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Sample records for brachyura cancridae capturadas

  1. Deep-Sea decapod crustaceans (Caridea, Polychelida, Anomura and Brachyura) collected from the Nikko Seamounts, Mariana Arc, using a remotely operated vehicle "Hyper-Dolphin".

    PubMed

    Komai, Tomoyuki; Tsuchida, Shinji

    2014-01-01

    Samples and images of deep-water benthic decapod crustaceans were collected from the Nikko Seamounts, Mariana Arc, at depths of 520-680 m, by using the remotely operate vehicle "Hyper-Dolphin", equipped with a high definition camera, digital camera, manipulators and slurp gun (suction sampler). The following seven species were collected, of which three are new to science: Plesionika unicolor n. sp. (Caridea: Pandalidae), Homeryon armarium Galil, 2000 (Polychelida: Polychelidae), Eumunida nikko n. sp. (Anomura: Eumunididae), Michelopagurus limatulus (Henderson, 1888) (Anomura: Paguridae), Galilia petricola n. sp. (Brachyura: Leucosiidae), Cyrtomaia micronesica Richer de Forges & Ng, 2007 (Brachyura: Inachidae), and Progeryon mus Ng & Guinot, 1999 (Brachyura: Progeryonidae). Affinities of these three new species are discussed. All but H. armarium are recorded from the Japanese Exclusive Economic Zone for the first time. Brief notes on ecology and/or behavior are given for each species. PMID:24870636

  2. Comparative analyses of olfactory systems in terrestrial crabs (Brachyura): evidence for aerial olfaction?

    PubMed Central

    Krieger, Jakob; Braun, Philipp; Rivera, Nicole T.; Schubart, Christoph D.; Müller, Carsten H.G.

    2015-01-01

    Adaptations to a terrestrial lifestyle occurred convergently multiple times during the evolution of the arthropods. This holds also true for the “true crabs” (Brachyura), a taxon that includes several lineages that invaded land independently. During an evolutionary transition from sea to land, animals have to develop a variety of physiological and anatomical adaptations to a terrestrial life style related to respiration, reproduction, development, circulation, ion and water balance. In addition, sensory systems that function in air instead of in water are essential for an animal’s life on land. Besides vision and mechanosensory systems, on land, the chemical senses have to be modified substantially in comparison to their function in water. Among arthropods, insects are the most successful ones to evolve aerial olfaction. Various aspects of terrestrial adaptation have also been analyzed in those crustacean lineages that evolved terrestrial representatives including the taxa Anomala, Brachyura, Amphipoda, and Isopoda. We are interested in how the chemical senses of terrestrial crustaceans are modified to function in air. Therefore, in this study, we analyzed the brains and more specifically the structure of the olfactory system of representatives of brachyuran crabs that display different degrees of terrestriality, from exclusively marine to mainly terrestrial. The methods we used included immunohistochemistry, detection of autofluorescence- and confocal microscopy, as well as three-dimensional reconstruction and morphometry. Our comparative approach shows that both the peripheral and central olfactory pathways are reduced in terrestrial members in comparison to their marine relatives, suggesting a limited function of their olfactory system on land. We conclude that for arthropod lineages that invaded land, evolving aerial olfaction is no trivial task. PMID:26713228

  3. Comparative analyses of olfactory systems in terrestrial crabs (Brachyura): evidence for aerial olfaction?

    PubMed

    Krieger, Jakob; Braun, Philipp; Rivera, Nicole T; Schubart, Christoph D; Müller, Carsten H G; Harzsch, Steffen

    2015-01-01

    Adaptations to a terrestrial lifestyle occurred convergently multiple times during the evolution of the arthropods. This holds also true for the "true crabs" (Brachyura), a taxon that includes several lineages that invaded land independently. During an evolutionary transition from sea to land, animals have to develop a variety of physiological and anatomical adaptations to a terrestrial life style related to respiration, reproduction, development, circulation, ion and water balance. In addition, sensory systems that function in air instead of in water are essential for an animal's life on land. Besides vision and mechanosensory systems, on land, the chemical senses have to be modified substantially in comparison to their function in water. Among arthropods, insects are the most successful ones to evolve aerial olfaction. Various aspects of terrestrial adaptation have also been analyzed in those crustacean lineages that evolved terrestrial representatives including the taxa Anomala, Brachyura, Amphipoda, and Isopoda. We are interested in how the chemical senses of terrestrial crustaceans are modified to function in air. Therefore, in this study, we analyzed the brains and more specifically the structure of the olfactory system of representatives of brachyuran crabs that display different degrees of terrestriality, from exclusively marine to mainly terrestrial. The methods we used included immunohistochemistry, detection of autofluorescence- and confocal microscopy, as well as three-dimensional reconstruction and morphometry. Our comparative approach shows that both the peripheral and central olfactory pathways are reduced in terrestrial members in comparison to their marine relatives, suggesting a limited function of their olfactory system on land. We conclude that for arthropod lineages that invaded land, evolving aerial olfaction is no trivial task. PMID:26713228

  4. Local distribution and abundance of Cardisoma guanhumi Latreille, 1928 (Brachyura: Gecarcinidae) in southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Oliveira-Neto, J F; Batista, E; Metri, R; Metri, C B

    2014-02-01

    The blue land crab, Cardisoma guanhumi Latreille, 1828 (Brachyura: Gecarcinidae) is officially included in the list of over-exploited species in Brazil, although still abundantly found in the state of Santa Catarina, the southern limit of its distribution. This species was found in forested areas, gardens, and grassy areas, including crabs with carapace width larger than 80mm. The existence of this population with these characteristics is surprising, since there is only one official record of the species in the southern region. The objectives of this study are to estimate the abundance and occupation patterns of C. guanhumi in this region. Correlations with conservation were discussed. The absolute abundance of crabs in the middle of summer activity was established for an area of 100,000 m2. A smaller area was mapped and divided into sampling units for statistical analyses. We distributed approximately 240 crabs in a forested area of about 3,000 m2 and 150 crabs in grassy areas (90,000 m2). The statistical test of Kruskal-Wallis test showed that there are significant differences between the sizes of the openings of the galleries inside the forest and that located in grassy areas. In the forest, the openings tend to be much larger. Burrows were found at a distance of 150 metres from the channel. The number of galleries was higher in the forested area, although the burrows were more densely grouped in grassy areas. Although C. guanhumi seems to be adjusting well to changes caused by human occupation, small forested areas are more conducive to growth and conservation of this species. PMID:25075466

  5. Significance of the sexual openings and supplementary structures on the phylogeny of brachyuran crabs (Crustacea, Decapoda, Brachyura), with new nomina for higher-ranked podotreme taxa.

    PubMed

    Guinot, Danièle; Tavares, Marcos; Castro, Peter

    2013-01-01

    The patterns of complexity of the male and female sexual openings in Brachyura, which have been the source of uncertainties and conflicting opinions, are documented, together with a study of the morphologies of the coxal and sternal gonopores in both sexes, penises, spermathecae, and gonopods. The vulvae, male gonopores and penises are described among selected taxa of Eubrachyura, and their function and evolution examined in the context of a wide variety of mating behaviours. The location of female and male gonopores, the condition of the penis (coxal and sternal openings and modalities of protection), and related configurations of thoracic sternites 7 and 8, which are modified by the intercalation of a wide sternal part (thoracic sternites 7 and 8) during carcinisation, show evidence of deep homology. They represent taxonomic criteria at all ranks of the family-series and may be used to test lineages. Of particular significance are the consequences of the posterior expansion of the thoracic sternum, which influences the condition, shape, and sclerotisation of the penis, and its emergence from coxal (heterotreme) to coxo-sternal, which is actually still coxal (heterotreme), in contrast to a sternal emergence (thoracotreme). The heterotreme-thoracotreme distinction results from two different trajectories of the vas deferens and its ejaculatory duct via the P5 coxa (Heterotremata) or through the thoracic sternum (Thoracotremata). Dissections of males of several families have demonstrated that this major difference not only affects the external surface (perforation of the coxa or the sternum by the ejaculatory duct) but also the internal anatomy. There is no evidence for an ejaculatory duct passing through the articular membrane between the P5 coxa and the thoracic sternum in any Brachyura, even when the sternal male gonopore is very close to the P5 coxa. Trends towards the coxo-sternal condition are exemplified by multistate characters, varying from a shallow

  6. Transisthmian differentiation in the tree-climbing mangrove crab Aratus H. Milne Edwards, 1853 (Crustacea, Brachyura, Sesarmidae), with description of a new species from the tropical eastern Pacific.

    PubMed

    Thiercelin, N; Schubart, C D

    2014-01-01

    The tree-climbing mangrove crab Aratus pisonii (H. Milne Edwards, 1837) (Brachyura, Sesarmidae) is considered to have a transisthmian distribution, due to its presence in mangroves of the Western Atlantic as well as the Eastern Pacific. We here present evidence, based on the morphologies of male gonopods and on genetic data, that populations from these two coastlines are morphologically and genetically distinct and require the description of a new species, Aratus pacificus n. sp., as the sister-species of Aratus pisonii. The corresponding speciation event can be regarded as the outcome of differentiation following the closure of the Isthmus of Panama. As these coastal brackish species were probably among the last ones to become separated, the speciation can thus be dated to a time frame of no more than 3.1 million years. PMID:24870191

  7. A new species of fiddler crab from the Ogasawara (Bonin) Islands, Japan, separated from the widely-distributed sister species Uca (Paraleptuca) crassipes (White, 1847) (Crustacea: Decapoda: Brachyura: Ocypodidae).

    PubMed

    Shih, Hsi-Te; Komai, Tomoyuki; Liu, Min-Yun

    2013-01-01

    A new species of fiddler crab (Brachyura: Ocypodidae), Uca boninensis sp. nov., is described from the Ogasawara (Bonin) Islands, Japan. The new species has previously been identified with the widely distributed U. crassipes (White, 1847), from which it differs by having a slightly differently shaped carapace, and relatively stouter male first gonopods (G1). The recognition of the new species is also supported by differences in the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I (COI) and control region (CR) genes. U. boninensis sp. nov., appears to be endemic to the Ogasawara Islands, and as the only known population is small, urgent conservation measures are needed for its protection. Our study brings the total number of the Japanese fiddler crab species to 12. PMID:25113474

  8. Comparative brain architecture of the European shore crab Carcinus maenas (Brachyura) and the common hermit crab Pagurus bernhardus (Anomura) with notes on other marine hermit crabs.

    PubMed

    Krieger, Jakob; Sombke, Andy; Seefluth, Florian; Kenning, Matthes; Hansson, Bill S; Harzsch, Steffen

    2012-04-01

    The European shore crab Carcinus maenas and the common hermit crab Pagurus bernhardus are members of the sister taxa Brachyura and Anomura (together forming the taxon Meiura) respectively. Both species share similar coastal marine habitats and thus are confronted with similar environmental conditions. This study sets out to explore variations of general brain architecture of species that live in seemingly similar habitats but belong to different major malacostracan taxa and to understand possible differences of sensory systems and related brain compartments. We examined the brains of Carcinus maenas, Pagurus bernhardus, and three other hermit crab species with immunohistochemistry against tyrosinated tubulin, f-actin, synaptic proteins, RF-amides and allatostatin. Our comparison showed that their optic neuropils within the eyestalks display strong resemblance in gross morphology as well as in detailed organization, suggesting a rather similar potential of processing visual input. Besides the well-developed visual system, the olfactory neuropils are distinct components in the brain of both C. maenas and P. bernhardus as well as the other hermit crabs, suggesting that close integration of olfactory and visual information may be useful in turbid marine environments with low visibility, as is typical for many habitats such as, e.g., the Baltic and the North Sea. Comparing the shape of the olfactory glomeruli in the anomurans showed some variations, ranging from a wedge shape to an elongate morphology. Furthermore, the tritocerebrum and the organization of the second antennae associated with the tritocerebrum seem to differ markedly in C. maenas and P. bernhardus, indicating better mechanosensory abilities in the latter close to those of other Decapoda with long second antennae, such as Astacida, Homarida, or Achelata. This aspect may also represent an adaptation to the "hermit lifestyle" in which competition for shells is a major aspect of their life history. The shore

  9. CRABS (ARTHROPODA: CRUSTACEA: DECAPODA: BRACHYURA)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The effects of a few major pollutants on crabs are described. Because of their sensitivity to many forms of man-made pollution, crabs can often be used to predict adverse influences on the environment and to evaluate their effects. Crabs are viewed as having unaltered or 'normal'...

  10. Phylogenetics of Cancer crabs (Crustacea: Decapoda: Brachyura).

    PubMed

    Harrison, M K; Crespi, B J

    1999-07-01

    We used morphological, mitochondrial DNA sequence, paleontological, and biogeographical information to examine the evolutionary history of crabs of the genus Cancer. Phylogenies inferred from adult morphology and DNA sequence of the cytochrome oxidase I (COI) gene were each well resolved and well supported, but differed substantially in topology. Four lines of evidence suggested that the COI data set accurately reflected Cancer phylogeny: (1) in the phylogeny inferred from morphological data, each Atlantic species was sister taxon to an ecologically similar Pacific species, suggesting convergence in morphology; (2) a single trans-Arctic dispersal event, as indicated by the phylogeny inferred from COI, is more parsimonious than two such dispersal events, as inferred from morphology; (3) test and application of a maximum likelihood molecular clock to the COI data yielded estimates of origin and speciation times that fit well with the fossil record; and (4) the tree inferred from the combined COI and morphology data was closely similar to the trees inferred from COI, although notably less well supported by the bootstrap. The phylogeny inferred from maximum likelihood analysis of COI suggested that Cancer originated in the North Pacific in the early Miocene, that the Atlantic species arose from a North Pacific ancestor, and that Cancer crabs invaded the Atlantic from the North Pacific 6-12 mya. This inferred invasion time is notably prior to most estimates of the date of submergence of the Bering Strait and the trans-Arctic interchange, but it agrees with fossil evidence placing at least one Cancer species in the Atlantic about 8 mya. PMID:10381321

  11. Spermatogenesis of the spider crab Maja brachydactyla (Decapoda: Brachyura).

    PubMed

    Simeó, Carles G; Kurtz, Kathryn; Chiva, Manel; Ribes, Enric; Rotllant, Guiomar

    2010-04-01

    This study describes spermatogenesis in a majid crab (Maja brachydactyla) using electron microscopy and reports the origin of the different organelles present in the spermatozoa. Spermatogenesis in M. brachydactyla follows the general pattern observed in other brachyuran species but with several peculiarities. Annulate lamellae have been reported in brachyuran spermatogenesis during the diplotene stage of first spermatocytes, the early and mid-spermatids. Unlike previous observations, a Golgi complex has been found in mid-spermatids and is involved in the development of the acrosome. The Golgi complex produces two types of vesicles: light vesicles and electron-dense vesicles. The light vesicles merge into the cytoplasm, giving rise to the proacrosomal vesicle. The electron-dense vesicles are implicated in the formation of an electron-dense granule, which later merges with the proacrosomal vesicle. In the late spermatid, the endoplasmic reticulum and the Golgi complex degenerate and form the structures-organelles complex found in the spermatozoa. At the end of spermatogenesis, the materials in the proacrosomal vesicle aggregate in a two-step process, forming the characteristic concentric three-layered structure of the spermatozoon acrosome. The newly formed spermatozoa from testis show the typical brachyuran morphology. PMID:19885918

  12. Sperm ultrastructure of the spider crab Maja brachydactyla (Decapoda: Brachyura).

    PubMed

    Simeó, Carles G; Kurtz, Kathryn; Rotllant, Guiomar; Chiva, Manel; Ribes, Enric

    2010-04-01

    This study describes the morphology of the sperm cell of Maja brachydactyla, with emphasis on localizing actin and tubulin. The spermatozoon of M. brachydactyla is similar in appearance and organization to other brachyuran spermatozoa. The spermatozoon is a globular cell composed of a central acrosome, which is surrounded by a thin layer of cytoplasm and a cup-shaped nucleus with four radiating lateral arms. The acrosome is a subspheroidal vesicle composed of three concentric zones surrounded by a capsule. The acrosome is apically covered by an operculum. The perforatorium penetrates the center of the acrosome and has granular material partially composed of actin. The cytoplasm contains one centriole in the subacrosomal region. A cytoplasmic ring encircles the acrosome in the subapical region of the cell and contains the structures-organelles complex (SO-complex), which is composed of a membrane system, mitochondria with few cristae, and microtubules. In the nucleus, slightly condensed chromatin extends along the lateral arms, in which no microtubules have been observed. Chromatin fibers aggregate in certain areas and are often associated with the SO-complex. During the acrosomal reaction, the acrosome could provide support for the penetration of the sperm nucleus, the SO-complex could serve as an anchor point for chromatin, and the lateral arms could play an important role triggering the acrosomal reaction, while slightly decondensed chromatin may be necessary for the deformation of the nucleus. PMID:19885919

  13. New species of Latreillopsis Henderson, 1888 (Brachyura: Homolidae) and Neopalicus Moosa & Serène, 1981 (Brachyura: Palicidae) from the Hawaiian Islands.

    PubMed

    Castro, Peter; Naruse, Tohru

    2014-01-01

    Two new species of brachyuran crabs belonging to Latreillopsis Henderson, 1888 (Homolidae) and Neopalicus Moosa & Serène, 1981 (Palicidae) respectively are described from Maui, Hawai'i. The new species of Latreillopsis is distinguished from its nine congeners by a granular carapace and pereopods, a triangular G1, and by the distinctive ornamentation of its carapace and third maxillipeds; the new species of Neopalicus from its three congeners by the presence of three triangular anterolateral teeth, absence of extensions on the outer margins of the P3 and P4 propodi, dentate inner margins of the P3, P4 dactyli, and absence of ridges on the female abdomen. Also listed is Latreillia metanesa Williams, 1982 (Latreilliidae), recorded for the first time from the archipelago since its description from Albatross material collected in 1902. PMID:24870630

  14. Prediction of Scylla olivacea (Crustacea; Brachyura) peptide hormones using publicly accessible transcriptome shotgun assembly (TSA) sequences.

    PubMed

    Christie, Andrew E

    2016-05-01

    The aquaculture of crabs from the genus Scylla is of increasing economic importance for many Southeast Asian countries. Expansion of Scylla farming has led to increased efforts to understand the physiology and behavior of these crabs, and as such, there are growing molecular resources for them. Here, publicly accessible Scylla olivacea transcriptomic data were mined for putative peptide-encoding transcripts; the proteins deduced from the identified sequences were then used to predict the structures of mature peptide hormones. Forty-nine pre/preprohormone-encoding transcripts were identified, allowing for the prediction of 187 distinct mature peptides. The identified peptides included isoforms of adipokinetic hormone-corazonin-like peptide, allatostatin A, allatostatin B, allatostatin C, bursicon β, CCHamide, corazonin, crustacean cardioactive peptide, crustacean hyperglycemic hormone/molt-inhibiting hormone, diuretic hormone 31, eclosion hormone, FMRFamide-like peptide, HIGSLYRamide, insulin-like peptide, intocin, leucokinin, myosuppressin, neuroparsin, neuropeptide F, orcokinin, pigment dispersing hormone, pyrokinin, red pigment concentrating hormone, RYamide, short neuropeptide F, SIFamide and tachykinin-related peptide, all well-known neuropeptide families. Surprisingly, the tissue used to generate the transcriptome mined here is reported to be testis. Whether or not the testis samples had neural contamination is unknown. However, if the peptides are truly produced by this reproductive organ, it could have far reaching consequences for the study of crustacean endocrinology, particularly in the area of reproductive control. Regardless, this peptidome is the largest thus far predicted for any brachyuran (true crab) species, and will serve as a foundation for future studies of peptidergic control in members of the commercially important genus Scylla. PMID:26965954

  15. Etisus evamuellerae, a new xanthid crab (Decapoda, Brachyura) from the Middle Miocene of Austria and Hungary

    PubMed Central

    Hyžný, M.; van Bakel, B.W.M.; Guinot, D.

    2015-01-01

    On the basis of several carapaces, a new species of xanthid crab, Etisus evamuellerae, is described from the Middle Miocene of the Vienna (Austria) and Great Hungarian basins. It differs from the coeval xanthids, Xantho moldavicus and Pilodius vulgaris, in having a distinctly protruding front and comparatively longer carapace. Contrary to those two species, the new one makes up for just a small percentage in the decapod crustacean assemblages studied. PMID:25983383

  16. [Fishery and biometrics of genus Calappa crabs (Brachyura: Calappidae) in northeastern Venezuela].

