen form. We show that, regardless of the CME chosen form, the trajectory of practically all the considered HCMEs deviate from the radial direction to the Sun-to-Earth axis at the initial stage of their movement.

  4. Multinucleon Ejection Model for Two Body Current Neutrino Interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Sobczyk, Jan T.; /Fermilab

    2012-06-01

    A model is proposed to describe nucleons ejected from a nucleus as a result of two-body-current neutrino interactions. The model can be easily implemented in Monte Carlo neutrino event generators. Various possibilities to measure the two-body-current contribution are discussed. The model can help identify genuine charge current quasielastic events and allow for a better determination of the systematic error on neutrino energy reconstruction in neutrino oscillation experiments.

  5. Spatial Relationship of Signatures of Interplanetary Coronal Mass Ejections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richardson, I. G.; Cane, H. V.; Lepri, S. T.; Zurbuchen, T. H.; Gosling, J. T.

    2003-01-01

    Interplanetary coronal mass ejections (ICMEs) are characterized by a number of signatures. In particular, we examine the relationship between Fe charge states and other signatures during ICMEs in solar cycle 23. Though enhanced Fe charge states characterize many ICMEs, average charge states vary from event to event, are more likely to be enhanced in faster or flare-related ICMEs, and do not appear to depend on whether the ICME is a magnetic cloud.

  6. Associations between coronal mass ejections and interplanetary shocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sheeley, N. R., Jr.; Howard, R. A.; Koomen, M. J.; Michels, D. J.; Schwenn, R.; Muhlhauser, K. H.; Rosenbauer, H.

    1983-01-01

    Nearly continuous complementary coronal observations and interplanetary plasma measurements for the years 1979-1982 are compared. It is shown that almost all low latitude high speed coronal mass ejections (CME's) were associated with shocks at HELIOS 1. Some suitably directed low speed CME's were clearly associated with shocks while others may have been associated with disturbed plasma (such as NCDE's) without shocks. A few opposite hemisphere CME's associated with great flares seem to be associated with shocks at HELIOS.

  7. Ejection behavior characteristics in experimental cratering in sandstone targets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sommer, Frank; Reiser, Fiona; Dufresne, Anja; Poelchau, Michael H.; Hoerth, Tobias; Deutsch, Alex; Kenkmann, Thomas; Thoma, Klaus

    2013-01-01

    Within the frame of the MEMIN research unit (Multidisciplinary Experimental and Numerical Impact Research Network), impact experiments on sandstone targets were carried out to systematically study the influence of projectile mass, velocity, and target water saturation on the cratering and ejection processes. The projectiles were accelerated with two-stage light-gas guns (Ernst-Mach-Institute) onto fine-grained targets (Seeberger sandstone) with about 23% porosity. Collection of the ejecta on custom-designed catchers allowed determination of particle shape, size distribution, ejection angle, and microstructures. Mapping of the ejecta imprints on the catcher surface enabled linking of the different patterns to ejection stages observed on high-speed videos. The increase in projectile mass from 0.067 to 7.1 g correlates with an increase in the total ejected mass; ejecta angles, however, are similar in range for all experiments. The increase in projectile velocity from 2.5 to 5.1 km s-1 correlates with a total ejecta mass increase as well as in an increase in comminution efficiency, and a widening of the ejecta cone. A higher degree of water saturation of the target yields an increase in total ejecta mass up to 400% with respect to dry targets, higher ejecta velocity, and a steeper cone. These data, in turn, suggest that the reduced impedance contrast between the quartz grains of the target and the pores plays a primary role in the ejecta mass increase, while vaporization of water determines the ejecta behavior concerning ejecta velocity and particle distribution.

  8. The impact ejection of living organisms into space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Melosh, H. J.

    1985-01-01

    The possibility of natural processes to blast living organisms into space was examined. It is suggested that rocks ejected from the Earth by a giant meteorite or comet impact can carry microorganisms into space. Such microscopic Earth life would have an opportunity to colonize the other planets if it can survive the rigors of space until it falls into the atmosphere of a hospitable planet.

  9. Brachial blood pressure-independent relations between radial late systolic shoulder-derived aortic pressures and target organ changes.

    PubMed

    Norton, Gavin R; Majane, Olebogeng H I; Maseko, Muzi J; Libhaber, Carlos; Redelinghuys, Michelle; Kruger, Deirdre; Veller, Martin; Sareli, Pinhas; Woodiwiss, Angela J

    2012-04-01

    Central aortic blood pressure (BP; BPc) predicts outcomes beyond brachial BP. In this regard, the application of a generalized transfer function (GTF) to radial pulse waves for the derivation of BPc is an easy and reproducible measurement technique. However, the use of the GTF may not be appropriate in all circumstances. Although the peak of the second shoulder of the radial waveform (P2) is closely associated with BPc, and, hence, BPc may be assessed without the need for a GTF, whether P2-derived BPc is associated with adverse cardiovascular changes independent of brachial BP is uncertain. Thus, P2- and GTF-derived aortic BPs were assessed using applanation tonometry and SphygmoCor software. Left ventricular mass was indexed for height(1.7) (n=678) and carotid intima-media thickness (IMT; n=462) was determined using echocardiography and vascular ultrasound. With adjustments for nurse-derived brachial pulse pressure (PP), P2-derived central PP was independently associated with left ventricular mass indexed for height(1.7) (partial r=0.18; P<0.0001) and IMT (partial r=0.40; P<0.0001). These relations were similar to nurse-derived brachial PP-independent relations between GTF-derived central PP and target organ changes (left ventricular mass indexed for height(1.7): partial r=0.17, P<0.0001; IMT: partial r=0.37, P<0.0001). In contrast, with adjustments for central PP, nurse-derived brachial PP-target organ relations were eliminated (partial r=-0.21 to 0.05). Twenty-four-hour, day, and night PP-target organ relations did not survive adjustments for nurse-derived brachial BP. In conclusion, central PP derived from P2, which does not require a GTF, is associated with cardiovascular target organ changes independent of brachial BP. Thus, when assessing adverse cardiovascular effects of aortic BP independent of brachial BP, P2-derived measures may complement GTF-derived measures of aortic BP. PMID:22331378

  10. Thrombin Injection for Treatment of Brachial Artery Pseudoaneurysm at the Site of a Hemodialysis Fistula: Report of Two Patients

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, Timothy W.I.; Abraham, Robert J.