    PubMed

    Alió, José J; Marcano, Luis A; Altuve, Douglas E

    2005-01-01

    The box crabs, genus Calappa, are important crab species landed by the industrial trawl fleet in Venezuela. These crabs have a wide distribution in the country, from the Gulf of Venezuela to the Orinoco River, but major landings take place in such gulf, near Margarita Island and northern Sucre State. Average annual landing in the eastern region was 69 t during 1970-2001, with a maximum of 221 t. For this study a sample of 2 398 box crabs was collected by observers on board of industrial trawl vessels, which operated in eastern Venezuela from 1994 to 2000. Three species were found in the landings, Calappa sulcata and C. flammea. each represented 47% of the sample, and C. nitida, which accounted for 5% of the sample. Sex ratio was strongly biased towards males in C. sulcata (2.8:1) and in C. flammnea (1.9:1). while it was only slightly biased in C. nitida (1.4:1). Due to its large size, C. sulcuta is of great commercial interest, with average weight 290 g and a maximum weight of 720 g: C. flammea showed an average weight of 140 g and a maximum weight of 418 g, while C. nitida is the smallest species, with average weight 46 g and maximum weight not beyond 113 g. Box crabs were captured by day and night in similar proportions, and were found in a wide depth range, from a few meters to 126 m deep; however, the largest captures were obtained in the interval 38 - 54 m. Regressions between weight of chelae and total weight were linear, and significantly different between sexes. The relation between total weight and carapace width was allometric, with a power exponent ca. three in C. sulcata, and less than three in C. flamea and C. nitida. Females of C. sulcata and C. nitida showed power exponents significantly smaller than males. Since claws are removed from the animal to be commercialized, while the rest of the animal is returned alive to the sea, for practical purposes a common equation among species and sexes to convert claws weight into total body weight is: total weight - 3 x claws weight. The relationship between catch per unit of effort (CPUE) and effort did not show a significantly decreasing trend, but landings follow the effort trend, with a decreasing tendency in recent years. No mature females were found in any of the three species, thus there could be reproductive migrations towards deeper waters from October to January, when abundance of crabs is lower in the study area. It is recommended that the practice of exploiting only one claw, returning the rest of the animal alive to the sea, should be promoted among fishers, while the removal of claws from female crabs should be avoided. PMID:17354456

  17. Morphology of the female reproductive system of European pea crabs (Crustacea, Decapoda, Brachyura, Pinnotheridae).

    PubMed

    Becker, Carola; Brandis, Dirk; Storch, Volker

    2011-01-01

    Commensal pea crabs inhabiting bivalves have a high reproductive output due to the extension andfecundity of the ovary. We studied the underlying morphology of the female reproductive system in the Pinnotheridae Pinnotheres pisum, Pinnotheres pectunculi and Nepinnotheres pinnotheres using light microscopy and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Eubrachyura have internal fertilization: the paired vaginas enlarge into storage structures, the spermathecae, which are connected to the ovaries by oviducts. Sperm is stored inside the spermathecae until the oocytes are mature. The oocytes are transported by oviducts into the spermathecae where fertilization takes place. In the investigated pinnotherids, the vagina is of the "concave pattern" (sensu Hartnoll1968): musculature is attached alongside flexible parts of the vagina wall that controls the dimension of its lumen. The genital opening is closed by a muscular mobile operculum. The spermatheca can be divided into two distinct regions by function and morphology. The ventral part includes the connection with vagina and oviduct and is regarded as the zone where fertilization takes place. It is lined with cuticle except where the oviduct enters the spermatheca by the "holocrine transfer tissue." At ovulation, the oocytes have to pass through this multilayered glandular epithelium performing holocrine secretion. The dorsal part of the spermatheca is considered as the main sperm storage area. It is lined by a highly secretory apocrine glandular epithelium. Thus, two different forms of secretion occur in the spermathecae of pinnotherids. The definite role of secretion in sperm storage and fertilization is not yet resolved, but it is notable that structure and function of spermathecal secretion are more complex in pinnotherids, and probably more efficient, than in other brachyuran crabs. PMID:21069772

  18. Foregut morphology and ontogeny of the spider crab Maja brachydactyla (Brachyura, Majoidea, Majidae).

    PubMed

    Castejón, Diego; Rotllant, Guiomar; Ribes, Enric; Durfort, Mercè; Guerao, Guillermo

    2015-09-01

    We describe the morphology of the foregut of the spider crab Maja brachydactyla Balss, 1922, from first larval stage to adult, with detailed stage-specific documentation using light and scanning electron microscopy. A total of 40 ossicles have been identified in the foregut of adults of M. brachydactyla using Alizarin-Red staining. The morphological pattern of the ossicles and gastric mill is very similar to other Majoidea species with only a few variations. The foregut of the zoeae stages appeared as a small and simple cavity, with a cardio-pyloric valve that separates the stomach into cardiac and pyloric regions. The pyloric filter is present from the first zoea, in contrast to the brachyuran species which have an extended larval development. Calcified structures have been identified in the cardio-pyloric valve and pyloric region of the zoeal stages. The most significant changes in foregut morphology take place after the metamorphosis from ZII to megalopa, including the occurrence of the gastric mill. In the megalopa stage, the foregut ossicles are recognizable by their organization and general morphology, but are different from the adult phase in shape and number. Moreover, the gastric teeth show important differences: the cusps of the lateral teeth are sharp (no molariform); the dorsal tooth have a small, dentate cusp (not a well-developed quadrangular cusp); and the accessory teeth are composed of one sharp peak (instead of four sharp peaks). The gastric mill ontogeny from megalopa to adult reveals intermediate morphologies during the earlier juvenile stages. The relationship between gastric mill structures with food preferences and their contribution to the brachyuran phylogeny are briefly discussed. PMID:26129875

  19. Diversity, endemism and conservation of the freshwater crabs of China (Brachyura: Potamidae and Gecarcinucidae).

    PubMed

    Cumberlidge, Neil; Ng, Peter K L; Yeo, Darren C J; Naruse, Tohru; Meyer, Kirstin S; Esser, Lara J

    2011-03-01

    China lies at the heart of the global center of freshwater crab diversity in tropical Asia, where the 2 most diverse families occur: Potamidae (505 species, 95 genera) and Gecarcinucidae (344 species, 59 genera). China stands out as the country with the highest species richness of freshwater crabs globally. Its fauna comprises 243 species in 37 genera and in 2 families, and species discovery is still progressing at a rapid pace. The vast majority of the species are distributed in southwest, south central and eastern China in the Oriental zoogeographical region. China also stands out as having a highly endemic freshwater crab fauna at the species level (96%) and at the genus level (78%). Although the recent International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN) red list conservation assessment found only 6 out of 228 species (2%) to be threatened (5 potamids and 1 gecarcinucid), the majority (more than 75%) of Chinese species are regarded as data deficient, so the number of threatened species is likely to be a serious underestimate. Threats from increasing habitat destruction and pollution are a major concern due to the rapidly growing economy and massive developments taking place in China. There is therefore an urgent need for increased species exploration and for the development of a conservation strategy for China's threatened (and potentially threatened) endemic freshwater crab species. PMID:21392361

  20. Evolution of freshwater crab diversity in the Aegean region (Crustacea: Brachyura: Potamidae).

    PubMed

    Jesse, Ruth; Grudinski, Melanie; Klaus, Sebastian; Streit, Bruno; Pfenninger, Markus

    2011-04-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the influence of the palaeogeographic and climatic history of the Aegean region on the diversity of freshwater crabs of the genus Potamon and to test whether this area served as source or reservoir in species diversity. Necessary species delimitation was accomplished by phylogenetic analyses of the mitochondrial markers COX1 and ND1, partial 16S rRNA gene and the tRNALeu gene. We found 14 genetic lineages of which nine could be assigned to previously recognised species. Temporal estimates of the splitting pattern in the phylogeny of Potamon indicated that a combination of geological and climatic events influenced their diversification. Within Potamon, the lineages separated into a western group and an eastern group. This first split in the genus occurred approximately 8.3-5.5 Mya, thus possibly correlated with the Messinian salinity crisis. A likelihood approach to geographic range evolution suggested for most species, occurring in the Aegean area, an origin in the Middle East. Moreover, there were no insular endemics in the central Aegean archipelago, therefore low sea-levels during the Pleistocene glacial periods possibly enabled dispersal to these islands, but subsequent rise in sea-level did not cause speciation. Nevertheless, the diversification of most lineages occurred during the Pleistocene epoch thus coinciding with Quaternary fluctuations of the climate. PMID:21216297

  1. Differential toxicity of copper, zinc, and lead during the embryonic development of Chasmagnathus granulatus (Brachyura, Varunidae).

    PubMed

    Lavolpe, Mariano; Greco, Laura López; Kesselman, Daniela; Rodríguez, Enrique

    2004-04-01

    Ovigerous females of the estuarine crab Chasmagnathus granulatus were exposed to copper (0.01 and 1 mg/L), zinc (0.05, 1, and 10 mg/L), or lead (0.01 and 1 mg/L) during early, late, or whole embryonic development. None of the assayed heavy metals produced a significant mortality of females, neither a decrease in the number of hatched larvae nor a decrease in the egg incubation time, but several morphological abnormalities were detected in hatched larvae. The abnormalities were classified in three categories: eye, body pigmentary, and body morphological abnormalities. Those larvae with eye and body pigmentary abnormalities, particularly those involving retinal pigments and chromatophores, showed the highest incidence by exposure to the assayed metals. In addition, embryos were more susceptible to copper and zinc during the late period of development, whereas the effect of lead was greater during the early period of embryogenesis. Some teratogenic effects observed in C. granulatus embryos exposed to heavy metals, particularly the hypertrophy and hypopigmentation of eyes observed in the laboratory at a lead concentration as low as that reported for the natural environment, could be considered as sensitive biomarkers for this kind of pollutant. PMID:15095892

  2. Leucosiid crabs from Papua New Guinea, with descriptions of eight new species (Crustacea: Decapoda: Brachyura).

    PubMed

    Galil, Bella S; Ng, Peter K L

    2015-01-01

    Twenty-five species of leucosiid crabs are reported from Madang Province, Papua New Guinea. Of these, seven are new to science: two each are included in Alox Tan & Ng, 1995 and Tanaoa Galil, 2003, and one each in Ryphila Galil, 2009, Seulocia Galil, 2005, and Urnalana Galil, 2005. Fifteen additional species are new records for Papua New Guinea: Alox rugosum (Stimpson, 1858), Ancylodactyla nana (Zarenkov, 1990), Arcania heptacantha De Man, 1907, Heterolithadia fallax (Henderson, 1893), Hiplyra longimana (A. Milne Edwards, 1874), Myra curtimana Galil, 2001, M. digitata Galil 2004, Nursilia dentata Bell, 1855, Oreotlos etor Tan & Richer de Forges, 1993, Parilia major Sakai, 1961, Raylilia coniculifera Galil, 2001, R. uenoi (Takeda, 1995), Toru pilus (Tan, 1996), Urashima pustuloides (Sakai, 1961) and Leucosia rubripalma Galil, 2003. The new species are described and illustrated, and their affinities with allied taxa discussed. Colour photographs are provided for 20 species. PMID:26624192

  3. [Abundance and body size of Menippe mercenaria (Crustacea: Brachyura), in artificial refuges in Quintana Roo, Mexico].

    PubMed

    Cervantes-Martínez, A; Ramírez-González, A

    2001-01-01

    In Florida and Cuba the stone crab Menippe mercenaria (Say, 1818) is under strong fishing-pressure; nevertheless in the Mexican Caribbean it is considered as sub-utilized and poorly known resource. Artificial shelters ("condominios cubanos") were used to study relative abundance, age structure, claw length-carapace amplitude relation, and population in three seasons and four sectors at Bahía Ascension, Quintana Roo, Mexico. The abundance varied according to the sector and sampling season: population was higher in the south and during the north wind ("Nortes") season (January to March). The carapace amplitude was directly proportional to claw length (r2 = 0.83, 0.97 and 0.89; p < 0.05 in females, males and total, respectively). The results suggest that specimens with 37.5 and 67.5 mm of carapace amplitude are the most limited regarding refuge availability in the Bay. PMID:12189819

  4. A new species of Praebebalia (Crustacea: Brachyura: Leucosiidae) from East China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Hui-Lian; Fang, Shao-Hua

    2000-12-01

    A new species of the genus Praebebalia from the East China Sea, belonging to the subfamily Ebaliinae Stimpson, 1871, is described. It is characterized by carapace being broader than long, the dorsal surface without sharp granules near borders, the median part of anterolateral borders with a notch, the junction of anterolateral and posterolateral borders with a tubercle, the posterior border with a triangular tubercle on each side, the propodi of anterior 3 pairs of ambulatory legs with a tubercle and the fingers of chelipeds being longer than palm.

  5. Phylogeography, cave invasion and diversification of the Philippine Sundathelphusa (Decapoda: Brachyura: Parathelphusidae)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Husana, D.; Haga, T.; Kase, T.; Yamamuro, M.

    2010-12-01

    Availability of resources influences the opportunistic characters of animals to migrate and colonize a specific habitat while the organism’s geographic isolation causes speciation and diversification. Stable isotope signatures (δ13C and δ15N) elucidate the nutrient source of cavernicolous animals. Mitochondrial DNA sequences of the large subunit rRNA (16S rRNA) revealed multiple colonizations of caves by the genus Sundathelphusa as well as its phylogenetic relationships. Overall molecular phylogeny of the freshwater crabs recovered one major clade of the Philippine Sundathelphusa consisting nine clusters/subclades distributed to various regions in the archipelago. Molecular clock estimation based on the substitution rate of 0.88% per million years established for the grapsid crab genus Sesarma suggested that the diversification of Sundathelphusa species in the Philippines could have started during the late Miocene epoch ca. 5.92 mya. Speciation events coincide with the timing of the eustatic sea level fluctuation and geologic changes in the Philippine archipelago. The sea level fluctuation and subsequent geologic changes must have caused geographic isolation of the species. This appears to be the most plausible explanation for the high diversity of Sundathelphusa species in the Philippines where its congeners inhabit a wide range of habitats, ranging from epigean to hypogean domain.

  6. Functional anatomy of the fiddler crab compound eye (Uca vomeris: Ocypodidae, Brachyura, Decapoda).

    PubMed

    Alkaladi, Ali; Zeil, Jochen

    2014-04-15

    We describe the structural organization of the ommatidium in the compound eye of the fiddler crab, Uca vomeris, at both the light- and the electron-microscopy levels. We pay particular attention to the organization of the optical system, the retinular cells, the rhabdom, and of pigment cells. Although the fiddler crab compound eye is of the apposition type, typical for Brachyuran crabs, we identify a number of novel, functionally relevant aspects of ommatidial organization that have not previously been described. The flat corneal facet lenses provide the main focusing power and therefore must contain a gradient of refractive index. Each ommatidium has the typical set of eight retinular cells, with a distal retinular cell R8 lying close to the proximal tip of the crystalline cone. R8 is shaped into four lobes, which are separated by proximal extensions of the four crystalline cone cells and of distal extensions of retinular cells R1-R7. The microvilli in the R8 rhabdom are not aligned in a uniform direction, while the microvilli of the main rhabdom show the typical crustacean pattern of alternating bands of horizontally (R3, R4, R7) and vertically aligned microvilli (R1, R2, R5, R6). We describe in detail the distribution and structural properties of screening pigment granules in the two types of pigment cells and in the retinular cells in the equatorial eye. We discuss the functional significance of this fine-structural organization of the fiddler crab compound eye in relation to visual processing and visual ecology. PMID:24114990

  7. Population structure and reproductive biology of the fiddler crab Uca inversa (Hoffman, 1874) (Brachyura: Ocypodidae)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Litulo, Carlos

    2005-05-01

    The population structure and reproductive biology of Uca inversa (Hoffman) were studied in Mozambique for the first time. Crabs were randomly sampled on monthly basis during low tide periods from January to December 2002 at Costa do Sol mangrove, Maputo Bay, southern Mozambique. A total of 1131 crabs was obtained, of which 518 (45.8%) were males, 322 non-ovigerous females (29.3%) and 281 (24.8%) ovigerous females, respectively. The present population presents non-normal size frequency distributions, with males reaching greater size than females. The overall sex ratio (M:F) (1:0.84) was significantly different from the 1:1 ratio. Ovigerous females were present throughout the year and the embryonic development showed synchrony with the gonadosomatic index, in which females carrying eggs close to hatching were more abundant when the gonadosomatic index reached minimum values in the population. Egg number increases with female size. Juvenile recruitment was also continuous with high proportion of young recruits being recorded in winter, probably due to the high reproductive activity displayed in summer. U. inversa exhibits a rapid embryonic cycle accompanied by a rapid larval development and settlement in the study area.

  8. Revision of the spider crab genus Sargassocarcinus Ward, 1936 (Crustacea: Brachyura: Epialtidae).

    PubMed

    Ng, Peter K L; Lin, Chia-Wei; Naruse, Tohru

    2016-01-01

    The Western Pacific epialtid genus Sargassocarcinus Ward, 1936, is revised. The genus had been regarded as monotypic but is here shown to contain three species: S. sublimis (Rathbun, 1916), S. cristatus (Balss, 1924), and S. foliatus Ward, 1936 (type species). The many unusual characters possessed by Sargassocarcinus are figured and discussed; and diagnostic features of the three species are clarified. The taxonomy of the three species and aspects of their ecology are discussed. Sargassocarcinus species are found free-living on coral rubble habitats and not associated with macrophytic algae. PMID:27615976

  9. Complete sequence and characterization of mitochondrial genome in the swimming crab Portunus sanguinolentus (Herbst, 1783) (Decapoda, Brachyura, Portunidae).

    PubMed

    Meng, Xianliang; Jia, Fulong; Zhang, Xiaohui; Liu, Ping; Li, Jian

    2016-07-01

    The three-spot swimming crab Portunus sanguinolentus (Herbst, 1783) is a commercially important fishery species, widely distributed in the Indo-Pacific region. In this study, we present the complete mitochondrial genome of P. sanguinolentus. The genome is 16 027 bp in length with circular organization, encoding the standard set of 13 protein-coding genes, 22 tRNA genes, and two rRNA genes. The overall A + T content is 65.60%, which is lower than that of its congeneric species Portunus pelagicus and Portunus trituberculatus. The mitogenome carries 1254 bp of intergenic region constituting 7.82% of the genome, and six pairs of overlapping genes with the overlap size from 1 to 7 bp. The complete mitogenome sequence information of P. sanguinolentus would provide useful data for further studies on population genetics and molecular systematics. PMID:26153754

  10. A molecular method for the detection of sally lightfoot crab larvae (Grapsus grapsus, Brachyura, Grapsidae) in plankton samples

    PubMed Central

    Ströher, Patrícia R.; Firkowski, Carina R.; Freire, Andrea S.; Pie, Marcio R.

    2011-01-01

    The decapod Grapsus grapsus is commonly found on oceanic islands of the Pacific and Atlantic coasts of the Americas. In this study, a simple, quick and reliable method for detecting its larvae in plankton samples is described, which makes it ideal for large-scale studies of larval dispersal patterns in the species. PMID:21931530

  11. The taxonomy of Speodromia platyarthrodes (Stebbing, 1905) (Crustacea: Brachyura), an unusual dromiid crab endemic to South Africa.

    PubMed

    Ng, Peter K L

    2016-01-01

    The poorly known dromiid crab Speodromia platyarthrodes (Stebbing, 1905), endemic to South Africa, is redescribed and figured. Speodromia is unique among dromiids in possessing a large cavity on the anterior part of the sub-branchial region, which is believed to be associated with respiration. The systematics of the genus is discussed and is confirmed to be a member of Dromiinae De Haan, 1833, s. str. PMID:27395089

  12. Parathelphusa pardus, a new species of lowland freshwater crab from swamps in central Sumatra, Indonesia (Crustacea: Brachyura: Gecarcinucidae).

    PubMed

    Ng, Peter K L; Riady, Rikhi; Windarti, Windarti

    2016-01-01

    A new species of gecarcinucid freshwater crab of the genus Parathelphusa H. Milne Edwards, 1853, is described from freshwater swamp habitats in Pekanbaru, Riau Province, in central-eastern Sumatra, Indonesia. Parathelphusa pardus sp. nov., has a very distinctive colour pattern, and in this respect, resembles P. maindroni (Rathbun, 1902) from Sumatra and Peninsular Malaysia; P. batamensis Ng, 1992, from Batam Island, Indonesia; P. reticulata Ng, 1990, from Singapore; and P. oxygona Nobili, 1901, from western Sarawak. It can be distinguished from these species and congeners by a suite of carapace, ambulatory leg, thoracic sternal and most importantly, male first gonopod characters. PMID:27394277

  13. Aletheiana tenella, a new genus and new species of freshwater hymenosomatid crab (Crustacea: Decapoda: Brachyura) from Central Sulawesi, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Ng, Peter K L; Lukhaup, Christian

    2015-01-01

    A new genus and new species of free-living hymenosomatid crab, Aletheiana tenella, is described from Central Sulawesi, Indonesia. The two known Sulawesi hymenosomatid species, Cancrocaeca xenomorpha Ng, 1991, and Sulaplax ensifer Naruse, Ng & Guinot, 2008, are both from cave habitats. Aletheiana gen. nov. is most similar to Neorhynchoplax Sakai, 1938 (from freshwater and intertidal habitats in the Indo-West Pacific), and Sulaplax, but can be distinguished by its front possessing only one subventral rostral lobe, the base of the antenna is positioned between the base of the ocular peduncle and antennular fossa, the posterior margin of the epistome has two low, rounded median lobes, the merus of the third maxilliped is elongated, the ambulatory dactylus has a prominent subdistal spine, the cutting edges of the chela are armed with distinct teeth proximally, and the male abdomen is slender and elongate with the telson linguiform. PMID:26624469

  14. The decapod fauna (Axiidea, Anomura, Brachyura) from the Late Pleistocene of Trumbacà, Reggio Calabria (Calabria, southern Italy)

    PubMed Central

    Garassino, Alessandro; Pasini, Giovanni; De Angeli, Antonio; Hyžný, Matúš

    2015-01-01

    We report a rich faunal assemblage from the Tyrrhenian (Late Pleistocene) of Trumbacà, located in the southern area of Reggio Calabria (Calabria, southern Italy). The only brachyuran reported to date from this locality is Ranilia constricta (A. Milne Edwards, 1880) by Vazzana (2008). The studied specimens have been assigned, as follows: ?Corallianassa sp., Dardanus arrosor (Herbst, 1796), Dardanus substriatus (A. Milne Edwards, 1861), Paguristes cf. P. syrtensis de Saint Laurent 1970, Anapagurus sp., Ranilia constricta (A. Milne Edwards, 1880), Ranina propinqua Ristori, 1891, Ebalia cf. E. deshayesi Lucas, 1846, Ilia nucleus (Linnaeus, 1758), Medorippe lanata (Linnaeus, 1767), Calappa granulata (Linnaeus, 1758), Pisa armata (Latreille, 1803), Derilambrus cf. D. angulifrons (Latreille, 1825), Atelecyclus undecimdentatus (Herbst, 1783), Carcinus sp., Pilumnus hirtellus (Linnaeus, 1761), and Xantho cf. X. incisus (Leach, 1814). The studied assemblage enlarges our knowledge on the evolution of the Mediterranean decapod faunas. PMID:26689358

  15. Reproductive Biology of the Blue Swimming Crab Portunus pelagicus (Brachyura: Portunidae) in East Lampung Waters, Indonesia: Fecundity and Reproductive Potential

    PubMed Central

    Zairion; Wardiatno, Yusli; Boer, Mennofatria; Fahrudin, Achmad

    2015-01-01

    The blue swimming crab Portunus pelagicus is an important catch species for many coastal villages along the Java Sea coastline, but little is known regarding its reproductive biology or stock status. We examined the batch fecundity of female crabs that were collected monthly at landing sites from June 2011 to May 2012, calculated the relationships with body size, egg mass and month of the year, and determined the size at which females became potentially reproductive in the population inhabiting East Lampung waters (western Java Sea). Fecundity values ranged from 229,468 to 2,236,355 (mean = 926,638±30,975 [±SE]). The fecundity was positively and linearly correlated with carapace width (CW), but the relationships with body weight and egg mass were best described by logarithmic regression. A peaked, temporally cyclical pattern in fecundity was observed, with a peak period that was significantly different (F = 226.36; df = 22, p<0.05) from March to May 2012. Reproductive females were within the 111.0–155.9 mm CW size range; significantly higher reproductive potentials (F = 14.59; df = 30, p<0.05) were found in females within the 126.0–130.9 mm CW size group. The current minimum legal size (MLS = 100 mm CW) is not an appropriate limit reference point, and a precautionary approach is needed for a sustainable harvesting strategy. Resetting the MLS to 115 mm CW would potentially provide adequate protection for spawning females and increase total egg production, thereby maintaining population productivity and enhancing resilience in the face of current fishing pressures. PMID:26019748

  16. Moult cycle and growth of the crab Halicarcinus planatus (Brachyura, Hymenosomatidae) in the Beagle Channel, southern tip of South America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diez, Mariano J.; Lovrich, Gustavo A.

    2013-09-01

    The crab Halicarcinus planatus is the only hymenosomatid crab that inhabits the southern tip of South America and is the only decapod species that reproduces twice a year in the Beagle Channel. In this article, we study the moult cycle in the field (moult frequency, analysis of size frequency distribution) and linked it with growth studied in the laboratory (absolute and per cent growth increment, Hiatt function). Hiatt functions were similar for males and females. Moult frequency was seasonal: in early austral spring and in austral summer. In females, the pubertal moult is the terminal moult, whereas males continue moulting after attaining the size of morphometric maturity. Moult increment was highly variable. The relationship between absolute moult increment and crab size was described by a quadratic function. Per cent growth increment decreased with size, and relationships were different for each sex: linear for females and quadratic for males. Seven and eight modal groups explained the size frequency distributions for females and males from the field, respectively, and revealed the existence of two cohorts of recruits per year. Further modal analysis was mainly hampered by the high variability of size increment that could make any moulting individual fall in its own or one of two following modal groups. The antagonism between growth and reproduction was evident in small males. We hypothesize that the terminal pubertal moult is an advantageous feature that allows females to maximize their investment in reproduction after their terminal moult, which allows this species to have two spawnings per year.

  17. Integrative Taxonomic Study of the Purse Crab Genus Persephona Leach, 1817 (Brachyura: Leucosiidae): Combining Morphology and Molecular Data

    PubMed Central

    Magalhães, Tatiana; Robles, Rafael; Felder, Darryl L.

    2016-01-01

    Marine crabs of the genus Persephona Leach, 1817 are restricted to American waters of the western Atlantic and eastern Pacific Oceans. Subfamilial assignment of this taxon has varied between authors and its species composition remain in question. We conducted a comparative study based on morphology and molecular phylogenetics for all ten recognized species of Persephona, along with Iliacantha hancocki. We tested whether Persephona finneganae, P. lichtensteinii, and P. crinita represent a single species as suggested by some authors; whether specimens identified as P. punctata, P. mediterranea, and P. aquilonaris warrant treatment as separate species; and whether I. hancocki should be regarded as a junior synonym of P. subovata. Diagnostic morphological characters (of the carapace, chelipeds, and third maxillipeds) were used along with gonopod (male first pleopod 1) features and live coloration. The 16S rRNA and the Cytochrome Oxidase I (COI) (DNA barcoding) mitochondrial genes were used as molecular markers. Both morphological and molecular analyses revealed that putative specimens of P. crinita from Brazil and those assigned to P. finneganae were no different from specimens presently assignable to P. lichtensteinii. P. finneganae is regarded as a junior synonym of P. lichtensteinii, and we apply P. crinita only to specimens we examined from the Gulf of Mexico. Specimens from Brazil previously reported as P. crinita are herewith concluded to represent P. lichtensteinii. Additionally, P. townsendi is a junior synonym of P. orbicularis, Iliacantha hancocki is concluded to be a junior synonym of P. subovata, while P. aquilonaris and P. mediterranea are found to represent separate species. On the basis of our revisions, eight species of Persephona are considered valid, and the reported distribution for P. crinita is restricted. PMID:27099956

  18. Internal anatomy and ultrastructure of the male reproductive system of the spider crab Maja brachydactyla (Decapoda: Brachyura).

    PubMed

    Simeó, C G; Ribes, E; Rotllant, G

    2009-10-01

    The morphology and function of the male reproductive system in the spider crab Maja brachydactyla, an important commercial species, is described using light and electron microscopy. The reproductive system follows the pattern found among brachyuran with several peculiarities. The testis, known as tubular testis, consists of a single, highly coiled seminiferous tubule divided all along by an inner epithelium into germinal, transformation, and evacuation zones, each playing a different role during spermatogenesis. The vas deferens (VD) presents diverticula increasing in number and size towards the median VD, where spermatophores are stored. The inner monostratified epithelium exocytoses the materials involved in the spermatophore wall formation (named substance I and II) and spermatophore storage in the anterior and median VD, respectively. A large accessory gland is attached to the posterior VD, and its secretions are released as granules in apocrine secretion, and stored in the lumen of the diverticula as seminal fluids. A striated musculature may contribute to the formation and movement of spermatophores and seminal fluids along the VD. The ejaculatory duct (ED) shows a multilayered musculature and a nonsecretory pseudostratified epithelium, and extrudes the reproductive products towards the gonopores. A tissue attached to the ED is identified as the androgenic gland. PMID:19342069

  19. Patterns and Processes of Chasmagnathus granulata and Cyrtograpsus angulatus (Brachyura: Grapsidae) Recruitment in Mar Chiquita Coastal Lagoon, Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luppi, T. A.; Spivak, E. D.; Anger, K.; Valero, J. L.

    2002-08-01

    Recruitment patterns of crabs and other benthic invertebrates with planktonic larvae are determined by a combination of pre- and post-settlement factors. Recruitment is considered settlement limited when there is a positive correlation between the postlarvae available in the water column and the number of recruits, and regulated when abundance of individuals is mainly affected by post-settlement factors, such as competence and inter or intraspecific predation. Temperate southwestern Atlantic saltmarshes are inhabited by Cyrtograpsus angulatus and Chasmagnathus granulata, two intertidal grapsid crabs. These crabs are considered key species in the ecosystem in Mar Chiquita coastal lagoon, Buenos Aires, Argentina. In this work, we compare the recruitment pattern of Cyrtograpsus angulatus and Chasmagnathus granulata on the basis of a 3-year sampling programme. Furthermore, we examine experimentally, in laboratory and field, settlement and postsettlement processes that can help explain these patterns: habitat selection, intra- and inter-cohort cannibalism and predator avoidance behaviour. Finally, we integrate our results with the previous knowledge about distribution, growth and reproductive biology of both species, to propose a model of recruitment of each species. Both species had a consistent recruitment pattern through 3 years. Recruitment of both species started at the beginning of summer, and continued to autumn, but recruits were present until the beginning of spring. Densities of recruits and juveniles of C. angulatus were not correlated, whereas, there was a relationship between abundance of recruits and juveniles of C. granulata. In the field, recruits of C. angulatus suffered high mortality caused by intra- and inter-cohort cannibalism. Megalopae of C. angulatus selected a substrate (crevices in Ficopomatus enigmaticus reef) that gave them refuge against cannibals. First crabs of C. granulata selected adult conspecific substrate (mud from adult habitats). Recruits of C. angulatus avoided adults of either species. A qualitative model of recruitment of both species is proposed. Post-settlement processes strongly affects the recruitment pattern and, consequently, both species have regulated recruitment. The degree of such regulation, however, is more intense in C. angulatus than in C. granulata.

  20. Terrathelphusa secula, a new species of semiterrestrial freshwater crab (Crustacea: Brachyura: Gecarcinucidae) from Sabah, East Malaysia, Borneo.

    PubMed

    Ng, Peter K L; Tan, Leo W H

    2015-01-01

    A new species of semiterrestrial gecarcinucid freshwater crab, Terrathelphusa secula, is described from Danum Valley in Sabah, East Malaysia, eastern Borneo. In the form of its carapace, third maxilliped, and male second gonopod, it most closely resembles T. ovis Ng, 1997, and T. telur Ng, 1997, from eastern Sarawak and Brunei, respectively. It differs markedly from these and other congeners in its proportionately much wider carapace, and a male first gonopod that is strongly curved and sickle-shaped. PMID:26623825

  1. Pinnotheres orcutti Rathbun, 1918, a new Eastern Tropical Pacific species of Tumidotheres Campos, 1989 (Crustacea: Brachyura: Pinnotheridae).

    PubMed

    Campos, Ernesto; Vargas-Castillo, Rita

    2013-01-01

    The lack of a protuberance in the basal antennal article in the holotype of Pinnotheres orcutti Rathbun, 1918, allows its removal from Pinnotheres Bosc, 1802 [type species, P. pisumn (Linnaeus, 1767)]. The species is instead included in Tumidotheres Campos, 1989, because of the presence of a thick, tumid and firm carapace, and its surface covered with a short, dense, and deciduous tomentum; the third maxilliped having a propodus larger than the carpus; and the presence of a subspatulate dactylus of the third maxilliped medially inserted into a notch on the ventral margin of the propodus. Tumidotheres orcutti new combination can be separated from its sole Pacific Ocean congener, T. margarita Smith, 1870, by its unique dentition on the inner margin of the cheliped pollex, which is armed with a blunt proximal lobe and a row of small teeth, the two distal teeth being conspicuously the largest. In contrast, the pollex dentition of T. margarita consists of very small teeth, all similar in size. PMID:26217839

  2. A new species of Macrophthalmus Desmarest, 1823 (Crustacea: Decapoda: Brachyura: Macrophthalmidae) from Taiwan, with notes on four new records.

    PubMed

    Teng, Shao-Jyun; Shih, Hsi-Te

    2015-01-01

    A new species of sentinel crab (family Macrophthalmidae), Macrophthalmus (Mareotis) purpureocheir sp. nov., from coral reefs is herein described from southern and eastern Taiwan. The new species can be distinguished from other species by a suite of characters, including the narrower and more convex carapace, the first anterolateral tooth protruding forward, the short and stout chelipeds, and the male first gonopod with short apical process, as well as the distinctive reddish purple chelae of the male. The identity of this new species is also supported by molecular evidence using the mitochondrial 16S rDNA and cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI). Three additional species of Macrophthalmus, viz. M. crinitus Rathbun, 1913, M. definitus Adams & White, 1849, and M. milloti Crosnier, 1965, as well as Ilyograpsus paludicola (Rathbun, 1909) of the subfamily Ilyograpsinae Števčić, 2005, are also confirmed from Taiwan. PMID:26701540

  3. Reproductive biology of the Suez Canal spider crab Schizophrys aspera (H. Milne Edwards, 1834: Crustacea: Brachyura: Majidae).

    PubMed

    El-Serehy, Hamed A; Al-Rasheid, Khaled A; Ibrahim, Nesreen K; Al-Misned, Fahad A

    2015-11-01

    A reproductive biology study of the spider crab Schizophrys aspera (H. Milne Edwards, 1834) was conducted in the Suez Canal from July 2012 to June 2013. The annual sex ratio (Male:Female) of S. aspera was female biased with values of 1:1.25. Out of the four ovarian development stages of this crab, two stages were observed in the Suez Canal throughout the whole year. The ovigerous crab's carapace width varied from 28 to 52 mm. This crab species can spawn during most of the year in the canal water, with a peak during late spring and early winter. The fecundity of ovigerous females ranged between 2349 and 13600 eggs with a mean of 5494 ± 1486 eggs. Female crabs that reached sexual maturity exhibited a minimum carapace width varying between 22 and 46 mm, and fifty percentage of all ovigerous females showed a carapace width of 36 mm. PMID:26587008

  4. Two new species of Palapedia Ng, 1993 (Crustacea, Decapoda, Brachyura,
    Xanthidae) from the Persian Gulf.

    PubMed

    Naderloo, Reza

    2015-01-01

    Two new species of Palapedia Ng, 1993, are described based on material collected from Abu-Musa Island, Persian Gulf during the present study, from Bahrain by the 1937/38 Danish Expedition, and from the Saudi Arabian coast of the Persian Gulf by Michael Apel in 1992-1995. Palapedia persica n. sp. is distinguishable from its congeners by having distinctly large denticles on the upper margin of the palm and fingers of the chelae and anterior margin of the ambulatory dactyli, and by the markedly sickle-shaped dactylus of the ambulatory legs. Palapedia apeli n. sp. is similar to P. valentini Ng, 1993, and P. nitida (Stimpson, 1858), by having relatively smooth appendages. PMID:26250272

  5. Reproduction and management of the mangrove crab Ucides cordatus (Crustacea, Brachyura, Ucididae) at Iguape, São Paulo, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Sant'Anna, Bruno S; Borges, Roberto P; Hattori, Gustavo Y; Pinheiro, Marcelo A A

    2014-09-01

    The mangrove crab Ucides cordatus is one of the most exploited crustaceans in Brazil. The present study investigated the breeding season of this species and the period of the "andada" phenomenon, when the crabs are active outside their burrows and perform agonistic behaviors. Furthermore related them to environmental factors, in a mangrove on the coast of Brazil, with inferences about management of this crab. The crabs reproduced from October through February. The "andada" occurred from November through February, with typical characteristics in the first two months, during the full and new moon periods, and was influenced positively by the air and soil temperature, luminosity, and tidal amplitude, and negatively by salinity. Based on the results of the present study, the period when the "andada" occurs in other parts of Brazil could be defined, which will aid in managing this fishery. For Iguape, state of São Paulo, Brazil, we suggest a legal off-season for both sexes in December or during the full and new moon, including January. PMID:25211111

  6. Receptivity of female Neohelice granulata (Brachyura, Varunidae): different strategies to maximize their reproductive success in contrasting habitats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sal Moyano, María Paz; Luppi, Tomás; Gavio, María Andrea; Vallina, Micaela; McLay, Colin

    2012-12-01

    The extent of the receptive period may determine the mating strategies employed by female crabs to obtain mates. Here, we studied the receptivity of female Neohelice granulata (Dana, 1851) in the laboratory, including the form of the vulvae and the anatomy of the seminal receptacle (SR). We examined the factors that influence the duration of receptivity by comparing two populations inhabiting contrasting habitats: Mar Chiquita Coastal lagoon (MCL), which is an oligo-polyhaline estuary, and San Antonio Oeste (SAO), which is an eu-hyperhaline marine bay. Non-receptive females have immobile vulva opercula, while receptive females have mobile opercula. Histological sections of the SR showed that the degree of epithelium secretions was associated with the receptive stage of females, and they may be involved in the maintenance of viable sperm and in the dehiscence of spermatophores. The existence of a special tissue at the junction of the oviduct and the SR was described and proposed as an internal mechanism influencing the timing of ovulation. The duration of receptivity was dependent on the SR load and the capacity to lay eggs. Thus, females with empty SR exhibited longer receptivity and did not lay eggs, while those with full SR exhibited shorter receptivity and always laid eggs. Interpopulation differences showed that females from SAO had shorter receptivity and heavier SR and laid eggs more frequently than females from MCL. Based on our results, we suggest that N. granulata females can adjust the duration of their receptivity and control the moment of fertilization according to different internal mechanisms related to the morphology of the vulvae, the fullness of the SR and anatomical attributes of the SR. An important consequence of this control is greater sperm competition. The extent of the receptive period and the number of times that a female could become receptive in a single reproductive season may also depend on the habitat characteristics.

  7. Out of the Sichuan Basin: Rapid species diversification of the freshwater crabs in Sinopotamon (Decapoda: Brachyura: Potamidae) endemic to China.

    PubMed

    Ji, Yongkun; Sun, Yufang; Gao, Wei; Chu, Kelin; Wang, Ruicong; Zhao, Qiang; Sun, Hongying

    2016-07-01

    Sinopotamon Bott, 1967 is the most speciose and widely distributed freshwater crab genus in East Asia. Our extensive sampling includes about 76% of the known Sinopotamon taxa, and nearly covers its entire distribution area. Based on mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I (COI) and 16S rRNA, as well as nuclear 28S rRNA and histone H3, we reconstructed the Sinopotamon phylogeny using maximum likelihood and Bayesian approaches. The divergence time was estimated and multiple methods were used to conduct diversification analyses. The ancestral geographic distribution and character state were reconstructed. Three main clades (Clades I, II and III) that roughly correspond to their main geographic distribution ranges were recovered. Our results challenge the current view of the four major species groups based on the morphological differences in the male first gonopod (G1). The most recent common ancestor of Sinopotamon most likely originated from the Sichuan Basin and surrounding mountains (SBSM) and subsequently dispersed throughout central and eastern China. The exceptionally rapid, recent diversification was detected in Clade II. The high incidence of species-level non-monophyly found in Clade II can be explained by recent rapid radiation. Climatic changes, morphological innovations, range expansion and geographical heterogeneity may all contribute to the diversification in Sinopotamon. This study contributes to our knowledge on diversification of freshwater benthic macro-invertebrates in the East Asian inland ecosystem. PMID:27058122

  8. An appraisal of Typilobus Stoliczka, 1871 (Crustacea, Brachyura, Leucosioidea), with description of a new family and genus.

    PubMed

    Artal, Pedro; Hyžný, Matúš

    2016-01-01

    Since its description, Typilobus Stoliczka, 1871, has become something like a catch-all taxon to accommodate fossil leucosioid crabs with uncertain affinities. As many as 17 species have been assigned to Typilobus, recorded from the Eocene to Miocene strata of Europe, Africa, and Asia. The re-examination of the type species, Typilobus granulosus Stoliczka, 1871, from the Miocene of Pakistan, has shown inconsistency in its description and published figures leading to the need of a revision of all species assigned to Typilobus. Typilobus boscoi Vía Boada, 1959, from the Middle Eocene of Spain, is revised and assigned to Folguerolesia n. gen. Characters present on ventral portions of male and female specimens differ from all known representatives of Leucosioidea, although the general morphology supports inclusion in this superfamily. A new family, Folguerolesiidae n. fam. is thus erected to accommodate Folguerolesia boscoi comb. nov., leading to recognition of three families of leucosioid crabs, including Iphiculidae and Leucosiidae. PMID:27395181

  9. Integrative Taxonomic Study of the Purse Crab Genus Persephona Leach, 1817 (Brachyura: Leucosiidae): Combining Morphology and Molecular Data.

    PubMed

    Magalhães, Tatiana; Robles, Rafael; Felder, Darryl L; Mantelatto, Fernando L

    2016-01-01

    Marine crabs of the genus Persephona Leach, 1817 are restricted to American waters of the western Atlantic and eastern Pacific Oceans. Subfamilial assignment of this taxon has varied between authors and its species composition remain in question. We conducted a comparative study based on morphology and molecular phylogenetics for all ten recognized species of Persephona, along with Iliacantha hancocki. We tested whether Persephona finneganae, P. lichtensteinii, and P. crinita represent a single species as suggested by some authors; whether specimens identified as P. punctata, P. mediterranea, and P. aquilonaris warrant treatment as separate species; and whether I. hancocki should be regarded as a junior synonym of P. subovata. Diagnostic morphological characters (of the carapace, chelipeds, and third maxillipeds) were used along with gonopod (male first pleopod 1) features and live coloration. The 16S rRNA and the Cytochrome Oxidase I (COI) (DNA barcoding) mitochondrial genes were used as molecular markers. Both morphological and molecular analyses revealed that putative specimens of P. crinita from Brazil and those assigned to P. finneganae were no different from specimens presently assignable to P. lichtensteinii. P. finneganae is regarded as a junior synonym of P. lichtensteinii, and we apply P. crinita only to specimens we examined from the Gulf of Mexico. Specimens from Brazil previously reported as P. crinita are herewith concluded to represent P. lichtensteinii. Additionally, P. townsendi is a junior synonym of P. orbicularis, Iliacantha hancocki is concluded to be a junior synonym of P. subovata, while P. aquilonaris and P. mediterranea are found to represent separate species. On the basis of our revisions, eight species of Persephona are considered valid, and the reported distribution for P. crinita is restricted. PMID:27099956

  10. On the morphology of the central nervous system in larval stages of Carcinus maenas L. (Decapoda, Brachyura)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harzsch, S.; Dawirs, R. R.

    1993-02-01

    We investigated the morphology of the central nervous system throughout the larval development of Carcinus maenas. For that purpose single larvae were reared in the laboratory from hatching through metamorphosis. Complete series of whole mout semithin sections were obtained from individuals of all successive larval stages and analysed with a light microscope. Morphological feature and spatial arrangement of discernable neural cell clusters, fibre tracts and neuropile are described and compared with the adult pattern. We found that most of the morphological features characterizing the adult nervous system are already present in the zoea-1. Nevertheless, there are marked differences with respect to the arrangement of nerve cell bodies, organization of cerebral neuropile, and disposition of ganglia in the ventral nerve cord. It appears that complexity of the central nervous neuropile is selectively altered during postmetamorphotic development, probably reflecting adaptive changes of sensory-motor integration in response to behavioural maturation. In contrast, during larval development there was little change in the overall structural organization of the central nervous system despite some considerable growth. However, the transition from zoea-4 to megalopa brings about multiple fundamental changes in larval morphology and behavioural pattern. Since central nervous integration should properly adapt to the altered behavioural repertoire of the megalopa, it seems necessary to ask in which respect synaptic rearrangement might characterize development of the central nervous system.

  11. A new gall crab species (Brachyura, Cryptochiridae) associated with the free-living coral Trachyphyllia geoffroyi (Scleractinia, Merulinidae)

    PubMed Central

    van der Meij, Sancia E.T.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract A new species of gall crab is described from the free-living stony coral Trachyphyllia geoffroyi. Specimens were collected during field work in Lembeh Strait (Indonesia) and off Kudat (Malaysian Borneo). This new species, here named Lithoscaptus semperi sp. n., is the ninth species assigned to the genus. It can be separated from its congeners by not having the internal orbital angle extending beyond the external orbital angle, and by the stout female P2 merus with prominent distomesial projection. In addition, the carapace surface appears smooth, despite having small tubercles on the anterior half, and is without noticeable spines, other than those on the frontal margin. The distinctive carapace pattern in life is a diagnostic character in male specimens. PMID:25987871

  12. Biology of Grapsus grapsus (L innaeus, 1758) (Brachyura, Grapsidae) in the Saint Peter and Saint Paul Archipelago, Equatorial Atlantic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freire, A. S.; Pinheiro, M. A. A.; Karam-Silva, H.; Teschima, M. M.

    2011-09-01

    Eleven expeditions were undertaken to the Saint Peter and Saint Paul Archipelago to study the reproductive biology of Grapsus grapsus, providing additional information on limb mutilation and carapace colour. MATURE software was used to estimate morphological maturity, while gonadal analyses were conducted to estimate physiological maturity. The puberty moult took place at larger size in males (51.4 mm of carapace length) than in females (33.8 mm), while physiological maturity occurred at a similar size in males (38.4 mm) and in females (33.4 mm). Above 50 mm, the proportion of red males increased in the population, indicating that functional maturity is also related to colour pattern. Small habitat and high local population density contributed to the high rate of cannibalism. The low diversity of food items, absence of predators of large crabs and high geographic isolation are the determinants of unique behavioural and biological characteristics observed in the G. grapsus population.