    2000-09-15

    We report two patients with arteriovenous hemodialysis fistulas that were complicated by brachial artery pseudoaneurysms. Each pseudoanerysm was percutaneously thrombosed with an injection of thrombin, using techniques to prevent escape of thrombin into the native brachial artery. In one patient, an angioplasty balloon was inflated across the neck of the aneurysm during thrombin injection. In the second patient, thrombin was injected during ultrasound-guided compression of the neck of the pseudoaneurysm. Complete thrombosis of each pseudoaneurysm was achieved within 30 sec. No ischemic or embolic events occurred. This technique may be useful in treating pseudoaneurysms of smaller peripheral arteries.

  11. ON SUN-TO-EARTH PROPAGATION OF CORONAL MASS EJECTIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Ying D.; Luhmann, Janet G.; Moestl, Christian; Bale, Stuart D.; Lin, Robert P.; Lugaz, Noe; Davies, Jackie A.

    2013-05-20

    We investigate how coronal mass ejections (CMEs) propagate through, and interact with, the inner heliosphere between the Sun and Earth, a key question in CME research and space weather forecasting. CME Sun-to-Earth kinematics are constrained by combining wide-angle heliospheric imaging observations, interplanetary radio type II bursts, and in situ measurements from multiple vantage points. We select three events for this study, the 2012 January 19, 23, and March 7 CMEs. Different from previous event studies, this work attempts to create a general picture for CME Sun-to-Earth propagation and compare different techniques for determining CME interplanetary kinematics. Key results are obtained concerning CME Sun-to-Earth propagation: (1) the Sun-to-Earth propagation of fast CMEs can be approximately formulated into three phases: an impulsive acceleration, then a rapid deceleration, and finally a nearly constant speed propagation (or gradual deceleration); (2) the CMEs studied here are still accelerating even after the flare maximum, so energy must be continuously fed into the CME even after the time of the maximum heating and radiation has elapsed in the corona; (3) the rapid deceleration, presumably due to interactions with the ambient medium, mainly occurs over a relatively short timescale following the acceleration phase; and (4) CME-CME interactions seem a common phenomenon close to solar maximum. Our comparison between different techniques (and data sets) has important implications for CME observations and their interpretations: (1) for the current cases, triangulation assuming a compact CME geometry is more reliable than triangulation assuming a spherical front attached to the Sun for distances below 50-70 solar radii from the Sun, but beyond about 100 solar radii we would trust the latter more; (2) a proper treatment of CME geometry must be performed in determining CME Sun-to-Earth kinematics, especially when the CME propagation direction is far away from the

  12. A Historic View of Solar Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    SaintCyr, Orville C.

    2010-01-01

    We present a historic overview of CME observations, ending with concepts for future measurement capabilities. One of the first detections of what we now call a CME was provided by instrumentation on OSO-7 and reported by Tousey (1973); but the phrase "corona) mass ejection" was coined after the Skylab/ATM coronagraph detected dozens of the transients over its nine month observing run (e.g., Munro et al., 1979). Pre-discovery identification of likely CMEs were then reported in historic eclipse photographs and drawings (e.g., Eddy, 1974; Cliver, 1989). Multi-year observations followed with groundbased MLSO MK3/4 coronagraph (1980-present), and spacebased missions: Solwind (1979-1985), SMM (1980-1989), SOHO LASCO/EIT (1996-present), SMEI (2003-present), and STEREO SECCHI (2006-present). The Spartan 201 coronagraph flew in space multiple times. The influential Gosling (1993) "solar flare myth" manuscript identified CMEs as the cause of the most severe geomagnetic storms, thus cementing their importance in Sun-Earth connection studies. A new window into CMEs was opened with the launch of SOHO in 1995 when the UVCS spectrometer began returning plasma diagnostics of a significant number of events (e.g., Ciaravella et al., 2006). What about the future for CME research? Statistical properties of the UVCS CME observations are forthcoming; the STEREO mission should continue to return views of CMEs from unique vantage points; and the recent launch of SDO should provide new insights into the small spatial scale dynamics of activity associated with CMEs. Several new observing techniques have been demonstrated at total eclipses, and inclusion on spacebased platforms in the future could also prove valuable for understanding CMEs. A common element of several recent proposals is to image the white-light corona with extremely high spatial resolution. The momentary glimpses of the corona during total solar eclipses have shown fine structure that is not captured by global models, and

  13. Investigation of a clamshell roll-out ejection concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hatakeyama, L. F.

    1971-01-01

    The equations for the motion, forces, and couples generated by clamshells released from spinning sounding rockets in accordance with a roll-out ejection concept are presented. The application of these equations to a study of a system for the Javelin rocket vehicle is discussed. The roll-out ejection concept advocated requires that each deploying clamshell be pivoted about an axis at its trailing edge located in the system sectioning plane. Clamshell despinning is a consequence of this deployment since the pivotal rate is in opposition to the rocket vehicle spin. The energy required by the deployment is derived largely from the rotational energy of the clamshell. Thus, the rocket vehicle will not be significantly despun by this kind of clamshell deployment. This ejection concept also permits a system design which makes it possible to limit clamshell angular motion to rotation about that one of its centroidal principal axes which is brought into parallelism with the rocket vehicle longitudinal axis. Also, by equalizing the moments of inertia about the other centroidal principal axes, the roll-out motion can be decoupled from any extraneous angular motion about these axes.