  13. Effects of metal contamination in situ on osmoregulation and oxygen consumption in the mudflat fiddler crab Uca rapax (Ocypodidae, Brachyura).

    PubMed

    Capparelli, Mariana V; Abessa, Denis M; McNamara, John C

    2016-01-01

    The contamination of estuaries by metals can impose additional stresses on estuarine species, which may exhibit a limited capability to adjust their regulatory processes and maintain physiological homeostasis. The mudflat fiddler crab Uca rapax is a typical estuarine crab, abundant in both pristine and contaminated areas along the Atlantic coast of Brazil. This study evaluates osmotic and ionic regulatory ability and gill Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase activity in different salinities (<0.5, 25 and 60‰ S) and oxygen consumption rates at different temperatures (15, 25 and 35°C) in U. rapax collected from localities along the coast of São Paulo State showing different histories of metal contamination (most contaminated Ilha Diana, Santos>Rio Itapanhaú, Bertioga>Picinguaba, Ubatuba [pristine reference site]). Our findings show that the contamination of U. rapax by metals in situ leads to bioaccumulation and induces biochemical and physiological changes compared to crabs from the pristine locality. U. rapax from the contaminated sites exhibit stronger hyper- and hypo-osmotic regulatory abilities and show greater gill Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase activities than crabs from the pristine site, revealing that the underlying biochemical machinery can maintain systemic physiological processes functioning well. However, oxygen consumption, particularly at elevated temperatures, decreases in crabs showing high bioaccumulation titers but increases in crabs with low/moderate bioaccumulation levels. These data show that U. rapax chronically contaminated in situ exhibits compensatory biochemical and physiological adjustments, and reveal the importance of studies on organisms exposed to metals in situ, particularly estuarine invertebrates subject to frequent changes in natural environmental parameters like salinity and temperature. PMID:26992327

  14. The ultrastructure of the spermatozoon of Paradynomene tuberculata Sakai, 1963 (Crustacea, Brachyura, Dynomenidae): Synapomorphies with dromiid sperm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jamieson, B. G. M.; Guinot, D.; de Forges, B. Richer

    1993-10-01

    The dynomenid spermatozoon, exemplified here by Paradynomene tuberculata, resembles the spermatozoa of the Dromiidae, Homolidae and lyreidine raninoids and differs markedly from those of other crabs (the heterotreme, thoracotremes, raninines and raninoidines) in the depressed, discoidal form of the acrosome and the capitate form of the perforatorium. Four or five apparent dynomenid—dromiid sperm synapomorphies are recognizable. (1) Dynomenids ( P. tuberculata) and dromiids differ from homolids and lyreidines in the greater depression of the acrosome (ratio of length to width=0.3); (2) the capitate head of the perforatorium is bilaterally prolonged in P. tuberculata as in dromiids though symmetrical in homolids; (3) dynomenid and dromiid sperm lack the—albeit variably developed—posterior median process of the nucleus seen in homolids, anomurans, raninoids and lower heterotremes; (4) P. tuberculata, like dromiids and less distinctly homolids, has an apical protuberance of subopercular material through the opercular perforation, unknown in other crabs, being distinct from the apical button of thoracotreme sperm; (5) a less certain synapomorphy is the anterolateral electron-pale peripheral zone of the acrosome. These synapomorphies endorse a sister-group relationship of dynomenids and dromiids, P. tuberculata sperm differs notably from the sperm of dromiids in the more complex zonation of the acrosome. The perforatorium lacks the radial rays (“spiked wheel”) of homolid sperm and does not show the “amoeboid” form seen in lyreidines. Absence of internal corrugations of the perforatorial chamber is a major difference from all examined raninids. Centrioles are only very tentatively identifiable. Nuclear arms are absent in glutaraldehyde fixed spermatozoa of P. tuberculata and have not been observed in the dromiid Petalomera lateralis but are present as three small radial vertices in the dromiid Dromidiopsis edwardsi and in homolids. P. tuberculata resembles Petalomera lateralis in the large size of the sperm nucleus relative to the acrosome compared with D. edwardsi and homolids.

  15. Morphology of the megalopa of the mud crab, Rhithropanopeus harrisii (Gould, 1841) (Decapoda, Brachyura, Panopeidae), identified by DNA barcode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marco-Herrero, Elena; González-Gordillo, J. Ignacio; Cuesta, José A.

    2014-06-01

    The morphology of the megalopa stage of the panopeid Rhithropanopeus harrisii is redescribed and illustrated in detail from plankton specimens identified by DNA barcode (16S mtDNA) as previous descriptions do not meet the current standard of brachyuran larval description. Several morphological characters vary widely from those of other panopeid species which could cast some doubt on the species' placement in the same family. Besides, some anomalous megalopae of R. harrisii were found among specimens reared at the laboratory from zoeae collected in the plankton. These anomalous morphological features are discussed in terms of problems associated with laboratory rearing conditions.

  16. Folk classification of the crabs and swimming crabs (Crustacea – Brachyura) of the Mamanguape river estuary, Northeastern – Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Ferreira, Emmanoela N; da S Mourão, José; Rocha, Pollyana D; Nascimento, Douglas M; da S Q Bezerra, Dandara Monalisa Mariz

    2009-01-01

    Background Folk taxonomy is a sub-area of ethnobiology that study the way of how traditional communities classify, identify and name their natural resources. The work present was undertaken in two traditional communities (Barra de Mamanguape and Tramataia). The objective of this study was investigate the ethnobiological classification of the local crabs and swimming crabs used by the crustaceous gatherers of the Mamanguape River Estuary (MRE), Paraíba State, Brazil. Methods The methodology used here involved a combination of qualitative methods (open interviews, semi-structured interviews, direct observations, guided tours, surveys, and interviews in synchronic and diachronic situations that crossed-checked and repeated identifications) and quantitative methods (Venn diagram). A total of 32 men and women were interviewed in the two communities. Specimens of the local crustaceans were collected and identified by the harvesters themselves, subsequently fixed in formalin, conserved in 70% ethyl alcohol, identified using appropriate specialized literature, and then deposited in the laboratory of the Zoology Department of the University State of Paraiba. Results The crustaceous gatherers we studied were observed to group crustaceans according to their similarities and differences, producing a hierarchical classification system containing four levels of decreasing taxonomic order: unique beginner, life-form, generic, and specific. A sequential and/or semantic system classification system that is used to classify the ontogeny of the female swimming crab was also identified. Of the nine folk generics identified, 44.5% were monotypic. 55.5% were polytypic and were subdivided into 15 folk specifics. An identification key was elaborated with the data obtained about the folk polytypics generics. Conclusion The detailed knowledge concerning the crabs and swimming crabs revealed by the MRE crustaceous gatherers demonstrates that these people detain a vast knowledge concerning these marine resources. This local knowledge provides a rich but little-known source of information that will aid future ecological and/or zoological studies in the region that will be indispensable for producing management plans to help guarantee the sustainability of these local natural resources. PMID:19671153

  17. A new species of Paracleistostoma De Man, 1895 (Crustacea: Decapoda: Brachyura: Camptandriidae) from Haikou, Hainan Province, China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Han Lun; Huang, Jian Rong

    2016-01-01

    A new species of Paracleistostoma De Man, 1895, P. meilanense n. sp. is reported from mangroves forests in Haikou, Hainan Province, China. The new species inhabits mud burrows in the upper intertidal zone and is sympatric with P. tomentosa Yang & Sun, 1993, and P. depressum De Man, 1895. The slender chelipeds as well as the characteristic morphology of the male first pleopod easily distinguishes the species from congeners. PMID:27395229

  18. Reproductive Biology of the Blue Swimming Crab Portunus pelagicus (Brachyura: Portunidae) in East Lampung Waters, Indonesia: Fecundity and Reproductive Potential.

    PubMed

    Zairion; Wardiatno, Yusli; Boer, Mennofatria; Fahrudin, Achmad

    2015-04-01

    The blue swimming crab Portunus pelagicus is an important catch species for many coastal villages along the Java Sea coastline, but little is known regarding its reproductive biology or stock status. We examined the batch fecundity of female crabs that were collected monthly at landing sites from June 2011 to May 2012, calculated the relationships with body size, egg mass and month of the year, and determined the size at which females became potentially reproductive in the population inhabiting East Lampung waters (western Java Sea). Fecundity values ranged from 229,468 to 2,236,355 (mean = 926,638±30,975 [±SE]). The fecundity was positively and linearly correlated with carapace width (CW), but the relationships with body weight and egg mass were best described by logarithmic regression. A peaked, temporally cyclical pattern in fecundity was observed, with a peak period that was significantly different (F = 226.36; df = 22, p<0.05) from March to May 2012. Reproductive females were within the 111.0-155.9 mm CW size range; significantly higher reproductive potentials (F = 14.59; df = 30, p<0.05) were found in females within the 126.0-130.9 mm CW size group. The current minimum legal size (MLS = 100 mm CW) is not an appropriate limit reference point, and a precautionary approach is needed for a sustainable harvesting strategy. Resetting the MLS to 115 mm CW would potentially provide adequate protection for spawning females and increase total egg production, thereby maintaining population productivity and enhancing resilience in the face of current fishing pressures. PMID:26019748

  19. A new species of Fizesereneia Takeda & Tamura, 1980 (Crustacea: Brachyura: Cryptochiridae) from the Red Sea and Oman.

    PubMed

    Van Der Meij, Sancia E T; Berumen, Michael L; Paulay, Gustav

    2015-01-01

    A new species of cryptochirid crab, Fizesereneia panda van der Meij, is described and illustrated based on specimens collected from the scleractinian corals Lobophyllia cf. hemprichii and L. cf. corymbosa from the Farasan Banks, Farasan Islands, and the reefs off Thuwal in the Saudi Arabian Red Sea, and from Symphyllia recta from reefs in the Gulf of Oman. This is the second cryptochirid species with the Red Sea as type locality. It can be separated from its congeners by the subrectangular carapace, raised midline and the complete division of the carapace depressions, and reddish black colour pattern of these concavities in live specimens. This new species is the seventh assigned to Fizesereneia. A DNA barcode for the new species has been deposited in GenBank. PMID:25781848

  20. Local knowledge of traditional fishermen on economically important crabs (Decapoda: Brachyura) in the city of Conde, Bahia State, Northeastern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background This article records the traditional knowledge of crab gatherers in the city of Conde, in the North Coast Region of Bahia State, Northeastern Brazil. Methods Data on biological and ecological aspects of economically important brachyuran crustaceans have been obtained from semi-structured interviews and in loco observations conducted from September 2007 to December 2009. A total of 57 fishermen of both genders, aged between 10 and 78 years have been interviewed (individually or collectively) in different contexts; interviewees were asked about aspects such as external morphology, life cycle, trophic ecology, and spatial and temporal distribution of the major economically important brachyuran crustaceans in the region. Seven fishing communities were visited: Siribinha, Sítio do Conde, Poças, Ilha das Ostras, Cobó, Buri and Sempre Viva. Data were analyzed by comparing the information provided by participants with those from the specialized academic literature. Results The results show that artisanal fishermen have a wide ranging and well-grounded knowledge on the ecological and biological aspects of crustaceans. Crab gatherers of Conde know about growth and reproductive behavior of the animals they interact with, especially with regard to the three major biological aspects: “molt”, “walking dance” and “spawning”. Conclusion This knowledge constitutes an important source of information that should be considered in studies of management and sustainable use of fishery resources in the North Coast Region of Bahia State. PMID:22449069

  1. Population biology of the fiddler crab Uca annulipes (Brachyura: Ocypodidae) in a tropical East African mangrove (Mozambique)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Litulo, Carlos

    2005-01-01

    The community structure of the tropical fiddler crab Uca annulipes (H. Milne Edwards) has been studied in Mozambique for the first time. Ten 0.25 m 2 squares were randomly sampled on a monthly basis during low tide periods from January to December 2002 at Costa do Sol Mangrove, Maputo Bay, southern Mozambique. A total of 981 crabs were captured, of which 494 were males (50.36%), 231 non-ovigerous females (23.85%) and 253 ovigerous females (25.79%). The overall size frequency distribution was unimodal, with males being larger than both ovigerous and non-ovigerous females. Females were more abundant in the smallest size classes while males outnumbered females in the largest ones. The overall sex ratio (1:0.99) did not differ from the expected 1:1 proportion, but significant deviations were observed in January, April, August and November. Results indicate that the size frequency distributions of this species can also be determined through direct analysis of burrow openings. Breeding took place year-round with two peaks of spawning in summer (January and December). Recruits were present throughout the year, with high abundance in summer probably due to the high reproductive activity observed in this season. The present results may allow us to suggest that U. annulipes follows a rapid breeding cycle accompanied by a rapid larval development and settlement in the study area.

  2. Habitat-related differences in the pre-copulatory guarding and copulation behavior of Neohelice granulata (Brachyura, Grapsoidea, Varunidae)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sal Moyano, María P.; Gavio, María A.; McLay, Colin L.; Luppi, Tomás

    2014-03-01

    Mating behavior strategies of brachyuran crabs are flexible depending on the habitat and social context. We evaluate pre-copulatory guarding in Neohelice granulata and describe the unusual copulatory behavior. Laboratory experiments were conducted to test whether factors such as male size, presence of burrows, a male-biased operational sex ratio (OSR) and female mating history affect the copulation duration in two different study areas. Females initiated a searching behavior approximately 20-26 h before they became receptive by assessing large male burrows and displaying a courtship behavior (“flirting”) in its entrance. Once the female entered inside the male burrow, pre-copulatory guarding was observed until the female became receptive and successful copulation occurred immediately after. This species shows some very unusual copulatory behavior involving eyestalk grasping not seen in any other varunid crab. The copulation duration was independent of male size and the presence of burrows, although it was dependent on the study area, the OSR and the female mating history. Thus, copulation duration is a flexible character in this species which varies with habitat and biological factors such as mating history and sex ratio.

  3. Reproductive biology of the Suez Canal spider crab Schizophrys aspera (H. Milne Edwards, 1834: Crustacea: Brachyura: Majidae)

    PubMed Central

    El-Serehy, Hamed A.; Al-Rasheid, Khaled A.; Ibrahim, Nesreen K.; Al-Misned, Fahad A.

    2015-01-01

    A reproductive biology study of the spider crab Schizophrys aspera (H. Milne Edwards, 1834) was conducted in the Suez Canal from July 2012 to June 2013. The annual sex ratio (Male:Female) of S. aspera was female biased with values of 1:1.25. Out of the four ovarian development stages of this crab, two stages were observed in the Suez Canal throughout the whole year. The ovigerous crab’s carapace width varied from 28 to 52 mm. This crab species can spawn during most of the year in the canal water, with a peak during late spring and early winter. The fecundity of ovigerous females ranged between 2349 and 13600 eggs with a mean of 5494 ± 1486 eggs. Female crabs that reached sexual maturity exhibited a minimum carapace width varying between 22 and 46 mm, and fifty percentage of all ovigerous females showed a carapace width of 36 mm. PMID:26587008

  4. The Opportunity for Post-Copulatory Sexual Selection in the Ectoparasitic Pea Crab, Dissodactylus primitivus (Brachyura: Pinnotheridae)

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Pea crabs, Dissodactylus primitivus, inhabit multiple echinoid (heart urchin) hosts. Male and female crabs move among hosts in search for mates, and both sexes mate multiple times, creating opportunities for post-copulatory sexual selection. For such selection to occur, only a fraction of the males who succeed in mating can also succeed in siring progeny. Jossart et al. 2014 used 4 microsatellite loci to document parentage and mating frequencies of both sexes in D. primitivus. From these data we identified the mean and variance in female offspring numbers, as well as the proportions of the female population that were gravid and not bearing offspring. We next identified the proportions of the male population who had (1) mated and sired offspring, (2) mated but failed to sire offspring, and (3) failed to mate altogether. We used these results to estimate the opportunity for selection on males and females in terms of mate numbers and offspring numbers, and estimated the sex difference in the opportunity for selection (i.e., the opportunity for sexual selection) using both forms of data. We then partitioned the total variance in male fitness into pre- and post-copulatory components and identified the fraction of the total opportunity for selection occurring in each context. Our results show that the opportunity for selection on each sex was of similar magnitude (0.69–0.98), consistent with this polyandrogynous mating system. We also found that 37% of the total opportunity for sexual selection on males occurred within the context of post-copulatory sexual selection. However, the fraction of the total opportunity for selection that was due to sexual selection, estimated using both mate numbers and offspring numbers, was 9% and 23% respectively. Thus, we further reduced our estimate of the opportunity for post-copulatory sexual selection in D. primitivus to less than 10% of the total opportunity for selection (0.37 of 0.09 and 0.23 = 0.03 and 0.09). Our results provide the first estimate of the maximum possible strength of post-copulatory sexual selection in crustaceans using this approach. PMID:26701316

  5. The description of a new species of the Neotropical land crab genus Gecarcinus Leach, 1814 (Crustacea, Decapoda, Brachyura, Gecarcinidae)

    PubMed Central

    Perger, Robert; Wall, Adam

    2014-01-01

    Abstract In this contribution a new species of the land crab genus Gecarcinus Leach, 1814, from the Neotropical Pacific coast of South America is described and illustrated. In addition to its unique body color, Gecarcinus nobilii sp. n. is distinguished from congeners by a distinctly wider carapace front and differences in the shape of the infraorbital margin. The new species is not isolated from Gecarcinus populations from the Pacific coast of Central America by an insurmountable geographic barrier. Considering the closure of the Panamanian Isthmus as a calibration point for morphological divergence between the trans-isthmian mainland populations of Gecarcinus, the virtual lack of morphological differentiation (other than color) between them and the distinctness of G. nobilii sp. n. suggests that G. nobilii sp. n. evolved from a common ancestor before the Isthmus closed. PMID:25152688

  6. Fatty acids dynamics during embryonic development in genus Uca (Brachyura: Ocypodidae), from the mangroves of Inhaca Island, Mozambique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torres, Paulo; Penha-Lopes, Gil; Narciso, Luís; Macia, Adriano; Paula, José

    2008-11-01

    Variations in egg volume and fatty acid (FA) content through embryogenesis were evaluated in Uca species from Inhaca island, Mozambique. Egg volume increased 96.1%, 93.3%, 84.2%, 92.9%, 96.3%, respectively, in Uca annulipes, Uca inversa, Uca urvillei, Uca chlorophthalmus and Uca vocans ( p < 0.05). Fatty acid content decreased through embryogenesis, showing its importance as fuel during embryonic development. Major fatty acids were 16:0, 18:0, 16:1 n-7, 18:1 n-9, 18:1 n-7, 18:2 n-6, 20:5 n-3 and 20:4 n-3. Unsaturated fatty acids (UFA) and saturated fatty acids (SFA) were used up at a similar rate for U. annulipes and U. inversa contrarily to the other three species. Within the UFA, MUFA were more consumed than PUFA for all species except U. chlorophthalmus. The high values detected for fatty acid trophic markers (essential C 18 and C 20 PUFAs) and odd-numbered fatty acid suggest that Uca species occupy medium trophic level, primarily omnivores and scavengers/detritivores consuming algae common in the intertidal habitats. The fatty acid consumption pattern during embryonic development was essentially similar between species with some variation as expected, as FA content varies within species mainly due to female feeding ecology, nutritional and physiological conditions, differential demands on resource allocation and geographic and seasonal variations in embryonic development.

  7. Carcinoplax fasciata, a new species of deep-water goneplacid crab from southwestern India (Crustacea: Decapoda: Brachyura: Goneplacoidea).

    PubMed

    Ng, Peter K L; Kumar, Appukuttannair Biju

    2016-01-01

    A new species of Carcinoplax H. Milne Edwards, 1852 (family Goneplacidae) is described from southern India. Carcinoplax fasciata n. sp. is closest to C. specularis Rathbun, 1914, but can be distinguished by its different coloration in life as well as structures of the carapace surface, anterolateral armature, supraorbital margin, chela and male first gonopod. PMID:27515615

  8. Description of a new species of brooding spider crab in the genus Paranaxia Rathbun, 1924 (Brachyura: Majoidea), from northern Australia and Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Hosie, Andrew M; Hara, Ana

    2016-01-01

    A new species, Paranaxia keesingi sp. nov., is described based on specimens collected in northern Australia. The new species differs from its only congener, P. serpulifera (Guérin, 1832, in Guérin-Méneville 1829-1837), by several characters including carapace setation, sternal cavities, absence of a subhepatic spine, presence of a sharp spine on the posterodistal angle of the cheliped merus, relatively shorter chelipeds, and longer and more slender ambulatory legs. Morphological separation of the two species is supported by 12s rDNA sequence divergences of 7.4-8.2%. Like P. serpulifera, the newly described species exhibits direct development with females carrying juvenile individuals under the pleon. Both species are sympatric, but Paranaxia keesingi sp. nov. is found in deeper waters than P. serpulifera. PMID:27395615

  9. Molt and reproduction enhancement together with hemolymph ecdysteroid elevation under eyestalk ablation in the female fiddler crab, Uca triangularis (Brachyura: Decapoda)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Supriya, Nagathinkal T.; Sudha, Kappalli; Krishnakumar, Velayudhannair; Anilkumar, Gopinathan

    2016-07-01

    We present the results of eyestalk extirpation experiments performed on the fiddler crab, Uca triangularis at seasons of molting and reproduction, with a view to have a better understanding of the regulatory mechanisms of these two highly energy-demanding processes. Bilateral eyestalk ablation resulted in precocious acceleration of both molting and reproduction, irrespective of the season at which each experiment was conducted. The rate of accelerated ovarian growth, however, was maximum if the eyestalk ablation was conducted during August-January, the breeding season in the wild, or in February-May (molting-reproductive season), wherein a section of the wild population would be engaged in molting and another section in breeding. The highest degree of precocious molt acceleration, on the other hand, was obtained during June-July when the population was primarily engaged in molting, but with no reproductive activity. The precocious oocyte maturation (due to de-eyestalking) was minimal in June-July. Significantly, the eyestalk ablation also resulted in a dramatic increase in the hemolymph ecdysteroid titer, revealing that a high ecdysteroid titer would have no restraining influence on vitellogenesis. No spawning was, however, observed among de-eyestalked females, even though their final oocyte size surpassed the size of the normal mature oocytes, implying that spawning is not exclusively under the control of eyestalk hormones. A comparative study performed on the vitelline components of the experimentals and the controls revealed that the precociously incorporated yolk under eyestalk ablation was biochemically impoverished. These results indicate that throughout the annual cycle, both the somatic and the reproductive growth of U. triangularis are under the influence of inhibitory principles from the eyestalks. It is also revealing that mere deprival of the inhibitory principles does not culminate into successful vitellogenesis. Arguably, the inhibitory influence from the eyestalks could be a prerequisite for normal healthy maturation of the oocytes and spawning.

  10. Semiterrestrial crabs of the genus Geosesarma De Man, 1892 (Crustacea, Brachyura, Sesarmidae) from western Borneo, Indonesia, with descriptions of three new species.

    PubMed

    Ng, Peter K L

    2015-01-01

    The poorly known semiterrestrial sesarmid crab, Geosesarma amphinome (De Man, 1899), from Kalimantan Barat in western Borneo, is redescribed and figured. Three other species from areas surrounding the town of Pontianak, are here described as new. Geosesarma ambawang sp. nov., G. pontianak sp. nov., and G. pylaemenes sp. nov. can be distinguished from congeners on Borneo and adjacent areas by their colours in life, form of the carapaces and ambulatory legs, and the structures of the male abdomens and first gonopods. PMID:26624735

  11. Notes on Hexapodidae (Crustacea, Brachyura) from Indonesia and Malaysia, with description of a new species of Mariaplax Rahayu & Ng, 2014, from Lombok, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Ng, Peter K L; Rahayu, Dwi Listyo

    2015-01-01

    The male of Hexapinus latipes (De Haan, 1835), so far known only from female specimens, is described based on the material reported by De Man (1888) as "Hexapus sexpes". Material referred to "Hexapus sexpes" by Tesch (1918) is shown instead to belong to Hexapinus simplex Rahayu & Ng, 2014, and Hexapinus latus Rahayu & Ng, 2014, while his "Hexaplax megalops Doflein, 1904" belongs to Hexaplax aurantium Rahayu & Ng, 2014. A new species, Mariaplax aspera n. sp., is described from a female collected in Lombok, Indonesia. This new species most closely resembles M. narusei Rahayu & Ng, 2014, described from Japan, but differs by its relatively narrower carapace, shorter ambulatory legs, tuberculated third maxillipeds, and shorter telson. PMID:26249983

  12. A new species of Sunipea Griffin & Tranter, 1986 (Crustacea: Brachyura: Inachidae) and a redescription of Sunipea indicus (Alcock, 1895).

    PubMed

    Santana, William

    2015-01-01

    A new species of spider crab, Sunipea callistus, n. sp., from Cape Guardafui, Somali Republic, is described and illustrated. Sunipea indicus (Alcock, 1895) is also redescribed and figured. Sunipea callistus n. sp. differs from S. indicus in the structures of the carapace, third maxillipeds, thoracic sternum, male abdomen, and chelipeds. Despite a number of characteristics that separate both species, these differences are more pronounced in males and are less evident in females. A diagnosis for the genus is provided. PMID:26701438

  13. Changes during late-stage embryonic development from egg-juvenile to free-living hatchling in Chinese freshwater crab Sinopotamon yangtsekiense (Decapoda, Brachyura, Potamidae)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, Junzeng; Liu, Yan; Cumberlidge, Neil; Wu, Huixian

    2013-05-01

    This study expands on recent reports that direct development in the Chinese potamid freshwater crab Sinopotamon yangtsekiense involves the completion of all brachyuran larval stages (nauplius, zoea, and megalopa) inside the egg case during embryonic development. Detailed studies of embryonic development in this species revealed the presence of an additional larval stage (the egg-juvenile) between the megalopa and the free-living hatchling crab. We described and compared the appendages of the head, thorax, and abdomen of the egg-juvenile with those of the hatchling crab in S. yangtsekiense. Significant differences were found between most of the appendages of these two stages with a soft exoskeleton in the egg-juvenile, no joint articulation, a slimmer appearance, and a lack of setae when compared with the newly emerged free-living hatchling crab. These modifications of the appendages are related to the confinement within the egg case of the egg-megalopa and egg-juvenile during direct development, and the need for the free-living hatchling freshwater crab to move, feed, and respire. In marine crabs, the megalopa gives rise to the first crab stage whereas in freshwater crabs the egg-juvenile follows the megalopa and immediately precedes the free-living first crab stage.

  14. The enigmatic life history of the symbiotic crab Tunicotheres moseri (Crustacea, Brachyura, Pinnotheridae): implications for its mating system and population structure.

    PubMed

    Hernández, J E; Bolaños, J A; Palazón, J L; Hernández, G; Lira, C; Baeza, J Antonio

    2012-12-01

    Resource-monopolization theory predicts the adoption of a solitary habit in species using scarce, discrete, and small refuges. Life-history theory suggests that temporarily stable parental dwellings favor extended parental care in species that brood embryos. We tested these two predictions with the symbiotic crab Tunicotheres moseri. This species exhibits abbreviated development and inhabits the atrial chamber of the scarce, structurally simple, long-lived, and relatively small ascidian Phalusia nigra in the Caribbean. These host characteristics should favor a solitary habit and extended parental care (EPC) in T. moseri. As predicted, males and females of T. moseri inhabited ascidians solitarily with greater frequency than expected by chance alone. The male-female association pattern and reverse sexual dimorphism (males < females) additionally suggests a promiscuous "pure-search" mating system in T. moseri. Also in agreement with theoretical considerations, T. moseri displays EPC; in addition to embryos, females naturally retain larval stages, megalopae, and juveniles within their brooding pouches. This is the first record of EPC in a symbiotic crab and the second confirmed record of EPC in a marine brachyuran crab. This study supports predictions central to resource-monopolization and life-history theories. PMID:23264474

  15. Results of the global conservation assessment of the freshwater crabs (Brachyura, Pseudothelphusidae and Trichodactylidae): The Neotropical region, with an update on diversity

    PubMed Central

    Cumberlidge, Neil; Alvarez, Fernando; Villalobos, Jose-Luis

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The freshwater crabs of the Neotropics comprise 311 species in two families (Pseudothelphusidae and Trichodactylidae) and one or both of these families are found in all of the countries in the Neotropical region (except for Chile and some of the Caribbean islands). Colombia (102 species, 81% endemic) and Mexico (67 species, 95% endemic) are the biodiversity hotspots of freshwater crab species richness and country-level endemism for this region. The results of the IUCN Red List conservation assessments show that 34% of pseudothelphusids and 10% of trichodactylids have an elevated risk of extinction, 29% of pseudothelphusids and 75% of trichodactylids are not at-risk (Least Concern), and although none are actually extinct, 56% of pseudothelphusids and 17% of trichodactylids are too poorly known to assess (Data Deficient). Colombia (14 species), Venezuela (7 species), Mexico (6 species), and Ecuador (5 species) are the countries with the highest number of threatened species of Neotropical freshwater crabs. The majority of threatened species are restricted-range semiterrestrial endemics living in habitats subjected to deforestation, alteration of drainage patterns, and pollution. This underlines the need to prioritize and develop conservation measures before species decline to levels from which they cannot recover. These results represent a baseline that can be used to design strategies to save threatened Neotropical species of freshwater crabs. PMID:25561834

  16. Resurrection of Rhynchoplax Stimpson, 1858, with the description of two new species from Japan and Australia (Crustacea: Decapoda: Brachyura: Hymenosomatidae).

    PubMed

    Komai, Tomoyuki; Poore, Gary C B

    2016-01-01

    Rhynchoplax Stimpson, 1858, is resurrected from synonymy with Halicarcinus White, 1846. Rhynchoplax hondai Takeda & Miyake, 1971, a species based on an immature female, is rediagnosed and two new species, R. magnetica n. sp. from northeastern Australia and R. minutula n. sp. from the Ryukyu Islands, Japan, are described. They differ from R. hondai in the shape of the rostrum, form of the subhepatic region and the armature of the pereopodal meri. All differ from the type species R. messor Stimpson, 1858, in having a longer and simple rostrum without supraocular pseudorostral spines and the absence of a postocular spine. PMID:27394510

  17. Redescription of Alox chaunos Galil & Ng, 2007 (Crustacea: Decapoda: Brachyura: Leucosiidae) new to Japan; with notes on the male characters of A. latusoides (Sakai, 1937).

    PubMed

    Ohtsuchi, Naoya; Kawamura, Tomohiko

    2016-01-01

    The leucosiid crab Alox chaunos Galil & Ng, 2007 is reported from Japan for the first time, and redescribed on the basis of specimens from the Ryukyu Islands. The taxonomy of this species is discussed, and comparisons are made with A. rugosum (Stimpson, 1858), A. uru Naruse & Ng, 2006, and A. liklik Galil & Ng, 2015. Alox somphos Tan & Ng, 1995, is excluded from the fauna of Japan, the original record actually based on a specimen of A. chaunos. Male characters of A. latusoides are also described for the first time to differentiate this species from A. chaunos. PMID:27394895

  18. A review of Chiromantes obtusifrons (Dana, 1851) (Decapoda: Brachyura: Sesarmidae), with descriptions of four new sibling-species from Christmas Island (Indian Ocean), Guam and Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Davie, Peter J F; Ng, Peter K L

    2013-01-01

    The identity of Chiromantes obtusifrons (Dana, 1851), previously considered widespread in the tropical West Pacific region to the eastern Indian Ocean, is revised and found to be a species-complex. Chiromantes obtusifrons is now considered endemic to the Hawaiian Is., and four new species are described from Guam, Taiwan and Christmas Island. Two species live sympatrically in Taiwan. Species separation is based on carapace and frontal shape and granulation, leg proportions, abdominal somite proportions, and distinctive live colouration. PMID:24699569

  19. Discovery of a new genus and new species of Indo-West Pacific pilumnoidid crab from a semisubmersible oil platform (Crustacea: Brachyura: Pseudozioidea).

    PubMed

    Ng, Peter K L; Ahyong, Shane T

    2013-01-01

    A new genus and new species of pseudozioid crab of the family Pilumnoididae is described from a fouling community on a semisubmersible oil platform in Singapore that had been operating in the Timor Sea and South China Sea. Setozius incertus gen. et sp. nov. superficially resembles species of Pilumnus (Pilumnidae, Pilumnoidea) but has male first and second gonopod structures characteristic of the Pseudozioidea. The form of the carapace, male anterior thoracic sternum and male abdomen indicates that it should be classified in the Pilumnoididae. Setozius is the first member of the family to be recorded from the Indo-West Pacific; all other known pilumnoidids occur in the Atlantic and eastern Pacific. PMID:25243306

  20. The land crab Johngarthiaplanata (Stimpson, 1860) (Crustacea, Brachyura, Gecarcinidae) colonizes human-dominated ecosystems in the continental mainland coast of Mexico.

    PubMed

    Perger, Robert

    2014-01-01

    The land crab Johngarthiaplanata (Stimpson, 1860) has been reported from the Baja California Peninsula and several oceanic islands in the Eastern Pacific as well as inshore islands of the Mexican, Costa Rican and Colombian coast. However, the species has not been observed on the continental mainland, as it is likely that the high diversity of terrestrial predators/competitors make the establishment of mainland populations nearly impossible. In this contribution, several new records of this species that have been observed in urban areas along the continental Pacific coast of Mexico are reported. These records demonstrate that the presence of humans does not necessarily have a negative impact on land crab species. Indeed, the presence of humans may actually discourage the presence of native crab predators/competitors and hence increase the likelihood of a successful mainland settlement of land crab species that are otherwise island and peninsula restricted. The presence of Johngarthiaplanata is ecologically relevant for coastal forests because gecarcinid crabs significantly influence plant recruitment and Johngarthiaplanata is considerably larger than the mainland species Gecarcinusquadratus. PMID:25057257

  1. A new genus and two new species of hymenosomatid crabs (Crustacea:Brachyura: Hymenosomatidae) from the southwestern Atlantic and eastern Australia.

    PubMed

    Tavares, Marcos; Santana, William

    2015-01-01

    A new genus, Teramnonotus n. gen., is erected for Elamena gordonae Monod, 1956. The new genus includes two new species, T. johnlucasi n. gen., n. sp. and T. monodi n. gen., n. sp., described herein from eastern Australia (Queensland) and the southwestern Atlantic (Brazil), respectively. Teramnonotus n. gen. superficially resembles Elamena H. Milne Edwards, 1837, and Trigonoplax H. Milne Edwards, 1853, of which it can be easily distinguished by a combination of characters: eyes and ocular peduncle, rostrum, carapace, thoracic sternite 8 and thoracic pleurite 8, and the inhalant water openings. The validity of the obscure species Elamena mexicana H. Milne Edwards, 1853, is not supported and it is synonymised with Halicarcinus planatus (Fabricius, 1775). PMID:25661023

  2. Five new species of freshwater crabs of the genera Ghatiana Pati & Sharma, 2014, and Gubernatoriana Bott, 1970 (Crustacea, Decapoda, Brachyura: Gecarcinucidae Rathbun, 1904) from the Western Ghats, India.

    PubMed

    Pati, S K; Thackeray, T; Khaire, A

    2016-01-01

    Five new species of gecarcinucid freshwater crabs, Ghatiana atropurpurea n. sp., Ghatiana splendida n. sp., Gubernatoriana alcocki Pati n. sp., Gubernatoriana thackerayi Pati n. sp., and Gubernatoriana waghi Pati n. sp. are described from the Western Ghats in Maharashtra and Goa states of India. Ghatiana atropurpurea n. sp. can be differentiated from other species of Ghatiana Pati & Sharma, 2014 by the shape and colour of its carapace, and the sigmoid-shaped male first pleopod (G1). Ghatiana splendida n. sp. is separated from its congeners mainly by its long anterolateral margin of the carapace and short terminal article of the G1. Besides, the colour pattern (deep pink carapace and chelipeds, orange ambulatory legs) of G. splendida n. sp. is exceptional among its congeners. Gubernatoriana alcocki n. sp. is unique among species of Gubernatoriana Bott, 1970 due to its inwardly curved tip of the terminal article of the G1. The stout and cone-shaped terminal article of the G1 of G. thackerayi n. sp. is characteristic among its congeners. In addition, G. thackerayi n. sp. has a unique colouration amongst congeners (violet-red carapace and ambulatory legs, orange-red chelipeds). Gubernatoriana waghi n. sp. can be distinguished from its congeners by the quadrate-shaped carapace, narrow frontal margin, pointed tips of the cheliped fingers, short terminal article of the G1 and very short or vestigial terminal article of the male second pleopod (G2). The body colour (burnt orange carapace and ivory coloured chelipeds and ambulatory legs) of G. waghi n. sp. is also important to distinguish live crabs of the genus. Key to the species of Ghatiana and Gubernatoriana is provided. PMID:27394247

  3. Reappraisal of species attributed to Halicarcinus White, 1846 (Crustacea: Decapoda: Brachyura: Hymenosomatidae) with diagnosis of four new genera and one new species from New Ireland, Papua New Guinea.

    PubMed

    Poore, Gary C B; Guinot, Danièle; Komai, Tomoyuki; Naruse, Tohru

    2016-01-01

    Species of Hymenosomatidae previously treated as species or junior synonyms of species of Halicarcinus White, 1846 are assigned to this and other genera. Halicarcinus is restricted to seven valid species; Rhynchoplax Stimpson, 1858, since 1980 synonymised with Halicarcinus, is now recognised with four species; four species are added to Micas Ng & Richer de Forges, 1996 (making five in total); and four new genera are erected: Culexisoma n. gen. (two species, one newly described), Lucascinus n. gen. (three species), Nasutoplax n. gen. (one species) and Stimpsoplax n. gen. (three species). The genera are distinguished primarily on features of the gonopod 1, interaction of the pleon with the thoracic sternal pleonal cavity, maxilliped 3, male cheliped, propodus-dactylus articulation of the ambulatory pereopods, and degree of fusion of the pleomeres. Species of Halicarcinus s.s. share a short trilobed rostrum, strongly curved gonopod 1 and free pleomeres. Some members of other genera may have a similar rostrum but typically have a long median projection with or without lateral angles or spines variously developed at the anterior margin of a supraocular eave. A lectotype of Hymenicus cookii Filhol, 1885 (now Halicarcinus cookii) is designated. A lectotype of Hymenosoma leachii Guérin, 1832, in Guérin-Méneville 1829-1837 (synonym of Halicarcinus planatus Fabricius, 1775) is selected in the interests of nomenclatural stability. Halicarcinus quoyi (H. Milne Edwards, 1853) is recognised as a senior synonym of the more widely used H. innominatus Richardson, 1949, which is itself a nomen nudum because it was erected without type designation. We also recognise Hymenicus marmoratus Chilton, 1882, as a junior synonym of Halicarcinus varius (Dana, 1851). Species of Rhynchoplax share a curved gonopod 1, falcate dactyli on pereopods 2-5 and fused pleomeres 3-4 in males and 3-5 in females. Species of Micas have a twisted gonopod 1 with the apex bent and only one or two subapical teeth on the dactylus of ambulatory legs. Culexisoma n. gen. is established for Halicarcinus ginowan Naruse & Komai, 2009, and a second species, Culexisoma niugini n. sp., from Papua New Guinea as type species. The genus is unique among these genera in having the male pleon not tightly engaging with the thoracic sternum, maxillipeds 3 not fully covering the buccal cavern and in having a strongly sexually dimorphic rostrum. Species of Lucascinus n. gen. share a male cheliped with 'nut-cracker'-like fingers and free pleomeres in both male and female. Nasutoplax n. gen. differs from others in the erect lateral profile of the rostrum and in gonopod 1 with an unusual subterminal spinulose projection on its posterior face. Stimpsoplax n. gen. has a gonopod 1 with a swollen base and a narrow strongly twisted distal part, tapering distally to a curved apex. Each genus is diagnosed, all species are tabulated, some discussed in more detail, and generic diagnostic characters are illustrated. PMID:27394509

  4. Results of the global conservation assessment of the freshwater crabs (Brachyura, Pseudothelphusidae and Trichodactylidae): The Neotropical region, with an update on diversity.

    PubMed

    Cumberlidge, Neil; Alvarez, Fernando; Villalobos, Jose-Luis

    2014-01-01

    The freshwater crabs of the Neotropics comprise 311 species in two families (Pseudothelphusidae and Trichodactylidae) and one or both of these families are found in all of the countries in the Neotropical region (except for Chile and some of the Caribbean islands). Colombia (102 species, 81% endemic) and Mexico (67 species, 95% endemic) are the biodiversity hotspots of freshwater crab species richness and country-level endemism for this region. The results of the IUCN Red List conservation assessments show that 34% of pseudothelphusids and 10% of trichodactylids have an elevated risk of extinction, 29% of pseudothelphusids and 75% of trichodactylids are not at-risk (Least Concern), and although none are actually extinct, 56% of pseudothelphusids and 17% of trichodactylids are too poorly known to assess (Data Deficient). Colombia (14 species), Venezuela (7 species), Mexico (6 species), and Ecuador (5 species) are the countries with the highest number of threatened species of Neotropical freshwater crabs. The majority of threatened species are restricted-range semiterrestrial endemics living in habitats subjected to deforestation, alteration of drainage patterns, and pollution. This underlines the need to prioritize and develop conservation measures before species decline to levels from which they cannot recover. These results represent a baseline that can be used to design strategies to save threatened Neotropical species of freshwater crabs. PMID:25561834

  5. Longitudinal distribution and lateral pattern of megalopal settlement and juvenile recruitment of Carcinus maenas (L.) (Brachyura, Portunidae) in the Mira River Estuary, Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, Inês C.; Dinis, Ana M.; Francisco, Sara M.; Flores, Augusto A. V.; Paula, José

    2006-08-01

    Settlement is a critical process in the life history of crabs, and thus affecting the abundance, distribution and structure of estuarine communities. The spatial pattern of settlement of megalopae of the shore crab Carcinus maenas along a longitudinal estuarine gradient (Mira River Estuary, Portugal) was examined, as well as its effects on the juvenile population. To measure megalopal settlement, four replicate collectors were deployed in six equally spaced stations along the estuarine axis. Juveniles were collected on the same locations with a quadrat randomly deployed on the substrate. To assess fine-scale megalopal settlement within a curved region of the estuary, replicate collectors were deployed on both margins along Moinho da Asneira curve. Megalopae settled differently along the six longitudinal points, with a tendency to attenuate their settlement upstream. Within the curved region, megalopae preferentially settled on the left margin collectors, probably due to the weaker velocity speeds felt on this margin. Concerning the overall juvenile density, there were significant differences among the stations distributed along the estuary, but they did no reflect a longitudinal dispersion attenuation pattern. Size-frequency distribution of the juvenile population showed that the average size is higher on the left margin. Recruits (carapace length between 1.0 mm and 3.4 mm) were more abundant on the upstream stations. Density of early juveniles (3.4 mm-6.5 mm) and juveniles (6.5 mm-10 mm) was more stable throughout the estuary axis than that of recruits. This distribution pattern may result from tidal excursion processes or mechanisms to avoid biotic interactions, such as predation and competition.

  6. Spatial distribution of the crab larvae (Decapoda: Anomura et Brachyura) in Possyet Bay (Peter the Great Bay of the Sea of Japan) in 2000-2001

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grigoryeva, N. I.

    2009-10-01

    The analysis of the data obtained during the plankton surveys in Possyet Bay (Peter the Great Bay of the Sea of Japan) in 2000-2001 is presented. The larvae of eight crab species were registered in the plankton: the red king crab Paralithodes camtschaticus (Tilesius, 1815), the snow (opilio) crab Chionoecetes opilio (Fabricius, 1780), the Arctic lyre crab Hyas coarctatus ursinus (Leach, 1815), the kelp crab Pugettia quadridens (de Haan, 1839), the helmet crab Telmessus cheiragonus (Tilesius, 1815), the Japanese swimming crab Charybdis japonica (A. Milne-Edwards, 1861), the pea crab Pinnixa rathbuni (Sakai, 1934), and the porcelain crab Pachycheles stevensii (Stimpson, 1858). These species belonged to six families: Lithodidae, Atelecyclidae, Majidae, Portunidae, Porcellanidae, and Pinnotheridae. The role of the variability of some of the hydrological factors in the meroplankton larvae development was studied. In May, the crab larvae were found mostly in the open part of the bay. In June, they were transported by the current to the northern part of the bay. In July, they spread uniformly in all the bay areas; however, patchiness was observed. The maximal population density of the crab larvae was registered for July and varied from 6.8 to 23.3 ind. m-3. The crab larvae appeared in the plankton in 2000 and 2001 earlier than for the average season.