  14. Droplet ejection performance of a monolithic thermal inkjet print head

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sen, A. K.; Darabi, J.

    2007-08-01

    This paper presents a simulation study of the droplet ejection performance of a thermal inkjet print head. The geometry of the print head comprises a dome-shaped ink chamber, a nozzle guide and a ring-shaped heater integrated on each chamber. The design eliminates direct contact between the heater and the ink, thus minimizing heater burnout. The ink manifold, ink chamber and nozzle are aligned, thus facilitating higher nozzle density. The model simulates thermal bubble dynamics including nucleation and growth of thermal bubbles caused by a thermal pulse. The model was validated by comparing model predictions with experimental results for a previously reported print head design. Then, the model was used to simulate the droplet ejection performance of the proposed inkjet print head. Effects of print head geometry including nozzle diameter, nozzle length, chamber size, heater dimensions and location, thermal conductivity of the passivation layer, operating conditions including total thermal energy and pulse width, properties of the ink including density, viscosity and surface tension on the performance of the inkjet device are investigated. The influence of these parameters on the drop volume and velocity, threshold energy and tail length of the ejected droplets is studied.

  15. Comparison Between Hot and Cool Ejections in CME/Flare Events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nitta, N. V.

    2001-05-01

    Comparison between hot and cool ejections in CME/flare events Nariaki Nitta (LMSAL) , Sachiko Akiyama (GUAS) We have shown that high-temperature ejections during the impulsive phase of flares as seen with Yohkoh/SXT are correlated with coronal mass ejections (CMEs) as seen by SOHO/LASCO. Since then we have collected a number of examples of ejections observed with TRACE. In this presentation, we compare ejections in soft X-rays with those in H-alpha and EUV, and study the sequence of processes (reconnection, mass motion, heating, etc.) involved in CMEs so that we can put more constraints on the models.

  16. Toe blood pressure and toe-brachial index.

    PubMed

    Rich, Kathleen

    2015-12-01

    TBP and TBI are considered more accurate in assessing lower extremity perfusion in those patients with a falsely elevated ABI suspected from medial arterial calcification. Like the ABI, a TBI may be obtained by the nurse through a similar procedure using a sphygmomanometer and hand-held Doppler. Knowledge by the vascular nurse of this noninvasive technique will assist in a more timely recognition of PAD and may improve long-term patient outcomes. PMID:26567056

  17. MAGNETOHYDRODYNAMIC MODELING FOR A FORMATION PROCESS OF CORONAL MASS EJECTIONS: INTERACTION BETWEEN AN EJECTING FLUX ROPE AND AN AMBIENT FIELD

    SciTech Connect

    Shiota, Daikou; Kusano, Kanya; Miyoshi, Takahiro; Shibata, Kazunari

    2010-08-01

    We performed a magnetohydrodynamic simulation of a formation process of coronal mass ejections (CMEs), focusing on the interaction (reconnection) between an ejecting flux rope and its ambient field. We examined three cases with different ambient fields: one had no ambient field, while the other two had dipole fields with opposite directions, parallel and anti-parallel to that of the flux rope surface. We found that while the flux rope disappears in the anti-parallel case, in the other cases the flux ropes can evolve to CMEs and show different amounts of flux rope rotation. The results imply that the interaction between an ejecting flux rope and its ambient field is an important process for determining CME formation and CME orientation, and also show that the amount and direction of the magnetic flux within the flux rope and the ambient field are key parameters for CME formation. The interaction (reconnection) plays a significant role in the rotation of the flux rope especially with a process similar to 'tilting instability' in a spheromak-type experiment of laboratory plasma.

  18. The effect of coronal mass ejections on the structure of the heliospheric current sheet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhao, Xuepu; Hoeksema, J. Todd

    1994-01-01

    The existence of a stable heliospheric current sheet (HCS) structure near solar cycle maximum was questioned since the recognition that coronal mass ejections (CME's) occur in coronal helmet streamers. Evidence is presented suggesting that pre-existing helmet streamers disrupted or blown out by CME's reform in a time interval much shorter than the life time of the HCS, and that the concept of the HCS has a meaning at any time of thesolar cycle. It appears that the HCS, the current layer that separates adjacent interplanetary magnetic field regions with opposite magnetic polarity, exists throughout the solar cycle, though not always as a thin disk-like sheet. The sheet may be thickened by embedded magnetic ropes formed by CME's, especially near sunspot maximum. The HCS may be used as timing mark in identifying or predicting CME's in the interplanetary medium.

  19. Interplanetary Coronal Mass Ejections Observed in the Heliosphere: 2. Model and Data Comparison

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tappin, S. James; Howard, Timothy A.