  7. The land crab Johngarthia planata (Stimpson, 1860) (Crustacea, Brachyura, Gecarcinidae) colonizes human-dominated ecosystems in the continental mainland coast of Mexico

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The land crab Johngarthia planata (Stimpson, 1860) has been reported from the Baja California Peninsula and several oceanic islands in the Eastern Pacific as well as inshore islands of the Mexican, Costa Rican and Colombian coast. However, the species has not been observed on the continental mainland, as it is likely that the high diversity of terrestrial predators/competitors make the establishment of mainland populations nearly impossible. In this contribution, several new records of this species that have been observed in urban areas along the continental Pacific coast of Mexico are reported. These records demonstrate that the presence of humans does not necessarily have a negative impact on land crab species. Indeed, the presence of humans may actually discourage the presence of native crab predators/competitors and hence increase the likelihood of a successful mainland settlement of land crab species that are otherwise island and peninsula restricted. The presence of Johngarthia planata is ecologically relevant for coastal forests because gecarcinid crabs significantly influence plant recruitment and Johngarthia planata is considerably larger than the mainland species Gecarcinus quadratus. PMID:25057257

  8. Morphology of the first zoeal stage of the commensal southwestern Atlantic crab Austinixa aidae (Righi 1967) (Brachyura: Pinnotheridae), hatched in the laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mantelatto, Fernando L.; Cuesta, José A.

    2010-12-01

    The first zoeal stage of the endemic southern Atlantic pinnotherid crab Austinixa aidae is described and illustrated based on laboratory-hatched material from ovigerous females collected from the upper burrows of the thalassinidean shrimp Callichirus major at Ubatuba, São Paulo, Brazil. The zoeae of Austinixa species can be distinguished from other pinnotherids and especially from zoeae of the closely related species of Pinnixa by the telson structure.

  9. Distribution patterns of the crab Ucides cordatus (Brachyura, Ucididae) at different spatial scales in subtropical mangroves of Paranaguá Bay (southern Brazil)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandrini-Neto, L.; Lana, P. C.

    2012-06-01

    Heterogeneity in the distribution of organisms occurs at a range of spatial scales, which may vary from few centimeters to hundreds of kilometers. The exclusion of small-scale variability from routine sampling designs may confound comparisons at larger scales and lead to inconsistent interpretation of data. Despite its ecological and social-economic importance, little is known about the spatial structure of the mangrove crab Ucides cordatus in the southwest Atlantic. Previous studies have commonly compared densities at relatively broad scales, relying on alleged distribution patterns (e.g., mangroves of distinct composition and structure). We have assessed variability patterns of U. cordatus in mangroves of Paranaguá Bay at four levels of spatial hierarchy (10 s km, km, 10 s m and m) using a nested ANOVA and variance components measures. The potential role of sediment parameters, pneumatophore density, and organic matter content in regulating observed patterns was assessed by multiple regression models. Densities of total and non-commercial size crabs varied mostly at 10 s m to km scales. Densities of commercial size crabs differed at the scales of 10 s m and 10 s km. Variance components indicated that small-scale variation was the most important, contributing up to 70% of the crab density variability. Multiple regression models could not explain the observed variations. Processes driving differences in crab abundance were not related to the measured variables. Small-scale patchy distribution has direct implications to current management practices of U. cordatus. Future studies should consider processes operating at smaller scales, which are responsible for a complex mosaic of patches within previously described patterns.

  10. Ontogeny of osmoregulation in embryos of intertidal crabs (Hemigrapsus sexdentatus and H. crenulatus, Grapsidae, Brachyura): putative involvement of the embryonic dorsal organ.

    PubMed

    Seneviratna, Deepani; Taylor, H H

    2006-04-01

    This study examined whether the existence of hyperosmotic internal fluids in embryos of euryhaline crabs (Hemigrapsus sexdentatus and H. crenulatus) in dilute seawater reflects osmotic isolation due to impermeability of the egg envelope, as proposed for other decapods, or active osmoregulation. When ovigerous crabs with eggs at gastrula stage were transferred from 100% seawater (osmolality 1000 mmol kg(-1)) to 50% seawater, embryogenesis and hatching of zoea were completed normally, but were delayed. Hatching failed if the transfer to 50% seawater occurred before gastrulation, and embryogenesis was abnormal in 25% seawater. In 100% seawater, embryos at all stages were internally hyperosmotic by 150-250 mmol kg(-1). On transfer to 50% seawater, osmolality initially decreased but remained 200-350 mmol kg(-1) hyperosmotic to the medium for several weeks until hatching. High efflux rates of tritium-labelled water (t((1/2)) 16-75 min) and (22)Na (t(1/2) 109-374 min) from H. crenulatus embryos were inconsistent with the osmotic isolation hypothesis. It is concluded that post-gastrula embryos were actively hyper-osmoregulating. The diffusional water permeability of the embryos decreased during development while the sodium efflux rate increased 10-fold. Very rapidly exchanging pools of water and sodium (t(1/2) a few seconds to minutes) probably corresponded to peri-embryonic fluid and implied that the egg envelope was a negligible barrier to diffusion of water and salts. Higher Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase activities in late embryos of H. crenulatus incubated in 50% seawater than in embryos incubated in full strength seawater were consistent with an acclimation response. An area of the embryonic surface located over the yolk in the region of the embryonic dorsal organ stained with AgNO(3). Staining appeared at gastrulation, persisted throughout development and was lost at hatching. Deposits of AgCl between the outer and inner membranes, identified by X-ray microanalysis, suggest that the dorsal organ was a site of chloride extrusion. A model for osmoregulation in post-gastrula embryos is proposed: osmotic uptake of water is balanced by excretion of water and salts via the dorsal organ and salt loss is balanced by active uptake over the general embryonic ectoderm. PMID:16574807

  11. The nomenclatural status of the two "spiny-wristed" fiddler crabs: Uca spinicarpa Rathbun, 1900, and U. hesperiae Crane, 1975 (Crustacea: Brachyura: Ocypodidae).

    PubMed

    Rosenberg, Michael S

    2013-01-01

    A secondary homonymy is documented for Gelasimus [= Uca] tetragonon var. spinicarpa Kossmann, 1877 (a species from the Red Sea), and Uca spinicarpa Rathbun, 1900 (a species from the Gulf of Mexico). Although Kossmann's usage of the nomen spinicarpa has chronological priority, a reversal of precedence is required by Article 23.9 of the Code since Kossmann's use has not been applied as a valid name since the original publication in 1877, while Rathbun's use of the name has been applied over 50 times in the last half century. The species Kossmann was most likely referring to is today known as Uca hesperiae Crane, 1975, a name which may be retained in light of the reversal of precedence. PMID:26106787

  12. Binhthuanomon vinhtan, a new genus and new species of semi-terrestrial freshwater crab (Crustacea: Decapoda: Brachyura: Potamidae) from south central Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Do, Van Tu; Le, Van Tho; Phan, Doan Dang

    2015-01-01

    A new genus and new species of semi-terrestrial crab of the family Potamidae, Binhthuanomon vinhtan n. sp., is described from south central Vietnam. The new genus is morphologically closest to Villopotamon Dang & Ho, 2003, and Balssipotamon Dang & Ho, 2008, in the shapes of the carapace and first gonopod but is easily distinguished by distinct carapace characteristics and gonopod 1 structures, and the habitat occupied. PMID:26624780

  13. Seasonal dynamics of the density of the crab larvae (Decapoda: Brachyura et Anomura) in Minonosok Bay of Pos'eta Bay (Peter the Great Bay, Sea of Japan)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grigoryeva, N. I.

    2013-03-01

    As the materials for this project, we used data on the distribution of the larvae of the Asian paddle crab Charybdis japonicus (A. Milne-Edwards, 1861); the spider crabs Hyas coarctatus ursinus (= Hyas ursinus) (Rathbun, 1924), Pugettia quadridens (de Haan, 1839), and Pisoides bidentatus (H. Milne-Edwards, 1873); the samurai crab Paradorippe granulata (= Dorippe granulata) (de Haan, 1841); the pea crab Pinnixa rathbuni (Sakai, 1934); and the porcelain crab Pachycheles stevensii (Stimpson, 1858) in Minonosok Bay of Pos'eta Bay obtained during 2000-2002 and in 2004. The planktonic samples were collected from the last third of May to September. The greatest density of the larvae was observed in May, mid-June, late June-early July, and late July-early August. The greatest densities of the crab larvae and the decapod larvae ranged from 20.4 to 48.2 and from 88.4 to 245.3 specimens/m3. The schedule of the crab larvae's occurrence in the plankton is provided for the first time. The distribution of the density showed pronounced patchiness.

  14. Molecular analysis of the commercial deep-sea crabs Chaceon ramosae and Chaceon notialis (Brachyura, Geryonidae) reveals possible cryptic species in the South Atlantic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mantelatto, Fernando L.; Pezzuto, Paulo Ricardo; Masello, Arianna; Rossi Wongtschowski, Carmen Lucia Del Bianco; Silva Hilsdorf, Alexandre Wagner; Rossi, Natalia

    2014-02-01

    Deep-sea red crabs Chaceon ramosae and Chaceon notialis are commercially and ecologically important crustaceans in South Atlantic waters. With some overlapping occurring at the edge of the crabs' distribution, the fisheries are managed separately in Brazil and Uruguay, with some differences in the regulations, although the stock is supposedly shared between the two countries. To assess genetic information on these two species, we examined the nucleotide sequence of the mitochondrial 16S rDNA and CO1 mtDNA genes in samples from the southern region. We also compared these data to sequences from other congeners. The genetic analysis revealed a clear separation between C. notialis and C. ramosae. In addition, we detected the existence of at least two different groups within the species that is currently recognized as C. notialis. This might indicate the existence of cryptic species, leading us to speculate about the presence of two different taxonomic entities, although further research is needed to resolve this issue.

  15. Sex-structure, depth distribution, intermoult period and reproductive pattern of the deep-sea red crab Chaceon affinis (Brachyura, Geryonidae) in two populations in the north-eastern Atlantic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biscoito, Manuel; Freitas, Mafalda; Pajuelo, José G.; Triay-Portella, Raül; Santana, José I.; Costa, Ana L.; Delgado, João; González, José A.

    2015-01-01

    This work investigated the biology of Chaceon affinis in two isolated populations of the Atlantic Ocean, including depth distribution, sexual structure, reproductive patterns and intermoult period. Males were larger and heavier than females. Mean size decreased with depth for both males and females. The highest abundance was found at 600-799 m of depth for males and at 800-999 m depth stratum for females. The highest abundance of ovigerous females was found at the 800-999 m depth stratum. Of the different ovaries' colour or colour shades recorded, only six categories were histologically characterized. The presence of spermatophores in the spermatheca of females in carapace stages II and III suggests that spermatophores are viable and used during the intermoult period. The size at sexual maturity in females was estimated at 104.4-104.7 mm carapace width (CW) in Madeira, and 109.3-110.5 mm CW in the Canary Islands. Only three categories of testes were identified. Mature testes consisted in a large mass, with highly coiled vasa deferentia visible to the naked eye. The size at sexual maturity in males was estimated at 113.8 mm CW in Madeira and 118.9 mm CW in the Canaries. The relative growth of males showed significant changes along the ontogeny and size at which allometric growth changes, as an indicator of morphometric maturity, occurred between 103.2 and 103.6 mm CW in Madeira and between 111.4 and 113.1 mm CW in the Canaries. In females, size at which allometric growth changes was found for maximum width of fifth abdominal somite (AS5W) at 98.2 mm CW in Madeira and 103.0 mm CW in the Canaries. The size at maturity obtained for C. affinis indicates that the minimum landing size (MLS) should not be set smaller than 125 mm CW in Madeira and 130 mm CW in the Canaries. This conservative MLS, higher than length at functional maturity, would safeguard immature individuals until they reach the size at which they can contribute to the reproductive capacity of the population. Ovigerous females were observed from October to April in Madeira, and in all months in the Canaries. Moreover, the observation of berried females in the last developmental stage in all quarters of the year suggests that gonad maturation and release of larvae are asynchronous throughout the spawning season. A total of 138 crabs with CW between 96 and 154 mm were tagged off Madeira. Of these, nine were recovered in the same area, more than 900 days after tagging. Eight of the recaptures were females with a wide range of CW confirming intermoult periods exceeding three years with expected growth per moult of less than 20 mm CW.

  16. Calappid and leucosiid crabs (Crustacea: Decapoda: Brachyura) from Kerala, India, with the description of a new species of Mursia Desmarest, 1823, from the Arabian Sea and redescription of M. bicristimana Alcock & Anderson, 1894.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Biju A; Kumar, M Sushil; Galil, Bella S

    2013-01-01

    Eleven species of calappid and leucosiid crabs were identified from by-catch landed by trawlers at four fishing ports in Kerala, India that were surveyed in 2007 and supplemented by material obtained in January 2013. Four species are reported for the first time from India, six are new records for Kerala. The status of Mursia bicristimana Alcock & Anderson, 1894, is clarified and the species redescribed. A new species of Mursia is described from the Gulf of Aden, Arabian Sea.  PMID:25113495

  17. On the genera Selwynia Borradaile, 1903, and Gandoa Kammerer, 2006,
    with descriptions of two new species from Papua New Guinea and French
    Polynesia (Crustacea: Decapoda: Brachyura: Aphanodactylidae).

    PubMed

    Ng, Peter K L; Rahayu, Dwi Listyo

    2016-01-01

    The taxonomy of the Indo-West Pacific aphanodactylid crabs Selwynia sibogae (Tesch, 1918) and S. edmondsoni (Rathbun, 1932) is discussed on the basis of the types, and both species are redescribed and figured. Two new species from Papua New Guinea and French Polynesia respectively, are described and compared with congeners. All are symbionts in polychaete tubes. A key to the genus Selwynia is also provided. The poorly known genus Gandoa Kammerer, 2006, is redescribed on the basis of the rediscovered the type species, Voeltzkowia zanzibarensis Lenz, 1905. The lectotype female of Pinnixa brevipes H. Milne Edwards, 1853, is examined and shown to be a senior subjective synonym of G. zanzibarensis. PMID:27394459

  18. Description of a new genus and a new species of gaeticine crab (Crustacea: Brachyura: Varunidae) from the Ryukyu Islands, and a review of Acmaeopleura Stimpson, 1858, and Sestrostoma Davie & N.K. Ng, 2007.

    PubMed

    Naruse, Tohru

    2015-01-01

    Acmaeopleura parvula Stimpson, 1858, the type species of the varunid Acmaeopleura Stimpson, 1858, is redescribed, and a neotype is designated. Examination of all three species of the gaeticine Sestrostoma Davie & N.K. Ng, 2007, revealed that, although the diagnostic characters of Sestrostoma proposed by the previous study are variable and mostly overlap with those of Acmaeopleura, they can still be distinguished from each other by the characters of the carapace, the thoracic sternite 2, the third maxillipeds, and the ambulatory legs. The subfamilial position of Acmaeopleura was assessed by comparing it with all gaeticine genera. Gaetice Gistel, 1848, the type genus of the subfamily, has a very characteristic structure of the third maxilliped and the anterior sternal plate, which are partially shared with Gopkittisak Naruse & Clark, 2009, Brankocleistostoma Števčić, 2011, Sestrostoma and Acmaeopleura in different combinations. The generic diagnostic characters of these four genera are unique among Varunidae and they are tentatively placed in Gaeticinae. A new genus and new species, which is allied to Sestrostoma but clearly distinguishable from all varunine genera, is described from Iriomote Island, Ryukyu Islands, Japan. PMID:25781740

  19. A new species of Afropinnotheres Manning, 1993 (Crustacea, Brachyura, Pinnotheridae) from southwestern India, the first record of the genus from the Indian Ocean, with a review of the Pinnotheridae of India and adjacent seas.

    PubMed

    Ng, Peter K L; Kumar, Appukuttannair Biju

    2015-01-01

    A new species of pinnotherid crab of the genus Afropinnotheres Manning, 1993, is described from the brown mussel, Perna perna (Linnaeus, 1758), in southwestern India. This is the first record of the genus from the western Indian Ocean, the other four species been recorded from the eastern Atlantic. The new species can be distinguished from all congeners in  possessing a more rounded male carapace, form of the chela, relatively longer ambulatory legs which have no natatory setae, presence of dense pubescence on the male ambulatory legs, and the shape of the male and female telsons. The Indian Pinnotheridae is also reviewed and the taxonomy of the species reappraised. The taxonomy of Pinnaxodes Heller, 1865, and Holothuriophilus Nauck, 1880, is also discussed, in the context of their similarity to Afropinnotheres. PMID:25947734

  20. Gill-specific (Na(+), K(+))-ATPase activity and α-subunit mRNA expression during low-salinity acclimation of the ornate blue crab Callinectes ornatus (Decapoda, Brachyura).

    PubMed

    Leone, Francisco A; Garçon, Daniela P; Lucena, Malson N; Faleiros, Rogério O; Azevedo, Sergio V; Pinto, Marcelo R; McNamara, John C

    2015-08-01

    We evaluate (Na(+), K(+))-ATPase activity, and protein and gene expression of the α-subunit in posterior gills 6 and 7 of Callinectes ornatus, a euryhaline crab, during a 10-day acclimation period from seawater (33‰ S) to low salinity (21‰ S). (Na(+), K(+))-ATPase activity decreased within 1h after transfer to 21‰ S, values recovering by 24h and attaining a maximum of ≈180 nmol Pi min(-1) mg(-1) after 10 days (≈2.5-fold increase). (Na(+), K(+))-ATPase activity is ≈1.5-fold greater in gill 6 than in gill 7, independently of salinity. Relative expression of (Na(+), K(+))-ATPase α-subunit mRNA increased in both gills within 1- to 2-h exposure to low salinity, reaching an ≈8-fold maximum after 24-h exposure, decreasing slightly by 10 days acclimation to low salinity. This increase in α-subunit mRNA expression may underpin the increased (Na(+), K(+))-ATPase activity seen after 10 days acclimation to low salinity. Enzyme affinity for ATP was greater in gill 6 than in gill 7, in contrast to ouabain affinity that was greater in gill 7. Western blotting analysis identified a single immunoreactive band against the (Na(+), K(+))-ATPase α-subunit with an Mr of ≈105 kDa, independently of gill number and low salinity acclimation. Despite these differences, gills 6 and 7 appear to perform similar functions in salt uptake from the dilute medium. The partial cDNA sequence obtained for the gill (Na(+), K(+))-ATPase of C. ornatus (GenBank deposit KF056804) showed 97 to 91% identities with similar sequences from other portunid crab gills. The regulation of gill (Na(+), K(+))-ATPase activity during acclimation to low salinity is discussed. PMID:25934083

  1. Correct date and authorship of taxa of Middle American freshwater crabs described by Rodríguez & Smalley (1972) (not 1969) and included in Smalley (1970) (Crustacea: Decapoda: Brachyura: Pseudothelphusidae).

    PubMed

    Guinot, Danièle; Hendrickx, Michel E

    2014-01-01

    One subgenus and one genus of Pseudothelphusidae described by Gilberto Rodríguez and Alfred E. Smalley from Mexico have been erroneously referred to for over 40 years as variously described in 1968 and 1969. The review of the original publication indicates that these taxa were published in a journal dated 1969 that became available for distribution only in 1972. Smalley (1970), who believed that the original manuscript had been previously published, referred to some of these new taxa (i.e., Epithelphusa, E. mixtepensis, Tehuana and T. veracruzana) and provided sufficient information to make these names available in 1970, thus becoming the correct authorship for these four taxa. Therefore they must be referred to as "Rodríguez & Smalley in Smalley 1970". A list of all affected taxa with the correct publication date and authorship is given. A list of publications in which the taxa authored by Rodríguez and Smalley were erroneously referred to as published in 1969 is also provided. PMID:24989760

  2. AN EARLY MIOCENE DEEP-WATER DECAPOD CRUSTACEAN FAUNULE FROM THE SLOVENIAN PART OF THE STYRIAN BASIN, AND ITS PALAEOENVIRONMENTAL AND PALAEOBIOGEOGRAPHICAL SIGNIFICANCE

    PubMed Central

    GAŠPARIČ, ROK; HYŽNÝ, MATÚŠ

    2015-01-01

    A new decapod crustacean faunule is described from the early Miocene of the Slovenian part of the Styrian Basin. The Ivnik Beds exposed at the Činžat locality contain seven species: Calliax michelottii (Axiidea: Callianassidae), Lepidophthalmus paratethyensis sp. nov. (Axiidea: Callianassidae), Jaxea kuemeli (Gebiidea: Laomediidae), Styrioplax exiguus (Brachyura: Chasmocarcinidae), Goneplax gulderi (Brachyura: Goneplacidae), Neopilumnoplax pohorjensis sp. nov. (Brachyura: Mathildellidae) and Retropluma slovenica sp. nov. (Brachyura: Retroplumidae). Numerous specimens of well-preserved Styrioplax exiguus permitted its redescription and re-assignment of its familial placement to Chasmocarcinidae. Neopilumnoplax pohorjensis sp. nov. constitutes the first fossil occurrence of the genus known to date. The decapod association, as well as other faunal elements, suggests low-energy deep-water depositional environment with epibathyal water depth of more than 125 m. The studied locality is situated in the Ribnica–Selnica graben filled with sediments once deposited in the Central Paratethys sea. Based on the affinities of decapod genera of the Central Paratethys and the Proto-Mediterranean, we conclude that the exchange of decapod faunas between these regions was probably regulated by an anti-estuarine circulation permitting an easier incursion of species from the Proto-Mediterranean into the Paratethys and simultaneous hindering the Paratethyan endemics (Styrioplax) from entering the Mediterranean. PMID:26689949

  3. Libanasa kilomeni, a new species of East African Lutosinae (Orthoptera: Anostostomatidae).

    PubMed

    Hemp, Claudia; Johns, Peter M

    2015-01-01

    A new species of Libanasa, L. kilomeni, is described. In contrast to L. brachyura, an inhabitant of lowland wet to submontane forest along the Tanzanian coast and part of the Eastern Arc Mountains of Tanzania, this new species is found in montane forest in the North Pare Mountains. L. kilomeni n. sp. is restricted to a small forest reserve and due to forest clearing at lower elevations probably driven to its upper ecological border. Therefore this species is considered endangered and should be included in the IUCN red list. PMID:26624379

  4. The Decapod Crustacean Circulatory System: A Case That Is neither Open nor Closed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGaw, Iain J.

    2005-02-01

    Historically, the decapod crustacean circulatory system has been classed as open. However, recent work on the blue crab, Callinectes sapidus, suggests the circulatory system may be more complex than previously described. Corrosion casting techniques were refined and used to map the circulatory system of a variety of crab species (order: Decapoda; family: Cancridae) to determine if the complexity observed in the blue crab was present in other species. Seven arteries arose from the single chambered heart. The anterior aorta, the paired anterolateral arteries, and the paired hepatic arteries exited from the anterior aspect of the heart. The small-diameter posterior aorta exited posteriorly from the heart. Exiting from the ventral surface of the heart, the sternal artery branched to supply the legs and mouthparts of the crab. These arteries were more complex than previously described, with arterioles perfusing all areas of the body. The arterioles split into fine capillary-like vessels. Most of these capillaries were blind ending. However, in several areas (antennal gland, supraesophageal ganglion) complete capillary beds were present. After passing through the capillary-like vessels, blood drained into a series of sinuses. However, rather than being arbitrary spaces as previously described, scanning electron micrographs showed the sinuses to be distinct units. Most of the sinuses formed a series of flattened membrane-bound lacunae. This complexity may qualify the decapod crustacean circulatory system as one that is "partially closed" rather than open.