    2009-10-01

    With the recent advancements in interplanetary coronal mass ejection (ICME) imaging it is necessary to understand how heliospheric images may be interpreted, particularly at large elongation angles. Of crucial importance is how the current methods used for coronal mass ejection measurement in coronagraph images must be changed to account for the large elongations involved in the heliosphere. We present results comparing a new model of interplanetary disturbances with heliospheric image data, from the Solar Mass Ejection Imager. A database containing a range of ICMEs simulated with varying parameters describing its topology, orientation, location and speed was produced and compared with two ICMEs observed in February and December 2004. We identify the simulated ICME that best matches the data, and use the parameters required to identify their three-dimensional leading-edge structure, orientation and kinematics. By constant comparison with the data we are able to keep track of small changes to the ICME topology and kinematic properties, thus for the first time are able to monitor how the dynamic interaction between the ICME and the interplanetary medium affects ICME evolution. This is the second part of a series of three papers, where the theory behind the model is presented in an accompanying paper and the physical implications are discussed in the third part. The first part considers the effects of Thomson scattering across the entire span of the disturbance and includes its apparent geometry at large elongations. We find that the model converges reliably to a solution for both events, although we identify four separate structures during the December period. Comparing the 3-D trajectory and source location with known associated features identified with other spacecraft, we find a remarkable agreement between the model and data. We conclude with a brief discussion of the physical implications of the model.

  20. Ankle Brachial Index: simple non-invasive estimation of peripheral artery disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pieniak, Marcin; Cieślicki, Krzysztof; Żyliński, Marek; Górski, Piotr; Murgrabia, Agnieszka; Cybulski, Gerard

    2014-11-01

    According to international guidelines, patients with Peripheral Artery Disease (PAD) are burdened with high cardiovascular risk. One of the simplest, non-invasive methods for PAD detection is the ankle-brachial index (ABI) measurement. The ABI is calculated as the ratio of systolic blood pressure at the ankle (pressure in the posterior tibial artery or the dorsal artery) to the systolic pressure in the arm (in the brachial artery) when the body is in a horizontal position. The physiological value of the ABI is assumed to be between 1 and 1.3; however, these limits vary from study to study. A value less than 0.9 indicates PAD. Some authors propose also measuring the ABI on both sides of the body to highlight possible differences in blood pressure between the opposite arterial segments. The aim of this study was to perform a meta-analysis of the ABI diagnostic criteria used in different publications. Additionally, ABI measurements were performed on 19 healthy patients in age ranged from 20 to 63 years. The results showed a slight dependence between age and the differences between the values obtained from left and right sides of the body.

  1. Exercise intensity modulates brachial artery retrograde blood flow and shear rate during leg cycling in hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Iwamoto, Erika; Katayama, Keisho; Ishida, Koji

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to elucidate the effect of exercise intensity on retrograde blood flow and shear rate (SR) in an inactive limb during exercise under normoxic and hypoxic conditions. The subjects performed two maximal exercise tests on a semi-recumbent cycle ergometer to estimate peak oxygen uptake (V˙O2peak) while breathing normoxic (inspired oxygen fraction [FIO2 = 0.21]) and hypoxic (FIO2 = 0.12 or 0.13) gas mixtures. Subjects then performed four exercise bouts at the same relative intensities (30 and 60% V˙O2peak) for 30 min under normoxic or hypoxic conditions. Brachial artery diameter and blood velocity were simultaneously recorded, using Doppler ultrasonography. Retrograde SR was enhanced with increasing exercise intensity under both conditions at 10 min of exercise. Thereafter, retrograde blood flow and SR in normoxia returned to pre-exercise levels, with no significant differences between the two exercise intensities. In contrast, retrograde blood flow and SR in hypoxia remained significantly elevated above baseline and was significantly greater at 60% than at 30% V˙O2peak. We conclude that differences in exercise intensity affect brachial artery retrograde blood flow and SR during prolonged exercise under hypoxic conditions. PMID:26038470

  2. Dual Nerve Transfers for Restoration of Shoulder Function After Brachial Plexus Avulsion Injury.

    PubMed

    Chu, Bin; Wang, Huan; Chen, Liang; Gu, Yudong; Hu, Shaonan

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of shoulder function restoration by dual nerve transfers, spinal accessory nerve to the suprascapular nerve and 2 intercostal nerves to the anterior branch of the axillary nerve, in patients with shoulder paralysis that resulted from brachial plexus avulsion injury. It was a retrospective analysis to assess the impact of a variety of factors on reanimation of shoulder functions with dual nerve transfers. A total of 19 patients were included in this study. Most of these patients sustained avulsions of C5, C6, and C7 nerve roots (16 patients). Three of them had avulsions of C5 and C6 roots only. Through a posterior approach, direct coaptation of the intercostal nerves and the anterior branch of the axillary nerve was performed, along with accessory nerve transfer to the suprascapular nerve. Satisfactory shoulder function recovery (93.83° of shoulder abduction and 54.00° of external rotation on average) was achieved after a 62-month follow-up. This dual nerve transfer procedure provided us with a reliable and effective method for shoulder function reconstruction after brachial plexus root avulsion, especially C5/C6/C7 avulsion. The level of evidence is therapeutic IV. PMID:26835823

  3. The minimum effective concentration (MEC90 ) of ropivacaine for ultrasound-guided supraclavicular brachial plexus block.

    PubMed

    Fang, G; Wan, L; Mei, W; Yu, H H; Luo, A L

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the minimum effective concentration of ropivacaine for ultrasound-guided supraclavicular brachial plexus block. Fifty-one patients undergoing arm surgery received double-injection ultrasound-guided supraclavicular block using ropivacaine 40 ml. The concentration of ropivacaine administered to each patient started at 0.225% and then depended on the response of the previous one, based on a biased coin design up-and-down sequential method. In case of failure, the ropivacaine concentration was increased by 0.025% w/v in the next subject. In the case of a successful block, the next patient was randomised to the same concentration or a concentration 0.025% w/v less. Success was defined as complete sensory blockade of the brachial plexus 30 min after the block together with pain-free surgery. The minimum effective ropivacaine concentration in 90% of subjects was 0.257% w/v (95% CI 0.241-0.280%). PMID:26945818

  4. Brachial artery Doppler flux parameters before and after hot flush in Mexican postmenopausal women: preliminary report

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez, Karina Vázquez; Ortiz, Sergio Rosales

    2016-01-01

    Objective To analyse brachial artery flux parameters in postmenopausal women before and after hot flush. Material and methods Two groups of postmenopausal women were studied: Group I, without vasomotor symptoms (n = 10) and Group II, with vasomotor symptoms (n = 10). In all them a brachial artery Doppler ultrasound was done, measuring before and after hyperaemic stimulus of the arterial diameter (AD), the pulsatility index (PI), and the resistive index (RI). In Group I, measurements were done at baseline and five minutes after. In Group II, measurements were at baseline, and one and five minutes after the hot-flush. Comparison between the groups was done with Mann-Whitney U test, and within the groups with Wilcoxon test. Results No differences were found among the groups in Doppler parameters. When comparing each group separately, in Group I, at baseline and at five minutes measurements, the AD was greater after the hyperaemic stimulus than before it. In group II at baseline, the PI was significantly greater after the hyperaemic stimulus than before to it. At the first and fifth minute, the AD was significantly greater after the hyperaemic stimulus than before to it. Conclusions No differences were found between those who did not have and those who had hot flushes. PMID:27095957

  5. Is Brachial Artery Flow-Mediated Dilation Associated with Negative Affect?

    PubMed Central

    Kamarck, Thomas W.; Matthews, Karen A.; Brockwell, Sarah E.; Sutton-Tyrrell, Kim

    2010-01-01

    Background Trait negative affect has been implicated as a risk marker for cardiovascular disease, but the mechanisms underlying this association are uncertain. Purpose Our aim was to examine associations between trait measures of anger, hostility, depression, and anxiety with endothelial dysfunction via brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD), an early indicator of cardiovascular disease. Method FMD was examined in 332 healthy older adults. Measures included Beck Anxiety and Depression Inventories, Cook–Medley Hostility Scale, and Spielberger State-Trait Anger Expression Inventory (Anger In, Anger Out, and Trait Anger). Results Mean age was 60.5±4.8 years; 83% of participants were Caucasian and 49% were female. FMD was greater in women compared to men (6.17% vs. 4.07%, p<0.001). Women reported significantly greater Anxiety (p<0.001), and men reported greater Hostility (p=0.004). In separate multivariable linear regression models controlling for cardiovascular risk factors, plus current hormone therapy for women, smaller FMD was associated with higher Anger In for women (β=− 0.222, p=0.04) and showed a trend with higher Hostility for men (β= −0.082, p=0.09). Conclusion Endothelial dysfunction, as indicated by less vasodilatation of the brachial artery, is positively associated with measures of hostility and anger suppression in healthy older adults. Thus, associations between negative affect and cardiovascular health may be apparent early in the disease process. PMID:19306064

  6. Exercise intensity modulates brachial artery retrograde blood flow and shear rate during leg cycling in hypoxia

    PubMed Central

    Iwamoto, Erika; Katayama, Keisho; Ishida, Koji

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to elucidate the effect of exercise intensity on retrograde blood flow and shear rate (SR) in an inactive limb during exercise under normoxic and hypoxic conditions. The subjects performed two maximal exercise tests on a semi-recumbent cycle ergometer to estimate peak oxygen uptake (O2peak) while breathing normoxic (inspired oxygen fraction [FIO2 = 0.21]) and hypoxic (FIO2 = 0.12 or 0.13) gas mixtures. Subjects then performed four exercise bouts at the same relative intensities (30 and 60% O2peak) for 30 min under normoxic or hypoxic conditions. Brachial artery diameter and blood velocity were simultaneously recorded, using Doppler ultrasonography. Retrograde SR was enhanced with increasing exercise intensity under both conditions at 10 min of exercise. Thereafter, retrograde blood flow and SR in normoxia returned to pre-exercise levels, with no significant differences between the two exercise intensities. In contrast, retrograde blood flow and SR in hypoxia remained significantly elevated above baseline and was significantly greater at 60% than at 30% O2peak. We conclude that differences in exercise intensity affect brachial artery retrograde blood flow and SR during prolonged exercise under hypoxic conditions. PMID:26038470

  7. Retrieval of a subintimal fractured guide wire from the brachial artery following saphenous vein graft stenting.

    PubMed

    Danson, Edward J; Ward, Michael

    2015-06-01

    We present a case of a 58-year-old woman with diabetes mellitus with a history of angina, coronary artery bypass 24 years previously and who underwent retrieval of a fractured coronary buddy wire from the right brachial artery following attempted coronary intervention to a saphenous vein graft via the right radial route. Attempted removal of the guide wire had caused guide catheter-induced dissection of the vein graft in addition to a distal stent edge dissection before fracture in the brachial artery. The fractured end of the buddy wire was found to be in the subintimal space and could only be retrieved by advancing the wire into the subclavian artery by means of wrapping its free portion around the guiding catheter. Its fractured end could then be snared into the guiding catheter but could only be withdrawn from behind the stented segment in the vein graft by means of a trap balloon in the guiding catheter. Successful stenting of a guide catheter-induced dissection and distal stent edge dissection within the vein graft was then performed. This case highlights the hazards of deploying stents over buddy wires and of fractured guide wires in coronary intervention. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25345676