  5. Taphonomy and diversity of Middle Miocene decapod crustaceans from the Novohrad-Nógrad Basin, Slovakia, with remarks on palaeobiography

    PubMed Central

    Hyžný, Matúš; Hudáčková, Natália; Szalma, Štefan

    2016-01-01

    Decapod crustacean assemblages from the Middle Miocene (lower ‘Badenian’=Langhian) volcanoclastic Plášťovce Beds (Sebechleby Formation) in the Slovakian part of the Novohrad-Nógrad Basin comprise five species in five families (Callianassidae, Laomediidae, Munididae, Cancridae and Retroplumidae) and are dominated by the cancrid crab Tasadia carniolica (Bittner, 1884). Munida sp. constitutes the first record of this genus from Slovakia and the second from the European Neogene. Burrowing shrimp (Jaxea kuemeli Bachmayer, 1954) are associated with burrows tentatively attributed to this species. The occurrence of Retropluma slovenica Gašparič & Hyžný, 2014, previously recorded from the Lower Miocene of Slovenia, extends both the geographical distribution and stratigraphical range of the species. Differential decapod diversity at four localities in the Plášťovce area can be explained by collecting bias and palaeoenvironmental factors. The palaeosetting is interpreted as a muddy-bottom, nearshore zone with a water depth of approximately 100 m. Abundant articulated crabs suggest rapid burial. Third maxillipeds in open posture in some specimens may indicate respiratory stress of the animals, suggesting episodic events of rapid volcanoclastic flows responsible for killing crabs and promoting their preservation. Species composition of the decapod fauna of the Plášťovce Beds further strengthens similarities with Miocene faunas from the North Sea Basin. PMID:27499675

  6. Circular dichroism study of the hemocyanin thermostability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikolova Georgieva, Dessislava; Stoeva, Stanka; Abid Ali, Syed; Abbasi, Atiya; Genov, Nicolay; Voelter, Wolfgang

    1998-05-01

    Circular dichroism spectroscopy is used to investigate the thermostability of six arthropod hemocyanins (Hcs), representatives of the subphyla Crustacea (infraorder Brachyura) and Chelicerate (infraorders Xiphosura and Arachnida), and three molluscan Hcs from gastropod organisms. Melting points ( Tm) are determined from the temperature dependence of ellipticity of dioxygen-binding proteins from Maia squinado, Callinectes sapidus, Carcinus maenas, Limulus polyphemus, Buthus sindicus, Androctonus australis, Megathura crenulata, Haliotis tuberculata, and Rapana thomasiana. Both, arthropod and molluscan Hcs, are thermostable proteins with melting temperatures in the region 68-91°C. Binuclear dioxygen-binding sites contribute significantly to the thermostability and increase the Tm values of the apo-forms by 3-16°C. An elevated thermostability is observed in the case of the Limulus polyphemus Hc. One of the reasons is the high degree of hemocyanin oligomerization.

  7. Descriptions and revised key to the eggcases of the skates (Rajiformes: Rajidae) and catsharks (Carcharhiniformes: Scyliorhinidae) of the British Isles.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Cat A; Hood, Ali R; Ellis, Jim R

    2016-01-01

    Updated descriptions and measurements for the eggcases of 10 rajiform and three scyliorhinid species occurring in the shelf seas around the British Isles are given, based on museum material, specimens collected during the 'Great Eggcase Hunt' (a Shark Trust recording project), and specimens obtained from fishery surveys. Quantitative data are given for Amblyraja radiata (n = 94), Dipturus batis (n = 24), D. cf. intermedia (n = 33), Leucoraja naevus (n = 94), Raja brachyura (n = 53), R. clavata (n = 52), R. microocellata (n = 57), R. montagui (n = 52), R. undulata (n = 52), Rostroraja alba (n = 5), Galeus melastomus (n = 7), Scyliorhinus canicula (n = 52) and S. stellaris (n = 58). An updated key for the identification of elasmobranch eggcases is provided, incorporating recent changes in skate taxonomy. PMID:27515657

  8. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction studies of trypsin-like proteases from the gastric fluid of the marine crab Cancer pagurus

    SciTech Connect

    Hehemann, Jan-Hendrik; Redecke, Lars; Saborowski, Reinhard; Betzel, Christian

    2007-03-01

    Two trypsins from the gastric fluid of the marine crab C. pagurus were purified and crystallized and X-ray data were collected to 0.97 and 3.2 Å resolution. The digestive fluid of the marine crab Cancer pagurus (Decapoda, Brachyura) contains highly stable proteases which display enhanced activity in aqueous mixtures of organic solvents. Three trypsins were isolated from the gastric fluid and two of them, C.p.TryII and C.p.TryIII, were purified to homogeneity by anion-exchange chromatography and crystallized by hanging-drop vapour diffusion. Diffraction data were collected at a synchrotron to 0.97 and 3.2 Å resolution, respectively. The crystal of C.p.TryII belongs to the orthorhombic space group P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1}, with unit-cell parameters a = 52.06, b = 62.00, c = 71.66 Å. Based on the Matthews coefficient, one protein molecule per asymmetric unit is suggested. In contrast, crystals of C.p.TryIII, which belong to the cubic space group P2{sub 1}3 with unit-cell parameters a = b = c = 215.4 Å, are assumed to contain 12 molecules per asymmetric unit.

  9. Lilliput effect in a retroplumid crab (Crustacea: Decapoda) across the K/Pg boundary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez-Díaz, José Luis; Phillips, George E.; Nyborg, Torrey; Espinosa, Belinda; Távora, Vladimir de Araújo; Centeno-García, Elena; Vega, Francisco J.

    2016-08-01

    The genus Costacopluma (Brachyura: Decapoda: Retroplumidae) had a wide distribution during the early Paleogene and is currently represented by 14 species across the Late Cretaceous and early Paleogene. Described early Paleogene species have a smaller mean body size compared to Campanian-Maastrichtian populations of Africa, northeastern Mexico, and southeastern United States. Originally described from the Paleocene and Eocene of Alabama, Costacopluma grayi Feldmann and Portell, 2007, is now documented from the uppermost Maastrichtian (66.2 Ma) of northeastern Mexico and Mississippi and Lower Paleocene of Arkansas, all representing medium size specimens. The morphological features of latest Maastrichtian (66.2 Ma) individuals are identical to those observed among populations of C. grayi from the Paleogene of Alabama and Arkansas, which have a smaller mean size. This size reduction, or dwarfism, in C. grayi across the K-Pg boundary is an example of the Lilliput effect. Dwarfism has been documented in several invertebrate groups as a response to environmental stress, but this is the first record of the Lilliput effect in brachyuran crustaceans. The stratigraphic and geographic range for Costacopluma mexicana Vega and Perrilliat, 1989, is extended to the upper Campanian in northeastern Mexico and lower Maastrichtian in Mississippi and is suggested as a possible ancestor of C. grayi. Different preservational modes for this species in northeastern Mexico are discussed.

  10. Phylogenetic and morphometric differentiation reveal geographic radiation and pseudo-cryptic speciation in a mangrove crab from the Indo-West Pacific.

    PubMed

    Ragionieri, Lapo; Fratini, Sara; Vannini, Marco; Schubart, Christoph D

    2009-09-01

    The presence of boundaries to dispersal has been recently documented for many Indo-West Pacific (IWP) species with planktonic propagules and a widespread distribution. We studied the phylogeography of the mangrove crab Neosarmatium meinerti (Brachyura: Sesarmidae) and the phylogenetic relationship to its presumed sister species N. fourmanoiri in the IWP in order to compare intraspecific with interspecific diversity. Portions of the mitochondrial genes 16S and CoxI were sequenced for 23 specimens of N. meinerti and 5 N. fourmanoiri, while a fragment of the 28S was obtained for a subset of specimens. Genetic data are supplemented by morphometric and based on 37 adult males of N. meinerti and 9 males of N. fourmanoiri. The conserved nuclear 28S reveals the existence of a genetic break between the Indian and Pacific oceans. Otherwise, mitochondrial genes as well as morphometry clearly support the presence of a species complex within N. meinerti composed by four well structured and geographically defined lineages: East African coast; western Indian Ocean islands; South East Asia; and Australia. PMID:19394431

  11. Revision of Potamotrygonocotyle Mayes, Brooks & Thorson, 1981 (Platyhelminthes: Monogenoidea: Monocotylidae), with descriptions of four new species from the gills of the freshwater stingrays Potamotrygon spp. (Rajiformes: Potamotrygonidae) from the La Plata river basin.

    PubMed

    Domingues, Marcus V; Marques, Fernando P L

    2007-07-01

    The only known monocotylid genus to parasitise Neotropical freshwater stingrays (Potamotrygonidae) is Potamotrygonocotyle Mayes, Brooks & Thorson, 1981, a monotypic genus erected to accommodate P. tsalickisi Mayes, Brooks & Thorson, 1981. For more than 20 years, no other species has been recognised in this genus, but new efforts to survey the diversity of parasites inhabiting potamotrygonids have revealed the existence of new species and the need to redefine the genus. Here, the generic diagnosis of Potamotrygonocotyle is amended, P. tsalickisi is redescribed and four new species are recognised and described based on samples collected from the gills of freshwater potamotrygonids from the La Plata river basin: Potamotrygonocotyle chisholmae n. sp. and P. dromedarius n. sp. from Potamotrygon motoro; Potamotrygonocotyle eurypotamoxenus n. sp. from Potamotrygon cf. motoro (type-host), P. castexi, P. falkneri and P. histrix; and Potamotrygonocotyle uruguayensis n. sp. from Potamotrygon brachyura. Potamotrygonocotyle is characterised by species possessing: (1) slightly sinuous sclerotised ridges on all septa; (2) two pairs of the dorsal haptoral accessory structures associated with the four posterior peripheral loculi and with anterior dorsal haptoral accessory structure bilobate or semicircular; and (3) male copulatory organ without an accessory piece. PMID:17464482

  12. The complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Euphausia pacifica (Malacostraca: Euphausiacea) reveals a novel gene order and unusual tandem repeats.

    PubMed

    Shen, Xin; Wang, Haiqing; Wang, Minxiao; Liu, Bin

    2011-11-01

    Euphausiid krill are dominant organisms in the zooplankton population and play a central role in marine ecosystems. Euphausia pacifica (Malacostraca: Euphausiacea) is one of the most important and dominant crustaceans in the North Pacific Ocean. In this paper, we described the gene content, organization, and codon usage of the E. pacifica mitochondrial genome. The mitochondrial genome of E. pacifica is 16 898 bp in length and contains a standard set of 13 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes, and 22 transfer RNA genes. Translocation of three transfer RNAs (trnL(1), trnL(2), and trnW) was found in the E. pacifica mitochondrial genome when comparing with the pancrustacean ground pattern. The rate of K(a)/K(s) in 13 protein-coding genes among three krill is much less than 1, which indicates a strong purifying selection within this group. The largest noncoding region in the E. pacifica mitochondrial genome contains one section with tandem repeats (4.7 x 154 bp), which are the largest tandem repeats found in malacostracan mitochondrial genomes so far. All analyses based on nucleotide and amino acid data strongly support the monophyly of Stomatopoda, Penaeidae, Caridea, Brachyura, and Euphausiacea. The Bayesian analysis of nucleotide and amino acid datasets strongly supports the close relationship between Euphausiacea and Decapoda, which confirms traditional findings. The maximum likelihood analysis based on amino acid data strongly supports the close relationship between Euphausiacea and Penaeidae, which destroys the monophyly of Decapoda. PMID:22017501

  13. The mitochondrial genome of Euphausia superba (Prydz Bay) (Crustacea: Malacostraca: Euphausiacea) reveals a novel gene arrangement and potential molecular markers.

    PubMed

    Shen, Xin; Wang, Haiqing; Ren, Jianfeng; Tian, Mei; Wang, Minxiao

    2010-02-01

    Euphausiid krill are dominant organisms in the zooplankton population and play a central role in marine ecosystems. In this paper, we described the gene organization, gene rearrangement and codon usage in the mitochondrial genome of Euphausia superba Dana 1852 (sampling from Prydz Bay, PB). The mitochondrial genome of E. superba is more than 15,498 bp in length (partial non-coding region was not determined). Translocation of four tRNAs (trnL ( 1 ), trnL ( 2 ), trnW and trnI) and duplication of one tRNA (trnN) were founded in the mitochondrial genome of E. superba when comparing its genome with the pancrustacean ground pattern. To investigate the phylogenetic relationship within Malacostraca, phylogenetic trees based on currently available malacostracan mitochondrial genomes were built with the maximum likelihood and the Bayesian models. All analyses based on nucleotide and amino acid data strongly support the monophyly of Stomatopoda, Penaeidae, Caridea, and Brachyura, which is consistent with previous research. However, the taxonomic position of Euphausiacea within Malacostraca is unstable. From comparing the mitochondrial genome between E. superba (PB) and E. superba (sampling from Weddell Sea, WS), we found that nad2 gene contains maximal variation with 61 segregating sites, following by nad5 gene which has 12 segregating sites. Thus, nad2 and nad5 genes may be used as potential molecular markers to study the inherit diversity among different E. superba groups, which would be helpful to the exploitation and management of E. superba resources. PMID:19578978

  14. Decapod crustaceans from the state of Ceará, northeastern Brazil: an updated checklist of marine and estuarine species, with 23 new records.

    PubMed

    Pachelle, Paulo P G; Anker, Arthur; Mendes, Cecili B; Bezerra, Luis E A

    2016-01-01

    The present study is the first major assessment of the marine decapod fauna of Ceará, northeastern Brazil, since contributions of J. Fausto-Filho in the 1960s-1970s. A fully updated checklist of all decapod crustaceans occurring in marine and estuarine habitats of Ceará is provided, based on literature records, specimens held in two carcinological collections of the Universidade Federal do Ceará (UFC), and material collected mainly by the authors between 2011 and 2014. A total of 337 decapod species are listed, distributed among the following taxa: Achelata (8 species), Anomura (42 species), Astacidea (1 species), Axiidea (11 species), Brachyura (162 species), Caridea (83 species), Dendrobranchiata (20 species), Gebiidea (9 species), and Stenopodidea (1 species). Among them, 23 species represent new records for Ceará, with 14 species, viz. Alpheus peasei (Armstrong, 1940), A. thomasi Hendrix & Gore, 1973, Ambidexter symmetricus Manning & Chace, 1971, Axianassa australis Rodrigues & Shimizu, 1992, Biffarius biformis (Biffar, 1971), B. fragilis (Biffar, 1970), Leptalpheus axianassae Dworschak & Coelho, 1999, L. forceps Williams, 1965, Lysmata bahia Rhyne & Lin, 2006, L. intermedia (Kingsley, 1878), Merhippolyte americana Holthuis, 1961, Neocallichirus maryae Karasawa, 2004, Ogyrides hayi Williams, 1981, and Typton carneus Holthuis, 1951, now having Ceará as the northern-most limit in their distribution range along the Brazilian coastline. One shrimp species, Lysmata lipkei Okuno & Fiedler, 2010, which was also found in the state of Rio Grande do Norte, possibly represents an invasive taxon in Brazil and the western Atlantic, originating from the Indo-West Pacific. Alpheus buckupi Almeida, Terossi, Araújo-Silva & Mantelatto, 2013, previously recorded from Ceará based on a colour photograph, is confirmed from this state, with specimens from several new localities. A few doubtful records from Ceará are briefly discussed. Colour photographs are provided for most

  15. Identification of potential essential fish habitats for skates based on fishers' knowledge.

    PubMed

    Serra-Pereira, Bárbara; Erzini, Karim; Maia, Catarina; Figueiredo, Ivone

    2014-05-01

    Understanding of spatio-temporal patterns of sensitive fish species such as skates (Rajidae) is essential for implementation of conservation measures. With insufficient survey data available for these species in Portuguese Continental waters, this study shows that fishery-dependent data associated with fishers' knowledge can be used to identify potential Essential Fish Habitats (EFH) for seven skate species. Sites with similar geomorphology were associated with the occurrence of juveniles and/or adults of the same group of species. For example, sites deeper than 100 m with soft sediment include predominantly adults of Raja clavata, and are the habitat for egg deposition of this species. Raja undulata and R. microocellata are the more coastal species, preferring sand or gravel habitats, while coastal areas with rocks and sand seabed are potential nursery areas for R. brachyura, R. montagui and R. clavata. The main output of this study is the identification of preferential fishing sites enclosing potential EFH for some species, associated with egg-laying and nursery grounds. The location of these areas will be considered for future seasonal closures, and studies will be conducted to evaluate the biological and socio-economic impacts of such measures. As in the past, fishermen will collaborate in the process of evaluating those impacts, since they have practical and applied knowledge that is extremely valuable for evaluating the advantages and disadvantages of such closures. In conclusion, this study is a first contribution to the understanding and identification of EFH for skate species, associated with nursery and egg deposition sites, with direct application to management. PMID:24573167

  16. Antarctic Crabs: Invasion or Endurance?

    PubMed Central

    Griffiths, Huw J.; Whittle, Rowan J.; Roberts, Stephen J.; Belchier, Mark; Linse, Katrin

    2013-01-01

    Recent scientific interest following the “discovery” of lithodid crabs around Antarctica has centred on a hypothesis that these crabs might be poised to invade the Antarctic shelf if the recent warming trend continues, potentially decimating its native fauna. This “invasion hypothesis” suggests that decapod crabs were driven out of Antarctica 40–15 million years ago and are only now returning as “warm” enough habitats become available. The hypothesis is based on a geographically and spatially poor fossil record of a different group of crabs (Brachyura), and examination of relatively few Recent lithodid samples from the Antarctic slope. In this paper, we examine the existing lithodid fossil record and present the distribution and biogeographic patterns derived from over 16,000 records of Recent Southern Hemisphere crabs and lobsters. Globally, the lithodid fossil record consists of only two known specimens, neither of which comes from the Antarctic. Recent records show that 22 species of crabs and lobsters have been reported from the Southern Ocean, with 12 species found south of 60°S. All are restricted to waters warmer than 0°C, with their Antarctic distribution limited to the areas of seafloor dominated by Circumpolar Deep Water (CDW). Currently, CDW extends further and shallower onto the West Antarctic shelf than the known distribution ranges of most lithodid species examined. Geological evidence suggests that West Antarctic shelf could have been available for colonisation during the last 9,000 years. Distribution patterns, species richness, and levels of endemism all suggest that, rather than becoming extinct and recently re-invading from outside Antarctica, the lithodid crabs have likely persisted, and even radiated, on or near to Antarctic slope. We conclude there is no evidence for a modern-day “crab invasion”. We recommend a repeated targeted lithodid sampling program along the West Antarctic shelf to fully test the validity of the

  17. Myosin Va Participates in Acrosomal Formation and Nuclear Morphogenesis during Spermatogenesis of Chinese Mitten Crab Eriocheir sinensis

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Xiao; He, Ying; Hou, Lin; Yang, Wan-Xi

    2010-01-01

    Background The Chinese mitten crab Eriocheir sinensis belongs to the Class Crustacea, Decapoda, Brachyura. The spermatozoon of this species is of aflagellated type, it has a spherical acrosome surrounded by the cup-shaped nucleus, which are unique to brachyurans. For the past several decades, studies on the spermatogenesis of the mitten crab mainly focus on the morphology. Compared with the extensive study of molecular mechanism of spermatogenesis in mammals, relatively less information is available in crustacean species. Myosin Va, a member of Class V myosin, has been implicated in acrosome biogenesis and vesicle transport during spermatogenesis in mammals. In the present study we demonstrate the expression and cellular localization of myosin Va during spermatogenesis in E. sinensis. Methodology/Principal Findings Western blot demonstrated that myosin Va is expressed during spermatogenesis. Immunocytochemical and ultrastructural analyses showed that myosin Va mainly localizes in the cytoplasm in spermatocytes. At the early stage of spermiogenesis, myosin Va binds to the endoplasmic reticulum vesicle (EV) and proacrosomal granule (PG). Subsequently, myosin Va localizes within the proacrosomal vesicle (PV) formed by PG and EV fusion and locates in the membrane complex (MC) at the mid spermatid stage. At the late spermatid stage, myosin Va is associated with the shaping nucleus and mitochondria. In mature spermatozoon, myosin Va predominates in acrosomal tubule (AT) and nucleus. Conclusions/Significance Our study demonstrates that myosin Va may be involved in acrosome biogenesis and nuclear morphogenesis during spermatogenesis in E. sinensis. Considering the distribution and molecular characteristics of myosin Va, we also propose a hypothesis of AT formation in this species. It is the first time to uncover the role of myosin Va in crustacean spermatogenesis. PMID:20856877

  18. Molecular characterization of three crustin genes in the morotoge shrimp, Pandalopsis japonica.

    PubMed

    Kim, MeeSun; Jeon, Jeong-Min; Oh, Chul-Woong; Kim, Young Mog; Lee, Dae Sung; Kang, Chang-Keun; Kim, Hyun-Woo

    2012-10-01

    Crustins are among the most important antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) found in decapod crustaceans. They are small cationic AMPs (5-7 kDa) characterized by a proline-rich amino-terminal domain and a cysteine-rich carboxyl-terminal domain. Here, the first 3 crustin-like cDNAs (Pj-crus Ia, Ib, and II) were identified from the morotoge shrimp, Pandalopsis japonica. The full-length cDNAs of Pj-crus Ia, Ib, and II consisted of 1135, 580, and 700 nucleotides and encoded putative proteins containing 109, 119, and 186 amino acids residues, respectively. All 3 identified Pj-crus sequences exhibited the conserved domain organization for crustins, including a signal sequence, a cysteine-containing region, a glycine-rich region, and a whey-acidic protein (WAP) domain. Amino acid sequence comparisons and phylogenetic analysis revealed that the Pj-crus Ia and Ib belong to type I crustins (e.g., carcinin), which have been mostly identified from Brachyura and Astacidea, whereas Pj-crus II was classified as belonging to the type II crustins, which are mainly found in Dendrobranchiata. An analysis of the organization of these 3 Pj-crus genes revealed that the splicing site within the WAP domain may be an important key for classifying types I and II crustin family members. The tissue distribution profile results showed that the Pj-crus I genes were expressed in a tissue-specific manner but that the Pj-crus II gene was expressed ubiquitously, suggesting that these crustins may play different roles in various tissues or under different physiological conditions. The bacterial challenge results suggested that the Pj-crus genes may be transcriptionally influenced by different bacterial types. This comparative study of various crustin family members will help extend the knowledge on the crustacean innate immune response, which will provide important basic information for controlling shrimp immunity against various pathogens. PMID:22613817

  19. Evolutionary morphology of the organ systems in squat lobsters and porcelain crabs (crustacea: Decapoda: Anomala): an insight into carcinization.