  8. Recovery of brachial plexus lesions resulting from heavy backpack use: A follow-up case series

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Brachial plexus lesions as a consequence of carrying a heavy backpack have been reported, but the typical clinical course and long-term consequences are not clear. Here we evaluated the clinical course and pattern of recovery of backpack palsy (BPP) in a large series of patients. Methods Thirty-eight consecutive patients with idiopathic BPP were identified from our population of 193,450 Finnish conscripts by means of computerised register. A physiotherapist provided instructions for proper hand use and rehabilitative exercises at disease onset. The patients were followed up for 2 to 8 years from the diagnosis. We also searched for genetic markers of hereditary neuropathy with pressure palsies. Mann-Whitney U-test was used to analyze continuous data. The Fischer's exact test was used to assess two-way tables. Results Eighty percent of the patients recovered totally within 9 months after the onset of weakness. Prolonged symptoms occurred in 15% of the patients, but daily activities were not affected. The weight of the carried load at the symptom onset significantly affected the severity of the muscle strength loss in the physiotherapeutic testing at the follow-up. The initial electromyography did not predict recovery. Genetic testing did not reveal de novo hereditary neuropathy with pressure palsies. Conclusions The prognosis of BPP is favorable in the vast majority of cases. Electromyography is useful for diagnosis. To prevent brachial plexus lesions, backpack loads greater than 40 kg should be avoided. PMID:21429232

  9. DEFLECTIONS OF FAST CORONAL MASS EJECTIONS AND THE PROPERTIES OF ASSOCIATED SOLAR ENERGETIC PARTICLE EVENTS

    SciTech Connect

    Kahler, S. W.; Akiyama, S.; Gopalswamy, N.

    2012-08-01

    The onset times and peak intensities of solar energetic particle (SEP) events at Earth have long been thought to be influenced by the open magnetic fields of coronal holes (CHs). The original idea was that a CH lying between the solar SEP source region and the magnetic footpoint of the 1 AU observer would result in a delay in onset and/or a decrease in the peak intensity of that SEP event. Recently, Gopalswamy et al. showed that CHs near coronal mass ejection (CME) source regions can deflect fast CMEs from their expected trajectories in space, explaining the appearance of driverless shocks at 1 AU from CMEs ejected near solar central meridian (CM). This suggests that SEP events originating in CME-driven shocks may show variations attributable to CH deflections of the CME trajectories. Here, we use a CH magnetic force parameter to examine possible effects of CHs on the timing and intensities of 41 observed gradual E {approx} 20 MeV SEP events with CME source regions within 20 Degree-Sign of CM. We find no systematic CH effects on SEP event intensity profiles. Furthermore, we find no correlation between the CME leading-edge measured position angles and SEP event properties, suggesting that the widths of CME-driven shock sources of the SEPs are much larger than the CMEs. Independently of the SEP event properties, we do find evidence for significant CME deflections by CH fields in these events.

  10. Predicting the magnetic vectors within coronal mass ejections arriving at Earth: 1. Initial architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savani, N. P.; Vourlidas, A.; Szabo, A.; Mays, M. L.; Richardson, I. G.; Thompson, B. J.; Pulkkinen, A.; Evans, R.; Nieves-Chinchilla, T.

    2015-06-01

    The process by which the Sun affects the terrestrial environment on short timescales is predominately driven by the amount of magnetic reconnection between the solar wind and Earth's magnetosphere. Reconnection occurs most efficiently when the solar wind magnetic field has a southward component. The most severe impacts are during the arrival of a coronal mass ejection (CME) when the magnetosphere is both compressed and magnetically connected to the heliospheric environment. Unfortunately, forecasting magnetic vectors within coronal mass ejections remain elusive. Here we report how, by combining a statistically robust helicity rule for a CME's solar origin with a simplified flux rope topology, the magnetic vectors within the Earth-directed segment of a CME can be predicted. In order to test the validity of this proof-of-concept architecture for estimating the magnetic vectors within CMEs, a total of eight CME events (between 2010 and 2014) have been investigated. With a focus on the large false alarm of January 2014, this work highlights the importance of including the early evolutionary effects of a CME for forecasting purposes. The angular rotation in the predicted magnetic field closely follows the broad rotational structure seen within the in situ data. This time-varying field estimate is implemented into a process to quantitatively predict a time-varying Kp index that is described in detail in paper II. Future statistical work, quantifying the uncertainties in this process, may improve the more heuristic approach used by early forecasting systems.

  11. OBSERVATION OF HEATING BY FLARE-ACCELERATED ELECTRONS IN A SOLAR CORONAL MASS EJECTION

    SciTech Connect

    Glesener, Lindsay; Bain, Hazel M.; Krucker, Säm; Lin, Robert P.

    2013-12-20

    We report a Reuven Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager (RHESSI) observation of flare-accelerated electrons in the core of a coronal mass ejection (CME) and examine their role in heating the CME. Previous CME observations have revealed remarkably high thermal energies that can far surpass the CME's kinetic energy. A joint observation by RHESSI and the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly of a partly occulted flare on 2010 November 3 allows us to test the hypothesis that this excess energy is collisionally deposited by flare-accelerated electrons. Extreme ultraviolet (EUV) images show an ejection forming the CME core and sheath, with isothermal multifilter analysis revealing temperatures of ∼11 MK in the core. RHESSI images reveal a large (∼100 × 50 arcsec{sup 2}) hard X-ray (HXR) source matching the location, shape, and evolution of the EUV plasma, indicating that the emerging CME is filled with flare-accelerated electrons. The time derivative of the EUV emission matches the HXR light curve (similar to the Neupert effect observed in soft and HXR time profiles), directly linking the CME temperature increase with the nonthermal electron energy loss, while HXR spectroscopy demonstrates that the nonthermal electrons contain enough energy to heat the CME. This is the most direct observation to date of flare-accelerated electrons heating a CME, emphasizing the close relationship of the two in solar eruptive events.

  12. Homage to Bob Brodkey at 85: ejections, sweeps and the genesis and extensions of quadrant analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wallace, James

    2013-11-01

    Almost 50 years ago Bob Brodkey and his student, Corino, conceived and carried out a visualization experiment for the very near wall region of a turbulent pipe flow (JFM 37) that, together with the turbulent boundary layer visualization of Kline et al. (JFM 30), excited the turbulence community. Using a high speed movie camera mounted on a lathe bed that recorded magnified images in a moving frame of reference, they observed the motions of small particles in the sub- and buffer-layers. Surprisingly, these motion were not nearly so locally random as was the general view of turbulence at the time. Rather, connected regions of the near wall flow decelerated and then erupted away from the wall in what they called ``ejections.'' These decelerated motions were followed by larger scale connected motions toward the wall from above that they called ``sweeps.'' Brodkey and Corino estimated that ejections accounted for 70 % the Reynolds shear stress at Red = 20 , 000 while only occurring about 18 % of the time. Wallace et al. (JFM 54) attempted to quantify these visual observations by conceiving of and carrying out a quadrant analyisis in a turbulent oil channel flow. This paper will trace this history and describe the expanding use of these ideas in turbulence research today.

  13. Use of Sudden Ionospheric Disturbance Monitors to Detect Coronal Mass Ejections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campagna, A.; Amador, J.; Marchese, A. K.; Espinosa, M.

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this research is to study the effect of Earth directed coronal mass ejections (CMEs) on the ionosphere in 2011, and to see if sudden ionospheric disturbance (SID) monitors could be used to predict whether a CME was geoeffective. A CME is a cloud of highly energized particles ejected from the Sun. It is hypothesized that a strong CME will affect the ionosphere, and this might be observed in certain data sets. Data was taken from two SID monitors in Vienna receiving transmissions from Norway and France from February through July, 2011. This data was then analyzed relative to the kinetic energy of Earth directed CMEs that occurred during the same time period. The Earth directed CME data was taken from the Large Angle and Spectrometric Coronagraph (LASCO) device on NASA's Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO). A correlation was found between CME kinetic energy and SID energy, with the maximum correlation at a 6 day lag of the SID data. The 6 day delay accounts for the travel time for the CME to reach Earth. Though the impact of the CME on the ionosphere was observed retrospectively, the research indicates that CMEs may be identified using SID monitors alone.

  14. Deflections of Fast Coronal Mass Ejections and the Properties of Associated Solar Energetic Particle Events

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kahler, S. W.; Akiyama, S.; Gopalswamy, N.

    2012-01-01

    The onset times and peak intensities of solar energetic particle (SEP) events at Earth have long been thought to be influenced by the open magnetic fields of coronal holes (CHs). The original idea was that a CH lying between the solar SEP source region and the magnetic footpoint of the 1 AU observer would result in a delay in onset and/or a decrease in the peak intensity of that SEP event. Recently, Gopalswamy et al. showed that CHs near coronal mass ejection (CME) source regions can deflect fast CMEs from their expected trajectories in space, explaining the appearance of driverless shocks at 1 AU from CMEs ejected near solar central meridian (CM). This suggests that SEP events originating in CME-driven shocks may show variations attributable to CH deflections of the CME trajectories. Here, we use a CH magnetic force parameter to examine possible effects of CHs on the timing and intensities of 41 observed gradual E approx 20 MeV SEP events with CME source regions within 20 deg. of CM. We find no systematic CH effects on SEP event intensity profiles. Furthermore, we find no correlation between the CME leading-edge measured position angles and SEP event properties, suggesting that the widths of CME-driven shock sources of the SEPs are much larger than the CMEs. Independently of the SEP event properties, we do find evidence for significant CME deflections by CH fields in these events

  15. [Differential diagnostics of diseases of the brachial plexus].

    PubMed

    Ritter, C; Wunderlich, G; Macht, S; Schroeter, M; Fink, G R; Lehmann, H C

    2014-02-01

    Progressive, atrophic, asymmetrically distributed flaccid paresis of arm and hand muscles represents a frequent symptom of neuromuscular diseases that can be attributed to injury of the arm nerves, the plexus or the cervical roots. A timely and exact diagnosis is mandatory; however, the broad spectrum of differential diagnoses often represents a diagnostic challenge. A large variety of neuromuscular disorders need to be considered, encompassing autoimmune mediated inflammatory neuropathic conditions, such as multifocal motor neuropathy, as well as chronic degenerative and nerve compression disorders. This review provides an overview of the most frequent disorders of the upper plexus and cervical roots and summarizes the characteristic clinical features as well as electrodiagnostic and laboratory test results. In addition the diagnostic value of magnetic resonance imaging and sonography is discussed. PMID:24343110

  16. Hubble Sees Material Ejected From Comet Hale-Bopp

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    These NASA Hubble Space Telescope pictures of comet Hale-Bopp show a remarkable 'pinwheel' pattern and a blob of free-flying debris near the nucleus. The bright clump of light along the spiral (above the nucleus, which is near the center of the frame) may be a piece of the comet's icy crust that was ejected into space by a combination of ice evaporation and the comet's rotation, and which then disintegrated into a bright cloud of particles.

    Although the 'blob' is about 3.5 times fainter than the brightest portion at the nucleus, the lump appears brighter because it covers a larger area. The debris follows a spiral pattern outward because the solid nucleus is rotating like a lawn sprinkler, completing a single rotation about once per week.

    Ground-based observations conducted over the past two months have documented at least two separate episodes of jet and pinwheel formation and fading. By coincidence, the first Hubble images of Hale-Bopp, taken on September 26, 1995, immediately followed one of these outbursts and allow researchers to examine it at unprecedented detail. For the first time they see a clear separation between the nucleus and some of the debris being shed. By putting together information from the Hubble images and those taken during the recent outburst using the 82 cm telescope of the Teide Observatory (Tenerife, Canary Islands, Spain), astronomers find that the debris is moving away from the nucleus at a speed (projected on the sky) of about 68 miles per hour (109 kilometers per hour).