    PubMed

    Keiler, Jonas; Richter, Stefan; Wirkner, Christian S

    2015-01-01

    Porcelain crabs (Porcellanidae) are one of three taxa within anomuran crustaceans (Anomala) which possess a crab-like body form. Curiously, these three lineages evolved this shape independently from true crabs (Brachyura) in the course of the evolutionary process termed carcinization. The entire pleon in porcelain crabs is flexed under the cephalothorax and the carapace is approximately as broad as long. Despite their crab-like habitus, porcelain crabs are phylogenetically nested within squat lobsters (Munidopsidae, Munididae, Galatheidae). With a pleon which is only partly flexed under the cephalothorax and a cephalothorax which is longer than it is broad, squat lobsters represent morphologically intermediate forms between lobster-like and crab-like body shapes. Carcinization has so far mostly been studied with respect to outer morphology; however, it is evident that internal anatomical features are influenced through this change of body shape too. In this paper, the situation in Galatheoidea is elucidated by adding more taxa to existing descriptions of the hemolymph vascular systems and associated structures and organs. Micro-computer tomography and 3D reconstruction provide new insights. Autapomorphic states of various internal anatomical characters are present in nearly all the studied species, also reflecting some degree of anatomical disparity found within Galatheoidea. The ventral vessel system of porcelain crabs differs distinctly from that of squat lobsters. The differences in question are coherent (i.e. structural dependent) with morphological transformations in the integument, such as the shortening of the sternal plastron, which evolved in the course of carcinization. Shifts in the gonads and the pleonal neuromeres are coherent with the loss of the caridoid escape reaction, which in turn is a consequence of carcinization. The arterial transformations, however, are minor compared to other instances of carcinization in anomuran crustaceans since the last

  20. Comparing quality of estuarine and nearshore intertidal habitats for Carcinus maenas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amaral, Valter; Cabral, Henrique N.; Jenkins, Stuart; Hawkins, Stephen; Paula, José

    2009-06-01

    Estuarine and nearshore marine areas are vital habitats for several fish and benthic invertebrates. The shore crab Carcinus maenas (Crustacea: Brachyura: Portunidae) inhabits a variety of coastal, estuarine and lagoon habitats. At low tide, habitat structural complexity may be most important for crabs in the intertidal, providing refuge from predation and desiccation. The quality of different vegetated and nonvegetated estuarine and rocky shore habitats in SW Portugal and SW England was evaluated for intertidal C. maenas populations. We estimated population density, size-structure, and potential growth (RNA/DNA ratios) to investigate habitat quality. Vegetated estuarine habitats supported higher crab densities, than nonvegetated estuarine and rocky shore habitats. Investigation of population size-structure revealed that all habitats seem important recruitment and nursery areas although estuarine habitats in SW Portugal appeared to support higher densities of new recruits than equivalent habitats in SW England. Significant variation was found in RNA/DNA ratios among habitats. Ratios were highest in the rocky shore suggesting a high quality habitat where growth potential is high. We speculate that competition from other top-predators ( Pachygrapsus spp.) rather than low habitat quality may limit the occurrence of C. maenas in intertidal rocky shore habitats in SW Portugal. In estuarine environments RNA/DNA ratios were significantly higher in the vegetated than in the nonvegetated estuarine habitats in SW Portugal but not in SW England, suggesting geographic differences in the extent to which highly structure habitats represent high quality. Our results challenge the current paradigm that structured habitats are necessarily those of higher quality for C. maenas.

  1. Molecular and mass spectral identification of the broadly conserved decapod crustacean neuropeptide pQIRYHQCYFNPISCF: the first PISCF-allatostatin (Manduca sexta- or C-type allatostatin) from a non-insect

    PubMed Central

    Stemmler, Elizabeth A.; Bruns, Emily A.; Cashman, Christopher R.; Dickinson, Patsy S.; Christie, Andrew E.

    2009-01-01

    The PISCF-allatostatins (Manduca sexta- or C-type allatostatins) are a family of pentadecapeptides characterized by a pyroglutamine blocked N-terminus, an unamidated –PISCF C-terminus, and a disulfide bridge between two internal Cys residues. Several isoforms of PISCF-AST are known, all from holometabolous insects. Using a combination of transcriptomics and mass spectrometry, we have identified the first PISCF-type peptides from a non-insect species. In silico analysis of crustacean ESTs identified several Litopenaeus vannamei (infraorder Penaeidea) transcripts encoding putative PISCF-AST precursors. Translation of these ESTs, with subsequent prediction of their putative post-translational processing, revealed the existence of as many as three PISCF-type peptides, including pQIRYHQCYFNPISCF (disulfide bridging between Cys7 and Cys14). Although none of the predicted isoforms was detected by mass spectrometry in L. vannamei, MALDI-FTMS mass profiling identified an m/z signal corresponding to pQIRYHQCYFNPISCF (disulfide bridge present) in neural tissue from 28 other decapods, which included members of six infraorders (Stenopodidea, Astacidea, Thalassinidea, Achelata, Anomura and Brachyura). Further characterization of the peptide using SORI-CID and chemical derivatization/enzymatic digestion supported the theorized structure. In both the crab Cancer borealis and the lobster Homarus americanus, MALDI-based tissue surveys suggest that pQIRYHQCYFNPISCF is broadly distributed in the nervous system; it was also detected in the posterior midgut caecum. Collectively, our data show that members of the PISCF-AST family are not restricted to the holometabolous insects, but instead may be broadly conserved within the Pancrustacea. Moreover, our data suggest that one highly conserved PISCF-type peptide, pQIRYHQCYFNPISCF, is present in decapod crustaceans, functioning as a brain-gut paracrine/hormone. PMID:19467234

  2. Identification of SYWKQCAFNAVSCFamide: a broadly conserved crustacean C-type allatostatin-like peptide with both neuromodulatory and cardioactive properties

    PubMed Central

    Dickinson, Patsy S.; Wiwatpanit, Teerawat; Gabranski, Emily R.; Ackerman, Rachel J.; Stevens, Jake S.; Cashman, Christopher R.; Stemmler, Elizabeth A.; Christie, Andrew E.

    2009-01-01

    Summary The allatostatins comprise three structurally distinct peptide families that regulate juvenile hormone production by the insect corpora allata. A-type family members contain the C-terminal motif –YXFGLamide and have been found in species from numerous arthropod taxa. Members of the B-type family exhibit a –WX6Wamide C-terminus and, like the A-type peptides, appear to be broadly conserved within the Arthropoda. By contrast, members of the C-type family, typified by the unblocked C-terminus –PISCF, a pyroglutamine blocked N-terminus, and a disulfide bridge between two internal Cys residues, have only been found in holometabolous insects, i.e. lepidopterans and dipterans. Here, using transcriptomics, we have identified SYWKQCAFNAVSCFamide (disulfide bridging predicted between the two Cys residues), a known honeybee and water flea C-type-like peptide, from the American lobster Homarus americanus (infraorder Astacidea). Using matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization Fourier transform mass spectrometry (MALDI-FTMS), a mass corresponding to that of SYWKQCAFNAVSCFamide was detected in the H. americanus brain, supporting the existence of this peptide and its theorized structure. Furthermore, SYWKQCAFNAVSCFamide was detected by MALDI-FTMS in neural tissues from five additional astacideans as well as 19 members of four other decapod infraorders (i.e. Achelata, Anomura, Brachyura and Thalassinidea), suggesting that it is a broadly conserved decapod peptide. In H. americanus, SYWKQCAFNAVSCFamide is capable of modulating the output of both the pyloric circuit of the stomatogastric nervous system and the heart. This is the first demonstration of bioactivity for this peptide in any species. PMID:19423507

  3. Neutrino-driven wakefield plasma accelerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rios, L. A.; Serbeto, A.

    2003-08-01

    Processos envolvendo neutrinos são importantes em uma grande variedade de fenômenos astrofísicos, como as explosões de supernovas. Estes objetos, assim como os pulsares e as galáxias starburst, têm sido propostos como aceleradores cósmicos de partículas de altas energias. Neste trabalho, um modelo clássico de fluidos é utilizado para estudar a interação não-linear entre um feixe de neutrinos e um plasma não-colisional relativístico de pósitrons e elétrons na presença de um campo magnético. Durante a interação, uma onda híbrida superior de grande amplitude é excitada. Para parâmetros típicos de supernovas, verificamos que partículas carregadas "capturadas" por essa onda podem ser aceleradas a altas energias. Este resultado pode ser importante no estudo de mecanismos aceleradores de partículas em ambientes astrofísicos.

  4. Distribution and bioconcentration of heavy metals in a tropical aquatic food web: A case study of a tropical estuarine lagoon in SE Mexico.

    PubMed

    Mendoza-Carranza, Manuel; Sepúlveda-Lozada, Alejandra; Dias-Ferreira, Celia; Geissen, Violette

    2016-03-01

    Despite the increasing impact of heavy metal pollution in southern Mexico due to urban growth and agricultural and petroleum activities, few studies have focused on the behavior and relationships of these pollutants in the biotic and abiotic components of aquatic environments. Here, we studied the bioaccumulation of heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Ni, Pb, V, Zn) in suspended load, sediment, primary producers, mollusks, crustaceans, and fish, in a deltaic lagoon habitat in the Tabasco coast, with the aim to assess the potential ecological risk in that important wetland. Zn showed the highest concentrations, e.g., in suspended load (mean of 159.58 mg kg(-1)) and aquatic consumers (15.43-171.71 mg kg(-1)), particularly Brachyura larvae and ichthyoplankton (112.22-171.71 mg kg(-1)), followed by omnivore Callinectes sp. crabs (113.81-128.07 mg kg(-1)). The highest bioconcentration factors (BCF) of Zn were observed for planktivore and omnivore crustaceans (3.06-3.08). Zn showed a pattern of distribution in the food web through two pathways: the pelagic (where the higher concentrations were found), and the benthic (marsh plants, sediment, mollusk, fish). The other heavy metals had lower occurrences in the food web. Nevertheless, high concentrations of Ni and Cr were found in phytoplankton and sediment (37.62-119.97 mg kg(-1)), and V in epiphytes (68.64 mg kg(-1)). Ni, Cr, and Cd concentrations in sediments surpassed international and national threshold values, and Cd entailed a "considerable" potential risk. These heavy metals are most likely transferred into the food web up to fishes through the benthic pathway. Most of the collected fishes are residents in this type of habitat and have commercial importance. Our results show that the total potential ecological risk in the area can be considered as "moderate". Nevertheless, heavy metal values were similar or surpassed the values from other highly industrialized tropical coastal regions. PMID:26708770

  5. Portunoid crabs as indicators of the Red Sea fauna history and endemism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spiridonov, Vassily; Türkay, Michael; Brösing, Andreas; Al-Aidaroos, Ali

    2013-04-01

    Peculiar environmental conditions and "turbulent" geological history make the Red Sea a laboratory of evolution and a significant area for understanding adaptation processes. To interpret the results of this basin-scale evolutionary experiment revised inventories of taxonomic diversity of particular groups of marine biota are essential. As one of the first results of the Red Sea Biodiversity Survey (RSBS) in the years 2011 - 2012 along the coast of Saudi Arabia (http://www.redseabiodiversity.org/) and examination of earlier collections and literature a revised species list is provided for the portunoid (swimming) crabs (Crustacea Decapoda Portunoidea). This superfamily is one of the most species rich and has one of the broadest habitat scopes among Brachyura in the global scale. The present assessment results in 54 shallow water species (including 2 recorded for the first time in the Red Sea during RSBS), 2 deep water species and 1 semipelagic species Charybdis smithii. Doubtful literature records of another 7 shallow water species remain unconfirmed. Among reliably recorded shallow water species 58 % belong to widespread Indo-West-Pacific (IWP) species, 13% are the species restricted to the western Indian Ocean, 11 % are endemics of the Arabian region (occurring also either in the western Gulf of Aden or along the eastern coast of the Arabian Peninsula, or in both areas) which are usually vicariant to the widespread IWP species, 11% are taxa that are similar to the species occurring elsewhere in the IWP but have morphological peculiarities and probably deserve a specific or subspecific status. Finally 4% of species (Thalamita murinae and Liocarcinus subcorrugatus) appear to be endemic for the Red Sea and show remarkable disjunctions from most closely related species. Carcinus sp. (probably C. aestuarii) is an introduced (but not established) species in the northern Red Sea. The deep water fauna of the Red Sea is unique because it lives in the warm (20.5-21.5 ° C

  6. Inorganic Biominerals in Crustaceans are Structurally Independent of Organic Framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mergelsberg, S. T.; Michel, F. M.; Mukhopadhyay, B.; Dove, P. M.

    2015-12-01

    Biomineralization of calcium carbonate (CaCO3) as crystalline calcite or amorphous CaCO3 (ACC) occurs in the exoskeletons of all crustaceans. These cuticles are complex composites of inorganic mineral and organic macromolecules with highly divergent morphologies that are adapted to the extreme variations in environmental pressures within their diverse ecological niches. The remarkable variations and adaptations that form, infer a highly efficient and regulated mechanism for biomineralization that is most likely orchestrated by a myriad of biomacromolecules (Ziegler A 2012). The roles of these peptides and organic metabolites during CaCO3 biomineralization are not well understood. In part, this is due to a lack of knowledge of crustacean homeostasis. In a step toward understanding cuticle mineralization in crustaceans, this study asks: Which molecules affect biomineralization? Do the biomineral-active molecules vary greatly between species and body parts? Recent studies of polysaccharide controls on mineralization also raise the question of whether small heterogeneities in chitin, the most abundant biopolymer of the composite, could be primarily responsible for differences in CaCO3 crystallinity. This study used a novel spectroscopic approach to characterize the mineral and organic components of exoskeletons from three Malacostraca organisms — American Lobster (Homarus americanus), Dungeness Crab (Metacarcinus magister), and Red Rock Crab (Cancer productus). Using high-energy x-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy, the cuticles of three major body parts from these organisms were analyzed for the structure and bulk chemistry of its chitin and CaCO3 components. The findings indicate that Raman spectroscopy provides adequate resolution to show that crystallinity of chitin and the CaCO3 mineral component are chemically independent of each other, although their crystallinities co-vary for Brachyura species (Dungeness and Red Rock Crabs). Insights from this study

  7. DNA barcoding unveils skate (Chondrichthyes: Rajidae) species diversity in ‘ray’ products sold across Ireland and the UK

    PubMed Central

    Egan, Aaron; Fox, Jennifer; Greenfield, Adam; Mariani, Stefano

    2013-01-01

    Skates are widely consumed across the globe, but many large species are subject to considerable concern regarding their conservation and management. Within Europe such issues have recently driven policy changes so that, for the first time, reports of skate landings now have to be made under species-specific names. Total allowable catches have also been established for many groups, which have been set to zero for a number of the most vulnerable species (e.g., Dipturus batis, Raja undulata and Rostoraja alba). Whilst accurate species identification has become an important issue for landings, the sale of skates is still usually made under a blanket term of “skate” or “ray”. The matter of identifying species of skate is further complicated by their morphologically conservative nature and the fact that they are commercially valued for their wings. Thus, before sale their bodies are usually discarded (i.e., “winged”) and often skinned, making morphological identification impossible. For the first time, DNA barcoding (of the mitochondrial COI gene) was applied to samples of skate wings from retail outlets across the British Isles, providing insight into which species are sold for consumption. A total of 98 wing samples were analysed, revealing that six species were sold; blonde ray (Raja brachyura), spotted ray (Raja montagui), thornback ray (Raja clavata), cuckoo ray (Leucoraja naevus) small-eyed ray (Raja microocellata) and shagreen ray (Leucoraja fullonica). Statistical testing demonstrated that there were significant differences in the species sold in the distinct retail groups which suggests complex drivers behind the patterns of sale in skates. The results also indicate that endangered species are not commonly being passed on to consumers. In addition, the practice of selling skate wings under ambiguous labels is highlighted as it makes it extremely difficult for consumers to exercise a right to avoid species of conservation concern. Interestingly, a

  8. Capture of Anastrepha species (Diptera: Tephritidae) with multilure traps and biolure attractants in Guatemala

    SciTech Connect

    Martinez, A.J.; Salinas, E.J.; Rendon, P.

    2007-03-15

    . distincta Greene, A. fraterculus Weidemann y Ceratitis capitata Weidemann. Ademas, se capturaron 13 especias adicionales de Anastrepha asi como Toxotrypana curvicauda Gerstaecker con el cebo sintetico. El cebo sintetico fue efectivo por diez semanas sin recebar. Las trampas de plastico capturaron mas moscas del genero Anastrepha que la trampa de cristal McPhail. Las excepciones fueron A. distincta en donde no hubo differencias el la captura con la trampa de plastico con base amarillo y la trampa McPhail de cristal asi como A. fraterculus en donde no hubo differencias comparando la captura de moscas con ambos sistemas. La proporcion sexual de las moscas capturadas con los dos sistemas fue al favor de las hembras. La captura de otros tipos de insectos fue significantemente elevado, sin embargo, las moscas capturadas con los cebos sinteticos no fueron afectados adversamente por estos insectos. El 10% del anticongelante, glicol propilico, fue superior al borax/agua como conservador de las moscas capturardas. (author)

  9. Brain architecture of the largest living land arthropod, the Giant Robber Crab Birgus latro (Crustacea, Anomura, Coenobitidae): evidence for a prominent central olfactory pathway?

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    visual and mechanosensory skills that are comparable to those of marine Crustacea. Conclusions In parallel to previous behavioral findings that B. latro has aerial olfaction, our results indicate that their central olfactory pathway is indeed most prominent. Similar findings from the closely related terrestrial hermit crab Coenobita clypeatus suggest that in Coenobitidae, olfaction is a major sensory modality processed by the brain, and that for these animals, exploring the olfactory landscape is vital for survival in their terrestrial habitat. Future studies on terrestrial members of other crustacean taxa such as Isopoda, Amphipoda, Astacida, and Brachyura will shed light on how frequently the establishment of an aerial sense of olfaction evolved in Crustacea during the transition from sea to land. Amounting to ca. 1,000,000, the numbers of interneurons that analyse the olfactory input in B. latro brains surpasses that in other terrestrial arthropods, as e.g. the honeybee Apis mellifera or the moth Manduca sexta, by two orders of magnitude suggesting that B. latro in fact is a land-living arthropod that has devoted a substantial amount of nervous tissue to the sense of smell. PMID:20831795

  10. Dispersal and longevity of wild and mass-reared Anastrepha Ludens and Anastrepha Obliqua (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    SciTech Connect

    Hernandez, E.; Orozco, D.; Flores Breceda, S.; Dominguez, J.

    2007-03-15

    capturadas con mayor frecuencia que los machos. La recaptura de moscas silvestres de A. ludens fue de 0.6 a 24.8%, para A. obliqua fue del 1.3 al 16.2%, para moscas de laboratorio fue de 0.5 a 7.1 y 0.5 a 3%, respectivamente. La esperanza de vida correspondio a 4.7 y 4.3 dias para machos silvestres y de laboratorio de A. obliqua respectivamente; mientras que 3 y 2 dias fueron para los machos silvestres y de laboratorio de A. ludens . La dispersion para A. ludens y A. obliqua fue de 100 a 250 m tanto para individuos silvestres como de laboratorio. Los adultos de A. ludens silvestre se desplazaron del punto central de liberacion al noroeste, los individuos de laboratorio se movieron hacia el oeste del plano Cartesiano. A su vez los adultos de A. obliqua silvestre se movieron hacia el oeste y las de laboratorio hacia el suroeste. Discutimos las implicaciones de nuestros resultados con relacion al espaciamiento y frecuencia de las liberaciones de moscas esteriles para la supresion de poblaciones silvestres. (author)

  11. Disappearance of the last lions and hyenas of Europe in the Late Quaternary - a chain reaction of large mammal prey migration, extinction and human antagonism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diedrich, Cajus G.

    2010-05-01

    recorded anymore in northern and central Germany, such as cave bears. References Begouen R. and Clottes J. 1987. Les Trois Frères after Breuil. Antiquity, 61: 180-187. Bosinski, G. 1987. Die große Zeit der Eiszeitjäger. Europa zwischen 40.000 und 10.000 v.Chr. Jahrbuch des Römisch-Germanischen Zentralmuseums, 34: 13-139. Breuil, H. 1952. Four Hundred Centuries of Cave Art. Montignac, Dordogne, 414 pp. Chauvet, J.-M., Deschamps B.E, and Hillaire C. 1995. Grotte Chauvet. Altsteinzeitliche Höhlenkunst im Tal der Ardèche. Thorbecke Speläo 1, Sigmaringen, 120 pp. Diedrich, C. 2005. Eine oberpleistozäne Population von Crocuta crocuta spelaea (GOLDFUSS 1823) aus dem eiszeitlichen Fleckenhyänenhorst Perick-Höhlen von Hemer (Sauerland, NW Deutschland) und ihr Kannibalismus. Philippia, 12 (2): 93-115, Kassel. Diedrich, C. 2006. The Crocuta crocuta spelaea (Goldfuss 1823) population from the early Upper Pleistocene hyena open air prey deposit site Biedensteg near Bad Wildungen (Hess, NW Germany) and the contribution to their phylogenetic position, coprolites and prey. Cranium, 23 (2): 39-53, Amsterdam. Diedrich, C. 2007a. Upper Pleistocene Panthera leo spelaea (Goldfuss 1810) skeleton remains from Praha-Podbaba and the contribution to other lion finds from loess and river terrace sites in Central Bohemia (Czech Republic). Bulletin of Geosciences, 82 (2), 99-117, Prague. Diedrich, C. 2007b. Crocuta crocuta spelaea (GOLDFUSS 1823) remains from the Upper Pleistocene hyaena Teufelskammer Cave den site near Hochdahl in the Neander valley (NRW, NW Germany). Cranium, 24 (2): 39-44, Amsterdam. Diedrich, C. 2007c. The Upper Pleistocene Crocuta crocuta spelaea (GOLDFUSS 1823) population and its prey from the gypsum karst den site Westeregeln near Magdeburg (Middle Germany). Abhandlungen und Berichte für Naturkunde, 30: 57-83, Magdeburg. Diedrich, C. 2008a. Late Pleistocene Hystrix (Acanthion) brachyura LINNAEUS 1758 from the Fuchsluken cave at the Rote Berg near Saalfeld (Thuringia