    The Hubble observations will be used to determine if Hale-Bopp is really a giant comet or rather a more moderate-sized object whose current activity is driven by outgassing from a very volatile ice which will 'burn out' over the next year. Comet Hale-Bopp was discovered on July 23, 1995 by amateur astronomers Alan Hale and Thomas Bopp. Though this comet is still well outside the orbit of Jupiter (almost 600 million miles, or one billion kilometers from Earth

  17. Calculating the propagation direction of coronal mass ejections by connecting in situ observations with heliospheric images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rollett, Tanja; Möstl, Christian; Temmer, Manuela; Veronig, Astrid; Biernat, Helfried K.

    2010-05-01

    We determined the propagation direction of two coronal mass ejections by using data provided by the Heliospheric Imagers (HI) and the PLASTIC and IMPACT instruments onboard the two STEREO satellites. To facilitate the tracking of the CME's leading edge we made time-elongation plots (J-plots) for the investigated events and tracked the apparent leading edge therein several times in order to estimate the measurement error. For converting elongation to distance we compared several methods (Point-P, Fixed-Phi and their harmonic mean). To determine the direction of the CME's propagation in the ecliptic we connected the CME-track derived from HI J-plots with the measured in situ arrival time by modifying the propagation direction within the used model equations. The resulting directions and their errors are discussed with respect to the different assumptions used for each technique.

  18. Ejection and Lofting of Dust from Hypervelocity Impacts on the Moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hermalyn, B.; Schultz, P. H.

    2011-12-01

    Hypervelocity impact events mobilize and redistribute fine-grained regolith dust across the surfaces of planetary bodies. The ejecta mass-velocity distribution controls the location and emplacement of these materials. The current flux of material falling on the moon is dominated by small bolides and should cause frequent impacts that eject dust at high speeds. For example, approximately 25 LCROSS-sized (~20-30m diameter) craters are statistically expected to be formed naturally on the moon during any given earth year. When scaled to lunar conditions, the high-speed component of ejecta from hypervelocity impacts can be lofted for significant periods of time (as evidenced by the LCROSS mission results, c.f., Schultz, et al., 2010, Colaprete, et al., 2010). Even at laboratory scales, ejecta can approach orbital velocities; the higher impact speeds and larger projectiles bombarding the lunar surface may permit a significant portion of material to be launched closer to escape velocity. When these ejecta return to the surface (or encounter local topography), they impact at hundreds of meters per second or faster, thereby "scouring" the surface with low mass oblique impacts. While these high-speed ejecta represent only a small fraction of the total ejected mass, the lofting and subsequent ballistic return of this dust has the highest mobilization potential and will be directly applicable to the upcoming LADEE mission. A suite of hypervelocity impact experiments into granular materials was performed at the NASA Ames Vertical Gun Range (AVGR). This study incorporates both canonical sand targets and air-fall pumice dust to simulate the mechanical properties of lunar regolith. The implementation of a Particle Tracking Velocimetry (PTV) technique permits non-intrusive measurement of the ejecta velocity distribution within the ejecta curtain by following the path of individual ejecta particles. The PTV system developed at the AVGR uses a series of high-speed cameras (ranging

  19. An efficient, selective collisional ejection mechanism for inner-shell population inversion in laser-driven plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    SCHROEDER,W. ANDREAS; NELSON,THOMAS R.; BORISOV,A.B.; LONGWORTH,J.W.; BOYER,K.; RHODES,C.K.

    2000-06-07

    A theoretical analysis of laser-driven collisional ejection of inner-shell electrons is presented to explain the previously observed anomalous kilovolt L-shell x-ray emission spectra from atomic Xe cluster targets excited by intense sub-picosecond 248nrn ultraviolet radiation. For incident ponderomotively-driven electrons photoionized by strong above threshold ionization, the collisional ejection mechanism is shown to be highly l-state and significantly n-state (i.e. radially) selective for time periods shorter than the collisional dephasing time of the photoionized electronic wavefunction. The resulting preference for the collisional ejection of 2p electrons by an ionized 4p state produces the measured anomalous Xe(L) emission which contains direct evidence for (i) the generation of Xe{sup 27+}(2p{sup 5}3d{sup 10}) and Xe{sup 28+}(2p{sup 5}3d{sup 9}) ions exhibiting inner-shell population inversion and (ii) a coherent correlated electron state collision responsible for the production of double 2p vacancies. For longer time periods, the selectivity of this coherent impact ionization mechanism is rapidly reduced by the combined effects of intrinsic quantum mechanical spreading and dephasing--in agreement with the experimentally observed and extremely strong {minus}{lambda}{sup {minus}6} pump-laser wavelength dependence of the efficiency of inner-shell (2p) vacancy production in Xe clusters excited in underdense plasmas.

  20. Exercise physiology in heart failure and preserved ejection fraction.

    PubMed

    Haykowsky, Mark J; Kitzman, Dalane W

    2014-07-01

    Recent advances in the pathophysiology of exercise intolerance in patients with heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFPEF) suggest that noncardiac peripheral factors contribute to the reduced peak V(o2) (peak exercise oxygen uptake) and to its improvement after endurance exercise training. A greater understanding of the peripheral skeletal muscle vascular adaptations that occur with physical conditioning may allow for tailored exercise rehabilitation programs. The identification of specific mechanisms that improve whole body and peripheral skeletal muscle oxygen uptake could establish potential therapeutic targets for medical therapies and a means to follow therapeutic response. PMID:24975908